Science.gov

Sample records for air sampling program

  1. EML Surface Air Sampling Program, 1990--1993 data

    SciTech Connect

    Larsen, R.J.; Sanderson, C.G.; Kada, J.

    1995-11-01

    Measurements of the concentrations of specific atmospheric radionuclides in air filter samples collected for the Environmental Measurements Laboratory`s Surface Air Sampling Program (SASP) during 1990--1993, with the exception of April 1993, indicate that anthropogenic radionuclides, in both hemispheres, were at or below the lower limits of detection for the sampling and analytical techniques that were used to collect and measure them. The occasional detection of {sup 137}Cs in some air filter samples may have resulted from resuspension of previously deposited debris. Following the April 6, 1993 accident and release of radionuclides into the atmosphere at a reprocessing plant in the Tomsk-7 military nuclear complex located 16 km north of the Siberian city of Tomsk, Russia, weekly air filter samples from Barrow, Alaska; Thule, Greenland and Moosonee, Canada were selected for special analyses. The naturally occurring radioisotopes that the authors measure, {sup 7}Be and {sup 210}Pb, continue to be detected in most air filter samples. Variations in the annual mean concentrations of {sup 7}Be at many of the sites appear to result primarily from changes in the atmospheric production rate of this cosmogenic radionuclide. Short-term variations in the concentrations of {sup 7}Be and {sup 210}Pb continued to be observed at many sites at which weekly air filter samples were analyzed. The monthly gross gamma-ray activity and the monthly mean surface air concentrations of {sup 7}Be, {sup 95}Zr, {sup 137}Cs, {sup 144}Ce, and {sup 210}Pb measured at sampling sites in SASP during 1990--1993 are presented. The weekly mean surface air concentrations of {sup 7}Be, {sup 95}Zr, {sup 137}Cs, {sup 144}Ce, and {sup 210}Pb for samples collected during 1990--1993 are given for 17 sites.

  2. Ozone measurement system for NASA global air sampling program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tiefermann, M. W.

    1979-01-01

    The ozone measurement system used in the NASA Global Air Sampling Program is described. The system uses a commercially available ozone concentration monitor that was modified and repackaged so as to operate unattended in an aircraft environment. The modifications required for aircraft use are described along with the calibration techniques, the measurement of ozone loss in the sample lines, and the operating procedures that were developed for use in the program. Based on calibrations with JPL's 5-meter ultraviolet photometer, all previously published GASP ozone data are biased high by 9 percent. A system error analysis showed that the total system measurement random error is from 3 to 8 percent of reading (depending on the pump diaphragm material) or 3 ppbv, whichever are greater.

  3. Wide Area Recovery and Resilency Program (WARRP). Video - Aggressive Air Sampling for B. anthracis Spores

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-09-14

    34Systematic Evaluation of Aggressive Air Sampling for Bacillus anthracis Spores", in which aggressive air sampling, used for asbestos fiber detection, was...Sep 2012 Final 01 Feb 2011 - 01 Sep 2012 Wide Area Recovery and Resiliency Program (WARRP) Video - Aggressive Air Sampling for B. anthracis Spores

  4. Linear Regression Modeling of Selected Analytes from the Balad Air Sampling Program

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-04-05

    Spearman correlation coefficient – Option is used in the IBM SPSS® Statistics V20 program when comparing two variables (weather – analyte...The positive Spearman correlation coefficient value (0.598) indicates analyte concentration for benzo[a]pyrene increased during the four sampling...Cadmium The negative Spearman correlation coefficient value (-0.318) indicates that the analyte concentration of cadmium decreased over the four

  5. Air Sampling Filter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    General Metal Works' Accu-Vol is a high-volume air sampling system used by many government agencies to monitor air quality for pollution control purposes. Procedure prevents possible test-invalidating contamination from materials other than particulate pollutants, caused by manual handling or penetration of windblown matter during transit, a cassette was developed in which the filter is sealed within a metal frame and protected in transit by a snap-on aluminum cover, thus handled only under clean conditions in the laboratory.

  6. Air Sampling System Evaluation Template

    SciTech Connect

    Blunt, Brent

    2000-05-09

    The ASSET1.0 software provides a template with which a user can evaluate an Air Sampling System against the latest version of ANSI N13.1 "Sampling and Monitoring Releases of Airborne Radioactive Substances from the Stacks and Ducts of Nuclear Facilities". The software uses the ANSI N13.1 PIC levels to establish basic design criteria for the existing or proposed sampling system. The software looks at such criteria as PIC level, type of radionuclide emissions, physical state of the radionuclide, nozzle entrance effects, particulate transmission effects, system and component accuracy and precision evaluations, and basic system operations to provide a detailed look at the subsystems of a monitoring and sampling system/program. A GAP evaluation can then be completed which leads to identification of design and operational flaws in the proposed systems. Corrective measures can then be limited to the GAPs.

  7. Air Pollution Training Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Public Health Service (DHEW), Rockville, MD.

    This catalog lists the universities, both supported and not supported by the Division of Air Pollution, which offer graduate programs in the field of air pollution. The catalog briefly describes the programs and their entrance requirements, the requirements, qualifications and terms of special fellowships offered by the Division of Air Pollution.…

  8. Installation Restoration Program Stage 3. McClellan Air Force Base, California. Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study Groundwater Sampling and Analysis Program Data Summary

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-12-01

    INSTALLATION RESTORATION PROGRAM .. STAGE 3 X..::.. MCCLELLAN AIR FORCE BASE 71! rPREPARED BY: Radian Corporation 10395 Old Plbcerille Road...PREPARED FOR: .................HEADQUARTERS AFLIDEY WRIGHTPATTERSON AFB, OHIO 4543 R~ - - -1 .~~~...... Ajr..J .~ .......... United States Air Force... AIR FORCE HEAoQUARTERS SACRAMENTO AIR LOGISTICS CENTER (AFLC)0 ELLAN AIR FORCE BASE. CALIFORNIA S6112-1O REPLY TO t0i3 J I 989 ATTN OF: EK SUBJECT Third

  9. Inertial impaction air sampling device

    SciTech Connect

    Dewhurst, K.H.

    1987-12-10

    An inertial impactor to be used in an air sampling device for collection of respirable size particles in ambient air which may include a graphite furnace as the impaction substrate in a small-size, portable, direct analysis structure that gives immediate results and is totally self-contained allowing for remote and/or personal sampling. The graphite furnace collects suspended particles transported through the housing by means of the air flow system, and these particles may be analyzed for elements, quantitatively and qualitatively, by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. 3 figs.

  10. Inertial impaction air sampling device

    SciTech Connect

    Dewhurst, K.H.

    1990-05-22

    An inertial impactor is designed which is to be used in an air sampling device for collection of respirable size particles in ambient air. The device may include a graphite furnace as the impaction substrate in a small-size, portable, direct analysis structure that gives immediate results and is totally self-contained allowing for remote and/or personal sampling. The graphite furnace collects suspended particles transported through the housing by means of the air flow system, and these particles may be analyzed for elements, quantitatively and qualitatively, by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. 3 figs.

  11. Inertial impaction air sampling device

    DOEpatents

    Dewhurst, Katharine H.

    1990-01-01

    An inertial impactor to be used in an air sampling device for collection of respirable size particles in ambient air which may include a graphite furnace as the impaction substrate in a small-size, portable, direct analysis structure that gives immediate results and is totally self-contained allowing for remote and/or personal sampling. The graphite furnace collects suspended particles transported through the housing by means of the air flow system, and these particles may be analyzed for elements, quantitatively and qualitatively, by atomic absorption spectrophotometry.

  12. Evaluation of proposed sampling and analytical methods for carbonaceous hazardous air pollutants for the Clean Coal Technology Program

    SciTech Connect

    Mazurek, M.A.; Hildemann, L.M.

    1993-03-01

    At present, no single stack sampling protocol (EPA5, MEPA5, REPA5, and dilution sampling methods) is adequate for evaluating completely stack gas emissions that will be tested as part of the CCTP. REPA5 yields emissions data for organic compounds that are not representative of the physical or chemical composition of the aerosol. As an alternative method, dilution sampling of stack gases produces more accurate particle phase organic emissions data, but does not furnish information on volatile organics. A synthesis of the dilution sampling method and REPA5 sampling and analytical technologies will produce the high quality stack emissions data needed for future CCTP programs.

  13. Comparing toxic air pollutant programs

    SciTech Connect

    Hawkins, S.C.

    1997-05-01

    This article compares state and federal toxic air pollutant programs. The Clean Air Act Ammendments created a program for the control of Hazardous Air Pollutants based on the establishment of control technology standards. State toxic programs can be classified into two categories: control technology-based and ambient concentration-based. Many states have opened to implement the MACT standards while enforcing their own state air toxics programs. Specific topics discussed include the following: the Federal air toxics program; existing state regulations; New Jersey Air Toxic Program; New York Toxics program.

  14. Air sampling of smallpox virus

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, G.

    1974-01-01

    Airborne smallpox virus has been recovered in an isolation hospital using an adhesive surface sampling technique in the presence of very low aerosol concentrations. Previous work in this field is reviewed. Successful recovery of airborne virus depends on sampling large volumes of air with a suitable sampler and thorough investigation of the whole sample taken for the presence of viable virus. More information on the characteristics and behaviour of airborne smallpox virus is needed in particular with regard to the future design and siting of smallpox isolation units. PMID:4371586

  15. Meteorological and operational aspects of 46 clear air turbulence sampling missions with an instrument B-57B aircraft. Volume 1: Program summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, R. E.; Champine, R. A.; Ehernberger, L. J.

    1979-01-01

    The results of 46 clear air turbulence (CAT) probing missions conducted with an extensively instrumented B-57B aircraft are summarized. Turbulence samples were obtained under diverse conditions including mountain waves, jet streams, upper level fronts and troughs, and low altitude mechanical and thermal turbulence. CAT was encouraged on 20 flights comprising 77 data runs. In all, approximately 4335 km were flown in light turbulence, 1415 km in moderate turbulence, and 255 km in severe turbulence during the program. The flight planning, operations, and turbulence forecasting aspects conducted with the B-57B aircraft are presented.

  16. Air sampling in the workplace. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Hickey, E.E.; Stoetzel, G.A.; Strom, D.J.; Cicotte, G.R.; Wiblin, C.M.; McGuire, S.A.

    1993-09-01

    This report provides technical information on air sampling that will be useful for facilities following the recommendations in the NRC`s Regulatory Guide 8.25, Revision 1, ``Air sampling in the Workplace.`` That guide addresses air sampling to meet the requirements in NRC`s regulations on radiation protection, 10 CFR Part 20. This report describes how to determine the need for air sampling based on the amount of material in process modified by the type of material, release potential, and confinement of the material. The purposes of air sampling and how the purposes affect the types of air sampling provided are discussed. The report discusses how to locate air samplers to accurately determine the concentrations of airborne radioactive materials that workers will be exposed to. The need for and the methods of performing airflow pattern studies to improve the accuracy of air sampling results are included. The report presents and gives examples of several techniques that can be used to evaluate whether the airborne concentrations of material are representative of the air inhaled by workers. Methods to adjust derived air concentrations for particle size are described. Methods to calibrate for volume of air sampled and estimate the uncertainty in the volume of air sampled are described. Statistical tests for determining minimum detectable concentrations are presented. How to perform an annual evaluation of the adequacy of the air sampling is also discussed.

  17. The Federal Air Pollution Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Air Pollution Control Administration (DHEW), Washington, DC.

    Described is the Federal air pollution program as it was in 1967. The booklet is divided into these major topics: History of the Federal Program; Research; Assistance to State and Local Governments; Abatement and Prevention of Air Pollution; Control of Motor Vehicle Pollution; Information and Education; and Conclusion. Federal legislation has…

  18. A New Technique for Sampling Firn Air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perron, F. E.; Dibb, J. E.; Albert, M. R.

    2004-12-01

    The discovery and subsequent interest in photochemical interactions between the polar snowpack and the atmosphere has spawned interest in reliable methods of measuring chemical concentrations in interstitial air. Consistent sampling of the interstitial air in the snowpack had been problematic due to great chemical differences possible from sampling different layers in the snow and the difficulties in acquiring a sample that could serve multiple investigators at the same time. This paper describes a new air sampling device that was developed to solve many of the sampling problems. This new system allows multiple simultaneous chemical analysis of air contained in the pore spaces of the arctic snowpack at unlimited increments from depths of 0 to 150 cm. The three major components are a 4 ft diameter highly UV transmittent acrylic "hood" with a 10 cm rim, a 10 cm diameter casing barrel, and an air probe head. These components operate along with a variety of sub-components that supplement the sampling process. The technique provides for a common sample collection, use for a variety of gases to be sampled, it eliminates short circuit air sampling, provides undisturbed snow for in-situ sampling at multiple sample depths in the same location. The design is discussed and possible extension as a platform for other sensors is described.

  19. Air sampling with solid phase microextraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martos, Perry Anthony

    There is an increasing need for simple yet accurate air sampling methods. The acceptance of new air sampling methods requires compatibility with conventional chromatographic equipment, and the new methods have to be environmentally friendly, simple to use, yet with equal, or better, detection limits, accuracy and precision than standard methods. Solid phase microextraction (SPME) satisfies the conditions for new air sampling methods. Analyte detection limits, accuracy and precision of analysis with SPME are typically better than with any conventional air sampling methods. Yet, air sampling with SPME requires no pumps, solvents, is re-usable, extremely simple to use, is completely compatible with current chromatographic equipment, and requires a small capital investment. The first SPME fiber coating used in this study was poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS), a hydrophobic liquid film, to sample a large range of airborne hydrocarbons such as benzene and octane. Quantification without an external calibration procedure is possible with this coating. Well understood are the physical and chemical properties of this coating, which are quite similar to those of the siloxane stationary phase used in capillary columns. The log of analyte distribution coefficients for PDMS are linearly related to chromatographic retention indices and to the inverse of temperature. Therefore, the actual chromatogram from the analysis of the PDMS air sampler will yield the calibration parameters which are used to quantify unknown airborne analyte concentrations (ppb v to ppm v range). The second fiber coating used in this study was PDMS/divinyl benzene (PDMS/DVB) onto which o-(2,3,4,5,6- pentafluorobenzyl) hydroxylamine (PFBHA) was adsorbed for the on-fiber derivatization of gaseous formaldehyde (ppb v range), with and without external calibration. The oxime formed from the reaction can be detected with conventional gas chromatographic detectors. Typical grab sampling times were as small as 5 seconds

  20. East Mountain Area 1995 air sampling results

    SciTech Connect

    Deola, R.A.

    1996-09-01

    Ambient air samples were taken at two locations in the East Mountain Area in conjunction with thermal testing at the Lurance Canyon Burn Site (LCBS). The samples were taken to provide measurements of particulate matter with a diameter less than or equal to 10 micrometers (PM{sub 10}) and volatile organic compounds (VOCs). This report summarizes the results of the sampling performed in 1995. The results from small-scale testing performed to determine the potentially produced air pollutants in the thermal tests are included in this report. Analytical results indicate few samples produced measurable concentrations of pollutants believed to be produced by thermal testing. Recommendations for future air sampling in the East Mountain Area are also noted.

  1. Passive Samplers for Investigations of Air Quality: Method Description, Implementation, and Comparison to Alternative Sampling Methods

    EPA Science Inventory

    This Paper covers the basics of passive sampler design, compares passive samplers to conventional methods of air sampling, and discusses considerations when implementing a passive sampling program. The Paper also discusses field sampling and sample analysis considerations to ensu...

  2. Indoor Air Quality Management Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anne Arundel County Public Schools, Annapolis, MD.

    In an effort to provide Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) management guidance, Anne Arundel County Public Schools was selected by the Maryland State Department of Education to develop a program that could be used by other school systems. A major goal was to produce a handbook that was "user friendly." Hence, its contents are a mix of history,…

  3. 32 CFR 806.27 - Samples of Air Force FOIA processing documents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Samples of Air Force FOIA processing documents. 806.27 Section 806.27 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE ADMINISTRATION AIR FORCE FREEDOM OF INFORMATION ACT PROGRAM § 806.27 Samples of Air Force FOIA...

  4. 32 CFR 806.27 - Samples of Air Force FOIA processing documents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Samples of Air Force FOIA processing documents. 806.27 Section 806.27 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE ADMINISTRATION AIR FORCE FREEDOM OF INFORMATION ACT PROGRAM § 806.27 Samples of Air Force FOIA...

  5. 32 CFR 806.27 - Samples of Air Force FOIA processing documents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Samples of Air Force FOIA processing documents. 806.27 Section 806.27 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE ADMINISTRATION AIR FORCE FREEDOM OF INFORMATION ACT PROGRAM § 806.27 Samples of Air Force FOIA...

  6. Air Markets Program Data (AMPD)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Air Markets Program Data tool allows users to search EPA data to answer scientific, general, policy, and regulatory questions about industry emissions. Air Markets Program Data (AMPD) is a web-based application that allows users easy access to both current and historical data collected as part of EPA's emissions trading programs. This site allows you to create and view reports and to download emissions data for further analysis. AMPD provides a query tool so users can create custom queries of industry source emissions data, allowance data, compliance data, and facility attributes. In addition, AMPD provides interactive maps, charts, reports, and pre-packaged datasets. AMPD does not require any additional software, plug-ins, or security controls and can be accessed using a standard web browser.

  7. Air Sampling Instruments for Evaluation of Atmospheric Contaminants. Fourth Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists, Cincinnati, OH.

    This text, a revision and extension of the first three editions, consists of papers discussing the basic considerations in sampling air for specific purposes, sampler calibration, systems components, sample collectors, and descriptions of air-sampling instruments. (BT)

  8. More about sampling and estimation of mercaptans in air samples.

    PubMed

    Moliner-Martínez, Y; Herráez-Hernández, R; Molins-Legua, C; Verdú-Andrés, J; Avella-Oliver, M; Campíns-Falcó, P

    2013-03-15

    Several strategies have been developed for sampling and determination of volatile thiols. The selectivity and sensitivity of the proposed methodologies are achieved by using a specific derivatizing reagent. The different procedures assayed are based on air sampling followed by derivatization of the analytes with OPA and isoleucine in alkaline solution. The derivatization products are separated and determined by liquid chromatography and fluorescence detection. To start, the derivatization conditions and stability of the derivates have been studied in order to establish the storage conditions. In general, the strategies studied consisted on trapping and detivatization the thiol compound on different support; a solution (Impinger) or sorbent (C₁₈ cartridges or glass fiber filter). The analytical properties of the different strategies have been obtained and compared. Procedures are recommended upon specific situations.

  9. TRU waste-sampling program

    SciTech Connect

    Warren, J.L.; Zerwekh, A.

    1985-08-01

    As part of a TRU waste-sampling program, Los Alamos National Laboratory retrieved and examined 44 drums of /sup 238/Pu- and /sup 239/Pu-contaminated waste. The drums ranged in age from 8 months to 9 years. The majority of drums were tested for pressure, and gas samples withdrawn from the drums were analyzed by a mass spectrometer. Real-time radiography and visual examination were used to determine both void volumes and waste content. Drum walls were measured for deterioration, and selected drum contents were reassayed for comparison with original assays and WIPP criteria. Each drum tested at atmospheric pressure. Mass spectrometry revealed no problem with /sup 239/Pu-contaminated waste, but three 8-month-old drums of /sup 238/Pu-contaminated waste contained a potentially hazardous gas mixture. Void volumes fell within the 81 to 97% range. Measurements of drum walls showed no significant corrosion or deterioration. All reassayed contents were within WIPP waste acceptance criteria. Five of the drums opened and examined (15%) could not be certified as packaged. Three contained free liquids, one had corrosive materials, and one had too much unstabilized particulate. Eleven drums had the wrong (or not the most appropriate) waste code. In many cases, disposal volumes had been inefficiently used. 2 refs., 23 figs., 7 tabs.

  10. 40 CFR 61.34 - Air sampling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS National Emission Standard for Beryllium § 61.34 Air... detect maximum concentrations of beryllium in the ambient air. (b) All monitoring sites shall be...

  11. 40 CFR 61.34 - Air sampling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS National Emission Standard for Beryllium § 61.34 Air... detect maximum concentrations of beryllium in the ambient air. (b) All monitoring sites shall be...

  12. 40 CFR 61.34 - Air sampling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS National Emission Standard for Beryllium § 61.34 Air... detect maximum concentrations of beryllium in the ambient air. (b) All monitoring sites shall be...

  13. 40 CFR 61.34 - Air sampling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS National Emission Standard for Beryllium § 61.34 Air... detect maximum concentrations of beryllium in the ambient air. (b) All monitoring sites shall be...

  14. 40 CFR 61.34 - Air sampling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS National Emission Standard for Beryllium § 61.34 Air... detect maximum concentrations of beryllium in the ambient air. (b) All monitoring sites shall be...

  15. The Air Force Nurse Intern Program.

    PubMed

    Smith, R H

    1991-08-01

    The Air Force Nurse Intern Program is a 5-month-long introduction to Air Force nursing for BSN-prepared graduate nurses. The program is designed to facilitate the transition from civilian nursing student to practicing Air Force Nurse Corps Officer. After attending Military Indoctrination for Medical Service Officers, newly commissioned nurses attend the program at one of 10 Air Force medical centers before going to their permanent duty stations. Preceptors guide and instruct the interns at each of four clinical rotation sites. The author, a former nurse intern, describes some of the many opportunities available to nurse interns.

  16. Minanre Gas Concentrators For Air Sampling

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. Seung Ho Hong

    2001-03-01

    The goal of this project was to demonstrate the feasibility of a compact, lightweight, gas-sampling device with rapid-cycle-time characteristics. The highlights of our Phase I work include: (1) Demonstration of a compact gas sampler with integrated heater. This device has an order of magnitude greater adsorption capacity and much faster heating/cooling times than commercial sorbent tubes. (2) Completion of computational fluid dynamics modeling of the gas sampler to determine airflow characteristics for various design options. These modeling efforts guided the development and testing of the Mesochannel Gas Sampler prototype. (3) Testing of the Mesochannel Gas Sampler in parallel with tests of two packed-bed samplers. These tests showed the Mesochannel Gas Sampler represents a substantial improvement compared with the packed-bed approach. Our mesochannel heat-exchanger/adsorber architecture allows very efficient use of adsorbent mass, high adsorbent loadings, and very low pressure drop, which makes possible very high air-sampling rates using a simple, low-power fan. This device is well-suited for collecting samples of trace-level contaminants. The integrated heater, which forms the adsorbent-coated mesochannel walls, allows direct heating of the adsorbent and results in very rapid desorption of the adsorbed species. We believe the Mesochannel Gas Sampler represents a promising technology for the improvement of trace-contaminant detection limits. In our Phase II proposal, we outline several improvements to the gas sampler that will further improve its performance.

  17. The Air Program Information Management System (APIMS)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-11-02

    Technology November 2, 2011 The Air Program Information Management System (APIMS) Frank Castaneda, III, P.E. APIMS Program Manager AFCEE/TDNQ APIMS...NOV 2011 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2011 to 00-00-2011 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE The Air Program Information Management System (APIMS... Information   Management   System : Sustainability of  Enterprise air quality management system • Aspects and Impacts to Process • Auditing and Measurement

  18. TECHNOLOGY EVALUATION REPORT CEREX ENVIRONMENTAL SERVICES UV HOUND POINT SAMPLE AIR MONITOR

    EPA Science Inventory

    The USEPA's National Homeland Security Research Center (NHSRC) Technology Testing and Evaluation Program (TTEP) is carrying out performance tests on homeland security technologies. Under TTEP, Battelle evaluated the performance of the Cerex UV Hound point sample air monitor in de...

  19. Systematic Evaluation of Aggressive Air Sampling for Bacillus ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Report The primary objectives of this project were to evaluate the Aggressive Air Sampling (AAS) method compared to currently used surface sampling methods and to determine if AAS is a viable option for sampling Bacillus anthracis spores.

  20. Bois Forte Indoor Air Quality Program

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Bois Forte Indoor Air Quality Program acted swiftly and aggressively to tackle mold and moisture problems in its community members’ homes after several residents became ill as a result of environmental exposures.

  1. Air Force Resiliency Program Overview

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-01-24

    Community that fosters mental, physical, social and spiritual fitness. Vision: A resilient Air Force Community ready to meet any challenge Whole Person...complete on-line survey to provide feedback on usefulness/helpfulness of SRS-I in assessing individual resiliency  AF Teen Council: First-ever AF-wide... Teen Leadership Council kicked off 6 Jan 11 with conf call  Focus: Collect info affecting teens ; address issues  Annual Youth of the Year Award

  2. Sampling and Analyzing Air Pollution: An Apparatus Suitable for Use in Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rockwell, Dean M.; Hansen, Tony

    1994-01-01

    Describes two variations of an air sampler and analyzer that are inexpensive to construct, easy to operate, and designed to be used in an educational program. Variations use vacuum cleaners and aquarium pumps, and white facial tissues serve as filters. Samples of air pollution obtained by this method may be used from early grade school to advanced…

  3. Sampling Interplanetary Dust Particles from Antarctic Air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, S.; Lever, J. H.; Alexander, C. M. O'D.; Brownlee, D. E.; Messenger, S.; Littler, L. R.; Stroud, R. M.; Wozniakiewicz, P.; Clement, S.

    2016-08-01

    We are undertaking a NASA and NSF supported project to filter large volumes of clean Antarctic air to collect a broad range of cosmic dust, including CP-IDPs, rare ultra-carbonaceous particles and particles derived from specific meteor streams.

  4. 2016 Targeted Air Shed Grant Program - Closed Announcement FY 2016

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Targeted Air Shed Grant Program proposal for FY 2016. The overall goal of the program is to reduce air pollution in the Nation’s areas with the highest levels of ozone and PM2.5 ambient air concentrations.

  5. Iron-air battery development program

    SciTech Connect

    Buzzelli, E.S.; Liu, C.T.; Bryant, W.A.

    1980-05-01

    The progress and status of the research and development program on the iron-air advanced technology battery system at the Westinghouse Electric Corporation during the period June 1978-December 1979 are described. This advanced battery system is being developed for electric vehicle propulsion applications. Testing and evaluation of 100 cm/sup 2/ size cells was undertaken while individual iron and air electrode programs continued. Progress is reported in a number of these study areas. Results of the improvements made in the utilization of the iron electrode active material coupled with manufacturing and processing studies related to improved air electrodes continue to indicate that a fully developed iron-air battery system will be capable of fulfilling the performance requirements for commuter electric vehicles.

  6. Program Evaluation: Two Management-Oriented Samples

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alford, Kenneth Ray

    2010-01-01

    Two Management-Oriented Samples details two examples of the management-oriented approach to program evaluation. Kenneth Alford, a doctorate candidate at the University of the Cumberlands, details two separate program evaluations conducted in his school district and seeks to compare and contrast the two evaluations based upon the characteristics of…

  7. Venturi Air-Jet Vacuum Ejector For Sampling Air

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hill, Gerald F.; Sachse, Glen W.; Burney, L. Garland; Wade, Larry O.

    1990-01-01

    Venturi air-jet vacuum ejector pump light in weight, requires no electrical power, does not contribute heat to aircraft, and provides high pumping speeds at moderate suctions. High-pressure motive gas required for this type of pump bled from compressor of aircraft engine with negligible effect on performance of engine. Used as source of vacuum for differential-absorption CO-measurement (DACOM), modified to achieve in situ measurements of CO at frequency response of 10 Hz. Provides improvement in spatial resolution and potentially leads to capability to measure turbulent flux of CO by use of eddy-correlation technique.

  8. The Air Force concentrating photovoltaic array program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Geis, Jack W.

    1987-01-01

    A summary is given of Air Force solar concentrator projects beginning with the Rockwell International study program in 1977. The Satellite Materials Hardening Programs (SMATH) explored and developed techniques for hardening planar solar cell array power systems to the combined nuclear and laser radiation threat environments. A portion of program dollars was devoted to developing a preliminary design for a hardened solar concentrator. The results of the Survivable Concentrating Photovoltaic Array (SCOPA) program, and the design, fabrication and flight qualification of a hardened concentrator panel are discussed.

  9. Progress Cleaning the Air: Voluntary Partnership Program Accomplishments

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA voluntary clean air partnership programs work in tandem with regulatory programs to protect public health and the environment. This page highlights accomplishments of selected partnership programs.

  10. SRS environmental air surveillance program 1954-2015: General trends

    SciTech Connect

    Abbott, K.; Jannik, T.

    2016-06-02

    The radiological monitoring program at SRS was established under the DuPont Company in June 1951 and was used as a measurement of the effectiveness of plant controls and as an authoritative record of environmental conditions surrounding the plant. It also served as a method of demonstrating compliance with applicable federal regulations and guidance. This document serves as a general summary of changes made specifically to the environmental air monitoring program since its inception, and a discussion of the general trends seen in the air monitoring program at SRS from 1954 to 2015. Initially, the environmental air surveillance program focused not only on releases from SRS but also on fallout from various weapons testing performed through the end of 1978. Flypaper was used to measure the amount of fallout in the atmosphere during this period, and was present at each of the 10 monitoring stations. By 1959, all site stacks were included in the air monitoring program to determine their contribution to the airborne radioactivity onsite, and the number of air surveillance samplers rose to 18. This trend of an increased number of sampling locations continued to a peak of 35 sampling locations before shifting to a downward trend in the mid-1990s. In 1962, 4 outer-range samplers were placed in Savannah and Macon, GA, and in Greenville and Columbia, SC. Until 1976, air samplers were simply placed around the perimeter of the various operation locations (after 1959, this included stacks to determine their contribution to the airborne radioactivity), with the intent of creating as representative a distribution as possible of the air surrounding operations.

  11. Air Force Engineering and Services Laboratory Herbicide Orange Monitoring Program

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-04-01

    Air Force leaders with the latest available cata in the continuing environmental monitoring and evaluation studies at these critical sites... monitoring and evaluation studies ot areas on Johnston Island, the Naval Construction Battalion Center, and Eglin APB, previously used for the... and evaluation program by collecting samples from NCBC, JI, and Eglin AFB on a semiannual basis. This report summarizes the data on samples collected

  12. Technical assessment of workplace air sampling requirements at tank farm facilities. Revision 2

    SciTech Connect

    Olsen, P.A.; Brown, R.L.

    1995-03-22

    Tank Farm facilities compliance with the workplace air sampling (WPAS) program has been assessed. Requirements bases for determining compliance and recommendations are included. In the current condition all buildings are in compliance with the WPAS program. This document also supersedes WHC-SD-SQA-TA-20012, revision 0.

  13. Workplace air monitoring and sampling practices at DOE facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Swinth, K.L.; Kenoyer, J.L.; Selby, J.M.; Vallario, E.J.; Burphy, B.L.

    1986-03-01

    Current air monitoring and sampling practices at DOE facilities were surveyed as a part of an air monitoring upgrade task. A comprehensive questionnaire was developed and distributed to DOE contractors through the DOE field offices. Twenty-six facilities returned a completed questionnaire. Questionnaire replies indicate diversity in air sampling and monitoring practices among DOE facilities. The difference among the facilities exist in monitoring and sampling instrumentation, procedures, calibration, analytical methods, detection levels, and action levels. Many of these differences could be attributed to different operational needs.

  14. APPLICATION OF SEMIPERMEABLE MEMBRANE DEVICES TO INDOOR AIR SAMPLING

    EPA Science Inventory

    Semipermeable membrane devices (SPMDs) are a relatively new passive sampling technique for nonpolar organic compounds that have been extensively used for surface water sampling. A small body of literature indicates that SPMDs are also useful for air sampling. Because SPMDs ha...

  15. [Ambient and enclosed space air sampling for determination of contaminants].

    PubMed

    Dorogova, V B

    2010-01-01

    The paper touches upon the issues how to correctly and maximally take single and average daily samples of ambient, residential and public building, and enclosed space air for further tests for the content of hazardous substances. The paper is debated.

  16. Solid waste transuranic storage and assay facility indoor air sampling

    SciTech Connect

    Pingel, L.A., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-08-20

    The purpose of the study is to collect and analyze samples of the indoor air at the Transuranic Storage and Assay Facility (TRUSAF), Westinghouse Hanford. A modified US EPA TO-14 methodology, using gas chromatography/mass spectrography, may be used for the collection and analysis of the samples. The information obtained will be used to estimate the total release of volatile organic compounds from TRUSAF to determine the need for air emmission permits.

  17. Concepts for Environmental Radioactive Air Sampling and Monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Barnett, J. Matthew

    2011-11-04

    Environmental radioactive air sampling and monitoring is becoming increasingly important as regulatory agencies promulgate requirements for the measurement and quantification of radioactive contaminants. While researchers add to the growing body of knowledge in this area, events such as earthquakes and tsunamis demonstrate how nuclear systems can be compromised. The result is the need for adequate environmental monitoring to assure the public of their safety and to assist emergency workers in their response. Two forms of radioactive air monitoring include direct effluent measurements and environmental surveillance. This chapter presents basic concepts for direct effluent sampling and environmental surveillance of radioactive air emissions, including information on establishing the basis for sampling and/or monitoring, criteria for sampling media and sample analysis, reporting and compliance, and continual improvement.

  18. Water vapor measurement system in global atmospheric sampling program, appendix

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Englund, D. R.; Dudzinski, T. J.

    1982-01-01

    The water vapor measurement system used in the NASA Global Atmospheric Sampling Program (GASP) is described. The system used a modified version of a commercially available dew/frostpoint hygrometer with a thermoelectrically cooled mirror sensor. The modifications extended the range of the hygrometer to enable air sample measurements with frostpoint temperatures down to -80 C at altitudes of 6 to 13 km. Other modifications were made to permit automatic, unattended operation in an aircraft environment. This report described the hygrometer, its integration with the GASP system, its calibration, and operational aspects including measurement errors. The estimated uncertainty of the dew/frostpoint measurements was + or - 1.7 Celsius.

  19. Wilsonville wastewater sampling program. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1983-10-01

    As part of its contrast to design, build and operate the SRC-1 Demonstration Plant in cooperation with the US Department of Energy (DOE), International Coal Refining Company (ICRC) was required to collect and evaluate data related to wastewater streams and wastewater treatment procedures at the SRC-1 Pilot Plant facility. The pilot plant is located at Wilsonville, Alabama and is operated by Catalytic, Inc. under the direction of Southern Company Services. The plant is funded in part by the Electric Power Research Institute and the DOE. ICRC contracted with Catalytic, Inc. to conduct wastewater sampling. Tasks 1 through 5 included sampling and analysis of various wastewater sources and points of different steps in the biological treatment facility at the plant. The sampling program ran from May 1 to July 31, 1982. Also included in the sampling program was the generation and analysis of leachate from SRC product using standard laboratory leaching procedures. For Task 6, available plant wastewater data covering the period from February 1978 to December 1981 was analyzed to gain information that might be useful for a demonstration plant design basis. This report contains a tabulation of the analytical data, a summary tabulation of the historical operating data that was evaluated and comments concerning the data. The procedures used during the sampling program are also documented.

  20. Air samplings in a Campylobacter jejuni positive laying hen flock.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Marwa Fawzy El Metwaly; Schulz, Jochen; Hartung, Joerg

    2013-01-01

    The air in laying hen houses contains high concentrations of airborne bacteria. The numbers of these bacteria can be influenced by the efficiency of the chosen sampling method. In the presented study, AGI-30 Impingers and the Coriolis(®)µ air Sampler were compared in terms of their efficiency in sampling aerobic mesophilic bacteria in a laying hen house. Measurements were conducted in a laying hen flock with high prevalences of C. jejuni in order to investigate if culturable cells of this organism can also be detected by the applied methods. Airborne dust was also analyzed for the presence of C. jejuni specific DNA to assess the possible occurrence of non-culturable C. jejuni in the hen house air. The numbers of mesophilic airborne bacteria ranged from 8 × 10(4) - 2 × 10(6) CFU/m(-3) when sampled using AGI-30 Impingers, and from 2 × 10(5) - 4 × 10(6) CFU/m -3 when sampled using a Coriolis(®)µ air Sampler. The concentrations detected simultaneously by both devices correlated well (rPearson = 0.755), but the Coriolis(®)µ air Sampler showed a significantly higher sampling efficiency (p<0.001). Although, the within flock prevalence of C. jejuni was high during the experiments (between 70-93%), neither of the air sampling methods could detect culturable C. jejuni from the air. However, C. jejuni specific DNA was detected in 15 out of 18 airborne dust samples by mapA PCR. Based on the results, it can be concluded that airborne culturable C. jejuni were not detectable, even with an efficient air sampler, because of their low concentration. Therefore, the risk of airborne infection to poultry workers on inhaling airborne C. jejuni seems negligible. Also, the transmission of culturable C. jejuni to neighboring farms by the airborne route is unlikely. Otherwise, the detection of airborne C. jejuni specific DNA suggests that non-culturable cells could appear in the hen house air, and in future it should be verified whether sampling stress of the air sampling methods

  1. Presence of organophosphorus pesticide oxygen analogs in air samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Armstrong, Jenna L.; Fenske, Richard A.; Yost, Michael G.; Galvin, Kit; Tchong-French, Maria; Yu, Jianbo

    2013-02-01

    A number of recent toxicity studies have highlighted the increased potency of oxygen analogs (oxons) of several organophosphorus (OP) pesticides. These findings were a major concern after environmental oxons were identified in environmental samples from air and surfaces following agricultural spray applications in California and Washington State. This paper reports on the validity of oxygen analog measurements in air samples for the OP pesticide, chlorpyrifos. Controlled environmental and laboratory experiments were used to examine artificial formation of chlorpyrifos-oxon using OSHA Versatile Sampling (OVS) tubes as recommended by NIOSH method 5600. Additionally, we compared expected chlorpyrifos-oxon attributable to artificial transformation to observed chlorpyrifos-oxon in field samples from a 2008 Washington State Department of Health air monitoring study using non-parametric statistical methods. The amount of artificially transformed oxon was then modeled to determine the amount of oxon present in the environment. Toxicity equivalency factors (TEFs) for chlorpyrifos-oxon were used to calculate chlorpyrifos-equivalent air concentrations. The results demonstrate that the NIOSH-recommended sampling matrix (OVS tubes with XAD-2 resin) was found to artificially transform up to 30% of chlorpyrifos to chlorpyrifos-oxon, with higher percentages at lower concentrations (<30 ng m-3) typical of ambient or residential levels. Overall, the 2008 study data had significantly greater oxon than expected by artificial transformation, but the exact amount of environmental oxon in air remains difficult to quantify with the current sampling method. Failure to conduct laboratory analysis for chlorpyrifos-oxon may result in underestimation of total pesticide concentration when using XAD-2 resin matrices for occupational or residential sampling. Alternative methods that can accurately measure both OP pesticides and their oxygen analogs should be used for air sampling, and a toxicity

  2. A simple novel device for air sampling by electrokinetic capture

    DOE PAGES

    Gordon, Julian; Gandhi, Prasanthi; Shekhawat, Gajendra; ...

    2015-12-27

    A variety of different sampling devices are currently available to acquire air samples for the study of the microbiome of the air. All have a degree of technical complexity that limits deployment. Here, we evaluate the use of a novel device, which has no technical complexity and is easily deployable. An air-cleaning device powered by electrokinetic propulsion has been adapted to provide a universal method for collecting samples of the aerobiome. Plasma-induced charge in aerosol particles causes propulsion to and capture on a counter-electrode. The flow of ions creates net bulk airflow, with no moving parts. A device and electrodemore » assembly have been re-designed from air-cleaning technology to provide an average air flow of 120 lpm. This compares favorably with current air sampling devices based on physical air pumping. Capture efficiency was determined by comparison with a 0.4 μm polycarbonate reference filter, using fluorescent latex particles in a controlled environment chamber. Performance was compared with the same reference filter method in field studies in three different environments. For 23 common fungal species by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR), there was 100 % sensitivity and apparent specificity of 87%, with the reference filter taken as “gold standard.” Further, bacterial analysis of 16S RNA by amplicon sequencing showed equivalent community structure captured by the electrokinetic device and the reference filter. Unlike other current air sampling methods, capture of particles is determined by charge and so is not controlled by particle mass. We analyzed particle sizes captured from air, without regard to specific analyte by atomic force microscopy: particles at least as low as 100 nM could be captured from ambient air. This work introduces a very simple plug-and-play device that can sample air at a high-volume flow rate with no moving parts and collect particles down to the sub-micron range. In conclusion, the performance of

  3. A simple novel device for air sampling by electrokinetic capture

    SciTech Connect

    Gordon, Julian; Gandhi, Prasanthi; Shekhawat, Gajendra; Frazier, Angel; Hampton-Marcell, Jarrad; Gilbert, Jack A.

    2015-12-27

    A variety of different sampling devices are currently available to acquire air samples for the study of the microbiome of the air. All have a degree of technical complexity that limits deployment. Here, we evaluate the use of a novel device, which has no technical complexity and is easily deployable. An air-cleaning device powered by electrokinetic propulsion has been adapted to provide a universal method for collecting samples of the aerobiome. Plasma-induced charge in aerosol particles causes propulsion to and capture on a counter-electrode. The flow of ions creates net bulk airflow, with no moving parts. A device and electrode assembly have been re-designed from air-cleaning technology to provide an average air flow of 120 lpm. This compares favorably with current air sampling devices based on physical air pumping. Capture efficiency was determined by comparison with a 0.4 μm polycarbonate reference filter, using fluorescent latex particles in a controlled environment chamber. Performance was compared with the same reference filter method in field studies in three different environments. For 23 common fungal species by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR), there was 100 % sensitivity and apparent specificity of 87%, with the reference filter taken as “gold standard.” Further, bacterial analysis of 16S RNA by amplicon sequencing showed equivalent community structure captured by the electrokinetic device and the reference filter. Unlike other current air sampling methods, capture of particles is determined by charge and so is not controlled by particle mass. We analyzed particle sizes captured from air, without regard to specific analyte by atomic force microscopy: particles at least as low as 100 nM could be captured from ambient air. This work introduces a very simple plug-and-play device that can sample air at a high-volume flow rate with no moving parts and collect particles down to the sub-micron range. In conclusion, the performance of the

  4. Innovations in air sampling to detect plant pathogens.

    PubMed

    West, Js; Kimber, Rbe

    2015-01-01

    Many innovations in the development and use of air sampling devices have occurred in plant pathology since the first description of the Hirst spore trap. These include improvements in capture efficiency at relatively high air-volume collection rates, methods to enhance the ease of sample processing with downstream diagnostic methods and even full automation of sampling, diagnosis and wireless reporting of results. Other innovations have been to mount air samplers on mobile platforms such as UAVs and ground vehicles to allow sampling at different altitudes and locations in a short space of time to identify potential sources and population structure. Geographical Information Systems and the application to a network of samplers can allow a greater prediction of airborne inoculum and dispersal dynamics. This field of technology is now developing quickly as novel diagnostic methods allow increasingly rapid and accurate quantifications of airborne species and genetic traits. Sampling and interpretation of results, particularly action-thresholds, is improved by understanding components of air dispersal and dilution processes and can add greater precision in the application of crop protection products as part of integrated pest and disease management decisions. The applications of air samplers are likely to increase, with much greater adoption by growers or industry support workers to aid in crop protection decisions. The same devices are likely to improve information available for detection of allergens causing hay fever and asthma or provide valuable metadata for regional plant disease dynamics.

  5. Innovations in air sampling to detect plant pathogens

    PubMed Central

    West, JS; Kimber, RBE

    2015-01-01

    Many innovations in the development and use of air sampling devices have occurred in plant pathology since the first description of the Hirst spore trap. These include improvements in capture efficiency at relatively high air-volume collection rates, methods to enhance the ease of sample processing with downstream diagnostic methods and even full automation of sampling, diagnosis and wireless reporting of results. Other innovations have been to mount air samplers on mobile platforms such as UAVs and ground vehicles to allow sampling at different altitudes and locations in a short space of time to identify potential sources and population structure. Geographical Information Systems and the application to a network of samplers can allow a greater prediction of airborne inoculum and dispersal dynamics. This field of technology is now developing quickly as novel diagnostic methods allow increasingly rapid and accurate quantifications of airborne species and genetic traits. Sampling and interpretation of results, particularly action-thresholds, is improved by understanding components of air dispersal and dilution processes and can add greater precision in the application of crop protection products as part of integrated pest and disease management decisions. The applications of air samplers are likely to increase, with much greater adoption by growers or industry support workers to aid in crop protection decisions. The same devices are likely to improve information available for detection of allergens causing hay fever and asthma or provide valuable metadata for regional plant disease dynamics. PMID:25745191

  6. [A membrane filter sampling method for determining microbial air pollution].

    PubMed

    Cherneva, P; Kiranova, A

    1996-01-01

    The method is a contribution in the evaluation of the exposition and the control of the standards for organic powders. The method concerns the sample-taking procedure and the analysis-making technique for determining of the concentration of the microbial pollution of the air. It is based on filtering of some amount of air through a membrane filter which is then processed for cultivating of microbial colonies on its surface. The results are obtained in number of microbial colonies per unit of air. The method presents opportunity to select and vary the filtered volume of air, to determine the respirable fraction, to determine the personal exposition, as well as for the simultaneous determining of the microbial pollution together with other important parameters of the particle pollutants of the air (metal, fibre and others).

  7. DUS II SOIL GAS SAMPLING AND AIR INJECTION TEST RESULTS

    SciTech Connect

    Noonkester, J.; Jackson, D.; Jones, W.; Hyde, W.; Kohn, J.; Walker, R.

    2012-09-20

    Soil vapor extraction (SVE) and air injection well testing was performed at the Dynamic Underground Stripping (DUS) site located near the M-Area Settling Basin (referred to as DUS II in this report). The objective of this testing was to determine the effectiveness of continued operation of these systems. Steam injection ended on September 19, 2009 and since this time the extraction operations have utilized residual heat that is present in the subsurface. The well testing campaign began on June 5, 2012 and was completed on June 25, 2012. Thirty-two (32) SVE wells were purged for 24 hours or longer using the active soil vapor extraction (ASVE) system at the DUS II site. During each test five or more soil gas samples were collected from each well and analyzed for target volatile organic compounds (VOCs). The DUS II site is divided into four parcels (see Figure 1) and soil gas sample results show the majority of residual VOC contamination remains in Parcel 1 with lesser amounts in the other three parcels. Several VOCs, including tetrachloroethylene (PCE) and trichloroethylene (TCE), were detected. PCE was the major VOC with lesser amounts of TCE. Most soil gas concentrations of PCE ranged from 0 to 60 ppmv with one well (VEW-22A) as high as 200 ppmv. Air sparging (AS) generally involves the injection of air into the aquifer through either vertical or horizontal wells. AS is coupled with SVE systems when contaminant recovery is necessary. While traditional air sparging (AS) is not a primary component of the DUS process, following the cessation of steam injection, eight (8) of the sixty-three (63) steam injection wells were used to inject air. These wells were previously used for hydrous pyrolysis oxidation (HPO) as part of the DUS process. Air sparging is different from the HPO operations in that the air was injected at a higher rate (20 to 50 scfm) versus HPO (1 to 2 scfm). . At the DUS II site the air injection wells were tested to determine if air sparging affected

  8. Waste Minimization Program. Air Force Plant 6.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-02-01

    636 WASTE RNIZTXOM P76RW AIR F T L INC / DOYNTON SEACH FL It Of ISD/o fl" FOM3-4--142-SCS1 LSIFIEEEFIGh24/ . son hhshmhhhEEI II 1202 L6 0 2O s 4 111...2-9 3.0 Waste Minimization Program, AFP 6 3-1 3.1 Machine Coolant Waste 3-1 3.2 Engine Oil and Hydraulic Fluid Waste 3-12 3.3 Paint Sludge 3-14 3.4...Beach, Florida, for the purpose of aiding in minimizing waste generation from Air Force industrial facilities. It is not an endorsement of any product

  9. Radiological Air Sampling. Protocol Development for the Canadian Forces

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-03-01

    that filter must be removed from the sampler and counted by some method. If the efficiency of the radiation detector is D (in units of count rate per...unit activity), then the count rate R of the radiation detector will be R = CVFD. In practice, C is the unknown quantity. V is known from the sampling...Potential Solutions The problem, then, is that all air samples contain radon and thoron daughters that emit alpha, beta, and gamma radiation . Moreover

  10. Air sampling and analysis in a rubber vulcanization area.

    PubMed

    Rappaport, S M; Fraser, D A

    1977-05-01

    Results of sampling and analysis of air in a rubber vulcanization area are described. Organic compounds were collected on activated charcoal, desorbed with carbon disulfide and analyzed by gas chromatography. Several previously identified substances were quantitated, including styrene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and several oligomers of 1,3-butadiene. Concentrations ranged from 0.007 to 1.1 ppm.

  11. Air sampling of mold spores by slit impactors: yield comparison.

    PubMed

    Pityn, Peter J; Anderson, James

    2013-01-01

    The performance of simple slit impactors for air sampling of mold contamination was compared under field conditions. Samples were collected side-by-side, outdoors in quadruplicates with Burkhard (ambient sampler) and Allergenco MK3 spore traps and with two identical Allergenco slit cassettes operated at diverse flow rates of 5 and 15 L/min, respectively. The number and types of mold spores in each sample were quantified by microscopy. Results showed all four single-stage slit impactors produced similar spore yields. Moreover, paired slit cassettes produced similar outcomes despite a three-fold difference in their sampling rate. No measurable difference in the amount or mix of mold spores per m(3)of air was detected. The implications for assessment of human exposures and interpretation of indoor/outdoor fungal burden are discussed. These findings demonstrate that slit cassettes capture most small spores, effectively and without bias, when operated at a range of flow rates including the lower flow rates used for personal sampling. Our findings indicate sampling data for mold spores correlate for different single stage impactor collection methodologies and that data quality is not deteriorated by operating conditions deviating from manufacturers' norms allowing such sampling results to be used for scientific, legal, investigative, or property insurance purposes. The same conclusion may not be applied to other particle sampling instruments and mulit-stage impactors used for ambient particulate sampling, which represent an entirely different scenario. This knowledge may help facilitate comparison between scientific studies where methodological differences exist.

  12. Sandia National Laboratories, California Air Quality Program : annual report.

    SciTech Connect

    Shih, Richard; Gardizi, Leslee P.

    2007-05-01

    The annual program report provides detailed information about all aspects of the SNL/CA Air Quality Program. It functions as supporting documentation to the SNL/CA Environmental Management System Program Manual. The program report describes the activities undertaken during the past year, and activities planned in future years to implement the Air Quality Program, one of six programs that supports environmental management at SNL/CA.

  13. Sandia National Laboratories, California Air Quality Program annual report.

    SciTech Connect

    Gardizi, Leslee P.; Smith, Richard

    2009-06-01

    The annual program report provides detailed information about all aspects of the SNL/CA Air Quality Program. It functions as supporting documentation to the SNL/CA Environmental Management System Program Manual. The program report describes the activities undertaken during the past year, and activities planned in future years to implement the Air Quality Program, one of six programs that supports environmental management at SNL/CA.

  14. Brine Sampling and Evaluation Program, 1991 report

    SciTech Connect

    Deal, D.E.; Abitz, R.J.; Myers, J.; Martin, M.L.; Milligan, D.J.; Sobocinski, R.W.; Lipponer, P.P.J.; Belski, D.S.

    1993-09-01

    The data presented in this report are the result of Brine Sampling and Evaluation Program (BSEP) activities at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plan (WIPP) during 1991. These BSEP activities document and investigate the origins, hydraulic characteristics, extent, and composition of brine occurrences in the Permian Salado Formation and seepage of that brine into the excavations at the WIPP. When excavations began at the WIPP in 1982, small brine seepages (weeps) were observed on the walls. Brine studies began as part of the Site Validation Program and were formalized as a program in its own right in 1985. During nine years of observations (1982--1991), evidence has mounted that the amount of brine seeping into the WIPP excavations is limited, local, and only a small fraction of that required to produce hydrogen gas by corroding the metal in the waste drums and waste inventory. The data through 1990 is discussed in detail and summarized by Deal and others (1991). The data presented in this report describes progress made during the calendar year 1991 and focuses on four major areas: (1) quantification of the amount of brine seeping across vertical surfaces in the WIPP excavations (brine ``weeps); (2) monitoring of brine inflow, e.g., measuring brines recovered from holes drilled downward from the underground drifts (downholes), upward from the underground drifts (upholes), and from subhorizontal holes; (3) further characterization of brine geochemistry; and (4) preliminary quantification of the amount of brine that might be released by squeezing the underconsolidated clays present in the Salado Formation.

