Science.gov

Sample records for air sampling sites

  1. Rapid on-site air sampling with a needle extraction device for evaluating the indoor air environment in school facilities.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Mitsuru; Mizuguchi, Ayako; Ueta, Ikuo; Takahashi, Kazuya; Saito, Yoshihiro

    2013-01-01

    A rapid on-site air sampling technique was developed with a miniaturized needle-type sample preparation device for a systematic evaluation of the indoor air environments in school facilities. With the in-needle extraction device packed with a polymer particle of divinylbenzene and activated carbon particles, various types of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were successfully extracted. For evaluating the indoor air qualities in school facilities, air samples in renovated rooms using organic solvent as a thinner of the paint were analyzed along with measurements of several VOCs in indoor air samples taken in newly built primary schools mainly using low-VOCs materials. After periodical renovation/maintenance, the time-variation profile of typical VOCs found in the school facilities has also been monitored. From the results, it could be observed that the VOCs in most of the rooms in these primary schools were at a quite low level; however, a relatively higher concentration of VOCs was found in some specially designed rooms, such as music rooms. In addition, some non-regulated compounds, including benzyl alcohol and branched alkanes, were detected in these primary schools. The results showed a good applicability of the needle device to indoor air analysis in schools, suggesting a wide range of future employment of the needle device, especially for indoor air analysis in other types of facilities and rooms including hospitals and hotels. PMID:23665624

  2. Ground-based air-sampling measurements near the Nevada Test Site after atmospheric nuclear tests.

    PubMed

    Cederwall, R T; Ricker, Y E; Cederwall, P L; Homan, D N; Anspaugh, L R

    1990-11-01

    Historical air-sampling data measured within 320 km (200 mi) of the Nevada Test Site (NTS) have been reviewed for periods following atmospheric nuclear tests, primarily in the 1950s. These data come mostly from high-volume air samplers, with some from cascade-impactor samplers. Measurements considered here are for beta radiation from gross fission products. The resulting air-quality data base is comprised of almost 13,000 samples from 42 sampling locations downwind of the NTS. In order to compile an accurate air-quality data base for use in estimating exposure via inhalation, raw data values were sought where possible, and the required calculations were performed on a computer with state-of-the-art algorithms. The data-processing procedures consisted of (1) entry and error checking of historical data; (2) determination of appropriate background values, air-sampling volumes, and net air concentrations; and (3) calculation of integrated air concentration (C) for each sample (considering fallout arrival times). Comparing C values for collocated high-volume and cascade-impactor samplers during the Upshot-Knothole series showed similar lognormal distributions, but with a geometric mean C for cascade impactors about half that for the high-volume air samplers. Overall, the uncertainty in C values is about a factor of three. In the past, it has been assumed that C could be related to ground deposition by a constant having units of velocity. In our data bases, simultaneous measurements of air concentration and ground deposition at the same locations were not related by a constant; indeed, there was a great amount of scatter. This suggests that the relationship between C and ground deposition in this situation is too complex to be treated adequately by simple approaches. PMID:2211113

  3. Ground-based air-sampling measurements near the Nevada Test Site after atmospheric nuclear tests

    SciTech Connect

    Cederwall, R.T.; Ricker, Y.E.; Cederwall, P.L.; Homan, D.N.; Anspaugh, L.R. )

    1990-11-01

    Historical air-sampling data measured within 320 km (200 mi) of the Nevada Test Site (NTS) have been reviewed for periods following atmospheric nuclear tests, primarily in the 1950s. These data come mostly from high-volume air samplers, with some from cascade-impactor samplers. Measurements considered here are for beta radiation from gross fission products. The resulting air-quality data base is comprised of almost 13,000 samples from 42 sampling locations downwind of the NTS. In order to compile an accurate air-quality data base for use in estimating exposure via inhalation, raw data values were sought where possible, and the required calculations were performed on a computer with state-of-the-art algorithms. The data-processing procedures consisted of (1) entry and error checking of historical data; (2) determination of appropriate background values, air-sampling volumes, and net air concentrations; and (3) calculation of integrated air concentration (C) for each sample (considering fallout arrival times). Comparing C values for collocated high-volume and cascade-impactor samplers during the Upshot-Knothole series showed similar lognormal distributions, but with a geometric mean C for cascade impactors about half that for the high-volume air samplers. Overall, the uncertainty in C values is about a factor of three. In the past, it has been assumed that C could be related to ground deposition by a constant having units of velocity. In our data bases, simultaneous measurements of air concentration and ground deposition at the same locations were not related by a constant; indeed, there was a great amount of scatter. This suggests that the relationship between C and ground deposition in this situation is too complex to be treated adequately by simple approaches.

  4. INDOOR AIR SAMPLING, SUB-SLAB VAPOR SAMPLING, AND SLAB AIR PERMEABILITY TESTING AT THE RAYMARK SITE

    EPA Science Inventory

    By 2005, U.S. EPA and its state, tribal and local partners must assess, reduce, and/or control the risk to human health and the environment at more than 374,000 contaminated Superfund, RCRA, underground storage tank (UST), brownfield and oil sites. U.S. EPA is currently developi...

  5. INDOOR AIR SAMPLING, SUB-SLAB VAPOR SAMPLING, AND SLAB AIR-PERMEABILITY TESTING AT THE RAYMARK SITE

    EPA Science Inventory

    By 2005, U.S. EPA and its state, tribal and local partners must assess, reduce, and/or control the risk to human health and the environment at more than 374,000 contaminated Superfund, RCRA, underground storage tank (UST), brownfield and oil sites. U.S. EPA is currently developi...

  6. Comparison of air dispersion modeling results with ambient air sampling data: A case study at Tacoma Landfill, a National Priorities List Site

    SciTech Connect

    Griffin, L.R. ); Rutherford, T.L. )

    1994-08-01

    Air dispersion modeling, ambient air sampling, and emissions testing of landfill sources have been performed to evaluate the effects of remedial activities on ambient air surrounding the Tacoma Landfill. In 1983, the Tacoma Landfill was placed on the National Priorities List (NPL) as part of the Commencement Bay/South Tacoma Channel Superfund site. Remedial activities completed, or near completion, at the 190 acre (768,903 m[sup 2]) Tacoma Landfill include a groundwater extraction system and air stripping units used to remove volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from groundwater, landfill gas extraction and flare system to control gas migration from the landfill, landfill liner and leachate collection system for an active section of the landfill, and a landfill cap that covers the inactive portions of the landfill. Dispersion modeling was performed with measured stack emission data using Industrial Source Complex (ISC) to determine the groundlevel concentrations of VOCs from the air stripper, flares, and active portion of the landfill for comparison with the measured ambient air data collected during 1992. 9 refs., 3 figs., 6 tabs.

  7. Monitoring iodine-129 in air and milk samples collected near the Hanford Site: an investigation of historical iodine monitoring data.

    PubMed

    Fritz, Brad G; Patton, Gregory W

    2006-01-01

    While other research has reported on the concentrations of (129)I in the environment surrounding active nuclear fuel reprocessing facilities, there is a shortage of information regarding how the concentrations change once facilities close. At the Hanford Site, the Plutonium-Uranium Extraction (PUREX) chemical separation plant was operating between 1983 and 1990, during which time (129)I concentrations in air and milk were measured. After the cessation of chemical processing, plant emissions decreased 2.5 orders of magnitude over an 8-year period. An evaluation of (129)I and (127)I concentration data in air and milk spanning the PUREX operation and post-closure period was conducted to compare the changes in environmental levels. Measured concentrations over the monitoring period were below the levels that could result in a potential annual human dose greater than 1 mSv. There was a measurable difference in the measured air concentrations of (129)I at different distances from the source, indicating a distinct Hanford fingerprint. Correlations between stack emissions of (129)I and concentrations in air and milk indicate that atmospheric emissions were the major source of (129)I measured in environmental samples. The measured concentrations during PUREX operations were similar to observations made around a fuel reprocessing plant in Germany. After the PUREX Plant stopped operating, (129)I concentration measurements made upwind of Hanford were similar to the results from Seville, Spain. PMID:16125287

  8. Monitoring Iodine-129 in Air and Milk Samples Collected Near the Hanford Site: An Investigation of Historical Iodine Monitoring Data

    SciTech Connect

    Fritz, Brad G.; Patton, Gregory W.

    2006-01-01

    While other research has reported on the concentrations of 129I in the environment surrounding active nuclear fuel reprocessing facilities, there is a shortage of information regarding how the concentrations change once facilities close. At the Hanford Site, the Plutonium-Uranium Extraction (PUREX) chemical separation plant was operational between 1983 and 1990, during which time 129I concentrations in air and milk were measured. After the cessation of operations in 1990, plant emissions decreased 2.5 orders of magnitude over an 8 year period, and monitoring of environmental levels continued. An evaluation of air and milk 129I concentration data spanning the PUREX operation and post closure period was conducted to compare the changes in environmental levels of 129I measured. Measured concentrations over the monitoring period were below levels that could result in a potential human dose greater than 10 uSv. There was a significant and measurable difference in the measured air concentrations of 129I at different distances from the source, indicating a distinct Hanford fingerprint. Correlations between stack emissions of 129I and concentrations in air and milk indicate that atmospheric emissions were responsible for the 129I concentrations measured in environmental samples. The measured concentrations during PUREX operation were similar to observations made around a fuel reprocessing plant in Germany.

  9. SAMPLING OF CONTAMINATED SITES

    EPA Science Inventory

    A critical aspect of characterization of the amount and species of contamination of a hazardous waste site is the sampling plan developed for that site. f the sampling plan is not thoroughly conceptualized before sampling takes place, then certain critical aspects of the limits o...

  10. Air Sampling Filter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    General Metal Works' Accu-Vol is a high-volume air sampling system used by many government agencies to monitor air quality for pollution control purposes. Procedure prevents possible test-invalidating contamination from materials other than particulate pollutants, caused by manual handling or penetration of windblown matter during transit, a cassette was developed in which the filter is sealed within a metal frame and protected in transit by a snap-on aluminum cover, thus handled only under clean conditions in the laboratory.

  11. MEASUREMENT OF VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS DURING START-UP OF BIOREMEDIATION OF FRENCH LIMITED SUPERFUND SITE IN CROSBY TEXAS USING WIND DEPENDENT WHOLE-AIR SAMPLING

    EPA Science Inventory

    Whole-air sampling was performed before and after the start-up of the bioremediation of an industrial (primarily petrochemical) waste lagoon in Crosby Texas, near Houston. our "Sector Samplers" were deployed at the four corners of the French Limited Superfund Site. hese samplers ...

  12. ASSESSMENT OF VAPOR INTRUSION IN HOMES NEAR THE RAYMARK SUPERFUND SITE USING BASEMENT AND SUB-SLAB AIR SAMPLES

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report describes the results of an investigation conducted to assist EPA’s New England Regional Office in evaluating vapor intrusion at 15 homes and one commercial building near the Raymark Superfund Site in Stratford, Connecticut. Methods were developed to sample sub-slab ...

  13. CTEPP STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE FOR COLLECTION OF FIXED SITE INDOOR AND OUTDOOR AIR SAMPLES FOR PERSISTENT ORGANIC POLLUTANTS (SOP-2.12)

    EPA Science Inventory

    This SOP describes the procedures to set up, calibrate, initiate and terminate air sampling for persistent organic pollutants. This method is used to sample air, indoors and outdoors, at homes and at day care centers over a 48-hr period.

  14. Inertial impaction air sampling device

    DOEpatents

    Dewhurst, K.H.

    1987-12-10

    An inertial impactor to be used in an air sampling device for collection of respirable size particles in ambient air which may include a graphite furnace as the impaction substrate in a small-size, portable, direct analysis structure that gives immediate results and is totally self-contained allowing for remote and/or personal sampling. The graphite furnace collects suspended particles transported through the housing by means of the air flow system, and these particles may be analyzed for elements, quantitatively and qualitatively, by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. 3 figs.

  15. Inertial impaction air sampling device

    DOEpatents

    Dewhurst, Katharine H.

    1990-01-01

    An inertial impactor to be used in an air sampling device for collection of respirable size particles in ambient air which may include a graphite furnace as the impaction substrate in a small-size, portable, direct analysis structure that gives immediate results and is totally self-contained allowing for remote and/or personal sampling. The graphite furnace collects suspended particles transported through the housing by means of the air flow system, and these particles may be analyzed for elements, quantitatively and qualitatively, by atomic absorption spectrophotometry.

  16. Inertial impaction air sampling device

    DOEpatents

    Dewhurst, K.H.

    1990-05-22

    An inertial impactor is designed which is to be used in an air sampling device for collection of respirable size particles in ambient air. The device may include a graphite furnace as the impaction substrate in a small-size, portable, direct analysis structure that gives immediate results and is totally self-contained allowing for remote and/or personal sampling. The graphite furnace collects suspended particles transported through the housing by means of the air flow system, and these particles may be analyzed for elements, quantitatively and qualitatively, by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. 3 figs.

  17. East Mountain Area 1995 air sampling results

    SciTech Connect

    Deola, R.A.

    1996-09-01

    Ambient air samples were taken at two locations in the East Mountain Area in conjunction with thermal testing at the Lurance Canyon Burn Site (LCBS). The samples were taken to provide measurements of particulate matter with a diameter less than or equal to 10 micrometers (PM{sub 10}) and volatile organic compounds (VOCs). This report summarizes the results of the sampling performed in 1995. The results from small-scale testing performed to determine the potentially produced air pollutants in the thermal tests are included in this report. Analytical results indicate few samples produced measurable concentrations of pollutants believed to be produced by thermal testing. Recommendations for future air sampling in the East Mountain Area are also noted.

  18. Analytical results from ground-water sampling using a direct-push technique at the Dover National Test Site, Dover Air Force Base, Delaware, June-July 2001

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Guertal, William R.; Stewart, Marie; Barbaro, Jeffrey R.; McHale, Timthoy J.

    2004-01-01

    A joint study by the Dover National Test Site and the U.S. Geological Survey was conducted from June 27 through July 18, 2001 to determine the spatial distribution of the gasoline oxygenate additive methyl tert-butyl ether and selected water-quality constituents in the surficial aquifer underlying the Dover National Test Site at Dover Air Force Base, Delaware. The study was conducted to support a planned enhanced bio-remediation demonstration and to assist the Dover National Test Site in identifying possible locations for future methyl tert-butyl ether remediation demonstrations. This report presents the analytical results from ground-water samples collected during the direct-push ground-water sampling study. A direct-push drill rig was used to quickly collect 115 ground-water samples over a large area at varying depths. The ground-water samples and associated quality-control samples were analyzed for volatile organic compounds and methyl tert-butyl ether by the Dover National Test Site analytical laboratory. Volatile organic compounds were above the method reporting limits in 59 of the 115 ground-water samples. The concentrations ranged from below detection limits to maximum values of 12.4 micrograms per liter of cis-1,2-dichloroethene, 1.14 micrograms per liter of trichloroethene, 2.65 micrograms per liter of tetrachloroethene, 1,070 micrograms per liter of methyl tert-butyl ether, 4.36 micrograms per liter of benzene, and 1.8 micrograms per liter of toluene. Vinyl chloride, ethylbenzene, p,m-xylene, and o-xylene were not detected in any of the samples collected during this investigation. Methyl tert-butyl ether was detected in 47 of the 115 ground-water samples. The highest methyl tert-butyl ether concentrations were found in the surficial aquifer from -4.6 to 6.4 feet mean sea level, however, methyl tert-butyl ether was detected as deep as -9.5 feet mean sea level. Increased methane concentrations and decreased dissolved oxygen concentrations were found in

  19. Evaluating Radionuclide Air Emission Stack Sampling Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Ballinger, Marcel Y.

    2002-12-16

    The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) operates a number of research and development (R&D) facilities for the U.S. Department of Energy at the Hanford Site, Washington. These facilities are subject to Clean Air Act regulations that require sampling of radionuclide air emissions from some of these facilities. A revision to an American National Standards Institute (ANSI) standard on sampling radioactive air emissions has recently been incorporated into federal and state regulations and a re-evaluation of affected facilities is being performed to determine the impact. The revised standard requires a well-mixed sampling location that must be demonstrated through tests specified in the standard. It also carries a number of maintenance requirements, including inspections and cleaning of the sampling system. Evaluations were performed in 2000 – 2002 on two PNNL facilities to determine the operational and design impacts of the new requirements. The evaluation included inspection and cleaning maintenance activities plus testing to determine if the current sampling locations meet criteria in the revised standard. Results show a wide range of complexity in inspection and cleaning activities depending on accessibility of the system, ease of removal, and potential impact on building operations (need for outages). As expected, these High Efficiency Particulate Air (HEPA)-filtered systems did not show deposition significant enough to cause concerns with blocking of the nozzle or other parts of the system. The tests for sampling system location in the revised standard also varied in complexity depending on accessibility of the sample site and use of a scale model can alleviate many issues. Previous criteria to locate sampling systems at eight duct diameters downstream and two duct diameters upstream of the nearest disturbances is no guarantee of meeting criteria in the revised standard. A computational fluid dynamics model was helpful in understanding flow and

  20. Air Sampling System Evaluation Template

    2000-05-09

    The ASSET1.0 software provides a template with which a user can evaluate an Air Sampling System against the latest version of ANSI N13.1 "Sampling and Monitoring Releases of Airborne Radioactive Substances from the Stacks and Ducts of Nuclear Facilities". The software uses the ANSI N13.1 PIC levels to establish basic design criteria for the existing or proposed sampling system. The software looks at such criteria as PIC level, type of radionuclide emissions, physical state ofmore » the radionuclide, nozzle entrance effects, particulate transmission effects, system and component accuracy and precision evaluations, and basic system operations to provide a detailed look at the subsystems of a monitoring and sampling system/program. A GAP evaluation can then be completed which leads to identification of design and operational flaws in the proposed systems. Corrective measures can then be limited to the GAPs.« less

  1. Air sampling in the workplace. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Hickey, E.E.; Stoetzel, G.A.; Strom, D.J.; Cicotte, G.R.; Wiblin, C.M.; McGuire, S.A.

    1993-09-01

    This report provides technical information on air sampling that will be useful for facilities following the recommendations in the NRC`s Regulatory Guide 8.25, Revision 1, ``Air sampling in the Workplace.`` That guide addresses air sampling to meet the requirements in NRC`s regulations on radiation protection, 10 CFR Part 20. This report describes how to determine the need for air sampling based on the amount of material in process modified by the type of material, release potential, and confinement of the material. The purposes of air sampling and how the purposes affect the types of air sampling provided are discussed. The report discusses how to locate air samplers to accurately determine the concentrations of airborne radioactive materials that workers will be exposed to. The need for and the methods of performing airflow pattern studies to improve the accuracy of air sampling results are included. The report presents and gives examples of several techniques that can be used to evaluate whether the airborne concentrations of material are representative of the air inhaled by workers. Methods to adjust derived air concentrations for particle size are described. Methods to calibrate for volume of air sampled and estimate the uncertainty in the volume of air sampled are described. Statistical tests for determining minimum detectable concentrations are presented. How to perform an annual evaluation of the adequacy of the air sampling is also discussed.

  2. Air cleaning issues with contaminated sites

    SciTech Connect

    Bellamy, R.R.

    1997-08-01

    The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission has developed a list of contaminated sites that warrant special USNRC attention because they pose unique or complex decommissioning issues. This list of radiologically contaminated sites is termed the Site Decommissioning Management Plan (SDMP), and was first issued in 1990. A site is placed on the SDMP list if it has; (1) Problems with the viability of the responsible organization (e.g., the licensee for the site is unable or unwilling to pay for the decommissioning); (2) Large amounts of soil contamination or unused settling ponds or burial grounds that may make the waste difficult to dispose of; (3) The long-term presence of contaminated, unused buildings; (4) A previously terminated license; or (5) Contaminated or potential contamination of the ground water from on-site wastes. In deciding whether to add a site to the SDMP list, the NRC also considers the projected length of time for decommissioning and the willingness of the responsible organization to complete the decommissioning in a timely manner. Since the list was established, 9 sites have been removed from the list, and the current SDMP list contains 47 sites in 11 states. The USNRC annually publishes NUREG-1444, {open_quotes}Site Decommissioning Management Plan{close_quotes}, which updates the status of each site. This paper will discuss the philosophical goals of the SDMP, then will concentrate on the regulatory requirements associated with air cleaning issues at the SDMP sites during characterization and remediation. Both effluent and worker protection issues will be discussed. For effluents, the source terms at sites will be characterized, and measurement techniques will be presented. Off-site dose impacts will be included. For worker protection issues, air sampling analyses will be presented in order to show how the workers are adequately protected and their doses measured to satisfy regulatory criteria during decontamination operations. 1 tab.

  3. Protocol for sampling environmental sites for legionellae.

    PubMed

    Barbaree, J M; Gorman, G W; Martin, W T; Fields, B S; Morrill, W E

    1987-07-01

    A protocol for sampling environmental sites was developed and used to identify possible sources of Legionella species in support of epidemiologic investigations at two hospitals. In hospital A, legionellae were isolated from 43 of 106 (40%) different sites. Three separate Legionella pneumophila serotypes and a previously unrecognized species were present in different combinations in the positive samples. Two of five cooling towers contained the same L. pneumophila serogroup 1 monoclonal type (1,2,4,5) as was isolated from patients. The same monoclonal type was also isolated from make-up water for the two cooling towers, a hot water tank, water separators in four main air compressor systems for respiratory therapy, and cold and hot water faucets. In hospital B, 13 of 37 (38%) sample sites contained legionellae, all of which were L. pneumophila serogroup 1. The monoclonal type matching isolates from patients (1,2,4,5) was found at the highest concentration in a hot water tank, but it was also present at four other sample sites. Since legionellae not related to disease may be found in many of the sites sampled, an epidemiologic association with the probable source should be established before intervention methods, such as disinfection, are undertaken. PMID:3662501

  4. GEOSTATISTICAL SAMPLING DESIGNS FOR HAZARDOUS WASTE SITES

    EPA Science Inventory

    This chapter discusses field sampling design for environmental sites and hazardous waste sites with respect to random variable sampling theory, Gy's sampling theory, and geostatistical (kriging) sampling theory. The literature often presents these sampling methods as an adversari...

  5. 40 CFR 61.34 - Air sampling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 8 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Air sampling. 61.34 Section 61.34 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS National Emission Standard for Beryllium § 61.34...

  6. 40 CFR 61.34 - Air sampling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 9 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Air sampling. 61.34 Section 61.34 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS National Emission Standard for Beryllium § 61.34...

  7. 40 CFR 61.34 - Air sampling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 9 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Air sampling. 61.34 Section 61.34 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS National Emission Standard for Beryllium § 61.34...

  8. 40 CFR 61.34 - Air sampling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 9 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Air sampling. 61.34 Section 61.34 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS National Emission Standard for Beryllium § 61.34...

  9. 40 CFR 61.34 - Air sampling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Air sampling. 61.34 Section 61.34 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS National Emission Standard for Beryllium § 61.34...

  10. Hanford site environmental surveillance master sampling schedule

    SciTech Connect

    Bisping, L.E.

    1998-01-01

    Environmental surveillance of the Hanford Site and surrounding areas is conducted by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). Sampling is conducted to evaluate levels of radioactive and nonradioactive pollutants in the Hanford environs, as required in DOE Order 5400.1 {open_quotes}General Environmental Protection Program,{close_quotes} and DOE Order 5400.5, {open_quotes}Radiation Protection of the Public and the Environment.{close_quotes} The sampling methods are described in the Environmental Monitoring Plan, United States Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office, DOE/RL91-50, Rev. 2, U.S. Department of Energy, Richland, Washington. This document contains the 1998 schedules for routine collection of samples for the Surface Environmental Surveillance Project (SESP) and Drinking Water Monitoring Project. Each section of this document describes the planned sampling schedule for a specific media (air, surface water, biota, soil and vegetation, sediment, and external radiation). Each section includes the sample location, sample type, and analyses to be performed on the sample. In some cases, samples are scheduled on a rotating basis and may not be planned for 1998 in which case the anticipated year for collection is provided. In addition, a map is included for each media showing sample locations.

  11. EML Surface Air Sampling Program, 1990--1993 data

    SciTech Connect

    Larsen, R.J.; Sanderson, C.G.; Kada, J.

    1995-11-01

    Measurements of the concentrations of specific atmospheric radionuclides in air filter samples collected for the Environmental Measurements Laboratory`s Surface Air Sampling Program (SASP) during 1990--1993, with the exception of April 1993, indicate that anthropogenic radionuclides, in both hemispheres, were at or below the lower limits of detection for the sampling and analytical techniques that were used to collect and measure them. The occasional detection of {sup 137}Cs in some air filter samples may have resulted from resuspension of previously deposited debris. Following the April 6, 1993 accident and release of radionuclides into the atmosphere at a reprocessing plant in the Tomsk-7 military nuclear complex located 16 km north of the Siberian city of Tomsk, Russia, weekly air filter samples from Barrow, Alaska; Thule, Greenland and Moosonee, Canada were selected for special analyses. The naturally occurring radioisotopes that the authors measure, {sup 7}Be and {sup 210}Pb, continue to be detected in most air filter samples. Variations in the annual mean concentrations of {sup 7}Be at many of the sites appear to result primarily from changes in the atmospheric production rate of this cosmogenic radionuclide. Short-term variations in the concentrations of {sup 7}Be and {sup 210}Pb continued to be observed at many sites at which weekly air filter samples were analyzed. The monthly gross gamma-ray activity and the monthly mean surface air concentrations of {sup 7}Be, {sup 95}Zr, {sup 137}Cs, {sup 144}Ce, and {sup 210}Pb measured at sampling sites in SASP during 1990--1993 are presented. The weekly mean surface air concentrations of {sup 7}Be, {sup 95}Zr, {sup 137}Cs, {sup 144}Ce, and {sup 210}Pb for samples collected during 1990--1993 are given for 17 sites.

  12. VOCS IN AMBIENT AIR NEAR WORLD TRADE CENTER SITE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Beginning on September 22, 2001 and continuing through February 2002, ambient air samples were collected at three sites within a block of ground zero and at a fourth site on the 16th floor of a building at 290 Broadway. Grab samples were collected in evacuated, electro-polished...

  13. Air sampling with solid phase microextraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martos, Perry Anthony

    There is an increasing need for simple yet accurate air sampling methods. The acceptance of new air sampling methods requires compatibility with conventional chromatographic equipment, and the new methods have to be environmentally friendly, simple to use, yet with equal, or better, detection limits, accuracy and precision than standard methods. Solid phase microextraction (SPME) satisfies the conditions for new air sampling methods. Analyte detection limits, accuracy and precision of analysis with SPME are typically better than with any conventional air sampling methods. Yet, air sampling with SPME requires no pumps, solvents, is re-usable, extremely simple to use, is completely compatible with current chromatographic equipment, and requires a small capital investment. The first SPME fiber coating used in this study was poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS), a hydrophobic liquid film, to sample a large range of airborne hydrocarbons such as benzene and octane. Quantification without an external calibration procedure is possible with this coating. Well understood are the physical and chemical properties of this coating, which are quite similar to those of the siloxane stationary phase used in capillary columns. The log of analyte distribution coefficients for PDMS are linearly related to chromatographic retention indices and to the inverse of temperature. Therefore, the actual chromatogram from the analysis of the PDMS air sampler will yield the calibration parameters which are used to quantify unknown airborne analyte concentrations (ppb v to ppm v range). The second fiber coating used in this study was PDMS/divinyl benzene (PDMS/DVB) onto which o-(2,3,4,5,6- pentafluorobenzyl) hydroxylamine (PFBHA) was adsorbed for the on-fiber derivatization of gaseous formaldehyde (ppb v range), with and without external calibration. The oxime formed from the reaction can be detected with conventional gas chromatographic detectors. Typical grab sampling times were as small as 5 seconds

  14. AIR MONITOR SITING BY OBJECTIVE

    EPA Science Inventory

    A method is developed whereby measured pollutant concentrations can be used in conjunction with a mathematical air quality model to estimate the full spatial and temporal concentration distributions of the pollutants over a given region. The method is based on the application of ...

  15. Bioassay vs. Air Sampling: Practical Guidance and Experience at Hanford

    SciTech Connect

    Carbaugh, Eugene H.; Carlson, Eric W.; Hill, Robin L.

    2004-02-08

    The Hanford Site has implemented a policy to guide in determining whether air sampling data or special fecal bioassay data are more appropriate for determining doses of record for low-level plutonium exposures. The basis for the policy and four years of experience in comparing DAC-hours exposure with bioassay-based dosimetry is discussed.

  16. Combination syringe provides air-free blood samples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pool, S. L.

    1970-01-01

    Standard syringe and spinal needle are combined in unique manner to secure air-free blood samples. Combination syringe obtains air free samples because air bubbles become insignificant when samples greater than 1 cc are drawn.

  17. DUS II SOIL GAS SAMPLING AND AIR INJECTION TEST RESULTS

    SciTech Connect

    Noonkester, J.; Jackson, D.; Jones, W.; Hyde, W.; Kohn, J.; Walker, R.

    2012-09-20

    Soil vapor extraction (SVE) and air injection well testing was performed at the Dynamic Underground Stripping (DUS) site located near the M-Area Settling Basin (referred to as DUS II in this report). The objective of this testing was to determine the effectiveness of continued operation of these systems. Steam injection ended on September 19, 2009 and since this time the extraction operations have utilized residual heat that is present in the subsurface. The well testing campaign began on June 5, 2012 and was completed on June 25, 2012. Thirty-two (32) SVE wells were purged for 24 hours or longer using the active soil vapor extraction (ASVE) system at the DUS II site. During each test five or more soil gas samples were collected from each well and analyzed for target volatile organic compounds (VOCs). The DUS II site is divided into four parcels (see Figure 1) and soil gas sample results show the majority of residual VOC contamination remains in Parcel 1 with lesser amounts in the other three parcels. Several VOCs, including tetrachloroethylene (PCE) and trichloroethylene (TCE), were detected. PCE was the major VOC with lesser amounts of TCE. Most soil gas concentrations of PCE ranged from 0 to 60 ppmv with one well (VEW-22A) as high as 200 ppmv. Air sparging (AS) generally involves the injection of air into the aquifer through either vertical or horizontal wells. AS is coupled with SVE systems when contaminant recovery is necessary. While traditional air sparging (AS) is not a primary component of the DUS process, following the cessation of steam injection, eight (8) of the sixty-three (63) steam injection wells were used to inject air. These wells were previously used for hydrous pyrolysis oxidation (HPO) as part of the DUS process. Air sparging is different from the HPO operations in that the air was injected at a higher rate (20 to 50 scfm) versus HPO (1 to 2 scfm). . At the DUS II site the air injection wells were tested to determine if air sparging affected

  18. Hanford Site air operating permit application

    SciTech Connect

    1995-05-01

    The Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990, which amended the Federal Clean Air Act of 1977, required that the US Environmental Protection Agency develop a national Air Operating Permit Program, which in turn would require each state to develop an Air Operating Permit Program to identify all sources of ``regulated`` pollutants. Regulated pollutants include ``criteria`` pollutants (oxides of nitrogen, sulfur oxides, total suspended particulates, carbon monoxide, particulate matter greater than 10 micron, lead) plus 189 other ``Hazardous`` Air Pollutants. The Hanford Site, owned by the US Government and operated by the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office, is located in southcentral Washington State and covers 560 square miles of semi-arid shrub and grasslands located just north of the confluence of the Snake and Yakima Rivers with the Columbia River. This land, with restricted public access, provides a buffer for the smaller areas historically used for the production of nuclear materials, waste storage, and waste disposal. About 6 percent of the land area has been disturbed and is actively used. The Hanford Site Air Operating Permit Application consists of more than 1,100 sources and in excess of 300 emission points. Before January 1995, the maintenance and operations contractor and the environmental restoration contractor for the US Department of Energy completed an air emission inventory on the Hanford Site. The inventory has been entered into a database so that the sources and emission points can be tracked and updated information readily can be retrieved. The Hanford Site Air Operating Permit Application contains information current as of April 19, 1995.

  19. Mars sample return: Site selection and sample acquisition study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nickle, N. (Editor)

    1980-01-01

    Various vehicle and mission options were investigated for the continued exploration of Mars; the cost of a minimum sample return mission was estimated; options and concepts were synthesized into program possibilities; and recommendations for the next Mars mission were made to the Planetary Program office. Specific sites and all relevant spacecraft and ground-based data were studied in order to determine: (1) the adequacy of presently available data for identifying landing sities for a sample return mission that would assure the acquisition of material from the most important geologic provinces of Mars; (2) the degree of surface mobility required to assure sample acquisition for these sites; (3) techniques to be used in the selection and drilling of rock a samples; and (4) the degree of mobility required at the two Viking sites to acquire these samples.

  20. Operational air sampling report, July--December 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Lyons, C.L.

    1992-11-01

    Air sampling is one of the more useful ways of assessing the effectiveness of operational radiation safety programs at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). Air sampling programs document NTS airborne radionuclide concentrations in various work locations and environments. These concentrations generally remain well below the Derived Air Concentration (DAC) values prescribed by the Department of Energy (DOE 5480.11, Attachment 1) or the Derived Concentration Guide (DCG) values prescribed by the Department of Energy DOE 5400.5, Chapter Ill. The Defense Nuclear Agency (DNA) tunnel complexes, Area 12 Test Support Compound and the Area 6 Decontamination Pad and Laundry air sampling programs are summarized in this report. Evaluations are based on Analytical Services Department (ASD) Counting Laboratory analyses and Health Protection Department (HPD)/Radiological Field Operations Section (RFOS) radiation protection technician's (RPT) or health physicists' calculations for air samples collected July 1 through December 31, 1991. Of the NTS operational air sampling programs in the tunnel complexes, the initial mining and event reentry and recovery operations represent the only real airborne radioactive inhalation potentials to personnel. Monthly filter and scintillation cell samples were taken and counted in RDA-200 Radon Detectors to document working levels of radon/thoron daughters and picocurie/liter (PCVL) concentrations of radon gas. Weekly Drierite samples for tritium analysis were taken in the active tunnel complexes to document any changes in normal background levels or reentry drifts as they are advanced toward ground zero (GZ) areas. Underground water sources are considered primary transporters of tritium from old event areas.

  1. Operational air sampling report, July--December 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Lyons, C.L.

    1992-11-01

    Air sampling is one of the more useful ways of assessing the effectiveness of operational radiation safety programs at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). Air sampling programs document NTS airborne radionuclide concentrations in various work locations and environments. These concentrations generally remain well below the Derived Air Concentration (DAC) values prescribed by the Department of Energy (DOE 5480.11, Attachment 1) or the Derived Concentration Guide (DCG) values prescribed by the Department of Energy DOE 5400.5, Chapter Ill. The Defense Nuclear Agency (DNA) tunnel complexes, Area 12 Test Support Compound and the Area 6 Decontamination Pad and Laundry air sampling programs are summarized in this report. Evaluations are based on Analytical Services Department (ASD) Counting Laboratory analyses and Health Protection Department (HPD)/Radiological Field Operations Section (RFOS) radiation protection technician`s (RPT) or health physicists` calculations for air samples collected July 1 through December 31, 1991. Of the NTS operational air sampling programs in the tunnel complexes, the initial mining and event reentry and recovery operations represent the only real airborne radioactive inhalation potentials to personnel. Monthly filter and scintillation cell samples were taken and counted in RDA-200 Radon Detectors to document working levels of radon/thoron daughters and picocurie/liter (PCVL) concentrations of radon gas. Weekly Drierite samples for tritium analysis were taken in the active tunnel complexes to document any changes in normal background levels or reentry drifts as they are advanced toward ground zero (GZ) areas. Underground water sources are considered primary transporters of tritium from old event areas.

  2. Air Sampling Instruments for Evaluation of Atmospheric Contaminants. Fourth Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists, Cincinnati, OH.

    This text, a revision and extension of the first three editions, consists of papers discussing the basic considerations in sampling air for specific purposes, sampler calibration, systems components, sample collectors, and descriptions of air-sampling instruments. (BT)

  3. Window-mounted unit cleans air at hazardous waste site

    SciTech Connect

    Battaglia, J.M. ); Sawyer, P.

    1994-07-01

    Uncontrolled hazardous waste sites present the potential for exposure to numerous airborne chemicals--both identified and unidentified. This was the case at an Elizabeth, N.J., remediation project managed by a major environmental contractor. The four-acre site housed three active manufacturing facilities and was bordered by an operation commuter railroad line. About 6,300 drums of assorted organic chemicals, mostly acid chlorides and bromides, awaited sampling and removal. In addition, 120 tanks and vessels required sampling, characterization and removal. Due to site restrictions, support trailers were located relatively close to active work areas. Damaged drums littering the site contained water-reactive, organic acid chlorides and bromides, and released slight emissions during humid or rainy conditions. Shifting winds could (and did) carry trace releases or trace contaminants toward the trailers, potentially exposing unprotected workers. Efforts were begun to alleviate even trace contaminant at levels in the remediation site's temporary office trailers. One potential solution to managing trace contaminants at the site was to use a window-mounted, air conditioner-type unit that would replenish each trailer with filtered air three times an hour, and provide positive pressure in the trailer to compensate for repeated openings and closings of doors. The design uses common, off-the-shelf components to temper the approximately 10 percent makeup air, which provides positive pressure.

  4. Diagnosing AIRS Sampling with CloudSat Cloud Classes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fetzer, Eric; Yue, Qing; Guillaume, Alexandre; Kahn, Brian

    2011-01-01

    AIRS yield and sampling vary with cloud state. Careful utilization of collocated multiple satellite sensors is necessary. Profile differences between AIRS and ECMWF model analyses indicate that AIRS has high sampling and excellent accuracy for certain meteorological conditions. Cloud-dependent sampling biases may have large impact on AIRS L2 and L3 data in climate research. MBL clouds / lower tropospheric stability relationship is one example. AIRS and CloudSat reveal a reasonable climatology in the MBL cloud regime despite limited sampling in stratocumulus. Thermodynamic parameters such as EIS derived from AIRS data map these cloud conditions successfully. We are working on characterizing AIRS scenes with mixed cloud types.

  5. Hanford Site Environmental Surveillance Master Sampling Schedule

    SciTech Connect

    Bisping, Lynn E.

    2002-01-16

    Environmental surveillance of the Hanford Site and surrounding areas is conducted by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). Sampling is conducted to evaluate levels of radioactive and nonradioactive pollutants in the Hanford environs. The document contains the CY 2002 schedules for the routine collection of samples for the Surface Environmental Surveillance Project (SESP) and Drinking Water Monitoring Project.

  6. RAPID SEPARATION METHOD FOR ACTINIDES IN EMERGENCY AIR FILTER SAMPLES

    SciTech Connect

    Maxwell, S.; Noyes, G.; Culligan, B.

    2010-02-03

    A new rapid method for the determination of actinides and strontium in air filter samples has been developed at the Savannah River Site Environmental Lab (Aiken, SC, USA) that can be used in emergency response situations. The actinides and strontium in air filter method utilizes a rapid acid digestion method and a streamlined column separation process with stacked TEVA, TRU and Sr Resin cartridges. Vacuum box technology and rapid flow rates are used to reduce analytical time. Alpha emitters are prepared using cerium fluoride microprecipitation for counting by alpha spectrometry. The purified {sup 90}Sr fractions are mounted directly on planchets and counted by gas flow proportional counting. The method showed high chemical recoveries and effective removal of interferences. This new procedure was applied to emergency air filter samples received in the NRIP Emergency Response exercise administered by the National Institute for Standards and Technology (NIST) in April, 2009. The actinide and {sup 90}Sr in air filter results were reported in {approx}4 hours with excellent quality.

  7. SAMPLING FOR ORGANIC CHEMICALS IN AIR

    EPA Science Inventory

    Organic chemicals by far account for the majority of pollutants found in air. ore than 90% of the 75,000 chemicals listed in EPA's Toxic Substances Control Act Chemical Substance Inventory and 88% of the 189 Hazardous Air Pollutants (HAPS) named in the Clean Air Act Amendments of...

  8. Hanford Site Environmental Surveillance Master Sampling Schedule

    SciTech Connect

    LE Bisping

    1999-02-12

    Environmental surveillance of the Hanford Site and surrounding areas is conducted by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). Sampling is conducted to evaluate levels of radioactive and nonradioactive pollutants in the Hanford environs, as required in DOE Order 5400.1, ''General Environmental protection Program,'' and DOE Order 5400.5, ''Radiation Protection of the Public and the Environment.'' The sampling methods are described in the Environmental Monitoring Plan, United States Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office, DOE/RL-91-50, Rev.2, U.S. Department of Energy, Richland, Washington. This document contains the CY1999 schedules for the routine collection of samples for the Surface Environmental Surveillance Project (SESP) and Drinking Water Monitoring Project. Each section includes the sampling location, sample type, and analyses to be performed on the sample. In some cases, samples are scheduled on a rotating basis and may not be collected in 1999 in which case the anticipated year for collection is provided. In addition, a map is included for each media showing approximate sampling locations.

  9. Adaptive Sampling approach to environmental site characterization: Phase 1 demonstration

    SciTech Connect

    Floran, R.J.; Bujewski, G.E.; Johnson, R.L.

    1995-07-01

    A technology demonstration that optimizes sampling strategies and real-time data collection was carried out at the Kirtland Air Force Base (KAFB) RB-11 Radioactive Burial Site, Albuquerque, New Mexico in August 1994. The project, which was funded by the Strategic Environmental Research and Development Program (SERDP), involved the application of a geostatistical-based Adaptive Sampling methodology and software with on-site field screening of soils for radiation, organic compounds and metals. The software, known as Plume{trademark}, was developed at Argonne National Laboratory as part of the DOE/OTD-funded Mixed Waste Landfill Integrated Demonstration (MWLID). The objective of the investigation was to compare an innovative Adaptive Sampling approach that stressed real-time decision-making with a conventional RCRA-driven site characterization carried out by the Air Force. The latter investigation used a standard drilling and sampling plan as mandated by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). To make the comparison realistic, the same contractors and sampling equipment (Geoprobe{reg_sign} soil samplers) were used. In both investigations, soil samples were collected at several depths at numerous locations adjacent to burial trenches that contain low-level radioactive waste and animal carcasses; some trenches may also contain mixed waste. Neither study revealed the presence of contaminants appreciably above risk based action levels, indicating that minimal to no migration has occurred away from the trenches. The combination of Adaptive Sampling with field screening achieved a similar level of confidence compared to the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) investigation regarding the potential migration of contaminants at the site.

  10. Sampling sediment on a complex site

    SciTech Connect

    Nocera, J.J.; Matthew, G.P. . Marathon Battery Project); Simmons, T.M. )

    1993-03-01

    This article discusses how cadmium, lead, cobalt and nickel are the culprits at the former Marathon Battery Superfund site in Cold Spring, N.Y., spread throughout 80 acres that range from upland and marshes to coves and open water of the Hudson River. Remediation will involve dredging and excavation of contaminated sediments, fixation, and off-site disposal in a permitted landfill. Design of the remediation required reliable data that were obtained by extensive field sampling plus laboratory and research programs. For 27 years, Marathon had discharged process wastewater directly into a nearby marsh and through an outfall pipe near Cold Spring Pier, contaminating the area through precipitation of metals and settling of metal hydroxides. The area, about 50 mi north of New York City, was designated as a Superfund site by EPA, which delegated project administration to the Kansas City (Mo.) District of the Army Corps of Engineers. Early remedial investigations/feasibility studies identified cadmium as the primary contaminant of concern. When the Corps contracted Malcolm Pirnie, Inc. of White Plains, N.Y. to complete the remedial design, new studies were required to more precisely identify the limits of remediation. Malcolm Pirnie engineers looked at site features and, with the Corps, experimented with sampling methods and tools in upland, marsh and open-water ware as to determine appropriate methods for each area.

  11. Hanford Site Environmental Surveillance Master Sampling Schedule

    SciTech Connect

    LE Bisping

    2000-01-27

    Environmental surveillance of the Hanford Site and surrounding areas is conducted by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). Sampling is conducted to evaluate levels of radioactive and nonradioactive pollutants in the Hanford environs, as required in DOE Order 5400.1, General Environmental Protection Program: and DOE Order 5400.5, Radiation Protection of the Public and the Environment. The sampling design is described in the Operations Office, Environmental Monitoring Plan, United States Department of Energy, Richland DOE/RL-91-50, Rev.2, U.S. Department of Energy, Richland, Washington. This document contains the CY 2000 schedules for the routine collection of samples for the Surface Environmental Surveillance Project (SESP) and Drinking Water Monitoring Project. Each section includes sampling locations, sample types, and analyses to be performed. In some cases, samples are scheduled on a rotating basis and may not be collected in 2000 in which case the anticipated year for collection is provided. In addition, a map showing approximate sampling locations is included for each media scheduled for collection.

  12. Sampling Soil for Characterization and Site Description

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levine, Elissa

    1999-01-01

    The sampling scheme for soil characterization within the GLOBE program is uniquely different from the sampling methods of the other protocols. The strategy is based on an understanding of the 5 soil forming factors (parent material, climate, biota, topography, and time) at each study site, and how each of these interact to produce a soil profile with unique characteristics and unique input and control into the atmospheric, biological, and hydrological systems. Soil profile characteristics, as opposed to soil moisture and temperature, vegetative growth, and atmospheric and hydrologic conditions, change very slowly, depending on the parameter being measured, ranging from seasonally to many thousands of years. Thus, soil information, including profile description and lab analysis, is collected only one time for each profile at a site. These data serve two purposes: 1) to supplement existing spatial information about soil profile characteristics across the landscape at local, regional, and global scales, and 2) to provide specific information within a given area about the basic substrate to which elements within the other protocols are linked. Because of the intimate link between soil properties and these other environmental elements, the static soil properties at a given site are needed to accurately interpret and understand the continually changing dynamics of soil moisture and temperature, vegetation growth and phenology, atmospheric conditions, and chemistry and turbidity in surface waters. Both the spatial and specific soil information can be used for modeling purposes to assess and make predictions about global change.

  13. Application of a dry-gas meter for measuring air sample volumes in an ambient air monitoring network

    SciTech Connect

    Fritz, Brad G.

    2009-05-24

    Ambient air monitoring for non-research applications (e.g. compliance) occurs at locations throughout the world. Often, the air sampling systems employed for these purposes employee simple yet robust equipment capable of handling the rigors of demanding sampling schedules. At the Hanford Site (near Richland, Washington) concentrations of radionuclides in ambient air are monitored continuously at 44 locations. In 2004, mechanical dry-gas meters were incorporated into the Hanford Site ambient air sample collection system to allow the direct measurement of sample volumes. These meters replaced a portable airflow measurement system that required two manual flow measurements and a sample duration measurement to determine sample volume. A six-month evaluation of the dry-gas meters compared sample volumes calculated using the original flow rate method to the direct sample volume measurement (new method). The results of the evaluation indicate that use of the dry-gas meters result in accurate sample volume measurements and provide greater confidence in the measured sample volumes. In several years of in-network use, the meters have proven to be reliable and have resulted in an improved sampling system.

  14. 19. SITE BUILDING 002 SCANNER BUILDING AIR POLICE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. SITE BUILDING 002 - SCANNER BUILDING - AIR POLICE SITE SECURITY OFFICE WITH "SITE PERIMETER STATUS PANEL" AND REAL TIME VIDEO DISPLAY OUTPUT FROM VIDEO CAMERA SYSTEM AT SECURITY FENCE LOCATIONS. - Cape Cod Air Station, Technical Facility-Scanner Building & Power Plant, Massachusetts Military Reservation, Sandwich, Barnstable County, MA

  15. Microbiological assessment of indoor air quality at different hospital sites.

    PubMed

    Cabo Verde, Sandra; Almeida, Susana Marta; Matos, João; Guerreiro, Duarte; Meneses, Marcia; Faria, Tiago; Botelho, Daniel; Santos, Mateus; Viegas, Carla

    2015-09-01

    Poor hospital indoor air quality (IAQ) may lead to hospital-acquired infections, sick hospital syndrome and various occupational hazards. Air-control measures are crucial for reducing dissemination of airborne biological particles in hospitals. The objective of this study was to perform a survey of bioaerosol quality in different sites in a Portuguese Hospital, namely the operating theater (OT), the emergency service (ES) and the surgical ward (SW). Aerobic mesophilic bacterial counts (BCs) and fungal load (FL) were assessed by impaction directly onto tryptic soy agar and malt extract agar supplemented with antibiotic chloramphenicol (0.05%) plates, respectively using a MAS-100 air sampler. The ES revealed the highest airborne microbial concentrations (BC range 240-736 CFU/m(3) CFU/m(3); FL range 27-933 CFU/m(3)), exceeding, at several sampling sites, conformity criteria defined in national legislation [6]. Bacterial concentrations in the SW (BC range 99-495 CFU/m(3)) and the OT (BC range 12-170 CFU/m(3)) were under recommended criteria. While fungal levels were below 1 CFU/m(3) in the OT, in the SW (range 1-32 CFU/m(3)), there existed a site with fungal indoor concentrations higher than those detected outdoors. Airborne Gram-positive cocci were the most frequent phenotype (88%) detected from the measured bacterial population in all indoor environments. Staphylococcus (51%) and Micrococcus (37%) were dominant among the bacterial genera identified in the present study. Concerning indoor fungal characterization, the prevalent genera were Penicillium (41%) and Aspergillus (24%). Regular monitoring is essential for assessing air control efficiency and for detecting irregular introduction of airborne particles via clothing of visitors and medical staff or carriage by personal and medical materials. Furthermore, microbiological survey data should be used to clearly define specific air quality guidelines for controlled environments in hospital settings. PMID

  16. A continuous sampling air-ICP for metals emission monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Baldwin, D.P.; Zamzow, D.S.; Eckels, D.E.; Miller, G.P.

