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Sample records for air sampling program

  1. EML Surface Air Sampling Program, 1990--1993 data

    SciTech Connect

    Larsen, R.J.; Sanderson, C.G.; Kada, J.

    1995-11-01

    Measurements of the concentrations of specific atmospheric radionuclides in air filter samples collected for the Environmental Measurements Laboratory`s Surface Air Sampling Program (SASP) during 1990--1993, with the exception of April 1993, indicate that anthropogenic radionuclides, in both hemispheres, were at or below the lower limits of detection for the sampling and analytical techniques that were used to collect and measure them. The occasional detection of {sup 137}Cs in some air filter samples may have resulted from resuspension of previously deposited debris. Following the April 6, 1993 accident and release of radionuclides into the atmosphere at a reprocessing plant in the Tomsk-7 military nuclear complex located 16 km north of the Siberian city of Tomsk, Russia, weekly air filter samples from Barrow, Alaska; Thule, Greenland and Moosonee, Canada were selected for special analyses. The naturally occurring radioisotopes that the authors measure, {sup 7}Be and {sup 210}Pb, continue to be detected in most air filter samples. Variations in the annual mean concentrations of {sup 7}Be at many of the sites appear to result primarily from changes in the atmospheric production rate of this cosmogenic radionuclide. Short-term variations in the concentrations of {sup 7}Be and {sup 210}Pb continued to be observed at many sites at which weekly air filter samples were analyzed. The monthly gross gamma-ray activity and the monthly mean surface air concentrations of {sup 7}Be, {sup 95}Zr, {sup 137}Cs, {sup 144}Ce, and {sup 210}Pb measured at sampling sites in SASP during 1990--1993 are presented. The weekly mean surface air concentrations of {sup 7}Be, {sup 95}Zr, {sup 137}Cs, {sup 144}Ce, and {sup 210}Pb for samples collected during 1990--1993 are given for 17 sites.

  2. Ozone measurement system for NASA global air sampling program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tiefermann, M. W.

    1979-01-01

    The ozone measurement system used in the NASA Global Air Sampling Program is described. The system uses a commercially available ozone concentration monitor that was modified and repackaged so as to operate unattended in an aircraft environment. The modifications required for aircraft use are described along with the calibration techniques, the measurement of ozone loss in the sample lines, and the operating procedures that were developed for use in the program. Based on calibrations with JPL's 5-meter ultraviolet photometer, all previously published GASP ozone data are biased high by 9 percent. A system error analysis showed that the total system measurement random error is from 3 to 8 percent of reading (depending on the pump diaphragm material) or 3 ppbv, whichever are greater.

  3. Method validation program for the long duration sampling of PCDDs/PCDFs in ambient air

    SciTech Connect

    Maisel, B.E.; Hunt, G.T.; Hoyt, M.P.; Rowe, N.; Scarfo, L.

    1994-12-31

    A method validation program was completed to assess the technical viability of extended, long duration sampling periods (15- and 30-day) for the collection of PCDDs/PCDFs in ambient air in lieu of the 48-hour sampling periods typically employed. This long duration approach, if successful, would provide measurements data more representative of average ambient PCDDs/PCDFs levels on an annual basis, and hence provide enhanced support of the 1.0 pg/m{sup 3} annual ambient standard for PCDDs/PCDFs (expressed at 1987 EPA toxic equivalents) required by Connecticut regulation. The method validation program utilized nine collocated PUF samplers which were operated for 15-day and 30-day periods during each of two seasonal monitoring campaigns (winter and summer). Samples were analyzed using high resolution gas chromatography/high resolution mass spectrometry (HRGC/HRMS) based on EPA Method 8290. Each PUF cartridge consisted of two foam halves; the top half PUF and filter were analyzed as a single sample separately from the bottom half PUF section. This approach provided an assessment of analyte breakthrough using the sampling system for large sample volumes of approximately 4,000 m{sup 3} and 8,000 m{sup 3} for the 15-day and respectively.

  4. Air Sampling Filter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    General Metal Works' Accu-Vol is a high-volume air sampling system used by many government agencies to monitor air quality for pollution control purposes. Procedure prevents possible test-invalidating contamination from materials other than particulate pollutants, caused by manual handling or penetration of windblown matter during transit, a cassette was developed in which the filter is sealed within a metal frame and protected in transit by a snap-on aluminum cover, thus handled only under clean conditions in the laboratory.

  5. 40 CFR 61.34 - Air sampling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 8 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Air sampling. 61.34 Section 61.34 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS National Emission Standard for Beryllium § 61.34...

  6. 40 CFR 61.34 - Air sampling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 9 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Air sampling. 61.34 Section 61.34 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS National Emission Standard for Beryllium § 61.34...

  7. 40 CFR 61.34 - Air sampling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 9 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Air sampling. 61.34 Section 61.34 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS National Emission Standard for Beryllium § 61.34...

  8. 40 CFR 61.34 - Air sampling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 9 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Air sampling. 61.34 Section 61.34 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS National Emission Standard for Beryllium § 61.34...

  9. 40 CFR 61.34 - Air sampling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Air sampling. 61.34 Section 61.34 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS National Emission Standard for Beryllium § 61.34...

  10. Air Sampling System Evaluation Template

    2000-05-09

    The ASSET1.0 software provides a template with which a user can evaluate an Air Sampling System against the latest version of ANSI N13.1 "Sampling and Monitoring Releases of Airborne Radioactive Substances from the Stacks and Ducts of Nuclear Facilities". The software uses the ANSI N13.1 PIC levels to establish basic design criteria for the existing or proposed sampling system. The software looks at such criteria as PIC level, type of radionuclide emissions, physical state ofmore » the radionuclide, nozzle entrance effects, particulate transmission effects, system and component accuracy and precision evaluations, and basic system operations to provide a detailed look at the subsystems of a monitoring and sampling system/program. A GAP evaluation can then be completed which leads to identification of design and operational flaws in the proposed systems. Corrective measures can then be limited to the GAPs.« less

  11. Air Pollution Training Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Public Health Service (DHEW), Rockville, MD.

    This catalog lists the universities, both supported and not supported by the Division of Air Pollution, which offer graduate programs in the field of air pollution. The catalog briefly describes the programs and their entrance requirements, the requirements, qualifications and terms of special fellowships offered by the Division of Air Pollution.…

  12. Global atmospheric sampling program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lezberg, E. A.; Perkins, P. J.; Englund, D. R.; Gauntner, D. J.; Holdeman, J. D.

    1977-01-01

    Automated instruments were installed on a commercial B-747 aircraft, during the program, to obtain baseline data and to monitor key atmospheric constituents associated with emissions of aircraft engines in order to determine if aircraft are contributing to pollution of the upper atmosphere. Data thus acquired on a global basis over the commercial air routes for 5 to 10 years will be analyzed. Ozone measurements in the 29,000 to 45,000 foot altitude were expanded over what has been available from ozonesondes. Limited aerosol composition measurements from filter samples show low levels of sulfates and nitrates in the upper troposphere. Recently installed instruments for measurement of carbon monoxide and condensation nuclei are beginning to return data.

  13. Inertial impaction air sampling device

    DOEpatents

    Dewhurst, K.H.

    1987-12-10

    An inertial impactor to be used in an air sampling device for collection of respirable size particles in ambient air which may include a graphite furnace as the impaction substrate in a small-size, portable, direct analysis structure that gives immediate results and is totally self-contained allowing for remote and/or personal sampling. The graphite furnace collects suspended particles transported through the housing by means of the air flow system, and these particles may be analyzed for elements, quantitatively and qualitatively, by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. 3 figs.

  14. Inertial impaction air sampling device

    DOEpatents

    Dewhurst, Katharine H.

    1990-01-01

    An inertial impactor to be used in an air sampling device for collection of respirable size particles in ambient air which may include a graphite furnace as the impaction substrate in a small-size, portable, direct analysis structure that gives immediate results and is totally self-contained allowing for remote and/or personal sampling. The graphite furnace collects suspended particles transported through the housing by means of the air flow system, and these particles may be analyzed for elements, quantitatively and qualitatively, by atomic absorption spectrophotometry.

  15. Inertial impaction air sampling device

    DOEpatents

    Dewhurst, K.H.

    1990-05-22

    An inertial impactor is designed which is to be used in an air sampling device for collection of respirable size particles in ambient air. The device may include a graphite furnace as the impaction substrate in a small-size, portable, direct analysis structure that gives immediate results and is totally self-contained allowing for remote and/or personal sampling. The graphite furnace collects suspended particles transported through the housing by means of the air flow system, and these particles may be analyzed for elements, quantitatively and qualitatively, by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. 3 figs.

  16. Development and evaluation of detection-based air sampling programs for grapevine powdery mildew in eastern Washington

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Powdery mildew of winegrape (Vitis vinifera L.), caused by Erysiphe necator, is one of the most problematic diseases of grapevine worldwide. A real-time PCR assay using species-specific primers was developed for qualitative and quantitative detection of E necator in vineyard air samples collected by...

  17. Comparing toxic air pollutant programs

    SciTech Connect

    Hawkins, S.C.

    1997-05-01

    This article compares state and federal toxic air pollutant programs. The Clean Air Act Ammendments created a program for the control of Hazardous Air Pollutants based on the establishment of control technology standards. State toxic programs can be classified into two categories: control technology-based and ambient concentration-based. Many states have opened to implement the MACT standards while enforcing their own state air toxics programs. Specific topics discussed include the following: the Federal air toxics program; existing state regulations; New Jersey Air Toxic Program; New York Toxics program.

  18. Air Force Seal Programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mayhew, Ellen R.

    1996-01-01

    Seal technology development is an important part of the Air Force's participation in the Integrated High Performance Turbine Engine Technology (IHPTET) initiative, the joint DOD, NASA, ARPA, and industry endeavor to double turbine engine capabilities by the turn of the century. Significant performance and efficiency improvements can be obtained through reducing internal flow system leakage, but seal environment requirements continue to become more extreme as the engine thermodynamic cycles advance towards these IHPTET goals. Seal technology continues to be pursued by the Air Force to control leakage at the required conditions. This presentation briefly describes current seal research and development programs and gives a summary of seal applications in demonstrator and developmental engines.

  19. Meteorological and operational aspects of 46 clear air turbulence sampling missions with an instrument B-57B aircraft. Volume 1: Program summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, R. E.; Champine, R. A.; Ehernberger, L. J.

    1979-01-01

    The results of 46 clear air turbulence (CAT) probing missions conducted with an extensively instrumented B-57B aircraft are summarized. Turbulence samples were obtained under diverse conditions including mountain waves, jet streams, upper level fronts and troughs, and low altitude mechanical and thermal turbulence. CAT was encouraged on 20 flights comprising 77 data runs. In all, approximately 4335 km were flown in light turbulence, 1415 km in moderate turbulence, and 255 km in severe turbulence during the program. The flight planning, operations, and turbulence forecasting aspects conducted with the B-57B aircraft are presented.

  20. Air sampling in the workplace. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Hickey, E.E.; Stoetzel, G.A.; Strom, D.J.; Cicotte, G.R.; Wiblin, C.M.; McGuire, S.A.

    1993-09-01

    This report provides technical information on air sampling that will be useful for facilities following the recommendations in the NRC`s Regulatory Guide 8.25, Revision 1, ``Air sampling in the Workplace.`` That guide addresses air sampling to meet the requirements in NRC`s regulations on radiation protection, 10 CFR Part 20. This report describes how to determine the need for air sampling based on the amount of material in process modified by the type of material, release potential, and confinement of the material. The purposes of air sampling and how the purposes affect the types of air sampling provided are discussed. The report discusses how to locate air samplers to accurately determine the concentrations of airborne radioactive materials that workers will be exposed to. The need for and the methods of performing airflow pattern studies to improve the accuracy of air sampling results are included. The report presents and gives examples of several techniques that can be used to evaluate whether the airborne concentrations of material are representative of the air inhaled by workers. Methods to adjust derived air concentrations for particle size are described. Methods to calibrate for volume of air sampled and estimate the uncertainty in the volume of air sampled are described. Statistical tests for determining minimum detectable concentrations are presented. How to perform an annual evaluation of the adequacy of the air sampling is also discussed.

  1. The Federal Air Pollution Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Air Pollution Control Administration (DHEW), Washington, DC.

    Described is the Federal air pollution program as it was in 1967. The booklet is divided into these major topics: History of the Federal Program; Research; Assistance to State and Local Governments; Abatement and Prevention of Air Pollution; Control of Motor Vehicle Pollution; Information and Education; and Conclusion. Federal legislation has…

  2. Air sampling with solid phase microextraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martos, Perry Anthony

    There is an increasing need for simple yet accurate air sampling methods. The acceptance of new air sampling methods requires compatibility with conventional chromatographic equipment, and the new methods have to be environmentally friendly, simple to use, yet with equal, or better, detection limits, accuracy and precision than standard methods. Solid phase microextraction (SPME) satisfies the conditions for new air sampling methods. Analyte detection limits, accuracy and precision of analysis with SPME are typically better than with any conventional air sampling methods. Yet, air sampling with SPME requires no pumps, solvents, is re-usable, extremely simple to use, is completely compatible with current chromatographic equipment, and requires a small capital investment. The first SPME fiber coating used in this study was poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS), a hydrophobic liquid film, to sample a large range of airborne hydrocarbons such as benzene and octane. Quantification without an external calibration procedure is possible with this coating. Well understood are the physical and chemical properties of this coating, which are quite similar to those of the siloxane stationary phase used in capillary columns. The log of analyte distribution coefficients for PDMS are linearly related to chromatographic retention indices and to the inverse of temperature. Therefore, the actual chromatogram from the analysis of the PDMS air sampler will yield the calibration parameters which are used to quantify unknown airborne analyte concentrations (ppb v to ppm v range). The second fiber coating used in this study was PDMS/divinyl benzene (PDMS/DVB) onto which o-(2,3,4,5,6- pentafluorobenzyl) hydroxylamine (PFBHA) was adsorbed for the on-fiber derivatization of gaseous formaldehyde (ppb v range), with and without external calibration. The oxime formed from the reaction can be detected with conventional gas chromatographic detectors. Typical grab sampling times were as small as 5 seconds

  3. Stratospheric CCN sampling program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rogers, C. F.

    1981-01-01

    When Mt. St. Helens produced several major eruptions in the late spring of 1980, there was a strong interest in the characterization of the cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) activity of the material that was injected into the troposphere and stratosphere. The scientific value of CCN measurements is two fold: CCN counts may be directly applied to calculations of the interaction of the aerosol (enlargement) at atmospherically-realistic relative humidities or supersaturations; and if the chemical constituency of the aerosol can be assumed, the number-versus-critical supersaturation spectrum may be converted into a dry aerosol size spectrum covering a size region not readily measured by other methods. The sampling method is described along with the instrumentation used in the experiments.

  4. East Mountain Area 1995 air sampling results

    SciTech Connect

    Deola, R.A.

    1996-09-01

    Ambient air samples were taken at two locations in the East Mountain Area in conjunction with thermal testing at the Lurance Canyon Burn Site (LCBS). The samples were taken to provide measurements of particulate matter with a diameter less than or equal to 10 micrometers (PM{sub 10}) and volatile organic compounds (VOCs). This report summarizes the results of the sampling performed in 1995. The results from small-scale testing performed to determine the potentially produced air pollutants in the thermal tests are included in this report. Analytical results indicate few samples produced measurable concentrations of pollutants believed to be produced by thermal testing. Recommendations for future air sampling in the East Mountain Area are also noted.

  5. Indoor Air Quality Management Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anne Arundel County Public Schools, Annapolis, MD.

    In an effort to provide Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) management guidance, Anne Arundel County Public Schools was selected by the Maryland State Department of Education to develop a program that could be used by other school systems. A major goal was to produce a handbook that was "user friendly." Hence, its contents are a mix of history, philosophy,…

  6. Passive Samplers for Investigations of Air Quality: Method Description, Implementation, and Comparison to Alternative Sampling Methods

    EPA Science Inventory

    This Paper covers the basics of passive sampler design, compares passive samplers to conventional methods of air sampling, and discusses considerations when implementing a passive sampling program. The Paper also discusses field sampling and sample analysis considerations to ensu...

  7. Operational air sampling report, July--December 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Lyons, C.L.

    1992-11-01

    Air sampling is one of the more useful ways of assessing the effectiveness of operational radiation safety programs at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). Air sampling programs document NTS airborne radionuclide concentrations in various work locations and environments. These concentrations generally remain well below the Derived Air Concentration (DAC) values prescribed by the Department of Energy (DOE 5480.11, Attachment 1) or the Derived Concentration Guide (DCG) values prescribed by the Department of Energy DOE 5400.5, Chapter Ill. The Defense Nuclear Agency (DNA) tunnel complexes, Area 12 Test Support Compound and the Area 6 Decontamination Pad and Laundry air sampling programs are summarized in this report. Evaluations are based on Analytical Services Department (ASD) Counting Laboratory analyses and Health Protection Department (HPD)/Radiological Field Operations Section (RFOS) radiation protection technician's (RPT) or health physicists' calculations for air samples collected July 1 through December 31, 1991. Of the NTS operational air sampling programs in the tunnel complexes, the initial mining and event reentry and recovery operations represent the only real airborne radioactive inhalation potentials to personnel. Monthly filter and scintillation cell samples were taken and counted in RDA-200 Radon Detectors to document working levels of radon/thoron daughters and picocurie/liter (PCVL) concentrations of radon gas. Weekly Drierite samples for tritium analysis were taken in the active tunnel complexes to document any changes in normal background levels or reentry drifts as they are advanced toward ground zero (GZ) areas. Underground water sources are considered primary transporters of tritium from old event areas.

  8. Operational air sampling report, July--December 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Lyons, C.L.

    1992-11-01

    Air sampling is one of the more useful ways of assessing the effectiveness of operational radiation safety programs at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). Air sampling programs document NTS airborne radionuclide concentrations in various work locations and environments. These concentrations generally remain well below the Derived Air Concentration (DAC) values prescribed by the Department of Energy (DOE 5480.11, Attachment 1) or the Derived Concentration Guide (DCG) values prescribed by the Department of Energy DOE 5400.5, Chapter Ill. The Defense Nuclear Agency (DNA) tunnel complexes, Area 12 Test Support Compound and the Area 6 Decontamination Pad and Laundry air sampling programs are summarized in this report. Evaluations are based on Analytical Services Department (ASD) Counting Laboratory analyses and Health Protection Department (HPD)/Radiological Field Operations Section (RFOS) radiation protection technician`s (RPT) or health physicists` calculations for air samples collected July 1 through December 31, 1991. Of the NTS operational air sampling programs in the tunnel complexes, the initial mining and event reentry and recovery operations represent the only real airborne radioactive inhalation potentials to personnel. Monthly filter and scintillation cell samples were taken and counted in RDA-200 Radon Detectors to document working levels of radon/thoron daughters and picocurie/liter (PCVL) concentrations of radon gas. Weekly Drierite samples for tritium analysis were taken in the active tunnel complexes to document any changes in normal background levels or reentry drifts as they are advanced toward ground zero (GZ) areas. Underground water sources are considered primary transporters of tritium from old event areas.

  9. Evaluating Radionuclide Air Emission Stack Sampling Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Ballinger, Marcel Y.

    2002-12-16

    The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) operates a number of research and development (R&D) facilities for the U.S. Department of Energy at the Hanford Site, Washington. These facilities are subject to Clean Air Act regulations that require sampling of radionuclide air emissions from some of these facilities. A revision to an American National Standards Institute (ANSI) standard on sampling radioactive air emissions has recently been incorporated into federal and state regulations and a re-evaluation of affected facilities is being performed to determine the impact. The revised standard requires a well-mixed sampling location that must be demonstrated through tests specified in the standard. It also carries a number of maintenance requirements, including inspections and cleaning of the sampling system. Evaluations were performed in 2000 – 2002 on two PNNL facilities to determine the operational and design impacts of the new requirements. The evaluation included inspection and cleaning maintenance activities plus testing to determine if the current sampling locations meet criteria in the revised standard. Results show a wide range of complexity in inspection and cleaning activities depending on accessibility of the system, ease of removal, and potential impact on building operations (need for outages). As expected, these High Efficiency Particulate Air (HEPA)-filtered systems did not show deposition significant enough to cause concerns with blocking of the nozzle or other parts of the system. The tests for sampling system location in the revised standard also varied in complexity depending on accessibility of the sample site and use of a scale model can alleviate many issues. Previous criteria to locate sampling systems at eight duct diameters downstream and two duct diameters upstream of the nearest disturbances is no guarantee of meeting criteria in the revised standard. A computational fluid dynamics model was helpful in understanding flow and

  10. 32 CFR 806.27 - Samples of Air Force FOIA processing documents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Samples of Air Force FOIA processing documents. 806.27 Section 806.27 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE ADMINISTRATION AIR FORCE FREEDOM OF INFORMATION ACT PROGRAM § 806.27 Samples of Air Force FOIA...

  11. 32 CFR 806.27 - Samples of Air Force FOIA processing documents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Samples of Air Force FOIA processing documents. 806.27 Section 806.27 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE ADMINISTRATION AIR FORCE FREEDOM OF INFORMATION ACT PROGRAM § 806.27 Samples of Air Force FOIA...

  12. 32 CFR 806.27 - Samples of Air Force FOIA processing documents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Samples of Air Force FOIA processing documents. 806.27 Section 806.27 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE ADMINISTRATION AIR FORCE FREEDOM OF INFORMATION ACT PROGRAM § 806.27 Samples of Air Force FOIA...

  13. 32 CFR 806.27 - Samples of Air Force FOIA processing documents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Samples of Air Force FOIA processing documents. 806.27 Section 806.27 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE ADMINISTRATION AIR FORCE FREEDOM OF INFORMATION ACT PROGRAM § 806.27 Samples of Air Force FOIA...

  14. 32 CFR 806.27 - Samples of Air Force FOIA processing documents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Samples of Air Force FOIA processing documents. 806.27 Section 806.27 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE ADMINISTRATION AIR FORCE FREEDOM OF INFORMATION ACT PROGRAM § 806.27 Samples of Air Force FOIA processing documents. (a) This section...

  15. Combination syringe provides air-free blood samples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pool, S. L.

    1970-01-01

    Standard syringe and spinal needle are combined in unique manner to secure air-free blood samples. Combination syringe obtains air free samples because air bubbles become insignificant when samples greater than 1 cc are drawn.

  16. Air Sampling Instruments for Evaluation of Atmospheric Contaminants. Fourth Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists, Cincinnati, OH.

    This text, a revision and extension of the first three editions, consists of papers discussing the basic considerations in sampling air for specific purposes, sampler calibration, systems components, sample collectors, and descriptions of air-sampling instruments. (BT)

  17. HEATING AND AIR CONDITIONING EDUCATIONAL PROGRAM.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lennox Industries, Inc., Marshalltown, IA.

    INCREASED MOTIVATION, INCREASED INITIAL COMPREHENSION, AND INCREASED RETENTION ARE THE PRIME GOALS OF THE LENNOX HEATING AND AIR CONDITIONING EDUCATION PROGRAM. IT IS A COMPLETE PROGRAM WITH ALL THE TEACHING TOOLS REQUIRED TO PRODUCE A KNOWLEDGEABLE HEATING AND AIR-CONDITIONING INSTALLER OR SERVICE MAN. THIS INSTRUCTIONAL PROGRAM IS DESIGNED…

  18. Diagnosing AIRS Sampling with CloudSat Cloud Classes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fetzer, Eric; Yue, Qing; Guillaume, Alexandre; Kahn, Brian

    2011-01-01

    AIRS yield and sampling vary with cloud state. Careful utilization of collocated multiple satellite sensors is necessary. Profile differences between AIRS and ECMWF model analyses indicate that AIRS has high sampling and excellent accuracy for certain meteorological conditions. Cloud-dependent sampling biases may have large impact on AIRS L2 and L3 data in climate research. MBL clouds / lower tropospheric stability relationship is one example. AIRS and CloudSat reveal a reasonable climatology in the MBL cloud regime despite limited sampling in stratocumulus. Thermodynamic parameters such as EIS derived from AIRS data map these cloud conditions successfully. We are working on characterizing AIRS scenes with mixed cloud types.

  19. TRU waste-sampling program

    SciTech Connect

    Warren, J.L.; Zerwekh, A.

    1985-08-01

    As part of a TRU waste-sampling program, Los Alamos National Laboratory retrieved and examined 44 drums of /sup 238/Pu- and /sup 239/Pu-contaminated waste. The drums ranged in age from 8 months to 9 years. The majority of drums were tested for pressure, and gas samples withdrawn from the drums were analyzed by a mass spectrometer. Real-time radiography and visual examination were used to determine both void volumes and waste content. Drum walls were measured for deterioration, and selected drum contents were reassayed for comparison with original assays and WIPP criteria. Each drum tested at atmospheric pressure. Mass spectrometry revealed no problem with /sup 239/Pu-contaminated waste, but three 8-month-old drums of /sup 238/Pu-contaminated waste contained a potentially hazardous gas mixture. Void volumes fell within the 81 to 97% range. Measurements of drum walls showed no significant corrosion or deterioration. All reassayed contents were within WIPP waste acceptance criteria. Five of the drums opened and examined (15%) could not be certified as packaged. Three contained free liquids, one had corrosive materials, and one had too much unstabilized particulate. Eleven drums had the wrong (or not the most appropriate) waste code. In many cases, disposal volumes had been inefficiently used. 2 refs., 23 figs., 7 tabs.

  20. SAMPLING FOR ORGANIC CHEMICALS IN AIR

    EPA Science Inventory

    Organic chemicals by far account for the majority of pollutants found in air. ore than 90% of the 75,000 chemicals listed in EPA's Toxic Substances Control Act Chemical Substance Inventory and 88% of the 189 Hazardous Air Pollutants (HAPS) named in the Clean Air Act Amendments of...

  1. TECHNOLOGY EVALUATION REPORT CEREX ENVIRONMENTAL SERVICES UV HOUND POINT SAMPLE AIR MONITOR

    EPA Science Inventory

    The USEPA's National Homeland Security Research Center (NHSRC) Technology Testing and Evaluation Program (TTEP) is carrying out performance tests on homeland security technologies. Under TTEP, Battelle evaluated the performance of the Cerex UV Hound point sample air monitor in de...

  2. A continuous sampling air-ICP for metals emission monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Baldwin, D.P.; Zamzow, D.S.; Eckels, D.E.; Miller, G.P.

    1999-09-19

    An air-inductively coupled plasma (air-ICP) system has been developed for continuous sampling and monitoring of metals as a continuous emission monitor (CEM). The plasma is contained in a metal enclosure to allow reduced-pressure operation. The enclosure and plasma are operated at a pressure slightly less than atmospheric using a Roots blower, so that sample gas is continuously drawn into the plasma. A Teflon sampling chamber, equipped with a sampling pump, is connected to the stack that is to be monitored to isokinetically sample gas from the exhaust line and introduce the sample into the air-ICP. Optical emission from metals in the sampled gas stream is detected and monitored using an acousto-optic tunable filter (AOTF)--echelle spectrometer system. A description of the continuous sampling air-ICP system is given, along with some preliminary laboratory data for continuous monitoring of metals.

  3. Continuous sampling air-ICP for metals emission monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baldwin, David P.; Zamzow, Daniel S.; Eckels, David E.; Miller, George P.

    1999-12-01

    An air-inductively coupled plasma (air-ICP) system has been developed for continuous sampling and monitoring of metals as a continuous emission monitor (CEM). The plasma is contained in a metal enclosure to allow reduced-pressure operation. The enclosure and plasma are operated at a pressure slightly less than atmospheric using a Roots blower, so that sample gas is continuously drawn into the plasma. A Teflon sampling chamber, equipped with a sampling pump, is connected to the stack that is to be monitored to isokinetically sample gas from the exhaust line and introduce the sample into the air-ICP. Optical emission from metals in the sampled gas stream is detected and monitored using an acousto-optic tunable filter (AOTF)-echelle spectrometer system. A description of the continuous sampling air-ICP system is given, along with some preliminary laboratory data for continuous monitoring of metals.

  4. Venturi Air-Jet Vacuum Ejector For Sampling Air

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hill, Gerald F.; Sachse, Glen W.; Burney, L. Garland; Wade, Larry O.

    1990-01-01

    Venturi air-jet vacuum ejector pump light in weight, requires no electrical power, does not contribute heat to aircraft, and provides high pumping speeds at moderate suctions. High-pressure motive gas required for this type of pump bled from compressor of aircraft engine with negligible effect on performance of engine. Used as source of vacuum for differential-absorption CO-measurement (DACOM), modified to achieve in situ measurements of CO at frequency response of 10 Hz. Provides improvement in spatial resolution and potentially leads to capability to measure turbulent flux of CO by use of eddy-correlation technique.

  5. Air quality management programs in Asia

    SciTech Connect

    Shah, J.

    1996-12-31

    Degradation of air quality in Asia due to economic growth during Past two decades is evident. The World Bank with its new mandate for sustainable development is working with Asian Governments to reverse the trend. This paper briefly describes initiatives called URBAIR and RAINS-ASIA. Urban Air Quality Strategy in Asia (URBAIR) program seeks to assist governments and the private sector in developing tools to identify immediate and long-term actions to restore air quality in Asian cities. The URBAIR program, conducted for four selected cities (Bombay, Jakarta, Kathmandu, Manila). Since air pollution management in Asian cities is in a preliminary stage, there is need to develop a comprehensive Action Plan as a framework for preparing the Air Quality Management Strategy in each city. In preparing this Action Plan, URBAIR has identified the main aspects of air pollution in the cities. These include major pollutants, their sources, and their health and economic impacts. Air quality models have been evaluated and adapted to the data available for these cities, and monitoring needs identified. An Action Plan has been proposed by the city based working groups for a comprehensive Air Quality Management Strategy.

  6. Sampling and Analyzing Air Pollution: An Apparatus Suitable for Use in Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rockwell, Dean M.; Hansen, Tony

    1994-01-01

    Describes two variations of an air sampler and analyzer that are inexpensive to construct, easy to operate, and designed to be used in an educational program. Variations use vacuum cleaners and aquarium pumps, and white facial tissues serve as filters. Samples of air pollution obtained by this method may be used from early grade school to advanced…

  7. Mound ambient air surveillance program: Description and path forward

    SciTech Connect

    Bauer, L R

    1992-08-01

    The ambient air monitoring program in place at Mound has undergone a number of changes since its installation. These changes have resulted from revisions to prevailing environmental regulations and guidance. Additional voluntary upgrades and modifications are planned. This report serves to update information on sampling station locations, equipment designs, operational criteria, and planned upgrades.

  8. Attitudes Toward Family Enrichment and Support Programs among Air Force Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orthner, Dennis K.; Bowen, Gary L.

    1982-01-01

    Drawing upon survey data from a probability sample of 331 U.S. Air Force married couples and 101 Air Force single parents, determined the attitudes of Air Force families toward family enrichment and support programs. States implications for family programing. (Author)

  9. Operational air sampling report. [Semiannual report], July 1--December 31, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Lyons, C.L.

    1994-03-01

    Nevada Test Site vertical shaft and tunnel events generate beta/gamma fission products. The REECo air sampling program is designed to measure these radionuclides at various facilities supporting these events. The current testing moratorium and closure of the Decontamination Facility has decreased the scope of the program significantly. Of the 118 air samples collected in the only active tunnel complex, only one showed any airborne fission products. Tritiated water vapor concentrations were very similar to previously reported levels. The 206 air samples collected at the Area-6 decontamination bays and laundry were again well below any Derived Air Concentration calculation standard. Laboratory analyses of these samples were negative for any airborne fission products.

  10. Operational air sampling report. [Semiannual report], January 1--June 30, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Lyons, C.L.

    1993-12-01

    Nevada Test Site vertical shaft and tunnel events generate beta/gamma fission products. This report discusses the REECo air sampling program which is designed to measure these radionuclides at various facilities supporting these events. The current testing moratorium and closure of the Decontamination Facility has decreased the scope of the program significantly. Of the 243 air samples collected in the only active tunnel complex, none showed any airborne fission products. Tritiated water vapor concentrations were very similar to previously reported levels. The 246 air samples collected at the Area-6 decontamination bays and laundry were again well below any Derived Air Concentration calculation standard. Laboratory analyses of these samples were negative for any airborne fission products.

  11. U.S.-MEXICO BORDER PROGRAM ARIZONA BORDER STUDY--STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE FOR EXTRACTION OF AIR SAMPLES FOR GC/MS ANALYSIS OF PESTICIDES AND PAH (BCO-L-27.0)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of this SOP is to describe methods for extracting and preparing an air sample consisting of a quartz fiber filter (Pallflex) and an XAD-2 cartridge for analysis of pesticides and polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). It covers the preparation of samples that are ...

  12. APPLICATION OF SEMIPERMEABLE MEMBRANE DEVICES TO INDOOR AIR SAMPLING

    EPA Science Inventory

    Semipermeable membrane devices (SPMDs) are a relatively new passive sampling technique for nonpolar organic compounds that have been extensively used for surface water sampling. A small body of literature indicates that SPMDs are also useful for air sampling. Because SPMDs ha...

  13. Sampling of nitrates in ambient air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Appel, B. R.; Tokiwa, Y.; Haik, M.

    Methods for the measurement of nitric acid, particulate nitrate and total inorganic nitrate (i.e. HNO 3 plus particulate nitrate) are compared using atmospheric samples from the Los Angeles Basin. Nitric acid was measured by (1) the nitrate collected on nylon or NaCl-impregnated cellulose filters after removal of particulate matter with Teflon prefilters, (2) long-path Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) performed by a collaborating investigator, and (3) the difference between total inorganic nitrate (TIN) and particulate nitrate (PN). TIN was measured by the sum of the nitrate collected with a Teflon prefilter and nylon or NaCl-impregnated after-filter. PN was measured by the nitrate able to penetrate a diffusion dénuder coated to remove acidic gases (e.g. HNO 3). Losses of nitrate from Teflon prefilters were determined by comparing the nitrate retained by these filters to the nitrate penetrating the acid gas denuder. TIN and the nitrate collected with glass fiber filters were compared to assess the origin of the artifact particulate nitrate on the latter. Nitric acid measurements using nylon or NaCl-impregnated after-filters were substantially higher than those by the difference technique. This correlated with losses of nitrate from the Teflon prefilters, which exceeded 50 % at high ambient temperature and low relative humidity. Nitric acid by the difference method exceeded that by FTIR by, on average, 20 %. Thus errors inferred in HNO 3 measurements by comparison to the difference measurements are considered minimum values. The high values for HNO 3 by the difference method are consistent with the partial loss of PN in the acid gas denuder. However, no loss of 0.1 μm to 3 μm diameter NH 4NO 3 particles was observed. Thus, if significant, such loss is restricted to coarse particulate nitrate. Heating the filter samplers was shown to increase sampling errors. Nitrate results obtained in short-term, low volume sampling with Gelman A glass fiber

  14. Solid waste transuranic storage and assay facility indoor air sampling

    SciTech Connect

    Pingel, L.A., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-08-20

    The purpose of the study is to collect and analyze samples of the indoor air at the Transuranic Storage and Assay Facility (TRUSAF), Westinghouse Hanford. A modified US EPA TO-14 methodology, using gas chromatography/mass spectrography, may be used for the collection and analysis of the samples. The information obtained will be used to estimate the total release of volatile organic compounds from TRUSAF to determine the need for air emmission permits.

  15. Program Evaluation: Two Management-Oriented Samples

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alford, Kenneth Ray

    2010-01-01

    Two Management-Oriented Samples details two examples of the management-oriented approach to program evaluation. Kenneth Alford, a doctorate candidate at the University of the Cumberlands, details two separate program evaluations conducted in his school district and seeks to compare and contrast the two evaluations based upon the characteristics of…

  16. Efficiency of dust sampling inlets in calm air.

    PubMed

    Breslin, J A; Stein, R L

    1975-08-01

    Measurement of airborne dust concentrations usually involves drawing a sample of the dust-laden air into the measuring instrument through an inlet. Even if the surrounding air is calm, theoretical calculations predict that large particles may not be sampled accurately due to the combined effects of gravity and inertia on the particles near the sampling inlet. Tests were conducted to determine the conditions of particle size, inlet radius, and flow rare necessary for accurate dust sampling. A coal-dust aerosol was sampled simultaneously through inlets of different diameters at the same volume flow-rate and collected on filters. The dust was removed from the filters and the particles were counted and sized with a Coulter counter. Results showed that published criteria for inlet conditions for correct sampling are overly restrictive and that respirable-size particles are sampled correctly in the normal range or operation of most dust sampling instruments. PMID:1227283

  17. Concepts for Environmental Radioactive Air Sampling and Monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Barnett, J. Matthew

    2011-11-04

    Environmental radioactive air sampling and monitoring is becoming increasingly important as regulatory agencies promulgate requirements for the measurement and quantification of radioactive contaminants. While researchers add to the growing body of knowledge in this area, events such as earthquakes and tsunamis demonstrate how nuclear systems can be compromised. The result is the need for adequate environmental monitoring to assure the public of their safety and to assist emergency workers in their response. Two forms of radioactive air monitoring include direct effluent measurements and environmental surveillance. This chapter presents basic concepts for direct effluent sampling and environmental surveillance of radioactive air emissions, including information on establishing the basis for sampling and/or monitoring, criteria for sampling media and sample analysis, reporting and compliance, and continual improvement.

  18. Presence of organophosphorus pesticide oxygen analogs in air samples

    PubMed Central

    Armstrong, Jenna L.; Fenske, Richard A.; Yost, Michael G.; Galvin, Kit; Tchong-French, Maria; Yu, Jianbo

    2012-01-01

    A number of recent toxicity studies have highlighted the increased potency of oxygen analogs (oxons) of several organophosphorus (OP) pesticides. These findings were a major concern after environmental oxons were identified in environmental samples from air and surfaces following agricultural spray applications in California and Washington State. This paper reports on the validity of oxygen analog measurements in air samples for the OP pesticide, chlorpyrifos. Controlled environmental and laboratory experiments were used to examine artificial formation of chlorpyrifos-oxon using OSHA Versatile Sampling (OVS) tubes as recommended by NIOSH method 5600. Additionally, we compared expected chlorpyrifos-oxon attributable to artificial transformation to observed chlorpyrifos-oxon in field samples from a 2008 Washington State Department of Health air monitoring study using non-parametric statistical methods. The amount of artificially transformed oxon was then modeled to determine the amount of oxon present in the environment. Toxicity equivalency factors (TEFs) for chlorpyrifos-oxon were used to calculate chlorpyrifos-equivalent air concentrations. The results demonstrate that the NIOSH-recommended sampling matrix (OVS tubes with XAD-2 resin) was found to artificially transform up to 30% of chlorpyrifos to chlorpyrifos-oxon, with higher percentages at lower concentrations (< 30 ng/m3) typical of ambient or residential levels. Overall, the 2008 study data had significantly greater oxon than expected by artificial transformation, but the exact amount of environmental oxon in air remains difficult to quantify with the current sampling method. Failure to conduct laboratory analysis for chlorpyrifos-oxon may result in underestimation of total pesticide concentration when using XAD-2 resin matrices for occupational or residential sampling. Alternative methods that can accurately measure both OP pesticides and their oxygen analogs should be used for air sampling, and a toxicity

  19. Presence of organophosphorus pesticide oxygen analogs in air samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Armstrong, Jenna L.; Fenske, Richard A.; Yost, Michael G.; Galvin, Kit; Tchong-French, Maria; Yu, Jianbo

    2013-02-01

    A number of recent toxicity studies have highlighted the increased potency of oxygen analogs (oxons) of several organophosphorus (OP) pesticides. These findings were a major concern after environmental oxons were identified in environmental samples from air and surfaces following agricultural spray applications in California and Washington State. This paper reports on the validity of oxygen analog measurements in air samples for the OP pesticide, chlorpyrifos. Controlled environmental and laboratory experiments were used to examine artificial formation of chlorpyrifos-oxon using OSHA Versatile Sampling (OVS) tubes as recommended by NIOSH method 5600. Additionally, we compared expected chlorpyrifos-oxon attributable to artificial transformation to observed chlorpyrifos-oxon in field samples from a 2008 Washington State Department of Health air monitoring study using non-parametric statistical methods. The amount of artificially transformed oxon was then modeled to determine the amount of oxon present in the environment. Toxicity equivalency factors (TEFs) for chlorpyrifos-oxon were used to calculate chlorpyrifos-equivalent air concentrations. The results demonstrate that the NIOSH-recommended sampling matrix (OVS tubes with XAD-2 resin) was found to artificially transform up to 30% of chlorpyrifos to chlorpyrifos-oxon, with higher percentages at lower concentrations (<30 ng m-3) typical of ambient or residential levels. Overall, the 2008 study data had significantly greater oxon than expected by artificial transformation, but the exact amount of environmental oxon in air remains difficult to quantify with the current sampling method. Failure to conduct laboratory analysis for chlorpyrifos-oxon may result in underestimation of total pesticide concentration when using XAD-2 resin matrices for occupational or residential sampling. Alternative methods that can accurately measure both OP pesticides and their oxygen analogs should be used for air sampling, and a toxicity

  20. A simple novel device for air sampling by electrokinetic capture

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Gordon, Julian; Gandhi, Prasanthi; Shekhawat, Gajendra; Frazier, Angel; Hampton-Marcell, Jarrad; Gilbert, Jack A.

    2015-12-27

    A variety of different sampling devices are currently available to acquire air samples for the study of the microbiome of the air. All have a degree of technical complexity that limits deployment. Here, we evaluate the use of a novel device, which has no technical complexity and is easily deployable. An air-cleaning device powered by electrokinetic propulsion has been adapted to provide a universal method for collecting samples of the aerobiome. Plasma-induced charge in aerosol particles causes propulsion to and capture on a counter-electrode. The flow of ions creates net bulk airflow, with no moving parts. A device and electrodemore » assembly have been re-designed from air-cleaning technology to provide an average air flow of 120 lpm. This compares favorably with current air sampling devices based on physical air pumping. Capture efficiency was determined by comparison with a 0.4 μm polycarbonate reference filter, using fluorescent latex particles in a controlled environment chamber. Performance was compared with the same reference filter method in field studies in three different environments. For 23 common fungal species by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR), there was 100 % sensitivity and apparent specificity of 87%, with the reference filter taken as “gold standard.” Further, bacterial analysis of 16S RNA by amplicon sequencing showed equivalent community structure captured by the electrokinetic device and the reference filter. Unlike other current air sampling methods, capture of particles is determined by charge and so is not controlled by particle mass. We analyzed particle sizes captured from air, without regard to specific analyte by atomic force microscopy: particles at least as low as 100 nM could be captured from ambient air. This work introduces a very simple plug-and-play device that can sample air at a high-volume flow rate with no moving parts and collect particles down to the sub-micron range. In conclusion, the performance of

  1. A simple novel device for air sampling by electrokinetic capture

    SciTech Connect

    Gordon, Julian; Gandhi, Prasanthi; Shekhawat, Gajendra; Frazier, Angel; Hampton-Marcell, Jarrad; Gilbert, Jack A.

    2015-12-27

    A variety of different sampling devices are currently available to acquire air samples for the study of the microbiome of the air. All have a degree of technical complexity that limits deployment. Here, we evaluate the use of a novel device, which has no technical complexity and is easily deployable. An air-cleaning device powered by electrokinetic propulsion has been adapted to provide a universal method for collecting samples of the aerobiome. Plasma-induced charge in aerosol particles causes propulsion to and capture on a counter-electrode. The flow of ions creates net bulk airflow, with no moving parts. A device and electrode assembly have been re-designed from air-cleaning technology to provide an average air flow of 120 lpm. This compares favorably with current air sampling devices based on physical air pumping. Capture efficiency was determined by comparison with a 0.4 μm polycarbonate reference filter, using fluorescent latex particles in a controlled environment chamber. Performance was compared with the same reference filter method in field studies in three different environments. For 23 common fungal species by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR), there was 100 % sensitivity and apparent specificity of 87%, with the reference filter taken as “gold standard.” Further, bacterial analysis of 16S RNA by amplicon sequencing showed equivalent community structure captured by the electrokinetic device and the reference filter. Unlike other current air sampling methods, capture of particles is determined by charge and so is not controlled by particle mass. We analyzed particle sizes captured from air, without regard to specific analyte by atomic force microscopy: particles at least as low as 100 nM could be captured from ambient air. This work introduces a very simple plug-and-play device that can sample air at a high-volume flow rate with no moving parts and collect particles down to the sub-micron range. In conclusion, the performance of the

  2. Innovations in air sampling to detect plant pathogens

    PubMed Central

    West, JS; Kimber, RBE

    2015-01-01

    Many innovations in the development and use of air sampling devices have occurred in plant pathology since the first description of the Hirst spore trap. These include improvements in capture efficiency at relatively high air-volume collection rates, methods to enhance the ease of sample processing with downstream diagnostic methods and even full automation of sampling, diagnosis and wireless reporting of results. Other innovations have been to mount air samplers on mobile platforms such as UAVs and ground vehicles to allow sampling at different altitudes and locations in a short space of time to identify potential sources and population structure. Geographical Information Systems and the application to a network of samplers can allow a greater prediction of airborne inoculum and dispersal dynamics. This field of technology is now developing quickly as novel diagnostic methods allow increasingly rapid and accurate quantifications of airborne species and genetic traits. Sampling and interpretation of results, particularly action-thresholds, is improved by understanding components of air dispersal and dilution processes and can add greater precision in the application of crop protection products as part of integrated pest and disease management decisions. The applications of air samplers are likely to increase, with much greater adoption by growers or industry support workers to aid in crop protection decisions. The same devices are likely to improve information available for detection of allergens causing hay fever and asthma or provide valuable metadata for regional plant disease dynamics. PMID:25745191

  3. EVALUATION OF HIGH VOLUME PARTICLE SAMPLING AND SAMPLE HANDLING PROTOCOLS FOR AMBIENT URBAN AIR MUTAGENICITY DETERMINATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    An investigation of high volume particle sampling and sample handling procedures was undertaken to evaluate variations of protocols being used by the U.S Environmental Protection Agency. hese protocols are used in urban ambient air studies which collect ambient and source samples...

  4. Air Monitoring: New Advances in Sampling and Detection

    PubMed Central

    Watson, Nicola; Davies, Stephen; Wevill, David

    2011-01-01

    As the harmful effects of low-level exposure to hazardous organic air pollutants become more evident, there is constant pressure to improve the detection limits of indoor and ambient air monitoring methods, for example, by collecting larger air volumes and by optimising the sensitivity of the analytical detector. However, at the other end of the scale, rapid industrialisation in the developing world and growing pressure to reclaim derelict industrial land for house building is driving the need for air monitoring methods that can reliably accommodate very-high-concentration samples in potentially aggressive matrices. This paper investigates the potential of a combination of two powerful gas chromatography—based analytical enhancements—sample preconcentration/thermal desorption and time-of-flight mass spectrometry—to improve quantitative and qualitative measurement of very-low-(ppt) level organic chemicals, even in the most complex air samples. It also describes new, practical monitoring options for addressing equally challenging high-concentration industrial samples. PMID:22241966

  5. DUS II SOIL GAS SAMPLING AND AIR INJECTION TEST RESULTS

    SciTech Connect

    Noonkester, J.; Jackson, D.; Jones, W.; Hyde, W.; Kohn, J.; Walker, R.

    2012-09-20

    Soil vapor extraction (SVE) and air injection well testing was performed at the Dynamic Underground Stripping (DUS) site located near the M-Area Settling Basin (referred to as DUS II in this report). The objective of this testing was to determine the effectiveness of continued operation of these systems. Steam injection ended on September 19, 2009 and since this time the extraction operations have utilized residual heat that is present in the subsurface. The well testing campaign began on June 5, 2012 and was completed on June 25, 2012. Thirty-two (32) SVE wells were purged for 24 hours or longer using the active soil vapor extraction (ASVE) system at the DUS II site. During each test five or more soil gas samples were collected from each well and analyzed for target volatile organic compounds (VOCs). The DUS II site is divided into four parcels (see Figure 1) and soil gas sample results show the majority of residual VOC contamination remains in Parcel 1 with lesser amounts in the other three parcels. Several VOCs, including tetrachloroethylene (PCE) and trichloroethylene (TCE), were detected. PCE was the major VOC with lesser amounts of TCE. Most soil gas concentrations of PCE ranged from 0 to 60 ppmv with one well (VEW-22A) as high as 200 ppmv. Air sparging (AS) generally involves the injection of air into the aquifer through either vertical or horizontal wells. AS is coupled with SVE systems when contaminant recovery is necessary. While traditional air sparging (AS) is not a primary component of the DUS process, following the cessation of steam injection, eight (8) of the sixty-three (63) steam injection wells were used to inject air. These wells were previously used for hydrous pyrolysis oxidation (HPO) as part of the DUS process. Air sparging is different from the HPO operations in that the air was injected at a higher rate (20 to 50 scfm) versus HPO (1 to 2 scfm). . At the DUS II site the air injection wells were tested to determine if air sparging affected

  6. Water vapor measurement system in global atmospheric sampling program, appendix

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Englund, D. R.; Dudzinski, T. J.

    1982-01-01

    The water vapor measurement system used in the NASA Global Atmospheric Sampling Program (GASP) is described. The system used a modified version of a commercially available dew/frostpoint hygrometer with a thermoelectrically cooled mirror sensor. The modifications extended the range of the hygrometer to enable air sample measurements with frostpoint temperatures down to -80 C at altitudes of 6 to 13 km. Other modifications were made to permit automatic, unattended operation in an aircraft environment. This report described the hygrometer, its integration with the GASP system, its calibration, and operational aspects including measurement errors. The estimated uncertainty of the dew/frostpoint measurements was + or - 1.7 Celsius.

  7. Wilsonville wastewater sampling program. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1983-10-01

    As part of its contrast to design, build and operate the SRC-1 Demonstration Plant in cooperation with the US Department of Energy (DOE), International Coal Refining Company (ICRC) was required to collect and evaluate data related to wastewater streams and wastewater treatment procedures at the SRC-1 Pilot Plant facility. The pilot plant is located at Wilsonville, Alabama and is operated by Catalytic, Inc. under the direction of Southern Company Services. The plant is funded in part by the Electric Power Research Institute and the DOE. ICRC contracted with Catalytic, Inc. to conduct wastewater sampling. Tasks 1 through 5 included sampling and analysis of various wastewater sources and points of different steps in the biological treatment facility at the plant. The sampling program ran from May 1 to July 31, 1982. Also included in the sampling program was the generation and analysis of leachate from SRC product using standard laboratory leaching procedures. For Task 6, available plant wastewater data covering the period from February 1978 to December 1981 was analyzed to gain information that might be useful for a demonstration plant design basis. This report contains a tabulation of the analytical data, a summary tabulation of the historical operating data that was evaluated and comments concerning the data. The procedures used during the sampling program are also documented.

  8. Microorganisms cultured from stratospheric air samples obtained at 41 km.

    PubMed

    Wainwright, M; Wickramasinghe, N C; Narlikar, J V; Rajaratnam, P

    2003-01-21

    Samples of air removed from the stratosphere, at an altitude of 41 km, were previously found to contain viable, but non-cultureable bacteria (cocci and rods). Here, we describe experiments aimed at growing these, together with any other organisms, present in these samples. Two bacteria (Bacillus simplex and Staphylococcus pasteuri) and a single fungus, Engyodontium album (Limber) de Hoog were isolated from the samples. Although the possibility of contamination can never be ruled out when space-derived samples are studied on earth, we are confident that the organisms originated from the stratosphere. Possible mechanisms by which these organisms could have attained such a height are discussed. PMID:12583913

  9. Sampling frequency guidance for ambient air toxics monitoring.

    PubMed

    Bortnick, Steven M; Stetzer, Shannon L

    2002-07-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is in the process of designing a national network to monitor hazardous air pollutants (HAPs), also known as air toxics. The purposes of the expanded monitoring are to (1) characterize ambient concentrations in representative areas; (2) provide data to support and evaluate dispersion and receptor models; and (3) establish trends and evaluate the effectiveness of HAP emission reduction strategies. Existing air toxics data, in the form of an archive compiled by EPA's Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards (OAQPS), are used in this paper to examine the relationship between estimated annual average (AA) HAP concentrations and their associated variability. The goal is to assess the accuracy, or bias and precision, with which the AA can be estimated as a function of ambient concentration levels and sampling frequency. The results suggest that, for several air toxics, a sampling schedule of 1 in 3 days (1:3) or 1:6 days maybe appropriate for meeting some of the general objectives of the national network, with the more intense sampling rate being recommended for areas expected to exhibit relatively high ambient levels. PMID:12139351

  10. Bioassay vs. Air Sampling: Practical Guidance and Experience at Hanford

    SciTech Connect

    Carbaugh, Eugene H.; Carlson, Eric W.; Hill, Robin L.

    2004-02-08

    The Hanford Site has implemented a policy to guide in determining whether air sampling data or special fecal bioassay data are more appropriate for determining doses of record for low-level plutonium exposures. The basis for the policy and four years of experience in comparing DAC-hours exposure with bioassay-based dosimetry is discussed.

  11. TETHERED BALLOON SAMPLING SYSTEMS FOR MONITORING AIR POLLUTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper is an overview of recent studies in which balloons, usually tethered, have been used to investigate the structure and air quality of the planetary boundary layer. It also describes a number of lightweight tethered balloon sampling systems, developed to investigate parti...

  12. A Cryosampler Payload for Aseptic Air Sample Collection at Stratospheric Altitudes Using Balloons.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sreenivasan, S.; Dutt, C. B. S.; Bhargava, P.; Shivaji, S.; Manchanda, R. K.