  15. Advanced Metallic Air Vehicle Structure Program

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-08-01

    Patterson Air Force Base , Ohio 45433. AIR FORCE FLIGHT DYNAMICS LABORATORY AIR FORCE WRIGHT AERONAUTICAL LABORATORIES AIR FORCE SYSTEMS COMMAND Best...Available Copy WRIGHT-PATTERSON AIR FORCE BASE , OHIO 45433 THIS DOCUMENT CONTAINED C) BLANK PAGES THAT HAVE 0 3 BEEN DELETED 9 NOTICES When Government...December 1975. Other requests for this document must be referred to Air Force Flight Dynamics Laboratory (FB-A), Wright-Patterson Air Force Base , Ohio

  16. HUMID AIR TURBINE CYCLE TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENT PROGRAM

    SciTech Connect

    Richard Tuthill

    2002-07-18

    The Humid Air Turbine (HAT) Cycle Technology Development Program focused on obtaining HAT cycle combustor technology that will be the foundation of future products. The work carried out under the auspices of the HAT Program built on the extensive low emissions stationary gas turbine work performed in the past by Pratt & Whitney (P&W). This Program is an integral part of technology base development within the Advanced Turbine Systems Program at the Department of Energy (DOE) and its experiments stretched over 5 years. The goal of the project was to fill in technological data gaps in the development of the HAT cycle and identify a combustor configuration that would efficiently burn high moisture, high-pressure gaseous fuels with low emissions. The major emphasis will be on the development of kinetic data, computer modeling, and evaluations of combustor configurations. The Program commenced during the 4th Quarter of 1996 and closed in the 4th Quarter of 2001. It teamed the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) with P&W, the United Technologies Research Center (UTRC), and a subcontractor on-site at UTRC, kraftWork Systems Inc. The execution of the program started with bench-top experiments that were conducted at UTRC for extending kinetic mechanisms to HAT cycle temperature, pressure, and moisture conditions. The fundamental data generated in the bench-top experiments was incorporated into the analytical tools available at P&W to design the fuel injectors and combustors. The NETL then used the hardware to conduct combustion rig experiments to evaluate the performance of the combustion systems at elevated pressure and temperature conditions representative of the HAT cycle. The results were integrated into systems analysis done by kraftWork to verify that sufficient understanding of the technology had been achieved and that large-scale technological application and demonstration could be undertaken as follow-on activity. An optional program extended the

  17. Update on college and university programs in air pollution control

    SciTech Connect

    Cota, H.M.

    1983-04-01

    A survey of academic programs in air pollution control was made. Results from the 127 schools reporting are tabulated by state. Faculty involved in air pollution instruction are identified. Some conclusions and recommendations are presented. 1 figure, 5 tables.

  18. RAPID SEPARATION METHOD FOR ACTINIDES IN EMERGENCY AIR FILTER SAMPLES

    SciTech Connect

    Maxwell, S.; Noyes, G.; Culligan, B.

    2010-02-03

    A new rapid method for the determination of actinides and strontium in air filter samples has been developed at the Savannah River Site Environmental Lab (Aiken, SC, USA) that can be used in emergency response situations. The actinides and strontium in air filter method utilizes a rapid acid digestion method and a streamlined column separation process with stacked TEVA, TRU and Sr Resin cartridges. Vacuum box technology and rapid flow rates are used to reduce analytical time. Alpha emitters are prepared using cerium fluoride microprecipitation for counting by alpha spectrometry. The purified {sup 90}Sr fractions are mounted directly on planchets and counted by gas flow proportional counting. The method showed high chemical recoveries and effective removal of interferences. This new procedure was applied to emergency air filter samples received in the NRIP Emergency Response exercise administered by the National Institute for Standards and Technology (NIST) in April, 2009. The actinide and {sup 90}Sr in air filter results were reported in {approx}4 hours with excellent quality.

  19. Brine Sampling and Evaluation Program, 1990 report

    SciTech Connect

    Deal, D.E.; Abitz, R.J.; Myers, J.; Case, J.B.; Martin, M.L.; Roggenthen, W.M.; Belski, D.S.

    1991-08-01

    The data presented in this report are the result of Brine Sampling and Evaluation Program (BSEP) activities at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) during 1990. When excavations began in 1982, small brine seepages (weeps) were observed on the walls. These brine occurrences were initially described as part of the Site Validation Program. Brine studies were formalized in 1985. The BSEP activities document and investigate the origins, hydraulic characteristics, extent, and composition of brine occurrences in the Permian Salado Formation and seepage of that brine into the excavations at the WIPP. The brine chemistry is important because it assists in understanding the origin of the brine and because it may affect possible chemical reactions in the buried waste after sealing the repository. The volume of brine and the hydrologic system that drives the brine seepage also need to be understood to assess the long-term performance of the repository. After more than eight years of observations (1982--1990), no credible evidence exists to indicate that enough naturally occurring brine will seep into the WIPP excavations to be of practical concern. The detailed observations and analyses summarized herein and in previous BSEP reports confirm the evidence apparent during casual visits to the underground workings -- that the excavations are remarkably dry.

  20. Evaluation of membrane filter field monitors for microbiological air sampling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fields, N. D.; Oxborrow, G. S.; Puleo, J. R.; Herring, C. M.

    1974-01-01

    Due to area constraints encountered in assembly and testing areas of spacecraft, the membrane filter field monitor (MF) and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration-accepted Reyniers slit air sampler were compared for recovery of airborne microbial contamination. The intramural air in a microbiological laboratory area and a clean room environment used for the assembly and testing of the Apollo spacecraft was studied. A significantly higher number of microorganisms was recovered by the Reyniers sampler. A high degree of consistency between the two sampling methods was shown by a regression analysis, with a correlation coefficient of 0.93. The MF samplers detected 79% of the concentration measured by the Reyniers slit samplers. The types of microorganisms identified from both sampling methods were similar.

  1. Balloon Operation for Stratospheric Air Sampling at Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Honda, H.; Yajima, N.; Yamagami, T.; Aoki, S.; Hashida, G.; Machida, T.; Morimoto, S.

    On January 3rd, 1998, a cryogenic air sampling experiment was carried out at Syowa Station (69S, 40E), which is the first successful trial in the world for collection of large amount of stratospheric air over the Antarctic. The samples are analyzed for CO2, CH4, CFCs, and C and O isotope ratios in CO2 in the laboratories. As the meteorological conditions for launching and payload recovery are both critical, feasibility on wind conditions over Syowa Station was studied in detail. The balloon launching operations had to be performed without a specialist. Facilities for balloon launching, tracking, and other support systems were newly designed for ready-to- and easy-to-use. Realtime remote support from Japan for the balloon launching and flight control operations was applied using a computer network linked by INMARSAT

  2. Can car air filters be useful as a sampling medium for air pollution monitoring purposes?

    PubMed

    Katsoyiannis, Athanasios; Birgul, Askin; Ratola, Nuno; Cincinelli, Alessandra; Sweetman, Andy J; Jones, Kevin C

    2012-11-01

    Urban air quality and real human exposure to chemical environmental stressors is an issue of high scientific and political interest. In an effort to find innovative and inexpensive means for air quality monitoring, the ability of car engine air filters (CAFs) to act as efficient samplers collecting street level air, to which people are exposed to, was tested. In particular, in the case of taxis, air filters are replaced after regular distances, the itineraries are almost exclusively urban, cruising mode is similar and, thus, knowledge of the air flow can provide with an integrated city air sample. The present pilot study focused on polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), the most important category of organic pollutants associated with traffic emissions. Concentrations of ΣPAHs in CAFs ranged between 650 and 2900 μg CAF(-1), with benzo[b]fluoranthene, benzo[k]fluoranthene and indeno[123-cd]pyrene being the most abundant PAHs. Benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) ranged between 110 and 250 μg CAF(-1), accounting regularly for 5-15% of the total carcinogenic PAHs. The CAF PAH loads were used to derive road-level atmospheric PAH concentrations from a standard formula relating to the CAF air flow. Important parameters/assumptions for these estimates are the cruising speed and the exposure duration of each CAF. Based on information obtained from the garage experts, an average 'sampled air volume' of 48,750 m(3) per CAF was estimated, with uncertainty in this calculation estimated to be about a factor of 4 between the two extreme scenarios. Based on this air volume, ΣPAHs ranged between 13 and 56 ng m(-3) and BaP between 2.1 and 5.0 ng m(-3), suggesting that in-traffic BaP concentrations can be many times higher than the limit values set by the UK (0.25 ng m(-3)) and the European Union (1.0 ng m(-3)), or from active sampling stations normally cited on building roof tops or far from city centres. Notwithstanding the limitations of this approach, the very low cost, the continuous

  3. Air Sampling Data for BP Spill/Deepwater Horizon

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Deepwater Horizon oil spill (also referred to as the BP oil spill) began on 20 April 2010 in the Gulf of Mexico on the BP-operated Macondo Prospect. Following the explosion and sinking of the Deepwater Horizon oil rig, a sea-floor oil gusher flowed for 87 days, until it was capped on 15 July 2010.In response to the BP oil spill, EPA sampled air, water, sediment, and waste generated by the cleanup operations.

  4. Opportunities to Improve Air Quality through Transportation Pricing Programs

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This document is intended to give state and local air quality and transportation planners,elected government officials, and other interested parties background information on transportation pricing programs.

  5. Artifact peroxides produced during cryogenic sampling of ambient air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Staffelbach, Thomas; Neftel, Albrecht; Dasgupta, Purnendu K.

    Peroxides were found to be produced as artifacts during cryogenic sampling with Horibe traps. Cryogenic trap sampling was compared to collection with a wet effluent diffusion denuder and a Nafion membrane diffusion denuder. Hydrogen peroxide and hydroxymethyl hydroperoxide measured in the cryogenic trap samples were significantly higher. In comparison, no evidence of artifact methyl hydroperoxide production was found. The amount of artifact H2O2 and HMHP produced increased with decreasing trap temperature. Spiking ambient air with ethene or isoprene showed that these hydrocarbons, in the presence of ozone, can be responsible for the artifact production of peroxides. Our results clearly suggest that the peroxide data obtained by cryogenic sampling and reported in the literature should be interpreted with caution.

  6. Technical assessment of workplace air sampling requirements at tank farm facilities. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Olsen, P.A.

    1994-09-21

    WHC-CM-1-6 is the primary guidance for radiological control at Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC). It was written to implement DOE N 5480.6 ``US Department of Energy Radiological Control Manual`` as it applies to programs at Hanford which are now overseen by WHC. As such, it complies with Title 10, Part 835 of the Code of Federal Regulations. In addition to WHC-CM-1-6, there is HSRCM-1, the ``Hanford Site Radiological Control Manual`` and several Department of Energy (DOE) Orders, national consensus standards, and reports that provide criteria, standards, and requirements for workplace air sampling programs. This document provides a summary of these, as they apply to WHC facility workplace air sampling programs. This document also provides an evaluation of the compliance of Tank Farms` workplace air sampling program to the criteria, standards, and requirements and documents compliance with the requirements where appropriate. Where necessary, it also indicates changes needed to bring specific locations into compliance.

  7. ORD Clean Air Research Program Review and Response

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The objective of this review was to evaluate the relevance, quality, performance, scientific and managerial leadership, and outcomes of the Program and provide guidance and recommendations as to the progress and directions of the Clean Air Research Program

  8. Ambient Air Sampling During Quantum-dot Spray Deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Jankovic, John Timothy; Hollenbeck, Scott M

    2010-01-01

    Ambient air sampling for nano-size particle emissions was performed during spot spray coating operations with a Sono-Tek Exactacoat Benchtop system (ECB). The ECB consisted of the application equipment contained within an exhaust enclosure. The enclosure contained numerous small access openings, including an exhaust hook-up. Door access comprised most of the width and height of the front. The door itself was of the swing-out type. Two types of nanomaterials, Cadmium selenide (Cd-Se) quantum-dots (QDs) and Gold (Au) QDs, nominally 3.3 and 5 nm in diameter respectively, were applied during the evaluation. Median spray drop size was in the 20 to 60 micrometer size range.1 Surface coating tests were of short duration, on the order of one-half second per spray and ten spray applications between door openings. The enclosure was ventilated by connection to a high efficiency particulate aerosol (HEPA) filtered house exhaust system. The exhaust rate was nominally 80 ft3 per minute producing about 5 air changes per minute. Real time air monitoring with a scanning mobility particle size analyzer (SMPS ) with a size detection limit of 7 nm indicated a significant increase in the ambient air concentration upon early door opening. A handheld condensation particle counter (CPC) with a lower size limit of 10 nm did not record changes in the ambient background. This increase in the ambient was not observed when door opening was delayed for 2 minutes (~10 air changes). The ventilated enclosure controlled emissions except for cases of rapid door opening before the overspray could be removed by the exhaust. A time delay sufficient to provide 10 enclosure air changes (a concentration reduction of more than 99.99 %) before door opening prevented the release of aerosol particles in any size.2 Scanning-transmission electron microscopy (STEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) demonstrated the presence of agglomerates in the surfaces of the spray applied deposition. A filtered air sample of

  9. Sampling intercomparisons for aldehydes in simulated workplace air.

    PubMed

    Goelen, E; Lambrechts, M; Geyskens, F

    1997-05-01

    Thirty one laboratories of various EU Member States have participated in two interlaboratory comparisons in order to assess errors of personal sampling methods associated with both the sampling and the analytical steps. In contrast to conventional quality control schemes, this project particularly focuses attention on the sampling and identification step; it is executed by means of sampling exercises and has included discussions on potential sources of error. In a sampling exercise, participants come to a central facility and perform measurements on synthetic workplace air in a laboratory installation. Concentration levels of formaldehyde, acrolein, glutaraldehyde and acetaldehyde between 0.1 and 2 times the limit value for workplace air were prepared at various humidity levels and with acetone, occasionally, as interferent. Sampling times varied from 1-4 h. The related analytical work is performed at the analyst's own laboratory. The intention is for each participant to determine the observed value of the delivered standard atmosphere using the sampling method of his own choice. Trueness (bias), precision and relative overall uncertainty of each method-laboratory combination is calculated and verified towards compliance with EN 482, which outlines minimum performance criteria. The first challenge involved the precise gas phase generation of the selected analytes in high air flows (up to 300 1 min-1) and calculating the true value only by direct reference to primary standards. This was accomplished by modifying the capillary dosage injection technique so that reactive compounds, like low molecular mass aldehydes, could be dosed with the same accuracy and precision as unreactive solvents. A permeation tube with high emission rate was developed for formaldehyde. Up to ten different sampling techniques were evaluated. The measurement methods used by the majority of the participants were based on pumped sampling on silica cartridges (or tubes) and glass fiber filters

  10. Evaluation of official air sampling methodologies in Ukraine

    SciTech Connect

    Nakonechniy, J.J.; Wadden, R.A.; Scheff, P.A.; Suero, M.

    1997-12-31

    In conjunction with an environmental epidemiology study of the health of Ukrainian children, a significant amount of air pollution measurement data was gathered from government agencies. The areas of interest were the industrial city of Dneprodzherzhinsk; and the Dniprovsky region of Kyiv. The data were for 1993 and, for some of the monitoring stations, 1994. The pollutants reported included dust (approximately equivalent to TSP, total suspended particulate matter), SO{sub 2}, CO, NO{sub 2}, NO, H{sub 2}S, phenol, HCl, NH{sub 3}, formaldehyde, BaP, and lead. The ultimate goal was to evaluate whether existing historical data are appropriate for developing measures of human exposure. In order to evaluate the data it was necessary to understand the sampling and analytical methodologies which were used. Small sample volumes coupled with dated analytical procedures resulted in very poor precision and detection limits for most of the measured pollutants. The measurement of particulate matter is a good example of the limits imposed by the sampling methodology. The short sample time (20 min), small sample volume (150 lpm), and limited analytical balances (0.5 mg resolution) result in a minimum lower limit of detection of 0.25 mg/m{sup 3}. For example at Kyiv Station 3 in 1993, only one of 545 measurements exceeded 0.2 mg/m{sup 3}. This minimum detectable quantity is over three times the former US annual TSP standard. In addition, even when operated on a 24-hour basis in the US, it has been shown that the sampling method only collected approximately 34% of that collected by a co-located hi-vol sampler. Consequently, official air pollution data for suspended dust are likely to severely under-represent actual ambient concentrations. Data for other pollutants are presented and sampling and analytical methods are similarly compared with Western methods in common use.

  11. Passive air sampling of gaseous elemental mercury: a critical review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McLagan, David S.; Mazur, Maxwell E. E.; Mitchell, Carl P. J.; Wania, Frank

    2016-03-01

    Because gaseous elemental mercury (GEM) is distributed globally through the atmosphere, reliable means of measuring its concentrations in air are important. Passive air samplers (PASs), designed to be cheap, simple to operate, and to work without electricity, could provide an alternative to established active sampling techniques in applications such as (1) long-term monitoring of atmospheric GEM levels in remote regions and in developing countries, (2) atmospheric mercury source identification and characterization through finely resolved spatial mapping, and (3) the recording of personal exposure to GEM. An effective GEM PAS requires a tightly constrained sampling rate, a large and stable uptake capacity, and a sensitive analytical technique. None of the GEM PASs developed to date achieve levels of accuracy and precision sufficient for the reliable determination of background concentrations over extended deployments. This is due to (1) sampling rates that vary due to meteorological factors and manufacturing inconsistencies, and/or (2) an often low, irreproducible and/or unstable uptake capacity of the employed sorbents. While we identify shortcomings of existing GEM PAS, we also reveal potential routes to overcome those difficulties. Activated carbon and nanostructured metal surfaces hold promise as effective sorbents. Sampler designs incorporating diffusive barriers should be able to notably reduce the influence of wind on sampling rates.

  12. Passive air sampling of gaseous elemental mercury: a critical review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McLagan, D. S.; Mazur, M. E. E.; Mitchell, C. P. J.; Wania, F.

    2015-12-01

    Because gaseous elemental mercury (GEM) is distributed globally through the atmosphere, reliable means of measuring its concentrations in air are important. Passive air samplers (PASs), designed to be cheap, simple to operate, and to work without electricity, could provide an alternative to established active sampling techniques in applications such as (1) long term monitoring of atmospheric GEM levels in remote regions and in developing countries, (2) atmospheric mercury source identification and characterisation through finely-resolved spatial mapping, and (3) the recording of personal exposure to GEM. An effective GEM PAS requires a tightly constrained sampling rate, a large and stable uptake capacity, and a sensitive analytical technique. None of the GEM PASs developed to date achieves levels of accuracy and precision sufficient for the reliable determination of background concentrations over extended deployments. This is due to (1) sampling rates that vary due to meteorological factors and manufacturing inconsistencies and/or (2) an often low, irreproducible and/or unstable uptake capacity of the employed sorbents. While we identify shortcomings of existing GEM PAS, we also reveal potential routes to overcome those difficulties. Activated carbon and nano-structured metal surfaces hold promise as effective sorbents. Sampler designs incorporating diffusive barriers should be able to notably reduce the influence of wind on sampling rates.

  13. Quantitative Passive Diffusive Sampling for Assessing Soil Vapor Intrusion to Indoor Air

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-03-28

    4/11/2012 1 Quantitative Passive Diffusive Sampling for Assessing Soil Vapor Intrusion to Indoor Air Todd McAlary and Hester Groenevelt, Geosyntec... Intrusion to Indoor Air 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER 5f. WORK...10-6 risk (ppb) Vapour pressure (atm) Water solubility (g/l) 1,1,1-Trichloroethane 110 400 0.16 1.33 1,2,4-Trimethylbenzene

  14. Chemical transformations during ambient air sampling for organic vapors

    SciTech Connect

    Pellizzari, E.D.; Drost, K.J.

    1984-09-01

    Potential chemical transformations of olefins in the presence of ozone and high levels (ppm) of halogens (Cl/sub 2/, Br/sub 2/) were demonstrated when sampling ambient air with a sorbent cartridge. The use of stryene-d/sub 8/ and cyclohexene-d/sub 10/ spiked sampling devices and capillary gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) analysis allowed the detection and identification of several deuteriated oxidation and halogenated products. Dimethylamine-d/sub 6/ was converted in trace quantities (5-10 mg) to dimethylnitrosamine-d/sub 6/ when sampling was conducted in the presence of NO/sub x/. Oxidation reactions were prevented when filters (2.5 cm) employed for removing particulates were impregnated with 5-10 mg of sodium thiosulfate and placed in front of the sorbent cartridge. Halogenation reactions were also consideraly reduced.

  15. Implementation of Fowler's method for end-tidal air sampling.

    PubMed

    Di Francesco, F; Loccioni, C; Fioravanti, M; Russo, A; Pioggia, G; Ferro, M; Roehrer, I; Tabucchi, S; Onor, M

    2008-09-01

    The design, realization and testing of a CO(2)-triggered breath sampler, capable of a separate collection of dead space and end-tidal air on multiple breaths, is presented. This sampling procedure has advantages in terms of the sample volume, insights regarding the origin of compounds, increased reproducibility and higher concentrations of compounds. The high quality of design and the speed of the components ensure a breath-by-breath estimate of dead volume, as well as the comfort and safety of the subject under test. The system represents a valid tool to contribute to the development of a standardized sampling protocol needed to compare results obtained by the various groups in this field.

  16. Evolution of the Air Toxics under the Big Sky Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marra, Nancy; Vanek, Diana; Hester, Carolyn; Holian, Andrij; Ward, Tony; Adams, Earle; Knuth, Randy

    2011-01-01

    As a yearlong exploration of air quality and its relation to respiratory health, the "Air Toxics Under the Big Sky" program offers opportunities for students to learn and apply science process skills through self-designed inquiry-based research projects conducted within their communities. The program follows a systematic scope and sequence…

  17. Air Conditioning and Refrigeration Program Articulation, 1981-1982.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dallas County Community Coll. District, TX.

    Based on a survey of high school programs and courses in the Dallas County Community College District (DCCCD), this articulated program is designed to prepare students for entry-level employment in the air conditioning and refrigeration industry, including residential and commercial air conditioning and commercial refrigeration. The skills and…

  18. Interferometrically stable, enclosed, spinning sample cell for spectroscopic experiments on air-sensitive samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baranov, Dmitry; Hill, Robert J.; Ryu, Jisu; Park, Samuel D.; Huerta-Viga, Adriana; Carollo, Alexa R.; Jonas, David M.

    2017-01-01

    In experiments with high photon flux, it is necessary to rapidly remove the sample from the beam and to delay re-excitation until the sample has returned to equilibrium. Rapid and complete sample exchange has been a challenge for air-sensitive samples and for vibration-sensitive experiments. Here, a compact spinning sample cell for air and moisture sensitive liquid and thin film samples is described. The principal parts of the cell are a copper gasket sealed enclosure, a 2.5 in. hard disk drive motor, and a reusable, chemically inert glass sandwich cell. The enclosure provides an oxygen and water free environment at the 1 ppm level, as demonstrated by multi-day tests with sodium benzophenone ketyl radical. Inside the enclosure, the glass sandwich cell spins at ≈70 Hz to generate tangential speeds of 7-12 m/s that enable complete sample exchange at 100 kHz repetition rates. The spinning cell is acoustically silent and compatible with a ±1 nm rms displacement stability interferometer. In order to enable the use of the spinning cell, we discuss centrifugation and how to prevent it, introduce the cycle-averaged resampling rate to characterize repetitive excitation, and develop a figure of merit for a long-lived photoproduct buildup.

  19. Interferometrically stable, enclosed, spinning sample cell for spectroscopic experiments on air-sensitive samples.

    PubMed

    Baranov, Dmitry; Hill, Robert J; Ryu, Jisu; Park, Samuel D; Huerta-Viga, Adriana; Carollo, Alexa R; Jonas, David M

    2017-01-01

    In experiments with high photon flux, it is necessary to rapidly remove the sample from the beam and to delay re-excitation until the sample has returned to equilibrium. Rapid and complete sample exchange has been a challenge for air-sensitive samples and for vibration-sensitive experiments. Here, a compact spinning sample cell for air and moisture sensitive liquid and thin film samples is described. The principal parts of the cell are a copper gasket sealed enclosure, a 2.5 in. hard disk drive motor, and a reusable, chemically inert glass sandwich cell. The enclosure provides an oxygen and water free environment at the 1 ppm level, as demonstrated by multi-day tests with sodium benzophenone ketyl radical. Inside the enclosure, the glass sandwich cell spins at ≈70 Hz to generate tangential speeds of 7-12 m/s that enable complete sample exchange at 100 kHz repetition rates. The spinning cell is acoustically silent and compatible with a ±1 nm rms displacement stability interferometer. In order to enable the use of the spinning cell, we discuss centrifugation and how to prevent it, introduce the cycle-averaged resampling rate to characterize repetitive excitation, and develop a figure of merit for a long-lived photoproduct buildup.

  20. A Program in Air Transportation Technology (Joint University Program)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stengel, Robert F.

    1996-01-01

    The Joint University Program on Air Transportation Technology was conducted at Princeton University from 1971 to 1995. Our vision was to further understanding of the design and operation of transport aircraft, of the effects of atmospheric environment on aircraft flight, and of the development and utilization of the National Airspace System. As an adjunct, the program emphasized the independent research of both graduate and undergraduate students. Recent principal goals were to develop and verify new methods for design and analysis of intelligent flight control systems, aircraft guidance logic for recovery from wake vortex encounter, and robust flight control systems. Our research scope subsumed problems associated with multidisciplinary aircraft design synthesis and analysis based on flight physics, providing a theoretical basis for developing innovative control concepts that enhance aircraft performance and safety. Our research focus was of direct interest not only to NASA but to manufacturers of aircraft and their associated systems. Our approach, metrics, and future directions described in the remainder of the report.

  1. Evaluation of Urban Air Quality By Passive Sampling Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nunes, T. V.; Miranda, A. I.; Duarte, S.; Lima, M. J.

    Aveiro is a flat small city in the centre of Portugal, close to the Atlantic coast. In the last two decades an intensive development of demographic, traffic and industry growth in the region was observed which was reflected on the air quality degrada- tion. In order to evaluate the urban air quality in Aveiro, a field-monitoring network by passive sampling with high space resolution was implemented. Twenty-four field places were distributed in a area of 3x3 Km2 and ozone and NO2 concentrations were measured. The site distribution density was higher in the centre, 250x250 m2 than in periphery where a 500x500 m2 grid was used. The selection of field places took into consideration the choice criteria recommendation by United Kingdom environmental authorities, and three tubes and a blank tube for each pollutant were used at each site. The sampling system was mounted at 3m from the ground usually profiting the street lampposts. Concerning NO2 acrylic tubes were used with 85 mm of length and an in- ternal diameter of 12mm, where in one of the extremities three steel grids impregnated with a solution of TEA were placed and fixed with a polyethylene end cup (Heal et al., 1999); PFA Teflon tube with 53 mm of length and 9 mm of internal diameter and three impregnated glass filters impregnated with DPE solution fixed by a teflon end cup was used for ozone sampling (Monn and Hargartner, 1990). The passive sampling method for ozone and nitrogen dioxide was compared with continuous measurements, but the amount of measurements wasnSt enough for an accurate calibration and validation of the method. Although this constraint the field observations (June to August 2001) for these two pollutants assign interesting information about the air quality in the urban area. A krigger method of interpolation (Surfer- Golden Software-2000) was applied to field data to obtain isolines distribution of NO2 and ozone concentration for the studied area. Even the used passive sampling method has many

  2. AIR TOXICS MODELING RESEARCH PROGRAM: AN OVERVIEW

    EPA Science Inventory

    This product is a Microsoft Powerpoint slide presentation which was given at the joint EPA Region 3 - Mid-Atlantic Regional Air Management Association (MARAMA) Air Toxic Summit in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania held from October 18, 2005 through October 20, 2005. The slide presentat...

  3. Nonequilibrium air radiation (Nequair) program: User's manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Park, C.

    1985-01-01

    A supplement to the data relating to the calculation of nonequilibrium radiation in flight regimes of aeroassisted orbital transfer vehicles contains the listings of the computer code NEQAIR (Nonequilibrium Air Radiation), its primary input data, and explanation of the user-supplied input variables. The user-supplied input variables are the thermodynamic variables of air at a given point, i.e., number densities of various chemical species, translational temperatures of heavy particles and electrons, and vibrational temperature. These thermodynamic variables do not necessarily have to be in thermodynamic equilibrium. The code calculates emission and absorption characteristics of air under these given conditions.

  4. An Autosampler and Field Sample Carrier for Maximizing Throughput Using an Open-Air, Surface Sampling Ion Source for MS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A recently developed, commercially available, open-air, surface sampling ion source for mass spectrometers provides individual analyses in several seconds. To realize its full throughput potential, an autosampler and field sample carrier were designed and built. The autosampler ...

  5. Sampling of air streams and incorporation of samples in the Microtox{trademark} toxicity testing system

    SciTech Connect

    Kleinheinz, G.T.; St. John, W.P.

    1997-10-01

    A study was conducted to develop a rapid and reliable method for the collection and incorporation of biofiltration air samples containing volatile organic compounds (VOCs) into the Microtox toxicity testing system. To date, no method exists for this type of assay. A constant stream of VOCs was generated by air stripping compounds from a complex mixture of petroleum hydrocarbons (PHCs). Samples were collected on coconut charcoal ORBO tubes and the VOCs extracted with methylene chloride. The compounds extracted were then solvent exchanged into dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) under gaseous nitrogen. The resulting DMSO extract was directly incorporated into the Microtox toxicity testing system. In order to determine the efficiency of the solvent exchange, the VOCs in the DMSO extract were then extracted into hexane and subsequently analyzed using gas chromatography (GC) with a flame ionization detector (FID). It was determined that all but the most volatile VOCs could be effectively transferred from the ORBO tubes to DMSO for Microtox testing. Potential trace amounts of residual methylene chloride in the DMSO extracts showed no adverse effects in the Microtox system when compared to control samples.

  6. Compressed air energy storage technology program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loscutoff, W. V.

    1980-06-01

    Progress in the development of compressed air energy storage (CAES) technologies for central station electric utility applications is reported. It is reported that the concept improves the effectiveness of a gas turbine using petroleum fuels, could reduce petroleum fuel consumption of electric utility peaking plants, and is technically feasible and economically viable. Specific topics discussed include stability criteria for large underground reservoirs in salt domes, hard rock, and porous rock used for air storage in utility applications and second-generation technologies that have minimal or no dependence on petroleum fuels. The latter includes integration of thermal energy storage, fluidized bed combustion, or coal gasification with CAES.

  7. Sample results from the interim salt disposition program macrobatch 9 tank 21H qualification samples

    SciTech Connect

    Peters, T. B.

    2015-11-01

    Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) analyzed samples from Tank 21H in support of qualification of Macrobatch (Salt Batch) 9 for the Interim Salt Disposition Program (ISDP). This document reports characterization data on the samples of Tank 21H.

  8. Air Force Phillips Laboratory Battery Program overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    House, Shaun

    1992-01-01

    Battery development and testing efforts at Phillips Laboratory fall into three main categories: nickel hydrogen, sodium sulfur, and solid state batteries. Nickel hydrogen work is broken down into a Low Earth Orbit (LEO) Life Test Program, a LEO Pulse Test Program, and a Hydrogen Embrittlement Investigation. Sodium sulfur work is broken down into a Geosynchronous Earth Orbit (GEO) Battery Flight Test and a Hot Launch Evaluation. Solid state polymer battery work consists of a GEO Battery Development Program, a Pulse Power Battery Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR), and an in-house evaluation of current generation laboratory cells. An overview of the program is presented.

  9. Air Force Phillips Laboratory Battery Program overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    House, Shaun

    1992-02-01

    Battery development and testing efforts at Phillips Laboratory fall into three main categories: nickel hydrogen, sodium sulfur, and solid state batteries. Nickel hydrogen work is broken down into a Low Earth Orbit (LEO) Life Test Program, a LEO Pulse Test Program, and a Hydrogen Embrittlement Investigation. Sodium sulfur work is broken down into a Geosynchronous Earth Orbit (GEO) Battery Flight Test and a Hot Launch Evaluation. Solid state polymer battery work consists of a GEO Battery Development Program, a Pulse Power Battery Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR), and an in-house evaluation of current generation laboratory cells. An overview of the program is presented.

  10. Sampling of power plant stacks for air toxic emissions: Topical report for Phases 1 and 2

    SciTech Connect

    1995-02-21

    Under contract with the US Department of Energy (DE-AC22-92PCO0367), Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center, Radian Corporation has conducted a test program to collect and analyze size-fractionated stack gas particulate samples for selected inorganic hazardous air pollutants (HAPS). Specific goals of the program are (1) the collection of one-gram quantities of size-fractionated stack gas particulate matter for bulk (total) and surface chemical charactization, and (2) the determination of the relationship between particle size, bulk and surface (leachable) composition, and unit load. The information obtained from this program identifies the effects of unit load, particle size, and wet FGD system operation on the relative toxicological effects of exposure to particulate emissions.

  11. Air Age Education. Aviation Career Awareness Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petrie, Edwin T.

    Described is a program designed to help introduce the broad scope of occupational careers available with general aviation. The program is designed to aid the teacher in presenting the basic principles of flight, essential facts about general aviation as well as its occupational opportunities. It replaces previous elementary student materials, and…

  12. Carter Carburetor Weekly Air Monitoring & Sampling Report - November 2, 2015 – November 8, 2015

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Carter Carburetor Daily Weather Conditions, Dairly Work Activities, Daily Air Monitoring and Samplying Results, Air Monitoring/Samplying Results –Station 2 Linc 126, Air Monitoring/Sampling Results- Sation 3 Linc 123, Air Monitoring/Samplying Results-Stati

  13. Carter Carburetor Weekly Air Monitoring & Sampling Report - November 16, 2015 – November 22, 2015

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Carter Carburetor Daily Weather Conditions, Dairly Work Activities, Daily Air Monitoring and Samplying Results, Air Monitoring/Samplying Results –Station 2 Linc 126, Air Monitoring/Sampling Results- Sation 3 Linc 123, Air Monitoring/Samplying Results-Stati

  14. Carter Carburetor Weekly Air Monitoring & Sampling Report - October 12, 2015 – October 18, 2015

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Carter Carburetor Daily Weather Conditions, Dairly Work Activities, Daily Air Monitoring and Samplying Results, Air Monitoring/Samplying Results –Station 2 Linc 126, Air Monitoring/Sampling Results- Sation 3 Linc 123, Air Monitoring/Samplying Results-Stati

  15. Carter Carburetor Weekly Air Monitoring & Sampling Report - March 7, 2013 - March 13, 2016

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Carter Carburetor Daily Weather Conditions, Dairly Work Activities, Daily Air Monitoring and Samplying Results, Air Monitoring/Samplying Results –Station 2 Linc 126, Air Monitoring/Sampling Results- Sation 3 Linc 123, Air Monitoring/Samplying Results-Stati

  16. Carter Carburetor Weekly Air Monitoring & Sampling Report - November 30, 2015 – December 6, 2015

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Carter Carburetor Daily Weather Conditions, Dairly Work Activities, Daily Air Monitoring and Samplying Results, Air Monitoring/Samplying Results –Station 2 Linc 126, Air Monitoring/Sampling Results- Sation 3 Linc 123, Air Monitoring/Samplying Results-Stati

  17. Carter Carburetor Weekly Air Monitoring & Sampling Report - November 9, 2015 – November 15, 2015

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Carter Carburetor Daily Weather Conditions, Dairly Work Activities, Daily Air Monitoring and Samplying Results, Air Monitoring/Samplying Results –Station 2 Linc 126, Air Monitoring/Sampling Results- Sation 3 Linc 123, Air Monitoring/Samplying Results-Stati

  18. Carter Carburetor Weekly Air Monitoring & Sampling Report - February 1, 2016 – February 7, 2016

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Carter Carburetor Daily Weather Conditions, Dairly Work Activities, Daily Air Monitoring and Samplying Results, Air Monitoring/Samplying Results –Station 2 Linc 126, Air Monitoring/Sampling Results- Sation 3 Linc 123, Air Monitoring/Samplying Results-Stati

  19. Carter Carburetor Weekly Air Monitoring & Sampling Report - October 26, 2015 – November 1, 2015

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Carter Carburetor Daily Weather Conditions, Dairly Work Activities, Daily Air Monitoring and Samplying Results, Air Monitoring/Samplying Results –Station 2 Linc 126, Air Monitoring/Sampling Results- Sation 3 Linc 123, Air Monitoring/Samplying Results-Stati

  20. Carter Carburetor Weekly Air Monitoring & Sampling Report - October 5, 2015 – October 11, 2015

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Carter Carburetor Daily Weather Conditions, Dairly Work Activities, Daily Air Monitoring and Samplying Results, Air Monitoring/Samplying Results –Station 2 Linc 126, Air Monitoring/Sampling Results- Sation 3 Linc 123, Air Monitoring/Samplying Results-Stati

  1. Carter Carburetor Weekly Air Monitoring & Sampling Report - September 28, 2015 – October 4, 2015

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Carter Carburetor Daily Weather Conditions, Dairly Work Activities, Daily Air Monitoring and Samplying Results, Air Monitoring/Samplying Results –Station 2 Linc 126, Air Monitoring/Sampling Results- Sation 3 Linc 123, Air Monitoring/Samplying Results-Stati

  2. Carter Carburetor Weekly Air Monitoring & Sampling Report - February 15, 2016 – February 21, 2016

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Carter Carburetor Daily Weather Conditions, Dairly Work Activities, Daily Air Monitoring and Samplying Results, Air Monitoring/Samplying Results –Station 2 Linc 126, Air Monitoring/Sampling Results- Sation 3 Linc 123, Air Monitoring/Samplying Results-Stati

  3. Carter Carburetor Weekly Air Monitoring & Sampling Report - October 19, 2015 – October 25, 2015

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Carter Carburetor Daily Weather Conditions, Dairly Work Activities, Daily Air Monitoring and Samplying Results, Air Monitoring/Samplying Results –Station 2 Linc 126, Air Monitoring/Sampling Results- Sation 3 Linc 123, Air Monitoring/Samplying Results-Stati

  4. Carter Carburetor Weekly Air Monitoring & Sampling Report - November 23, 2015 – November 29, 2015

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Carter Carburetor Daily Weather Conditions, Dairly Work Activities, Daily Air Monitoring and Samplying Results, Air Monitoring/Samplying Results –Station 2 Linc 126, Air Monitoring/Sampling Results- Sation 3 Linc 123, Air Monitoring/Samplying Results-Stati

  5. Programs at Wright-patterson Air Force Base

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dayton, Ron

    1991-01-01

    The Lubrication Branch has two active programs that are developing gas turbine engine mainshaft air/oil seals. Both of these programs, one of which is with General Electric Aircraft Engines and the other with Pratt & Whitney Aircraft, are addressing counter-rotating intershaft applications which involve very high rubbing velocities. The objectives and requirements of these efforts are briefly addressed.

  6. Programmed sample delivery on a pressurized paper

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Joong Ho; Park, Juhwan; Kim, Seung Hoon; Park, Je-Kyun

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports a method to control the fluid flow in paper-based microfluidic devices simply by pressing over the channel surface of paper, thereby decreasing the pore size and permeability of a non-woven polypropylene sheet. As a result, fluid resistance is increased in the pressed region and causes flow rate to decrease. We characterize the decrease of flow rate with respect to different amounts of pressure applied, and up to 740% decrease in flow velocity was achieved. In addition, we demonstrate flow rate control in a Y-shaped merging paper and sequential delivery of multiple color dyes in a three-branched paper. Furthermore, sequential delivery of multiple fluid samples is performed to demonstrate its application in multi-step colorimetric immunoassay, which shows a 4.3-fold signal increase via enhancement step. PMID:25584116

  7. Salton Sea sampling program: baseline studies

    SciTech Connect

    Tullis, R.E.; Carter, J.L.; Langlois, G.W.

    1981-04-13

    Baseline data are provided on three species of fish from the Salton Sea, California. The fishes considered were the orange mouth corvina (Cynoscion xanthulus), gulf croaker (Bairdiella icistius) and sargo (Anisotremus davidsonii). Morphometric and meristic data are presented as a baseline to aid in the evaluation of any physiological stress the fish may experience as a result of geothermal development. Analyses were made on muscle, liver, and bone of the fishes sampled to provide baseline data on elemental tissue burdens. The elements measured were: As, Br, Ca, Cu, Fe, Ga, K, Mn, Mi, Pb, Rb, Se, Sr, Zn, and Zr. These data are important if an environmentally sound progression of geothermal power production is to occur at the Salton Sea.

  8. Collection and analysis of NASA clean room air samples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sheldon, L. S.; Keever, J.

    1985-01-01

    The environment of the HALOE assembly clean room at NASA Langley Research Center is analyzed to determine the background levels of airborne organic compounds. Sampling is accomplished by pumping the clean room air through absorbing cartridges. For volatile organics, cartridges are thermally desorbed and then analyzed by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry, compounds are identified by searching the EPA/NIH data base using an interactive operator INCOS computer search algorithm. For semivolatile organics, cartridges are solvent entracted and concentrated extracts are analyzed by gas chromatography-electron capture detection, compound identification is made by matching gas chromatogram retention times with known standards. The detection limits for the semivolatile organics are; 0.89 ng cu m for dioctylphlhalate (DOP) and 1.6 ng cu m for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB). The detection limit for volatile organics ranges from 1 to 50 parts per trillion. Only trace quantities of organics are detected, the DOP levels do not exceed 2.5 ng cu m and the PCB levels do not exceed 454 ng cu m.

  9. Size selective isocyanate aerosols personal air sampling using porous plastic foams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khanh Huynh, Cong; Duc, Trinh Vu

    2009-02-01

    As part of a European project (SMT4-CT96-2137), various European institutions specialized in occupational hygiene (BGIA, HSL, IOM, INRS, IST, Ambiente e Lavoro) have established a program of scientific collaboration to develop one or more prototypes of European personal samplers for the collection of simultaneous three dust fractions: inhalable, thoracic and respirable. These samplers based on existing sampling heads (IOM, GSP and cassettes) use Polyurethane Plastic Foam (PUF) according to their porosity to support sampling and separator size of the particles. In this study, the authors present an original application of size selective personal air sampling using chemical impregnated PUF to perform isocyanate aerosols capturing and derivatizing in industrial spray-painting shops.

  10. Office of radiation and indoor air: Program description

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-06-01

    The goal of the Environmental Protection Agency`s (EPA) Office of Radiation and Indoor Air is to protect the public and the environment from exposures to radiation and indoor air pollutants. The Office develops protection criteria, standards, and policies and works with other programs within EPA and other agencies to control radiation and indoor air pollution exposures; provides technical assistance to states through EPA`s regional offices and other agencies having radiation and indoor air protection programs; directs an environmental radiation monitoring program; responds to radiological emergencies; and evaluates and assesses the overall risk and impact of radiation and indoor air pollution. The Office is EPA`s lead office for intra- and interagency activities coordinated through the Committee for Indoor Air Quality. It coordinates with and assists the Office of Enforcement in enforcement activities where EPA has jurisdiction. The Office disseminates information and works with state and local governments, industry and professional groups, and citizens to promote actions to reduce exposures to harmful levels of radiation and indoor air pollutants.

  11. Breakthrough of 1,3-dichloropropene and chloropicrin from 600 mg XAD-4 air sampling tubes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Accurately measuring air concentrations of agricultural fumigants is important for the regulation of air quality. Understanding the conditions under which sorbent tubes can effectively retain such fumigants during sampling is critical in mitigating chemical breakthrough from the tubes and facilitati...

  12. Renewable Operating Permit Program Air Emission Fees

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This document may be of assistance in applying the Title V air operating permit regulations. This document is part of the Title V Policy and Guidance Database available at www2.epa.gov/title-v-operating-permits/title-v-operating-permit-policy-and-guidance-document-index. Some documents in the database are a scanned or retyped version of a paper photocopy of the original. Although we have taken considerable effort to quality assure the documents, some may contain typographical errors. Contact the office that issued the document if you need a copy of the original.

  13. Clarification of Current Air Program Issues

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This document may be of assistance in applying the New Source Review (NSR) air permitting regulations including the Prevention of Significant Deterioration (PSD) requirements. This document is part of the NSR Policy and Guidance Database. Some documents in the database are a scanned or retyped version of a paper photocopy of the original. Although we have taken considerable effort to quality assure the documents, some may contain typographical errors. Contact the office that issued the document if you need a copy of the original.

  14. Improving Air Quality with Economic Incentive Programs

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This document may be of assistance in applying the New Source Review (NSR) air permitting regulations including the Prevention of Significant Deterioration (PSD) requirements. This document is part of the NSR Policy and Guidance Database. Some documents in the database are a scanned or retyped version of a paper photocopy of the original. Although we have taken considerable effort to quality assure the documents, some may contain typographical errors. Contact the office that issued the document if you need a copy of the original.

  15. 78 FR 67442 - Congestion Mitigation and Air Quality Improvement Program Interim Guidance

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-12

    ... Federal Highway Administration Congestion Mitigation and Air Quality Improvement Program Interim Guidance... Mitigation and Air Quality Improvement (CMAQ) Program (Interim Guidance). The Interim Guidance revises CMAQ....gov/environment/air_quality/cmaq/policy_and_guidance/2008_guidance/ guidance/. DATES: This...

  16. 2015 Targeted Air Shed Grant Program Grant - Closed Announcement FY 2015

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Targeted Air Shed Grant Program proposal for FY 2015. The overall goal of the program is to reduce air pollution in the Nation’s areas with the highest levels of ozone and PM2.5 ambient air concentrations.

  17. Indoor Air Quality Tools for Schools Program: Benefits of Improving Air Quality in the School Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC. Office of Radiation and Indoor Air.

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) developed the Indoor Air Quality Tools for Schools (IAQ TfS) Program to help schools prevent, identify, and resolve their IAQ problems. This publication describes the program and its advantages, explaining that through simple, low-cost measures, schools can: reduce IAQ-related health risks and…

  18. United States Air Force Geophysics Scholar Program, 1982-1983.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-03-01

    gold surface with < 0.1 eV of kinectic energy . The beam direction will be maintained at low energies by using a set of Helmholtz coils surrounding the...NATIONAL BUREAU Of STANDARDS 1963 A t II 1982-1983 LSAF/SCEEE AIR FORCE GEOPHYSICS SCHOLAR PROGRAM conducted by Southeastern Center for Electrical ...Bolling Air Force Base Washington D.C. by Southeastern Center for Electrical Engineering Education March 1984 IL ’a’ [ .1 Ai UNCLASSIFIED SECURITY

  19. Sampling of power plant stacks for air toxic emissions: Final report for Phases 1 and 2

    SciTech Connect

    1995-04-28

    A test program to collect and analyze size-fractionated stack gas particulate samples for selected inorganic hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) was conducted . Specific goals of the program are (1) the collection of one-gram quantities of size-fractionated stack gas particulate matter for bulk (total) and surface chemical characterization, and (2) the determination of the relationship between particle size, bulk and surface (leachable) composition, and unit load. The information obtained from this program identifies the effects of unit load, particle size, and wet FGD system operation on the relative toxicological effects of exposure to particulate emissions. Field testing was conducted in two phases. The Phase I field program was performed over the period of August 24 through September 20, 1992, at the Tennessee Valley Authority Widows Creek Unit 8 Power Station, located near Stevenson (Jackson County), Alabama, on the Tennessee River. Sampling activities for Phase II were conducted from September 11 through October 14, 1993. Widows Creek Unit 8 is a 575-megawatt plant that uses bituminous coal averaging 3.7% sulfur and 13% ash. Downstream of the boiler, a venture wet scrubbing system is used for control of both sulfur dioxide and particulate emissions. There is no electrostatic precipitator (ESP) in this system. This system is atypical and represents only about 5% of the US utility industry. However, this site was chosen for this study because of the lack of information available for this particulate emission control system.

  20. The air quality monitoring program for the 1100-EM-1 remedial investigation

    SciTech Connect

    Glantz, C.S.; Laws, G.L.

    1990-09-01

    Air quality monitoring for the remedial investigation of the Hanford Site's 1100-EM-1 operable unit was conducted in the spring and fall of 1989 and during January 1990. The monitoring program was divided into two phases. The first phase examined the air quality impact of routine atmospheric emissions at three of the operable unit's waste sites before the beginning of intrusive remedial investigation activities. The second phase of monitoring examined the air quality impact of routine atmospheric emissions from two of the operable unit's waste sites during intrusive remedial investigation activities. Each phase of the program consisted of a series of monitoring events that measured pollutant concentrations at key locations upwind and downwind of individual waste sites. During each monitoring event, sampling was conducted to determine the air concentrations of a wide variety of volatile organic compounds and semivolatile organic compounds. Monitoring for heavy metals and asbestos was also conducted during some monitoring events. 8 refs., 15 figs., 9 tabs.

  1. Air Force Weight and Fitness Programs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-03-01

    empahsis is to be placed not on weight loss but on reduction in body fat. Monitoring To keep everything on track :, each Service must establish a...the large muscle groups in the upper and lower body . Basic bench pressing, leg pressing, curls, and upright rowing are used. A progressive program...Corps Equally serious about physical fitness is the Marine Corps. Mention the word Marine and the image of a highly motivated , physically fit and well

  2. Review of Various Air Sampling Methods for Solvent Vapors.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    Vapors of trichloroethylene, toluene, methyl ethyl ketone, and butyl cellosolve in air were collected using Scotchpac and Tedlar bags, glass ...prescription bottles , and charcoal adsorption tubes. Efficiencies of collection are reported. (Author)

  3. Review of Various Air Sampling Methods for Solvent Vapors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maykoski, R. T.

    Vapors of trichloroethylene, toluene, methyl ethyl ketone, and butyl cellosolve in air were collected using Scotchpac and Tedlar bags, glass prescription bottles, and charcoal adsorption tubes. Efficiencies of collection are reported. (Author/RH)

  4. Air Force F-22 Fighter Program

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-07-11

    jobs at Lockheed’s Marietta, GA, and Fort Worth, TX, locations, and at Boeing and Pratt & Whitney. Lockheed estimated, on the basis of purchase...order receipts, that the F-22 program supported an additional 16,200 supplier-firm jobs in 44 states around the country. Lockheed combined these two...figures to estimate that the F-22 supported a total of about 25,000 direct jobs . Using a multiplier of 2.8 to estimate jobs elsewhere in the economy

  5. Joint University Program for Air Transportation Research, 1986

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrell, Frederick R. (Compiler)

    1988-01-01

    The research conducted under the NASA/FAA sponsored Joint University Program for Air Transportation Research is summarized. The Joint University Program is a coordinated set of three grants sponsored by NASA and the FAA, one each with the Mass. Inst. of Tech., Ohio Univ., and Princeton Univ. Completed works, status reports, and bibliographies are presented for research topics, which include computer science, guidance and control theory and practice, aircraft performance, flight dynamics, and applied experimental psychology. An overview of activities is presented.

  6. Application of a dry-gas meter for measuring air sample volumes in an ambient air monitoring network

    SciTech Connect

    Fritz, Brad G.

    2009-05-24

    Ambient air monitoring for non-research applications (e.g. compliance) occurs at locations throughout the world. Often, the air sampling systems employed for these purposes employee simple yet robust equipment capable of handling the rigors of demanding sampling schedules. At the Hanford Site (near Richland, Washington) concentrations of radionuclides in ambient air are monitored continuously at 44 locations. In 2004, mechanical dry-gas meters were incorporated into the Hanford Site ambient air sample collection system to allow the direct measurement of sample volumes. These meters replaced a portable airflow measurement system that required two manual flow measurements and a sample duration measurement to determine sample volume. A six-month evaluation of the dry-gas meters compared sample volumes calculated using the original flow rate method to the direct sample volume measurement (new method). The results of the evaluation indicate that use of the dry-gas meters result in accurate sample volume measurements and provide greater confidence in the measured sample volumes. In several years of in-network use, the meters have proven to be reliable and have resulted in an improved sampling system.

  7. NASA Global Atmospheric Sampling Program (GASP) data report for tape VL0006

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gauntner, D. J.; Holdeman, J. D.; Humenik, F. M.

    1977-01-01

    The NASA Global Atmospheric Sampling Program (GASP) is obtaining measurements of atmospheric trace constituents in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere using fully automated air sampling systems on board several commercial B-747 aircraft in routine airline service. Atmospheric ozone, and related flight and meteorological data were obtained during 245 flights of a Qantas Airways of Australia B-747 and two Pan American World Airways B-747s from July 1976 through September 1976. In addition, whole air samples, obtained during three flights, were analyzed for trichlorofluoromethane, and filter samples, obtained during four flights, were analyzed for sulfates, nitrates, fluorides, and chlorides. Flight routes and dates, instrumentation, data processing procedures, data tape specifications, and selected analyses are discussed.