    1999-09-19

    An air-inductively coupled plasma (air-ICP) system has been developed for continuous sampling and monitoring of metals as a continuous emission monitor (CEM). The plasma is contained in a metal enclosure to allow reduced-pressure operation. The enclosure and plasma are operated at a pressure slightly less than atmospheric using a Roots blower, so that sample gas is continuously drawn into the plasma. A Teflon sampling chamber, equipped with a sampling pump, is connected to the stack that is to be monitored to isokinetically sample gas from the exhaust line and introduce the sample into the air-ICP. Optical emission from metals in the sampled gas stream is detected and monitored using an acousto-optic tunable filter (AOTF)--echelle spectrometer system. A description of the continuous sampling air-ICP system is given, along with some preliminary laboratory data for continuous monitoring of metals.

  17. Continuous sampling air-ICP for metals emission monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baldwin, David P.; Zamzow, Daniel S.; Eckels, David E.; Miller, George P.

    1999-12-01

    An air-inductively coupled plasma (air-ICP) system has been developed for continuous sampling and monitoring of metals as a continuous emission monitor (CEM). The plasma is contained in a metal enclosure to allow reduced-pressure operation. The enclosure and plasma are operated at a pressure slightly less than atmospheric using a Roots blower, so that sample gas is continuously drawn into the plasma. A Teflon sampling chamber, equipped with a sampling pump, is connected to the stack that is to be monitored to isokinetically sample gas from the exhaust line and introduce the sample into the air-ICP. Optical emission from metals in the sampled gas stream is detected and monitored using an acousto-optic tunable filter (AOTF)-echelle spectrometer system. A description of the continuous sampling air-ICP system is given, along with some preliminary laboratory data for continuous monitoring of metals.

  18. Evaluation of Urban Air Quality By Passive Sampling Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nunes, T. V.; Miranda, A. I.; Duarte, S.; Lima, M. J.

    Aveiro is a flat small city in the centre of Portugal, close to the Atlantic coast. In the last two decades an intensive development of demographic, traffic and industry growth in the region was observed which was reflected on the air quality degrada- tion. In order to evaluate the urban air quality in Aveiro, a field-monitoring network by passive sampling with high space resolution was implemented. Twenty-four field places were distributed in a area of 3x3 Km2 and ozone and NO2 concentrations were measured. The site distribution density was higher in the centre, 250x250 m2 than in periphery where a 500x500 m2 grid was used. The selection of field places took into consideration the choice criteria recommendation by United Kingdom environmental authorities, and three tubes and a blank tube for each pollutant were used at each site. The sampling system was mounted at 3m from the ground usually profiting the street lampposts. Concerning NO2 acrylic tubes were used with 85 mm of length and an in- ternal diameter of 12mm, where in one of the extremities three steel grids impregnated with a solution of TEA were placed and fixed with a polyethylene end cup (Heal et al., 1999); PFA Teflon tube with 53 mm of length and 9 mm of internal diameter and three impregnated glass filters impregnated with DPE solution fixed by a teflon end cup was used for ozone sampling (Monn and Hargartner, 1990). The passive sampling method for ozone and nitrogen dioxide was compared with continuous measurements, but the amount of measurements wasnSt enough for an accurate calibration and validation of the method. Although this constraint the field observations (June to August 2001) for these two pollutants assign interesting information about the air quality in the urban area. A krigger method of interpolation (Surfer- Golden Software-2000) was applied to field data to obtain isolines distribution of NO2 and ozone concentration for the studied area. Even the used passive sampling method has many

  19. Atmospheric CO sub 2 concentrations derived from flask samples collected at USSR-operated sampling sites

    SciTech Connect

    Boden, T.A. . Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center); Brounshtein, A.M.; Faber, E.V.; Shashkov, A.A. )

    1991-12-01

    This document presents daily atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentrations from four USSR-operated sampling sites (Teriberka Station, Ocean Station Charlie, Bering Island, and Kotelny Island). The period of record varies by station with the earliest measurements dating back to 1983 and recent estimates from early 1991. These CO{sub 2} concentrations are derived from air samples collected in 1.5-L stainless steel electropolished flasks and later analyzed at the Main Geophysical Observatory (St. Petersburg, USSR) using a nondispersive infrared gas analyzer. Measurements not meeting wind direction, wind speed, inter-flask agreement, and climate condition criteria were either discarded or flagged. All measurements have been corrected for drift biases introduced during flask storage. These atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentrations are considered indicative of regional background air conditions and are directly traceable to the World Meteorological Organization's primary CO{sub 2} standards. These measurements support the rising trend in atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentrations measured at other monitoring sites around the world and may be compared with similar measurements made by various monitoring programs at other northern latitude sites. The document presents the atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentrations in graphical and tabular form, describes the sampling methods, defines limitations and restrictions of the data, and describes the information on the magnetic media.

  20. Venturi Air-Jet Vacuum Ejector For Sampling Air

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hill, Gerald F.; Sachse, Glen W.; Burney, L. Garland; Wade, Larry O.

    1990-01-01

    Venturi air-jet vacuum ejector pump light in weight, requires no electrical power, does not contribute heat to aircraft, and provides high pumping speeds at moderate suctions. High-pressure motive gas required for this type of pump bled from compressor of aircraft engine with negligible effect on performance of engine. Used as source of vacuum for differential-absorption CO-measurement (DACOM), modified to achieve in situ measurements of CO at frequency response of 10 Hz. Provides improvement in spatial resolution and potentially leads to capability to measure turbulent flux of CO by use of eddy-correlation technique.

  1. Air pollution prevention at the Hanford Site: Status and recommendations

    SciTech Connect

    Engel, J.A.

    1995-08-01

    With the introduction of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 and other air and pollution prevention regulations, there has been increased focus on both pollution prevention and air emissions at US DOE sites. The Pollution Prevention (P2) Group of WHC reviewed the status of air pollution prevention with the goal of making recommendations on how to address air emissions at Hanford through pollution prevention. Using the air emissions inventory from Hanford`s Title V permit, the P2 Group was able to identify major and significant air sources. By reviewing the literature and benchmarking two other DOE Sites, two major activities were recommended to reduce air pollution and reduce costs at the Hanford Site. First, a pollution prevention opportunity assessment (P2OA) should be conducted on the significant painting sources in the Maintenance group and credit should be taken for reducing the burning of tumbleweeds, another significant source of air pollution. Since they are significant sources, reducing these emissions will reduce air emission fees, as well as have the potential to reduce material and labor costs, and increase worker safety. Second, a P2OA should be conducted on alternatives to the three coal-fired powerhouses (steam plants) on-site, including a significant costs analysis of alternatives. This analysis could be of significant value to other DOE sites. Overall, these two activities would reduce pollution, ease regulatory requirements and fees, save money, and help Hanford take a leadership role in air pollution prevention.

  2. Study of PCBs and PBDEs in King George Island, Antarctica, using PUF passive air sampling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yingming; Geng, Dawei; Liu, Fubin; Wang, Thanh; Wang, Pu; Zhang, Qinghua; Jiang, Guibin

    2012-05-01

    Polyurethane foam (PUF)-disk based passive air samplers were deployed in King George Island, Antarctica, during the austral summer of 2009-2010, to investigate levels, distributions and potential sources of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in Antarctic air. The atmospheric levels of ∑ indicator PCBs and ∑14 PBDEs ranged from 1.66 to 6.50 pg m-3 and from 0.67 to 2.98 pg m-3, respectively. PCBs homologue profiles were dominated by di-PCBs, tri-PCBs and tetra-PCBs, whereas BDE-17 and BDE-28 were the predominant congeners of PBDEs, which could be explained by long-range atmospheric transport processes. However, the sampling sites close to the Antarctic research stations showed higher atmospheric concentrations of PCBs and PBDEs than the other sites, reflecting potential local sources from the Antarctic research stations. The non-Aroclor congener PCB-11 was found in all the air samples, with air concentrations of 3.60-31.4 pg m-3 (average 15.2 pg m-3). Comparison between the results derived from PUF-disk passive air sampling and high-volume air sampling validates the feasibility of using the passive air samplers in Antarctic air. To our knowledge, this study is the first employment of PUF-disk based passive air samplers in Antarctic atmosphere.

  3. Hanford Site Environmental Surveillance Master Sampling Schedule

    SciTech Connect

    Bisping, Lynn E.

    2000-01-27

    This document contains the CY2000 schedules for the routine collection of samples for the Surface Environmental Surveillance Project (SESP) and Drinking Water Monitoring Project. Each section includes sampling locations, sample types, and analyses to be performed.

  4. DEVELOPMENT OF A SUB-SLAB AIR SAMPLING PROTOCOL TO SUPPORT ASSESSMENT OF VAPOR INTRUSION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The primary purpose of this research effort is to develop a methodology for sub-slab sampling to support the EPA guidance and vapor intrusion investigations after vapor intrusion has been established at a site. Methodologies for sub-slab air sampling are currently lacking in ref...

  5. EVALUATION OF THE FILTER PACK FOR LONG-DURATION SAMPLING OF AMBIENT AIR

    EPA Science Inventory

    A 14-week filter pack (FP) sampler evaluation field study was conducted at a site near Bondville, IL to investigate the impact of weekly sampling duration. Simultaneous samples were collected using collocated filter packs (FP) from two independent air quality monitoring networks...

  6. APPLICATION OF SEMIPERMEABLE MEMBRANE DEVICES TO INDOOR AIR SAMPLING

    EPA Science Inventory

    Semipermeable membrane devices (SPMDs) are a relatively new passive sampling technique for nonpolar organic compounds that have been extensively used for surface water sampling. A small body of literature indicates that SPMDs are also useful for air sampling. Because SPMDs ha...

  7. Sampling of nitrates in ambient air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Appel, B. R.; Tokiwa, Y.; Haik, M.

    Methods for the measurement of nitric acid, particulate nitrate and total inorganic nitrate (i.e. HNO 3 plus particulate nitrate) are compared using atmospheric samples from the Los Angeles Basin. Nitric acid was measured by (1) the nitrate collected on nylon or NaCl-impregnated cellulose filters after removal of particulate matter with Teflon prefilters, (2) long-path Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) performed by a collaborating investigator, and (3) the difference between total inorganic nitrate (TIN) and particulate nitrate (PN). TIN was measured by the sum of the nitrate collected with a Teflon prefilter and nylon or NaCl-impregnated after-filter. PN was measured by the nitrate able to penetrate a diffusion dénuder coated to remove acidic gases (e.g. HNO 3). Losses of nitrate from Teflon prefilters were determined by comparing the nitrate retained by these filters to the nitrate penetrating the acid gas denuder. TIN and the nitrate collected with glass fiber filters were compared to assess the origin of the artifact particulate nitrate on the latter. Nitric acid measurements using nylon or NaCl-impregnated after-filters were substantially higher than those by the difference technique. This correlated with losses of nitrate from the Teflon prefilters, which exceeded 50 % at high ambient temperature and low relative humidity. Nitric acid by the difference method exceeded that by FTIR by, on average, 20 %. Thus errors inferred in HNO 3 measurements by comparison to the difference measurements are considered minimum values. The high values for HNO 3 by the difference method are consistent with the partial loss of PN in the acid gas denuder. However, no loss of 0.1 μm to 3 μm diameter NH 4NO 3 particles was observed. Thus, if significant, such loss is restricted to coarse particulate nitrate. Heating the filter samplers was shown to increase sampling errors. Nitrate results obtained in short-term, low volume sampling with Gelman A glass fiber

  8. Solid waste transuranic storage and assay facility indoor air sampling

    SciTech Connect

    Pingel, L.A., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-08-20

    The purpose of the study is to collect and analyze samples of the indoor air at the Transuranic Storage and Assay Facility (TRUSAF), Westinghouse Hanford. A modified US EPA TO-14 methodology, using gas chromatography/mass spectrography, may be used for the collection and analysis of the samples. The information obtained will be used to estimate the total release of volatile organic compounds from TRUSAF to determine the need for air emmission permits.

  9. The INAA of air particulates from three sites in Lagos

    SciTech Connect

    Spyrou, N.M. ); Asubiojo, O.I.; Oluwole, A.F.; Oluyemi, E.A. ); Farooqi, A.S.; Akanle, O.A. )

    1993-01-01

    This work is part of an ongoing project on environmental monitoring and impact assessment carried out in Nigeria in a collaboration between the University of Surrey and the Obafemi Awolowo University and funded by the Commission of the European Communities under the Lorme III agreement. Lagos is the biggest industrial city in Nigeria and shares [approximately]38% of the total manufacturing industries. These are associated in the main with the manufacture of cement, glass, plastics, pharmaceutical, cars, textiles, and paints. In the early 1970s, 80% of the air pollution was reported to be due to vehicular exhaust in Nigeria. The speed of motorcars plays an important role in causing pollution through exhaust, and in Lagos, the operating speed of vehicles has been reported to be very low, <10 km/h, for most of the roads in the city. However, domestic waste generation in Lagos city is estimated as >5 x 10[sup 5] tonne/yr and is another source of air pollution because roughly half is combustible. The selection of three sampling sites in the northeastern part of the city of Lagos provided an opportunity to study air pollution in an industrial area and a nearby residential area.

  10. Efficiency of dust sampling inlets in calm air.

    PubMed

    Breslin, J A; Stein, R L

    1975-08-01

    Measurement of airborne dust concentrations usually involves drawing a sample of the dust-laden air into the measuring instrument through an inlet. Even if the surrounding air is calm, theoretical calculations predict that large particles may not be sampled accurately due to the combined effects of gravity and inertia on the particles near the sampling inlet. Tests were conducted to determine the conditions of particle size, inlet radius, and flow rare necessary for accurate dust sampling. A coal-dust aerosol was sampled simultaneously through inlets of different diameters at the same volume flow-rate and collected on filters. The dust was removed from the filters and the particles were counted and sized with a Coulter counter. Results showed that published criteria for inlet conditions for correct sampling are overly restrictive and that respirable-size particles are sampled correctly in the normal range or operation of most dust sampling instruments. PMID:1227283

  11. Concepts for Environmental Radioactive Air Sampling and Monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Barnett, J. Matthew

    2011-11-04

    Environmental radioactive air sampling and monitoring is becoming increasingly important as regulatory agencies promulgate requirements for the measurement and quantification of radioactive contaminants. While researchers add to the growing body of knowledge in this area, events such as earthquakes and tsunamis demonstrate how nuclear systems can be compromised. The result is the need for adequate environmental monitoring to assure the public of their safety and to assist emergency workers in their response. Two forms of radioactive air monitoring include direct effluent measurements and environmental surveillance. This chapter presents basic concepts for direct effluent sampling and environmental surveillance of radioactive air emissions, including information on establishing the basis for sampling and/or monitoring, criteria for sampling media and sample analysis, reporting and compliance, and continual improvement.

  12. Operational air sampling report. [Semiannual report], July 1--December 31, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Lyons, C.L.

    1994-03-01

    Nevada Test Site vertical shaft and tunnel events generate beta/gamma fission products. The REECo air sampling program is designed to measure these radionuclides at various facilities supporting these events. The current testing moratorium and closure of the Decontamination Facility has decreased the scope of the program significantly. Of the 118 air samples collected in the only active tunnel complex, only one showed any airborne fission products. Tritiated water vapor concentrations were very similar to previously reported levels. The 206 air samples collected at the Area-6 decontamination bays and laundry were again well below any Derived Air Concentration calculation standard. Laboratory analyses of these samples were negative for any airborne fission products.

  13. Operational air sampling report. [Semiannual report], January 1--June 30, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Lyons, C.L.

    1993-12-01

    Nevada Test Site vertical shaft and tunnel events generate beta/gamma fission products. This report discusses the REECo air sampling program which is designed to measure these radionuclides at various facilities supporting these events. The current testing moratorium and closure of the Decontamination Facility has decreased the scope of the program significantly. Of the 243 air samples collected in the only active tunnel complex, none showed any airborne fission products. Tritiated water vapor concentrations were very similar to previously reported levels. The 246 air samples collected at the Area-6 decontamination bays and laundry were again well below any Derived Air Concentration calculation standard. Laboratory analyses of these samples were negative for any airborne fission products.

  14. CERCLA Site discharges to POTWs CERCLA site sampling program: Detailed data report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-08-01

    The document contains wastewater data obtained from sampling at seventeen CERCLA sites during a study of wastewater discharges from CERCLA sites to publicly owned treatment works (POTWs). The document serves as an appendix to the report summarizing the findings of the CERCLA site sampling program in Section 3 (CERCLA Site Data Report) in the USEPA CERCLA Site Discharges to POTWs Treatability Manual.

  15. 7. Overview of site, looking southwest Naval Air Station ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Overview of site, looking southwest - Naval Air Station Chase Field, Building 1001, Independence Street, .45 mile south of intersection of Texas State Highway & Independence Street, Beeville, Bee County, TX

  16. 2. Overview of site, looking southeast Naval Air Station ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Overview of site, looking southeast - Naval Air Station Chase Field, Building 1001, Independence Street, .45 mile south of intersection of Texas State Highway & Independence Street, Beeville, Bee County, TX

  17. 8. Overview of site, looking northeast Naval Air Station ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. Overview of site, looking northeast - Naval Air Station Chase Field, Building 1001, Independence Street, .45 mile south of intersection of Texas State Highway & Independence Street, Beeville, Bee County, TX

  18. 1. Overview of site, looking northwest Naval Air Station ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Overview of site, looking northwest - Naval Air Station Chase Field, Building 1001, Independence Street, .45 mile south of intersection of Texas State Highway & Independence Street, Beeville, Bee County, TX

  19. GENERAL SITE PLAN, HAMILTON AIR FORCE BASE, MARIN COUNTY, CALIFORNIA. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    GENERAL SITE PLAN, HAMILTON AIR FORCE BASE, MARIN COUNTY, CALIFORNIA. Pencil on paper, dated December 4, 1952. Also marked "PWC 103474." By J.Y. Long Company, Engineers, Oakland, California - Hamilton Field, East of Nave Drive, Novato, Marin County, CA

  20. Presence of organophosphorus pesticide oxygen analogs in air samples

    PubMed Central

    Armstrong, Jenna L.; Fenske, Richard A.; Yost, Michael G.; Galvin, Kit; Tchong-French, Maria; Yu, Jianbo

    2012-01-01

    A number of recent toxicity studies have highlighted the increased potency of oxygen analogs (oxons) of several organophosphorus (OP) pesticides. These findings were a major concern after environmental oxons were identified in environmental samples from air and surfaces following agricultural spray applications in California and Washington State. This paper reports on the validity of oxygen analog measurements in air samples for the OP pesticide, chlorpyrifos. Controlled environmental and laboratory experiments were used to examine artificial formation of chlorpyrifos-oxon using OSHA Versatile Sampling (OVS) tubes as recommended by NIOSH method 5600. Additionally, we compared expected chlorpyrifos-oxon attributable to artificial transformation to observed chlorpyrifos-oxon in field samples from a 2008 Washington State Department of Health air monitoring study using non-parametric statistical methods. The amount of artificially transformed oxon was then modeled to determine the amount of oxon present in the environment. Toxicity equivalency factors (TEFs) for chlorpyrifos-oxon were used to calculate chlorpyrifos-equivalent air concentrations. The results demonstrate that the NIOSH-recommended sampling matrix (OVS tubes with XAD-2 resin) was found to artificially transform up to 30% of chlorpyrifos to chlorpyrifos-oxon, with higher percentages at lower concentrations (< 30 ng/m3) typical of ambient or residential levels. Overall, the 2008 study data had significantly greater oxon than expected by artificial transformation, but the exact amount of environmental oxon in air remains difficult to quantify with the current sampling method. Failure to conduct laboratory analysis for chlorpyrifos-oxon may result in underestimation of total pesticide concentration when using XAD-2 resin matrices for occupational or residential sampling. Alternative methods that can accurately measure both OP pesticides and their oxygen analogs should be used for air sampling, and a toxicity

  1. Presence of organophosphorus pesticide oxygen analogs in air samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Armstrong, Jenna L.; Fenske, Richard A.; Yost, Michael G.; Galvin, Kit; Tchong-French, Maria; Yu, Jianbo

    2013-02-01

    A number of recent toxicity studies have highlighted the increased potency of oxygen analogs (oxons) of several organophosphorus (OP) pesticides. These findings were a major concern after environmental oxons were identified in environmental samples from air and surfaces following agricultural spray applications in California and Washington State. This paper reports on the validity of oxygen analog measurements in air samples for the OP pesticide, chlorpyrifos. Controlled environmental and laboratory experiments were used to examine artificial formation of chlorpyrifos-oxon using OSHA Versatile Sampling (OVS) tubes as recommended by NIOSH method 5600. Additionally, we compared expected chlorpyrifos-oxon attributable to artificial transformation to observed chlorpyrifos-oxon in field samples from a 2008 Washington State Department of Health air monitoring study using non-parametric statistical methods. The amount of artificially transformed oxon was then modeled to determine the amount of oxon present in the environment. Toxicity equivalency factors (TEFs) for chlorpyrifos-oxon were used to calculate chlorpyrifos-equivalent air concentrations. The results demonstrate that the NIOSH-recommended sampling matrix (OVS tubes with XAD-2 resin) was found to artificially transform up to 30% of chlorpyrifos to chlorpyrifos-oxon, with higher percentages at lower concentrations (<30 ng m-3) typical of ambient or residential levels. Overall, the 2008 study data had significantly greater oxon than expected by artificial transformation, but the exact amount of environmental oxon in air remains difficult to quantify with the current sampling method. Failure to conduct laboratory analysis for chlorpyrifos-oxon may result in underestimation of total pesticide concentration when using XAD-2 resin matrices for occupational or residential sampling. Alternative methods that can accurately measure both OP pesticides and their oxygen analogs should be used for air sampling, and a toxicity

  2. A simple novel device for air sampling by electrokinetic capture

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Gordon, Julian; Gandhi, Prasanthi; Shekhawat, Gajendra; Frazier, Angel; Hampton-Marcell, Jarrad; Gilbert, Jack A.

    2015-12-27

    A variety of different sampling devices are currently available to acquire air samples for the study of the microbiome of the air. All have a degree of technical complexity that limits deployment. Here, we evaluate the use of a novel device, which has no technical complexity and is easily deployable. An air-cleaning device powered by electrokinetic propulsion has been adapted to provide a universal method for collecting samples of the aerobiome. Plasma-induced charge in aerosol particles causes propulsion to and capture on a counter-electrode. The flow of ions creates net bulk airflow, with no moving parts. A device and electrodemore » assembly have been re-designed from air-cleaning technology to provide an average air flow of 120 lpm. This compares favorably with current air sampling devices based on physical air pumping. Capture efficiency was determined by comparison with a 0.4 μm polycarbonate reference filter, using fluorescent latex particles in a controlled environment chamber. Performance was compared with the same reference filter method in field studies in three different environments. For 23 common fungal species by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR), there was 100 % sensitivity and apparent specificity of 87%, with the reference filter taken as “gold standard.” Further, bacterial analysis of 16S RNA by amplicon sequencing showed equivalent community structure captured by the electrokinetic device and the reference filter. Unlike other current air sampling methods, capture of particles is determined by charge and so is not controlled by particle mass. We analyzed particle sizes captured from air, without regard to specific analyte by atomic force microscopy: particles at least as low as 100 nM could be captured from ambient air. This work introduces a very simple plug-and-play device that can sample air at a high-volume flow rate with no moving parts and collect particles down to the sub-micron range. In conclusion, the performance of

  3. A simple novel device for air sampling by electrokinetic capture

    SciTech Connect

    Gordon, Julian; Gandhi, Prasanthi; Shekhawat, Gajendra; Frazier, Angel; Hampton-Marcell, Jarrad; Gilbert, Jack A.

    2015-12-27

    A variety of different sampling devices are currently available to acquire air samples for the study of the microbiome of the air. All have a degree of technical complexity that limits deployment. Here, we evaluate the use of a novel device, which has no technical complexity and is easily deployable. An air-cleaning device powered by electrokinetic propulsion has been adapted to provide a universal method for collecting samples of the aerobiome. Plasma-induced charge in aerosol particles causes propulsion to and capture on a counter-electrode. The flow of ions creates net bulk airflow, with no moving parts. A device and electrode assembly have been re-designed from air-cleaning technology to provide an average air flow of 120 lpm. This compares favorably with current air sampling devices based on physical air pumping. Capture efficiency was determined by comparison with a 0.4 μm polycarbonate reference filter, using fluorescent latex particles in a controlled environment chamber. Performance was compared with the same reference filter method in field studies in three different environments. For 23 common fungal species by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR), there was 100 % sensitivity and apparent specificity of 87%, with the reference filter taken as “gold standard.” Further, bacterial analysis of 16S RNA by amplicon sequencing showed equivalent community structure captured by the electrokinetic device and the reference filter. Unlike other current air sampling methods, capture of particles is determined by charge and so is not controlled by particle mass. We analyzed particle sizes captured from air, without regard to specific analyte by atomic force microscopy: particles at least as low as 100 nM could be captured from ambient air. This work introduces a very simple plug-and-play device that can sample air at a high-volume flow rate with no moving parts and collect particles down to the sub-micron range. In conclusion, the performance of the

  4. Innovations in air sampling to detect plant pathogens

    PubMed Central

    West, JS; Kimber, RBE

    2015-01-01

    Many innovations in the development and use of air sampling devices have occurred in plant pathology since the first description of the Hirst spore trap. These include improvements in capture efficiency at relatively high air-volume collection rates, methods to enhance the ease of sample processing with downstream diagnostic methods and even full automation of sampling, diagnosis and wireless reporting of results. Other innovations have been to mount air samplers on mobile platforms such as UAVs and ground vehicles to allow sampling at different altitudes and locations in a short space of time to identify potential sources and population structure. Geographical Information Systems and the application to a network of samplers can allow a greater prediction of airborne inoculum and dispersal dynamics. This field of technology is now developing quickly as novel diagnostic methods allow increasingly rapid and accurate quantifications of airborne species and genetic traits. Sampling and interpretation of results, particularly action-thresholds, is improved by understanding components of air dispersal and dilution processes and can add greater precision in the application of crop protection products as part of integrated pest and disease management decisions. The applications of air samplers are likely to increase, with much greater adoption by growers or industry support workers to aid in crop protection decisions. The same devices are likely to improve information available for detection of allergens causing hay fever and asthma or provide valuable metadata for regional plant disease dynamics. PMID:25745191

  5. Determination of selected heavy metals in air samples from the northern part of Jordan.

    PubMed

    Gharaibeh, Ahmad A; El-Rjoob, Abdul-Wahab O; Harb, Mohammed K

    2010-01-01

    In this work, the atmospheric concentrations of selected heavy metals including lead (Pb), iron (Fe), cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), nickel (Ni), manganese (Mn), and zinc (Zn) were measured for two different sampling sites (urban and rural) in the northern part of Jordan (Irbid city). Samples were collected according to a certain schedule for 1 year. High volume air samplers and glass fiber filters were used to collect the samples. Collected samples were digested using a mixture of analytical grade nitric acid and analytical grade hydrochloric acid, and analyzed to evaluate the levels of heavy metals by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Six heavy metals (Pb, Fe, Cu, Ni, Mn, and Zn) were measured in all samples; the concentrations of Cd and Co were not detected in Irbid atmosphere by atomic absorption spectroscopy. The results were used to determine the levels of heavy metal pollutants in air, possible sources, and to compare the levels of selected heavy metals in the two studied sites. Aerosols from the rural site have lower concentrations for all the metals compared to those from the urban site. The daily and monthly variations of the elements were investigated. All heavy metals in urban and rural sites reached maximum concentrations in June, July, and August. This is consistent with the increased activities leading to particulate matter emission during the summer period. The enrichment factors with respect to earth crust and correlation coefficients of heavy metals were investigated to predict the possible sources of heavy metals in air. PMID:19083108

  6. Geology of Potential Landing Sites for Martian Sample Returns

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greeley, Ronald

    2003-01-01

    This project involved the analysis of potential landing sites on Mars. As originally proposed, the project focused on landing sites from which samples might be returned to Earth. However, as the project proceeded, the emphasis shifted to missions that would not include sample return, because the Mars Exploration Program had deferred sample returns to the next decade. Subsequently, this project focused on the study of potential landing sites for the Mars Exploration Rovers.

  7. EVALUATION OF HIGH VOLUME PARTICLE SAMPLING AND SAMPLE HANDLING PROTOCOLS FOR AMBIENT URBAN AIR MUTAGENICITY DETERMINATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    An investigation of high volume particle sampling and sample handling procedures was undertaken to evaluate variations of protocols being used by the U.S Environmental Protection Agency. hese protocols are used in urban ambient air studies which collect ambient and source samples...

  8. Air Monitoring: New Advances in Sampling and Detection

    PubMed Central

    Watson, Nicola; Davies, Stephen; Wevill, David

    2011-01-01

    As the harmful effects of low-level exposure to hazardous organic air pollutants become more evident, there is constant pressure to improve the detection limits of indoor and ambient air monitoring methods, for example, by collecting larger air volumes and by optimising the sensitivity of the analytical detector. However, at the other end of the scale, rapid industrialisation in the developing world and growing pressure to reclaim derelict industrial land for house building is driving the need for air monitoring methods that can reliably accommodate very-high-concentration samples in potentially aggressive matrices. This paper investigates the potential of a combination of two powerful gas chromatography—based analytical enhancements—sample preconcentration/thermal desorption and time-of-flight mass spectrometry—to improve quantitative and qualitative measurement of very-low-(ppt) level organic chemicals, even in the most complex air samples. It also describes new, practical monitoring options for addressing equally challenging high-concentration industrial samples. PMID:22241966

  9. Phoenix Test Sample Site in Color

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    This color image, acquired by NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander's Surface Stereo Imager on Sol 7, the seventh day of the mission (June 1, 2008), shows the so-called 'Knave of Hearts' first-dig test area to the north of the lander. The Robotic Arm's scraping blade left a small horizontal depression above where the sample was taken.

    Scientists speculate that white material in the depression left by the dig could represent ice or salts that precipitated into the soil. This material is likely the same white material observed in the sample in the Robotic Arm's scoop.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  10. Stereo View of Phoenix Test Sample Site

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    This anaglyph image, acquired by NASA's Phoenix Lander's Surface Stereo Imager on Sol 7, the seventh day of the mission (June 1, 2008), shows a stereoscopic 3D view of the so-called 'Knave of Hearts' first-dig test area to the north of the lander. The Robotic Arm's scraping blade left a small horizontal depression above where the sample was taken.

    Scientists speculate that white material in the depression left by the dig could represent ice or salts that precipitated into the soil. This material is likely the same white material observed in the sample in the Robotic Arm's scoop.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  11. 34. Site Plan: Fort Custer Air Force Station, Fort Custer, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    34. Site Plan: Fort Custer Air Force Station, Fort Custer, Michigan, Modification of Electrical Distribution, General Site Plan, USACOE, no date. - Fort Custer Military Reservation, P-67 Radar Station, .25 mile north of Dickman Road, east of Clark Road, Battle Creek, Calhoun County, MI

  12. AIR STRIPPERS AND THEIR EMISSIONS CONTROL AT SUPERFUND SITES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Air stripping, a traditional means of making slightly contaminated ground-water potable, is being applied increasingly to more severe groundwater pollution at remedial action sites. Concentrations of volatile and semivolatile compounds at such sites may reach hundreds of parts pe...

  13. METHODOLOGY FOR SITING AMBIENT AIR MONITORS AT THE NEIGHBORHOOD SCALE

    EPA Science Inventory

    In siting a monitor to measure compliance with U.S. National Ambient Air Quality Standards for particulate matter (PM), there is a need to characterize variations in PM concentration within a neighborhood-scale region in order to achieve monitor siting objectives.

    We p...

  14. EMP Attachment 1 DOE-SC PNNL Site Sampling and Analysis Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Meier, Kirsten M.

    2011-11-10

    This Sampling and Analysis Plan (SAP) is written for the radiological environmental air surveillance program for the DOE-SC PNNL Site, Richland Washington. It provides the requirements for planning sampling events, and the requirements imposed on the analytical laboratory analyzing the air samples. The actual air sampling process is in procedure EPRP-AIR-029. The rationale for analyte selection, media, and sampling site location has been vetted through the data quality objectives (DQO) process (Barnett et al. 2010). The results from the DQO process have been reviewed and approved by the Washington State Department of Health. The DQO process (Barnett et al. 2010) identified seven specific radionuclides for analysis along with the need for gross alpha and gross beta radiological analyses. The analytes are {sup 241}Am, {sup 243}Am, {sup 244}Cm, {sup 60}Co, {sup 238}Pu, {sup 239}Pu, and {sup 233}U. The report also determined that air samples for particulates are the only sample matrix required for the monitoring program. These samples are collected on 47-mm glass-fiber filters.

  15. Microorganisms cultured from stratospheric air samples obtained at 41 km.

    PubMed

    Wainwright, M; Wickramasinghe, N C; Narlikar, J V; Rajaratnam, P

    2003-01-21

    Samples of air removed from the stratosphere, at an altitude of 41 km, were previously found to contain viable, but non-cultureable bacteria (cocci and rods). Here, we describe experiments aimed at growing these, together with any other organisms, present in these samples. Two bacteria (Bacillus simplex and Staphylococcus pasteuri) and a single fungus, Engyodontium album (Limber) de Hoog were isolated from the samples. Although the possibility of contamination can never be ruled out when space-derived samples are studied on earth, we are confident that the organisms originated from the stratosphere. Possible mechanisms by which these organisms could have attained such a height are discussed. PMID:12583913

  16. Sampling frequency guidance for ambient air toxics monitoring.

    PubMed

    Bortnick, Steven M; Stetzer, Shannon L

    2002-07-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is in the process of designing a national network to monitor hazardous air pollutants (HAPs), also known as air toxics. The purposes of the expanded monitoring are to (1) characterize ambient concentrations in representative areas; (2) provide data to support and evaluate dispersion and receptor models; and (3) establish trends and evaluate the effectiveness of HAP emission reduction strategies. Existing air toxics data, in the form of an archive compiled by EPA's Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards (OAQPS), are used in this paper to examine the relationship between estimated annual average (AA) HAP concentrations and their associated variability. The goal is to assess the accuracy, or bias and precision, with which the AA can be estimated as a function of ambient concentration levels and sampling frequency. The results suggest that, for several air toxics, a sampling schedule of 1 in 3 days (1:3) or 1:6 days maybe appropriate for meeting some of the general objectives of the national network, with the more intense sampling rate being recommended for areas expected to exhibit relatively high ambient levels. PMID:12139351

  17. Forensic radiochemistry of PUBLIC site inspection samples

    SciTech Connect

    Moody, K.J.

    1995-01-05

    For the past two years, the Isotope Sciences Division (formerly Nuclear Chemistry) has been developing a program to extract forensic information from samples of plutonium or highly-enriched uranium. In the case of Pu, it is possible to determine the date of chemical separation, the date of its casting as metal, the enrichment of the uranium starting material, the length and perhaps other details (neutron spectrum and fluence) of reactor irradiation, the reprocessing technique, and clues to the identity of a specific facility. For enriched uranium, information is possible on the detailed timeline of material production, including the date of enrichment, whether the plant feed was formerly-irradiated uranium, the date of final purification, and facility-specific clues.

  18. TETHERED BALLOON SAMPLING SYSTEMS FOR MONITORING AIR POLLUTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper is an overview of recent studies in which balloons, usually tethered, have been used to investigate the structure and air quality of the planetary boundary layer. It also describes a number of lightweight tethered balloon sampling systems, developed to investigate parti...

  19. Use of Whatman-41 filters in air quality sampling networks (with applications to elemental analysis)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neustadter, H. E.; Sidik, S. M.; King, R. B.; Fordyce, J. S.; Burr, J. C.

    1974-01-01

    The operation of a 16-site parallel high volume air sampling network with glass fiber filters on one unit and Whatman-41 filters on the other is reported. The network data and data from several other experiments indicate that (1) Sampler-to-sampler and filter-to-filter variabilities are small; (2) hygroscopic affinity of Whatman-41 filters need not introduce errors; and (3) suspended particulate samples from glass fiber filters averaged slightly, but not statistically significantly, higher than from Whatman-41-filters. The results obtained demonstrate the practicability of Whatman-41 filters for air quality monitoring and elemental analysis.

  20. Optimizing detection of noble gas emission at a former UNE site: sample strategy, collection, and analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirkham, R.; Olsen, K.; Hayes, J. C.; Emer, D. F.

    2013-12-01

    Underground nuclear tests may be first detected by seismic or air samplers operated by the CTBTO (Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization). After initial detection of a suspicious event, member nations may call for an On-Site Inspection (OSI) that in part, will sample for localized releases of radioactive noble gases and particles. Although much of the commercially available equipment and methods used for surface and subsurface environmental sampling of gases can be used for an OSI scenario, on-site sampling conditions, required sampling volumes and establishment of background concentrations of noble gases require development of specialized methodologies. To facilitate development of sampling equipment and methodologies that address OSI sampling volume and detection objectives, and to collect information required for model development, a field test site was created at a former underground nuclear explosion site located in welded volcanic tuff. A mixture of SF-6, Xe127 and Ar37 was metered into 4400 m3 of air as it was injected into the top region of the UNE cavity. These tracers were expected to move towards the surface primarily in response to barometric pumping or through delayed cavity pressurization (accelerated transport to minimize source decay time). Sampling approaches compared during the field exercise included sampling at the soil surface, inside surface fractures, and at soil vapor extraction points at depths down to 2 m. Effectiveness of various sampling approaches and the results of tracer gas measurements will be presented.

  1. Air pollution directional risk assessment for siting a landfill.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wei-Yea; Kao, Jehng-Jung

    2008-12-01

    Air pollution directional risk (APDR) is an essential factor to be assessed when selecting an appropriate landfill site. Because air pollutants generated from a landfill are diffused and transported by wind in different directions and speeds, areas surrounding the landfill will be subject to different associated risks, depending on their relative position from the landfill. This study assesses potential APDRs imposed from a candidate landfill site on its adjacent areas on the basis of the pollutant distribution simulated by a dispersion model, wind directions and speeds from meteorological monitoring data, and population density. A pollutant distribution map layer was created using a geographic information system and layered onto a population density map to obtain an APDR map layer. The risk map layer was then used in this study to evaluate the suitability of a candidate site for placing a landfill. The efficacy of the proposed procedure was demonstrated for a siting problem in central Taiwan, Republic of China. PMID:19189752

  2. Adaptive sampling program support for expedited site characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, R.

    1993-10-01

    Expedited site characterizations offer substantial savings in time and money when assessing hazardous waste sites. Key to some of these savings is the ability to adapt a sampling program to the ``real-time`` data generated by an expedited site characterization. This paper presents a two-prong approach to supporting adaptive sampling programs: a specialized object-oriented database/geographical information system for data fusion, management and display; and combined Bayesian/geostatistical methods for contamination extent estimation and sample location selection.

  3. Can car air filters be useful as a sampling medium for air pollution monitoring purposes?

    PubMed

    Katsoyiannis, Athanasios; Birgul, Askin; Ratola, Nuno; Cincinelli, Alessandra; Sweetman, Andy J; Jones, Kevin C

    2012-11-01

    Urban air quality and real human exposure to chemical environmental stressors is an issue of high scientific and political interest. In an effort to find innovative and inexpensive means for air quality monitoring, the ability of car engine air filters (CAFs) to act as efficient samplers collecting street level air, to which people are exposed to, was tested. In particular, in the case of taxis, air filters are replaced after regular distances, the itineraries are almost exclusively urban, cruising mode is similar and, thus, knowledge of the air flow can provide with an integrated city air sample. The present pilot study focused on polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), the most important category of organic pollutants associated with traffic emissions. Concentrations of ΣPAHs in CAFs ranged between 650 and 2900 μg CAF(-1), with benzo[b]fluoranthene, benzo[k]fluoranthene and indeno[123-cd]pyrene being the most abundant PAHs. Benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) ranged between 110 and 250 μg CAF(-1), accounting regularly for 5-15% of the total carcinogenic PAHs. The CAF PAH loads were used to derive road-level atmospheric PAH concentrations from a standard formula relating to the CAF air flow. Important parameters/assumptions for these estimates are the cruising speed and the exposure duration of each CAF. Based on information obtained from the garage experts, an average 'sampled air volume' of 48,750 m(3) per CAF was estimated, with uncertainty in this calculation estimated to be about a factor of 4 between the two extreme scenarios. Based on this air volume, ΣPAHs ranged between 13 and 56 ng m(-3) and BaP between 2.1 and 5.0 ng m(-3), suggesting that in-traffic BaP concentrations can be many times higher than the limit values set by the UK (0.25 ng m(-3)) and the European Union (1.0 ng m(-3)), or from active sampling stations normally cited on building roof tops or far from city centres. Notwithstanding the limitations of this approach, the very low cost, the continuous

  4. Evaluation of membrane filter field monitors for microbiological air sampling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fields, N. D.; Oxborrow, G. S.; Puleo, J. R.; Herring, C. M.

    1974-01-01

    Due to area constraints encountered in assembly and testing areas of spacecraft, the membrane filter field monitor (MF) and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration-accepted Reyniers slit air sampler were compared for recovery of airborne microbial contamination. The intramural air in a microbiological laboratory area and a clean room environment used for the assembly and testing of the Apollo spacecraft was studied. A significantly higher number of microorganisms was recovered by the Reyniers sampler. A high degree of consistency between the two sampling methods was shown by a regression analysis, with a correlation coefficient of 0.93. The MF samplers detected 79% of the concentration measured by the Reyniers slit samplers. The types of microorganisms identified from both sampling methods were similar.

  5. 33. Site Plan: Custer Air Force Station, Battle Creek, Michigan, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    33. Site Plan: Custer Air Force Station, Battle Creek, Michigan, FD Radar Facilities-FPS-27, Electrical Plot Plan and Duet Details, USACOE, not date. - Fort Custer Military Reservation, P-67 Radar Station, .25 mile north of Dickman Road, east of Clark Road, Battle Creek, Calhoun County, MI

  6. Artifact peroxides produced during cryogenic sampling of ambient air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Staffelbach, Thomas; Neftel, Albrecht; Dasgupta, Purnendu K.

    Peroxides were found to be produced as artifacts during cryogenic sampling with Horibe traps. Cryogenic trap sampling was compared to collection with a wet effluent diffusion denuder and a Nafion membrane diffusion denuder. Hydrogen peroxide and hydroxymethyl hydroperoxide measured in the cryogenic trap samples were significantly higher. In comparison, no evidence of artifact methyl hydroperoxide production was found. The amount of artifact H2O2 and HMHP produced increased with decreasing trap temperature. Spiking ambient air with ethene or isoprene showed that these hydrocarbons, in the presence of ozone, can be responsible for the artifact production of peroxides. Our results clearly suggest that the peroxide data obtained by cryogenic sampling and reported in the literature should be interpreted with caution.

  7. Monitoring airborne fungal spores in an experimental indoor environment to evaluate sampling methods and the effects of human activity on air sampling.

    PubMed Central

    Buttner, M P; Stetzenbach, L D

    1993-01-01

    Aerobiological monitoring was conducted in an experimental room to aid in the development of standardized sampling protocols for airborne microorganisms in the indoor environment. The objectives of this research were to evaluate the relative efficiencies of selected sampling methods for the retrieval of airborne fungal spores and to determine the effect of human activity on air sampling. Dry aerosols containing known concentrations of Penicillium chrysogenum spores were generated, and air samples were taken by using Andersen six-stage, Surface Air System, Burkard, and depositional samplers. The Andersen and Burkard samplers retrieved the highest numbers of spores compared with the measurement standard, an aerodynamic particle sizer located inside the room. Data from paired samplers demonstrated that the Andersen sampler had the highest levels of sensitivity and repeatability. With a carpet as the source of P. chrysogenum spores, the effects of human activity (walking or vacuuming near the sampling site) on air sampling were also examined. Air samples were taken under undisturbed conditions and after human activity in the room. Human activity resulted in retrieval of significantly higher concentrations of airborne spores. Surface sampling of the carpet revealed moderate to heavy contamination despite relatively low airborne counts. Therefore, in certain situations, air sampling without concomitant surface sampling may not adequately reflect the level of microbial contamination in indoor environments. PMID:8439150

  8. Ambient Air Sampling During Quantum-dot Spray Deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Jankovic, John Timothy; Hollenbeck, Scott M

    2010-01-01

    Ambient air sampling for nano-size particle emissions was performed during spot spray coating operations with a Sono-Tek Exactacoat Benchtop system (ECB). The ECB consisted of the application equipment contained within an exhaust enclosure. The enclosure contained numerous small access openings, including an exhaust hook-up. Door access comprised most of the width and height of the front. The door itself was of the swing-out type. Two types of nanomaterials, Cadmium selenide (Cd-Se) quantum-dots (QDs) and Gold (Au) QDs, nominally 3.3 and 5 nm in diameter respectively, were applied during the evaluation. Median spray drop size was in the 20 to 60 micrometer size range.1 Surface coating tests were of short duration, on the order of one-half second per spray and ten spray applications between door openings. The enclosure was ventilated by connection to a high efficiency particulate aerosol (HEPA) filtered house exhaust system. The exhaust rate was nominally 80 ft3 per minute producing about 5 air changes per minute. Real time air monitoring with a scanning mobility particle size analyzer (SMPS ) with a size detection limit of 7 nm indicated a significant increase in the ambient air concentration upon early door opening. A handheld condensation particle counter (CPC) with a lower size limit of 10 nm did not record changes in the ambient background. This increase in the ambient was not observed when door opening was delayed for 2 minutes (~10 air changes). The ventilated enclosure controlled emissions except for cases of rapid door opening before the overspray could be removed by the exhaust. A time delay sufficient to provide 10 enclosure air changes (a concentration reduction of more than 99.99 %) before door opening prevented the release of aerosol particles in any size.2 Scanning-transmission electron microscopy (STEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) demonstrated the presence of agglomerates in the surfaces of the spray applied deposition. A filtered air sample of

  9. Evaluation of official air sampling methodologies in Ukraine

    SciTech Connect

    Nakonechniy, J.J.; Wadden, R.A.; Scheff, P.A.; Suero, M.

    1997-12-31

    In conjunction with an environmental epidemiology study of the health of Ukrainian children, a significant amount of air pollution measurement data was gathered from government agencies. The areas of interest were the industrial city of Dneprodzherzhinsk; and the Dniprovsky region of Kyiv. The data were for 1993 and, for some of the monitoring stations, 1994. The pollutants reported included dust (approximately equivalent to TSP, total suspended particulate matter), SO{sub 2}, CO, NO{sub 2}, NO, H{sub 2}S, phenol, HCl, NH{sub 3}, formaldehyde, BaP, and lead. The ultimate goal was to evaluate whether existing historical data are appropriate for developing measures of human exposure. In order to evaluate the data it was necessary to understand the sampling and analytical methodologies which were used. Small sample volumes coupled with dated analytical procedures resulted in very poor precision and detection limits for most of the measured pollutants. The measurement of particulate matter is a good example of the limits imposed by the sampling methodology. The short sample time (20 min), small sample volume (150 lpm), and limited analytical balances (0.5 mg resolution) result in a minimum lower limit of detection of 0.25 mg/m{sup 3}. For example at Kyiv Station 3 in 1993, only one of 545 measurements exceeded 0.2 mg/m{sup 3}. This minimum detectable quantity is over three times the former US annual TSP standard. In addition, even when operated on a 24-hour basis in the US, it has been shown that the sampling method only collected approximately 34% of that collected by a co-located hi-vol sampler. Consequently, official air pollution data for suspended dust are likely to severely under-represent actual ambient concentrations. Data for other pollutants are presented and sampling and analytical methods are similarly compared with Western methods in common use.

  10. Passive air sampling of gaseous elemental mercury: a critical review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McLagan, David S.; Mazur, Maxwell E. E.; Mitchell, Carl P. J.; Wania, Frank

    2016-03-01

    Because gaseous elemental mercury (GEM) is distributed globally through the atmosphere, reliable means of measuring its concentrations in air are important. Passive air samplers (PASs), designed to be cheap, simple to operate, and to work without electricity, could provide an alternative to established active sampling techniques in applications such as (1) long-term monitoring of atmospheric GEM levels in remote regions and in developing countries, (2) atmospheric mercury source identification and characterization through finely resolved spatial mapping, and (3) the recording of personal exposure to GEM. An effective GEM PAS requires a tightly constrained sampling rate, a large and stable uptake capacity, and a sensitive analytical technique. None of the GEM PASs developed to date achieve levels of accuracy and precision sufficient for the reliable determination of background concentrations over extended deployments. This is due to (1) sampling rates that vary due to meteorological factors and manufacturing inconsistencies, and/or (2) an often low, irreproducible and/or unstable uptake capacity of the employed sorbents. While we identify shortcomings of existing GEM PAS, we also reveal potential routes to overcome those difficulties. Activated carbon and nanostructured metal surfaces hold promise as effective sorbents. Sampler designs incorporating diffusive barriers should be able to notably reduce the influence of wind on sampling rates.

  11. Passive air sampling of gaseous elemental mercury: a critical review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McLagan, D. S.; Mazur, M. E. E.; Mitchell, C. P. J.; Wania, F.