    A balloon borne Astrobiology program is being conducted from the National Balloon Facility of the Tata Institute of Fundamental Research at Hyderabad India in which a liquid Neon cooled cryo pump collects air samples under sterile conditions in the altitude regime 19 - 41 Km Pursuant to the encouraging results obtained from an earlier experiment conducted on January 2001 a new payload was configured and the balloon flight was conducted on April 20 2005 after implementing much more rigorous and enhanced sterilization protocol to completely rule out contamination from ground Air samples were collected in the altitude region 20 - 41 Km and are under analysis in the National laboratories in India for detecting the presence of living microbial cells In this paper we discuss the design and fabrication of the air sample collection probes the stringent sterilization protocol evolved for ensuring that the probes are aseptic before the commencement of the experiment and the sample retrival methods for analysis in the laboratory

  13. HUMID AIR TURBINE CYCLE TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENT PROGRAM

    SciTech Connect

    Richard Tuthill

    2002-07-18

    The Humid Air Turbine (HAT) Cycle Technology Development Program focused on obtaining HAT cycle combustor technology that will be the foundation of future products. The work carried out under the auspices of the HAT Program built on the extensive low emissions stationary gas turbine work performed in the past by Pratt & Whitney (P&W). This Program is an integral part of technology base development within the Advanced Turbine Systems Program at the Department of Energy (DOE) and its experiments stretched over 5 years. The goal of the project was to fill in technological data gaps in the development of the HAT cycle and identify a combustor configuration that would efficiently burn high moisture, high-pressure gaseous fuels with low emissions. The major emphasis will be on the development of kinetic data, computer modeling, and evaluations of combustor configurations. The Program commenced during the 4th Quarter of 1996 and closed in the 4th Quarter of 2001. It teamed the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) with P&W, the United Technologies Research Center (UTRC), and a subcontractor on-site at UTRC, kraftWork Systems Inc. The execution of the program started with bench-top experiments that were conducted at UTRC for extending kinetic mechanisms to HAT cycle temperature, pressure, and moisture conditions. The fundamental data generated in the bench-top experiments was incorporated into the analytical tools available at P&W to design the fuel injectors and combustors. The NETL then used the hardware to conduct combustion rig experiments to evaluate the performance of the combustion systems at elevated pressure and temperature conditions representative of the HAT cycle. The results were integrated into systems analysis done by kraftWork to verify that sufficient understanding of the technology had been achieved and that large-scale technological application and demonstration could be undertaken as follow-on activity. An optional program extended the

  14. Sandia National Laboratories, California Air Quality Program : annual report.

    SciTech Connect

    Shih, Richard; Gardizi, Leslee P.

    2007-05-01

    The annual program report provides detailed information about all aspects of the SNL/CA Air Quality Program. It functions as supporting documentation to the SNL/CA Environmental Management System Program Manual. The program report describes the activities undertaken during the past year, and activities planned in future years to implement the Air Quality Program, one of six programs that supports environmental management at SNL/CA.

  15. Sandia National Laboratories, California Air Quality Program annual report.

    SciTech Connect

    Gardizi, Leslee P.; Smith, Richard

    2009-06-01

    The annual program report provides detailed information about all aspects of the SNL/CA Air Quality Program. It functions as supporting documentation to the SNL/CA Environmental Management System Program Manual. The program report describes the activities undertaken during the past year, and activities planned in future years to implement the Air Quality Program, one of six programs that supports environmental management at SNL/CA.

  16. Can car air filters be useful as a sampling medium for air pollution monitoring purposes?

    PubMed

    Katsoyiannis, Athanasios; Birgul, Askin; Ratola, Nuno; Cincinelli, Alessandra; Sweetman, Andy J; Jones, Kevin C

    2012-11-01

    Urban air quality and real human exposure to chemical environmental stressors is an issue of high scientific and political interest. In an effort to find innovative and inexpensive means for air quality monitoring, the ability of car engine air filters (CAFs) to act as efficient samplers collecting street level air, to which people are exposed to, was tested. In particular, in the case of taxis, air filters are replaced after regular distances, the itineraries are almost exclusively urban, cruising mode is similar and, thus, knowledge of the air flow can provide with an integrated city air sample. The present pilot study focused on polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), the most important category of organic pollutants associated with traffic emissions. Concentrations of ΣPAHs in CAFs ranged between 650 and 2900 μg CAF(-1), with benzo[b]fluoranthene, benzo[k]fluoranthene and indeno[123-cd]pyrene being the most abundant PAHs. Benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) ranged between 110 and 250 μg CAF(-1), accounting regularly for 5-15% of the total carcinogenic PAHs. The CAF PAH loads were used to derive road-level atmospheric PAH concentrations from a standard formula relating to the CAF air flow. Important parameters/assumptions for these estimates are the cruising speed and the exposure duration of each CAF. Based on information obtained from the garage experts, an average 'sampled air volume' of 48,750 m(3) per CAF was estimated, with uncertainty in this calculation estimated to be about a factor of 4 between the two extreme scenarios. Based on this air volume, ΣPAHs ranged between 13 and 56 ng m(-3) and BaP between 2.1 and 5.0 ng m(-3), suggesting that in-traffic BaP concentrations can be many times higher than the limit values set by the UK (0.25 ng m(-3)) and the European Union (1.0 ng m(-3)), or from active sampling stations normally cited on building roof tops or far from city centres. Notwithstanding the limitations of this approach, the very low cost, the continuous

  17. RAPID SEPARATION METHOD FOR ACTINIDES IN EMERGENCY AIR FILTER SAMPLES

    SciTech Connect

    Maxwell, S.; Noyes, G.; Culligan, B.

    2010-02-03

    A new rapid method for the determination of actinides and strontium in air filter samples has been developed at the Savannah River Site Environmental Lab (Aiken, SC, USA) that can be used in emergency response situations. The actinides and strontium in air filter method utilizes a rapid acid digestion method and a streamlined column separation process with stacked TEVA, TRU and Sr Resin cartridges. Vacuum box technology and rapid flow rates are used to reduce analytical time. Alpha emitters are prepared using cerium fluoride microprecipitation for counting by alpha spectrometry. The purified {sup 90}Sr fractions are mounted directly on planchets and counted by gas flow proportional counting. The method showed high chemical recoveries and effective removal of interferences. This new procedure was applied to emergency air filter samples received in the NRIP Emergency Response exercise administered by the National Institute for Standards and Technology (NIST) in April, 2009. The actinide and {sup 90}Sr in air filter results were reported in {approx}4 hours with excellent quality.

  18. Evaluation of membrane filter field monitors for microbiological air sampling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fields, N. D.; Oxborrow, G. S.; Puleo, J. R.; Herring, C. M.

    1974-01-01

    Due to area constraints encountered in assembly and testing areas of spacecraft, the membrane filter field monitor (MF) and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration-accepted Reyniers slit air sampler were compared for recovery of airborne microbial contamination. The intramural air in a microbiological laboratory area and a clean room environment used for the assembly and testing of the Apollo spacecraft was studied. A significantly higher number of microorganisms was recovered by the Reyniers sampler. A high degree of consistency between the two sampling methods was shown by a regression analysis, with a correlation coefficient of 0.93. The MF samplers detected 79% of the concentration measured by the Reyniers slit samplers. The types of microorganisms identified from both sampling methods were similar.

  19. Artifact peroxides produced during cryogenic sampling of ambient air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Staffelbach, Thomas; Neftel, Albrecht; Dasgupta, Purnendu K.

    Peroxides were found to be produced as artifacts during cryogenic sampling with Horibe traps. Cryogenic trap sampling was compared to collection with a wet effluent diffusion denuder and a Nafion membrane diffusion denuder. Hydrogen peroxide and hydroxymethyl hydroperoxide measured in the cryogenic trap samples were significantly higher. In comparison, no evidence of artifact methyl hydroperoxide production was found. The amount of artifact H2O2 and HMHP produced increased with decreasing trap temperature. Spiking ambient air with ethene or isoprene showed that these hydrocarbons, in the presence of ozone, can be responsible for the artifact production of peroxides. Our results clearly suggest that the peroxide data obtained by cryogenic sampling and reported in the literature should be interpreted with caution.

  20. Programming stimuli in matching to sample.

    PubMed

    HIVELY, W

    1962-07-01

    In these investigations, a "teaching machine" was used to train pre-school and first-grade children in a series of progressively difficult discrimination tasks, leading up to matching to sample. Such training was much more efficient than training in the final discrimination alone. The errors the subjects made were found to be a functon both of the differences between consecutive discriminations (the "size of the steps" in the program) and the length of training on each discrimination. Theoretical and practical implications of these findings are discussed. PMID:13907796

  1. Profile sampling dependence of the MLAYER program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Ting-Hsun

    1991-03-01

    The dependence of the predictions of the MLAYER program on the set of heights at which the refractive index value are sampled from a fixed reference profile are analyzed. A refractivity profile with a four-meter evaporation duct is adopted as a reference. Two variable piecewise linear profiles of four and five segments, respectively, are used to approximate the reference profile for MLAYER computations. The sensitivities of the waveguide mode location, the range attenuation rate, and the height-gain function to the changes of the piece-wise linear profiles are investigated at the frequencies 3, 6, 10, and 15 GHz. The frequency dependence of the dominant mode for one profile is also studied to investigate the fact that the sensitivity to changes in sampling point location is lower at GHz than at other frequencies. A general rule-of-thumb for the change in range attenuation rate due to a slight change in refractivity is suggested.

  2. Ambient Air Sampling During Quantum-dot Spray Deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Jankovic, John Timothy; Hollenbeck, Scott M

    2010-01-01

    Ambient air sampling for nano-size particle emissions was performed during spot spray coating operations with a Sono-Tek Exactacoat Benchtop system (ECB). The ECB consisted of the application equipment contained within an exhaust enclosure. The enclosure contained numerous small access openings, including an exhaust hook-up. Door access comprised most of the width and height of the front. The door itself was of the swing-out type. Two types of nanomaterials, Cadmium selenide (Cd-Se) quantum-dots (QDs) and Gold (Au) QDs, nominally 3.3 and 5 nm in diameter respectively, were applied during the evaluation. Median spray drop size was in the 20 to 60 micrometer size range.1 Surface coating tests were of short duration, on the order of one-half second per spray and ten spray applications between door openings. The enclosure was ventilated by connection to a high efficiency particulate aerosol (HEPA) filtered house exhaust system. The exhaust rate was nominally 80 ft3 per minute producing about 5 air changes per minute. Real time air monitoring with a scanning mobility particle size analyzer (SMPS ) with a size detection limit of 7 nm indicated a significant increase in the ambient air concentration upon early door opening. A handheld condensation particle counter (CPC) with a lower size limit of 10 nm did not record changes in the ambient background. This increase in the ambient was not observed when door opening was delayed for 2 minutes (~10 air changes). The ventilated enclosure controlled emissions except for cases of rapid door opening before the overspray could be removed by the exhaust. A time delay sufficient to provide 10 enclosure air changes (a concentration reduction of more than 99.99 %) before door opening prevented the release of aerosol particles in any size.2 Scanning-transmission electron microscopy (STEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) demonstrated the presence of agglomerates in the surfaces of the spray applied deposition. A filtered air sample of

  3. Evaluation of official air sampling methodologies in Ukraine

    SciTech Connect

    Nakonechniy, J.J.; Wadden, R.A.; Scheff, P.A.; Suero, M.

    1997-12-31

    In conjunction with an environmental epidemiology study of the health of Ukrainian children, a significant amount of air pollution measurement data was gathered from government agencies. The areas of interest were the industrial city of Dneprodzherzhinsk; and the Dniprovsky region of Kyiv. The data were for 1993 and, for some of the monitoring stations, 1994. The pollutants reported included dust (approximately equivalent to TSP, total suspended particulate matter), SO{sub 2}, CO, NO{sub 2}, NO, H{sub 2}S, phenol, HCl, NH{sub 3}, formaldehyde, BaP, and lead. The ultimate goal was to evaluate whether existing historical data are appropriate for developing measures of human exposure. In order to evaluate the data it was necessary to understand the sampling and analytical methodologies which were used. Small sample volumes coupled with dated analytical procedures resulted in very poor precision and detection limits for most of the measured pollutants. The measurement of particulate matter is a good example of the limits imposed by the sampling methodology. The short sample time (20 min), small sample volume (150 lpm), and limited analytical balances (0.5 mg resolution) result in a minimum lower limit of detection of 0.25 mg/m{sup 3}. For example at Kyiv Station 3 in 1993, only one of 545 measurements exceeded 0.2 mg/m{sup 3}. This minimum detectable quantity is over three times the former US annual TSP standard. In addition, even when operated on a 24-hour basis in the US, it has been shown that the sampling method only collected approximately 34% of that collected by a co-located hi-vol sampler. Consequently, official air pollution data for suspended dust are likely to severely under-represent actual ambient concentrations. Data for other pollutants are presented and sampling and analytical methods are similarly compared with Western methods in common use.

  4. Passive air sampling of gaseous elemental mercury: a critical review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McLagan, David S.; Mazur, Maxwell E. E.; Mitchell, Carl P. J.; Wania, Frank

    2016-03-01

    Because gaseous elemental mercury (GEM) is distributed globally through the atmosphere, reliable means of measuring its concentrations in air are important. Passive air samplers (PASs), designed to be cheap, simple to operate, and to work without electricity, could provide an alternative to established active sampling techniques in applications such as (1) long-term monitoring of atmospheric GEM levels in remote regions and in developing countries, (2) atmospheric mercury source identification and characterization through finely resolved spatial mapping, and (3) the recording of personal exposure to GEM. An effective GEM PAS requires a tightly constrained sampling rate, a large and stable uptake capacity, and a sensitive analytical technique. None of the GEM PASs developed to date achieve levels of accuracy and precision sufficient for the reliable determination of background concentrations over extended deployments. This is due to (1) sampling rates that vary due to meteorological factors and manufacturing inconsistencies, and/or (2) an often low, irreproducible and/or unstable uptake capacity of the employed sorbents. While we identify shortcomings of existing GEM PAS, we also reveal potential routes to overcome those difficulties. Activated carbon and nanostructured metal surfaces hold promise as effective sorbents. Sampler designs incorporating diffusive barriers should be able to notably reduce the influence of wind on sampling rates.

  5. Passive air sampling of gaseous elemental mercury: a critical review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McLagan, D. S.; Mazur, M. E. E.; Mitchell, C. P. J.; Wania, F.

    2015-12-01

    Because gaseous elemental mercury (GEM) is distributed globally through the atmosphere, reliable means of measuring its concentrations in air are important. Passive air samplers (PASs), designed to be cheap, simple to operate, and to work without electricity, could provide an alternative to established active sampling techniques in applications such as (1) long term monitoring of atmospheric GEM levels in remote regions and in developing countries, (2) atmospheric mercury source identification and characterisation through finely-resolved spatial mapping, and (3) the recording of personal exposure to GEM. An effective GEM PAS requires a tightly constrained sampling rate, a large and stable uptake capacity, and a sensitive analytical technique. None of the GEM PASs developed to date achieves levels of accuracy and precision sufficient for the reliable determination of background concentrations over extended deployments. This is due to (1) sampling rates that vary due to meteorological factors and manufacturing inconsistencies and/or (2) an often low, irreproducible and/or unstable uptake capacity of the employed sorbents. While we identify shortcomings of existing GEM PAS, we also reveal potential routes to overcome those difficulties. Activated carbon and nano-structured metal surfaces hold promise as effective sorbents. Sampler designs incorporating diffusive barriers should be able to notably reduce the influence of wind on sampling rates.

  6. Optimization of the development process for air sampling filter standards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mena, RaJah Marie

    Air monitoring is an important analysis technique in health physics. However, creating standards which can be used to calibrate detectors used in the analysis of the filters deployed for air monitoring can be challenging. The activity of a standard should be well understood, this includes understanding how the location within the filter affects the final surface emission rate. The purpose of this research is to determine the parameters which most affect uncertainty in an air filter standard and optimize these parameters such that calibrations made with them most accurately reflect the true activity contained inside. A deposition pattern was chosen from literature to provide the best approximation of uniform deposition of material across the filter. Samples sets were created varying the type of radionuclide, amount of activity (high activity at 6.4 -- 306 Bq/filter and one low activity 0.05 -- 6.2 Bq/filter, and filter type. For samples analyzed for gamma or beta contaminants, the standards created with this procedure were deemed sufficient. Additional work is needed to reduce errors to ensure this is a viable procedure especially for alpha contaminants.

  7. Brine Sampling and Evaluation Program, 1991 report

    SciTech Connect

    Deal, D.E.; Abitz, R.J.; Myers, J.; Martin, M.L.; Milligan, D.J.; Sobocinski, R.W.; Lipponer, P.P.J.; Belski, D.S.

    1993-09-01

    The data presented in this report are the result of Brine Sampling and Evaluation Program (BSEP) activities at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plan (WIPP) during 1991. These BSEP activities document and investigate the origins, hydraulic characteristics, extent, and composition of brine occurrences in the Permian Salado Formation and seepage of that brine into the excavations at the WIPP. When excavations began at the WIPP in 1982, small brine seepages (weeps) were observed on the walls. Brine studies began as part of the Site Validation Program and were formalized as a program in its own right in 1985. During nine years of observations (1982--1991), evidence has mounted that the amount of brine seeping into the WIPP excavations is limited, local, and only a small fraction of that required to produce hydrogen gas by corroding the metal in the waste drums and waste inventory. The data through 1990 is discussed in detail and summarized by Deal and others (1991). The data presented in this report describes progress made during the calendar year 1991 and focuses on four major areas: (1) quantification of the amount of brine seeping across vertical surfaces in the WIPP excavations (brine ``weeps); (2) monitoring of brine inflow, e.g., measuring brines recovered from holes drilled downward from the underground drifts (downholes), upward from the underground drifts (upholes), and from subhorizontal holes; (3) further characterization of brine geochemistry; and (4) preliminary quantification of the amount of brine that might be released by squeezing the underconsolidated clays present in the Salado Formation.

  8. Technical assessment of workplace air sampling requirements at tank farm facilities. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Olsen, P.A.

    1994-09-21

    WHC-CM-1-6 is the primary guidance for radiological control at Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC). It was written to implement DOE N 5480.6 ``US Department of Energy Radiological Control Manual`` as it applies to programs at Hanford which are now overseen by WHC. As such, it complies with Title 10, Part 835 of the Code of Federal Regulations. In addition to WHC-CM-1-6, there is HSRCM-1, the ``Hanford Site Radiological Control Manual`` and several Department of Energy (DOE) Orders, national consensus standards, and reports that provide criteria, standards, and requirements for workplace air sampling programs. This document provides a summary of these, as they apply to WHC facility workplace air sampling programs. This document also provides an evaluation of the compliance of Tank Farms` workplace air sampling program to the criteria, standards, and requirements and documents compliance with the requirements where appropriate. Where necessary, it also indicates changes needed to bring specific locations into compliance.

  9. Integrating the federal and California air toxics programs

    SciTech Connect

    Fletcher, R.D.

    1996-12-31

    This paper discusses California`s existing air toxic program and presents an approach for integrating the program with the federal program. Competitiveness can be enhanced by a strong federal program, but a smooth integration is essential to maintain an effective state program. Flexibility and good communication are essential to ensure a smooth integration and successful implementation.

  10. Valveless sampling of ambient air for analysis by capillary gas chromatography

    SciTech Connect

    Stephens, E.R. )

    1989-09-01

    A method for the high resolution, high sensitivity analysis of polluted air for individual organic compounds is described. Samples collected from 50 mL of ambient air at 87 K (liquid argon) are injected without use of a valve into a silica capillary column which is then temperature programmed from {minus}30{degree}C to 180{degree}C. Hydrocarbons (4 to 10 carbons) as well as carbonyl compounds, chlorinated compounds and terpenes can be identified and quantified. The detection limit, not strongly dependent on carbon number, is estimated to be 0.3 ppbc in a 50 mL sample. Use of small samples eliminates the need to remove water vapor, a procedure which might jeopardize sample integrity.

  11. Sampling and analysis of terpenes in air. An interlaboratory comparison

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larsen, Bo; Bomboi-Mingarro, Teresa; Brancaleoni, Enzo; Calogirou, Aggelos; Cecinato, Angelo; Coeur, Cecile; Chatzinestis, Ioannis; Duane, Matthew; Frattoni, Massimiliano; Fugit, Jean-Luc; Hansen, Ute; Jacob, Veronique; Mimikos, Nikolaos; Hoffmann, Thorsten; Owen, Susan; Perez-Pastor, Rosa; Reichmann, Andreas; Seufert, Gunther; Staudt, Michael; Steinbrecher, Rainer

    An interlaboratory comparison on the sampling and analysis of terpenes in air was held within the framework of the BEMA (Biogenic Emissions in the Mediterranean Area) project in May 1995. Samples were drawn and analysed by 10 European laboratories from a dynamic artificial air generator in which five terpenes were present at low ng ℓ -1 levels and ozone varied between 8 and 125 ppbv. Significant improvements over previous inter-comparison exercises in the quality of results were observed. At the ozone mixing ratio of 8 ppbv a good agreement among laboratories was obtained for all test compounds with mean values close to the target concentration. At higher mixing ratios, ozone reduced terpene recoveries and decreased the precision of the measurements due to ozonolysis during sampling. For β-pinene this effect was negligible but for the more reactive compounds significant losses were observed in some laboratories ( cis-β-ocimene = trans-β-ocimene > linalool > d-limonene). The detrimental effect of ozone was significantly lower for the laboratories which removed ozone prior to sampling by scrubbers. Parallel sampling was carried out with a standardised sampler and each individual laboratory's own device. A good agreement between the two sets of results was obtained, clearly showing that the majority of laboratories used efficient sampling systems. Two different standard solutions were analysed by each laboratory. Only in a few cases did interference in the GC separation cause problems for the quantification of the terpenes (nonanal/linalool). However, making up of standards for the calibration of the analytical equipment (GC-MS or GC-FID) was pointed out as a source of error in some laboratories.

  12. CONVENIENT SAMPLING OF AIR BACTERIA IN OPERATING ROOMS.

    PubMed

    WARNER, P; GLASSCO, A; KROEKER, J

    1964-02-22

    A convenient arrangement for sampling air bacteria in operating rooms with a slit sampler (the Fort Detrick sampler) is described. Its purpose is to contribute as far as possible to the convenience of the surgical staff and thereby to the safety of the patient. It has the advantages of recording minute-to-minute changes in bacterial air count; it is unobtrusive and yet can be continually observed by a technician; it is not noisy and avoids the dangers of explosion and static electricity; it is inexpensive, and parts are easily replaced; and finally it provides a means of keeping permanent photographic records of bacterial counts. Results of a preliminary trial of this method appeared to be satisfactory. PMID:14118695

  13. Relative Humidity and its Effect on Sampling and Analysis of Agricultural Odorants in Air

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Source and ambient air sampling techniques used in agricultural air quality studies are seldom validated for the variability in the air matrix (temperature, dust levels, and relative humidity). In particular, relative humidity (RH) affects both field sampling and analysis of air samples. The objec...

  14. Evaluation of Urban Air Quality By Passive Sampling Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nunes, T. V.; Miranda, A. I.; Duarte, S.; Lima, M. J.

    Aveiro is a flat small city in the centre of Portugal, close to the Atlantic coast. In the last two decades an intensive development of demographic, traffic and industry growth in the region was observed which was reflected on the air quality degrada- tion. In order to evaluate the urban air quality in Aveiro, a field-monitoring network by passive sampling with high space resolution was implemented. Twenty-four field places were distributed in a area of 3x3 Km2 and ozone and NO2 concentrations were measured. The site distribution density was higher in the centre, 250x250 m2 than in periphery where a 500x500 m2 grid was used. The selection of field places took into consideration the choice criteria recommendation by United Kingdom environmental authorities, and three tubes and a blank tube for each pollutant were used at each site. The sampling system was mounted at 3m from the ground usually profiting the street lampposts. Concerning NO2 acrylic tubes were used with 85 mm of length and an in- ternal diameter of 12mm, where in one of the extremities three steel grids impregnated with a solution of TEA were placed and fixed with a polyethylene end cup (Heal et al., 1999); PFA Teflon tube with 53 mm of length and 9 mm of internal diameter and three impregnated glass filters impregnated with DPE solution fixed by a teflon end cup was used for ozone sampling (Monn and Hargartner, 1990). The passive sampling method for ozone and nitrogen dioxide was compared with continuous measurements, but the amount of measurements wasnSt enough for an accurate calibration and validation of the method. Although this constraint the field observations (June to August 2001) for these two pollutants assign interesting information about the air quality in the urban area. A krigger method of interpolation (Surfer- Golden Software-2000) was applied to field data to obtain isolines distribution of NO2 and ozone concentration for the studied area. Even the used passive sampling method has many

  15. Brine Sampling and Evaluation Program, 1990 report

    SciTech Connect

    Deal, D.E.; Abitz, R.J.; Myers, J.; Case, J.B.; Martin, M.L.; Roggenthen, W.M.; Belski, D.S.

    1991-08-01

    The data presented in this report are the result of Brine Sampling and Evaluation Program (BSEP) activities at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) during 1990. When excavations began in 1982, small brine seepages (weeps) were observed on the walls. These brine occurrences were initially described as part of the Site Validation Program. Brine studies were formalized in 1985. The BSEP activities document and investigate the origins, hydraulic characteristics, extent, and composition of brine occurrences in the Permian Salado Formation and seepage of that brine into the excavations at the WIPP. The brine chemistry is important because it assists in understanding the origin of the brine and because it may affect possible chemical reactions in the buried waste after sealing the repository. The volume of brine and the hydrologic system that drives the brine seepage also need to be understood to assess the long-term performance of the repository. After more than eight years of observations (1982--1990), no credible evidence exists to indicate that enough naturally occurring brine will seep into the WIPP excavations to be of practical concern. The detailed observations and analyses summarized herein and in previous BSEP reports confirm the evidence apparent during casual visits to the underground workings -- that the excavations are remarkably dry.

  16. Cool-Water Coal Gasification Program: Environmental Monitoring Plan Commissioning Phase, final report. Volume 1. Technical report. Volume 2. Appendix A - HRSG (heat recovery steam generator) stack-testing results. Volume 3. Appendix B - analytical results. Appendix C - sampling analytical methods. Appendix D - ambient air monitoring data. Volume 4. Appendix E - quality assurance/quality control. Technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-10-11

    The Cool Water Coal Gasification Program (CWCGP) began electrical production under the terms of the Price Guarantee Commitment with the U.S. Synthetic Fuels Corporation (SFC) on June 24, 1984. An Environmental Monitoring Plan (EMP) approved by the SFC was initiated at that time. The Commissioning Phase, the first of four phases of the EMP, was conducted from June 24 through December 31, 1984. Sampling and analysis of compliance and supplemental parameters produced over 1100 samples and 8500 data points from 17 aqueous, ten gaseous, and four solid sampling streams. The technical report includes a description of the CWCGP process as it was operated during the Commissioning Phase, a summary of process changes that occurred during the period, their effect on the environmental monitoring effort, and details of pollution-control testing (Appendix A), data calculations (Appendix B), analytical methods and results (Appendix C), ambient-air-monitoring data (Appendix D), and quality-assurance/quality-control program results (Appendix E).

  17. 13c Measurements On Air of Small Ice Samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eyer, M.; Leuenberger, M.

    We have developed a new method for 13C analysis for very small air amounts of less than 0.5 cc STP, corresponding to less than 10 gram of ice. It is based on the needle-crasher technique, which we routinely use for CO2 concentration measurements by infrared laser absorption. The extracted air is slowly expanded into a large volume through a water trap held at ­100°C. This sampled air is then carried by a high helium flux through a modified Precon system of Thermo-Finnigan to separate CO2 from the air and to inject the pure CO2 gas in a low helium stream via an open split device to a Delta Plus XL mass spectrometer. The overall precision based on replicates of standard air is significantly better than 0.1 for a single analysis and is further improved by a triplicate measurement of the same sample through a specially designed gas splitter. We have used this new method for investigations on polar ice cores. The 13C measurements are important for climate reconstructions, e.g. to reconstruct the evolution and its variability in the terrestrial and oceanic carbon sinks and to identify natural variations in the marine carbon cycle. During the industrialization atmospheric 13C decreased by about -2, mainly due to the anthropogenic release of biogenic CO2 by fossil fuel burning. Reconstructions of carbon and oxygen cycles of Joos at al. [1999] using a double deconvolution method show that between 1930 and 1950 the net terrestrial release is changing to a net terrestrial uptake of CO2. A highly resolved 13C dataset of this time window would replenish the documentation of this behaviour. Further, it would be interesting to compare such data with O2/N2 measurements, known as an other partitioning tool for carbon sources and sinks. At the EGS 2002 we will present a highly resolved 13C record from Antarctic ice covering this time period.

  18. Technical assessment of TRUSAF for compliance with work place air sampling. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Butler, J.D.

    1995-01-23

    The purpose of this Technical Work Document is to satisfy WHC-CM-1-6, the ``WHC Radiological Control Manual.`` This first revision of the original Supporting Document covers the period from January 1, 1994 to December 31, 1994. WHC-CM-1-6 is the primary guidance for radiological control at Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC). As such, it complies with Title 10, Part 835 of the Code of Federal Regulations. In addition to WHC-CM-1-6, there is HSRCM-1, the ``Hanford Site Radiological Control Manual`` and several Department of Energy (DOE) Orders, national consensus standards, and reports that provide criteria, standards, and requirements for workplace air sampling programs. This document provides a summary of these, as they apply to WHC facility workplace air sampling programs. this document also provides an evaluation of the compliance of the TRUSAF workplace air sampling program to the criteria, standards, and requirements and documents. Where necessary, it also indicates changes needed to bring specific locations into compliance.

  19. Air Conditioning and Refrigeration Program Articulation, 1981-1982.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dallas County Community Coll. District, TX.

    Based on a survey of high school programs and courses in the Dallas County Community College District (DCCCD), this articulated program is designed to prepare students for entry-level employment in the air conditioning and refrigeration industry, including residential and commercial air conditioning and commercial refrigeration. The skills and…

  20. Evolution of the Air Toxics under the Big Sky Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marra, Nancy; Vanek, Diana; Hester, Carolyn; Holian, Andrij; Ward, Tony; Adams, Earle; Knuth, Randy

    2011-01-01

    As a yearlong exploration of air quality and its relation to respiratory health, the "Air Toxics Under the Big Sky" program offers opportunities for students to learn and apply science process skills through self-designed inquiry-based research projects conducted within their communities. The program follows a systematic scope and sequence…

  1. Residential Heat and Air Conditioning. Florida Vocational Program Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    University of South Florida, Tampa. Dept. of Adult and Vocational Education.

    The program guide for residential heat and air conditioning courses in Florida identifies primary considerations for the organization, operation, and evaluation of a vocational education program. Following an occupational description for the job title for air-conditioning installer-servicer, window unit, and its Dictionary of Occupational Titles…

  2. A Program in Air Transportation Technology (Joint University Program)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stengel, Robert F.

    1996-01-01

    The Joint University Program on Air Transportation Technology was conducted at Princeton University from 1971 to 1995. Our vision was to further understanding of the design and operation of transport aircraft, of the effects of atmospheric environment on aircraft flight, and of the development and utilization of the National Airspace System. As an adjunct, the program emphasized the independent research of both graduate and undergraduate students. Recent principal goals were to develop and verify new methods for design and analysis of intelligent flight control systems, aircraft guidance logic for recovery from wake vortex encounter, and robust flight control systems. Our research scope subsumed problems associated with multidisciplinary aircraft design synthesis and analysis based on flight physics, providing a theoretical basis for developing innovative control concepts that enhance aircraft performance and safety. Our research focus was of direct interest not only to NASA but to manufacturers of aircraft and their associated systems. Our approach, metrics, and future directions described in the remainder of the report.

  3. SAMPLING AND ANALYSIS RESEARCH PROGRAM AT THE PARAHO SHALE OIL DEMONSTRATION PLANT

    EPA Science Inventory

    A sampling and analysis research program was conducted at the Paraho oil shale retorting demonstration site at Anvil Points, Colorado. The overall objective of the test program was to obtain preliminary quantitative and qualitative measurements of air, water, and solid compositio...

  4. Air Research Program: Key Pathways research track

    EPA Science Inventory

    The pathways research track applies animal, cellular, and human studies to discern whether there is a common molecular mechanism (e.g. production of oxidative stress, phosphatase inhibition, disruption of iron homeostasis) through which air pollutants induce toxicity of air pollu...

  5. AIR TOXICS MODELING RESEARCH PROGRAM: AN OVERVIEW

    EPA Science Inventory

    This product is a Microsoft Powerpoint slide presentation which was given at the joint EPA Region 3 - Mid-Atlantic Regional Air Management Association (MARAMA) Air Toxic Summit in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania held from October 18, 2005 through October 20, 2005. The slide presentat...

  6. Bias in air sampling techniques used to measure inhalation exposure.

    PubMed

    Cohen, B S; Harley, N H; Lippmann, M

    1984-03-01

    Factors have been evaluated which contribute to the lack of agreement between inhalation exposure estimates obtained by time-weighted averaging of samples taken with mini hi-volume samplers, and those measured by time integrating, low-volume, lapel mounted, personal monitors. Measurements made with real-time aerosol monitors on workers at a Be-Cu production furnace show that part of the discrepancy results from variability of the aerosol concentration within the breathing zone. Field studies of sampler inlet bias, the influences of the electrostatic fields around polystyrene filter holders, and resuspension of dust from work clothing, were done in three areas of a Be plant. No significant differences were found in Be air concentrations measured simultaneously by open and closed face cassettes, and "mini hi-volume" samplers mounted on a test stand. No significant influence on Be collection was detected between either positively or negatively charged monitors and charge neutralized control monitors. The effect of contaminated work clothing on dust collection by lapel mounted monitors is most important. Beryllium release from the fabrics affected air concentrations measured by fabric mounted monitors more than it affected concentrations measured by monitors positioned above the fabrics. The latter were placed 16 cm from the vertically mounted fabrics, to simulate the position of the nose or mouth. We conclude that dust resuspended from work clothing is the major source of the observed discrepancy between exposures estimated from lapel mounted samplers and time-weighted averages. PMID:6720582

  7. Bias in air sampling techniques used to measure inhalation exposure

    SciTech Connect

    Cohen, B.S.; Harley, N.H.; Lippmann, M.

    1984-03-01

    Factors have been evaluated which contribute to the lack of agreement between inhalation exposure estimates obtained by time-weighted averaging of samples taken with mini hi-volume samplers, and those measured by time integrating, low-volume, lapel mounted, personal monitors. Measurements made with real-time aerosol monitors on workers at a Be-Cu production furnace show that part of the discrepancy results from variability of the aerosol concentration within the breathing zone. Field studies of sampler inlet bias, the influences of the electrostatic fields around polystyrene filter holders, and resuspension of dust from work clothing, were done in three areas of a Be plant. No significant differences were found in Be air concentrations measured simultaneously by open and closed face cassettes, and mini hi-volume samplers mounted on a test stand. No significant influence on Be collection was detected between either positively or negatively charged monitors and charge neutralized control monitors. The effect of contaminated work clothing on dust collection by lapel mounted monitors is most important. Beryllium release from the fabrics affected air concentrations measured by fabric mounted monitors more than it affected concentrations measured by monitors positioned above the fabrics. The latter were placed 16 cm from the vertically mounted fabrics, to simulate the position of the nose or mouth. The authors conclude that dust resuspended from work clothing is the major source of the observed discrepancy between exposures estimated from lapel mounted samplers and time-weighted averages.

  8. Nonequilibrium air radiation (Nequair) program: User's manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Park, C.

    1985-01-01

    A supplement to the data relating to the calculation of nonequilibrium radiation in flight regimes of aeroassisted orbital transfer vehicles contains the listings of the computer code NEQAIR (Nonequilibrium Air Radiation), its primary input data, and explanation of the user-supplied input variables. The user-supplied input variables are the thermodynamic variables of air at a given point, i.e., number densities of various chemical species, translational temperatures of heavy particles and electrons, and vibrational temperature. These thermodynamic variables do not necessarily have to be in thermodynamic equilibrium. The code calculates emission and absorption characteristics of air under these given conditions.

  9. GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY/MATRIX ISOLATION - INFRARED SPECTROMETRY FOR AIR SAMPLE ANALYSIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report describes the application of gas chromatography/matrix- solation infrared (GC/MI-IR) spectrometry to the analysIs of environmental air sample extracts. Samples that were analyzed include extracts from woodsmoke-impacted air, XAD-2 blanks, indoor air, and carpet sample...

  10. Sampling of air streams and incorporation of samples in the Microtox{trademark} toxicity testing system

    SciTech Connect

    Kleinheinz, G.T.; St. John, W.P.

    1997-10-01

    A study was conducted to develop a rapid and reliable method for the collection and incorporation of biofiltration air samples containing volatile organic compounds (VOCs) into the Microtox toxicity testing system. To date, no method exists for this type of assay. A constant stream of VOCs was generated by air stripping compounds from a complex mixture of petroleum hydrocarbons (PHCs). Samples were collected on coconut charcoal ORBO tubes and the VOCs extracted with methylene chloride. The compounds extracted were then solvent exchanged into dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) under gaseous nitrogen. The resulting DMSO extract was directly incorporated into the Microtox toxicity testing system. In order to determine the efficiency of the solvent exchange, the VOCs in the DMSO extract were then extracted into hexane and subsequently analyzed using gas chromatography (GC) with a flame ionization detector (FID). It was determined that all but the most volatile VOCs could be effectively transferred from the ORBO tubes to DMSO for Microtox testing. Potential trace amounts of residual methylene chloride in the DMSO extracts showed no adverse effects in the Microtox system when compared to control samples.

  11. An Autosampler and Field Sample Carrier for Maximizing Throughput Using an Open-Air, Surface Sampling Ion Source for MS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A recently developed, commercially available, open-air, surface sampling ion source for mass spectrometers provides individual analyses in several seconds. To realize its full throughput potential, an autosampler and field sample carrier were designed and built. The autosampler ...

  12. Greenhouse gas analysis of air samples collected onboard the CARIBIC passenger aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schuck, T. J.; Brenninkmeijer, C. A. M.; Slemr, F.; Xueref-Remy, I.; Zahn, A.

    2009-08-01

    CARIBIC (Civil Aircraft for the Regular Investigation of the atmosphere Based on an Instrument Container) is a long-term atmospheric measurement program based on the use of a comprehensive scientific instrument package aboard a commercial passenger aircraft. In addition to real-time measurements, whole air sampling is performed regularly at cruising altitudes in the tropical middle troposphere and the extra-tropical UT/LS region. Air samples are analyzed for greenhouse gases, NMHCs, halocarbons, and trace gas isotopic composition. The routinely performed greenhouse gas analysis comprises gas chromatography measurements of CO2, CH4, N2O and SF6. The air sampling procedure, the GC system and its performance are described. Comparisons with similar systems employed in other laboratories and a comparison with results from a CO2 in-situ analyzer that is also part of the CARIBIC instrumentation are shown. In addition, the time series of CO2, obtained from the collection of 684 samples at latitudes between 30° N and 56° N on 21 round trips out of Germany to different destinations in Asia between November 2005 and October 2008, is presented. A time shift in the seasonal cycle of about one month was observed between the upper troposphere and the tropopause region. For two sets of return flights from Germany to the Philippines the relationship between the four greenhouse gases is briefly discussed.

  13. Off-Air Recordings of Television Programs: Copyright Law Guidelines.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reading Teacher, 1982

    1982-01-01

    Presents guidelines devised by the Ad Hoc Committee on Copyright Law, a coalition of nonprofit organizations representing education, libraries, and scholars, concerning the off-air recording of television programs for educational use. (FL)

  14. Off-Air Recordings of Television Programs: Copyright Law Guidelines.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Reading, 1982

    1982-01-01

    Presents guidelines devised by the Ad Hoc Committee on Copyright Law, a coalition of nonprofit organizations representing education, libraries, and scholars, concerning the off-air recording of television programs for educational use. (AEA)

  15. Air Force Phillips Laboratory Battery Program overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    House, Shaun

    1992-01-01

    Battery development and testing efforts at Phillips Laboratory fall into three main categories: nickel hydrogen, sodium sulfur, and solid state batteries. Nickel hydrogen work is broken down into a Low Earth Orbit (LEO) Life Test Program, a LEO Pulse Test Program, and a Hydrogen Embrittlement Investigation. Sodium sulfur work is broken down into a Geosynchronous Earth Orbit (GEO) Battery Flight Test and a Hot Launch Evaluation. Solid state polymer battery work consists of a GEO Battery Development Program, a Pulse Power Battery Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR), and an in-house evaluation of current generation laboratory cells. An overview of the program is presented.

  16. Air Age Education. Aviation Career Awareness Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petrie, Edwin T.

    Described is a program designed to help introduce the broad scope of occupational careers available with general aviation. The program is designed to aid the teacher in presenting the basic principles of flight, essential facts about general aviation as well as its occupational opportunities. It replaces previous elementary student materials, and…

  17. Collection and analysis of NASA clean room air samples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sheldon, L. S.; Keever, J.

    1985-01-01

    The environment of the HALOE assembly clean room at NASA Langley Research Center is analyzed to determine the background levels of airborne organic compounds. Sampling is accomplished by pumping the clean room air through absorbing cartridges. For volatile organics, cartridges are thermally desorbed and then analyzed by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry, compounds are identified by searching the EPA/NIH data base using an interactive operator INCOS computer search algorithm. For semivolatile organics, cartridges are solvent entracted and concentrated extracts are analyzed by gas chromatography-electron capture detection, compound identification is made by matching gas chromatogram retention times with known standards. The detection limits for the semivolatile organics are; 0.89 ng cu m for dioctylphlhalate (DOP) and 1.6 ng cu m for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB). The detection limit for volatile organics ranges from 1 to 50 parts per trillion. Only trace quantities of organics are detected, the DOP levels do not exceed 2.5 ng cu m and the PCB levels do not exceed 454 ng cu m.

  18. Sampling of power plant stacks for air toxic emissions: Topical report for Phases 1 and 2

    SciTech Connect

    1995-02-21

    Under contract with the US Department of Energy (DE-AC22-92PCO0367), Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center, Radian Corporation has conducted a test program to collect and analyze size-fractionated stack gas particulate samples for selected inorganic hazardous air pollutants (HAPS). Specific goals of the program are (1) the collection of one-gram quantities of size-fractionated stack gas particulate matter for bulk (total) and surface chemical charactization, and (2) the determination of the relationship between particle size, bulk and surface (leachable) composition, and unit load. The information obtained from this program identifies the effects of unit load, particle size, and wet FGD system operation on the relative toxicological effects of exposure to particulate emissions.

  19. Air sampling filtration media: Collection efficiency for respirable size-selective sampling

    PubMed Central

    Soo, Jhy-Charm; Monaghan, Keenan; Lee, Taekhee; Kashon, Mike; Harper, Martin

    2016-01-01

    The collection efficiencies of commonly used membrane air sampling filters in the ultrafine particle size range were investigated. Mixed cellulose ester (MCE; 0.45, 0.8, 1.2, and 5 μm pore sizes), polycarbonate (0.4, 0.8, 2, and 5 μm pore sizes), polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE; 0.45, 1, 2, and 5 μm pore sizes), polyvinyl chloride (PVC; 0.8 and 5 μm pore sizes), and silver membrane (0.45, 0.8, 1.2, and 5 μm pore sizes) filters were exposed to polydisperse sodium chloride (NaCl) particles in the size range of 10–400 nm. Test aerosols were nebulized and introduced into a calm air chamber through a diffusion dryer and aerosol neutralizer. The testing filters (37 mm diameter) were mounted in a conductive polypropylene filter-holder (cassette) within a metal testing tube. The experiments were conducted at flow rates between 1.7 and 11.2 l min−1. The particle size distributions of NaCl challenge aerosol were measured upstream and downstream of the test filters by a scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS). Three different filters of each type with at least three repetitions for each pore size were tested. In general, the collection efficiency varied with airflow, pore size, and sampling duration. In addition, both collection efficiency and pressure drop increased with decreased pore size and increased sampling flow rate, but they differed among filter types and manufacturer. The present study confirmed that the MCE, PTFE, and PVC filters have a relatively high collection efficiency for challenge particles much smaller than their nominal pore size and are considerably more efficient than polycarbonate and silver membrane filters, especially at larger nominal pore sizes. PMID:26834310

  20. Solubility testing of actinides on breathing-zone and area air samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Metzger, Robert Lawrence

    The solubility of inhaled radionuclides in the human lung is an important characteristic of the compounds needed to perform internal dosimetry assessments for exposed workers. A solubility testing method for uranium and several common actinides has been developed with sufficient sensitivity to allow profiles to be determined from routine breathing zone and area air samples in the workplace. Air samples are covered with a clean filter to form a filter-sample-filter sandwich which is immersed in an extracellular lung serum simulant solution. The sample is moved to a fresh beaker of the lung fluid simulant each day for one week, and then weekly until the end of the 28 day test period. The soak solutions are wet ashed with nitric acid and hydrogen peroxide to destroy the organic components of the lung simulant solution prior to extraction of the nuclides of interest directly into an extractive scintillator for subsequent counting on a Photon-Electron Rejecting Alpha Liquid Scintillation (PERALSsp°ler ) spectrometer. Solvent extraction methods utilizing the extractive scintillators have been developed for the isotopes of uranium, plutonium, and curium. The procedures normally produce an isotopic recovery greater than 95% and have been used to develop solubility profiles from air samples with 40 pCi or less of Usb3Osb8. This makes it possible to characterize solubility profiles in every section of operating facilities where airborne nuclides are found using common breathing zone air samples. The new method was evaluated by analyzing uranium compounds from two uranium mills whose product had been previously analyzed by in vitro solubility testing in the laboratory and in vivo solubility testing in rodents. The new technique compared well with the in vivo rodent solubility profiles. The method was then used to evaluate the solubility profiles in all process sections of an operating in situ uranium plant using breathing zone and area air samples collected during routine

  1. Breakthrough of 1,3-dichloropropene and chloropicrin from 600 mg XAD-4 air sampling tubes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Accurately measuring air concentrations of agricultural fumigants is important for the regulation of air quality. Understanding the conditions under which sorbent tubes can effectively retain such fumigants during sampling is critical in mitigating chemical breakthrough from the tubes and facilitati...

  2. Office of radiation and indoor air: Program description

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-06-01

    The goal of the Environmental Protection Agency`s (EPA) Office of Radiation and Indoor Air is to protect the public and the environment from exposures to radiation and indoor air pollutants. The Office develops protection criteria, standards, and policies and works with other programs within EPA and other agencies to control radiation and indoor air pollution exposures; provides technical assistance to states through EPA`s regional offices and other agencies having radiation and indoor air protection programs; directs an environmental radiation monitoring program; responds to radiological emergencies; and evaluates and assesses the overall risk and impact of radiation and indoor air pollution. The Office is EPA`s lead office for intra- and interagency activities coordinated through the Committee for Indoor Air Quality. It coordinates with and assists the Office of Enforcement in enforcement activities where EPA has jurisdiction. The Office disseminates information and works with state and local governments, industry and professional groups, and citizens to promote actions to reduce exposures to harmful levels of radiation and indoor air pollutants.

  3. Sample results from the interim salt disposition program macrobatch 9 tank 21H qualification samples

    SciTech Connect

    Peters, T. B.

    2015-11-01

    Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) analyzed samples from Tank 21H in support of qualification of Macrobatch (Salt Batch) 9 for the Interim Salt Disposition Program (ISDP). This document reports characterization data on the samples of Tank 21H.

  4. Greenhouse gas analysis of air samples collected onboard the CARIBIC passenger aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schuck, T. J.; Brenninkmeijer, C. A. M.; Slemr, F.; Xueref-Remy, I.; Zahn, A.

    2009-03-01

    CARIBIC (Civil Aircraft for the Regular Investigation of the Atmosphere Based on an Instrument Container) is a long-term atmospheric measurement program based on the use of a comprehensive scientific instrument package aboard a passenger aircraft. In addition to real time measurements, whole air sampling is performed regularly at cruising altitude in the upper troposphere and the extra-tropical UT/LS region. Air samples are analysed for greenhouse gases, NMHCs, halocarbons, and isotopic composition. The routinely performed greenhouse gas analysis comprises gas chromatography measurements of CO2, CH4, N2O and SF6. The sampling procedure, the GC system used for greenhouse gas analysis and its performance are described. Comparisons with other laboratories have shown good agreement of results as has a comparison with results from a CO2 in-situ analyser that is also part of the CARIBIC instrumentation. The timeseries of CO2 obtained from the collection of 684 samples at latitudes between 30° N and 56° N on 21 roundtrips out of Germany to different destinations in Asia between November 2005 and October 2008 is shown. A timeshift in the seasonal cyle of about one month was observed between the upper troposphere and the tropopause region. For two sets of return flights from Germany to the Philippines the relations between the four greenhouse gases CO2, CH4, N2O and SF6 are discussed in more detail. Distinct seasonal changes in the correlation between CH4 and CO2 are observed.

  5. Indoor Air Quality Tools for Schools Program: Benefits of Improving Air Quality in the School Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC. Office of Radiation and Indoor Air.

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) developed the Indoor Air Quality Tools for Schools (IAQ TfS) Program to help schools prevent, identify, and resolve their IAQ problems. This publication describes the program and its advantages, explaining that through simple, low-cost measures, schools can: reduce IAQ-related health risks and…

  6. 30 CFR 71.205 - Approved sampling devices; operation; air flowrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Approved sampling devices; operation; air... OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Sampling Procedures § 71.205 Approved sampling devices; operation; air... flowrate as prescribed by the Secretary and the Secretary of Health and Human Services for the...

  7. 30 CFR 90.205 - Approved sampling devices; operation; air flowrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Approved sampling devices; operation; air... DEVELOPMENT OF PNEUMOCONIOSIS Sampling Procedures § 90.205 Approved sampling devices; operation; air flowrate... flowrate as prescribed by the Secretary and the Secretary of Health and Human Services for the...

  8. 30 CFR 90.205 - Approved sampling devices; operation; air flowrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Approved sampling devices; operation; air... DEVELOPMENT OF PNEUMOCONIOSIS Sampling Procedures § 90.205 Approved sampling devices; operation; air flowrate... flowrate as prescribed by the Secretary and the Secretary of Health and Human Services for the...

  9. 30 CFR 70.205 - Approved sampling devices; operation; air flowrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Approved sampling devices; operation; air... § 70.205 Approved sampling devices; operation; air flowrate. (a) Sampling devices approved in... Secretary of Health and Human Services for the particular device. (b) Except as provided in paragraph (d)...

  10. 30 CFR 71.205 - Approved sampling devices; operation; air flowrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Approved sampling devices; operation; air... OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Sampling Procedures § 71.205 Approved sampling devices; operation; air... flowrate as prescribed by the Secretary and the Secretary of Health and Human Services for the...

  11. 30 CFR 70.205 - Approved sampling devices; operation; air flowrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Approved sampling devices; operation; air... § 70.205 Approved sampling devices; operation; air flowrate. (a) Sampling devices approved in... Secretary of Health and Human Services for the particular device. (b) Except as provided in paragraph (d)...

  12. 30 CFR 70.205 - Approved sampling devices; operation; air flowrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Approved sampling devices; operation; air... § 70.205 Approved sampling devices; operation; air flowrate. (a) Sampling devices approved in... Secretary of Health and Human Services for the particular device. (b) Except as provided in paragraph (d)...

  13. 30 CFR 90.205 - Approved sampling devices; operation; air flowrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Approved sampling devices; operation; air... DEVELOPMENT OF PNEUMOCONIOSIS Sampling Procedures § 90.205 Approved sampling devices; operation; air flowrate... flowrate as prescribed by the Secretary and the Secretary of Health and Human Services for the...

  14. 30 CFR 70.205 - Approved sampling devices; operation; air flowrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Approved sampling devices; operation; air... § 70.205 Approved sampling devices; operation; air flowrate. (a) Sampling devices approved in... Secretary of Health and Human Services for the particular device. (b) Except as provided in paragraph (d)...

  15. 30 CFR 71.205 - Approved sampling devices; operation; air flowrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Approved sampling devices; operation; air... OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Sampling Procedures § 71.205 Approved sampling devices; operation; air... flowrate as prescribed by the Secretary and the Secretary of Health and Human Services for the...

  16. 30 CFR 71.205 - Approved sampling devices; operation; air flowrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Approved sampling devices; operation; air... OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Sampling Procedures § 71.205 Approved sampling devices; operation; air... flowrate as prescribed by the Secretary and the Secretary of Health and Human Services for the...

  17. 30 CFR 71.205 - Approved sampling devices; operation; air flowrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Approved sampling devices; operation; air... OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Sampling Procedures § 71.205 Approved sampling devices; operation; air... flowrate as prescribed by the Secretary and the Secretary of Health and Human Services for the...

  18. 30 CFR 90.205 - Approved sampling devices; operation; air flowrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Approved sampling devices; operation; air... DEVELOPMENT OF PNEUMOCONIOSIS Sampling Procedures § 90.205 Approved sampling devices; operation; air flowrate... flowrate as prescribed by the Secretary and the Secretary of Health and Human Services for the...

  19. 30 CFR 70.205 - Approved sampling devices; operation; air flowrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Approved sampling devices; operation; air... § 70.205 Approved sampling devices; operation; air flowrate. (a) Sampling devices approved in... Secretary of Health and Human Services for the particular device. (b) Except as provided in paragraph (d)...

  20. Review of Various Air Sampling Methods for Solvent Vapors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maykoski, R. T.

    Vapors of trichloroethylene, toluene, methyl ethyl ketone, and butyl cellosolve in air were collected using Scotchpac and Tedlar bags, glass prescription bottles, and charcoal adsorption tubes. Efficiencies of collection are reported. (Author/RH)

  1. Environmental sampling program for a solar evaporation pond for liquid radioactive wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Romero, R.; Gunderson, T.C.; Talley, A.D.

    1980-04-01

    Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory (LASL) is evaluating solar evaporation as a method for disposal of liquid radioactive wastes. This report describes a sampling program designed to monitor possible escape of radioactivity to the environment from a solar evaporation pond prototype constructed at LASL. Background radioactivity levels at the pond site were determined from soil and vegetation analyses before construction. When the pond is operative, the sampling program will qualitatively and quantitatively detect the transport of radioactivity to the soil, air, and vegetation in the vicinity. Possible correlation of meteorological data with sampling results is being investigated and measures to control export of radioactivity by biological vectors are being assessed.

  2. Salton Sea sampling program: baseline studies

    SciTech Connect

    Tullis, R.E.; Carter, J.L.; Langlois, G.W.

    1981-04-13

    Baseline data are provided on three species of fish from the Salton Sea, California. The fishes considered were the orange mouth corvina (Cynoscion xanthulus), gulf croaker (Bairdiella icistius) and sargo (Anisotremus davidsonii). Morphometric and meristic data are presented as a baseline to aid in the evaluation of any physiological stress the fish may experience as a result of geothermal development. Analyses were made on muscle, liver, and bone of the fishes sampled to provide baseline data on elemental tissue burdens. The elements measured were: As, Br, Ca, Cu, Fe, Ga, K, Mn, Mi, Pb, Rb, Se, Sr, Zn, and Zr. These data are important if an environmentally sound progression of geothermal power production is to occur at the Salton Sea.