  8. The United States Air force optometry residency program.

    PubMed

    Kent, J F

    1995-04-01

    The USAF Optometry Residency Program promotes an educational climate that facilitates the education and development of the resident doctor not only as an optometrist but also as a military officer. Development of self-directed education and decision making within the training period is emphasized. Residents are encouraged to examine and challenge existing ideas and to develop physiological concepts and principles so the practical application of these skills is reflected in active clinical practice and effective professional relationships. The Air Force Optometry Residency Program will train career-oriented Air Force optometrists in advanced clinical and diagnostic techniques, aerospace optometry, and clinic management including the latest continuous quality improvement concepts. Recent changes have enlarged the scope of practice for Air Force optometrists. This expanded scope of practice has created a need for a nucleus of residency-trained optometrists, skilled in the latest techniques of eye care, who return to the field and train their associates in these advanced techniques. Over 40 percent of Air Force optometry clinics are manned by one doctor of optometry. Residency-trained optometrists are able to provide a high level of comprehensive optometric care at these facilities. Through this program the Air Force can keep pace with the evolution of optometry and meet the challenge of providing the highest quality care to our patients.

  9. School Indoor Air Quality Assessment and Program Implementation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prill, R.; Blake, D.; Hales, D.

    This paper describes the effectiveness of a three-step indoor air quality (IAQ) program implemented by 156 schools in the states of Washington and Idaho during the 2000-2001 school year. An experienced IAQ/building science specialist conducted walk-through assessments at each school. These assessments documented deficiencies and served as an…

  10. 77 FR 65395 - Air Cargo Advance Screening (ACAS) Pilot Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-26

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY U.S. Customs and Border Protection Air Cargo Advance Screening (ACAS) Pilot Program Correction In notice document 2012-26031 appearing on pages 65006-65009 in the issue of October 24, 2012 make...

  11. Hanford high level waste: Sample Exchange/Evaluation (SEE) Program

    SciTech Connect

    King, A.G.

    1994-08-01

    The Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL)/Analytical Chemistry Laboratory (ACL) and the Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC)/Process Analytical Laboratory (PAL) provide analytical support services to various environmental restoration and waste management projects/programs at Hanford. In response to a US Department of Energy -- Richland Field Office (DOE-RL) audit, which questioned the comparability of analytical methods employed at each laboratory, the Sample Exchange/Exchange (SEE) program was initiated. The SEE Program is a selfassessment program designed to compare analytical methods of the PAL and ACL laboratories using sitespecific waste material. The SEE program is managed by a collaborative, the Quality Assurance Triad (Triad). Triad membership is made up of representatives from the WHC/PAL, PNL/ACL, and WHC Hanford Analytical Services Management (HASM) organizations. The Triad works together to design/evaluate/implement each phase of the SEE Program.

  12. Compressed-air energy-storage technology: Program overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kannberg, L. D.

    1981-07-01

    A new technology designed to reduce the consumption of oil in the generation of electric power was developed. The program has two major elements: reservoir stability studies and second generation concepts studies. The reservoir stability studies are aimed at developing stability criteria for long term operation of large underground reservoirs used for compressed air storage. The second generation concepts studies are aimed at developing new concepts that will require little or no petroleum fuels for operation. The program efforts are outlined and major accomplishments towards the objectives of the program are identified.

  13. Low-cost monitoring of Campylobacter in poultry houses by air sampling and quantitative PCR.

    PubMed

    Søndergaard, M S R; Josefsen, M H; Löfström, C; Christensen, L S; Wieczorek, K; Osek, J; Hoorfar, J

    2014-02-01

    The present study describes the evaluation of a method for the quantification of Campylobacter by air sampling in poultry houses. Sampling was carried out in conventional chicken houses in Poland, in addition to a preliminary sampling in Denmark. Each measurement consisted of three air samples, two standard boot swab fecal samples, and one airborne particle count. Sampling was conducted over an 8-week period in three flocks, assessing the presence and levels of Campylobacter in boot swabs and air samples using quantitative real-time PCR. The detection limit for air sampling was approximately 100 Campylobacter cell equivalents (CCE)/m3. Airborne particle counts were used to analyze the size distribution of airborne particles (0.3 to 10 μm) in the chicken houses in relation to the level of airborne Campylobacter. No correlation was found. Using air sampling, Campylobacter was detected in the flocks right away, while boot swab samples were positive after 2 weeks. All samples collected were positive for Campylobacter from week 2 through the rest of the rearing period for both sampling techniques, although levels 1- to 2-log CCE higher were found with air sampling. At week 8, the levels were approximately 10(4) and 10(5) CCE per sample for boot swabs and air, respectively. In conclusion, using air samples combined with quantitative real-time PCR, Campylobacter contamination could be detected earlier than by boot swabs and was found to be a more convenient technique for monitoring and/or to obtain enumeration data useful for quantitative risk assessment of Campylobacter.

  14. United States Air Force Summer Research Program -- 1992 High School Apprenticeship Program (HSAP) Reports. Volume 13. Phillips Laboratory

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-01-01

    Research Program Phillips Laboratory I4oJ A*6Iv4 Sponsored by: Air Force Office of Scientific Research Kirtland Air ...UNITED STATES AIR FORCE SUMMER RESEARCH PROGki"A -- 1992 HIGH SCHOOL APPRENTICESHIP PROGRAM (HSAP) REPORTS VOLUME 13 (t PHILLIPS LABORATORY . RESEARCH ...Arlington High School Final Report for: Summer Research Program Geophysics Directorate Phillips Laboratory

  15. United States Air Force Summer Research Program -- 1993. Volume 8. Phillips Laboratory

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-12-01

    Research Program Phillips Laboratory Kirtland Air Force Base Albuquerque. New Mexico Sponsored by...Best Available Copy UNITED STATES AIR FORCE SUMMER RESEARCH PROGRAM -- 1993 SUMMER RESEARCH PROGRAM FINAL REPORTS VOLUME 8 PHILLIPS LABORATORY ...Alabama Box 870344 Tuscaloosa, AL 35487-0344 Final Report for: Graduate Student Research Program Phillips Laboratory , Hanscom AFB Sponsored by: Air

  16. Toxicological Assessment of ISS Air Quality: Contingency Sampling - February 2013

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyers, Valerie

    2013-01-01

    Two grab sample containers (GSCs) were collected by crew members onboard ISS in response to a vinegar-like odor in the US Lab. On February 5, the first sample was collected approximately 1 hour after the odor was noted by the crew in the forward portion of the Lab. The second sample was collected on February 22 when a similar odor was noted and localized to the end ports of the microgravity science glovebox (MSG). The crewmember removed a glove from the MSG and collected the GSC inside the glovebox volume. Both samples were returned on SpaceX-2 for ground analysis.

  17. WIPP waste characterization program sampling and analysis guidance manual

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Waste Characterization Program Sampling and Analysis Guidance Manual (Guidance Manual) provides a unified source of information on the sampling and analytical techniques that enable Department of Energy (DOE) facilities to comply with the requirements established in the current revision of the Quality Assurance Program Plan (QAPP) for the WIPP Experimental-Waste Characterization Program (the Program). This Guidance Manual includes all of the sampling and testing methodologies accepted by the WIPP Project Office (DOE/WPO) for use in implementing the Program requirements specified in the QAPP. This includes methods for characterizing representative samples of transuranic (TRU) wastes at DOE generator sites with respect to the gas generation controlling variables defined in the WIPP bin-scale and alcove test plans, as well as waste container headspace gas sampling and analytical procedures to support waste characterization requirements under the WIPP test program and the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). The procedures in this Guidance Manual are comprehensive and detailed and are designed to provide the necessary guidance for the preparation of site specific procedures. The use of these procedures is intended to provide the necessary sensitivity, specificity, precision, and comparability of analyses and test results. The solutions to achieving specific program objectives will depend upon facility constraints, compliance with DOE Orders and DOE facilities' operating contractor requirements, and the knowledge and experience of the TRU waste handlers and analysts. With some analytical methods, such as gas chromatography/mass spectrometry, the Guidance Manual procedures may be used directly. With other methods, such as nondestructive/destructive characterization, the Guidance Manual provides guidance rather than a step-by-step procedure.

  18. U.S. Air Force Aircrew Flight Protective Eyewear Program

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-02-01

    MIL-DTL-32000), fire-resistant hydraulic fluid (MIL-PRF-46170), petroleum -based hydraulic fluid (MIL-PRF-6083), gasoline (87% octane), motor oil...were abraded 20 cycles (40 strokes). After abrasion, samples were washed with a mild detergent water solution and dried with compressed air. Pass

  19. ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION REPORT - BAGHOUSE FILTRATION PRODUCTS - AIR PURATOR CORPORATION HUYGLAS 1405M FILTER SAMPLE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Baghouse filtration products (BFPs) were evaluated by the Air Pollution Control Technology (APCT) pilot of the Environmental Technology Verification (ETV) Program. The performance factor verified was the mean outlet particle concentration for the filter fabric as a function of th...

  20. Detection of the Urban Release of a Bacillus anthracis Simulant by Air Sampling

    PubMed Central

    Garza, Alexander G.; Van Cuyk, Sheila M.; Brown, Michael J.

    2014-01-01

    In 2005 and 2009, the Pentagon Force Protection Agency (PFPA) staged deliberate releases of a commercially available organic pesticide containing Bacillus amyloliquefaciens to evaluate PFPA's biothreat response protocols. In concert with, but independent of, these releases, the Department of Homeland Security sponsored experiments to evaluate the efficacy of commonly employed air and surface sampling techniques for detection of an aerosolized biological agent. High-volume air samplers were placed in the expected downwind plume, and samples were collected before, during, and after the releases. Environmental surface and personal air samples were collected in the vicinity of the high-volume air samplers hours after the plume had dispersed. The results indicate it is feasible to detect the release of a biological agent in an urban area both during and after the release of a biological agent using high-volume air and environmental sampling techniques. PMID:24697146

  1. Detection of the urban release of a bacillus anthracis simulant by air sampling.

    PubMed

    Garza, Alexander G; Van Cuyk, Sheila M; Brown, Michael J; Omberg, Kristin M

    2014-01-01

    In 2005 and 2009, the Pentagon Force Protection Agency (PFPA) staged deliberate releases of a commercially available organic pesticide containing Bacillus amyloliquefaciens to evaluate PFPA's biothreat response protocols. In concert with, but independent of, these releases, the Department of Homeland Security sponsored experiments to evaluate the efficacy of commonly employed air and surface sampling techniques for detection of an aerosolized biological agent. High-volume air samplers were placed in the expected downwind plume, and samples were collected before, during, and after the releases. Environmental surface and personal air samples were collected in the vicinity of the high-volume air samplers hours after the plume had dispersed. The results indicate it is feasible to detect the release of a biological agent in an urban area both during and after the release of a biological agent using high-volume air and environmental sampling techniques.

  2. Review of the Physical Science Facility Stack Air Sampling Probe Locations

    SciTech Connect

    Glissmeyer, John A.

    2007-09-30

    This letter report reviews compliance of the current design of the Physical Science Facility (PSF) stack air sampling locations with the ANSI/HPS N13.1-1999 standard. The review was based on performance criteria used for locating air sampling probes, the design documents provided and available information on systems previously tested for compliance with the criteria. Recommendations are presented for ways to bring the design into compliance with the requirements for the sampling probe placement.

  3. Comparison of stationary and personal air sampling with an air dispersion model for children's ambient exposure to manganese.

    PubMed

    Fulk, Florence; Haynes, Erin N; Hilbert, Timothy J; Brown, David; Petersen, Dan; Reponen, Tiina

    2016-09-01

    Manganese (Mn) is ubiquitous in the environment and essential for normal growth and development, yet excessive exposure can lead to impairments in neurological function. This study modeled ambient Mn concentrations as an alternative to stationary and personal air sampling to assess exposure for children enrolled in the Communities Actively Researching Exposure Study in Marietta, OH. Ambient air Mn concentration values were modeled using US Environmental Protection Agency's Air Dispersion Model AERMOD based on emissions from the ferromanganese refinery located in Marietta. Modeled Mn concentrations were compared with Mn concentrations from a nearby stationary air monitor. The Index of Agreement for modeled versus monitored data was 0.34 (48 h levels) and 0.79 (monthly levels). Fractional bias was 0.026 for 48 h levels and -0.019 for monthly levels. The ratio of modeled ambient air Mn to measured ambient air Mn at the annual time scale was 0.94. Modeled values were also time matched to personal air samples for 19 children. The modeled values explained a greater degree of variability in personal exposures compared with time-weighted distance from the emission source. Based on these results modeled Mn concentrations provided a suitable approach for assessing airborne Mn exposure in this cohort.

  4. 50 CFR 222.404 - Observer program sampling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Observer program sampling. 222.404 Section 222.404 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS GENERAL ENDANGERED AND THREATENED MARINE SPECIES...

  5. 50 CFR 222.404 - Observer program sampling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Observer program sampling. 222.404 Section 222.404 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS GENERAL ENDANGERED AND THREATENED MARINE SPECIES...

  6. 50 CFR 222.404 - Observer program sampling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Observer program sampling. 222.404 Section 222.404 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS GENERAL ENDANGERED AND THREATENED MARINE SPECIES...

  7. 50 CFR 222.404 - Observer program sampling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Observer program sampling. 222.404 Section 222.404 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS GENERAL ENDANGERED AND THREATENED MARINE SPECIES...

  8. 50 CFR 222.404 - Observer program sampling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Observer program sampling. 222.404 Section 222.404 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS GENERAL ENDANGERED AND THREATENED MARINE SPECIES...

  9. Joint University Program for Air Transportation Research, 1991-1992

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrell, Frederick R. (Compiler)

    1993-01-01

    This report summarizes the research conducted during the academic year 1991-1992 under the FAA/NASA sponsored Joint University Program for Air Transportation Research. The year end review was held at Ohio University, Athens, Ohio, June 18-19, 1992. The Joint University Program is a coordinated set of three grants sponsored by the Federal Aviation Administration and NASA Langley Research Center, one each with the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (NGL-22-009-640), Ohio University (NGR-36-009-017), and Princeton University (NGL-31-001-252). Completed works, status reports, and annotated bibliographies are presented for research topics, which include navigation, guidance and control theory and practice, intelligent flight control, flight dynamics, human factors, and air traffic control processes. An overview of the year's activities for each university is also presented.

  10. TRU Waste Sampling Program: Volume I. Waste characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Clements, T.L. Jr.; Kudera, D.E.

    1985-09-01

    Volume I of the TRU Waste Sampling Program report presents the waste characterization information obtained from sampling and characterizing various aged transuranic waste retrieved from storage at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory and the Los Alamos National Laboratory. The data contained in this report include the results of gas sampling and gas generation, radiographic examinations, waste visual examination results, and waste compliance with the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant-Waste Acceptance Criteria (WIPP-WAC). A separate report, Volume II, contains data from the gas generation studies.

  11. Computer program to solve two-dimensional shock-wave interference problems with an equilibrium chemically reacting air model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glass, Christopher E.

    1990-01-01

    The computer program EASI, an acronym for Equilibrium Air Shock Interference, was developed to calculate the inviscid flowfield, the maximum surface pressure, and the maximum heat flux produced by six shock wave interference patterns on a 2-D, cylindrical configuration. Thermodynamic properties of the inviscid flowfield are determined using either an 11-specie, 7-reaction equilibrium chemically reacting air model or a calorically perfect air model. The inviscid flowfield is solved using the integral form of the conservation equations. Surface heating calculations at the impingement point for the equilibrium chemically reacting air model use variable transport properties and specific heat. However, for the calorically perfect air model, heating rate calculations use a constant Prandtl number. Sample calculations of the six shock wave interference patterns, a listing of the computer program, and flowcharts of the programming logic are included.

  12. Joint University Program for Air Transportation Research, 1984

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrell, Frederick R. (Compiler)

    1987-01-01

    The research conducted during 1984 under the NASA/FAA sponsored Joint University Program for Air Transportation Research is summarized. The Joint University Program is a coordinated set of three grants sponsored by NASA Langley Research Center and the Federal Aviation Administration, one each with the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Ohio University, and Princeton University. Completed works, status reports, and bibliographies are presented for research topics, which include navigation, guidance, control and display concepts. An overview of the year's activities for each of the schools is also presented.

  13. Joint University Program for Air Transportation Research, 1988-1989

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrell, Frederick R. (Compiler)

    1990-01-01

    The research conducted during 1988 to 1989 under the NASA/FAA-sponsored Joint University Program for Air Transportation Research is summarized. The Joint University Program is a coordinated set of three grants sponsored by NASA Langley Research Center and the Federal Aviation Administration, one each with the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Ohio University, and Princeton University. Completed works, status reports, and annotated bibliographies are presented for research topics, which include computer science, guidance and control theory and practice, aircraft performance, flight dynamics, and applied experimental psychology. An overview of the year's activities for each university is also presented.

  14. Joint University Program for Air Transportation Research, 1983

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrell, Frederick R. (Compiler)

    1987-01-01

    The research conducted during 1983 under the NASA/FAA sponsored Joint University Program for Air Transportation Research is summarized. The material was presented at a conference held at the Federal Aviation Administration Technical Center, Altantic City, New Jersey, December 16, 1983. The Joint University Program is a coordinated set of three grants sponsored by NASA Langley Research Center and the Federal Aviation Administration, one each with the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Ohio University, and Princeton University. Completed works, status reports, and bibliographies are presented for research topics, which include navigation, guidance, control, and display concepts. An overview of the year's activities for each of the universities is also presented.

  15. Joint University Program for Air Transportation Research, 1987

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrell, Frederick R. (Compiler)

    1989-01-01

    The research conducted during 1987 under the NASA/FAA sponsored Joint University Program for Air Transportation Research is summarized. The Joint University Program is a coordinated set of 3 grants sponsored by NASA-Langley and the FAA, one each with the MIT, Ohio Univ., and Princeton Univ. Completed works, status reports, and annotated bibliographies are presented for research topics, which include computer science, guidance and control theory and practice, aircraft performance, flight dynamics, and applied experimental psychology. An overview of the year's activities for each university is also presented.

  16. Joint University Program for Air Transportation Research, 1989-1990

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrell, Frederick R. (Compiler)

    1990-01-01

    Research conducted during the academic year 1989-90 under the NASA/FAA sponsored Joint University Program for Air Transportation research is discussed. Completed works, status reports and annotated bibliographies are presented for research topics, which include navigation, guidance and control theory and practice, aircraft performance, human factors, and expert systems concepts applied to airport operations. An overview of the year's activities for each university is also presented.

  17. Benefits of an Air Force Contracting Warrant Officer Program

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-12-01

    2009). Course Management Plan . Fort Rucker Alabama : Warrant Officer Career College. Hackman, J. R., & Oldham , G. R. (1980). Work redesign. Reading...Acquisition Executive CMP Course Management Plan CO Commissioned Officer DAU Defense Acquisitions University DAWIA Defense Acquisition...contracting offices . They plan to grow their force by offering a blue to green program where Air Force NCOs will attain the status of Army warrant officer

  18. ICIS-Air Program Code Subpart Descriptions | ECHO | US ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    ECHO, Enforcement and Compliance History Online, provides compliance and enforcement information for approximately 800,000 EPA-regulated facilities nationwide. ECHO includes permit, inspection, violation, enforcement action, and penalty information about facilities regulated under the Clean Air Act (CAA) Stationary Source Program, Clean Water Act (CWA) National Pollutant Elimination Discharge System (NPDES), and/or Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). Information also is provided on surrounding demographics when available.

  19. Tribal Training Support for the Community and Tribal Air Quality Programs - Closed Announcement FY 2016

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Tribal Training Support for the Community and Tribal Air Quality Programs request for applications for FY 2016. Training and technical support to tribal governments seeking develop and establish air quality management programs for tribal lands.

  20. Extending cluster lot quality assurance sampling designs for surveillance programs.

    PubMed

    Hund, Lauren; Pagano, Marcello

    2014-07-20

    Lot quality assurance sampling (LQAS) has a long history of applications in industrial quality control. LQAS is frequently used for rapid surveillance in global health settings, with areas classified as poor or acceptable performance on the basis of the binary classification of an indicator. Historically, LQAS surveys have relied on simple random samples from the population; however, implementing two-stage cluster designs for surveillance sampling is often more cost-effective than simple random sampling. By applying survey sampling results to the binary classification procedure, we develop a simple and flexible nonparametric procedure to incorporate clustering effects into the LQAS sample design to appropriately inflate the sample size, accommodating finite numbers of clusters in the population when relevant. We use this framework to then discuss principled selection of survey design parameters in longitudinal surveillance programs. We apply this framework to design surveys to detect rises in malnutrition prevalence in nutrition surveillance programs in Kenya and South Sudan, accounting for clustering within villages. By combining historical information with data from previous surveys, we design surveys to detect spikes in the childhood malnutrition rate.

  1. Summary of gamma spectrometry on local air samples from 1985--1995

    SciTech Connect

    Winn, W.G.

    1997-04-02

    This report summarizes the 1985--1995 results of low-level HPGe gamma spectrometry analysis of high-volume air samples collected at the Aiken Airport, which is about 25 miles north of SRS. The author began analyzing these samples with new calibrations using the newly developed GRABGAM code in 1985. The air sample collections were terminated in 1995, as the facilities at the Aiken Airport were no longer available. Air sample measurements prior to 1985 were conducted with a different analysis system (and by others prior to 1984), and the data were not readily available. The report serves to closeout this phase of local NTS air sample studies, while documenting the capabilities and accomplishments. Hopefully, the information will guide other applications for this technology, both locally and elsewhere.

  2. 40 CFR 49.10 - EPA review of State Clean Air Act programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false EPA review of State Clean Air Act... FEDERAL ASSISTANCE INDIAN COUNTRY: AIR QUALITY PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT Tribal Authority § 49.10 EPA review of State Clean Air Act programs. A State Clean Air Act program submittal shall not be...

  3. 40 CFR 49.10 - EPA review of State Clean Air Act programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false EPA review of State Clean Air Act... FEDERAL ASSISTANCE INDIAN COUNTRY: AIR QUALITY PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT Tribal Authority § 49.10 EPA review of State Clean Air Act programs. A State Clean Air Act program submittal shall not be...

  4. 40 CFR 49.10 - EPA review of State Clean Air Act programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false EPA review of State Clean Air Act... FEDERAL ASSISTANCE INDIAN COUNTRY: AIR QUALITY PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT Tribal Authority § 49.10 EPA review of State Clean Air Act programs. A State Clean Air Act program submittal shall not be...

  5. Air Pollution Training Courses July 1972 through June 1973 and University Training Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC.

    Responding to the demands of the Clean Air Act of 1970, the Manpower Development Staff of the Office of Air Programs has acted to provide more and better-trained practitioners in the field of air pollution control. Numerous courses are conducted through the Institute for Air Pollution Training, while university training programs are administered…

  6. 40 CFR 49.10 - EPA review of State Clean Air Act programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false EPA review of State Clean Air Act... FEDERAL ASSISTANCE INDIAN COUNTRY: AIR QUALITY PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT Tribal Authority § 49.10 EPA review of State Clean Air Act programs. A State Clean Air Act program submittal shall not be...

  7. 40 CFR 49.10 - EPA review of State Clean Air Act programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... FEDERAL ASSISTANCE TRIBAL CLEAN AIR ACT AUTHORITY Tribal Authority § 49.10 EPA review of State Clean Air Act programs. A State Clean Air Act program submittal shall not be disapproved because of failure to... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false EPA review of State Clean Air...

  8. Determination of carbonyl compounds by HPLC/UV analysis in the CASTNet Air Toxics Monitoring Program (CATMP)

    SciTech Connect

    Weichert, B.A.; Baker, R.D.; Johnson, B.T.; Winslow, M.G.

    1994-12-31

    The determination of carbonyl compounds in ambient air is one of the analytical requirements of the Environmental Protection Agency`s (EPA`s) Clean Air Status and Trends Network (CASTNet) Air Toxics Monitoring Program (CATMP). The CATMP was established in 1993 by EPA to reactivate and operate the Urban Air Toxics Monitoring Program (UATMP). The purpose of the program is to establish baseline toxics concentrations, develop air emission inventories, and to identify air toxic sources using chemical mass balance modeling techniques. 1993 results for the CATMP analysis of carbonyl compounds by method TO-11 are presented. Samples were collected using Waters` dinitrophenyl hydrazine (DNPN) impregnated cartridges and analyzed using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with ultraviolet (UV) detection. A regulatory program approach to quality control was taken to insure that all aspects of shipping, sampling and analysis contained sufficient controls in order to produce data of acceptable and consistent precision and accuracy. Database presentations will include the overall quality assurance approach, quality control measurements, and sample results from eight sites. An examination of background interferences detected in the various control samples also is discussed.

  9. Minimum detectable activity concentration in direct alpha spectrometry from outdoor air samples: continuous monitoring versus separate sampling and counting.

    PubMed

    Pöllänen, R; Siiskonen, T

    2006-02-01

    Rapid method for identifying the presence of alpha particle emitting radionuclides in outdoor air is of paramount importance should a nuclear or radiological incident occur. Minimum detectable activity concentrations of U, U, Pu, and Pu in outdoor air are calculated for two direct alpha spectrometry methods: continuous air monitoring is compared with separate sampling and subsequent alpha particle counting in a vacuum chamber. The radon progeny activity concentration typical for outdoor air and the effects for the alpha particle spectra caused by the properties of the filter and the aerosol particles are taken into account using measurements and Monte Carlo simulations. Continuous air monitoring is a faster method for identifying the presence of (trans)uranium elements when their activity concentration is considerably higher than the typical detection limit. Separate sampling and counting in a vacuum chamber is a more sensitive method when concentrations are close to the detection limit and when the duration of the sampling-counting cycle is greater than approximately 2 h. The method may serve as a tool for rapid field measurements.

  10. A method to optimize sampling locations for measuring indoor air distributions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Yan; Shen, Xiong; Li, Jianmin; Li, Bingye; Duan, Ran; Lin, Chao-Hsin; Liu, Junjie; Chen, Qingyan

    2015-02-01

    Indoor air distributions, such as the distributions of air temperature, air velocity, and contaminant concentrations, are very important to occupants' health and comfort in enclosed spaces. When point data is collected for interpolation to form field distributions, the sampling locations (the locations of the point sensors) have a significant effect on time invested, labor costs and measuring accuracy on field interpolation. This investigation compared two different sampling methods: the grid method and the gradient-based method, for determining sampling locations. The two methods were applied to obtain point air parameter data in an office room and in a section of an economy-class aircraft cabin. The point data obtained was then interpolated to form field distributions by the ordinary Kriging method. Our error analysis shows that the gradient-based sampling method has 32.6% smaller error of interpolation than the grid sampling method. We acquired the function between the interpolation errors and the sampling size (the number of sampling points). According to the function, the sampling size has an optimal value and the maximum sampling size can be determined by the sensor and system errors. This study recommends the gradient-based sampling method for measuring indoor air distributions.

  11. The french involvement in Mars sample return program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Counil, J.; Bonneville, R.; Rocard, F.

    The French scientific community is involved in planetary exploration for more than thirty years, at the beginning mainly in cooperation with the former USSR (e.g. missions Phobos 1 and 2 in the 80's), then through ESA (Mars - Express). In 97, following the success of the US Pathfinder mission, NASA proposed to CNES to participate to the first Mars Sample Return (MSR) mission. This idea created a tremendous excitation in the French scientific community and CNES took the decision to contribute to the MSR program. Conscious that only the very best laboratories will be selected to analyse Mars samples, the French ministry of Research has created in May 99, the CSEEM (Comité Scientifique pour l'Etude des Echantillons Martiens). This Committee mandated to coordinate the national endeavour, has released late 99 an AO aimed at implementing a national preparatory program to Mars samples analysis. More than 40 proposals have been submitted involving more than 450 scientists from around 60 French labs. Most of these proposals are interdisciplinarity jointly submitted by planetologists, mineralogists, geochemists, astrobiologists and biologists. The first stage of this preparatory program is on going and will last until mid-2003. Amongst the priorities of the preparatory program are development of dedicated instrumentation, capability of analysing as small as possible samples, measurements integration; rock-macromolecule interaction; bacteria behaviour under Martian conditions; sample transportation under quarantine conditions, etc In the late 90's, the French participation to the NASA led 2003-2005 MSR mission was mainly consisting in a sample return orbiter to be launched by an Ariane V rocket. This contribution to MSR was one of the two priorities of the CNES Mars Exploration Program named PREMIER together with the NetLander network. Unfortunately late 99, due the failure of the two NASA missions MPL and MCO, a rearchitecture of the program has been decided and the first

  12. Comparison of Computer Programs Which Compute Sampling Errors for Complex Samples. Technical Report 26.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brandt, David A.

    This report describes and evaluates the major computer software packages capable of computing standard errors for statistics estimated from complex samples. It first describes the problem and the proposed solutions. The two major programs presently available, SUPER CARP and OSIRIS, are described in general terms. The kinds of statistics available…

  13. High Volume Air Sampling for Viral Aerosols: A Comparative Approach

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-03-01

    low, with the cotton swabbing only recovering 27.7 percent of the BA on the surface (Rose, Jensen, Peterson, Banerjee, & Arduino , 2004). A follow-on...BA were present on the surface (Hodges, Rose, Peterson, Noble-Wang, & Arduino , 2006). These lower sensitivities at low concentrations could be a...monitored during each sample collection period. Ambient pressure data was obtained hourly for Edmonton, AB from the Canadian Weather Service

  14. United States Air Force Summer Research Program -- 1993. Volume 13. Phillips Laboratory

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-12-01

    Research Kirtland Air Force Base, Albuquerque, NM August 1993 14-1 My Summer Apprenticeship At Kirtland Air Force Base, Phillips Laboratory Andrea Garcia...AFOSR Summer Research Program Phillips Laboratory Sponsored By: Air Force Office of Scientific Research Kirtland Air Force Base, Albuquerque, NM... Phillips Laboratory Sponsored by: Air

  15. A STRINGENT COMPARISON OF SAMPLING AND ANALYSIS METHODS FOR VOCS IN AMBIENT AIR

    EPA Science Inventory

    A carefully designed study was conducted during the summer of 1998 to simultaneously collect samples of ambient air by canisters and compare the analysis results to direct sorbent preconcentration results taken at the time of sample collection. A total of 32 1-h sample sets we...

  16. Salmonella recovery following air chilling for matched neck-skin and whole carcass sampling methodologies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The prevalence and serogroups of Salmonella recovered following air chilling were determined for both enriched neck skin and matching enriched whole carcass samples. Commercially processed and eviscerated carcasses were air chilled to 4C before removing the neck skin (8.3 g) and stomaching in 83 mL...

  17. Monte Carlo simulation of air sampling methods for the measurement of radon decay products.

    PubMed

    Sima, Octavian; Luca, Aurelian; Sahagia, Maria

    2017-02-21

    A stochastic model of the processes involved in the measurement of the activity of the (222)Rn decay products was developed. The distributions of the relevant factors, including air sampling and radionuclide collection, are propagated using Monte Carlo simulation to the final distribution of the measurement results. The uncertainties of the (222)Rn decay products concentrations in the air are realistically evaluated.

  18. An evaluation of analytical methods, air sampling techniques, and airborne occupational exposure of metalworking fluids.

    PubMed

    Verma, Dave K; Shaw, Don S; Shaw, M Lorraine; Julian, Jim A; McCollin, Shari-Ann; des Tombe, Karen

    2006-02-01

    This article summarizes an assessment of air sampling and analytical methods for both oil and water-based metalworking fluids (MWFs). Three hundred and seventy-four long-term area and personal airborne samples were collected at four plants using total (closed-face) aerosol samplers and thoracic samplers. A direct-reading device (DustTrak) was also used. The processes sampled include steel tube making, automotive component manufacturing, and small part manufacturing in a machine shop. The American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) Method PS42-97 of analysis was evaluated in the laboratory. This evaluation included sample recovery, determination of detection limits, and stability of samples during storage. Results of the laboratory validation showed (a) the sample recovery to be about 87%, (b) the detection limit to be 35 microg, and (c) sample stability during storage at room temperature to decline rapidly within a few days. To minimize sample loss, the samples should be stored in a freezer and analyzed within a week. The ASTM method should be the preferred method for assessing metalworking fluids (MWFs). The ratio of thoracic aerosol to total aerosol ranged from 0.6 to 0.7. A similar relationship was found between the thoracic extractable aerosol and total extractable aerosol. The DustTrak, with 10-microm sampling head, was useful in pinpointing the areas of potential exposure. MWF exposure at the four plants ranged from 0.04 to 3.84 mg/m3 with the geometric mean ranging between 0.22 to 0.59 mg/m3. Based on this data and the assumption of log normality, MWF exposures are expected to exceed the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health recommended exposure limit of 0.5 mg/m3 as total mass and 0.4 mg/m3 as thoracic mass about 38% of the time. In addition to controlling airborne MWF exposure, full protection of workers would require the institution of programs for fluid management and dermal exposure prevention.

  19. NEW APPLICATION OF PASSIVE SAMPLING DEVICES FOR ASSESSMENT OF RESPIRATORY EXPOSURE TO PESTICIDES IN INDOOR AIR

    EPA Science Inventory

    The United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has long maintained an interest in potential applications of passive sampling devices (PSDs) for estimating the concentrations of various pollutants in air. Typically PSDs were designed for the workplace monitoring of vola...

  20. A method for reducing and evaluating blanks in Tenax air sampling cartridges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hubbard, Sarah A.; Russwurm, George M.; Walburn, Stephen G.

    Clean sorbent cartridges are essential in ambient air sampling to avoid false analytical results. This paper describes a procedure for the construction and cleaning of a Tenax cartridge. A definition is formulated to describe a clean cartridge quantitatively.

  1. Mixed species radioiodine air sampling readout and dose assessment system

    DOEpatents

    Distenfeld, Carl H.; Klemish, Jr., Joseph R.

    1978-01-01

    This invention provides a simple, reliable, inexpensive and portable means and method for determining the thyroid dose rate of mixed airborne species of solid and gaseous radioiodine without requiring highly skilled personnel, such as health physicists or electronics technicians. To this end, this invention provides a means and method for sampling a gas from a source of a mixed species of solid and gaseous radioiodine for collection of the mixed species and readout and assessment of the emissions therefrom by cylindrically, concentrically and annularly molding the respective species around a cylindrical passage for receiving a conventional probe-type Geiger-Mueller radiation detector.

  2. Automated syringe sampler. [remote sampling of air and water

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Purgold, G. C. (Inventor)

    1981-01-01

    A number of sampling services are disposed in a rack which slides into a housing. In response to a signal from an antenna, the circutry elements are activated which provide power individually, collectively, or selectively to a servomechanism thereby moving an actuator arm and the attached jawed bracket supporting an evaculated tube towards a stationary needle. One open end of the needle extends through the side wall of a conduit to the interior and the other open end is maintained within the protective sleeve, supported by a bifurcated bracket. A septum in punctured by the end of the needle within the sleeve and a sample of the fluid medium in the conduit flows through the needle and is transferred to a tube. The signal to the servo is then reversed and the actuator arm moves the tube back to its original position permitting the septum to expand and seal the hole made by the needle. The jawed bracket is attached by pivot to the actuator to facilitate tube replacement.

  3. The NYC native air sampling pilot project: using HVAC filter data for urban biological incident characterization.

    PubMed

    Ackelsberg, Joel; Leykam, Frederic M; Hazi, Yair; Madsen, Larry C; West, Todd H; Faltesek, Anthony; Henderson, Gavin D; Henderson, Christopher L; Leighton, Terrance

    2011-09-01

    Native air sampling (NAS) is distinguished from dedicated air sampling (DAS) devices (eg, BioWatch) that are deployed to detect aerosol disseminations of biological threat agents. NAS uses filter samples from heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) systems in commercial properties for environmental sampling after DAS detection of biological threat agent incidents. It represents an untapped, scientifically sound, efficient, widely distributed, and comparably inexpensive resource for postevent environmental sampling. Calculations predict that postevent NAS would be more efficient than environmental surface sampling by orders of magnitude. HVAC filter samples could be collected from pre-identified surrounding NAS facilities to corroborate the DAS alarm and delineate the path taken by the bioaerosol plume. The New York City (NYC) Native Air Sampling Pilot Project explored whether native air sampling would be acceptable to private sector stakeholders and could be implemented successfully in NYC. Building trade associations facilitated outreach to and discussions with property owners and managers, who expedited contact with building managers of candidate NAS properties that they managed or owned. Nominal NAS building requirements were determined; procedures to identify and evaluate candidate NAS facilities were developed; data collection tools and other resources were designed and used to expedite candidate NAS building selection and evaluation in Manhattan; and exemplar environmental sampling playbooks for emergency responders were completed. In this sample, modern buildings with single or few corporate tenants were the best NAS candidate facilities. The Pilot Project successfully demonstrated that in one urban setting a native air sampling strategy could be implemented with effective public-private collaboration.

  4. Skylab program payload integration. TO27 sample array

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Muscari, J. A.; Westcott, P. A.

    1974-01-01

    The objective of the TO27 sample array was to determine the change in optical properties of various transmissive windows, mirrors, and diffraction gratings caused by the deposition of contaminants found about the orbital assembly. The expected information to be obtained from the total TO27 sample array program is as follows: (1) effect of space contaminants on transmittance, reflectance, grating efficiency, and polarization; (2) variations in deposition of contaminants due to substrate, solar radiation, period of exposure, direction of exposure, and geometry effects; (3) identification of contaminants and source of evolution; (4) time of contaminant evolution and lingering time; and (5) guidelines for a model of spacecraft contamination.

  5. F-15 air navigation multiple indicator (ANMI) prototype development program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buford, Joyce; George, Steven P.; Altadonna, Lynn P.; Blowers, Dan

    1995-06-01

    The F-15 Air Navigation Multiple Indicator (ANMI) is the vertical situation display in the F-15A/B and C/D aircraft. The Air Force established the ANMI Prototype Development Program as a form, fit and function replacement for the existing Cathode Ray Tube (CRT) display. Oklahoma City Air Logistics Center (OC-ALC) is the lead agency for the development with financial support from the Producibility, Reliability and Maintainability (PRAM) Program Office at Wright-Patterson. SAIC was selected to design the prototype unit. Figure 1 is an exploded view of this prototype. The F-15 ANMI development required SAIC to address many new challenges. Four unique technical challenges were: (1) the development of a high resolution liquid crystal display (LCD), (2) the interface with an analog signal used to drive the existing CRT, (3) the development of a NTSC output, and (4) the sunlight readable, Night Vision Goggle compatible backlight. These technical aspects of the development are detailed in the body of this paper.

  6. Comparison of stationary and personal air sampling with an air dispersion model for children’s ambient exposure to manganese

    EPA Science Inventory

    Manganese (Mn) is ubiquitous in the environment and essential for normal growth and development, yet excessive exposure can lead to impairments in neurological function. This study modeled ambient Mn concentrations as an alternative to stationary and personal air sampling to asse...

  7. Spacecraft contamination programs within the Air Force Systems Command Laboratories

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murad, Edmond

    1990-01-01

    Spacecraft contamination programs exist in five independent AFSC organizations: Geophysics Laboratory (GL), Arnold Engineering and Development Center (AEDC), Rome Air Development Center (RADC/OSCE), Wright Research and Development Center (MLBT), Armament Laboratory (ATL/SAI), and Space Systems Division (SSD/OL-AW). In addition, a sizable program exists at Aerospace Corp. These programs are complementary, each effort addressing a specific area of expertise: GL's effort is aimed at addressing the effects of on-orbit contamination; AEDC's effort is aimed at ground simulation and measurement of optical contamination; RADC's effort addresses the accumulation, measurement, and removal of contamination on large optics; MLBT's effort is aimed at understanding the effect of contamination on materials; ATL's effort is aimed at understanding the effect of plume contamination on systems; SSD's effort is confined to the integration of some contamination experiments sponsored by SSD/CLT; and Aerospace Corp.'s effort is aimed at supporting the needs of the using System Program Offices (SPO) in specific areas, such as contamination during ground handling, ascent phase, laboratory measurements aimed at understanding on-orbit contamination, and mass loss and mass gain in on-orbit operations. These programs are described in some detail, with emphasis on GL's program.

  8. Implications of air quality planning programs on regional energy use

    SciTech Connect

    Hunsaker, D.B. Jr.

    1984-04-01

    A topic of much debate in recent years has been the potential conflict between protection of the environment and the conservation of nonrenewable imported energy resources. The goals of air pollution control programs can be realized more readily if they are compatible with energy conservation goals. This study attempts to give insight on the above issue by conducting a retrospective analysis of the energy consequences of implementing the 1979 San Francisco Bay Area Air Quality Plan. The energy consumed or saved on a regional basis through compliance with pollution control actions stemming from the Plan is estimated, and is then compared to the total energy consumed during the same time frame by the appropriate sector of the economy. For example, industry compliance with regulations related to the new source review policy action resulted in an estimated regional energy penalty equivalent to less than 1% of the energy consumed by the commercial and industrial sectors of the Bay Area economy. On the whole, the 1979 Plan was estimated to produce a slight overall energy savings, primarily due to hydrocarbon emission controls on stationary and mobile sources. Places in the air quality regulatory framework that address energy issues are identified; recommendations are made for modifying the framework to encourage the consideration of energy issues while still meeting the goals of the Clean Air Act. 17 references, 3 tables.

  9. Formaldehyde monitoring program: development of sampling and analysis procedures

    SciTech Connect

    Matthews, T. G.; Hawthorne, A. R.

    1980-01-01

    This report outlines the scope and goals of the formaldehyde analysis program being carried out in Health and Safety Research Division of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory under contract of the US Consumer Product Safety Commission. The outline of the sampling and analysis techniques under consideration, with reference to a time frame for developmental work and field application, is discussed. The complexity of the different techniques is addressed in instances where technical staff would be requird for accurate operation of the instrumentation.

  10. NASA Global Atmospheric Sampling Program (GASP) data report for tape VL0004

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holdeman, J. D.; Humenik, F. M.; Lezberg, E. A.

    1976-01-01

    The NASA Global Atmospheric Sampling Program (GASP) is obtaining measurements of atmospheric trace constituents in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere using fully automated air sampling systems on board several commercial B-747 aircraft in routine airline service. Atmospheric ozone, water vapor, and related flight and meteorological data were obtained during 139 flights of a United Airlines B-747 and a Pan American World Airways B-747 from December 1975 through March 1976. In addition, sample bottles were exposed during three flights and analyzed for trichlorofluoromethane, and filter samples were exposed during five flights and analyzed for sulfates, nitrates, and chlorides. Flight routes and dates, instrumentation, data processing procedures, data tape specifications, and selected analyses are discussed.

  11. Formaldehyde quantitation in air samples by thiazolidine derivatization: Factors affecting analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Yasuhara, A.; Shibamoto, T. )

    1989-11-01

    A new method for the determination of trace levels of formaldehyde in air was developed and validated. The method is based on the reaction of formaldehyde with cysteamine to form thiazolidine. Air samples containing trace levels of formaldehyde were prepared from paraformaldehyde. The percent yield of formaldehyde from paraformaldehyde was 85.1 +/- 1.14%. Air samples were bubbled into an aqueous cysteamine trap. Thiazolidine formed from formaldehyde and cysteamine in the trap was determined by gas chromatography with a fused silica capillary column and a nitrogen-phosphorus detector (NPD). The lowest detection level for thiazolidine was 17.2 pg, equivalent to 5.80 pg formaldehyde. The recovery efficiency of trace gas phase formaldehyde in air was greater than 90%. Formaldehyde levels in ambient laboratory air were 48.9-56.2 ppb (v/v).

  12. Effect of air pressure differential on vapor flow through sample building walls

    SciTech Connect

    Stewart, W.E. Jr.

    1998-12-31

    Laboratory scale experiments were performed on two small sample composite walls of typical building construction to determine the approximate opposing air pressure difference required to stop or significantly reduce the transmission of water vapor due to a water vapor pressure difference. The experiments used wall section samples between two controlled atmosphere chambers. One chamber was held at a temperature and humidity condition approximating that of a typical summer day, while the other chamber was controlled at a condition typical of indoor conditioned space. Vapor transmission data through the wall samples were obtained over a range of vapor pressure differentials and opposing air pressure differentials. The results show that increasing opposing air pressure differences decrease water vapor transmission, as expected, and relatively small opposing air pressure differentials are required for wall materials of small vapor permeability and large air permeability. The opposing air pressure that stopped or significantly reduced the flow of water vapor through the wall sample was determined experimentally and also compared to air pressures as predicted by an analytical model.

  13. Compressed air energy storage technology program. Annual report for 1979

    SciTech Connect

    Loscutoff, W.V.

    1980-06-01

    The objectives of the Compressed Air Energy Storage (CAES) program are to establish stability criteria for large underground reservoirs in salt domes, hard rock, and porous rock used for air storage in utility applications, and to develop second-generation CAES technologies that have minimal or no dependence on petroleum fuels. During the year reported reports have been issued on field studies on CAES on aquifers and in salt, stability, and design criteria for CAES and for pumped hydro-storage caverns, laboratory studies of CAES in porous rock reservoris have continued. Research has continued on combined CAES/Thermal Energy Storage, CAES/Solar systems, coal-fired fluidized bed combustors for CAES, and two-reservoir advanced CAES concepts. (LCL)

  14. Synchronizing production and air transportation scheduling using mathematical programming models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zandieh, M.; Molla-Alizadeh-Zavardehi, S.

    2009-08-01

    Traditional scheduling problems assume that there are always infinitely many resources for delivering finished jobs to their destinations, and no time is needed for their transportation, so that finished products can be transported to customers without delay. So, for coordination of these two different activities in the implementation of a supply chain solution, we studied the problem of synchronizing production and air transportation scheduling using mathematical programming models. The overall problem is decomposed into two sub-problems, which consists of air transportation allocation problem and a single machine scheduling problem which they are considered together. We have taken into consideration different constraints and assumptions in our modeling such as special flights, delivery tardiness and no delivery tardiness. For these purposes, a variety of models have been proposed to minimize supply chain total cost which encompass transportation, makespan, delivery earliness tardiness and departure time earliness tardiness costs.

  15. Computerized Vehicle Routing Programs and Their Effect on Vehicle Utilization in the Air Force

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-09-01

    Programs 13 Current Commercial Programs .... .......... .. 20 Air Force Involvement in Computerized Routing Programs...41 3. Summary Report for Option 3 ... ........ 42 vi AFIT/GLM/LAL/93S-2 Abstract The purpose of this study is to determine if a commercial ...procedures of Air Force base transportation organizations. Second, researchers identify a commercial computerized vehicle routing program that

  16. Fabrication and characterization of buckypapers for use in air sampling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oh, Jonghwa

    Occupational exposure to volatile organic compounds (VOCs) is a concern from a public health perspective. In many industrial activities, workers' exposure to VOCs can be sufficiently high to induce adverse health effects, so their monitoring is necessary. In exposure assessment, post sampling extraction and quantification are the typical analytical procedures. Recently, our group developed the photothermal desorption (PTD) technique in which a pulse of light thermally desorbs an analyte directly from a sorbent. Advantages of this technique are; it is solvent free, repeated analysis is possible, sorbents are reusable, and no high cost of equipment is required. PTD overcomes almost all drawbacks of current extraction methods. This study was aimed to develop and test a new sorbent which will efficiently work with PTD. Single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) were examined as potential sorbents because of their high surface area, great thermal conductivity, and efficient light absorption. SWNTs were fabricated into a self-supporting form (i.e., buckypaper (BP)) which will preserve its physical integrity under normal working conditions. Largely two types of SWNTs were used, arc discharge (AD) and high-pressure carbon monoxide (HiPco), and different fabrication methods were examined. Upon fabrication, their adsorption properties were characterized in terms of Brunauer, Emmett, and Teller (BET) surface area, pore size, and toluene adsorption capacity. HiPco BP and methanol-cleaned AD BP (suspended/rinsed with methanol) were the top two materials, showing the highest surface area (649 and 387 m²/g, respectively) and adsorption capacity (106 and 46 mg/g, respectively) with relatively small mean pore diameter (7.7 and 8.8 nm, respectively). To further improve the adsorption properties, specific heat treatment conditions for each type of BPs were employed. After initial treatments only HiPco BP and acetone-cleaned AD BP (suspended/rinsed with acetone) were selected for further

  17. The variation of the relative humidity of air released from canisters after ambient sampling

    SciTech Connect

    McClenny, W.A.; Schmidt, S.M.; Kronmiller, K.G.

    1997-12-31

    Dalton`s Law of partial pressures and the hypothesis that water vapor equilibrium above a canister surface is identical to that established above liquid water are used to predict the variation of the percent relative humidity (%RH) of air released from canisters used in ambient air sampling, typically 6L canisters pressurized with 18L of air. During sampling, some water vapor is adsorbed on the canister wall. When (and if) the water vapor partial pressure exceeds its saturation vapor pressure, water vapor condensation begins and the condensation rate equals the sampling rate of water vapor into the canister. Under constant temperature conditions, the air subsequently released from the canister is less humid than the original sample, following the relationship, %RH = 100% (6L/V{sub s}) for V{sub s} > V{sub r} where V{sub s} is the residual air volume and V{sub r} is the residual air volume at which water is completely removed (except for adsorbed water vapor) from the canister wall. For V{sub s} < V{sub r} the %RH is constant and equal to its value at V{sub r}, V{sub r} is shown to depend on the %RH of the ambient air sample. Experimental values to agree reasonably well with predictions; however, experimental values were systematically lower than predicted especially when ambient air with mid-range %RH was sampled. This difference is related to the mass of water vapor remaining adsorbed on the canister surface as water evaporates. This paper has been reviewed in accordance with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency`s peer and administrative review policies and approved for presentation and publication. Mention of trade names or commercial products does not constitute endorsement or recommendation for use.

  18. Stratospheric Air Sub-sampler (SAS) and its application to analysis of Δ17O(CO2) from small air samples collected with an AirCore

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janina Mrozek, Dorota; van der Veen, Carina; Hofmann, Magdalena E. G.; Chen, Huilin; Kivi, Rigel; Heikkinen, Pauli; Röckmann, Thomas

    2016-11-01

    We present the set-up and a scientific application of the Stratospheric Air Sub-sampler (SAS), a device to collect and to store the vertical profile of air collected with an AirCore (Karion et al., 2010) in numerous sub-samples for later analysis in the laboratory. The SAS described here is a 20 m long 1/4 inch stainless steel tubing that is separated by eleven valves to divide the tubing into 10 identical segments, but it can be easily adapted to collect smaller or larger samples. In the collection phase the SAS is directly connected to the outlet of an optical analyzer that measures the mole fractions of CO2, CH4 and CO from an AirCore sampler. The stratospheric part (or if desired any part of the AirCore air) is then directed through the SAS. When the SAS is filled with the selected air, the valves are closed and the vertical profile is maintained in the different segments of the SAS. The segments can later be analysed to retrieve vertical profiles of other trace gas signatures that require slower instrumentation. As an application, we describe the coupling of the SAS to an analytical system to determine the 17O excess of CO2, which is a tracer for photochemical processing of stratospheric air. For this purpose the analytical system described by Mrozek et al. (2015) was adapted for analysis of air directly from the SAS. The performance of the coupled system is demonstrated for a set of air samples from an AirCore flight in November 2014 near Sodankylä, Finland. The standard error for a 25 mL air sample at stratospheric CO2 mole fraction is 0.56 ‰ (1σ) for δ17O and 0.03 ‰ (1σ) for both δ18O and δ13C. Measured Δ17O(CO2) values show a clear correlation with N2O in agreement with already published data.

  19. Capital Improvement Program Environmental Assessment, Dyess Air Force Base, Texas

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-09-01

    Environmental Assessment Dyess Air Force Base, Texas 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR( S ) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER...5e. TASK NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME( S ) AND ADDRESS(ES) 7th Civil Engineer Squadron (CES/CEV),710 Third Street...Dyess AFB,TX,79607 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER 9. SPONSORING/MONITORING AGENCY NAME( S ) AND ADDRESS(ES) 10. SPONSOR/MONITOR’S ACRONYM( S

  20. Compressed air energy storage technology program. Annual report for 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Kannberg, L.D.

    1981-06-01

    All of the major research funded under the Compressed Air Energy Storage Technology Program during the period March 1980 to March 1981 is described. This annual report is divided into two segments: Reservoir Stability Studies and Second-Generation Concepts Studies. The first represents research performed to establish stability criteria for CAES reservoirs while the second reports progress on research performed on second-generation CAES concepts. The report consists of project reports authored by research engineers and scientists from PNL and numerous subcontractors including universities, architect-engineering, and other private firms.