    2015-12-01

    Because gaseous elemental mercury (GEM) is distributed globally through the atmosphere, reliable means of measuring its concentrations in air are important. Passive air samplers (PASs), designed to be cheap, simple to operate, and to work without electricity, could provide an alternative to established active sampling techniques in applications such as (1) long term monitoring of atmospheric GEM levels in remote regions and in developing countries, (2) atmospheric mercury source identification and characterisation through finely-resolved spatial mapping, and (3) the recording of personal exposure to GEM. An effective GEM PAS requires a tightly constrained sampling rate, a large and stable uptake capacity, and a sensitive analytical technique. None of the GEM PASs developed to date achieves levels of accuracy and precision sufficient for the reliable determination of background concentrations over extended deployments. This is due to (1) sampling rates that vary due to meteorological factors and manufacturing inconsistencies and/or (2) an often low, irreproducible and/or unstable uptake capacity of the employed sorbents. While we identify shortcomings of existing GEM PAS, we also reveal potential routes to overcome those difficulties. Activated carbon and nano-structured metal surfaces hold promise as effective sorbents. Sampler designs incorporating diffusive barriers should be able to notably reduce the influence of wind on sampling rates.

  12. Optimization of the development process for air sampling filter standards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mena, RaJah Marie

    Air monitoring is an important analysis technique in health physics. However, creating standards which can be used to calibrate detectors used in the analysis of the filters deployed for air monitoring can be challenging. The activity of a standard should be well understood, this includes understanding how the location within the filter affects the final surface emission rate. The purpose of this research is to determine the parameters which most affect uncertainty in an air filter standard and optimize these parameters such that calibrations made with them most accurately reflect the true activity contained inside. A deposition pattern was chosen from literature to provide the best approximation of uniform deposition of material across the filter. Samples sets were created varying the type of radionuclide, amount of activity (high activity at 6.4 -- 306 Bq/filter and one low activity 0.05 -- 6.2 Bq/filter, and filter type. For samples analyzed for gamma or beta contaminants, the standards created with this procedure were deemed sufficient. Additional work is needed to reduce errors to ensure this is a viable procedure especially for alpha contaminants.

  13. Ultrasonic extraction and field-portable anodic stripping voltammetry for the determination of lead in workplace air samples.

    PubMed

    Ashley, K; Mapp, K J; Millson, M

    1998-10-01

    An on-site, field-portable analytical method for the determination of lead in workplace air samples, based on the use of ultrasonic extraction and anodic stripping voltammetry (ASV), was evaluated. Workplace air samples were obtained using a standard method involving particulate collection onto mixed cellulose ester membrane filters. Samples were collected at work sites where airborne particulates were generated from the abrasive blasting of lead-containing paint on highway bridges. Ultrasonic extraction (UE) of air filter samples in diluted nitric acid, followed by portable ASV, was used for the determination of lead. Also, performance evaluation samples consisting of reference materials of known lead concentration were subjected to the UE-ASV procedure for lead determination. Confirmatory analyses of the air filters and performance evaluation samples subjected to the UE-ASV lead measurement method were conducted by hotplate digestion in concentrated nitric acid and 30% hydrogen peroxide, followed by inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometric (ICP-AES) determination of lead. Recoveries of lead from performance evaluation materials (when using the UE-ASV method) were found to be quantitative. The performance of the UE-ASV method for lead in air filters was found to be acceptable, as evaluated by comparison with results from hotplate strong acid digestion followed by ICP-AES analysis. Based on the results of this study, the ultrasonic extraction/portable ASV procedure demonstrates potential for the on-site determination of lead in personal breathing zone and area air samples. PMID:9794065

  14. Sampling and analysis of terpenes in air. An interlaboratory comparison

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larsen, Bo; Bomboi-Mingarro, Teresa; Brancaleoni, Enzo; Calogirou, Aggelos; Cecinato, Angelo; Coeur, Cecile; Chatzinestis, Ioannis; Duane, Matthew; Frattoni, Massimiliano; Fugit, Jean-Luc; Hansen, Ute; Jacob, Veronique; Mimikos, Nikolaos; Hoffmann, Thorsten; Owen, Susan; Perez-Pastor, Rosa; Reichmann, Andreas; Seufert, Gunther; Staudt, Michael; Steinbrecher, Rainer

    An interlaboratory comparison on the sampling and analysis of terpenes in air was held within the framework of the BEMA (Biogenic Emissions in the Mediterranean Area) project in May 1995. Samples were drawn and analysed by 10 European laboratories from a dynamic artificial air generator in which five terpenes were present at low ng ℓ -1 levels and ozone varied between 8 and 125 ppbv. Significant improvements over previous inter-comparison exercises in the quality of results were observed. At the ozone mixing ratio of 8 ppbv a good agreement among laboratories was obtained for all test compounds with mean values close to the target concentration. At higher mixing ratios, ozone reduced terpene recoveries and decreased the precision of the measurements due to ozonolysis during sampling. For β-pinene this effect was negligible but for the more reactive compounds significant losses were observed in some laboratories ( cis-β-ocimene = trans-β-ocimene > linalool > d-limonene). The detrimental effect of ozone was significantly lower for the laboratories which removed ozone prior to sampling by scrubbers. Parallel sampling was carried out with a standardised sampler and each individual laboratory's own device. A good agreement between the two sets of results was obtained, clearly showing that the majority of laboratories used efficient sampling systems. Two different standard solutions were analysed by each laboratory. Only in a few cases did interference in the GC separation cause problems for the quantification of the terpenes (nonanal/linalool). However, making up of standards for the calibration of the analytical equipment (GC-MS or GC-FID) was pointed out as a source of error in some laboratories.

  15. CONVENIENT SAMPLING OF AIR BACTERIA IN OPERATING ROOMS.

    PubMed

    WARNER, P; GLASSCO, A; KROEKER, J

    1964-02-22

    A convenient arrangement for sampling air bacteria in operating rooms with a slit sampler (the Fort Detrick sampler) is described. Its purpose is to contribute as far as possible to the convenience of the surgical staff and thereby to the safety of the patient. It has the advantages of recording minute-to-minute changes in bacterial air count; it is unobtrusive and yet can be continually observed by a technician; it is not noisy and avoids the dangers of explosion and static electricity; it is inexpensive, and parts are easily replaced; and finally it provides a means of keeping permanent photographic records of bacterial counts. Results of a preliminary trial of this method appeared to be satisfactory. PMID:14118695

  16. Passive dosimeters for nitrogen dioxide in personal/indoor air sampling: A review

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Chang Ho; Morandi, Maria T.; Weisel, Clifford P.

    2015-01-01

    Accurate measurement of nitrogen dioxide concentrations in both outdoor and indoor environments, including personal exposures, is a fundamental step for linking atmospheric nitrogen dioxide levels to potential health and ecological effects. The measurement has been conducted generally in two ways: active (pumped) sampling and passive (diffusive) sampling. Diffusion samplers, initially developed and used for workplace air monitoring, have been found to be useful and cost-effective alternatives to conventional pumped samplers for monitoring ambient, indoor and personal exposures at the lower concentrations found in environmental settings. Since the 1970s, passive samplers have been deployed for ambient air monitoring in urban and rural sites, and to determine personal and indoor exposure to NO2. This article reviews the development of NO2 passive samplers, the sampling characteristics of passive samplers currently available, and their application in ambient and indoor air monitoring and personal exposure studies. The limitations and advantages of the various passive sampler geometries (i.e., tube, badge, and radial type) are also discussed. This review provides researchers and risk assessors with practical information about NO2 passive samplers, especially useful when designing field sampling strategies for exposure and indoor/outdoor air sampling. PMID:18446185

  17. Relative Humidity and its Effect on Sampling and Analysis of Agricultural Odorants in Air

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Source and ambient air sampling techniques used in agricultural air quality studies are seldom validated for the variability in the air matrix (temperature, dust levels, and relative humidity). In particular, relative humidity (RH) affects both field sampling and analysis of air samples. The objec...

  18. Air Sample Conditioner Helps the Waste Treatment Plant Meet Emissions Standards

    SciTech Connect

    Glissmeyer, John A.; Flaherty, Julia E.; Pekour, Mikhail S.

    2014-12-02

    The air in three of the Hanford Site Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) melter off-gas discharge stacks will be hot and humid after passing through the train of emission abatement equipment. The off-gas temperature and humidity levels will be incompatible with the airborne emissions monitoring equipment required for this type of stack. To facilitate sampling from these facilities, an air sample conditioner system will be installed to introduce cool, dry air into the sample stream to reduce the temperature and dew point. This will avoid thermal damage to the instrumentation and problematic condensation. The complete sample transport system must also deliver at least 50% of the particles in the sample airstream to the sample collection and on-line analysis equipment. The primary components of the sample conditioning system were tested in a laboratory setting. The sample conditioner itself is based on a commercially-available porous tube filter design. It consists of a porous sintered metal tube inside a coaxial metal jacket. The hot gas sample stream passes axially through the porous tube, and the dry, cool air is injected into the jacket and through the porous wall of the inner tube, creating an effective sample diluter. The dilution and sample air mix along the entire length of the porous tube, thereby simultaneously reducing the dew point and temperature of the mixed sample stream. Furthermore, because the dilution air enters through the porous tube wall, the sample stream does not come in contact with the porous wall and particle deposition is reduced in this part of the sampling system. Tests were performed with an environmental chamber to supply air with the temperature and humidity needed to simulate the off-gas conditions. Air from the chamber was passed through the conditioning system to test its ability to reduce the temperature and dew point of the sample stream. To measure particle deposition, oil droplets in the range of 9 to 11 micrometer

  19. Atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentrations derived from flask samples collected at USSR-operated sampling sites

    SciTech Connect

    Boden, T.A.; Brounshtein, A.M.; Faber, E.V.; Shashkov, A.A.

    1991-12-01

    This document presents daily atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentrations from four USSR-operated sampling sites (Teriberka Station, Ocean Station Charlie, Bering Island, and Kotelny Island). The period of record varies by station with the earliest measurements dating back to 1983 and recent estimates from early 1991. These CO{sub 2} concentrations are derived from air samples collected in 1.5-L stainless steel electropolished flasks and later analyzed at the Main Geophysical Observatory (St. Petersburg, USSR) using a nondispersive infrared gas analyzer. Measurements not meeting wind direction, wind speed, inter-flask agreement, and climate condition criteria were either discarded or flagged. All measurements have been corrected for drift biases introduced during flask storage. These atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentrations are considered indicative of regional background air conditions and are directly traceable to the World Meteorological Organization`s primary CO{sub 2} standards. These measurements support the rising trend in atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentrations measured at other monitoring sites around the world and may be compared with similar measurements made by various monitoring programs at other northern latitude sites. The document presents the atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentrations in graphical and tabular form, describes the sampling methods, defines limitations and restrictions of the data, and describes the information on the magnetic media.

  20. CLASSIFICATION OF THE MGR SITE COMPRESSED AIR SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    J.A. Ziegler

    1999-08-31

    The purpose of this analysis is to document the Quality Assurance (QA) classification of the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) site compressed air system structures, systems and components (SSCs) performed by the MGR Safety Assurance Department. This analysis also provides the basis for revision of YMP/90-55Q, Q-List (YMP 1998). The Q-List identifies those MGR SSCs subject to the requirements of DOE/RW-0333P, ''Quality Assurance Requirements and Description'' (QARD) (DOE 1998).

  1. 13c Measurements On Air of Small Ice Samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eyer, M.; Leuenberger, M.

    We have developed a new method for 13C analysis for very small air amounts of less than 0.5 cc STP, corresponding to less than 10 gram of ice. It is based on the needle-crasher technique, which we routinely use for CO2 concentration measurements by infrared laser absorption. The extracted air is slowly expanded into a large volume through a water trap held at ­100°C. This sampled air is then carried by a high helium flux through a modified Precon system of Thermo-Finnigan to separate CO2 from the air and to inject the pure CO2 gas in a low helium stream via an open split device to a Delta Plus XL mass spectrometer. The overall precision based on replicates of standard air is significantly better than 0.1 for a single analysis and is further improved by a triplicate measurement of the same sample through a specially designed gas splitter. We have used this new method for investigations on polar ice cores. The 13C measurements are important for climate reconstructions, e.g. to reconstruct the evolution and its variability in the terrestrial and oceanic carbon sinks and to identify natural variations in the marine carbon cycle. During the industrialization atmospheric 13C decreased by about -2, mainly due to the anthropogenic release of biogenic CO2 by fossil fuel burning. Reconstructions of carbon and oxygen cycles of Joos at al. [1999] using a double deconvolution method show that between 1930 and 1950 the net terrestrial release is changing to a net terrestrial uptake of CO2. A highly resolved 13C dataset of this time window would replenish the documentation of this behaviour. Further, it would be interesting to compare such data with O2/N2 measurements, known as an other partitioning tool for carbon sources and sinks. At the EGS 2002 we will present a highly resolved 13C record from Antarctic ice covering this time period.

  2. Ozone measurement system for NASA global air sampling program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tiefermann, M. W.

    1979-01-01

    The ozone measurement system used in the NASA Global Air Sampling Program is described. The system uses a commercially available ozone concentration monitor that was modified and repackaged so as to operate unattended in an aircraft environment. The modifications required for aircraft use are described along with the calibration techniques, the measurement of ozone loss in the sample lines, and the operating procedures that were developed for use in the program. Based on calibrations with JPL's 5-meter ultraviolet photometer, all previously published GASP ozone data are biased high by 9 percent. A system error analysis showed that the total system measurement random error is from 3 to 8 percent of reading (depending on the pump diaphragm material) or 3 ppbv, whichever are greater.

  3. Spectral fingerprinting of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in high-volume ambient air samples by constant energy synchronous luminescence spectroscopy

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kerkhoff, M.J.; Lee, T.M.; Allen, E.R.; Lundgren, D.A.; Winefordner, J.D.

    1985-01-01

    A high-volume sampler fitted with a glass-fiber filter and backed by polyurethane foam (PUF) was employed to collect airborne particulate and gas-phase polycylic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in ambient air. Samples were collected from four sources representing a range of environmental conditions: gasoline engine exhaust, diesel engine exhaust, air near a heavily traveled interstate site, and air from a moderately polluted urban site. Spectral fingerprints of the unseparated particulate and gas-phase samples were obtained by constant energy synchronous luminescence spectroscopy (CESLS). Five major PAHs in the gas-phase extracts were characterized and estimated. The compatibility of a high-volume sampling method using polyurethane foam coupled with CESLS detection is explored for use as a screening technique for PAHs in ambient air. ?? 1985 American Chemical Society.

  4. Reducing Contingency through Sampling at the Luckey FUSRAP Site - 13186

    SciTech Connect

    Frothingham, David; Barker, Michelle; Buechi, Steve; Durham, Lisa

    2013-07-01

    Typically, the greatest risk in developing accurate cost estimates for the remediation of hazardous, toxic, and radioactive waste sites is the uncertainty in the estimated volume of contaminated media requiring remediation. Efforts to address this risk in the remediation cost estimate can result in large cost contingencies that are often considered unacceptable when budgeting for site cleanups. Such was the case for the Luckey Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP) site near Luckey, Ohio, which had significant uncertainty surrounding the estimated volume of site soils contaminated with radium, uranium, thorium, beryllium, and lead. Funding provided by the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) allowed the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) to conduct additional environmental sampling and analysis at the Luckey Site between November 2009 and April 2010, with the objective to further delineate the horizontal and vertical extent of contaminated soils in order to reduce the uncertainty in the soil volume estimate. Investigative work included radiological, geophysical, and topographic field surveys, subsurface borings, and soil sampling. Results from the investigative sampling were used in conjunction with Argonne National Laboratory's Bayesian Approaches for Adaptive Spatial Sampling (BAASS) software to update the contaminated soil volume estimate for the site. This updated volume estimate was then used to update the project cost-to-complete estimate using the USACE Cost and Schedule Risk Analysis process, which develops cost contingencies based on project risks. An investment of $1.1 M of ARRA funds for additional investigative work resulted in a reduction of 135,000 in-situ cubic meters (177,000 in-situ cubic yards) in the estimated base volume estimate. This refinement of the estimated soil volume resulted in a $64.3 M reduction in the estimated project cost-to-complete, through a reduction in the uncertainty in the contaminated soil

  5. Organic toxicants in air and precipitation samples from the Lake Michigan area

    SciTech Connect

    Harlin, K.S.; Sweet, C.W.; Gatz, D.F.

    1995-12-31

    Measurements of PCBs, organochlorine insecticides, PAHs, and atrazine were made in air and precipitation samples collected at regionally-representative locations near Lake Michigan from 1992-1995. The purpose of these measurements was to provide information needed to estimate the atmospheric deposition of organic toxicants to Lake Michigan. Twenty-four hour samples of airborne particles and vapor were collected at 12-day intervals on quartz fiber filters and XAD-2 resin vapor traps using modified high volume sampleers. Twenty-eight day precipitation samples were collected using wet-only samplers with stainless steel sampling surfaces and heated enclosure containing an XAD-2 resin adsorption column. Samples were Soxhlet extracted for 24 hours with hexane:acetone (1:1), and concentrated by rotary evaporation. Interferences were removed and the samples separated into analyte groups by silica gel chromatography. Four fractions were collected for GC-ECD and GC-Ion Trap MS analyses. Ten pesticides, 101 PCB congeners, 18 PAHs, and atrazine were measured in all samples. Quality assurance was maintained by including field duplicate samples, field blanks, alboratory matrix spikes, laboratory matrix blanks, and laboratory surrogate spikes in the sampling/analytical protocols. Preliminary results from urban and remote sites show geographical variations in the concentrations of some toxicants due to contributions from local sources. For all sites the total PCB levels are higher in the vapor phase than the particulate phase and show strong seasonal variations. Seasonal variations were also observed for several pesticides.

  6. RADIONUCLIDE AIR EMISSIONS REPORT FOR THE HANFORD SITE CY2003

    SciTech Connect

    ROKKAN, D.J.

    2004-06-11

    This report documents radionuclide air emissions from the US Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site in 2003 and the resulting effective dose equivalent (EDE) to the maximally exposed individual (MEI) member of the public. The report has been prepared in accordance with the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), Title 40, Protection of the Environment, Part 61, National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants, Subpart H, ''National Emission Standards for Emissions of Radionuclides Other than Radon from Department of Energy Facilities''; Washington Administrative Code (WAC) Chapter 246-247, ''Radiation Protection-Air Emissions''; 10 CFR 830.120, Quality Assurance; DOE Order 414.1B, Quality Assurance; NQA-1, Quality Assurance Requirements for Nuclear Facility Application; EPA QA/R-2, EPA Requirements for Quality Management Plans; and EPA QA/R-5, Requirements for Quality Assurance Project Plans. The federal regulations in Subpart H of 40 CFR 61 require the measurement and reporting of radionuclides emitted from DOE facilities and the resulting public dose from those emissions. A standard of 10 mrem/yr EDE is not to be exceeded. The EDE to the MEI due to routine and nonroutine emissions in 2003 from Hanford Site point sources was 0.022 mrem (0.00022 mSv), or 0.22 percent of the federal standard. The portions of the Hanford Site MEI dose attributable to individual point sources as listed in Section 2.0 are appropriate for use in demonstrating the compliance of abated stack emissions with applicable terms of the Hanford Site Air Operating Permit and of Notices of Construction. The state has adopted the 40 CFR 61 standard of 10 mrem/yr EDE into their regulations, yet further requires that the EDE to the MEI be calculated not only from point source emissions but also from diffuse and fugitive sources of emissions. WAC 246-247 also requires the reporting of radionuclide emissions from all Hanford Site sources during routine as well as nonroutine operations. The EDE from

  7. High sensitivity gamma spectrometry of air samples near SRS during 1985-1995

    SciTech Connect

    Winn, W.G.; Cadieux, J.R.

    1997-07-01

    High sensitivity gamma analysis of off-site air samples near the Savannah River Site (SRS) is achieved by collecting large volume air samples for analysis by ultra-low-level gamma spectrometry. A review of the 1985-1995 measurements has highlighted local and distant releases of man-made radionuclides, along with cosmogenic radionuclides which correlate with both solar and seasonal phenomena. Measurements typically involve 2-day air collection of a 70,000 m{sup 3} sample on a 51 cm x 51 cm cellulose filter using a high-capacity pump. Short-lived radon background activity is allowed to decay a few days, and then the filter is configured into a smaller calibrated volume and counted 1-3 days on a 30 percent-efficient HPGe in the Ultra-Low-Level Counting Facility. Representative detection limits for this method are shown in Table 1, and even lower limits are achievable by counting on the low-background 160 percent-efficient HPGe of the Underground Counting Facility.

  8. Chemical reactivities of ambient air samples in three Southern California communities

    PubMed Central

    Eiguren-Fernandez, Arantza; Di Stefano, Emma; Schmitz, Debra A.; Guarieiro, Aline Lefol Nani; Salinas, Erika M.; Nasser, Elina; Froines, John R.; Cho, Arthur K.

    2015-01-01

    The potential adverse health effects of PM2.5 and vapor samples from three communities that neighbor railyards, Commerce (CM), Long Beach (LB), and San Bernardino (SB), were assessed by determination of chemical reactivities attributed to the induction of oxidative stress by air pollutants. The assays used were dithiothreitol (DTT) and dihydrobenzoic acid (DHBA) based procedures for prooxidant content and a glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) assay for electrophiles. Prooxidants and electrophiles have been proposed as the reactive chemical species responsible for the induction of oxidative stress by air pollution mixtures. The PM2.5 samples from CM and LB sites showed seasonal differences in reactivities with higher levels in the winter whereas the SB sample differences were reversed. The reactivities in the vapor samples were all very similar, except for the summer SB samples, which contained higher levels of both prooxidants and electrophiles. The results suggest the observed reactivities reflect general geographical differences rather than direct effects of the railyards. Distributional differences in reactivities were also observed with PM2.5 fractions containing most of the prooxidants (74–81%) and the vapor phase most of the electrophiles (82–96%). The high levels of the vapor phase electrophiles and their potential for adverse biological effects point out the importance of the vapor phase in assessing the potential health effects of ambient air. PMID:25947123

  9. Trench sampling report Salmon Site Lamar County, Mississippi

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-07-01

    This report describes trench excavation and sample-collection activities conducted by IT Corporation (IT) as part of the ongoing Remedial Investigation and Feasibility Study at the Salmon Site, Lamar County, Mississippi (DOE, 1992). During construction, operation, and closure of the site wastes of unknown composition were buried in pits on site. Surface-geophysical field investigations were conducted intermittently between November 1992 and October 1993 to identify potential waste-burial sites and buried metallic materials. The geophysical investigations included vertical magnetic gradient, electromagnetic conductivity, electromagnetic in-phase component, and ground-penetrating radar surveys. A number of anomalies identified by the magnetic gradiometer survey in the Reynolds Electrical & Engineering Co., Inc., (REECo) pits area indicated buried metallic objects. All of the anomalies were field checked to determine if any were caused by surface features or debris. After field checking, 17 anomalies were still unexplained; trenching was planned to attempt to identify their sources. Between December 8, 1993, and December 17, 1993, 15 trenches were excavated and soil samples were collected at the anomalies. Samples were collected, placed in 250- and 500-milliliter (m{ell}) amber glass containers, and shipped on ice to IT Analytical Services (ITAS) in St. Louis, Missouri, using standard IT chain-of-custody procedures. The samples were analyzed for various chemical and radiological parameters. Data validation has not been conducted on any of the samples. During excavation and sampling, soil samples were also collected by IT for the MSDEQ and the Mississippi Department of Radiological Health, in accordance with their instructions, and delivered into their custody.

  10. SAMPLING AND ANALYSIS OF MONITORING WELLS AT EPA RESEARCH SITES

    EPA Science Inventory

    I have been asked to speak to the Environmental Science class at ECU on 04-26-04 on the subject of sample collection and analysis of monitoring wells at EPA research sites that I have been involved with. I plan on demonstrating the techniques of well water collection and meter a...

  11. 32 CFR 806.27 - Samples of Air Force FOIA processing documents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Samples of Air Force FOIA processing documents. 806.27 Section 806.27 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE ADMINISTRATION AIR FORCE FREEDOM OF INFORMATION ACT PROGRAM § 806.27 Samples of Air Force FOIA...

  12. 32 CFR 806.27 - Samples of Air Force FOIA processing documents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Samples of Air Force FOIA processing documents. 806.27 Section 806.27 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE ADMINISTRATION AIR FORCE FREEDOM OF INFORMATION ACT PROGRAM § 806.27 Samples of Air Force FOIA...

  13. 32 CFR 806.27 - Samples of Air Force FOIA processing documents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Samples of Air Force FOIA processing documents. 806.27 Section 806.27 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE ADMINISTRATION AIR FORCE FREEDOM OF INFORMATION ACT PROGRAM § 806.27 Samples of Air Force FOIA...

  14. 32 CFR 806.27 - Samples of Air Force FOIA processing documents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Samples of Air Force FOIA processing documents. 806.27 Section 806.27 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE ADMINISTRATION AIR FORCE FREEDOM OF INFORMATION ACT PROGRAM § 806.27 Samples of Air Force FOIA...

  15. 32 CFR 806.27 - Samples of Air Force FOIA processing documents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Samples of Air Force FOIA processing documents. 806.27 Section 806.27 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE ADMINISTRATION AIR FORCE FREEDOM OF INFORMATION ACT PROGRAM § 806.27 Samples of Air Force FOIA processing documents. (a) This section...

  16. Sampling and analyses report for postburn sampling at the RM1 UCG Site, Hanna, Wyoming

    SciTech Connect

    Crader, S.E.

    1989-06-01

    Between June 22, 1989 and June 26, 1989, Western Research Institute (WRI) completed the second quarterly Rocky Mountain 1 Underground Coal Gasification (RM1 UCG) site groundwater monitoring for the year 1989. This quarterly sample outing represents the third sampling since the completion of the RM1 groundwater restoration. Background material and the sampling and analytical procedures associated with this task are described in the `Rocky Mountain 1 Postburn Groundwater Monitoring Quality Assurance Plan`, prepared by the U.S. DOE.

  17. Bias in air sampling techniques used to measure inhalation exposure.

    PubMed

    Cohen, B S; Harley, N H; Lippmann, M

    1984-03-01

    Factors have been evaluated which contribute to the lack of agreement between inhalation exposure estimates obtained by time-weighted averaging of samples taken with mini hi-volume samplers, and those measured by time integrating, low-volume, lapel mounted, personal monitors. Measurements made with real-time aerosol monitors on workers at a Be-Cu production furnace show that part of the discrepancy results from variability of the aerosol concentration within the breathing zone. Field studies of sampler inlet bias, the influences of the electrostatic fields around polystyrene filter holders, and resuspension of dust from work clothing, were done in three areas of a Be plant. No significant differences were found in Be air concentrations measured simultaneously by open and closed face cassettes, and "mini hi-volume" samplers mounted on a test stand. No significant influence on Be collection was detected between either positively or negatively charged monitors and charge neutralized control monitors. The effect of contaminated work clothing on dust collection by lapel mounted monitors is most important. Beryllium release from the fabrics affected air concentrations measured by fabric mounted monitors more than it affected concentrations measured by monitors positioned above the fabrics. The latter were placed 16 cm from the vertically mounted fabrics, to simulate the position of the nose or mouth. We conclude that dust resuspended from work clothing is the major source of the observed discrepancy between exposures estimated from lapel mounted samplers and time-weighted averages. PMID:6720582

  18. Bias in air sampling techniques used to measure inhalation exposure

    SciTech Connect

    Cohen, B.S.; Harley, N.H.; Lippmann, M.

    1984-03-01

    Factors have been evaluated which contribute to the lack of agreement between inhalation exposure estimates obtained by time-weighted averaging of samples taken with mini hi-volume samplers, and those measured by time integrating, low-volume, lapel mounted, personal monitors. Measurements made with real-time aerosol monitors on workers at a Be-Cu production furnace show that part of the discrepancy results from variability of the aerosol concentration within the breathing zone. Field studies of sampler inlet bias, the influences of the electrostatic fields around polystyrene filter holders, and resuspension of dust from work clothing, were done in three areas of a Be plant. No significant differences were found in Be air concentrations measured simultaneously by open and closed face cassettes, and mini hi-volume samplers mounted on a test stand. No significant influence on Be collection was detected between either positively or negatively charged monitors and charge neutralized control monitors. The effect of contaminated work clothing on dust collection by lapel mounted monitors is most important. Beryllium release from the fabrics affected air concentrations measured by fabric mounted monitors more than it affected concentrations measured by monitors positioned above the fabrics. The latter were placed 16 cm from the vertically mounted fabrics, to simulate the position of the nose or mouth. The authors conclude that dust resuspended from work clothing is the major source of the observed discrepancy between exposures estimated from lapel mounted samplers and time-weighted averages.

  19. Passive air sampling of organochlorine pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls, and polybrominated diphenyl ethers across the tibetan plateau.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiao-Ping; Gong, Ping; Yao, Tan-Dong; Jones, Kevin C

    2010-04-15

    So far there are limited data on persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in the atmosphere of the Tibetan Plateau. XAD 2-resin based passive air samplers were therefore deployed for 1 year (between July 2007-June 2008) at 16 locations across the Tibetan Plateau. Based on previously reported sampling rates (R) derived in the north and south America, and their correlations with atmospheric temperature and pressure, R values in the present study were in the range of 2.2-3.3 m(3) d(-1) (average = 2.7 +/- 0.3). Derived air concentrations (pg/m(3)) ranged as follows: DDTs, 5-75; HCHs, 0.1-36; alpha-endosulfan, 0.1-10; HCB, 2.8-80; sum of 15 PCBs, 1.8-8.2; and sum of 9 PBDEs, 0.1-8.3. The highest DDTs occurred at Qamdo, where the sampling site is near to farm land, indicating the spatial distribution of DDTs across the plateau may be influenced by scattered local usage of DDT. Higher levels of HCHs were observed at sites with high elevation (>4000 m) and close to the China-India border, indicating possible long-range atmospheric transport. The highest levels of HCB, PCBs, and PBDEs were found at a site impacted by forest fire during the sampling campaign. PMID:20235613

  20. Sampling artifacts in active air sampling of semivolatile organic contaminants: Comparing theoretical and measured artifacts and evaluating implications for monitoring networks.

    PubMed

    Melymuk, Lisa; Bohlin-Nizzetto, Pernilla; Prokeš, Roman; Kukučka, Petr; Klánová, Jana

    2016-10-01

    The effects of sampling artifacts are often not fully considered in the design of air monitoring with active air samplers. Semivolatile organic contaminants (SVOCs) are particularly vulnerable to a range of sampling artifacts because of their wide range of gas-particle partitioning and degradation rates, and these can lead to erroneous measurements of air concentrations and a lack of comparability between sites with different environmental and sampling conditions. This study used specially adapted filter-sorbent sampling trains in three types of active air samplers to investigate breakthrough of SVOCs, and the possibility of other sampling artifacts. Breakthrough volumes were experimentally determined for a range of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in sampling volumes from 300 to 10,000 m(3), and sampling durations of 1-7 days. In parallel, breakthrough was estimated based on theoretical sorbent-vapor pressure relationships. The comparison of measured and theoretical determinations of breakthrough demonstrated good agreement between experimental and estimated breakthrough volumes, and showed that theoretical breakthrough estimates should be used when developing air monitoring protocols. Significant breakthrough in active air samplers occurred for compounds with vapor pressure >0.5 Pa at volumes <700 m(3). Sample volumes between 700 and 10,000 m(3) may lead to breakthrough for compounds with vapor pressures between 0.005 and 0.5 Pa. Breakthrough is largely driven by sample volume and compound volatility (therefore indirectly by temperature) and is independent of sampler type. The presence of significant breakthrough at "typical" sampling conditions is relevant for air monitoring networks, and may lead to under-reporting of more volatile SVOCs. PMID:26743995

  1. GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY/MATRIX ISOLATION - INFRARED SPECTROMETRY FOR AIR SAMPLE ANALYSIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report describes the application of gas chromatography/matrix- solation infrared (GC/MI-IR) spectrometry to the analysIs of environmental air sample extracts. Samples that were analyzed include extracts from woodsmoke-impacted air, XAD-2 blanks, indoor air, and carpet sample...

  2. Passive Samplers for Investigations of Air Quality: Method Description, Implementation, and Comparison to Alternative Sampling Methods

    EPA Science Inventory

    This Paper covers the basics of passive sampler design, compares passive samplers to conventional methods of air sampling, and discusses considerations when implementing a passive sampling program. The Paper also discusses field sampling and sample analysis considerations to ensu...

  3. Sampling of air streams and incorporation of samples in the Microtox{trademark} toxicity testing system

    SciTech Connect

    Kleinheinz, G.T.; St. John, W.P.

    1997-10-01

    A study was conducted to develop a rapid and reliable method for the collection and incorporation of biofiltration air samples containing volatile organic compounds (VOCs) into the Microtox toxicity testing system. To date, no method exists for this type of assay. A constant stream of VOCs was generated by air stripping compounds from a complex mixture of petroleum hydrocarbons (PHCs). Samples were collected on coconut charcoal ORBO tubes and the VOCs extracted with methylene chloride. The compounds extracted were then solvent exchanged into dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) under gaseous nitrogen. The resulting DMSO extract was directly incorporated into the Microtox toxicity testing system. In order to determine the efficiency of the solvent exchange, the VOCs in the DMSO extract were then extracted into hexane and subsequently analyzed using gas chromatography (GC) with a flame ionization detector (FID). It was determined that all but the most volatile VOCs could be effectively transferred from the ORBO tubes to DMSO for Microtox testing. Potential trace amounts of residual methylene chloride in the DMSO extracts showed no adverse effects in the Microtox system when compared to control samples.

  4. Nevada National Security Site Integrated Groundwater Sampling Plan, Revision 0

    SciTech Connect

    Marutzky, Sam; Farnham, Irene

    2014-10-01

    The purpose of the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) Integrated Sampling Plan (referred to herein as the Plan) is to provide a comprehensive, integrated approach for collecting and analyzing groundwater samples to meet the needs and objectives of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Field Office (NNSA/NFO) Underground Test Area (UGTA) Activity. Implementation of this Plan will provide high-quality data required by the UGTA Activity for ensuring public protection in an efficient and cost-effective manner. The Plan is designed to ensure compliance with the UGTA Quality Assurance Plan (QAP). The Plan’s scope comprises sample collection and analysis requirements relevant to assessing the extent of groundwater contamination from underground nuclear testing. This Plan identifies locations to be sampled by corrective action unit (CAU) and location type, sampling frequencies, sample collection methodologies, and the constituents to be analyzed. In addition, the Plan defines data collection criteria such as well-purging requirements, detection levels, and accuracy requirements; identifies reporting and data management requirements; and provides a process to ensure coordination between NNSS groundwater sampling programs for sampling of interest to UGTA. This Plan does not address compliance with requirements for wells that supply the NNSS public water system or wells involved in a permitted activity.

  5. Ground Water Sampling at ISCO Sites - Residual Oxidant Impact on Sample Quality and Sample Preservation Guideline

    EPA Science Inventory

    In-situ chemical oxidation (ISCO) involves the delivery of a chemical oxidant into the subsurface where oxidative reactions transform ground water contaminants into less toxic or harmless byproducts. Due to oxidant persistence, ground water samples collected at hazardous waste si...

  6. An Autosampler and Field Sample Carrier for Maximizing Throughput Using an Open-Air, Surface Sampling Ion Source for MS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A recently developed, commercially available, open-air, surface sampling ion source for mass spectrometers provides individual analyses in several seconds. To realize its full throughput potential, an autosampler and field sample carrier were designed and built. The autosampler ...

  7. An experiment to determine atmospheric CO concentrations of tropical South Atlantic air samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirchhoff, V. W. J. H.; Aires, C. B.; Alvala, P. C.

    2003-04-01

    New observations of atmospheric carbon monoxide, CO, are described, from tropical South Atlantic air samples. A new observational site, Maxaranguape, was set up in a clean remote environment right next to the ocean on the north-east coast of Brazil, to obtain CO mixing ratios and auxiliary data (meteorological parameters, ozone (O3), carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4)) during three sequential seasonal cycles. The seasonal variations of temperature, humidity and precipitation are shown for the new site. Chromatographic separation followed by mercury oxide detection is used to measure CO. The seasonality of the CO data was clearly established. Minima are seen during April, May and June showing wet-period averages of 56.1 parts per billion by volume (ppbv), with standard deviation 8.7 ppbv; during dry-period months, August to November, the average was 77.7 ± 16.5 ppbv. For comparison, CO concentrations were also measured over continental areas in Brazil. Much larger values have been found in moderate 'burning' regions, such as the south of the state of Mato Grosso and the north-western part of the state of Parana, where 200 ppbv in the dry season has been observed. Since normally the air masses have travelled for several days over the ocean, the air masses over the site present low chemical activity. Daily variations of CO2 are very small, of the order of a few percent relative to the diurnal mean. Only on rare occasions, when the wind direction changes, is the sampled air contaminated from flowing over the inhabited shoreline to the south, and then CO2 varies inversely with O3. The monthly mean CH4 data does not show a clear seasonal variation, possibly because the amplitude of the CH4 variation is only of the order of 1%, which is close to the precision of the measuring instrument.

  8. Ambient air quality at the site of a former manufactured gas plant.

    PubMed

    Collins, M J; Williams, P L; MacIntosh, D L

    2001-05-01

    Prior to the 1950's, manufactured gas was commercially produced from the pyrolysis of coal, coke, and oil at facilities that are termed manufactured gas plants (MGPs). The constituents of residual coal tar present on many MGP sites are an environmental health concern because of their toxicity and the possibility for their off-site migration via water and air. Atmospheric concentrations of five volatile organic compounds (VOCs, e.g., benzene), sixteen polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs, e.g., naphthalene) and particulate matter less than 10 microns in aerodynamic diameter (PM10) were measured at the site of a former MGP. Air samples were obtained before, during, and after excavation of subterranean coal tar at the site. The results of this investigation indicate that subterranean coal tar was not a primary source of VOCs and PAHs in the local atmosphere before or after remediation of the site. However, excavation, treatment, blending, and transfer of the coal tar during remediation generated concentrations of selected aromatic and semi-volatile organic compounds that were substantially greater than typical ambient levels. In addition, these data suggest that blending and mixing of coal tars could lead to exceedance of the U.S. National Ambient Air Quality Standard for PM10, although additional research is required to fully evaluate this possibility. Nuisance odors associated with the site remediation were likely the result of naphthalene and possibly isomers of xylene. Air pollutant concentrations measured adjacent to the excavation area and at the site perimeter during remediation activities were less than the relevant occupational and environmental exposure limits. PMID:11411141

  9. Use of tree bark for comparing environmental pollution in different sites from Buenos Aires and Montevideo.

    PubMed

    Faggi, Ana Maria; Fujiwara, Fabian; Anido, Carlos; Perelman, Patricia E

    2011-07-01

    Multi-elemental profiles in bark of green ash trees collected in three representative areas of Buenos Aires, Argentina and Montevideo, Uruguay, were assessed as potential air pollution indicators. Ten elements: Al, Ba, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mg, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn, were measured using inductively coupled plasma optical emissions spectrometry from 70 samples collected in different environments: central, residential and rural (reference site), in order to compare spatial patterns of metal concentration. The samples used as a control were collected from a nature reserve situated far away from any significant influences, not even a nearby road. The reference site (RF) exhibited the lowest concentrations of Al, Cr, Fe, Ni, Pb, and Zn. However, Ba and Mn showed similar concentrations in all measured sites. Magnesium is the only element that had a greater concentration in RF than at the other sites. Copper did not show any clear pattern. The Centre of Montevideo (MVD) showed higher concentrations of Al, Ba, Cr, Fe, Pb and Zn than the Centre of Buenos Aires (BA). In the A sectors, Montevideo (SAMVD) showed higher concentrations of Al, Cu, Mg, Ni, and Zn and lower concentrations of Ba, Cr, Fe, Mn, and Pb than Buenos Aires (SABA). In the B sectors, Montevideo (SBMVD) showed higher concentrations of Al, Ba, Cu, Fe, Pb, and Zn and lower concentrations of Cr and Mg than Buenos Aires (SBBA), but similar concentrations of Mn and Ni. The use of bark for biomonitoring metals allowed us to detect concentration differences related to the urban fabric and the different kinds of vehicles and their fuels. In the cities, the differences in metal concentrations detected in bark were more striking between the sectors than between centers, despite CBA being much larger than CMVD in population, extension and vehicular traffic. PMID:20844948

  10. Construction Site Storm Water Sampling California's New Construction Sampling and Analysis Requirements

    SciTech Connect

    Forrest, C.L.; Mathews, S.

    2002-04-02

    The California State Water Resources Control Board (State Board) originally issued a National Pollutant Discharge System (NPDES) permit for storm water discharges associated with construction activities in 1992. This NPDES permit was issued as a general permit, applicable throughout the state (with certain exceptions). The general construction permit was made site-specific by a discharger-developed Storm Water Pollution Prevention Plan (SWPPP). As with most NPDES construction storm water permits, monitoring requirements were limited to inspections. Sampling and analysis of discharges was not specifically required, but a Regional Water Quality Control Board (Regional Board) could require additional monitoring. In 1999, the State -Board revised and reissued its construction general permit. While the 1999 permit significantly enhanced the erosion and sediment control descriptions and requirements, and expanded the inspection program, sampling and analysis was still not required. Environmental advocacy groups took exception to the absence of sampling requirements and sought relief in court to add sampling and analysis. In 2001, the State Board in response to the court order adopted a resolution requiring sampling and analysis of construction site runoff under two conditions. Turbidity and/or sediment sampling is required when construction site runoff enters water bodies determined to impaired for sediment or turbidity. Sampling for non-visible pollutants is required when construction operations expose materials to storm water. Sampling construction site runoff is relatively new concept for NPDES permits. Only a few permits throughout the country require sampling and analysis for sediment-related pollutants, and California is one of the only permitting entities to require sampling for non-visible pollutants in construction site runoff. The added complexity of sampling runoff requires construction operators and erosion and sediment control professionals to expand their

  11. Prioritization to limit sampling and drilling in site investigations

    SciTech Connect

    Burton, J.C.

    1992-01-01

    One of the major goals of the Environmental Research Division of Argonne National Laboratory is to develop and provide governmental agencies with technically sound, cost-effective frameworks for environmental site characterization and remedial programs. An example of the development of such a framework for preremedial site characterization is presented in this paper. Specifically, this paper presents portions of an expanded site investigation program developed for landfills suspected of containing hazardous waste. The work was sponsored by the New Mexico State Office of the US Department of Interior's Bureau of Land Management (BLM). The emphasis of the BLM program was on identifying initial characterization procedures that would decrease the need for sampling and drilling on a random grid.

  12. Prioritization to limit sampling and drilling in site investigations

    SciTech Connect

    Burton, J.C.

    1992-04-01

    One of the major goals of the Environmental Research Division of Argonne National Laboratory is to develop and provide governmental agencies with technically sound, cost-effective frameworks for environmental site characterization and remedial programs. An example of the development of such a framework for preremedial site characterization is presented in this paper. Specifically, this paper presents portions of an expanded site investigation program developed for landfills suspected of containing hazardous waste. The work was sponsored by the New Mexico State Office of the US Department of Interior`s Bureau of Land Management (BLM). The emphasis of the BLM program was on identifying initial characterization procedures that would decrease the need for sampling and drilling on a random grid.

  13. Sequim Site Radionuclide Air Emissions Report for Calendar Year 2012

    SciTech Connect

    Snyder, Sandra F.; Barnett, J. Matthew; Gervais, Todd L.

    2013-04-01

    This report is prepared to document compliance with the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), Title 40, Protection of the Environment, Part 61, National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP), Subpart H, National Emission Standards for Emissions of Radionuclides Other than Radon from Department of Energy Facilities and ashington Administrative Code (WAC) Chapter 246-247, Radiation Protection Air Emissions. This report meets the calendar year 2012 Sequim Site annual reporting requirement for its operations as a privately-owned facility as well as its federally-contracted status that began in October 2012. Compliance is indicated by comparing the estimated dose to the maximally exposed individual (MEI) with the 10 mrem/yr Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) standard. The MSL contains only sources classified as fugitive emissions. Despite the fact that the regulations are intended for application to point source emissions, fugitive emissions are included with regard to complying with the EPA standard. The dose to the Sequim Site MEI due to routine operations in 2012 was 9E-06 mrem (9E-08 mSv). No non-routine emissions occurred in 2012. The MSL is in compliance with the federal and state 10 mrem/yr standard.

  14. Technical assessment of TRUSAF for compliance with work place air sampling. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Butler, J.D.

    1995-01-23

    The purpose of this Technical Work Document is to satisfy WHC-CM-1-6, the ``WHC Radiological Control Manual.`` This first revision of the original Supporting Document covers the period from January 1, 1994 to December 31, 1994. WHC-CM-1-6 is the primary guidance for radiological control at Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC). As such, it complies with Title 10, Part 835 of the Code of Federal Regulations. In addition to WHC-CM-1-6, there is HSRCM-1, the ``Hanford Site Radiological Control Manual`` and several Department of Energy (DOE) Orders, national consensus standards, and reports that provide criteria, standards, and requirements for workplace air sampling programs. This document provides a summary of these, as they apply to WHC facility workplace air sampling programs. this document also provides an evaluation of the compliance of the TRUSAF workplace air sampling program to the criteria, standards, and requirements and documents. Where necessary, it also indicates changes needed to bring specific locations into compliance.

  15. Technical assessment of workplace air sampling requirements at tank farm facilities. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Olsen, P.A.

    1994-09-21

    WHC-CM-1-6 is the primary guidance for radiological control at Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC). It was written to implement DOE N 5480.6 ``US Department of Energy Radiological Control Manual`` as it applies to programs at Hanford which are now overseen by WHC. As such, it complies with Title 10, Part 835 of the Code of Federal Regulations. In addition to WHC-CM-1-6, there is HSRCM-1, the ``Hanford Site Radiological Control Manual`` and several Department of Energy (DOE) Orders, national consensus standards, and reports that provide criteria, standards, and requirements for workplace air sampling programs. This document provides a summary of these, as they apply to WHC facility workplace air sampling programs. This document also provides an evaluation of the compliance of Tank Farms` workplace air sampling program to the criteria, standards, and requirements and documents compliance with the requirements where appropriate. Where necessary, it also indicates changes needed to bring specific locations into compliance.

  16. Comparison of lactate sampling sites for rock climbing.

    PubMed

    Fryer, S; Draper, N; Dickson, T; Blackwell, G; Winter, D; Ellis, G

    2011-06-01

    Comparisons of capillary blood lactate concentrations pre and post climb have featured in the protocols of many rock climbing studies, with most researchers obtaining samples from the fingertip. The nature of rock climbing, however, places a comparatively high physiological loading on the foreaand fingertips. Indeed, the fingertips are continually required for gripping and this makes pre-climb sampling at this site problematic. The purpose of our study was to examine differences in capillary blood lactate concentrations from samples taken at the fingertip and first (big) toe in a rock climbing context. 10 participants (9 males and 1 female) completed climbing bouts at 3 different angles (91°, 100° and 110°). Capillary blood samples were taken simultaneously from the fingertip and first toe pre and post climb. A limit of agreement plot revealed all data points to be well within the upper and lower bounds of the 95% population confidence interval. Subsequent regression analysis revealed a strong relationship (R (2)=0.94, y=0.940x + 0.208) between fingertip and first toe capillary blood lactate concentrations. Findings from our study suggest that the toe offers a valid alternative site for capillary blood lactate concentration analysis in a rock climbing context. PMID:21380969

  17. Sampling and Analysis Plan for U.S. Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management Sites

    SciTech Connect

    2012-10-24

    This plan incorporates U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Legacy Management (LM) standard operating procedures (SOPs) into environmental monitoring activities and will be implemented at all sites managed by LM. This document provides detailed procedures for the field sampling teams so that samples are collected in a consistent and technically defensible manner. Site-specific plans (e.g., long-term surveillance and maintenance plans, environmental monitoring plans) document background information and establish the basis for sampling and monitoring activities. Information will be included in site-specific tabbed sections to this plan, which identify sample locations, sample frequencies, types of samples, field measurements, and associated analytes for each site. Additionally, within each tabbed section, program directives will be included, when developed, to establish additional site-specific requirements to modify or clarify requirements in this plan as they apply to the corresponding site. A flowchart detailing project tasks required to accomplish routine sampling is displayed in Figure 1. LM environmental procedures are contained in the Environmental Procedures Catalog (LMS/PRO/S04325), which incorporates American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM), DOE, and U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) guidance. Specific procedures used for groundwater and surface water monitoring are included in Appendix A. If other environmental media are monitored, SOPs used for air, soil/sediment, and biota monitoring can be found in the site-specific tabbed sections in Appendix D or in site-specific documents. The procedures in the Environmental Procedures Catalog are intended as general guidance and require additional detail from planning documents in order to be complete; the following sections fulfill that function and specify additional procedural requirements to form SOPs. Routine revision of this Sampling and Analysis Plan will be conducted annually at the

  18. Collection and analysis of NASA clean room air samples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sheldon, L. S.; Keever, J.