  3. Application of a dry-gas meter for measuring air sample volumes in an ambient air monitoring network

    SciTech Connect

    Fritz, Brad G.

    2009-05-24

    Ambient air monitoring for non-research applications (e.g. compliance) occurs at locations throughout the world. Often, the air sampling systems employed for these purposes employee simple yet robust equipment capable of handling the rigors of demanding sampling schedules. At the Hanford Site (near Richland, Washington) concentrations of radionuclides in ambient air are monitored continuously at 44 locations. In 2004, mechanical dry-gas meters were incorporated into the Hanford Site ambient air sample collection system to allow the direct measurement of sample volumes. These meters replaced a portable airflow measurement system that required two manual flow measurements and a sample duration measurement to determine sample volume. A six-month evaluation of the dry-gas meters compared sample volumes calculated using the original flow rate method to the direct sample volume measurement (new method). The results of the evaluation indicate that use of the dry-gas meters result in accurate sample volume measurements and provide greater confidence in the measured sample volumes. In several years of in-network use, the meters have proven to be reliable and have resulted in an improved sampling system.

  4. Sampling of power plant stacks for air toxic emissions: Final report for Phases 1 and 2

    SciTech Connect

    1995-04-28

    A test program to collect and analyze size-fractionated stack gas particulate samples for selected inorganic hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) was conducted . Specific goals of the program are (1) the collection of one-gram quantities of size-fractionated stack gas particulate matter for bulk (total) and surface chemical characterization, and (2) the determination of the relationship between particle size, bulk and surface (leachable) composition, and unit load. The information obtained from this program identifies the effects of unit load, particle size, and wet FGD system operation on the relative toxicological effects of exposure to particulate emissions. Field testing was conducted in two phases. The Phase I field program was performed over the period of August 24 through September 20, 1992, at the Tennessee Valley Authority Widows Creek Unit 8 Power Station, located near Stevenson (Jackson County), Alabama, on the Tennessee River. Sampling activities for Phase II were conducted from September 11 through October 14, 1993. Widows Creek Unit 8 is a 575-megawatt plant that uses bituminous coal averaging 3.7% sulfur and 13% ash. Downstream of the boiler, a venture wet scrubbing system is used for control of both sulfur dioxide and particulate emissions. There is no electrostatic precipitator (ESP) in this system. This system is atypical and represents only about 5% of the US utility industry. However, this site was chosen for this study because of the lack of information available for this particulate emission control system.

  5. The air quality monitoring program for the 1100-EM-1 remedial investigation

    SciTech Connect

    Glantz, C.S.; Laws, G.L.

    1990-09-01

    Air quality monitoring for the remedial investigation of the Hanford Site's 1100-EM-1 operable unit was conducted in the spring and fall of 1989 and during January 1990. The monitoring program was divided into two phases. The first phase examined the air quality impact of routine atmospheric emissions at three of the operable unit's waste sites before the beginning of intrusive remedial investigation activities. The second phase of monitoring examined the air quality impact of routine atmospheric emissions from two of the operable unit's waste sites during intrusive remedial investigation activities. Each phase of the program consisted of a series of monitoring events that measured pollutant concentrations at key locations upwind and downwind of individual waste sites. During each monitoring event, sampling was conducted to determine the air concentrations of a wide variety of volatile organic compounds and semivolatile organic compounds. Monitoring for heavy metals and asbestos was also conducted during some monitoring events. 8 refs., 15 figs., 9 tabs.

  6. Field evaluation of sampling and analysis for organic pollutants in indoor air. Project summary

    SciTech Connect

    Chuang, J.C.; Mack, G.A.; Stockrahm, J.W.; Hannan, S.W.; Bridges, C.

    1988-09-01

    The objectives of the study were to determine the feasibility of the use of newly developed indoor air samplers in residential indoor air sampling and to evaluate methodology for characterization of the concentrations of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), PAH derivatives, and nicotine in residential air.

  7. Rapid on-site air sampling with a needle extraction device for evaluating the indoor air environment in school facilities.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Mitsuru; Mizuguchi, Ayako; Ueta, Ikuo; Takahashi, Kazuya; Saito, Yoshihiro

    2013-01-01

    A rapid on-site air sampling technique was developed with a miniaturized needle-type sample preparation device for a systematic evaluation of the indoor air environments in school facilities. With the in-needle extraction device packed with a polymer particle of divinylbenzene and activated carbon particles, various types of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were successfully extracted. For evaluating the indoor air qualities in school facilities, air samples in renovated rooms using organic solvent as a thinner of the paint were analyzed along with measurements of several VOCs in indoor air samples taken in newly built primary schools mainly using low-VOCs materials. After periodical renovation/maintenance, the time-variation profile of typical VOCs found in the school facilities has also been monitored. From the results, it could be observed that the VOCs in most of the rooms in these primary schools were at a quite low level; however, a relatively higher concentration of VOCs was found in some specially designed rooms, such as music rooms. In addition, some non-regulated compounds, including benzyl alcohol and branched alkanes, were detected in these primary schools. The results showed a good applicability of the needle device to indoor air analysis in schools, suggesting a wide range of future employment of the needle device, especially for indoor air analysis in other types of facilities and rooms including hospitals and hotels. PMID:23665624

  8. Joint University Program for Air Transportation Research, 1986

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrell, Frederick R. (Compiler)

    1988-01-01

    The research conducted under the NASA/FAA sponsored Joint University Program for Air Transportation Research is summarized. The Joint University Program is a coordinated set of three grants sponsored by NASA and the FAA, one each with the Mass. Inst. of Tech., Ohio Univ., and Princeton Univ. Completed works, status reports, and bibliographies are presented for research topics, which include computer science, guidance and control theory and practice, aircraft performance, flight dynamics, and applied experimental psychology. An overview of activities is presented.

  9. Toxicological Assessment of ISS Air Quality: Contingency Sampling - February 2013

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyers, Valerie

    2013-01-01

    Two grab sample containers (GSCs) were collected by crew members onboard ISS in response to a vinegar-like odor in the US Lab. On February 5, the first sample was collected approximately 1 hour after the odor was noted by the crew in the forward portion of the Lab. The second sample was collected on February 22 when a similar odor was noted and localized to the end ports of the microgravity science glovebox (MSG). The crewmember removed a glove from the MSG and collected the GSC inside the glovebox volume. Both samples were returned on SpaceX-2 for ground analysis.

  10. Low-cost monitoring of Campylobacter in poultry houses by air sampling and quantitative PCR.

    PubMed

    Søndergaard, M S R; Josefsen, M H; Löfström, C; Christensen, L S; Wieczorek, K; Osek, J; Hoorfar, J

    2014-02-01

    The present study describes the evaluation of a method for the quantification of Campylobacter by air sampling in poultry houses. Sampling was carried out in conventional chicken houses in Poland, in addition to a preliminary sampling in Denmark. Each measurement consisted of three air samples, two standard boot swab fecal samples, and one airborne particle count. Sampling was conducted over an 8-week period in three flocks, assessing the presence and levels of Campylobacter in boot swabs and air samples using quantitative real-time PCR. The detection limit for air sampling was approximately 100 Campylobacter cell equivalents (CCE)/m3. Airborne particle counts were used to analyze the size distribution of airborne particles (0.3 to 10 μm) in the chicken houses in relation to the level of airborne Campylobacter. No correlation was found. Using air sampling, Campylobacter was detected in the flocks right away, while boot swab samples were positive after 2 weeks. All samples collected were positive for Campylobacter from week 2 through the rest of the rearing period for both sampling techniques, although levels 1- to 2-log CCE higher were found with air sampling. At week 8, the levels were approximately 10(4) and 10(5) CCE per sample for boot swabs and air, respectively. In conclusion, using air samples combined with quantitative real-time PCR, Campylobacter contamination could be detected earlier than by boot swabs and was found to be a more convenient technique for monitoring and/or to obtain enumeration data useful for quantitative risk assessment of Campylobacter. PMID:24490929

  11. School Indoor Air Quality Assessment and Program Implementation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prill, R.; Blake, D.; Hales, D.

    This paper describes the effectiveness of a three-step indoor air quality (IAQ) program implemented by 156 schools in the states of Washington and Idaho during the 2000-2001 school year. An experienced IAQ/building science specialist conducted walk-through assessments at each school. These assessments documented deficiencies and served as an…

  12. 77 FR 65395 - Air Cargo Advance Screening (ACAS) Pilot Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-26

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY U.S. Customs and Border Protection Air Cargo Advance Screening (ACAS) Pilot Program Correction In notice document 2012-26031 appearing on pages 65006-65009 in the issue of October 24, 2012 make...

  13. Compressed-air energy-storage technology: Program overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kannberg, L. D.

    1981-07-01

    A new technology designed to reduce the consumption of oil in the generation of electric power was developed. The program has two major elements: reservoir stability studies and second generation concepts studies. The reservoir stability studies are aimed at developing stability criteria for long term operation of large underground reservoirs used for compressed air storage. The second generation concepts studies are aimed at developing new concepts that will require little or no petroleum fuels for operation. The program efforts are outlined and major accomplishments towards the objectives of the program are identified.

  14. Comparison of stationary and personal air sampling with an air dispersion model for children's ambient exposure to manganese.

    PubMed

    Fulk, Florence; Haynes, Erin N; Hilbert, Timothy J; Brown, David; Petersen, Dan; Reponen, Tiina

    2016-09-01

    Manganese (Mn) is ubiquitous in the environment and essential for normal growth and development, yet excessive exposure can lead to impairments in neurological function. This study modeled ambient Mn concentrations as an alternative to stationary and personal air sampling to assess exposure for children enrolled in the Communities Actively Researching Exposure Study in Marietta, OH. Ambient air Mn concentration values were modeled using US Environmental Protection Agency's Air Dispersion Model AERMOD based on emissions from the ferromanganese refinery located in Marietta. Modeled Mn concentrations were compared with Mn concentrations from a nearby stationary air monitor. The Index of Agreement for modeled versus monitored data was 0.34 (48 h levels) and 0.79 (monthly levels). Fractional bias was 0.026 for 48 h levels and -0.019 for monthly levels. The ratio of modeled ambient air Mn to measured ambient air Mn at the annual time scale was 0.94. Modeled values were also time matched to personal air samples for 19 children. The modeled values explained a greater degree of variability in personal exposures compared with time-weighted distance from the emission source. Based on these results modeled Mn concentrations provided a suitable approach for assessing airborne Mn exposure in this cohort. PMID:27168393

  15. Detection of the Urban Release of a Bacillus anthracis Simulant by Air Sampling

    PubMed Central

    Garza, Alexander G.; Van Cuyk, Sheila M.; Brown, Michael J.

    2014-01-01

    In 2005 and 2009, the Pentagon Force Protection Agency (PFPA) staged deliberate releases of a commercially available organic pesticide containing Bacillus amyloliquefaciens to evaluate PFPA's biothreat response protocols. In concert with, but independent of, these releases, the Department of Homeland Security sponsored experiments to evaluate the efficacy of commonly employed air and surface sampling techniques for detection of an aerosolized biological agent. High-volume air samplers were placed in the expected downwind plume, and samples were collected before, during, and after the releases. Environmental surface and personal air samples were collected in the vicinity of the high-volume air samplers hours after the plume had dispersed. The results indicate it is feasible to detect the release of a biological agent in an urban area both during and after the release of a biological agent using high-volume air and environmental sampling techniques. PMID:24697146

  16. Detection of the urban release of a bacillus anthracis simulant by air sampling.

    PubMed

    Garza, Alexander G; Van Cuyk, Sheila M; Brown, Michael J; Omberg, Kristin M

    2014-01-01

    In 2005 and 2009, the Pentagon Force Protection Agency (PFPA) staged deliberate releases of a commercially available organic pesticide containing Bacillus amyloliquefaciens to evaluate PFPA's biothreat response protocols. In concert with, but independent of, these releases, the Department of Homeland Security sponsored experiments to evaluate the efficacy of commonly employed air and surface sampling techniques for detection of an aerosolized biological agent. High-volume air samplers were placed in the expected downwind plume, and samples were collected before, during, and after the releases. Environmental surface and personal air samples were collected in the vicinity of the high-volume air samplers hours after the plume had dispersed. The results indicate it is feasible to detect the release of a biological agent in an urban area both during and after the release of a biological agent using high-volume air and environmental sampling techniques. PMID:24697146

  17. Review of the Physical Science Facility Stack Air Sampling Probe Locations

    SciTech Connect

    Glissmeyer, John A.

    2007-09-30

    This letter report reviews compliance of the current design of the Physical Science Facility (PSF) stack air sampling locations with the ANSI/HPS N13.1-1999 standard. The review was based on performance criteria used for locating air sampling probes, the design documents provided and available information on systems previously tested for compliance with the criteria. Recommendations are presented for ways to bring the design into compliance with the requirements for the sampling probe placement.

  18. Latin hypercube sampling (program user's guide). [LHC, in FORTRAN

    SciTech Connect

    Iman, R.L.; Davenport, J.M.; Zeigler, D.K.

    1980-01-01

    This document is designed for users of the program developed at Sandia Laboratories by the authors to generate Latin hypercube samples. Latin hypercube sampling is a recently developed sampling technique for generating input vectors into computer models for purposes of sensitivity analysis studies. In addition to providing a cost-effective and reliable sampling scheme, the Latin hypercube sampling technique also provides the user with the flexibility efficiently to study effects of distributional assumptions on key input variables without rerunning the computer model. 5 figures, 2 tables.

  19. NASA Global Atmospheric Sampling Program (GASP) data report for tape VL0006

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gauntner, D. J.; Holdeman, J. D.; Humenik, F. M.

    1977-01-01

    The NASA Global Atmospheric Sampling Program (GASP) is obtaining measurements of atmospheric trace constituents in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere using fully automated air sampling systems on board several commercial B-747 aircraft in routine airline service. Atmospheric ozone, and related flight and meteorological data were obtained during 245 flights of a Qantas Airways of Australia B-747 and two Pan American World Airways B-747s from July 1976 through September 1976. In addition, whole air samples, obtained during three flights, were analyzed for trichlorofluoromethane, and filter samples, obtained during four flights, were analyzed for sulfates, nitrates, fluorides, and chlorides. Flight routes and dates, instrumentation, data processing procedures, data tape specifications, and selected analyses are discussed.

  20. A computer program for sample size computations for banding studies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilson, K.R.; Nichols, J.D.; Hines, J.E.

    1989-01-01

    Sample sizes necessary for estimating survival rates of banded birds, adults and young, are derived based on specified levels of precision. The banding study can be new or ongoing. The desired coefficient of variation (CV) for annual survival estimates, the CV for mean annual survival estimates, and the length of the study must be specified to compute sample sizes. A computer program is available for computation of the sample sizes, and a description of the input and output is provided.

  1. A method and fortran program for quantitative sampling in paleontology

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tipper, J.C.

    1976-01-01

    The Unit Sampling Method is a binomial sampling method applicable to the study of fauna preserved in rocks too well cemented to be disaggregated. Preliminary estimates of the probability of detecting each group in a single sampling unit can be converted to estimates of the group's volumetric abundance by means of correction curves obtained by a computer simulation technique. This paper describes the technique and gives the FORTRAN program. ?? 1976.

  2. Adaptive sampling program support for expedited site characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, R.

    1993-10-01

    Expedited site characterizations offer substantial savings in time and money when assessing hazardous waste sites. Key to some of these savings is the ability to adapt a sampling program to the ``real-time`` data generated by an expedited site characterization. This paper presents a two-prong approach to supporting adaptive sampling programs: a specialized object-oriented database/geographical information system for data fusion, management and display; and combined Bayesian/geostatistical methods for contamination extent estimation and sample location selection.

  3. Glass sampling program during DWPF Integrated Cold Runs

    SciTech Connect

    Plodinec, M.J.

    1990-03-30

    The described glass sampling program is designed to achieve two objectives: To demonstrate Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) ability to control and verify the radionuclide release properties of the glass product; To confirm DWPF's readiness to obtain glass samples during production, and SRL's readiness to analyze and test those samples remotely. The DWPF strategy for control of the radionuclide release properties of the glass product, and verification of its acceptability are described in this report. The basic approach of the test program is then defined.

  4. Glass sampling program during DWPF Integrated Cold Runs. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Plodinec, M.J.

    1990-03-30

    The described glass sampling program is designed to achieve two objectives: To demonstrate Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) ability to control and verify the radionuclide release properties of the glass product; To confirm DWPF`s readiness to obtain glass samples during production, and SRL`s readiness to analyze and test those samples remotely. The DWPF strategy for control of the radionuclide release properties of the glass product, and verification of its acceptability are described in this report. The basic approach of the test program is then defined.

  5. Identification of ambient air sampling and analysis methods for the 189 Title III air toxics

    SciTech Connect

    Mukund, R.; Kelly, T.J.; Gordon, S.M.; Hays, M.J.

    1994-12-31

    The state of development of ambient air measurement methods for the 189 Hazardous Air Pollution (HAPs) in Title 3 of the Clean Air Act Amendments was surveyed. Measurement methods for the HAPs were identified by reviews of established methods, and by literature searches for pertinent research techniques. Methods were segregated by their degree of development into Applicable, Likely, and Potential methods. This survey identified a total of 183 methods, applicable at varying degrees to ambient air measurements of one or more HAPs. As a basis for classifying the HAPs and evaluating the applicability of measurement methods, a survey of a variety of chemical and physical properties of the HAPs was also conducted. The results of both the methods and properties surveys were tabulated for each of the 189 HAP. The current state of development of ambient measurement methods for the 189 HAPs was then assessed from the results of the survey, and recommendations for method development initiatives were developed.

  6. METHODS TO SAMPLE AIR BORNE PROPAGULES OF ASPERGILLUS FLAVUS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Several techniques (cyclone samplers, filter samplers and rotorods) were evaluated for detection of airborne Aspergillus flavus Link propagules in a cultivated region of southwest Arizona. Cyclone samplers operated continuously for 168 h (7 d) collected a dry sample that was ideal for quantificatio...

  7. Study of PCBs and PBDEs in King George Island, Antarctica, using PUF passive air sampling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yingming; Geng, Dawei; Liu, Fubin; Wang, Thanh; Wang, Pu; Zhang, Qinghua; Jiang, Guibin

    2012-05-01

    Polyurethane foam (PUF)-disk based passive air samplers were deployed in King George Island, Antarctica, during the austral summer of 2009-2010, to investigate levels, distributions and potential sources of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in Antarctic air. The atmospheric levels of ∑ indicator PCBs and ∑14 PBDEs ranged from 1.66 to 6.50 pg m-3 and from 0.67 to 2.98 pg m-3, respectively. PCBs homologue profiles were dominated by di-PCBs, tri-PCBs and tetra-PCBs, whereas BDE-17 and BDE-28 were the predominant congeners of PBDEs, which could be explained by long-range atmospheric transport processes. However, the sampling sites close to the Antarctic research stations showed higher atmospheric concentrations of PCBs and PBDEs than the other sites, reflecting potential local sources from the Antarctic research stations. The non-Aroclor congener PCB-11 was found in all the air samples, with air concentrations of 3.60-31.4 pg m-3 (average 15.2 pg m-3). Comparison between the results derived from PUF-disk passive air sampling and high-volume air sampling validates the feasibility of using the passive air samplers in Antarctic air. To our knowledge, this study is the first employment of PUF-disk based passive air samplers in Antarctic atmosphere.

  8. ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION REPORT - BAGHOUSE FILTRATION PRODUCTS - AIR PURATOR CORPORATION HUYGLAS 1405M FILTER SAMPLE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Baghouse filtration products (BFPs) were evaluated by the Air Pollution Control Technology (APCT) pilot of the Environmental Technology Verification (ETV) Program. The performance factor verified was the mean outlet particle concentration for the filter fabric as a function of th...

  9. Summary of gamma spectrometry on local air samples from 1985--1995

    SciTech Connect

    Winn, W.G.

    1997-04-02

    This report summarizes the 1985--1995 results of low-level HPGe gamma spectrometry analysis of high-volume air samples collected at the Aiken Airport, which is about 25 miles north of SRS. The author began analyzing these samples with new calibrations using the newly developed GRABGAM code in 1985. The air sample collections were terminated in 1995, as the facilities at the Aiken Airport were no longer available. Air sample measurements prior to 1985 were conducted with a different analysis system (and by others prior to 1984), and the data were not readily available. The report serves to closeout this phase of local NTS air sample studies, while documenting the capabilities and accomplishments. Hopefully, the information will guide other applications for this technology, both locally and elsewhere.

  10. Innovations in transportation and air quality: Twelve exemplary projects. Congestion mitigation and Air Quality Improvement Program

    SciTech Connect

    1996-07-01

    Since its creation, the Congestion Mitigation and Air Quality Improvement (CMAQ) Program has spurred innovation in the types of programs and projects supported by Federal transportation dollars. The projects mentioned in this brochure show that the CMAQ program has been in the forefront of ISTEA`s effort to revamp the transportation planning process toward an intermodal focus. The CMAQ program is multimodal by design; it is a virtual requirement that new players beyond the highway and transit communities be a part of its implementation. Its success in meeting the congressional mandates of ISTEA is also documented by its unprecendented flexibility and robust spending rates. CMAQ funding needs now compete on an event footing with more traditional transportation programs for congressionally set spending authority.

  11. A method to optimize sampling locations for measuring indoor air distributions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Yan; Shen, Xiong; Li, Jianmin; Li, Bingye; Duan, Ran; Lin, Chao-Hsin; Liu, Junjie; Chen, Qingyan

    2015-02-01

    Indoor air distributions, such as the distributions of air temperature, air velocity, and contaminant concentrations, are very important to occupants' health and comfort in enclosed spaces. When point data is collected for interpolation to form field distributions, the sampling locations (the locations of the point sensors) have a significant effect on time invested, labor costs and measuring accuracy on field interpolation. This investigation compared two different sampling methods: the grid method and the gradient-based method, for determining sampling locations. The two methods were applied to obtain point air parameter data in an office room and in a section of an economy-class aircraft cabin. The point data obtained was then interpolated to form field distributions by the ordinary Kriging method. Our error analysis shows that the gradient-based sampling method has 32.6% smaller error of interpolation than the grid sampling method. We acquired the function between the interpolation errors and the sampling size (the number of sampling points). According to the function, the sampling size has an optimal value and the maximum sampling size can be determined by the sensor and system errors. This study recommends the gradient-based sampling method for measuring indoor air distributions.

  12. Joint University Program for Air Transportation Research, 1991-1992

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrell, Frederick R. (Compiler)

    1993-01-01

    This report summarizes the research conducted during the academic year 1991-1992 under the FAA/NASA sponsored Joint University Program for Air Transportation Research. The year end review was held at Ohio University, Athens, Ohio, June 18-19, 1992. The Joint University Program is a coordinated set of three grants sponsored by the Federal Aviation Administration and NASA Langley Research Center, one each with the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (NGL-22-009-640), Ohio University (NGR-36-009-017), and Princeton University (NGL-31-001-252). Completed works, status reports, and annotated bibliographies are presented for research topics, which include navigation, guidance and control theory and practice, intelligent flight control, flight dynamics, human factors, and air traffic control processes. An overview of the year's activities for each university is also presented.

  13. Joint University Program for Air Transportation Research, 1989-1990

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrell, Frederick R. (Compiler)

    1990-01-01

    Research conducted during the academic year 1989-90 under the NASA/FAA sponsored Joint University Program for Air Transportation research is discussed. Completed works, status reports and annotated bibliographies are presented for research topics, which include navigation, guidance and control theory and practice, aircraft performance, human factors, and expert systems concepts applied to airport operations. An overview of the year's activities for each university is also presented.

  14. Joint University Program for Air Transportation Research, 1984

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrell, Frederick R. (Compiler)

    1987-01-01

    The research conducted during 1984 under the NASA/FAA sponsored Joint University Program for Air Transportation Research is summarized. The Joint University Program is a coordinated set of three grants sponsored by NASA Langley Research Center and the Federal Aviation Administration, one each with the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Ohio University, and Princeton University. Completed works, status reports, and bibliographies are presented for research topics, which include navigation, guidance, control and display concepts. An overview of the year's activities for each of the schools is also presented.

  15. Joint University Program for Air Transportation Research, 1988-1989

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrell, Frederick R. (Compiler)

    1990-01-01

    The research conducted during 1988 to 1989 under the NASA/FAA-sponsored Joint University Program for Air Transportation Research is summarized. The Joint University Program is a coordinated set of three grants sponsored by NASA Langley Research Center and the Federal Aviation Administration, one each with the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Ohio University, and Princeton University. Completed works, status reports, and annotated bibliographies are presented for research topics, which include computer science, guidance and control theory and practice, aircraft performance, flight dynamics, and applied experimental psychology. An overview of the year's activities for each university is also presented.

  16. Joint University Program for Air Transportation Research, 1983

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrell, Frederick R. (Compiler)

    1987-01-01

    The research conducted during 1983 under the NASA/FAA sponsored Joint University Program for Air Transportation Research is summarized. The material was presented at a conference held at the Federal Aviation Administration Technical Center, Altantic City, New Jersey, December 16, 1983. The Joint University Program is a coordinated set of three grants sponsored by NASA Langley Research Center and the Federal Aviation Administration, one each with the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Ohio University, and Princeton University. Completed works, status reports, and bibliographies are presented for research topics, which include navigation, guidance, control, and display concepts. An overview of the year's activities for each of the universities is also presented.

  17. Joint University Program for Air Transportation Research, 1987

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrell, Frederick R. (Compiler)

    1989-01-01

    The research conducted during 1987 under the NASA/FAA sponsored Joint University Program for Air Transportation Research is summarized. The Joint University Program is a coordinated set of 3 grants sponsored by NASA-Langley and the FAA, one each with the MIT, Ohio Univ., and Princeton Univ. Completed works, status reports, and annotated bibliographies are presented for research topics, which include computer science, guidance and control theory and practice, aircraft performance, flight dynamics, and applied experimental psychology. An overview of the year's activities for each university is also presented.

  18. A STRINGENT COMPARISON OF SAMPLING AND ANALYSIS METHODS FOR VOCS IN AMBIENT AIR

    EPA Science Inventory

    A carefully designed study was conducted during the summer of 1998 to simultaneously collect samples of ambient air by canisters and compare the analysis results to direct sorbent preconcentration results taken at the time of sample collection. A total of 32 1-h sample sets we...

  19. A METHOD FOR THE SAMPLING AND ANALYSIS OF POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS (PCBS) IN AMBIENT AIR

    EPA Science Inventory

    A method was developed for the sampling and analysis of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in air. An easily constructed, high-volume sampling system is employed with porous polyurethane foam as the collection medium. The sample is collected at the rate of 0.6 to 1.0 cu m per minut...

  20. Mixed species radioiodine air sampling readout and dose assessment system

    DOEpatents

    Distenfeld, Carl H.; Klemish, Jr., Joseph R.

    1978-01-01

    This invention provides a simple, reliable, inexpensive and portable means and method for determining the thyroid dose rate of mixed airborne species of solid and gaseous radioiodine without requiring highly skilled personnel, such as health physicists or electronics technicians. To this end, this invention provides a means and method for sampling a gas from a source of a mixed species of solid and gaseous radioiodine for collection of the mixed species and readout and assessment of the emissions therefrom by cylindrically, concentrically and annularly molding the respective species around a cylindrical passage for receiving a conventional probe-type Geiger-Mueller radiation detector.

  1. Dispersion modeling of selected PAHs in urban air: A new approach combining dispersion model with GIS and passive air sampling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sáňka, Ondřej; Melymuk, Lisa; Čupr, Pavel; Dvorská, Alice; Klánová, Jana

    2014-10-01

    This study introduces a new combined air concentration measurement and modeling approach that we propose can be useful in medium and long term air quality assessment. A dispersion study was carried out for four high molecular weight polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in an urban area with industrial, traffic and domestic heating sources. A geographic information system (GIS) was used both for processing of input data as well as visualization of the modeling results. The outcomes of the dispersion model were compared to the results of passive air sampling (PAS). Despite discrepancies between measured and modeled concentrations, an approach combining the two techniques is promising for future air quality assessment. Differences between measured and modeled concentrations, in particular when measured values exceed the modeled concentrations, are indicative of undocumented, sporadic pollutant sources. Thus, these differences can also be useful for assessing and refining emission inventories.

  2. Automated syringe sampler. [remote sampling of air and water

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Purgold, G. C. (Inventor)

    1981-01-01

    A number of sampling services are disposed in a rack which slides into a housing. In response to a signal from an antenna, the circutry elements are activated which provide power individually, collectively, or selectively to a servomechanism thereby moving an actuator arm and the attached jawed bracket supporting an evaculated tube towards a stationary needle. One open end of the needle extends through the side wall of a conduit to the interior and the other open end is maintained within the protective sleeve, supported by a bifurcated bracket. A septum in punctured by the end of the needle within the sleeve and a sample of the fluid medium in the conduit flows through the needle and is transferred to a tube. The signal to the servo is then reversed and the actuator arm moves the tube back to its original position permitting the septum to expand and seal the hole made by the needle. The jawed bracket is attached by pivot to the actuator to facilitate tube replacement.

  3. Salmonella recovery following air chilling for matched neck-skin and whole carcass sampling methodologies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The prevalence and serogroups of Salmonella recovered following air chilling were determined for both enriched neck skin and matching enriched whole carcass samples. Commercially processed and eviscerated carcasses were air chilled to 4C before removing the neck skin (8.3 g) and stomaching in 83 mL...

  4. Trapping Efficiency of 1,3-Dichloropropene Isomers by XAD-4 Sorbent Tubes for Air Sampling

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Emission monitoring is necessary to evaluate the impact of air pollutants such as soil fumigants on the environment. Quantifying fumigant emissions often involves the use of air sampling tubes filled with sorbents to trap fumigants. 1,3-dichloropropene (1,3-D) and chloropicrin (CP) are being increas...

  5. FIELD EVALUATION OF SAMPLING AND ANALYSIS FOR ORGANIC POLLUTANTS IN INDOOR AIR

    EPA Science Inventory

    The objectives of the study were to determine the feasibility of the use of newly developed indoor air samplers in residential indoor air sampling and to evaluate methodology for characterization of the concentrations of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), PAH derivatives, a...

  6. An evaluation of analytical methods, air sampling techniques, and airborne occupational exposure of metalworking fluids.

    PubMed

    Verma, Dave K; Shaw, Don S; Shaw, M Lorraine; Julian, Jim A; McCollin, Shari-Ann; des Tombe, Karen

    2006-02-01

    This article summarizes an assessment of air sampling and analytical methods for both oil and water-based metalworking fluids (MWFs). Three hundred and seventy-four long-term area and personal airborne samples were collected at four plants using total (closed-face) aerosol samplers and thoracic samplers. A direct-reading device (DustTrak) was also used. The processes sampled include steel tube making, automotive component manufacturing, and small part manufacturing in a machine shop. The American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) Method PS42-97 of analysis was evaluated in the laboratory. This evaluation included sample recovery, determination of detection limits, and stability of samples during storage. Results of the laboratory validation showed (a) the sample recovery to be about 87%, (b) the detection limit to be 35 microg, and (c) sample stability during storage at room temperature to decline rapidly within a few days. To minimize sample loss, the samples should be stored in a freezer and analyzed within a week. The ASTM method should be the preferred method for assessing metalworking fluids (MWFs). The ratio of thoracic aerosol to total aerosol ranged from 0.6 to 0.7. A similar relationship was found between the thoracic extractable aerosol and total extractable aerosol. The DustTrak, with 10-microm sampling head, was useful in pinpointing the areas of potential exposure. MWF exposure at the four plants ranged from 0.04 to 3.84 mg/m3 with the geometric mean ranging between 0.22 to 0.59 mg/m3. Based on this data and the assumption of log normality, MWF exposures are expected to exceed the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health recommended exposure limit of 0.5 mg/m3 as total mass and 0.4 mg/m3 as thoracic mass about 38% of the time. In addition to controlling airborne MWF exposure, full protection of workers would require the institution of programs for fluid management and dermal exposure prevention. PMID:16361218

  7. EVALUATION OF SAMPLING AND ANALYTICAL METHODOLOGY FOR POLYNUCLEAR AROMATIC COMPOUNDS IN INDOOR AIR

    EPA Science Inventory

    The objective of this project was to develop a generic sampling and analytical methodology to characterize the polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) concentrations in air within various microenvironments. The following three studies were performed: evaluation of analytical metho...

  8. NEW APPLICATION OF PASSIVE SAMPLING DEVICES FOR ASSESSMENT OF RESPIRATORY EXPOSURE TO PESTICIDES IN INDOOR AIR

    EPA Science Inventory

    The United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has long maintained an interest in potential applications of passive sampling devices (PSDs) for estimating the concentrations of various pollutants in air. Typically PSDs were designed for the workplace monitoring of vola...

  9. Comparison of stationary and personal air sampling with an air dispersion model for children’s ambient exposure to manganese

    EPA Science Inventory

    Manganese (Mn) is ubiquitous in the environment and essential for normal growth and development, yet excessive exposure can lead to impairments in neurological function. This study modeled ambient Mn concentrations as an alternative to stationary and personal air sampling to asse...

  10. WIPP waste characterization program sampling and analysis guidance manual

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Waste Characterization Program Sampling and Analysis Guidance Manual (Guidance Manual) provides a unified source of information on the sampling and analytical techniques that enable Department of Energy (DOE) facilities to comply with the requirements established in the current revision of the Quality Assurance Program Plan (QAPP) for the WIPP Experimental-Waste Characterization Program (the Program). This Guidance Manual includes all of the sampling and testing methodologies accepted by the WIPP Project Office (DOE/WPO) for use in implementing the Program requirements specified in the QAPP. This includes methods for characterizing representative samples of transuranic (TRU) wastes at DOE generator sites with respect to the gas generation controlling variables defined in the WIPP bin-scale and alcove test plans, as well as waste container headspace gas sampling and analytical procedures to support waste characterization requirements under the WIPP test program and the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). The procedures in this Guidance Manual are comprehensive and detailed and are designed to provide the necessary guidance for the preparation of site specific procedures. The use of these procedures is intended to provide the necessary sensitivity, specificity, precision, and comparability of analyses and test results. The solutions to achieving specific program objectives will depend upon facility constraints, compliance with DOE Orders and DOE facilities' operating contractor requirements, and the knowledge and experience of the TRU waste handlers and analysts. With some analytical methods, such as gas chromatography/mass spectrometry, the Guidance Manual procedures may be used directly. With other methods, such as nondestructive/destructive characterization, the Guidance Manual provides guidance rather than a step-by-step procedure.

  11. Computer program to solve two-dimensional shock-wave interference problems with an equilibrium chemically reacting air model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glass, Christopher E.

    1990-01-01

    The computer program EASI, an acronym for Equilibrium Air Shock Interference, was developed to calculate the inviscid flowfield, the maximum surface pressure, and the maximum heat flux produced by six shock wave interference patterns on a 2-D, cylindrical configuration. Thermodynamic properties of the inviscid flowfield are determined using either an 11-specie, 7-reaction equilibrium chemically reacting air model or a calorically perfect air model. The inviscid flowfield is solved using the integral form of the conservation equations. Surface heating calculations at the impingement point for the equilibrium chemically reacting air model use variable transport properties and specific heat. However, for the calorically perfect air model, heating rate calculations use a constant Prandtl number. Sample calculations of the six shock wave interference patterns, a listing of the computer program, and flowcharts of the programming logic are included.

  12. The NYC native air sampling pilot project: using HVAC filter data for urban biological incident characterization.

    PubMed

    Ackelsberg, Joel; Leykam, Frederic M; Hazi, Yair; Madsen, Larry C; West, Todd H; Faltesek, Anthony; Henderson, Gavin D; Henderson, Christopher L; Leighton, Terrance

    2011-09-01

    Native air sampling (NAS) is distinguished from dedicated air sampling (DAS) devices (eg, BioWatch) that are deployed to detect aerosol disseminations of biological threat agents. NAS uses filter samples from heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) systems in commercial properties for environmental sampling after DAS detection of biological threat agent incidents. It represents an untapped, scientifically sound, efficient, widely distributed, and comparably inexpensive resource for postevent environmental sampling. Calculations predict that postevent NAS would be more efficient than environmental surface sampling by orders of magnitude. HVAC filter samples could be collected from pre-identified surrounding NAS facilities to corroborate the DAS alarm and delineate the path taken by the bioaerosol plume. The New York City (NYC) Native Air Sampling Pilot Project explored whether native air sampling would be acceptable to private sector stakeholders and could be implemented successfully in NYC. Building trade associations facilitated outreach to and discussions with property owners and managers, who expedited contact with building managers of candidate NAS properties that they managed or owned. Nominal NAS building requirements were determined; procedures to identify and evaluate candidate NAS facilities were developed; data collection tools and other resources were designed and used to expedite candidate NAS building selection and evaluation in Manhattan; and exemplar environmental sampling playbooks for emergency responders were completed. In this sample, modern buildings with single or few corporate tenants were the best NAS candidate facilities. The Pilot Project successfully demonstrated that in one urban setting a native air sampling strategy could be implemented with effective public-private collaboration. PMID:21793731

  13. 40 CFR 49.10 - EPA review of State Clean Air Act programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false EPA review of State Clean Air Act... FEDERAL ASSISTANCE INDIAN COUNTRY: AIR QUALITY PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT Tribal Authority § 49.10 EPA review of State Clean Air Act programs. A State Clean Air Act program submittal shall not be...

  14. 40 CFR 49.10 - EPA review of State Clean Air Act programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false EPA review of State Clean Air Act... FEDERAL ASSISTANCE INDIAN COUNTRY: AIR QUALITY PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT Tribal Authority § 49.10 EPA review of State Clean Air Act programs. A State Clean Air Act program submittal shall not be...

  15. 40 CFR 49.10 - EPA review of State Clean Air Act programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false EPA review of State Clean Air Act... FEDERAL ASSISTANCE TRIBAL CLEAN AIR ACT AUTHORITY Tribal Authority § 49.10 EPA review of State Clean Air Act programs. A State Clean Air Act program submittal shall not be disapproved because of failure...

  16. 40 CFR 49.10 - EPA review of State Clean Air Act programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false EPA review of State Clean Air Act... FEDERAL ASSISTANCE INDIAN COUNTRY: AIR QUALITY PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT Tribal Authority § 49.10 EPA review of State Clean Air Act programs. A State Clean Air Act program submittal shall not be...

  17. 40 CFR 49.10 - EPA review of State Clean Air Act programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false EPA review of State Clean Air Act... FEDERAL ASSISTANCE INDIAN COUNTRY: AIR QUALITY PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT Tribal Authority § 49.10 EPA review of State Clean Air Act programs. A State Clean Air Act program submittal shall not be...

  18. Air Pollution Training Courses July 1972 through June 1973 and University Training Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC.

    Responding to the demands of the Clean Air Act of 1970, the Manpower Development Staff of the Office of Air Programs has acted to provide more and better-trained practitioners in the field of air pollution control. Numerous courses are conducted through the Institute for Air Pollution Training, while university training programs are administered…

  19. TRU Waste Sampling Program: Volume I. Waste characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Clements, T.L. Jr.; Kudera, D.E.

    1985-09-01

    Volume I of the TRU Waste Sampling Program report presents the waste characterization information obtained from sampling and characterizing various aged transuranic waste retrieved from storage at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory and the Los Alamos National Laboratory. The data contained in this report include the results of gas sampling and gas generation, radiographic examinations, waste visual examination results, and waste compliance with the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant-Waste Acceptance Criteria (WIPP-WAC). A separate report, Volume II, contains data from the gas generation studies.

  20. Characterizing Air Masses in the Lower Troposphere (< 2 km) during the 2011 Student Airborne Program (SARP) Mission in Southern California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, H.; Elder, C.; Kauffman, E. J.; Weathers, E.; Thomas, E.; Johnson, E.; Turrentine, H.; Saad, K.; Nighelli, K.; Burns, M.; Heath, N.; Shetter, R. E.; Schaller, E.; Webster, A.; Buzay, E.; Peterson, J.; Simpson, I. J.; Rowland, F. S.; Blake, D. R.

    2011-12-01

    During the NASA Student Airborne Program (SARP) mission, high frequency whole air sampling during a missed-approach to Los Angeles International airport (LAX) provided air mass signatures collected in close proximity to their urban and oceanic sources. Each whole air sample was analyzed for 80 halocarbons, hydrocarbons and organic nitrates. Unlike other airborne missions, high frequency whole air sampling of about 70 samples collected over a 20 minute period (15 second fill per sample) during a 150 km flight path at low altitude (< 2 km) provided a more detailed profile of the Los Angeles air shed than has been previously accomplished. Correlations between CH3I, CHBr3, and MeONO2 (marine tracers) versus C2Cl4 and HCFC-22 (anthropogenic tracers) were used to distinguish between purely marine air and air influenced by emissions from Los Angeles (Figure 1). Of the 80 C1-C10 volatile organic compounds that were measured, 60 were elevated in air from the Los Angeles air shed. These included C1-C10 alkanes, C6-C8 aromatics, C2-C3 alkenes, halons, HCFCs, HFCs, CH3CCl3, chlorinated solvents (e.g., C2Cl4, CHCl3, CH2Cl2), and organic nitrates. Marine species emitted in this region of the Pacific were found to include MeONO2, EtONO2, CH2Br2, CHBr3, CH3I and DMS. Note that the C3 organic nitrates were not enhanced in the marine influenced air, and instead they are attributed to urban photochemistry. Overall, high-frequency and low-altitude whole air sampling during the LAX missed-approach clearly distinguished urban and oceanic sources and allowed a detailed chemical signature for Los Angeles air to be determined.

  1. 50 CFR 222.404 - Observer program sampling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Observer program sampling. 222.404 Section 222.404 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS GENERAL ENDANGERED AND THREATENED MARINE SPECIES...

  2. 50 CFR 222.404 - Observer program sampling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Observer program sampling. 222.404 Section 222.404 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS GENERAL ENDANGERED AND THREATENED MARINE SPECIES...

  3. 50 CFR 222.404 - Observer program sampling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Observer program sampling. 222.404 Section 222.404 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS GENERAL ENDANGERED AND THREATENED MARINE SPECIES...

  4. 50 CFR 222.404 - Observer program sampling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Observer program sampling. 222.404 Section 222.404 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS GENERAL ENDANGERED AND THREATENED MARINE SPECIES...

  5. 50 CFR 222.404 - Observer program sampling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Observer program sampling. 222.404 Section 222.404 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS GENERAL ENDANGERED AND THREATENED MARINE SPECIES...

  6. Extending cluster lot quality assurance sampling designs for surveillance programs.

    PubMed

    Hund, Lauren; Pagano, Marcello

    2014-07-20

    Lot quality assurance sampling (LQAS) has a long history of applications in industrial quality control. LQAS is frequently used for rapid surveillance in global health settings, with areas classified as poor or acceptable performance on the basis of the binary classification of an indicator. Historically, LQAS surveys have relied on simple random samples from the population; however, implementing two-stage cluster designs for surveillance sampling is often more cost-effective than simple random sampling. By applying survey sampling results to the binary classification procedure, we develop a simple and flexible nonparametric procedure to incorporate clustering effects into the LQAS sample design to appropriately inflate the sample size, accommodating finite numbers of clusters in the population when relevant. We use this framework to then discuss principled selection of survey design parameters in longitudinal surveillance programs. We apply this framework to design surveys to detect rises in malnutrition prevalence in nutrition surveillance programs in Kenya and South Sudan, accounting for clustering within villages. By combining historical information with data from previous surveys, we design surveys to detect spikes in the childhood malnutrition rate. PMID:24633656

  7. Experience with a routine fecal sampling program for plutonium workers

    SciTech Connect

    Bihl, D.E.; Buschbom, R.L.; Sula, M.J. )

    1993-11-01

    A quarterly fecal sampling program was conducted at the U. S. Department of Energy's Hanford site for congruent to 100 workers at risk for an intake of plutonium oxide and other forms of plutonium. To our surprise, we discovered that essentially all of the workers were excreting detectable activities of plutonium. Further investigation showed that the source was frequent, intermittent intakes at levels below detectability by normal workplace monitoring, indicating the extraordinary sensitivity of fecal sampling. However, the experience of this study also indicated that the increased sensitivity of routine fecal sampling relative to more common bioassay methods is offset by many problems. These include poor worker cooperation; difficulty in distinguishing low-level chronic intakes from a more significant, acute intake; difficulty in eliminating interference from ingested plutonium; and difficulty in interpreting what a single void means in terms of 24-h excretion. Recommendations for a routine fecal program include providing good communication to workers and management about reasons and logistics of fecal sampling prior to starting, using annual (instead of quarterly) fecal sampling for class Y plutonium, collecting samples after workers have been away from plutonium exposure for a least 3 d, and giving serious consideration to improving urinalysis sensitivity rather than going to routine fecal sampling.

  8. Extending cluster Lot Quality Assurance Sampling designs for surveillance programs

    PubMed Central

    Hund, Lauren; Pagano, Marcello

    2014-01-01

    Lot quality assurance sampling (LQAS) has a long history of applications in industrial quality control. LQAS is frequently used for rapid surveillance in global health settings, with areas classified as poor or acceptable performance based on the binary classification of an indicator. Historically, LQAS surveys have relied on simple random samples from the population; however, implementing two-stage cluster designs for surveillance sampling is often more cost-effective than simple random sampling. By applying survey sampling results to the binary classification procedure, we develop a simple and flexible non-parametric procedure to incorporate clustering effects into the LQAS sample design to appropriately inflate the sample size, accommodating finite numbers of clusters in the population when relevant. We use this framework to then discuss principled selection of survey design parameters in longitudinal surveillance programs. We apply this framework to design surveys to detect rises in malnutrition prevalence in nutrition surveillance programs in Kenya and South Sudan, accounting for clustering within villages. By combining historical information with data from previous surveys, we design surveys to detect spikes in the childhood malnutrition rate. PMID:24633656

  9. Ground-based air-sampling measurements near the Nevada Test Site after atmospheric nuclear tests.

    PubMed

    Cederwall, R T; Ricker, Y E; Cederwall, P L; Homan, D N; Anspaugh, L R

    1990-11-01

    Historical air-sampling data measured within 320 km (200 mi) of the Nevada Test Site (NTS) have been reviewed for periods following atmospheric nuclear tests, primarily in the 1950s. These data come mostly from high-volume air samplers, with some from cascade-impactor samplers. Measurements considered here are for beta radiation from gross fission products. The resulting air-quality data base is comprised of almost 13,000 samples from 42 sampling locations downwind of the NTS. In order to compile an accurate air-quality data base for use in estimating exposure via inhalation, raw data values were sought where possible, and the required calculations were performed on a computer with state-of-the-art algorithms. The data-processing procedures consisted of (1) entry and error checking of historical data; (2) determination of appropriate background values, air-sampling volumes, and net air concentrations; and (3) calculation of integrated air concentration (C) for each sample (considering fallout arrival times). Comparing C values for collocated high-volume and cascade-impactor samplers during the Upshot-Knothole series showed similar lognormal distributions, but with a geometric mean C for cascade impactors about half that for the high-volume air samplers. Overall, the uncertainty in C values is about a factor of three. In the past, it has been assumed that C could be related to ground deposition by a constant having units of velocity. In our data bases, simultaneous measurements of air concentration and ground deposition at the same locations were not related by a constant; indeed, there was a great amount of scatter. This suggests that the relationship between C and ground deposition in this situation is too complex to be treated adequately by simple approaches. PMID:2211113

  10. Ground-based air-sampling measurements near the Nevada Test Site after atmospheric nuclear tests

    SciTech Connect

    Cederwall, R.T.; Ricker, Y.E.; Cederwall, P.L.; Homan, D.N.; Anspaugh, L.R. )

    1990-11-01

    Historical air-sampling data measured within 320 km (200 mi) of the Nevada Test Site (NTS) have been reviewed for periods following atmospheric nuclear tests, primarily in the 1950s. These data come mostly from high-volume air samplers, with some from cascade-impactor samplers. Measurements considered here are for beta radiation from gross fission products. The resulting air-quality data base is comprised of almost 13,000 samples from 42 sampling locations downwind of the NTS. In order to compile an accurate air-quality data base for use in estimating exposure via inhalation, raw data values were sought where possible, and the required calculations were performed on a computer with state-of-the-art algorithms. The data-processing procedures consisted of (1) entry and error checking of historical data; (2) determination of appropriate background values, air-sampling volumes, and net air concentrations; and (3) calculation of integrated air concentration (C) for each sample (considering fallout arrival times). Comparing C values for collocated high-volume and cascade-impactor samplers during the Upshot-Knothole series showed similar lognormal distributions, but with a geometric mean C for cascade impactors about half that for the high-volume air samplers. Overall, the uncertainty in C values is about a factor of three. In the past, it has been assumed that C could be related to ground deposition by a constant having units of velocity. In our data bases, simultaneous measurements of air concentration and ground deposition at the same locations were not related by a constant; indeed, there was a great amount of scatter. This suggests that the relationship between C and ground deposition in this situation is too complex to be treated adequately by simple approaches.

  11. Spacecraft contamination programs within the Air Force Systems Command Laboratories

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murad, Edmond

    1990-01-01

    Spacecraft contamination programs exist in five independent AFSC organizations: Geophysics Laboratory (GL), Arnold Engineering and Development Center (AEDC), Rome Air Development Center (RADC/OSCE), Wright Research and Development Center (MLBT), Armament Laboratory (ATL/SAI), and Space Systems Division (SSD/OL-AW). In addition, a sizable program exists at Aerospace Corp. These programs are complementary, each effort addressing a specific area of expertise: GL's effort is aimed at addressing the effects of on-orbit contamination; AEDC's effort is aimed at ground simulation and measurement of optical contamination; RADC's effort addresses the accumulation, measurement, and removal of contamination on large optics; MLBT's effort is aimed at understanding the effect of contamination on materials; ATL's effort is aimed at understanding the effect of plume contamination on systems; SSD's effort is confined to the integration of some contamination experiments sponsored by SSD/CLT; and Aerospace Corp.'s effort is aimed at supporting the needs of the using System Program Offices (SPO) in specific areas, such as contamination during ground handling, ascent phase, laboratory measurements aimed at understanding on-orbit contamination, and mass loss and mass gain in on-orbit operations. These programs are described in some detail, with emphasis on GL's program.

  12. Compressed air energy storage technology program. Annual report for 1979

    SciTech Connect

    Loscutoff, W.V.

    1980-06-01

    The objectives of the Compressed Air Energy Storage (CAES) program are to establish stability criteria for large underground reservoirs in salt domes, hard rock, and porous rock used for air storage in utility applications, and to develop second-generation CAES technologies that have minimal or no dependence on petroleum fuels. During the year reported reports have been issued on field studies on CAES on aquifers and in salt, stability, and design criteria for CAES and for pumped hydro-storage caverns, laboratory studies of CAES in porous rock reservoris have continued. Research has continued on combined CAES/Thermal Energy Storage, CAES/Solar systems, coal-fired fluidized bed combustors for CAES, and two-reservoir advanced CAES concepts. (LCL)

  13. Bioanalysis of uranium, plutonium, and curium on breathing zone air samples by solvent extraction and PERALS spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Metzger, R.L.; Jessop, B.H.; McDowell, B.L.

    1995-12-31

    Breathing zone air samples are commonly used to monitor airborne concentrate of radionuclides in ions the workplace and to assess the efficacy of respiratory protection programs. Radioactive isotopes of actinides have very low allowable airborne concentrations, so knowledge of the airborne activities of these nuclides is crucial. The air samples are typically analyzed for alpha-particle-emitting radionuclides by direct counting of the filters or by conventional separation chemistry and alpha-particle spectrometry. These techniques do not normally provide a sample turnaround that is sufficiently rapid to allow a change in the respiratory protection program, if necessary. In this work we have developed straightforward solvent extraction separation procedures that can rapidly phase transfer isotopes of uranium, plutonium, and americium or curium from a dissolved filter medium to an extractive scintillator for counting on a Photon/Electron-Rejecting Alpha Liquid Scintillation (PERALS{sup {reg_sign}}) Spectrometer. Results can normally be obtained within eight hours from the receipt of the air filter.

  14. Microbial counts and particulate matter levels in roadside air samples under skytrain stations, Bangkok, Thailand.

    PubMed

    Luksamijarulkul, Pipat; Kongtip, Pornpimol

    2010-05-01

    In conditions with heavy traffic and crowds of people on roadside areas under skytrain stations in Bangkok, the natural air ventilation may be insufficient and air quality may be poor. A study of 350 air samples collected from the roadside, under skytrain stations in Bangkok, was carried out to assess microbial counts (210 air samples) and particulate matter (PM10) levels (140 samples). The results reveal the mean +/- standard deviation bacterial counts and fungal counts were 406.8 +/- 302.7 cfu/m3 and 128.9 +/- 89.7 cfu/m3, respectively. The PM10 level was 186.1 +/- 188.1 microg/m3. When compared to recommended levels, 4.8% of air samples (10/210 samples) had bacterial counts more than recommended levels (> 1,000 cfu/ m3) and 27.1% (38/140 samples) had PM10 levels more than recommended levels (> 120 microg/m3). These may affect human health, especially of street venders who spend most of their working time in these areas. PMID:20578558

  15. Development of a multicopter-carried whole air sampling apparatus and its applications in environmental studies.

    PubMed

    Chang, Chih-Chung; Wang, Jia-Lin; Chang, Chih-Yuan; Liang, Mao-Chang; Lin, Ming-Ren

    2016-02-01

    To advance the capabilities of probing chemical composition aloft, we designed a lightweight remote-controlled whole air sampling component (WASC) and integrated it into a multicopter drone with agile maneuverability to perform aerial whole air sampling. A field mission hovering over an exhaust shaft of a roadway tunnel to collect air samples was performed to demonstrate the applicability of the multicopter-carried WASC apparatus. Ten aerial air samples surrounding the shaft vent were collected by the multicopter-carried WASC. Additional five samples were collected manually inside the shaft for comparison. These samples were then analyzed in the laboratory for the chemical composition of 109 volatile organic compounds (VOCs), CH4, CO, CO2, or CO2 isotopologues. Most of the VOCs in the upwind samples (the least affected by shaft exhaust) were low in concentrations (5.9 ppbv for total 109 VOCs), posting a strong contrast to those in the shaft exhaust (235.8 ppbv for total 109 VOCs). By comparing the aerial samples with the in-shaft samples for chemical compositions, the influence of the shaft exhaust on the surrounding natural air was estimated. Through the aerial measurements, three major advantages of the multicopter-carried WASC were demonstrated: 1. The highly maneuverable multicopter-carried WASC can be readily deployed for three-dimensional environmental studies at a local scale (0-1.5 km); 2. Aerial sampling with superior sample integrity and preservation conditions can now be performed with ease; and 3. Data with spatial resolution for a large array of gaseous species with high precision can be easily obtained. PMID:26386435

  16. Marine Technician's Handbook, Instructions for Taking Air Samples on Board Ship: Carbon Dioxide Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keeling, Charles D.