  1. Microbial counts and particulate matter levels in roadside air samples under skytrain stations, Bangkok, Thailand.

    PubMed

    Luksamijarulkul, Pipat; Kongtip, Pornpimol

    2010-05-01

    In conditions with heavy traffic and crowds of people on roadside areas under skytrain stations in Bangkok, the natural air ventilation may be insufficient and air quality may be poor. A study of 350 air samples collected from the roadside, under skytrain stations in Bangkok, was carried out to assess microbial counts (210 air samples) and particulate matter (PM10) levels (140 samples). The results reveal the mean +/- standard deviation bacterial counts and fungal counts were 406.8 +/- 302.7 cfu/m3 and 128.9 +/- 89.7 cfu/m3, respectively. The PM10 level was 186.1 +/- 188.1 microg/m3. When compared to recommended levels, 4.8% of air samples (10/210 samples) had bacterial counts more than recommended levels (> 1,000 cfu/ m3) and 27.1% (38/140 samples) had PM10 levels more than recommended levels (> 120 microg/m3). These may affect human health, especially of street venders who spend most of their working time in these areas.

  2. Air Vehicles Technology Integration Program (AVTIP). Delivery Order 0020: Prediction of Manufacturing Tolerances for Laminar Flow

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-06-01

    AFRL-VA-WP-TR-2005-3060 AIR VEHICLES TECHNOLOGY INTEGRATION PROGRAM (AVTIP) Delivery Order 0020 : Prediction Of... Technology Integration Program (AVTIP) 5b. GRANT NUMBER Delivery Order 0020 : Prediction Of Manufacturing Tolerances For Laminar Flow 5c. PROGRAM

  3. Marine Technician's Handbook, Instructions for Taking Air Samples on Board Ship: Carbon Dioxide Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keeling, Charles D.

    This booklet is one of a series intended to provide explicit instructions for the collection of oceanographic data and samples at sea. The methods and procedures described have been used by the Scripps Institution of Oceanography and found reliable and up-to-date. Instructions are given for taking air samples on board ship to determine the…

  4. Report on sampling and analysis of ambient air at the central waste complex

    SciTech Connect

    Stauffer, M., Fluor Daniel Hanford

    1997-02-13

    Over 160 ambient indoor air samples were collected from warehouses at the Central Waste Complex used for the storage of low- level radioactive and mixed wastes. These grab (SUMMA) samples were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry using a modified EPA TO-14 procedure. The data from this survey suggest that several buildings had elevated concentrations of volatile organic compounds.

  5. DEVELOPMENT OF A SUB-SLAB AIR SAMPLING PROTOCOL TO SUPPORT ASSESSMENT OF VAPOR INTRUSION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The primary purpose of this research effort is to develop a methodology for sub-slab sampling to support the EPA guidance and vapor intrusion investigations after vapor intrusion has been established at a site. Methodologies for sub-slab air sampling are currently lacking in ref...

  6. EVALUATION OF THE FILTER PACK FOR LONG-DURATION SAMPLING OF AMBIENT AIR

    EPA Science Inventory

    A 14-week filter pack (FP) sampler evaluation field study was conducted at a site near Bondville, IL to investigate the impact of weekly sampling duration. Simultaneous samples were collected using collocated filter packs (FP) from two independent air quality monitoring networks...

  7. Development of a multicopter-carried whole air sampling apparatus and its applications in environmental studies.

    PubMed

    Chang, Chih-Chung; Wang, Jia-Lin; Chang, Chih-Yuan; Liang, Mao-Chang; Lin, Ming-Ren

    2016-02-01

    To advance the capabilities of probing chemical composition aloft, we designed a lightweight remote-controlled whole air sampling component (WASC) and integrated it into a multicopter drone with agile maneuverability to perform aerial whole air sampling. A field mission hovering over an exhaust shaft of a roadway tunnel to collect air samples was performed to demonstrate the applicability of the multicopter-carried WASC apparatus. Ten aerial air samples surrounding the shaft vent were collected by the multicopter-carried WASC. Additional five samples were collected manually inside the shaft for comparison. These samples were then analyzed in the laboratory for the chemical composition of 109 volatile organic compounds (VOCs), CH4, CO, CO2, or CO2 isotopologues. Most of the VOCs in the upwind samples (the least affected by shaft exhaust) were low in concentrations (5.9 ppbv for total 109 VOCs), posting a strong contrast to those in the shaft exhaust (235.8 ppbv for total 109 VOCs). By comparing the aerial samples with the in-shaft samples for chemical compositions, the influence of the shaft exhaust on the surrounding natural air was estimated. Through the aerial measurements, three major advantages of the multicopter-carried WASC were demonstrated: 1. The highly maneuverable multicopter-carried WASC can be readily deployed for three-dimensional environmental studies at a local scale (0-1.5 km); 2. Aerial sampling with superior sample integrity and preservation conditions can now be performed with ease; and 3. Data with spatial resolution for a large array of gaseous species with high precision can be easily obtained.

  8. Radiocarbon analysis of stratospheric CO2 retrieved from AirCore sampling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paul, Dipayan; Chen, Huilin; Been, Henk A.; Kivi, Rigel; Meijer, Harro A. J.

    2016-10-01

    Radiocarbon (14C) is an important atmospheric tracer and one of the many used in the understanding of the global carbon budget, which includes the greenhouse gases CO2 and CH4. Measurement of radiocarbon in atmospheric CO2 generally requires the collection of large air samples (a few liters) from which CO2 is extracted and then the concentration of radiocarbon is determined using accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS). However, the regular collection of air samples from the stratosphere, for example using aircraft and balloons, is prohibitively expensive. Here we describe radiocarbon measurements in stratospheric CO2 collected by the AirCore sampling method. AirCore is an innovative atmospheric sampling system, which comprises a long tube descending from a high altitude with one end open and the other closed, and it has been demonstrated to be a reliable, cost-effective sampling system for high-altitude profile (up to ≈ 30 km) measurements of CH4 and CO2. In Europe, AirCore measurements have been being performed on a regular basis near Sodankylä (northern Finland) since September 2013. Here we describe the analysis of samples from two such AirCore flights made there in July 2014, for determining the radiocarbon concentration in stratospheric CO2. The two AirCore profiles were collected on consecutive days. The stratospheric part of the AirCore was divided into six sections, each containing ≈ 35 µg CO2 ( ≈ 9.6 µgC), and stored in a stratospheric air subsampler constructed from 1/4 in. coiled stainless steel tubing ( ≈ 3 m). A small-volume extraction system was constructed that enabled > 99.5 % CO2 extraction from the stratospheric air samples. Additionally, a new small-volume high-efficiency graphitization system was constructed for graphitization of these extracted CO2 samples, which were measured at the Groningen AMS facility. Since the stratospheric samples were very similar in mass, reference samples were also prepared in the same mass range for

  9. SAMPLE RESULTS FROM THE INTEGRATED SALT DISPOSITION PROGRAM MACROBATCH 4 TANK 21H QUALIFICATION SAMPLES

    SciTech Connect

    Peters, T.; Fink, S.

    2011-06-22

    Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) analyzed samples from Tank 21H to qualify them for use in the Integrated Salt Disposition Program (ISDP) Batch 4 processing. All sample results agree with expectations based on prior analyses where available. No issues with the projected Salt Batch 4 strategy are identified. This revision includes additional data points that were not available in the original issue of the document, such as additional plutonium results, the results of the monosodium titanate (MST) sorption test and the extraction, scrub strip (ESS) test. This report covers the revision to the Tank 21H qualification sample results for Macrobatch (Salt Batch) 4 of the Integrated Salt Disposition Program (ISDP). A previous document covers initial characterization which includes results for a number of non-radiological analytes. These results were used to perform aluminum solubility modeling to determine the hydroxide needs for Salt Batch 4 to prevent the precipitation of solids. Sodium hydroxide was then added to Tank 21 and additional samples were pulled for the analyses discussed in this report. This work was specified by Task Technical Request and by Task Technical and Quality Assurance Plan (TTQAP).

  10. Determination of radiocarbon in stratospheric CO2, obtained through AirCore sampling.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paul, Dipayan; Chen, Huilin; Been, Henk A.; Kivi, Rigel; Meijer, Harro A. J.

    2016-04-01

    The concentration of Greenhouse Gases (GHG), with carbon dioxide as the most prominent example, has been and still is increasing, predominantly due to emissions from fossil fuel combustion. CO2 is also the most important component of the global carbon cycle. Among other tracers, radiocarbon (Carbon-14) is a unique and an important atmospheric tracer used in the understanding of the global carbon cycle. Radiocarbon is a naturally occurring isotope (radioactive, t 1/2 = 5730 ± 40 years) of carbon produced through the interaction of thermalized neutrons and nitrogen in the upper atmosphere. Generally, for performing atmospheric radiocarbon measurements in the higher atmosphere, large samples (few liters of air) were collected using aircrafts and balloons. However, collecting stratospheric samples on a regular basis for radiocarbon analysis is extremely expensive. Here we describe the determination of radiocarbon concentrations in stratospheric CO2, collected using AirCore sampling. AirCore is an innovative sampling technique for obtaining vertical atmospheric profiles and, in Europe, is done on a regular basis at Sodankylä, Finland for CO2, CH4 and CO. The stratospheric parts of two such AirCore profiles were used in this study as a proof-of-principle. CO2 from the stratospheric air samples were extracted and converted to elemental carbon, which were then measured at the Accelerator Mass Spectrometric (AMS) facility of the Centre for Isotope Research (CIO) at the University of Groningen. The stratospheric part of the AirCore profile was divided into six sections, each contained approximately 10 μg C. A detailed description of the extraction, graphitization, AMS analysis and the derivation of the stratospheric radiocarbon profile will be the main focus. Through our results, we will show that AirCore is a viable sampling method for performing high-precision radiocarbon measurements of stratospheric CO2 with reasonably good spatial resolution on a regular basis

  11. System IDentification Programs for AirCraft (SIDPAC)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morelli, Eugene A.

    2002-01-01

    A collection of computer programs for aircraft system identification is described and demonstrated. The programs, collectively called System IDentification Programs for AirCraft, or SIDPAC, were developed in MATLAB as m-file functions. SIDPAC has been used successfully at NASA Langley Research Center with data from many different flight test programs and wind tunnel experiments. SIDPAC includes routines for experiment design, data conditioning, data compatibility analysis, model structure determination, equation-error and output-error parameter estimation in both the time and frequency domains, real-time and recursive parameter estimation, low order equivalent system identification, estimated parameter error calculation, linear and nonlinear simulation, plotting, and 3-D visualization. An overview of SIDPAC capabilities is provided, along with a demonstration of the use of SIDPAC with real flight test data from the NASA Glenn Twin Otter aircraft. The SIDPAC software is available without charge to U.S. citizens by request to the author, contingent on the requestor completing a NASA software usage agreement.

  12. The Canadian Clean Air Regulatory Agenda Mercury Science Program.

    PubMed

    Morrison, Heather A

    2011-10-01

    The Clean Air Regulatory Agenda (CARA) Mercury Science Program was developed to provide scientific information to support regulatory activities and accountability pertaining to atmospheric emissions of mercury in Canada. The first phase of the science program, entitled "Setting-the-Baseline", sought to achieve the following: identify key indicators of the state-of-the-Canadian environment with respect to the transport, fate and effects of mercury; define these indicators; and, understand the processes that relate these indicators to anthropogenic emissions of mercury. To achieve these outcomes, a consultative process was used to identify the scientific needs of the agenda for mercury; understand Canada's scientific capacity; and, develop a plan to fulfill these scientific needs. The science plan that emerged from this process was structured around the themes of atmospheric monitoring, landscape-based risk assessment, ecological risk assessment, ecosystem modeling, and trends. Implementation of the science plan necessitated a multi-disciplinary and extensively partnered program. To date, the CARA Mercury Science Program is producing coordinated science at the national-scale that aims to directly assess the effectiveness of the CARA for mercury and for many of Canada's other mercury-related policies.

  13. Pesticide detection in air samples from contrasted houses and in their inhabitants' hair.

    PubMed

    Raeppel, Caroline; Salquèbre, Guillaume; Millet, Maurice; Appenzeller, Brice M R

    2016-02-15

    In order to identify associations between indoor air contamination and human exposure to pesticides, hair samples from 14 persons (9 adults and 5 children below 12 years) were collected simultaneously with the air of their 5 contrasted houses. Three houses were situated in Alsace (France), one in Lorraine (France) and one in Luxembourg (Luxembourg). Houses were located in urban (n=3), semi-urban (n=1) and rural areas (n=1). Twenty five (25) pesticides were detected at least once in indoor air samples and 20 pesticides were detected at least once in hair samples. The comparison between hair and air samples for the same sampling periods shows that pesticides detected in the two matrices were not necessarily associated. Exposure profiles varied from one home to another but also between inhabitants of the same home, suggesting that exposure can be different between inhabitants of the same home. This study demonstrated the usefulness and the complementarity of hair analysis, for the personalized biomonitoring of people exposure to pesticides, and air analysis, for the identification of airborne exposure and house contamination.

  14. Comparison of mold concentrations quantified by MSQPCR in indoor and outdoor air sampled simultaneously

    SciTech Connect

    Meklin, Teija; Reponen, Tina; McKinstry, Craig A.; Cho, Seung H.; Grinshpun, Sergey A.; Nevalainen, Aino; Vepsalainen, Asko; Haugland, Richard A.; Lemasters, Grace; Vesper, Sephen J.

    2007-08-15

    Mold specific quantitative PCR (MSQPCR) was used to measure the concentrations of 36 mold species in dust and in indoor and in outdoor air samples that were taken simultaneously in 17 homes in Cincinnati with no-known water damage. The total spore concentrations in the indoor (I) and outdoor (O) air samples were statistically significantly different and the concentrations in the three sample types of many of the individual species were significantly different (p < 0.05 based on the Wilcoxon Signed Rank Test). The I/O ratios of the averages or geometric means of the individual species were generally less than 1; but these I/O ratios were quite variable ranging from 0.03 for A. sydowii to 1.2 for Acremonium strictum. There were no significant correlations for the 36 specific mold concentrations between the dust samples and the indoor or outdoor air samples (based on the Spearman’s Rho test). The indoor and outdoor air concentrations of 32 of the species were not correlated. Only Aspergillus penicillioides, C. cladosporioides types 1 and 2 and C. herbarum had sufficient data to estimate a correlation at rho > 0.5 with signicance (p < 0.05) In six of these homes, a previous dust sample had been collected and analyzed 2 years earlier. The ERMI© values for the dust samples taken in the same home two years apart were not significantly different (p=0.22) based on Wilcoxon Signed Rank Test.

  15. Field evaluation of sampling and analysis for organic pollutants in indoor air

    SciTech Connect

    Chuang, J.C.; Mack, G.A.; Stockrahm, J.W.; Hannan, S.W.; Bridges, C.

    1988-08-01

    The objectives of the study were to determine the feasibility of the use of newly developed indoor air samplers in residential indoor air sampling and to evaluate methodology for characterization of the concentrations of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), PAH derivatives, and nicotine in residential air. Residential air sampling was conducted in Columbus, Ohio during the winter of 1986/87. The PAH derivatives were found at much lower levels than their parent PAH. Higher average indoor levels of all but three target compounds were found compared to outdoor levels. The higher outdoor levels of these three compounds (naphthalene dicarboxylic acid anhydride, pyrene dicarboxylic acid anhydride, and 2-nitrofluoranthene) are probably due to atmospheric transformation. Cigarette smoking was identified as the most-significant contributor to indoor levels of PAH and PAH derivatives. Homes with gas-heating systems appeared to have higher pollutant levels compared to homes with electric-heating systems.

  16. Air Sample Conditioner Helps the Waste Treatment Plant Meet Emissions Standards

    SciTech Connect

    Glissmeyer, John A.; Flaherty, Julia E.; Pekour, Mikhail S.

    2014-12-02

    The air in three of the Hanford Site Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) melter off-gas discharge stacks will be hot and humid after passing through the train of emission abatement equipment. The off-gas temperature and humidity levels will be incompatible with the airborne emissions monitoring equipment required for this type of stack. To facilitate sampling from these facilities, an air sample conditioner system will be installed to introduce cool, dry air into the sample stream to reduce the temperature and dew point. This will avoid thermal damage to the instrumentation and problematic condensation. The complete sample transport system must also deliver at least 50% of the particles in the sample airstream to the sample collection and on-line analysis equipment. The primary components of the sample conditioning system were tested in a laboratory setting. The sample conditioner itself is based on a commercially-available porous tube filter design. It consists of a porous sintered metal tube inside a coaxial metal jacket. The hot gas sample stream passes axially through the porous tube, and the dry, cool air is injected into the jacket and through the porous wall of the inner tube, creating an effective sample diluter. The dilution and sample air mix along the entire length of the porous tube, thereby simultaneously reducing the dew point and temperature of the mixed sample stream. Furthermore, because the dilution air enters through the porous tube wall, the sample stream does not come in contact with the porous wall and particle deposition is reduced in this part of the sampling system. Tests were performed with an environmental chamber to supply air with the temperature and humidity needed to simulate the off-gas conditions. Air from the chamber was passed through the conditioning system to test its ability to reduce the temperature and dew point of the sample stream. To measure particle deposition, oil droplets in the range of 9 to 11 micrometer

  17. Comparison of sampling methods for radiocarbon dating of carbonyls in air samples via accelerator mass spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schindler, Matthias; Kretschmer, Wolfgang; Scharf, Andreas; Tschekalinskij, Alexander

    2016-05-01

    Three new methods to sample and prepare various carbonyl compounds for radiocarbon measurements were developed and tested. Two of these procedures utilized the Strecker synthetic method to form amino acids from carbonyl compounds with either sodium cyanide or trimethylsilyl cyanide. The third procedure used semicarbazide to form crystalline carbazones with the carbonyl compounds. The resulting amino acids and semicarbazones were then separated and purified using thin layer chromatography. The separated compounds were then combusted to CO2 and reduced to graphite to determine 14C content by accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS). All of these methods were also compared with the standard carbonyl compound sampling method wherein a compound is derivatized with 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine and then separated by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC).

  18. The combined effects of sampling parameters on the sorbent tube sampling of phthalates in air

    PubMed Central

    Jo, Sang-Hee; Kim, Ki-Hyun; Kwon, Kyenghee

    2017-01-01

    The adsorption properties of various sorbent materials were investigated to assess the factors affecting biases in the sorbent tube (ST) sampling of airborne phthalates. The recovery of phthalates was assessed critically in relation to four key sampling parameters: (1) three types of sorbent materials (quartz wool (QW), glass wool (GW), and quartz wool plus Tenax TA (QWTN)), (2) the concentration level of phthalate standards, (3) purge flow rate, and (4) purge volume for analysis based on a ‘sorbent tube-thermal desorption-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (ST-TD-GC-MS)’ system. Among these parameters, the type of ST was the most influential in determining the recovery of phthalates. For a given ST type, the recovery of phthalates tends to improve with increases in the concentration level of standards. In case of QW and QWTN tubes, the breakthrough of phthalates was not observed up to the maximum purge volume (100 L) tested in this work; however, in case of GW, the recovery decreased drastically to 60% even at a purge volume of 1 L for low molecular weight phthalates. The results of our study demonstrate that accurate analysis of airborne phthalates can be achieved through proper control of key sampling parameters, particularly the choice of sorbent material. PMID:28361993

  19. Air bearing center cross gap of neutron stress spectrometer sample table support system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yang; Wu, Yunxin; Gong, Hai; Feng, Xiaolei

    2016-12-01

    A support system is the main load-bearing component of sample table for neutron stress spectrometer, and air bearing is an important element of a support system. The neutron stress spectrometer sample table was introduced, and the scheme for air bearing combination was selected. To study the performance of air bearing center cross gap, finite element models (FEMs) were established based on air motion and Reynolds equations, effects of air supply pressure, and gap parameters on the overturning moment and bearing capacity of air bearing center cross gap were analyzed. Results indicate that the width, depth, and height differences of the marble floor gap played important roles in the performance of the air bearing. When gap width is lesser than 1 mm and gap depth is lower than 0.4 mm, bearing capacity and overturning moment would vary rapidly with the variation of the width and depth. A gap height difference results in the bearing capacity dropping rapidly. The FEM results agree well with experimental results. Further, findings of the study could guide the design of the support system and marble floor.

  20. Aerosol Sampling and Analysis for the GEOTRACES Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landing, W. M.

    2008-12-01

    The GEOTRACES Science Plan emphasizes the importance of atmospheric deposition on the budgets and biogeochemistry of trace elements and isotopes in the world's oceans. With funding from the National Science Foundation, an aerosol and rainfall sampling program is being developed for use on future GEOTRACES cruises. This includes preparation and testing of dual high-volume TISCH 5170-VBL aerosol samplers for inorganic trace elements and isotopes, major ions, organic material, and isotopes of nitrogen and oxygen. A third 5170-VBL aerosol sampler is equipped with a 5-stage Sierra-style slotted impactor to collect size-fractionated aerosols for chemical measurements. The aerosol samplers will be operated using wind speed and wind sector control to avoid contamination from ship's exhaust. Duplicate automated rain samplers have also been developed to collect unfiltered and filtered rain samples. Rainfall will be filtered immediately (during collection) to avoid re-adsorption artifacts. Two intercalibration experiments are planned where aerosol and rainfall subsamples will be distributed to the community for testing and validation of analytical methods. The first experiment is being conducted in early September 2008 on the roof at RSMAS/University of Miami. Results from the GEOTRACES aerosol samplers will be compared to a multi-channel aerosol sampling system (using 47mm PCTE filters), and with ongoing aerosol collections at RSMAS. The second experiment is planned for the atmospheric sampling tower at Bellows AFB (Oahu, HI) in summer 2009. Details of the sampling equipment and sample collection methods will be discussed, along with preliminary results from the first intercalibration experiment. Community input will be solicited for planning the second intercalibration experiment.

  1. Computer Programs for Calculating the Isentropic Flow Properties for Mixtures of R-134a and Air

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kvaternik, Raymond G.

    2000-01-01

    Three computer programs for calculating the isentropic flow properties of R-134a/air mixtures which were developed in support of the heavy gas conversion of the Langley Transonic Dynamics Tunnel (TDT) from dichlorodifluoromethane (R-12) to 1,1,1,2 tetrafluoroethane (R-134a) are described. The first program calculates the Mach number and the corresponding flow properties when the total temperature, total pressure, static pressure, and mole fraction of R-134a in the mixture are given. The second program calculates tables of isentropic flow properties for a specified set of free-stream Mach numbers given the total pressure, total temperature, and mole fraction of R-134a. Real-gas effects are accounted for in these programs by treating the gases comprising the mixture as both thermally and calorically imperfect. The third program is a specialized version of the first program in which the gases are thermally perfect. It was written to provide a simpler computational alternative to the first program in those cases where real-gas effects are not important. The theory and computational procedures underlying the programs are summarized, the equations used to compute the flow quantities of interest are given, and sample calculated results that encompass the operating conditions of the TDT are shown.

  2. Sampling technologies and air pollution control devices for gaseous and particulate arsenic: a review.

    PubMed

    Helsen, Lieve

    2005-09-01

    Direct measurement of arsenic release requires a good sampling and analysis procedure in order to capture and detect the total amount of metals emitted. The literature is extensively reviewed in order to evaluate the efficiency of full field-scale and laboratory scale techniques for capturing particulate and gaseous emissions of arsenic from the thermo-chemical treatment of different sources of arsenic. Furthermore, trace arsenic concentrations in ambient air, national standard sampling methods and arsenic analysis methods are considered. Besides sampling techniques, the use of sorbents is also reviewed with respect to both approaches (1) to prevent the metals from exiting with the flue gas and (2) to react or combine with the metals in order to be collected in air pollution control systems. The most important conclusion is that submicron arsenic fumes are difficult to control in conventional air pollution control devices. Complete capture of the arsenic species requires a combination of particle control and vapour control devices.

  3. 77 FR 54382 - Revisions of Five California Clean Air Act Title V Operating Permits Programs

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-05

    ... pollution control, Carbon dioxide, Carbon dioxide equivalents, Greenhouse gases, Hydrofluorocarbons... revisions to the Operating Permits (Title V) programs of the Monterey Bay Unified Air Pollution Control District (MBUAPCD), San Luis Obispo County Air Pollution Control District (SLOCAPCD), Santa Barbara...

  4. Use of a Radon Stripping Algorithm for Retrospective Assessment of Air Filter Samples

    SciTech Connect

    Robert Hayes

    2009-01-23

    An evaluation of a large number of air sample filters was undertaken using a commercial alpha and beta spectroscopy system employing a passive implanted planar silicon (PIPS) detector. Samples were only measured after air flow through the filters had ceased. Use of a commercial radon stripping algorithm was implemented to discriminate anthropogenic alpha and beta activity on the filters from the radon progeny. When uncontaminated air filters were evaluated, the results showed that there was a time-dependent bias in both average estimates and measurement dispersion with the relative bias being small compared to the dispersion. By also measuring environmental air sample filters simultaneously with electroplated alpha and beta sources, use of the radon stripping algorithm demonstrated a number of substantial unexpected deviations. Use of the current algorithm is therefore not recommended for assay applications and so use of the PIPS detector should only be utilized for gross counting without appropriate modifications to the curve fitting algorithm. As a screening method, the radon stripping algorithm might be expected to see elevated alpha and beta activities on air sample filters (not due to radon progeny) around the 200 dpm level.

  5. Implementation of the Air Program Information Management System (APIMS) Inspection Module

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-05-01

    7 5 T H A I R B A S E W I N G Implementation of the Air Program Information Management System (APIMS) Inspection Module 2009 Environment...Implementation of the Air Program Information Management System (APIMS) Inspection Module 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER

  6. Use of Whatman-41 filters in air quality sampling networks (with applications to elemental analysis)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neustadter, H. E.; Sidik, S. M.; King, R. B.; Fordyce, J. S.; Burr, J. C.

    1974-01-01

    The operation of a 16-site parallel high volume air sampling network with glass fiber filters on one unit and Whatman-41 filters on the other is reported. The network data and data from several other experiments indicate that (1) Sampler-to-sampler and filter-to-filter variabilities are small; (2) hygroscopic affinity of Whatman-41 filters need not introduce errors; and (3) suspended particulate samples from glass fiber filters averaged slightly, but not statistically significantly, higher than from Whatman-41-filters. The results obtained demonstrate the practicability of Whatman-41 filters for air quality monitoring and elemental analysis.

  7. Mitigating factors on air concentrations of radon emanating from different granite samples

    SciTech Connect

    Qari, T.M.; Mamoon, A.M.; Abdul-Fattah, A.F. )

    1991-11-01

    Continuous exposure to increased air concentrations of radon in living areas is to be avoided according to the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and several published reports. Radon concentrations in ambient air are influenced by several factors related to the nature of the radon source itself, environmental conditions, and the presence of mitigating factors, if any. In this study, crushed granite samples of different types, particle diameters, and moisture contents were compared in simplified test systems with regard to radon emanation from the samples. The effects of selected mitigating factors, namely, ventilation and different barriers to diffusion of emanated radon were determined.

  8. Cleanliness of common air sampling sorbents for application to phenolic compounds measurement using supercritical fluid extraction

    SciTech Connect

    Bowyer, J.R.; Pleil, J.D.

    1994-12-31

    The trace-level measurement of phenolic compounds in the ambient air is complicated by the acidic and polar nature of the compounds especially during recovery from the sampling medium. Recently, supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) has been proposed as an alternative extraction method to Soxhlet extraction or thermal desorption to achieve more efficient recoveries. For such methodology to become practical, the candidate sorbents must first be tested for stability and cleanliness under SFE conditions. This paper describes exploratory research results of background contamination tests and cleanup properties of some common air sampling sorbent media with respect to future application to phenolic compounds monitoring.

  9. Cleanliness of common air sampling sorbents for application to phenolic compounds measurement using supercritical fluid extraction

    SciTech Connect

    Bowyer, J.R.; Pleil, J.D.

    1994-01-01

    The trace-level measurement of phenolic compounds in the ambient air is complicated by the acidic and polar nature of the compounds especially during recovery from the sampling medium. Recently, supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) has been proposed as an alternative extraction method to Soxhlet extraction or thermal desorption to achieve more efficient recoveries. For such methodology to become practical, the candidate sorbents must first be tested for stability and cleanliness under SFE conditions. The paper describes exploratory research results of background contamination tests and cleanup properties of some common air sampling sorbent media with respect to future application to phenolic compounds monitoring.

  10. F -Discrepancy for Efficient Sampling in Approximate Dynamic Programming.

    PubMed

    Cervellera, Cristiano; Maccio, Danilo

    2016-07-01

    In this paper, we address the problem of generating efficient state sample points for the solution of continuous-state finite-horizon Markovian decision problems through approximate dynamic programming. It is known that the selection of sampling points at which the value function is observed is a key factor when such function is approximated by a model based on a finite number of evaluations. A standard approach consists in generating these points through a random or deterministic procedure, aiming at a balanced covering of the state space. Yet, this solution may not be efficient if the state trajectories are not uniformly distributed. Here, we propose to exploit F -discrepancy, a quantity that measures how closely a set of random points represents a probability distribution, and introduce an example of an algorithm based on such concept to automatically select point sets that are efficient with respect to the underlying Markovian process. An error analysis of the approximate solution is provided, showing how the proposed algorithm enables convergence under suitable regularity hypotheses. Then, simulation results are provided concerning an inventory forecasting test problem. The tests confirm in general the important role of F -discrepancy, and show how the proposed algorithm is able to yield better results than uniform sampling, using sets even 50 times smaller.

  11. U.S. Air Force Scientific and Technical Information Program - The STINFO Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blados, Walter R.

    1991-01-01

    The U.S. Air Force STINFO (Scientific and Technical Information) program has as its main goal the proper use of all available scientific and technical information in the development of programs. The organization of STINFO databases, the use of STINFO in the development and advancement of aerospace science and technology and the acquisition of superior systems at lowest cost, and the application to public and private sectors of technologies developed for military uses are examined. STINFO user training is addressed. A project for aerospace knowledge diffusion is discussed.

  12. United States Air Force Summer Faculty Research Program (1987). Program Technical Report. Volume 1.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-12-01

    Specialty: Psychology Dept. of Behavioral Sciences Assigned: HRL/MO Drury College Springfield, MO 65802 (417) 865-8731 ’, Dr. Alastair McAulay Degree...PROGRAM Technical Report Number Title Professor Volume I 1 Vaporization Behavior of Multicomponent Dr. Suresh K. Aggerwal Fuel Droplets in a Hot Air...Diwan Titanium Aluminides: A Study of Dynamic Material Modeling Behavior 39 Ada and Artificial Intelligence Dr. Verlynda S. Dobbs Applications for

  13. Detection of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae by Air Sampling with a Nested PCR Assay

    PubMed Central

    Stärk, Katharina D. C.; Nicolet, Jacques; Frey, Joachim

    1998-01-01

    This article describes the first successful detection of airborne Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae under experimental and field conditions with a new nested PCR assay. Air was sampled with polyethersulfone membranes (pore size, 0.2 μm) mounted in filter holders. Filters were processed by dissolution and direct extraction of DNA for PCR analysis. For the PCR, two nested pairs of oligonucleotide primers were designed by using an M. hyopneumoniae-specific DNA sequence of a repeated gene segment. A nested PCR assay was developed and used to analyze samples collected in eight pig houses where respiratory problems had been common. Air was also sampled from a mycoplasma-free herd. The nested PCR was highly specific and 104 times as sensitive as a one-step PCR. Under field conditions, the sampling system was able to detect airborne M. hyopneumoniae on 80% of farms where acute respiratory disease was present. No airborne M. hyopneumoniae was detected on infected farms without acute cases. The chance of successful detection was increased if air was sampled at several locations within a room and at a lower air humidity. PMID:9464391

  14. Passive dosimeters for nitrogen dioxide in personal/indoor air sampling: A review

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Chang Ho; Morandi, Maria T.; Weisel, Clifford P.

    2015-01-01

    Accurate measurement of nitrogen dioxide concentrations in both outdoor and indoor environments, including personal exposures, is a fundamental step for linking atmospheric nitrogen dioxide levels to potential health and ecological effects. The measurement has been conducted generally in two ways: active (pumped) sampling and passive (diffusive) sampling. Diffusion samplers, initially developed and used for workplace air monitoring, have been found to be useful and cost-effective alternatives to conventional pumped samplers for monitoring ambient, indoor and personal exposures at the lower concentrations found in environmental settings. Since the 1970s, passive samplers have been deployed for ambient air monitoring in urban and rural sites, and to determine personal and indoor exposure to NO2. This article reviews the development of NO2 passive samplers, the sampling characteristics of passive samplers currently available, and their application in ambient and indoor air monitoring and personal exposure studies. The limitations and advantages of the various passive sampler geometries (i.e., tube, badge, and radial type) are also discussed. This review provides researchers and risk assessors with practical information about NO2 passive samplers, especially useful when designing field sampling strategies for exposure and indoor/outdoor air sampling. PMID:18446185

  15. Air-sampling inlet contamination by aircraft emissions on the NASA CV-990 aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Condon, E. P.; Vedder, J. F.

    1984-01-01

    Results of an experimental investigation of the contamination of air sampling inlets by aircraft emissions from the NASA CV-990 research aircraft are presented. This four-engine jet aircraft is a NASA facility used for many different atmospheric and meteorological experiments, as well as for developing spacecraft instrumentation for remote measurements. Our investigations were performed to provide information on which to base the selection of sampling locations for a series of multi-instrument missions for measuring tropospheric trace gases. The major source of contamination is the exhaust from the jet engines, which generate many of the same gases that are of interest in atmospheric chemistry, as well as other gases that may interfere with sampling measurements. The engine exhaust contains these gases in mixing ratios many orders of magnitude greater than those that occur in the clean atmosphere which the missions seek to quantify. Pressurized samples of air were collected simultaneously from a scoop located forward of the engines to represent clean air and from other multiport scoops at various aft positions on the aircraft. The air samples were analyzed in the laboratory by gas chromatography for carbon monoxide, an abundant combustion by-product. Data are presented for various scoop locations under various flight conditions.

  16. An evaluation of the American Indian Air Quality Training Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quartaroli, Marylynn

    During centuries of geographic, economic, and cultural domination, the federal government held the responsibility for the management of environmental issues on tribal lands. Today, tribes are reasserting their sovereignty in many ways, including the development of their own environmental programs. Tribal agencies desperately search for tribal members who are qualified to make decisions for the benefit of the tribes from both Western scientific and traditional cultural viewpoints. To meet this need, the American Indian Air Quality Training Program (AIAQTP) offers technical and regulatory training courses that are both scientifically up-to-date and culturally responsive to this community. This study is an evaluation of these courses. To supplement data from existing program documents and databases, I also observed five courses, sent follow-up questionnaires, and interviewed lead instructors and course participants to develop an understanding of their perceptions of the training received. Computer analysis of this quantitative and qualitative data revealed patterns and themes; an external reviewer also independently analyzed the data set. The training courses offered by AIAQTP were judged to have merit and value by the course instructors, the participants, the external evaluator, and me. Designed to be both culturally responsive and technically rigorous, these courses provided relevant and useful information and skills to the tribal environmental professionals in attendance, meeting the demands of their jobs. Although not all training needs or expectations were met, the study participants indicated their intentions to continue their education and training in air quality and other environmental media. A significant benefit of attendance at AIAQTP training courses was the development of a network of tribal professionals across the nation that acts as a support system for the implementation and continuation of changes in the professional practice for the trainees and

  17. Solubility testing of actinides on breathing-zone and area air samples

    SciTech Connect

    Metzger, R.L.; Jessop, B.H.; McDowell, B.L.

    1996-02-01

    A solubility testing method for several common actinides has been developed with sufficient sensitivity to allow profiles to be determined from routine breathing zone and area air samples in the workplace. Air samples are covered with a clean filter to form a filter-sample-filter sandwich which is immersed in an extracellular lung serum simulant solution. The sample is moved to a fresh beaker of the lung fluid simulant each day for one week, and then weekly until the end of the 28 day test period. The soak solutions are wet ashed with nitric acid and hydrogen peroxide to destroy the organic components of the lung simulant solution prior to extraction of the nuclides of interest directly into an extractive scintillator for subsequent counting on a Photon-Electron Rejecting Alpha Liquid Scintillation (PERALS{reg_sign}) spectrometer. Solvent extraction methods utilizing the extractive scintillators have been developed for the isotopes of uranium, plutonium, and curium. The procedures normally produce an isotopic recovery greater than 95% and have been used to develop solubility profiles from air samples with 40 pCi or less of U{sub 3}O{sub 8}. Profiles developed for U{sub 3}O{sub 8} samples show good agreement with in vitro and in vivo tests performed by other investigators on samples from the same uranium mills.

  18. Development of a hazardous air pollutants monitoring program using the Data Quality Objectives process.

    PubMed

    McFarland, Michael J; Nelson, Tim M; Palmer, Glenn R

    2004-05-01

    To effectively reduce the environmental compliance costs associated with meeting hazardous air pollutant emission requirements, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Data Quality Objective (DQO) process has been proposed as a suitable framework for establishing a defensible monitoring program. Through the use of a hazardous materials pilot study, the variability in the composite vapor pressure for regulated handwipe cleaning solvents was established. These results served as inputs to the DQO process, which identified that for facility decision-makers to claim with a 99% confidence level that the facility is in compliance with the National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP), a minimum of 12 handwipe cleaning solvent compliance samples (taken at random every 6 months) must have a composite vapor pressure equal to or below the regulatory limit of 45 mmHg at 20 degrees C. Implementation of the DQO-based compliance-sampling plan eliminates the need for an affected facility to sample all regulated handwipe cleaning solvents while still maintaining a reasonably high level of confidence in the compliance status of its regulated sources. The approach described for designing a defensible compliance sampling plan can be extended to other aspects of the aerospace NESHAP rule, including compliance sampling for surface coating, chemical depainting, and hazardous waste disposal.

  19. Carbon monoxide measurement in the global atmospheric sampling program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dudzinski, T. J.

    1979-01-01

    The carbon monoxide measurement system used in the NASA Global Atmospheric Sampling Program (GASP) is described. The system used a modified version of a commercially available infrared absorption analyzer. The modifications increased the sensitivity of the analyzer to 1 ppmv full scale, with a limit of detectability of 0.02 ppmv. Packaging was modified for automatic, unattended operation in an aircraft environment. The GASP system is described along with analyzer operation, calibration procedures, and measurement errors. Uncertainty of the CO measurement over a 2-year period ranged from + or - 3 to + or - 13 percent of reading, plus an error due to random fluctuation of the output signal + or - 3 to + or - 15 ppbv.

  20. Professional judgment and the interpretation of viable mold air sampling data.

    PubMed

    Johnson, David; Thompson, David; Clinkenbeard, Rodney; Redus, Jason

    2008-10-01

    Although mold air sampling is technically straightforward, interpreting the results to decide if there is an indoor source is not. Applying formal statistical tests to mold sampling data is an error-prone practice due to the extreme data variability. With neither established exposure limits nor useful statistical techniques, indoor air quality investigators often must rely on their professional judgment, but the lack of a consensus "decision strategy" incorporating explicit decision criteria requires professionals to establish their own personal set of criteria when interpreting air sampling data. This study examined the level of agreement among indoor air quality practitioners in their evaluation of airborne mold sampling data and explored differences in inter-evaluator assessments. Eighteen investigators independently judged 30 sets of viable mold air sampling results to indicate: "definite indoor mold source," "likely indoor mold source," "not enough information to decide," "likely no indoor mold source," or "definitely no indoor mold source." Kappa coefficient analysis indicated weak inter-observer reliability, and comparison of evaluator mean scores showed clear inter-evaluator differences in their overall scoring patterns. The responses were modeled on indicator "traits" of the data sets using a generalized, linear mixed model approach and showed several traits to be associated with respondents' ratings, but they also demonstrated distinct and divergent inter-evaluator response patterns. Conclusions were that there was only weak overall agreement in evaluation of the mold sampling data, that particular traits of the data were associated with the conclusions reached, and that there were substantial inter-evaluator differences that were likely due to differences in the personal decision criteria employed by the individual evaluators. The overall conclusion was that there is a need for additional work to rigorously explore the constellation of decision criteria

  1. Measured phenol concentrations in air and rain water samples collected near a wood preserving facility

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, S.K.; Allen, C.W.

    1995-12-31

    Phenol concentrations were determined in air and rain water samples collected downwind from a coal tar creosote wood preserving facility in Terre Haute, IN. Coal tar creosote is known to contain a large number of constituents and is composed chiefly of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), phenols, and N-, S-, and O-heterocycles. Phenol was chosen as a marker compound for coal tar creosote emissions because it is present at a large mole fraction in coal tar creosote. Phenol was determined by HPLC with UV-Visible detection. Phenol in collected rain water samples was determined directly by HPLC after acidification and filtration. Phenol concentrations in collected air samples ranged from 4.1 to 15.7 {micro}g/m3 while rain water concentrations ranged from 7.9 to 28.2 {micro}g/L. Using a value for the thermodynamic Henry`s law constant of K{sub H} = 4.5 {times} 10{sup {minus}4} L atm/mole at 20 C for phenol and measured gas-phase phenol concentrations, even higher rain water concentrations would be expected if equilibrium was established. This indicates that the amount of phenol present in the air parcels sampled exceeded the amount that could be scavenged by rain drops under the conditions prevailing at the time of sampling. The values for phenol concentrations reported here are roughly two orders of magnitude higher than results from previous studies where phenol concentrations in air and rain water samples collected in urban areas were reported. It is likely that other more toxic constituents of coal tar creosote are also present at high concentrations in air parcels that receive emissions from wood treatment facilities.

  2. ENVIRONMENTAL SAMPLING USING LOCATION SPECIFIC AIR MONITORING IN BULK HANDLING FACILITIES

    SciTech Connect

    Sexton, L.; Hanks, D.; Degange, J.; Brant, H.; Hall, G.; Cable-Dunlap, P.; Anderson, B.

    2011-06-07

    Since the introduction of safeguards strengthening measures approved by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Board of Governors (1992-1997), international nuclear safeguards inspectors have been able to utilize environmental sampling (ES) (e.g. deposited particulates, air, water, vegetation, sediments, soil and biota) in their safeguarding approaches at bulk uranium/plutonium handling facilities. Enhancements of environmental sampling techniques used by the IAEA in drawing conclusions concerning the absence of undeclared nuclear materials or activities will soon be able to take advantage of a recent step change improvement in the gathering and analysis of air samples at these facilities. Location specific air monitoring feasibility tests have been performed with excellent results in determining attribute and isotopic composition of chemical elements present in an actual test-bed sample. Isotopic analysis of collected particles from an Aerosol Contaminant Extractor (ACE) collection, was performed with the standard bulk sampling protocol used throughout the IAEA network of analytical laboratories (NWAL). The results yielded bulk isotopic values expected for the operations. Advanced designs of air monitoring instruments such as the ACE may be used in gas centrifuge enrichment plants (GCEP) to detect the production of highly enriched uranium (HEU) or enrichments not declared by a State. Researchers at Savannah River National Laboratory in collaboration with Oak Ridge National Laboratory are developing the next generation of ES equipment for air grab and constant samples that could become an important addition to the international nuclear safeguards inspector's toolkit. Location specific air monitoring to be used to establish a baseline environmental signature of a particular facility employed for comparison of consistencies in declared operations will be described in this paper. Implementation of air monitoring will be contrasted against the use of smear ES

  3. Development and calibration of real-time PCR for quantification of airborne microorganisms in air samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    An, Hey Reoun; Mainelis, Gediminas; White, Lori

    This manuscript describes the coupling of bioaerosol collection and the use of real-time PCR (RT-PCR) to quantify the airborne bacteria. The quantity of collected bacteria determined by RT-PCR is compared with conventional quantification techniques, such as culturing, microscopy and airborne microorganism counting by using optical particle counter (OPC). Our data show that an experimental approach used to develop standard curves for use with RT-PCR is critical for accurate sample quantification. Using universal primers we generated 12 different standard curves which were used to quantify model organism Escherichia coli (Migula) Catellani from air samples. Standard curves prepared using a traditional approach, where serially diluted genomic DNA extracted from pure cultured bacteria were used in PCR reaction as a template DNA yielded significant underestimation of sample quantities compared to airborne microorganism concentration as measured by an OPC. The underestimation was especially pronounced when standard curves were built using colony forming units (CFUs). In contrast, the estimate of cell concentration in an air sample by RT-PCR was more accurate (˜60% compared to the airborne microorganism concentration) when the standard curve was built using aerosolized E. coli. The accuracy improved even further (˜100%) when air samples used to build the standard curves were diluted first, then the DNA extracted from each dilution was amplified by the RT-PCR—to mimic the handling of air samples with unknown and possibly low concentration. Therefore, our data show that standard curves used for quantification by RT-PCR needs to be prepared using the same environmental matrix and procedures as handling of the environmental sample in question. Reliance on the standard curves generated with cultured bacterial suspension (a traditional approach) may lead to substantial underestimation of microorganism quantities in environmental samples.

  4. The effect of compressed air foam on the detection of hydrocarbon fuels in fire debris samples.

    PubMed

    Coulson, S A; Morgan-Smith, R K; Noble, D

    2000-01-01

    In 1998/99 the New Zealand Fire Service implemented compressed air foam delivery systems for the suppression of fires in rural areas. This study investigated whether the introduction of the foam to the seat of the fire created any problems in subsequent analyses of fire debris samples. No significant interferences from the foam were found when the samples were analysed by direct headspace using activated carbon strips. The only foam component detected was limonene.

  5. Air and smear sample calculational tool for Fluor Hanford Radiological control

    SciTech Connect

    BAUMANN, B.L.

    2003-07-11

    A spreadsheet calculation tool was developed to automate the calculations performed for determining the concentration of airborne radioactivity and smear counting as outlined in HNF-13536, Section 5.2.7, ''Analyzing Air and Smear Samples''. This document reports on the design and testing of the calculation tool. Radiological Control Technicians (RCTs) will save time and reduce hand written and calculation errors by using an electronic form for documenting and calculating work place air samples. Current expectations are RCTs will perform an air sample and collect the filter or perform a smear for surface contamination. RCTs will then survey the filter for gross alpha and beta/gamma radioactivity and with the gross counts utilize either hand calculation method or a calculator to determine activity on the filter. The electronic form will allow the RCT with a few key strokes to document the individual's name, payroll, gross counts, instrument identifiers; produce an error free record. This productivity gain is realized by the enhanced ability to perform mathematical calculations electronically (reducing errors) and at the same time, documenting the air sample.

  6. Modeling and Qualification of a Modified Emission Unit for Radioactive Air Emissions Stack Sampling Compliance

    SciTech Connect

    Barnett, J. Matthew; Yu, Xiao-Ying; Recknagle, Kurtis P.; Glissmeyer, John A.

    2016-01-01

    A planned laboratory space and exhaust system modification to the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Material Science and Technology Building indicated a new evaluation of the mixing at the air sampling system location would be required for compliance to ANSI/HPS N13.1-2011. The modified exhaust system would add a third fan thereby increasing the overall exhaust rate out the stack thus voiding the previous mixing study. Prior to modifying the radioactive air emissions exhaust system, a three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics computer model was used to evaluate the mixing at the sampling system location. Modeling of the new original three-fan system indicated that not all mixing criteria could be met. A second modeling effort was conducted with the addition of an air blender downstream of the confluence of the three fans which then showed satisfactory mixing results. The final installation included an air blender, and the exhaust system underwent full-scale tests to verify velocity, cyclonic flow, gas, and particulate uniformity. The modeling results and those of the full-scale tests show agreement between each of the evaluated criteria. The use of a computational fluid dynamics code was an effective aid in the design process and allowed the sampling system to remain in its original location while still meeting the requirements for sampling at a well-mixed location.

  7. COMPARISON OF FAST GC/TOFMS WITH METHOD TO-14 FOR ANALYSIS OF AMBIENT AIR SAMPLES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Field studies using portable gas chromatographs (PGC) to analyze volatile organic compounds in ambient air usually include, as reference standard method, the analysis of concurrent, collocated canister samples by EPA Method TO-14. Each laboratory analysis takes about an hour a...

  8. COMPARISON OF MOLD CONCENTRATIONS IN INDOOR AND OUTDOOR AIR SAMPLED SIMULTANEOUSLY AND THEN QUANTIFIED BY MSQPCR

    EPA Science Inventory

    Mold specific quantitative PCR (MSQPCR) was used to measure the concentrations of the 36 mold species in indoor and outdoor air samples that were taken simultaneously for 48 hours in and around 17 homes in Cincinnati, Ohio. The total spore concentrations of 353 per m3...

  9. Development of a wireless air pollution sensor package for aerial-sampling of emissions

    EPA Science Inventory

    A new sensor system for mobile and aerial emission sampling was developed for open area pollutant sources, such as prescribed forest burns. The sensor system, termed “Kolibri”, consists of multiple low-cost air quality sensors measuring CO2, CO, samplers for particulate matter wi...

  10. Collecting Samples of Workplace Air. Module 8. Vocational Education Training in Environmental Health Sciences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Consumer Dynamics Inc., Rockville, MD.

    This module, one of 25 on vocational education training for careers in environmental health occupations, contains self-instructional materials on collecting samples of workplace air. Following guidelines for students and instructors and an introduction that explains what the student will learn are three lessons: (1) collecting information about…

  11. Ten-year air sample analysis of Aspergillus prevalence in a university hospital.

    PubMed

    Falvey, D G; Streifel, A J

    2007-09-01

    Airborne fungal samples were collected on a monthly basis for 10 years, from 1995 to 2005, at a tertiary university hospital. Paired samples were cultured at 25 and 37 degrees C. Data were interpreted according to the air filtration systems serving each location. Samples cultured at 37 degrees C from the patient care areas had a mean recovery of 18% of the mean recovery from outdoor air (22 versus 122cfu/m(3)). Recovery of Aspergillus spp. at 37 degrees C in the high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA)-filtered locations was positive for Aspergillus spp. approximately one-third of the time; the rest of the patient care areas were positive half of the time and the outdoor samples were positive 95% of the time. We found 48 sporadic bursts at 37 degrees C which produced counts >3 SD above the mean. Hospital-acquired infection was related to high recovery of Aspergillus fumigatus on at least one occasion. We have found it impossible, without implementing impractical measures, to provide an environment completely devoid of Aspergillus spp. We conclude that routine air sampling is not an effective means of predicting hospital-acquired infections. However, a transient spike, or burst, may be useful in identifying an in-house source of contamination and may be used to consider additional interventional treatments for patients at risk. Emphasis should be placed on maintaining high-efficiency filtration of the outside air and on ensuring that other environmental control methods are used to prevent dissemination of environmental opportunistic fungal spores.

  12. United States Air Force Graduate Student Summer Support Program (1985). Management Report.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-12-01

    Clasification) United States Air Force Graduate Student Su er Support rogram - Program Manag -ment Repoi 12. PERSONAL AUTHOR(S) Rodney C. Darrah, Susan K. Espy 13...Major Amos Otis, Program Manager (202) 767-4970 XOT I I 2DISTORIBUTIO,/A VALAREDITION OF JAN A C IS OBSOLETE CA D FORM 1473, 83 APR EDIIO OF1...8217. .- ,. *.. . . ,. €. * j*.,P ’. ... : ’ UNITED STATES AIR FORCE GRADUATE STUDENT SUMMER SUPPORT PROGRAM 1985 PROGRAM MANAGEMENT REPORT - UNIVERSAL

  13. Data Quality Objectives for Regulatory Requirements for Hazardous and Radioactive Air Emissions Sampling and Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    MULKEY, C.H.

    1999-07-06

    This document describes the results of the data quality objective (DQO) process undertaken to define data needs for state and federal requirements associated with toxic, hazardous, and/or radiological air emissions under the jurisdiction of the River Protection Project (RPP). Hereafter, this document is referred to as the Air DQO. The primary drivers for characterization under this DQO are the regulatory requirements pursuant to Washington State regulations, that may require sampling and analysis. The federal regulations concerning air emissions are incorporated into the Washington State regulations. Data needs exist for nonradioactive and radioactive waste constituents and characteristics as identified through the DQO process described in this document. The purpose is to identify current data needs for complying with regulatory drivers for the measurement of air emissions from RPP facilities in support of air permitting. These drivers include best management practices; similar analyses may have more than one regulatory driver. This document should not be used for determining overall compliance with regulations because the regulations are in constant change, and this document may not reflect the latest regulatory requirements. Regulatory requirements are also expected to change as various permits are issued. Data needs require samples for both radionuclides and nonradionuclide analytes of air emissions from tanks and stored waste containers. The collection of data is to support environmental permitting and compliance, not for health and safety issues. This document does not address health or safety regulations or requirements (those of the Occupational Safety and Health Administration or the National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health) or continuous emission monitoring systems. This DQO is applicable to all equipment, facilities, and operations under the jurisdiction of RPP that emit or have the potential to emit regulated air pollutants.