    1985-01-01

    The environment of the HALOE assembly clean room at NASA Langley Research Center is analyzed to determine the background levels of airborne organic compounds. Sampling is accomplished by pumping the clean room air through absorbing cartridges. For volatile organics, cartridges are thermally desorbed and then analyzed by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry, compounds are identified by searching the EPA/NIH data base using an interactive operator INCOS computer search algorithm. For semivolatile organics, cartridges are solvent entracted and concentrated extracts are analyzed by gas chromatography-electron capture detection, compound identification is made by matching gas chromatogram retention times with known standards. The detection limits for the semivolatile organics are; 0.89 ng cu m for dioctylphlhalate (DOP) and 1.6 ng cu m for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB). The detection limit for volatile organics ranges from 1 to 50 parts per trillion. Only trace quantities of organics are detected, the DOP levels do not exceed 2.5 ng cu m and the PCB levels do not exceed 454 ng cu m.

  19. Air-Based Remediation Workshop - Section 1 Sampling And Analysis Revelant To Air-Based Remediation Technologies

    EPA Science Inventory

    Pursant to the EPA-AIT Implementing Arrangement 7 for Technical Environmental Collaboration, Activity 11 "Remediation of Contaminated Sites," the USEPA Office of International Affairs Organized a Force Air Remediation Workshop in Taipei to deliver expert training to the Environme...

  20. Air sampling filtration media: Collection efficiency for respirable size-selective sampling

    PubMed Central

    Soo, Jhy-Charm; Monaghan, Keenan; Lee, Taekhee; Kashon, Mike; Harper, Martin

    2016-01-01

    The collection efficiencies of commonly used membrane air sampling filters in the ultrafine particle size range were investigated. Mixed cellulose ester (MCE; 0.45, 0.8, 1.2, and 5 μm pore sizes), polycarbonate (0.4, 0.8, 2, and 5 μm pore sizes), polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE; 0.45, 1, 2, and 5 μm pore sizes), polyvinyl chloride (PVC; 0.8 and 5 μm pore sizes), and silver membrane (0.45, 0.8, 1.2, and 5 μm pore sizes) filters were exposed to polydisperse sodium chloride (NaCl) particles in the size range of 10–400 nm. Test aerosols were nebulized and introduced into a calm air chamber through a diffusion dryer and aerosol neutralizer. The testing filters (37 mm diameter) were mounted in a conductive polypropylene filter-holder (cassette) within a metal testing tube. The experiments were conducted at flow rates between 1.7 and 11.2 l min−1. The particle size distributions of NaCl challenge aerosol were measured upstream and downstream of the test filters by a scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS). Three different filters of each type with at least three repetitions for each pore size were tested. In general, the collection efficiency varied with airflow, pore size, and sampling duration. In addition, both collection efficiency and pressure drop increased with decreased pore size and increased sampling flow rate, but they differed among filter types and manufacturer. The present study confirmed that the MCE, PTFE, and PVC filters have a relatively high collection efficiency for challenge particles much smaller than their nominal pore size and are considerably more efficient than polycarbonate and silver membrane filters, especially at larger nominal pore sizes. PMID:26834310

  1. Measurement and estimated health risks of volatile organic compounds and polychlorinated biphenyls in air at the Hanford Site

    SciTech Connect

    Patton, G.W.; Cooper, A.T.; Blanton, M.L.

    1994-10-01

    A variety of radioactive and nonradioactive chemicals have been released in effluent streams and discharged to waste disposal facilities during the nuclear materials production period at the Hanford Site. Extensive environmental surveillance for radioactive materials has occurred at Hanford; however, only limited information is available on the types and concentrations of organic pollutants potentially present. This report describes work performed to provide the Hanford Site Surface Environmental Surveillance Project with representative air concentration data for volatile organic compounds and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) volatile organic compound sampling methods evaluated for Hanford Site use were carbon-based adsorbent traps (TO-2) and Summa air canisters (TO-14). Polychlorinated biphenyls were sampled using USEPA method (TO-4), which uses glass fiber filters and polyurethane foam adsorbent beds to collect the PCBs. This report also presents results for environmental surveillance samples collected for volatile organic compound and PCB analyses from 1990 to 1993. All measured air concentrations of volatile organic compounds and PCBs were well below applicable maximum allowable concentration standards for air contaminants. Because of the lack of ambient air concentration standards, a conservative estimate is provided of the potential human health impacts from exposure to the ambient air concentrations measured on the Hanford Site.

  2. The OSIRIS-REx Mission Sample Site Selection Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beshore, Edward C.; Lauretta, Dante

    2014-11-01

    In September of 2016, the OSIRIS-REx (Origins, Spectral Interpretation, Resource Identification, Security, REgolith eXplorer) spacecraft will depart for asteroid (101955) Bennu, and in doing so, will turn an important corner in the exploration of the solar system. After arriving at Bennu in the fall of 2018, OSIRIS-REx will undertake a program of observations designed to select a site suitable for retrieving a sample that will be returned to the Earth in 2023. The third mission in NASA’s New Frontiers program, OSIRIS-REx will return over 60 grams from Bennu’s surface.OSIRIS-REx is unique because the science team will have an operational role to play in preparing data products needed to select a sample site. These include products used to ensure flight system safety — topographic maps and shape models, temperature measurements, maps of hazards — as well as assessments of sampleability and science value. The timing and production of these will be presented, as will the high-level decision-making tools and processes for the interim and final site selection processes.

  3. Installation restoration program. Site investigation report for IRP site No. 12 and 13, South Dakota Air National Guard, 114th Fighter Wing, Joe Foss Field, Sioux Falls, South Dakota - Volume 1. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1996-02-01

    Site Investigation Report for IRP Site No 12 and 13, South Dakota Air National Guard, 114th Fighter Wing, Joe Foss Field, Sioux Falls, South Dakota, Volume I. This is the first volume of a two volume site investigation report. Two sites (Site 12 - Ramp area and Site 13 - Motor Vehicle Maintenance Facility) was investigated under the Installation Restoration Program. Soil and groundwater samples were collected and analyzed. No further action was recommended on site 13 and quarterly sampling was recommended for site 12. South Dakota Regulators have agreed to both recommendations. Decision documents will be prepared for each site.

  4. Comparison of Grab, Air, and Surface Results for Radiation Site Characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glassford, Eric Keith

    2011-12-01

    The use of proper sampling methods and sample types for evaluating sites believed to be contaminated with radioactive materials is necessary to avoid misrepresenting conditions at the site. This study was designed to investigate if the site characterization, based upon uranium contamination measured in different types of samples, is dependent upon the mass of the sample collected. A bulk sample of potentially contaminated interior dirt was collected from an abandoned metal processing mill that rolled uranium between 1948 and 1956. The original mill dates from 1910 and has a dirt floor. The bulk sample was a mixture of dirt, black and yellow particles of metal dust, and small fragments of natural debris. Small mass (approximately 0.75 grams (g)) and large mass (approximately 70g) grab samples were prepared from the bulk sample material to simulate collection of a "grab" type sample. Air sampling was performed by re-suspending a portion of the bulk sample material using a vibration table to simulate airborne contamination that might be present during site remediation. Additionally, samples of removable contaminated surface dust were collected on 47 mm diameter filter paper by wiping the surfaces of the exposure chamber used to resuspend the bulk material. Certified reference materials, one containing a precisely known quantity of U 3O8 and one containing a known quantity of natural uranium, were utilized to calibrate the gamma spectrometry measurement system. Non-destructive gamma spectrometry measurements were used to determine the content of uranium-235 (235U) at 185 keV and 143 keV, thorium-234 (234Th) at 63 keV, and protactinium-234m (234mPa) at 1001 keV in each sample. Measurement of natural uranium in small, 1 g samples is usually accomplished by radiochemical analysis in order to measure alpha particles emitted by 238U, 235U, and 234U. However, uranium in larger bulk samples can also be measured non-destructively using gamma spectrometry to detect the low

  5. Breakthrough of 1,3-dichloropropene and chloropicrin from 600 mg XAD-4 air sampling tubes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Accurately measuring air concentrations of agricultural fumigants is important for the regulation of air quality. Understanding the conditions under which sorbent tubes can effectively retain such fumigants during sampling is critical in mitigating chemical breakthrough from the tubes and facilitati...

  6. Human-Robot Site Survey and Sampling for Space Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fong, Terrence; Bualat, Maria; Edwards, Laurence; Flueckiger, Lorenzo; Kunz, Clayton; Lee, Susan Y.; Park, Eric; To, Vinh; Utz, Hans; Ackner, Nir

    2006-01-01

    NASA is planning to send humans and robots back to the Moon before 2020. In order for extended missions to be productive, high quality maps of lunar terrain and resources are required. Although orbital images can provide much information, many features (local topography, resources, etc) will have to be characterized directly on the surface. To address this need, we are developing a system to perform site survey and sampling. The system includes multiple robots and humans operating in a variety of team configurations, coordinated via peer-to-peer human-robot interaction. In this paper, we present our system design and describe planned field tests.

  7. Urban air quality assessment using monitoring data of fractionized aerosol samples, chemometrics and meteorological conditions.

    PubMed

    Yotova, Galina I; Tsitouridou, Roxani; Tsakovski, Stefan L; Simeonov, Vasil D

    2016-01-01

    The present article deals with assessment of urban air by using monitoring data for 10 different aerosol fractions (0.015-16 μm) collected at a typical urban site in City of Thessaloniki, Greece. The data set was subject to multivariate statistical analysis (cluster analysis and principal components analysis) and, additionally, to HYSPLIT back trajectory modeling in order to assess in a better way the impact of the weather conditions on the pollution sources identified. A specific element of the study is the effort to clarify the role of outliers in the data set. The reason for the appearance of outliers is strongly related to the atmospheric condition on the particular sampling days leading to enhanced concentration of pollutants (secondary emissions, sea sprays, road and soil dust, combustion processes) especially for ultra fine and coarse particles. It is also shown that three major sources affect the urban air quality of the location studied-sea sprays, mineral dust and anthropogenic influences (agricultural activity, combustion processes, and industrial sources). The level of impact is related to certain extent to the aerosol fraction size. The assessment of the meteorological conditions leads to defining of four downwind patterns affecting the air quality (Pelagic, Western and Central Europe, Eastern and Northeastern Europe and Africa and Southern Europe). Thus, the present study offers a complete urban air assessment taking into account the weather conditions, pollution sources and aerosol fractioning. PMID:26942452

  8. SALT CORE SAMPLING EVOLUTION AT THE SAVANNAH RIVER SITE

    SciTech Connect

    Nance, T; Daniel Krementz, D; William Cheng, W

    2007-11-29

    The Savannah River Site (SRS), a Department of Energy (DOE) facility, has over 30 million gallons of legacy waste from its many years of processing nuclear materials. The majority of waste is stored in 49 buried tanks. Available underground piping is the primary and desired pathway to transfer waste from one tank to another until the waste is delivered to the glass plant, DWPF, or the grout plant, Saltstone. Prior to moving the material, the tank contents need to be evaluated to ensure the correct destination for the waste is chosen. Access ports are available in each tank top in a number of locations and sizes to be used to obtain samples of the waste for analysis. Material consistencies vary for each tank with the majority of waste to be processed being radioactive salts and sludge. The following paper describes the progression of equipment and techniques developed to obtain core samples of salt and solid sludge at SRS.

  9. Data Quality Objectives Supporting Radiological Air Emissions Monitoring for the PNNL Site

    SciTech Connect

    Barnett, J. Matthew; Meier, Kirsten M.; Snyder, Sandra F.; Fritz, Brad G.; Poston, Theodore M.; Antonio, Ernest J.

    2012-11-12

    considerations. This DQO report also updates the discussion of the Environmental Monitoring Plan for the PNNL Site air samples and how existing Hanford Site monitoring program results could be used. This document of Data Quality Objectives (DQOs) was prepared based on the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Guidance on Systematic Planning Using the Data Quality Objectives Process, EPA, QA/G4, 2/2006 (EPA 2006) as well as several other published DQOs.

  10. 30 CFR 71.205 - Approved sampling devices; operation; air flowrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Approved sampling devices; operation; air... OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Sampling Procedures § 71.205 Approved sampling devices; operation; air... flowrate as prescribed by the Secretary and the Secretary of Health and Human Services for the...

  11. 30 CFR 90.205 - Approved sampling devices; operation; air flowrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Approved sampling devices; operation; air... DEVELOPMENT OF PNEUMOCONIOSIS Sampling Procedures § 90.205 Approved sampling devices; operation; air flowrate... flowrate as prescribed by the Secretary and the Secretary of Health and Human Services for the...

  12. 30 CFR 90.205 - Approved sampling devices; operation; air flowrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Approved sampling devices; operation; air... DEVELOPMENT OF PNEUMOCONIOSIS Sampling Procedures § 90.205 Approved sampling devices; operation; air flowrate... flowrate as prescribed by the Secretary and the Secretary of Health and Human Services for the...

  13. 30 CFR 70.205 - Approved sampling devices; operation; air flowrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Approved sampling devices; operation; air... § 70.205 Approved sampling devices; operation; air flowrate. (a) Sampling devices approved in... Secretary of Health and Human Services for the particular device. (b) Except as provided in paragraph (d)...

  14. 30 CFR 71.205 - Approved sampling devices; operation; air flowrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Approved sampling devices; operation; air... OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Sampling Procedures § 71.205 Approved sampling devices; operation; air... flowrate as prescribed by the Secretary and the Secretary of Health and Human Services for the...

  15. 30 CFR 70.205 - Approved sampling devices; operation; air flowrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Approved sampling devices; operation; air... § 70.205 Approved sampling devices; operation; air flowrate. (a) Sampling devices approved in... Secretary of Health and Human Services for the particular device. (b) Except as provided in paragraph (d)...

  16. 30 CFR 70.205 - Approved sampling devices; operation; air flowrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Approved sampling devices; operation; air... § 70.205 Approved sampling devices; operation; air flowrate. (a) Sampling devices approved in... Secretary of Health and Human Services for the particular device. (b) Except as provided in paragraph (d)...

  17. 30 CFR 90.205 - Approved sampling devices; operation; air flowrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Approved sampling devices; operation; air... DEVELOPMENT OF PNEUMOCONIOSIS Sampling Procedures § 90.205 Approved sampling devices; operation; air flowrate... flowrate as prescribed by the Secretary and the Secretary of Health and Human Services for the...

  18. 30 CFR 70.205 - Approved sampling devices; operation; air flowrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Approved sampling devices; operation; air... § 70.205 Approved sampling devices; operation; air flowrate. (a) Sampling devices approved in... Secretary of Health and Human Services for the particular device. (b) Except as provided in paragraph (d)...

  19. 30 CFR 71.205 - Approved sampling devices; operation; air flowrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Approved sampling devices; operation; air... OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Sampling Procedures § 71.205 Approved sampling devices; operation; air... flowrate as prescribed by the Secretary and the Secretary of Health and Human Services for the...

  20. 30 CFR 71.205 - Approved sampling devices; operation; air flowrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Approved sampling devices; operation; air... OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Sampling Procedures § 71.205 Approved sampling devices; operation; air... flowrate as prescribed by the Secretary and the Secretary of Health and Human Services for the...

  1. 30 CFR 71.205 - Approved sampling devices; operation; air flowrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Approved sampling devices; operation; air... OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Sampling Procedures § 71.205 Approved sampling devices; operation; air... flowrate as prescribed by the Secretary and the Secretary of Health and Human Services for the...

  2. 30 CFR 90.205 - Approved sampling devices; operation; air flowrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Approved sampling devices; operation; air... DEVELOPMENT OF PNEUMOCONIOSIS Sampling Procedures § 90.205 Approved sampling devices; operation; air flowrate... flowrate as prescribed by the Secretary and the Secretary of Health and Human Services for the...

  3. 30 CFR 70.205 - Approved sampling devices; operation; air flowrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Approved sampling devices; operation; air... § 70.205 Approved sampling devices; operation; air flowrate. (a) Sampling devices approved in... Secretary of Health and Human Services for the particular device. (b) Except as provided in paragraph (d)...

  4. Review of Various Air Sampling Methods for Solvent Vapors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maykoski, R. T.

    Vapors of trichloroethylene, toluene, methyl ethyl ketone, and butyl cellosolve in air were collected using Scotchpac and Tedlar bags, glass prescription bottles, and charcoal adsorption tubes. Efficiencies of collection are reported. (Author/RH)

  5. The Yucca Mountain Project prototype air-coring test, U12g tunnel, Nevada test site

    SciTech Connect

    Ray, J.M.; Newsom, J.C.

    1994-12-01

    The Prototype Air-Coring Test was conducted at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) G-Tunnel facility to evaluate standard coring techniques, modified slightly for air circulation, for use in testing at a prospective nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. Air-coring technology allows sampling of subsurface lithology with minimal perturbation to ambient characteristic such as that required for exploratory holes near aquifers, environmental applications, and site characterization work. Two horizontal holes were cored, one 50 ft long and the other 150 ft long, in densely welded fractured tuff to simulate the difficult drilling conditions anticipated at Yucca Mountain. Drilling data from seven holes on three other prototype tests in nonwelded tuff were also collected for comparison. The test was used to establish preliminary standards of performance for drilling and dust collection equipment and to assess procedural efficiencies. The Longyear-38 drill achieved 97% recovery for HQ-size core (-2.5 in.), and the Atlas Copco dust collector (DCT-90) captured 1500 lb of fugitive dust in a mine environment with only minor modifications. Average hole production rates were 6-8 ft per 6-h shift in welded tuff and almost 20 ft per shift on deeper holes in nonwelded tuff. Lexan liners were successfully used to encapsulate core samples during the coring process and protect core properties effectively. The Prototype Air-Coring Test demonstrated that horizontal air coring in fractured welded tuff (to at least 150 ft) can be safely accomplished by proper selection, integration, and minor modification of standard drilling equipment, using appropriate procedures and engineering controls. The test also indicated that rig logistics, equipment, and methods need improvement before attempting a large-scale dry drilling program at Yucca Mountain.

  6. OBSERVATIONAL STUDY OF FINAL CLEANING AND AHERA CLEARANCE SAMPLING AT ASBESTOS-ABATEMENT SITES IN NEW JERSEY

    EPA Science Inventory

    A study was conducted during the summer of 1988 to document final cleaning procedures and evaluate Asbestos Hazard Emergency Response Act (AHERA) clearance air sampling practices used at 20 asbestos-abatement sites in New Jersey. Each abatement took place in a school building and...

  7. 40 CFR 761.250 - Sample site selection for pipeline section abandonment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Sample site selection for pipeline... Disposal of Natural Gas Pipeline: Selecting Sample Sites, Collecting Surface Samples, and Analyzing Standard PCB Wipe Samples § 761.250 Sample site selection for pipeline section abandonment. This...

  8. 40 CFR 761.247 - Sample site selection for pipe segment removal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Sample site selection for pipe segment... Natural Gas Pipeline: Selecting Sample Sites, Collecting Surface Samples, and Analyzing Standard PCB Wipe Samples § 761.247 Sample site selection for pipe segment removal. (a) General. (1) Select the...

  9. 40 CFR 761.247 - Sample site selection for pipe segment removal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Sample site selection for pipe segment... Natural Gas Pipeline: Selecting Sample Sites, Collecting Surface Samples, and Analyzing Standard PCB Wipe Samples § 761.247 Sample site selection for pipe segment removal. (a) General. (1) Select the...

  10. 40 CFR 761.250 - Sample site selection for pipeline section abandonment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Sample site selection for pipeline... Disposal of Natural Gas Pipeline: Selecting Sample Sites, Collecting Surface Samples, and Analyzing Standard PCB Wipe Samples § 761.250 Sample site selection for pipeline section abandonment. This...

  11. 40 CFR 761.247 - Sample site selection for pipe segment removal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Sample site selection for pipe segment... Natural Gas Pipeline: Selecting Sample Sites, Collecting Surface Samples, and Analyzing Standard PCB Wipe Samples § 761.247 Sample site selection for pipe segment removal. (a) General. (1) Select the...

  12. 40 CFR 761.250 - Sample site selection for pipeline section abandonment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Sample site selection for pipeline... Disposal of Natural Gas Pipeline: Selecting Sample Sites, Collecting Surface Samples, and Analyzing Standard PCB Wipe Samples § 761.250 Sample site selection for pipeline section abandonment. This...

  13. 40 CFR 761.247 - Sample site selection for pipe segment removal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Sample site selection for pipe segment... Natural Gas Pipeline: Selecting Sample Sites, Collecting Surface Samples, and Analyzing Standard PCB Wipe Samples § 761.247 Sample site selection for pipe segment removal. (a) General. (1) Select the...

  14. 40 CFR 761.250 - Sample site selection for pipeline section abandonment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Sample site selection for pipeline... Disposal of Natural Gas Pipeline: Selecting Sample Sites, Collecting Surface Samples, and Analyzing Standard PCB Wipe Samples § 761.250 Sample site selection for pipeline section abandonment. This...

  15. 40 CFR 761.250 - Sample site selection for pipeline section abandonment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sample site selection for pipeline... Disposal of Natural Gas Pipeline: Selecting Sample Sites, Collecting Surface Samples, and Analyzing Standard PCB Wipe Samples § 761.250 Sample site selection for pipeline section abandonment. This...

  16. 40 CFR 761.247 - Sample site selection for pipe segment removal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sample site selection for pipe segment... Natural Gas Pipeline: Selecting Sample Sites, Collecting Surface Samples, and Analyzing Standard PCB Wipe Samples § 761.247 Sample site selection for pipe segment removal. (a) General. (1) Select the...

  17. Savannah River Site radionuclide air emissions annual report for national emission standards for hazardous air pollutants

    SciTech Connect

    Sullivan, I.K.

    1993-12-31

    The radiological air emission sources at the SRS have been divided into three categories, Point, Grouped and Non-Point, for this report. Point sources, analyzed individually, are listed with a listing of the control devices, and the control device efficiency. The sources listed have been grouped together either for security reasons or where individual samples are composited for analytical purposes. For grouped sources the listed control devices may not be on all sources within a group. Point sources that did not have continuous effluent monitoring/sampling in 1993 are noted. The emissions from these sources was determined from Health Protection smear data, facility radionuclide content or other calculational methods, including process knowledge, utilizing existing analytical data. This report also contain sections on facility descriptions, dose assessment, and supplemental information.

  18. On-site monitoring of vinyl chloride at part per trillion levels in air

    SciTech Connect

    Linenberg, A.

    1995-12-31

    The need to measure vinyl chloride at part per trillion levels and below in the atmosphere presents a challenge for those involved with environmental monitoring. Sentex has previously reported measuring vinyl chloride in the air at 1.0 part per billion levels and above. A portable gas chromatograph equipped with a special preconcentrator was used for on-site monitoring of vinyl chloride at sub-parts per billion levels. The test was performed at a landfill adjacent to a residential area. A lap-top computer controlled the gas chromatograph`s functions including sampling, preconcentration, chromatographic parameters, and data storage. Concentrations down to .02 ppb (20 ppt) were successfully detected.

  19. Field-emplaceable air samplers for automated ambient, site, and IAQ use (including TO-17 applications)

    SciTech Connect

    Padden, H.F.

    1996-12-31

    Air samples taken on collection media for laboratory analysis remain a highly sensitive and cost-effective means of assessment. However, collection of samples can be difficult using non-automated samplers, particularly over long terms or at remote locations. This paper describes a number of automated air samplers for sorbent-tube and filter use. The samplers are battery-powered, portable and weatherproof. They are suitable for: (1) Very rapid sampling of dual sorbent tubes for survey use. The sampler is very small and lightweight for ease of field use. (2) Sequential sampling of 24 tubes over a period up to 1 month. This technology is suitable for long-term ambient and superfund site monitoring. A meteorological station can be integrated. (3) Simultaneous sampling of 4 separate media at different flows during multiple events over a one month maximum period. This technology is useful for hazard identification and location. One application of interest to the environmental community is the use of a variant of the 24 tube sequential samplers by the United Nations for chemical weapon ban verification. 2 refs.

  20. Field evaluation of sampling and analysis for organic pollutants in indoor air. Project summary

    SciTech Connect

    Chuang, J.C.; Mack, G.A.; Stockrahm, J.W.; Hannan, S.W.; Bridges, C.

    1988-09-01

    The objectives of the study were to determine the feasibility of the use of newly developed indoor air samplers in residential indoor air sampling and to evaluate methodology for characterization of the concentrations of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), PAH derivatives, and nicotine in residential air.

  1. Vapor space sampling of ferrocyanide tanks, Hanford Site, Richland, Washington

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-07-01

    Environmental assessment (EA), to assess environmental impacts associated with tank vapor space (dome) gas sampling of 24 Hanford Site single-shell waste tanks that contain ferrocyanide-nitrate compounds to determine whether or not the tanks contain flammable or toxic gases. The proposed action would be conducted using non-sparking materials, sparkless tools, and a portable containment shelter (greenhouse) and plastic ground cover. DOE needs to take this action to help define the required controls to prevent or mitigate the potential for an accident during future, more intrusive sampling of these tanks. Based on the evaluation in the EA (which examined the environmental impacts of the proposed action and reasonable alternatives), DOE has determined that the proposed action is not a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment, within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969. Therefore, the preparation of an Environmental Impact Statement is not required, and the Department is issuing this Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI).

  2. QUALITY MANAGEMENT DURING SELECTION OF TECHNOLOGIES EXAMPLE SITE MARCH AIR FORCE BASE, USA

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper describes the remedial approach, organizational structure and key elements facilitating effective and efficient remediation of contaminated sites at March Air Force Base (AFB), California. The U.S. implementation and quality assurance approach to site remediation for ...

  3. QUALITY MANAGEMENT DURING SELECTION OF TECHNOLOGIES; EXAMPLE SITE MARCH AIR FORCE BASE, USA

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper describes the remedial approach, organizational structure and key elements facilitating effective and efficient remediation of contaminated sites at March Air Force Base (AFB), California. The U.S. implementation and quality assurance approach to site remediation for a...

  4. NG09 And CTBT On-Site Inspection Noble Gas Sampling and Analysis Requirements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carrigan, Charles R.; Tanaka, Junichi

    2010-05-01

    A provision of the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) allows on-site inspections (OSIs) of suspect nuclear sites to determine if the occurrence of a detected event is nuclear in origin. For an underground nuclear explosion (UNE), the potential success of an OSI depends significantly on the containment scenario of the alleged event as well as the application of air and soil-gas radionuclide sampling techniques in a manner that takes into account both the suspect site geology and the gas transport physics. UNE scenarios may be broadly divided into categories involving the level of containment. The simplest to detect is a UNE that vents a significant portion of its radionuclide inventory and is readily detectable at distance by the International Monitoring System (IMS). The most well contained subsurface events will only be detectable during an OSI. In such cases, 37 Ar and radioactive xenon cavity gases may reach the surface through either "micro-seepage" or the barometric pumping process and only the careful siting of sampling locations, timing of sampling and application of the most site-appropriate atmospheric and soil-gas capturing methods will result in a confirmatory signal. The OSI noble gas field tests NG09 was recently held in Stupava, Slovakia to consider, in addition to other field sampling and analysis techniques, drilling and subsurface noble gas extraction methods that might be applied during an OSI. One of the experiments focused on challenges to soil-gas sampling near the soil-atmosphere interface. During withdrawal of soil gas from shallow, subsurface sample points, atmospheric dilution of the sample and the potential for introduction of unwanted atmospheric gases were considered. Tests were designed to evaluate surface infiltration and the ability of inflatable well-packers to seal out atmospheric gases during sample acquisition. We discuss these tests along with some model-based predictions regarding infiltration under different near

  5. Post-test evaluation of the geology, geochemistry, microbiology, and hydrology of the in situ air stripping demonstration site at the Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect

    Eddy Dilek, C.A.; Looney, B.B.; Hazen, T.C.; Nichols, R.L.; Fliermans, C.B.; Parker, W.H.; Dougherty, J.M.; Kaback, D.S.; Simmons, J.L.

    1993-07-01

    A full-scale demonstration of the use of horizontal wells for in situ air stripping for environment restoration was completed as part of the Savannah River Integrated Demonstration Program. The demonstration of in situ air stripping was the first in a series of demonstrations of innovative remediation technologies for the cleanup of sites contaminated with volatile organic contaminants. The in situ air stripping system consisted of two directionally drilled wells that delivered gases to and extract contamination from the subsurface. The demonstration was designed to remediate soils and sediments in the unsaturated and saturated zones as well as groundwater contaminated with volatile organic compounds. The demonstration successfully removed significant quantities of solvent from the subsurface. The field site and horizontal wells were subsequently used for an in situ bioremediation demonstration during which methane was added to the injected air. The field conditions documented herein represent the baseline status of the site for evaluating the in situ bioremediation as well as the post-test conditions for the in situ air stripping demonstration. Characterization activities focused on documenting the nature and distribution of contamination in the subsurface. The post-test characterization activities discussed herein include results from the analysis of sediment samples, three-dimensional images of the pretest and post-test data, contaminant inventories estimated from pretest and post-test models, a detailed lithologic cross sections of the site, results of aquifer testing, and measurements of geotechnical parameters of undisturbed core sediments.

  6. Toxicological Assessment of ISS Air Quality: Contingency Sampling - February 2013

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyers, Valerie

    2013-01-01

    Two grab sample containers (GSCs) were collected by crew members onboard ISS in response to a vinegar-like odor in the US Lab. On February 5, the first sample was collected approximately 1 hour after the odor was noted by the crew in the forward portion of the Lab. The second sample was collected on February 22 when a similar odor was noted and localized to the end ports of the microgravity science glovebox (MSG). The crewmember removed a glove from the MSG and collected the GSC inside the glovebox volume. Both samples were returned on SpaceX-2 for ground analysis.

  7. Low-cost monitoring of Campylobacter in poultry houses by air sampling and quantitative PCR.

    PubMed

    Søndergaard, M S R; Josefsen, M H; Löfström, C; Christensen, L S; Wieczorek, K; Osek, J; Hoorfar, J

    2014-02-01

    The present study describes the evaluation of a method for the quantification of Campylobacter by air sampling in poultry houses. Sampling was carried out in conventional chicken houses in Poland, in addition to a preliminary sampling in Denmark. Each measurement consisted of three air samples, two standard boot swab fecal samples, and one airborne particle count. Sampling was conducted over an 8-week period in three flocks, assessing the presence and levels of Campylobacter in boot swabs and air samples using quantitative real-time PCR. The detection limit for air sampling was approximately 100 Campylobacter cell equivalents (CCE)/m3. Airborne particle counts were used to analyze the size distribution of airborne particles (0.3 to 10 μm) in the chicken houses in relation to the level of airborne Campylobacter. No correlation was found. Using air sampling, Campylobacter was detected in the flocks right away, while boot swab samples were positive after 2 weeks. All samples collected were positive for Campylobacter from week 2 through the rest of the rearing period for both sampling techniques, although levels 1- to 2-log CCE higher were found with air sampling. At week 8, the levels were approximately 10(4) and 10(5) CCE per sample for boot swabs and air, respectively. In conclusion, using air samples combined with quantitative real-time PCR, Campylobacter contamination could be detected earlier than by boot swabs and was found to be a more convenient technique for monitoring and/or to obtain enumeration data useful for quantitative risk assessment of Campylobacter. PMID:24490929

  8. Site-Wide Integrated Water Monitoring - Defining and Implementing Sampling Objectives to Support Site Closure - 13060

    SciTech Connect

    Wilborn, Bill; Knapp, Kathryn; Farnham, Irene; Marutzky, Sam

    2013-07-01

    The Underground Test Area (UGTA) activity is responsible for assessing and evaluating the effects of the underground nuclear weapons tests on groundwater at the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS), formerly the Nevada Test Site (NTS), and implementing a corrective action closure strategy. The UGTA strategy is based on a combination of characterization, modeling studies, monitoring, and institutional controls (i.e., monitored natural attenuation). The closure strategy verifies through appropriate monitoring activities that contaminants of concern do not exceed the SDWA at the regulatory boundary and that adequate institutional controls are established and administered to ensure protection of the public. Other programs conducted at the NNSS supporting the environmental mission include the Routine Radiological Environmental Monitoring Program (RREMP), Waste Management, and the Infrastructure Program. Given the current programmatic and operational demands for various water-monitoring activities at the same locations, and the ever-increasing resource challenges, cooperative and collaborative approaches to conducting the work are necessary. For this reason, an integrated sampling plan is being developed by the UGTA activity to define sampling and analysis objectives, reduce duplication, eliminate unnecessary activities, and minimize costs. The sampling plan will ensure the right data sets are developed to support closure and efficient transition to long-term monitoring. The plan will include an integrated reporting mechanism for communicating results and integrating process improvements within the UGTA activity as well as between other U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Programs. (authors)

  9. Site-Wide Integrated Water Monitoring -- Defining and Implementing Sampling Objectives to Support Site Closure

    SciTech Connect

    Wilborn, Bill; Marutzky, Sam; Knapp, Kathryn

    2013-02-24

    The Underground Test Area (UGTA) activity is responsible for assessing and evaluating the effects of the underground nuclear weapons tests on groundwater at the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS), formerly the Nevada Test Site (NTS), and implementing a corrective action closure strategy. The UGTA strategy is based on a combination of characterization, modeling studies, monitoring, and institutional controls (i.e., monitored natural attenuation). The closure strategy verifies through appropriate monitoring activities that contaminants of concern do not exceed the SDWA at the regulatory boundary and that adequate institutional controls are established and administered to ensure protection of the public. Other programs conducted at the NNSS supporting the environmental mission include the Routine Radiological Environmental Monitoring Program (RREMP), Waste Management, and the Infrastructure Program. Given the current programmatic and operational demands for various water-monitoring activities at the same locations, and the ever-increasing resource challenges, cooperative and collaborative approaches to conducting the work are necessary. For this reason, an integrated sampling plan is being developed by the UGTA activity to define sampling and analysis objectives, reduce duplication, eliminate unnecessary activities, and minimize costs. The sampling plan will ensure the right data sets are developed to support closure and efficient transition to long-term monitoring. The plan will include an integrated reporting mechanism for communicating results and integrating process improvements within the UGTA activity as well as between other U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Programs.

  10. Mobile on-site sample collection, preparation, and analysis in Iraq. Final report, January-April 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Swahn, I.D.; Brzezinski, J.H.

    1996-11-01

    The U.S. Army Edgewood Research, Development and Engineering Center has developed mobile on-site sample collection, preparation, and analysis equipment to collect environmental samples in highly contaminated areas. This equipment is being used by the United Nations Special Commission at the Baghdad Monitoring and Verification Center (BMVC), which provides long-term monitoring of dual-purpose chemical sites in Iraq, especially those with potential for chemical warfare (CW) production. A mobile laboratory was set-up in the BMVC to prepare and analyze samples collected throughout Iraq. Automatic air samplers were installed at various sites to collect vapor samples on absorption tubes that were analyzed using a gas chromatographic (GC) flame photometric detector (FPD). Mobile sample collection kits were used to collect solid, liquid, air, and wipe samples during challenge inspections. These samples were prepared using a sample preparation kit, which concentrates CW agent, breakdown products, and their precursors in complex matrices down to sub part per million levels for chemical analysis by a GC mass selective detector (MSD). This report describes the problems and solutions encountered with setting up a self-sufficient mobile analytical laboratory. Details of the various components associated with the laboratory and the collection kits are included.

  11. Enviromental sampling at remote sites based on radiological screening assessments

    SciTech Connect

    Ebinger, M.H.; Hansen, W.R.; Wenz, G.; Oxenberg, T.P.

    1996-06-01

    Environmental radiation monitoring (ERM) data from remote sites on the White Sands Missile Range, New Mexico, were used to estimate doses to humans and terrestrial mammals from residual radiation deposited during testing of components containing depleted uranium (DU) and thorium (Th). ERM data were used with the DOE code RESRAD and a simple steady-state pathway code to estimate the potential adverse effects from DU and Th to workers in the contaminated zones, to hunters consuming animals from the contaminated zones, and to terrestrial mammals that inhabit the contaminated zones. Assessments of zones contaminated with DU and Th and DU alone were conducted. Radiological doses from Th and DU in soils were largest with a maximum of about 3.5 mrem y{sup -1} in humans and maximum of about 0.1 mrad d{sup -1} in deer. Dose estimates from DU alone in soils were significantly less with a maximum of about 1 mrem y{sup -1} in humans and about 0.04 mrad d{sup -1} in deer. The results of the dose estimates suggest strongly that environmental sampling in these affected areas can be infrequent and still provide adequate assessments of radiological doses to workers, hunters, and terrestrial mammals.

  12. Autonomous site selection and instrument positioning for sample acquisition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaw, A.; Barnes, D.; Pugh, S.

    The European Space Agency Aurora Exploration Program aims to establish a European long-term programme for the exploration of Space, culminating in a human mission to space in the 2030 timeframe. Two flagship missions, namely Mars Sample Return and ExoMars, have been proposed as recognised steps along the way. The Exomars Rover is the first of these flagship missions and includes a rover carrying the Pasteur Payload, a mobile exobiology instrumentation package, and the Beagle 2 arm. The primary objective is the search for evidence of past or present life on mars, but the payload will also study the evolution of the planet and the atmosphere, look for evidence of seismological activity and survey the environment in preparation for future missions. The operation of rovers in unknown environments is complicated, and requires large resources not only on the planet but also in ground based operations. Currently, this can be very labour intensive, and costly, if large teams of scientists and engineers are required to assess mission progress, plan mission scenarios, and construct a sequence of events or goals for uplink. Furthermore, the constraints in communication imposed by the time delay involved over such large distances, and line-of-sight required, make autonomy paramount to mission success, affording the ability to operate in the event of communications outages and be opportunistic with respect to scientific discovery. As part of this drive to reduce mission costs and increase autonomy the Space Robotics group at the University of Wales, Aberystwyth is researching methods of autonomous site selection and instrument positioning, directly applicable to the ExoMars mission. The site selection technique used builds on the geometric reasoning algorithms used previously for localisation and navigation [Shaw 03]. It is proposed that a digital elevation model (DEM) of the local surface, generated during traverse and without interaction from ground based operators, can be

  13. Air Pollution Monitoring Site Selection by Multiple Criteria Decision Analysis

    EPA Science Inventory

    Criteria air pollutants (particulate matter, sulfur dioxide, oxides of nitrogen, volatile organic compounds, and carbon monoxide) as well as toxic air pollutants are a global concern. A particular scenario that is receiving increased attention in the research is the exposure to t...

  14. Hanford Site Environmental Surveillance Master Sampling Schedule, January 2001

    SciTech Connect

    Bisping, Lynn E.

    2001-01-08

    This document contains the CY 2001 schedules for the routine collection of samples for the Surface Environmental Surveillance Project (SESP) and Drinking Water Monitoring Project. Each section includes sampling locations, sample types, and analyses to be performed.

  15. Comparison of stationary and personal air sampling with an air dispersion model for children's ambient exposure to manganese.

    PubMed

    Fulk, Florence; Haynes, Erin N; Hilbert, Timothy J; Brown, David; Petersen, Dan; Reponen, Tiina

    2016-09-01

    Manganese (Mn) is ubiquitous in the environment and essential for normal growth and development, yet excessive exposure can lead to impairments in neurological function. This study modeled ambient Mn concentrations as an alternative to stationary and personal air sampling to assess exposure for children enrolled in the Communities Actively Researching Exposure Study in Marietta, OH. Ambient air Mn concentration values were modeled using US Environmental Protection Agency's Air Dispersion Model AERMOD based on emissions from the ferromanganese refinery located in Marietta. Modeled Mn concentrations were compared with Mn concentrations from a nearby stationary air monitor. The Index of Agreement for modeled versus monitored data was 0.34 (48 h levels) and 0.79 (monthly levels). Fractional bias was 0.026 for 48 h levels and -0.019 for monthly levels. The ratio of modeled ambient air Mn to measured ambient air Mn at the annual time scale was 0.94. Modeled values were also time matched to personal air samples for 19 children. The modeled values explained a greater degree of variability in personal exposures compared with time-weighted distance from the emission source. Based on these results modeled Mn concentrations provided a suitable approach for assessing airborne Mn exposure in this cohort. PMID:27168393

  16. Detection of the Urban Release of a Bacillus anthracis Simulant by Air Sampling

    PubMed Central

    Garza, Alexander G.; Van Cuyk, Sheila M.; Brown, Michael J.

    2014-01-01

    In 2005 and 2009, the Pentagon Force Protection Agency (PFPA) staged deliberate releases of a commercially available organic pesticide containing Bacillus amyloliquefaciens to evaluate PFPA's biothreat response protocols. In concert with, but independent of, these releases, the Department of Homeland Security sponsored experiments to evaluate the efficacy of commonly employed air and surface sampling techniques for detection of an aerosolized biological agent. High-volume air samplers were placed in the expected downwind plume, and samples were collected before, during, and after the releases. Environmental surface and personal air samples were collected in the vicinity of the high-volume air samplers hours after the plume had dispersed. The results indicate it is feasible to detect the release of a biological agent in an urban area both during and after the release of a biological agent using high-volume air and environmental sampling techniques. PMID:24697146

  17. Detection of the urban release of a bacillus anthracis simulant by air sampling.

    PubMed

    Garza, Alexander G; Van Cuyk, Sheila M; Brown, Michael J; Omberg, Kristin M

    2014-01-01

    In 2005 and 2009, the Pentagon Force Protection Agency (PFPA) staged deliberate releases of a commercially available organic pesticide containing Bacillus amyloliquefaciens to evaluate PFPA's biothreat response protocols. In concert with, but independent of, these releases, the Department of Homeland Security sponsored experiments to evaluate the efficacy of commonly employed air and surface sampling techniques for detection of an aerosolized biological agent. High-volume air samplers were placed in the expected downwind plume, and samples were collected before, during, and after the releases. Environmental surface and personal air samples were collected in the vicinity of the high-volume air samplers hours after the plume had dispersed. The results indicate it is feasible to detect the release of a biological agent in an urban area both during and after the release of a biological agent using high-volume air and environmental sampling techniques. PMID:24697146

  18. Review of the Physical Science Facility Stack Air Sampling Probe Locations

    SciTech Connect

    Glissmeyer, John A.

    2007-09-30

    This letter report reviews compliance of the current design of the Physical Science Facility (PSF) stack air sampling locations with the ANSI/HPS N13.1-1999 standard. The review was based on performance criteria used for locating air sampling probes, the design documents provided and available information on systems previously tested for compliance with the criteria. Recommendations are presented for ways to bring the design into compliance with the requirements for the sampling probe placement.

  19. Identification of ambient air sampling and analysis methods for the 189 Title III air toxics

    SciTech Connect

    Mukund, R.; Kelly, T.J.; Gordon, S.M.; Hays, M.J.

    1994-12-31

    The state of development of ambient air measurement methods for the 189 Hazardous Air Pollution (HAPs) in Title 3 of the Clean Air Act Amendments was surveyed. Measurement methods for the HAPs were identified by reviews of established methods, and by literature searches for pertinent research techniques. Methods were segregated by their degree of development into Applicable, Likely, and Potential methods. This survey identified a total of 183 methods, applicable at varying degrees to ambient air measurements of one or more HAPs. As a basis for classifying the HAPs and evaluating the applicability of measurement methods, a survey of a variety of chemical and physical properties of the HAPs was also conducted. The results of both the methods and properties surveys were tabulated for each of the 189 HAP. The current state of development of ambient measurement methods for the 189 HAPs was then assessed from the results of the survey, and recommendations for method development initiatives were developed.

  20. Assessment of selected metals in the ambient air PM10 in urban sites of Bangkok (Thailand).

    PubMed

    Pongpiachan, Siwatt; Iijima, Akihiro

    2016-02-01

    Estimating the atmospheric concentrations of PM10-bounded selected metals in urban air is crucial for evaluating adverse health impacts. In the current study, a combination of measurements and multivariate statistical tools was used to investigate the influence of anthropogenic activities on variations in the contents of 18 metals (i.e., Al, Sc, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Cd, Sb, Ba, La, Ce and Pb) in ambient air. The concentrations of PM10-bounded metals were measured simultaneously at eight air quality observatory sites during a half-year period at heavily trafficked roads and in urban residential zones in Bangkok, Thailand. Although the daily average concentrations of Al, V, Cr, Mn and Fe were almost equivalent to those of other urban cities around the world, the contents of the majority of the selected metals were much lower than the existing ambient air quality guidelines and standard limit values. The sequence of average values of selected metals followed the order of Al > Fe > Zn > Cu > Pb > Mn > Ba > V > Sb > Ni > As > Cr > Cd > Se > Ce > La > Co > Sc. The probability distribution function (PDF) plots showed sharp symmetrical bell-shaped curves in V and Cr, indicating that crustal emissions are the predominant sources of these two elements in PM10. The comparatively low coefficients of divergence (COD) that were found in the majority of samples highlight that site-specific effects are of minor importance. A principal component analysis (PCA) revealed that 37.74, 13.51 and 11.32 % of the total variances represent crustal emissions, vehicular exhausts and the wear and tear of brakes and tires, respectively. PMID:26631022

  1. METHODS TO SAMPLE AIR BORNE PROPAGULES OF ASPERGILLUS FLAVUS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Several techniques (cyclone samplers, filter samplers and rotorods) were evaluated for detection of airborne Aspergillus flavus Link propagules in a cultivated region of southwest Arizona. Cyclone samplers operated continuously for 168 h (7 d) collected a dry sample that was ideal for quantificatio...

  2. Samples at the Apollo 15 landing site: Types and distribution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryder, G.

    1985-01-01

    Samples, consisting of more than 350 individually numbered samples of rock and regolith, were collected during the three EVAs on the Apollo 15 mission. Samples consisted of rock specimens, and scooped, trenched, and cored regolith samples. Petrographic and chemical analysis are discussed.

  3. Summary of gamma spectrometry on local air samples from 1985--1995

    SciTech Connect

    Winn, W.G.

    1997-04-02

    This report summarizes the 1985--1995 results of low-level HPGe gamma spectrometry analysis of high-volume air samples collected at the Aiken Airport, which is about 25 miles north of SRS. The author began analyzing these samples with new calibrations using the newly developed GRABGAM code in 1985. The air sample collections were terminated in 1995, as the facilities at the Aiken Airport were no longer available. Air sample measurements prior to 1985 were conducted with a different analysis system (and by others prior to 1984), and the data were not readily available. The report serves to closeout this phase of local NTS air sample studies, while documenting the capabilities and accomplishments. Hopefully, the information will guide other applications for this technology, both locally and elsewhere.

  4. DEVELOPMENT OF CRITERIA FOR SITING AIR MONITORING STATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper reviews relevant research findings for the purpose of establishing a set of uniform national criteria for designating locations of air monitoring stations. Data first are presented showing the difficulty, in the absence of uniform criteria, of interpreting measurements...

  5. A method to optimize sampling locations for measuring indoor air distributions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Yan; Shen, Xiong; Li, Jianmin; Li, Bingye; Duan, Ran; Lin, Chao-Hsin; Liu, Junjie; Chen, Qingyan

    2015-02-01

    Indoor air distributions, such as the distributions of air temperature, air velocity, and contaminant concentrations, are very important to occupants' health and comfort in enclosed spaces. When point data is collected for interpolation to form field distributions, the sampling locations (the locations of the point sensors) have a significant effect on time invested, labor costs and measuring accuracy on field interpolation. This investigation compared two different sampling methods: the grid method and the gradient-based method, for determining sampling locations. The two methods were applied to obtain point air parameter data in an office room and in a section of an economy-class aircraft cabin. The point data obtained was then interpolated to form field distributions by the ordinary Kriging method. Our error analysis shows that the gradient-based sampling method has 32.6% smaller error of interpolation than the grid sampling method. We acquired the function between the interpolation errors and the sampling size (the number of sampling points). According to the function, the sampling size has an optimal value and the maximum sampling size can be determined by the sensor and system errors. This study recommends the gradient-based sampling method for measuring indoor air distributions.

  6. Development of needle trap technology for on-site determinations: active and passive sampling.

    PubMed

    Asl-Hariri, Saba; Gómez-Ríos, German A; Gionfriddo, Emanuela; Dawes, Peter; Pawliszyn, Janusz

    2014-06-17

    This study presents a thorough evaluation of new prototypes of extended tip needle trap devices (NT), as well as their application to in situ sampling of biological emissions and active/passive on-site sampling of indoor air. A new NT prototype was constructed with a side hole above the sorbent and an extended tip that fits inside the restriction of the narrow neck liner to increase desorption efficiency. New prototype needles were initially packed with divinylbenzene particles at SGE Analytical Science for the purpose of studying biogenic emissions of pine trees. Prior to their final application, they were evaluated in terms of robustness after multiple use (n > 10), as well as amount extracted of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). An ANOVA test for all the probes showed that at a 95% level of confidence, there were not statistical differences observed among the 9 NTs tested. In addition, the needles were also packed in laboratory with synthesized highly cross-linked PDMS as a frit to immobilize carboxen (Car) particles for spot sampling. For passive sampling, the needles were packed with Car particles embedded in PDMS to simplify calculations in passive mode. The use of NTs as spot samplers, as well as a passive sampler under controlled conditions in the laboratoryyielded a relative standard deviation of less than 15%. Finally, a new, reusable and readily deployable penlike diffusive sampler for needle traps (PDS-NT) was built and tested. Application of the PDS-NT in combination with NT-spot sampling toward the analysis of indoor air in a polymer synthesis laboratory showed good agreement between both techniques for the analyte studied, yielding averages of 0.03 and 0.025 ng/mL of toluene, respectively. PMID:24842217

  7. A STRINGENT COMPARISON OF SAMPLING AND ANALYSIS METHODS FOR VOCS IN AMBIENT AIR

    EPA Science Inventory

    A carefully designed study was conducted during the summer of 1998 to simultaneously collect samples of ambient air by canisters and compare the analysis results to direct sorbent preconcentration results taken at the time of sample collection. A total of 32 1-h sample sets we...