    This booklet is one of a series intended to provide explicit instructions for the collection of oceanographic data and samples at sea. The methods and procedures described have been used by the Scripps Institution of Oceanography and found reliable and up-to-date. Instructions are given for taking air samples on board ship to determine the…

  17. 30 CFR 90.205 - Approved sampling devices; operation; air flowrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Approved sampling devices; operation; air flowrate. 90.205 Section 90.205 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY HEALTH STANDARDS-COAL MINERS WHO HAVE EVIDENCE OF THE DEVELOPMENT OF PNEUMOCONIOSIS Sampling Procedures §...

  18. DEVELOPMENT OF A SUB-SLAB AIR SAMPLING PROTOCOL TO SUPPORT ASSESSMENT OF VAPOR INTRUSION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The primary purpose of this research effort is to develop a methodology for sub-slab sampling to support the EPA guidance and vapor intrusion investigations after vapor intrusion has been established at a site. Methodologies for sub-slab air sampling are currently lacking in ref...

  19. Report on sampling and analysis of ambient air at the central waste complex

    SciTech Connect

    Stauffer, M., Fluor Daniel Hanford

    1997-02-13

    Over 160 ambient indoor air samples were collected from warehouses at the Central Waste Complex used for the storage of low- level radioactive and mixed wastes. These grab (SUMMA) samples were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry using a modified EPA TO-14 procedure. The data from this survey suggest that several buildings had elevated concentrations of volatile organic compounds.

  20. EVALUATION OF THE FILTER PACK FOR LONG-DURATION SAMPLING OF AMBIENT AIR

    EPA Science Inventory

    A 14-week filter pack (FP) sampler evaluation field study was conducted at a site near Bondville, IL to investigate the impact of weekly sampling duration. Simultaneous samples were collected using collocated filter packs (FP) from two independent air quality monitoring networks...

  1. Comparison of Computer Programs Which Compute Sampling Errors for Complex Samples. Technical Report 26.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brandt, David A.

    This report describes and evaluates the major computer software packages capable of computing standard errors for statistics estimated from complex samples. It first describes the problem and the proposed solutions. The two major programs presently available, SUPER CARP and OSIRIS, are described in general terms. The kinds of statistics available…

  2. Compressed air energy storage technology program. Annual report for 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Kannberg, L.D.

    1981-06-01

    All of the major research funded under the Compressed Air Energy Storage Technology Program during the period March 1980 to March 1981 is described. This annual report is divided into two segments: Reservoir Stability Studies and Second-Generation Concepts Studies. The first represents research performed to establish stability criteria for CAES reservoirs while the second reports progress on research performed on second-generation CAES concepts. The report consists of project reports authored by research engineers and scientists from PNL and numerous subcontractors including universities, architect-engineering, and other private firms.

  3. Survey of volatile organic compounds found in indoor and outdoor air samples from Japan.

    PubMed

    Tanaka-Kagawa, Toshiko; Uchiyama, Shigehisa; Matsushima, Erika; Sasaki, Akira; Kobayashi, Hiroshi; Kobayashi, Hiromi; Yagi, Masahiro; Tsuno, Masahiko; Arao, Masa; Ikemoto, Kazumi; Yamasaki, Makoto; Nakashima, Ayako; Shimizu, Yuri; Otsubo, Yasufumi; Ando, Masanori; Jinno, Hideto; Tokunaga, Hiroshi

    2005-01-01

    Indoor air quality is currently a growing concern, mainly due to the incidence of sick building syndrome and building related illness. To better understand indoor air quality in Japan, both indoor and outdoor air samples were collected from 50 residences in Iwate, Yamanashi, Shiga, Hyogo, Kochi and Fukuoka Prefectures. More than 100 volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were analyzed by thermal desorption-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry method. The most abundant class of compounds present in the indoor air samples were identified (i.e. alkanes, alkylbenzenes and terpenes). For 30% of the indoor air samples, the sum of each VOC exceeded the current provisional guideline value for total VOC (TVOC, 400 microg/m3). The major component of these samples included linear and branched-chain alkanes (possibly derived from fossil fuels), 1,4-dichlorobenzene (a moth repellent), alpha-pinene (emission from woody building materials) and limonene (probably derived from aroma products). As an unexpected result, one residence was polluted with an extremely high concentration of 1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane (720 microg/m3), suggesting accidental leakage from a household appliance such as a refrigerator. The results presented in this paper are important in establishing the Japanese target compound list for TVOC analysis, as well as defining the current status of indoor air quality in Japan. PMID:16541748

  4. Laboratory validation and field verification of a new passive colorimetric air monitoring badge for sampling hydrogen sulfide in air.

    PubMed

    Kring, E V; Damrell, D J; Henry, T J; DeMoor, H M; Basilio, A N; Simon, C E

    1984-01-01

    The Pro-Tek passive colorimetric air monitoring badge for personal or area sampling of hydrogen sulfide is described. The badge has been validated over the range of 1.8 to 164 ppm-hours (0.23-21 ppm on an 8-hour TWA basis). It has an overall accuracy throughout this range of +/- 15.9% and meets the NIOSH accuracy criteria for an analytical and sampling method. The colorimetric analytical method used is based on the Texas Air Control Board's Molybdenum Blue method. Color-activated exposed badge solutions are read out on a standard laboratory spectrophotometer using 1 centimeter (10 mm) cells. Variations in exposure temperature (between 10 degrees and 40 degrees C), relative humidity, and face velocity (between 2 and 250 ft/min) do not affect badge performance. Unexposed badges are stable for more than 12 months refrigerated and for two months at room temperature. PMID:6702591

  5. SAMPLING AND ANALYSIS OF PCDDS AND PCDFS IN STATIONARY SOURCE EMISSION AIR SAMPLES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzo-furans (PCDFs) are two classes of extremely toxic compounds produced and emitted into the environment as a result of combustion processes. lthough no standard method for sampling or analysis of PCDDs and PCDFs ...

  6. Determination of radiocarbon in stratospheric CO2, obtained through AirCore sampling.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paul, Dipayan; Chen, Huilin; Been, Henk A.; Kivi, Rigel; Meijer, Harro A. J.

    2016-04-01

    The concentration of Greenhouse Gases (GHG), with carbon dioxide as the most prominent example, has been and still is increasing, predominantly due to emissions from fossil fuel combustion. CO2 is also the most important component of the global carbon cycle. Among other tracers, radiocarbon (Carbon-14) is a unique and an important atmospheric tracer used in the understanding of the global carbon cycle. Radiocarbon is a naturally occurring isotope (radioactive, t 1/2 = 5730 ± 40 years) of carbon produced through the interaction of thermalized neutrons and nitrogen in the upper atmosphere. Generally, for performing atmospheric radiocarbon measurements in the higher atmosphere, large samples (few liters of air) were collected using aircrafts and balloons. However, collecting stratospheric samples on a regular basis for radiocarbon analysis is extremely expensive. Here we describe the determination of radiocarbon concentrations in stratospheric CO2, collected using AirCore sampling. AirCore is an innovative sampling technique for obtaining vertical atmospheric profiles and, in Europe, is done on a regular basis at Sodankylä, Finland for CO2, CH4 and CO. The stratospheric parts of two such AirCore profiles were used in this study as a proof-of-principle. CO2 from the stratospheric air samples were extracted and converted to elemental carbon, which were then measured at the Accelerator Mass Spectrometric (AMS) facility of the Centre for Isotope Research (CIO) at the University of Groningen. The stratospheric part of the AirCore profile was divided into six sections, each contained approximately 10 μg C. A detailed description of the extraction, graphitization, AMS analysis and the derivation of the stratospheric radiocarbon profile will be the main focus. Through our results, we will show that AirCore is a viable sampling method for performing high-precision radiocarbon measurements of stratospheric CO2 with reasonably good spatial resolution on a regular basis

  7. Extensive air shower simulations with the CORSIKA program

    SciTech Connect

    Capdevielee, J.N.; Gabriel, P.; Gils, H.J.; Grieder, P.; Heck, D.; Knapp, J.; Mayer, H.J.; Oehlschlaeger, J.; Rebel, H.; Schatz, G.; Thouw, T. )

    1993-06-15

    CORSIKA is a detailed Monte Carlo program to study the development of extensive air showers in the atmosphere initiated by photons, protons, or nuclei of energies up to 10[sup 17] eV. Wherever possible experimentally accessible data have been used to model the high energy interactions of primary and secondary particles with the nuclei of the atmosphere. The CORSIKA code is based essentially on the Dual Parton Model to describe the hadronic interactions at high energies, the isobar model for hadronic reactions at low energies, and EGS4 for a detailed simulation of the electromagnetic part. The nucleus-nucleus interaction model follows the considerations of Klar and Huefner. Heuristic nucleus fragment models are implemented. Diffractive and charge exchange reactions are possible. Photoproduction of muon pairs and hadrons has been introduced into the electromagnetic part. The gross features of the program are presented and some results are given.

  8. Comparison of mold concentrations quantified by MSQPCR in indoor and outdoor air sampled simultaneously

    SciTech Connect

    Meklin, Teija; Reponen, Tina; McKinstry, Craig A.; Cho, Seung H.; Grinshpun, Sergey A.; Nevalainen, Aino; Vepsalainen, Asko; Haugland, Richard A.; Lemasters, Grace; Vesper, Sephen J.

    2007-08-15

    Mold specific quantitative PCR (MSQPCR) was used to measure the concentrations of 36 mold species in dust and in indoor and in outdoor air samples that were taken simultaneously in 17 homes in Cincinnati with no-known water damage. The total spore concentrations in the indoor (I) and outdoor (O) air samples were statistically significantly different and the concentrations in the three sample types of many of the individual species were significantly different (p < 0.05 based on the Wilcoxon Signed Rank Test). The I/O ratios of the averages or geometric means of the individual species were generally less than 1; but these I/O ratios were quite variable ranging from 0.03 for A. sydowii to 1.2 for Acremonium strictum. There were no significant correlations for the 36 specific mold concentrations between the dust samples and the indoor or outdoor air samples (based on the Spearman’s Rho test). The indoor and outdoor air concentrations of 32 of the species were not correlated. Only Aspergillus penicillioides, C. cladosporioides types 1 and 2 and C. herbarum had sufficient data to estimate a correlation at rho > 0.5 with signicance (p < 0.05) In six of these homes, a previous dust sample had been collected and analyzed 2 years earlier. The ERMI© values for the dust samples taken in the same home two years apart were not significantly different (p=0.22) based on Wilcoxon Signed Rank Test.

  9. Pesticide detection in air samples from contrasted houses and in their inhabitants' hair.

    PubMed

    Raeppel, Caroline; Salquèbre, Guillaume; Millet, Maurice; Appenzeller, Brice M R

    2016-02-15

    In order to identify associations between indoor air contamination and human exposure to pesticides, hair samples from 14 persons (9 adults and 5 children below 12 years) were collected simultaneously with the air of their 5 contrasted houses. Three houses were situated in Alsace (France), one in Lorraine (France) and one in Luxembourg (Luxembourg). Houses were located in urban (n=3), semi-urban (n=1) and rural areas (n=1). Twenty five (25) pesticides were detected at least once in indoor air samples and 20 pesticides were detected at least once in hair samples. The comparison between hair and air samples for the same sampling periods shows that pesticides detected in the two matrices were not necessarily associated. Exposure profiles varied from one home to another but also between inhabitants of the same home, suggesting that exposure can be different between inhabitants of the same home. This study demonstrated the usefulness and the complementarity of hair analysis, for the personalized biomonitoring of people exposure to pesticides, and air analysis, for the identification of airborne exposure and house contamination. PMID:26706757

  10. U.S.-MEXICO BORDER PROGRAM ARIZONA BORDER STUDY--STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE FOR EXTRACTION OF METALS FROM SOIL, DUST, AIR FILTER, AND SURFACE AND DERMAL WIPE SAMPLES FOR AA (GRAPHITE FURNACE OR FLAME) OR ICP-AES ANALYSIS (BCO-L-3.1)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of this SOP is to describe the acid digestion of soil, house dust, air filter, and surface or dermal wipe samples for analysis using inductively coupled plasma atomic emissions spectrometry (ICP-AES) and/or graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS) or fl...

  11. U.S.-MEXICO BORDER PROGRAM ARIZONA BORDER STUDY--METALS IN AIR ANALYTICAL RESULTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Metals in Air data set contains analytical results for measurements of up to 11 metals in 344 air samples over 86 households. Samples were taken by pumping standardized air volumes through filters at indoor and outdoor sites around each household being sampled. The primary ...

  12. U.S.-MEXICO BORDER PROGRAM ARIZONA BORDER STUDY--PAHS IN AIR ANALYTICAL RESULTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The PAHs in Air data set contains the analytical results for measurements of up to 22 polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in air samples taken indoors and outdoors. The information is for 172 samples for 86 households. Active samples were taken by pumping standardized air ...

  13. Air Sample Conditioner Helps the Waste Treatment Plant Meet Emissions Standards

    SciTech Connect

    Glissmeyer, John A.; Flaherty, Julia E.; Pekour, Mikhail S.

    2014-12-02

    The air in three of the Hanford Site Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) melter off-gas discharge stacks will be hot and humid after passing through the train of emission abatement equipment. The off-gas temperature and humidity levels will be incompatible with the airborne emissions monitoring equipment required for this type of stack. To facilitate sampling from these facilities, an air sample conditioner system will be installed to introduce cool, dry air into the sample stream to reduce the temperature and dew point. This will avoid thermal damage to the instrumentation and problematic condensation. The complete sample transport system must also deliver at least 50% of the particles in the sample airstream to the sample collection and on-line analysis equipment. The primary components of the sample conditioning system were tested in a laboratory setting. The sample conditioner itself is based on a commercially-available porous tube filter design. It consists of a porous sintered metal tube inside a coaxial metal jacket. The hot gas sample stream passes axially through the porous tube, and the dry, cool air is injected into the jacket and through the porous wall of the inner tube, creating an effective sample diluter. The dilution and sample air mix along the entire length of the porous tube, thereby simultaneously reducing the dew point and temperature of the mixed sample stream. Furthermore, because the dilution air enters through the porous tube wall, the sample stream does not come in contact with the porous wall and particle deposition is reduced in this part of the sampling system. Tests were performed with an environmental chamber to supply air with the temperature and humidity needed to simulate the off-gas conditions. Air from the chamber was passed through the conditioning system to test its ability to reduce the temperature and dew point of the sample stream. To measure particle deposition, oil droplets in the range of 9 to 11 micrometer

  14. Field evaluation of sampling and analysis for organic pollutants in indoor air

    SciTech Connect

    Chuang, J.C.; Mack, G.A.; Stockrahm, J.W.; Hannan, S.W.; Bridges, C.

    1988-08-01

    The objectives of the study were to determine the feasibility of the use of newly developed indoor air samplers in residential indoor air sampling and to evaluate methodology for characterization of the concentrations of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), PAH derivatives, and nicotine in residential air. Residential air sampling was conducted in Columbus, Ohio during the winter of 1986/87. The PAH derivatives were found at much lower levels than their parent PAH. Higher average indoor levels of all but three target compounds were found compared to outdoor levels. The higher outdoor levels of these three compounds (naphthalene dicarboxylic acid anhydride, pyrene dicarboxylic acid anhydride, and 2-nitrofluoranthene) are probably due to atmospheric transformation. Cigarette smoking was identified as the most-significant contributor to indoor levels of PAH and PAH derivatives. Homes with gas-heating systems appeared to have higher pollutant levels compared to homes with electric-heating systems.

  15. Comparison of sampling methods for radiocarbon dating of carbonyls in air samples via accelerator mass spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schindler, Matthias; Kretschmer, Wolfgang; Scharf, Andreas; Tschekalinskij, Alexander

    2016-05-01

    Three new methods to sample and prepare various carbonyl compounds for radiocarbon measurements were developed and tested. Two of these procedures utilized the Strecker synthetic method to form amino acids from carbonyl compounds with either sodium cyanide or trimethylsilyl cyanide. The third procedure used semicarbazide to form crystalline carbazones with the carbonyl compounds. The resulting amino acids and semicarbazones were then separated and purified using thin layer chromatography. The separated compounds were then combusted to CO2 and reduced to graphite to determine 14C content by accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS). All of these methods were also compared with the standard carbonyl compound sampling method wherein a compound is derivatized with 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine and then separated by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC).

  16. Accelerator Mass Spectrometric determination of radiocarbon in stratospheric CO2, retrieved from AirCore sampling.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paul, Dipayan; Been, Henk A.; Chen, Huilin; Kivi, Rigel; Meijer, Harro A. J.

    2015-04-01

    In this decade, understanding the impact of human activities on climate is one of the key issues of discussion globally. The continuous rise in the concentration of greenhouse gases, e.g., CO2, CH4, etc. in the atmosphere, predominantly due to human activities, is alarming and requires continuous monitoring to understand the dynamics. Radiocarbon is an important atmospheric tracer and one of the many used in the understanding of the global carbon budget, which includes the greenhouse gases like CO2 and CH4. Measurement of 14C (or radiocarbon) in atmospheric CO2 generally requires collection of large air samples (few liters) from which CO2 is extracted and then the concentration of radiocarbon is determined. Currently, Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS) is the most precise, reliable and widely used technique for atmospheric radiocarbon detection. However, the regular collection of air samples from troposphere and stratosphere, for example using aircraft, is prohibitively expensive. AirCore is an innovative atmospheric sampling system, developed by NOAA. It comprises of a long tube descending from a high altitude with one end open and the other closed, and has been demonstrated to be a reliable, cost-effective sampling system for high-altitude profile (up to ~ 30 km) measurements of CH4and CO2(Karion et al. 2010). In Europe, AirCore measurements are being performed on a regular basis near Sodankylä since September 2013. Here we describe the analysis of two such AirCore samples collected in July 2014, Finland, for determining the 14C concentration in stratospheric CO2. The two AirCore samples were collected on consecutive days. Each stratospheric AirCore sample was divided into six fractions, each containing ~ 35 μg CO2 (~9.5 μg C). Each fraction was separately trapped in 1 /4 inch coiled stainless steel tubing for radiocarbon measurements. The procedure for CO2 extraction from the stratospheric air samples; the sample preparation, with samples containing < 10

  17. System IDentification Programs for AirCraft (SIDPAC)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morelli, Eugene A.

    2002-01-01

    A collection of computer programs for aircraft system identification is described and demonstrated. The programs, collectively called System IDentification Programs for AirCraft, or SIDPAC, were developed in MATLAB as m-file functions. SIDPAC has been used successfully at NASA Langley Research Center with data from many different flight test programs and wind tunnel experiments. SIDPAC includes routines for experiment design, data conditioning, data compatibility analysis, model structure determination, equation-error and output-error parameter estimation in both the time and frequency domains, real-time and recursive parameter estimation, low order equivalent system identification, estimated parameter error calculation, linear and nonlinear simulation, plotting, and 3-D visualization. An overview of SIDPAC capabilities is provided, along with a demonstration of the use of SIDPAC with real flight test data from the NASA Glenn Twin Otter aircraft. The SIDPAC software is available without charge to U.S. citizens by request to the author, contingent on the requestor completing a NASA software usage agreement.

  18. NASA Global Atmospheric Sampling Program (GASP) data report for tape VL0004

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holdeman, J. D.; Humenik, F. M.; Lezberg, E. A.

    1976-01-01

    The NASA Global Atmospheric Sampling Program (GASP) is obtaining measurements of atmospheric trace constituents in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere using fully automated air sampling systems on board several commercial B-747 aircraft in routine airline service. Atmospheric ozone, water vapor, and related flight and meteorological data were obtained during 139 flights of a United Airlines B-747 and a Pan American World Airways B-747 from December 1975 through March 1976. In addition, sample bottles were exposed during three flights and analyzed for trichlorofluoromethane, and filter samples were exposed during five flights and analyzed for sulfates, nitrates, and chlorides. Flight routes and dates, instrumentation, data processing procedures, data tape specifications, and selected analyses are discussed.

  19. Formaldehyde monitoring program: development of sampling and analysis procedures

    SciTech Connect

    Matthews, T. G.; Hawthorne, A. R.

    1980-01-01

    This report outlines the scope and goals of the formaldehyde analysis program being carried out in Health and Safety Research Division of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory under contract of the US Consumer Product Safety Commission. The outline of the sampling and analysis techniques under consideration, with reference to a time frame for developmental work and field application, is discussed. The complexity of the different techniques is addressed in instances where technical staff would be requird for accurate operation of the instrumentation.

  20. A sample holder for measuring the magnetic properties of air-sensitive compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berlie, Adam; Terry, Ian; Szablewski, Marek

    2011-01-01

    A sample holder is reported which has allowed the magnetic characterization of air-sensitive compounds to be made in a Quantum Design Magnetic Properties Measurement System as a function of the applied field (0-5 T), and at temperatures ranging from 2 to 290 K. The sample holder is in the form of a specially designed tube, which is made from high purity quartz, utilizes PTFE (polytetrafluoroethylene) plugs and is reusable. This construction also offers the benefit that no heat treatment of the holder is required during sample loading, making the sample holder suitable for thermally sensitive compounds. The application of this sample holder is demonstrated for the case of Ni(cod)2 (cod = 1,5-cyclooctadiene), a compound that decomposes when exposed to air and/or heat. This material's instability has, so far, prevented the magnetic characterization of the compound, with nickel nanoparticles, a product of the decomposition, usually being measured instead.

  1. Problems Found Using a Radon Stripping Algorithm for Retrospective Assessment of Air Filter Samples

    SciTech Connect

    Robert Hayes

    2008-04-01

    An evaluation of a large number of air sample filters was undertaken using a commercial alpha and beta spectroscopy system employing a passive implanted planar silicon (PIPS) detector. Samples were only measured after air flow through the filters had ceased. Use of a commercial radon stripping algorithm was implemented to discriminate anthropogenic alpha activity on the filters from the radon progeny. When uncontaminated air filters were evaluated, the results showed that there was a time-dependent bias in both average estimates and measurement dispersion of anthropogenic activity estimates with the relative bias being small compared to the dispersion, indicating that the system would not give false positive indications for an appropriately set decision level. By also measuring environmental air sample filters simultaneously with electroplated alpha filters, use of the radon stripping algorithm demonstrated a number of substantial unexpected deviations from calibrated values indicating that the system would give false negative indications. Use of the current algorithm is, therefore, not recommended for general assay applications. Use of the PIPS detector should only be utilized for gross counting without appropriate modifications to the curve-fitting algorithm. As a screening method, the radon stripping algorithm might be expected to see elevated alpha activities on air sample filters (not due to radon progeny) around the 200 disintegrations per minute level.

  2. Use of a Radon Stripping Algorithm for Retrospective Assessment of Air Filter Samples

    SciTech Connect

    Robert Hayes

    2009-01-23

    An evaluation of a large number of air sample filters was undertaken using a commercial alpha and beta spectroscopy system employing a passive implanted planar silicon (PIPS) detector. Samples were only measured after air flow through the filters had ceased. Use of a commercial radon stripping algorithm was implemented to discriminate anthropogenic alpha and beta activity on the filters from the radon progeny. When uncontaminated air filters were evaluated, the results showed that there was a time-dependent bias in both average estimates and measurement dispersion with the relative bias being small compared to the dispersion. By also measuring environmental air sample filters simultaneously with electroplated alpha and beta sources, use of the radon stripping algorithm demonstrated a number of substantial unexpected deviations. Use of the current algorithm is therefore not recommended for assay applications and so use of the PIPS detector should only be utilized for gross counting without appropriate modifications to the curve fitting algorithm. As a screening method, the radon stripping algorithm might be expected to see elevated alpha and beta activities on air sample filters (not due to radon progeny) around the 200 dpm level.

  3. Use of Whatman-41 filters in air quality sampling networks (with applications to elemental analysis)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neustadter, H. E.; Sidik, S. M.; King, R. B.; Fordyce, J. S.; Burr, J. C.

    1974-01-01

    The operation of a 16-site parallel high volume air sampling network with glass fiber filters on one unit and Whatman-41 filters on the other is reported. The network data and data from several other experiments indicate that (1) Sampler-to-sampler and filter-to-filter variabilities are small; (2) hygroscopic affinity of Whatman-41 filters need not introduce errors; and (3) suspended particulate samples from glass fiber filters averaged slightly, but not statistically significantly, higher than from Whatman-41-filters. The results obtained demonstrate the practicability of Whatman-41 filters for air quality monitoring and elemental analysis.

  4. 78 FR 44947 - Request for Nominations for 2014 Clean Air Excellence Awards Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-25

    ...: Additional information on this awards program, including the entry form, can be found on EPA's Clean Air Act...) and (2) of the Clean Air Act (CAA), notice is hereby given that the EPA's Office of Air and Radiation... Package. Dated July 18, 2013. Jeneva Craig, Designated Federal Officer, Clean Air Act Advisory...

  5. Passive dosimeters for nitrogen dioxide in personal/indoor air sampling: A review

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Chang Ho; Morandi, Maria T.; Weisel, Clifford P.

    2015-01-01

    Accurate measurement of nitrogen dioxide concentrations in both outdoor and indoor environments, including personal exposures, is a fundamental step for linking atmospheric nitrogen dioxide levels to potential health and ecological effects. The measurement has been conducted generally in two ways: active (pumped) sampling and passive (diffusive) sampling. Diffusion samplers, initially developed and used for workplace air monitoring, have been found to be useful and cost-effective alternatives to conventional pumped samplers for monitoring ambient, indoor and personal exposures at the lower concentrations found in environmental settings. Since the 1970s, passive samplers have been deployed for ambient air monitoring in urban and rural sites, and to determine personal and indoor exposure to NO2. This article reviews the development of NO2 passive samplers, the sampling characteristics of passive samplers currently available, and their application in ambient and indoor air monitoring and personal exposure studies. The limitations and advantages of the various passive sampler geometries (i.e., tube, badge, and radial type) are also discussed. This review provides researchers and risk assessors with practical information about NO2 passive samplers, especially useful when designing field sampling strategies for exposure and indoor/outdoor air sampling. PMID:18446185

  6. Solubility testing of actinides on breathing-zone and area air samples

    SciTech Connect

    Metzger, R.L.; Jessop, B.H.; McDowell, B.L.

    1996-02-01

    A solubility testing method for several common actinides has been developed with sufficient sensitivity to allow profiles to be determined from routine breathing zone and area air samples in the workplace. Air samples are covered with a clean filter to form a filter-sample-filter sandwich which is immersed in an extracellular lung serum simulant solution. The sample is moved to a fresh beaker of the lung fluid simulant each day for one week, and then weekly until the end of the 28 day test period. The soak solutions are wet ashed with nitric acid and hydrogen peroxide to destroy the organic components of the lung simulant solution prior to extraction of the nuclides of interest directly into an extractive scintillator for subsequent counting on a Photon-Electron Rejecting Alpha Liquid Scintillation (PERALS{reg_sign}) spectrometer. Solvent extraction methods utilizing the extractive scintillators have been developed for the isotopes of uranium, plutonium, and curium. The procedures normally produce an isotopic recovery greater than 95% and have been used to develop solubility profiles from air samples with 40 pCi or less of U{sub 3}O{sub 8}. Profiles developed for U{sub 3}O{sub 8} samples show good agreement with in vitro and in vivo tests performed by other investigators on samples from the same uranium mills.

  7. SAMPLE RESULTS FROM THE INTEGRATED SALT DISPOSITION PROGRAM MACROBATCH 4 TANK 21H QUALIFICATION SAMPLES

    SciTech Connect

    Peters, T.; Fink, S.

    2011-06-22

    Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) analyzed samples from Tank 21H to qualify them for use in the Integrated Salt Disposition Program (ISDP) Batch 4 processing. All sample results agree with expectations based on prior analyses where available. No issues with the projected Salt Batch 4 strategy are identified. This revision includes additional data points that were not available in the original issue of the document, such as additional plutonium results, the results of the monosodium titanate (MST) sorption test and the extraction, scrub strip (ESS) test. This report covers the revision to the Tank 21H qualification sample results for Macrobatch (Salt Batch) 4 of the Integrated Salt Disposition Program (ISDP). A previous document covers initial characterization which includes results for a number of non-radiological analytes. These results were used to perform aluminum solubility modeling to determine the hydroxide needs for Salt Batch 4 to prevent the precipitation of solids. Sodium hydroxide was then added to Tank 21 and additional samples were pulled for the analyses discussed in this report. This work was specified by Task Technical Request and by Task Technical and Quality Assurance Plan (TTQAP).

  8. Passive air sampling of PCBs, PBDEs, and organochlorine pesticides across Europe.

    PubMed

    Jaward, Foday M; Farrar, Nick J; Harner, Tom; Sweetman, Andrew J; Jones, Kevin C

    2004-01-01

    This study presents concurrently sampled ambient air data for a range of persistent organic pollutants at the continental scale. This was achieved using a passive air sampling system, deploying polyurethane foam disks, which was prepared in one laboratory, sealed to prevent contamination, sent out by courier to volunteers participating in different countries, exposed for 6 weeks, collected, resealed, and returned to the laboratory for analysis. Europe was the study area--a region with a history of extensive POPs usage and emission and with marked national differences in population density, the degree of urbanization and industrial/agricultural development. Samplers were deployed at remote/rural/urban locations in 22 countries and analyzed for PCBs, a range of organochlorine pesticides (HCB, alpha-HCH, gamma-HCH, ppDDT, ppDDE), and PBDEs. Calculated air concentrations were in line with those obtained by conventional active air sampling techniques. The geographical pattern of all compounds reflected suspected regional emission patterns and highlighted localized hotspots. PCB and PBDE levels varied by over 2 orders of magnitude; the highest values were detected in areas of high usage and were linked to urbanized areas. HCB was relatively uniformly distributed, reflecting its persistence and high degree of mixing in air. Higher gamma-HCH, ppDDT, and ppDDE levels generally occurred in South and East Europe. PMID:14740714

  9. Computer Programs for Calculating the Isentropic Flow Properties for Mixtures of R-134a and Air

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kvaternik, Raymond G.

    2000-01-01

    Three computer programs for calculating the isentropic flow properties of R-134a/air mixtures which were developed in support of the heavy gas conversion of the Langley Transonic Dynamics Tunnel (TDT) from dichlorodifluoromethane (R-12) to 1,1,1,2 tetrafluoroethane (R-134a) are described. The first program calculates the Mach number and the corresponding flow properties when the total temperature, total pressure, static pressure, and mole fraction of R-134a in the mixture are given. The second program calculates tables of isentropic flow properties for a specified set of free-stream Mach numbers given the total pressure, total temperature, and mole fraction of R-134a. Real-gas effects are accounted for in these programs by treating the gases comprising the mixture as both thermally and calorically imperfect. The third program is a specialized version of the first program in which the gases are thermally perfect. It was written to provide a simpler computational alternative to the first program in those cases where real-gas effects are not important. The theory and computational procedures underlying the programs are summarized, the equations used to compute the flow quantities of interest are given, and sample calculated results that encompass the operating conditions of the TDT are shown.

  10. Air Sampling System for use in monitoring viable and non-viable particulate air quality under dynamic operating conditions of blow/fill/seal processing.

    PubMed

    Probert, Steve; Sinclair, Colin S; Tallentire, Alan

    2002-01-01

    An Air Sampling Link (ASL), employed in conjunction with an Air Sampling Device (ASD) or a laser particle counter, has been developed for sampling flowing air for viable and non-viable particulate analyses. Typically, the ASL could be used to sample filtered air supplied to an air shower of a Blow/Fill/Seal machine operating in the dynamic state. The ASL allows sample volumes of air to be taken from flowing air without significant loss from the sample flow of airborne particles possessing aerodynamic sizes relevant to those found in practice. The link has no moving parts, is steam sterilizable in-situ, and allows for the taking of continuous samples of air without the need for intervention into the 'critical zone' of the filling machine. This article describes (i) the design criteria for the ASL and the ASD, (ii) the rationale underlying the concept of the ASL design, (iii) the collection performance of the ASL against that of a conventional sampling arrangement, and (iv) a functionality assessment of the ASL-based sampling system installed on a Rommelag style 305 B/F/S machine over a seven week period. PMID:12404722

  11. Development and calibration of real-time PCR for quantification of airborne microorganisms in air samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    An, Hey Reoun; Mainelis, Gediminas; White, Lori

    This manuscript describes the coupling of bioaerosol collection and the use of real-time PCR (RT-PCR) to quantify the airborne bacteria. The quantity of collected bacteria determined by RT-PCR is compared with conventional quantification techniques, such as culturing, microscopy and airborne microorganism counting by using optical particle counter (OPC). Our data show that an experimental approach used to develop standard curves for use with RT-PCR is critical for accurate sample quantification. Using universal primers we generated 12 different standard curves which were used to quantify model organism Escherichia coli (Migula) Catellani from air samples. Standard curves prepared using a traditional approach, where serially diluted genomic DNA extracted from pure cultured bacteria were used in PCR reaction as a template DNA yielded significant underestimation of sample quantities compared to airborne microorganism concentration as measured by an OPC. The underestimation was especially pronounced when standard curves were built using colony forming units (CFUs). In contrast, the estimate of cell concentration in an air sample by RT-PCR was more accurate (˜60% compared to the airborne microorganism concentration) when the standard curve was built using aerosolized E. coli. The accuracy improved even further (˜100%) when air samples used to build the standard curves were diluted first, then the DNA extracted from each dilution was amplified by the RT-PCR—to mimic the handling of air samples with unknown and possibly low concentration. Therefore, our data show that standard curves used for quantification by RT-PCR needs to be prepared using the same environmental matrix and procedures as handling of the environmental sample in question. Reliance on the standard curves generated with cultured bacterial suspension (a traditional approach) may lead to substantial underestimation of microorganism quantities in environmental samples.

  12. The effect of compressed air foam on the detection of hydrocarbon fuels in fire debris samples.

    PubMed

    Coulson, S A; Morgan-Smith, R K; Noble, D

    2000-01-01

    In 1998/99 the New Zealand Fire Service implemented compressed air foam delivery systems for the suppression of fires in rural areas. This study investigated whether the introduction of the foam to the seat of the fire created any problems in subsequent analyses of fire debris samples. No significant interferences from the foam were found when the samples were analysed by direct headspace using activated carbon strips. The only foam component detected was limonene. PMID:11094822

  13. Curve fitting air sample filter decay curves to estimate transuranic content.

    PubMed

    Hayes, Robert B; Chiou, Hung Cheng

    2004-01-01

    By testing industry standard techniques for radon progeny evaluation on air sample filters, a new technique is developed to evaluate transuranic activity on air filters by curve fitting the decay curves. The industry method modified here is simply the use of filter activity measurements at different times to estimate the air concentrations of radon progeny. The primary modification was to not look for specific radon progeny values but rather transuranic activity. By using a method that will provide reasonably conservative estimates of the transuranic activity present on a filter, some credit for the decay curve shape can then be taken. By carrying out rigorous statistical analysis of the curve fits to over 65 samples having no transuranic activity taken over a 10-mo period, an optimization of the fitting function and quality tests for this purpose was attained. PMID:14695010

  14. An evaluation of the American Indian Air Quality Training Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quartaroli, Marylynn

    During centuries of geographic, economic, and cultural domination, the federal government held the responsibility for the management of environmental issues on tribal lands. Today, tribes are reasserting their sovereignty in many ways, including the development of their own environmental programs. Tribal agencies desperately search for tribal members who are qualified to make decisions for the benefit of the tribes from both Western scientific and traditional cultural viewpoints. To meet this need, the American Indian Air Quality Training Program (AIAQTP) offers technical and regulatory training courses that are both scientifically up-to-date and culturally responsive to this community. This study is an evaluation of these courses. To supplement data from existing program documents and databases, I also observed five courses, sent follow-up questionnaires, and interviewed lead instructors and course participants to develop an understanding of their perceptions of the training received. Computer analysis of this quantitative and qualitative data revealed patterns and themes; an external reviewer also independently analyzed the data set. The training courses offered by AIAQTP were judged to have merit and value by the course instructors, the participants, the external evaluator, and me. Designed to be both culturally responsive and technically rigorous, these courses provided relevant and useful information and skills to the tribal environmental professionals in attendance, meeting the demands of their jobs. Although not all training needs or expectations were met, the study participants indicated their intentions to continue their education and training in air quality and other environmental media. A significant benefit of attendance at AIAQTP training courses was the development of a network of tribal professionals across the nation that acts as a support system for the implementation and continuation of changes in the professional practice for the trainees and

  15. ENVIRONMENTAL SAMPLING USING LOCATION SPECIFIC AIR MONITORING IN BULK HANDLING FACILITIES

    SciTech Connect

    Sexton, L.; Hanks, D.; Degange, J.; Brant, H.; Hall, G.; Cable-Dunlap, P.; Anderson, B.

    2011-06-07

    Since the introduction of safeguards strengthening measures approved by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Board of Governors (1992-1997), international nuclear safeguards inspectors have been able to utilize environmental sampling (ES) (e.g. deposited particulates, air, water, vegetation, sediments, soil and biota) in their safeguarding approaches at bulk uranium/plutonium handling facilities. Enhancements of environmental sampling techniques used by the IAEA in drawing conclusions concerning the absence of undeclared nuclear materials or activities will soon be able to take advantage of a recent step change improvement in the gathering and analysis of air samples at these facilities. Location specific air monitoring feasibility tests have been performed with excellent results in determining attribute and isotopic composition of chemical elements present in an actual test-bed sample. Isotopic analysis of collected particles from an Aerosol Contaminant Extractor (ACE) collection, was performed with the standard bulk sampling protocol used throughout the IAEA network of analytical laboratories (NWAL). The results yielded bulk isotopic values expected for the operations. Advanced designs of air monitoring instruments such as the ACE may be used in gas centrifuge enrichment plants (GCEP) to detect the production of highly enriched uranium (HEU) or enrichments not declared by a State. Researchers at Savannah River National Laboratory in collaboration with Oak Ridge National Laboratory are developing the next generation of ES equipment for air grab and constant samples that could become an important addition to the international nuclear safeguards inspector's toolkit. Location specific air monitoring to be used to establish a baseline environmental signature of a particular facility employed for comparison of consistencies in declared operations will be described in this paper. Implementation of air monitoring will be contrasted against the use of smear ES

  16. Development of a wireless air pollution sensor package for aerial-sampling of emissions

    EPA Science Inventory

    A new sensor system for mobile and aerial emission sampling was developed for open area pollutant sources, such as prescribed forest burns. The sensor system, termed “Kolibri”, consists of multiple low-cost air quality sensors measuring CO2, CO, samplers for particulate matter wi...

  17. the nature of air flow near the inlets of blunt dust sampling probes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vincent, J. H.; Hutson, D.; Mark, D.

    This paper sets out to describe the nature of air flow near blunt dust samplers in a way which allows a relatively simple assessment of their performances for collecting dust particles. Of particular importance is the shape of the limiting stream surface which divides the sampled air from that which passes outside the sampler, and how this is affected by the free-stream air velocity, the sampling flow rate, and the shape of the sampler body. This was investigated for two-dimensional and axially-symmetric sampler systems by means of complementary experiments using electrolytic tank potential flow analogues and a wind tunnel respectively. For extreme conditions the flow of air entering the sampling orifice may be wholly divergent or wholly convergent. For a wide range of intermediate conditions, however, the flow first diverges then converges, exhibiting a so-called "spring onion effect". Whichever of these applies for a particular situation, the flow may be considered to consist of two parts, the outer one dominated by the flow about the sampler body and the inner one dominated by the flow into the sampling orifice. Particle transport in this two-part flow may be assessed using ideas borrowed from thin-walled probe theory.

  18. INTERCOMPARISON OF SAMPLING TECHNIQUES FOR TOXIC ORGANIC COMPOUNDS IN INDOOR AIR

    EPA Science Inventory

    People spend a major fraction of their time indoors, and there is concern over exposure to volatile organic compounds present in indoor air. The study was initiated to compare several VOC sampling techniques in an indoor environment. The techniques which were compared include dis...

  19. Development of a wireless air pollution sensor package for aerial-sampling of emissions

    EPA Science Inventory

    A new sensor system for mobile and aerial emission sampling was developed for open area pollutant sources, such as prescribed forest burns. The sensor system, termed “Kolibri”, consists of multiple low-cost air quality sensors measuring CO2, CO, samplers for particula...

  20. COMPARISON OF FAST GC/TOFMS WITH METHOD TO-14 FOR ANALYSIS OF AMBIENT AIR SAMPLES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Field studies using portable gas chromatographs (PGC) to analyze volatile organic compounds in ambient air usually include, as reference standard method, the analysis of concurrent, collocated canister samples by EPA Method TO-14. Each laboratory analysis takes about an hour a...

  1. INDOOR AIR SAMPLING AND MUTAGENICITY STUDIES OF EMISSIONS FROM UNVENTED COAL COMBUSTION (JOURNAL VERSION)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of the study is to develop sampling strategies and bioassay methods for indoor air in homes, the authors developed a medium-volume sampler to collect the <10 - micrometers particulate matter and semivolatile organics, and used high-volume particulate sampler for compa...

  2. ANALYSIS OF VOCS IN AMBIENT AIR USING MULTISORBENT PACKINGS FOR VOC ACCUMULATION AND SAMPLE DRYING

    EPA Science Inventory

    Solid multisorbent packings have been characterized for trapping and release efficiency of trace (10-20 ppbv in humidified zero air) volatile organic compounds (VOCs). he use of a two-stage trapping system reduces sample water content typically by more than 95.5% while maintainin...

  3. COMPARISON OF MOLD CONCENTRATIONS IN INDOOR AND OUTDOOR AIR SAMPLED SIMULTANEOUSLY AND THEN QUANTIFIED BY MSQPCR

    EPA Science Inventory

    Mold specific quantitative PCR (MSQPCR) was used to measure the concentrations of the 36 mold species in indoor and outdoor air samples that were taken simultaneously for 48 hours in and around 17 homes in Cincinnati, Ohio. The total spore concentrations of 353 per m3...

  4. CLEANLINESS OF COMMON AIR SAMPLING SORBENTS FOR APPLICATION TO PHENOLIC COMPOUNDS MEASUREMENT USING SUPERCRITICAL FLUID EXTRACTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The trace-level measurement of phenolic compounds in the ambient air is complicated by the acidic and polar nature of the compounds especially during recovery from the sampling medium. ecently, supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) has been proposed as an alternative extraction me...

  5. NON-POLAR VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS IN WHOLE AIR SAMPLES FROM THE AUTOEX STUDIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Air samples were captured in SUMMA polished stainless steel canisters and returned to the laboratory for analysis of trace level volatile organic compounds by gas chromatography - mass spectrometry. ampling was performed over 2-hour periods at various distances from heavily trave...

  6. Collecting Samples of Workplace Air. Module 8. Vocational Education Training in Environmental Health Sciences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Consumer Dynamics Inc., Rockville, MD.

    This module, one of 25 on vocational education training for careers in environmental health occupations, contains self-instructional materials on collecting samples of workplace air. Following guidelines for students and instructors and an introduction that explains what the student will learn are three lessons: (1) collecting information about…

  7. U.S.-MEXICO BORDER PROGRAM ARIZONA BORDER STUDY--PARTICULATE MATTER IN AIR ANALYTICAL RESULTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Particulate Matter in Air data set contains analytical results for measurements of 2 particle sizes in 344 air samples over 86 households. Samples were taken by pumping standardized air volumes through filters using impactors with a 10-um outpoint or with a 2.5-um outpoint. ...

  8. U.S.-MEXICO BORDER PROGRAM ARIZONA BORDER STUDY--METALS/XRF IN AIR ANALYTICAL RESULTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Metals-XRF in Air data set contains X-ray fluorescence (XRF) analytical results for measurements of up to 27 metals in 344 air samples over 86 households. Samples were taken by pumping standardized air volumes through filters at indoor and outdoor sites around each household...

  9. U.S. Air Force Scientific and Technical Information Program - The STINFO Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blados, Walter R.

    1991-01-01

    The U.S. Air Force STINFO (Scientific and Technical Information) program has as its main goal the proper use of all available scientific and technical information in the development of programs. The organization of STINFO databases, the use of STINFO in the development and advancement of aerospace science and technology and the acquisition of superior systems at lowest cost, and the application to public and private sectors of technologies developed for military uses are examined. STINFO user training is addressed. A project for aerospace knowledge diffusion is discussed.

  10. Installation Restoration Program. Remedial Investigation Report. Minnesota Air National Guard Base, Duluth International Airport, Duluth, Minnesota. Volume 1. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-01-01

    This report describes the remedial actions performed on sites confirmed to contain hazardous waste contamination which endangers the human health. The actions performed are described and the potential for future problems. The study was conducted under the Air National Guard's Installation Restoration Program. Partial contents of Volume I include: description of Installation Restoration Program; physiography, climate and drainage; demography and land use; geology and topography; hydrology; water quality; history; drainage; ground water; sampling; surface water; soils; chemical contamination; migration; and sedimentation.

  11. Whole Air Sampling During NASA's March-April 1999 Pacific Exploratory Expedition (PEM-Tropics B)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blake, Donald R.

    2001-01-01

    University of California, Irvine (UCI) collected more than 4500 samples whole air samples collected over the remote Pacific Ocean during NASA's Global Tropospheric Experiment (GTE) Pacific Exploratory Mission-Tropics B (PEM-Tropics B) in March and early April 1999. Approximately 140 samples during a typical 8-hour DC-8 flight, and 120 canisters for each 8-hour flight aboard the P-3B. These samples were obtained roughly every 3-7 min during horizontal flight legs and 1-3 min during vertical legs. The filled canisters were analyzed in the laboratory at UCI within ten days of collection. The mixing ratios of 58 trace gases comprising hydrocarbons, halocarbons, alkyl nitrates and DMS were reported (and archived) for each sample. Two identical analytical systems sharing the same standards were operated simultaneously around the clock to improve canister turn-around time and to keep our measurement precision optimal. This report presents a summary of the results for sample collected.

  12. Determination of selected heavy metals in air samples from the northern part of Jordan.

    PubMed

    Gharaibeh, Ahmad A; El-Rjoob, Abdul-Wahab O; Harb, Mohammed K

    2010-01-01

    In this work, the atmospheric concentrations of selected heavy metals including lead (Pb), iron (Fe), cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), nickel (Ni), manganese (Mn), and zinc (Zn) were measured for two different sampling sites (urban and rural) in the northern part of Jordan (Irbid city). Samples were collected according to a certain schedule for 1 year. High volume air samplers and glass fiber filters were used to collect the samples. Collected samples were digested using a mixture of analytical grade nitric acid and analytical grade hydrochloric acid, and analyzed to evaluate the levels of heavy metals by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Six heavy metals (Pb, Fe, Cu, Ni, Mn, and Zn) were measured in all samples; the concentrations of Cd and Co were not detected in Irbid atmosphere by atomic absorption spectroscopy. The results were used to determine the levels of heavy metal pollutants in air, possible sources, and to compare the levels of selected heavy metals in the two studied sites. Aerosols from the rural site have lower concentrations for all the metals compared to those from the urban site. The daily and monthly variations of the elements were investigated. All heavy metals in urban and rural sites reached maximum concentrations in June, July, and August. This is consistent with the increased activities leading to particulate matter emission during the summer period. The enrichment factors with respect to earth crust and correlation coefficients of heavy metals were investigated to predict the possible sources of heavy metals in air. PMID:19083108

  13. Chemical reactivities of ambient air samples in three Southern California communities

    PubMed Central

    Eiguren-Fernandez, Arantza; Di Stefano, Emma; Schmitz, Debra A.; Guarieiro, Aline Lefol Nani; Salinas, Erika M.; Nasser, Elina; Froines, John R.; Cho, Arthur K.

    2015-01-01

    The potential adverse health effects of PM2.5 and vapor samples from three communities that neighbor railyards, Commerce (CM), Long Beach (LB), and San Bernardino (SB), were assessed by determination of chemical reactivities attributed to the induction of oxidative stress by air pollutants. The assays used were dithiothreitol (DTT) and dihydrobenzoic acid (DHBA) based procedures for prooxidant content and a glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) assay for electrophiles. Prooxidants and electrophiles have been proposed as the reactive chemical species responsible for the induction of oxidative stress by air pollution mixtures. The PM2.5 samples from CM and LB sites showed seasonal differences in reactivities with higher levels in the winter whereas the SB sample differences were reversed. The reactivities in the vapor samples were all very similar, except for the summer SB samples, which contained higher levels of both prooxidants and electrophiles. The results suggest the observed reactivities reflect general geographical differences rather than direct effects of the railyards. Distributional differences in reactivities were also observed with PM2.5 fractions containing most of the prooxidants (74–81%) and the vapor phase most of the electrophiles (82–96%). The high levels of the vapor phase electrophiles and their potential for adverse biological effects point out the importance of the vapor phase in assessing the potential health effects of ambient air. PMID:25947123

  14. Mathematical Estimation of the Level of Microbial Contamination on Spacecraft Surfaces by Volumetric Air Sampling

    PubMed Central

    Oxborrow, G. S.; Roark, A. L.; Fields, N. D.; Puleo, J. R.

    1974-01-01

    Microbiological sampling methods presently used for enumeration of microorganisms on spacecraft surfaces require contact with easily damaged components. Estimation of viable particles on surfaces using air sampling methods in conjunction with a mathematical model would be desirable. Parameters necessary for the mathematical model are the effect of angled surfaces on viable particle collection and the number of viable cells per viable particle. Deposition of viable particles on angled surfaces closely followed a cosine function, and the number of viable cells per viable particle was consistent with a Poisson distribution. Other parameters considered by the mathematical model included deposition rate and fractional removal per unit time. A close nonlinear correlation between volumetric air sampling and airborne fallout on surfaces was established with all fallout data points falling within the 95% confidence limits as determined by the mathematical model. PMID:4151118

  15. Mathematical estimation of the level of microbial contamination on spacecraft surfaces by volumetric air sampling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oxborrow, G. S.; Roark, A. L.; Fields, N. D.; Puleo, J. R.

    1974-01-01

    Microbiological sampling methods presently used for enumeration of microorganisms on spacecraft surfaces require contact with easily damaged components. Estimation of viable particles on surfaces using air sampling methods in conjunction with a mathematical model would be desirable. Parameters necessary for the mathematical model are the effect of angled surfaces on viable particle collection and the number of viable cells per viable particle. Deposition of viable particles on angled surfaces closely followed a cosine function, and the number of viable cells per viable particle was consistent with a Poisson distribution. Other parameters considered by the mathematical model included deposition rate and fractional removal per unit time. A close nonlinear correlation between volumetric air sampling and airborne fallout on surfaces was established with all fallout data points falling within the 95% confidence limits as determined by the mathematical model.

  16. Data Quality Objectives for Regulatory Requirements for Hazardous and Radioactive Air Emissions Sampling and Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    MULKEY, C.H.

    1999-07-06

    This document describes the results of the data quality objective (DQO) process undertaken to define data needs for state and federal requirements associated with toxic, hazardous, and/or radiological air emissions under the jurisdiction of the River Protection Project (RPP). Hereafter, this document is referred to as the Air DQO. The primary drivers for characterization under this DQO are the regulatory requirements pursuant to Washington State regulations, that may require sampling and analysis. The federal regulations concerning air emissions are incorporated into the Washington State regulations. Data needs exist for nonradioactive and radioactive waste constituents and characteristics as identified through the DQO process described in this document. The purpose is to identify current data needs for complying with regulatory drivers for the measurement of air emissions from RPP facilities in support of air permitting. These drivers include best management practices; similar analyses may have more than one regulatory driver. This document should not be used for determining overall compliance with regulations because the regulations are in constant change, and this document may not reflect the latest regulatory requirements. Regulatory requirements are also expected to change as various permits are issued. Data needs require samples for both radionuclides and nonradionuclide analytes of air emissions from tanks and stored waste containers. The collection of data is to support environmental permitting and compliance, not for health and safety issues. This document does not address health or safety regulations or requirements (those of the Occupational Safety and Health Administration or the National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health) or continuous emission monitoring systems. This DQO is applicable to all equipment, facilities, and operations under the jurisdiction of RPP that emit or have the potential to emit regulated air pollutants.

  17. Report on sampling and analysis of exhaust air at the 221-T and 2706-T buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Stauffer, M.

    1997-09-22

    This report presents analytical results from exhaust air samples collected at stacks 221-T and 2706-T of the T-Plant. The samples were collected with SUMMA canisters over a 24 hour interval and were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry using a modified EPA TO-14 procedure. The data suggest that the buildings had generally low concentrations of volatile organic compounds (< 40 ppbv). However, samples from building 2706-T did have significant amounts of non-target higher-boiling hydrocarbons, probably from a petroleum destination fraction.

  18. High-throughput liquid-absorption air-sampling apparatus and methods

    SciTech Connect

    2000-07-11

    A portable high-throughput liquid-absorption air sampler [PHTLAAS] has an asymmetric air inlet through which air is drawn upward by a small and light-weight centrifugal fan driven by a direct current motor that can be powered by a battery. The air inlet is so configured as to impart both rotational and downward components of motion to the sampled air near said inlet. The PHTLAAS comprises a glass tube of relatively small size through which air passes at a high rate in a swirling, highly turbulent motion, which facilitates rapid transfer of vapors and particulates to a liquid film covering the inner walls of the tube. The pressure drop through the glass tube is < 10 cm of water, usually < 5 cm of water. The sampler's collection efficiency is usually > 20% for vapors or airborne particulates in the 2--3 microns range and > 50% for particles larger than 4 microns. In conjunction with various analyzers, the PHTLAAS can serve to monitor a variety of hazardous or illicit airborne substances, such as lead-containing particulates, tritiated water vapor, biological aerosols, or traces of concealed drugs or explosives.