  14. High-throughput liquid-absorption air-sampling apparatus and methods

    DOEpatents

    Zaromb, Solomon

    2000-01-01

    A portable high-throughput liquid-absorption air sampler [PHTLAAS] has an asymmetric air inlet through which air is drawn upward by a small and light-weight centrifugal fan driven by a direct current motor that can be powered by a battery. The air inlet is so configured as to impart both rotational and downward components of motion to the sampled air near said inlet. The PHTLAAS comprises a glass tube of relatively small size through which air passes at a high rate in a swirling, highly turbulent motion, which facilitates rapid transfer of vapors and particulates to a liquid film covering the inner walls of the tube. The pressure drop through the glass tube is <10 cm of water, usually <5 cm of water. The sampler's collection efficiency is usually >20% for vapors or airborne particulates in the 2-3.mu. range and >50% for particles larger than 4.mu.. In conjunction with various analyzers, the PHTLAAS can serve to monitor a variety of hazardous or illicit airborne substances, such as lead-containing particulates, tritiated water vapor, biological aerosols, or traces of concealed drugs or explosives.

  15. Results of Self-Absorption Study on the Versapor 3000 Filters for Radioactive Particulate Air Sampling

    SciTech Connect

    Barnett, J. Matthew

    2008-08-22

    Since the mid-1980s the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has used a value of 0.85 as a correction factor for the self absorption of activity of particulate radioactive air samples. More recently, an effort was made to evaluate the current particulate radioactive air sample filters (Versapor® 3000) used at PNNL for self absorption effects. There were two methods used in the study, 1) to compare the radioactivity concentration by direct gas-flow proportional counting of the filter to the results obtained after acid digestion of the filter and counting again by gas-flow proportional detection and 2) to evaluate sample filters by high resolution visual/infrared microscopy to determine the depth of material loading on or in the filter fiber material. Sixty samples were selected from the archive for acid digestion in the first method and about 30 samples were selected for high resolution visual/infrared microscopy. Mass loading effects were also considered. From the sample filter analysis, large error is associated with the average self absorption factor, however, when the data is compared directly one-to-one, statistically, there appears to be good correlation between the two analytical methods. The mass loading of filters evaluated was <0.2 mg cm-2 and was also compared against other published results. The microscopy analysis shows the sample material remains on the top of the filter paper and does not imbed into the filter media. Results of the microscopy evaluation lead to the conclusion that there is not a mechanism for significant self absorption. The overall conclusion is that self-absorption is not a significant factor in the analysis of filters used at PNNL for radioactive air stack sampling of radionuclide particulates and that an applied correction factor is conservative in determining overall sample activity. A new self absorption factor of 1.0 is recommended.

  16. Chemical reactivities of ambient air samples in three Southern California communities

    PubMed Central

    Eiguren-Fernandez, Arantza; Di Stefano, Emma; Schmitz, Debra A.; Guarieiro, Aline Lefol Nani; Salinas, Erika M.; Nasser, Elina; Froines, John R.; Cho, Arthur K.

    2015-01-01

    The potential adverse health effects of PM2.5 and vapor samples from three communities that neighbor railyards, Commerce (CM), Long Beach (LB), and San Bernardino (SB), were assessed by determination of chemical reactivities attributed to the induction of oxidative stress by air pollutants. The assays used were dithiothreitol (DTT) and dihydrobenzoic acid (DHBA) based procedures for prooxidant content and a glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) assay for electrophiles. Prooxidants and electrophiles have been proposed as the reactive chemical species responsible for the induction of oxidative stress by air pollution mixtures. The PM2.5 samples from CM and LB sites showed seasonal differences in reactivities with higher levels in the winter whereas the SB sample differences were reversed. The reactivities in the vapor samples were all very similar, except for the summer SB samples, which contained higher levels of both prooxidants and electrophiles. The results suggest the observed reactivities reflect general geographical differences rather than direct effects of the railyards. Distributional differences in reactivities were also observed with PM2.5 fractions containing most of the prooxidants (74–81%) and the vapor phase most of the electrophiles (82–96%). The high levels of the vapor phase electrophiles and their potential for adverse biological effects point out the importance of the vapor phase in assessing the potential health effects of ambient air. PMID:25947123

  17. Mathematical estimation of the level of microbial contamination on spacecraft surfaces by volumetric air sampling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oxborrow, G. S.; Roark, A. L.; Fields, N. D.; Puleo, J. R.

    1974-01-01

    Microbiological sampling methods presently used for enumeration of microorganisms on spacecraft surfaces require contact with easily damaged components. Estimation of viable particles on surfaces using air sampling methods in conjunction with a mathematical model would be desirable. Parameters necessary for the mathematical model are the effect of angled surfaces on viable particle collection and the number of viable cells per viable particle. Deposition of viable particles on angled surfaces closely followed a cosine function, and the number of viable cells per viable particle was consistent with a Poisson distribution. Other parameters considered by the mathematical model included deposition rate and fractional removal per unit time. A close nonlinear correlation between volumetric air sampling and airborne fallout on surfaces was established with all fallout data points falling within the 95% confidence limits as determined by the mathematical model.

  18. A survey of results for passive air and water sampling via semipermeable membrane devices

    SciTech Connect

    Prest, H.F.; Jacobson, L.; Hodgins, M.; Huckins, J.N.; Petty, J.D.; Richardson, B.; Wilson, M.; Martin, M.

    1994-12-31

    Passive sampling techniques have progressed and are providing new possibilities for measuring trace contaminants in environmental compartments. One such device, the semipermeable membrane device (SPMD) developed by Huckins, et al in Columbia, MO. is especially promising. The authors present an overview of results for sampling in air and water with semipermeable membrane devices (SPMDS) for organochlorines and polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and comment on possible future applications and potential. Differences in organohalogen profiles for SPMDs and green-lipped mussels deployed along transacts of Corio Bay, Australia show marked differences in sequestering ``windows``. An illustration of the application of SPMDs to the measurement of the half-life of chemicals is presented using PAH data from SPMD deployments in an irrigation canal in New Mexico. Results for simultaneous sampling of water and coastal air in Northern California illustrate the promise of SPMDs as global monitors.

  19. A stringent comparison of sampling and analysis methods for VOCs in ambient air

    SciTech Connect

    Daughtrey, E.H. Jr.; Oliver, K.D.; Adams, J.R.; Kronmiller, K.G.; Lonneman, W.A.; McClenny, W.A.; Colon, M.

    1999-07-01

    A carefully designed study was conducted during the summer of 1998 to simultaneously collect samples of ambient air by canisters and compare the analysis results to direct sorbent preconcentration results taken at the time of sample collection. A total of 32 1-h sample sets were taken, each composed of a real-time sample analyzed by an autoGC/MS XonTech 930/Varian Saturn 2000 system, and SUMMA and Silco canisters. Hourly total non-methane organic carbon (TNMOC), ozone, and meteorological measurements were also made. Each of the canisters was analyzed on the autoGC/MS system for a target list of 108 VOCs and on a manual cryosampling GC/FID system. Comparisons are made between the collection and analysis methods. Because of the low sample loading (150--250 ppbC TNMOC), these comparisons are a stringent test of sample collection and analysis capabilities.

  20. Whole Air Sampling During NASA's March-April 1999 Pacific Exploratory Expedition (PEM-Tropics B)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blake, Donald R.

    2001-01-01

    University of California, Irvine (UCI) collected more than 4500 samples whole air samples collected over the remote Pacific Ocean during NASA's Global Tropospheric Experiment (GTE) Pacific Exploratory Mission-Tropics B (PEM-Tropics B) in March and early April 1999. Approximately 140 samples during a typical 8-hour DC-8 flight, and 120 canisters for each 8-hour flight aboard the P-3B. These samples were obtained roughly every 3-7 min during horizontal flight legs and 1-3 min during vertical legs. The filled canisters were analyzed in the laboratory at UCI within ten days of collection. The mixing ratios of 58 trace gases comprising hydrocarbons, halocarbons, alkyl nitrates and DMS were reported (and archived) for each sample. Two identical analytical systems sharing the same standards were operated simultaneously around the clock to improve canister turn-around time and to keep our measurement precision optimal. This report presents a summary of the results for sample collected.

  1. BACT analysis under the Clean Air Act's PCD program

    SciTech Connect

    Simms, P.; Walke, J.

    2006-11-15

    Before a company may build a new major industrial source of air pollution, or make modifications to an existing major source in the USA it must apply for and receive a Clean Air Act (CAA) Prevention of Significant Deterioration (PSD) permit. State environmental agencies typically issue such permits, either under state law or by exercising delegated authority to implement the federal PSD program. To fully comply with the CAA, the emissions limits identified as BACT must incorporate consideration of more than just add-on emissions control technology, they must also reflect appropriate considerations of fuel quality (e.g. low-sulfur coal) and process changes (e.g. advanced combustion techniques) as a means of controlling emissions, and must consider the other environmental and public welfare benefits of the identified emissions control options. Several states including New Mexico and Illinois have already determined that innovated technologies, such as Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC), must be considered in connection with the BACT analysis for new coal-fired power plants. Even the notion that BACT is categorically limited in scope to the general type of facility proposed is contrary to EPA precedent. For example, the Environmental Appeals Board (EAB) has explained that permitting authorities retain the discretion under the definition of BACT to require dramatically different facility designs (e.g. a natural gas plant instead of a coal-fired power plant). The best advice for any permit applicant is to include in the BACT analysis a careful and honest examination of better performing alternative processes and/or innovative combustion techniques and to aggressively pursue such options wherever feasible. 17 refs.

  2. Monitoring airborne fungal spores in an experimental indoor environment to evaluate sampling methods and the effects of human activity on air sampling.

    PubMed Central

    Buttner, M P; Stetzenbach, L D

    1993-01-01

    Aerobiological monitoring was conducted in an experimental room to aid in the development of standardized sampling protocols for airborne microorganisms in the indoor environment. The objectives of this research were to evaluate the relative efficiencies of selected sampling methods for the retrieval of airborne fungal spores and to determine the effect of human activity on air sampling. Dry aerosols containing known concentrations of Penicillium chrysogenum spores were generated, and air samples were taken by using Andersen six-stage, Surface Air System, Burkard, and depositional samplers. The Andersen and Burkard samplers retrieved the highest numbers of spores compared with the measurement standard, an aerodynamic particle sizer located inside the room. Data from paired samplers demonstrated that the Andersen sampler had the highest levels of sensitivity and repeatability. With a carpet as the source of P. chrysogenum spores, the effects of human activity (walking or vacuuming near the sampling site) on air sampling were also examined. Air samples were taken under undisturbed conditions and after human activity in the room. Human activity resulted in retrieval of significantly higher concentrations of airborne spores. Surface sampling of the carpet revealed moderate to heavy contamination despite relatively low airborne counts. Therefore, in certain situations, air sampling without concomitant surface sampling may not adequately reflect the level of microbial contamination in indoor environments. PMID:8439150

  3. Volatile organic components of air samples collected from Vertical Launch Missile capsules. Summary report

    SciTech Connect

    Tappan, D.V.; Knight, D.R.; Heyder, E.; Weathersby, P.K.

    1988-09-27

    Gas chromatographic/mass spectroscopic analyses are presented for the volatile organic components found in air samples collected from the inboard vents from Vertical Launch System (VLS) missile capsules aboard a 688 class submarine. Similar analyses were also conducted for a sample of the ship's high pressure air used to fill the missile tubes. A wide variety of organics was detected in the air from the missile capsules; and while no unique components have yet been identified, a significant contribution has been shown to be made by pressure-ventilation of the VLS capsules into the submarine atmosphere which is already heavily laden with volatile organic compounds. The most apparent conclusion from these preliminary analyses is that the mixtures of organic components in the air within VLS missile capsules vary greatly from capsule to capsule (and probably from time to time). Many such samples need to be investigated to provide sufficient information to judge the seriousness of the possibility of venting toxic components into the submarine atmosphere during the maintenance or firing of VLS missiles.

  4. Soyuz 22 Return Samples: Assessment of Air Quality Aboard the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jams, John T.

    2010-01-01

    Three mini-grab sample containers (m-GSCs) were returned aboard Soyuz 22 because of concerns that new air pollutants were present in the air and these were getting into the water recovery system. The Total Organic Carbon Analyzer had been giving increasing readings of total organic carbon (TOC) in the potable water, and it was postulated that an increased load into the system was responsible. The toxicological assessment of 3 m-GSCs from the ISS is shown in Table 1. The recoveries of the 3 standards (as listed above) from the GSCs averaged 103, 95 and 76%, respectively. Recovery from formaldehyde control badges were 90 and 91%.

  5. Sample results from the Interim Salt Disposition Program Macrobatch 8 Tank 21H qualification samples

    SciTech Connect

    Peters, T. B.; Washington, II, A. L.

    2015-01-13

    Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) analyzed samples from Tank 21H in support of qualification of Macrobatch (Salt Batch) 8 for the Interim Salt Disposition Program (ISDP). An Actinide Removal Process (ARP) and several Extraction-Scrub-Strip (ESS) tests were also performed. This document reports characterization data on the samples of Tank 21H as well as simulated performance of ARP and the Modular Caustic Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX) Unit (MCU). No issues with the projected Salt Batch 8 strategy are identified. A demonstration of the monosodium titanate (MST) (0.2 g/L) removal of strontium and actinides provided acceptable average decontamination factors for plutonium of 2.62 (4 hour) and 2.90 (8 hour); and average strontium decontamination factors of 21.7 (4 hour) and 21.3 (8 hour). These values are consistent with results from previous salt batch ARP tests. The two ESS tests also showed acceptable performance with extraction distribution ratios (D(Cs)) values of 52.5 and 50.4 for the Next Generation Solvent (NGS) blend (from MCU) and NGS (lab prepared), respectively. These values are consistent with results from previous salt batch ESS tests. Even though the performance is acceptable, SRNL recommends that a model for predicting extraction behavior for cesium removal for the blended solvent and NGS be developed in order to improve our predictive capabilities for the ESS tests.

  6. Sample Results from the Interim Salt Disposition Program Macrobatch 8 Tank 21H Qualification Samples

    SciTech Connect

    Peters, T. B.; Washington, A. L.

    2015-01-01

    Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) analyzed samples from Tank 21H in support of qualification of Macrobatch (Salt Batch) 8 for the Interim Salt Disposition Program (ISDP). An Actinide Removal Process (ARP) and several Extraction-Scrub- Strip (ESS) tests were also performed. This document reports characterization data on the samples of Tank 21H as well as simulated performance of ARP and the Modular Caustic Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX) Unit (MCU). No issues with the projected Salt Batch 8 strategy are identified. A demonstration of the monosodium titanate (MST) (0.2 g/L) removal of strontium and actinides provided acceptable average decontamination factors for plutonium of 2.62 (4 hour) and 2.90 (8 hour); and average strontium decontamination factors of 21.7 (4 hour) and 21.3 (8 hour). These values are consistent with results from previous salt batch ARP tests. The two ESS tests also showed acceptable performance with extraction distribution ratios (D(Cs)) values of 52.5 and 50.4 for the Next Generation Solvent (NGS) blend (from MCU) and NGS (lab prepared), respectively. These values are consistent with results from previous salt batch ESS tests. Even though the performance is acceptable, SRNL recommends that a model for predicting extraction behavior for cesium removal for the blended solvent and NGS be developed in order to improve our predictive capabilities for the ESS tests.

  7. Technical assessment of compliance with workplace air sampling requirements at WRAP

    SciTech Connect

    HACKWORTH, M.F.

    1999-06-02

    The purpose of this Technical Assessment is to satisfy HSRCM-1, ''Hanford Site Radiological Control Manual'' Article 551.4 for a documented study of facility Workplace Air Monitoring (WAM) programs. HSRCM-1 is the primary guidance for radiological control at Waste Management Federal Services of Hanford, Inc. (WMH). The HSRCM-1 complies with Title 10. Part 835 of the Code of Federal Regulations (10CFR835). This document provides an evaluation of the compliance of the Waste Receiving and Processing facility (WRAP) WAM program to the criteria standards, requirements, and documents compliance with the requirements where appropriate. Where necessary, it also indicates changes needed to bring specific locations into compliance.

  8. Sample Results From The Interim Salt Disposition Program Macrobatch 7 Tank 21H Qualification Samples

    SciTech Connect

    Peters, T. B.; Washington, A. L. II

    2013-08-08

    Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) analyzed samples from Tank 21H in support of qualification of Macrobatch (Salt Batch) 7 for the Interim Salt Disposition Program (ISDP). An ARP and several ESS tests were also performed. This document reports characterization data on the samples of Tank 21H as well as simulated performance of ARP/MCU. No issues with the projected Salt Batch 7 strategy are identified, other than the presence of visible quantities of dark colored solids. A demonstration of the monosodium titanate (0.2 g/L) removal of strontium and actinides provided acceptable 4 hour average decontamination factors for Pu and Sr of 3.22 and 18.4, respectively. The Four ESS tests also showed acceptable behavior with distribution ratios (D(Cs)) values of 15.96, 57.1, 58.6, and 65.6 for the MCU, cold blend, hot blend, and Next Generation Solvent (NGS), respectively. The predicted value for the MCU solvent was 13.2. Currently, there are no models that would allow a prediction of extraction behavior for the other three solvents. SRNL recommends that a model for predicting extraction behavior for cesium removal for the blended solvent and NGS be developed. While no outstanding issues were noted, the presence of solids in the samples should be investigated in future work. It is possible that the solids may represent a potential reservoir of material (such as potassium) that could have an impact on MCU performance if they were to dissolve back into the feed solution. This salt batch is intended to be the first batch to be processed through MCU entirely using the new NGS-MCU solvent.

  9. Air Vehicle Technology Integration Program (AVTIP). Delivery Order 0004: Advanced Sol-Gel Adhesion Processes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-04-01

    AFRL-ML-WP-TR-2003-4173 AIR VEHICLE TECHNOLOGY INTEGRATION PROGRAM (AVTIP) Delivery Order 0004: Advanced Sol-Gel Adhesion Processes Kay Y...2001 – 03/31/2002 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER F33615-00-D-3052 5b. GRANT NUMBER 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE AIR VEHICLE TECHNOLOGY INTEGRATION PROGRAM

  10. 76 FR 50164 - Protocol Gas Verification Program and Minimum Competency Requirements for Air Emission Testing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-12

    ... of the Protocol Gas Verification Program and Minimum Competency Requirements for Air Emission Testing... AGENCY 40 CFR Parts 72 and 75 RIN 2060-AQ06 Protocol Gas Verification Program and Minimum Competency Requirements for Air Emission Testing; Corrections AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)....

  11. 78 FR 44947 - Request for Nominations for 2014 Clean Air Excellence Awards Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-25

    ... notice announces the competition for the 2014 Clean Air Excellence Awards Program. EPA established the... (OAR) announces the opening of competition for the 2014 Clean Air Excellence Awards Program (CAEAP... Award Criteria: EPA staff will use a screening process, with input from outside subject experts,...

  12. What is in my air? Feds facilitating citizen science in the EPA Next Generation Air Monitoring Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    French, R. A.; Preuss, P.

    2013-12-01

    Recent advances in the development of small-scale and inexpensive air pollutant sensors, coupled with the ubiquitous use of wireless and mobile technology, will transform the field of air quality monitoring. For the first time, the general public may purchase air monitors, which can measure their personal exposure to NOx, Ozone, black carbon, and VOCs for a few hundred dollars. Concerned citizens may now gather the data for themselves to answer questions such as, ';what am I breathing?' and ';is my air clean?' The research and policy community will have access to real-time air quality data collected at the local and regional scale, making targeted protection of environmental health possible. With these benefits come many questions from citizen scientists, policymakers, and researchers. These include, what is the quality of the data? How will the public interpret data from the air sensors and are there guidelines to interpret that data? How do you know if the air sensor is trustworthy? Recognizing that this revolution in air quality monitoring will proceed regardless of the involvement of the government, the Innovation Team at the EPA Office of Research and Development, in partnership with the Office of Enforcement and Compliance Assistance and the Office of Air and Radiation, seized the opportunity to ensure that users of next generation air sensors can realize the full potential benefits of these innovative technologies. These efforts include releasing an EPA Draft Roadmap for Next Generation Air Monitoring, testing air sensors under laboratory and field conditions, field demonstrations of new air sensor technology for the public, and building a community of air sensor developers, researchers, local, state and federal officials, and community members through workshops and a website. This presentation will review the status of those programs, highlighting the particular programs of interest to citizen scientists. The Next Generation Air Monitoring program may serve

  13. Comprehensive air quality and meteorological monitoring program. Quarterly report

    SciTech Connect

    1995-01-01

    This data report contains air monitoring results for: total suspended particulates, particulates matter less than 10 micrometers, metals (including arsenic mercury), volatile organic compounds, organochlorine pesticides, semivolatile organic compounds, air compounds, air stripper semivolatile organic compounds, basin F waste pile, pond A, tank farm vents (VOCs).

  14. An Evaluation of the AirCare Program Based on Cost-Benefit and Cost-Effectiveness Analyses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bi, Hsiaotao T.; Wang, Dianle

    2006-01-01

    A cost-benefit analysis of the AirCare program in the province of British Columbia on the basis of emissions cost factors from the literature showed a benefit outweighing the cost. Furthermore, a cost-effectiveness analysis comparing the AirCare program with a hybrid-car rebate program revealed that the AirCare program is more effective in…

  15. Small satellites and the DARPA/Air Force FALCON program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weeks, David J.; Walker, Steven H.; Sackheim, Robert L.

    2005-07-01

    The FALCON program is a technology demonstration effort with three major components: a Small Launch Vehicle (SLV), a Hypersonic Technology Vehicle (HTV), and a Hypersonic Cruise Vehicle (HCV). Sponsored by the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) and executed jointly by the United States Air Force and DARPA with NASA participation, the objectives are to develop and demonstrate technologies that will enable both near-term and far-term capability to execute time-critical, global reach missions. The focus of this paper is on the SLV as it relates to small satellites and the implications of lower cost to orbit for small satellites. The target recurring cost for placing 1000 pounds payloads into a circular reference orbit of 28.5∘ at 100 nautical miles is $5,000,000 per launch. This includes range costs but not the payload or payload integration costs. In addition to the nominal 1000 pounds to low earth orbit (LEO), FALCON is seeking delivery of a range of orbital payloads from 220 to 2200 pounds to the reference orbit. Once placed on 'alert' status, the SLV must be capable of launch within 24 h.

  16. Small Satellites and the DARPA/Air Force Falcon Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weeks, David J.; Walker, Steven H.; Sackheim, Robert L.

    2004-01-01

    The FALCON ((Force Application and Launch from CONUS) program is a technology demonstration effort with three major components: a Small Launch Vehicle (SLV), a Common Aero Vehicle (CAV), and a Hypersonic Cruise Vehicle (HCV). Sponsored by DARPA and executed jointly by the United States Air Force and DARPA with NASA participation, the objectives are to develop and demonstrate technologies that will enable both near-term and far-term capability to execute time-critical, global reach missions. The focus of this paper is on the SLV as it relates to small satellites and the implications of lower cost to orbit for small satellites. The target recurring cost for placing 1000 pounds payloads into a circular reference orbit of 28.5 degrees at 100 nautical miles is $5,000,000 per launch. This includes range costs but not the payload or payload integration costs. In addition to the nominal 1000 pounds to LEO, FALCON is seeking delivery of a range of orbital payloads from 220 pounds to 2200 pounds to the reference orbit. Once placed on alert status, the SLV must be capable of launch within 24 hours.

  17. Starfleet Deferred: Project Orion in the 1962 Air Force Space Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ziarnick, B.

    Project Orion, the Cold War American program (1957-1965) studying nuclear pulse propulsion for space applications, has long interested space enthusiasts for what it was and what it might have been, but it has long been believed that neither the United States government nor the US Air Force took the program very seriously. However, recently declassified US Air Force documents shed more light on the classified history of Project Orion. Far from being ignored by Air Force leadership, through the efforts of the Strategic Air Command, Air Force leaders like General Curtis LeMay were convinced that Project Orion should be funded as a major weapons system. The high water mark of Project Orion was the 1962 Air Force Space Program proposal by the Air Force Chief of Staff to devote almost twenty percent of the Air Force space budget from 1962-1967 to Orion development before the program was cancelled by the civilian Secretary of the Air Force under pressure from the Department of Defense. This paper details the history of Project Orion in the 1962 Air Force Space Program proposal, and concludes with a few lessons learned for use by modern interstellar advocates.

  18. Determination of air-loop volume and radon partition coefficient for measuring radon in water sample.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kil Yong; Burnett, William C

    A simple method for the direct determination of the air-loop volume in a RAD7 system as well as the radon partition coefficient was developed allowing for an accurate measurement of the radon activity in any type of water. The air-loop volume may be measured directly using an external radon source and an empty bottle with a precisely measured volume. The partition coefficient and activity of radon in the water sample may then be determined via the RAD7 using the determined air-loop volume. Activity ratios instead of absolute activities were used to measure the air-loop volume and the radon partition coefficient. In order to verify this approach, we measured the radon partition coefficient in deionized water in the temperature range of 10-30 °C and compared the values to those calculated from the well-known Weigel equation. The results were within 5 % variance throughout the temperature range. We also applied the approach for measurement of the radon partition coefficient in synthetic saline water (0-75 ppt salinity) as well as tap water. The radon activity of the tap water sample was determined by this method as well as the standard RAD-H2O and BigBottle RAD-H2O. The results have shown good agreement between this method and the standard methods.

  19. Direct high-resolution alpha spectrometry from nuclear fuel particles in an outdoor air sample.

    PubMed

    Pöllänen, R; Siiskonen, T

    2008-01-01

    The potential use of direct high-resolution alpha spectrometry to identify the presence of transactinium elements in air samples is illustrated in the case when alpha-particle-emitting radionuclides are incorporated in nuclear fuel particles. Alpha particle energy spectra are generated through Monte Carlo simulations assuming a nuclide composition similar to RBMK (Chernobyl) nuclear fuel. The major alpha-particle-emitting radionuclides, in terms of activity, are 242Cm, 239Pu and 240Pu. The characteristics of the alpha peaks are determined by fuel particle properties as well as the type of the air filter. It is shown that direct alpha spectrometry can be readily applied to membrane filter samples containing nuclear fuel particles when rapid nuclide identification is of relevance. However, the development of a novel spectrum analysis code is a prerequisite for unfolding complex alpha spectra.

  20. Measurement assurance program for FTIR analyses of deuterium oxide samples

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, S.R.; Clark, J.P.

    1997-01-01

    Analytical chemistry measurements require an installed criterion based assessment program to identify and control sources of error. This program should also gauge the uncertainty about the data. A self- assessment was performed of long established quality control practices against the characteristics of a comprehensive measurement assurance program. Opportunities for improvement were identified. This paper discusses the efforts to transform quality control practices into a complete measurement assurance program. The resulting program heightened the laboratory`s confidence in the data it generated, by providing real-time statistical information to control and determine measurement quality.

  1. Beryllium 7 and lead 210 in the Western Hemisphere Arctic atmosphere - Observations from three recent aircraft-based sampling programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dibb, Jack E.; Talbot, Robert W.; Gregory, Gerald L.

    1992-01-01

    Concentrations of the natural radionuclides Be-7 and Pb-210 in the Western Hemisphere Arctic atmosphere were determined during the recent NOAA Arctic Gas and Aerosol Sampling Program (AGASP 3) and NASA Global Tropospheric Experiment/Arctic Boundary Layer Expeditions (GTE/ABLE 3A and ABLE 3B) missions. Be-7 concentrations measured during the AGASP 3 mission north and west of Norway are in accord with previous results for high northern latitudes, but suggest that the 'stratospheric' air masses sampled at the highest elevations reached were significantly diluted with tropospheric air. Higher resolution sampling in the free troposphere of the North American Arctic during ABLE 3B revealed a layer of elevated Be-7 concentrations near 5 km. The distribution of Pb-210 in the high-altitude troposphere of North America during the summer was quite similar to distributions of more frequently measured aerosol species.

  2. Air Sampling of Polychlorinated Dibenzodioxins, Polychlorinated Dibenzofurans, and Polychlorinated Biphenyls Arnold AFS, Tennessee.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-01-01

    DIBENZOFURANS, AND POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS ARNOLD AFS TN ISAAC ATKINS, JR., CAPTAIN, USAF, BSC January 1987 D I ~ELECTE FINAL REPORT 0Wfl D LU...NO 11. TITLE (Include Security ClassificatiOtl) Air Sampling of Polychlorinated Dibenzodioxins, Polychlorinated Dibenzofurans, and Polychlorinated ... Biphenyls at Arnold AFS TN (U) 12. PERSONAL AUTHOR(S) Captaiq Isaac Atkins, Jr. 13a. TYP OF REPORT 13b. TIME COVERED 14. DATE OF REPORT (Year, Month

  3. STS-65 Commander Cabana and PLC Hieb take air sample at IML-2 Rack 7 NIZEMI

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    STS-65 Commander Robert D. Cabana (right) and Payload Commander (PLC) Richard J. Hieb take an air sample inside the International Microgravity Laboratory 2 (IML-2) spacelab science module. The two crewmembers are in front of Rack 7 which contains the large isothermal furnace (LIF) and slow rotating centrifuge microscope (NIZEMI). The photo was among the first group released by NASA following the two-week IML-2 mission aboard the Space Shuttle Columbia, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 102.

  4. Flight summaries and temperature climatology at airliner cruise altitudes from GASP (Global Atmospheric Sampling Program) data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nastrom, G. D.; Jasperson, W. H.

    1983-01-01

    Temperature data obtained by the Global Atmospheric Sampling Program (GASP) during the period March 1975 to July 1979 are compiled to form flight summaries of static air temperature and a geographic temperature climatology. The flight summaries include the height and location of the coldest observed temperature and the mean flight level, temperature and the standard deviation of temperature for each flight as well as for flight segments. These summaries are ordered by route and month. The temperature climatology was computed for all statistically independent temperture data for each flight. The grid used consists of 5 deg latitude, 30 deg longitude and 2000 feet vertical resolution from FL270 to FL430 for each month of the year. The number of statistically independent observations, their mean, standard deviation and the empirical 98, 50, 16, 2 and .3 probability percentiles are presented.

  5. Measurement of the Tracer Gradient and Sampling System Bias of the Hot Fuel Examination Facility Stack Air Monitoring System

    SciTech Connect

    Glissmeyer, John A.; Flaherty, Julia E.

    2011-07-20

    This report describes tracer gas uniformity and bias measurements made in the exhaust air discharge of the Hot Fuel Examination Facility at Idaho National Laboratory. The measurements were a follow-up on earlier measurements which indicated a lack of mixing of the two ventilation streams being discharged via a common stack. The lack of mixing is detrimental to the accuracy of air emission measurements. The lack of mixing was confirmed in these new measurements. The air sampling probe was found to be out of alignment and that was corrected. The suspected sampling bias in the air sample stream was disproved.

  6. Isotopic air sampling in a tallgrass prairie to partition net ecosystem CO2 exchange

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lai, Chun-Ta; Schauer, Andrew J.; Owensby, Clenton; Ham, Jay M.; Ehleringer, James R.

    2003-09-01

    Stable isotope ratios of various ecosystem components and net ecosystem exchange (NEE) CO2 fluxes were measured in a C3-C4 mixture tallgrass prairie near Manhattan, Kansas. The July 2002 study period was chosen because of contrasting soil moisture contents, which allowed us to address the effects of drought on photosynthetic CO2 uptake and isotopic discrimination. Significantly higher NEE fluxes were observed for both daytime uptake and nighttime respiration during well-watered conditions when compared to a drought period. Given these differences, we investigated two carbon-flux partitioning questions: (1) What proportions of NEE were contributed by C3 versus C4 species? (2) What proportions of NEE fluxes resulted from canopy assimilation versus ecosystem respiration? To evaluate these questions, air samples were collected every 2 hours during daytime for 3 consecutive days at the same height as the eddy covariance system. These air samples were analyzed for both carbon isotope ratios and CO2 concentrations to establish an empirical relationship for isoflux calculations. An automated air sampling system was used to collect nighttime air samples to estimate the carbon isotope ratios of ecosystem respiration (δR) at weekly intervals for the entire growing season. Models of C3 and C4 photosynthesis were employed to estimate bulk canopy intercellular CO2 concentration in order to calculate photosynthetic discrimination against 13C. Our isotope/NEE results showed that for this grassland, C4 vegetation contributed ˜80% of the NEE fluxes during the drought period and later ˜100% of the NEE fluxes in response to an impulse of intense precipitation. For the entire growing season, the C4 contribution ranged from ˜68% early in the spring to nearly 100% in the late summer. Using an isotopic approach, the calculated partitioned respiratory fluxes were slightly greater than chamber-measured estimates during midday under well-watered conditions. In addition, time series

  7. Microbial Air and Surface Monitoring Results from International Space Station Samples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ott, C. Mark; Bruce, Rebekah J.; Castro, Victoria A.; Novikova, Natalia D.; Pierson, D. L.

    2005-01-01

    Over the course of long-duration spaceflight, spacecraft develop a microbial ecology that directly interacts with the crew of the vehicle. While most microorganisms are harmless or beneficial to the inhabitants of the vehicle, the presence of medically significant organisms appearing in this semi-closed environment could adversely affect crew health and performance. The risk of exposure of the crew to medically significant organisms during a mission is estimated using information gathered during nominal and contingency environmental monitoring. Analysis of the air and surface microbiota in the habitable compartments of the International Space Station (ISS) over the last four years indicate a high presence of Staphylococcus species reflecting the human inhabitants of the vehicle. Generally, air and surface microbial concentrations are below system design specifications, suggesting a lower risk of contact infection or biodegradation. An evaluation of sample frequency indicates a decrease in the identification of new species, suggesting a lower potential for unknown microorganisms to be identified. However, the opportunistic pathogen, Staphylococcus aureus, has been identified in 3 of the last 5 air samples and 5 of the last 9 surface samples. In addition, 47% of the coagulase negative Staphylococcus species that were isolated from the crew, ISS, and its hardware were found to be methicillin resistance. In combination, these observations suggest the potential of methicillin resistant infectious agents over time.

  8. Organic toxicants in air and precipitation samples from the Lake Michigan area

    SciTech Connect

    Harlin, K.S.; Sweet, C.W.; Gatz, D.F.

    1995-12-31

    Measurements of PCBs, organochlorine insecticides, PAHs, and atrazine were made in air and precipitation samples collected at regionally-representative locations near Lake Michigan from 1992-1995. The purpose of these measurements was to provide information needed to estimate the atmospheric deposition of organic toxicants to Lake Michigan. Twenty-four hour samples of airborne particles and vapor were collected at 12-day intervals on quartz fiber filters and XAD-2 resin vapor traps using modified high volume sampleers. Twenty-eight day precipitation samples were collected using wet-only samplers with stainless steel sampling surfaces and heated enclosure containing an XAD-2 resin adsorption column. Samples were Soxhlet extracted for 24 hours with hexane:acetone (1:1), and concentrated by rotary evaporation. Interferences were removed and the samples separated into analyte groups by silica gel chromatography. Four fractions were collected for GC-ECD and GC-Ion Trap MS analyses. Ten pesticides, 101 PCB congeners, 18 PAHs, and atrazine were measured in all samples. Quality assurance was maintained by including field duplicate samples, field blanks, alboratory matrix spikes, laboratory matrix blanks, and laboratory surrogate spikes in the sampling/analytical protocols. Preliminary results from urban and remote sites show geographical variations in the concentrations of some toxicants due to contributions from local sources. For all sites the total PCB levels are higher in the vapor phase than the particulate phase and show strong seasonal variations. Seasonal variations were also observed for several pesticides.

  9. The use of Whatman-41 filters for high volume air sampling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neustadter, H. E.; Sidik, S. M.; King, R. B.; Fordyce, J. S.; Burr, J. C.

    1975-01-01

    The feasibility of using W41 filter media on a routine TSP high-volume monitoring network was determined by comparison with glass fiber (GF) filtering. Results indicate that suspended particulate samples from GF filters averaged slightly, but not significantly, higher than those from Whatman-41 filters. Some extra handling procedures were required to avoid errors due to the hygroscopic nature of W41 filters; these added procedures are not overly burdensome, however, and they allow the performance of analytical work, thus extending the capabilities of high-volume sampling. It was demonstrated that W41 filters are practical for air quality monitoring and elemental analysis in environments similar to Cleveland's.

  10. Sampling and analysis of trace-organic constituents in ambient and workplace air at coal-conversion facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Flotard, R D

    1980-07-01

    A review of the recent literature reveals that current sampling procedures involve the use of glass fiber filters for particulate-sorbed organics and sorbent resins such as Tenax GC and XAD-2 for vapor-phase organics. Ultra trace-organic analysis of air pollutants or particulates may require the collection of a large (1000 to 3000 m/sup 3/) sample by a high volume air sampler. Personal air sampling requires a smaller (approx. = 0.5 m/sup 3/) and a portable collection apparatus. Trapped organic chemicals are recovered by solvent extraction or thermal desorption of the collector. Recovered organics are separated by using liquid chromatography or gas chromatography and are identified by ultraviolet or fluorescence spectroscopy, gas chromatography, or mass spectrometry. For quantification, standards are added to the air stream during sampling or to the filter or resin following sampling. Analysis of the requirement for air sampling in and around coal conversion plants, coupled with the findings of the literature review, indicates that a combined particulate-filter and solvent-extractable-resin sampling unit should be used to collect both particulate-sorbed organics and vapor-phase organics from workplace or ambient plant air. Such a sampler was developed for stationary, moderate-to-high-volume air sampling. Descriptions of the sampler are provided together with sampling efficiency information and recommendations for a sampling procedure.

  11. Neuro-Linguistic Programming: Human Technology for Today’s Air Force.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-04-01

    Part III, pp. 4-5. ’ 26. Ibid, p. 6. 27. Donald W. McCormick, " Neurolinguistic Programming : A Resource Guide and Review of the Research, The 1984...Carol Johnson, " Neurolinguistic Programming --Mystique or Mistake?" Army Organizational Effectiveness Journal, No. 1, 1985, pp. 74-80. 29. Dilts...AD-RI67 836 NEURO-LINGUISTIC PROGRAMMING : HUHAN TECHNOLOGY FOR / TODAY’S AIR FORCEMU AIR COMMAND ANM STAFF COLL NAXHELL AFB AL J B CAULFIELD APR 86

  12. A new analysis system for whole air sampling: description and results from 2013 SENEX

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lerner, B. M.; Gilman, J.; Dumas, M.; Hughes, D.; Jaksich, A.; Hatch, C. D.; Graus, M.; Warneke, C.; Apel, E. C.; Hornbrook, R. S.; Holloway, J. S.; De Gouw, J. A.

    2014-12-01

    Accurate measurement of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the troposphere is critical for the understanding of emissions and physical and chemical processes that can impact both air quality and climate. Airborne VOC measurements have proven especially challenging due to the requirement of both high sensitivity (pptv) and short sample collection times (≤15 s) to maximize spatial resolution and sampling frequency for targeted plume analysis. The use of stainless steel canisters to collect whole air samples (WAS) for post-flight analysis has been pioneered by the groups of D. Blake and E. Atlas [Blake et al., 1992; Atlas et al., 1993]. For the 2013 Southeast Nexus Study (SENEX), the NOAA ESRL CSD laboratory undertook WAS measurements for the first time. This required the construction of three new, highly-automated, and field-portable instruments designed to sample, analyze, and clean the canisters for re-use. Analysis was performed with a new custom-built gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer system. The instrument pre-concentrates analyte cryostatically into two parallel traps by means of a Stirling engine, a novel technique which obviates the need for liquid nitrogen to reach trapping temperatures of -175C. Here we present an evaluation of the retrieval of target VOC species from WAS canisters. We discuss the effects of humidity and sample age on the analyte, particularly upon C8+ alkane and aromatic species and biogenic species. Finally, we present results from several research flights during SENEX that targeted emissions from oil/natural gas production.

  13. Air

    MedlinePlus

    ... do to protect yourself from dirty air . Indoor air pollution and outdoor air pollution Air can be polluted indoors and it can ... this chart to see what things cause indoor air pollution and what things cause outdoor air pollution! Indoor ...

  14. Nellis Air Force Base Capital Improvements Program Environmental Assessment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-08-01

    Engineer System ACM Asbestos -Containing Material ADP Area Development Plan AFB Air Force Base AGE Aerospace Ground Equipment AICUZ Air...of asbestos as a result of demolition of, or modifications to facilities; construction of new facilities; and stormwater discharge permits... Asbestos and Lead-Based Paint Removal and Disposal Prior to demolition or additions to buildings, asbestos surveys are required by Air Force regulation

  15. Airborne Detection and Quantification of Swine Influenza A Virus in Air Samples Collected Inside, Outside and Downwind from Swine Barns

    PubMed Central

    Corzo, Cesar A.; Culhane, Marie; Dee, Scott; Morrison, Robert B.; Torremorell, Montserrat

    2013-01-01

    Airborne transmission of influenza A virus (IAV) in swine is speculated to be an important route of virus dissemination, but data are scarce. This study attempted to detect and quantify airborne IAV by virus isolation and RRT-PCR in air samples collected under field conditions. This was accomplished by collecting air samples from four acutely infected pig farms and locating air samplers inside the barns, at the external exhaust fans and downwind from the farms at distances up to 2.1 km. IAV was detected in air samples collected in 3 out of 4 farms included in the study. Isolation of IAV was possible from air samples collected inside the barn at two of the farms and in one farm from the exhausted air. Between 13% and 100% of samples collected inside the barns tested RRT-PCR positive with an average viral load of 3.20E+05 IAV RNA copies/m3 of air. Percentage of exhaust positive air samples also ranged between 13% and 100% with an average viral load of 1.79E+04 RNA copies/m3 of air. Influenza virus RNA was detected in air samples collected between 1.5 and 2.1 Km away from the farms with viral levels significantly lower at 4.65E+03 RNA copies/m3. H1N1, H1N2 and H3N2 subtypes were detected in the air samples and the hemagglutinin gene sequences identified in the swine samples matched those in aerosols providing evidence that the viruses detected in the aerosols originated from the pigs in the farms under study. Overall our results indicate that pigs can be a source of IAV infectious aerosols and that these aerosols can be exhausted from pig barns and be transported downwind. The results from this study provide evidence of the risk of aerosol transmission in pigs under field conditions. PMID:23951164

  16. Detection and Elimination of Corynebacterium bovis from Barrier Rooms by Using an Environmental Sampling Surveillance Program.

    PubMed

    Manuel, Christopher; Pugazhenthi, Umarani; Spiegel, Shannon; Leszczynski, Jori

    2017-02-16

    Rodent health-monitoring programs based on sampling an IVC system's exhaust air dust (EAD) has enhanced and evenreplaced traditional sentinels for some rodent pathogens. EAD testing by qPCR assay is an optimal surveillance methodfor the rapid detection of Corynebacterium bovis-infected immunodeficient mice. Here we demonstrate that an active EADsurveillance program for C. bovis can be used to maintain nude mice C. bovis-free after the transition from historically enzootically infected colonies. During 3 events over 3 y, rapid detection of infection, elimination of infected mice, aggressivequarantine measures, and local decontamination prevented the spread of C. bovis within 2 barrier rooms. In total, 4 cages ofinfected nude mice were identified and removed, preventing the spread of infection to 469 other cages of immunodeficientmice. In addition, we present data regarding a refinement to EAD testing which enables row-specific surveillance of an IVCrack. This technique systemically decreases the amount of testing required to locate an individually infected cage. Due to ourability to rapidly detect and localize an infected cage, we were able to investigate the route of C. bovis introduction into ourbarrier rooms. Our epidemiologic investigation suggested that the transmission of C. bovis occurred through contaminated,cryopreserved, patient-derived xenograft tumor tissue. This previously unknown source of C. bovis can infect mice used topropagate these tumors. Together, these data demonstrate that a remediation program that combines rapid detection, testand-cull, and local decontamination under quarantine conditions can eliminate C. bovis from a mouse colony.

  17. Noaa chlorofluorocarbon tracer program air and seawater measurements: 1986-1989. Data file

    SciTech Connect

    Wisegarver, D.P.; Bullister, J.L.; Gammon, R.H.; Menzia, F.A.; Kelly, K.C.

    1993-04-01

    The NOAA Chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) Tracer Program at PMEL has been measuring the growing burden of these anthropogenic gases in the thermocline waters of the Pacific Ocean since 1980. The central goals of the NOAA CFC Tracer Program are to document the transient invasion of the CFC tracers into the Pacific Ocean, by means of repeat occupations of key hydrographic sections at 5-year intervals, and to interpret these changing distributions in terms of coupled ocean-atmosphere models. Studies are underway to use the CFC observations in model-validation studies, and to help develop predictive capabilities on the decade-to-century timescale. The report includes measurements of trichlorofluoromethane (CFC-11) and dichlorodifluoromethane (CFC-12) dissolved in seawater samples collected in the Pacific Ocean by the NOAA CFC Tracer Program on six cruises during the period of 1986-1989. Measurements of depth, pressure, salinity, temperature, and dissolved oxygen are included with the CFC data. Measurements of CFC-11 and CFC-12 in air samples collected along the cruise tracks are also included in the report. Data from the report are also available from the authors in digital format.

  18. The Steubenville comprehensive air monitoring program (SCAMP): overview and statistical considerations.

    PubMed

    Connell, Daniel P; Withum, Jeffrey A; Winter, Stephen E; Statnick, Robert M; Bilonick, Richard A

    2005-04-01

    Average concentrations of particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter less than or equal to 2.5 microm (PM2.5) in Steubenville, OH, have decreased by more than 10 microg/m3 since the landmark Harvard Six Cities Study associated the city's elevated PM2.5 concentrations with adverse health effects in the 1980s. Given the promulgation of a new National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS) for PM2.5 in 1997, a current assessment of PM2.5 in the Steubenville region is warranted. The Steubenville Comprehensive Air Monitoring Program (SCAMP) was conducted from 2000 through 2002 to provide such an assessment. The program included both an outdoor ambient air monitoring component and an indoor and personal air sampling component. This paper, which is the first in a series of four that will present results from the outdoor portion of SCAMP, provides an overview of the outdoor ambient air monitoring program and addresses statistical issues, most notably autocorrelation, that have been overlooked by many PM2.5 data analyses. The average PM2.5 concentration measured in Steubenville during SCAMP (18.4 microg/m3) was 3.4 microg/m3 above the annual PM2.5 NAAQS. On average, sulfate and organic material accounted for approximately 31% and 25%, respectively, of the total PM2.5 mass. Local sources contributed an estimated 4.6 microg/m3 to Steubenville's mean PM2.5 concentration. PM2.5 and each of its major ionic components were significantly correlated in space across all pairs of monitoring sites in the region, suggesting the influence of meteorology and long-range transport on regional PM2.5 concentrations. Statistically significant autocorrelation was observed among time series of PM2.5 and component data collected at daily and 1-in-4-day frequencies during SCAMP. Results of spatial analyses that accounted for autocorrelation were generally consistent with findings from previous studies that did not consider autocorrelation; however, these analyses also indicated that failure to

  19. Sampling artifacts in active air sampling of semivolatile organic contaminants: Comparing theoretical and measured artifacts and evaluating implications for monitoring networks.

    PubMed

    Melymuk, Lisa; Bohlin-Nizzetto, Pernilla; Prokeš, Roman; Kukučka, Petr; Klánová, Jana

    2016-10-01

    The effects of sampling artifacts are often not fully considered in the design of air monitoring with active air samplers. Semivolatile organic contaminants (SVOCs) are particularly vulnerable to a range of sampling artifacts because of their wide range of gas-particle partitioning and degradation rates, and these can lead to erroneous measurements of air concentrations and a lack of comparability between sites with different environmental and sampling conditions. This study used specially adapted filter-sorbent sampling trains in three types of active air samplers to investigate breakthrough of SVOCs, and the possibility of other sampling artifacts. Breakthrough volumes were experimentally determined for a range of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in sampling volumes from 300 to 10,000 m(3), and sampling durations of 1-7 days. In parallel, breakthrough was estimated based on theoretical sorbent-vapor pressure relationships. The comparison of measured and theoretical determinations of breakthrough demonstrated good agreement between experimental and estimated breakthrough volumes, and showed that theoretical breakthrough estimates should be used when developing air monitoring protocols. Significant breakthrough in active air samplers occurred for compounds with vapor pressure >0.5 Pa at volumes <700 m(3). Sample volumes between 700 and 10,000 m(3) may lead to breakthrough for compounds with vapor pressures between 0.005 and 0.5 Pa. Breakthrough is largely driven by sample volume and compound volatility (therefore indirectly by temperature) and is independent of sampler type. The presence of significant breakthrough at "typical" sampling conditions is relevant for air monitoring networks, and may lead to under-reporting of more volatile SVOCs.

  20. Sorbent-based sampling methods for volatile and semi-volatile organic compounds in air Part 1: Sorbent-based air monitoring options.

    PubMed

    Woolfenden, Elizabeth

    2010-04-16

    Sorbent tubes/traps are widely used in combination with gas chromatographic (GC) analytical methods to monitor the vapour-phase fraction of organic compounds in air. Target compounds range in volatility from acetylene and freons to phthalates and PCBs and include apolar, polar and reactive species. Airborne vapour concentrations will vary depending on the nature of the location, nearby pollution sources, weather conditions, etc. Levels can range from low percent concentrations in stack and vent emissions to low part per trillion (ppt) levels in ultra-clean outdoor locations. Hundreds, even thousands of different compounds may be present in any given atmosphere. GC is commonly used in combination with mass spectrometry (MS) detection especially for environmental monitoring or for screening uncharacterised workplace atmospheres. Given the complexity and variability of organic vapours in air, no one sampling approach suits every monitoring scenario. A variety of different sampling strategies and sorbent media have been developed to address specific applications. Key sorbent-based examples include: active (pumped) sampling onto tubes packed with one or more sorbents held at ambient temperature; diffusive (passive) sampling onto sorbent tubes/cartridges; on-line sampling of air/gas streams into cooled sorbent traps; and transfer of air samples from containers (canisters, Tedlar) bags, etc.) into cooled sorbent focusing traps. Whichever sampling approach is selected, subsequent analysis almost always involves either solvent extraction or thermal desorption (TD) prior to GC(/MS) analysis. The overall performance of the air monitoring method will depend heavily on appropriate selection of key sampling and analytical parameters. This comprehensive review of air monitoring using sorbent tubes/traps is divided into 2 parts. (1) Sorbent-based air sampling option. (2) Sorbent selection and other aspects of optimizing sorbent-based air monitoring methods. The paper presents

  1. Urban air quality assessment using monitoring data of fractionized aerosol samples, chemometrics and meteorological conditions.

    PubMed

    Yotova, Galina I; Tsitouridou, Roxani; Tsakovski, Stefan L; Simeonov, Vasil D

    2016-01-01

    The present article deals with assessment of urban air by using monitoring data for 10 different aerosol fractions (0.015-16 μm) collected at a typical urban site in City of Thessaloniki, Greece. The data set was subject to multivariate statistical analysis (cluster analysis and principal components analysis) and, additionally, to HYSPLIT back trajectory modeling in order to assess in a better way the impact of the weather conditions on the pollution sources identified. A specific element of the study is the effort to clarify the role of outliers in the data set. The reason for the appearance of outliers is strongly related to the atmospheric condition on the particular sampling days leading to enhanced concentration of pollutants (secondary emissions, sea sprays, road and soil dust, combustion processes) especially for ultra fine and coarse particles. It is also shown that three major sources affect the urban air quality of the location studied-sea sprays, mineral dust and anthropogenic influences (agricultural activity, combustion processes, and industrial sources). The level of impact is related to certain extent to the aerosol fraction size. The assessment of the meteorological conditions leads to defining of four downwind patterns affecting the air quality (Pelagic, Western and Central Europe, Eastern and Northeastern Europe and Africa and Southern Europe). Thus, the present study offers a complete urban air assessment taking into account the weather conditions, pollution sources and aerosol fractioning.

  2. Biomimetic air sampling for detection of low concentrations of molecules and bioagents : LDRD 52744 final report.

    SciTech Connect

    Hughes, Robert Clark

    2003-12-01

    Present methods of air sampling for low concentrations of chemicals like explosives and bioagents involve noisy and power hungry collectors with mechanical parts for moving large volumes of air. However there are biological systems that are capable of detecting very low concentrations of molecules with no mechanical moving parts. An example is the silkworm moth antenna which is a highly branched structure where each of 100 branches contains about 200 sensory 'hairs' which have dimensions of 2 microns wide by 100 microns long. The hairs contain about 3000 pores which is where the gas phase molecules enter the aqueous (lymph) phase for detection. Simulations of diffusion of molecules indicate that this 'forest' of hairs is 'designed' to maximize the extraction of the vapor phase molecules. Since typical molecules lose about 4 decades in diffusion constant upon entering the liquid phase, it is important to allow air diffusion to bring the molecule as close to the 'sensor' as possible. The moth acts on concentrations as low as 1000 molecules per cubic cm. (one part in 1e16). A 3-D collection system of these dimensions could be fabricated by micromachining techniques available at Sandia. This LDRD addresses the issues involved with extracting molecules from air onto micromachined structures and then delivering those molecules to microsensors for detection.