  8. A METHOD FOR THE SAMPLING AND ANALYSIS OF POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS (PCBS) IN AMBIENT AIR

    EPA Science Inventory

    A method was developed for the sampling and analysis of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in air. An easily constructed, high-volume sampling system is employed with porous polyurethane foam as the collection medium. The sample is collected at the rate of 0.6 to 1.0 cu m per minut...

  9. Mixed species radioiodine air sampling readout and dose assessment system

    DOEpatents

    Distenfeld, Carl H.; Klemish, Jr., Joseph R.

    1978-01-01

    This invention provides a simple, reliable, inexpensive and portable means and method for determining the thyroid dose rate of mixed airborne species of solid and gaseous radioiodine without requiring highly skilled personnel, such as health physicists or electronics technicians. To this end, this invention provides a means and method for sampling a gas from a source of a mixed species of solid and gaseous radioiodine for collection of the mixed species and readout and assessment of the emissions therefrom by cylindrically, concentrically and annularly molding the respective species around a cylindrical passage for receiving a conventional probe-type Geiger-Mueller radiation detector.

  10. The effect of air-lock technique on pain at the site of intramuscular injection

    PubMed Central

    Yilmaz, Dilek K.; Dikmen, Yurdanur; Kokturk, Furuzan; Dedeoglu, Yasemin

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate the effects of air-lock technique (ALT) on pain of intramuscular (IM) injection delivered to the ventrogluteal and dorsogluteal site (DS). Methods: A randomized controlled trial design was used to assess the pain intensity associated with IM injections administered using 2 different methods and injection sites. Recruitment of patients was carried out between April and August 2013 at the Department of Brain Surgery, Cekirge State Hospital, Bursa, Turkey. The sample comprised 60 patients who developed no complications at the IM site, and had no illness that could affect their perception of pain. The patients were randomly divided into 2 groups of 30 patients. Patients in the first group received injections in the ventrogluteal site (VS), while the DS was used for injections in the second group. Patients in each group received 2 injections, one using ALT and one not using the technique. After each injection, the pain felt by patients during the injection was immediately assessed using a visual analog scale. Results: The mean pain score after injections to the DS by the ALT was 3.30 ± 2.70, while the mean pain score after injections to the VS using the same technique was 2.53 ± 2.52. Conclusion: Although the difference between groups was not significant, the results of the study supported the idea that injections delivered to the VS by ALT are less painful than those delivered to the DS. PMID:26905354

  11. Dispersion modeling of selected PAHs in urban air: A new approach combining dispersion model with GIS and passive air sampling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sáňka, Ondřej; Melymuk, Lisa; Čupr, Pavel; Dvorská, Alice; Klánová, Jana

    2014-10-01

    This study introduces a new combined air concentration measurement and modeling approach that we propose can be useful in medium and long term air quality assessment. A dispersion study was carried out for four high molecular weight polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in an urban area with industrial, traffic and domestic heating sources. A geographic information system (GIS) was used both for processing of input data as well as visualization of the modeling results. The outcomes of the dispersion model were compared to the results of passive air sampling (PAS). Despite discrepancies between measured and modeled concentrations, an approach combining the two techniques is promising for future air quality assessment. Differences between measured and modeled concentrations, in particular when measured values exceed the modeled concentrations, are indicative of undocumented, sporadic pollutant sources. Thus, these differences can also be useful for assessing and refining emission inventories.

  12. Automated syringe sampler. [remote sampling of air and water

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Purgold, G. C. (Inventor)

    1981-01-01

    A number of sampling services are disposed in a rack which slides into a housing. In response to a signal from an antenna, the circutry elements are activated which provide power individually, collectively, or selectively to a servomechanism thereby moving an actuator arm and the attached jawed bracket supporting an evaculated tube towards a stationary needle. One open end of the needle extends through the side wall of a conduit to the interior and the other open end is maintained within the protective sleeve, supported by a bifurcated bracket. A septum in punctured by the end of the needle within the sleeve and a sample of the fluid medium in the conduit flows through the needle and is transferred to a tube. The signal to the servo is then reversed and the actuator arm moves the tube back to its original position permitting the septum to expand and seal the hole made by the needle. The jawed bracket is attached by pivot to the actuator to facilitate tube replacement.

  13. Cast Stone Oxidation Front Evaluation: Preliminary Results For Samples Exposed To Moist Air

    SciTech Connect

    Langton, C. A.; Almond, P. M.

    2013-11-26

    The rate of oxidation is important to the long-term performance of reducing salt waste forms because the solubility of some contaminants, e.g., technetium, is a function of oxidation state. TcO{sub 4}{sup -} in the salt solution is reduced to Tc(IV) and has been shown to react with ingredients in the waste form to precipitate low solubility sulfide and/or oxide phases. Upon exposure to oxygen, the compounds containing Tc(IV) oxidize to the pertechnetate ion, Tc(VII)O{sub 4}{sup -}, which is very soluble. Consequently the rate of technetium oxidation front advancement into a monolith and the technetium leaching profile as a function of depth from an exposed surface are important to waste form performance and ground water concentration predictions. An approach for measuring contaminant oxidation rate (effective contaminant specific oxidation rate) based on leaching of select contaminants of concern is described in this report. In addition, the relationship between reduction capacity and contaminant oxidation is addressed. Chromate (Cr(VI) was used as a non-radioactive surrogate for pertechnetate, Tc(VII), in Cast Stone samples prepared with 5 M Simulant. Cast Stone spiked with pertechnetate was also prepared and tested. Depth discrete subsamples spiked with Cr were cut from Cast Stone exposed to Savannah River Site (SRS) outdoor ambient temperature fluctuations and moist air. Depth discrete subsamples spiked with Tc-99 were cut from Cast Stone exposed to laboratory ambient temperature fluctuations and moist air. Similar conditions are expected to be encountered in the Cast Stone curing container. The leachability of Cr and Tc-99 and the reduction capacities, measured by the Angus-Glasser method, were determined for each subsample as a function of depth from the exposed surface. The results obtained to date were focused on continued method development and are preliminary and apply to the sample composition and curing / exposure conditions described in this report. The

  14. Salmonella recovery following air chilling for matched neck-skin and whole carcass sampling methodologies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The prevalence and serogroups of Salmonella recovered following air chilling were determined for both enriched neck skin and matching enriched whole carcass samples. Commercially processed and eviscerated carcasses were air chilled to 4C before removing the neck skin (8.3 g) and stomaching in 83 mL...

  15. Trapping Efficiency of 1,3-Dichloropropene Isomers by XAD-4 Sorbent Tubes for Air Sampling

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Emission monitoring is necessary to evaluate the impact of air pollutants such as soil fumigants on the environment. Quantifying fumigant emissions often involves the use of air sampling tubes filled with sorbents to trap fumigants. 1,3-dichloropropene (1,3-D) and chloropicrin (CP) are being increas...

  16. FIELD EVALUATION OF SAMPLING AND ANALYSIS FOR ORGANIC POLLUTANTS IN INDOOR AIR

    EPA Science Inventory

    The objectives of the study were to determine the feasibility of the use of newly developed indoor air samplers in residential indoor air sampling and to evaluate methodology for characterization of the concentrations of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), PAH derivatives, a...

  17. Sampling and Analyzing Air Pollution: An Apparatus Suitable for Use in Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rockwell, Dean M.; Hansen, Tony

    1994-01-01

    Describes two variations of an air sampler and analyzer that are inexpensive to construct, easy to operate, and designed to be used in an educational program. Variations use vacuum cleaners and aquarium pumps, and white facial tissues serve as filters. Samples of air pollution obtained by this method may be used from early grade school to advanced…

  18. Data Quality Objectives Summary Report Supporting Radiological Air Surveillance Monitoring for the INL Site

    SciTech Connect

    Haney, Thomas Jay

    2015-05-01

    This report documents the Data Quality Objectives (DQOs) developed for the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) Site ambient air surveillance program. The development of the DQOs was based on the seven-step process recommended “for systematic planning to generate performance and acceptance criteria for collecting environmental data” (EPA 2006). The process helped to determine the type, quantity, and quality of data needed to meet current regulatory requirements and to follow U.S. Department of Energy guidance for environmental surveillance air monitoring design. It also considered the current air monitoring program that has existed at INL Site since the 1950s. The development of the DQOs involved the application of the atmospheric dispersion model CALPUFF to identify likely contamination dispersion patterns at and around the INL Site using site-specific meteorological data. Model simulations were used to quantitatively assess the probable frequency of detection of airborne radionuclides released by INL Site facilities using existing and proposed air monitors.

  19. EVALUATION OF SAMPLING AND ANALYTICAL METHODOLOGY FOR POLYNUCLEAR AROMATIC COMPOUNDS IN INDOOR AIR

    EPA Science Inventory

    The objective of this project was to develop a generic sampling and analytical methodology to characterize the polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) concentrations in air within various microenvironments. The following three studies were performed: evaluation of analytical metho...

  20. TECHNOLOGY EVALUATION REPORT CEREX ENVIRONMENTAL SERVICES UV HOUND POINT SAMPLE AIR MONITOR

    EPA Science Inventory

    The USEPA's National Homeland Security Research Center (NHSRC) Technology Testing and Evaluation Program (TTEP) is carrying out performance tests on homeland security technologies. Under TTEP, Battelle evaluated the performance of the Cerex UV Hound point sample air monitor in de...

  1. NEW APPLICATION OF PASSIVE SAMPLING DEVICES FOR ASSESSMENT OF RESPIRATORY EXPOSURE TO PESTICIDES IN INDOOR AIR

    EPA Science Inventory

    The United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has long maintained an interest in potential applications of passive sampling devices (PSDs) for estimating the concentrations of various pollutants in air. Typically PSDs were designed for the workplace monitoring of vola...

  2. Comparison of stationary and personal air sampling with an air dispersion model for children’s ambient exposure to manganese

    EPA Science Inventory

    Manganese (Mn) is ubiquitous in the environment and essential for normal growth and development, yet excessive exposure can lead to impairments in neurological function. This study modeled ambient Mn concentrations as an alternative to stationary and personal air sampling to asse...

  3. The NYC native air sampling pilot project: using HVAC filter data for urban biological incident characterization.

    PubMed

    Ackelsberg, Joel; Leykam, Frederic M; Hazi, Yair; Madsen, Larry C; West, Todd H; Faltesek, Anthony; Henderson, Gavin D; Henderson, Christopher L; Leighton, Terrance

    2011-09-01

    Native air sampling (NAS) is distinguished from dedicated air sampling (DAS) devices (eg, BioWatch) that are deployed to detect aerosol disseminations of biological threat agents. NAS uses filter samples from heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) systems in commercial properties for environmental sampling after DAS detection of biological threat agent incidents. It represents an untapped, scientifically sound, efficient, widely distributed, and comparably inexpensive resource for postevent environmental sampling. Calculations predict that postevent NAS would be more efficient than environmental surface sampling by orders of magnitude. HVAC filter samples could be collected from pre-identified surrounding NAS facilities to corroborate the DAS alarm and delineate the path taken by the bioaerosol plume. The New York City (NYC) Native Air Sampling Pilot Project explored whether native air sampling would be acceptable to private sector stakeholders and could be implemented successfully in NYC. Building trade associations facilitated outreach to and discussions with property owners and managers, who expedited contact with building managers of candidate NAS properties that they managed or owned. Nominal NAS building requirements were determined; procedures to identify and evaluate candidate NAS facilities were developed; data collection tools and other resources were designed and used to expedite candidate NAS building selection and evaluation in Manhattan; and exemplar environmental sampling playbooks for emergency responders were completed. In this sample, modern buildings with single or few corporate tenants were the best NAS candidate facilities. The Pilot Project successfully demonstrated that in one urban setting a native air sampling strategy could be implemented with effective public-private collaboration. PMID:21793731

  4. Visual Sample Plan (VSP) Statistical Software as Related to the CTBTO’s On-Site Inspection Procedure

    SciTech Connect

    Pulsipher, Trenton C.; Walsh, Stephen J.; Pulsipher, Brent A.; Milbrath, Brian D.

    2010-09-01

    In the event of a potential nuclear weapons test the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO) is commissioned to conduct an on-site investigation (OSI) of the suspected test site in an effort to find confirmatory evidence of the nuclear test. The OSI activities include collecting air, surface soil, and underground samples to search for indications of a nuclear weapons test - these indicators include radionuclides and radioactive isotopes Ar and Xe. This report investigates the capability of the Visual Sample Plan (VSP) software to contribute to the sampling activities of the CTBTO during an OSI. VSP is a statistical sampling design software, constructed under data quality objectives, which has been adapted for environmental remediation and contamination detection problems for the EPA, US Army, DoD and DHS among others. This report provides discussion of a number of VSP sample designs, which may be pertinent to the work undertaken during an OSI. Examples and descriptions of such designs include hot spot sampling, combined random and judgment sampling, multiple increment sampling, radiological transect surveying, and a brief description of other potentially applicable sampling methods. Further, this work highlights a potential need for the use of statistically based sample designs in OSI activities. The use of such designs may enable canvassing a sample area without full sampling, provide a measure of confidence that radionuclides are not present, and allow investigators to refocus resources in other areas of concern.

  5. Aspergillus fumigatus and mesophilic moulds in air in the surrounding environment downwind of non-hazardous waste landfill sites.

    PubMed

    Schlosser, Olivier; Robert, Samuel; Debeaupuis, Catherine

    2016-05-01

    Non-hazardous waste landfilling has the potential to release biological agents into the air, notably mould spores. Some species, such as Aspergillus fumigatus, may be a cause of concern for at-risk nearby residents. However, air concentration in the surrounding environment of non-hazardous waste landfill sites is poorly documented. An extensive sampling programme was designed to investigate the relationship between culturable mesophilic moulds and A. fumigatus concentrations in air and distance downwind of non-hazardous waste landfill sites. On-site and off-site repeated measurements were performed at four landfill sites during cold and warm seasons. A high-flow air-sampler device was selected so as to allow peak concentration measurement. Linear mixed-effects models were used to explain variability in the concentrations in air over time and across sites, seasons, instantaneous meteorological conditions and discharged waste tonnage. Concentrations of mesophilic moulds and A. fumigatus at off-site upwind sampling locations were compared with concentrations at each of the downwind sampling locations. At the tipping face location, peak concentration reached 480,000CFUm(-3) for mesophilic moulds and 9300CFUm(-3) for A. fumigatus. Compared with upwind background levels, these concentrations were, on average, approximately 20 and 40 times higher respectively. A steep decline in the concentration of both mesophilic moulds and A. fumigatus was observed between the tipping face location and the downwind property boundary (reduction by 77% and 84% respectively), followed by a low decline leading to a 90% and 94% reduction in concentration at 200m from the property boundary and beyond. With the 200m and 500m downwind sampling point values added together, the 97.5th percentile of concentration was 6013CFUm(-3) and 87CFUm(-3) for mesophilic moulds and A. fumigatus, respectively. Other determining factors were the discharged waste tonnage, the season, instantaneous temperature

  6. Genotoxicity, inflammation and physico-chemical properties of fine particle samples from an incineration energy plant and urban air.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Anoop Kumar; Jensen, Keld Alstrup; Rank, Jette; White, Paul A; Lundstedt, Staffan; Gagne, Remi; Jacobsen, Nicklas R; Kristiansen, Jesper; Vogel, Ulla; Wallin, Håkan

    2007-10-01

    Airborne particulate matter (PM) was sampled by use of an electrostatic sampler in an oven hall and a receiving hall in a waste-incineration energy plant, and from urban air in a heavy-traffic street and from background air in Copenhagen. PM was sampled for 1-2 weeks, four samples at each site. The samples were extracted and examined for mutagenicity in Salmonella typhimurium strains TA98, YG1041 and YG5161, for content of inorganic elements and for the presence of eight polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. The induction of IL-6 and IL-8 mRNA expression and the presence of DNA damage - tested by the comet assay - were determined after 24-h incubations with human A549 lung epithelial cells. The PM(2.5) concentration was about twofold greater in the oven hall than in the receiving hall. The particle size distribution in the receiving hall was similar to that in street air (maximum mode at about 25nm), but the distribution was completely different in the oven hall (maximum mode at about 150nm). Also chemically, the samples from the oven hall were highly different from the other samples. PM extracts from the receiving hall, street and background air were more mutagenic than the PM extracts from the oven hall. PM from all four sites caused similar levels of DNA damage in A549 cells; only the oven hall samples gave results that were statistically significantly different from those obtained with street-air samples. The receiving hall and the urban air samples were similarly inflammatory (relative IL-8 mRNA expression), whereas the oven hall did not cause a statistically significant increase in IL-8 mRNA expression. A principal component analysis separated the oven hall and the receiving hall by the first principal component. These two sites were separated from street and background air with the second principal component. Several clusters of constituents were identified. One cluster consisted of all the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), several groups of metals and one

  7. Sampling of power plant stacks for air toxic emissions: Final report for Phases 1 and 2

    SciTech Connect

    1995-04-28

    A test program to collect and analyze size-fractionated stack gas particulate samples for selected inorganic hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) was conducted . Specific goals of the program are (1) the collection of one-gram quantities of size-fractionated stack gas particulate matter for bulk (total) and surface chemical characterization, and (2) the determination of the relationship between particle size, bulk and surface (leachable) composition, and unit load. The information obtained from this program identifies the effects of unit load, particle size, and wet FGD system operation on the relative toxicological effects of exposure to particulate emissions. Field testing was conducted in two phases. The Phase I field program was performed over the period of August 24 through September 20, 1992, at the Tennessee Valley Authority Widows Creek Unit 8 Power Station, located near Stevenson (Jackson County), Alabama, on the Tennessee River. Sampling activities for Phase II were conducted from September 11 through October 14, 1993. Widows Creek Unit 8 is a 575-megawatt plant that uses bituminous coal averaging 3.7% sulfur and 13% ash. Downstream of the boiler, a venture wet scrubbing system is used for control of both sulfur dioxide and particulate emissions. There is no electrostatic precipitator (ESP) in this system. This system is atypical and represents only about 5% of the US utility industry. However, this site was chosen for this study because of the lack of information available for this particulate emission control system.

  8. Nevada Test Site National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants Calendar Year 2007

    SciTech Connect

    Robert Grossman; Ronald Warren

    2008-06-01

    The Nevada Test Site (NTS) is operated by the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office. From 1951 through 1992, the NTS was operated as the nation's site for nuclear weapons testing. The release of man-made radionuclides from the NTS as a result of testing activities has been monitored since the first decade of atmospheric testing. After 1962, when nuclear tests were conducted only underground, the radiation exposure to the public surrounding the NTS was greatly reduced. After the 1992 moratorium on nuclear testing, radiation monitoring on the NTS focused on detecting airborne radionuclides which come from historically contaminated soils resuspended into the air (e.g., by winds) and tritium-contaminated soil moisture emitted to the air from soils through evapotranspiration. To protect the public from harmful levels of man-made radiation, the Clean Air Act, National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP) (Title 40 Code of Federal Regulations [CFR] Part 61 Subpart H) limits the release of radioactivity from a U.S. Department of Energy facility (e.g., the NTS) to 10 millirem per year (mrem/yr) effective dose equivalent to any member of the public. This is the dose limit established for someone living off of the NTS from radionuclides emitted to air from the NTS. This limit does not include the radiation doses that members of the public may receive through the intake of radioactive particles unrelated to NTS activities, such as those that come from naturally occurring elements in the environment (e.g., naturally occurring radionuclides in soil or radon gas from the earth or natural building materials), or from other man-made sources (e.g., medical treatments). The NTS demonstrates compliance using environmental measurements of radionuclide air concentrations at critical receptor locations. This method was approved by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency for use on the NTS in 2001 and has been the sole

  9. Pan American Airways/Naval Air Transport Service/destroyer base site showing brick ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Pan American Airways/Naval Air Transport Service/destroyer base site showing brick and concrete paving of patio, and circular planters. View facing east. - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Pearl City Peninsula, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  10. Pan American Airways/Naval Air Transport Service/destroyer base site showing stone ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Pan American Airways/Naval Air Transport Service/destroyer base site showing stone wall around patio. View facing east-southeast. - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Pearl City Peninsula, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  11. Dyess Air Force Base, Atlas F Missle Site S8, Launch ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Dyess Air Force Base, Atlas F Missle Site S-8, Launch Control Center (LCC), Approximately 3 miles east of Winters, 500 feet southwest of Highway 17700, northwest of Launch Facility, Winters, Runnels County, TX

  12. STATISTICAL SAMPLING APPROACH FOR CLOSING A SOIL VENTING SITE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The USEPA allowed the Performing Parties (PPs) to perform a soil vapor extraction process to a site contaminated by volatile organic compounds (VOC), contingent upon the process reducing the VOC concentrations in the soil by 75% within one year. An innovative injection-extraction...

  13. Off-site air monitoring following methyl bromide chamber and building fumigations and evaluation of the ISCST air dispersion model

    SciTech Connect

    Barry, T.; Swgawa, R.; Wofford, P.

    1995-12-31

    The Department of Pesticide Regulation`s preliminary risk characterization of methyl bromide indicated an inadequate margin of safety for several exposure scenarios. Characterization of the air concentrations associated with common methyl bromide use patterns was necessary to determine specific scenarios that result in an unacceptable margin of safety. Field monitoring data were used in conjunction with the Industrial Source Complex, Short Tenn (ISCST) air dispersion model to characterize air concentrations associated with various types of methyl bromide applications. Chamber and building fumigations were monitored and modelled. For each fumigation the emission rates, chamber or building specifications and on-site meteorological data were input into the ISCST model. The model predicted concentrations were compared to measured air concentrations. The concentrations predicted by the ISCST model reflect both the pattern and magnitude of the measured concentrations. Required buffer zones were calculated using the ISCST output.

  14. A spatial multicriteria model for determining air pollution at sample locations.

    PubMed

    Réquia Júnior, Weeberb João; Roig, Henrique Llacer; Koutrakis, Petros

    2015-02-01

    Atmospheric pollution in urban centers has been one of the main causes of human illness related to the respiratory and circulatory system. Efficient monitoring of air quality is a source of information for environmental management and public health. This study investigates the spatial patterns of atmospheric pollution using a spatial multicriteria model that helps target locations for air pollution monitoring sites. The main objective was to identify high-priority areas for measuring human exposures to air pollutants as they relate to emission sources. The method proved to be viable and flexible in its application to various areas. PMID:25947058

  15. Microbial counts and particulate matter levels in roadside air samples under skytrain stations, Bangkok, Thailand.

    PubMed

    Luksamijarulkul, Pipat; Kongtip, Pornpimol

    2010-05-01

    In conditions with heavy traffic and crowds of people on roadside areas under skytrain stations in Bangkok, the natural air ventilation may be insufficient and air quality may be poor. A study of 350 air samples collected from the roadside, under skytrain stations in Bangkok, was carried out to assess microbial counts (210 air samples) and particulate matter (PM10) levels (140 samples). The results reveal the mean +/- standard deviation bacterial counts and fungal counts were 406.8 +/- 302.7 cfu/m3 and 128.9 +/- 89.7 cfu/m3, respectively. The PM10 level was 186.1 +/- 188.1 microg/m3. When compared to recommended levels, 4.8% of air samples (10/210 samples) had bacterial counts more than recommended levels (> 1,000 cfu/ m3) and 27.1% (38/140 samples) had PM10 levels more than recommended levels (> 120 microg/m3). These may affect human health, especially of street venders who spend most of their working time in these areas. PMID:20578558

  16. January 2011 Groundwater Sampling at the Gnome-Coach, New Mexico, Site (Data Validation Package)

    SciTech Connect

    2011-11-01

    Annual sampling was conducted January 19, 2011, to monitor groundwater for potential radionuclide contamination at the Gnome-Coach site in New Mexico. The sampling was performed as specified in the Sampling and Analysis Plan for U.S. Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management Sites (LMS/PLN/S04351, continually updated). Well LRL-7 was not sampled per instruction from the lead. A duplicate sample was collected from well USGS-1.Water levels were measured in the monitoring wells onsite.

  17. Development of a multicopter-carried whole air sampling apparatus and its applications in environmental studies.

    PubMed

    Chang, Chih-Chung; Wang, Jia-Lin; Chang, Chih-Yuan; Liang, Mao-Chang; Lin, Ming-Ren

    2016-02-01

    To advance the capabilities of probing chemical composition aloft, we designed a lightweight remote-controlled whole air sampling component (WASC) and integrated it into a multicopter drone with agile maneuverability to perform aerial whole air sampling. A field mission hovering over an exhaust shaft of a roadway tunnel to collect air samples was performed to demonstrate the applicability of the multicopter-carried WASC apparatus. Ten aerial air samples surrounding the shaft vent were collected by the multicopter-carried WASC. Additional five samples were collected manually inside the shaft for comparison. These samples were then analyzed in the laboratory for the chemical composition of 109 volatile organic compounds (VOCs), CH4, CO, CO2, or CO2 isotopologues. Most of the VOCs in the upwind samples (the least affected by shaft exhaust) were low in concentrations (5.9 ppbv for total 109 VOCs), posting a strong contrast to those in the shaft exhaust (235.8 ppbv for total 109 VOCs). By comparing the aerial samples with the in-shaft samples for chemical compositions, the influence of the shaft exhaust on the surrounding natural air was estimated. Through the aerial measurements, three major advantages of the multicopter-carried WASC were demonstrated: 1. The highly maneuverable multicopter-carried WASC can be readily deployed for three-dimensional environmental studies at a local scale (0-1.5 km); 2. Aerial sampling with superior sample integrity and preservation conditions can now be performed with ease; and 3. Data with spatial resolution for a large array of gaseous species with high precision can be easily obtained. PMID:26386435

  18. Marine Technician's Handbook, Instructions for Taking Air Samples on Board Ship: Carbon Dioxide Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keeling, Charles D.

    This booklet is one of a series intended to provide explicit instructions for the collection of oceanographic data and samples at sea. The methods and procedures described have been used by the Scripps Institution of Oceanography and found reliable and up-to-date. Instructions are given for taking air samples on board ship to determine the…

  19. 30 CFR 90.205 - Approved sampling devices; operation; air flowrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Approved sampling devices; operation; air flowrate. 90.205 Section 90.205 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY HEALTH STANDARDS-COAL MINERS WHO HAVE EVIDENCE OF THE DEVELOPMENT OF PNEUMOCONIOSIS Sampling Procedures §...

  20. Report on sampling and analysis of ambient air at the central waste complex

    SciTech Connect

    Stauffer, M., Fluor Daniel Hanford

    1997-02-13

    Over 160 ambient indoor air samples were collected from warehouses at the Central Waste Complex used for the storage of low- level radioactive and mixed wastes. These grab (SUMMA) samples were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry using a modified EPA TO-14 procedure. The data from this survey suggest that several buildings had elevated concentrations of volatile organic compounds.

  1. A Cryosampler Payload for Aseptic Air Sample Collection at Stratospheric Altitudes Using Balloons.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sreenivasan, S.; Dutt, C. B. S.; Bhargava, P.; Shivaji, S.; Manchanda, R. K.

    A balloon borne Astrobiology program is being conducted from the National Balloon Facility of the Tata Institute of Fundamental Research at Hyderabad India in which a liquid Neon cooled cryo pump collects air samples under sterile conditions in the altitude regime 19 - 41 Km Pursuant to the encouraging results obtained from an earlier experiment conducted on January 2001 a new payload was configured and the balloon flight was conducted on April 20 2005 after implementing much more rigorous and enhanced sterilization protocol to completely rule out contamination from ground Air samples were collected in the altitude region 20 - 41 Km and are under analysis in the National laboratories in India for detecting the presence of living microbial cells In this paper we discuss the design and fabrication of the air sample collection probes the stringent sterilization protocol evolved for ensuring that the probes are aseptic before the commencement of the experiment and the sample retrival methods for analysis in the laboratory

  2. Survey of volatile organic compounds found in indoor and outdoor air samples from Japan.

    PubMed

    Tanaka-Kagawa, Toshiko; Uchiyama, Shigehisa; Matsushima, Erika; Sasaki, Akira; Kobayashi, Hiroshi; Kobayashi, Hiromi; Yagi, Masahiro; Tsuno, Masahiko; Arao, Masa; Ikemoto, Kazumi; Yamasaki, Makoto; Nakashima, Ayako; Shimizu, Yuri; Otsubo, Yasufumi; Ando, Masanori; Jinno, Hideto; Tokunaga, Hiroshi

    2005-01-01

    Indoor air quality is currently a growing concern, mainly due to the incidence of sick building syndrome and building related illness. To better understand indoor air quality in Japan, both indoor and outdoor air samples were collected from 50 residences in Iwate, Yamanashi, Shiga, Hyogo, Kochi and Fukuoka Prefectures. More than 100 volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were analyzed by thermal desorption-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry method. The most abundant class of compounds present in the indoor air samples were identified (i.e. alkanes, alkylbenzenes and terpenes). For 30% of the indoor air samples, the sum of each VOC exceeded the current provisional guideline value for total VOC (TVOC, 400 microg/m3). The major component of these samples included linear and branched-chain alkanes (possibly derived from fossil fuels), 1,4-dichlorobenzene (a moth repellent), alpha-pinene (emission from woody building materials) and limonene (probably derived from aroma products). As an unexpected result, one residence was polluted with an extremely high concentration of 1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane (720 microg/m3), suggesting accidental leakage from a household appliance such as a refrigerator. The results presented in this paper are important in establishing the Japanese target compound list for TVOC analysis, as well as defining the current status of indoor air quality in Japan. PMID:16541748

  3. Field sampling and selecting on-site analytical methods for explosives in soil

    SciTech Connect

    Crockett, A.B.; Craig, H.D.; Jenkins, T.F.; Sisk, W.E.

    1996-12-01

    A large number of defense-related sites are contaminated with elevated levels of secondary explosives. Levels of contamination range from barely detectable to levels above 10% that need special handling because of the detonation potential. Characterization of explosives-contaminated sites is particularly difficult because of the very heterogeneous distribution of contamination in the environment and within samples. To improve site characterization, several options exist including collecting more samples, providing on-site analytical data to help direct the investigation, compositing samples, improving homogenization of the samples, and extracting larger samples. This publication is intended to provide guidance to Remedial Project Managers regarding field sampling and on-site analytical methods for detecting and quantifying secondary explosive compounds in soils, and is not intended to include discussions of the safety issues associated with sites contaminated with explosive residues.

  4. Laboratory validation and field verification of a new passive colorimetric air monitoring badge for sampling hydrogen sulfide in air.

    PubMed

    Kring, E V; Damrell, D J; Henry, T J; DeMoor, H M; Basilio, A N; Simon, C E

    1984-01-01

    The Pro-Tek passive colorimetric air monitoring badge for personal or area sampling of hydrogen sulfide is described. The badge has been validated over the range of 1.8 to 164 ppm-hours (0.23-21 ppm on an 8-hour TWA basis). It has an overall accuracy throughout this range of +/- 15.9% and meets the NIOSH accuracy criteria for an analytical and sampling method. The colorimetric analytical method used is based on the Texas Air Control Board's Molybdenum Blue method. Color-activated exposed badge solutions are read out on a standard laboratory spectrophotometer using 1 centimeter (10 mm) cells. Variations in exposure temperature (between 10 degrees and 40 degrees C), relative humidity, and face velocity (between 2 and 250 ft/min) do not affect badge performance. Unexposed badges are stable for more than 12 months refrigerated and for two months at room temperature. PMID:6702591

  5. SAMPLING AND ANALYSIS OF PCDDS AND PCDFS IN STATIONARY SOURCE EMISSION AIR SAMPLES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzo-furans (PCDFs) are two classes of extremely toxic compounds produced and emitted into the environment as a result of combustion processes. lthough no standard method for sampling or analysis of PCDDs and PCDFs ...

  6. Supplemental site inspection for Air Force Plant 59, Johnson City, New York, Volume 1: Investigation report

    SciTech Connect

    Nashold, B.; Rosenblatt, D.; Hau, J.

    1995-08-01

    This summary describes a Supplemental Site Inspection (SSI) conducted by Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) at Air Force Plant 59 (AFP 59) in Johnson City, New York. All required data pertaining to this project were entered by ANL into the Air Force-wide Installation Restoration Program Information System (IRPIMS) computer format and submitted to an appropriate authority. The work was sponsored by the United States Air Force as part of its Installation Restoration Program (IRP). Previous studies had revealed the presence of contaminants at the site and identified several potential contaminant sources. Argonne`s study was conducted to answer questions raised by earlier investigations.

  7. Microscopic Investigation of Martian Soil Samples at the Phoenix Site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pike, W. T.; Staufer, U.; Hecht, M. H.; Marshall, J.; Team, M. M.

    2008-12-01

    We have used the optical and atomic force microscopes (OM and AFM) of the MECA microscopy station on Phoenix (M. Hecht et al., Microscopy Capabilities of the Microscopy, Electrochemistry, and Conductivity Analyzer , JGR accepted for publication) to image samples within reach of the robot arm and delivered to sets of substrates mounted in a sample wheel. For loading the sample, the wheel was pushed out of the MECA enclosure, exposing only one set of substrates: strong and weak magnets, micro-buckets, silicone and silicon featuring grids of micromachined small holes and posts to capture particles. A thickness of up to 200 micrometers of material can be brought into the microscopy station under a leveling blade before the samples are rotated into the field of view of the microscopes as the substrates are tilted from horizontal to vertical. This tilt can cause the loss of a portion of the material depending on the relative strength of the adhesion forces compared to Martian gravity. The time constraints of sample delivery have so far ensured that any ice would have sublimed prior to delivery. From OM images of fully loaded substrates the particles found so far can be very coarsely grouped into three different categories: 1. subrounded strongly magnetic grains, of both a rough and glassy appearance with different shades of yellow, red, brown and black color in a size range of 50 to 100 micrometers, comprising about 10% of the sample volume; 2. small white flecks of a few micrometers in size, about 0.5% of the sample volume; 3. a majority component of a fine, uniformly coloured orange-reddish dust forming agglomerations from a few tens of microns in diameter to below the resolution of the OM with less magnetic attraction than the larger grains. Using populations on more sparsely populated substrates a size distribution could be estimated. The particle size distribution increases with decreasing size until cut off by the 4-micrometer resolution limit of the OM. The AFM

  8. Determination of radiocarbon in stratospheric CO2, obtained through AirCore sampling.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paul, Dipayan; Chen, Huilin; Been, Henk A.; Kivi, Rigel; Meijer, Harro A. J.

    2016-04-01

    The concentration of Greenhouse Gases (GHG), with carbon dioxide as the most prominent example, has been and still is increasing, predominantly due to emissions from fossil fuel combustion. CO2 is also the most important component of the global carbon cycle. Among other tracers, radiocarbon (Carbon-14) is a unique and an important atmospheric tracer used in the understanding of the global carbon cycle. Radiocarbon is a naturally occurring isotope (radioactive, t 1/2 = 5730 ± 40 years) of carbon produced through the interaction of thermalized neutrons and nitrogen in the upper atmosphere. Generally, for performing atmospheric radiocarbon measurements in the higher atmosphere, large samples (few liters of air) were collected using aircrafts and balloons. However, collecting stratospheric samples on a regular basis for radiocarbon analysis is extremely expensive. Here we describe the determination of radiocarbon concentrations in stratospheric CO2, collected using AirCore sampling. AirCore is an innovative sampling technique for obtaining vertical atmospheric profiles and, in Europe, is done on a regular basis at Sodankylä, Finland for CO2, CH4 and CO. The stratospheric parts of two such AirCore profiles were used in this study as a proof-of-principle. CO2 from the stratospheric air samples were extracted and converted to elemental carbon, which were then measured at the Accelerator Mass Spectrometric (AMS) facility of the Centre for Isotope Research (CIO) at the University of Groningen. The stratospheric part of the AirCore profile was divided into six sections, each contained approximately 10 μg C. A detailed description of the extraction, graphitization, AMS analysis and the derivation of the stratospheric radiocarbon profile will be the main focus. Through our results, we will show that AirCore is a viable sampling method for performing high-precision radiocarbon measurements of stratospheric CO2 with reasonably good spatial resolution on a regular basis

  9. Comparison of mold concentrations quantified by MSQPCR in indoor and outdoor air sampled simultaneously

    SciTech Connect

    Meklin, Teija; Reponen, Tina; McKinstry, Craig A.; Cho, Seung H.; Grinshpun, Sergey A.; Nevalainen, Aino; Vepsalainen, Asko; Haugland, Richard A.; Lemasters, Grace; Vesper, Sephen J.

    2007-08-15

    Mold specific quantitative PCR (MSQPCR) was used to measure the concentrations of 36 mold species in dust and in indoor and in outdoor air samples that were taken simultaneously in 17 homes in Cincinnati with no-known water damage. The total spore concentrations in the indoor (I) and outdoor (O) air samples were statistically significantly different and the concentrations in the three sample types of many of the individual species were significantly different (p < 0.05 based on the Wilcoxon Signed Rank Test). The I/O ratios of the averages or geometric means of the individual species were generally less than 1; but these I/O ratios were quite variable ranging from 0.03 for A. sydowii to 1.2 for Acremonium strictum. There were no significant correlations for the 36 specific mold concentrations between the dust samples and the indoor or outdoor air samples (based on the Spearman’s Rho test). The indoor and outdoor air concentrations of 32 of the species were not correlated. Only Aspergillus penicillioides, C. cladosporioides types 1 and 2 and C. herbarum had sufficient data to estimate a correlation at rho > 0.5 with signicance (p < 0.05) In six of these homes, a previous dust sample had been collected and analyzed 2 years earlier. The ERMI© values for the dust samples taken in the same home two years apart were not significantly different (p=0.22) based on Wilcoxon Signed Rank Test.

  10. Pesticide detection in air samples from contrasted houses and in their inhabitants' hair.

    PubMed

    Raeppel, Caroline; Salquèbre, Guillaume; Millet, Maurice; Appenzeller, Brice M R

    2016-02-15

    In order to identify associations between indoor air contamination and human exposure to pesticides, hair samples from 14 persons (9 adults and 5 children below 12 years) were collected simultaneously with the air of their 5 contrasted houses. Three houses were situated in Alsace (France), one in Lorraine (France) and one in Luxembourg (Luxembourg). Houses were located in urban (n=3), semi-urban (n=1) and rural areas (n=1). Twenty five (25) pesticides were detected at least once in indoor air samples and 20 pesticides were detected at least once in hair samples. The comparison between hair and air samples for the same sampling periods shows that pesticides detected in the two matrices were not necessarily associated. Exposure profiles varied from one home to another but also between inhabitants of the same home, suggesting that exposure can be different between inhabitants of the same home. This study demonstrated the usefulness and the complementarity of hair analysis, for the personalized biomonitoring of people exposure to pesticides, and air analysis, for the identification of airborne exposure and house contamination. PMID:26706757

  11. Field evaluation of sampling and analysis for organic pollutants in indoor air

    SciTech Connect

    Chuang, J.C.; Mack, G.A.; Stockrahm, J.W.; Hannan, S.W.; Bridges, C.

    1988-08-01

    The objectives of the study were to determine the feasibility of the use of newly developed indoor air samplers in residential indoor air sampling and to evaluate methodology for characterization of the concentrations of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), PAH derivatives, and nicotine in residential air. Residential air sampling was conducted in Columbus, Ohio during the winter of 1986/87. The PAH derivatives were found at much lower levels than their parent PAH. Higher average indoor levels of all but three target compounds were found compared to outdoor levels. The higher outdoor levels of these three compounds (naphthalene dicarboxylic acid anhydride, pyrene dicarboxylic acid anhydride, and 2-nitrofluoranthene) are probably due to atmospheric transformation. Cigarette smoking was identified as the most-significant contributor to indoor levels of PAH and PAH derivatives. Homes with gas-heating systems appeared to have higher pollutant levels compared to homes with electric-heating systems.

  12. Comparison of sampling methods for radiocarbon dating of carbonyls in air samples via accelerator mass spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schindler, Matthias; Kretschmer, Wolfgang; Scharf, Andreas; Tschekalinskij, Alexander

    2016-05-01

    Three new methods to sample and prepare various carbonyl compounds for radiocarbon measurements were developed and tested. Two of these procedures utilized the Strecker synthetic method to form amino acids from carbonyl compounds with either sodium cyanide or trimethylsilyl cyanide. The third procedure used semicarbazide to form crystalline carbazones with the carbonyl compounds. The resulting amino acids and semicarbazones were then separated and purified using thin layer chromatography. The separated compounds were then combusted to CO2 and reduced to graphite to determine 14C content by accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS). All of these methods were also compared with the standard carbonyl compound sampling method wherein a compound is derivatized with 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine and then separated by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC).

  13. Air strippers and their emissions control at Superfund sites. Technical report, February-April 1987

    SciTech Connect

    Blaney, B.L.; Branscome, M.

    1988-08-01

    Air stripping, a traditional means of making slightly contaminated ground water potable, is being applied increasingly to more-severe groundwater pollution at remedial action sites. Concentrations of volatile and semivolatile compounds at such sites may reach hundreds of parts per million. As a result, several changes have resulted in air-stripping technology. New air stripping technologies are being employed to achieve very high (>99% removal of volatile compounds and to increase the removal of semivolatiles. New stripper designs are being investigated for compactness and mobility. In addition, emissions controls are being added because air-pollution impacts are larger. The paper discusses these trends and provides examples from ground-water cleanup at remedial-action sites in the United States.

  14. NATURAL ATTENUATION OF CHLORINATED SOLVENTS AT MULTIPLE AIR FORCE BASE DEMONSTRATION SITES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Natural attenuation treatability studies(TSs) were conducted at 14 US Air Force bases. Only sites where biodegradation of CAHs was suspected were selected for the study. The major initiative was to evaluate the effectiveness of monitored natural attenuation(MNA) at sites contam...

  15. Accelerator Mass Spectrometric determination of radiocarbon in stratospheric CO2, retrieved from AirCore sampling.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paul, Dipayan; Been, Henk A.; Chen, Huilin; Kivi, Rigel; Meijer, Harro A. J.

    2015-04-01

    In this decade, understanding the impact of human activities on climate is one of the key issues of discussion globally. The continuous rise in the concentration of greenhouse gases, e.g., CO2, CH4, etc. in the atmosphere, predominantly due to human activities, is alarming and requires continuous monitoring to understand the dynamics. Radiocarbon is an important atmospheric tracer and one of the many used in the understanding of the global carbon budget, which includes the greenhouse gases like CO2 and CH4. Measurement of 14C (or radiocarbon) in atmospheric CO2 generally requires collection of large air samples (few liters) from which CO2 is extracted and then the concentration of radiocarbon is determined. Currently, Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS) is the most precise, reliable and widely used technique for atmospheric radiocarbon detection. However, the regular collection of air samples from troposphere and stratosphere, for example using aircraft, is prohibitively expensive. AirCore is an innovative atmospheric sampling system, developed by NOAA. It comprises of a long tube descending from a high altitude with one end open and the other closed, and has been demonstrated to be a reliable, cost-effective sampling system for high-altitude profile (up to ~ 30 km) measurements of CH4and CO2(Karion et al. 2010). In Europe, AirCore measurements are being performed on a regular basis near Sodankylä since September 2013. Here we describe the analysis of two such AirCore samples collected in July 2014, Finland, for determining the 14C concentration in stratospheric CO2. The two AirCore samples were collected on consecutive days. Each stratospheric AirCore sample was divided into six fractions, each containing ~ 35 μg CO2 (~9.5 μg C). Each fraction was separately trapped in 1 /4 inch coiled stainless steel tubing for radiocarbon measurements. The procedure for CO2 extraction from the stratospheric air samples; the sample preparation, with samples containing < 10

  16. Post-Closure Inspection, Sampling, and Maintenance Report for the Salmon, Mississippi, Site Calendar Year 2011

    SciTech Connect

    2012-03-01

    This report summarizes the 2011 annual inspection, sampling, measurement, and maintenance activities performed at the Salmon, Mississippi, Site (Salmon site1). The draft Long-Term Surveillance and Maintenance Plan for the Salmon Site, Lamar County, Mississippi (DOE 2007) specifies the submittal of an annual report of site activities with the results of sample analyses. The Salmon site consists of 1,470 acres. The site is located in Lamar County, Mississippi, approximately 10 miles west of Purvis, Mississippi, and about 21 miles southwest of Hattiesburg, Mississippi.

  17. ON-LINE TOOLS FOR PROPER VERTICAL POSITIONING OF VERTICAL SAMPLING INTERVALS DURING SITE ASSESSMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    This presentation presents on-line tools for proper vertical positioning of vertical sampling intervals during site assessment. Proper vertical sample interval selection is critical for generate data on the vertical distribution of contamination. Without vertical delineation, th...

  18. Automated site characterization for robotic sample acquisition systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scholl, Marija S.; Eberlein, Susan; Yates, Gigi; Schumate, Michael S.; Majani, Eric; Anderson, Charles H.; Sloan, Jeffrey A.

    1991-01-01

    A mobile, semi-autonomous vehicle with multiple sensors and on-board intelligence is proposed for performing preliminary scientific investigations on extraterrestrial bodies prior to human exploration. Two technologies, a hybrid optical-digital computer system based on optical correlator technology and an image and instrument data analysis system, provide complementary capabilities which might be part of an instrument package for an intelligent robotic vehicle. The hybrid digital-optical vision system could perform real-time image classification tasks using an optical correlator with programmable matched filters under control of a digital microcomputer. The data analysis system would analyze visible and multiband imagery to extract mineral composition and textural information for geologic characterization. Together these technologies would support the site characterization needs of a robotic vehicle for both navigational and scientific purposes.

  19. METHODS FOR ESTIMATING ON-SITE AMBIENT AIR CONCENTRATIONS AT DISPOSAL SITES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Currently, Gaussian type dispersion modeling and point source approximation are combined to estimate the ambient air concentrations of pollutants dispersed downwind of an areawide emission source, using the approach of virtual point source approximation. The Gaussian dispersion m...

  20. A sample holder for measuring the magnetic properties of air-sensitive compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berlie, Adam; Terry, Ian; Szablewski, Marek

    2011-01-01

    A sample holder is reported which has allowed the magnetic characterization of air-sensitive compounds to be made in a Quantum Design Magnetic Properties Measurement System as a function of the applied field (0-5 T), and at temperatures ranging from 2 to 290 K. The sample holder is in the form of a specially designed tube, which is made from high purity quartz, utilizes PTFE (polytetrafluoroethylene) plugs and is reusable. This construction also offers the benefit that no heat treatment of the holder is required during sample loading, making the sample holder suitable for thermally sensitive compounds. The application of this sample holder is demonstrated for the case of Ni(cod)2 (cod = 1,5-cyclooctadiene), a compound that decomposes when exposed to air and/or heat. This material's instability has, so far, prevented the magnetic characterization of the compound, with nickel nanoparticles, a product of the decomposition, usually being measured instead.

  1. Problems Found Using a Radon Stripping Algorithm for Retrospective Assessment of Air Filter Samples

    SciTech Connect

    Robert Hayes

    2008-04-01

    An evaluation of a large number of air sample filters was undertaken using a commercial alpha and beta spectroscopy system employing a passive implanted planar silicon (PIPS) detector. Samples were only measured after air flow through the filters had ceased. Use of a commercial radon stripping algorithm was implemented to discriminate anthropogenic alpha activity on the filters from the radon progeny. When uncontaminated air filters were evaluated, the results showed that there was a time-dependent bias in both average estimates and measurement dispersion of anthropogenic activity estimates with the relative bias being small compared to the dispersion, indicating that the system would not give false positive indications for an appropriately set decision level. By also measuring environmental air sample filters simultaneously with electroplated alpha filters, use of the radon stripping algorithm demonstrated a number of substantial unexpected deviations from calibrated values indicating that the system would give false negative indications. Use of the current algorithm is, therefore, not recommended for general assay applications. Use of the PIPS detector should only be utilized for gross counting without appropriate modifications to the curve-fitting algorithm. As a screening method, the radon stripping algorithm might be expected to see elevated alpha activities on air sample filters (not due to radon progeny) around the 200 disintegrations per minute level.

  2. Use of a Radon Stripping Algorithm for Retrospective Assessment of Air Filter Samples

    SciTech Connect

    Robert Hayes

    2009-01-23

    An evaluation of a large number of air sample filters was undertaken using a commercial alpha and beta spectroscopy system employing a passive implanted planar silicon (PIPS) detector. Samples were only measured after air flow through the filters had ceased. Use of a commercial radon stripping algorithm was implemented to discriminate anthropogenic alpha and beta activity on the filters from the radon progeny. When uncontaminated air filters were evaluated, the results showed that there was a time-dependent bias in both average estimates and measurement dispersion with the relative bias being small compared to the dispersion. By also measuring environmental air sample filters simultaneously with electroplated alpha and beta sources, use of the radon stripping algorithm demonstrated a number of substantial unexpected deviations. Use of the current algorithm is therefore not recommended for assay applications and so use of the PIPS detector should only be utilized for gross counting without appropriate modifications to the curve fitting algorithm. As a screening method, the radon stripping algorithm might be expected to see elevated alpha and beta activities on air sample filters (not due to radon progeny) around the 200 dpm level.