  19. High-throughput liquid-absorption air-sampling apparatus and methods

    DOEpatents

    Zaromb, Solomon

    2000-01-01

    A portable high-throughput liquid-absorption air sampler [PHTLAAS] has an asymmetric air inlet through which air is drawn upward by a small and light-weight centrifugal fan driven by a direct current motor that can be powered by a battery. The air inlet is so configured as to impart both rotational and downward components of motion to the sampled air near said inlet. The PHTLAAS comprises a glass tube of relatively small size through which air passes at a high rate in a swirling, highly turbulent motion, which facilitates rapid transfer of vapors and particulates to a liquid film covering the inner walls of the tube. The pressure drop through the glass tube is <10 cm of water, usually <5 cm of water. The sampler's collection efficiency is usually >20% for vapors or airborne particulates in the 2-3.mu. range and >50% for particles larger than 4.mu.. In conjunction with various analyzers, the PHTLAAS can serve to monitor a variety of hazardous or illicit airborne substances, such as lead-containing particulates, tritiated water vapor, biological aerosols, or traces of concealed drugs or explosives.

  20. Water and entrapped air redistribution in heterogeneous sand sample: Quantitative neutron imaging of the process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snehota, Michal; Jelinkova, Vladimira; Sobotkova, Martina; Sacha, Jan; Vontobel, Peter; Hovind, Jan

    2015-02-01

    Saturated flow in soil with the occurrence of preferential flow often exhibits temporal changes of saturated hydraulic conductivity even during the time scale of a single infiltration event. These effects, observed in a number of experiments done mainly on heterogeneous soils, are often attributed to the changing distribution of water and air in the sample. We have measured the variation of the flow rates during the steady state stage of the constant head ponded infiltration experiment conducted on a packed sample composed of three different grades of sand. The experiment was monitored by quantitative neutron imaging, which provided information about the spatial distribution of water in the sample. Measurements were taken during (i) the initial stages of infiltration by neutron radiography and (ii) during the steady state flow by neutron tomography. A gradual decrease of the hydraulic conductivity has been observed during the first 4 h of the infiltration event. A series of neutron tomography images taken during the quasi-steady state stage showed the trapping of air bubbles in coarser sand. Furthermore, the water content in the coarse sand decreased even more while the water content in the embedded fine sand blocks gradually increased. The experimental results support the hypothesis that the effect of the gradual hydraulic conductivity decrease is caused by entrapped air redistribution and the build up of bubbles in preferential pathways. The trapped air thus restricts the preferential flow pathways and causes lower hydraulic conductivity.

  1. Volatile organic components of air samples collected from Vertical Launch Missile capsules. Summary report

    SciTech Connect

    Tappan, D.V.; Knight, D.R.; Heyder, E.; Weathersby, P.K.

    1988-09-27

    Gas chromatographic/mass spectroscopic analyses are presented for the volatile organic components found in air samples collected from the inboard vents from Vertical Launch System (VLS) missile capsules aboard a 688 class submarine. Similar analyses were also conducted for a sample of the ship's high pressure air used to fill the missile tubes. A wide variety of organics was detected in the air from the missile capsules; and while no unique components have yet been identified, a significant contribution has been shown to be made by pressure-ventilation of the VLS capsules into the submarine atmosphere which is already heavily laden with volatile organic compounds. The most apparent conclusion from these preliminary analyses is that the mixtures of organic components in the air within VLS missile capsules vary greatly from capsule to capsule (and probably from time to time). Many such samples need to be investigated to provide sufficient information to judge the seriousness of the possibility of venting toxic components into the submarine atmosphere during the maintenance or firing of VLS missiles.

  2. Soyuz 22 Return Samples: Assessment of Air Quality Aboard the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jams, John T.

    2010-01-01

    Three mini-grab sample containers (m-GSCs) were returned aboard Soyuz 22 because of concerns that new air pollutants were present in the air and these were getting into the water recovery system. The Total Organic Carbon Analyzer had been giving increasing readings of total organic carbon (TOC) in the potable water, and it was postulated that an increased load into the system was responsible. The toxicological assessment of 3 m-GSCs from the ISS is shown in Table 1. The recoveries of the 3 standards (as listed above) from the GSCs averaged 103, 95 and 76%, respectively. Recovery from formaldehyde control badges were 90 and 91%.

  3. Electronic Nose and Use of Bags to Collect Odorous Air Samples in Meat Quality Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sala, G.; Masoero, G.; Battaglini, L. M.; Cornale, P.; Barbera, S.

    2009-05-01

    To test EN reliability and use of bags on meat, 17 bulls (one group of 9 and one of 8) fed similarly, except for a supplementary feedingstuff, were used. Samples were prepared according to the MCS protocol and repeated three times on different days for a total of 51 samples. Bags were used to collect raw and cooked meat air samples, and to test odour changes among samples analysed at different times. The first time analysis was performed immediately after collection then was repeated, 1 hour, 1 day and 1 week later. The Electronic Nose is very discriminant and clear differences were evident among raw, cooked and bags odorous profiles. The highest values were found in cooked samples and the broad range class (W5S) was the most representative. The EN also recognized the two tested feed treatments. In the cooked samples, all sensor responses decrease while time enhances, indicating a progressive chemical variation of the air composition in the bag, with a less correlation shown in the raw samples. When using bags, to avoid bias, is important to fix analysis in order to obtain useful results.

  4. Diffusive sampling and measurement of microbial volatile organic compounds in indoor air.

    PubMed

    Araki, A; Eitaki, Y; Kawai, T; Kanazawa, A; Takeda, M; Kishi, R

    2009-10-01

    Microbial volatile organic compounds (MVOC), chemicals emitted from various microorganisms, in indoor air have been of concern in recent years. For large field studies, diffusive samplers are widely used to measure indoor environments. Since the sampling rate of a sampler is a fundamental parameter to calculate concentration, the sampling rates of eight MVOC with diffusive samplers were determined experimentally using a newly developed water-bubbling method: air was supplied to the MVOC-solutions and the vapor collected in an exposure bag, where diffusive and active samplers were placed in parallel for comparison. Correlations between the diffusive and active samplings gave good linear regressions. The sampling rates were 30-35 ml/min and the detection limits were 0.044-0.178 microg/m(3), as determined by GC/MS analysis. Application of the sampling rates in indoor air was validated by parallel sampling of the diffusive and active sampling method. 5% Propan-2-ol/CS(2) was the best solvent to desorb the compounds from absorbents. The procedure was applied to a field study in 41 dwellings. The most frequently detected compounds were hexan-2-one and heptan-2-one, with 97.5% detection rates and geometric mean values of 0.470 and 0.302 microg/m(3), respectively. This study shows that diffusive samplers are applicable to measure indoor MVOC levels. Practical Implications At present, there are still limited reports on indoor Microbial Volatile Organic Compounds (MVOC) levels in general dwellings and occupants' health. Compared with active sampling methods, air sampling using a diffusive sampler is particularly advantageous for use in large field studies due to its smallness, light-size, easy-handling, and cost-effectiveness. In this study, sampling rates of selected MVOC of the diffusive sampler were determined using the water-bubbling method: generating gases by water-bubbling and exposing the diffusive and active samplers at the same time. The obtained sampling rates

  5. Monitoring airborne fungal spores in an experimental indoor environment to evaluate sampling methods and the effects of human activity on air sampling.

    PubMed Central

    Buttner, M P; Stetzenbach, L D

    1993-01-01

    Aerobiological monitoring was conducted in an experimental room to aid in the development of standardized sampling protocols for airborne microorganisms in the indoor environment. The objectives of this research were to evaluate the relative efficiencies of selected sampling methods for the retrieval of airborne fungal spores and to determine the effect of human activity on air sampling. Dry aerosols containing known concentrations of Penicillium chrysogenum spores were generated, and air samples were taken by using Andersen six-stage, Surface Air System, Burkard, and depositional samplers. The Andersen and Burkard samplers retrieved the highest numbers of spores compared with the measurement standard, an aerodynamic particle sizer located inside the room. Data from paired samplers demonstrated that the Andersen sampler had the highest levels of sensitivity and repeatability. With a carpet as the source of P. chrysogenum spores, the effects of human activity (walking or vacuuming near the sampling site) on air sampling were also examined. Air samples were taken under undisturbed conditions and after human activity in the room. Human activity resulted in retrieval of significantly higher concentrations of airborne spores. Surface sampling of the carpet revealed moderate to heavy contamination despite relatively low airborne counts. Therefore, in certain situations, air sampling without concomitant surface sampling may not adequately reflect the level of microbial contamination in indoor environments. PMID:8439150

  6. BACT analysis under the Clean Air Act's PCD program

    SciTech Connect

    Simms, P.; Walke, J.

    2006-11-15

    Before a company may build a new major industrial source of air pollution, or make modifications to an existing major source in the USA it must apply for and receive a Clean Air Act (CAA) Prevention of Significant Deterioration (PSD) permit. State environmental agencies typically issue such permits, either under state law or by exercising delegated authority to implement the federal PSD program. To fully comply with the CAA, the emissions limits identified as BACT must incorporate consideration of more than just add-on emissions control technology, they must also reflect appropriate considerations of fuel quality (e.g. low-sulfur coal) and process changes (e.g. advanced combustion techniques) as a means of controlling emissions, and must consider the other environmental and public welfare benefits of the identified emissions control options. Several states including New Mexico and Illinois have already determined that innovated technologies, such as Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC), must be considered in connection with the BACT analysis for new coal-fired power plants. Even the notion that BACT is categorically limited in scope to the general type of facility proposed is contrary to EPA precedent. For example, the Environmental Appeals Board (EAB) has explained that permitting authorities retain the discretion under the definition of BACT to require dramatically different facility designs (e.g. a natural gas plant instead of a coal-fired power plant). The best advice for any permit applicant is to include in the BACT analysis a careful and honest examination of better performing alternative processes and/or innovative combustion techniques and to aggressively pursue such options wherever feasible. 17 refs.

  7. F -Discrepancy for Efficient Sampling in Approximate Dynamic Programming.

    PubMed

    Cervellera, Cristiano; Maccio, Danilo

    2016-07-01

    In this paper, we address the problem of generating efficient state sample points for the solution of continuous-state finite-horizon Markovian decision problems through approximate dynamic programming. It is known that the selection of sampling points at which the value function is observed is a key factor when such function is approximated by a model based on a finite number of evaluations. A standard approach consists in generating these points through a random or deterministic procedure, aiming at a balanced covering of the state space. Yet, this solution may not be efficient if the state trajectories are not uniformly distributed. Here, we propose to exploit F -discrepancy, a quantity that measures how closely a set of random points represents a probability distribution, and introduce an example of an algorithm based on such concept to automatically select point sets that are efficient with respect to the underlying Markovian process. An error analysis of the approximate solution is provided, showing how the proposed algorithm enables convergence under suitable regularity hypotheses. Then, simulation results are provided concerning an inventory forecasting test problem. The tests confirm in general the important role of F -discrepancy, and show how the proposed algorithm is able to yield better results than uniform sampling, using sets even 50 times smaller. PMID:26241987

  8. Air

    MedlinePlus

    ... do to protect yourself from dirty air . Indoor air pollution and outdoor air pollution Air can be polluted indoors and it can ... this chart to see what things cause indoor air pollution and what things cause outdoor air pollution! Indoor ...

  9. Technical assessment of compliance with workplace air sampling requirements at WRAP

    SciTech Connect

    HACKWORTH, M.F.

    1999-06-02

    The purpose of this Technical Assessment is to satisfy HSRCM-1, ''Hanford Site Radiological Control Manual'' Article 551.4 for a documented study of facility Workplace Air Monitoring (WAM) programs. HSRCM-1 is the primary guidance for radiological control at Waste Management Federal Services of Hanford, Inc. (WMH). The HSRCM-1 complies with Title 10. Part 835 of the Code of Federal Regulations (10CFR835). This document provides an evaluation of the compliance of the Waste Receiving and Processing facility (WRAP) WAM program to the criteria standards, requirements, and documents compliance with the requirements where appropriate. Where necessary, it also indicates changes needed to bring specific locations into compliance.

  10. U.S.-MEXICO BORDER PROGRAM ARIZONA BORDER STUDY--PESTICIDES IN AIR ANALYTICAL RESULTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Pesticides in Air data set contains analytical results for measurements of up to 8 pesticides in 86 air samples over 86 households. Samples were collected at indoor sites around each household being sampled. Polyurethane foam (PUF) cartridges were used to collect vapor phas...

  11. Interlaboratory evaluation of cellulosic acid-soluble internal air sampling capsules for multi-element analysis.

    PubMed

    Andrews, Ronnee N; Feng, H Amy; Ashley, Kevin

    2016-01-01

    An interlaboratory study was carried out to evaluate the use of acid-soluble cellulosic air sampling capsules for their suitability in the measurement of trace elements in workplace atmospheric samples. These capsules are used as inserts to perform closed-face cassette sample collection for occupational exposure monitoring. The interlaboratory study was performed in accordance with NIOSH guidelines that describe statistical procedures for evaluating measurement accuracy of air monitoring methods. The performance evaluation materials used consisted of cellulose acetate capsules melded to mixed-cellulose ester filters that were dosed with multiple elements from commercial standard aqueous solutions. The cellulosic capsules were spiked with the following 33 elements of interest in workplace air monitoring: Ag, Al, As, Ba, Be, Ca, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, In, K, La, Li, Mg, Mn, Mo, Ni, P, Pb, Sb, Se, Sn, Sr, Te, Ti, Tl, V, W, Y, Zn, Zr. The elemental loading levels were certified by an accredited provider of certified reference materials. Triplicates of media blanks and multielement-spiked capsules at three different elemental loadings were sent to each participating laboratory; the elemental loading levels were not revealed to the laboratories. The volunteer participating laboratories were asked to prepare the samples by acid dissolution and to analyze aliquots of extracted samples by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry in accordance with NIOSH methods. It was requested that the study participants report their analytical results in units of μg of each target element per internal capsule sample. For the majority of the elements investigated (30 out of 33), the study accuracy estimates obtained satisfied the NIOSH accuracy criterion (A < 25%). This investigation demonstrates the utility of acid-soluble internal sampling capsules for multielement analysis by atomic spectrometry. PMID:26308974

  12. Carbon monoxide measurement in the global atmospheric sampling program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dudzinski, T. J.

    1979-01-01

    The carbon monoxide measurement system used in the NASA Global Atmospheric Sampling Program (GASP) is described. The system used a modified version of a commercially available infrared absorption analyzer. The modifications increased the sensitivity of the analyzer to 1 ppmv full scale, with a limit of detectability of 0.02 ppmv. Packaging was modified for automatic, unattended operation in an aircraft environment. The GASP system is described along with analyzer operation, calibration procedures, and measurement errors. Uncertainty of the CO measurement over a 2-year period ranged from + or - 3 to + or - 13 percent of reading, plus an error due to random fluctuation of the output signal + or - 3 to + or - 15 ppbv.

  13. What is in my air? Feds facilitating citizen science in the EPA Next Generation Air Monitoring Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    French, R. A.; Preuss, P.

    2013-12-01

    Recent advances in the development of small-scale and inexpensive air pollutant sensors, coupled with the ubiquitous use of wireless and mobile technology, will transform the field of air quality monitoring. For the first time, the general public may purchase air monitors, which can measure their personal exposure to NOx, Ozone, black carbon, and VOCs for a few hundred dollars. Concerned citizens may now gather the data for themselves to answer questions such as, ';what am I breathing?' and ';is my air clean?' The research and policy community will have access to real-time air quality data collected at the local and regional scale, making targeted protection of environmental health possible. With these benefits come many questions from citizen scientists, policymakers, and researchers. These include, what is the quality of the data? How will the public interpret data from the air sensors and are there guidelines to interpret that data? How do you know if the air sensor is trustworthy? Recognizing that this revolution in air quality monitoring will proceed regardless of the involvement of the government, the Innovation Team at the EPA Office of Research and Development, in partnership with the Office of Enforcement and Compliance Assistance and the Office of Air and Radiation, seized the opportunity to ensure that users of next generation air sensors can realize the full potential benefits of these innovative technologies. These efforts include releasing an EPA Draft Roadmap for Next Generation Air Monitoring, testing air sensors under laboratory and field conditions, field demonstrations of new air sensor technology for the public, and building a community of air sensor developers, researchers, local, state and federal officials, and community members through workshops and a website. This presentation will review the status of those programs, highlighting the particular programs of interest to citizen scientists. The Next Generation Air Monitoring program may serve

  14. Continuous monitoring of polychlorinated biphenyls in air using direct sampling APCI/ITMS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamada, Masuyoshi; Suga, Masao; Waki, Izumi; Sakamoto, Masami; Morita, Masatoshi

    2005-06-01

    We report a continuous monitoring system of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in air, which uses direct sampling atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI)/ion trap mass spectrometry (ITMS). In APCI, humidity in the atmosphere, which fluctuates from 0 to 10 vol.%, influences PCB sensitivity. In dry air (0.5% humidity), the detection limits of Di- to Hp-chlorinated biphenyls (CB) are 0.01-0.44 [mu]g/Nm3 ([mu]g/m3 at normal condition) with time resolution of 1 min, whereas the sensitivity decreases to less than 1/10 when water vapor concentration is 10 vol.%. The sensitivity decrease is calibrated in real-time using an internal standard, trichlorophenol. In order to obtain the calibration accuracy of +/-30%, we dilute the sample gas by dry air, decreasing the water vapor concentration below 1%. We applied the monitor to measure Di- to Hp-CB in ventilation air from a PCB decomposition plant. The monitored PCB concentration levels agreed well with that by high-resolution gas chromatography/high resolution mass spectrometry (HRGC/HRMS).

  15. HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS PROGRAM (HAP-PRO): AUTOMATED HAP AND VOC CONTROL TECHNOLOGY ASSESSMENT SOFTWARE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper discusses the Hazardous Air Pollutant Program (HAP-PRO), version 1.0, automated hazardous air pollutant (HAP) and volatile organic compound (VOC) control technology assessment software, designed to assist permit engineers in reviewing applications for control of air tox...

  16. NASA Global Atmospheric Sampling Program (GASP) data report for tapes VL0007 and VL0008

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holdeman, J. D.; Gauntner, D. J.; Humenik, F. M.; Briehl, D.

    1977-01-01

    The Global Atmospheric Sampling Program (GASP) is obtaining measurements of atmospheric trace constituents in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere using fully automated air sampling systems on board the NASA CV-990 research aircraft and four commerical B-747 aircraft in routine airline service. In-situ measurements of atmospheric ozone and water vapor, data from laboratory analysis of filters exposed in flight, and related flight and meteorological data obtained from September 1976 through January 1977 are reported. These data are now available on GASP tapes VL0007 & VL0008 from the National Climatic Center, Asheville, North Carolina. In addition to the GASP data, tropopause pressure fields obtained from NMC archives for the dates of the GASP flights are included on the data tape. Flight routes and dates, instrumentation, data processing procedures, and data tape specifications are described.

  17. Laboratory validation and field verification of a new passive air monitoring badge for sampling ethylene oxide in air.

    PubMed

    Kring, E V; Damrell, D J; Basilio, A N; McGibney, P D; Douglas, J J; Henry, T J; Ansul, G R

    1984-10-01

    A new diffusion colorimetric air monitoring badge for sampling ethylene oxide is described. The Du Pont Pro-Tek C-70 badge has been laboratory validated over the range of 4-375 ppm-hours (0.5-47 ppm on an 8-hour TWA) using standard spectrophotometer readout in 1 centimeter (10 mm) cells. The lower range can be extended to 2 ppm-hours (0.25 ppm) by using 4 cm (40 mm) cells. The badge has an overall sampling and analytical method accuracy of +/- 13.5%. It meets NIOSH accuracy criteria and has a mean coefficient of variation CVT = 0.059. The badge has no temperature, pressure, relative humidity or face velocity effects over practical ranges. The response time is adequate to sample peak concentrations over short time periods. The badge may be used to determine ambient formaldehyde levels if suspected to be present along with ethylene oxide. Badges are shown to agree very well with the industry accepted and proposed ASTM pump/charcoal tube method in three extensive plant field tests. Badges were more precise than the charcoal tube/pump method in all field tests conducted. PMID:6496316

  18. Small satellites and the DARPA/Air Force FALCON program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weeks, David J.; Walker, Steven H.; Sackheim, Robert L.

    2005-07-01

    The FALCON program is a technology demonstration effort with three major components: a Small Launch Vehicle (SLV), a Hypersonic Technology Vehicle (HTV), and a Hypersonic Cruise Vehicle (HCV). Sponsored by the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) and executed jointly by the United States Air Force and DARPA with NASA participation, the objectives are to develop and demonstrate technologies that will enable both near-term and far-term capability to execute time-critical, global reach missions. The focus of this paper is on the SLV as it relates to small satellites and the implications of lower cost to orbit for small satellites. The target recurring cost for placing 1000 pounds payloads into a circular reference orbit of 28.5∘ at 100 nautical miles is $5,000,000 per launch. This includes range costs but not the payload or payload integration costs. In addition to the nominal 1000 pounds to low earth orbit (LEO), FALCON is seeking delivery of a range of orbital payloads from 220 to 2200 pounds to the reference orbit. Once placed on 'alert' status, the SLV must be capable of launch within 24 h.

  19. Small Satellites and the DARPA/Air Force Falcon Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weeks, David J.; Walker, Steven H.; Sackheim, Robert L.

    2004-01-01

    The FALCON ((Force Application and Launch from CONUS) program is a technology demonstration effort with three major components: a Small Launch Vehicle (SLV), a Common Aero Vehicle (CAV), and a Hypersonic Cruise Vehicle (HCV). Sponsored by DARPA and executed jointly by the United States Air Force and DARPA with NASA participation, the objectives are to develop and demonstrate technologies that will enable both near-term and far-term capability to execute time-critical, global reach missions. The focus of this paper is on the SLV as it relates to small satellites and the implications of lower cost to orbit for small satellites. The target recurring cost for placing 1000 pounds payloads into a circular reference orbit of 28.5 degrees at 100 nautical miles is $5,000,000 per launch. This includes range costs but not the payload or payload integration costs. In addition to the nominal 1000 pounds to LEO, FALCON is seeking delivery of a range of orbital payloads from 220 pounds to 2200 pounds to the reference orbit. Once placed on alert status, the SLV must be capable of launch within 24 hours.

  20. Sampling variance estimates for SSA program recipients from the 1990 Survey of Income and Program Participation.

    PubMed

    Bye, B V; Gallicchio, S J

    1993-01-01

    Since 1987 the Social Security Administration (SSA) has published a special set of tabulations on SSA program recipients in the Annual Statistical Supplement to the Social Security Bulletin using data derived from the Census Bureau's Survey of Income and Program Participation (SIPP). Estimates of sampling errors pertaining to these tabulations were derived from the 1984 SIPP panel. This article provides updated sampling error estimates for the 1990 SIPP panel to be used in conjunction with the SIPP-based tabulations provided in the Annual Statistical Supplement for 1992 and 1993. The computational approach is essentially the same as that used in the earlier analysis. Sampling variances are estimated by half-sample replication using the pseudo stratum and half-sample codes available on SIPP public use data files. Generalized tables of standard errors are provided for all SSA program participants. An appendix provides detailed specifications about the calculations. In order that it be self-contained, this article repeats much of the methodological exposition in the previous article that appeared in the October 1988 issue of the Social Security Bulletin. PMID:8303505

  1. STS-65 Commander Cabana and PLC Hieb take air sample at IML-2 Rack 7 NIZEMI

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    STS-65 Commander Robert D. Cabana (right) and Payload Commander (PLC) Richard J. Hieb take an air sample inside the International Microgravity Laboratory 2 (IML-2) spacelab science module. The two crewmembers are in front of Rack 7 which contains the large isothermal furnace (LIF) and slow rotating centrifuge microscope (NIZEMI). The photo was among the first group released by NASA following the two-week IML-2 mission aboard the Space Shuttle Columbia, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 102.

  2. Organic toxicants in air and precipitation samples from the Lake Michigan area

    SciTech Connect

    Harlin, K.S.; Sweet, C.W.; Gatz, D.F.

    1995-12-31

    Measurements of PCBs, organochlorine insecticides, PAHs, and atrazine were made in air and precipitation samples collected at regionally-representative locations near Lake Michigan from 1992-1995. The purpose of these measurements was to provide information needed to estimate the atmospheric deposition of organic toxicants to Lake Michigan. Twenty-four hour samples of airborne particles and vapor were collected at 12-day intervals on quartz fiber filters and XAD-2 resin vapor traps using modified high volume sampleers. Twenty-eight day precipitation samples were collected using wet-only samplers with stainless steel sampling surfaces and heated enclosure containing an XAD-2 resin adsorption column. Samples were Soxhlet extracted for 24 hours with hexane:acetone (1:1), and concentrated by rotary evaporation. Interferences were removed and the samples separated into analyte groups by silica gel chromatography. Four fractions were collected for GC-ECD and GC-Ion Trap MS analyses. Ten pesticides, 101 PCB congeners, 18 PAHs, and atrazine were measured in all samples. Quality assurance was maintained by including field duplicate samples, field blanks, alboratory matrix spikes, laboratory matrix blanks, and laboratory surrogate spikes in the sampling/analytical protocols. Preliminary results from urban and remote sites show geographical variations in the concentrations of some toxicants due to contributions from local sources. For all sites the total PCB levels are higher in the vapor phase than the particulate phase and show strong seasonal variations. Seasonal variations were also observed for several pesticides.

  3. Isotopic air sampling in a tallgrass prairie to partition net ecosystem CO2 exchange

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lai, Chun-Ta; Schauer, Andrew J.; Owensby, Clenton; Ham, Jay M.; Ehleringer, James R.

    2003-09-01

    Stable isotope ratios of various ecosystem components and net ecosystem exchange (NEE) CO2 fluxes were measured in a C3-C4 mixture tallgrass prairie near Manhattan, Kansas. The July 2002 study period was chosen because of contrasting soil moisture contents, which allowed us to address the effects of drought on photosynthetic CO2 uptake and isotopic discrimination. Significantly higher NEE fluxes were observed for both daytime uptake and nighttime respiration during well-watered conditions when compared to a drought period. Given these differences, we investigated two carbon-flux partitioning questions: (1) What proportions of NEE were contributed by C3 versus C4 species? (2) What proportions of NEE fluxes resulted from canopy assimilation versus ecosystem respiration? To evaluate these questions, air samples were collected every 2 hours during daytime for 3 consecutive days at the same height as the eddy covariance system. These air samples were analyzed for both carbon isotope ratios and CO2 concentrations to establish an empirical relationship for isoflux calculations. An automated air sampling system was used to collect nighttime air samples to estimate the carbon isotope ratios of ecosystem respiration (δR) at weekly intervals for the entire growing season. Models of C3 and C4 photosynthesis were employed to estimate bulk canopy intercellular CO2 concentration in order to calculate photosynthetic discrimination against 13C. Our isotope/NEE results showed that for this grassland, C4 vegetation contributed ˜80% of the NEE fluxes during the drought period and later ˜100% of the NEE fluxes in response to an impulse of intense precipitation. For the entire growing season, the C4 contribution ranged from ˜68% early in the spring to nearly 100% in the late summer. Using an isotopic approach, the calculated partitioned respiratory fluxes were slightly greater than chamber-measured estimates during midday under well-watered conditions. In addition, time series

  4. Microbial Air and Surface Monitoring Results from International Space Station Samples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ott, C. Mark; Bruce, Rebekah J.; Castro, Victoria A.; Novikova, Natalia D.; Pierson, D. L.

    2005-01-01

    Over the course of long-duration spaceflight, spacecraft develop a microbial ecology that directly interacts with the crew of the vehicle. While most microorganisms are harmless or beneficial to the inhabitants of the vehicle, the presence of medically significant organisms appearing in this semi-closed environment could adversely affect crew health and performance. The risk of exposure of the crew to medically significant organisms during a mission is estimated using information gathered during nominal and contingency environmental monitoring. Analysis of the air and surface microbiota in the habitable compartments of the International Space Station (ISS) over the last four years indicate a high presence of Staphylococcus species reflecting the human inhabitants of the vehicle. Generally, air and surface microbial concentrations are below system design specifications, suggesting a lower risk of contact infection or biodegradation. An evaluation of sample frequency indicates a decrease in the identification of new species, suggesting a lower potential for unknown microorganisms to be identified. However, the opportunistic pathogen, Staphylococcus aureus, has been identified in 3 of the last 5 air samples and 5 of the last 9 surface samples. In addition, 47% of the coagulase negative Staphylococcus species that were isolated from the crew, ISS, and its hardware were found to be methicillin resistance. In combination, these observations suggest the potential of methicillin resistant infectious agents over time.

  5. High sensitivity gamma spectrometry of air samples near SRS during 1985-1995

    SciTech Connect

    Winn, W.G.; Cadieux, J.R.

    1997-07-01

    High sensitivity gamma analysis of off-site air samples near the Savannah River Site (SRS) is achieved by collecting large volume air samples for analysis by ultra-low-level gamma spectrometry. A review of the 1985-1995 measurements has highlighted local and distant releases of man-made radionuclides, along with cosmogenic radionuclides which correlate with both solar and seasonal phenomena. Measurements typically involve 2-day air collection of a 70,000 m{sup 3} sample on a 51 cm x 51 cm cellulose filter using a high-capacity pump. Short-lived radon background activity is allowed to decay a few days, and then the filter is configured into a smaller calibrated volume and counted 1-3 days on a 30 percent-efficient HPGe in the Ultra-Low-Level Counting Facility. Representative detection limits for this method are shown in Table 1, and even lower limits are achievable by counting on the low-background 160 percent-efficient HPGe of the Underground Counting Facility.

  6. Determination of methyl bromide in air samples by headspace gas chromatography

    SciTech Connect

    Woodrow, J.E.; McChesney, M.M.; Seiber, J.N.

    1988-03-01

    Methyl bromide is extensively used in agriculture (4 x 10/sup 6/ kg for 1985 in California alone as a fumigant to control nematodes, weeds, and fungi in soil and insect pests in harvested grains and nuts. Given its low boiling point (3.8/sup 0/C) and high vapor pressure (approx. 1400 Torr at 20/sup 0/C), methyl bromide will readily diffuse if not rigorously contained. Methods for determining methyl bromide and other halocarbons in air vary widely. A common practice is to trap the material from air on an adsorbent, such as polymeric resins, followed by thermal desorption either directly into the analytical instrumentation or after intermediary cryofocusing. While in some cases analytical detection limits were reasonable (parts per million range), many of the published methods were labor intensive and required special handling techniques that precluded high sample throughput. They describe here a method for the sampling and analysis of airborne methyl bromide that was designed to handle large numbers of samples through automating some critical steps of the analysis. The result was a method that allowed around-the-clock operation with a minimum of operator attention. Furthermore, the method was not specific to methyl bromide and could be used to determine other halocarbons in air.

  7. The use of Whatman-41 filters for high volume air sampling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neustadter, H. E.; Sidik, S. M.; King, R. B.; Fordyce, J. S.; Burr, J. C.

    1975-01-01

    The feasibility of using W41 filter media on a routine TSP high-volume monitoring network was determined by comparison with glass fiber (GF) filtering. Results indicate that suspended particulate samples from GF filters averaged slightly, but not significantly, higher than those from Whatman-41 filters. Some extra handling procedures were required to avoid errors due to the hygroscopic nature of W41 filters; these added procedures are not overly burdensome, however, and they allow the performance of analytical work, thus extending the capabilities of high-volume sampling. It was demonstrated that W41 filters are practical for air quality monitoring and elemental analysis in environments similar to Cleveland's.

  8. ESTABLISHING PRIORITIES IN THE U.S. EPA'S INDOOR AIR ENGINEERING RESEARCH PROGRAM

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper gives results of consultations by participants in the U.S. EPA's Indoor Air Engineering Research Program with a panel of key researchers and planners within government, industry, and academia to help identify priority program areas for indoor air research. rogram elemen...

  9. A new analysis system for whole air sampling: description and results from 2013 SENEX

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lerner, B. M.; Gilman, J.; Dumas, M.; Hughes, D.; Jaksich, A.; Hatch, C. D.; Graus, M.; Warneke, C.; Apel, E. C.; Hornbrook, R. S.; Holloway, J. S.; De Gouw, J. A.

    2014-12-01

    Accurate measurement of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the troposphere is critical for the understanding of emissions and physical and chemical processes that can impact both air quality and climate. Airborne VOC measurements have proven especially challenging due to the requirement of both high sensitivity (pptv) and short sample collection times (≤15 s) to maximize spatial resolution and sampling frequency for targeted plume analysis. The use of stainless steel canisters to collect whole air samples (WAS) for post-flight analysis has been pioneered by the groups of D. Blake and E. Atlas [Blake et al., 1992; Atlas et al., 1993]. For the 2013 Southeast Nexus Study (SENEX), the NOAA ESRL CSD laboratory undertook WAS measurements for the first time. This required the construction of three new, highly-automated, and field-portable instruments designed to sample, analyze, and clean the canisters for re-use. Analysis was performed with a new custom-built gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer system. The instrument pre-concentrates analyte cryostatically into two parallel traps by means of a Stirling engine, a novel technique which obviates the need for liquid nitrogen to reach trapping temperatures of -175C. Here we present an evaluation of the retrieval of target VOC species from WAS canisters. We discuss the effects of humidity and sample age on the analyte, particularly upon C8+ alkane and aromatic species and biogenic species. Finally, we present results from several research flights during SENEX that targeted emissions from oil/natural gas production.

  10. Measurement of the Tracer Gradient and Sampling System Bias of the Hot Fuel Examination Facility Stack Air Monitoring System

    SciTech Connect

    Glissmeyer, John A.; Flaherty, Julia E.

    2011-07-20

    This report describes tracer gas uniformity and bias measurements made in the exhaust air discharge of the Hot Fuel Examination Facility at Idaho National Laboratory. The measurements were a follow-up on earlier measurements which indicated a lack of mixing of the two ventilation streams being discharged via a common stack. The lack of mixing is detrimental to the accuracy of air emission measurements. The lack of mixing was confirmed in these new measurements. The air sampling probe was found to be out of alignment and that was corrected. The suspected sampling bias in the air sample stream was disproved.

  11. Sampling and analysis of trace-organic constituents in ambient and workplace air at coal-conversion facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Flotard, R D

    1980-07-01

    A review of the recent literature reveals that current sampling procedures involve the use of glass fiber filters for particulate-sorbed organics and sorbent resins such as Tenax GC and XAD-2 for vapor-phase organics. Ultra trace-organic analysis of air pollutants or particulates may require the collection of a large (1000 to 3000 m/sup 3/) sample by a high volume air sampler. Personal air sampling requires a smaller (approx. = 0.5 m/sup 3/) and a portable collection apparatus. Trapped organic chemicals are recovered by solvent extraction or thermal desorption of the collector. Recovered organics are separated by using liquid chromatography or gas chromatography and are identified by ultraviolet or fluorescence spectroscopy, gas chromatography, or mass spectrometry. For quantification, standards are added to the air stream during sampling or to the filter or resin following sampling. Analysis of the requirement for air sampling in and around coal conversion plants, coupled with the findings of the literature review, indicates that a combined particulate-filter and solvent-extractable-resin sampling unit should be used to collect both particulate-sorbed organics and vapor-phase organics from workplace or ambient plant air. Such a sampler was developed for stationary, moderate-to-high-volume air sampling. Descriptions of the sampler are provided together with sampling efficiency information and recommendations for a sampling procedure.

  12. Starfleet Deferred: Project Orion in the 1962 Air Force Space Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ziarnick, B.

    Project Orion, the Cold War American program (1957-1965) studying nuclear pulse propulsion for space applications, has long interested space enthusiasts for what it was and what it might have been, but it has long been believed that neither the United States government nor the US Air Force took the program very seriously. However, recently declassified US Air Force documents shed more light on the classified history of Project Orion. Far from being ignored by Air Force leadership, through the efforts of the Strategic Air Command, Air Force leaders like General Curtis LeMay were convinced that Project Orion should be funded as a major weapons system. The high water mark of Project Orion was the 1962 Air Force Space Program proposal by the Air Force Chief of Staff to devote almost twenty percent of the Air Force space budget from 1962-1967 to Orion development before the program was cancelled by the civilian Secretary of the Air Force under pressure from the Department of Defense. This paper details the history of Project Orion in the 1962 Air Force Space Program proposal, and concludes with a few lessons learned for use by modern interstellar advocates.

  13. Guidance for establishment and implementation of field sample management programs in support of EM environmental sampling and analysis activities

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-02-18

    The role of the National Sample Management Program (NSMP) proposed by the Department of Energy`s Office of Environmental Management (EM) is to be a resource for EM programs and for local Field Sample Management Programs (FSMPs). It will be a source of information on sample analysis and data collection within the DOE complex. The purpose of this document is to establish the suggested scope of the FSMP activities to be performed under each Operations Office, list the drivers under which the program will operate, define terms and list references. This guidance will apply only to EM sampling and analysis activities associated with project planning, contracting, laboratory selection, sample collection, sample transportation, laboratory analysis and data management.

  14. Airborne Detection and Quantification of Swine Influenza A Virus in Air Samples Collected Inside, Outside and Downwind from Swine Barns

    PubMed Central

    Corzo, Cesar A.; Culhane, Marie; Dee, Scott; Morrison, Robert B.; Torremorell, Montserrat

    2013-01-01

    Airborne transmission of influenza A virus (IAV) in swine is speculated to be an important route of virus dissemination, but data are scarce. This study attempted to detect and quantify airborne IAV by virus isolation and RRT-PCR in air samples collected under field conditions. This was accomplished by collecting air samples from four acutely infected pig farms and locating air samplers inside the barns, at the external exhaust fans and downwind from the farms at distances up to 2.1 km. IAV was detected in air samples collected in 3 out of 4 farms included in the study. Isolation of IAV was possible from air samples collected inside the barn at two of the farms and in one farm from the exhausted air. Between 13% and 100% of samples collected inside the barns tested RRT-PCR positive with an average viral load of 3.20E+05 IAV RNA copies/m3 of air. Percentage of exhaust positive air samples also ranged between 13% and 100% with an average viral load of 1.79E+04 RNA copies/m3 of air. Influenza virus RNA was detected in air samples collected between 1.5 and 2.1 Km away from the farms with viral levels significantly lower at 4.65E+03 RNA copies/m3. H1N1, H1N2 and H3N2 subtypes were detected in the air samples and the hemagglutinin gene sequences identified in the swine samples matched those in aerosols providing evidence that the viruses detected in the aerosols originated from the pigs in the farms under study. Overall our results indicate that pigs can be a source of IAV infectious aerosols and that these aerosols can be exhausted from pig barns and be transported downwind. The results from this study provide evidence of the risk of aerosol transmission in pigs under field conditions. PMID:23951164

  15. Sorbent-based sampling methods for volatile and semi-volatile organic compounds in air Part 1: Sorbent-based air monitoring options.

    PubMed

    Woolfenden, Elizabeth

    2010-04-16

    Sorbent tubes/traps are widely used in combination with gas chromatographic (GC) analytical methods to monitor the vapour-phase fraction of organic compounds in air. Target compounds range in volatility from acetylene and freons to phthalates and PCBs and include apolar, polar and reactive species. Airborne vapour concentrations will vary depending on the nature of the location, nearby pollution sources, weather conditions, etc. Levels can range from low percent concentrations in stack and vent emissions to low part per trillion (ppt) levels in ultra-clean outdoor locations. Hundreds, even thousands of different compounds may be present in any given atmosphere. GC is commonly used in combination with mass spectrometry (MS) detection especially for environmental monitoring or for screening uncharacterised workplace atmospheres. Given the complexity and variability of organic vapours in air, no one sampling approach suits every monitoring scenario. A variety of different sampling strategies and sorbent media have been developed to address specific applications. Key sorbent-based examples include: active (pumped) sampling onto tubes packed with one or more sorbents held at ambient temperature; diffusive (passive) sampling onto sorbent tubes/cartridges; on-line sampling of air/gas streams into cooled sorbent traps; and transfer of air samples from containers (canisters, Tedlar) bags, etc.) into cooled sorbent focusing traps. Whichever sampling approach is selected, subsequent analysis almost always involves either solvent extraction or thermal desorption (TD) prior to GC(/MS) analysis. The overall performance of the air monitoring method will depend heavily on appropriate selection of key sampling and analytical parameters. This comprehensive review of air monitoring using sorbent tubes/traps is divided into 2 parts. (1) Sorbent-based air sampling option. (2) Sorbent selection and other aspects of optimizing sorbent-based air monitoring methods. The paper presents

  16. SAMPLE RESULTS FROM THE INTERIM SALT DISPOSITION PROGRAM MACROBATCH 8 TANK 21H QUALIFICATION SAMPLES

    SciTech Connect

    Peters, T. B.; Washington, A. L.

    2015-01-13

    Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) analyzed samples from Tank 21H in support of qualification of Macrobatch (Salt Batch) 8 for the Interim Salt Disposition Program (ISDP). An Actinide Removal Process (ARP) and several Extraction-Scrub- Strip (ESS) tests were also performed. This document reports characterization data on the samples of Tank 21H as well as simulated performance of ARP and the Modular Caustic Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX) Unit (MCU). No issues with the projected Salt Batch 8 strategy are identified. A demonstration of the monosodium titanate (MST) (0.2 g/L) removal of strontium and actinides provided acceptable average decontamination factors for plutonium of 2.62 (4 hour) and 2.90 (8 hour); and average strontium decontamination factors of 21.7 (4 hour) and 21.3 (8 hour). These values are consistent with results from previous salt batch ARP tests. The two ESS tests also showed acceptable performance with extraction distribution ratios (D{sub (Cs)}) values of 52.5 and 50.4 for the Next Generation Solvent (NGS) blend (from MCU) and NGS (lab prepared), respectively. These values are consistent with results from previous salt batch ESS tests. Even though the performance is acceptable, SRNL recommends that a model for predicting extraction behavior for cesium removal for the blended solvent and NGS be developed in order to improve our predictive capabilities for the ESS tests.

  17. Sample Results From The Interim Salt Disposition Program Macrobatch 7 Tank 21H Qualification Samples

    SciTech Connect

    Peters, T. B.; Washington, A. L. II

    2013-08-08

    Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) analyzed samples from Tank 21H in support of qualification of Macrobatch (Salt Batch) 7 for the Interim Salt Disposition Program (ISDP). An ARP and several ESS tests were also performed. This document reports characterization data on the samples of Tank 21H as well as simulated performance of ARP/MCU. No issues with the projected Salt Batch 7 strategy are identified, other than the presence of visible quantities of dark colored solids. A demonstration of the monosodium titanate (0.2 g/L) removal of strontium and actinides provided acceptable 4 hour average decontamination factors for Pu and Sr of 3.22 and 18.4, respectively. The Four ESS tests also showed acceptable behavior with distribution ratios (D(Cs)) values of 15.96, 57.1, 58.6, and 65.6 for the MCU, cold blend, hot blend, and Next Generation Solvent (NGS), respectively. The predicted value for the MCU solvent was 13.2. Currently, there are no models that would allow a prediction of extraction behavior for the other three solvents. SRNL recommends that a model for predicting extraction behavior for cesium removal for the blended solvent and NGS be developed. While no outstanding issues were noted, the presence of solids in the samples should be investigated in future work. It is possible that the solids may represent a potential reservoir of material (such as potassium) that could have an impact on MCU performance if they were to dissolve back into the feed solution. This salt batch is intended to be the first batch to be processed through MCU entirely using the new NGS-MCU solvent.

  18. An Evaluation of the AirCare Program Based on Cost-Benefit and Cost-Effectiveness Analyses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bi, Hsiaotao T.; Wang, Dianle

    2006-01-01

    A cost-benefit analysis of the AirCare program in the province of British Columbia on the basis of emissions cost factors from the literature showed a benefit outweighing the cost. Furthermore, a cost-effectiveness analysis comparing the AirCare program with a hybrid-car rebate program revealed that the AirCare program is more effective in…

  19. Sampling artifacts in active air sampling of semivolatile organic contaminants: Comparing theoretical and measured artifacts and evaluating implications for monitoring networks.

    PubMed

    Melymuk, Lisa; Bohlin-Nizzetto, Pernilla; Prokeš, Roman; Kukučka, Petr; Klánová, Jana

    2016-10-01

    The effects of sampling artifacts are often not fully considered in the design of air monitoring with active air samplers. Semivolatile organic contaminants (SVOCs) are particularly vulnerable to a range of sampling artifacts because of their wide range of gas-particle partitioning and degradation rates, and these can lead to erroneous measurements of air concentrations and a lack of comparability between sites with different environmental and sampling conditions. This study used specially adapted filter-sorbent sampling trains in three types of active air samplers to investigate breakthrough of SVOCs, and the possibility of other sampling artifacts. Breakthrough volumes were experimentally determined for a range of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in sampling volumes from 300 to 10,000 m(3), and sampling durations of 1-7 days. In parallel, breakthrough was estimated based on theoretical sorbent-vapor pressure relationships. The comparison of measured and theoretical determinations of breakthrough demonstrated good agreement between experimental and estimated breakthrough volumes, and showed that theoretical breakthrough estimates should be used when developing air monitoring protocols. Significant breakthrough in active air samplers occurred for compounds with vapor pressure >0.5 Pa at volumes <700 m(3). Sample volumes between 700 and 10,000 m(3) may lead to breakthrough for compounds with vapor pressures between 0.005 and 0.5 Pa. Breakthrough is largely driven by sample volume and compound volatility (therefore indirectly by temperature) and is independent of sampler type. The presence of significant breakthrough at "typical" sampling conditions is relevant for air monitoring networks, and may lead to under-reporting of more volatile SVOCs. PMID:26743995

  20. Nonuniform air flow in inlets: the effect on filter deposits in the fiber sampling cassette.

    PubMed

    Baron, P A; Chen, C C; Hemenway, D R; O'Shaughnessy, P

    1994-08-01

    Smoke stream studies were combined with a new technique for visualizing a filter deposit from samples used to monitor asbestos or other fibers. Results clearly show the effect of secondary flow vortices within the sampler under anisoaxial sampling conditions. The vortices observed at low wind velocities occur when the inlet axis is situated at angles between 45 degrees and 180 degrees to the motion of the surrounding air. It is demonstrated that the vortices can create a complex nonuniform pattern in the filter deposit, especially when combined with particle settling or electrostatic interactions between the particles and the sampler. Inertial effects also may play a role in the deposit nonuniformity, as well as causing deposition on the cowl surfaces. Changes in the sampler, such as its placement, may reduce these biases. The effects noted are not likely to occur in all sampling situations, but may explain some reports of high variability on asbestos fiber filter samples. The flow patterns observed in this study are applicable to straight, thin-walled inlets. Although only compact particles were used, the air flow patterns and forces involved will have similar effects on fibers of the same aerodynamic diameter. PMID:7942509

  1. Biomimetic air sampling for detection of low concentrations of molecules and bioagents : LDRD 52744 final report.

    SciTech Connect

    Hughes, Robert Clark

    2003-12-01

    Present methods of air sampling for low concentrations of chemicals like explosives and bioagents involve noisy and power hungry collectors with mechanical parts for moving large volumes of air. However there are biological systems that are capable of detecting very low concentrations of molecules with no mechanical moving parts. An example is the silkworm moth antenna which is a highly branched structure where each of 100 branches contains about 200 sensory 'hairs' which have dimensions of 2 microns wide by 100 microns long. The hairs contain about 3000 pores which is where the gas phase molecules enter the aqueous (lymph) phase for detection. Simulations of diffusion of molecules indicate that this 'forest' of hairs is 'designed' to maximize the extraction of the vapor phase molecules. Since typical molecules lose about 4 decades in diffusion constant upon entering the liquid phase, it is important to allow air diffusion to bring the molecule as close to the 'sensor' as possible. The moth acts on concentrations as low as 1000 molecules per cubic cm. (one part in 1e16). A 3-D collection system of these dimensions could be fabricated by micromachining techniques available at Sandia. This LDRD addresses the issues involved with extracting molecules from air onto micromachined structures and then delivering those molecules to microsensors for detection.

  2. Urban air quality assessment using monitoring data of fractionized aerosol samples, chemometrics and meteorological conditions.

    PubMed

    Yotova, Galina I; Tsitouridou, Roxani; Tsakovski, Stefan L; Simeonov, Vasil D

    2016-01-01

    The present article deals with assessment of urban air by using monitoring data for 10 different aerosol fractions (0.015-16 μm) collected at a typical urban site in City of Thessaloniki, Greece. The data set was subject to multivariate statistical analysis (cluster analysis and principal components analysis) and, additionally, to HYSPLIT back trajectory modeling in order to assess in a better way the impact of the weather conditions on the pollution sources identified. A specific element of the study is the effort to clarify the role of outliers in the data set. The reason for the appearance of outliers is strongly related to the atmospheric condition on the particular sampling days leading to enhanced concentration of pollutants (secondary emissions, sea sprays, road and soil dust, combustion processes) especially for ultra fine and coarse particles. It is also shown that three major sources affect the urban air quality of the location studied-sea sprays, mineral dust and anthropogenic influences (agricultural activity, combustion processes, and industrial sources). The level of impact is related to certain extent to the aerosol fraction size. The assessment of the meteorological conditions leads to defining of four downwind patterns affecting the air quality (Pelagic, Western and Central Europe, Eastern and Northeastern Europe and Africa and Southern Europe). Thus, the present study offers a complete urban air assessment taking into account the weather conditions, pollution sources and aerosol fractioning. PMID:26942452

  3. Joint University Program for Air Transportation Research, 1985

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrell, Frederick R. (Compiler)

    1987-01-01

    Air transportation research being carried on at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Princeton University, and Ohio University is discussed. Global Positioning System experiments, Loran-C monitoring, inertial navigation, the optimization of aircraft trajectories through severe microbursts, fault tolerant flight control systems, and expert systems for air traffic control are among the topics covered.

  4. The Nationwide Program for Maintenance of Air Quality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rhoads, Richard G.

    1975-01-01

    Through the Clean Air Act of 1970 the Federal government established ambient air quality standards while allocating to the states the responsibility of implementation. State plans must be modified to ensure maintenance of the standards after attainment has been achieved and to maintain standards in areas threatened by pollution. (MR)

  5. 77 FR 65006 - Air Cargo Advance Screening (ACAS) Pilot Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-24

    ... December 5, 2003, CBP published a final rule in the Federal Register (68 FR 68140) to effectuate the... the air cargo is loaded and early enough so that CBP has sufficient time to identify, target, and... information other eligible filers may transmit to CBP. For non- consolidated shipments, the air carrier...

  6. Quantifying water and air redistribution in heterogeneous sand sample by neutron imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Šácha, Jan; Sobotková, Martina; Jelínková, Vladimíra; Sněhota, Michal; Vontobel, Peter; Hovind, Jan

    2014-05-01

    Significant temporal variation of quasi saturated hydraulic conductivity (Kqs) has been observed to date in number of infiltration experiments conducted mainly on heterogeneous soil of Cambisol. The change of quasi-saturated hydraulic conductivity cannot be precisely described by existing models. The Kqs variations has been recently attributed to a changing distribution of the entrapped air and water within the sample. It is expected that air is moved to the preferential pathway and acts as a barrier there. To support this assumption a ponded infiltration experiment was conducted on a soil sample packed into the quartz glass column of inner diameter of 34 mm. The sample composition represents simplified heterogeneity of the natural soil but also allow the easy quantitative water content determination in individual subdomains of the sample. The matrix formed by a fine sand was surrounded with regions of coarse sand representing preferential flow pathways. The Kqs was determined from the known hydraulic gradient and measured volume flux. The experiment was monitored by neutron radiography. Volume of water in the sample calculated from neutron projections matched very well with actually infiltrated volume in the sample during first 40 second after beginning of infiltration. From the acquired radiographic images the 3D tomography images were reconstructed to obtain the spatial distribution of the water content within the sample. Difference between water volume calculated from radiography and tomography images was no more than 5%. While the total amount of water determined by NR within the sample during the quasi steady state flow remains practically constant (27.9 cm3 at the beginning and 28.6 cm3 on the end of infiltration) the water content in the coarse fraction decreases (from 0.333 to 0.324) and the water content in the fine fraction increases (from 0.414 to 0.436) in 5 hours. Similarly to previous experiments performed on natural Cambisols, the results support

  7. Glyphosate–rich air samples induce IL–33, TSLP and generate IL–13 dependent airway inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Sudhir; Khodoun, Marat; Kettleson, Eric M.; McKnight, Christopher; Reponen, Tiina; Grinshpun, Sergey A.; Adhikari, Atin

    2014-01-01

    Several low weight molecules have often been implicated in the induction of occupational asthma. Glyphosate, a small molecule herbicide, is widely used in the world. There is a controversy regarding a role of glyphosate in developing asthma and rhinitis among farmers, the mechanism of which is unexplored. The aim of this study was to explore the mechanisms of glyphosate induced pulmonary pathology by utilizing murine models and real environmental samples. C57BL/6, TLR4−/−, and IL-13−/− mice inhaled extracts of glyphosate-rich air samples collected on farms during spraying of herbicides or inhaled different doses of glyphosate and ovalbumin. The cellular response, humoral response, and lung function of exposed mice were evaluated. Exposure to glyphosate-rich air samples as well as glyphosate alone to the lungs increased: eosinophil and neutrophil counts, mast cell degranulation, and production of IL-33, TSLP, IL-13, and IL-5. In contrast, in vivo systemic IL-4 production was not increased. Co-administration of ovalbumin with glyphosate did not substantially change the inflammatory immune response. However, IL-13-deficiency resulted in diminished inflammatory response but did not have a significant effect on airway resistance upon methacholine challenge after 7 or 21 days of glyphosate exposure. Glyphosate-rich farm air samples as well as glyphosate alone were found to induce pulmonary IL-13-dependent inflammation and promote Th2 type cytokines, but not IL-4 for glyphosate alone. This study, for the first time, provides evidence for the mechanism of glyphosate-induced occupational lung disease. PMID:25172162

  8. U.S.-MEXICO BORDER PROGRAM ARIZONA BORDER STUDY--VOCS IN AIR ANALYTICAL RESULTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The VOCs in Air data set contains analytical results for measurements of up to 45 volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in 183 air samples over 86 households. Results include samples taken using active and passive techniques. The primary VOCs of interest include benzene (CAS# 71-43...