  3. The Nationwide Program for Maintenance of Air Quality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rhoads, Richard G.

    1975-01-01

    Through the Clean Air Act of 1970 the Federal government established ambient air quality standards while allocating to the states the responsibility of implementation. State plans must be modified to ensure maintenance of the standards after attainment has been achieved and to maintain standards in areas threatened by pollution. (MR)

  4. Joint University Program for Air Transportation Research, 1985

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrell, Frederick R. (Compiler)

    1987-01-01

    Air transportation research being carried on at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Princeton University, and Ohio University is discussed. Global Positioning System experiments, Loran-C monitoring, inertial navigation, the optimization of aircraft trajectories through severe microbursts, fault tolerant flight control systems, and expert systems for air traffic control are among the topics covered.

  5. Monitoring organic nitrogen species in the UT/LS - a new system for analysis of CARIBIC whole air samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sauvage, Carina; Thorenz, Ute; Baker, Angela; Brenninkmeijer, Carl; Williams, Jonathan

    2014-05-01

    The CARIBIC project is a unique program for long term and global scale monitoring of the atmosphere (http://www.caribic-atmospheric.com). An instrument container is installed monthly into a civil aircraft operated by Lufthansa (Airbus A 340-600) and makes atmospheric observations en route from Frankfurt, Germany to various destinations around the globe. In four to six long distance flights at a cruising altitude of 10 to 12 km online measurements of various atmospheric tracers are performed during the flight as well as whole air samples are taken with two different sampling units (116 samples in both glass and stainless steel canisters). These samples are routinely analyzed for greenhouse gases, non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHC) and halogenated compounds. Nitrogen containing compounds play various important roles in the atmosphere. Alkyl nitrates (RONO2) are products of the reaction of NMHC with OH and other oxidants in the presence of NO. They can provide information on the oxidative history of an air mass. Moreover they influence photolchemical ozone formation and act as a transport mechanism for reactive nitrogen. Less reactive nitrogen containing species such as HCN and acetonitrile are important markers for biomass burning, while organic amines are involved in gas to particle partitioning. Finally N2O is a long lived nitrogen containing gas important for the Earth's radiative budget. Regular measurements of such nitrogen compounds would therefore be a significant contribution to the CARIBIC data set. Especially for high altitude samples, in which the mixing ratios of many species are expected to be in the low ppt range, a highly sensitive method for analysis is required. Therefore a new system for measurement of nitrogen compounds has been built up, comprising a gas chromatograph (GC) using a nitrogen chemiluminescence detector (NCD). An important advantage of the NCD is that it is selective for nitrogen and equimolar. The nitrogen compounds are sequentially pre

  6. Nonuniform air flow in inlets: the effect on filter deposits in the fiber sampling cassette.

    PubMed

    Baron, P A; Chen, C C; Hemenway, D R; O'Shaughnessy, P

    1994-08-01

    Smoke stream studies were combined with a new technique for visualizing a filter deposit from samples used to monitor asbestos or other fibers. Results clearly show the effect of secondary flow vortices within the sampler under anisoaxial sampling conditions. The vortices observed at low wind velocities occur when the inlet axis is situated at angles between 45 degrees and 180 degrees to the motion of the surrounding air. It is demonstrated that the vortices can create a complex nonuniform pattern in the filter deposit, especially when combined with particle settling or electrostatic interactions between the particles and the sampler. Inertial effects also may play a role in the deposit nonuniformity, as well as causing deposition on the cowl surfaces. Changes in the sampler, such as its placement, may reduce these biases. The effects noted are not likely to occur in all sampling situations, but may explain some reports of high variability on asbestos fiber filter samples. The flow patterns observed in this study are applicable to straight, thin-walled inlets. Although only compact particles were used, the air flow patterns and forces involved will have similar effects on fibers of the same aerodynamic diameter.

  7. Environmental sampling and mud sampling program of CSDP (Continental Scientific Drilling Program) core hole VC-2B, Valles Caldera, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Meeker, K.; Goff, F.; Gardner, J.N.; Trujillo, P.E.; Counce, D.

    1990-03-01

    An environmental sampling and drilling mud sampling program was conducted during the drilling operations of Continental Scientific Drilling Program (CSDP) core hole VC-2B, Valles caldera, New Mexico. A suite of four springs and creeks in the Sulphur Springs area were monitored on a regular basis to ensure that the VC-2B drilling program was having no environmental impact on water quality. In addition, a regional survey of springs in and around the Jemez Mountains was conducted to provide background data for the environmental monitoring. A drilling mud monitoring program was conducted during the operations to help identify major fluid entries in the core hole. 32 refs., 14 figs., 7 tabs.

  8. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers and alternative flame retardants in air and precipitation samples from the northern Lake Victoria region, East Africa.

    PubMed

    Arinaitwe, Kenneth; Muir, Derek C G; Kiremire, Bernard T; Fellin, Phil; Li, Henrik; Teixeira, Camilla

    2014-01-01

    High volume air and precipitation samples were collected close to the shore of Lake Victoria at Entebbe, Uganda, between October 2008 and July 2010 inclusive. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and alternative flame retardants (AFRs) were analyzed by GC-MS. BDEs 47, 99, and 209 were the predominant PBDEs with mean concentrations (in air) of 9.84, 4.38, 8.27 pg m(-3) and mean fluxes in precipitation of 3.40, 6.23, and 7.82 ng m(-2) sample(-1), respectively. 1,2-bis(2,4,6-tribromophenoxy)ethane (BTBPE), and hexabromocyclododecane (HBCDD), anti- and syn-Dechlorane plus were detected at levels comparable with those of PBDEs. Both PBDEs and AFRs in air generally increased from 2008 to 2010. Elevated PBDE concentrations in air were associated with slow moving low altitude air masses from the region immediately adjacent to the lake, while low concentrations were mostly associated with fast moving westerly and southwesterly air masses. Analysis of the octa- and nona-BDE profiles suggested photolysis and pyrolytic debromination of BDE-209 in the air samples. The highly halogenated and most abundant PBDEs and AFRs in air also predominated in precipitation samples. This is the first study to report flame retardants in high volume air samples and precipitation in Equatorial Africa.

  9. Controls Over the Air Force Contract Augmentation Program Payment Process Need Improvement

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-01-28

    No. DODIG-2015-075 J A N U A R Y 2 8 , 2 0 1 5 Controls Over the Air Force Contract Augmentation Program Payment Process Need Improvement Report...2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2015 to 00-00-2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Controls Over the Air Force Contract Augmentation Program...Controls Over the Air Force Contract Augmentation Program Payment Process Need Improvement Visit us at www.dodig.mil Objective To determine whether DoD was

  10. Glyphosate-rich air samples induce IL-33, TSLP and generate IL-13 dependent airway inflammation.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Sudhir; Khodoun, Marat; Kettleson, Eric M; McKnight, Christopher; Reponen, Tiina; Grinshpun, Sergey A; Adhikari, Atin

    2014-11-05

    Several low weight molecules have often been implicated in the induction of occupational asthma. Glyphosate, a small molecule herbicide, is widely used in the world. There is a controversy regarding a role of glyphosate in developing asthma and rhinitis among farmers, the mechanism of which is unexplored. The aim of this study was to explore the mechanisms of glyphosate induced pulmonary pathology by utilizing murine models and real environmental samples. C57BL/6, TLR4-/-, and IL-13-/- mice inhaled extracts of glyphosate-rich air samples collected on farms during spraying of herbicides or inhaled different doses of glyphosate and ovalbumin. The cellular response, humoral response, and lung function of exposed mice were evaluated. Exposure to glyphosate-rich air samples as well as glyphosate alone to the lungs increased: eosinophil and neutrophil counts, mast cell degranulation, and production of IL-33, TSLP, IL-13, and IL-5. In contrast, in vivo systemic IL-4 production was not increased. Co-administration of ovalbumin with glyphosate did not substantially change the inflammatory immune response. However, IL-13-deficiency resulted in diminished inflammatory response but did not have a significant effect on airway resistance upon methacholine challenge after 7 or 21 days of glyphosate exposure. Glyphosate-rich farm air samples as well as glyphosate alone were found to induce pulmonary IL-13-dependent inflammation and promote Th2 type cytokines, but not IL-4 for glyphosate alone. This study, for the first time, provides evidence for the mechanism of glyphosate-induced occupational lung disease.

  11. Atmospheric trace gas measurements with a new clean air sampling system

    SciTech Connect

    Leifer, R.; Sommers, K.; Guggenheim, S.F.

    1981-10-01

    The development of a new clean air sampling system for the Department of Energy's WB-57F aircraft has allowed the analysis of CCl/sub 3/F (Fluorocarbon-11), CCl/sub 2/F/sub 2/ (Fluorocarbon-12), CHClF/sub 2/ (Fluorocarbon-22), C/sub 2/Cl/sub 3/F/sub 3/ (Fluorocarbon-113), CH/sub 4/, CO, CO/sub 2/, N/sub 2/O, CH/sub 3/Cl, CCl/sub 4/, CH/sub 3/CCl/sub 3/, OCS and SF/sub 6/ in tropospheric and stratospheric samples. Samples collected during the interception of the plume from the eruption of Mount St. Helens indicate that OCS was injected into the stratosphere during the eruption. A large CO/sub 2/ gradient was found at 19.2 km on this flight.

  12. Relationship of air sampling rates of semipermeable membrane devices with the properties of organochlorine pesticides.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Xiuhua; Ding, Guanghui; Levy, Walkiria; Jakobi, Gert; Schramm, Karl-Werner

    2011-06-01

    The organochlorine pesticides (OCP) in Eastern-Barvaria at Haidel 1160 m a.s.l. were monitored with a low volume active air sampler and semi-permeable membrane devices (SPMD). The air sampling rates (Rair) of SPMD for OCP were calculated. Quantitative structure-property relationship (QSPR) models of Rair of SPMD were developed for OCP with partial least square (PLS) regression. Quantum chemical descriptors computed by semi-empirical PM6 method were used as predictor variables. The cumulative variance of the dependent variable explained by the PLS components and determined by cross-validation (Q(2)cum), for the optimal models, is 0.637, indicating that the model has good predictive ability and robustness, and could be used to estimate Rair values of OCP. The main factors governing Rair of OCP are intermolecular interactions and the energy required for cave-forming in dissolution of OCP into triolein of SPMD.

  13. Soyuz 23 Return Samples: Assessment of Air Quality Aboard the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    James, John T.

    2011-01-01

    Six mini-grab sample containers (m-GSCs) were returned aboard Soyuz 23 because of concerns that new air pollutants had been present in the air and these were getting into the water recovery system. The Total Organic Carbon Analyzer had been giving increasing readings of total organic carbon (TOC) in the potable water, and it was postulated that an increased load into the system was responsible. The TOC began to decline in late October, 2010. The toxicological assessment of 6 m-GSCs from the ISS is shown in Table 1. The recoveries of 13C-acetone, fluorobenzene, and chlorobenzene from the GSCs averaged 73, 82, and 59%, respectively. We are working to understand the sub-optimal recovery of chlorobenzene.

  14. Stratospheric CCN sampling program. [volcanology, Mount Saint Helens

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rogers, C. F.; Hudson, J. G.

    1982-01-01

    Two one liter grab samples of stratospheric aerosol were returned from each of six U-2 sampling missions. Cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) spectra from each sample were obtained. Interest was centered on the effects of volcanic activity. Spurious particle generation was found to be a serious problem in container 9 LFT and a much smaller problem in container 9 RT. Initial studies of an option for improved sample containers and values were completed. A CCN spectrometer, able to operate at an internal pressure of 300 mb, was designed.

  15. Corn blight review: Sampling model and ground data measurements program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, R. D.

    1972-01-01

    The sampling plan involved the selection of the study area, determination of the flightline and segment sample design within the study area, and determination of a field sample design. Initial interview survey data consisting of crop species acreage and land use were collected. On all corn fields, additional information such as seed type, row direction, population, planting date, ect. were also collected. From this information, sample corn fields were selected to be observed through the growing season on a biweekly basis by county extension personnel.

  16. Auditing of sampling methods for air toxics at coal-fired power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Agbede, R.O.; Clements, J.L.; Grunebach, M.G.

    1995-11-01

    Advanced Technology Systems, Inc. (ATS) with subcontract assistance from international Technology Corporation (IT) has provided external audit activities for Phase II of the Department of Energy-Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center`s air emission test program. The objective of the audits is to help ensure that the data obtained from the emission tests are precise, accurate, representative, scientifically sound and legally defensible. This paper presents the criteria that were used to perform the external audits of the emission test program. It also describes the approach used by ATS and It in performing their audits. Examples of findings of the audits along with the actions take to correct problems and the subsequent effect of those actions on the test data are presented. The results of audit spikes performed at the Plant 1 test site are also discussed.

  17. Guidance for establishment and implementation of a national sample management program in support of EM environmental sampling and analysis activities

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-02-18

    The role of the National Sample Management Program (NSMP) proposed by the Department of Energy`s Office of Environmental Management (EM) is to be a resource for EM programs and for local Field Sample Management Programs (FSMPs). It will be a source of information on sample analysis and data collection within the DOE complex. Therefore the NSMP`s primary role is to coordinate and function as a central repository for information collected from the FSMPs. An additional role of the NSMP is to monitor trends in data collected from the FSMPs over time and across sites and laboratories. Tracking these trends will allow identification of potential problems in the sampling and analysis process.

  18. Radiological background levels found on glass fiber filters used for low-level environmental surveillance air sampling

    SciTech Connect

    Althouse, P. E.

    1998-09-16

    Environmental surveillance of low-level radioactive particles in air requires a thorough understanding of low-level techniques and air sample collection media. High-volume air sampling for radioactive particles around Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) employs glass-fiber filters that are analyzed for gross alpha and gross beta activity and for specific isotopes. This study was conducted to determine the activities of radionuclides contained in blank glass-fiber filters. Data from this study provided a partial explanation of differences between current reported concentrations of radionuclides in air and those reported historically when cellulose filters were used in the LLNL monitoring effort.

  19. Development of a sampling and analysis method for 4-vinyl-1-cyclohexene in air.

    PubMed

    Kongtip, Pornpimol; Tangprakorn, Bantoon; Yoosook, Witaya; Chantanakul, Suttinun

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to develop an applicable sampling and analytical method to determine airborne 4-vinyl-1-cyclohexene concentrations which are usually found in the atmosphere of polybutadiene factories. A solid sorbent tube, containing two sections (100 mg in the front and 50 mg in the back) of activated coconut-shell charcoal was chosen for sampling 4-vinyl-1-cyclohexene vapor. The 4-vinyl-1-cyclohexene in the charcoal samples was desorbed with carbon disulfide and analyzed by gas chromatography equipped with a flame ionization detector. The suitable air flow rate, adsorption capacity, sample storage stability, desorption efficiency and reliability of the method for sampling and analysis of 4-vinyl-1-cyclohexene were evaluated. The method was applied to sampling and analysis of 4-vinyl-1-cyclohexene in the rubber industry. The results indicated a suitable air flow rate of 0.3 to 1.5 l/min. The adsorption capacity of 4-vinyl-1-cyclohexene on 100 mg of charcoal was 0.2134 mg. The 4-vinyl-1-cyclohexene adsorbed on the charcoal was stable for 7 d at room temperature or 21 d in a refrigerated condition. The average percent desorption efficiency of 4-vinyl-1-cyclohexene ranged from 90.45% to 97.04% with the loaded amount ranging from 0.412 to 8.250 microg using 1 ml carbon disulfide. The limit of detection of 4-vinyl-1-cyclohexene was 0.044 ng. The average percent recoveries (n=6) of 4-vinyl-1-cyclohexene adsorbed on charcoal ranging from 0.46 to 8.87 microg were 96.78-102.87% with relative standard deviations (RSDs) of 0.34-1.92%, respectively. The concentrations of 4-vinyl-1-cyclohexene ranged from 0.011 to 0.105 mg/m(3) in the working environment of a polybutadiene factory.

  20. Results of Self-Absorption Study on the Versapor 3000 Filters for Radioactive Particulate Air Sampling

    SciTech Connect

    Barnett, J. Matthew; Cullinan, Valerie I.; Barnett, Debra S.; Trang-Le, Truc LT; Bliss, Mary; Greenwood, Lawrence R.; Ballinger, Marcel Y.

    2009-02-17

    Since the mid-1980s, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has used a value of 0.85 as the correction factor for self absorption of activity for particulate radioactive air samples collected from building exhaust for environmental monitoring. This value accounts for activity that cannot be detected by direct counting of alpha and beta particles. Emissions can be degraded or blocked by filter fibers for particles buried in the filter material or by inactive dust particles collected with the radioactive particles. These filters are used for monitoring air emissions from PNNL stacks for radioactive particles. This paper describes an effort to re-evaluate self-absorption effects in particulate radioactive air sample filters (Versapor® 3000, 47 mm diameter) used at PNNL. There were two methods used to characterize the samples. Sixty samples were selected from the archive for acid digestion to compare the radioactivity measured by direct gas-flow proportional counting of filters to the results obtained after acid digestion of the filter and counting again by gas-flow proportional detection. Thirty different sample filters were selected for visible light microscopy to evaluate filter loading and particulate characteristics. Mass-loading effects were also considered. Filter ratios were calculated by dividing the initial counts by the post-digestion counts with the expectation that post-digestion counts would be higher because digestion would expose radioactivity embedded in the filter in addition to that on top of the filter. Contrary to expectations, the post digestion readings were almost always lower than initial readings and averaged approximately half the initial readings for both alpha and beta activity. Before and after digestion readings appeared to be related to each other, but with a low coefficient of determination (R^2) value. The ratios had a wide range of values indicating that this method did not provide sufficient precision to quantify self

  1. Simultaneous sampling and analysis of indoor air infested with Cimex lectularius L. (Hemiptera: Cimicidae) by solid phase microextraction, thin film microextraction and needle trap device.

    PubMed

    Eom, In-Yong; Risticevic, Sanja; Pawliszyn, Janusz

    2012-02-24

    Air in a room infested by Cimex lectularius L. (Hemiptera: Cimicidae) was sampled simultaneously by three different sampling devices including solid phase microextraction (SPME) fiber coatings, thin film microextraction (TFME) devices, and needle trap devices (NTDs) and then analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The main focus of this study was to fully characterize indoor air by identifying compounds extracted by three different microextraction formats and, therefore, perform both the device comparison and more complete characterization of C. lectularius pheromone. The NTD technique was capable of extracting both (E)-2-hexenal and (E)-2-octenal, which were previously identified as alarm pheromones of bedbugs, and superior NTD recoveries for these two components allowed reliable identification based on mass spectral library searching and linear temperature programmed retention index (LTPRI) technique. While the use of DVB/CAR/PDMS SPME fiber coatings provided complementary sample fingerprinting and profiling results, TFME sampling devices provided discriminative extraction coverage toward highly volatile analytes. In addition to two alarm pheromones, relative abundances of all other analytes were recorded for all three devices and aligned across all examined samples, namely, highly infested area, less infested area, and control samples which were characterized by different bedbug populations. The results presented in the current study illustrate comprehensive characterization of infested indoor air samples through the use of three different non-invasive SPME formats and identification of novel components comprising C. lectularius pheromone, therefore, promising future alternatives for use of potential synthetic pheromones for detection of infestations.

  2. Provision of Hepatitis C Education in a Nationwide Sample of Drug Treatment Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Astone, Janetta; Strauss, Shiela M.; Vassilev, Zdravko P.; Des Jarlais, Don C.

    2003-01-01

    Using a nationwide sample of drug treatment programs, reports the results of an analysis that differentiates programs providing Hepatitis C virus (HCV) education to all of their patients versus programs that do not. Fifty-four percent of the programs provide HCV education to all of their patients. Findings indicate a need to increase HCV…

  3. A survey of recent results in passive sampling of water and air by semipermeable membrane devices

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Prest, Harry F.; Huckins, James N.; Petty, Jimmie D.; Herve, Sirpa; Paasivirta, Jaakko; Heinonen, Pertti

    1995-01-01

    A survey is presented of some recent results for passive sampling of water and air for trace organic contaminants using lipid-filled semipermeable membrane devices (SPMDs). Results of water sampling for trace organochlorine compounds using simultaneously exposed SPMDs and the most universally applied biomonitor (bivalves) are discussed. In general, the total amounts of accumulated analytes available for analysis in bivalves and SPMDs were comparable. However, SPMD controls typically had negligible levels of contamination, which was not always the case for transplanted bivalves, even after prolonged depuration prior to exposure. In surveys of the spatial trends of organochlorines at a series of sites, data from bivalves and SPMDs provided the same picture of contaminant distribution and severity. An exception was ionizable contaminants such as the chlorinated phenolic compounds and their transformation products found in pulp mill effluents. In these cases the two monitoring approaches compliment each other, i.e. what is not found in bivalves appears in SPMDs and vice versa. SPMDs have also been applied in environments where biomonitoring is not feasible. SPMDs have shown their utility in studies of trace levels of polyaromatic hydrocarbons by locating and characterizing point sources. An example is given of their application to the calculation of contaminant half-lives from aqueous SPMD residues, a direct measurement of the persistence of contaminants in an environmental compartment. Similarly, results of air sampling with SPMDs in a relatively pristine coastal location are cited which reveal a tremendous enhancement in p,p′-DDE relative to open ocean values.

  4. THE SCIENTIFIC BASIS OF NOAA'S AIR QUALITY FORECASTING PROGRAM

    EPA Science Inventory

    For many years, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) has conducted atmospheric research, including chemical and physical measurements, process studies, and the development and evaluation of experimental meteorological and photochemical air quality models. ...

  5. Final Nellis Air Force Base Capital Improvements Program Environmental Assessment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-08-01

    ACRONYMS AND ABBREVIATIONS 99 ABW 99th Air Base Wing ACC Air Combat Command ACES Automated Civil Engineer System ACM Asbestos -Containing Material...would need to obtain new or update existing permits. These permits would apply to the removal and disposal of asbestos as a result of demolition of...or modifications to facilities; construction of new facilities; and stormwater discharge permits. Asbestos and Lead-Based Paint Removal and

  6. Contemporary-use pesticides in personal air samples during pregnancy and blood samples at delivery among urban minority mothers and newborns.

    PubMed Central

    Whyatt, Robin M; Barr, Dana B; Camann, David E; Kinney, Patrick L; Barr, John R; Andrews, Howard F; Hoepner, Lori A; Garfinkel, Robin; Hazi, Yair; Reyes, Andria; Ramirez, Judyth; Cosme, Yesenia; Perera, Frederica P

    2003-01-01

    We have measured 29 pesticides in plasma samples collected at birth between 1998 and 2001 from 230 mother and newborn pairs enrolled in the Columbia Center for Children's Environmental Health prospective cohort study. Our prior research has shown widespread pesticide use during pregnancy among this urban minority cohort from New York City. We also measured eight pesticides in 48-hr personal air samples collected from the mothers during pregnancy. The following seven pesticides were detected in 48-83% of plasma samples (range, 1-270 pg/g): the organophosphates chlorpyrifos and diazinon, the carbamates bendiocarb and 2-isopropoxyphenol (metabolite of propoxur), and the fungicides dicloran, phthalimide (metabolite of folpet and captan), and tetrahydrophthalimide (metabolite of captan and captafol). Maternal and cord plasma levels were similar and, except for phthalimide, were highly correlated (p < 0.001). Chlorpyrifos, diazinon, and propoxur were detected in 100% of personal air samples (range, 0.7-6,010 ng/m(3)). Diazinon and propoxur levels were significantly higher in the personal air of women reporting use of an exterminator, can sprays, and/or pest bombs during pregnancy compared with women reporting no pesticide use or use of lower toxicity methods only. A significant correlation was seen between personal air level of chlorpyrifos, diazinon, and propoxur and levels of these insecticides or their metabolites in plasma samples (maternal and/or cord, p < 0.05). The fungicide ortho-phenylphenol was also detected in 100% of air samples but was not measured in plasma. The remaining 22 pesticides were detected in 0-45% of air or plasma samples. Chlorpyrifos, diazinon, propoxur, and bendiocarb levels in air and/or plasma decreased significantly between 1998 and 2001. Findings indicate that pesticide exposures are frequent but decreasing and that the pesticides are readily transferred to the developing fetus during pregnancy. PMID:12727605

  7. Basic Information about the Indoor Air Quality Tribal Partners Program

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    IAQ Tribal Partners Program. This website aims to further empower champions of healthy IAQ in tribal communities with tools for networking, sharing programs and practices, and by serving as a reservoir of the best available tribal-specific IAQ information.

  8. Tough Tommy’s Space Force: General Thomas S. Power and the Air Force Space Program

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-06-01

    owe deep thanks to Archie Difante, Maranda Gilmore, Tammy Horton, and the staff of the Air Force Historical Research Agency for their help finding...Power and SAC in historical context of both the Air Force and the national space program. Also, I must thank Dr. Tom Hughes for explaining to an...development. They could envision future potential by which armies, navies, and air forces should best deploy forces to defeat their enemies.”2

  9. SAMPLE RESULTS FROM THE INTEGRATED SALT DISPOSITION PROGRAM MACROBATCH 5 TANK 21H QUALIFICATION MST, ESS AND PODD SAMPLES

    SciTech Connect

    Peters, T.; Fink, S.

    2012-04-24

    Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) performed experiments on qualification material for use in the Integrated Salt Disposition Program (ISDP) Batch 5 processing. This qualification material was a composite created from recent samples from Tank 21H and archived samples from Tank 49H to match the projected blend from these two tanks. Additionally, samples of the composite were used in the Actinide Removal Process (ARP) and extraction-scrub-strip (ESS) tests. ARP and ESS test results met expectations. A sample from Tank 21H was also analyzed for the Performance Objectives Demonstration Document (PODD) requirements. SRNL was able to meet all of the requirements, including the desired detection limits for all the PODD analytes. This report details the results of the Actinide Removal Process (ARP), Extraction-Scrub-Strip (ESS) and Performance Objectives Demonstration Document (PODD) samples of Macrobatch (Salt Batch) 5 of the Integrated Salt Disposition Program (ISDP).

  10. Making Program Assessment Work: A Profile of the U.S. Air Force Academy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Millis, Barbara J.; Lowe, James K.; Aretz, Anthony J.

    2003-01-01

    Examines the three levels of course and program assessment present at the U.S. Air Force Academy, including assessment at the course, departmental, and institutional levels. Points out common elements useful to all assessment efforts. (EV)

  11. Risk Management Programs under Clean Air Act Section 112(r): Guidance for Implementing Agencies

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Accidental release prevention programs under section 112(r) of the Clean Air Act (CAA) are related to and build on activities under the Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act, and Occupational Safety and Health Administration standards.

  12. Sampling of Breathable Air in U.S. Navy Sonar Domes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-03-01

    USS Kidd 4/92 154 ( DDG - 993 ) USS Donald B. Beary (FF- 6/92 41 1085) USS Truett 6/92 149 (FF-1095) USS San Jacinto 6/92 70 (CG-56) USS Hue City 9/92 32...pressure-tight bulkhead in the center of the dome. On the DD-963, and DDG - 993 , and CG-47 class ships (i.e., destroyers and 5 cruisers), samples of dome air...Command. NAVSEA S9165-AH-MMA-010. Technical manual for sonar dome rubber window SDRW-1 for DD-963, DDG - 993 , and CG-47 class vessels. Revision 1,

  13. Evaluation of septum-capped vials for storage of gas samples during air transport.

    PubMed

    Glatzel, Stephan; Well, Reinhard

    2008-01-01

    In order to provide information on the suitability of commonly used gas storage vials for air transport, we tested two vial types on their ability to preserve defined nitrous oxide concentrations and excess pressure when exposed to low pressure, low temperature and puncture by needles. Unlike in Crimp Cap vials, in Exetainers no nitrous oxide loss following low pressure storage was detectable. Tightness of Exetainers following multiple puncture was best using a small needle diameter. Pressure loss following 5, 10, or 25 punctures was lowest in the Exetainers. We conclude that Exetainers are suitable for storing gas samples for an extended period of time during aircraft transport.

  14. Employment Projections and Program Priorities. AIR 1999 Annual Forum Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenthal, Dan; Collier, Kitty

    This study compared occupational projections for Alabama with graduation rates in corresponding academic programs to provide a context for state and institutional policy decisions on new program initiatives and to comply with recent program viability legislation. The study examined number of degrees conferred, employment projections, and…

  15. Teplice Program--The Impact of Air Pollution on Human Health

    EPA Science Inventory

    The aim of the Teplice Program is to investigate and assess the impact of air pollution on the health of the population in the district of Teplice, Czech Republic. Characterization of the air pollutants demonstrated unusually high concentrations during winter inversions of fine p...

  16. An Attrition Study of the Off Duty Air Force Education Program at McConnell AFB.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singer, Henry; Veeman, Frank

    A study examined the attrition problem as it affected a typical institution of higher learning supporting the education program at an Air Force base. The institution involved was Butler County Community College (BCCC), which offered classes at McConnell Air Force Base (AFB). In order to determine if the high attrition rate at McConnell was unique,…

  17. Key Metrics and Goals for NASA's Advanced Air Transportation Technologies Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaplan, Bruce; Lee, David

    1998-01-01

    NASA's Advanced Air Transportation Technologies (AATT) program is developing a set of decision support tools to aid air traffic service providers, pilots, and airline operations centers in improving operations of the National Airspace System (NAS). NASA needs a set of unifying metrics to tie these efforts together, which it can use to track the progress of the AATT program and communicate program objectives and status within NASA and to stakeholders in the NAS. This report documents the results of our efforts and the four unifying metrics we recommend for the AATT program. They are: airport peak capacity, on-route sector capacity, block time and fuel, and free flight-enabling.

  18. Retained Gas Sampling Results for the Flammable Gas Program

    SciTech Connect

    J.M. Bates; L.A. Mahoney; M.E. Dahl; Z.I. Antoniak

    1999-11-18

    The key phenomena of the Flammable Gas Safety Issue are generation of the gas mixture, the modes of gas retention, and the mechanisms causing release of the gas. An understanding of the mechanisms of these processes is required for final resolution of the safety issue. Central to understanding is gathering information from such sources as historical records, tank sampling data, tank process data (temperatures, ventilation rates, etc.), and laboratory evaluations conducted on tank waste samples.

  19. Assessing the impact of a wood stove replacement program on air quality and children's health.

    PubMed

    Noonan, Curtis W; Ward, Tony J; Navidi, William; Sheppard, Lianne; Bergauff, Megan; Palmer, Chris

    2011-12-01

    Many rural mountain valley communities experience elevated ambient levels of fine particulate matter (PM*) in the winter, because of contributions from residential wood-burning appliances and sustained temperature inversion periods during the cold season. A wood stove change-out program was implemented in a community heavily affected by wood-smoke-derived PM2.5 (PM < or = 2.5 microm in aerodynamic diameter). The objectives of this study were to evaluate the impact of this intervention program on ambient and indoor PM2.5 concentrations and to identify possible corresponding changes in the frequency of childhood respiratory symptoms and infections and illness-related school absences. Over 1100 old wood stoves were replaced with new EPA-certified wood stoves or other heating sources. Ambient PM2.5 concentrations were 30% lower in the winter after the changeout program, compared with baseline winters, which brought the community's ambient air within the PM2.5 standards of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA). The installation of a new wood stove resulted in an overall reduction in indoor PM2.5 concentrations in a small sample of wood-burning homes, but the effects were highly variable across homes. Community-level reductions in wood-smoke-derived PM2.5 concentration were associated with decreased reports of childhood wheeze and of other childhood respiratory health conditions. The association was not limited to children living in homes with wood stoves nor does it appear to be limited to susceptible children (e.g., children with asthma). Community-level reductions in wood-smoke-derived PM2.5 concentration were also associated with lower illness-related school absences among older children, but this finding was not consistent across all age-groups. This community-level intervention provided a unique opportunity to prospectively observe exposure and outcome changes resulting from a targeted air pollution reduction strategy.

  20. Sample Program Structure for Medium-Size Cities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park. Inst. of Public Administration.

    Program structure is the means employed to organize information concerning the work performed in government, the resources consumed to carry out that work, the effect upon individuals and the environment, and the relationship of this information to goals and objectives. The structure described in this document is intended as an aid for medium size…

  1. Detection of pollen grains in multifocal optical microscopy images of air samples.

    PubMed

    Landsmeer, Sander H; Hendriks, Emile A; de Weger, Letty A; Reiber, Johan H C; Stoel, Berend C

    2009-06-01

    Pollen is a major cause of allergy and monitoring pollen in the air is relevant for diagnostic purposes, development of pollen forecasts, and for biomedical and biological researches. Since counting airborne pollen is a time-consuming task and requires specialized personnel, an automated pollen counting system is desirable. In this article, we present a method for detecting pollen in multifocal optical microscopy images of air samples collected by a Burkard pollen sampler, as a first step in an automated pollen counting procedure. Both color and shape information was used to discriminate pollen grains from other airborne material in the images, such as fungal spores and dirt. A training set of 44 images from successive focal planes (stacks) was used to train the system in recognizing pollen color and for optimization. The performance of the system has been evaluated using a separate set of 17 image stacks containing 65 pollen grains, of which 86% was detected. The obtained precision of 61% can still be increased in the next step of classifying the different pollen in such a counting system. These results show that the detection of pollen is feasible in images from a pollen sampler collecting ambient air. This first step in automated pollen detection may form a reliable basis for an automated pollen counting system.

  2. Extreme 13C depletion of CCl2F2 in firn air samples from NEEM, Greenland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zuiderweg, A.; Holzinger, R.; Martinerie, P.; Schneider, R.; Kaiser, J.; Witrant, E.; Etheridge, D.; Petrenko, V.; Blunier, T.; Röckmann, T.

    2013-01-01

    A series of 12 high volume air samples collected from the S2 firn core during the North Greenland Eemian Ice Drilling (NEEM) 2009 campaign have been measured for mixing ratio and stable carbon isotope composition of the chlorofluorocarbon CFC-12 (CCl2F2). While the mixing ratio measurements compare favorably to other firn air studies, the isotope results show extreme 13C depletion at the deepest measurable depth (65 m), to values lower than δ13C = -80‰ vs. VPDB (the international stable carbon isotope scale), compared to present day surface tropospheric measurements near -40‰. Firn air modeling was used to interpret these measurements. Reconstructed atmospheric time series indicate even larger depletions (to -120‰) near 1950 AD, with subsequent rapid enrichment of the atmospheric reservoir of the compound to the present day value. Mass-balance calculations show that this change is likely to have been caused by a large change in the isotopic composition of anthropogenic CFC-12 emissions, probably due to technological advances in the CFC production process over the last 80 yr, though direct evidence is lacking.

  3. Extreme 13C depletion of CCl2F2 in firn air samples from NEEM, Greenland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zuiderweg, A.; Holzinger, R.; Martinerie, P.; Schneider, R.; Kaiser, J.; Witrant, E.; Etheridge, D.; Rubino, M.; Petrenko, V.; Blunier, T.; Röckmann, T.

    2012-07-01

    A series of 12 high volume air samples collected from the S2 firn core during the North Greenland Eemian Ice Drilling (NEEM) 2009 campaign have been measured for mixing ratio and stable carbon isotope composition of the chlorofluorocarbon CFC-12 (CCl2F2). While the mixing ratio measurements compare favorably to other firn air studies, the isotope results show extreme 13C depletion at the deepest measurable depth (65 m), to values lower than δ13C = -80‰ vs. VPDB (the international stable carbon isotope scale), compared to present day surface tropospheric measurements near -40‰. Firn air modeling was used to interpret these measurements. Reconstructed atmospheric time series indicate even larger depletions (to -120‰) near 1950 AD, with subsequent rapid enrichment of the atmospheric reservoir of the compound to the present day value. Mass-balance calculations show that this change must have been caused by a large change in the isotopic composition of anthropogenic CFC-12 emissions, probably due to technological changes in the CFC production process over the last 80 yr. Propagating the mass-balance calculations into the future demonstrates that as emissions decrease to zero, isotopic fractionation by the stratospheric sinks will lead to continued 13C enrichment in atmospheric CFC-12.

  4. United States Air Force Graduate Student Research Program. 1989 Program Management Report

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-12-01

    research at Air Force laboratories /centers. Each assignment is in a subject area and at an Air Force facility mutually agreed upon by the...housing difficult to find, c) 10 weeks too short for research period. June 20, 1989 Astronautics Laboratory Edwards Air Force Base, California June 21...1989 HRL: Operations Training Division Williams Air Force Base, Arizona June 22, 1989 Weapons Laboratory Kirtland Air

  5. A ``Limited First Sample'' Approach to Mars Sample Return — Lessons from the Apollo Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eppler, D. B.; Draper, D.; Gruener, J.

    2012-06-01

    Complex, multi-opportunity Mars sample return approaches have failed to be selected as a new start twice since 1985. We advocate adopting a simpler strategy of "grab-and-go" for the initial sample return, similar to the approach taken on Apollo 11.

  6. Sample Results From The Interim Salt Disposition Program Macrobatch 6 Tank 21H Qualification Samples

    SciTech Connect

    Peters, T. B.; Fink, S. D.

    2012-12-20

    Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) analyzed samples from Tank 21H in support of qualification of Macrobatch (Salt Batch) 6 for the Interim Salt Disposition Project (ISDP). This document reports partial results of the analyses of samples of Tank 21H. No issues with the projected Salt Batch 6 strategy are identified.

  7. Sample Results from the Interim Salt Disposition Program Macrobatch 6 Tank 21H Qualification Samples

    SciTech Connect

    Peters, T. B.; Fink, S. D.

    2012-12-11

    Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) analyzed samples from Tank 21H in support of qualification of Macrobatch (Salt Batch) 6 for the Interim Salt Disposition Project (ISDP). This document reports partial results of the analyses of samples of Tank 21H. No issues with the projected Salt Batch 6 strategy are identified.

  8. Estimation of sampling error uncertainties in observed surface air temperature change in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hua, Wei; Shen, Samuel S. P.; Weithmann, Alexander; Wang, Huijun

    2016-06-01

    This study examines the sampling error uncertainties in the monthly surface air temperature (SAT) change in China over recent decades, focusing on the uncertainties of gridded data, national averages, and linear trends. Results indicate that large sampling error variances appear at the station-sparse area of northern and western China with the maximum value exceeding 2.0 K2 while small sampling error variances are found at the station-dense area of southern and eastern China with most grid values being less than 0.05 K2. In general, the negative temperature existed in each month prior to the 1980s, and a warming in temperature began thereafter, which accelerated in the early and mid-1990s. The increasing trend in the SAT series was observed for each month of the year with the largest temperature increase and highest uncertainty of 0.51 ± 0.29 K (10 year)-1 occurring in February and the weakest trend and smallest uncertainty of 0.13 ± 0.07 K (10 year)-1 in August. The sampling error uncertainties in the national average annual mean SAT series are not sufficiently large to alter the conclusion of the persistent warming in China. In addition, the sampling error uncertainties in the SAT series show a clear variation compared with other uncertainty estimation methods, which is a plausible reason for the inconsistent variations between our estimate and other studies during this period.

  9. EPA's Response to the February 2014 Release of Radioactive Material from the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP): EPA's WIPP Air Sampling Data from April 2014

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    In April 2014, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) environmental monitoring and assessment team members reviewed DOE's air sampling plan, visited DOE's air samplers and placed air samplers onsite near existing DOE samplers to corroborate results.

  10. Cast Stone Oxidation Front Evaluation: Preliminary Results For Samples Exposed To Moist Air

    SciTech Connect

    Langton, C. A.; Almond, P. M.

    2013-11-26

    The rate of oxidation is important to the long-term performance of reducing salt waste forms because the solubility of some contaminants, e.g., technetium, is a function of oxidation state. TcO{sub 4}{sup -} in the salt solution is reduced to Tc(IV) and has been shown to react with ingredients in the waste form to precipitate low solubility sulfide and/or oxide phases. Upon exposure to oxygen, the compounds containing Tc(IV) oxidize to the pertechnetate ion, Tc(VII)O{sub 4}{sup -}, which is very soluble. Consequently the rate of technetium oxidation front advancement into a monolith and the technetium leaching profile as a function of depth from an exposed surface are important to waste form performance and ground water concentration predictions. An approach for measuring contaminant oxidation rate (effective contaminant specific oxidation rate) based on leaching of select contaminants of concern is described in this report. In addition, the relationship between reduction capacity and contaminant oxidation is addressed. Chromate (Cr(VI) was used as a non-radioactive surrogate for pertechnetate, Tc(VII), in Cast Stone samples prepared with 5 M Simulant. Cast Stone spiked with pertechnetate was also prepared and tested. Depth discrete subsamples spiked with Cr were cut from Cast Stone exposed to Savannah River Site (SRS) outdoor ambient temperature fluctuations and moist air. Depth discrete subsamples spiked with Tc-99 were cut from Cast Stone exposed to laboratory ambient temperature fluctuations and moist air. Similar conditions are expected to be encountered in the Cast Stone curing container. The leachability of Cr and Tc-99 and the reduction capacities, measured by the Angus-Glasser method, were determined for each subsample as a function of depth from the exposed surface. The results obtained to date were focused on continued method development and are preliminary and apply to the sample composition and curing / exposure conditions described in this report. The

  11. Ram-air sample collection device for a chemical warfare agent sensor

    DOEpatents

    Megerle, Clifford A.; Adkins, Douglas R.; Frye-Mason, Gregory C.

    2002-01-01

    In a surface acoustic wave sensor mounted within a body, the sensor having a surface acoustic wave array detector and a micro-fabricated sample preconcentrator exposed on a surface of the body, an apparatus for collecting air for the sensor, comprising a housing operatively arranged to mount atop the body, the housing including a multi-stage channel having an inlet and an outlet, the channel having a first stage having a first height and width proximate the inlet, a second stage having a second lower height and width proximate the micro-fabricated sample preconcentrator, a third stage having a still lower third height and width proximate the surface acoustic wave array detector, and a fourth stage having a fourth height and width proximate the outlet, where the fourth height and width are substantially the same as the first height and width.

  12. BIBLE A whole-air sampling as a window on Asian biogeochemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elliott, Scott; Blake, Donald R.; Blake, Nicola J.; Dubey, Manvendra K.; Rowland, F. Sherwood; Sive, Barkley C.; Smith, Felisa A.

    2003-02-01

    Asian trace gas and aerosol emissions into carbon, nitrogen, and other elemental cycles will figure prominently in near term Earth system evolution. Atmospheric hydrocarbon measurements resolve numerous chemical species and can be used to investigate sourcing for key geocarriers. A recent aircraft study of biomass burning and lightning (BIBLE A) explored the East Asian atmosphere and was unique in centering on the Indonesian archipelago. Samples of volatile organics taken over/between the islands of Japan, Saipan, Java, and Borneo are here examined as a guide to whole-air-based studies of future Asian biogeochemistry. The midlatitude onshore/offshore pulse and tropical convection strongly influence concentration distributions. As species of increasing molecular weight are considered, rural, combustion, and industrial source regimes emerge. Methane-rich inputs such as waste treatment and rice cultivation are evidenced in the geostrophic outflow. The Indonesian atmosphere is rich in biomass burning markers and also those of vehicular activity. Complexity of air chemistry in the archipelago is a direct reflection of diverse topography, land use, and local economies in a rapidly developing nation. Conspicuous in its absence is the fingerprint for liquefied petroleum gas leakage, but it can be expected to appear as demand for clean fossil fuels rises along with per capita incomes. Combustion tracers indicate high nitrogen mobilization rates, linking regional terrestrial geocycles with open marine ecosystems. Sea to air fluxes are superimposed on continental and marine backgrounds for the methyl halides. However, ocean hot spots are not coordinated and suggest an intricate subsurface kinetics. Levels of long-lived anthropogenic halocarbons attest to the success of international environmental treaties while reactive chlorine containing species track industrial air masses. The dozens of hydrocarbons resolvable by gas chromatographic methods will enable monitoring of

  13. Comparison of air samples, nasal swabs, ear-skin swabs and environmental dust samples for detection of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in pig herds.

    PubMed

    Agersø, Y; Vigre, H; Cavaco, L M; Josefsen, M H

    2014-08-01

    To identify a cost-effective and practical method for detection of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in pig herds, the relative sensitivity of four sample types: nasal swabs, ear-skin (skin behind the ears) swabs, environmental dust swabs and air was compared. Moreover, dependency of sensitivity on within-herd prevalence was estimated. spa-typing was applied in order to study strain diversity. The sensitivity of one air sample was equal to the sensitivity of ten pools of five nasal swabs and relatively independent of within-herd prevalence [predicted to be nearly perfect (99%) for within-herd prevalence ⩾25%]. The results indicate that taking swabs of skin behind the ears (ten pools of five) was even more sensitive than taking nasal swabs (ten pools of five) at the herd level and detected significantly more positive samples. spa types t011, t034 and t4208 were observed. In conclusion, MRSA detection by air sampling is easy to perform, reduces costs and analytical time compared to existing methods, and is recommended for initial testing of herds. Ear-skin swab sampling may be more sensitive for MRSA detection than air sampling or nasal swab sampling.

  14. Evaluation of physical sampling efficiency for cyclone-based personal bioaerosol samplers in moving air environments.

    PubMed

    Su, Wei-Chung; Tolchinsky, Alexander D; Chen, Bean T; Sigaev, Vladimir I; Cheng, Yung Sung

    2012-09-01

    The need to determine occupational exposure to bioaerosols has notably increased in the past decade, especially for microbiology-related workplaces and laboratories. Recently, two new cyclone-based personal bioaerosol samplers were developed by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) in the USA and the Research Center for Toxicology and Hygienic Regulation of Biopreparations (RCT & HRB) in Russia to monitor bioaerosol exposure in the workplace. Here, a series of wind tunnel experiments were carried out to evaluate the physical sampling performance of these two samplers in moving air conditions, which could provide information for personal biological monitoring in a moving air environment. The experiments were conducted in a small wind tunnel facility using three wind speeds (0.5, 1.0 and 2.0 m s(-1)) and three sampling orientations (0°, 90°, and 180°) with respect to the wind direction. Monodispersed particles ranging from 0.5 to 10 μm were employed as the test aerosols. The evaluation of the physical sampling performance was focused on the aspiration efficiency and capture efficiency of the two samplers. The test results showed that the orientation-averaged aspiration efficiencies of the two samplers closely agreed with the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) inhalable convention within the particle sizes used in the evaluation tests, and the effect of the wind speed on the aspiration efficiency was found negligible. The capture efficiencies of these two samplers ranged from 70% to 80%. These data offer important information on the insight into the physical sampling characteristics of the two test samplers.

  15. Users Handbook for the Argonne Premium Coal Sample Program

    SciTech Connect

    Vorres, K.S.

    1993-10-01

    This Users Handbook for the Argonne Premium Coal Samples provides the recipients of those samples with information that will enhance the value of the samples, to permit greater opportunities to compare their work with that of others, and aid in correlations that can improve the value to all users. It is hoped that this document will foster a spirit of cooperation and collaboration such that the field of basic coal chemistry may be a more efficient and rewarding endeavor for all who participate. The different sections are intended to stand alone. For this reason some of the information may be found in several places. The handbook is also intended to be a dynamic document, constantly subject to change through additions and improvements. Please feel free to write to the editor with your comments and suggestions.

  16. Improved fireman's compressed air breathing system pressure vessel development program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    King, H. A.; Morris, E. E.

    1973-01-01

    Prototype high pressure glass filament-wound, aluminum-lined pressurant vessels suitable for use in a fireman's compressed air breathing system were designed, fabricated, and acceptance tested in order to demonstrate the feasibility of producing such high performance, lightweight units. The 4000 psi tanks have a 60 standard cubic foot (SCF) air capacity, and have a 6.5 inch diamter, 19 inch length, 415 inch volume, weigh 13 pounds when empty, and contain 33 percent more air than the current 45 SCF (2250 psi) steel units. The current steel 60 SCF (3000 psi) tanks weigh approximately twice as much as the prototype when empty, and are 2 inches, or 10 percent shorter. The prototype units also have non-rusting aluminum interiors, which removes the hazard of corrosion, the need for internal coatings, and the possibility of rust particles clogging the breathing system.

  17. 'Pseudomonas saudimassiliensis' sp. nov. a new bacterial species isolated from air samples in the urban environment of Makkah, Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Azhar, E I; Papadioti, A; Bibi, F; Ashshi, A M; Raoult, D; Angelakis, E

    2017-03-01

    We report here the main characteristics of 'Pseudomonas saudimassiliensis' strain 12M76_air(T) (CSUR P1220), a new species of the Pseudomonas genus that was isolated from air samples in the city environment of Makkah, Saudi Arabia, during the pilgrim period of Hajj 2012.

  18. 'Lysinibacillus saudimassiliensis' sp. nov., a new bacterial species isolated from air samples in the urban environment of Makkah, Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Papadioti, A; Azhar, E I; Bibi, F; Jiman-Fatani, A; Aboushoushah, S M; Yasir, M; Raoult, D; Angelakis, E

    2017-03-01

    We report here the main characteristics of 'Lysinibacillus saudimassiliensis' strain 13S34_air(τ) (CSUR = P1222), a new species of the Lysinibacillus genus that was isolated from air samples in the city environment of Makkah, Saudi Arabia, during the pilgrim period of Hajj 2012.

  19. 'Jeotgalicoccus saudimassiliensis' sp. nov., a new bacterial species isolated from air samples in the urban environment of Makkah, Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Papadioti, A; Azhar, E I; Bibi, F; Jiman-Fatani, A; Aboushoushah, S M; Yasir, M; Raoult, D; Angelakis, E

    2017-01-01

    We report here the main characteristics of 'Jeotgalicoccus saudimassiliensis' strain 13MG44_air(T) (CSUR P1221), a new species of the Jeotgalicoccus genus that was isolated from air samples in the city environment of Makkah, Saudi Arabia, during the pilgrim period of Hajj 2012.

  20. 'Arthrobacter saudimassiliensis' sp. nov. a new bacterial species isolated from air samples in the urban environment of Makkah, Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Papadioti, A; Azhar, E I; Bibi, F; Jiman-Fatani, A; Aboushoushah, S M; Yasir, M; Raoult, D; Angelakis, E

    2017-03-01

    We report here the main characteristics of 'Arthrobacter saudimassiliensis' strain 11W110_air(T) (CSUR P1223), a new species of the Arthrobacter genus that was isolated from air samples in the city environment of Makkah, Saudi Arabia, during the pilgrim period of Hajj 2012.

  1. Can the use of deactivated glass fibre filters eliminate sorption artefacts associated with active air sampling of perfluorooctanoic acid?

    PubMed

    Johansson, Jana H; Berger, Urs; Cousins, Ian T

    2017-05-01

    Experimental work was undertaken to test whether gaseous perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) sorbs to glass fibre filters (GFFs) during air sampling, causing an incorrect measure of the gas-particle equilibrium distribution. Furthermore, tests were performed to investigate whether deactivation by siliconisation prevents sorption of gaseous PFOA to filter materials. An apparatus was constructed to closely simulate a high-volume air sampler, although with additional features allowing introduction of gaseous test compounds into an air stream stripped from particles. The set-up enabled investigation of the sorption of gaseous test compounds to filter media, eliminating any contribution from particles. Experiments were performed under ambient outdoor air conditions at environmentally relevant analyte concentrations. The results demonstrate that gaseous PFOA sorbs to GFFs, but that breakthrough of gaseous PFOA on the GFFs occurs at trace-level loadings. This indicates that during high volume air sampling, filters do not quantitatively capture all the PFOA in the sampled air. Experiments with siliconised GFFs showed that this filter pre-treatment reduced the sorption of gaseous PFOA, but that sorption still occurred at environmentally relevant air concentrations. We conclude that deactivation of GFFs does not allow for the separation of gaseous and particle bound perfluorinated carboxylic acids (PFCAs) during active air sampling. Consequently, the well-recognised theory that PFCAs do not prevail as gaseous species in the atmosphere may be based on biased measurements. Caution should be taken to ensure that this artefact will not bias the conclusions of future field studies.

  2. U.S. ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY'S PM SUPERSITES PROGRAM - A MAJOR SUCCESSFUL COLLABORATIVE AIR QUALITY PROGRAM SUPPORTING STATES AND REGIONAL ORGANIZATIONS IN THEIR APPROACHES TO REDUCE PM LEVELS IN AIR ON URBAN AND REGIONAL SCALES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Particulate Matter (PM) Supersites Program (Program) is a nationwide air quality methods, measurement, modeling, and data analysis program initiated through cooperative agreements with leading universities in the United States. The Progr...