  3. Wavelets-based clustering of air quality monitoring sites.

    PubMed

    Gouveia, Sónia; Scotto, Manuel G; Monteiro, Alexandra; Alonso, Andres M

    2015-11-01

    This paper aims at providing a variance/covariance profile of a set of 36 monitoring stations measuring ozone (O3) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) hourly concentrations, collected over the period 2005-2013, in Portugal mainland. The resulting individual profiles are embedded in a wavelet decomposition-based clustering algorithm in order to identify groups of stations exhibiting similar profiles. The results of the cluster analysis identify three groups of stations, namely urban, suburban/urban/rural, and a third group containing all but one rural stations. The results clearly indicate a geographical pattern among urban stations, distinguishing those located in Lisbon area from those located in Oporto/North. Furthermore, for urban stations, intra-diurnal and daily time scales exhibit the highest variance. This is due to the more relevant chemical activity occurring in high NO2 emissions areas which are responsible for high variability on daily profiles. These chemical processes also explain the reason for NO2 and O3 being highly negatively cross-correlated in suburban and urban sites as compared with rural stations. Finally, the clustering analysis also identifies sites which need revision concerning classification according to environment/influence type. PMID:26483085

  4. Environmental radiological monitoring of air, rain, and snow on and near the Hanford Site, 1945-1957

    SciTech Connect

    Hanf, R.W.; Thiede, M.E.

    1994-03-01

    This report is a result of the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) Project. The goal of the HEDR Project is to estimate the radiation dose that individuals could have received from emissions since 1944 at the Hanford Site near Richland, Washington. Members of the HEDR Project`s Environmental Monitoring Data Task have developed databases of historical environmental measurements of such emissions. Hanford documents were searched for information on the radiological monitoring of air, rain, and snow at and near the Hanford Site in Richland, Washington. The monitoring information was reviewed and summarized. The end product is a yearly overview of air, rain, and snow samples as well as ambient radiation levels in the air that were measured from 1945 through 1957. The following information is provided in each annual summary: the media sampled, the constituents (radionuclides) measured/reported, the sampling locations, the sampling frequencies, the sampling methods, and the document references. For some years a notes category is included that contains additional useful information. For the years 1948 through 1957, tables summarizing the sampling locations for the various sample media are also included in the appendix. A large number of documents were reviewed to obtain the information in this report. A reference list is attached to the end of each annual summary. All of the information summarized here was obtained from reports originating at Hanford. These reports are all publicly available and can be found in the Richland Operations Office (RL) public reading room. The information in this report has been compiled without analysis and should only be used as a guide to the original documents.

  5. Expedited characterization of ground water contamination at a large industrial site through field sampling and on-site analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Fusillo, T.V.; Potts, M.J.

    1995-09-01

    Ground water contamination by chlorinated solvents was detected at a former manufacturing facility in central New Jersey. The site, which occupies approximately 30 acres and is located in the Coastal Plain of New Jersey, is underlain by a thin layer of fine sand that extends to approximately 4 to 15 feet below ground surface (bgs) and a dense clay to silty clay that underlies the sand to a depth of at least 30 feet bgs, with ground water at a depth of 4 to 10 feet bgs. To expedite the ground water investigation, ENVIRON utilized a Geoprobe{reg_sign} sampling system together with an onsite mobile laboratory to perform site-wide ground water delineation sampling. Ground water samples were collected from the upper 5 feet of the water table using disposable tubing for on-site analysis of selected volatile organic compounds (VOCs) using a Photovac 10S Plus GC/PID. Sampling and analysis were conducted by On-Site Services of Newark, Delaware. Duplicate samples were also collected from all locations for analysis of VOCs by US EPA method 8240 at a commercial laboratory. Sampling began in the vicinity of the most highly contaminated monitoring well and proceeded in all directions until low or nondetectable concentrations were measured using the on-site GC or until the property boundaries were reached. Over the three-day sampling period, 33 ground water samples were collected. The sampling results provided a detailed picture of ground water quality across the large site, and contaminant distribution patterns confirmed the likely variability in ground water flow directions.

  6. Site sampling and treatability studies for demonstration of WasteChem's asphalt encapsulation technology under EPA's SITE program

    SciTech Connect

    Hubbard, J.; Tsadwa, S.; Wills, N.; Evans, M.

    1990-10-01

    This paper presents a sampling approach that was used to determine whether there were adequate quantities and concentrations of wastes at the Woodland Township Route 532 Site for demonstration of the asphalt encapsulation technology. This paper also presents the result of a bench-scale treatability study on wastes from this site. The preliminary sampling and analysis confirmed most of the types of organic and inorganic contaminants found at the Woodland Township Route 532 site during the remedial investigation (RI). However, the contamination levels varied over relatively short distances across the site from some contaminants. The bench-scale treatability study indicated that, when compared with concentrations in the untreated waste, WasteChem's asphalt encapsulation technology reduced semivolatile organic compound concentrations in the toxicity characteristic leaching procedure extracts of treated wastes. The study also indicated that metals concentrations in the TCLP extracts were lower in the treated wastes than the untreated wastes in some samples and higher in others.

  7. Recovery of thermophilic Campylobacter by three sampling methods from classified river sites in Northeast Georgia, USA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    It is not clear how best to sample streams for the detection of Campylobacter which may be introduced from agricultural or community land use. Fifteen sites in the watershed of the South Fork of the Broad River (SFBR) in Northeastern Georgia, USA, were sampled in three seasons. Seven sites were cl...

  8. Guidance for characterizing explosives contaminated soils: Sampling and selecting on-site analytical methods

    SciTech Connect

    Crockett, A.B.; Craig, H.D.; Jenkins, T.F.; Sisk, W.E.

    1996-09-01

    A large number of defense-related sites are contaminated with elevated levels of secondary explosives. Levels of contamination range from barely detectable to levels above 10% that need special handling due to the detonation potential. Characterization of explosives-contaminated sites is particularly difficult due to the very heterogeneous distribution of contamination in the environment and within samples. To improve site characterization, several options exist including collecting more samples, providing on-site analytical data to help direct the investigation, compositing samples, improving homogenization of samples, and extracting larger samples. On-site analytical methods are essential to more economical and improved characterization. On-site methods might suffer in terms of precision and accuracy, but this is more than offset by the increased number of samples that can be run. While verification using a standard analytical procedure should be part of any quality assurance program, reducing the number of samples analyzed by the more expensive methods can result in significantly reduced costs. Often 70 to 90% of the soil samples analyzed during an explosives site investigation do not contain detectable levels of contamination. Two basic types of on-site analytical methods are in wide use for explosives in soil, calorimetric and immunoassay. Calorimetric methods generally detect broad classes of compounds such as nitroaromatics or nitramines, while immunoassay methods are more compound specific. Since TNT or RDX is usually present in explosive-contaminated soils, the use of procedures designed to detect only these or similar compounds can be very effective.

  9. Solubility testing of actinides on breathing-zone and area air samples

    SciTech Connect

    Metzger, R.L.; Jessop, B.H.; McDowell, B.L.

    1996-02-01

    A solubility testing method for several common actinides has been developed with sufficient sensitivity to allow profiles to be determined from routine breathing zone and area air samples in the workplace. Air samples are covered with a clean filter to form a filter-sample-filter sandwich which is immersed in an extracellular lung serum simulant solution. The sample is moved to a fresh beaker of the lung fluid simulant each day for one week, and then weekly until the end of the 28 day test period. The soak solutions are wet ashed with nitric acid and hydrogen peroxide to destroy the organic components of the lung simulant solution prior to extraction of the nuclides of interest directly into an extractive scintillator for subsequent counting on a Photon-Electron Rejecting Alpha Liquid Scintillation (PERALS{reg_sign}) spectrometer. Solvent extraction methods utilizing the extractive scintillators have been developed for the isotopes of uranium, plutonium, and curium. The procedures normally produce an isotopic recovery greater than 95% and have been used to develop solubility profiles from air samples with 40 pCi or less of U{sub 3}O{sub 8}. Profiles developed for U{sub 3}O{sub 8} samples show good agreement with in vitro and in vivo tests performed by other investigators on samples from the same uranium mills.

  10. Data Quality Objectives Supporting Radiological Air Emissions Monitoring for the PNNL Site

    SciTech Connect

    Barnett, J. M.; Meier, Kirsten M.; Snyder, Sandra F.; Fritz, Brad G.; Poston, Ted M.; Rhoads, Kathleen

    2010-05-25

    This document of Data Quality Objectives (DQOs) was prepared based on the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Guidance on Systematic Planning Using the Data Quality Objectives Process, EPA, QA/G4, 2/2006 (EPA 2006) as well as several other published DQOs. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is in the process of developing a radiological air monitoring program for the PNNL Site that is distinct from that of the nearby Hanford Site. Radiological emissions at the PNNL Site result from Physical Sciences Facility (PSF) major emissions units. A team was established to determine how the PNNL Site would meet federal regulations and address guidelines developed to monitor and estimate offsite air emissions of radioactive materials. The result is a program that monitors the impact to the public from the PNNL Site.

  11. Passive air sampling of PCBs, PBDEs, and organochlorine pesticides across Europe.

    PubMed

    Jaward, Foday M; Farrar, Nick J; Harner, Tom; Sweetman, Andrew J; Jones, Kevin C

    2004-01-01

    This study presents concurrently sampled ambient air data for a range of persistent organic pollutants at the continental scale. This was achieved using a passive air sampling system, deploying polyurethane foam disks, which was prepared in one laboratory, sealed to prevent contamination, sent out by courier to volunteers participating in different countries, exposed for 6 weeks, collected, resealed, and returned to the laboratory for analysis. Europe was the study area--a region with a history of extensive POPs usage and emission and with marked national differences in population density, the degree of urbanization and industrial/agricultural development. Samplers were deployed at remote/rural/urban locations in 22 countries and analyzed for PCBs, a range of organochlorine pesticides (HCB, alpha-HCH, gamma-HCH, ppDDT, ppDDE), and PBDEs. Calculated air concentrations were in line with those obtained by conventional active air sampling techniques. The geographical pattern of all compounds reflected suspected regional emission patterns and highlighted localized hotspots. PCB and PBDE levels varied by over 2 orders of magnitude; the highest values were detected in areas of high usage and were linked to urbanized areas. HCB was relatively uniformly distributed, reflecting its persistence and high degree of mixing in air. Higher gamma-HCH, ppDDT, and ppDDE levels generally occurred in South and East Europe. PMID:14740714

  12. Nevada Test Site National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants Calendar Year 2008

    SciTech Connect

    Ronald Warren and Robert F. Grossman

    2009-06-30

    The Nevada Test Site (NTS) is operated by the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office. From 1951 through 1992, the NTS was the continental testing location for U.S. nuclear weapons. The release of radionuclides from NTS activities has been monitored since the initiation of atmospheric testing. Limitation to under-ground detonations after 1962 greatly reduced radiation exposure to the public surrounding the NTS. After nuclear testing ended in 1992, NTS radiation monitoring focused on detecting airborne radionuclides from historically contaminated soils. These radionuclides are derived from re-suspension of soil (primarily by winds) and emission of tritium-contaminated soil moisture through evapotranspiration. Low amounts of tritium were also emitted to air at the North Las Vegas Facility (NLVF), an NTS support complex in the city of North Las Vegas. To protect the public from harmful levels of man-made radiation, the Clean Air Act, National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP) (Title 40 Code of Federal Regulations [CFR] Part 61 Subpart H) (CFR, 2008a) limits the release of radioactivity from a U.S. Department of Energy facility (e.g., the NTS) to 10 millirem per year (mrem/yr) effective dose equivalent to any member of the public. This limit does not include radiation not related to NTS activities. Unrelated doses could come from naturally occurring radioactive elements or from other man-made sources such as medical treatments. The NTS demonstrates compliance with the NESHAP limit by using environmental measurements of radionuclide air concentrations at critical receptor locations. This method was approved by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency for use on the NTS in 2001 and has been the sole method used since 2005. Six locations on the NTS have been established to act as critical receptor locations to demonstrate compliance with the NESHAP limit. These locations are actually pseudo

  13. Valveless sampling of ambient air for analysis by capillary gas chromatography

    SciTech Connect

    Stephens, E.R. )

    1989-09-01

    A method for the high resolution, high sensitivity analysis of polluted air for individual organic compounds is described. Samples collected from 50 mL of ambient air at 87 K (liquid argon) are injected without use of a valve into a silica capillary column which is then temperature programmed from {minus}30{degree}C to 180{degree}C. Hydrocarbons (4 to 10 carbons) as well as carbonyl compounds, chlorinated compounds and terpenes can be identified and quantified. The detection limit, not strongly dependent on carbon number, is estimated to be 0.3 ppbc in a 50 mL sample. Use of small samples eliminates the need to remove water vapor, a procedure which might jeopardize sample integrity.

  14. Air Sampling System for use in monitoring viable and non-viable particulate air quality under dynamic operating conditions of blow/fill/seal processing.

    PubMed

    Probert, Steve; Sinclair, Colin S; Tallentire, Alan

    2002-01-01

    An Air Sampling Link (ASL), employed in conjunction with an Air Sampling Device (ASD) or a laser particle counter, has been developed for sampling flowing air for viable and non-viable particulate analyses. Typically, the ASL could be used to sample filtered air supplied to an air shower of a Blow/Fill/Seal machine operating in the dynamic state. The ASL allows sample volumes of air to be taken from flowing air without significant loss from the sample flow of airborne particles possessing aerodynamic sizes relevant to those found in practice. The link has no moving parts, is steam sterilizable in-situ, and allows for the taking of continuous samples of air without the need for intervention into the 'critical zone' of the filling machine. This article describes (i) the design criteria for the ASL and the ASD, (ii) the rationale underlying the concept of the ASL design, (iii) the collection performance of the ASL against that of a conventional sampling arrangement, and (iv) a functionality assessment of the ASL-based sampling system installed on a Rommelag style 305 B/F/S machine over a seven week period. PMID:12404722

  15. Development and calibration of real-time PCR for quantification of airborne microorganisms in air samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    An, Hey Reoun; Mainelis, Gediminas; White, Lori

    This manuscript describes the coupling of bioaerosol collection and the use of real-time PCR (RT-PCR) to quantify the airborne bacteria. The quantity of collected bacteria determined by RT-PCR is compared with conventional quantification techniques, such as culturing, microscopy and airborne microorganism counting by using optical particle counter (OPC). Our data show that an experimental approach used to develop standard curves for use with RT-PCR is critical for accurate sample quantification. Using universal primers we generated 12 different standard curves which were used to quantify model organism Escherichia coli (Migula) Catellani from air samples. Standard curves prepared using a traditional approach, where serially diluted genomic DNA extracted from pure cultured bacteria were used in PCR reaction as a template DNA yielded significant underestimation of sample quantities compared to airborne microorganism concentration as measured by an OPC. The underestimation was especially pronounced when standard curves were built using colony forming units (CFUs). In contrast, the estimate of cell concentration in an air sample by RT-PCR was more accurate (˜60% compared to the airborne microorganism concentration) when the standard curve was built using aerosolized E. coli. The accuracy improved even further (˜100%) when air samples used to build the standard curves were diluted first, then the DNA extracted from each dilution was amplified by the RT-PCR—to mimic the handling of air samples with unknown and possibly low concentration. Therefore, our data show that standard curves used for quantification by RT-PCR needs to be prepared using the same environmental matrix and procedures as handling of the environmental sample in question. Reliance on the standard curves generated with cultured bacterial suspension (a traditional approach) may lead to substantial underestimation of microorganism quantities in environmental samples.

  16. The effect of compressed air foam on the detection of hydrocarbon fuels in fire debris samples.

    PubMed

    Coulson, S A; Morgan-Smith, R K; Noble, D

    2000-01-01

    In 1998/99 the New Zealand Fire Service implemented compressed air foam delivery systems for the suppression of fires in rural areas. This study investigated whether the introduction of the foam to the seat of the fire created any problems in subsequent analyses of fire debris samples. No significant interferences from the foam were found when the samples were analysed by direct headspace using activated carbon strips. The only foam component detected was limonene. PMID:11094822

  17. Curve fitting air sample filter decay curves to estimate transuranic content.

    PubMed

    Hayes, Robert B; Chiou, Hung Cheng

    2004-01-01

    By testing industry standard techniques for radon progeny evaluation on air sample filters, a new technique is developed to evaluate transuranic activity on air filters by curve fitting the decay curves. The industry method modified here is simply the use of filter activity measurements at different times to estimate the air concentrations of radon progeny. The primary modification was to not look for specific radon progeny values but rather transuranic activity. By using a method that will provide reasonably conservative estimates of the transuranic activity present on a filter, some credit for the decay curve shape can then be taken. By carrying out rigorous statistical analysis of the curve fits to over 65 samples having no transuranic activity taken over a 10-mo period, an optimization of the fitting function and quality tests for this purpose was attained. PMID:14695010

  18. ENVIRONMENTAL SAMPLING USING LOCATION SPECIFIC AIR MONITORING IN BULK HANDLING FACILITIES

    SciTech Connect

    Sexton, L.; Hanks, D.; Degange, J.; Brant, H.; Hall, G.; Cable-Dunlap, P.; Anderson, B.

    2011-06-07

    Since the introduction of safeguards strengthening measures approved by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Board of Governors (1992-1997), international nuclear safeguards inspectors have been able to utilize environmental sampling (ES) (e.g. deposited particulates, air, water, vegetation, sediments, soil and biota) in their safeguarding approaches at bulk uranium/plutonium handling facilities. Enhancements of environmental sampling techniques used by the IAEA in drawing conclusions concerning the absence of undeclared nuclear materials or activities will soon be able to take advantage of a recent step change improvement in the gathering and analysis of air samples at these facilities. Location specific air monitoring feasibility tests have been performed with excellent results in determining attribute and isotopic composition of chemical elements present in an actual test-bed sample. Isotopic analysis of collected particles from an Aerosol Contaminant Extractor (ACE) collection, was performed with the standard bulk sampling protocol used throughout the IAEA network of analytical laboratories (NWAL). The results yielded bulk isotopic values expected for the operations. Advanced designs of air monitoring instruments such as the ACE may be used in gas centrifuge enrichment plants (GCEP) to detect the production of highly enriched uranium (HEU) or enrichments not declared by a State. Researchers at Savannah River National Laboratory in collaboration with Oak Ridge National Laboratory are developing the next generation of ES equipment for air grab and constant samples that could become an important addition to the international nuclear safeguards inspector's toolkit. Location specific air monitoring to be used to establish a baseline environmental signature of a particular facility employed for comparison of consistencies in declared operations will be described in this paper. Implementation of air monitoring will be contrasted against the use of smear ES

  19. Radionuclide air emissions report for the Hanford Site, calendar year 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Diediker, L.P.; Johnson, A.R.; Rhoads, K.; Klages, D.L.; Soldat, J.K.; Rokkan, D.J.

    1993-06-01

    This report documents radionuclide air emissions from the Hanford Site in 1992 and the resulting effective dose equivalent to an member of the public. The report has been prepared and will be submitted in accordance with reporting requirements in the Code of Federal Regulations, Title 40, Protection of the Environment, Part 61, ``National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants,`` Subpart H, ``National Emission Standards for Emissions of Radionuclides Other than Radon from Department of Energy Facilities.``

  20. Radionuclide air emissions report for the Hanford site, Calendar year 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Gleckler, B.P.; Diediker, L.P.; Jette, S.J.; Rhoads, K.; Soldat, S.K.

    1995-06-01

    This report documents radionuclide air emissions from the Hanford Site in 1994, and the resulting effective dose equivalent to the maximally exposed member of the public, referred to as the ``MEI.`` The report has been prepared and will be submitted in accordance with reporting requirements in the Code of Federal Regulations, title 40, Protection of the Environment, Part 61, ``National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants,`` Subpart H, ``National Emission Standards for Emissions of Radionuclides Other than Radon from Department of Energy Facilities.``

  1. Development of a wireless air pollution sensor package for aerial-sampling of emissions

    EPA Science Inventory

    A new sensor system for mobile and aerial emission sampling was developed for open area pollutant sources, such as prescribed forest burns. The sensor system, termed “Kolibri”, consists of multiple low-cost air quality sensors measuring CO2, CO, samplers for particulate matter wi...

  2. the nature of air flow near the inlets of blunt dust sampling probes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vincent, J. H.; Hutson, D.; Mark, D.

    This paper sets out to describe the nature of air flow near blunt dust samplers in a way which allows a relatively simple assessment of their performances for collecting dust particles. Of particular importance is the shape of the limiting stream surface which divides the sampled air from that which passes outside the sampler, and how this is affected by the free-stream air velocity, the sampling flow rate, and the shape of the sampler body. This was investigated for two-dimensional and axially-symmetric sampler systems by means of complementary experiments using electrolytic tank potential flow analogues and a wind tunnel respectively. For extreme conditions the flow of air entering the sampling orifice may be wholly divergent or wholly convergent. For a wide range of intermediate conditions, however, the flow first diverges then converges, exhibiting a so-called "spring onion effect". Whichever of these applies for a particular situation, the flow may be considered to consist of two parts, the outer one dominated by the flow about the sampler body and the inner one dominated by the flow into the sampling orifice. Particle transport in this two-part flow may be assessed using ideas borrowed from thin-walled probe theory.

  3. INTERCOMPARISON OF SAMPLING TECHNIQUES FOR TOXIC ORGANIC COMPOUNDS IN INDOOR AIR

    EPA Science Inventory

    People spend a major fraction of their time indoors, and there is concern over exposure to volatile organic compounds present in indoor air. The study was initiated to compare several VOC sampling techniques in an indoor environment. The techniques which were compared include dis...

  4. Development of a wireless air pollution sensor package for aerial-sampling of emissions

    EPA Science Inventory

    A new sensor system for mobile and aerial emission sampling was developed for open area pollutant sources, such as prescribed forest burns. The sensor system, termed “Kolibri”, consists of multiple low-cost air quality sensors measuring CO2, CO, samplers for particula...

  5. COMPARISON OF FAST GC/TOFMS WITH METHOD TO-14 FOR ANALYSIS OF AMBIENT AIR SAMPLES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Field studies using portable gas chromatographs (PGC) to analyze volatile organic compounds in ambient air usually include, as reference standard method, the analysis of concurrent, collocated canister samples by EPA Method TO-14. Each laboratory analysis takes about an hour a...

  6. INDOOR AIR SAMPLING AND MUTAGENICITY STUDIES OF EMISSIONS FROM UNVENTED COAL COMBUSTION (JOURNAL VERSION)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of the study is to develop sampling strategies and bioassay methods for indoor air in homes, the authors developed a medium-volume sampler to collect the <10 - micrometers particulate matter and semivolatile organics, and used high-volume particulate sampler for compa...

  7. ANALYSIS OF VOCS IN AMBIENT AIR USING MULTISORBENT PACKINGS FOR VOC ACCUMULATION AND SAMPLE DRYING

    EPA Science Inventory

    Solid multisorbent packings have been characterized for trapping and release efficiency of trace (10-20 ppbv in humidified zero air) volatile organic compounds (VOCs). he use of a two-stage trapping system reduces sample water content typically by more than 95.5% while maintainin...

  8. COMPARISON OF MOLD CONCENTRATIONS IN INDOOR AND OUTDOOR AIR SAMPLED SIMULTANEOUSLY AND THEN QUANTIFIED BY MSQPCR

    EPA Science Inventory

    Mold specific quantitative PCR (MSQPCR) was used to measure the concentrations of the 36 mold species in indoor and outdoor air samples that were taken simultaneously for 48 hours in and around 17 homes in Cincinnati, Ohio. The total spore concentrations of 353 per m3...

  9. CLEANLINESS OF COMMON AIR SAMPLING SORBENTS FOR APPLICATION TO PHENOLIC COMPOUNDS MEASUREMENT USING SUPERCRITICAL FLUID EXTRACTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The trace-level measurement of phenolic compounds in the ambient air is complicated by the acidic and polar nature of the compounds especially during recovery from the sampling medium. ecently, supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) has been proposed as an alternative extraction me...

  10. NON-POLAR VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS IN WHOLE AIR SAMPLES FROM THE AUTOEX STUDIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Air samples were captured in SUMMA polished stainless steel canisters and returned to the laboratory for analysis of trace level volatile organic compounds by gas chromatography - mass spectrometry. ampling was performed over 2-hour periods at various distances from heavily trave...

  11. Collecting Samples of Workplace Air. Module 8. Vocational Education Training in Environmental Health Sciences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Consumer Dynamics Inc., Rockville, MD.

    This module, one of 25 on vocational education training for careers in environmental health occupations, contains self-instructional materials on collecting samples of workplace air. Following guidelines for students and instructors and an introduction that explains what the student will learn are three lessons: (1) collecting information about…

  12. Installation restoration program. Site investigation report, Volume 1. 182 Airlift Wing, Illinois Air National Guard, Greater Peoria Regional Airport, Peoria, Illinois. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1996-06-01

    Site Investigation Report, Illinois Air National Guard, 182nd Airlift Wing, Greater Peoria Regional Airport, Peoria, Illinois, Volume I - Text. This is the first volume of a two volume Site Investigation Report. Three sites (Site 1 - Septic System Filter Beds, Site 2 - Grassy Area Along Facility Boundary East of the Aircraft Apron, and Site 3 - Grass Area West of Aircraft Apron and East of Fuel Truck Parking) were investigated under the Installation Restoration Program. Soil and groundwater samples were collected and analyzed. A Remedial Investigation was recommended for the soils at Site 1. No further action was recommended for Site 2 and the soils at Site 3. A groundwater investigation was recommended to identify the source of low concentrations of VOCs in the groundwater.

  13. Installation restoration program. Site investigation report, Volume 2. 182 Airlift Wing, Illinois Air National Guard, Greater Peoria Regional Airport, Peoria, Illinois. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1996-06-01

    Site Investigation Report, Illinois Air National Guard, 182nd Airlift Wing, Greater Peoria Regional Airport, Peoria, Illinois, Volume II - Appendices A-K. This is the second volume of a two volume Site Investigation Report. Three sites (Site 1 - Septic System Filter Beds Site 2 Grassy Area Facility Boundary East of the Aircraft Apron, and Site 3 - Grass Area West of Aircraft Apron and East of Fuel Truck Parking) were investigated under the Installation Restoration Program. Soil and groundwater samples were collected and analyzed. A Remedial Investigation was recommended for the soils at Site 1. No further action was recommended for Site 2 and the soils at Site 3. A groundwater investigation was recommended to identify the source of low concentrations of VOCs in the groundwater.

  14. Impact of Oxidant Residuals on Ground Water Samples at ISCO Sites: Recommended Guidelines for Sample Preservation

    EPA Science Inventory

    In-situ chemical oxidation (ISCO) involves the introduction of a chemical oxidant into the subsurface for the purpose of transforming ground water contaminants into less toxic or harmless byproducts. Due to oxidant persistence, ground water samples collected at hazardous waste si...

  15. Radionuclide air emissions report for the Hanford Site -- calendar year 1997

    SciTech Connect

    Gleckler, B.P.; Rhoads, K.

    1998-06-17

    This report documents radionuclide air emission from the Hanford Site in 1997, and the resulting effective dose equivalent to the maximally exposed member of the public, referred to as the MEI. The report has been prepared in accordance with reporting requirements in the Code of Federal Regulations, Title 40, Protection of the Environment, Part 61, National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants, Subpart H, National Emission Standards for Emissions of Radionuclides Other than Radon from Department of Energy Facilities. This report has also been prepared in accordance with the reporting requirements of the Washington Administrative Code Chapter 246-247, Radiation Protection-Air Emissions. The effective dose equivalent to the MEI from the Hanford Site`s 1997 point source emissions was 1.2 E-03 mrem (1.2 E-05 mSv), which is well below the 40 CFR 61 Subpart H regulatory limit of 10 mrem/yr. Radon and thoron emissions, exempted from 40 CFR 61 Subpart H, resulted in an effective dose equivalent to the MEI of 2.5 E-03 mrem (2.5 E-05 mSv). The effective dose equivalent to the MEI attributable to diffuse and fugitive emissions was 2.2 E-02 mrem (2.2 E-04 mSv). The total effective dose equivalent from all of the Hanford Site`s air emissions was 2.6 E-02 mrem (2.6 E-04 mSv). The effective dose equivalent from all of the Hanford Site`s air emissions is well below the Washington Administrative Code, Chapter 246-247, regulatory limit of 10 mrem/yr.

  16. January 2012 Groundwater Sampling at the Gnome-Coach, New Mexico, Site (Data Validation Package)

    SciTech Connect

    2012-12-01

    Annual sampling was conducted January 18, 2012, to monitor groundwater for potential radionuclide contamination at the Gnome-Coach site in New Mexico. The sampling was performed as specified in the Sampling and Analysis Plan for U.S. Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management Sites (LMS/PLN/S04351, continually updated). Well LRL-7 was not sampled per instruction from the lead. A duplicate sample was collected from well USGS-1 and water levels were measured in the monitoring wells onsite.

  17. May 2013 Groundwater and Surface Water Sampling at the Rio Blanco, Colorado, Site (Data Validation Package)

    SciTech Connect

    2013-10-01

    Annual sampling was conducted at the Rio Blanco, Colorado, site for the Long-Term Hydrologic Monitoring Program May 14-16, 2013, to monitor groundwater and surface water for potential radionuclide contamination. Sampling and analyses were conducted as specified in Sampling and Analysis Plan for the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management Sites (LMS/PRO/S04351, continually updated). A duplicate sample was collected from location CER #1 Black Sulphur. Samples were analyzed for gamma-emitting radionuclides by high-resolution gamma spectrometry and for tritium using the conventional and enrichment methods.

  18. Whole Air Sampling During NASA's March-April 1999 Pacific Exploratory Expedition (PEM-Tropics B)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blake, Donald R.

    2001-01-01

    University of California, Irvine (UCI) collected more than 4500 samples whole air samples collected over the remote Pacific Ocean during NASA's Global Tropospheric Experiment (GTE) Pacific Exploratory Mission-Tropics B (PEM-Tropics B) in March and early April 1999. Approximately 140 samples during a typical 8-hour DC-8 flight, and 120 canisters for each 8-hour flight aboard the P-3B. These samples were obtained roughly every 3-7 min during horizontal flight legs and 1-3 min during vertical legs. The filled canisters were analyzed in the laboratory at UCI within ten days of collection. The mixing ratios of 58 trace gases comprising hydrocarbons, halocarbons, alkyl nitrates and DMS were reported (and archived) for each sample. Two identical analytical systems sharing the same standards were operated simultaneously around the clock to improve canister turn-around time and to keep our measurement precision optimal. This report presents a summary of the results for sample collected.

  19. Mathematical Estimation of the Level of Microbial Contamination on Spacecraft Surfaces by Volumetric Air Sampling

    PubMed Central

    Oxborrow, G. S.; Roark, A. L.; Fields, N. D.; Puleo, J. R.

    1974-01-01

    Microbiological sampling methods presently used for enumeration of microorganisms on spacecraft surfaces require contact with easily damaged components. Estimation of viable particles on surfaces using air sampling methods in conjunction with a mathematical model would be desirable. Parameters necessary for the mathematical model are the effect of angled surfaces on viable particle collection and the number of viable cells per viable particle. Deposition of viable particles on angled surfaces closely followed a cosine function, and the number of viable cells per viable particle was consistent with a Poisson distribution. Other parameters considered by the mathematical model included deposition rate and fractional removal per unit time. A close nonlinear correlation between volumetric air sampling and airborne fallout on surfaces was established with all fallout data points falling within the 95% confidence limits as determined by the mathematical model. PMID:4151118

  20. Mathematical estimation of the level of microbial contamination on spacecraft surfaces by volumetric air sampling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oxborrow, G. S.; Roark, A. L.; Fields, N. D.; Puleo, J. R.

    1974-01-01

    Microbiological sampling methods presently used for enumeration of microorganisms on spacecraft surfaces require contact with easily damaged components. Estimation of viable particles on surfaces using air sampling methods in conjunction with a mathematical model would be desirable. Parameters necessary for the mathematical model are the effect of angled surfaces on viable particle collection and the number of viable cells per viable particle. Deposition of viable particles on angled surfaces closely followed a cosine function, and the number of viable cells per viable particle was consistent with a Poisson distribution. Other parameters considered by the mathematical model included deposition rate and fractional removal per unit time. A close nonlinear correlation between volumetric air sampling and airborne fallout on surfaces was established with all fallout data points falling within the 95% confidence limits as determined by the mathematical model.

  1. Data Quality Objectives for Regulatory Requirements for Hazardous and Radioactive Air Emissions Sampling and Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    MULKEY, C.H.

    1999-07-06

    This document describes the results of the data quality objective (DQO) process undertaken to define data needs for state and federal requirements associated with toxic, hazardous, and/or radiological air emissions under the jurisdiction of the River Protection Project (RPP). Hereafter, this document is referred to as the Air DQO. The primary drivers for characterization under this DQO are the regulatory requirements pursuant to Washington State regulations, that may require sampling and analysis. The federal regulations concerning air emissions are incorporated into the Washington State regulations. Data needs exist for nonradioactive and radioactive waste constituents and characteristics as identified through the DQO process described in this document. The purpose is to identify current data needs for complying with regulatory drivers for the measurement of air emissions from RPP facilities in support of air permitting. These drivers include best management practices; similar analyses may have more than one regulatory driver. This document should not be used for determining overall compliance with regulations because the regulations are in constant change, and this document may not reflect the latest regulatory requirements. Regulatory requirements are also expected to change as various permits are issued. Data needs require samples for both radionuclides and nonradionuclide analytes of air emissions from tanks and stored waste containers. The collection of data is to support environmental permitting and compliance, not for health and safety issues. This document does not address health or safety regulations or requirements (those of the Occupational Safety and Health Administration or the National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health) or continuous emission monitoring systems. This DQO is applicable to all equipment, facilities, and operations under the jurisdiction of RPP that emit or have the potential to emit regulated air pollutants.

  2. Report on sampling and analysis of exhaust air at the 221-T and 2706-T buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Stauffer, M.

    1997-09-22

    This report presents analytical results from exhaust air samples collected at stacks 221-T and 2706-T of the T-Plant. The samples were collected with SUMMA canisters over a 24 hour interval and were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry using a modified EPA TO-14 procedure. The data suggest that the buildings had generally low concentrations of volatile organic compounds (< 40 ppbv). However, samples from building 2706-T did have significant amounts of non-target higher-boiling hydrocarbons, probably from a petroleum destination fraction.

  3. May 2012 Groundwater and Surface Water Sampling at the Rio Blanco, Colorado, Site (Data Validation Package)

    SciTech Connect

    2012-12-01

    Annual sampling was conducted at the Rio Blanco, Colorado, site for the Long-Term Hydrologic Monitoring Program May 9-10, 2012, to monitor groundwater and surface water for potential radionuclide contamination. Sampling and analyses were conducted as specified in Sampling and Analysis Plan for the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management Sites (LMS/PRO/S04351, continually updated). A duplicate sample was collected from location Johnson Artesian WL. Samples were analyzed for gamma-emitting radionuclides by high-resolution gamma spectrometry and for tritium using the conventional and enrichment methods. Results of this monitoring at the Rio Blanco site demonstrate that groundwater and surface water outside the site boundaries have not been affected by project-related contaminants.

  4. High-throughput liquid-absorption air-sampling apparatus and methods

    SciTech Connect

    2000-07-11

    A portable high-throughput liquid-absorption air sampler [PHTLAAS] has an asymmetric air inlet through which air is drawn upward by a small and light-weight centrifugal fan driven by a direct current motor that can be powered by a battery. The air inlet is so configured as to impart both rotational and downward components of motion to the sampled air near said inlet. The PHTLAAS comprises a glass tube of relatively small size through which air passes at a high rate in a swirling, highly turbulent motion, which facilitates rapid transfer of vapors and particulates to a liquid film covering the inner walls of the tube. The pressure drop through the glass tube is < 10 cm of water, usually < 5 cm of water. The sampler's collection efficiency is usually > 20% for vapors or airborne particulates in the 2--3 microns range and > 50% for particles larger than 4 microns. In conjunction with various analyzers, the PHTLAAS can serve to monitor a variety of hazardous or illicit airborne substances, such as lead-containing particulates, tritiated water vapor, biological aerosols, or traces of concealed drugs or explosives.

  5. High-throughput liquid-absorption air-sampling apparatus and methods

    DOEpatents

    Zaromb, Solomon

    2000-01-01

    A portable high-throughput liquid-absorption air sampler [PHTLAAS] has an asymmetric air inlet through which air is drawn upward by a small and light-weight centrifugal fan driven by a direct current motor that can be powered by a battery. The air inlet is so configured as to impart both rotational and downward components of motion to the sampled air near said inlet. The PHTLAAS comprises a glass tube of relatively small size through which air passes at a high rate in a swirling, highly turbulent motion, which facilitates rapid transfer of vapors and particulates to a liquid film covering the inner walls of the tube. The pressure drop through the glass tube is <10 cm of water, usually <5 cm of water. The sampler's collection efficiency is usually >20% for vapors or airborne particulates in the 2-3.mu. range and >50% for particles larger than 4.mu.. In conjunction with various analyzers, the PHTLAAS can serve to monitor a variety of hazardous or illicit airborne substances, such as lead-containing particulates, tritiated water vapor, biological aerosols, or traces of concealed drugs or explosives.

  6. Post-Closure Inspection, Sampling, and Maintenance Report for the Salmon, Mississippi, Site Calendar Year 2009

    SciTech Connect

    2010-10-01

    This report summarizes the annual inspection, sampling, and maintenance activities performed on and near the Salmon, Mississippi, Site in calendar year 2009. The draft Long-Term Surveillance and Maintenance Plan for the Salmon Site, Lamar County, Mississippi (DOE 2007) specifies the submittal of an annual report of site activities and the results of sample analyses. This report complies with the annual report requirement. The Salmon, MS, Site is located in Lamar County, MS, approximately 12 miles west of Purvis, MS, and about 21 miles southwest of Hattiesburg, MS The site encompasses 1,470 acres and is not open to the general public. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), a successor agency to the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission (AEC), is responsible for the long-term surveillance and maintenance of the site. The DOE Office of Legacy Management (LM) was assigned responsibility for the site effective October 1, 2006

  7. Analysis of the air pollution climate at a background site in the Po valley.

    PubMed

    Bigi, Alessandro; Ghermandi, Grazia; Harrison, Roy M

    2012-02-01

    The Po valley in northern Italy is renowned for its high air pollutant concentrations. Measurements of air pollutants from a background site in Modena, a town of 200 thousand inhabitants within the Po valley, are analysed. These comprise hourly data for CO, NO, NO(2), NO(x), and O(3), and daily gravimetric equivalent data for PM(10) from 1998-2010. The data are analysed in terms of long-term trends, annual, weekly and diurnal cycles, and auto-correlation and cross-correlation functions. CO, NO and NO(2) exhibit a strongly traffic-related pattern, with daily peaks at morning and evening rush hour and lower concentrations over the weekend. Ozone shows an annual cycle with a peak in July due to local production; notwithstanding the diurnal cycle dominated by titration by nitrogen oxide, the decreasing long term trend in NO concentration did not affect the long term trend in O(3), whose mean concentration remained steady over the sampling period. PM(10) shows a strong seasonality with higher concentration in winter and lower concentration in summer and spring. Both PM(10) and ozone show a marked weekly cycle in summer and winter respectively. Regressions of PM(10) upon NO(x) show a consistently greater intercept in winter, representing higher secondary PM(10) in the cooler months of the year. There is a seasonal pattern in primary PM(10) to NO(x) ratios, with lower values in winter and higher values in summer, but the reasons are unclear. PMID:22170095

  8. Water and entrapped air redistribution in heterogeneous sand sample: Quantitative neutron imaging of the process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snehota, Michal; Jelinkova, Vladimira; Sobotkova, Martina; Sacha, Jan; Vontobel, Peter; Hovind, Jan

    2015-02-01

    Saturated flow in soil with the occurrence of preferential flow often exhibits temporal changes of saturated hydraulic conductivity even during the time scale of a single infiltration event. These effects, observed in a number of experiments done mainly on heterogeneous soils, are often attributed to the changing distribution of water and air in the sample. We have measured the variation of the flow rates during the steady state stage of the constant head ponded infiltration experiment conducted on a packed sample composed of three different grades of sand. The experiment was monitored by quantitative neutron imaging, which provided information about the spatial distribution of water in the sample. Measurements were taken during (i) the initial stages of infiltration by neutron radiography and (ii) during the steady state flow by neutron tomography. A gradual decrease of the hydraulic conductivity has been observed during the first 4 h of the infiltration event. A series of neutron tomography images taken during the quasi-steady state stage showed the trapping of air bubbles in coarser sand. Furthermore, the water content in the coarse sand decreased even more while the water content in the embedded fine sand blocks gradually increased. The experimental results support the hypothesis that the effect of the gradual hydraulic conductivity decrease is caused by entrapped air redistribution and the build up of bubbles in preferential pathways. The trapped air thus restricts the preferential flow pathways and causes lower hydraulic conductivity.

  9. Volatile organic components of air samples collected from Vertical Launch Missile capsules. Summary report

    SciTech Connect

    Tappan, D.V.; Knight, D.R.; Heyder, E.; Weathersby, P.K.

    1988-09-27

    Gas chromatographic/mass spectroscopic analyses are presented for the volatile organic components found in air samples collected from the inboard vents from Vertical Launch System (VLS) missile capsules aboard a 688 class submarine. Similar analyses were also conducted for a sample of the ship's high pressure air used to fill the missile tubes. A wide variety of organics was detected in the air from the missile capsules; and while no unique components have yet been identified, a significant contribution has been shown to be made by pressure-ventilation of the VLS capsules into the submarine atmosphere which is already heavily laden with volatile organic compounds. The most apparent conclusion from these preliminary analyses is that the mixtures of organic components in the air within VLS missile capsules vary greatly from capsule to capsule (and probably from time to time). Many such samples need to be investigated to provide sufficient information to judge the seriousness of the possibility of venting toxic components into the submarine atmosphere during the maintenance or firing of VLS missiles.

  10. The Sensitivity of Genetic Connectivity Measures to Unsampled and Under-Sampled Sites

    PubMed Central

    Koen, Erin L.; Bowman, Jeff; Garroway, Colin J.; Wilson, Paul J.

    2013-01-01

    Landscape genetic analyses assess the influence of landscape structure on genetic differentiation. It is rarely possible to collect genetic samples from all individuals on the landscape and thus it is important to assess the sensitivity of landscape genetic analyses to the effects of unsampled and under-sampled sites. Network-based measures of genetic distance, such as conditional genetic distance (cGD), might be particularly sensitive to sampling intensity because pairwise estimates are relative to the entire network. We addressed this question by subsampling microsatellite data from two empirical datasets. We found that pairwise estimates of cGD were sensitive to both unsampled and under-sampled sites, and FST, Dest, and deucl were more sensitive to under-sampled than unsampled sites. We found that the rank order of cGD was also sensitive to unsampled and under-sampled sites, but not enough to affect the outcome of Mantel tests for isolation by distance. We simulated isolation by resistance and found that although cGD estimates were sensitive to unsampled sites, by increasing the number of sites sampled the accuracy of conclusions drawn from landscape genetic analyses increased, a feature that is not possible with pairwise estimates of genetic differentiation such as FST, Dest, and deucl. We suggest that users of cGD assess the sensitivity of this measure by subsampling within their own network and use caution when making extrapolations beyond their sampled network. PMID:23409155

  11. Some Anticipated Science Results from "Local" Martian Sampling Site(s)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nyquist, L. E.; Rao, M. N.; Shih, C. Y.

    2012-01-01

    Current planning for return of a surface sample of Mars planned. Scientific aims and more detailed objectives relating to (a) past/extant life, (b) surface processes and interactions, (c) planetary evolution, and (d) human exploration are summarized in the Mars Exploration Program Analysis Group (MPEAG) document. Here we consider how these aims and objectives might be addressed by samples from individual "local" area(s) (diameter < approx 1 km) based on experience with analyzing subsamples of Martian meteorites.

  12. Soyuz 22 Return Samples: Assessment of Air Quality Aboard the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jams, John T.

    2010-01-01

    Three mini-grab sample containers (m-GSCs) were returned aboard Soyuz 22 because of concerns that new air pollutants were present in the air and these were getting into the water recovery system. The Total Organic Carbon Analyzer had been giving increasing readings of total organic carbon (TOC) in the potable water, and it was postulated that an increased load into the system was responsible. The toxicological assessment of 3 m-GSCs from the ISS is shown in Table 1. The recoveries of the 3 standards (as listed above) from the GSCs averaged 103, 95 and 76%, respectively. Recovery from formaldehyde control badges were 90 and 91%.

  13. Electronic Nose and Use of Bags to Collect Odorous Air Samples in Meat Quality Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sala, G.; Masoero, G.; Battaglini, L. M.; Cornale, P.; Barbera, S.

    2009-05-01

    To test EN reliability and use of bags on meat, 17 bulls (one group of 9 and one of 8) fed similarly, except for a supplementary feedingstuff, were used. Samples were prepared according to the MCS protocol and repeated three times on different days for a total of 51 samples. Bags were used to collect raw and cooked meat air samples, and to test odour changes among samples analysed at different times. The first time analysis was performed immediately after collection then was repeated, 1 hour, 1 day and 1 week later. The Electronic Nose is very discriminant and clear differences were evident among raw, cooked and bags odorous profiles. The highest values were found in cooked samples and the broad range class (W5S) was the most representative. The EN also recognized the two tested feed treatments. In the cooked samples, all sensor responses decrease while time enhances, indicating a progressive chemical variation of the air composition in the bag, with a less correlation shown in the raw samples. When using bags, to avoid bias, is important to fix analysis in order to obtain useful results.

  14. Characterization of the geology, geochemistry, hydrology and microbiology of the in-situ air stripping demonstration site at the Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect

    Eddy, C.A.; Looney, B.B.; Dougherty, J.M.; Hazen, T.C.; Kaback, D.S.

    1991-05-01

    The Savannah River Site is the location of an Integrated Demonstration Project designed to evaluate innovative remediation technologies for environmental restoration at sites contaminated with volatile organic contaminants. This demonstration utilizes directionally drilled horizontal wells to deliver gases and extract contaminants from the subsurface. Phase I of the Integrated Demonstration focused on the application and development of in-situ air stripping technologies to remediate soils and sediments above and below the water table as well as groundwater contaminated with volatile organic contaminants. The objective of this report is to provide baseline information on the geology, geochemistry, hydrology, and microbiology of the demonstration site prior to the test. The distribution of contaminants in soils and sediments in the saturated zone and groundwater is emphasized. These data will be combined with data collected after the demonstration in order to evaluate the effectiveness of in-situ air stripping. New technologies for environmental characterization that were evaluated include depth discrete groundwater sampling (HydroPunch) and three-dimensional modeling of contaminant data.

  15. Diffusive sampling and measurement of microbial volatile organic compounds in indoor air.

    PubMed

    Araki, A; Eitaki, Y; Kawai, T; Kanazawa, A; Takeda, M; Kishi, R

    2009-10-01

    Microbial volatile organic compounds (MVOC), chemicals emitted from various microorganisms, in indoor air have been of concern in recent years. For large field studies, diffusive samplers are widely used to measure indoor environments. Since the sampling rate of a sampler is a fundamental parameter to calculate concentration, the sampling rates of eight MVOC with diffusive samplers were determined experimentally using a newly developed water-bubbling method: air was supplied to the MVOC-solutions and the vapor collected in an exposure bag, where diffusive and active samplers were placed in parallel for comparison. Correlations between the diffusive and active samplings gave good linear regressions. The sampling rates were 30-35 ml/min and the detection limits were 0.044-0.178 microg/m(3), as determined by GC/MS analysis. Application of the sampling rates in indoor air was validated by parallel sampling of the diffusive and active sampling method. 5% Propan-2-ol/CS(2) was the best solvent to desorb the compounds from absorbents. The procedure was applied to a field study in 41 dwellings. The most frequently detected compounds were hexan-2-one and heptan-2-one, with 97.5% detection rates and geometric mean values of 0.470 and 0.302 microg/m(3), respectively. This study shows that diffusive samplers are applicable to measure indoor MVOC levels. Practical Implications At present, there are still limited reports on indoor Microbial Volatile Organic Compounds (MVOC) levels in general dwellings and occupants' health. Compared with active sampling methods, air sampling using a diffusive sampler is particularly advantageous for use in large field studies due to its smallness, light-size, easy-handling, and cost-effectiveness. In this study, sampling rates of selected MVOC of the diffusive sampler were determined using the water-bubbling method: generating gases by water-bubbling and exposing the diffusive and active samplers at the same time. The obtained sampling rates

  16. Air

    MedlinePlus

    ... do to protect yourself from dirty air . Indoor air pollution and outdoor air pollution Air can be polluted indoors and it can ... this chart to see what things cause indoor air pollution and what things cause outdoor air pollution! Indoor ...

  17. May 2011 Groundwater and Surface Water Sampling at the Rio Blanco, Colorado, Site (Data Validation Package)

    SciTech Connect

    2011-12-01

    Annual sampling was conducted at the Rio Blanco, Colorado, site for the Long-Term Hydrologic Monitoring Program May 16-17, 2011, to monitor groundwater and surface water for potential radionuclide contamination. Sampling and analyses were conducted as specified in Sampling and Analysis Plan for the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management Sites (LMS/PRO/S04351, continually updated). A duplicate sample was collected from location Johnson Artesian WL. Samples were analyzed by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Radiation&Indoor Environments National Laboratory in Las Vegas, Nevada. Samples were analyzed for gamma-emitting radionuclides by high-resolution gamma spectrometry, and for tritium using the conventional method. Tritium was not measured using the enrichment method because the EPA laboratory no longer offers that service. Results of this monitoring at the Rio Blanco site demonstrate that groundwater and surface water outside the boundaries have not been affected by project-related contaminants.