  9. The role of air quality management programs in improving public health: a brief synopsis.

    PubMed

    Vandenberg, John J

    2005-02-01

    Observations of adverse effects of air pollution on public health, illustrated by the London smog events in the 1950s, led to legislation in the United States requiring development of federal, state, and local air quality management programs. The implementation of management programs has resulted in significant reductions in air pollutant emissions from stationary and mobile sources and hence their ambient concentrations and associated health risks. Evidence of benefits from improvements in air quality can be identified from studies in which rapid changes in air quality have occurred. Health risk assessment and benefits estimates also can be predictive, resulting in mean estimates of avoided mortality in excess of many thousands of cases per year as a result of implementation of air quality management programs in the United States. PMID:15696091

  10. Sampling size in the verification of manufactured-supplied air kerma strengths

    SciTech Connect

    Ramos, Luis Isaac; Martinez Monge, Rafael

    2005-11-15

    Quality control mandate that the air kerma strengths (S{sub K}) of permanent seeds be verified, this is usually done by statistics inferred from 10% of the seeds. The goal of this paper is to proposed a new sampling method in which the number of seeds to be measured will be set beforehand according to an a priori statistical level of uncertainty. The results are based on the assumption that the S{sub K} has a normal distribution. To demonstrate this, the S{sub K} of each of the seeds measured was corrected to ensure that the average S{sub K} of its sample remained the same. In this process 2030 results were collected and analyzed using a normal plot. In our opinion, the number of seeds sampled should be determined beforehand according to an a priori level of statistical uncertainty.

  11. The contribution of nitro- and methylnitronaphthalenes to the vapor-phase mutagenicity of ambient air samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, Pamela; Harger, William P.; Arey, Janet

    1- and 2-Nitronaphthalene (NN) and the 14 methylnitronaphthalene (MNN) isomers were identified and quantified in ambient vapor-phase samples collected in Redlands, CA during moderate photochemical air pollution. The mutagenic activities of NN and MNN standards were determined using a microsuspension-preincubation modification of the Ames Salmonella bacterial reversion assay in strain TA98 without microsomal activation. The calculated contributions of the NNs and MNNs to the total vapor-phase ambient mutagenic activity were ˜ 18 and ˜ 32% for daytime and nighttime composite samples, respectively. Enhanced mutagenic activity in the nighttime sample was attributed to NN and MNN formation from nighttime N03 radical-initiated reactions of naphthalene and the methylnaphthalenes.

  12. Atmospheric trace gas measurements with a new clean air sampling system

    SciTech Connect

    Leifer, R.; Sommers, K.; Guggenheim, S.F.

    1981-10-01

    The development of a new clean air sampling system for the Department of Energy's WB-57F aircraft has allowed the analysis of CCl/sub 3/F (Fluorocarbon-11), CCl/sub 2/F/sub 2/ (Fluorocarbon-12), CHClF/sub 2/ (Fluorocarbon-22), C/sub 2/Cl/sub 3/F/sub 3/ (Fluorocarbon-113), CH/sub 4/, CO, CO/sub 2/, N/sub 2/O, CH/sub 3/Cl, CCl/sub 4/, CH/sub 3/CCl/sub 3/, OCS and SF/sub 6/ in tropospheric and stratospheric samples. Samples collected during the interception of the plume from the eruption of Mount St. Helens indicate that OCS was injected into the stratosphere during the eruption. A large CO/sub 2/ gradient was found at 19.2 km on this flight.

  13. Monitoring organic nitrogen species in the UT/LS - a new system for analysis of CARIBIC whole air samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sauvage, Carina; Thorenz, Ute; Baker, Angela; Brenninkmeijer, Carl; Williams, Jonathan

    2014-05-01

    The CARIBIC project is a unique program for long term and global scale monitoring of the atmosphere (http://www.caribic-atmospheric.com). An instrument container is installed monthly into a civil aircraft operated by Lufthansa (Airbus A 340-600) and makes atmospheric observations en route from Frankfurt, Germany to various destinations around the globe. In four to six long distance flights at a cruising altitude of 10 to 12 km online measurements of various atmospheric tracers are performed during the flight as well as whole air samples are taken with two different sampling units (116 samples in both glass and stainless steel canisters). These samples are routinely analyzed for greenhouse gases, non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHC) and halogenated compounds. Nitrogen containing compounds play various important roles in the atmosphere. Alkyl nitrates (RONO2) are products of the reaction of NMHC with OH and other oxidants in the presence of NO. They can provide information on the oxidative history of an air mass. Moreover they influence photolchemical ozone formation and act as a transport mechanism for reactive nitrogen. Less reactive nitrogen containing species such as HCN and acetonitrile are important markers for biomass burning, while organic amines are involved in gas to particle partitioning. Finally N2O is a long lived nitrogen containing gas important for the Earth's radiative budget. Regular measurements of such nitrogen compounds would therefore be a significant contribution to the CARIBIC data set. Especially for high altitude samples, in which the mixing ratios of many species are expected to be in the low ppt range, a highly sensitive method for analysis is required. Therefore a new system for measurement of nitrogen compounds has been built up, comprising a gas chromatograph (GC) using a nitrogen chemiluminescence detector (NCD). An important advantage of the NCD is that it is selective for nitrogen and equimolar. The nitrogen compounds are sequentially pre

  14. Implementing a Compressed Air System Leak Management Program at an Automotive Plant (Visteon's Monroe Plant)

    SciTech Connect

    2001-01-01

    The energy team at Visteon’s Monroe plant, formerly owned by Ford Motor Company, implemented an ongoing compressed air system leak management program. The team developed an approach that combined a traditional “find and fix” effort with an innovative implementation and marketing program. As a result of the leak management program, compressed air system consumption was reduced by more than 50% on a per production unit basis.

  15. Noaa chlorofluorocarbon tracer program air and seawater measurements: 1986-1989. Data file

    SciTech Connect

    Wisegarver, D.P.; Bullister, J.L.; Gammon, R.H.; Menzia, F.A.; Kelly, K.C.

    1993-04-01

    The NOAA Chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) Tracer Program at PMEL has been measuring the growing burden of these anthropogenic gases in the thermocline waters of the Pacific Ocean since 1980. The central goals of the NOAA CFC Tracer Program are to document the transient invasion of the CFC tracers into the Pacific Ocean, by means of repeat occupations of key hydrographic sections at 5-year intervals, and to interpret these changing distributions in terms of coupled ocean-atmosphere models. Studies are underway to use the CFC observations in model-validation studies, and to help develop predictive capabilities on the decade-to-century timescale. The report includes measurements of trichlorofluoromethane (CFC-11) and dichlorodifluoromethane (CFC-12) dissolved in seawater samples collected in the Pacific Ocean by the NOAA CFC Tracer Program on six cruises during the period of 1986-1989. Measurements of depth, pressure, salinity, temperature, and dissolved oxygen are included with the CFC data. Measurements of CFC-11 and CFC-12 in air samples collected along the cruise tracks are also included in the report. Data from the report are also available from the authors in digital format.

  16. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers and alternative flame retardants in air and precipitation samples from the northern Lake Victoria region, East Africa.

    PubMed

    Arinaitwe, Kenneth; Muir, Derek C G; Kiremire, Bernard T; Fellin, Phil; Li, Henrik; Teixeira, Camilla

    2014-01-01

    High volume air and precipitation samples were collected close to the shore of Lake Victoria at Entebbe, Uganda, between October 2008 and July 2010 inclusive. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and alternative flame retardants (AFRs) were analyzed by GC-MS. BDEs 47, 99, and 209 were the predominant PBDEs with mean concentrations (in air) of 9.84, 4.38, 8.27 pg m(-3) and mean fluxes in precipitation of 3.40, 6.23, and 7.82 ng m(-2) sample(-1), respectively. 1,2-bis(2,4,6-tribromophenoxy)ethane (BTBPE), and hexabromocyclododecane (HBCDD), anti- and syn-Dechlorane plus were detected at levels comparable with those of PBDEs. Both PBDEs and AFRs in air generally increased from 2008 to 2010. Elevated PBDE concentrations in air were associated with slow moving low altitude air masses from the region immediately adjacent to the lake, while low concentrations were mostly associated with fast moving westerly and southwesterly air masses. Analysis of the octa- and nona-BDE profiles suggested photolysis and pyrolytic debromination of BDE-209 in the air samples. The highly halogenated and most abundant PBDEs and AFRs in air also predominated in precipitation samples. This is the first study to report flame retardants in high volume air samples and precipitation in Equatorial Africa. PMID:24400732

  17. Evaluation of passive air sampler calibrations: Selection of sampling rates and implications for the measurement of persistent organic pollutants in air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melymuk, Lisa; Robson, Matthew; Helm, Paul A.; Diamond, Miriam L.

    2011-04-01

    Polyurethane foam (PUF) passive air samplers (PAS) are a common and highly useful method of sampling persistent organic pollutants (POP) concentrations in air. PAS calibration is necessary to obtain reasonable and comparable semi-quantitative measures of air concentrations. Various methods are found in the literature concerning PAS calibration. 35 studies on PAS use and calibration are examined here, in conjunction with a study involving 10 PAS deployed concurrently in outdoor air with a low-volume air sampler in order to measure the sampling rates of PUF-PAS for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), polycyclic musks (PCMs), and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Based on this analysis it is recommended that (1) PAS should be assumed to represent bulk rather than gas-phase compound concentrations due to the sampling of particle-bound compounds, (2) calibration of PAS sampling rates is more accurately achieved using an active low-volume air sampler rather than depuration compounds since the former measures gas- and particle-phase compounds and does so continuously over the deployment period of the PAS, and (3) homolog-specific sampling rates based on KOA groupings be used in preference to compound/congener-specific or single sampling rates.

  18. Soyuz 23 Return Samples: Assessment of Air Quality Aboard the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    James, John T.

    2011-01-01

    Six mini-grab sample containers (m-GSCs) were returned aboard Soyuz 23 because of concerns that new air pollutants had been present in the air and these were getting into the water recovery system. The Total Organic Carbon Analyzer had been giving increasing readings of total organic carbon (TOC) in the potable water, and it was postulated that an increased load into the system was responsible. The TOC began to decline in late October, 2010. The toxicological assessment of 6 m-GSCs from the ISS is shown in Table 1. The recoveries of 13C-acetone, fluorobenzene, and chlorobenzene from the GSCs averaged 73, 82, and 59%, respectively. We are working to understand the sub-optimal recovery of chlorobenzene.

  19. An experiment to determine atmospheric CO concentrations of tropical South Atlantic air samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirchhoff, V. W. J. H.; Aires, C. B.; Alvala, P. C.

    2003-04-01

    New observations of atmospheric carbon monoxide, CO, are described, from tropical South Atlantic air samples. A new observational site, Maxaranguape, was set up in a clean remote environment right next to the ocean on the north-east coast of Brazil, to obtain CO mixing ratios and auxiliary data (meteorological parameters, ozone (O3), carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4)) during three sequential seasonal cycles. The seasonal variations of temperature, humidity and precipitation are shown for the new site. Chromatographic separation followed by mercury oxide detection is used to measure CO. The seasonality of the CO data was clearly established. Minima are seen during April, May and June showing wet-period averages of 56.1 parts per billion by volume (ppbv), with standard deviation 8.7 ppbv; during dry-period months, August to November, the average was 77.7 ± 16.5 ppbv. For comparison, CO concentrations were also measured over continental areas in Brazil. Much larger values have been found in moderate 'burning' regions, such as the south of the state of Mato Grosso and the north-western part of the state of Parana, where 200 ppbv in the dry season has been observed. Since normally the air masses have travelled for several days over the ocean, the air masses over the site present low chemical activity. Daily variations of CO2 are very small, of the order of a few percent relative to the diurnal mean. Only on rare occasions, when the wind direction changes, is the sampled air contaminated from flowing over the inhabited shoreline to the south, and then CO2 varies inversely with O3. The monthly mean CH4 data does not show a clear seasonal variation, possibly because the amplitude of the CH4 variation is only of the order of 1%, which is close to the precision of the measuring instrument.

  20. Results of Self-Absorption Study on the Versapor 3000 Filters for Radioactive Particulate Air Sampling

    SciTech Connect

    Barnett, J. Matthew; Cullinan, Valerie I.; Barnett, Debra S.; Trang-Le, Truc LT; Bliss, Mary; Greenwood, Lawrence R.; Ballinger, Marcel Y.

    2009-02-17

    Since the mid-1980s, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has used a value of 0.85 as the correction factor for self absorption of activity for particulate radioactive air samples collected from building exhaust for environmental monitoring. This value accounts for activity that cannot be detected by direct counting of alpha and beta particles. Emissions can be degraded or blocked by filter fibers for particles buried in the filter material or by inactive dust particles collected with the radioactive particles. These filters are used for monitoring air emissions from PNNL stacks for radioactive particles. This paper describes an effort to re-evaluate self-absorption effects in particulate radioactive air sample filters (Versapor® 3000, 47 mm diameter) used at PNNL. There were two methods used to characterize the samples. Sixty samples were selected from the archive for acid digestion to compare the radioactivity measured by direct gas-flow proportional counting of filters to the results obtained after acid digestion of the filter and counting again by gas-flow proportional detection. Thirty different sample filters were selected for visible light microscopy to evaluate filter loading and particulate characteristics. Mass-loading effects were also considered. Filter ratios were calculated by dividing the initial counts by the post-digestion counts with the expectation that post-digestion counts would be higher because digestion would expose radioactivity embedded in the filter in addition to that on top of the filter. Contrary to expectations, the post digestion readings were almost always lower than initial readings and averaged approximately half the initial readings for both alpha and beta activity. Before and after digestion readings appeared to be related to each other, but with a low coefficient of determination (R^2) value. The ratios had a wide range of values indicating that this method did not provide sufficient precision to quantify self

  1. Passive air sampling of organochlorine pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls, and polybrominated diphenyl ethers across the tibetan plateau.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiao-Ping; Gong, Ping; Yao, Tan-Dong; Jones, Kevin C

    2010-04-15

    So far there are limited data on persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in the atmosphere of the Tibetan Plateau. XAD 2-resin based passive air samplers were therefore deployed for 1 year (between July 2007-June 2008) at 16 locations across the Tibetan Plateau. Based on previously reported sampling rates (R) derived in the north and south America, and their correlations with atmospheric temperature and pressure, R values in the present study were in the range of 2.2-3.3 m(3) d(-1) (average = 2.7 +/- 0.3). Derived air concentrations (pg/m(3)) ranged as follows: DDTs, 5-75; HCHs, 0.1-36; alpha-endosulfan, 0.1-10; HCB, 2.8-80; sum of 15 PCBs, 1.8-8.2; and sum of 9 PBDEs, 0.1-8.3. The highest DDTs occurred at Qamdo, where the sampling site is near to farm land, indicating the spatial distribution of DDTs across the plateau may be influenced by scattered local usage of DDT. Higher levels of HCHs were observed at sites with high elevation (>4000 m) and close to the China-India border, indicating possible long-range atmospheric transport. The highest levels of HCB, PCBs, and PBDEs were found at a site impacted by forest fire during the sampling campaign. PMID:20235613

  2. Auditing of sampling methods for air toxics at coal-fired power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Agbede, R.O.; Clements, J.L.; Grunebach, M.G.

    1995-11-01

    Advanced Technology Systems, Inc. (ATS) with subcontract assistance from international Technology Corporation (IT) has provided external audit activities for Phase II of the Department of Energy-Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center`s air emission test program. The objective of the audits is to help ensure that the data obtained from the emission tests are precise, accurate, representative, scientifically sound and legally defensible. This paper presents the criteria that were used to perform the external audits of the emission test program. It also describes the approach used by ATS and It in performing their audits. Examples of findings of the audits along with the actions take to correct problems and the subsequent effect of those actions on the test data are presented. The results of audit spikes performed at the Plant 1 test site are also discussed.

  3. The Air Force Air Program and Information Management System (APIMS): A flexible tool for managing your Title V Operating Permits

    SciTech Connect

    Weston, A.A.; Gordon, S.R.

    1999-07-01

    The Air Force Command Core System (CCS) is an integrated, activity-based risk management system designed to support the information needs of Environment, Safety, and Occupational Health (ESOH) professionals. These professionals are responsible for managing a complex and often dynamic set of requirements, and therefore, have a need for an information system that can readily be customized to meet their specific needs. This dynamic environment also drives the need for flexibility in the system. The Air Program Information Management System (APIMS) is a module within CCS designed to not only manage permit compliance and emission inventories, but also support the monitoring, recordkeeping, and reporting requirements related to air quality issues. This paper will describe the underlying foundation of CCS, the information linkages within the database, and then summarize the functionality available within the APIMS module to support the Air Quality Managers' information needs, placing emphasis on the flexibility the system provides to manage Title V Operating Permits.

  4. THE SCIENTIFIC BASIS OF NOAA'S AIR QUALITY FORECASTING PROGRAM

    EPA Science Inventory

    For many years, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) has conducted atmospheric research, including chemical and physical measurements, process studies, and the development and evaluation of experimental meteorological and photochemical air quality models. ...

  5. Indoor air sampling and mutagenicity studies related to emissions from unvented coal combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Mumford, J.L.; Harris, D.B.; Williams, K.; Chuang, J.C.; Cooke, M.

    1986-07-01

    The purpose of the study is to develop sampling strategies and bioassay methods for indoor air in homes. The work reported here was conducted to prepare for a joint U.S.-China field study in Xuan Wei County, Yunnan Province, southern China, where the residents traditionally burn coal or wood for domestic cooking and heating without flue ventilation. These residents are exposed daily to high levels of combustion smoke and have unusually high lung cancer mortality rates, the women's rate the highest in China, and the men's rate among the highest. The paper reports the chemical and biological characterization of coal emissions from a simulated combustion laboratory.

  6. Beryllium 7 and lead 210 in the Western Hemisphere Arctic atmosphere - Observations from three recent aircraft-based sampling programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dibb, Jack E.; Talbot, Robert W.; Gregory, Gerald L.

    1992-01-01

    Concentrations of the natural radionuclides Be-7 and Pb-210 in the Western Hemisphere Arctic atmosphere were determined during the recent NOAA Arctic Gas and Aerosol Sampling Program (AGASP 3) and NASA Global Tropospheric Experiment/Arctic Boundary Layer Expeditions (GTE/ABLE 3A and ABLE 3B) missions. Be-7 concentrations measured during the AGASP 3 mission north and west of Norway are in accord with previous results for high northern latitudes, but suggest that the 'stratospheric' air masses sampled at the highest elevations reached were significantly diluted with tropospheric air. Higher resolution sampling in the free troposphere of the North American Arctic during ABLE 3B revealed a layer of elevated Be-7 concentrations near 5 km. The distribution of Pb-210 in the high-altitude troposphere of North America during the summer was quite similar to distributions of more frequently measured aerosol species.

  7. Flight summaries and temperature climatology at airliner cruise altitudes from GASP (Global Atmospheric Sampling Program) data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nastrom, G. D.; Jasperson, W. H.

    1983-01-01

    Temperature data obtained by the Global Atmospheric Sampling Program (GASP) during the period March 1975 to July 1979 are compiled to form flight summaries of static air temperature and a geographic temperature climatology. The flight summaries include the height and location of the coldest observed temperature and the mean flight level, temperature and the standard deviation of temperature for each flight as well as for flight segments. These summaries are ordered by route and month. The temperature climatology was computed for all statistically independent temperture data for each flight. The grid used consists of 5 deg latitude, 30 deg longitude and 2000 feet vertical resolution from FL270 to FL430 for each month of the year. The number of statistically independent observations, their mean, standard deviation and the empirical 98, 50, 16, 2 and .3 probability percentiles are presented.

  8. 76 FR 17287 - Protocol Gas Verification Program and Minimum Competency Requirements for Air Emission Testing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-28

    ..., the Acid Rain Program, and the Clean Air Interstate Rule. EPA is amending its Protocol Gas... sections of the Acid Rain Program continuous emission monitoring system regulations by adding and..., 2008, revisions to 40 CFR part 75, the Acid Rain Program continuous emission monitoring...

  9. Contemporary-use pesticides in personal air samples during pregnancy and blood samples at delivery among urban minority mothers and newborns.

    PubMed Central

    Whyatt, Robin M; Barr, Dana B; Camann, David E; Kinney, Patrick L; Barr, John R; Andrews, Howard F; Hoepner, Lori A; Garfinkel, Robin; Hazi, Yair; Reyes, Andria; Ramirez, Judyth; Cosme, Yesenia; Perera, Frederica P

    2003-01-01

    We have measured 29 pesticides in plasma samples collected at birth between 1998 and 2001 from 230 mother and newborn pairs enrolled in the Columbia Center for Children's Environmental Health prospective cohort study. Our prior research has shown widespread pesticide use during pregnancy among this urban minority cohort from New York City. We also measured eight pesticides in 48-hr personal air samples collected from the mothers during pregnancy. The following seven pesticides were detected in 48-83% of plasma samples (range, 1-270 pg/g): the organophosphates chlorpyrifos and diazinon, the carbamates bendiocarb and 2-isopropoxyphenol (metabolite of propoxur), and the fungicides dicloran, phthalimide (metabolite of folpet and captan), and tetrahydrophthalimide (metabolite of captan and captafol). Maternal and cord plasma levels were similar and, except for phthalimide, were highly correlated (p < 0.001). Chlorpyrifos, diazinon, and propoxur were detected in 100% of personal air samples (range, 0.7-6,010 ng/m(3)). Diazinon and propoxur levels were significantly higher in the personal air of women reporting use of an exterminator, can sprays, and/or pest bombs during pregnancy compared with women reporting no pesticide use or use of lower toxicity methods only. A significant correlation was seen between personal air level of chlorpyrifos, diazinon, and propoxur and levels of these insecticides or their metabolites in plasma samples (maternal and/or cord, p < 0.05). The fungicide ortho-phenylphenol was also detected in 100% of air samples but was not measured in plasma. The remaining 22 pesticides were detected in 0-45% of air or plasma samples. Chlorpyrifos, diazinon, propoxur, and bendiocarb levels in air and/or plasma decreased significantly between 1998 and 2001. Findings indicate that pesticide exposures are frequent but decreasing and that the pesticides are readily transferred to the developing fetus during pregnancy. PMID:12727605

  10. Estimation of sampling error uncertainties in observed surface air temperature change in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hua, Wei; Shen, Samuel S. P.; Weithmann, Alexander; Wang, Huijun

    2016-06-01

    This study examines the sampling error uncertainties in the monthly surface air temperature (SAT) change in China over recent decades, focusing on the uncertainties of gridded data, national averages, and linear trends. Results indicate that large sampling error variances appear at the station-sparse area of northern and western China with the maximum value exceeding 2.0 K2 while small sampling error variances are found at the station-dense area of southern and eastern China with most grid values being less than 0.05 K2. In general, the negative temperature existed in each month prior to the 1980s, and a warming in temperature began thereafter, which accelerated in the early and mid-1990s. The increasing trend in the SAT series was observed for each month of the year with the largest temperature increase and highest uncertainty of 0.51 ± 0.29 K (10 year)-1 occurring in February and the weakest trend and smallest uncertainty of 0.13 ± 0.07 K (10 year)-1 in August. The sampling error uncertainties in the national average annual mean SAT series are not sufficiently large to alter the conclusion of the persistent warming in China. In addition, the sampling error uncertainties in the SAT series show a clear variation compared with other uncertainty estimation methods, which is a plausible reason for the inconsistent variations between our estimate and other studies during this period.

  11. Extreme 13C depletion of CCl2F2 in firn air samples from NEEM, Greenland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zuiderweg, A.; Holzinger, R.; Martinerie, P.; Schneider, R.; Kaiser, J.; Witrant, E.; Etheridge, D.; Petrenko, V.; Blunier, T.; Röckmann, T.

    2013-01-01

    A series of 12 high volume air samples collected from the S2 firn core during the North Greenland Eemian Ice Drilling (NEEM) 2009 campaign have been measured for mixing ratio and stable carbon isotope composition of the chlorofluorocarbon CFC-12 (CCl2F2). While the mixing ratio measurements compare favorably to other firn air studies, the isotope results show extreme 13C depletion at the deepest measurable depth (65 m), to values lower than δ13C = -80‰ vs. VPDB (the international stable carbon isotope scale), compared to present day surface tropospheric measurements near -40‰. Firn air modeling was used to interpret these measurements. Reconstructed atmospheric time series indicate even larger depletions (to -120‰) near 1950 AD, with subsequent rapid enrichment of the atmospheric reservoir of the compound to the present day value. Mass-balance calculations show that this change is likely to have been caused by a large change in the isotopic composition of anthropogenic CFC-12 emissions, probably due to technological advances in the CFC production process over the last 80 yr, though direct evidence is lacking.

  12. Extreme 13C depletion of CCl2F2 in firn air samples from NEEM, Greenland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zuiderweg, A.; Holzinger, R.; Martinerie, P.; Schneider, R.; Kaiser, J.; Witrant, E.; Etheridge, D.; Rubino, M.; Petrenko, V.; Blunier, T.; Röckmann, T.

    2012-07-01

    A series of 12 high volume air samples collected from the S2 firn core during the North Greenland Eemian Ice Drilling (NEEM) 2009 campaign have been measured for mixing ratio and stable carbon isotope composition of the chlorofluorocarbon CFC-12 (CCl2F2). While the mixing ratio measurements compare favorably to other firn air studies, the isotope results show extreme 13C depletion at the deepest measurable depth (65 m), to values lower than δ13C = -80‰ vs. VPDB (the international stable carbon isotope scale), compared to present day surface tropospheric measurements near -40‰. Firn air modeling was used to interpret these measurements. Reconstructed atmospheric time series indicate even larger depletions (to -120‰) near 1950 AD, with subsequent rapid enrichment of the atmospheric reservoir of the compound to the present day value. Mass-balance calculations show that this change must have been caused by a large change in the isotopic composition of anthropogenic CFC-12 emissions, probably due to technological changes in the CFC production process over the last 80 yr. Propagating the mass-balance calculations into the future demonstrates that as emissions decrease to zero, isotopic fractionation by the stratospheric sinks will lead to continued 13C enrichment in atmospheric CFC-12.

  13. Optimisation steps of an innovative air sampling method for semi volatile organic compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lazarov, Borislav; Swinnen, Rudi; Spruyt, Maarten; Goelen, Eddy; Stranger, Marianne; Desmet, Gilbert; Wauters, Eric

    2013-11-01

    This work describes optimisation steps of an innovative method for the measurement several groups of semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOCs) in air, collecting both gaseous and particulate air fractions. It is based on active air sampling on sorption tubes (consisting of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) and Tenax TA), followed by thermal desorption and gas chromatography mass spectrometry analysis (TD-GC-MS). The optimised method was validated in the laboratory for the measurement of selected target compounds from the following chemical classes: polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and phthalate esters (PEs). It was applied in different Belgian urban outdoor as well as indoor environments. The new method is characterised by limits of detection in the range of 0.003-0.3 ng m-3 for PAHs, 0.004-0.2 ng m-3 for PCBs, 0.113-0.201 ng m-3 for PBDEs and 0.002-0.2 ng m-3 for PEs, a linearity of 0.996 and a repeatability of less than 10% for all studied compounds.

  14. PROBABILITY SAMPLING AND POPULATION INFERENCE IN MONITORING PROGRAMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A fundamental difference between probability sampling and conventional statistics is that "sampling" deals with real, tangible populations, whereas "conventional statistics" usually deals with hypothetical populations that have no real-world realization. he focus here is on real ...

  15. Employment Projections and Program Priorities. AIR 1999 Annual Forum Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenthal, Dan; Collier, Kitty

    This study compared occupational projections for Alabama with graduation rates in corresponding academic programs to provide a context for state and institutional policy decisions on new program initiatives and to comply with recent program viability legislation. The study examined number of degrees conferred, employment projections, and…

  16. Cast Stone Oxidation Front Evaluation: Preliminary Results For Samples Exposed To Moist Air

    SciTech Connect

    Langton, C. A.; Almond, P. M.

    2013-11-26

    The rate of oxidation is important to the long-term performance of reducing salt waste forms because the solubility of some contaminants, e.g., technetium, is a function of oxidation state. TcO{sub 4}{sup -} in the salt solution is reduced to Tc(IV) and has been shown to react with ingredients in the waste form to precipitate low solubility sulfide and/or oxide phases. Upon exposure to oxygen, the compounds containing Tc(IV) oxidize to the pertechnetate ion, Tc(VII)O{sub 4}{sup -}, which is very soluble. Consequently the rate of technetium oxidation front advancement into a monolith and the technetium leaching profile as a function of depth from an exposed surface are important to waste form performance and ground water concentration predictions. An approach for measuring contaminant oxidation rate (effective contaminant specific oxidation rate) based on leaching of select contaminants of concern is described in this report. In addition, the relationship between reduction capacity and contaminant oxidation is addressed. Chromate (Cr(VI) was used as a non-radioactive surrogate for pertechnetate, Tc(VII), in Cast Stone samples prepared with 5 M Simulant. Cast Stone spiked with pertechnetate was also prepared and tested. Depth discrete subsamples spiked with Cr were cut from Cast Stone exposed to Savannah River Site (SRS) outdoor ambient temperature fluctuations and moist air. Depth discrete subsamples spiked with Tc-99 were cut from Cast Stone exposed to laboratory ambient temperature fluctuations and moist air. Similar conditions are expected to be encountered in the Cast Stone curing container. The leachability of Cr and Tc-99 and the reduction capacities, measured by the Angus-Glasser method, were determined for each subsample as a function of depth from the exposed surface. The results obtained to date were focused on continued method development and are preliminary and apply to the sample composition and curing / exposure conditions described in this report. The

  17. Venturi air-jet vacuum ejectors for high-volume atmospheric sampling on aircraft platforms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hill, Gerald F.; Sachse, Glen W.; Young, Douglas C.; Wade, Larry O.; Burney, Lewis G.

    1992-01-01

    Documentation of the installation and use of venturi air-jet vacuum ejectors for high-volume atmospheric sampling on aircraft platforms is presented. Information on the types of venturis that are useful for meeting the pumping requirements of atmospheric-sampling experiments is also presented. A description of the configuration and installation of the venturi system vacuum line is included with details on the modifications that were made to adapt a venturi to the NASA Electra aircraft at GSFC, Wallops Flight Facility. Flight test results are given for several venturis with emphasis on applications to the Differential Absorption Carbon Monoxide Measurement (DACOM) system at LaRC. This is a source document for atmospheric scientists interested in using the venturi systems installed on the NASA Electra or adapting the technology to other aircraft.

  18. Ram-air sample collection device for a chemical warfare agent sensor

    DOEpatents

    Megerle, Clifford A.; Adkins, Douglas R.; Frye-Mason, Gregory C.

    2002-01-01

    In a surface acoustic wave sensor mounted within a body, the sensor having a surface acoustic wave array detector and a micro-fabricated sample preconcentrator exposed on a surface of the body, an apparatus for collecting air for the sensor, comprising a housing operatively arranged to mount atop the body, the housing including a multi-stage channel having an inlet and an outlet, the channel having a first stage having a first height and width proximate the inlet, a second stage having a second lower height and width proximate the micro-fabricated sample preconcentrator, a third stage having a still lower third height and width proximate the surface acoustic wave array detector, and a fourth stage having a fourth height and width proximate the outlet, where the fourth height and width are substantially the same as the first height and width.

  19. Weighting nonrandom samples in voluntary energy conservation program evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Ozog, M.T.; Waldman, D.M.

    1994-12-31

    In this paper we examine the endogenous stratification problem in the evaluation of DSM programs and determine the appropriate weighting necessary for consistent estimation. Both the complexity and number of alternative DSM programs create the need for a careful statement of the problems and solutions. We examine two commonly occurring evaluation situations: pure participation models and models of net conservation. A hypothetical numerical example is presented to help elucidate the concepts, and data from a DSM program sponsored by a large U.S. utility is used to examine the effect of weighting. In both hypothetical and actual DSM programs, severe biases resulted when unweighted data was used. 5 refs., 5 tabs.

  20. Optimal Media for Use in Air Sampling To Detect Cultivable Bacteria and Fungi in the Pharmacy

    PubMed Central

    Joseph, Riya Augustin; Le, Theresa V.; Trevino, Ernest A.; Schaeffer, M. Frances; Vance, Paula H.

    2013-01-01

    Current guidelines for air sampling for bacteria and fungi in compounding pharmacies require the use of a medium for each type of organism. U.S. Pharmacopeia (USP) chapter <797> (http://www.pbm.va.gov/linksotherresources/docs/USP797PharmaceuticalCompoundingSterileCompounding.pdf) calls for tryptic soy agar with polysorbate and lecithin (TSApl) for bacteria and malt extract agar (MEA) for fungi. In contrast, the Controlled Environment Testing Association (CETA), the professional organization for individuals who certify hoods and clean rooms, states in its 2012 certification application guide (http://www.cetainternational.org/reference/CAG-009v3.pdf?sid=1267) that a single-plate method is acceptable, implying that it is not always necessary to use an additional medium specifically for fungi. In this study, we reviewed 5.5 years of data from our laboratory to determine the utility of TSApl versus yeast malt extract agar (YMEA) for the isolation of fungi. Our findings, from 2,073 air samples obtained from compounding pharmacies, demonstrated that the YMEA yielded >2.5 times more fungal isolates than TSApl. PMID:23903551

  1. SO 2 sorption characteristics of air sampling filter media using a new laboratory test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batterman, Stuart; Osak, Igor; Gelman, Charles

    A significant factor in the selection of filter media used for air sampling is the formation of artifacts due to the sorption of sulfur and nitrogen oxides on the filter. These artifacts can erroneously increase measured particulate concentrations. A technique is developed to measure the uptake of SO 2 and other gases and vapors on air sampling filter media. The static chamber technique features in-chamber measurements of SO 2 concentrations using FTIR spectrometry. The filter uptake, partition coefficient, and diffusion coefficient are estimated from the loss of gaseous SO 2 in the chamber. The technique provides rapid and precise results over a wide range of filter characteristics and avoids problems related to the extraction of target analytes from the filter. A total of 12 types of filters are evaluated, including glass fiber, Teflon-coated glass fiber, nylon, quartz fiber, Teflon, Supor, Nylasorb, and acrylic copolymer membranes. Results indicate that Teflon, quartz and acrylic copolymer filters have minimal sorption of SO 2 while quartz fiber, Supor and Nylasorb filters have high to moderate uptake of SO 2.

  2. Optimal media for use in air sampling to detect cultivable bacteria and fungi in the pharmacy.

    PubMed

    Weissfeld, Alice S; Joseph, Riya Augustin; Le, Theresa V; Trevino, Ernest A; Schaeffer, M Frances; Vance, Paula H

    2013-10-01

    Current guidelines for air sampling for bacteria and fungi in compounding pharmacies require the use of a medium for each type of organism. U.S. Pharmacopeia (USP) chapter <797> (http://www.pbm.va.gov/linksotherresources/docs/USP797PharmaceuticalCompoundingSterileCompounding.pdf) calls for tryptic soy agar with polysorbate and lecithin (TSApl) for bacteria and malt extract agar (MEA) for fungi. In contrast, the Controlled Environment Testing Association (CETA), the professional organization for individuals who certify hoods and clean rooms, states in its 2012 certification application guide (http://www.cetainternational.org/reference/CAG-009v3.pdf?sid=1267) that a single-plate method is acceptable, implying that it is not always necessary to use an additional medium specifically for fungi. In this study, we reviewed 5.5 years of data from our laboratory to determine the utility of TSApl versus yeast malt extract agar (YMEA) for the isolation of fungi. Our findings, from 2,073 air samples obtained from compounding pharmacies, demonstrated that the YMEA yielded >2.5 times more fungal isolates than TSApl. PMID:23903551

  3. Solid-phase microextraction fiber development for sampling and analysis of volatile organohalogen compounds in air.

    PubMed

    Attari, Seyed Ghavameddin; Bahrami, Abdolrahman; Shahna, Farshid Ghorbani; Heidari, Mahmoud

    2014-01-01

    A green, environmental friendly and sensitive method for determination of volatile organohalogen compounds was described in this paper. The method is based on a homemade sol-gel single-walled carbon nanotube/silica composite coated solid-phase microextraction to develop for sampling and analysis of Carbon tetrachloride, Benzotrichloride, Chloromethyl methyl ether and Trichloroethylene in air. Application of this method was investigated under different laboratory conditions. Predetermined concentrations of each analytes were prepared in a home-made standard chamber and the influences of experimental parameters such as temperature, humidity, extraction time, storage time, desorption temperature, desorption time and the sorbent performance were investigated. Under optimal conditions, the use of single-walled carbon nanotube/silica composite fiber showed good performance, high sensitive and fast sampling of volatile organohalogen compounds from air. For linearity test the regression correlation coefficient was more than 98% for analyte of interest and linear dynamic range for the proposed fiber and the applied Gas Chromatography-Flame Ionization Detector technique was from 1 to 100 ngmL(-1). Method detection limits ranged between 0.09 to 0.2 ngmL(-1) and method quantification limits were between 0.25 and 0.7 ngmL(-1). Single-walled carbon nanotube/silica composite fiber was highly reproducible, relative standard deviations were between 4.3 to 11.7 percent. PMID:25279223

  4. Improved fireman's compressed air breathing system pressure vessel development program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    King, H. A.; Morris, E. E.

    1973-01-01

    Prototype high pressure glass filament-wound, aluminum-lined pressurant vessels suitable for use in a fireman's compressed air breathing system were designed, fabricated, and acceptance tested in order to demonstrate the feasibility of producing such high performance, lightweight units. The 4000 psi tanks have a 60 standard cubic foot (SCF) air capacity, and have a 6.5 inch diamter, 19 inch length, 415 inch volume, weigh 13 pounds when empty, and contain 33 percent more air than the current 45 SCF (2250 psi) steel units. The current steel 60 SCF (3000 psi) tanks weigh approximately twice as much as the prototype when empty, and are 2 inches, or 10 percent shorter. The prototype units also have non-rusting aluminum interiors, which removes the hazard of corrosion, the need for internal coatings, and the possibility of rust particles clogging the breathing system.

  5. Ultrasonic extraction and field-portable anodic stripping voltammetry for the determination of lead in workplace air samples.

    PubMed

    Ashley, K; Mapp, K J; Millson, M

    1998-10-01

    An on-site, field-portable analytical method for the determination of lead in workplace air samples, based on the use of ultrasonic extraction and anodic stripping voltammetry (ASV), was evaluated. Workplace air samples were obtained using a standard method involving particulate collection onto mixed cellulose ester membrane filters. Samples were collected at work sites where airborne particulates were generated from the abrasive blasting of lead-containing paint on highway bridges. Ultrasonic extraction (UE) of air filter samples in diluted nitric acid, followed by portable ASV, was used for the determination of lead. Also, performance evaluation samples consisting of reference materials of known lead concentration were subjected to the UE-ASV procedure for lead determination. Confirmatory analyses of the air filters and performance evaluation samples subjected to the UE-ASV lead measurement method were conducted by hotplate digestion in concentrated nitric acid and 30% hydrogen peroxide, followed by inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometric (ICP-AES) determination of lead. Recoveries of lead from performance evaluation materials (when using the UE-ASV method) were found to be quantitative. The performance of the UE-ASV method for lead in air filters was found to be acceptable, as evaluated by comparison with results from hotplate strong acid digestion followed by ICP-AES analysis. Based on the results of this study, the ultrasonic extraction/portable ASV procedure demonstrates potential for the on-site determination of lead in personal breathing zone and area air samples. PMID:9794065

  6. NASA technology program for future civil air transports

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wright, H. T.

    1983-01-01

    An assessment is undertaken of the development status of technology, applicable to future civil air transport design, which is currently undergoing conceptual study or testing at NASA facilities. The NASA civil air transport effort emphasizes advanced aerodynamic computational capabilities, fuel-efficient engines, advanced turboprops, composite primary structure materials, advanced aerodynamic concepts in boundary layer laminarization and aircraft configuration, refined control, guidance and flight management systems, and the integration of all these design elements into optimal systems. Attention is given to such novel transport aircraft design concepts as forward swept wings, twin fuselages, sandwich composite structures, and swept blade propfans.

  7. Making Program Assessment Work: A Profile of the U.S. Air Force Academy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Millis, Barbara J.; Lowe, James K.; Aretz, Anthony J.

    2003-01-01

    Examines the three levels of course and program assessment present at the U.S. Air Force Academy, including assessment at the course, departmental, and institutional levels. Points out common elements useful to all assessment efforts. (EV)

  8. Teplice Program--The Impact of Air Pollution on Human Health

    EPA Science Inventory

    The aim of the Teplice Program is to investigate and assess the impact of air pollution on the health of the population in the district of Teplice, Czech Republic. Characterization of the air pollutants demonstrated unusually high concentrations during winter inversions of fine p...

  9. An Analysis of Air Force Reading Improvement Programs: Results of USAF Survey Number 73-89.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mockovak, William P.

    This report summarizes the results of a questionnaire that was sent to the education offices of 93 Air Force bases in the continental United States. The purpose of the questionnaire was to obtain objective information concerning the present status of Air Force reading improvement programs in an effort to obtain insight into the type and degree of…

  10. ANASORB{reg_sign} 747 - A universal sorbent for air sampling?

    SciTech Connect

    Harper, M.

    1997-12-31

    A sorbent to be used for air sampling must meet certain performance criteria including sample background, capacity, stability, and recovery. Anasorb{sup R} 747 is a proprietary 20/40 mesh beaded active carbon prepared from raw materials with a very low ash content in a process which creates a regular pore structure. The background is very low for both inorganic and organic species, and the surface is more inert and less hydrophilic than coconut charcoal, while capacity is similar. The low catalytic activity of the surface means samples of many reactive compounds remain stable for longer periods. The sorbent is compatible with most solvent systems in use (e.g. carbon disulfide, methylene chloride, methanol, dimethyformamide). Anasorb 747 can be coated with chemicals for efficient adsorption of inorganic gases, which can be analyzed at very low levels because of low background interference. A large number of validated sampling methods use Anasorb 747, including methods from OSHA and NIOSH, corporate industrial hygiene laboratories, various branches of the EPA, and international agencies. These methods refer to around fifty different gases and vapors. Although this sorbent is not compatible with some compounds (e.g. low molecular weight aldehydes) it is quite close to being of universal application.

  11. Stratospheric CCN sampling program. [volcanology, Mount Saint Helens

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rogers, C. F.; Hudson, J. G.

    1982-01-01

    Two one liter grab samples of stratospheric aerosol were returned from each of six U-2 sampling missions. Cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) spectra from each sample were obtained. Interest was centered on the effects of volcanic activity. Spurious particle generation was found to be a serious problem in container 9 LFT and a much smaller problem in container 9 RT. Initial studies of an option for improved sample containers and values were completed. A CCN spectrometer, able to operate at an internal pressure of 300 mb, was designed.

  12. Corn blight review: Sampling model and ground data measurements program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, R. D.

    1972-01-01

    The sampling plan involved the selection of the study area, determination of the flightline and segment sample design within the study area, and determination of a field sample design. Initial interview survey data consisting of crop species acreage and land use were collected. On all corn fields, additional information such as seed type, row direction, population, planting date, ect. were also collected. From this information, sample corn fields were selected to be observed through the growing season on a biweekly basis by county extension personnel.

  13. Key Metrics and Goals for NASA's Advanced Air Transportation Technologies Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaplan, Bruce; Lee, David

    1998-01-01

    NASA's Advanced Air Transportation Technologies (AATT) program is developing a set of decision support tools to aid air traffic service providers, pilots, and airline operations centers in improving operations of the National Airspace System (NAS). NASA needs a set of unifying metrics to tie these efforts together, which it can use to track the progress of the AATT program and communicate program objectives and status within NASA and to stakeholders in the NAS. This report documents the results of our efforts and the four unifying metrics we recommend for the AATT program. They are: airport peak capacity, on-route sector capacity, block time and fuel, and free flight-enabling.

  14. Environmental sampling and mud sampling program of CSDP (Continental Scientific Drilling Program) core hole VC-2B, Valles Caldera, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Meeker, K.; Goff, F.; Gardner, J.N.; Trujillo, P.E.; Counce, D.

    1990-03-01

    An environmental sampling and drilling mud sampling program was conducted during the drilling operations of Continental Scientific Drilling Program (CSDP) core hole VC-2B, Valles caldera, New Mexico. A suite of four springs and creeks in the Sulphur Springs area were monitored on a regular basis to ensure that the VC-2B drilling program was having no environmental impact on water quality. In addition, a regional survey of springs in and around the Jemez Mountains was conducted to provide background data for the environmental monitoring. A drilling mud monitoring program was conducted during the operations to help identify major fluid entries in the core hole. 32 refs., 14 figs., 7 tabs.

  15. Joint University Program for Air Transportation Research, 1982

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    A summary of the research on air transportation is addressed including navigation; guidance, control and display concepts; and hardware, with special emphasis on applications to general aviation aircraft. Completed works and status reports are presented also included are annotated bibliographies of all published research sponsored on these grants since 1972.

  16. Evaluation of sampling methods for toxicological testing of indoor air particulate matter.

    PubMed

    Tirkkonen, Jenni; Täubel, Martin; Hirvonen, Maija-Riitta; Leppänen, Hanna; Lindsley, William G; Chen, Bean T; Hyvärinen, Anne; Huttunen, Kati

    2016-09-01

    There is a need for toxicity tests capable of recognizing indoor environments with compromised air quality, especially in the context of moisture damage. One of the key issues is sampling, which should both provide meaningful material for analyses and fulfill requirements imposed by practitioners using toxicity tests for health risk assessment. We aimed to evaluate different existing methods of sampling indoor particulate matter (PM) to develop a suitable sampling strategy for a toxicological assay. During three sampling campaigns in moisture-damaged and non-damaged school buildings, we evaluated one passive and three active sampling methods: the Settled Dust Box (SDB), the Button Aerosol Sampler, the Harvard Impactor and the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) Bioaerosol Cyclone Sampler. Mouse RAW264.7 macrophages were exposed to particle suspensions and cell metabolic activity (CMA), production of nitric oxide (NO) and tumor necrosis factor (TNFα) were determined after 24 h of exposure. The repeatability of the toxicological analyses was very good for all tested sampler types. Variability within the schools was found to be high especially between different classrooms in the moisture-damaged school. Passively collected settled dust and PM collected actively with the NIOSH Sampler (Stage 1) caused a clear response in exposed cells. The results suggested the higher relative immunotoxicological activity of dust from the moisture-damaged school. The NIOSH Sampler is a promising candidate for the collection of size-fractionated PM to be used in toxicity testing. The applicability of such sampling strategy in grading moisture damage severity in buildings needs to be developed further in a larger cohort of buildings. PMID:27569522

  17. The impact of an air quality advisory program on voluntary mobile source air pollution reduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blanken, Peter D.; Dillon, Jennifer; Wismann, Genevieve

    Air pollution from mobile source emissions is a major cause of air quality degradation in the Denver, Colorado, metropolitan area. The projected increase in both population and vehicle miles driven, coupled with the high altitude, predominantly clear skies, and prevalent wintertime temperature inversions aid in the formation and retention of pollutants. The Colorado Department of Public Health issues an air quality advisory daily during the high pollution season (November 1-March 31) with the objective of improving air quality through voluntary driving restrictions and a mandatory wood burning ban. We hypothesized that the advisory had no effect on commuter behavior due to lack of awareness and understanding, lack of alternative means of travel, or lack of concern. We mailed an anonymous, self-administered survey to 1000 commuters living in the cities of Boulder and Westminster, Colorado. Despite the fact that the vast majority of the respondents were aware of the daily advisory (94%), understood what it meant (93%), and heard the posting at least once a day (71%) in time to choose alternative forms of transportation, the advisory did not alter commuter travel. Commuters traveled mainly as the sole occupant of a car and most (76%) never changed the way they commuted based on the daily advisory. Many claimed schedules or work locations did not allow them to use alternative transportation methods. We suggested a practical way to improve the advisory would be to reduce or eliminate public transit fares on poor air quality days.

  18. Total Particulate Matter Air Sampling Data (TEOM) from Los Alamos National Laboratory

    DOE Data Explorer

    LANL measures the total particulate mass concentration in the air on a routine basis as well as during incidents that may affect ambient air. The collected data is added to the Air Quality Index (AQI). AQI is an index for reporting daily air quality. It tells you how clean or polluted your air is, and what associated health effects might be a concern for you. The AQI focuses on health effects you may experience within a few hours or days after breathing polluted air. EPA calculates the AQI for five major air pollutants regulated by the Clean Air Act.

  19. Air-Based Remediation Workshop - Section 1 Sampling And Analysis Revelant To Air-Based Remediation Technologies

    EPA Science Inventory

    Pursant to the EPA-AIT Implementing Arrangement 7 for Technical Environmental Collaboration, Activity 11 "Remediation of Contaminated Sites," the USEPA Office of International Affairs Organized a Force Air Remediation Workshop in Taipei to deliver expert training to the Environme...

  20. SAMPLE RESULTS FROM THE INTEGRATED SALT DISPOSITION PROGRAM MACROBATCH 5 TANK 21H QUALIFICATION MST, ESS AND PODD SAMPLES

    SciTech Connect

    Peters, T.; Fink, S.

    2012-04-24

    Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) performed experiments on qualification material for use in the Integrated Salt Disposition Program (ISDP) Batch 5 processing. This qualification material was a composite created from recent samples from Tank 21H and archived samples from Tank 49H to match the projected blend from these two tanks. Additionally, samples of the composite were used in the Actinide Removal Process (ARP) and extraction-scrub-strip (ESS) tests. ARP and ESS test results met expectations. A sample from Tank 21H was also analyzed for the Performance Objectives Demonstration Document (PODD) requirements. SRNL was able to meet all of the requirements, including the desired detection limits for all the PODD analytes. This report details the results of the Actinide Removal Process (ARP), Extraction-Scrub-Strip (ESS) and Performance Objectives Demonstration Document (PODD) samples of Macrobatch (Salt Batch) 5 of the Integrated Salt Disposition Program (ISDP).

  1. Unmanned platform for long-range remote analysis of volatile compounds in air samples.

    PubMed

    da Costa, Eric T; Neves, Carlos A; Hotta, Guilherme M; Vidal, Denis T R; Barros, Marcelo F; Ayon, Arturo A; Garcia, Carlos D; do Lago, Claudimir Lucio

    2012-09-01

    This paper describes a long-range remotely controlled CE system built on an all-terrain vehicle. A four-stroke engine and a set of 12-V batteries were used to provide power to a series of subsystems that include drivers, communication, computers, and a capillary electrophoresis module. This dedicated instrument allows air sampling using a polypropylene porous tube, coupled to a flow system that transports the sample to the inlet of a fused-silica capillary. A hybrid approach was used for the construction of the analytical subsystem combining a conventional fused-silica capillary (used for separation) and a laser machined microfluidic block, made of PMMA. A solid-state cooling approach was also integrated in the CE module to enable controlling the temperature and therefore increasing the useful range of the robot. Although ultimately intended for detection of chemical warfare agents, the proposed system was used to analyze a series of volatile organic acids. As such, the system allowed the separation and detection of formic, acetic, and propionic acids with signal-to-noise ratios of 414, 150, and 115, respectively, after sampling by only 30 s and performing an electrokinetic injection during 2.0 s at 1.0 kV. PMID:22965708

  2. Indoor air sampling and mutagenicity studies of emissions from unvented coal combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Mumford, J.L.; Harris, D.B.; Williams, K.; Chuang, J.C.; Cooke, M.

    1987-03-01

    To develop sampling strategies and bioassay protocols for indoor air containing emissions from coal combustion in homes of the rural Xuan Wei County in China, the authors developed a medium-volume sampler to collect the <10-..mu..m particles and semivolatile organics by a filter and an XAD-2 resin, respectively. A high-volume particulate sampler was used for comparison. The coal was burned under conditions that simulated the open-pit combustion that occurs in Xuan Wei. High-volume and medium-volume sampling yielded similar, high particulate concentrations 38-39 mg/m/sup 3/. Fifteen percent of the total extractable organic mass was collected in the XAD-2 resin, and the remaining 85% was retained in the filter. The polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons found in the XAD were composed of four or fewer rings. In the Ames Salmonella assay, the XAD sample showed low mutagenic activity, and most of the mutagenic activity was found in the filter. The coal combustion emitted both direct- and indirect-acting mutagens, most of which were frameshift mutagens. 12 references, 2 figures, 3 tables.

  3. CTEPP STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE FOR COLLECTION OF FIXED SITE INDOOR AND OUTDOOR AIR SAMPLES FOR PERSISTENT ORGANIC POLLUTANTS (SOP-2.12)

    EPA Science Inventory

    This SOP describes the procedures to set up, calibrate, initiate and terminate air sampling for persistent organic pollutants. This method is used to sample air, indoors and outdoors, at homes and at day care centers over a 48-hr period.

  4. 24-HOUR DIFFUSIVE SAMPLING OF TOXIC VOCS IN AIR ONTO CARBOPACK X SOLID ADSORBENT FOLLOWED BY THERMAL DESORPTION/GC/MS ANALYSIS - LABORATORY STUDIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Diffusive sampling of a mixture of 42 volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in humidified, purified air onto the solid adsorbent Carbopack X was evaluated under controlled laboratory conditions. The evaluation included variations in sample air temperature, relative humidity, and ozon...

  5. Evaluation of a modified sampling method for molecular analysis of air microflora.

    PubMed

    Lech, T; Ziembinska-Buczynska, A

    2015-01-01

    A serious issue concerning the durability of economically important materials for humans related to cultural heritage is the process of biodeterioration. As a result of this phenomenon, priceless works of art, documents, and old prints have undergone a process of decomposition caused by microorganisms. Therefore, it is important to constantly monitor the presence and diversity of microorganisms in exposition rooms and storage areas of historical objects. In addition, the use of molecular biology tools for conservation studies will enable detailed research as well as reduce the time needed to perform the analyses compared with using conventional methods related to microbiology and conservation. The aim of this study was to adapt the sampling indoor air method for direct DNA extraction from microorganisms, including evaluating the extracted DNA quality and concentration. The obtained DNA was used to study the diversity of mold fungi in indoor air using polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis in specific archives and museum environments. The research was conducted in 2 storage rooms of the National Archives in Krakow and in 1 exposition room of the Archaeological Museum in Krakow (Poland). PMID:25966086

  6. Retained Gas Sampling Results for the Flammable Gas Program

    SciTech Connect

    J.M. Bates; L.A. Mahoney; M.E. Dahl; Z.I. Antoniak

    1999-11-18

    The key phenomena of the Flammable Gas Safety Issue are generation of the gas mixture, the modes of gas retention, and the mechanisms causing release of the gas. An understanding of the mechanisms of these processes is required for final resolution of the safety issue. Central to understanding is gathering information from such sources as historical records, tank sampling data, tank process data (temperatures, ventilation rates, etc.), and laboratory evaluations conducted on tank waste samples.