  3. Air sampling of aromatic hydrocarbons in the presence of ozone by solid-phase microextraction.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Gouhua; Koziel, Jacek A; Pawliszyn, Janusz

    2004-01-30

    Effects of ozone on air sampling of standard gas mixtures of aromatic hydrocarbons were tested using solid-phase microextraction (SPME). Standard concentrations of ozone ranging from 10 ppb (v/v) to 6400 ppm (v/v) were generated using an in-house built ozone generator based on corona discharge. Effects of temperature, discharge voltage, and oxygen flow on the ozone generation were tested. The working dc voltage had the greatest effect on generated ozone concentration and was proportional to the ozone concentration. Generation temperature and oxygen flow rate were inversely proportional to ozone concentrations. Produced ozone was mixed with standard benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes (BTEX) gas at less than 100 ppb (v/v). Air samples were collected with poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) 100 microm SPME fibers and analyzed by gas chromatography (GC)-flame ionization detection (FID) and GC-MS. Significant reductions of BTEX concentrations were observed. In addition, some products of BTEX-ozone-oxygen reactions were identified. SPME worked well as a rapid sampler for BTEX and BTEX-ozone-oxygen reaction products. No significant deterioration of the PDMS coating and no significant reduction of absorption capacity were observed after repeated exposure to ozone.

  4. Optimal media for use in air sampling to detect cultivable bacteria and fungi in the pharmacy.

    PubMed

    Weissfeld, Alice S; Joseph, Riya Augustin; Le, Theresa V; Trevino, Ernest A; Schaeffer, M Frances; Vance, Paula H

    2013-10-01

    Current guidelines for air sampling for bacteria and fungi in compounding pharmacies require the use of a medium for each type of organism. U.S. Pharmacopeia (USP) chapter <797> (http://www.pbm.va.gov/linksotherresources/docs/USP797PharmaceuticalCompoundingSterileCompounding.pdf) calls for tryptic soy agar with polysorbate and lecithin (TSApl) for bacteria and malt extract agar (MEA) for fungi. In contrast, the Controlled Environment Testing Association (CETA), the professional organization for individuals who certify hoods and clean rooms, states in its 2012 certification application guide (http://www.cetainternational.org/reference/CAG-009v3.pdf?sid=1267) that a single-plate method is acceptable, implying that it is not always necessary to use an additional medium specifically for fungi. In this study, we reviewed 5.5 years of data from our laboratory to determine the utility of TSApl versus yeast malt extract agar (YMEA) for the isolation of fungi. Our findings, from 2,073 air samples obtained from compounding pharmacies, demonstrated that the YMEA yielded >2.5 times more fungal isolates than TSApl.

  5. Evaluation of bioaerosol sampling techniques for the detection of Chlamydophila psittaci in contaminated air.

    PubMed

    Van Droogenbroeck, Caroline; Van Risseghem, Marleen; Braeckman, Lutgart; Vanrompay, Daisy

    2009-03-16

    Chlamydophila (C.) psittaci, a category B bioterrorism agent, causes respiratory disease in birds and psittacosis or parrot fever in man. The disease spreads aerogenically and no vaccines are available for either birds or man. Highly sensitive C. psittaci bioaerosol monitoring methods are unavailable. We evaluated: (1) dry filtration for collecting C. psittaci from contaminated air using different samplers and membrane filters, (2) impingement into different liquid collection media by use of the AGI-30 impinger and the BioSampler and (3) impaction into newly designed C. psittaci media utilizing the MAS-100 aerosol impactor. For personal bioaerosol sampling, we recommend the use of a gelatin filter in combination with the IOM inhalable dust sampler at an airflow rate of 2L/min. This allowed the detection of 10 organisms of C. psittaci by both PCR and culture. For stationary bioaerosol monitoring, sampling 1000L of air in 10min with the MAS-100 impactor and ChlamyTrap 1 impaction medium was most efficient and made it possible to detect 1 and 10 C. psittaci organisms by PCR and culture, respectively. ChlamyTrap 1 in combination with the MAS-100 impactor might also be applicable for bioaerosol monitoring of viruses.

  6. Evaluating spatial distribution and seasonal variation of phthalates using passive air sampling in southern India.

    PubMed

    Sampath, Srimurali; Selvaraj, Krishna Kumar; Shanmugam, Govindaraj; Krishnamoorthy, Vimalkumar; Chakraborty, Paromita; Ramaswamy, Babu Rajendran

    2017-02-01

    Usage of phthalates as plasticizers has resulted in worldwide occurrence and is becoming a serious concern to human health and environment. However, studies on phthalates in Indian atmosphere are lacking. Therefore, we studied the spatio-temporal trends of six major phthalates in Tamil Nadu, southern India, using passive air samplers. Phthalates were ubiquitously detected in all the samples and the average total phthalates found in decreasing order is pre-monsoon (61 ng m(-3)) > summer (52 ng m(-3)) > monsoon (17 ng m(-3)). Largely used phthalates, dibutylphthalate (DBP) and diethylhexlphthalate (DEHP) were predominantly found in all the seasons with contribution of 11-31% and 59-68%, respectively. The highest total phthalates was observed in summer at an urban location (836 ng m(-3)). Furthermore, through principal component analysis, potential sources were identified as emissions from additives of plasticizers in the polymer industry and the productions of adhesives, building materials and vinyl flooring. Although inhalation exposure of infants was higher than other population segments (toddlers, children and adults), exposure levels were found to be safe for people belonging to all ages based on reference dose (RfD) and tolerable daily intake (TDI) values. This study first attempted to report seasonal trend based on atmospheric monitoring using passive air sampling technique and exposure risk together.

  7. NASA technology program for future civil air transports

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wright, H. T.

    1983-01-01

    An assessment is undertaken of the development status of technology, applicable to future civil air transport design, which is currently undergoing conceptual study or testing at NASA facilities. The NASA civil air transport effort emphasizes advanced aerodynamic computational capabilities, fuel-efficient engines, advanced turboprops, composite primary structure materials, advanced aerodynamic concepts in boundary layer laminarization and aircraft configuration, refined control, guidance and flight management systems, and the integration of all these design elements into optimal systems. Attention is given to such novel transport aircraft design concepts as forward swept wings, twin fuselages, sandwich composite structures, and swept blade propfans.

  8. The US Air Force Suicide Prevention Program: Implications for Public Health Policy

    PubMed Central

    Pflanz, Steven; Talcott, Gerald W.; Campise, Rick L.; Lavigne, Jill E.; Bajorska, Alina; Tu, Xin; Caine, Eric D.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives. We evaluated the effectiveness of the US Air Force Suicide Prevention Program (AFSPP) in reducing suicide, and we measured the extent to which air force installations implemented the program. Methods. We determined the AFSPP's impact on suicide rates in the air force by applying an intervention regression model to data from 1981 through 2008, providing 16 years of data before the program's 1997 launch and 11 years of data after launch. Also, we measured implementation of program components at 2 points in time: during a 2004 increase in suicide rates, and 2 years afterward. Results. Suicide rates in the air force were significantly lower after the AFSPP was launched than before, except during 2004. We also determined that the program was being implemented less rigorously in 2004. Conclusions. The AFSPP effectively prevented suicides in the US Air Force. The long-term effectiveness of this program depends upon extensive implementation and effective monitoring of implementation. Suicides can be reduced through a multilayered, overlapping approach that encompasses key prevention domains and tracks implementation of program activities. PMID:20466973

  9. Concentrations of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in matched samples of human milk, dust and indoor air.

    PubMed

    Toms, Leisa-Maree L; Hearn, Laurence; Kennedy, Karen; Harden, Fiona; Bartkow, Michael; Temme, Christian; Mueller, Jochen F

    2009-08-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are lipophilic, persistent pollutants found worldwide in environmental and human samples. Exposure pathways for PBDEs remain unclear but may include food, air and dust. The aim of this study was to conduct an integrated assessment of PBDE exposure and human body burden using 10 matched samples of human milk, indoor air and dust collected in 2007-2008 in Brisbane, Australia. In addition, temporal analysis was investigated comparing the results of the current study with PBDE concentrations in human milk collected in 2002-2003 from the same region. PBDEs were detected in all matrices and the median concentrations of BDEs -47 and -209 in human milk, air and dust were: 4.2 and 0.3 ng/g lipid; 25 and 7.8 pg/m(3); and 56 and 291 ng/g dust, respectively. Significant correlations were observed between the concentrations of BDE-99 in air and human milk (r=0.661, p=0.038) and BDE-153 in dust and BDE-183 in human milk (r=0.697, p=0.025). These correlations do not suggest causal relationships - there is no hypothesis that can be offered to explain why BDE-153 in dust and BDE-183 in milk are correlated. The fact that so few correlations were found in the data could be a function of the small sample size, or because additional factors, such as sources of exposure not considered or measured in the study, might be important in explaining exposure to PBDEs. There was a slight decrease in PBDE concentrations from 2002-2003 to 2007-2008 but this may be due to sampling and analytical differences. Overall, average PBDE concentrations from these individual samples were similar to results from pooled human milk collected in Brisbane in 2002-2003 indicating that pooling may be an efficient, cost-effective strategy of assessing PBDE concentrations on a population basis. The results of this study were used to estimate an infant's daily PBDE intake via inhalation, dust ingestion and human milk consumption. Differences in PBDE intake of individual

  10. Characteristics of Stafford Loan Program Defaulters: A National Sample.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beanblossom, Gary F.; Rodriguez, Blanca Rosa

    This study examined characteristics differentiating defaulters on Stafford student loans (formerly Guaranteed Student Loans) from non-defaulters. Data were drawn from a sample of 100,000 records randomly selected from the fiscal year 1987 guarantee agency cumulative borrower file. A cohort of 7,382 borrowers taking out their last loan in FY 1983…

  11. Treaty verification sample analysis program analytical results: UNSCOM 65 samples. Final report, December 1993-January 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Szafraniec, L.L.; Beaudry, W.T.; Bossle, P.C.; Durst, H.D.; Ellzy, M.W.

    1994-07-01

    Nineteen samples from the United Nations Special Commission 65 on Iraq (UNSCOM 65) were analyzed for chemical warfare (CW) related compounds using a variety of highly sophisticated spectroscopic and chromatographic techniques. The samples consisted of six water, six soil, two vegetation, one cloth, one wood, and two mortar shell crosscut sections. No sulfur or nitrogen mustards, Lewsite, or any of their degradation products were detected. No nerve agents were observed, and no tin was detected precluding the presence of stannic chloride, a component of NC, a World War I choking agent. Diethyl phosphoric acid was unambiguously identified in three water samples, and ethyl phosphoric acid was tentatively identified, at very low levels, in one water sample. These phosphoric acids are degradation products of Amiton, many commercially available pesticides, as well as Tabun, and impurities in munitions-grade Tabun. No definitive conclusions concerning the source of these two chemicals could be drawn from the analytical results.

  12. Target Acquisition Involving Multiple Unmanned Air Vehicles: Interfaces for Small Unmanned Air Systems (ISUS) Program

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-03-01

    03/12/09; 88ABW-09-0990. 14. ABSTRACT The use of small unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) and micro air vehicles (MAVs) in military reconnaissance...unmanned aerial systems. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Target acquisition, reconnaissance/surveillance, micro air vehicles 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF...more than doubled its use of drones between January and October 2007 while the number of unmanned flight hours for DoD systems soared to over

  13. 77 FR 65006 - Air Cargo Advance Screening (ACAS) Pilot Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-24

    ... data interchange (EDI) system before the cargo is brought into or departs the United States by any mode... submission of both the ACAS data and the advance electronic cargo information required by 19 CFR 122.48a... mandatory advance electronic information for air cargo. CBP regulations implementing the Trade Act of...

  14. Joint University Program for Air Transportation Research, 1982

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    A summary of the research on air transportation is addressed including navigation; guidance, control and display concepts; and hardware, with special emphasis on applications to general aviation aircraft. Completed works and status reports are presented also included are annotated bibliographies of all published research sponsored on these grants since 1972.

  15. Air Force Research Initiation Program. 1986 Technical Report. Volume 3

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-04-01

    at Orono Jackson State University Specialty: Mathematical Statistics Specialty: Educational Psychology WILFORD HALL MEDICAL CENTER (Lackland Air Force...had a considerable 71-5 practical experience in applied research , administration, teaching and pedagogy, athletics and coaching, psychology , and...of facts and the frontier method preferred for procedural skills that have prerequisite relations. Second , once a topic, or more particularly a

  16. Final Creech Air Force Base Capital Improvements Program Environmental Assessment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-11-01

    maintain operational mission such as emergency power, check valves, heating and air conditioning units, force protection, under-wing foam system ...Repair Fire Alarm System , Building 2 Airfield LKTC141030 Construct Drainage Culverts Along Road Utility LKTC141031 Replace Heat Pump, Building 234...Polychlorinated Biphenyl (PCB) — a synthetic, organic chemical once widely used in electrical equipment, specialized hydraulic systems , heat transfer

  17. ANASORB{reg_sign} 747 - A universal sorbent for air sampling?

    SciTech Connect

    Harper, M.

    1997-12-31

    A sorbent to be used for air sampling must meet certain performance criteria including sample background, capacity, stability, and recovery. Anasorb{sup R} 747 is a proprietary 20/40 mesh beaded active carbon prepared from raw materials with a very low ash content in a process which creates a regular pore structure. The background is very low for both inorganic and organic species, and the surface is more inert and less hydrophilic than coconut charcoal, while capacity is similar. The low catalytic activity of the surface means samples of many reactive compounds remain stable for longer periods. The sorbent is compatible with most solvent systems in use (e.g. carbon disulfide, methylene chloride, methanol, dimethyformamide). Anasorb 747 can be coated with chemicals for efficient adsorption of inorganic gases, which can be analyzed at very low levels because of low background interference. A large number of validated sampling methods use Anasorb 747, including methods from OSHA and NIOSH, corporate industrial hygiene laboratories, various branches of the EPA, and international agencies. These methods refer to around fifty different gases and vapors. Although this sorbent is not compatible with some compounds (e.g. low molecular weight aldehydes) it is quite close to being of universal application.

  18. Installation Restoration Program. Remedial investigation report. Site 1. Fire Training Area. Volk Field Air National Guard Base, Camp Douglas, Wi. Volume 1. Final remedial investigation report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-07-01

    Volume 1 of this report covers the Remedial Investigation conducted on Site 1, Fire Training Area at Volk Field Air National Guard Base. The remedial work is described and the testing conducted after remediation to insure all contamination has been removed. The study as conducted under the Air National Guard's Installation Restoration Program. Partial contents include: Meteorology; Hydrology; Soils; Water wells; Groundwater; Borings; Samplings; Chemical contamination; Migration; Decontamination.

  19. Detection and Elimination of Corynebacterium bovis from Barrier Rooms by Using an Environmental Sampling Surveillance Program.

    PubMed

    Manuel, Christopher A; Pugazhenthi, Umarani; Spiegel, Shannon P; Leszczynski, Jori K

    2017-03-01

    Rodent health-monitoring programs based on sampling an IVC system's exhaust air dust (EAD) has enhanced and even replaced traditional sentinels for some rodent pathogens. EAD testing by qPCR assay is an optimal surveillance method for the rapid detection of Corynebacterium bovis-infected immunodeficient mice. Here we demonstrate that an active EAD surveillance program for C. bovis can be used to maintain nude mice C. bovis-free after the transition from historically enzootically infected colonies. During 3 events over 3 y, rapid detection of infection, elimination of infected mice, aggressive quarantine measures, and local decontamination prevented the spread of C. bovis within 2 barrier rooms. In total, 4 cages of infected nude mice were identified and removed, preventing the spread of infection to 469 other cages of immunodeficient mice. In addition, we present data regarding a refinement to EAD testing which enables row-specific surveillance of an IVC rack. This technique systemically decreases the amount of testing required to locate an individually infected cage. Due to our ability to rapidly detect and localize an infected cage, we were able to investigate the route of C. bovis introduction into our barrier rooms. Our epidemiologic investigation suggested that the transmission of C. bovis occurred through contaminated, cryopreserved, patient-derived xenograft tumor tissue. This previously unknown source of C. bovis can infect mice used to propagate these tumors. Together, these data demonstrate that a remediation program that combines rapid detection, test-and-cull, and local decontamination under quarantine conditions can eliminate C. bovis from a mouse colony.

  20. Total Particulate Matter Air Sampling Data (TEOM) from Los Alamos National Laboratory

    DOE Data Explorer

    LANL measures the total particulate mass concentration in the air on a routine basis as well as during incidents that may affect ambient air. The collected data is added to the Air Quality Index (AQI). AQI is an index for reporting daily air quality. It tells you how clean or polluted your air is, and what associated health effects might be a concern for you. The AQI focuses on health effects you may experience within a few hours or days after breathing polluted air. EPA calculates the AQI for five major air pollutants regulated by the Clean Air Act.

  1. Release Storage and Disposal Program Product Sampling Support

    SciTech Connect

    CALMUS, R.B.

    2000-07-19

    This document includes recommended capabilities and/or services to support transport, analysis, and disposition of Immobilized High-Level and Low-Activity Waste samples as requested by the US DOE-Office of River Protection (DOE-ORP) as specified in the Privatization Contract between DOE-ORP and BNFL Inc. In addition, an approved implementation path forward is presented which includes use of existing Hanford Site services to provide the required support capabilities.

  2. Sampling medium side resistance to uptake of semivolatile organic compounds in passive air samplers.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xianming; Tsurukawa, Masahiro; Nakano, Takeshi; Lei, Ying D; Wania, Frank

    2011-12-15

    Current theory of the uptake of semivolatile organic compounds in passive air samplers (PAS) assumes uniform chemical distribution and no kinetic resistance within the passive sampling media (PSM) such as polystyrene-divinylbenzene resin (XAD) and polyurethane foam (PUF). However, these assumptions have not been tested experimentally and are challenged by some recently reported observations. To test the assumptions, we performed kinetic uptake experiments indoors using cylindrical PSM that had been concentrically segmented into three layers. Both XAD and PUF were positioned in the same type of sampler housing to eliminate the variation caused by the different housing designs, which enabled us to quantify differences in uptake caused by the properties of the PSM. Duplicated XAD (PUF) samples were retrieved after being deployed for 0, 1 (0.5), 2 (1), 4 (2), 8 (4), 12 (8), and 24 (12) weeks. Upon retrieval, the PSM layers were separated and analyzed individually for PCBs. Passive sampling rates (R) were lower for heavier PCB homologues. Within a homologue group, R for XAD was higher than that for PUF, from which we infer that the design of the "cylindrical can" housing typically used for XAD PAS lowers the R compared to the "double bowl" shelter commonly used for PUF-disk PAS. Outer layers of the PSM sequestered much higher levels of PCBs than inner layers, indicative of a kinetic resistance to chemical transfer within the PSM. The effective diffusivities for chemical transfer within PSM were derived and were found negatively correlated with the partition coefficients between the PSM and air. Based on the results, we conclude that the PSM-side kinetic resistance should be considered when investigating factors influencing R and when deriving R based on the loss of depuration compounds.

  3. Evaluation of sampling methods for toxicological testing of indoor air particulate matter.

    PubMed

    Tirkkonen, Jenni; Täubel, Martin; Hirvonen, Maija-Riitta; Leppänen, Hanna; Lindsley, William G; Chen, Bean T; Hyvärinen, Anne; Huttunen, Kati

    2016-09-01

    There is a need for toxicity tests capable of recognizing indoor environments with compromised air quality, especially in the context of moisture damage. One of the key issues is sampling, which should both provide meaningful material for analyses and fulfill requirements imposed by practitioners using toxicity tests for health risk assessment. We aimed to evaluate different existing methods of sampling indoor particulate matter (PM) to develop a suitable sampling strategy for a toxicological assay. During three sampling campaigns in moisture-damaged and non-damaged school buildings, we evaluated one passive and three active sampling methods: the Settled Dust Box (SDB), the Button Aerosol Sampler, the Harvard Impactor and the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) Bioaerosol Cyclone Sampler. Mouse RAW264.7 macrophages were exposed to particle suspensions and cell metabolic activity (CMA), production of nitric oxide (NO) and tumor necrosis factor (TNFα) were determined after 24 h of exposure. The repeatability of the toxicological analyses was very good for all tested sampler types. Variability within the schools was found to be high especially between different classrooms in the moisture-damaged school. Passively collected settled dust and PM collected actively with the NIOSH Sampler (Stage 1) caused a clear response in exposed cells. The results suggested the higher relative immunotoxicological activity of dust from the moisture-damaged school. The NIOSH Sampler is a promising candidate for the collection of size-fractionated PM to be used in toxicity testing. The applicability of such sampling strategy in grading moisture damage severity in buildings needs to be developed further in a larger cohort of buildings.

  4. The Impact of the Developmental Training Model on Staff Development in Air Force Child Development Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bird, Candace Maria Edmonds

    2010-01-01

    In an effort to standardize training delivery and to individualize staff development based on observation and reflective practice, the Air Force implemented the Developmental Training Model (DTM) in its Child Development Programs. The goal of the Developmental Training Model is to enhance high quality programs through improvements in the training…

  5. 77 FR 3386 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Pennsylvania; Clean Vehicles Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-24

    ... emission vehicle program for light- duty vehicles (LEV II). The Clean Air Act (CAA) contains specific... Program that incorporates by reference provisions of California's LEV II rules and specifies a transition... (California LEV), under authority of section 177 of the CAA. The formal SIP Clean Vehicle SIP revision...

  6. Air Vehicle Technology Integration Program (AVTIP). Delivery Order 0054: Opportune Landing Site (OLS) Critical Experiment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-04-01

    AFRL-RB-WP-TR-2009-3118 AIR VEHICLE TECHNOLOGY INTEGRATION PROGRAM (AVTIP) Delivery Order 0054: Opportune Landing Site (OLS) Critical...VEHICLE TECHNOLOGY INTEGRATION PROGRAM (AVTIP) Delivery Order 0054: Opportune Landing Site (OLS) Critical Experiment 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER F33615-00

  7. Computer program for sample sizes required to determine disease incidence in fish populations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ossiander, Frank J.; Wedemeyer, Gary

    1973-01-01

    A computer program is described for generating the sample size tables required in fish hatchery disease inspection and certification. The program was designed to aid in detection of infectious pancreatic necrosis (IPN) in salmonids, but it is applicable to any fish disease inspection when the sampling plan follows the hypergeometric distribution.

  8. Urine fingerprinting: detection of sample tampering in an opiate dependency program.

    PubMed

    Kapur, B; Hershkop, S; Koren, G; Gaughan, V

    1999-04-01

    Methadone treatment programs commonly monitor patient compliance by screening urine samples for drugs of abuse. Our experience suggests that re-submission of urine samples (for example, providing a urine sample that is either not that of the patient or was previously submitted) is often used as a method of sample tampering. We have developed an algorithm that combines urine sodium, chloride, creatinine and pH values with urine drug screening results to effectively detect resubmitted samples. Given the widespread use of urine drug screening in drug and alcohol rehabilitation programs, we believe this technique has significant practical benefits. This technique may also have an application in forensic identification of duplicate samples.

  9. 24-HOUR DIFFUSIVE SAMPLING OF TOXIC VOCS IN AIR ONTO CARBOPACK X SOLID ADSORBENT FOLLOWED BY THERMAL DESORPTION/GC/MS ANALYSIS - LABORATORY STUDIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Diffusive sampling of a mixture of 42 volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in humidified, purified air onto the solid adsorbent Carbopack X was evaluated under controlled laboratory conditions. The evaluation included variations in sample air temperature, relative humidity, and ozon...

  10. CTEPP STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE FOR COLLECTION OF FIXED SITE INDOOR AND OUTDOOR AIR SAMPLES FOR PERSISTENT ORGANIC POLLUTANTS (SOP-2.12)

    EPA Science Inventory

    This SOP describes the procedures to set up, calibrate, initiate and terminate air sampling for persistent organic pollutants. This method is used to sample air, indoors and outdoors, at homes and at day care centers over a 48-hr period.

  11. Hanford Environmental Monitoring Program schedule for samples, analyses, and measurements for calendar year 1985

    SciTech Connect

    Blumer, P.J.; Price, K.R.; Eddy, P.A.; Carlile, J.M.V.

    1984-12-01

    This report provides the CY 1985 schedule of data collection for the routine Hanford Surface Environmental Monitoring and Ground-Water Monitoring Programs at the Hanford Site. The purpose is to evaluate and report the levels of radioactive and nonradioactive pollutants in the Hanford environs, as required in DOE Order 5484.1. The routine sampling schedule provided herein does not include samples scheduled to be collected during FY 1985 in support of special studies, special contractor support programs, or for quality control purposes. In addition, the routine program outlined in this schedule is subject to modification during the year in response to changes in site operations, program requirements, or unusual sample results.

  12. The impact of an air quality advisory program on voluntary mobile source air pollution reduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blanken, Peter D.; Dillon, Jennifer; Wismann, Genevieve

    Air pollution from mobile source emissions is a major cause of air quality degradation in the Denver, Colorado, metropolitan area. The projected increase in both population and vehicle miles driven, coupled with the high altitude, predominantly clear skies, and prevalent wintertime temperature inversions aid in the formation and retention of pollutants. The Colorado Department of Public Health issues an air quality advisory daily during the high pollution season (November 1-March 31) with the objective of improving air quality through voluntary driving restrictions and a mandatory wood burning ban. We hypothesized that the advisory had no effect on commuter behavior due to lack of awareness and understanding, lack of alternative means of travel, or lack of concern. We mailed an anonymous, self-administered survey to 1000 commuters living in the cities of Boulder and Westminster, Colorado. Despite the fact that the vast majority of the respondents were aware of the daily advisory (94%), understood what it meant (93%), and heard the posting at least once a day (71%) in time to choose alternative forms of transportation, the advisory did not alter commuter travel. Commuters traveled mainly as the sole occupant of a car and most (76%) never changed the way they commuted based on the daily advisory. Many claimed schedules or work locations did not allow them to use alternative transportation methods. We suggested a practical way to improve the advisory would be to reduce or eliminate public transit fares on poor air quality days.

  13. In vitro effects of pollutants from particulate and volatile fractions of air samples-day and night variability.

    PubMed

    Novák, Jiří; Giesy, John P; Klánová, Jana; Hilscherová, Klára

    2013-09-01

    Chemicals in air were characterized for potential interference with signaling of estrogen, androgen, and arylhydrocarbon (AhR) receptors, which are known to play an important role in endocrine-disruptive changes in vivo. Previously, effects of this type have been studied mainly in particulate matter in the ambient air from various localities. In this study, both volatile and particulate fractions of air from three sites in Banja Luka region (Bosnia and Herzegovina) were investigated to describe the distribution of endocrine-disrupting contaminants on a small spatial scale. Circadian variability of air pollution was investigated by collecting samples during both day and night. Air samples collected from urban localities at night were more potent in producing the AhR-mediated effects than those collected during daytime. This trend was not observed at the reference rural location. None of the samples showed significant estrogenic or androgenic activity. On the other hand, anti-androgenicity was detected in both particulate and vapor phases, while anti-estrogenicity was detected only in the particulate fraction of air from all localities. The AhR-mediated potencies of samples were associated primarily with non-persistent compounds. Based on the concentrations of 28 individual compounds, PAHs accounted for approximately 30 % of the AhR-mediated potency determined by the bioassay. The results show that there can be a significant difference between levels of bioactive compounds in air between daytime and nighttime.

  14. 40 CFR 49.7 - Request by an Indian tribe for eligibility determination and Clean Air Act program approval.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... eligibility determination and Clean Air Act program approval. 49.7 Section 49.7 Protection of Environment... MANAGEMENT Tribal Authority § 49.7 Request by an Indian tribe for eligibility determination and Clean Air Act... it meets the eligibility requirements of § 49.6 for Clean Air Act program approval. The...

  15. 40 CFR 49.7 - Request by an Indian tribe for eligibility determination and Clean Air Act program approval.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... eligibility determination and Clean Air Act program approval. 49.7 Section 49.7 Protection of Environment... MANAGEMENT Tribal Authority § 49.7 Request by an Indian tribe for eligibility determination and Clean Air Act... it meets the eligibility requirements of § 49.6 for Clean Air Act program approval. The...

  16. 40 CFR 49.7 - Request by an Indian tribe for eligibility determination and Clean Air Act program approval.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... eligibility determination and Clean Air Act program approval. 49.7 Section 49.7 Protection of Environment... MANAGEMENT Tribal Authority § 49.7 Request by an Indian tribe for eligibility determination and Clean Air Act... it meets the eligibility requirements of § 49.6 for Clean Air Act program approval. The...

  17. A model for estimating the value of sampling programs and the optimal number of samples for contaminated soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Back, Pär-Erik

    2007-04-01

    A model is presented for estimating the value of information of sampling programs for contaminated soil. The purpose is to calculate the optimal number of samples when the objective is to estimate the mean concentration. A Bayesian risk-cost-benefit decision analysis framework is applied and the approach is design-based. The model explicitly includes sample uncertainty at a complexity level that can be applied to practical contaminated land problems with limited amount of data. Prior information about the contamination level is modelled by probability density functions. The value of information is expressed in monetary terms. The most cost-effective sampling program is the one with the highest expected net value. The model was applied to a contaminated scrap yard in Göteborg, Sweden, contaminated by metals. The optimal number of samples was determined to be in the range of 16-18 for a remediation unit of 100 m2. Sensitivity analysis indicates that the perspective of the decision-maker is important, and that the cost of failure and the future land use are the most important factors to consider. The model can also be applied for other sampling problems, for example, sampling and testing of wastes to meet landfill waste acceptance procedures.

  18. The Air Force Physical Fitness Program is it Adequate?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1999-04-01

    20 Table 3 Cardiovascular Fitness Classifications ( American Heart Association ). ...............20 Table 4 Norms... American Heart Association ). These two factors are high blood pressure and poor blood cholesterol levels.5 A study done at Stanford University showed that...and Rhyming, defined them and table 3 shows the American Heart Association �s classifications. Table 1 Air Force Fitness Standards.6 Minimum VO2 score

  19. The 1979 Clear Air Turbulence Flight Test Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weaver, E. A.; Ehernberger, L. J.; Gary, B. L.; Kurkowski, R. L.; Kuhn, P. M.; Stearns, L. P.

    1981-01-01

    The flight experiments for clear air turbulence (CAT) detection and measurement concepts are described. The test were conducted over the western part of the United States during the winter season of 1979 aboard NASA's Galileo 2 flying laboratory. A carbon dioxide pulsed Doppler lidar and an infrared radiometer were tested for the remote detection and measurement of CAT. Two microwave radiometers were evaluated for their ability to provide encounter warning and altitude avoidance information.

  20. An adaptive maneuvering logic computer program for the simulation of one-on-one air-to-air combat. Volume 1: General description

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burgin, G. H.; Fogel, L. J.; Phelps, J. P.

    1975-01-01

    A technique for computer simulation of air combat is described. Volume 1 decribes the computer program and its development in general terms. Two versions of the program exist. Both incorporate a logic for selecting and executing air combat maneuvers with performance models of specific fighter aircraft. In the batch processing version the flight paths of two aircraft engaged in interactive aerial combat and controlled by the same logic are computed. The realtime version permits human pilots to fly air-to-air combat against the adaptive maneuvering logic (AML) in Langley Differential Maneuvering Simulator (DMS). Volume 2 consists of a detailed description of the computer programs.

  1. Tribal Indoor Air Quality Programs in the Spotlight

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The following tribal IAQ champions graciously shared their stories so that others can better serve their communities. Read on to learn how these stellar programs overcame challenges to form successful IAQ initiatives.

  2. XAFSmass: a program for calculating the optimal mass of XAFS samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klementiev, K.; Chernikov, R.

    2016-05-01

    We present a new implementation of the XAFSmass program that calculates the optimal mass of XAFS samples. It has several improvements as compared to the old Windows based program XAFSmass: 1) it is truly platform independent, as provided by Python language, 2) it has an improved parser of chemical formulas that enables parentheses and nested inclusion-to-matrix weight percentages. The program calculates the absorption edge height given the total optical thickness, operates with differently determined sample amounts (mass, pressure, density or sample area) depending on the aggregate state of the sample and solves the inverse problem of finding the elemental composition given the experimental absorption edge jump and the chemical formula.

  3. Air Force Manufacturing Technology Electronics Program, FY72-FY85.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-04-01

    establishing their credibility from this program. Specific examples of these impressive successes include: samarium cobalt magnets, CMOS/SOS integrated circuits...assistance in establishing their credibility from this program. Specific examples of these impressive successes include: samarium cobalt magnets, CM0S/S0S...shifter. The ferrite core was pressed to a near net shape as well as significant improvements which were made in the driver circuit. The unit was reduced

  4. Spectral fingerprinting of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in high-volume ambient air samples by constant energy synchronous luminescence spectroscopy

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kerkhoff, M.J.; Lee, T.M.; Allen, E.R.; Lundgren, D.A.; Winefordner, J.D.

    1985-01-01

    A high-volume sampler fitted with a glass-fiber filter and backed by polyurethane foam (PUF) was employed to collect airborne particulate and gas-phase polycylic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in ambient air. Samples were collected from four sources representing a range of environmental conditions: gasoline engine exhaust, diesel engine exhaust, air near a heavily traveled interstate site, and air from a moderately polluted urban site. Spectral fingerprints of the unseparated particulate and gas-phase samples were obtained by constant energy synchronous luminescence spectroscopy (CESLS). Five major PAHs in the gas-phase extracts were characterized and estimated. The compatibility of a high-volume sampling method using polyurethane foam coupled with CESLS detection is explored for use as a screening technique for PAHs in ambient air. ?? 1985 American Chemical Society.

  5. Evaluation of a modified sampling method for molecular analysis of air microflora.

    PubMed

    Lech, T; Ziembinska-Buczynska, A

    2015-04-10

    A serious issue concerning the durability of economically important materials for humans related to cultural heritage is the process of biodeterioration. As a result of this phenomenon, priceless works of art, documents, and old prints have undergone a process of decomposition caused by microorganisms. Therefore, it is important to constantly monitor the presence and diversity of microorganisms in exposition rooms and storage areas of historical objects. In addition, the use of molecular biology tools for conservation studies will enable detailed research as well as reduce the time needed to perform the analyses compared with using conventional methods related to microbiology and conservation. The aim of this study was to adapt the sampling indoor air method for direct DNA extraction from microorganisms, including evaluating the extracted DNA quality and concentration. The obtained DNA was used to study the diversity of mold fungi in indoor air using polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis in specific archives and museum environments. The research was conducted in 2 storage rooms of the National Archives in Krakow and in 1 exposition room of the Archaeological Museum in Krakow (Poland).

  6. Cluster analysis of passive air sampling data based on the relative composition of persistent organic pollutants.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiande; Wania, Frank

    2014-03-01

    The development of passive air samplers has allowed the measurement of time-integrated concentrations of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) within spatial networks on a variety of scales. Cluster analysis of POP composition may enhance the interpretation of such spatial data. Several methodological aspects of the application of cluster analysis are discussed, including the influence of a dominant pollutant, the role of PAS duplication, and comparison of regional studies. Relying on data from six regional studies in North and South America, Africa, and Asia, we illustrate here how cluster analysis can be used to extract information and gain insights into POP sources and atmospheric transport contributions. Cluster analysis allows classification of PAS samples into those with significant local source contributions and those that represent regional fingerprints. Local emissions, atmospheric transport, and seasonal cycles are identified as being among the major factors determining the variation in POP composition at many sites. By complementing cluster analysis with meteorological data such as air mass back-trajectories, terrain, as well as geographical and socio-economic aspects, a comprehensive picture of the atmospheric contamination of a region by POPs emerges.

  7. The GaAs solar cell research and development programs of the Air Force

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Masloski, K. T.

    1980-01-01

    The compound GaAs is of interest for space application photovoltaics due to its inherent advantages over silicon. Higher efficiencies, superior radiation hardness, and a greater temperature resistance are the major advantages of GaAs over Si. Air Force programs look for ways of maximizing these advantages while minimizing disadvantages such as higher costs and weights. Four programs in GaAs photovoltaics are described and each program is discussed in terms of its objective, approach and status.

  8. Air-Based Remediation Workshop - Section 1 Sampling And Analysis Revelant To Air-Based Remediation Technologies

    EPA Science Inventory

    Pursant to the EPA-AIT Implementing Arrangement 7 for Technical Environmental Collaboration, Activity 11 "Remediation of Contaminated Sites," the USEPA Office of International Affairs Organized a Force Air Remediation Workshop in Taipei to deliver expert training to the Environme...

  9. Solvent Selection for Pressurized Liquid Extraction of Polymeric Sorbents Used in Air Sampling

    PubMed Central

    Primbs, Toby; Genualdi, Susan; Simonich, Staci

    2014-01-01

    Pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) was evaluated as a method for extracting semivolatile organic compounds (SOCs) from air sampling media; including quartz fiber filter (QFF), polyurethane foam (PUF), and a polystyrene divinyl benzene copolymer (XAD-2). Hansen solubility parameter plots were used to aid in the PLE solvent selection in order to reduce both co-extraction of polyurethane and save time in evaluating solvent compatibility during the initial steps of method development. A PLE solvent composition of 75:25% hexane:acetone was chosen for PUF. The XAD-2 copolymer was not solubilized under the PLE conditions used. The average percent PLE recoveries (and percent relative standard deviations) of 63 SOCs, including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and organochlorine, amide, triazine, thiocarbamate, and phosphorothioate pesticides, were 76.7 (6.2), 79.3 (8.1), and 93.4 (2.9) % for the QFF, PUF, and XAD-2, respectively. PMID:18220448

  10. The Savannah River Site`s groundwater monitoring program: 1990 sampling schedule

    SciTech Connect

    Rogers, C.D.

    1991-02-07

    This schedule provides a final record of the 1990 sampling schedule for the SRS groundwater monitoring program conducted by the Environmental Protection Department/Environmental Section (EPD/EMS). It includes all the wells monitored by EPD/EMS at SRS during 1990 and identifies the constituents sampled, the sampling frequency, and the reasons for sampling. Sampling requests are incorporated into the schedule throughout the year. Drafts of the schedule are produced and revised quarterly.

  11. Spectrophotometric determination of nitrogen dioxide in air and nitrite in water and soil samples

    SciTech Connect

    Pandurangappa, M.; Balasubramanian, N.

    1995-02-01

    A sensitive spectrophotometric method for the determination of nitrogen dioxide in air and nitrite in water and soil samples is described. Nitrogen dioxide in air is fixed as nitrite ion in alkaline sodium arsenite or in triethanolamine absorber solutions. The method is based on the diazo coupling reaction between p-nitro aniline and 1-hydroxy-2-naphthoic acid. The azo dye formed under aqueous condition has an absorption maximum at 585nm and obeys Beer`s law over the range 0-25{mu}g of nitrite. The colour system is stable for 72h. The relative standard deviation is 2.7% for ten determinations at 15{mu}g of nitrite. The dye is extracted with 1:1 isoamyl alcohol-IBMK mixture and stabilisation with methanolic potassium hydroxide showed {lambda}{sub max} at 610nm. It obeys Beer`s law over the range 0-4{mu}g of nitrite. The colour system is stable for 40h in organic phase and the relative standard deviation is 2.5% for ten determinations at 3{mu}g of nitrite. The molar absorptivity of the colour system is 3.68 x 10{sup 4} Lmol{sup {minus}1} cm{sup {minus}1}. The effect of interfering gases and other ions on the determination of nitrite is described. The developed method has been applied for the determination of residual nitrogen dioxide gas present in the laboratory fume cupboard and automobile exhaust gases. In addition, the method has been applied for the determination of nitrite and nitrate in samples like water, soil and radiator coolants.

  12. Evaluation of sampling and analytical methods for the determination of chlorodifluoromethane in air.

    PubMed

    Seymour, M J; Lucas, M F

    1993-05-01

    In January 1989, the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) published revised permissible exposure limits (PELs) for 212 compounds and established PELs for 164 additional compounds. In cases where regulated compounds did not have specific sampling and analytical methods, methods were suggested by OSHA. The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) Manual of Analytical Methods (NMAM) Method 1020, which was developed for 1,1,2-trichloro-1,2,2-trifluoroethane, was suggested by OSHA for the determination of chlorodifluoromethane in workplace air. Because this method was developed for a liquid and chlorodifluoromethane is a gas, the ability of NMAM Method 1020 to adequately sample and quantitate chlorodifluoromethane was questioned and tested by researchers at NIOSH. The evaluation of NMAM Method 1020 for chlorodifluoromethane showed that the capacity of the 100/50-mg charcoal sorbent bed was limited, the standard preparation procedure was incorrect for a gas analyte, and the analyte had low solubility in carbon disulfide. NMAM Method 1018 for dichlorodifluoromethane uses two coconut-shell charcoal tubes in series, a 400/200-mg tube followed by a 100/50-mg tube, which are desorbed with methylene chloride. This method was evaluated for chlorodifluoromethane. Test atmospheres, with chlorodifluoromethane concentrations from 0.5-2 times the PEL were generated. Modifications of NMAM Method 1018 included changes in the standard preparation procedure, and the gas chromatograph was equipped with a capillary column. These revisions to NMAM 1018 resulted in a 96.5% recovery and a total precision for the method of 7.1% for chlorodifluoromethane. No significant bias in the method was found. Results indicate that the revised NMAM Method 1018 is suitable for the determination of chlorodifluoromethane in workplace air.

  13. GUIDE TO CALCULATING TRANSPORT EFFICIENCY OF AEROSOLS IN OCCUPATIONAL AIR SAMPLING SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect

    Hogue, M.; Hadlock, D.; Thompson, M.; Farfan, E.

    2013-11-12

    This report will present hand calculations for transport efficiency based on aspiration efficiency and particle deposition losses. Because the hand calculations become long and tedious, especially for lognormal distributions of aerosols, an R script (R 2011) will be provided for each element examined. Calculations are provided for the most common elements in a remote air sampling system, including a thin-walled probe in ambient air, straight tubing, bends and a sample housing. One popular alternative approach would be to put such calculations in a spreadsheet, a thorough version of which is shared by Paul Baron via the Aerocalc spreadsheet (Baron 2012). To provide greater transparency and to avoid common spreadsheet vulnerabilities to errors (Burns 2012), this report uses R. The particle size is based on the concept of activity median aerodynamic diameter (AMAD). The AMAD is a particle size in an aerosol where fifty percent of the activity in the aerosol is associated with particles of aerodynamic diameter greater than the AMAD. This concept allows for the simplification of transport efficiency calculations where all particles are treated as spheres with the density of water (1g cm-3). In reality, particle densities depend on the actual material involved. Particle geometries can be very complicated. Dynamic shape factors are provided by Hinds (Hinds 1999). Some example factors are: 1.00 for a sphere, 1.08 for a cube, 1.68 for a long cylinder (10 times as long as it is wide), 1.05 to 1.11 for bituminous coal, 1.57 for sand and 1.88 for talc. Revision 1 is made to correct an error in the original version of this report. The particle distributions are based on activity weighting of particles rather than based on the number of particles of each size. Therefore, the mass correction made in the original version is removed from the text and the calculations. Results affected by the change are updated.

  14. Portable XRF analysis of occupational air filter samples from different workplaces using different samplers: final results, summary and conclusions.

    PubMed

    Harper, Martin; Pacolay, Bruce; Hintz, Patrick; Bartley, David L; Slaven, James E; Andrew, Michael E

    2007-11-01

    This paper concludes a five-year program on research into the use of a portable X-ray fluorescence (XRF) analyzer for analyzing lead in air sampling filters from different industrial environments, including mining, manufacturing and recycling. The results from four of these environments have already been reported. The results from two additional metal processes are presented here. At both of these sites, lead was a minor component of the total airborne metals and interferences from other elements were minimal. Nevertheless, only results from the three sites where lead was the most abundant metal were used in the overall calculation of method accuracy. The XRF analyzer was used to interrogate the filters, which were then subjected to acid digestion and analysis by inductively-coupled plasma optical-emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES). The filter samples were collected using different filter-holders or "samplers" where the size (diameter), depth and homogeneity of aerosol deposit varied from sampler to sampler. The aerosol collection efficiencies of the samplers were expected to differ, especially for larger particles. The distribution of particles once having entered the sampler was also expected to differ between samplers. Samplers were paired to allow the between-sampler variability to be addressed, and, in some cases, internal sampler wall deposits were evaluated and compared to the filter catch. It was found, rather surprisingly, that analysis of the filter deposits (by ICP-OES) of all the samplers gave equivalent results. It was also found that deposits on some of the sampler walls, which in some protocols are considered part of the sample, could be significant in comparison to the filter deposit. If it is concluded that wall-deposits should be analyzed, then XRF analysis of the filter can only give a minimum estimate of the concentration. Techniques for the statistical analysis of field data were also developed as part of this program and have been reported

  15. Air Quality Operating Permits Programs Which Apply to Tribal Lands

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This document may be of assistance in applying the Title V air operating permit regulations. This document is part of the Title V Policy and Guidance Database available at www2.epa.gov/title-v-operating-permits/title-v-operating-permit-policy-and-guidance-document-index. Some documents in the database are a scanned or retyped version of a paper photocopy of the original. Although we have taken considerable effort to quality assure the documents, some may contain typographical errors. Contact the office that issued the document if you need a copy of the original.

  16. Sustaining the Civil Reserve Air Fleet (CRAF) Program

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-05-01

    Airlines JAL Thai Airways Japan Air System Tyrolean SN Brussels Airlines United TAM Brazil Varig Grupo Taca Mexicana Spanair Major International...radio and television 6.6 2.7 40.3% 8517 Electrical apparatus for line telephony or telegraphy 8.1 2.6 32.3% 6204 Women’s girls’ suits, jackets, dresses... television 6.5 5.1 78.6% 7108 Gold 5.1 4.9 95.1% 9030 Oscilloscopes, instruments for measuring rays 4.2 3.7 88.5% 8529 Aerials and other radio and TV

  17. Spruce budworm sampling program for Husky Hunter Field data recorders. Forest Service research note

    SciTech Connect

    Schmidt, F.H.

    1993-07-01

    A program for receiving sampling data for all immature stages of the western spruce budworm (Choristoneua occidentalis Freeman) is described. Versions were designed to be used on field data recorders with either CP/M or DOS operating systems, such as the HUSKY HUNTER (Models 1, 2, and 16), but they also may be used on personal computers with compatible operating systems. The program allows the user to review the current plot statistics, including sampling precision, at any time while still sampling the plot. It also allows the user to determine how many more trees need to be sampled to arrive at a sampling precision specified by the user.

  18. Improving Air Force Depot Programming by Linking Resources to Capabilities

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-01-01

    Maintenance Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 Mathematical Formulation of the Depot Purchased Equipment...basis for the similitude of capability across these business areas and a quantitative anchor for programming trades. Anecdotal information indicates that... mathematical formulation. Description of the Depot Purchased Equipment Maintenance Model The requirements process designates, for each year in the FYDP, a number

  19. An Air Force Guide to Computer Program Configuration Management

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1977-08-01

    the specific requirements set forth for hardware do not appl ’, to CPCIs, but that computer program contractors should implement procedurts to comply...DATE PAGE NO. IDITIFIER ISSUE DATE IDfTFE IDENTII Computor Progrom SPECIFICATION CHANGE NOTICE OATI: PRFPAnlo - I ORIGINATOR NAME AND AORECSS 2, LS

  20. Sampling, storage, and analysis of C2-C7 non-methane hydrocarbons from the US National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Cooperative Air Sampling Network glass flasks.

    PubMed

    Pollmann, Jan; Helmig, Detlev; Hueber, Jacques; Plass-Dülmer, Christian; Tans, Pieter

    2008-04-25

    An analytical technique was developed to analyze light non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHC), including ethane, propane, iso-butane, n-butane, iso-pentane, n-pentane, n-hexane, isoprene, benzene and toluene from whole air samples collected in 2.5l-glass flasks used by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Earth System Research Laboratory, Global Monitoring Division (NOAA ESRL GMD, Boulder, CO, USA) Cooperative Air Sampling Network. This method relies on utilizing the remaining air in these flasks (which is at below-ambient pressure at this stage) after the completion of all routine greenhouse gas measurements from these samples. NMHC in sample aliquots extracted from the flasks were preconcentrated with a custom-made, cryogen-free inlet system and analyzed by gas chromatography (GC) with flame ionization detection (FID). C2-C7 NMHC, depending on their ambient air mixing ratios, could be measured with accuracy and repeatability errors of generally < or =10-20%. Larger deviations were found for ethene and propene. Hexane was systematically overestimated due to a chromatographic co-elution problem. Saturated NMHC showed less than 5% changes in their mixing ratios in glass flask samples that were stored for up to 1 year. In the same experiment ethene and propene increased at approximately 30% yr(-1). A series of blank experiments showed negligible contamination from the sampling process and from storage (<10 pptv yr(-1)) of samples in these glass flasks. Results from flask NMHC analyses were compared to in-situ NMHC measurements at the Global Atmospheric Watch station in Hohenpeissenberg, Germany. This 9-months side-by-side comparison showed good agreement between both methods. More than 94% of all data comparisons for C2-C5 alkanes, isoprene, benzene and toluene fell within the combined accuracy and precision objectives of the World Meteorological Organization Global Atmosphere Watch (WMO-GAW) for NMHC measurements.

  1. Uncertainties in Air Exchange using Continuous-Injection, Long-Term Sampling Tracer-Gas Methods

    SciTech Connect

    Sherman, Max H.; Walker, Iain S.; Lunden, Melissa M.

    2013-12-01

    The PerFluorocarbon Tracer (PFT) method is a low-cost approach commonly used for measuring air exchange in buildings using tracer gases. It is a specific application of the more general Continuous-Injection, Long-Term Sampling (CILTS) method. The technique is widely used but there has been little work on understanding the uncertainties (both precision and bias) associated with its use, particularly given that it is typically deployed by untrained or lightly trained people to minimize experimental costs. In this article we will conduct a first-principles error analysis to estimate the uncertainties and then compare that analysis to CILTS measurements that were over-sampled, through the use of multiple tracers and emitter and sampler distribution patterns, in three houses. We find that the CILTS method can have an overall uncertainty of 10-15percent in ideal circumstances, but that even in highly controlled field experiments done by trained experimenters expected uncertainties are about 20percent. In addition, there are many field conditions (such as open windows) where CILTS is not likely to provide any quantitative data. Even avoiding the worst situations of assumption violations CILTS should be considered as having a something like a ?factor of two? uncertainty for the broad field trials that it is typically used in. We provide guidance on how to deploy CILTS and design the experiment to minimize uncertainties.

  2. Volatile N-nitrosamines in environmental tobacco smoke: Sampling, analysis, emission factors, and indoor air exposures

    SciTech Connect

    Mahanama, K.R.R.; Daisey, J.M.

    1996-05-01

    A more convenient sampling and analysis method for the volatile N-nitrosamines (VNA) in environmental tobacco smoke (ETS), using commercially available Thermosorb/N cartridges, was developed and validated. Using the method, emission factors for the two major VNA in ETS were determined in a room-sized environmental chamber for six commercial cigarette brands, which together accounted for 62.5% of the total market in California in 1990. The average emission factors were 565{+-}115 and 104{+-}20 ng per cigarette for N-nitrosodimethylamine and N-nitrosopyrrolidine, respectively. The emission factors were used to estimate VNA exposures from ETS in a typical office building and an average residence. Indoor concentrations of N,N-dimethylnitrosamine from ETS for these modeled scenarios were less than 10% of the reported median outdoor concentration. This median outdoor concentration, however, includes many measurements made in source-dominated areas and may be considerably higher than one based on more representative sampling of outdoor air. 35 refs., 4 tabs.

  3. Master schedule for CY-1983 Hanford environmental surveillance routine sampling program

    SciTech Connect

    Blumer, P.J.; Sula, M.J.; Eddy, P.A.; Dirkes, R.L.

    1982-12-01

    The current schedule of data collection for the routine Hanford environmental surveillance and ground-water monitoring programs at the Hanford Site is presented. The purpose of the programs is to evaluate and report the levels of radioactive and nonradioactive pollutants in the Hanford environs. Radiological monitoring data are reported for air (particulate filter and gases/vapor), Columbia River water, sanitary water, onsite pond water, foodstuffs (whole milk, leafy vegetables, fruit, wheat/alfalfa, beef, poultry/eggs), wildlife, soil and vegetation, and direct radiation. Information is also given for on site radiation control audit surveys (roadway, railway, aerial, and waste disposal sites, and the Hanford ground-water monitoring program.