  18. Confirmatory Tree Sampling for Tritium in Trees at the Salmon Site, Mississippi

    SciTech Connect

    2010-06-01

    The sampling was conducted on April 20, 21, and 22, 2010. DOE acquired 36 samples for analysis, approximately 10 percent of the total number of samples the Mississippi Forestry Commission acquired. The plan was to sample trees that the Mississippi Forestry Commission also sampled, so that a tree-by-tree comparison of analysis results could be made. The Mississippi Forestry Commission provided DOE with latitude and longitude coordinates, determined by a global positioning system (GPS), for each sampled tree. The Mississippi Forestry Commission also placed a blaze-orange number on each sampled tree. DOE used a GPS unit to assist in locating trees for sampling. DOE acquired one sample from an off-site location to have a reference for comparison to on-site results if necessary. The other 35 samples were acquired on site, for a total of 36 samples. Figure 1 shows the sampling locations, the sample identifiers DOE assigned, and the corresponding tree numbers the Mississippi Forestry Commission assigned

  19. Using maximum entropy modeling for optimal selection of sampling sites for monitoring networks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stohlgren, Thomas J.; Kumar, Sunil; Barnett, David T.; Evangelista, Paul H.

    2011-01-01

    Environmental monitoring programs must efficiently describe state shifts. We propose using maximum entropy modeling to select dissimilar sampling sites to capture environmental variability at low cost, and demonstrate a specific application: sample site selection for the Central Plains domain (453,490 km2) of the National Ecological Observatory Network (NEON). We relied on four environmental factors: mean annual temperature and precipitation, elevation, and vegetation type. A “sample site” was defined as a 20 km × 20 km area (equal to NEON’s airborne observation platform [AOP] footprint), within which each 1 km2 cell was evaluated for each environmental factor. After each model run, the most environmentally dissimilar site was selected from all potential sample sites. The iterative selection of eight sites captured approximately 80% of the environmental envelope of the domain, an improvement over stratified random sampling and simple random designs for sample site selection. This approach can be widely used for cost-efficient selection of survey and monitoring sites.

  20. Hanford Site Environmental Surveillance Master Sampling Schedule for Calendar Year 2010

    SciTech Connect

    Bisping, Lynn E.

    2010-01-08

    Environmental surveillance of the Hanford Site and surrounding areas is conducted by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). Sampling is conducted to evaluate levels of radioactive and nonradioactive pollutants in the Hanford Site environs per regulatory requirements. This document contains the calendar year 2010 schedule for the routine collection of samples for the Surface Environmental Surveillance Project and the Drinking Water Monitoring Project. Each section includes sampling locations, sampling frequencies, sample types, and analyses to be performed. In some cases, samples are scheduled on a rotating basis. If a sample will not be collected in 2010, the anticipated year for collection is provided. Maps showing approximate sampling locations are included for media scheduled for collection in 2010.

  1. Greenhouse gas analysis of air samples collected onboard the CARIBIC passenger aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schuck, T. J.; Brenninkmeijer, C. A. M.; Slemr, F.; Xueref-Remy, I.; Zahn, A.

    2009-08-01

    CARIBIC (Civil Aircraft for the Regular Investigation of the atmosphere Based on an Instrument Container) is a long-term atmospheric measurement program based on the use of a comprehensive scientific instrument package aboard a commercial passenger aircraft. In addition to real-time measurements, whole air sampling is performed regularly at cruising altitudes in the tropical middle troposphere and the extra-tropical UT/LS region. Air samples are analyzed for greenhouse gases, NMHCs, halocarbons, and trace gas isotopic composition. The routinely performed greenhouse gas analysis comprises gas chromatography measurements of CO2, CH4, N2O and SF6. The air sampling procedure, the GC system and its performance are described. Comparisons with similar systems employed in other laboratories and a comparison with results from a CO2 in-situ analyzer that is also part of the CARIBIC instrumentation are shown. In addition, the time series of CO2, obtained from the collection of 684 samples at latitudes between 30° N and 56° N on 21 round trips out of Germany to different destinations in Asia between November 2005 and October 2008, is presented. A time shift in the seasonal cycle of about one month was observed between the upper troposphere and the tropopause region. For two sets of return flights from Germany to the Philippines the relationship between the four greenhouse gases is briefly discussed.

  2. NATURAL ATTENUATION OF FUEL HYDROCARBONS AT MULTIPLE AIR FORCE BASE DEMONSTRATION SITES

    EPA Science Inventory

    A major initiative to evaluate monitored natural attenuation(MNA) of ground water contaminated with fuel hydrocarbons began in June 1993 and continued through October 2000. During this time site characterization studies, both initial and follow-up, were conducted at 28 Air Forc...

  3. Pan American Airways/Naval Air Transport Service/destroyer base site at the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Pan American Airways/Naval Air Transport Service/destroyer base site at the east side showing walkway and building foundation. View facing west-northwest. - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Pearl City Peninsula, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  4. April 2012 Groundwater and Surface Water Sampling at the Salmon, Mississippi, Site (Data Validation Package)

    SciTech Connect

    2012-10-12

    Sampling and analysis were conducted on April 16-19, 2012, as specified in the Sampling and Analysis Plan for U.S. Department of Energy Office Of Legacy Management Sites (LMS/PLN/S04351, continually updated). Duplicate samples were collected from locations SA1-1-H, HMH-5R, SA3-4-H, SA1-2-H, Pond W of GZ, and SA5-4-4. One trip blank was collected during this sampling event.

  5. Installation Restoration Program (IRP) for IRP sites numbers 4, 5, 7 and 14. 152 Tactical Reconnaissance Group, Nevada Air National Guard, Reno Tahoe International Airport, Reno, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    1996-01-01

    Remedial Investigation Report for IRP Site Nos. 4,5,7, and 14, Nevada Air National Guard, 152nd Tactical Reconnaissance Group, Reno Tahoe International Airport, Reno, Nevada. This is the remedial investigation report. The sites were investigated under the Installation Restoration Program. Soil and groundwater samples were collected and analyzed. An Engineering Evaluation/Cost Analysis was recommended to fully delineate the extent of contamination and conduct remediation activities, if required for sites 4,5,7, and 14. Groundwater monitoring was recommended for the all sites.

  6. Final work plan : indoor air and ambient air sampling near the former CCC/USDA grain storage facility in Everest, Kansas.

    SciTech Connect

    LaFreniere, L. M.

    2010-05-24

    The Commodity Credit Corporation of the U.S. Department of Agriculture (CCC/USDA) operated a grain storage facility at the western edge of Everest, Kansas, from the early 1950s to the early 1970s. Sampling by the Kansas Department of Health and Environment (KDHE) in 1997 resulted in the detection of carbon tetrachloride in one domestic well (the Nigh well) northwest of the former facility. On behalf of the CCC/USDA, Argonne National Laboratory subsequently conducted a series of investigations to characterize the contamination (Argonne 2003, 2006a,b,c). Automatic, continuous monitoring of groundwater levels began in 2002 and is ongoing at six locations. The results have consistently indicated groundwater flow toward the north-northwest from the former CCC/USDA property to the Nigh property, then west-southwest from the Nigh property to the intermittent creek. Sitewide periodic groundwater and surface water sampling with analysis for volatile organic compounds (VOCs) began in 2008. Argonne's combined data indicate no significant downgradient extension of contamination since 2000. At present, the sampling is annual, as approved by the KDHE (2009) in response to a plan developed for the CCC/USDA (Argonne 2009). This document presents a plan for collecting indoor air samples in homes located along and adjacent to the defined extent of the carbon tetrachloride contamination. The plan was requested by the KDHE. Ambient air samples to represent the conditions along this pathway will also be taken. The purpose of the proposed work is to satisfy KDHE requirements and to collect additional data for assessing the risk to human health due to the potential upward migration of carbon tetrachloride and its primary degradation product (chloroform) into homes located in close proximity to the former grain storage facility, as well as along and within 100 ft laterally from the currently defined plume emanating from the former Everest facility. Investigation of the indoor air

  7. Interlaboratory evaluation of cellulosic acid-soluble internal air sampling capsules for multi-element analysis.

    PubMed

    Andrews, Ronnee N; Feng, H Amy; Ashley, Kevin

    2016-01-01

    An interlaboratory study was carried out to evaluate the use of acid-soluble cellulosic air sampling capsules for their suitability in the measurement of trace elements in workplace atmospheric samples. These capsules are used as inserts to perform closed-face cassette sample collection for occupational exposure monitoring. The interlaboratory study was performed in accordance with NIOSH guidelines that describe statistical procedures for evaluating measurement accuracy of air monitoring methods. The performance evaluation materials used consisted of cellulose acetate capsules melded to mixed-cellulose ester filters that were dosed with multiple elements from commercial standard aqueous solutions. The cellulosic capsules were spiked with the following 33 elements of interest in workplace air monitoring: Ag, Al, As, Ba, Be, Ca, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, In, K, La, Li, Mg, Mn, Mo, Ni, P, Pb, Sb, Se, Sn, Sr, Te, Ti, Tl, V, W, Y, Zn, Zr. The elemental loading levels were certified by an accredited provider of certified reference materials. Triplicates of media blanks and multielement-spiked capsules at three different elemental loadings were sent to each participating laboratory; the elemental loading levels were not revealed to the laboratories. The volunteer participating laboratories were asked to prepare the samples by acid dissolution and to analyze aliquots of extracted samples by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry in accordance with NIOSH methods. It was requested that the study participants report their analytical results in units of μg of each target element per internal capsule sample. For the majority of the elements investigated (30 out of 33), the study accuracy estimates obtained satisfied the NIOSH accuracy criterion (A < 25%). This investigation demonstrates the utility of acid-soluble internal sampling capsules for multielement analysis by atomic spectrometry. PMID:26308974

  8. Installation restoration program. Site investigation report, IRP sites No. 1, No. 2, and No. 3. 106th Civil Engineering Flight, New York Air National Guard, Roslyn Air National Guard Station, Roslyn, New York. Volume 1. Site Investigation report

    SciTech Connect

    1996-11-01

    This report presents the results of the Site Investigation (SI) conducted at IRP Sites No. 1, No. 2, and No. 3 at the 106th Civil Engineering Flight (CEF) located at Roslyn Air National Guard Station (ANGS), Roslyn, Long Island, New York. A Preliminary Assessment (PA) (AD-A238 847) of the 106th CEF resulted in the identification of two potentially contaminated waste holding areas and a waste sludge application site. These sites were identified as IRP Site No. 1 (Access Road to Aerospace Ground Equipment `AGE` Shop), IRP Site No. 2 (Old Waste Holding Area No. 1), and IRP Site No. 3 (Old Waste Holding Area No. 2) and recommended for further investigation under the Installation Restoration Program (IRP).

  9. Solubility testing of actinides on breathing-zone and area air samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Metzger, Robert Lawrence

    The solubility of inhaled radionuclides in the human lung is an important characteristic of the compounds needed to perform internal dosimetry assessments for exposed workers. A solubility testing method for uranium and several common actinides has been developed with sufficient sensitivity to allow profiles to be determined from routine breathing zone and area air samples in the workplace. Air samples are covered with a clean filter to form a filter-sample-filter sandwich which is immersed in an extracellular lung serum simulant solution. The sample is moved to a fresh beaker of the lung fluid simulant each day for one week, and then weekly until the end of the 28 day test period. The soak solutions are wet ashed with nitric acid and hydrogen peroxide to destroy the organic components of the lung simulant solution prior to extraction of the nuclides of interest directly into an extractive scintillator for subsequent counting on a Photon-Electron Rejecting Alpha Liquid Scintillation (PERALSsp°ler ) spectrometer. Solvent extraction methods utilizing the extractive scintillators have been developed for the isotopes of uranium, plutonium, and curium. The procedures normally produce an isotopic recovery greater than 95% and have been used to develop solubility profiles from air samples with 40 pCi or less of Usb3Osb8. This makes it possible to characterize solubility profiles in every section of operating facilities where airborne nuclides are found using common breathing zone air samples. The new method was evaluated by analyzing uranium compounds from two uranium mills whose product had been previously analyzed by in vitro solubility testing in the laboratory and in vivo solubility testing in rodents. The new technique compared well with the in vivo rodent solubility profiles. The method was then used to evaluate the solubility profiles in all process sections of an operating in situ uranium plant using breathing zone and area air samples collected during routine

  10. Water Quality Sampling Locations Along the Shoreline of the Columbia River, Hanford Site, Washington

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, Robert E.; Patton, Gregory W.

    2009-12-14

    As environmental monitoring evolved on the Hanford Site, several different conventions were used to name or describe location information for various sampling sites along the Hanford Reach of the Columbia River. These methods range from handwritten descriptions in field notebooks to the use of modern electronic surveying equipment, such as Global Positioning System receivers. These diverse methods resulted in inconsistent archiving of analytical results in various electronic databases and published reports because of multiple names being used for the same site and inaccurate position data. This document provides listings of sampling sites that are associated with groundwater and river water sampling. The report identifies names and locations for sites associated with sampling: (a) near-river groundwater using aquifer sampling tubes; (b) riverbank springs and springs areas; (c) pore water collected from riverbed sediment; and (d) Columbia River water. Included in the listings are historical names used for a particular site and the best available geographic coordinates for the site, as of 2009. In an effort to create more consistency in the descriptive names used for water quality sampling sites, a naming convention is proposed in this document. The convention assumes that a unique identifier is assigned to each site that is monitored and that this identifier serves electronic database management requirements. The descriptive name is assigned for the convenience of the subsequent data user. As the historical database is used more intensively, this document may be revised as a consequence of discovering potential errors and also because of a need to gain consensus on the proposed naming convention for some water quality monitoring sites.

  11. Post-Closure Inspection, Sampling, and Maintenance Report for the Salmon, Mississippi, Site Calendar Year 2010

    SciTech Connect

    2011-03-01

    This report summarizes the annual inspection, sampling, measurement, and maintenance activities performed at the Salmon, Mississippi, Site in calendar year 2010. The draft Long-Term Surveillance and Maintenance Plan for the Salmon Site, Lamar County Mississippi (DOE 2007) specifies the submittal of an annual report of site activities with the results of sample analyses. The Salmon, MS, Site is a federally owned site located in Lamar County, MS, approximately 12 miles west of Purvis, MS, and about 21 miles southwest of Hattiesburg, MS (Figure 1). The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), a successor agency to the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission (AEC), is responsible for the long-term surveillance and maintenance of the 1,470-acre site. DOE's Office of Legacy Management (LM) is the operating agent for the surface and subsurface real estate.

  12. Continuous monitoring of polychlorinated biphenyls in air using direct sampling APCI/ITMS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamada, Masuyoshi; Suga, Masao; Waki, Izumi; Sakamoto, Masami; Morita, Masatoshi

    2005-06-01

    We report a continuous monitoring system of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in air, which uses direct sampling atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI)/ion trap mass spectrometry (ITMS). In APCI, humidity in the atmosphere, which fluctuates from 0 to 10 vol.%, influences PCB sensitivity. In dry air (0.5% humidity), the detection limits of Di- to Hp-chlorinated biphenyls (CB) are 0.01-0.44 [mu]g/Nm3 ([mu]g/m3 at normal condition) with time resolution of 1 min, whereas the sensitivity decreases to less than 1/10 when water vapor concentration is 10 vol.%. The sensitivity decrease is calibrated in real-time using an internal standard, trichlorophenol. In order to obtain the calibration accuracy of +/-30%, we dilute the sample gas by dry air, decreasing the water vapor concentration below 1%. We applied the monitor to measure Di- to Hp-CB in ventilation air from a PCB decomposition plant. The monitored PCB concentration levels agreed well with that by high-resolution gas chromatography/high resolution mass spectrometry (HRGC/HRMS).

  13. Laboratory validation and field verification of a new passive air monitoring badge for sampling ethylene oxide in air.

    PubMed

    Kring, E V; Damrell, D J; Basilio, A N; McGibney, P D; Douglas, J J; Henry, T J; Ansul, G R

    1984-10-01

    A new diffusion colorimetric air monitoring badge for sampling ethylene oxide is described. The Du Pont Pro-Tek C-70 badge has been laboratory validated over the range of 4-375 ppm-hours (0.5-47 ppm on an 8-hour TWA) using standard spectrophotometer readout in 1 centimeter (10 mm) cells. The lower range can be extended to 2 ppm-hours (0.25 ppm) by using 4 cm (40 mm) cells. The badge has an overall sampling and analytical method accuracy of +/- 13.5%. It meets NIOSH accuracy criteria and has a mean coefficient of variation CVT = 0.059. The badge has no temperature, pressure, relative humidity or face velocity effects over practical ranges. The response time is adequate to sample peak concentrations over short time periods. The badge may be used to determine ambient formaldehyde levels if suspected to be present along with ethylene oxide. Badges are shown to agree very well with the industry accepted and proposed ASTM pump/charcoal tube method in three extensive plant field tests. Badges were more precise than the charcoal tube/pump method in all field tests conducted. PMID:6496316

  14. Integrated technologies to evaluate the impact of air emissions at a petroleum recovery Superfund site

    SciTech Connect

    Zarus, G.M.; Wagaman, S.A.; Trespalacios, M.J.; Turpin, R.D.; Forrester, T.; Wilder, L.; Meyer, J.; Hansen, M.

    1995-12-31

    The US Environmental Protection Agency`s Environmental Response Team (US EPA/ERT) was requested by US EPA Region 6 to verify or refute the presence of volatile organic air emissions at a petroleum recovery Superfund (PRS) site. Several environmental protection and public health organizations were involved with evaluating the air emissions at this PRS site, including: Region 6 of the US EPA, the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR), and the US EPA/ERT. Each group brought a unique expertise which helped in identifying sources, determining their emission rates, evaluating their impact, and monitoring during remedial activities. This report describes the technologies used at the PRS site and some of the results obtained. The compounds of concern included: benzene, bis(2-chloroethyl)ether, 1,2-dichloroethene, methylene chloride, styrene, toluene, 1,1,2-trichloroethane, and vinyl chloride.

  15. June 2011 Natural Gas and Produced Water Sampling at the Gasbuggy, New Mexico, Site

    SciTech Connect

    2011-10-01

    Annual natural gas and produced water monitoring was conducted for gas wells adjacent to Section 36, where the Gasbuggy test was conducted, in accordance with the draft Long-Term Surveillance and Maintenance Plan for the Gasbuggy Site, Rio Arriba County, New Mexico. Sampling and analysis were conducted as specified in the Sampling and Analysis Plan for U.S. Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management Sites (LMS/PLN/S04351, continually updated). Natural gas samples were collected for tritium and carbon-14 analyses. Produced water samples were collected and analyzed for tritium, gamma-emitting radionuclides (by high-resolution gamma spectrometry), gross alpha, and gross beta. A duplicate produced water sample was collected from well 30-039-21743. Produced water samples were not collected at locations 30-039-30161 and 30-039-21744 because of the lack of water. Samples were not collected from location 30-039-29988 because the well was shut-in.

  16. STS-65 Commander Cabana and PLC Hieb take air sample at IML-2 Rack 7 NIZEMI

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    STS-65 Commander Robert D. Cabana (right) and Payload Commander (PLC) Richard J. Hieb take an air sample inside the International Microgravity Laboratory 2 (IML-2) spacelab science module. The two crewmembers are in front of Rack 7 which contains the large isothermal furnace (LIF) and slow rotating centrifuge microscope (NIZEMI). The photo was among the first group released by NASA following the two-week IML-2 mission aboard the Space Shuttle Columbia, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 102.

  17. Sampling and analyses report for December 1992 semiannual postburn sampling at the RMI UCG Site, Hanna, Wyoming

    SciTech Connect

    Lindblom, S.R.

    1993-03-01

    During December 1992, groundwater was sampled at the site of the November 1987--February 1988 Rocky Mountain 1 underground coal gasification test near Hanna, Wyoming. The groundwater in near baseline condition. Data from the field measurements and analyzes of samples are presented. Benzene concentrations in the groundwater are below analytical detection limits (<0.01 mg/L) for all wells, except concentrations of 0.016 mg/L and 0.013 mg/L in coal seam wells EMW-3 and EMW-1, respectively.

  18. Gaseous and Freely-Dissolved PCBs in the Lower Great Lakes Based on Passive Sampling: Spatial Trends and Air-Water Exchange.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ying; Wang, Siyao; McDonough, Carrie A; Khairy, Mohammed; Muir, Derek C G; Helm, Paul A; Lohmann, Rainer

    2016-05-17

    Polyethylene passive sampling was performed to quantify gaseous and freely dissolved polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in the air and water of Lakes Erie and Ontario during 2011-2012. In view of differing physical characteristics and the impacts of historical contamination by PCBs within these lakes, spatial variation of PCB concentrations and air-water exchange across these lakes may be expected. Both lakes displayed statistically similar aqueous and atmospheric PCB concentrations. Total aqueous concentrations of 29 PCBs ranged from 1.5 pg L(-1) in the open lake of Lake Erie (site E02) in 2011 spring to 105 pg L(-1) in Niagara (site On05) in 2012 summer, while total atmospheric concentrations were 7.7-634 pg m(-3) across both lakes. A west-to-east gradient was observed for aqueous PCBs in Lake Erie. River discharge and localized influences (e.g., sediment resuspension and regional alongshore transport) likely dominated spatial trends of aqueous PCBs in both lakes. Air-water exchange fluxes of Σ7PCBs ranged from -2.4 (±1.9) ng m(-2) day(-1) (deposition) in Sheffield (site E03) to 9.0 (±3.1) ng m(-2) day(-1) (volatilization) in Niagara (site On05). Net volatilization of PCBs was the primary trend across most sites and periods. Almost half of variation in air-water exchange fluxes was attributed to the difference in aqueous concentrations of PCBs. Uncertainty analysis in fugacity ratios and mass fluxes in air-water exchange of PCBs indicated that PCBs have reached or approached equilibrium only at the eastern Lake Erie and along the Canadian shore of Lake Ontario sites, where air-water exchange fluxes dominated atmospheric concentrations. PMID:26642083

  19. Isotopic air sampling in a tallgrass prairie to partition net ecosystem CO2 exchange

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lai, Chun-Ta; Schauer, Andrew J.; Owensby, Clenton; Ham, Jay M.; Ehleringer, James R.

    2003-09-01

    Stable isotope ratios of various ecosystem components and net ecosystem exchange (NEE) CO2 fluxes were measured in a C3-C4 mixture tallgrass prairie near Manhattan, Kansas. The July 2002 study period was chosen because of contrasting soil moisture contents, which allowed us to address the effects of drought on photosynthetic CO2 uptake and isotopic discrimination. Significantly higher NEE fluxes were observed for both daytime uptake and nighttime respiration during well-watered conditions when compared to a drought period. Given these differences, we investigated two carbon-flux partitioning questions: (1) What proportions of NEE were contributed by C3 versus C4 species? (2) What proportions of NEE fluxes resulted from canopy assimilation versus ecosystem respiration? To evaluate these questions, air samples were collected every 2 hours during daytime for 3 consecutive days at the same height as the eddy covariance system. These air samples were analyzed for both carbon isotope ratios and CO2 concentrations to establish an empirical relationship for isoflux calculations. An automated air sampling system was used to collect nighttime air samples to estimate the carbon isotope ratios of ecosystem respiration (δR) at weekly intervals for the entire growing season. Models of C3 and C4 photosynthesis were employed to estimate bulk canopy intercellular CO2 concentration in order to calculate photosynthetic discrimination against 13C. Our isotope/NEE results showed that for this grassland, C4 vegetation contributed ˜80% of the NEE fluxes during the drought period and later ˜100% of the NEE fluxes in response to an impulse of intense precipitation. For the entire growing season, the C4 contribution ranged from ˜68% early in the spring to nearly 100% in the late summer. Using an isotopic approach, the calculated partitioned respiratory fluxes were slightly greater than chamber-measured estimates during midday under well-watered conditions. In addition, time series

  20. Microbial Air and Surface Monitoring Results from International Space Station Samples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ott, C. Mark; Bruce, Rebekah J.; Castro, Victoria A.; Novikova, Natalia D.; Pierson, D. L.

    2005-01-01

    Over the course of long-duration spaceflight, spacecraft develop a microbial ecology that directly interacts with the crew of the vehicle. While most microorganisms are harmless or beneficial to the inhabitants of the vehicle, the presence of medically significant organisms appearing in this semi-closed environment could adversely affect crew health and performance. The risk of exposure of the crew to medically significant organisms during a mission is estimated using information gathered during nominal and contingency environmental monitoring. Analysis of the air and surface microbiota in the habitable compartments of the International Space Station (ISS) over the last four years indicate a high presence of Staphylococcus species reflecting the human inhabitants of the vehicle. Generally, air and surface microbial concentrations are below system design specifications, suggesting a lower risk of contact infection or biodegradation. An evaluation of sample frequency indicates a decrease in the identification of new species, suggesting a lower potential for unknown microorganisms to be identified. However, the opportunistic pathogen, Staphylococcus aureus, has been identified in 3 of the last 5 air samples and 5 of the last 9 surface samples. In addition, 47% of the coagulase negative Staphylococcus species that were isolated from the crew, ISS, and its hardware were found to be methicillin resistance. In combination, these observations suggest the potential of methicillin resistant infectious agents over time.

  1. Determination of methyl bromide in air samples by headspace gas chromatography

    SciTech Connect

    Woodrow, J.E.; McChesney, M.M.; Seiber, J.N.

    1988-03-01

    Methyl bromide is extensively used in agriculture (4 x 10/sup 6/ kg for 1985 in California alone as a fumigant to control nematodes, weeds, and fungi in soil and insect pests in harvested grains and nuts. Given its low boiling point (3.8/sup 0/C) and high vapor pressure (approx. 1400 Torr at 20/sup 0/C), methyl bromide will readily diffuse if not rigorously contained. Methods for determining methyl bromide and other halocarbons in air vary widely. A common practice is to trap the material from air on an adsorbent, such as polymeric resins, followed by thermal desorption either directly into the analytical instrumentation or after intermediary cryofocusing. While in some cases analytical detection limits were reasonable (parts per million range), many of the published methods were labor intensive and required special handling techniques that precluded high sample throughput. They describe here a method for the sampling and analysis of airborne methyl bromide that was designed to handle large numbers of samples through automating some critical steps of the analysis. The result was a method that allowed around-the-clock operation with a minimum of operator attention. Furthermore, the method was not specific to methyl bromide and could be used to determine other halocarbons in air.

  2. The use of Whatman-41 filters for high volume air sampling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neustadter, H. E.; Sidik, S. M.; King, R. B.; Fordyce, J. S.; Burr, J. C.

    1975-01-01

    The feasibility of using W41 filter media on a routine TSP high-volume monitoring network was determined by comparison with glass fiber (GF) filtering. Results indicate that suspended particulate samples from GF filters averaged slightly, but not significantly, higher than those from Whatman-41 filters. Some extra handling procedures were required to avoid errors due to the hygroscopic nature of W41 filters; these added procedures are not overly burdensome, however, and they allow the performance of analytical work, thus extending the capabilities of high-volume sampling. It was demonstrated that W41 filters are practical for air quality monitoring and elemental analysis in environments similar to Cleveland's.

  3. Mutagenic potential of environmental samples before and after remediation of a solvent-contaminated site

    SciTech Connect

    Donnelly, K.C.; Thomas, J.C.; Brown, K.W.

    1995-08-01

    Soil, sediment, and paint sludge samples were collected during a 4-year period from an abandoned solvent recovery site prior to and after site remediation. Samples were sequentially extracted with methylene chloride and methanol and redissolved in dimethyl sulfoxide for biological analysis. The mutagenic potential of the extracts was evaluated using the Salmonella/microsome assay with and without metabolic activation. Noncontaminated background soil samples collected off-site induced specific mutagenic activities that ranged from below detection to 28 net revertants per milligram of residue. Although several sludge samples induced specific activities that were relatively low, the maximum mutagenic response induced by a sludge sample was 1,258 net revertants per milligram of residue. Compared to background soil, elevated levels of mutagenic activity were also detected in the extracts of several samples collected from a drainage area downgradient from the waste storage pad and in the extract of sediment samples from a downgradient storm-water retention pond. The weighted activity of the noncontaminated background soil samples ranged from below detection to 15 revertants per gram of soil. The combined weighted activity of the sludge sample extracts ranged from below detection to 43,567 revertants per gram. The combined weighted activity of the extracts of samples collected after site remediation ranged from below detection to 1,273 revertants per gram. A visual inspection of the site following remediation suggested that all obvious signs of chemical contamination had been removed. However, the results from biological analysis indicate that soil collected following site remediation induced a weighted activity more than 30 times the maximum weighted activity observed in the noncontaminated background soil.

  4. A new analysis system for whole air sampling: description and results from 2013 SENEX

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lerner, B. M.; Gilman, J.; Dumas, M.; Hughes, D.; Jaksich, A.; Hatch, C. D.; Graus, M.; Warneke, C.; Apel, E. C.; Hornbrook, R. S.; Holloway, J. S.; De Gouw, J. A.

    2014-12-01

    Accurate measurement of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the troposphere is critical for the understanding of emissions and physical and chemical processes that can impact both air quality and climate. Airborne VOC measurements have proven especially challenging due to the requirement of both high sensitivity (pptv) and short sample collection times (≤15 s) to maximize spatial resolution and sampling frequency for targeted plume analysis. The use of stainless steel canisters to collect whole air samples (WAS) for post-flight analysis has been pioneered by the groups of D. Blake and E. Atlas [Blake et al., 1992; Atlas et al., 1993]. For the 2013 Southeast Nexus Study (SENEX), the NOAA ESRL CSD laboratory undertook WAS measurements for the first time. This required the construction of three new, highly-automated, and field-portable instruments designed to sample, analyze, and clean the canisters for re-use. Analysis was performed with a new custom-built gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer system. The instrument pre-concentrates analyte cryostatically into two parallel traps by means of a Stirling engine, a novel technique which obviates the need for liquid nitrogen to reach trapping temperatures of -175C. Here we present an evaluation of the retrieval of target VOC species from WAS canisters. We discuss the effects of humidity and sample age on the analyte, particularly upon C8+ alkane and aromatic species and biogenic species. Finally, we present results from several research flights during SENEX that targeted emissions from oil/natural gas production.

  5. Measurement of the Tracer Gradient and Sampling System Bias of the Hot Fuel Examination Facility Stack Air Monitoring System

    SciTech Connect

    Glissmeyer, John A.; Flaherty, Julia E.

    2011-07-20

    This report describes tracer gas uniformity and bias measurements made in the exhaust air discharge of the Hot Fuel Examination Facility at Idaho National Laboratory. The measurements were a follow-up on earlier measurements which indicated a lack of mixing of the two ventilation streams being discharged via a common stack. The lack of mixing is detrimental to the accuracy of air emission measurements. The lack of mixing was confirmed in these new measurements. The air sampling probe was found to be out of alignment and that was corrected. The suspected sampling bias in the air sample stream was disproved.

  6. Determining Optimal Location and Numbers of Sample Transects for Characterization of UXO Sites

    SciTech Connect

    BILISOLY, ROGER L.; MCKENNA, SEAN A.

    2003-01-01

    Previous work on sample design has been focused on constructing designs for samples taken at point locations. Significantly less work has been done on sample design for data collected along transects. A review of approaches to point and transect sampling design shows that transects can be considered as a sequential set of point samples. Any two sampling designs can be compared through using each one to predict the value of the quantity being measured on a fixed reference grid. The quality of a design is quantified in two ways: computing either the sum or the product of the eigenvalues of the variance matrix of the prediction error. An important aspect of this analysis is that the reduction of the mean prediction error variance (MPEV) can be calculated for any proposed sample design, including one with straight and/or meandering transects, prior to taking those samples. This reduction in variance can be used as a ''stopping rule'' to determine when enough transect sampling has been completed on the site. Two approaches for the optimization of the transect locations are presented. The first minimizes the sum of the eigenvalues of the predictive error, and the second minimizes the product of these eigenvalues. Simulated annealing is used to identify transect locations that meet either of these objectives. This algorithm is applied to a hypothetical site to determine the optimal locations of two iterations of meandering transects given a previously existing straight transect. The MPEV calculation is also used on both a hypothetical site and on data collected at the Isleta Pueblo to evaluate its potential as a stopping rule. Results show that three or four rounds of systematic sampling with straight parallel transects covering 30 percent or less of the site, can reduce the initial MPEV by as much as 90 percent. The amount of reduction in MPEV can be used as a stopping rule, but the relationship between MPEV and the results of excavation versus no

  7. Sampling and analysis of trace-organic constituents in ambient and workplace air at coal-conversion facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Flotard, R D

    1980-07-01

    A review of the recent literature reveals that current sampling procedures involve the use of glass fiber filters for particulate-sorbed organics and sorbent resins such as Tenax GC and XAD-2 for vapor-phase organics. Ultra trace-organic analysis of air pollutants or particulates may require the collection of a large (1000 to 3000 m/sup 3/) sample by a high volume air sampler. Personal air sampling requires a smaller (approx. = 0.5 m/sup 3/) and a portable collection apparatus. Trapped organic chemicals are recovered by solvent extraction or thermal desorption of the collector. Recovered organics are separated by using liquid chromatography or gas chromatography and are identified by ultraviolet or fluorescence spectroscopy, gas chromatography, or mass spectrometry. For quantification, standards are added to the air stream during sampling or to the filter or resin following sampling. Analysis of the requirement for air sampling in and around coal conversion plants, coupled with the findings of the literature review, indicates that a combined particulate-filter and solvent-extractable-resin sampling unit should be used to collect both particulate-sorbed organics and vapor-phase organics from workplace or ambient plant air. Such a sampler was developed for stationary, moderate-to-high-volume air sampling. Descriptions of the sampler are provided together with sampling efficiency information and recommendations for a sampling procedure.

  8. Statistical Properties of a DNA Sample under the Finite-Sites Model

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Z.

    1996-01-01

    Statistical properties of a DNA sample from a random-mating population of constant size are studied under the finite-sites model. It is assumed that there is no migration and no recombination occurs within the locus. A Markov process model is used for nucleotide substitution, allowing for multiple substitutions at a single site. The evolutionary rates among sites are treated as either constant or variable. The general likelihood calculation using numerical integration involves intensive computation and is feasible for three or four sequences only; it may be used for validating approximate algorithms. Methods are developed to approximate the probability distribution of the number of segregating sites in a random sample of n sequences, with either constant or variable substitution rates across sites. Calculations using parameter estimates obtained for human D-loop mitochondrial DNAs show that among-site rate variation has a major effect on the distribution of the number of segregating sites; the distribution under the finite-sites model with variable rates among sites is quite different from that under the infinite-sites model. PMID:8978077

  9. Low-flow, long-term air sampling under normal domestic activity to measure house dust mite and cockroach allergens.

    PubMed

    Park, Jung Won; Kim, Cheol Woo; Kang, Dae Bong; Lee, In Young; Choi, Soo Young; Yong, Tai-Soon; Shin, Dong Cheon; Kim, Kyu Earn; Hong, Chein-Soo

    2002-01-01

    Successful applications of air sampling for the quantification of exposure to indoor allergens have been reported, but its efficiency is still controversial. We evaluated whether the low-flow, long-term air sampling in normal domestic activity conditions can quantify the exposure of house dust mites (HDM) and cockroaches (CR) allergens or not. Airborne Der f 1 and Bla g 1 were captured with a personal air sampler in 25 bedrooms during normal domestic activity. Quantification of the major allergens in the reservoir dust and the extraction of the air sampler filters were done with two-site ELISA kits. Airborne Der f 1 was measured above the threshold level of detection in 15 houses (60%). Detection rate of airborne Der f 1 was significantly higher in those houses where D. farinae was microscopically found in the reservoir dusts (76.5% vs. 25%, chi 2 = 6.0, p = 0.014). Airborne Der f 1 was more frequently detected in the houses with higher Der f 1 (> or = 10 micrograms/g dust) in bedding reservoir dust than the other group (91% vs. 35.7%, chi 2 = 7.819, p = 0.005), and the median value of airborne Der f 1 was also significantly higher in that group (14.0 pg/m3 vs. below detection limit, p = 0.002). Airborne Der f 1 was significantly correlated with Der f 1 in bedding reservoir dust (r = 0.591, p < 0.01). Airborne Bla g 1 was measured with ELISA in 16 houses (64%), and it was more frequently detected in the houses where the CRs were captured by adhesive traps (91% vs. 57%, chi 2 = 3,484, p = 0.06). The median concentration of Bla g 1 in the filter was also higher in the houses with captured CRs (0.12 vs. 0.05 mU/m3, p = 0.06), but the level of Bla g 1 did not correlate with that of the bedding dusts or the floor dusts of kitchen. These results suggested that airborne HDM or CR allergens could be measured by low-flow, long-term air sampling, and that it might be one of appropriate modalities for evaluating personal exposure to HDM and CR allergens. PMID:12926189

  10. Multimedia Sampling During The Application Of Biosolids On A Land Test Site (Presentation)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The goal of this research study was to evaluate air and soil sampling methods and analytical techniques for commercial land application of biosolids. Biosolids, were surface applied at agronomic rates to an agricultural field. During the period of August 2004 to January 2005, 3...

  11. Lessons from UNSCOM and IAEA regarding remote monitoring and air sampling

    SciTech Connect

    Dupree, S.A.

    1996-01-01

    In 1991, at the direction of the United Nations Security Council, UNSCOM and IAEA developed plans for On-going Monitoring and Verification (OMV) in Iraq. The plans were accepted by the Security Council and remote monitoring and atmospheric sampling equipment has been installed at selected sites in Iraq. The remote monitoring equipment consists of video cameras and sensors positioned to observe equipment or activities at sites that could be used to support the development or manufacture of weapons of mass destruction, or long-range missiles. The atmospheric sampling equipment provides unattended collection of chemical samples from sites that could be used to support the development or manufacture of chemical weapon agents. To support OMV in Iraq, UNSCOM has established the Baghdad Monitoring and Verification Centre. Imagery from the remote monitoring cameras can be accessed in near-real time from the Centre through RIF communication links with the monitored sites. The OMV program in Iraq has implications for international cooperative monitoring in both global and regional contexts. However, monitoring systems such as those used in Iraq are not sufficient, in and of themselves, to guarantee the absence of prohibited activities. Such systems cannot replace on-site inspections by competent, trained inspectors. However, monitoring similar to that used in Iraq can contribute to openness and confidence building, to the development of mutual trust, and to the improvement of regional stability.

  12. A Model Using Local Weather Data to Determine the Effective Sampling Volume for PCB Congeners Collected on Passive Air Samplers

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    We have developed and evaluated a mathematical model to determine the effective sampling volumes (Veff) of PCBs and similar compounds captured using polyurethane foam passive air samplers (PUF–PAS). We account for the variability in wind speed, air temperature, and equilibrium partitioning over the course of the deployment of the samplers. The model, provided as an annotated Matlab script, predicts the Veff as a function of physical-chemical properties of each compound and meteorology from the closest Integrated Surface Database (ISD) data set obtained through NOAA’s National Centers for Environmental Information (NCEI). The model was developed to be user-friendly, only requiring basic Matlab knowledge. To illustrate the effectiveness of the model, we evaluated three independent data sets of airborne PCBs simultaneously collected using passive and active samplers: at sites in Chicago, Lancaster, UK, and Toronto, Canada. The model provides Veff values comparable to those using depuration compounds and calibration against active samplers, yielding an average congener specific concentration method ratio (active/passive) of 1.1 ± 1.2. We applied the model to PUF–PAS samples collected in Chicago and show that previous methods can underestimate concentrations of PCBs by up to 40%, especially for long deployments, deployments conducted under warming conditions, and compounds with log Koa values less than 8. PMID:26963482

  13. A Model Using Local Weather Data to Determine the Effective Sampling Volume for PCB Congeners Collected on Passive Air Samplers.

    PubMed

    Herkert, Nicholas J; Martinez, Andres; Hornbuckle, Keri C

    2016-07-01

    We have developed and evaluated a mathematical model to determine the effective sampling volumes (Veff) of PCBs and similar compounds captured using polyurethane foam passive air samplers (PUF-PAS). We account for the variability in wind speed, air temperature, and equilibrium partitioning over the course of the deployment of the samplers. The model, provided as an annotated Matlab script, predicts the Veff as a function of physical-chemical properties of each compound and meteorology from the closest Integrated Surface Database (ISD) data set obtained through NOAA's National Centers for Environmental Information (NCEI). The model was developed to be user-friendly, only requiring basic Matlab knowledge. To illustrate the effectiveness of the model, we evaluated three independent data sets of airborne PCBs simultaneously collected using passive and active samplers: at sites in Chicago, Lancaster, UK, and Toronto, Canada. The model provides Veff values comparable to those using depuration compounds and calibration against active samplers, yielding an average congener specific concentration method ratio (active/passive) of 1.1 ± 1.2. We applied the model to PUF-PAS samples collected in Chicago and show that previous methods can underestimate concentrations of PCBs by up to 40%, especially for long deployments, deployments conducted under warming conditions, and compounds with log Koa values less than 8. PMID:26963482

  14. Sampling and Analysis Instruction for the 120-F-1 Glass Dump Site

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, T.M.

    1998-03-01

    This sampling and analysis instruction has been prepared to clearly define the sampling and analysis activities to be performed to develop the basis for surveillance and maintenance of the 120-F-1 Glass Dumpsite. The purpose of this investigation is to augment historical information and obtain data to establish a technical basis for surveillance and maintenance at the site.

  15. January 2015 Groundwater Sampling at the Gnome-Coach, New Mexico, Site

    SciTech Connect

    Findlay, Rick; Kautsky, Mark

    2015-12-01

    Annual sampling was conducted January 27, 2015, to monitor groundwater for potential radionuclide contamination at the Gnome-Coach site in New Mexico. Samples were collected from wells USGS-1, USGS-4, and USGS-8 during this monitoring event. The sampling was performed as specified in the Sampling and Analysis Plan for US. Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management Sites (LMS/PRO/S04351, continually updated). A duplicate sample was collected from well USGS-8 and water levels were measured in all the monitoring wells onsite. Refer to the sample location map for well locations. Samples were analyzed by GEL Laboratories in Charleston, South Carolina. Samples were analyzed for gamma-emitting radionuclides by high-resolution gamma spectrometry, strontium-90, and tritium. The sample from well USGS-1 was analyzed for tritium using the enrichment method to achieve a lower minimum detectable concentration (MDC). Radionuclide contaminants were detected in wells USGS-4 and USGS-8. The detection of radionuclides in these wells was expected because the U.S. Geological Survey conducted a tracer test between these wells in 1963 using the dissolved radionuclides tritium, strontium-90, and cesium-137 as tracers. Radionuclide time-concentration graphs are included in this report for these wells. Analytical data obtained from this and past sampling events are also available in electronic format on the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management Geospatial Environmental Mapping System website at http://gems.lm.doe.gov/#site=GNO.

  16. Radionuclide air emission report for the Hanford Site Calendar Year 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Diediker, L.P.; Curn, B.L.; Rhoads, K.; Damberg, E.G.; Soldat, J.K.; Jette, S.J.

    1994-08-01

    This report documents radionuclide air emissions from the Hanford Site in 1993 and the resulting effective dose equivalent to any member of the public. The report has been prepared and will be submitted in accordance with reporting requirements in the Code of Federal Regulations, Title 40, Protection of the Environment, Part 61, {open_quotes}National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants,{close_quotes} Subpart H, {open_quotes}National Emission Standards for Emissions of Radionuclides Other than Radon from Department of Energy Facilities.{close_quotes}

  17. A site-specific screening comparison of modeled and monitored air dispersion and deposition for perfluorooctanoate.

    PubMed

    Barton, Catherine A; Zarzecki, Charles J; Russell, Mark H

    2010-04-01

    This work assessed the usefulness of a current air quality model (American Meteorological Society/Environmental Protection Agency Regulatory Model [AERMOD]) for predicting air concentrations and deposition of perfluorooctanoate (PFO) near a manufacturing facility. Air quality models play an important role in providing information for verifying permitting conditions and for exposure assessment purposes. It is important to ensure traditional modeling approaches are applicable to perfluorinated compounds, which are known to have unusual properties. Measured field data were compared with modeling predictions to show that AERMOD adequately located the maximum air concentration in the study area, provided representative or conservative air concentration estimates, and demonstrated bias and scatter not significantly different than that reported for other compounds. Surface soil/grass concentrations resulting from modeled deposition flux also showed acceptable bias and scatter compared with measured concentrations of PFO in soil/grass samples. Errors in predictions of air concentrations or deposition may be best explained by meteorological input uncertainty and conservatism in the PRIME algorithm used to account for building downwash. In general, AERMOD was found to be a useful screening tool for modeling the dispersion and deposition of PFO in air near a manufacturing facility. PMID:20437775

  18. Airborne Detection and Quantification of Swine Influenza A Virus in Air Samples Collected Inside, Outside and Downwind from Swine Barns

    PubMed Central

    Corzo, Cesar A.; Culhane, Marie; Dee, Scott; Morrison, Robert B.; Torremorell, Montserrat

    2013-01-01

    Airborne transmission of influenza A virus (IAV) in swine is speculated to be an important route of virus dissemination, but data are scarce. This study attempted to detect and quantify airborne IAV by virus isolation and RRT-PCR in air samples collected under field conditions. This was accomplished by collecting air samples from four acutely infected pig farms and locating air samplers inside the barns, at the external exhaust fans and downwind from the farms at distances up to 2.1 km. IAV was detected in air samples collected in 3 out of 4 farms included in the study. Isolation of IAV was possible from air samples collected inside the barn at two of the farms and in one farm from the exhausted air. Between 13% and 100% of samples collected inside the barns tested RRT-PCR positive with an average viral load of 3.20E+05 IAV RNA copies/m3 of air. Percentage of exhaust positive air samples also ranged between 13% and 100% with an average viral load of 1.79E+04 RNA copies/m3 of air. Influenza virus RNA was detected in air samples collected between 1.5 and 2.1 Km away from the farms with viral levels significantly lower at 4.65E+03 RNA copies/m3. H1N1, H1N2 and H3N2 subtypes were detected in the air samples and the hemagglutinin gene sequences identified in the swine samples matched those in aerosols providing evidence that the viruses detected in the aerosols originated from the pigs in the farms under study. Overall our results indicate that pigs can be a source of IAV infectious aerosols and that these aerosols can be exhausted from pig barns and be transported downwind. The results from this study provide evidence of the risk of aerosol transmission in pigs under field conditions. PMID:23951164

  19. July 2010 Natural Gas and Produced Water Sampling at the Gasbuggy, New Mexico, Site

    SciTech Connect

    2011-01-01

    Annual natural gas and produced water monitoring was conducted for gas wells adjacent to Section 36, where the Gasbuggy test was conducted, in accordance with the draft Long-Term Surveillance and Maintenance Plan for the Gasbuggy Site, Rio Arriba County, New Mexico. Sampling and analysis was conducted as specified in the Sampling and Analysis Plan for U.S. Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management Sites. (LMS/PLN/S04351, continually updated). Natural gas samples were collected for tritium and carbon-14 analysis. Produced water samples were collected and analyzed for tritium, gamma-emitting radionuclides (by high-resolution gamma spectrometry), gross alpha, and gross beta. An additional water sample was collected from well 29-6 Water Hole for analysis of tritium and gamma-emitting radionuclides. A duplicate produced water sample was collected from well 30-039-21743.

  20. Sorbent-based sampling methods for volatile and semi-volatile organic compounds in air Part 1: Sorbent-based air monitoring options.

    PubMed

    Woolfenden, Elizabeth

    2010-04-16

    Sorbent tubes/traps are widely used in combination with gas chromatographic (GC) analytical methods to monitor the vapour-phase fraction of organic compounds in air. Target compounds range in volatility from acetylene and freons to phthalates and PCBs and include apolar, polar and reactive species. Airborne vapour concentrations will vary depending on the nature of the location, nearby pollution sources, weather conditions, etc. Levels can range from low percent concentrations in stack and vent emissions to low part per trillion (ppt) levels in ultra-clean outdoor locations. Hundreds, even thousands of different compounds may be present in any given atmosphere. GC is commonly used in combination with mass spectrometry (MS) detection especially for environmental monitoring or for screening uncharacterised workplace atmospheres. Given the complexity and variability of organic vapours in air, no one sampling approach suits every monitoring scenario. A variety of different sampling strategies and sorbent media have been developed to address specific applications. Key sorbent-based examples include: active (pumped) sampling onto tubes packed with one or more sorbents held at ambient temperature; diffusive (passive) sampling onto sorbent tubes/cartridges; on-line sampling of air/gas streams into cooled sorbent traps; and transfer of air samples from containers (canisters, Tedlar) bags, etc.) into cooled sorbent focusing traps. Whichever sampling approach is selected, subsequent analysis almost always involves either solvent extraction or thermal desorption (TD) prior to GC(/MS) analysis. The overall performance of the air monitoring method will depend heavily on appropriate selection of key sampling and analytical parameters. This comprehensive review of air monitoring using sorbent tubes/traps is divided into 2 parts. (1) Sorbent-based air sampling option. (2) Sorbent selection and other aspects of optimizing sorbent-based air monitoring methods. The paper presents

  1. Sampling and analyses report for June 1992 semiannual postburn sampling at the RM1 UCG site, Hanna, Wyoming

    SciTech Connect

    Lindblom, S.R.