  7. Solvent Selection for Pressurized Liquid Extraction of Polymeric Sorbents Used in Air Sampling

    PubMed Central

    Primbs, Toby; Genualdi, Susan; Simonich, Staci

    2014-01-01

    Pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) was evaluated as a method for extracting semivolatile organic compounds (SOCs) from air sampling media; including quartz fiber filter (QFF), polyurethane foam (PUF), and a polystyrene divinyl benzene copolymer (XAD-2). Hansen solubility parameter plots were used to aid in the PLE solvent selection in order to reduce both co-extraction of polyurethane and save time in evaluating solvent compatibility during the initial steps of method development. A PLE solvent composition of 75:25% hexane:acetone was chosen for PUF. The XAD-2 copolymer was not solubilized under the PLE conditions used. The average percent PLE recoveries (and percent relative standard deviations) of 63 SOCs, including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and organochlorine, amide, triazine, thiocarbamate, and phosphorothioate pesticides, were 76.7 (6.2), 79.3 (8.1), and 93.4 (2.9) % for the QFF, PUF, and XAD-2, respectively. PMID:18220448

  8. Elemental analysis of cellular samples by in-air micro-PIXE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishii, K.; Sugimoto, A.; Tanaka, A.; Satoh, T.; Matsuyama, S.; Yamazaki, H.; Akama, C.; Amartivan, T.; Endoh, H.; Oishi, Y.; Yuki, H.; Sugihara, S.; Satoh, M.; Kamiya, T.; Sakai, T.; Arakawa, K.; Saidoh, M.; Oikawa, S.

    2001-07-01

    We developed a micro-PIXE system for the analysis of frozen cellular samples at atmospheric pressure under helium gas cooling. We analyzed bovine aortic endothelial (BAE) cells previously cultured in a medium containing bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU). It is known that these cells take BrdU into their nuclei at the S phase of their metabolic cycle. We examined the Br uptake for incubation times of 6, 12 and 24 h, respectively. The Br maps showed an accumulation in the nuclei and the Br concentration was found strongly dependent on the incubation time. We have demonstrated that in-air micro-PIXE analysis is a relevant technique for examining the molecular uptake in cells.

  9. Provision of Hepatitis C Education in a Nationwide Sample of Drug Treatment Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Astone, Janetta; Strauss, Shiela M.; Vassilev, Zdravko P.; Des Jarlais, Don C.

    2003-01-01

    Using a nationwide sample of drug treatment programs, reports the results of an analysis that differentiates programs providing Hepatitis C virus (HCV) education to all of their patients versus programs that do not. Fifty-four percent of the programs provide HCV education to all of their patients. Findings indicate a need to increase HCV…

  10. Spectral fingerprinting of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in high-volume ambient air samples by constant energy synchronous luminescence spectroscopy

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kerkhoff, M.J.; Lee, T.M.; Allen, E.R.; Lundgren, D.A.; Winefordner, J.D.

    1985-01-01

    A high-volume sampler fitted with a glass-fiber filter and backed by polyurethane foam (PUF) was employed to collect airborne particulate and gas-phase polycylic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in ambient air. Samples were collected from four sources representing a range of environmental conditions: gasoline engine exhaust, diesel engine exhaust, air near a heavily traveled interstate site, and air from a moderately polluted urban site. Spectral fingerprints of the unseparated particulate and gas-phase samples were obtained by constant energy synchronous luminescence spectroscopy (CESLS). Five major PAHs in the gas-phase extracts were characterized and estimated. The compatibility of a high-volume sampling method using polyurethane foam coupled with CESLS detection is explored for use as a screening technique for PAHs in ambient air. ?? 1985 American Chemical Society.

  11. A ``Limited First Sample'' Approach to Mars Sample Return — Lessons from the Apollo Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eppler, D. B.; Draper, D.; Gruener, J.

    2012-06-01

    Complex, multi-opportunity Mars sample return approaches have failed to be selected as a new start twice since 1985. We advocate adopting a simpler strategy of "grab-and-go" for the initial sample return, similar to the approach taken on Apollo 11.

  12. Sample Results from the Interim Salt Disposition Program Macrobatch 6 Tank 21H Qualification Samples

    SciTech Connect

    Peters, T. B.; Fink, S. D.

    2012-12-11

    Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) analyzed samples from Tank 21H in support of qualification of Macrobatch (Salt Batch) 6 for the Interim Salt Disposition Project (ISDP). This document reports partial results of the analyses of samples of Tank 21H. No issues with the projected Salt Batch 6 strategy are identified.

  13. Sample Results From The Interim Salt Disposition Program Macrobatch 6 Tank 21H Qualification Samples

    SciTech Connect

    Peters, T. B.; Fink, S. D.

    2012-12-20

    Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) analyzed samples from Tank 21H in support of qualification of Macrobatch (Salt Batch) 6 for the Interim Salt Disposition Project (ISDP). This document reports partial results of the analyses of samples of Tank 21H. No issues with the projected Salt Batch 6 strategy are identified.

  14. A fuzzy fractional chance-constrained programming model for air quality management under uncertainty

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Feng; Wen, Zhi; Xu, Ye

    2016-01-01

    A fuzzy fractional chance-constrained programming model (FFCCPM) was developed for dealing with air quality management under uncertainty. FFCCPM integrates a fractional programming model and a double-sided fuzzy chance-constrained programming model. It considers the ratio between total treated pollutant amounts and system cost in the objective function; the constraints with fuzzy variables can be satisfied under some predetermined confidence levels and reliability scenarios. The air quality management system in Fengrun district, Tangshan City, China, was used to demonstrate the applicability of the proposed method. The obtained results indicated that the proposed model was suitable in describing and providing an overview of a studied management system for decision makers, generating various cost-effective air pollution-abatement alternatives. The strategy with a balance between system economy and reliability was recommended for decision makers. The successful application of FFCCPM in Fengrun district provides a good example of real-world regional air quality management.

  15. U.S. ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY'S PM SUPERSITES PROGRAM - A MAJOR SUCCESSFUL COLLABORATIVE AIR QUALITY PROGRAM SUPPORTING STATES AND REGIONAL ORGANIZATIONS IN THEIR APPROACHES TO REDUCE PM LEVELS IN AIR ON URBAN AND REGIONAL SCALES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Particulate Matter (PM) Supersites Program (Program) is a nationwide air quality methods, measurement, modeling, and data analysis program initiated through cooperative agreements with leading universities in the United States. The Progr...

  16. GUIDE TO CALCULATING TRANSPORT EFFICIENCY OF AEROSOLS IN OCCUPATIONAL AIR SAMPLING SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect

    Hogue, M.; Hadlock, D.; Thompson, M.; Farfan, E.

    2013-11-12

    This report will present hand calculations for transport efficiency based on aspiration efficiency and particle deposition losses. Because the hand calculations become long and tedious, especially for lognormal distributions of aerosols, an R script (R 2011) will be provided for each element examined. Calculations are provided for the most common elements in a remote air sampling system, including a thin-walled probe in ambient air, straight tubing, bends and a sample housing. One popular alternative approach would be to put such calculations in a spreadsheet, a thorough version of which is shared by Paul Baron via the Aerocalc spreadsheet (Baron 2012). To provide greater transparency and to avoid common spreadsheet vulnerabilities to errors (Burns 2012), this report uses R. The particle size is based on the concept of activity median aerodynamic diameter (AMAD). The AMAD is a particle size in an aerosol where fifty percent of the activity in the aerosol is associated with particles of aerodynamic diameter greater than the AMAD. This concept allows for the simplification of transport efficiency calculations where all particles are treated as spheres with the density of water (1g cm-3). In reality, particle densities depend on the actual material involved. Particle geometries can be very complicated. Dynamic shape factors are provided by Hinds (Hinds 1999). Some example factors are: 1.00 for a sphere, 1.08 for a cube, 1.68 for a long cylinder (10 times as long as it is wide), 1.05 to 1.11 for bituminous coal, 1.57 for sand and 1.88 for talc. Revision 1 is made to correct an error in the original version of this report. The particle distributions are based on activity weighting of particles rather than based on the number of particles of each size. Therefore, the mass correction made in the original version is removed from the text and the calculations. Results affected by the change are updated.

  17. Evaluation of sampling and analytical methods for the determination of chlorodifluoromethane in air.

    PubMed

    Seymour, M J; Lucas, M F

    1993-05-01

    In January 1989, the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) published revised permissible exposure limits (PELs) for 212 compounds and established PELs for 164 additional compounds. In cases where regulated compounds did not have specific sampling and analytical methods, methods were suggested by OSHA. The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) Manual of Analytical Methods (NMAM) Method 1020, which was developed for 1,1,2-trichloro-1,2,2-trifluoroethane, was suggested by OSHA for the determination of chlorodifluoromethane in workplace air. Because this method was developed for a liquid and chlorodifluoromethane is a gas, the ability of NMAM Method 1020 to adequately sample and quantitate chlorodifluoromethane was questioned and tested by researchers at NIOSH. The evaluation of NMAM Method 1020 for chlorodifluoromethane showed that the capacity of the 100/50-mg charcoal sorbent bed was limited, the standard preparation procedure was incorrect for a gas analyte, and the analyte had low solubility in carbon disulfide. NMAM Method 1018 for dichlorodifluoromethane uses two coconut-shell charcoal tubes in series, a 400/200-mg tube followed by a 100/50-mg tube, which are desorbed with methylene chloride. This method was evaluated for chlorodifluoromethane. Test atmospheres, with chlorodifluoromethane concentrations from 0.5-2 times the PEL were generated. Modifications of NMAM Method 1018 included changes in the standard preparation procedure, and the gas chromatograph was equipped with a capillary column. These revisions to NMAM 1018 resulted in a 96.5% recovery and a total precision for the method of 7.1% for chlorodifluoromethane. No significant bias in the method was found. Results indicate that the revised NMAM Method 1018 is suitable for the determination of chlorodifluoromethane in workplace air. PMID:8498360

  18. Indoor air sampling for fine particulate matter and black carbon in industrial communities in Pittsburgh.

    PubMed

    Tunno, Brett J; Naumoff Shields, Kyra; Cambal, Leah; Tripathy, Sheila; Holguin, Fernando; Lioy, Paul; Clougherty, Jane E

    2015-12-01

    Impacts of industrial emissions on outdoor air pollution in nearby communities are well-documented. Fewer studies, however, have explored impacts on indoor air quality in these communities. Because persons in northern climates spend a majority of their time indoors, understanding indoor exposures, and the role of outdoor air pollution in shaping such exposures, is a priority issue. Braddock and Clairton, Pennsylvania, industrial communities near Pittsburgh, are home to an active steel mill and coke works, respectively, and the population experiences elevated rates of childhood asthma. Twenty-one homes were selected for 1-week indoor sampling for fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and black carbon (BC) during summer 2011 and winter 2012. Multivariate linear regression models were used to examine contributions from both outdoor concentrations and indoor sources. In the models, an outdoor infiltration component explained 10 to 39% of variability in indoor air pollution for PM2.5, and 33 to 42% for BC. For both PM2.5 models and the summer BC model, smoking was a stronger predictor than outdoor pollution, as greater pollutant concentration increases were identified. For winter BC, the model was explained by outdoor pollution and an open windows modifier. In both seasons, indoor concentrations for both PM2.5 and BC were consistently higher than residence-specific outdoor concentration estimates. Mean indoor PM2.5 was higher, on average, during summer (25.8±22.7 μg/m3) than winter (18.9±13.2 μg/m3). Contrary to the study's hypothesis, outdoor concentrations accounted for only little to moderate variability (10 to 42%) in indoor concentrations; a much greater proportion of PM2.5 was explained by cigarette smoking. Outdoor infiltration was a stronger predictor for BC compared to PM2.5, especially in winter. Our results suggest that, even in industrial communities of high outdoor pollution concentrations, indoor activities--particularly cigarette smoking--may play a larger

  19. The Impact of the Developmental Training Model on Staff Development in Air Force Child Development Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bird, Candace Maria Edmonds

    2010-01-01

    In an effort to standardize training delivery and to individualize staff development based on observation and reflective practice, the Air Force implemented the Developmental Training Model (DTM) in its Child Development Programs. The goal of the Developmental Training Model is to enhance high quality programs through improvements in the training…

  20. VERTICAL FLUXES AND EXCHANGE COEFFICIENTS IN THE AIR OVER ST. LOUIS. FIELD PROGRAM 1975

    EPA Science Inventory

    A field program was carried out in the greater metropolitan area of St. Louis, MO during February and July of 1975 as part of the Regional Air Pollution Study (RAPS). The purpose of the program was to collect atmospheric measurements needed for future studies of the planetary bou...

  1. Users Handbook for the Argonne Premium Coal Sample Program

    SciTech Connect

    Vorres, K.S.

    1993-10-01

    This Users Handbook for the Argonne Premium Coal Samples provides the recipients of those samples with information that will enhance the value of the samples, to permit greater opportunities to compare their work with that of others, and aid in correlations that can improve the value to all users. It is hoped that this document will foster a spirit of cooperation and collaboration such that the field of basic coal chemistry may be a more efficient and rewarding endeavor for all who participate. The different sections are intended to stand alone. For this reason some of the information may be found in several places. The handbook is also intended to be a dynamic document, constantly subject to change through additions and improvements. Please feel free to write to the editor with your comments and suggestions.

  2. SAMPLE RESULTS FROM THE INTEGRATED SALT DISPOSITION PROGRAM MACROBATCH 5 TANK 21H QUALIFICATION SAMPLES

    SciTech Connect

    Peters, T.; Fink, S.

    2012-03-26

    Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) analyzed samples from Tank 21H in support of qualification of Macrobatch (Salt Batch) 5 for the Integrated Salt Disposition Project (ISDP). This document reports partial results of the analyses of samples of Tank 21H. No issues with the projected Salt Batch 5 strategy are identified. Results of the analyses of the Tank 21H samples from this report in conjunction with the findings of the previous report, indicates that the material does not display any unusual characteristics.

  3. Treaty verification sample analysis program analytical results: UNSCOM 65 samples. Final report, December 1993-January 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Szafraniec, L.L.; Beaudry, W.T.; Bossle, P.C.; Durst, H.D.; Ellzy, M.W.

    1994-07-01

    Nineteen samples from the United Nations Special Commission 65 on Iraq (UNSCOM 65) were analyzed for chemical warfare (CW) related compounds using a variety of highly sophisticated spectroscopic and chromatographic techniques. The samples consisted of six water, six soil, two vegetation, one cloth, one wood, and two mortar shell crosscut sections. No sulfur or nitrogen mustards, Lewsite, or any of their degradation products were detected. No nerve agents were observed, and no tin was detected precluding the presence of stannic chloride, a component of NC, a World War I choking agent. Diethyl phosphoric acid was unambiguously identified in three water samples, and ethyl phosphoric acid was tentatively identified, at very low levels, in one water sample. These phosphoric acids are degradation products of Amiton, many commercially available pesticides, as well as Tabun, and impurities in munitions-grade Tabun. No definitive conclusions concerning the source of these two chemicals could be drawn from the analytical results.

  4. An adaptive maneuvering logic computer program for the simulation of one-on-one air-to-air combat. Volume 1: General description

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burgin, G. H.; Fogel, L. J.; Phelps, J. P.

    1975-01-01

    A technique for computer simulation of air combat is described. Volume 1 decribes the computer program and its development in general terms. Two versions of the program exist. Both incorporate a logic for selecting and executing air combat maneuvers with performance models of specific fighter aircraft. In the batch processing version the flight paths of two aircraft engaged in interactive aerial combat and controlled by the same logic are computed. The realtime version permits human pilots to fly air-to-air combat against the adaptive maneuvering logic (AML) in Langley Differential Maneuvering Simulator (DMS). Volume 2 consists of a detailed description of the computer programs.

  5. Deuterium content of H2 measured on air samples from the CARIBIC project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batenburg, A. M.; Schuck, T.; Brenninkmeijer, C. A. M.; Röckmann, T.

    2009-04-01

    H2 is present in the atmosphere at levels of ~500 ppb; its largest sources are the oxidation of methane and other hydrocarbons and combustion processes. In the coming decades, H2 levels are expected to rise due to use of hydrogen as an energy carrier. This may affect methane lifetimes and stratospheric ozone depletion. Unfortunately, large uncertainties still exist in the global H2budget. The different sources and sinks of H2 have very distinct isotopic signatures and fractionation coefficients, respectively. For this reason, measurements of isotopic composition are a promising tool to gain insight into H2 source and sink processes and to constrain the terms in the global budget. The CARIBIC project uses an automated instrument container on board of a commercial passenger aircraft to carry out in situ measurements of trace gases and aerosols and to collect air samples. The use of a commercial airliner results in samples mostly from the Upper Troposphere-Lower Stratosphere (UTLS) region. Although the UTLS region is considered to be an interesting part of the atmosphere, relatively few measurements have been made there before. The CARIBIC samples are routinely analyzed for various gases, including four important greenhouse gases. In addition, air samples of 15 CARIBIC flights have now been analyzed for molecular hydrogen concentration (H2) and H2 deuterium content (^D-H2) in the isotope laboratory of the Institute of Marine and Atmospheric Research Utrecht (IMAU). A GC-IRMS system (similar to Rhee et al. [2004]) is used to determine the concentration and deuterium content of atmospheric H2 precisely and routinely. This poster will present a selection of the first results. For some flights, samples close to the takeoff and landing region show strong contamination signatures (high H2 concentrations and low ^D-H2 values). With the exclusion of these samples, ^D values correlate negatively with methane concentration, as observed previously by Rahn et al. [2003] and R

  6. Volatile N-nitrosamines in environmental tobacco smoke: Sampling, analysis, emission factors, and indoor air exposures

    SciTech Connect

    Mahanama, K.R.R.; Daisey, J.M.

    1996-05-01

    A more convenient sampling and analysis method for the volatile N-nitrosamines (VNA) in environmental tobacco smoke (ETS), using commercially available Thermosorb/N cartridges, was developed and validated. Using the method, emission factors for the two major VNA in ETS were determined in a room-sized environmental chamber for six commercial cigarette brands, which together accounted for 62.5% of the total market in California in 1990. The average emission factors were 565{+-}115 and 104{+-}20 ng per cigarette for N-nitrosodimethylamine and N-nitrosopyrrolidine, respectively. The emission factors were used to estimate VNA exposures from ETS in a typical office building and an average residence. Indoor concentrations of N,N-dimethylnitrosamine from ETS for these modeled scenarios were less than 10% of the reported median outdoor concentration. This median outdoor concentration, however, includes many measurements made in source-dominated areas and may be considerably higher than one based on more representative sampling of outdoor air. 35 refs., 4 tabs.

  7. Uncertainties in Air Exchange using Continuous-Injection, Long-Term Sampling Tracer-Gas Methods

    SciTech Connect

    Sherman, Max H.; Walker, Iain S.; Lunden, Melissa M.

    2013-12-01

    The PerFluorocarbon Tracer (PFT) method is a low-cost approach commonly used for measuring air exchange in buildings using tracer gases. It is a specific application of the more general Continuous-Injection, Long-Term Sampling (CILTS) method. The technique is widely used but there has been little work on understanding the uncertainties (both precision and bias) associated with its use, particularly given that it is typically deployed by untrained or lightly trained people to minimize experimental costs. In this article we will conduct a first-principles error analysis to estimate the uncertainties and then compare that analysis to CILTS measurements that were over-sampled, through the use of multiple tracers and emitter and sampler distribution patterns, in three houses. We find that the CILTS method can have an overall uncertainty of 10-15percent in ideal circumstances, but that even in highly controlled field experiments done by trained experimenters expected uncertainties are about 20percent. In addition, there are many field conditions (such as open windows) where CILTS is not likely to provide any quantitative data. Even avoiding the worst situations of assumption violations CILTS should be considered as having a something like a ?factor of two? uncertainty for the broad field trials that it is typically used in. We provide guidance on how to deploy CILTS and design the experiment to minimize uncertainties.

  8. Determination of reduced sulfur compounds in air samples for the monitoring of malodor caused by landfills.

    PubMed

    Borrás, Esther; Tortajada-Genaro, Luis Antonio; Muñoz, Amalia

    2016-02-01

    A reliable method for determining malodorous reduced sulfur compounds (RSC) in atmospheric samples has been developed. The method uses an activated coconut solid-phase sorbent for active sampling, hexane as desorption solvent, and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) technique for specific and sensitive separation-detection. The compounds analyzed were hydrogen sulfide, ethyl mercaptan, dimethyl sulfide, carbon disulfide, butyl mercaptan and dimethyl disulfide. Recovery efficiency varied between 75% and 97% and no detectable losses were observed during storage at -20°C. Satisfactory analytical parameters were reported, such as good linearity (r(2)>0.98), low detection limits (0.6-59 pg m(-3)), adequate repeatability (9%) and reproducibility (17%), and fast GC-MS analysis (<6.5 min). The accurate determination of RSCs, free of interferences from atmospheric components, such as ozone or water was demonstrated. The method has been applied to analyze the composition of environmental air close to three landfills processing urban and industrial solid wastes. The results indicated that hydrogen sulfide and ethyl mercaptan were the main molecules responsible of malodor phenomenon in the study areas. PMID:26653474

  9. AIR: A batch-oriented web program package for construction of supermatrices ready for phylogenomic analyses

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Surendra; Skjæveland, Åsmund; Orr, Russell JS; Enger, Pål; Ruden, Torgeir; Mevik, Bjørn-Helge; Burki, Fabien; Botnen, Andreas; Shalchian-Tabrizi, Kamran

    2009-01-01

    Background Large multigene sequence alignments have over recent years been increasingly employed for phylogenomic reconstruction of the eukaryote tree of life. Such supermatrices of sequence data are preferred over single gene alignments as they contain vastly more information about ancient sequence characteristics, and are thus more suitable for resolving deeply diverging relationships. However, as alignments are expanded, increasingly numbers of sites with misleading phylogenetic information are also added. Therefore, a major goal in phylogenomic analyses is to maximize the ratio of information to noise; this can be achieved by the reduction of fast evolving sites. Results Here we present a batch-oriented web-based program package, named AIR that allows 1) transformation of several single genes to one multigene alignment, 2) identification of evolutionary rates in multigene alignments and 3) removal of fast evolving sites. These three processes can be done with the programs AIR-Appender, AIR-Identifier, and AIR-Remover (AIR), which can be used independently or in a semi-automated pipeline. AIR produces user-friendly output files with filtered and non-filtered alignments where residues are colored according to their evolutionary rates. Other bioinformatics applications linked to the AIR package are available at the Bioportal , University of Oslo; together these greatly improve the flexibility, efficiency and quality of phylogenomic analyses. Conclusion The AIR program package allows for efficient creation of multigene alignments and better assessment of evolutionary rates in sequence alignments. Removing fast evolving sites with the AIR programs has been employed in several recent phylogenomic analyses resulting in improved phylogenetic resolution and increased statistical support for branching patterns among the early diverging eukaryotes. PMID:19863793

  10. 40 CFR 49.7 - Request by an Indian tribe for eligibility determination and Clean Air Act program approval.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... eligibility determination and Clean Air Act program approval. 49.7 Section 49.7 Protection of Environment... MANAGEMENT Tribal Authority § 49.7 Request by an Indian tribe for eligibility determination and Clean Air Act... it meets the eligibility requirements of § 49.6 for Clean Air Act program approval. The...

  11. 40 CFR 49.7 - Request by an Indian tribe for eligibility determination and Clean Air Act program approval.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... eligibility determination and Clean Air Act program approval. 49.7 Section 49.7 Protection of Environment... MANAGEMENT Tribal Authority § 49.7 Request by an Indian tribe for eligibility determination and Clean Air Act... it meets the eligibility requirements of § 49.6 for Clean Air Act program approval. The...

  12. 40 CFR 49.7 - Request by an Indian tribe for eligibility determination and Clean Air Act program approval.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... eligibility determination and Clean Air Act program approval. 49.7 Section 49.7 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE TRIBAL CLEAN AIR ACT AUTHORITY Tribal Authority § 49.7 Request by an Indian tribe for eligibility determination and Clean Air Act program...

  13. 40 CFR 49.7 - Request by an Indian tribe for eligibility determination and Clean Air Act program approval.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... eligibility determination and Clean Air Act program approval. 49.7 Section 49.7 Protection of Environment... MANAGEMENT Tribal Authority § 49.7 Request by an Indian tribe for eligibility determination and Clean Air Act... it meets the eligibility requirements of § 49.6 for Clean Air Act program approval. The...

  14. Geothermal exploration program, Hill Air Force Base, Davis and Weber Counties, Utah

    SciTech Connect

    Glenn, W.E.; Chapman, D.S.; Foley, D.; Capuano, R.M.; Cole, D.; Sibbett, B.; Ward, S.H.

    1980-03-01

    Results obtained from a program designed to locate a low- or moderate-temperature geothermal resource that might exist beneath Hill Air Force Base (AFB), Ogden, Utah are discussed. A phased exploration program was conducted at Hill AFB. Published geological, geochemical, and geophysical reports on the area were examined, regional exploration was conducted, and two thermal gradient holes were drilled. This program demonstrated that thermal waters are not present in the shallow subsurface at this site. (MHR)

  15. Release Storage and Disposal Program Product Sampling Support

    SciTech Connect

    CALMUS, R.B.

    2000-07-19

    This document includes recommended capabilities and/or services to support transport, analysis, and disposition of Immobilized High-Level and Low-Activity Waste samples as requested by the US DOE-Office of River Protection (DOE-ORP) as specified in the Privatization Contract between DOE-ORP and BNFL Inc. In addition, an approved implementation path forward is presented which includes use of existing Hanford Site services to provide the required support capabilities.

  16. Sampling, storage, and analysis of C2-C7 non-methane hydrocarbons from the US National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Cooperative Air Sampling Network glass flasks.

    PubMed

    Pollmann, Jan; Helmig, Detlev; Hueber, Jacques; Plass-Dülmer, Christian; Tans, Pieter

    2008-04-25

    An analytical technique was developed to analyze light non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHC), including ethane, propane, iso-butane, n-butane, iso-pentane, n-pentane, n-hexane, isoprene, benzene and toluene from whole air samples collected in 2.5l-glass flasks used by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Earth System Research Laboratory, Global Monitoring Division (NOAA ESRL GMD, Boulder, CO, USA) Cooperative Air Sampling Network. This method relies on utilizing the remaining air in these flasks (which is at below-ambient pressure at this stage) after the completion of all routine greenhouse gas measurements from these samples. NMHC in sample aliquots extracted from the flasks were preconcentrated with a custom-made, cryogen-free inlet system and analyzed by gas chromatography (GC) with flame ionization detection (FID). C2-C7 NMHC, depending on their ambient air mixing ratios, could be measured with accuracy and repeatability errors of generally < or =10-20%. Larger deviations were found for ethene and propene. Hexane was systematically overestimated due to a chromatographic co-elution problem. Saturated NMHC showed less than 5% changes in their mixing ratios in glass flask samples that were stored for up to 1 year. In the same experiment ethene and propene increased at approximately 30% yr(-1). A series of blank experiments showed negligible contamination from the sampling process and from storage (<10 pptv yr(-1)) of samples in these glass flasks. Results from flask NMHC analyses were compared to in-situ NMHC measurements at the Global Atmospheric Watch station in Hohenpeissenberg, Germany. This 9-months side-by-side comparison showed good agreement between both methods. More than 94% of all data comparisons for C2-C5 alkanes, isoprene, benzene and toluene fell within the combined accuracy and precision objectives of the World Meteorological Organization Global Atmosphere Watch (WMO-GAW) for NMHC measurements. PMID:18355832

  17. U.S.-MEXICO BORDER PROGRAM ARIZONA BORDER STUDY--QA ANALYTICAL RESULTS FOR VOCS IN BLANK SAMPLES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The VOCs in Blank Samples data set contains the analytical results of measurements of up to 47 volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in 24 blank samples. Measurements were made in blank samples of indoor air, outdoor air, and water. Blank samples were used to assess the potential f...

  18. Cryogenic separation of oxygen-argon mixture in natural air samples for isotopic and molecular ratios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Habeeb Rahman, Keedakkadan; Abe, Osamu

    2014-05-01

    The discovery of mass independent isotope fractionation in oxygen during the formation of ozone in the stratosphere has initiated a wide application in isotope geochemistry field. Separation of oxygen-argon mixture has become the foundation of high precision analysis of Δ17O and δ(O2/Ar) for geochemical applications. Here we present precise and simplified cryogenic separation of argon oxygen mixture from the atmospheric and dissolved air using 30/60 mesh 5A molecular sieve zeolite. A pioneer study of this method was conducted by Thiemens and Meagher in 1984. The column which is made of glass tube contains about 1.1 grams of molecular sieve zeolite and both ends of column was filled with glass wools. The experimental set up was tested for different combination of molecular sieves and slurry temperatures. We found the most efficient condition for the separation was at a column temperature of -103°C. For complete transfer of O2 and Ar mixture usually takes in 15-20 minutes time. The isotopic ratios of oxygen were analyzed using mass spectrometer (Thermo Fischer Delta Plus) relative to reference oxygen-argon mixture at 3V of m/z 32 for both sample and reference side. The signals of m/z 28, 32, and 40 were measured by dynamically to determine oxygen -argon ratio and to check nitrogen contamination. Repeated measurements of atmospheric air yielded a reproducibility (SE n=80) of 0.006, 0.004 and 0.19‰ for δ17O, δ18O and δO2/Ar respectively. The isotopic and molecular fractionation of argon- oxygen mixture during gas adsorption and desorption while using molecular sieve under liquid nitrogen temperature was studied. We have established a linear relationship governing the effect of 13X and 5A molecular sieves on molecular fractionation. And suggested the use of single 1/8" pellet 13X molecular sieve provided a negligible fractionation.

  19. JT9D ceramic outer air seal system refinement program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaffin, W. O.

    1982-01-01

    The abradability and durability characteristics of the plasma sprayed system were improved by refinement and optimization of the plasma spray process and the metal substrate design. The acceptability of the final seal system for engine testing was demonstrated by an extensive rig test program which included thermal shock tolerance, thermal gradient, thermal cycle, erosion, and abradability tests. An interim seal system design was also subjected to 2500 endurance test cycles in a JT9D-7 engine.

  20. Joint University Program for Air Transportation Research, 1990-1991

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrell, Frederick R. (Compiler)

    1991-01-01

    The goals of this program are consistent with the interests of both NASA and the FAA in furthering the safety and efficiency of the National Airspace System. Research carried out at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Ohio University, and Princeton University are covered. Topics studied include passive infrared ice detection for helicopters, the cockpit display of hazardous windshear information, fault detection and isolation for multisensor navigation systems, neural networks for aircraft system identification, and intelligent failure tolerant control.

  1. Utilizing the partitioning properties of silicone for the passive sampling of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in indoor air.

    PubMed

    Vorkamp, Katrin; Odsbjerg, Lisbeth; Langeland, Majbrith; Mayer, Philipp

    2016-10-01

    The former use of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in construction materials can lead to elevated indoor air concentrations. We studied the partitioning of PCB congeners between indoor air and silicone with a view to establish passive sampling of PCBs. The release of PCB congeners from silicone followed first order kinetics and confirmed air-side rate-limited mass transfer. Logarithmic elimination rate constants decreased linearly with the logKOA values of the PCB congeners, but varied in a non-linear way with air velocity. Linear uptake of PCBs was found for silicone disks (0.5 mm thickness) in a petri dish, while PCBs reached equilibrium in silicone-coated paper sheets (0.001 mm silicone on each side) exposed to indoor air for 1-2 weeks. The ratios of equilibrium concentrations in silicone and conventionally measured air concentrations were roughly comparable with silicone-air partition coefficients, but further research is required for the determination of silicone-air partition coefficients. Avoiding performance reference compounds (PRCs) because of the indoor setting, the two formats were calibrated against conventional active measurements. Comparisons of air concentrations derived from active and kinetic passive sampling showed a divergence by factors of 2.4 and 2.0 (median values) for the petri dishes and the silicone-coated paper, respectively. With promising results for sensitivity and precision, the calibration of kinetic passive samplers remains the main challenge and will need suitable, non-hazardous PRCs. Equilibrium sampling indicated promising alternatives. PMID:27389945

  2. ASBESTOS-CONTAINING MATERIAL IN SCHOOL BUILDINGS: BULK SAMPLE ANALYSIS QUALITY ASSURANCE PROGRAM: BULK SAMPLE ROUNDS 16, 17, AND 18

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report presents the performance results of laboratories participating in the 16th, 17th, and 18th rounds of the Bulk Sample Analysis Quality Assurance Program sponsored by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ny commercial or noncommercial organization wi...

  3. Lessons from UNSCOM and IAEA regarding remote monitoring and air sampling

    SciTech Connect

    Dupree, S.A.

    1996-01-01

    In 1991, at the direction of the United Nations Security Council, UNSCOM and IAEA developed plans for On-going Monitoring and Verification (OMV) in Iraq. The plans were accepted by the Security Council and remote monitoring and atmospheric sampling equipment has been installed at selected sites in Iraq. The remote monitoring equipment consists of video cameras and sensors positioned to observe equipment or activities at sites that could be used to support the development or manufacture of weapons of mass destruction, or long-range missiles. The atmospheric sampling equipment provides unattended collection of chemical samples from sites that could be used to support the development or manufacture of chemical weapon agents. To support OMV in Iraq, UNSCOM has established the Baghdad Monitoring and Verification Centre. Imagery from the remote monitoring cameras can be accessed in near-real time from the Centre through RIF communication links with the monitored sites. The OMV program in Iraq has implications for international cooperative monitoring in both global and regional contexts. However, monitoring systems such as those used in Iraq are not sufficient, in and of themselves, to guarantee the absence of prohibited activities. Such systems cannot replace on-site inspections by competent, trained inspectors. However, monitoring similar to that used in Iraq can contribute to openness and confidence building, to the development of mutual trust, and to the improvement of regional stability.

  4. Computer program for sample sizes required to determine disease incidence in fish populations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ossiander, Frank J.; Wedemeyer, Gary

    1973-01-01

    A computer program is described for generating the sample size tables required in fish hatchery disease inspection and certification. The program was designed to aid in detection of infectious pancreatic necrosis (IPN) in salmonids, but it is applicable to any fish disease inspection when the sampling plan follows the hypergeometric distribution.

  5. Hanford Environmental Monitoring Program schedule for samples, analyses, and measurements for calendar year 1985

    SciTech Connect

    Blumer, P.J.; Price, K.R.; Eddy, P.A.; Carlile, J.M.V.

    1984-12-01

    This report provides the CY 1985 schedule of data collection for the routine Hanford Surface Environmental Monitoring and Ground-Water Monitoring Programs at the Hanford Site. The purpose is to evaluate and report the levels of radioactive and nonradioactive pollutants in the Hanford environs, as required in DOE Order 5484.1. The routine sampling schedule provided herein does not include samples scheduled to be collected during FY 1985 in support of special studies, special contractor support programs, or for quality control purposes. In addition, the routine program outlined in this schedule is subject to modification during the year in response to changes in site operations, program requirements, or unusual sample results.

  6. The Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990: Hazardous Air Pollutant Requirements and the DOE Clean Coal Technology Program

    SciTech Connect

    Moskowitz, P.D.; DePhillips, M.; Fthenakis, V.M. ); Hemenway, A. )

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of the US Department of Energy -- Office of Fossil Energy (DOE FE) Clean Coal Technology Program (CCTP) is to provide the US energy marketplace with advanced, efficient, and environmentally sound coal-based technologies. The design, construction, and operation of Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Projects (CCTDP) will generate data needed to make informed, confident decisions on the commercial readiness of these technologies. These data also will provide information needed to ensure a proactive response by DOE and its industrial partners to the establishment of new regulations or a reactive response to existing regulations promulgated by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The objectives of this paper are to: (1) Present a preliminary examination of the potential implications of the Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA) -- Title 3 Hazardous Air Pollutant requirements to the commercialization of CCTDP; and (2) help define options available to DOE and its industrial partners to respond to this newly enacted Legislation.

  7. The Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990: Hazardous Air Pollutant Requirements and the DOE Clean Coal Technology Program

    SciTech Connect

    Moskowitz, P.D.; DePhillips, M.; Fthenakis, V.M.; Hemenway, A.

    1991-12-31

    The purpose of the US Department of Energy -- Office of Fossil Energy (DOE FE) Clean Coal Technology Program (CCTP) is to provide the US energy marketplace with advanced, efficient, and environmentally sound coal-based technologies. The design, construction, and operation of Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Projects (CCTDP) will generate data needed to make informed, confident decisions on the commercial readiness of these technologies. These data also will provide information needed to ensure a proactive response by DOE and its industrial partners to the establishment of new regulations or a reactive response to existing regulations promulgated by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The objectives of this paper are to: (1) Present a preliminary examination of the potential implications of the Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA) -- Title 3 Hazardous Air Pollutant requirements to the commercialization of CCTDP; and (2) help define options available to DOE and its industrial partners to respond to this newly enacted Legislation.

  8. Day and night variation in chemical composition and toxicological responses of size segregated urban air PM samples in a high air pollution situation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jalava, P. I.; Wang, Q.; Kuuspalo, K.; Ruusunen, J.; Hao, L.; Fang, D.; Väisänen, O.; Ruuskanen, A.; Sippula, O.; Happo, M. S.; Uski, O.; Kasurinen, S.; Torvela, T.; Koponen, H.; Lehtinen, K. E. J.; Komppula, M.; Gu, C.; Jokiniemi, J.; Hirvonen, M.-R.

    2015-11-01

    Urban air particulate pollution is a known cause for adverse human health effects worldwide. China has encountered air quality problems in recent years due to rapid industrialization. Toxicological effects induced by particulate air pollution vary with particle sizes and season. However, it is not known how distinctively different photochemical activity and different emission sources during the day and the night affect the chemical composition of the PM size ranges and subsequently how it is reflected to the toxicological properties of the PM exposures. The particulate matter (PM) samples were collected in four different size ranges (PM10-2.5; PM2.5-1; PM1-0.2 and PM0.2) with a high volume cascade impactor. The PM samples were extracted with methanol, dried and thereafter used in the chemical and toxicological analyses. RAW264.7 macrophages were exposed to the particulate samples in four different doses for 24 h. Cytotoxicity, inflammatory parameters, cell cycle and genotoxicity were measured after exposure of the cells to particulate samples. Particles were characterized for their chemical composition, including ions, element and PAH compounds, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was used to take images of the PM samples. Chemical composition and the induced toxicological responses of the size segregated PM samples showed considerable size dependent differences as well as day to night variation. The PM10-2.5 and the PM0.2 samples had the highest inflammatory potency among the size ranges. Instead, almost all the PM samples were equally cytotoxic and only minor differences were seen in genotoxicity and cell cycle effects. Overall, the PM0.2 samples had the highest toxic potential among the different size ranges in many parameters. PAH compounds in the samples and were generally more abundant during the night than the day, indicating possible photo-oxidation of the PAH compounds due to solar radiation. This was reflected to different toxicity in the PM

  9. Comparison of air dispersion modeling results with ambient air sampling data: A case study at Tacoma Landfill, a National Priorities List Site

    SciTech Connect

    Griffin, L.R. ); Rutherford, T.L. )

    1994-08-01

    Air dispersion modeling, ambient air sampling, and emissions testing of landfill sources have been performed to evaluate the effects of remedial activities on ambient air surrounding the Tacoma Landfill. In 1983, the Tacoma Landfill was placed on the National Priorities List (NPL) as part of the Commencement Bay/South Tacoma Channel Superfund site. Remedial activities completed, or near completion, at the 190 acre (768,903 m[sup 2]) Tacoma Landfill include a groundwater extraction system and air stripping units used to remove volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from groundwater, landfill gas extraction and flare system to control gas migration from the landfill, landfill liner and leachate collection system for an active section of the landfill, and a landfill cap that covers the inactive portions of the landfill. Dispersion modeling was performed with measured stack emission data using Industrial Source Complex (ISC) to determine the groundlevel concentrations of VOCs from the air stripper, flares, and active portion of the landfill for comparison with the measured ambient air data collected during 1992. 9 refs., 3 figs., 6 tabs.

  10. XAFSmass: a program for calculating the optimal mass of XAFS samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klementiev, K.; Chernikov, R.

    2016-05-01

    We present a new implementation of the XAFSmass program that calculates the optimal mass of XAFS samples. It has several improvements as compared to the old Windows based program XAFSmass: 1) it is truly platform independent, as provided by Python language, 2) it has an improved parser of chemical formulas that enables parentheses and nested inclusion-to-matrix weight percentages. The program calculates the absorption edge height given the total optical thickness, operates with differently determined sample amounts (mass, pressure, density or sample area) depending on the aggregate state of the sample and solves the inverse problem of finding the elemental composition given the experimental absorption edge jump and the chemical formula.

  11. Program and charts for determining shock tube, and expansion tunnel flow quantities for real air

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, C. G., III; Wilder, S. E.

    1975-01-01

    A computer program in FORTRAN 4 language was written to determine shock tube, expansion tube, and expansion tunnel flow quantities for real-air test gas. This program permits, as input data, a number of possible combinations of flow quantities generally measured during a test. The versatility of the program is enhanced by the inclusion of such effects as a standing or totally reflected shock at the secondary diaphragm, thermochemical-equilibrium flow expansion and frozen flow expansion for the expansion tube and expansion tunnel, attenuation of the flow in traversing the acceleration section of the expansion tube, real air as the acceleration gas, and the effect of wall boundary layer on the acceleration section air flow. Charts which provide a rapid estimation of expansion tube performance prior to a test are included.

  12. Communication Strategy of Transboundary Air Pollution Findings in a US-Mexico Border XXI Program Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukerjee, Shaibal

    2002-01-01

    From 1996 to 1997, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Texas Natural Resource Conservation Commission (TNRCC) conducted an air quality study known as the Lower Rio Grande Valley Transboundary Air Pollution Project (TAPP). The study was a US-Mexico Border XXI program project and was developed in response to local community requests on a need for more air quality measurements and concerns about the health impact of local air pollutants; this included concerns about emissions from border-dependent industries in Mexico, known as maquiladoras. The TAPP was a follow-up study to environmental monitoring done by EPA in this area in 1993 and incorporated scientific and community participation in development, review of results, and public presentation of findings. In spite of this, critical remarks were leveled by community activists against the study's preliminary "good news" findings regarding local air quality and the influence of transboundary air pollution. To resolve these criticisms and to refine the findings to address these concerns, analyses included comparisons of daily and near real-time measurements to TNRCC effects screening levels and data from other studies along with wind sector analyses. Reassessment of the data suggested that although regional source emissions occurred and outliers of elevated pollutant levels were found, movement of air pollution across the border did not appear to cause noticeable deterioration of air quality. In spite of limitations stated to the community, the TAPP was presented as establishing a benchmark to assess current and future transboundary air quality in the Valley. The study has application in Border XXI Program or other air quality studies where transboundary transport is a concern since it involved interagency coordination, public involvement, and communication of scientifically sound results for local environmental protection efforts.

  13. Communication strategy of transboundary air pollution findings in a US-Mexico Border XXI program project.

    PubMed

    Mukerjee, Shaibal

    2002-01-01

    From 1996 to 1997, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Texas Natural Resource Conservation Commission (TNRCC) conducted an air quality study known as the Lower Rio Grande Valley Transboundary Air Pollution Project (TAPP). The study was a US-Mexico Border XXI program project and was developed in response to local community requests on a need for more air quality measurements and concerns about the health impact of local air pollutants; this included concerns about emissions from border-dependent industries in Mexico, known as maquiladoras. The TAPP was a follow-up study to environmental monitoring done by EPA in this area in 1993 and incorporated scientific and community participation in development, review of results, and public presentation of findings. In spite of this, critical remarks were leveled by community activists against the study's preliminary "good news" findings regarding local air quality and the influence of transboundary air pollution. To resolve these criticisms and to refine the findings to address these concerns, analyses included comparisons of daily and near real-time measurements to TNRCC effects screening levels and data from other studies along with wind sector analyses. Reassessment of the data suggested that although regional source emissions occurred and outliers of elevated pollutant levels were found, movement of air pollution across the border did not appear to cause noticeable deterioration of air quality. In spite of limitations stated to the community, the TAPP was presented as establishing a benchmark to assess current and future transboundary air quality in the Valley. The study has application in Border XXI Program or other air quality studies where transboundary transport is a concern since it involved interagency coordination, public involvement, and communication of scientifically sound results for local environmental protection efforts. PMID:11740622

  14. Pegasus Air-Launched Space Booster Flight Test Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elias, Antonio L.; Knutson, Martin A.

    1995-01-01

    Pegasus is a satellite-launching space rocket dropped from a B52 carrier aircraft instead of launching vertically from a ground pad. Its three-year, privately-funded accelerated development was carried out under a demanding design-to-nonrecurring cost methodology, which imposed unique requirements on its flight test program, such as the decision not to drop an inert model from the carrier aircraft; the number and type of captive and free-flight tests; the extent of envelope exploration; and the decision to combine test and operational orbital flights. The authors believe that Pegasus may be the first vehicle where constraints in the number and type of flight tests to be carried out actually influenced the design of the vehicle. During the period November 1989 to February of 1990 a total of three captive flight tests were conducted, starting with a flutter clearing flight and culminating in a complete drop rehearsal. Starting on April 5, 1990, two combination test/operational flights were conducted. A unique aspect of the program was the degree of involvement of flight test personnel in the early design of the vehicle and, conversely, of the design team in flight testing and early flight operations. Various lessons learned as a result of this process are discussed throughout this paper.

  15. Desktop Application Program to Simulate Cargo-Air-Drop Tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cuthbert, Peter

    2009-01-01

    The DSS Application is a computer program comprising a Windows version of the UNIX-based Decelerator System Simulation (DSS) coupled with an Excel front end. The DSS is an executable code that simulates the dynamics of airdropped cargo from first motion in an aircraft through landing. The bare DSS is difficult to use; the front end makes it easy to use. All inputs to the DSS, control of execution of the DSS, and postprocessing and plotting of outputs are handled in the front end. The front end is graphics-intensive. The Excel software provides the graphical elements without need for additional programming. Categories of input parameters are divided into separate tabbed windows. Pop-up comments describe each parameter. An error-checking software component evaluates combinations of parameters and alerts the user if an error results. Case files can be created from inputs, making it possible to build cases from previous ones. Simulation output is plotted in 16 charts displayed on a separate worksheet, enabling plotting of multiple DSS cases with flight-test data. Variables assigned to each plot can be changed. Selected input parameters can be edited from the plot sheet for quick sensitivity studies.

  16. A novel Whole Air Sample Profiler (WASP) for the quantification of volatile organic compounds in the boundary layer

    SciTech Connect

    Mak, J. E.; Su, L.; Guenther, Alex B.; Karl, Thomas G.

    2013-10-16

    The emission and fate of reactive VOCs is of inherent interest to those studying chemical biosphere-atmosphere interactions. In-canopy VOC observations are obtainable using tower-based samplers, but the lack of suitable sampling systems for the full boundary 5 layer has limited the data characterizing the vertical structure of such gases above the canopy height and still in the boundary layer. This is the important region where many reactive VOCs are oxidized or otherwise removed. Here we describe an airborne sampling system designed to collect a vertical profile of air into a 3/800 OD tube 150m in length. The inlet ram air pressure is used to flow sampled air through the 10 tube, which results in a varying flow rate based on aircraft speed and altitude. Since aircraft velocity decreases during ascent, it is necessary to account for the variable flow rate into the tube. This is accomplished using a reference gas that is pulsed into the air stream so that the precise altitude of the collected air can be reconstructed post-collection. The pulsed injections are also used to determine any significant effect 15 from diffusion/mixing within the sampling tube, either during collection or subsequent extraction for gas analysis. This system has been successfully deployed, and we show some measured vertical profiles of isoprene and its oxidation products methacrolein and methyl vinyl ketone from a mixed canopy near Columbia, Missouri.

  17. Multiple animal studies for medical chemical defense program in soldier/patient decontamination and drug development on task 85-17: Validation of an analytical system for the determination of VX in environmental air and proof of decontamination samples. Final report, 13 October 1985-1 January 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Joiner, R.L.; Hayes, L.; Tuckfield, R.C.; Reeves, L.

    1989-05-31

    An analytical method to detect VX in environmental or headspace air was developed and validated with high sensitivity (<0.00001 mg/m3) and sensitivity. This method uses a solid sorbent thermal desorption developed for this purpose.

  18. Aqueous photooxidation of ambient Po Valley Italy air samples: Insights into secondary organic aerosol formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirkland, J. R.; Lim, Y. B.; Sullivan, A. P.; Decesari, S.; Facchini, C.; Collett, J. L.; Keutsch, F. N.; Turpin, B. J.

    2012-12-01

    In this work, we conducted aqueous photooxidation experiments with ambient samples in order to develop insights concerning the formation of secondary organic aerosol through gas followed by aqueous chemistry (SOAaq). Water-soluble organics (e.g., glyoxal, methylglyoxal, glycolaldehyde, acetic acid, acetone) are formed through gas phase oxidation of alkene and aromatic emissions of anthropogenic and biogenic origin. Their further oxidation in clouds, fogs and wet aerosols can form lower volatility products (e.g., oligomers, organic acids) that remain in the particle phase after water evaporation, thus producing SOA. The aqueous OH radical oxidation of several individual potentially important precursors has been studied in the laboratory. In this work, we used a mist-chamber apparatus to collect atmospheric mixtures of water-soluble gases from the ambient air at San Pietro Capofiume, Italy during the PEGASOS field campaign. We measured the concentration dynamics after addition of OH radicals, in order to develop new insights regarding formation of SOA through aqueous chemistry. Specifically, batch aqueous reactions were conducted with 33 ml mist-chamber samples (TOC ~ 50-100μM) and OH radicals (~10-12M) in a new low-volume aqueous reaction vessel. OH radicals were formed in-situ, continuously by H2O2 photolysis. Products were analyzed by ion chromatography (IC), electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS +/-), and ESI-MS with IC pre-separation (IC/ESI-MS-). Reproducible formation of pyruvate and oxalate were observed both by IC and ESI-MS. These compounds are known to form from aldehyde oxidation in the aqueous phase. New insights regarding the aqueous chemistry of these "more atmospherically-realistic" experiments will be discussed.

  19. Air/superfund national technical guidance study series. Air emissions from area sources: Estimating soil and soil-gas sample number requirements. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Westbrook, W.

    1993-03-01

    The document provides guidance regarding the necessary number of soil gas or soil samples needed to estimate air emissions from area sources. The Manual relies heavily on statistical methods discussed in Appendix C of Volume II of Air/Superfund National Technical Guidance Study Series (EPA 1990) and Chapter 9 of SW-846 (EPA 1986). The techniques in the manual are based on recognizing the inhomgeniety of an area, by observation or screening samples, before samples are taken. Each of the identified zones are then sampled, using random sampling techniques, and statistics calculated separately for each zone before combining the statistics to provide an estimate for the entire area. The statistical techniques presented may also be used to analyze other types of data and provide measures such as mean, variance, and standard deviation. The methods presented in the Manual are based on small sample methods. Application of the methods to data which are appropriately analyzed by large sample methods or to data which is not normally distributed will give erroneous results.

  20. A two-stage inexact joint-probabilistic programming method for air quality management under uncertainty.

    PubMed

    Lv, Y; Huang, G H; Li, Y P; Yang, Z F; Sun, W

    2011-03-01

    A two-stage inexact joint-probabilistic programming (TIJP) method is developed for planning a regional air quality management system with multiple pollutants and multiple sources. The TIJP method incorporates the techniques of two-stage stochastic programming, joint-probabilistic constraint programming and interval mathematical programming, where uncertainties expressed as probability distributions and interval values can be addressed. Moreover, it can not only examine the risk of violating joint-probability constraints, but also account for economic penalties as corrective measures against any infeasibility. The developed TIJP method is applied to a case study of a regional air pollution control problem, where the air quality index (AQI) is introduced for evaluation of the integrated air quality management system associated with multiple pollutants. The joint-probability exists in the environmental constraints for AQI, such that individual probabilistic constraints for each pollutant can be efficiently incorporated within the TIJP model. The results indicate that useful solutions for air quality management practices have been generated; they can help decision makers to identify desired pollution abatement strategies with minimized system cost and maximized environmental efficiency. PMID:21067860

  1. Design of a complex terrain meteorological monitoring program for real-time air quality modeling analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Militana, L.M.; Karpovich, R.; Cimorelli, A.; Scire, J.S.

    1998-12-31

    A multi-station meteorological monitoring program has been designed and developed for a complex terrain air quality modeling study. The purpose of the program is to collect representative on site data as input to complex terrain air quality models and to predict in real-time the potential air quality impact of a rotary kiln incinerator The program is a state-of the science design using the best science air quality dispersion models (CALMET/CALPUFF) and meteorological monitoring equipment (RASS/SODAR Systems monostatic and phased array and multiple towers). The real-time meteorological monitoring program consisted of two monitoring stations using meteorological towers and Doppler SODAR and phased array RASS systems to determine the temperature and wind profile of the atmospheric boundary layer. The primary station were located adjacent to the site and consisted of a 150 ft meteorological tower and RASS/SODAR system. The secondary station was located approximately 1,600 meters northeast of the site and consisted of a 10 meter tower and a SODAR system. These monitoring stations provided 15-minute values of wind speed, wind direction, ambient temperature, and thermal and mechanical turbulence measurements for use in a complex terrain air quality modeling study and a real-time modeling system.

  2. Comparison of halocarbon measurements in an atmospheric dry whole air sample

    PubMed Central

    Hall, Bradley D.; Harth, Christina M.; Kim, Jin Seog; Lee, Jeongsoon; Montzka, Stephen A.; Mühle, Jens; Reimann, Stefan; Vollmer, Martin K.; Weiss, Ray F.