  4. Program and charts for determining shock tube, and expansion tunnel flow quantities for real air

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, C. G., III; Wilder, S. E.

    1975-01-01

    A computer program in FORTRAN 4 language was written to determine shock tube, expansion tube, and expansion tunnel flow quantities for real-air test gas. This program permits, as input data, a number of possible combinations of flow quantities generally measured during a test. The versatility of the program is enhanced by the inclusion of such effects as a standing or totally reflected shock at the secondary diaphragm, thermochemical-equilibrium flow expansion and frozen flow expansion for the expansion tube and expansion tunnel, attenuation of the flow in traversing the acceleration section of the expansion tube, real air as the acceleration gas, and the effect of wall boundary layer on the acceleration section air flow. Charts which provide a rapid estimation of expansion tube performance prior to a test are included.

  5. Significant Personal Qualities Desired of Air Force Program Managers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-11-01

    addition, it should be noted that the attributes - selected for analysis may not reflect the classic behavioral scientist’s terminology for personality...opposed to manual laborers or technicians. The progrdm manager can not deal with his subordinates by establishing piecemeal standards because knowledge... tmanagement levels, but the fact remains that the program manager must deal with those tasks to a degree. Time, in large, continuous units, is required

  6. Joint University Program for Air Transportation Research, 1990-1991

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrell, Frederick R. (Compiler)

    1991-01-01

    The goals of this program are consistent with the interests of both NASA and the FAA in furthering the safety and efficiency of the National Airspace System. Research carried out at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Ohio University, and Princeton University are covered. Topics studied include passive infrared ice detection for helicopters, the cockpit display of hazardous windshear information, fault detection and isolation for multisensor navigation systems, neural networks for aircraft system identification, and intelligent failure tolerant control.

  7. JT9D ceramic outer air seal system refinement program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaffin, W. O.

    1982-01-01

    The abradability and durability characteristics of the plasma sprayed system were improved by refinement and optimization of the plasma spray process and the metal substrate design. The acceptability of the final seal system for engine testing was demonstrated by an extensive rig test program which included thermal shock tolerance, thermal gradient, thermal cycle, erosion, and abradability tests. An interim seal system design was also subjected to 2500 endurance test cycles in a JT9D-7 engine.

  8. Communication strategy of transboundary air pollution findings in a US-Mexico Border XXI program project.

    PubMed

    Mukerjee, Shaibal

    2002-01-01

    From 1996 to 1997, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Texas Natural Resource Conservation Commission (TNRCC) conducted an air quality study known as the Lower Rio Grande Valley Transboundary Air Pollution Project (TAPP). The study was a US-Mexico Border XXI program project and was developed in response to local community requests on a need for more air quality measurements and concerns about the health impact of local air pollutants; this included concerns about emissions from border-dependent industries in Mexico, known as maquiladoras. The TAPP was a follow-up study to environmental monitoring done by EPA in this area in 1993 and incorporated scientific and community participation in development, review of results, and public presentation of findings. In spite of this, critical remarks were leveled by community activists against the study's preliminary "good news" findings regarding local air quality and the influence of transboundary air pollution. To resolve these criticisms and to refine the findings to address these concerns, analyses included comparisons of daily and near real-time measurements to TNRCC effects screening levels and data from other studies along with wind sector analyses. Reassessment of the data suggested that although regional source emissions occurred and outliers of elevated pollutant levels were found, movement of air pollution across the border did not appear to cause noticeable deterioration of air quality. In spite of limitations stated to the community, the TAPP was presented as establishing a benchmark to assess current and future transboundary air quality in the Valley. The study has application in Border XXI Program or other air quality studies where transboundary transport is a concern since it involved interagency coordination, public involvement, and communication of scientifically sound results for local environmental protection efforts.

  9. Sample results from the interim salt disposition program macrobatch 8 tank 21H qualification MST solids sample

    SciTech Connect

    Peters, T. B.; Washington, A. L.

    2015-02-01

    Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) analyzed samples from Tank 21H in support of qualification of Macrobatch (Salt Batch) 8 for Interim Salt Disposition Program (ISDP) processing. As part of this qualification work, SRNL performed an Actinide Removal Process (ARP) and several Extraction, Scrub, Strip (ESS) tests. This document reports characterization of the monosodium titanate (MST) solids from the ARP test. The results of these analyses are reported and are within historical precedent.

  10. Geospatial Informational Security Risks and Concerns of the U.S. Air Force GeoBase Program

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-03-01

    THESIS Scott A. Bryant, Major, USAF AFIT/GEM/ENV/07-M1 DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE AIR UNIVERSITY AIR FORCE INSTITUTE OF...expressed in this thesis are those of the author and do not reflect the official policy or position of the United States Air Force, Department of...AIR FORCE GEOBASE PROGRAM THESIS Presented to the Faculty Department of Systems and Engineering Management Graduate School of

  11. Analysis of quartz by FT-IR in air samples of construction dust.

    PubMed

    Virji, M Abbas; Bello, Dhimiter; Woskie, Susan R; Liu, X Michael; Kalil, Andrew J

    2002-03-01

    The construction industry is reported to have some of the highest exposures to silica-containing dust. With the designation of crystalline silica as a group I human carcinogen by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), there exists a need for an analytical method to accurately quantify low levels of quartz. A method is described that uses FT-IR for quartz analysis of personal air samples collected from heavy and highway construction sites using 4-stage personal impactors. Sample filters were ashed and 13-mm or 5-mm pellets were prepared. Absorbance spectra were collected using FT-IR at resolution of 1 cm(-1) and 64 scans per spectrum. Two spectra were collected per sample using the appropriate background spectrum subtraction. Spectral manipulations such as Fourier self-deconvolution and derivatizations were performed to improve quantification. Peak height for quartz was measured at 798 cm(-1) for quantitative analysis. The estimated limit of detection for the 5-mm pellets was 1.3 microg. Recoveries of Min-U-Sil 5 spikes showed an average of > or = 94 percent for the two pellet types. The coefficient of variation of the 5-mm pellet was 9 percent at 6 microg quartz load, and 7 percent at 62 microg load. Interferences from clay, amorphous silica, concrete, calcite, and kaolinite were investigated, these being the more likely sources of interferences in construction environment. Spikes of mixtures of amorphous silica or kaolinite with Min-U-Sil 5 showed both contaminants introduced, on average, a positive error of < 5 microg with average recoveries of 106 percent and 111 percent, respectively. Spikes of mixtures of clay or concrete with Min-U-Sil 5 showed overall average recovery of 100 percent and 90 percent, respectively, after accounting for the presence of quartz in clay and concrete. This method can quantify low levels of quartz with reasonable accuracy in the face of common contaminants found in the construction industry.

  12. Air sampling of flame retardants based on the use of mixed-bed sorption tubes--a validation study.

    PubMed

    Lazarov, Borislav; Swinnen, Rudi; Spruyt, Maarten; Maes, Frederick; Van Campenhout, Karen; Goelen, Eddy; Covaci, Adrian; Stranger, Marianne

    2015-11-01

    An analytical methodology using automatic thermal desorption and gas chromatography mass spectrometry analysis was optimized and validated for simultaneous determination of a set of components from three different flame retardant chemical classes: polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) (PBDE-28, PBDE-47, PBDE-66, PBDE-85, PBDE-99, PBDE-100), organophosphate flame retardants (PFRs) (tributyl phosphate, tripropyl phosphate, tris(2-chloroethyl)phosphate-, tris(1,3-dichloro-2-propyl) phosphate, tris(2-ethylhexyl) phosphate, triphenyl phosphate, tris(2-chloro-1-methylethyl) phosphate and tricresylphosphate), and "novel" brominated flame retardants (NBFRs) (pentabromotoluene, 2,3,4,5,6-pentabromoethylbenzene, (2,3-dibromopropyl) (2,4,6-tribromophenyl) ether, hexabromobenzene, and 2-ethylhexyl 2,3,4,5-tetrabromobenzoate) in air. The methodology is based on low volume active air sampling of gaseous and particulate air fractions on mixed-bed (polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS)/Tenax TA) sorption tubes. The optimized method provides recoveries >88%; a limit of detection in the range of 6-25 pg m(-3) for PBDEs, 6-171 pg m(-3) for PFRs, and 7-41 pg m(-3) for NBFRs; a linearity greater than 0.996; and a repeatability of less than 10% for all studied compounds. The optimized method was compared with a standard method using active air sampling on XAD-2 sorbent material, followed by liquid extraction. On the one hand, the PDMS/Tenax TA method shows comparable results at longer sampling time conditions (e.g., indoor air sampling, personal air sampling). On the other hand, at shorter sampling time conditions (e.g., sampling from emission test chambers), the optimized method detects up to three times higher concentrations and identifies more flame retardant compounds compared to the standard method based on XAD-2 loading.

  13. Office of Inspector General audit report on aircraft and air service management programs

    SciTech Connect

    1999-01-01

    The Department of Energy`s (DOE) Albuquerque Operations Office (Albuquerque) owns seven aircraft that support defense programs, research and development efforts, emergency response programs, and official travel of Government and contractor employees. An Office of Inspector General (OIG) report, issued in 1994, identified concerns with Albuquerque`s cost for air service. Since that report, there have been reductions in cost and personnel indicating changes in air service requirements. This audit was conducted to determine (1) whether costs to operate Albuquerque`s aircraft were excessive and (2) if individual aircraft in the fleet were justified.

  14. The Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990: Hazardous Air Pollutant Requirements and the DOE Clean Coal Technology Program

    SciTech Connect

    Moskowitz, P.D.; DePhillips, M.; Fthenakis, V.M. ); Hemenway, A. )

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of the US Department of Energy -- Office of Fossil Energy (DOE FE) Clean Coal Technology Program (CCTP) is to provide the US energy marketplace with advanced, efficient, and environmentally sound coal-based technologies. The design, construction, and operation of Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Projects (CCTDP) will generate data needed to make informed, confident decisions on the commercial readiness of these technologies. These data also will provide information needed to ensure a proactive response by DOE and its industrial partners to the establishment of new regulations or a reactive response to existing regulations promulgated by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The objectives of this paper are to: (1) Present a preliminary examination of the potential implications of the Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA) -- Title 3 Hazardous Air Pollutant requirements to the commercialization of CCTDP; and (2) help define options available to DOE and its industrial partners to respond to this newly enacted Legislation.

  15. The Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990: Hazardous Air Pollutant Requirements and the DOE Clean Coal Technology Program

    SciTech Connect

    Moskowitz, P.D.; DePhillips, M.; Fthenakis, V.M.; Hemenway, A.

    1991-12-31

    The purpose of the US Department of Energy -- Office of Fossil Energy (DOE FE) Clean Coal Technology Program (CCTP) is to provide the US energy marketplace with advanced, efficient, and environmentally sound coal-based technologies. The design, construction, and operation of Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Projects (CCTDP) will generate data needed to make informed, confident decisions on the commercial readiness of these technologies. These data also will provide information needed to ensure a proactive response by DOE and its industrial partners to the establishment of new regulations or a reactive response to existing regulations promulgated by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The objectives of this paper are to: (1) Present a preliminary examination of the potential implications of the Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA) -- Title 3 Hazardous Air Pollutant requirements to the commercialization of CCTDP; and (2) help define options available to DOE and its industrial partners to respond to this newly enacted Legislation.

  16. Computer program for obtaining thermodynamic and transport properties of air and products of combustion of ASTM-A-1 fuel and air

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hippensteele, S. A.; Colladay, R. S.

    1978-01-01

    A computer program for determining desired thermodynamic and transport property values by means of a three-dimensional (pressure, fuel-air ratio, and either enthalpy or temperature) interpolation routine was developed. The program calculates temperature (or enthalpy), molecular weight, viscosity, specific heat at constant pressure, thermal conductivity, isentropic exponent (equal to the specific heat ratio at conditions where gases do not react), Prandtl number, and entropy for air and a combustion gas mixture of ASTM-A-1 fuel and air over fuel-air ratios from zero to stoichiometric, pressures from 1 to 40 atm, and temperatures from 250 to 2800 K.

  17. Lessons from UNSCOM and IAEA regarding remote monitoring and air sampling

    SciTech Connect

    Dupree, S.A.

    1996-01-01

    In 1991, at the direction of the United Nations Security Council, UNSCOM and IAEA developed plans for On-going Monitoring and Verification (OMV) in Iraq. The plans were accepted by the Security Council and remote monitoring and atmospheric sampling equipment has been installed at selected sites in Iraq. The remote monitoring equipment consists of video cameras and sensors positioned to observe equipment or activities at sites that could be used to support the development or manufacture of weapons of mass destruction, or long-range missiles. The atmospheric sampling equipment provides unattended collection of chemical samples from sites that could be used to support the development or manufacture of chemical weapon agents. To support OMV in Iraq, UNSCOM has established the Baghdad Monitoring and Verification Centre. Imagery from the remote monitoring cameras can be accessed in near-real time from the Centre through RIF communication links with the monitored sites. The OMV program in Iraq has implications for international cooperative monitoring in both global and regional contexts. However, monitoring systems such as those used in Iraq are not sufficient, in and of themselves, to guarantee the absence of prohibited activities. Such systems cannot replace on-site inspections by competent, trained inspectors. However, monitoring similar to that used in Iraq can contribute to openness and confidence building, to the development of mutual trust, and to the improvement of regional stability.

  18. Improvement of air quality according to Mobile reduction measures to establish Korean Auto-oil program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sunwoo, Y.; Jo, H.; Ma, Y.; Kim, S.; Hong, K.; Lim, Y.; Javascript:Setnextpage('sponsor')

    2011-12-01

    The mobile of NOx and PM10 emission of Korea in 2007 accounted for 42%, 23%, respectively (excluded fugitive dust). Seoul highly affected mobile emission which accounted for 46%, 49%, respectively. Korean government ,therefore, established "Special Act for improvement of air quality in Seoul metropolitan area" including mobile emission reduction measures and organized research forum including reformation of fuel and cars, risk assessment, control of greenhouse gas and assessment of air quality to establish Korean Auto-oil program This study quantitatively analyses improvement of air quality in Seoul according to the reformation of fuel and supply of DPF in Korean Auto-oil program. WRF-SMOKE-CMAQ were emploied for this study. SO2, CO, NOx, PM10 and VOCs emission are based on the INTEX-B emission inventory, NH3 were from the REAS emission inventory. Korea emission is derived by CAPSS (Clean Air Policy Support System) data. The reduction through reformation of fuel and supply of DPF is calculated by reduction ratio of air pollutants with strengthen fuel quality standard and number of car supplied DPF, refer to Metropolitan Air Quality Management Office Republic of Korea (2011) in detail. The effect of air quality is quantifiably comparing modeling results which are applied/not applied on the measures. This study will be provided basic data to establish Korean Auto-oil program through quantifying and predicting to improvement of air quality according to the mobile measures. Acknowledgement This research was supported in part by the "Assessment of risk and health benefits considering exposure characteristics of fuel" project sponsored by the Korea Automobile Environmental Association.

  19. Comparison of air dispersion modeling results with ambient air sampling data: A case study at Tacoma Landfill, a National Priorities List Site

    SciTech Connect

    Griffin, L.R. ); Rutherford, T.L. )

    1994-08-01

    Air dispersion modeling, ambient air sampling, and emissions testing of landfill sources have been performed to evaluate the effects of remedial activities on ambient air surrounding the Tacoma Landfill. In 1983, the Tacoma Landfill was placed on the National Priorities List (NPL) as part of the Commencement Bay/South Tacoma Channel Superfund site. Remedial activities completed, or near completion, at the 190 acre (768,903 m[sup 2]) Tacoma Landfill include a groundwater extraction system and air stripping units used to remove volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from groundwater, landfill gas extraction and flare system to control gas migration from the landfill, landfill liner and leachate collection system for an active section of the landfill, and a landfill cap that covers the inactive portions of the landfill. Dispersion modeling was performed with measured stack emission data using Industrial Source Complex (ISC) to determine the groundlevel concentrations of VOCs from the air stripper, flares, and active portion of the landfill for comparison with the measured ambient air data collected during 1992. 9 refs., 3 figs., 6 tabs.

  20. Desktop Application Program to Simulate Cargo-Air-Drop Tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cuthbert, Peter

    2009-01-01

    The DSS Application is a computer program comprising a Windows version of the UNIX-based Decelerator System Simulation (DSS) coupled with an Excel front end. The DSS is an executable code that simulates the dynamics of airdropped cargo from first motion in an aircraft through landing. The bare DSS is difficult to use; the front end makes it easy to use. All inputs to the DSS, control of execution of the DSS, and postprocessing and plotting of outputs are handled in the front end. The front end is graphics-intensive. The Excel software provides the graphical elements without need for additional programming. Categories of input parameters are divided into separate tabbed windows. Pop-up comments describe each parameter. An error-checking software component evaluates combinations of parameters and alerts the user if an error results. Case files can be created from inputs, making it possible to build cases from previous ones. Simulation output is plotted in 16 charts displayed on a separate worksheet, enabling plotting of multiple DSS cases with flight-test data. Variables assigned to each plot can be changed. Selected input parameters can be edited from the plot sheet for quick sensitivity studies.

  1. A novel Whole Air Sample Profiler (WASP) for the quantification of volatile organic compounds in the boundary layer

    SciTech Connect

    Mak, J. E.; Su, L.; Guenther, Alex B.; Karl, Thomas G.

    2013-10-16

    The emission and fate of reactive VOCs is of inherent interest to those studying chemical biosphere-atmosphere interactions. In-canopy VOC observations are obtainable using tower-based samplers, but the lack of suitable sampling systems for the full boundary 5 layer has limited the data characterizing the vertical structure of such gases above the canopy height and still in the boundary layer. This is the important region where many reactive VOCs are oxidized or otherwise removed. Here we describe an airborne sampling system designed to collect a vertical profile of air into a 3/800 OD tube 150m in length. The inlet ram air pressure is used to flow sampled air through the 10 tube, which results in a varying flow rate based on aircraft speed and altitude. Since aircraft velocity decreases during ascent, it is necessary to account for the variable flow rate into the tube. This is accomplished using a reference gas that is pulsed into the air stream so that the precise altitude of the collected air can be reconstructed post-collection. The pulsed injections are also used to determine any significant effect 15 from diffusion/mixing within the sampling tube, either during collection or subsequent extraction for gas analysis. This system has been successfully deployed, and we show some measured vertical profiles of isoprene and its oxidation products methacrolein and methyl vinyl ketone from a mixed canopy near Columbia, Missouri.

  2. Master schedule for CY-1984 Hanford environmental surveillance routine sampling program

    SciTech Connect

    Blumer, P.J.; Price, K.R.; Eddy, P.A.; Carlile, J.M.V.

    1983-12-01

    This report provides the current schedule of data collection for the routine Hanford environmental surveillance and ground-water Monitoring Programs at the Hanford Site. The purpose is to evaluate and report the levels of radioactive and nonradioactive pollutants in the Hanford environs. The routine sampling schedule provided herein does not include samples that are planned to be collected during FY-1984 in support of special studies, special contractor support programs, or for quality control purposes.

  3. Long-term Monitoring Program Optimization for Chlorinated Volatile Organic Compound Plume, Naval Air Station Brunswick, Maine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calderone, G. M.

    2006-12-01

    A long-term monitoring program was initiated in 1995 at 6 sites at NAS Brunswick, including 3 National Priorities List (Superfund) sites. Primary contaminants of concern include chlorinated volatile organic compounds, including tetrachloroethane, trichloroethene, and vinyl chloride, in addition to metals. More than 80 submersible pumping systems were installed to facilitate sample collection utilizing the low-flow sampling technique. Long-term monitoring of the groundwater is conducted to assess the effectiveness of remedial measures, and monitor changes in contaminant concentrations in the Eastern Plume Operable Unit. Long-term monitoring program activities include quarterly groundwater sampling and analysis at more than 90 wells across 6 sites; surface water, sediment, seep, and leachate sampling and analysis at 3 sites; landfill gas monitoring; well maintenance; engineering inspections of landfill covers and other sites or evidence of stressed vegetation; water level gauging; and treatment plant sampling and analysis. Significant cost savings were achieved by optimizing the sampling network and reducing sampling frequency from quarterly to semi- annual or annual sampling. As part of an ongoing optimization effort, a geostatistical assessment of the Eastern Plume was conducted at the Naval Air Station, Brunswick, Maine. The geostatistical assessment used 40 monitoring points and analytical data collected over 3 years. For this geostatistical assessment, EA developed and utilized a database of analytical results generated during 3 years of long-term monitoring which was linked to a Geographic Information System to enhance data visualization capacity. The Geographic Information System included themes for groundwater volatile organic compound concentration, groundwater flow directions, shallow and deep wells, and immediate access to point-specific analytical results. This statistical analysis has been used by the site decision-maker and its conclusions supported a

  4. Day and night variation in chemical composition and toxicological responses of size segregated urban air PM samples in a high air pollution situation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jalava, P. I.; Wang, Q.; Kuuspalo, K.; Ruusunen, J.; Hao, L.; Fang, D.; Väisänen, O.; Ruuskanen, A.; Sippula, O.; Happo, M. S.; Uski, O.; Kasurinen, S.; Torvela, T.; Koponen, H.; Lehtinen, K. E. J.; Komppula, M.; Gu, C.; Jokiniemi, J.; Hirvonen, M.-R.

    2015-11-01

    Urban air particulate pollution is a known cause for adverse human health effects worldwide. China has encountered air quality problems in recent years due to rapid industrialization. Toxicological effects induced by particulate air pollution vary with particle sizes and season. However, it is not known how distinctively different photochemical activity and different emission sources during the day and the night affect the chemical composition of the PM size ranges and subsequently how it is reflected to the toxicological properties of the PM exposures. The particulate matter (PM) samples were collected in four different size ranges (PM10-2.5; PM2.5-1; PM1-0.2 and PM0.2) with a high volume cascade impactor. The PM samples were extracted with methanol, dried and thereafter used in the chemical and toxicological analyses. RAW264.7 macrophages were exposed to the particulate samples in four different doses for 24 h. Cytotoxicity, inflammatory parameters, cell cycle and genotoxicity were measured after exposure of the cells to particulate samples. Particles were characterized for their chemical composition, including ions, element and PAH compounds, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was used to take images of the PM samples. Chemical composition and the induced toxicological responses of the size segregated PM samples showed considerable size dependent differences as well as day to night variation. The PM10-2.5 and the PM0.2 samples had the highest inflammatory potency among the size ranges. Instead, almost all the PM samples were equally cytotoxic and only minor differences were seen in genotoxicity and cell cycle effects. Overall, the PM0.2 samples had the highest toxic potential among the different size ranges in many parameters. PAH compounds in the samples and were generally more abundant during the night than the day, indicating possible photo-oxidation of the PAH compounds due to solar radiation. This was reflected to different toxicity in the PM

  5. Produce and fish sampling program of Los Alamos National Laboratory's Environmental Surveillance Group

    SciTech Connect

    Salazar, J.G.

    1984-09-01

    This report describes produce and fish sampling procedures of the Environmental Surveillance Group at the Los Alamos National Laboratory. The program monitors foodstuffs and fish for possible radioactive contamination from Laboratory operations. Data gathered in this program on radionuclide concentrations help to estimate radiation doses to Laboratory personnel and the public. 3 references, 7 figures, 2 tables.

  6. Navy Should Join the Air Force and Army Program to Develop an Advanced Integrated Avionics System.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-06-17

    to be consolidated into a single package to conserve space, save weight, and reduce costs. This report points out the potential benefits of avionics...consolidation and recommends the Navy join in a demonstration program now being conducted by the Air Force and Army to exploit such benefits . Lii LLq...the cost of a separate Navy development program. Navy officials acknowledge the benefits of ICNIA, and recognize that it will cost more for the Navy

  7. Technical Compliance Guide for Clean Air Act Section 112(r) Risk Management Plan Program

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1996-06-01

    obtains delegation residences, institutions (e.g., schools , 2. Part 68 is amended by for an accidental release prevention hospitals), industrial, commercial... Preventive Medicine Directorate of Environmental Health Engineering Air Quality Programs David A. Reed, Ph.D. CPT Jeanne Pricer Prepared for: U.S. Army...Risk Management Plan Program Ui,•t{ibuflior Untirntiied Prepared by: U.S. Army Center for Health Promotion and Preventive Medicine Directorate of

  8. Aerothermal modeling program, phase 2. Element C: Fuel injector-air swirl characterization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mostafa, A. A.; Mongia, H. C.; Mcdonnell, V. G.; Samuelsen, G. S.

    1986-01-01

    The main objectives of the NASA-sponsored Aerothermal Modeling Program, Phase 2--Element C, are experimental evaluation of the air swirler interaction with a fuel injector in a simulated combustor chamber, assessment of the current two-phase models, and verification of the improved spray evaporation/dispersion models. This experimental and numerical program consists of five major tasks. Brief descriptions of the five tasks are given.

  9. Air Force fuel mainburner/turbine effects programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackson, T. A.

    1980-01-01

    A program for the determination of fuel property effects on aircraft gas turbine engine mainburners and turbines is discussed. The six engines selected as test candidates are the J79, J85, J57, TF30, TF39, and F100. Fuels election is the responsibility of the contractors with two fuels as exceptions. The petroleum JP-4 is to be used as a baseline in all tests. The shale JP-4 is to be used in nearly all tests. Fuel properties are to be correlated with combustion system performance paramters. In addition, life predictions are to be made for combustor and turbine hardware. These predictions are to be based on a typical mission for each system, measured metal temperatures and temperature gradients, and oxidation/corrosion effects.

  10. Clearing the Air About Surgical Smoke: An Education Program.

    PubMed

    Chavis, Sherry; Wagner, Vicki; Becker, Melanie; Bowerman, Mercelita I; Jamias, Mary Shirley

    2016-03-01

    Evidence of the harmful effects of surgical smoke has been recognized in the literature and by professional organizations for many years, yet surgical smoke continues to pose a safety hazard for patients and perioperative personnel. A team of perioperative nurses and educators sought to improve compliance with policies and procedures for surgical smoke management in the OR. The team quantified smoke-evacuator use, assessed staff members' knowledge using a pre-education survey, and presented a three-part multimodal education program. The team conducted a posteducation survey that showed significant improvement in staff members' knowledge. Ninety-day postimplementation quantitative data showed a 14.6% increase in surgical smoke-evacuation use. This educational initiative increased staff members' awareness about reducing the presence of surgical smoke in the OR and helped ensure a safer environment for patients, staff members, and the surgical team.

  11. Minimization of sample volume with air-segmented sample injection and the simultaneous determination of trace elements by ICP-MS.

    PubMed

    Noguchi, Osamu; Oshima, Mitsuko; Motomizu, Shoji

    2008-05-01

    The application of inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) to forensic chemistry was studied. The developed method, air-segmented sample injection (ASSI) coupled with ICP-MS, allowed the determination of about 25 elements at the sub-ppb level with only 0.2 ml of a sample solution. The optimum sample flow rate was found to be 0.4 ml min(-1), along with a sample suction time of 30 s. The proposed method was validated by determining trace elements in river-water certified reference material (SLRS-4) issued by National Research Council Canada. The analytical results of the proposed method were in good agreement with the certified values. This method was successfully applied to a human hair sample, the volume of which was 3 ml.

  12. Suitability of air sampling locations downstream of bends and static mixing elements.

    PubMed

    McFarland, A R; Gupta, R; Anand, N K

    1999-12-01

    The revised standard for sampling effluent air from stacks and ducts of the nuclear industry places limits on the non-uniformity of velocity and contaminant profiles at the sampling location; namely, the coefficients of variation must not exceed 20% over an area that encompasses at least the center 2/3 of the cross sectional area. Tests were conducted to characterize the degree of mixing at downstream locations as affected by several types of flow disturbances, including 90 degree elbows and commercial static mixing devices. Flow straighteners were incorporated into the ducting upstream of the mixer to be tested to simulate the dampening of flow turbulence that might occur because of upstream HEPA filters. The coefficients of variation of velocity and tracer gas concentration measured in a straight tube at a distance of 3 diameters downstream from a 90 degree elbow were 17% and 69%, respectively. The mixing is impacted by the upstream flow turbulence. Without a flow straightener, the tracer gas concentration coefficient of variation was reduced to 33% at the 3-diameter location. The use of static mixing elements can greatly enhance the mixing process. A ring placed just downstream of a 90 degree elbow, which blocks the outer 56% of the cross sectional area, results in a coefficient of variation of 19% for tracer gas concentration at the 3-diameter location. Pressure loss across the elbow with the ring is about nine times that of the basic elbow. One of the commercially available static mixers provides coefficients of variation that are less than 10% for both velocity and tracer gas concentration at 4 diameters downstream from the mixer with a pressure loss that is only about 3.5 times as large as that of a 90 degree elbow.

  13. Ice nucleation active particles in continental air samples over Mainz, Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pummer, Bernhard G.; Pöschl, Ulrich; Fröhlich-Nowoisky, Janine

    2016-04-01

    Aerosol particles are of central importance for atmospheric chemistry and physics, climate and public health. Some of these particles possess ice nucleation activity (INA), which is highly relevant for cloud formation and precipitation. In 2010, air filter samples were collected with a high-volume filter sampler separating fine and coarse particles (aerodynamic cut-off diameter 3 μm) in Mainz, Germany. In this study, the INA of the atmospheric particles deposited on these filters was determined. Therefore,they were extracted with ultrapure water, which was then measured in a droplet freezing assay, as described in Fröhlich-Nowoisky et al. (2015). The determined concentration of ice nucleators (INs) was between 0.3 and 2per m³ at 266 K, and between5 and 75 per m³ at 260 K. The INs were further characterized by different treatments, like heating (308 K, 371 K), filtration (0.1 μm, 300 kDa), and digestion with papain (10 mg/ml). We further investigated, which atmospheric conditions (e.g. weather) and distinguished events (e.g. dust storms, volcanic eruptions, and pollen peaks) influenced the number and nature of these INs. Fröhlich-Nowoisky, J., Hill, T. C. J., Pummer, B. G., Yordanova, P., Franc, G. D., and Pöschl, U.: Ice nucleation activity in the widespread soil fungus Mortierella alpina, Biogeosci., 12, 1057-1071, doi:10.5194/bg-12-1057-2015, 2015.

  14. Comparison of halocarbon measurements in an atmospheric dry whole air sample

    PubMed Central

    Hall, Bradley D.; Harth, Christina M.; Kim, Jin Seog; Lee, Jeongsoon; Montzka, Stephen A.; Mühle, Jens; Reimann, Stefan; Vollmer, Martin K.; Weiss, Ray F.

    2015-01-01

    The growing awareness of climate change/global warming, and continuing concerns regarding stratospheric ozone depletion, will require continued measurements and standards for many compounds, in particular halocarbons that are linked to these issues. In order to track atmospheric mole fractions and assess the impact of policy on emission rates, it is necessary to demonstrate measurement equivalence at the highest levels of accuracy for assigned values of standards. Precise measurements of these species aid in determining small changes in their atmospheric abundance. A common source of standards/scales and/or well-documented agreement of different scales used to calibrate the measurement instrumentation are key to understanding many sets of data reported by researchers. This report describes the results of a comparison study among National Metrology Institutes and atmospheric research laboratories for the chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) dichlorodifluoromethane (CFC-12), trichlorofluoromethane (CFC-11), and 1,1,2-trichlorotrifluoroethane (CFC-113); the hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs) chlorodifluoromethane (HCFC-22) and 1-chloro-1,1-difluoroethane (HCFC-142b); and the hydrofluorocarbon (HFC) 1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane (HFC-134a), all in a dried whole air sample. The objective of this study is to compare calibration standards/scales and the measurement capabilities of the participants for these halocarbons at trace atmospheric levels. The results of this study show agreement among four independent calibration scales to better than 2.5% in almost all cases, with many of the reported agreements being better than 1.0%. PMID:26753167

  15. The Army Family Research Program: Sampling Plan for the CORE Research Program

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-07-01

    Because FSUs and SSUs will vary considerably with respect to numbers of personnel, the sample will be chosen with minimum replacement ( Chromy 1979...comunity: The plan for research. Research Triangle Park, NC: Research Triangle Institute. Chromy , J. (1979). Sequential sampling selection methods. In...Effects (1.25) Power Sample Size and Participation Failure Rate (.05) .10 48 62 .30 129 170 .50 218 287 .60 271 357 .70 324 440 .80 418 551 .90 552 726

  16. Summary of PERF air program review - August 22-23, 2007, Annapolis, Maryland.

    SciTech Connect

    Veil, J. A.; Schmalzer, D. K.; Leath, P. P.

    2007-10-24

    For many years, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has supported and sponsored various types of environmental research related to the oil and gas industry through its Office of Fossil Energy and its National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL). In November 2005, Argonne National Laboratory (Argonne) organized and coordinated a review of DOE's water research program in conjunction with the fall 2005 meeting of the Petroleum Environmental Research Forum (PERF). PERF is a nonprofit organization created in 1986 to provide a stimulus and forum for collecting, exchanging, and analyzing research information related to the development of technology for the petroleum industry and also to provide a mechanism for establishing joint research projects in that field. Additional information on PERF can be accessed at http://www.perf.org. The water program review was so successful that both DOE and PERF agreed that a second program review would be useful -- this time on air research and issues. Argonne coordinated the air program review, which was held in Annapolis, Maryland, on August 22 and 23, 2007. This report summarizes the presentations and related discussions that were part of the air program review. The full agenda for the program review is included as Appendix A.

  17. Comparison of Air Impaction and Electrostatic Dust Collector Sampling Methods to Assess Airborne Fungal Contamination in Public Buildings.

    PubMed

    Normand, Anne-Cécile; Ranque, Stéphane; Cassagne, Carole; Gaudart, Jean; Sallah, Kankoé; Charpin, Denis-André; Piarroux, Renaud

    2016-03-01

    Many ailments can be linked to exposure to indoor airborne fungus. However, obtaining a precise measurement of airborne fungal levels is complicated partly due to indoor air fluctuations and non-standardized techniques. Electrostatic dust collector (EDC) sampling devices have been used to measure a wide range of airborne analytes, including endotoxins, allergens, β-glucans, and microbial DNA in various indoor environments. In contrast, viable mold contamination has only been assessed in highly contaminated environments such as farms and archive buildings. This study aimed to assess the use of EDCs, compared with repeated air-impactor measurements, to assess airborne viable fungal flora in moderately contaminated indoor environments. Indoor airborne fungal flora was cultured from EDCs and daily air-impaction samples collected in an office building and a daycare center. The quantitative fungal measurements obtained using a single EDC significantly correlated with the cumulative measurement of nine daily air impactions. Both methods enabled the assessment of fungal exposure, although a few differences were observed between the detected fungal species and the relative quantity of each species. EDCs were also used over a 32-month period to monitor indoor airborne fungal flora in a hospital office building, which enabled us to assess the impact of outdoor events (e.g. ground excavations) on the fungal flora levels on the indoor environment. In conclusion, EDC-based measurements provided a relatively accurate profile of the viable airborne flora present during a sampling period. In particular, EDCs provided a more representative assessment of fungal levels compared with single air-impactor sampling. The EDC technique is also simpler than performing repetitive air-impaction measures over the course of several consecutive days. EDC is a versatile tool for collecting airborne samples and was efficient for measuring mold levels in indoor environments.

  18. Weatherization and Indoor Air Quality: Measured Impacts in Single Family Homes Under the Weatherization Assistance Program

    SciTech Connect

    Pigg, Scott; Cautley, Dan; Francisco, Paul; Hawkins, Beth A; Brennan, Terry M

    2014-09-01

    This report summarizes findings from a national field study of indoor air quality parameters in homes treated under the Weatherization Assistance Program (WAP). The study involved testing and monitoring in 514 single-family homes (including mobile homes) located in 35 states and served by 88 local weatherization agencies.

  19. Air Force Commanders and Barriers to Entry into a Doctoral Business Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Tony; LeMire, Steven D.

    2011-01-01

    The authors examined professionally qualified Air Force commanders' barriers to entry into a business doctoral degree program related to the factors of time, financial means, academics, and motivation. Of the 116 present commanders, 63% were interested in pursuing a doctorate in business. For the commanders interested in obtaining a doctorate…

  20. THE NEW ENGLAND AIR QUALITY FORECASTING PILOT PROGRAM: DEVELOPMENT OF AN EVALUATION PROTOCOL AND PERFORMANCE BENCHMARK

    EPA Science Inventory

    The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration recently sponsored the New England Forecasting Pilot Program to serve as a "test bed" for chemical forecasting by providing all of the elements of a National Air Quality Forecasting System, including the development and implemen...

  1. 32 CFR 256.5 - The air installation compatible use program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... § 256.4. AICUZ studies which contain an analysis of land use compatibility problems and potential...: (1) Determination by detailed study of flight operations, actual noise and safety surveys if... establishing the individual air installation AICUZ program. (2) When relocation or abandonment of a mission...

  2. Federal operating permits program under Title V of the Clean Air Act. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1996-08-01

    ;Table of Contents: Introduction; Transition Between Parts 70 and 71; Title V Obligations and Applicability; Synthetic Minors, Potential to Emit, and Transition Policy; Permit Application Step and Content; Flexible Permit Approaches; Hazardous Air Pollution Program Requirements for Title V; Information Sources; Appendix A. EPA Memoranda; and Appendix B. Seminar Overhead Transparencies.

  3. Race-Based Differential Prediction in Air Force Technical Training Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Houston, Walter M.; Novick, Melvin R.

    1987-01-01

    Bayesian Johnson-Neyman methodology was used to investigate differential prediction by race in U.S. Air Force training programs. Meaningful differences were found in eight of nine comparisons. The setting of the cutting scores had an effect on whether the bias was positive or negative for Blacks. (Author/GDC)

  4. The Correlation of Human Capital on Costs of Air Force Acquisition Programs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-03-01

    Air Force, Department of Defense, or the United States Government . AFIT/GCA/ENV/09-M05 THE CORRELATION...contracts managed from 1994 to 2008. The inputs are the numbers of military/ government employee financial managers, program managers, engineers...rated personnel, and military/ government employees in those career fields possessing a graduate degree or higher. A time series regression was

  5. 76 FR 20536 - Protocol Gas Verification Program and Minimum Competency Requirements for Air Emission Testing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-13

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY 40 CFR Part 75 RIN 2060-AQ06 Protocol Gas Verification Program and Minimum Competency Requirements for Air Emission Testing Correction In rule document 2011-6216 appearing on pages 17288-17325 in...

  6. Coupled rotor/airframe vibration analysis program manual. Volume 2: Sample input and output listings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cassarino, S.; Sopher, R.

    1982-01-01

    Sample input and output listings obtained with the base program (SIMVIB) of the coupled rotor/airframe vibration analysis and the external programs, G400/F389 and E927 are presented. Results for five of the base program test cases are shown. They represent different applications of the SIMVIB program to study the vibration characteristics of various dynamic configurations. Input and output listings obtained for one cycle of the G400/F389 coupled program are presented. Results from the rotor aeroelastic analysis E927 also appear. A brief description of the check cases is provided. A summary of the check cases for all the external programs interacting with the SIMVIB program is illustrated.

  7. Estimating sampling biases and measurement uncertainties of AIRS/AMSU-A temperature and water vapor observations using MERRA reanalysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hearty, Thomas J.; Savtchenko, Andrey; Tian, Baijun; Fetzer, Eric; Yung, Yuk L.; Theobald, Michael; Vollmer, Bruce; Fishbein, Evan; Won, Young-In

    2014-03-01

    We use MERRA (Modern Era Retrospective-Analysis for Research Applications) temperature and water vapor data to estimate the sampling biases of climatologies derived from the AIRS/AMSU-A (Atmospheric Infrared Sounder/Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit-A) suite of instruments. We separate the total sampling bias into temporal and instrumental components. The temporal component is caused by the AIRS/AMSU-A orbit and swath that are not able to sample all of time and space. The instrumental component is caused by scenes that prevent successful retrievals. The temporal sampling biases are generally smaller than the instrumental sampling biases except in regions with large diurnal variations, such as the boundary layer, where the temporal sampling biases of temperature can be ± 2 K and water vapor can be 10% wet. The instrumental sampling biases are the main contributor to the total sampling biases and are mainly caused by clouds. They are up to 2 K cold and > 30% dry over midlatitude storm tracks and tropical deep convective cloudy regions and up to 20% wet over stratus regions. However, other factors such as surface emissivity and temperature can also influence the instrumental sampling bias over deserts where the biases can be up to 1 K cold and 10% wet. Some instrumental sampling biases can vary seasonally and/or diurnally. We also estimate the combined measurement uncertainties of temperature and water vapor from AIRS/AMSU-A and MERRA by comparing similarly sampled climatologies from both data sets. The measurement differences are often larger than the sampling biases and have longitudinal variations.

  8. Estimating Sampling Biases and Measurement Uncertainties of AIRS-AMSU-A Temperature and Water Vapor Observations Using MERRA Reanalysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hearty, Thomas J.; Savtchenko, Andrey K.; Tian, Baijun; Fetzer, Eric; Yung, Yuk L.; Theobald, Michael; Vollmer, Bruce; Fishbein, Evan; Won, Young-In

    2014-01-01

    We use MERRA (Modern Era Retrospective-Analysis for Research Applications) temperature and water vapor data to estimate the sampling biases of climatologies derived from the AIRS/AMSU-A (Atmospheric Infrared Sounder/Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit-A) suite of instruments. We separate the total sampling bias into temporal and instrumental components. The temporal component is caused by the AIRS/AMSU-A orbit and swath that are not able to sample all of time and space. The instrumental component is caused by scenes that prevent successful retrievals. The temporal sampling biases are generally smaller than the instrumental sampling biases except in regions with large diurnal variations, such as the boundary layer, where the temporal sampling biases of temperature can be +/- 2 K and water vapor can be 10% wet. The instrumental sampling biases are the main contributor to the total sampling biases and are mainly caused by clouds. They are up to 2 K cold and greater than 30% dry over mid-latitude storm tracks and tropical deep convective cloudy regions and up to 20% wet over stratus regions. However, other factors such as surface emissivity and temperature can also influence the instrumental sampling bias over deserts where the biases can be up to 1 K cold and 10% wet. Some instrumental sampling biases can vary seasonally and/or diurnally. We also estimate the combined measurement uncertainties of temperature and water vapor from AIRS/AMSU-A and MERRA by comparing similarly sampled climatologies from both data sets. The measurement differences are often larger than the sampling biases and have longitudinal variations.

  9. CERCLA Site discharges to POTWs CERCLA site sampling program: Detailed data report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-08-01

    The document contains wastewater data obtained from sampling at seventeen CERCLA sites during a study of wastewater discharges from CERCLA sites to publicly owned treatment works (POTWs). The document serves as an appendix to the report summarizing the findings of the CERCLA site sampling program in Section 3 (CERCLA Site Data Report) in the USEPA CERCLA Site Discharges to POTWs Treatability Manual.

  10. Crop losses from air pollutants: A computer and field-based assessment program and crop and forest losses from air pollutants: An assessment program. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Mutters, R.; Guzy, M.; Thompson, C.R.

    1993-10-01

    The Air Resources Board-sponsored Crop Loss Assessment Program quantifies potential ozone-caused yield losses in 26 crops grown in California. Statewide yield loss estimates were made with aggregated county statistics, and at a subcounty level for the southern San Joaquin Valley. Interpolations of statewide 7-hr mean zone levels were made for selected air basins delimited by a 2000-ft altitudinal barrier. Estimated yield losses were calculated using 2.50 pphm as a background 12-hr average concentration. Regression analyses were performed in a detailed analysis of cotton yield responses in Kern County. Statistically significant regressions of yield vs. ozone concentration, soil characteristics and cotton variety were observed. A field survey to identify ozone injury in cotton, almond and grape was conducted at 11 sites in the Central Valley.

  11. Innovative coke oven gas cleaning system for retrofit applications. Environmental Monitoring program. Volume 1 - sampling progrom report. Baseline Sampling Program report

    SciTech Connect

    Stuart, L.M.

    1994-05-27

    Bethlehem Steel Corporation (BSC), in conjunction with the Department of Energy (DOE) is conducting a Clean Coal Technology (CCT) project at its Sparrows Point, Maryland Coke Oven Plant. This innovative coke oven gas cleaning system combines several existing technologies into an integrated system for removing impurities from Coke Oven Gas (COG) to make it an acceptable fuel. DOE provided cost-sharing under a Cooperative Agreement with BSC. This Cooperative Agreement requires BSC to develop and conduct and Environmental Monitoring Plan for the Clean Coal Technology project and to report the status of the EMP on a quarterly basis. It also requires the preparation of a final report on the results of the Baseline Compliance and Supplemental Sampling Programs that are part of the EMP and which were conducted prior to the startup of the innovative coke oven gas cleaning system. This report is the Baseline Sampling Program report.

  12. US EPA Base Study Standard Operating Procedure for Sampling and Characterization of Viable and Non-Viable Bioaerosols in Indoor Air

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The objective of the procedure is to collect a representative sample concentration of total airborne fungal spores (viable and non-viable) that may be present in indoor air and in the outdoor air supplied to the space tested.

  13. Emission of atmospheric pollutants out of Africa - Analysis of CARIBIC aircraft air samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thorenz, Ute R.; Baker, Angela K.; Schuck, Tanja; van Velthoven, Peter F. J.; Ziereis, Helmut; Brenninkmeijer, Carl A. M.

    2014-05-01

    Africa is the single largest continental source of biomass burning (BB) emissions. The burning African savannas and tropical forests are a source for a wide range of chemical species, which are important for global atmospheric chemistry, especially for the pristine Southern Hemisphere. Emitted compounds include carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxides (NOx), hydrocarbons, oxygenated hydrocarbons and particles. Deep convection over Central Africa transports boundary layer emissions to the free troposphere making aircraft-based observations useful for investigation of surface emissions and examination of transport and chemistry processes over Africa The CARIBIC project (Civil Aircraft for the Regular Investigation of the Atmosphere Based on an Instrument Container, www.caribic-atmosphere.com part of IAGOS www.iagos.org) is a long term atmospheric measurement program using an instrument container deployed aboard a Lufthansa Airbus A340-600 for a monthly sequence of long-distance passenger flights. Besides the online measurements mixing ratios of greenhouse gases and a suite of C2-C8 non methane hydrocarbons (NMHCs) are measured from flask samples collected at cruise altitude. During northern hemispheric winter 2010/2011 CARIBIC flights took place from Frankfurt to Cape Town and Johannesburg in South Africa. Several BB tracers like methane, CO and various NMHCs were found to be elevated over tropical Africa. Using tracer-CO- and tracer-NOy-correlations emissions were characterized. The NMHC-CO correlations show monthly changing slopes, indicating a change in burned biomass, major fire stage, source region and/or other factors influencing NMHC emissions. To expand our analysis of emission sources a source region data filter was used, based on backward trajectories calculated along the flight tracks. Taking all CARIBIC samples into account having backward trajectories to the African boundary layer the dataset was enlarged from 77 to 168 samples. For both datasets tracer

  14. 77 FR 42492 - Clean Air Act Operating Permit Program; Petition for Objection to State Operating Permit for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-19

    ... AGENCY Clean Air Act Operating Permit Program; Petition for Objection to State Operating Permit for... of final order on petition to object to a state operating permit. SUMMARY: Pursuant to Clean Air Act... permit issued by the Kentucky Division for Air Quality (KDAQ) to Kentucky Syngas, LLC (KSG) for...

  15. Air Force Air Refueling: The KC-X Aircraft Acquisition Program

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-04-04

    condition and sustainment costs of the KC-135” ... and that “an early replacement program would be a hedging strategy against that uncertainty.”40...tankers are least in demand when airlift assets are stretched most thin during the early deployment phase of a conflict.”66 This may be considered...released a formal request for proposals (RFP) in early 2007.77 The Boeing Company responded to the RFP with the KC-767, a variant of the commercial 767

  16. Long-Term Hydrologic Monitoring Program Sampling and Analysis Results for 2010

    SciTech Connect

    2011-01-10

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Legacy Management conducted annual sampling at the Rulison, Colorado, Site for the Long-Term Hydrologic Monitoring Program (LTHMP) on May 10 and 11, 2010. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Radiation and Indoor Environments National Laboratory in Las Vegas, Nevada, analyzed the samples. Samples were analyzed for gamma-emitting radionuclides by high-resolution gamma spectroscopy and for tritium using the conventional and enriched methods.

  17. Rio Blanco, Colorado, Long-Term Hydrologic Monitoring Program Sampling and Analysis Results for 2009

    SciTech Connect

    2009-12-21

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Legacy Management conducted annual sampling at the Rio Blanco, Colorado, Site, for the Long-Term Hydrologic Monitoring Program (LTHMP) on May 13 and 14, 2009. Samples were analyzed by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Radiation&Indoor Environments National Laboratory in Las Vegas, Nevada. Samples were analyzed for gamma-emitting radionuclides by high-resolution gamma spectroscopy and tritium using the conventional and enriched methods.

  18. Towards a regional passive air sampling network and strategy for new POPs in the GRULAC region: Perspectives from the GAPS Network and first results for organophosphorus flame retardants.

    PubMed

    Rauert, Cassandra; Harner, Tom; Schuster, Jasmin K; Quinto, Karen; Fillmann, Gilberto; Castillo, Luisa Eugenia; Fentanes, Oscar; Ibarra, Martín Villa; Miglioranza, Karina S B; Rivadeneira, Isabel Moreno; Pozo, Karla; Puerta, Andrea Padilla; Zuluaga, Beatriz Helena Aristizábal

    2016-12-15

    A discussion is presented on the limitations for air monitoring studies around the Group of Latin American and Caribbean Countries (GRULAC), highlighting key issues requiring further attention, and reports on how a special initiative is addressing these limitations. Preliminary results are presented for the first reported data on organophosphorus flame retardant (OPFR) concentrations in outdoor air from the GRULAC region. At the majority of sites the concentrations and the profile of the OPFRs detected were similar with tris (chloroisopropyl) phosphate (TCPP) dominating (air levels. This preliminary study of only 7 sites highlights how extensive regional passive sampling networks (such as GAPS) can provide important new information to support risk assessment of these and similar chemicals. Finally, the various challenges with implementing a regional monitoring program are discussed, including harmonizing data from various monitoring programs for reporting to the GMP.

  19. A passive sampling-based analytical strategy for the determination of volatile organic compounds in the air of working areas.

    PubMed

    Ly-Verdú, Saray; Esteve-Turrillas, Francesc A; Pastor, Agustín; de la Guardia, Miguel

    2010-09-16

    An analytical methodology based on the use of a polyethylene layflat tube filled with activated carbon and Florisil (ACFL-VERAM) was employed for the passive sampling of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the air of working areas of packing industries. VOCs amount in the ACFL-VERAM sampler was directly determined through head-space-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (HS-GC-MS) allowing a direct determination in only 20 min without the need of any previous treatment. Uptake parameters, like sampling rate (R(S)) and sampler-air partition coefficient (K(SA)), were determined for every studied VOC from adsorption isotherm data. Additionally, experimental equations have been proposed to predict R(S) and K(SA) from the octanol-air partition coefficients reported in the literature. The proposed methodology reaches method detection levels from 0.007 to 0.2 mg m(-3) for the studied VOCs.

  20. Comparison of Lichen, Conifer Needles, Passive Air Sampling Devices, and Snowpack as Passive Sampling Media to Measure Semi-Volatile Organic Compounds in Remote Atmospheres

    PubMed Central

    SCHRLAU, JILL E.; GEISER, LINDA; HAGEMAN, KIMBERLY J.; LANDERS, DIXON H.

    2011-01-01

    A wide range of semi-volatile organic compounds (SOCs), including pesticides and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), were measured in lichen, conifer needles, snowpack and XAD-based passive air sampling devices (PASDs) collected from 19 different U.S. national parks in order to compare the magnitude and mechanism of SOC accumulation in the different passive sampling media. Lichen accumulated the highest SOC concentrations, in part because of its long (and unknown) exposure period, while PASDs accumulated the lowest concentrations. However, only the PASD SOC concentrations can be used to calculate an average atmospheric gas-phase SOC concentration because the sampling rates are known and the media is uniform. Only the lichen and snowpack SOC accumulation profiles were statistically significantly correlated (r = 0.552, p-value <0.0001) because they both accumulate SOCs present in the atmospheric particle-phase. This suggests that needles and PASDs represent a different composition of the atmosphere than lichen and snowpack and that the interpretation of atmospheric SOC composition is dependent on the type of passive sampling media used. All four passive sampling media preferentially accumulated SOCs with relatively low air-water partition coefficients, while snowpack accumulated SOCs with higher log KOA values compared to the other media. Lichen accumulated more SOCs with log KOA > 10 relative to needles and showed a greater accumulation of particle-phase PAHs. PMID:22087860