    2015-01-01

    The growing awareness of climate change/global warming, and continuing concerns regarding stratospheric ozone depletion, will require continued measurements and standards for many compounds, in particular halocarbons that are linked to these issues. In order to track atmospheric mole fractions and assess the impact of policy on emission rates, it is necessary to demonstrate measurement equivalence at the highest levels of accuracy for assigned values of standards. Precise measurements of these species aid in determining small changes in their atmospheric abundance. A common source of standards/scales and/or well-documented agreement of different scales used to calibrate the measurement instrumentation are key to understanding many sets of data reported by researchers. This report describes the results of a comparison study among National Metrology Institutes and atmospheric research laboratories for the chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) dichlorodifluoromethane (CFC-12), trichlorofluoromethane (CFC-11), and 1,1,2-trichlorotrifluoroethane (CFC-113); the hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs) chlorodifluoromethane (HCFC-22) and 1-chloro-1,1-difluoroethane (HCFC-142b); and the hydrofluorocarbon (HFC) 1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane (HFC-134a), all in a dried whole air sample. The objective of this study is to compare calibration standards/scales and the measurement capabilities of the participants for these halocarbons at trace atmospheric levels. The results of this study show agreement among four independent calibration scales to better than 2.5% in almost all cases, with many of the reported agreements being better than 1.0%. PMID:26753167

  3. Ice nucleation active particles in continental air samples over Mainz, Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pummer, Bernhard G.; Pöschl, Ulrich; Fröhlich-Nowoisky, Janine

    2016-04-01

    Aerosol particles are of central importance for atmospheric chemistry and physics, climate and public health. Some of these particles possess ice nucleation activity (INA), which is highly relevant for cloud formation and precipitation. In 2010, air filter samples were collected with a high-volume filter sampler separating fine and coarse particles (aerodynamic cut-off diameter 3 μm) in Mainz, Germany. In this study, the INA of the atmospheric particles deposited on these filters was determined. Therefore,they were extracted with ultrapure water, which was then measured in a droplet freezing assay, as described in Fröhlich-Nowoisky et al. (2015). The determined concentration of ice nucleators (INs) was between 0.3 and 2per m³ at 266 K, and between5 and 75 per m³ at 260 K. The INs were further characterized by different treatments, like heating (308 K, 371 K), filtration (0.1 μm, 300 kDa), and digestion with papain (10 mg/ml). We further investigated, which atmospheric conditions (e.g. weather) and distinguished events (e.g. dust storms, volcanic eruptions, and pollen peaks) influenced the number and nature of these INs. Fröhlich-Nowoisky, J., Hill, T. C. J., Pummer, B. G., Yordanova, P., Franc, G. D., and Pöschl, U.: Ice nucleation activity in the widespread soil fungus Mortierella alpina, Biogeosci., 12, 1057-1071, doi:10.5194/bg-12-1057-2015, 2015.

  4. Qualitative multiplatform microanalysis of individual heterogeneous atmospheric particles from high-volume air samples.

    PubMed

    Conny, Joseph M; Collins, Sean M; Herzing, Andrew A

    2014-10-01

    High-resolution microscopic analysis of individual atmospheric particles can be difficult, because the filters upon which particles are captured are often not suitable as substrates for microscopic analysis. Described here is a multiplatform approach for microscopically assessing chemical and optical properties of individual heterogeneous urban dust particles captured on fibrous filters during high-volume air sampling. First, particles embedded in fibrous filters are transferred to polished silicon or germanium wafers with electrostatically assisted high-speed centrifugation. Particles are clustered in an array of deposit areas, which allows for easily locating the same particle with different microscopy instruments. Second, particles with light-absorbing and/or light-scattering behavior are identified for further study from bright-field and dark-field light-microscopy modes, respectively. Third, particles identified from light microscopy are compositionally mapped at high definition with field-emission scanning electron microscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. Fourth, compositionally mapped particles are further analyzed with focused ion-beam (FIB) tomography, whereby a series of thin slices from a particle are imaged, and the resulting image stack is used to construct a three-dimensional model of the particle. Finally, particle chemistry is assessed over two distinct regions of a thin FIB slice of a particle with energy-filtered transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and electron energy-loss spectroscopy associated with scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM). PMID:25220253

  5. Air Force fuel mainburner/turbine effects programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackson, T. A.

    1980-01-01

    A program for the determination of fuel property effects on aircraft gas turbine engine mainburners and turbines is discussed. The six engines selected as test candidates are the J79, J85, J57, TF30, TF39, and F100. Fuels election is the responsibility of the contractors with two fuels as exceptions. The petroleum JP-4 is to be used as a baseline in all tests. The shale JP-4 is to be used in nearly all tests. Fuel properties are to be correlated with combustion system performance paramters. In addition, life predictions are to be made for combustor and turbine hardware. These predictions are to be based on a typical mission for each system, measured metal temperatures and temperature gradients, and oxidation/corrosion effects.

  6. Computer program for obtaining thermodynamic and transport properties of air and products of combustion of ASTM-A-1 fuel and air

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hippensteele, S. A.; Colladay, R. S.

    1978-01-01

    A computer program for determining desired thermodynamic and transport property values by means of a three-dimensional (pressure, fuel-air ratio, and either enthalpy or temperature) interpolation routine was developed. The program calculates temperature (or enthalpy), molecular weight, viscosity, specific heat at constant pressure, thermal conductivity, isentropic exponent (equal to the specific heat ratio at conditions where gases do not react), Prandtl number, and entropy for air and a combustion gas mixture of ASTM-A-1 fuel and air over fuel-air ratios from zero to stoichiometric, pressures from 1 to 40 atm, and temperatures from 250 to 2800 K.

  7. An analytical method for trifluoroacetic Acid in water and air samples using headspace gas chromatographic determination of the methyl ester.

    PubMed

    Zehavi, D; Seiber, J N

    1996-10-01

    An analytical method has been developed for the determination of trace levels of trifluoroacetic acid (TFA), an atmospheric breakdown product of several of the hydrofluorocarbon (HFC) and hydrochlorofluorocarbon (HCFC) replacements for the chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) refrigerants, in water and air. TFA is derivatized to the volatile methyl trifluoroacetate (MTFA) and determined by automated headspace gas chromatography (HSGC) with electron-capture detection or manual HSGC using GC/MS in the selected ion monitoring (SIM) mode. The method is based on the reaction of an aqueous sample containing TFA with dimethyl sulfate (DMS) in concentrated sulfuric acid in a sealed headspace vial under conditions favoring distribution of MTFA to the vapor phase. Water samples are prepared by evaporative concentration, during which TFA is retained as the anion, followed by extraction with diethyl ether of the acidified sample and then back-extraction of TFA (as the anion) in aqueous bicarbonate solution. The extraction step is required for samples with a relatively high background of other salts and organic materials. Air samples are collected in sodium bicarbonate-glycerin-coated glass denuder tubes and prepared by rinsing the denuder contents with water to form an aqueous sample for derivatization and analysis. Recoveries of TFA from spiked water, with and without evaporative concentration, and from spiked air were quantitative, with estimated detection limits of 10 ng/mL (unconcentrated) and 25 pg/mL (concentrated 250 mL:1 mL) for water and 1 ng/m(3) (72 h at 5 L/min) for air. Several environmental air, fogwater, rainwater, and surface water samples were successfully analyzed; many showed the presence of TFA. PMID:21619278

  8. Improvement of air quality according to Mobile reduction measures to establish Korean Auto-oil program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sunwoo, Y.; Jo, H.; Ma, Y.; Kim, S.; Hong, K.; Lim, Y.; Javascript:Setnextpage('sponsor')

    2011-12-01

    The mobile of NOx and PM10 emission of Korea in 2007 accounted for 42%, 23%, respectively (excluded fugitive dust). Seoul highly affected mobile emission which accounted for 46%, 49%, respectively. Korean government ,therefore, established "Special Act for improvement of air quality in Seoul metropolitan area" including mobile emission reduction measures and organized research forum including reformation of fuel and cars, risk assessment, control of greenhouse gas and assessment of air quality to establish Korean Auto-oil program This study quantitatively analyses improvement of air quality in Seoul according to the reformation of fuel and supply of DPF in Korean Auto-oil program. WRF-SMOKE-CMAQ were emploied for this study. SO2, CO, NOx, PM10 and VOCs emission are based on the INTEX-B emission inventory, NH3 were from the REAS emission inventory. Korea emission is derived by CAPSS (Clean Air Policy Support System) data. The reduction through reformation of fuel and supply of DPF is calculated by reduction ratio of air pollutants with strengthen fuel quality standard and number of car supplied DPF, refer to Metropolitan Air Quality Management Office Republic of Korea (2011) in detail. The effect of air quality is quantifiably comparing modeling results which are applied/not applied on the measures. This study will be provided basic data to establish Korean Auto-oil program through quantifying and predicting to improvement of air quality according to the mobile measures. Acknowledgement This research was supported in part by the "Assessment of risk and health benefits considering exposure characteristics of fuel" project sponsored by the Korea Automobile Environmental Association.

  9. Estimating Sampling Biases and Measurement Uncertainties of AIRS-AMSU-A Temperature and Water Vapor Observations Using MERRA Reanalysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hearty, Thomas J.; Savtchenko, Andrey K.; Tian, Baijun; Fetzer, Eric; Yung, Yuk L.; Theobald, Michael; Vollmer, Bruce; Fishbein, Evan; Won, Young-In

    2014-01-01

    We use MERRA (Modern Era Retrospective-Analysis for Research Applications) temperature and water vapor data to estimate the sampling biases of climatologies derived from the AIRS/AMSU-A (Atmospheric Infrared Sounder/Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit-A) suite of instruments. We separate the total sampling bias into temporal and instrumental components. The temporal component is caused by the AIRS/AMSU-A orbit and swath that are not able to sample all of time and space. The instrumental component is caused by scenes that prevent successful retrievals. The temporal sampling biases are generally smaller than the instrumental sampling biases except in regions with large diurnal variations, such as the boundary layer, where the temporal sampling biases of temperature can be +/- 2 K and water vapor can be 10% wet. The instrumental sampling biases are the main contributor to the total sampling biases and are mainly caused by clouds. They are up to 2 K cold and greater than 30% dry over mid-latitude storm tracks and tropical deep convective cloudy regions and up to 20% wet over stratus regions. However, other factors such as surface emissivity and temperature can also influence the instrumental sampling bias over deserts where the biases can be up to 1 K cold and 10% wet. Some instrumental sampling biases can vary seasonally and/or diurnally. We also estimate the combined measurement uncertainties of temperature and water vapor from AIRS/AMSU-A and MERRA by comparing similarly sampled climatologies from both data sets. The measurement differences are often larger than the sampling biases and have longitudinal variations.

  10. Long-term Monitoring Program Optimization for Chlorinated Volatile Organic Compound Plume, Naval Air Station Brunswick, Maine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calderone, G. M.

    2006-12-01

    A long-term monitoring program was initiated in 1995 at 6 sites at NAS Brunswick, including 3 National Priorities List (Superfund) sites. Primary contaminants of concern include chlorinated volatile organic compounds, including tetrachloroethane, trichloroethene, and vinyl chloride, in addition to metals. More than 80 submersible pumping systems were installed to facilitate sample collection utilizing the low-flow sampling technique. Long-term monitoring of the groundwater is conducted to assess the effectiveness of remedial measures, and monitor changes in contaminant concentrations in the Eastern Plume Operable Unit. Long-term monitoring program activities include quarterly groundwater sampling and analysis at more than 90 wells across 6 sites; surface water, sediment, seep, and leachate sampling and analysis at 3 sites; landfill gas monitoring; well maintenance; engineering inspections of landfill covers and other sites or evidence of stressed vegetation; water level gauging; and treatment plant sampling and analysis. Significant cost savings were achieved by optimizing the sampling network and reducing sampling frequency from quarterly to semi- annual or annual sampling. As part of an ongoing optimization effort, a geostatistical assessment of the Eastern Plume was conducted at the Naval Air Station, Brunswick, Maine. The geostatistical assessment used 40 monitoring points and analytical data collected over 3 years. For this geostatistical assessment, EA developed and utilized a database of analytical results generated during 3 years of long-term monitoring which was linked to a Geographic Information System to enhance data visualization capacity. The Geographic Information System included themes for groundwater volatile organic compound concentration, groundwater flow directions, shallow and deep wells, and immediate access to point-specific analytical results. This statistical analysis has been used by the site decision-maker and its conclusions supported a

  11. Comparison of Air Impaction and Electrostatic Dust Collector Sampling Methods to Assess Airborne Fungal Contamination in Public Buildings.

    PubMed

    Normand, Anne-Cécile; Ranque, Stéphane; Cassagne, Carole; Gaudart, Jean; Sallah, Kankoé; Charpin, Denis-André; Piarroux, Renaud

    2016-03-01

    Many ailments can be linked to exposure to indoor airborne fungus. However, obtaining a precise measurement of airborne fungal levels is complicated partly due to indoor air fluctuations and non-standardized techniques. Electrostatic dust collector (EDC) sampling devices have been used to measure a wide range of airborne analytes, including endotoxins, allergens, β-glucans, and microbial DNA in various indoor environments. In contrast, viable mold contamination has only been assessed in highly contaminated environments such as farms and archive buildings. This study aimed to assess the use of EDCs, compared with repeated air-impactor measurements, to assess airborne viable fungal flora in moderately contaminated indoor environments. Indoor airborne fungal flora was cultured from EDCs and daily air-impaction samples collected in an office building and a daycare center. The quantitative fungal measurements obtained using a single EDC significantly correlated with the cumulative measurement of nine daily air impactions. Both methods enabled the assessment of fungal exposure, although a few differences were observed between the detected fungal species and the relative quantity of each species. EDCs were also used over a 32-month period to monitor indoor airborne fungal flora in a hospital office building, which enabled us to assess the impact of outdoor events (e.g. ground excavations) on the fungal flora levels on the indoor environment. In conclusion, EDC-based measurements provided a relatively accurate profile of the viable airborne flora present during a sampling period. In particular, EDCs provided a more representative assessment of fungal levels compared with single air-impactor sampling. The EDC technique is also simpler than performing repetitive air-impaction measures over the course of several consecutive days. EDC is a versatile tool for collecting airborne samples and was efficient for measuring mold levels in indoor environments. PMID:26491105

  12. Emission of atmospheric pollutants out of Africa - Analysis of CARIBIC aircraft air samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thorenz, Ute R.; Baker, Angela K.; Schuck, Tanja; van Velthoven, Peter F. J.; Ziereis, Helmut; Brenninkmeijer, Carl A. M.

    2014-05-01

    Africa is the single largest continental source of biomass burning (BB) emissions. The burning African savannas and tropical forests are a source for a wide range of chemical species, which are important for global atmospheric chemistry, especially for the pristine Southern Hemisphere. Emitted compounds include carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxides (NOx), hydrocarbons, oxygenated hydrocarbons and particles. Deep convection over Central Africa transports boundary layer emissions to the free troposphere making aircraft-based observations useful for investigation of surface emissions and examination of transport and chemistry processes over Africa The CARIBIC project (Civil Aircraft for the Regular Investigation of the Atmosphere Based on an Instrument Container, www.caribic-atmosphere.com part of IAGOS www.iagos.org) is a long term atmospheric measurement program using an instrument container deployed aboard a Lufthansa Airbus A340-600 for a monthly sequence of long-distance passenger flights. Besides the online measurements mixing ratios of greenhouse gases and a suite of C2-C8 non methane hydrocarbons (NMHCs) are measured from flask samples collected at cruise altitude. During northern hemispheric winter 2010/2011 CARIBIC flights took place from Frankfurt to Cape Town and Johannesburg in South Africa. Several BB tracers like methane, CO and various NMHCs were found to be elevated over tropical Africa. Using tracer-CO- and tracer-NOy-correlations emissions were characterized. The NMHC-CO correlations show monthly changing slopes, indicating a change in burned biomass, major fire stage, source region and/or other factors influencing NMHC emissions. To expand our analysis of emission sources a source region data filter was used, based on backward trajectories calculated along the flight tracks. Taking all CARIBIC samples into account having backward trajectories to the African boundary layer the dataset was enlarged from 77 to 168 samples. For both datasets tracer

  13. Air Force pollution prevention research and development program

    SciTech Connect

    Montoya, G.

    1995-12-01

    The prevention surveys pollution prevention R&D in selected technology areas to meet high priority customer needs. Projects are categorized into four areas: Ozone Deleting Compound (ODC) Elimination, HAZMAT Materials and Substitution, HAZMAT Waste Reduction, and Volatile Organic Compound (VOC) Elimination. Each category has specific goals. The ODC Elimination goal was to eliminate the purchases of ODCs by 1 Apr 94. The HAZMAT Materials and Process Replacement goal is to reduce the purchase of EPA 17 materials from 1992 baseline 50% by the end of 1996. The HAZMAT Waste Reduction goal is 25% by the end of 1996, and 50% by the end of 1999. VOC elimination goals are included in the HAZMaT Materials and Substitution and HAZMAT Waste Reduction areas. Each category consists of a portfolio of projects which meet high priority customer technology needs (TNs) and contributes to meeting specific goals. The presentation provides more detailed information for the On-Board Halon Replacement Program, Atomic Oxygen Cleaning process for Oxygen Systems, Non-Chemical Metal Surface Preparation, and LARPS.

  14. Automated, low-temperature dielectric relaxation apparatus for measurement of air-sensitive, corrosive, hygroscopic, powdered samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bessonette, Paul W. R.; White, Mary Anne

    1999-07-01

    An automated apparatus for dielectric determinations on solid samples was designed to allow cryogenic measurements on air-sensitive, corrosive, hygroscopic, powdered samples, without determination of sample thickness, provided that it is uniform. A three-terminal design enabled measurements that were not affected by errors due to dimensional changes of the sample or the electrodes with changes in temperature. Meaningful dielectric data could be taken over the frequency range from 20 Hz to 1 MHz and the temperature range from 12 to 360 K. Tests with Teflon and with powdered NH4Cl gave results that were accurate within a few percent when compared with literature values.

  15. Closer look at our neighbors to the south: Air quality trends, standards, and monitoring programs of Latin American countries

    SciTech Connect

    Childers, L.O.; Medina-Vera, M.; Mitchell, W.J.

    1997-09-01

    The Global Environment Monitoring System (GEMS/Air) is a program in which air monitoring data from over 50 countries throughout the world are collected and analyzed. The GEMS/Air program is sponsored by the United Nations Environment Program (UNEP) and the World Health Organization (WHO). As part of a technical systems agreement between the United States Environmental Protection Agency and the UNEP/WHO, collaborative reviews of eighteen Latin American cities were conducted over the past two years. The countries visited include Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Ecuador, and Venezuela. The findings of these reviews and the future direction of air pollution monitoring programs in these countries are presented.

  16. 3D Air Quality and the Clean Air Interstate Rule: Lagrangian Sampling of CMAQ Model Results to Aid Regional Accountability Metrics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fairlie, T. D.; Szykman, Jim; Pierce, Robert B.; Gilliland, A. B.; Engel-Cox, Jill; Weber, Stephanie; Kittaka, Chieko; Al-Saadi, Jassim A.; Scheffe, Rich; Dimmick, Fred; Tikvart, Joe

    2008-01-01

    The Clean Air Interstate Rule (CAIR) is expected to reduce transport of air pollutants (e.g. fine sulfate particles) in nonattainment areas in the Eastern United States. CAIR highlights the need for an integrated air quality observational and modeling system to understand sulfate as it moves in multiple dimensions, both spatially and temporally. Here, we demonstrate how results from an air quality model can be combined with a 3d monitoring network to provide decision makers with a tool to help quantify the impact of CAIR reductions in SO2 emissions on regional transport contributions to sulfate concentrations at surface monitors in the Baltimore, MD area, and help improve decision making for strategic implementation plans (SIPs). We sample results from the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model using ensemble back trajectories computed with the NASA Langley Research Center trajectory model to provide Lagrangian time series and vertical profile information, that can be compared with NASA satellite (MODIS), EPA surface, and lidar measurements. Results are used to assess the regional transport contribution to surface SO4 measurements in the Baltimore MSA, and to characterize the dominant source regions for low, medium, and high SO4 episodes.

  17. Aerothermal modeling program, phase 2. Element C: Fuel injector-air swirl characterization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mostafa, A. A.; Mongia, H. C.; Mcdonnell, V. G.; Samuelsen, G. S.

    1986-01-01

    The main objectives of the NASA-sponsored Aerothermal Modeling Program, Phase 2--Element C, are experimental evaluation of the air swirler interaction with a fuel injector in a simulated combustor chamber, assessment of the current two-phase models, and verification of the improved spray evaporation/dispersion models. This experimental and numerical program consists of five major tasks. Brief descriptions of the five tasks are given.

  18. It's Alive!: Students Observe Air-Water Interface Samples Rich with Organisms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Avant, Thomas

    2002-01-01

    This article describes an experiment, designed by Cindy Henk, manager of the Socolofsky Microscopy Center at Louisiana State University (LSU), that involved collecting and viewing microorganisms in the air-water interface. The experiment was participated by Leesville High School microbiology students. The students found that the air-water…

  19. SAMPLING AND ANALYSIS FOR POLYCHLORINATED DIBENZO-P-DIOXINS AND DIBENZOFURANS IN AMBIENT AIR

    EPA Science Inventory

    A short-term study for determination of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) in ambient air in Green Bay, Wisconsin, has been completed. eneral Metals Works PS-1 air samplers equipped with particle filters and polyurethane foam (PUF)...

  20. Erasable Optical Media Sample Tester

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    LaBudde, Edward V.; Hazel, Robert L.

    1985-04-01

    The purpose of this paper is to describe a general purpose optical media evaluation system for erasable optical media samples. The thrust of the tester program is to determine the state-of-the-art of erasable optical media materials. The program is being sponsored by the Air Force at the Rome Air Development Center through the SBIR Program.

  1. Summary of PERF air program review - August 22-23, 2007, Annapolis, Maryland.

    SciTech Connect

    Veil, J. A.; Schmalzer, D. K.; Leath, P. P.

    2007-10-24

    For many years, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has supported and sponsored various types of environmental research related to the oil and gas industry through its Office of Fossil Energy and its National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL). In November 2005, Argonne National Laboratory (Argonne) organized and coordinated a review of DOE's water research program in conjunction with the fall 2005 meeting of the Petroleum Environmental Research Forum (PERF). PERF is a nonprofit organization created in 1986 to provide a stimulus and forum for collecting, exchanging, and analyzing research information related to the development of technology for the petroleum industry and also to provide a mechanism for establishing joint research projects in that field. Additional information on PERF can be accessed at http://www.perf.org. The water program review was so successful that both DOE and PERF agreed that a second program review would be useful -- this time on air research and issues. Argonne coordinated the air program review, which was held in Annapolis, Maryland, on August 22 and 23, 2007. This report summarizes the presentations and related discussions that were part of the air program review. The full agenda for the program review is included as Appendix A.

  2. Crop losses from air pollutants: A computer and field-based assessment program and crop and forest losses from air pollutants: An assessment program. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Mutters, R.; Guzy, M.; Thompson, C.R.

    1993-10-01

    The Air Resources Board-sponsored Crop Loss Assessment Program quantifies potential ozone-caused yield losses in 26 crops grown in California. Statewide yield loss estimates were made with aggregated county statistics, and at a subcounty level for the southern San Joaquin Valley. Interpolations of statewide 7-hr mean zone levels were made for selected air basins delimited by a 2000-ft altitudinal barrier. Estimated yield losses were calculated using 2.50 pphm as a background 12-hr average concentration. Regression analyses were performed in a detailed analysis of cotton yield responses in Kern County. Statistically significant regressions of yield vs. ozone concentration, soil characteristics and cotton variety were observed. A field survey to identify ozone injury in cotton, almond and grape was conducted at 11 sites in the Central Valley.

  3. Comparison of Lichen, Conifer Needles, Passive Air Sampling Devices, and Snowpack as Passive Sampling Media to Measure Semi-Volatile Organic Compounds in Remote Atmospheres

    PubMed Central

    SCHRLAU, JILL E.; GEISER, LINDA; HAGEMAN, KIMBERLY J.; LANDERS, DIXON H.

    2011-01-01

    A wide range of semi-volatile organic compounds (SOCs), including pesticides and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), were measured in lichen, conifer needles, snowpack and XAD-based passive air sampling devices (PASDs) collected from 19 different U.S. national parks in order to compare the magnitude and mechanism of SOC accumulation in the different passive sampling media. Lichen accumulated the highest SOC concentrations, in part because of its long (and unknown) exposure period, while PASDs accumulated the lowest concentrations. However, only the PASD SOC concentrations can be used to calculate an average atmospheric gas-phase SOC concentration because the sampling rates are known and the media is uniform. Only the lichen and snowpack SOC accumulation profiles were statistically significantly correlated (r = 0.552, p-value <0.0001) because they both accumulate SOCs present in the atmospheric particle-phase. This suggests that needles and PASDs represent a different composition of the atmosphere than lichen and snowpack and that the interpretation of atmospheric SOC composition is dependent on the type of passive sampling media used. All four passive sampling media preferentially accumulated SOCs with relatively low air-water partition coefficients, while snowpack accumulated SOCs with higher log KOA values compared to the other media. Lichen accumulated more SOCs with log KOA > 10 relative to needles and showed a greater accumulation of particle-phase PAHs. PMID:22087860

  4. Use of Whole-Genome Sequencing to Link Burkholderia pseudomallei from Air Sampling to Mediastinal Melioidosis, Australia

    PubMed Central

    Price, Erin P.; Mayo, Mark; Kaestli, Mirjam; Theobald, Vanessa; Harrington, Ian; Harrington, Glenda; Sarovich, Derek S.

    2015-01-01

    The frequency with which melioidosis results from inhalation rather than percutaneous inoculation or ingestion is unknown. We recovered Burkholderia pseudomallei from air samples at the residence of a patient with presumptive inhalational melioidosis and used whole-genome sequencing to link the environmental bacteria to B. pseudomallei recovered from the patient. PMID:26488732

  5. Early detection of foot-and-mouth disease virus from infected cattle using a dry filter air sampling system

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is a highly contagious livestock disease of high economic impact. Early detection of FMD virus (FMDV) is fundamental for rapid outbreak control. Air sampling collection has been demonstrated as a useful technique for detection of FMDV RNA in infected animals, related to ...

  6. EVALUATION OF GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY/MATRIX ISOLATION INFRARED SPECTROMETRY FOR THE DETERMINATION OF SEMIVOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS IN AIR SAMPLE EXTRACTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The capabilities of gas chromatography/matrix isolation-infrared (GC/MI-IR) spectrometry for determination of semivolatile organic compounds (SVOCs) in air sample extracts were evaluated. ystematic experiment, using xylene isomers as test compounds, were conducted to determine th...

  7. Use of Whole-Genome Sequencing to Link Burkholderia pseudomallei from Air Sampling to Mediastinal Melioidosis, Australia.

    PubMed

    Currie, Bart J; Price, Erin P; Mayo, Mark; Kaestli, Mirjam; Theobald, Vanessa; Harrington, Ian; Harrington, Glenda; Sarovich, Derek S

    2015-11-01

    The frequency with which melioidosis results from inhalation rather than percutaneous inoculation or ingestion is unknown. We recovered Burkholderia pseudomallei from air samples at the residence of a patient with presumptive inhalational melioidosis and used whole-genome sequencing to link the environmental bacteria to B. pseudomallei recovered from the patient. PMID:26488732

  8. THE NEW ENGLAND AIR QUALITY FORECASTING PILOT PROGRAM: DEVELOPMENT OF AN EVALUATION PROTOCOL AND PERFORMANCE BENCHMARK

    EPA Science Inventory

    The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration recently sponsored the New England Forecasting Pilot Program to serve as a "test bed" for chemical forecasting by providing all of the elements of a National Air Quality Forecasting System, including the development and implemen...

  9. Congestion Mitigation and Air Quality Program. Final Report, September 30, 1999 - March 31, 2001

    SciTech Connect

    Brooks, Amy; Werner, Carol

    2001-05-18

    The Environmental and Energy Study Institute (EESI) developed a database of the alternative fuel projects that are currently funded through the congestion migration and air quality program. The data base provides alternative fuel advocates with the answers to many questions about CMAQ as well as information about successful alternative fuel projects.

  10. NATIONAL PERFORMANCE AUDIT PROGRAM AMBIENT AIR AUDITS OF ANALYTICAL PROFEICIENCY--1988

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report presents the results of the U.S Environmental Protection Agencys 1988 National Ambient Air Performance Audit Program, Semiannual audits were conducted for lead, nitrate and sulfate on filter strips. ne audit was Conducted for high volume/PM10 size Selective inlet (ssi...

  11. NATIONAL PERFORMANCE AUDIT PROGRAM--AMBIENT AIR AUDITS OF ANALYTICAL PROFICIENCY--1987

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report presents the results of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's 1987 National Ambient Air Audit Program by pollutant and by analytical method. Semiannual audits were conducted for CO, Pb, NO3 and S04 (filter strips) and acid rain, and an annual audit was conducted ...

  12. 76 FR 20536 - Protocol Gas Verification Program and Minimum Competency Requirements for Air Emission Testing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-13

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY 40 CFR Part 75 RIN 2060-AQ06 Protocol Gas Verification Program and Minimum Competency Requirements for Air Emission Testing Correction In rule document 2011-6216 appearing on pages 17288-17325 in...

  13. Development of a solar-powered residential air conditioner. Program review

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Progress in the effort to develop a residential solar-powered air conditioning system is reported. The topics covered include the objectives, scope and status of the program. The results of state-of-art, design, and economic studies and component and system data are also presented.

  14. Weatherization and Indoor Air Quality: Measured Impacts in Single Family Homes Under the Weatherization Assistance Program

    SciTech Connect

    Pigg, Scott; Cautley, Dan; Francisco, Paul; Hawkins, Beth A; Brennan, Terry M

    2014-09-01

    This report summarizes findings from a national field study of indoor air quality parameters in homes treated under the Weatherization Assistance Program (WAP). The study involved testing and monitoring in 514 single-family homes (including mobile homes) located in 35 states and served by 88 local weatherization agencies.

  15. Air Force Commanders and Barriers to Entry into a Doctoral Business Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Tony; LeMire, Steven D.

    2011-01-01

    The authors examined professionally qualified Air Force commanders' barriers to entry into a business doctoral degree program related to the factors of time, financial means, academics, and motivation. Of the 116 present commanders, 63% were interested in pursuing a doctorate in business. For the commanders interested in obtaining a doctorate…

  16. Master schedule for CY-1983 Hanford environmental surveillance routine sampling program

    SciTech Connect

    Blumer, P.J.; Sula, M.J.; Eddy, P.A.; Dirkes, R.L.

    1982-12-01

    The current schedule of data collection for the routine Hanford environmental surveillance and ground-water monitoring programs at the Hanford Site is presented. The purpose of the programs is to evaluate and report the levels of radioactive and nonradioactive pollutants in the Hanford environs. Radiological monitoring data are reported for air (particulate filter and gases/vapor), Columbia River water, sanitary water, onsite pond water, foodstuffs (whole milk, leafy vegetables, fruit, wheat/alfalfa, beef, poultry/eggs), wildlife, soil and vegetation, and direct radiation. Information is also given for on site radiation control audit surveys (roadway, railway, aerial, and waste disposal sites, and the Hanford ground-water monitoring program.

  17. DETECTING WASTE COMBUSTION EMISSIONS: SEVERAL ADVANCED METHODS ARE USEFUL FOR SAMPLING AIR CONTAMINANTS FROM HAZARDOUS WASTE INCINERATOR STACKS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper is an overview of sampling methods being recommended to EPA regulatory programs, to EPA engineering research and development projects, and to interested parties in the industrial community. The methods discussed are generally applicable to both incineration and processe...

  18. Air Force procedure for predicting aircraft noise around airbases: Airbase operations program (BASEOPS) description

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Robert A.; Mohlman, Henry T.

    1990-01-01

    A user manual is presented for the BASEOPS 3.00 program developed by AAMRL/BBE. The installation, use and limitations of this program is described. BASEOPS is the menu driven computerized airbase operations input program used in doing airbase noise assessments under the USAF Air Installation Compatible Use Zone (AICUZ) program. BASEOPS will create a file that can be directly interfaced to the NOISEMAP 6.0 program, used to calculate the total noise exposure from these input operations. BASEOPS contains default performance profiles (takeoff and landing) for Military Transient and Civil aircraft. The program also allows the user to create a NOISEMAP input file for any subset of the input data through a Global Editing Menu. This can be used for quickly creating multiple noise analyses for different operational input scenarios.

  19. Detection of airborne bacteria in a duck production facility with two different personal air sampling devices for an exposure assessment.

    PubMed

    Martin, Elena; Dziurowitz, Nico; Jäckel, Udo; Schäfer, Jenny

    2015-01-01

    Prevalent airborne microorganisms are not well characterized in industrial animal production buildings with respect to their quantity or quality. To investigate the work-related microbial exposure, personal bioaerosol sampling during the whole working day is recommended. Therefore, bioaerosol sampling in a duck hatchery and a duck house with two personal air sampling devices, a filter-based PGP and a NIOSH particle size separator, was performed. Subsequent, quantitative and qualitative analyses were carried out with" culture independent methods. Total cell concentrations (TCC) determined via fluorescence microscopy showed no difference between the two devices. In average, 8 × 10(6) cells/m(3) were determined in the air of the duck hatchery and 5 × 10(7) cells/m(3) in the air of the duck house. A Generated Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (RFLP) pattern revealed deviant bacterial compositions comparing samples collected with both devices. Clone library analyses based on 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis from the hatchery's air showed 65% similarity between the two sampling devices. Detailed 16S rRNA gene sequence analyses showed the occurrence of bacterial species like Acinetobacter baumannii, Enterococcus faecalis, Escherichia sp., and Shigella sp.; and a group of Staphylococcus delphini, S. intermedius, and S. pseudintermedius that provided the evidence of potential exposure to risk group 2 bacteria at the hatchery workplace. Size fractionated sampling with the developed by the Institute for Occupational Safety and Health of the German Social Accident Insurance (IFA) device revealed that pathogenic bacteria would deposit in the inhalable, the thorax, and possibly alveolar dust fraction according to EN481. TCC analysis showed the deposition of bacterial cells in the third stage (< 1μm) at the NIOSH device which implies that bacteria can reach deep into the lungs and contaminate the alveolus after inhalation. Nevertheless, both personal sampling devices

  20. Use of depuration compounds in passive air samplers: results from active sampling-supported field deployment, potential uses, and recommendations.

    PubMed

    Moeckel, Claudia; Harner, Tom; Nizzetto, Luca; Strandberg, Bo; Lindroth, Anders; Jones, Kevin C

    2009-05-01

    Depuration compounds (DCs) are added to passive air samplers (PAS) prior to deployment to account for the wind-dependency of the sampling rate for gas-phase compounds. This correction is particularly useful for providing comparable data for samplers that are deployed in different environments and subject to different meteorological conditions such as wind speeds. Two types of PAS--the polyurethane foam (PUF) disk sampler and semipermeable membrane devices (SPMDs)--were deployed at eight heights on a 100 m tower to test whether the DC approach could yield air concentrations profiles for PCBs and organochlorine pesticides and account for the wind speed gradient with height. Average wind speeds ranged from 0.3 to 4.5 m s(-1) over the 40 day deployment, increasing with height Two low volume active air samples (AAS), one collected at 25 m and one at 73 m over the 40 day deployment showed no significant concentration differences for target compounds. As expected, the target compounds taken up by PAS reflected the wind profile with height This wind-dependency of the PAS was also reflected in the results of the DCs. A correction based on the DC approach successfully accounted for the effect of wind on PAS sampling rates, yielding a profile consistent with the AAS. Interestingly, in terms of absolute air concentrations, there were differences between the AAS and PAS-derived values for some target compounds. These were attributed to different sampling characteristics of the two approaches that may have resulted in slightly different air masses being sampled. Based on the results of this study, guidelines are presented for the use of DCs and for the calibration of PAS using AAS. PMID:19534139

  1. A spatial multicriteria model for determining air pollution at sample locations.

    PubMed

    Réquia Júnior, Weeberb João; Roig, Henrique Llacer; Koutrakis, Petros

    2015-02-01

    Atmospheric pollution in urban centers has been one of the main causes of human illness related to the respiratory and circulatory system. Efficient monitoring of air quality is a source of information for environmental management and public health. This study investigates the spatial patterns of atmospheric pollution using a spatial multicriteria model that helps target locations for air pollution monitoring sites. The main objective was to identify high-priority areas for measuring human exposures to air pollutants as they relate to emission sources. The method proved to be viable and flexible in its application to various areas. PMID:25947058

  2. Results of soil, ground-water, surface-water, and streambed-sediment sampling at Air Force Plane 85, Columbus, Ohio, 1996

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Parnell, J.M.

    1997-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with Aeronautical Systems Center, Environmental Management Directorate, Restoration Division, prepared the Surface- and Ground- Water Monitoring Work Plan for Air Force Plant 85 (AFP 85 or Plant), Columbus, Ohio, under the Air Force Installation Restoration Program to characterize any ground-water, surface-water, and soil contamination that may exist at AFP 85. The USGS began the study in November 1996. The Plant was divided into nine sampling areas, which included some previously investi gated study sites. The investigation activities included the collection and presentation of data taken during drilling and water-quality sampling. Data collection focused on the saturated and unsatur ated zones and surface water. Twenty-three soil borings were completed. Ten monitoring wells (six existing wells and four newly constructed monitoring wells) were selected for water-quality sam pling. Surface-water and streambed-sediment sampling locations were chosen to monitor flow onto and off of the Plant. Seven sites were sampled for both surface-water and streambed-sediment quality. This report presents data on the selected inorganic and organic constituents in soil, ground water, surface water, and streambed sediments at AFP 85. The methods of data collection and anal ysis also are included. Knowledge of the geologic and hydrologic setting could aid Aeronautical Systems Center, Environmental Management Directorate, Restoration Division, and its governing regulatory agencies in future remediation studies.

  3. 77 FR 27177 - Notice of Funds Availability; Inviting Applications for the Quality Samples Program; Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-09

    .... Suzanne E. Heinen, Administrator, Foreign Agricultural Service, and Vice President, Commodity Credit... for the Quality Samples Program; Correction AGENCY: Foreign Agricultural Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture. ACTION: Notice; correction. SUMMARY: The Foreign Agricultural Service published a document in...

  4. Evaluation of sampling and analytical methodology for polynuclear aromatic compounds in indoor air. Final report, 1 March-30 September 1985

    SciTech Connect

    Chuang, C.C.; Mack, G.A.; Mondron, P.J.; Petersen, B.A.

    1985-10-01

    The objective of this project was to develop a generic sampling and analytical methodology to characterize the polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) concentrations in air within various microenvironments. The following three studies were performed: evaluation of analytical methods, design of a sampling method, and design of a pilot study. Two analytical methods, high performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet adsorption and fluorescence detection and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry, were evaluated for the determination of PAHs and their derivatives in air within microenvironments. The results showed that gas chromatography/positive chemical ionization massspectrometry with data acquisition in the selected ion-monitoring mode is the preferred analytical approach. A modified EPA high-volume sampler, consisting of a quartz fiber filter and a polyurethane foam cartridge, is proposed for use in a future experimental study. A literature review was conducted to determine what is known about the contribution of cigarette smoke to the levels of PAHs in air within microenvironments and to evaluate the use of quinoline and isoquinoline as possible marker compounds for the levels of cigarette smoke. A pilot study was designed to assess PAH levels in air found in residences. A study using this design, was conducted in Columbus, Ohio, during the winter of 1983/84. These results can then be applied to a future large-scale study involving the measurement of human exposure to PAH in air.

  5. Evaluation of a sampling and analysis method for determination of polyhalogenated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans in ambient air

    SciTech Connect

    Harless, R.L.; Lewis, R.G.; McDaniel, D.D.; Gibson, J.F.; Dupuy, A.E.

    1992-01-01

    General Metals Works PS-1 PUF air samplers and an analytical method based on high resolution gas chromatography - high resolution mass spectrometry (HRGC-HRMS) were evaluated for determination of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDDs/PCDFs), polybrominated dibenz-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PBDDs/PBDFs) and bromo/chloro dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (BCDDs/BCDFs) in ambient air. Dilute solutions of these compounds and (13)C-1,2,3,4-TCDD were used to spike the filters of PS-1 air samplers which were then operated 24 hrs to sample 350-400 cubic meter ambient air. After sampling, each quartz-fiber filter and polyurethane foam (PUF) were spiked with (13)C-12-labeled PCDD, PCDF, PBDD, and PBDF internal standards before separate Soxhlet extractions with benzene. The extracts were subjected to an acid/base clean-up procedure followed by clean-up on microcolumns of silica gel, alumina, and carbon and then analyzed by HRGC-HRMS. Results derived from the study indicated the PS-1 ambient air samplers and the analytical procedures were very efficient and that pg/cubic meter and sub-pg/cubic meter levels of total PCDDs/PCDFs, PBDDs/PBDFs, BCDDs/BCDFs, and 2,3,7,8-substituted congeners could be accurately measured.

  6. CABFAC/USGS, a FORTRAN program for Q-mode factor analysis of stratigraphically ordered samples

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Adams, David P.

    1976-01-01

    This program is a revision of the CABFAC program of Kovan and Imbrie (1971) which incorporates the following improvements: each factor is plotted against depth on the printer; samples are ordered stratigraphically by the program, so that input data need not be ordered stratigraphically; an option has been added to transform all variables to zero means before calculating the cosine-theta matrix; and all subroutines are variable-dimensioned, so that the size of .the program may be changed by simply altering the main program.

  7. Scheduling whole-air samples above the Trade Wind Inversion from SUAS using real-time sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freer, J. E.; Greatwood, C.; Thomas, R.; Richardson, T.; Brownlow, R.; Lowry, D.; MacKenzie, A. R.; Nisbet, E. G.

    2015-12-01

    Small Unmanned Air Systems (SUAS) are increasingly being used in science applications for a range of applications. Here we explore their use to schedule the sampling of air masses up to 2.5km above ground using computer controlled bespoked Octocopter platforms. Whole-air sampling is targeted above, within and below the Trade Wind Inversion (TWI). On-board sensors profiled the TWI characteristics in real time on ascent and, hence, guided the altitudes at which samples were taken on descent. The science driver for this research is investigation of the Southern Methane Anomaly and, more broadly, the hemispheric-scale transport of long-lived atmospheric tracers in the remote troposphere. Here we focus on the practical application of SUAS for this purpose. Highlighting the need for mission planning, computer control, onboard sensors and logistics in deploying such technologies for out of line-of-sight applications. We show how such a platform can be deployed successfully, resulting in some 60 sampling flights within a 10 day period. Challenges remain regarding the deployment of such platforms routinely and cost-effectively, particularly regarding training and support. We present some initial results from the methane sampling and its implication for exploring and understanding the Southern Methane Anomaly.

  8. Master schedule for CY-1984 Hanford environmental surveillance routine sampling program

    SciTech Connect

    Blumer, P.J.; Price, K.R.; Eddy, P.A.; Carlile, J.M.V.

    1983-12-01

    This report provides the current schedule of data collection for the routine Hanford environmental surveillance and ground-water Monitoring Programs at the Hanford Site. The purpose is to evaluate and report the levels of radioactive and nonradioactive pollutants in the Hanford environs. The routine sampling schedule provided herein does not include samples that are planned to be collected during FY-1984 in support of special studies, special contractor support programs, or for quality control purposes.

  9. Input guide for computer programs to generate thermodynamic data for air and Freon CF4

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tevepaugh, J. A.; Penny, M. M.; Baker, L. R., Jr.

    1975-01-01

    FORTRAN computer programs were developed to calculate the thermodynamic properties of Freon 14 and air for isentropic expansion from given plenum conditions. Thermodynamic properties for air are calculated with equations derived from the Beattie-Bridgeman nonstandard equation of state and, for Freon 14, with equations derived from the Redlich-Quang nonstandard equation of state. These two gases are used in scale model testing of model rocket nozzle flow fields which requires simulation of the prototype plume shape with a cold flow test approach. Utility of the computer programs for use in analytical prediction of flow fields is enhanced by arranging card or tape output of the data in a format compatible with a method-of-characteristics computer program.

  10. Technique for determination of accurate heat capacities of volatile, powdered, or air-sensitive samples using relaxation calorimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marriott, Robert A.; Stancescu, Maria; Kennedy, Catherine A.; White, Mary Anne

    2006-09-01

    We introduce a four-step technique for the accurate determination of the heat capacity of volatile or air-sensitive samples using relaxation calorimetry. The samples are encapsulated in a hermetically sealed differential scanning calorimetry pan, in which there is an internal layer of Apiezon N grease to assist thermal relaxation. Using the Quantum Design physical property measurement system to investigate benzoic acid and copper standards, we find that this method can lead to heat capacity determinations accurate to ±2% over the temperature range of 1-300K, even for very small samples (e.g., <10mg and contributing ca. 20% to the total heat capacity).

  11. Produce and fish sampling program of Los Alamos National Laboratory's Environmental Surveillance Group

    SciTech Connect

    Salazar, J.G.

    1984-09-01

    This report describes produce and fish sampling procedures of the Environmental Surveillance Group at the Los Alamos National Laboratory. The program monitors foodstuffs and fish for possible radioactive contamination from Laboratory operations. Data gathered in this program on radionuclide concentrations help to estimate radiation doses to Laboratory personnel and the public. 3 references, 7 figures, 2 tables.

  12. Development of Motivation Assessment Techniques for Air Force Officer Training and Education Programs: Motivation for Pilot Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Calvin W.; And Others

    The study was an investigation into the relevance of motivational factors operating in various Air Force training programs, especially Air Training Command's Undergraduate Pilot Training Program. The research project, as a whole, was directed toward understanding motivational factors as they distinguish those who drop out of training from those…

  13. Genotoxicity, inflammation and physico-chemical properties of fine particle samples from an incineration energy plant and urban air.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Anoop Kumar; Jensen, Keld Alstrup; Rank, Jette; White, Paul A; Lundstedt, Staffan; Gagne, Remi; Jacobsen, Nicklas R; Kristiansen, Jesper; Vogel, Ulla; Wallin, Håkan

    2007-10-01

    Airborne particulate matter (PM) was sampled by use of an electrostatic sampler in an oven hall and a receiving hall in a waste-incineration energy plant, and from urban air in a heavy-traffic street and from background air in Copenhagen. PM was sampled for 1-2 weeks, four samples at each site. The samples were extracted and examined for mutagenicity in Salmonella typhimurium strains TA98, YG1041 and YG5161, for content of inorganic elements and for the presence of eight polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. The induction of IL-6 and IL-8 mRNA expression and the presence of DNA damage - tested by the comet assay - were determined after 24-h incubations with human A549 lung epithelial cells. The PM(2.5) concentration was about twofold greater in the oven hall than in the receiving hall. The particle size distribution in the receiving hall was similar to that in street air (maximum mode at about 25nm), but the distribution was completely different in the oven hall (maximum mode at about 150nm). Also chemically, the samples from the oven hall were highly different from the other samples. PM extracts from the receiving hall, street and background air were more mutagenic than the PM extracts from the oven hall. PM from all four sites caused similar levels of DNA damage in A549 cells; only the oven hall samples gave results that were statistically significantly different from those obtained with street-air samples. The receiving hall and the urban air samples were similarly inflammatory (relative IL-8 mRNA expression), whereas the oven hall did not cause a statistically significant increase in IL-8 mRNA expression. A principal component analysis separated the oven hall and the receiving hall by the first principal component. These two sites were separated from street and background air with the second principal component. Several clusters of constituents were identified. One cluster consisted of all the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), several groups of metals and one

  14. Air Breathing Propulsion Controls and Diagnostics Research at NASA Glenn Under NASA Aeronautics Research Mission Programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garg, Sanjay

    2015-01-01

    The Intelligent Control and Autonomy Branch (ICA) at NASA (National Aeronautics and Space Administration) Glenn Research Center (GRC) in Cleveland, Ohio, is leading and participating in various projects in partnership with other organizations within GRC and across NASA, the U.S. aerospace industry, and academia to develop advanced controls and health management technologies that will help meet the goals of the NASA Aeronautics Research Mission Directorate (ARMD) Programs. These efforts are primarily under the various projects under the Advanced Air Vehicles Program (AAVP), Airspace Operations and Safety Program (AOSP) and Transformative Aeronautics Concepts Program (TAC). The ICA Branch is focused on advancing the state-of-the-art of aero-engine control and diagnostics technologies to help improve aviation safety, increase efficiency, and enable operation with reduced emissions. This paper describes the various ICA research efforts under the NASA Aeronautics Research Mission Programs with a summary of motivation, background, technical approach, and recent accomplishments for each of the research tasks.

  15. CERCLA Site discharges to POTWs CERCLA site sampling program: Detailed data report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-08-01

    The document contains wastewater data obtained from sampling at seventeen CERCLA sites during a study of wastewater discharges from CERCLA sites to publicly owned treatment works (POTWs). The document serves as an appendix to the report summarizing the findings of the CERCLA site sampling program in Section 3 (CERCLA Site Data Report) in the USEPA CERCLA Site Discharges to POTWs Treatability Manual.

  16. Statement of work for services provided by the waste sampling and characterization facility for the effluent and environmental monitoring program during calendar year 1997

    SciTech Connect

    Gleckler, B.P., Fluor Daniel Hanford

    1997-02-28

    This document defines the services the Waste Sampling & Characterization Facility (WSCF) shall provide the Effluent and Environmental Monitoring Program (EEM) throughout the calendar year for analysis. The purpose of the EEM Program is to monitor liquid and gaseous effluents, and the environment immediately around the facilities which may contain radioactive and hazardous materials. Monitoring data are collected, evaluated, and reported to determine their degree of compliance with applicable federal and state regulations and permits. The Appendix identifies the samples EEM plans to submit for analysis in CY-1997. Analysis of effluent (liquid and air discharges) and environmental (air, liquid, animal, and vegetative) samples is required using standard laboratory procedures, in accordance with regulatory and control requirements cited in Quality Assurance Program Plan for Radionuclide Airborne Emissions Monitoring (especially Appendix G) (VTHC 1995a), Effluent Monitoring Quality Assurance Project Plan for Radionuclide Airborne Emissions Data (WHC 1995b), Operational Environmental Monitoring Program Quality Assurance Project Plan (WHC 1994b), and Hanford Analytical Services Quality Assurance Requirements Documents (DOE 1996). Should changes to this document be necessary, WSCF or the Air & Water Services (A&WS) Organization may amend it at any time with a jointly approved internal memo.

  17. Innovative coke oven gas cleaning system for retrofit applications. Environmental Monitoring program. Volume 1 - sampling progrom report. Baseline Sampling Program report

    SciTech Connect

    Stuart, L.M.

    1994-05-27

    Bethlehem Steel Corporation (BSC), in conjunction with the Department of Energy (DOE) is conducting a Clean Coal Technology (CCT) project at its Sparrows Point, Maryland Coke Oven Plant. This innovative coke oven gas cleaning system combines several existing technologies into an integrated system for removing impurities from Coke Oven Gas (COG) to make it an acceptable fuel. DOE provided cost-sharing under a Cooperative Agreement with BSC. This Cooperative Agreement requires BSC to develop and conduct and Environmental Monitoring Plan for the Clean Coal Technology project and to report the status of the EMP on a quarterly basis. It also requires the preparation of a final report on the results of the Baseline Compliance and Supplemental Sampling Programs that are part of the EMP and which were conducted prior to the startup of the innovative coke oven gas cleaning system. This report is the Baseline Sampling Program report.

  18. Sampling Biases in Datasets of Historical Mean Air Temperature over Land

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, K.

    2014-12-01

    Global mean surface air temperature have risen by 0.74 °C over the last 100 years. However, the definition of mean surface air temperature is still a subject of debate. The most defensible definition might be the integral of the continuous temperature measurements over a day (Td0). However, for technological and historical reasons, mean temperatures (Td1) over land have been taken to be the average of the daily maximum and minimum temperature measurements. All existing principle global temperature analyses over land are primarily based on Td1. Here, I make a first quantitative assessment of the bias in the use of Td1 to estimate trends of mean air temperature using hourly air temperature observations at 5600 globally distributed weather stations from the 1970s to 2013. I find that the use of Td1 has a negligible impact on the global mean warming rate. However, the trend of Td1 has a substantial bias at regional and local scales, with a root mean square error of over 25% at 5°×5° grids. Therefore, caution should be taken when using mean air temperature datasets based on Td1 to examine spatial patterns of global warming.

  19. The lung cancer breath signature: a comparative analysis of exhaled breath and air sampled from inside the lungs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capuano, Rosamaria; Santonico, Marco; Pennazza, Giorgio; Ghezzi, Silvia; Martinelli, Eugenio; Roscioni, Claudio; Lucantoni, Gabriele; Galluccio, Giovanni; Paolesse, Roberto; di Natale, Corrado; D'Amico, Arnaldo

    2015-11-01

    Results collected in more than 20 years of studies suggest a relationship between the volatile organic compounds exhaled in breath and lung cancer. However, the origin of these compounds is still not completely elucidated. In spite of the simplistic vision that cancerous tissues in lungs directly emit the volatile metabolites into the airways, some papers point out that metabolites are collected by the blood and then exchanged at the air-blood interface in the lung. To shed light on this subject we performed an experiment collecting both the breath and the air inside both the lungs with a modified bronchoscopic probe. The samples were measured with a gas chromatography-mass spectrometer (GC-MS) and an electronic nose. We found that the diagnostic capability of the electronic nose does not depend on the presence of cancer in the sampled lung, reaching in both cases an above 90% correct classification rate between cancer and non-cancer samples. On the other hand, multivariate analysis of GC-MS achieved a correct classification rate between the two lungs of only 76%. GC-MS analysis of breath and air sampled from the lungs demonstrates a substantial preservation of the VOCs pattern from inside the lung to the exhaled breath.

  20. Thermal desorption-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry method to determine phthalate and organophosphate esters from air samples.

    PubMed

    Aragón, M; Borrull, F; Marcé, R M

    2013-08-16

    A method based on thermal desorption-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (TD-GC-MS) has been developed to determine four organophosphate esters, seven phthalate esters, and bis(2-ethylhexyl) adipate in the gas phase from harbour and urban air samples. The method involves the sampling of 1.5L of air in a Tenax TA sorbent tube followed by thermal desorption (using a Tenax TA cryogenic trap) coupled to gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The repeatability of the method expressed as %RSD (n=3) is less than 15% and the MQLs are between 0.007μgm(-3) (DMP, TBP, BBP, TPP and DnOP) and 6.7μgm(-3) (DEHP). The method was successfully applied in two areas (urban and harbour) testing two and three points in each one, respectively. Some of these compounds were found in both urban and harbour samples. Di-(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate was the most abundant compound found in both areas at concentration levels between 6.7μgm(-3) and 136.4μgm(-3). This study demonstrates that thermal desorption is an efficient method for the determination of these semi-volatile compounds in the gas phase fraction of air samples. PMID:23859797