    1992-08-01

    The Rocky Mountain 1 (RMl) underground coal gasification (UCG) test was conducted from November 16, 1987 through February 26, 1988 (United Engineers and Constructors 1989) at a site approximately one mile south of Hanna, Wyoming. The test consisted of dual module operation to evaluate the controlled retracting injection point (CRIP) technology, the elongated linked well (ELW) technology, and the interaction of closely spaced modules operating simultaneously. The test caused two cavities to be formed in the Hanna No. 1 coal seam and associated overburden. The Hanna No. 1 coal seam is approximately 30 ft thick and lays at depths between 350 ft and 365 ft below the surface in the test area. The coal seam is overlain by sandstones, siltstones and claystones deposited by various fluvial environments. The groundwater monitoring was designed to satisfy the requirements of the Wyoming Department of Environmental Quality (WDEQ) in addition to providing research data toward the development of UCG technology that minimizes environmental impacts. The June 1992 semiannual groundwater.sampling took place from June 10 through June 13, 1992. This event occurred nearly 34 months after the second groundwater restoration at the RM1 site and was the fifteenth sampling event since UCG operations ceased. Samples were collected for analyses of a limited suite set of parameters as listed in Table 1. With a few exceptions, the groundwater is near baseline conditions. Data from the field measurements and analysis of samples are presented. Benzene concentrations in the groundwater were below analytical detection limits.

  2. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Site Radionuclide Air Emissions Report for Calendar Year 2012

    SciTech Connect

    Snyder, Sandra F.; Barnett, J. Matthew; Bisping, Lynn E.

    2013-06-06

    This report documents radionuclide air emissions that result in the highest effective dose equivalent (EDE) to a member of the public, referred to as the maximally exposed individual (MEI). The report has been prepared in compliance with the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), Title 40, Protection of the Environment, Part 61, National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP), Subpart H, National Emission Standards for Emissions of Radionuclides Other than Radon from Department of Energy Facilities and Washington Administrative Code (WAC) Chapter 246-247, Radiation Protection Air Emissions. The dose to the PNNL Site MEI due to routine major and minor point source emissions in 2012 from PNNL Site sources is 9E-06 mrem (9E-08 mSv) EDE. The dose from fugitive emissions (i.e., unmonitored sources) is 1E-7 mrem (1E-9 mSv) EDE. The dose from radon emissions is 2E-6 mrem (2E-08 mSv) EDE. No nonroutine emissions occurred in 2012. The total radiological dose for 2012 to the MEI from all PNNL Site radionuclide emissions, including fugitive emissions and radon, is 1E-5 mrem (1E-7 mSv) EDE, or 100,000 times smaller than the federal and state standard of 10 mrem/yr, to which the PNNL Site is in compliance.

  3. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Site Radionuclide Air Emissions Report for Calendar Year 2011

    SciTech Connect

    Snyder, Sandra F.; Barnett, J. Matthew; Bisping, Lynn E.

    2012-06-12

    This report documents radionuclide air emissions that result in the highest effective dose equivalent (EDE) to a member of the public, referred to as the maximally exposed individual (MEI). The report has been prepared in compliance with the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), Title 40, Protection of the Environment, Part 61, National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP), Subpart H, National Emission Standards for Emissions of Radionuclides Other than Radon from Department of Energy Facilities and Washington Administrative Code (WAC) Chapter 246-247, Radiation ProtectionAir Emissions. The EDE to the PNNL Site MEI due to routine emissions in 2011 from PNNL Site sources was 1.7E 05 mrem (1.7E-7 mSv) EDE. No nonroutine emissions occurred in 2011. The total radiological dose for 2011 to the MEI from all PNNL Site radionuclide emissions was more than 10,000 times smaller than the federal and state standard of 10 mrem/yr, to which the PNNL Site is in compliance.

  4. Analysis of core soil and water samples from the Cactus Crater Disposal Site at Enewetak atoll

    SciTech Connect

    Robison, W.L.; Noshkin, V.E.

    1981-02-18

    Core soil samples and water samples were collected from the Cactus Crater Disposal Site at Enewetak for analysis of /sup 137/Cs, /sup 90/Sr, /sup 239 +240/Pu and /sup 241/Am by both gamma spectroscopy and, through a contractor laboratory, by wet chemistry procedures. The samples processing methods, the analytical methods and the analytical quality control are all procedures developed for the continuing Marshall Island radioecology and dose assessment work.

  5. Technical assessment of compliance with workplace air sampling requirements at WRAP

    SciTech Connect

    HACKWORTH, M.F.

    1999-06-02

    The purpose of this Technical Assessment is to satisfy HSRCM-1, ''Hanford Site Radiological Control Manual'' Article 551.4 for a documented study of facility Workplace Air Monitoring (WAM) programs. HSRCM-1 is the primary guidance for radiological control at Waste Management Federal Services of Hanford, Inc. (WMH). The HSRCM-1 complies with Title 10. Part 835 of the Code of Federal Regulations (10CFR835). This document provides an evaluation of the compliance of the Waste Receiving and Processing facility (WRAP) WAM program to the criteria standards, requirements, and documents compliance with the requirements where appropriate. Where necessary, it also indicates changes needed to bring specific locations into compliance.

  6. Nonuniform air flow in inlets: the effect on filter deposits in the fiber sampling cassette.

    PubMed

    Baron, P A; Chen, C C; Hemenway, D R; O'Shaughnessy, P

    1994-08-01

    Smoke stream studies were combined with a new technique for visualizing a filter deposit from samples used to monitor asbestos or other fibers. Results clearly show the effect of secondary flow vortices within the sampler under anisoaxial sampling conditions. The vortices observed at low wind velocities occur when the inlet axis is situated at angles between 45 degrees and 180 degrees to the motion of the surrounding air. It is demonstrated that the vortices can create a complex nonuniform pattern in the filter deposit, especially when combined with particle settling or electrostatic interactions between the particles and the sampler. Inertial effects also may play a role in the deposit nonuniformity, as well as causing deposition on the cowl surfaces. Changes in the sampler, such as its placement, may reduce these biases. The effects noted are not likely to occur in all sampling situations, but may explain some reports of high variability on asbestos fiber filter samples. The flow patterns observed in this study are applicable to straight, thin-walled inlets. Although only compact particles were used, the air flow patterns and forces involved will have similar effects on fibers of the same aerodynamic diameter. PMID:7942509

  7. Greenhouse gas analysis of air samples collected onboard the CARIBIC passenger aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schuck, T. J.; Brenninkmeijer, C. A. M.; Slemr, F.; Xueref-Remy, I.; Zahn, A.

    2009-03-01

    CARIBIC (Civil Aircraft for the Regular Investigation of the Atmosphere Based on an Instrument Container) is a long-term atmospheric measurement program based on the use of a comprehensive scientific instrument package aboard a passenger aircraft. In addition to real time measurements, whole air sampling is performed regularly at cruising altitude in the upper troposphere and the extra-tropical UT/LS region. Air samples are analysed for greenhouse gases, NMHCs, halocarbons, and isotopic composition. The routinely performed greenhouse gas analysis comprises gas chromatography measurements of CO2, CH4, N2O and SF6. The sampling procedure, the GC system used for greenhouse gas analysis and its performance are described. Comparisons with other laboratories have shown good agreement of results as has a comparison with results from a CO2 in-situ analyser that is also part of the CARIBIC instrumentation. The timeseries of CO2 obtained from the collection of 684 samples at latitudes between 30° N and 56° N on 21 roundtrips out of Germany to different destinations in Asia between November 2005 and October 2008 is shown. A timeshift in the seasonal cyle of about one month was observed between the upper troposphere and the tropopause region. For two sets of return flights from Germany to the Philippines the relations between the four greenhouse gases CO2, CH4, N2O and SF6 are discussed in more detail. Distinct seasonal changes in the correlation between CH4 and CO2 are observed.

  8. RAZOR EX Anthrax Air Detection System for detection of Bacillus anthracis spores from aerosol collection samples: collaborative study.

    PubMed

    Hadfield, Ted; Ryan, Valorie; Spaulding, Usha K; Clemens, Kristine M; Ota, Irene M; Brunelle, Sharon L

    2013-01-01

    The RAZOR EX Anthrax Air Detection System was validated in a collaborative study for the detection of Bacillus anthracis in aerosol collection buffer. Phosphate-buffered saline was charged with 1 mg/mL standardized dust to simulate an authentic aerosol collection sample. The dust-charged buffer was spiked with either B. anthracis Ames at 2000 spores/mL or Bacillus cereus at 20 000 spores/mL. Twelve collaborators participated in the study, with four collaborators at each of three sites. Each collaborator tested 12 replicates of B. anthracis in dust-charged buffer and 12 replicates of B. cereus in dust-charged buffer. All samples sets were randomized and blind-coded. All collaborators produced valid data sets (no collaborators displayed systematic errors) and there was only one invalid data point. After unblinding, the analysis revealed a cross-collaborator probability of detection (CPOD) of 1.00 (144 positive results from 144 replicates, 95% confidence interval 0.975-1.00) for the B. anthracis samples and a CPOD of 0.00 (0 positive results from 143 replicates, 95% confidence interval 0.00-0.0262) for the B. cereus samples. These data meet the requirements of AOAC Standard Method Performance Requirement 2010.003, developed by the Stakeholder Panel on Agent Detection Assays. PMID:23767365

  9. Biomimetic air sampling for detection of low concentrations of molecules and bioagents : LDRD 52744 final report.

    SciTech Connect

    Hughes, Robert Clark

    2003-12-01

    Present methods of air sampling for low concentrations of chemicals like explosives and bioagents involve noisy and power hungry collectors with mechanical parts for moving large volumes of air. However there are biological systems that are capable of detecting very low concentrations of molecules with no mechanical moving parts. An example is the silkworm moth antenna which is a highly branched structure where each of 100 branches contains about 200 sensory 'hairs' which have dimensions of 2 microns wide by 100 microns long. The hairs contain about 3000 pores which is where the gas phase molecules enter the aqueous (lymph) phase for detection. Simulations of diffusion of molecules indicate that this 'forest' of hairs is 'designed' to maximize the extraction of the vapor phase molecules. Since typical molecules lose about 4 decades in diffusion constant upon entering the liquid phase, it is important to allow air diffusion to bring the molecule as close to the 'sensor' as possible. The moth acts on concentrations as low as 1000 molecules per cubic cm. (one part in 1e16). A 3-D collection system of these dimensions could be fabricated by micromachining techniques available at Sandia. This LDRD addresses the issues involved with extracting molecules from air onto micromachined structures and then delivering those molecules to microsensors for detection.

  10. Quantifying water and air redistribution in heterogeneous sand sample by neutron imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Šácha, Jan; Sobotková, Martina; Jelínková, Vladimíra; Sněhota, Michal; Vontobel, Peter; Hovind, Jan

    2014-05-01

    Significant temporal variation of quasi saturated hydraulic conductivity (Kqs) has been observed to date in number of infiltration experiments conducted mainly on heterogeneous soil of Cambisol. The change of quasi-saturated hydraulic conductivity cannot be precisely described by existing models. The Kqs variations has been recently attributed to a changing distribution of the entrapped air and water within the sample. It is expected that air is moved to the preferential pathway and acts as a barrier there. To support this assumption a ponded infiltration experiment was conducted on a soil sample packed into the quartz glass column of inner diameter of 34 mm. The sample composition represents simplified heterogeneity of the natural soil but also allow the easy quantitative water content determination in individual subdomains of the sample. The matrix formed by a fine sand was surrounded with regions of coarse sand representing preferential flow pathways. The Kqs was determined from the known hydraulic gradient and measured volume flux. The experiment was monitored by neutron radiography. Volume of water in the sample calculated from neutron projections matched very well with actually infiltrated volume in the sample during first 40 second after beginning of infiltration. From the acquired radiographic images the 3D tomography images were reconstructed to obtain the spatial distribution of the water content within the sample. Difference between water volume calculated from radiography and tomography images was no more than 5%. While the total amount of water determined by NR within the sample during the quasi steady state flow remains practically constant (27.9 cm3 at the beginning and 28.6 cm3 on the end of infiltration) the water content in the coarse fraction decreases (from 0.333 to 0.324) and the water content in the fine fraction increases (from 0.414 to 0.436) in 5 hours. Similarly to previous experiments performed on natural Cambisols, the results support

  11. Glyphosate–rich air samples induce IL–33, TSLP and generate IL–13 dependent airway inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Sudhir; Khodoun, Marat; Kettleson, Eric M.; McKnight, Christopher; Reponen, Tiina; Grinshpun, Sergey A.; Adhikari, Atin

    2014-01-01

    Several low weight molecules have often been implicated in the induction of occupational asthma. Glyphosate, a small molecule herbicide, is widely used in the world. There is a controversy regarding a role of glyphosate in developing asthma and rhinitis among farmers, the mechanism of which is unexplored. The aim of this study was to explore the mechanisms of glyphosate induced pulmonary pathology by utilizing murine models and real environmental samples. C57BL/6, TLR4−/−, and IL-13−/− mice inhaled extracts of glyphosate-rich air samples collected on farms during spraying of herbicides or inhaled different doses of glyphosate and ovalbumin. The cellular response, humoral response, and lung function of exposed mice were evaluated. Exposure to glyphosate-rich air samples as well as glyphosate alone to the lungs increased: eosinophil and neutrophil counts, mast cell degranulation, and production of IL-33, TSLP, IL-13, and IL-5. In contrast, in vivo systemic IL-4 production was not increased. Co-administration of ovalbumin with glyphosate did not substantially change the inflammatory immune response. However, IL-13-deficiency resulted in diminished inflammatory response but did not have a significant effect on airway resistance upon methacholine challenge after 7 or 21 days of glyphosate exposure. Glyphosate-rich farm air samples as well as glyphosate alone were found to induce pulmonary IL-13-dependent inflammation and promote Th2 type cytokines, but not IL-4 for glyphosate alone. This study, for the first time, provides evidence for the mechanism of glyphosate-induced occupational lung disease. PMID:25172162

  12. Hanford Site Environmental Surveillance Master Sampling Schedule for Calendar Year 2009

    SciTech Connect

    Bisping, Lynn E.

    2009-01-20

    Environmental surveillance of the Hanford Site and surrounding areas is conducted by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory for the U.S. Department of Energy. Sampling is conducted to evaluate levels of radioactive and nonradioactive pollutants in the Hanford environs, as required in DOE Order 450.1 and DOE Order 5400.5. This document contains the calendar year 2009 schedule for the routine collection of samples for the Surface Environmental Surveillance Project and Drinking Water Monitoring Project. Each section includes sampling locations, sampling frequencies, sample types, and analyses to be performed. In some cases, samples are scheduled on a rotating basis. If a sample will not be collected in 2009, the anticipated year for collection is provided. Maps showing approximate sampling locations are included for media scheduled for collection in 2009.

  13. Sampling size in the verification of manufactured-supplied air kerma strengths

    SciTech Connect

    Ramos, Luis Isaac; Martinez Monge, Rafael

    2005-11-15

    Quality control mandate that the air kerma strengths (S{sub K}) of permanent seeds be verified, this is usually done by statistics inferred from 10% of the seeds. The goal of this paper is to proposed a new sampling method in which the number of seeds to be measured will be set beforehand according to an a priori statistical level of uncertainty. The results are based on the assumption that the S{sub K} has a normal distribution. To demonstrate this, the S{sub K} of each of the seeds measured was corrected to ensure that the average S{sub K} of its sample remained the same. In this process 2030 results were collected and analyzed using a normal plot. In our opinion, the number of seeds sampled should be determined beforehand according to an a priori level of statistical uncertainty.

  14. The contribution of nitro- and methylnitronaphthalenes to the vapor-phase mutagenicity of ambient air samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, Pamela; Harger, William P.; Arey, Janet

    1- and 2-Nitronaphthalene (NN) and the 14 methylnitronaphthalene (MNN) isomers were identified and quantified in ambient vapor-phase samples collected in Redlands, CA during moderate photochemical air pollution. The mutagenic activities of NN and MNN standards were determined using a microsuspension-preincubation modification of the Ames Salmonella bacterial reversion assay in strain TA98 without microsomal activation. The calculated contributions of the NNs and MNNs to the total vapor-phase ambient mutagenic activity were ˜ 18 and ˜ 32% for daytime and nighttime composite samples, respectively. Enhanced mutagenic activity in the nighttime sample was attributed to NN and MNN formation from nighttime N03 radical-initiated reactions of naphthalene and the methylnaphthalenes.

  15. Atmospheric trace gas measurements with a new clean air sampling system

    SciTech Connect

    Leifer, R.; Sommers, K.; Guggenheim, S.F.

    1981-10-01

    The development of a new clean air sampling system for the Department of Energy's WB-57F aircraft has allowed the analysis of CCl/sub 3/F (Fluorocarbon-11), CCl/sub 2/F/sub 2/ (Fluorocarbon-12), CHClF/sub 2/ (Fluorocarbon-22), C/sub 2/Cl/sub 3/F/sub 3/ (Fluorocarbon-113), CH/sub 4/, CO, CO/sub 2/, N/sub 2/O, CH/sub 3/Cl, CCl/sub 4/, CH/sub 3/CCl/sub 3/, OCS and SF/sub 6/ in tropospheric and stratospheric samples. Samples collected during the interception of the plume from the eruption of Mount St. Helens indicate that OCS was injected into the stratosphere during the eruption. A large CO/sub 2/ gradient was found at 19.2 km on this flight.

  16. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers and alternative flame retardants in air and precipitation samples from the northern Lake Victoria region, East Africa.

    PubMed

    Arinaitwe, Kenneth; Muir, Derek C G; Kiremire, Bernard T; Fellin, Phil; Li, Henrik; Teixeira, Camilla

    2014-01-01

    High volume air and precipitation samples were collected close to the shore of Lake Victoria at Entebbe, Uganda, between October 2008 and July 2010 inclusive. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and alternative flame retardants (AFRs) were analyzed by GC-MS. BDEs 47, 99, and 209 were the predominant PBDEs with mean concentrations (in air) of 9.84, 4.38, 8.27 pg m(-3) and mean fluxes in precipitation of 3.40, 6.23, and 7.82 ng m(-2) sample(-1), respectively. 1,2-bis(2,4,6-tribromophenoxy)ethane (BTBPE), and hexabromocyclododecane (HBCDD), anti- and syn-Dechlorane plus were detected at levels comparable with those of PBDEs. Both PBDEs and AFRs in air generally increased from 2008 to 2010. Elevated PBDE concentrations in air were associated with slow moving low altitude air masses from the region immediately adjacent to the lake, while low concentrations were mostly associated with fast moving westerly and southwesterly air masses. Analysis of the octa- and nona-BDE profiles suggested photolysis and pyrolytic debromination of BDE-209 in the air samples. The highly halogenated and most abundant PBDEs and AFRs in air also predominated in precipitation samples. This is the first study to report flame retardants in high volume air samples and precipitation in Equatorial Africa. PMID:24400732

  17. Evaluation of passive air sampler calibrations: Selection of sampling rates and implications for the measurement of persistent organic pollutants in air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melymuk, Lisa; Robson, Matthew; Helm, Paul A.; Diamond, Miriam L.

    2011-04-01

    Polyurethane foam (PUF) passive air samplers (PAS) are a common and highly useful method of sampling persistent organic pollutants (POP) concentrations in air. PAS calibration is necessary to obtain reasonable and comparable semi-quantitative measures of air concentrations. Various methods are found in the literature concerning PAS calibration. 35 studies on PAS use and calibration are examined here, in conjunction with a study involving 10 PAS deployed concurrently in outdoor air with a low-volume air sampler in order to measure the sampling rates of PUF-PAS for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), polycyclic musks (PCMs), and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Based on this analysis it is recommended that (1) PAS should be assumed to represent bulk rather than gas-phase compound concentrations due to the sampling of particle-bound compounds, (2) calibration of PAS sampling rates is more accurately achieved using an active low-volume air sampler rather than depuration compounds since the former measures gas- and particle-phase compounds and does so continuously over the deployment period of the PAS, and (3) homolog-specific sampling rates based on KOA groupings be used in preference to compound/congener-specific or single sampling rates.

  18. Radionuclide air emissions report for the Hanford site calendar year 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Gleckler, B.P., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-06-26

    This report documents radionuclide air emissions from the Hanford Site in 1995, and the resulting effective dose equivalent (FDE) to the maximally exposed member of the public, referred to as the `MEI.` The report has been prepared and will be submitted in accordance with reporting requirements in the Code of Federal Regulations, Title 40, Protection of the Environment, Part 61, `National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants,` Subpart H, `National Emission Standards for Emissions of Radionuclides Other than Radon from Department of Energy Facilities.` This report has also been prepared for and will be submitted in accordance with the reporting requirements of the Washington Administrative Code Chapter 246-247, `Radiation Protection-Air Emissions.`

  19. A cautionary note on substituting spatial subunits for repeated temporal sampling in studies of site occupancy

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kendall, William L.; White, Gary C.

    2009-01-01

    1. Assessing the probability that a given site is occupied by a species of interest is important to resource managers, as well as metapopulation or landscape ecologists. Managers require accurate estimates of the state of the system, in order to make informed decisions. Models that yield estimates of occupancy, while accounting for imperfect detection, have proven useful by removing a potentially important source of bias. To account for detection probability, multiple independent searches per site for the species are required, under the assumption that the species is available for detection during each search of an occupied site. 2. We demonstrate that when multiple samples per site are defined by searching different locations within a site, absence of the species from a subset of these spatial subunits induces estimation bias when locations are exhaustively assessed or sampled without replacement. 3. We further demonstrate that this bias can be removed by choosing sampling locations with replacement, or if the species is highly mobile over a short period of time. 4. Resampling an existing data set does not mitigate bias due to exhaustive assessment of locations or sampling without replacement. 5. Synthesis and applications. Selecting sampling locations for presence/absence surveys with replacement is practical in most cases. Such an adjustment to field methods will prevent one source of bias, and therefore produce more robust statistical inferences about species occupancy. This will in turn permit managers to make resource decisions based on better knowledge of the state of the system.

  20. Soyuz 23 Return Samples: Assessment of Air Quality Aboard the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    James, John T.

    2011-01-01

    Six mini-grab sample containers (m-GSCs) were returned aboard Soyuz 23 because of concerns that new air pollutants had been present in the air and these were getting into the water recovery system. The Total Organic Carbon Analyzer had been giving increasing readings of total organic carbon (TOC) in the potable water, and it was postulated that an increased load into the system was responsible. The TOC began to decline in late October, 2010. The toxicological assessment of 6 m-GSCs from the ISS is shown in Table 1. The recoveries of 13C-acetone, fluorobenzene, and chlorobenzene from the GSCs averaged 73, 82, and 59%, respectively. We are working to understand the sub-optimal recovery of chlorobenzene.

  1. Belowground Biomass Sampling to Estimate Fine Root Mass across NEON Sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spencer, J. J.; Meier, C. L.; Abercrombie, H.; Everhart, J. C.

    2013-12-01

    Production of belowground biomass is an important and relatively uncharacterized component of the net primary productivity (NPP) of ecosystems. Fine root productivity makes up a significant portion of total belowground production because fine roots turn over rapidly, and therefore contribute disproportionately to annual estimates of belowground net primary productivity (BNPP). One of the major goals of the National Ecological Observatory Network (NEON) is to quantify above- and below-ground NPP at 60 sites within 20 different eco-climactic regions. NEON's Terrestrial Observation System will carry out belowground biomass sampling throughout the life of the observatory to estimate fine root production. However, belowground biomass sampling during NEON operations will be constrained to a maximum depth of 50cm. This limited depth range leaves the question of what proportion of total fine root mass is being collected and how to optimally characterize belowground biomass given sampling depth limitations. During the construction period, NEON is characterizing fine root biomass distribution at depth down to 2m at each site, as well as physical and chemical properties in each soil horizon. Each sampling unit is a pit (2m deep and approximately 1.5m wide), dug in the site's dominant vegetation type where fine root biomass sampling will also occur during Operations. To sample fine root biomass in each pit, soil samples of a known volume are taken from three vertical profiles down the face of the pit. Samples are then wet sieved to extract fine root mass, and roots are dried at 65°C for 48 hours and then weighed. The soil pit data are used to estimate the proportion of total fine root biomass from each site as a function of depth. Non-linear curves are fitted to the data to calculate total fine root mass at depth and to provide estimates of the proportion of the total fine root mass that is sampled at each site during NEON's 30 year operational sampling. The belowground

  2. Results of Self-Absorption Study on the Versapor 3000 Filters for Radioactive Particulate Air Sampling

    SciTech Connect

    Barnett, J. Matthew; Cullinan, Valerie I.; Barnett, Debra S.; Trang-Le, Truc LT; Bliss, Mary; Greenwood, Lawrence R.; Ballinger, Marcel Y.

    2009-02-17

    Since the mid-1980s, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has used a value of 0.85 as the correction factor for self absorption of activity for particulate radioactive air samples collected from building exhaust for environmental monitoring. This value accounts for activity that cannot be detected by direct counting of alpha and beta particles. Emissions can be degraded or blocked by filter fibers for particles buried in the filter material or by inactive dust particles collected with the radioactive particles. These filters are used for monitoring air emissions from PNNL stacks for radioactive particles. This paper describes an effort to re-evaluate self-absorption effects in particulate radioactive air sample filters (Versapor® 3000, 47 mm diameter) used at PNNL. There were two methods used to characterize the samples. Sixty samples were selected from the archive for acid digestion to compare the radioactivity measured by direct gas-flow proportional counting of filters to the results obtained after acid digestion of the filter and counting again by gas-flow proportional detection. Thirty different sample filters were selected for visible light microscopy to evaluate filter loading and particulate characteristics. Mass-loading effects were also considered. Filter ratios were calculated by dividing the initial counts by the post-digestion counts with the expectation that post-digestion counts would be higher because digestion would expose radioactivity embedded in the filter in addition to that on top of the filter. Contrary to expectations, the post digestion readings were almost always lower than initial readings and averaged approximately half the initial readings for both alpha and beta activity. Before and after digestion readings appeared to be related to each other, but with a low coefficient of determination (R^2) value. The ratios had a wide range of values indicating that this method did not provide sufficient precision to quantify self

  3. Air-soil exchange of PCBs: levels and temporal variations at two sites in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Yolsal, Didem; Salihoglu, Güray; Tasdemir, Yücel

    2014-03-01

    Seasonal distribution of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) at the air-soil intersection was determined for two regions: one with urban characteristics where traffic is dense (BUTAL) and the other representing the coastal zone (Mudanya). Fifty-one air and soil samples were simultaneously collected. Total PCB (Σ82 PCB) levels in the soil samples collected during a 1-year period ranged between 105 and 7,060 pg/g dry matter (dm) (BUTAL) and 110 and 2,320 pg/g dm (Mudanya). Total PCB levels in the gaseous phase were measured to be between 100 and 910 pg/m(3) (BUTAL) and 75 and 1,025 pg/m(3) (Mudanya). Variations in the concentrations were observed depending on the season. Though the PCB concentrations measured in the atmospheres of both regions in the summer months were high, they were found to be lower in winter. However, while soil PCB levels were measured to be high at BUTAL during summer months, they were found to be high during winter months in Mudanya. The direction and amount of the PCB movement were determined by calculating the gaseous phase change fluxes at air-soil intersection. While a general PCB movement from soil to air was found for BUTAL, the PCB movement from air to soil was calculated for the Mudanya region in most of the sampling events. During the warmer seasons PCB movement towards the atmosphere was observed due to evaporation from the soil. With decreases in the temperature, both decreases in the number of PCB congeners occurring in the air and a change in the direction of some congeners were observed, possibly caused by deposition from the atmosphere to the soil. 3-CB and 4-CB congeners were found to be dominant in the atmosphere, and 4-, 5-, and 6-CBs were found to dominate in the surface soils. PMID:24293299

  4. Method validation program for the long duration sampling of PCDDs/PCDFs in ambient air

    SciTech Connect

    Maisel, B.E.; Hunt, G.T.; Hoyt, M.P.; Rowe, N.; Scarfo, L.

    1994-12-31

    A method validation program was completed to assess the technical viability of extended, long duration sampling periods (15- and 30-day) for the collection of PCDDs/PCDFs in ambient air in lieu of the 48-hour sampling periods typically employed. This long duration approach, if successful, would provide measurements data more representative of average ambient PCDDs/PCDFs levels on an annual basis, and hence provide enhanced support of the 1.0 pg/m{sup 3} annual ambient standard for PCDDs/PCDFs (expressed at 1987 EPA toxic equivalents) required by Connecticut regulation. The method validation program utilized nine collocated PUF samplers which were operated for 15-day and 30-day periods during each of two seasonal monitoring campaigns (winter and summer). Samples were analyzed using high resolution gas chromatography/high resolution mass spectrometry (HRGC/HRMS) based on EPA Method 8290. Each PUF cartridge consisted of two foam halves; the top half PUF and filter were analyzed as a single sample separately from the bottom half PUF section. This approach provided an assessment of analyte breakthrough using the sampling system for large sample volumes of approximately 4,000 m{sup 3} and 8,000 m{sup 3} for the 15-day and respectively.

  5. Recovery and Determination of Adsorbed Technetium on Savannah River Site Charcoal Stack Samples

    SciTech Connect

    Lahoda, Kristy G.; Engelmann, Mark D.; Farmer, Orville T.; Ballou, Nathan E.

    2008-03-01

    Experimental results are provided for the sample analyses for technetium (Tc) in charcoal samples placed in-line with a Savannah River Site (SRS) processing stack effluent stream as a part of an environmental surveillance program. The method for Tc removal from charcoal was based on that originally developed with high purity charcoal. Presented is the process that allowed for the quantitative analysis of 99Tc in SRS charcoal stack samples with and without 97Tc as a tracer. The results obtained with the method using the 97Tc tracer quantitatively confirm the results obtained with no tracer added. All samples contain 99Tc at the pg g-1 level.

  6. March 2010 Groundwater Sampling at the Project Shoal Site, Nevada (Data Validation Package)

    SciTech Connect

    2011-03-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management conducted annual sampling at the Project Shoal Area (Shoal) in March 2010. Wells HC-4, HC-5, HC-7, HC-8, MV-1, MV-2 and MV-3 were sampled March 10-12, 2010, as specified in the Sampling and Analysis Plan for U.S. Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management Sites (LMS/PLN/S04351, continually updated). Wells HC-1, HC-2, HC-3, and HC-6 were sampled March 24, 2010, by Desert Research Institute personnel.

  7. Atmospheric profile retrieval with AIRS data and validation at the ARM CART site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Xuebao; Li, Jun; Zhang, Wenjian; Wang, Fang

    2005-09-01

    The physical retrieval algorithm of atmospheric temperature and moisture distribution from the Atmospheric InfraRed Sounder (AIRS) radiances is presented. The retrieval algorithm is applied to AIRS clearsky radiance measurements. The algorithm employs a statistical retrieval followed by a subsequent nonlinear physical retrieval. The regression coefficients for the statistical retrieval are derived from a dataset of global radiosonde observations (RAOBs) comprising atmospheric temperature, moisture, and ozone profiles. Evaluation of the retrieved profiles is performed by a comparison with RAOBs from the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program Cloud And Radiation Testbed (CART) in Oklahoma, U. S. A. Comparisons show that the physicallybased AIRS retrievals agree with the RAOBs from the ARM CART site with a Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) of 1 K on average for temperature profiles above 850 hPa, and approximately 10% on average for relative humidity profiles. With its improved spectral resolution, AIRS depicts more detailed structure than the current Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) sounder when comparing AIRS sounding retrievals with the operational GOES sounding products.

  8. Indoor air sampling and mutagenicity studies related to emissions from unvented coal combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Mumford, J.L.; Harris, D.B.; Williams, K.; Chuang, J.C.; Cooke, M.

    1986-07-01

    The purpose of the study is to develop sampling strategies and bioassay methods for indoor air in homes. The work reported here was conducted to prepare for a joint U.S.-China field study in Xuan Wei County, Yunnan Province, southern China, where the residents traditionally burn coal or wood for domestic cooking and heating without flue ventilation. These residents are exposed daily to high levels of combustion smoke and have unusually high lung cancer mortality rates, the women's rate the highest in China, and the men's rate among the highest. The paper reports the chemical and biological characterization of coal emissions from a simulated combustion laboratory.

  9. Adaptive Sampling approach to environmental site characterization at Joliet Army Ammunition Plant: Phase 2 demonstration

    SciTech Connect

    Bujewski, G.E.; Johnson, R.L.

    1996-04-01

    Adaptive sampling programs provide real opportunities to save considerable time and money when characterizing hazardous waste sites. This Strategic Environmental Research and Development Program (SERDP) project demonstrated two decision-support technologies, SitePlanner{trademark} and Plume{trademark}, that can facilitate the design and deployment of an adaptive sampling program. A demonstration took place at Joliet Army Ammunition Plant (JAAP), and was unique in that it was tightly coupled with ongoing Army characterization work at the facility, with close scrutiny by both state and federal regulators. The demonstration was conducted in partnership with the Army Environmental Center`s (AEC) Installation Restoration Program and AEC`s Technology Development Program. AEC supported researchers from Tufts University who demonstrated innovative field analytical techniques for the analysis of TNT and DNT. SitePlanner{trademark} is an object-oriented database specifically designed for site characterization that provides an effective way to compile, integrate, manage and display site characterization data as it is being generated. Plume{trademark} uses a combination of Bayesian analysis and geostatistics to provide technical staff with the ability to quantitatively merge soft and hard information for an estimate of the extent of contamination. Plume{trademark} provides an estimate of contamination extent, measures the uncertainty associated with the estimate, determines the value of additional sampling, and locates additional samples so that their value is maximized.

  10. Using site-specific soil samples as a substitution for improved hydrological and nonpoint source predictions.

    PubMed

    Chen, Lei; Wang, Guobo; Zhong, Yucen; Zhao, Xin; Shen, Zhenyao

    2016-08-01

    Soil databases are one of the most important inputs for watershed models, and the quality of soil properties affects how well a model performs. The objectives of this study were to (1) quantify the sensitivity of model outputs to soil properties and to (2) use site-specific soil properties as a substitution for more accurate hydrological and nonpoint source (H/NPS) predictions. Soil samples were collected from a typical mountainous watershed in China, and the impacts of soil sample parameters on H/NPS predictions were quantified using the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT). The most sensitive parameters related to predicting flow, sediment, and total phosphorus (TP) mainly were the soil hydrological, the channel erosion processes, and the initial soil chemical environment, respectively. When the site-specific soil properties were used, the uncertainties (coefficient of variation) related to predicting the hydrology, sediment and TP decreased by 75∼80 %, 75∼84 %, and 46∼61 %, respectively. Based on changes in the Nash-Sutcliff coefficient, the model performance improved by 4.9 and 19.45 % for the hydrological and sediment model, accordingly. However, site-specific soil properties did not contribute to better TP predictions because of the high spatial variability of the soil P concentrations across the large watershed. Thus, although site-specific soil samples can be used to obtain more accurate H/NPS predictions, more sampling sites are required to apply this method in large watersheds. PMID:27146539

  11. Siting-selection study for the Soyland Power Cooperative, Inc. , compressed-air energy-storage system (CAES)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-01-01

    A method used for siting a compressed air energy storage (CAES) system using geotechnical and environmental criteria is explained using the siting of a proposed 220 MW water-compensated CAES plant in Illinois as an example. Information is included on the identification and comparative ranking of 28 geotechnically and environmental sites in Illinois, the examination of fatal flaws, e.g., mitigation, intensive studies, costly studies, permit denials, at 7 sites; and the selection of 3 sites for further geological surveying. (LCL)

  12. Hanford Site Environmental Surveillance Master Sampling Schedule for Calendar Year 2008

    SciTech Connect

    Bisping, Lynn E.

    2008-01-01

    Environmental surveillance of the Hanford Site and surrounding areas is conducted by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory for the U.S. Department of Energy. Sampling is conducted to evaluate levels of radioactive and nonradioactive pollutants in the Hanford environs, as required in DOE Order 450.1, "Environmental Protection Program," and DOE Order 5400.5, "Radiation Protection of the Public and the Environment." The environmental surveillance sampling design is described in the "Hanford Site Environmental Monitoring Plan, United States Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office." This document contains the calendar year 2008 schedule for the routine collection of samples for the Surface Environmental Surveillance Project and Drinking Water Monitoring Project. Each section includes sampling locations, sampling frequencies, sample types, and analyses to be performed. In some cases, samples are scheduled on a rotating basis. If a sample will not be collected in 2008, the anticipated year for collection is provided. Maps showing approximate sampling locations are included for media scheduled for collection in 2008.

  13. A multi-residue method for characterization and determination of atmospheric pesticides measured at two French urban and rural sampling sites.

    PubMed

    Baraud, Laurent; Tessier, Didier; Aaron, Jean-Jacques; Quisefit, Jean-Paul; Pinart, Johann

    2003-12-01

    The extensive use of pesticides to protect agricultural crops can result in the transfer of these compounds into the atmosphere and their diffusion towards urban areas. Precise evaluation of the geographic impact of this type of pollution is important environmentally. In this paper, analytical methods for the sampling, characterization, and determination of agricultural pesticides in air were developed; the methods were then applied in the Paris and Champagne regions. Sixteen pesticides belonging to nine chemical families were monitored. Sampling was carried out in urban (Paris) and rural (Aube district) sites, utilizing either a high-volume pump (12.5 m3 h(-1)) (urban site) or a low-volume pump (2.3 m3 h(-1)) for the rural site. Quartz filters and polyurethane foams (PUF) were used for sampling in all cases. After extracting the samples and concentrating the recovered solutions, high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis with UV detection was performed. Identification of the pesticides was confirmed by applying to the HPLC measurements a novel UV-detection procedure based on the normalized absorbance variation with wavelength (Noravawa procedure). The presence of metsulfuron methyl, isoproturon, linuron, deltamethrin (and/or malathion), and chlorophenoxy acids (2,4-D and MCPP) was found at the urban sampling site at levels ranging from about 1 to 1130 ng m(-3) of air, depending on the compound and sampling period. On the rural sampling site residues of isoproturon, deltamethrin (and/or malathion), MCPP, and 2,4-D were generally detected at higher levels (19-5130 ng m(-3)) than on the urban site, as expected. The effects of the weather conditions and agricultural activity on the atmospheric concentrations of pesticides are discussed, as are long-range atmospheric transfer processes for these pesticides. PMID:13680058

  14. Cluster analysis of intradiurnal holm oak pollen cycles at peri-urban and rural sampling sites in southwestern Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernández-Ceballos, M. A.; García-Mozo, H.; Galán, C.

    2015-08-01

    The impact of regional and local weather and of local topography on intradiurnal variations in airborne pollen levels was assessed by analysing bi-hourly holm oak ( Quercus ilex subsp. ballota (Desf.) Samp.) pollen counts at two sampling stations located 40 km apart, in southwestern Spain (Cordoba city and El Cabril nature reserve) over the period 2010-2011. Pollen grains were captured using Hirst-type volumetric spore traps. Analysis of regional weather conditions was based on the computation of backward trajectories using the HYSPLIT model. Sampling days were selected on the basis of phenological data; rainy days were eliminated, as were days lying outside a given range of percentiles (P95-P5). Analysis of cycles for the study period, as a whole, revealed differences between sampling sites, with peak bi-hourly pollen counts at night in Cordoba and at midday in El Cabril. Differences were also noted in the influence of surface weather conditions (temperature, relative humidity and wind). Cluster analysis of diurnal holm oak pollen cycles revealed the existence of five clusters at each sampling site. Analysis of backward trajectories highlighted specific regional air-flow patterns associated with each site. Findings indicated the contribution of both nearby and distant pollen sources to diurnal cycles. The combined use of cluster analysis and meteorological analysis proved highly suitable for charting the impact of local weather conditions on airborne pollen-count patterns. This method, and the specific tools used here, could be used not only to study diurnal variations in counts for other pollen types and in other biogeographical settings, but also in a number of other research fields involving airborne particle transport modelling, e.g. radionuclide transport in emergency preparedness exercises.

  15. Cluster analysis of intradiurnal holm oak pollen cycles at peri-urban and rural sampling sites in southwestern Spain.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Ceballos, M A; García-Mozo, H; Galán, C

    2015-08-01

    The impact of regional and local weather and of local topography on intradiurnal variations in airborne pollen levels was assessed by analysing bi-hourly holm oak (Quercus ilex subsp. ballota (Desf.) Samp.) pollen counts at two sampling stations located 40 km apart, in southwestern Spain (Cordoba city and El Cabril nature reserve) over the period 2010-2011. Pollen grains were captured using Hirst-type volumetric spore traps. Analysis of regional weather conditions was based on the computation of backward trajectories using the HYSPLIT model. Sampling days were selected on the basis of phenological data; rainy days were eliminated, as were days lying outside a given range of percentiles (P95-P5). Analysis of cycles for the study period, as a whole, revealed differences between sampling sites, with peak bi-hourly pollen counts at night in Cordoba and at midday in El Cabril. Differences were also noted in the influence of surface weather conditions (temperature, relative humidity and wind). Cluster analysis of diurnal holm oak pollen cycles revealed the existence of five clusters at each sampling site. Analysis of backward trajectories highlighted specific regional air-flow patterns associated with each site. Findings indicated the contribution of both nearby and distant pollen sources to diurnal cycles. The combined use of cluster analysis and meteorological analysis proved highly suitable for charting the impact of local weather conditions on airborne pollen-count patterns. This method, and the specific tools used here, could be used not only to study diurnal variations in counts for other pollen types and in other biogeographical settings, but also in a number of other research fields involving airborne particle transport modelling, e.g. radionuclide transport in emergency preparedness exercises. PMID:25315264

  16. October 1999 Groundwater Sampling and Data Analysis, Distler Brickyard Site, Hardin County, Kentucky

    SciTech Connect

    J. P. Martin, L. N. Peterson; C. J. Taylor

    2000-03-01

    This report describes the results of a sampling event conducted at the Distler Brickyard Superfund Site, Hardin County, Kentucky, October 1999. The purpose of the sampling event was to evaluate the extent of natural biodegradation of chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbons (CAH) occurring at the Site. Sampling locations were selected to evaluate three areas of the suspected CAH plume: the source area, an axial cross-section, and a downgradient transect. Due to inadequate recharge to and the poor physical condition of some monitoring wells at the Site, the sampling approach was modified to reflect wells that could be sampled. Results indicate that natural anaerobic degradation of chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbons is occurring in the presumed source area around monitoring well GW-11. The primary contaminant of concern, trichloroethene, migrates downgradient from the source area into the Coarse Grained Alluvium Aquifer at concentrations slightly greater than the Maximum Contaminant Level (MCL). Based on the available, the following hypothesis is proposed: the source area has been remediated through soil removal activities and subsequent anaerobic reductive dechlorination. If this is the case, this Site may be a good candidate for implementation of a monitored natural attenuation remedy. However, more data are necessary before this hypothesis can be confirmed.

  17. Contemporary-use pesticides in personal air samples during pregnancy and blood samples at delivery among urban minority mothers and newborns.

    PubMed Central

    Whyatt, Robin M; Barr, Dana B; Camann, David E; Kinney, Patrick L; Barr, John R; Andrews, Howard F; Hoepner, Lori A; Garfinkel, Robin; Hazi, Yair; Reyes, Andria; Ramirez, Judyth; Cosme, Yesenia; Perera, Frederica P

    2003-01-01

    We have measured 29 pesticides in plasma samples collected at birth between 1998 and 2001 from 230 mother and newborn pairs enrolled in the Columbia Center for Children's Environmental Health prospective cohort study. Our prior research has shown widespread pesticide use during pregnancy among this urban minority cohort from New York City. We also measured eight pesticides in 48-hr personal air samples collected from the mothers during pregnancy. The following seven pesticides were detected in 48-83% of plasma samples (range, 1-270 pg/g): the organophosphates chlorpyrifos and diazinon, the carbamates bendiocarb and 2-isopropoxyphenol (metabolite of propoxur), and the fungicides dicloran, phthalimide (metabolite of folpet and captan), and tetrahydrophthalimide (metabolite of captan and captafol). Maternal and cord plasma levels were similar and, except for phthalimide, were highly correlated (p < 0.001). Chlorpyrifos, diazinon, and propoxur were detected in 100% of personal air samples (range, 0.7-6,010 ng/m(3)). Diazinon and propoxur levels were significantly higher in the personal air of women reporting use of an exterminator, can sprays, and/or pest bombs during pregnancy compared with women reporting no pesticide use or use of lower toxicity methods only. A significant correlation was seen between personal air level of chlorpyrifos, diazinon, and propoxur and levels of these insecticides or their metabolites in plasma samples (maternal and/or cord, p < 0.05). The fungicide ortho-phenylphenol was also detected in 100% of air samples but was not measured in plasma. The remaining 22 pesticides were detected in 0-45% of air or plasma samples. Chlorpyrifos, diazinon, propoxur, and bendiocarb levels in air and/or plasma decreased significantly between 1998 and 2001. Findings indicate that pesticide exposures are frequent but decreasing and that the pesticides are readily transferred to the developing fetus during pregnancy. PMID:12727605

  18. Post-Closure Inspection, Sampling, and Maintenance Report for the Salmon, Mississippi, Site Calendar Year 2012

    SciTech Connect

    2013-03-01

    This report summarizes the 2012 annual inspection, sampling, measurement, and maintenance activities performed at the Salmon, Mississippi, Site (Salmon site). The draft Long-Term Surveillance and Maintenance Plan for the Salmon Site, Lamar County, Mississippi (DOE 2007) specifies the submittal of an annual report of site activities with the results of sample analyses. A revised plan is in preparation. The Long-Term Surveillance Plan for the Salmon, Mississippi, Site is intended for release in 2013. The Salmon site consists of 1,470 acres. The site is located in Lamar County, Mississippi, approximately 10 miles west of Purvis, Mississippi, and about 21 miles southwest of Hattiesburg, Mississippi The State of Mississippi owns the surface real estate subject to certain restrictions related to subsurface penetration. The State is the surface operator; the Mississippi Forestry Commission is its agent. The federal government owns the subsurface real estate (including minerals and some surface features), shares right-of-entry easements with the State, and retains rights related to subsurface monitoring. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Legacy Management (LM), a successor agency to the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission, is responsible for the long-term surveillance of the subsurface real estate

  19. Estimation of sampling error uncertainties in observed surface air temperature change in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hua, Wei; Shen, Samuel S. P.; Weithmann, Alexander; Wang, Huijun

    2016-06-01

    This study examines the sampling error uncertainties in the monthly surface air temperature (SAT) change in China over recent decades, focusing on the uncertainties of gridded data, national averages, and linear trends. Results indicate that large sampling error variances appear at the station-sparse area of northern and western China with the maximum value exceeding 2.0 K2 while small sampling error variances are found at the station-dense area of southern and eastern China with most grid values being less than 0.05 K2. In general, the negative temperature existed in each month prior to the 1980s, and a warming in temperature began thereafter, which accelerated in the early and mid-1990s. The increasing trend in the SAT series was observed for each month of the year with the largest temperature increase and highest uncertainty of 0.51 ± 0.29 K (10 year)-1 occurring in February and the weakest trend and smallest uncertainty of 0.13 ± 0.07 K (10 year)-1 in August. The sampling error uncertainties in the national average annual mean SAT series are not sufficiently large to alter the conclusion of the persistent warming in China. In addition, the sampling error uncertainties in the SAT series show a clear variation compared with other uncertainty estimation methods, which is a plausible reason for the inconsistent variations between our estimate and other studies during this period.

  20. An approach estimating bidirectional air-surface exchange for gaseous elemental mercury at AMNet sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wright, L. Paige; Zhang, Leiming

    2015-03-01

    The bidirectional air-surface exchange for gaseous elemental mercury (GEM) and existing measurements of the compensation points over a variety of canopy types are reviewed. Deposition and emission of GEM are dependent on several factors such as the type of canopy, temperature, season, atmospheric GEM concentrations, and meteorological conditions, with compensation points varying between 0.5 and 33 ng m-3. Emissions tend to increase from the spring to summer seasons, as the GEM accumulates in the foliage of the vegetation. A strong dependence on solar radiation has been observed, with higher emissions under light conditions. A bidirectional air-surface exchange flux model is proposed for estimating GEM fluxes at a two-hourly time resolution for the National Atmospheric Deposition Program's, Atmospheric Mercury Network (AMNet) sites. Compared to the unidirectional dry deposition model used in Zhang et al. (2012), two additional parameters, stomatal and soil emission potential, were needed in the bidirectional model and were chosen based on knowledge gained in the literature review and model sensitivity test results. Application of this bidirectional model to AMNet sites have produced annual net deposition fluxes comparable to those estimated in Zhang et al. (2012) at the majority of the sites. In this study, the net GEM dry deposition has been estimated separately for each dominant land use type surrounding each site, and this approach is also recommended for future calculations for easy application of the results to assessments of the mercury effects on various ecosystems.

  1. Extreme 13C depletion of CCl2F2 in firn air samples from NEEM, Greenland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zuiderweg, A.; Holzinger, R.; Martinerie, P.; Schneider, R.; Kaiser, J.; Witrant, E.; Etheridge, D.; Petrenko, V.; Blunier, T.; Röckmann, T.

    2013-01-01

    A series of 12 high volume air samples collected from the S2 firn core during the North Greenland Eemian Ice Drilling (NEEM) 2009 campaign have been measured for mixing ratio and stable carbon isotope composition of the chlorofluorocarbon CFC-12 (CCl2F2). While the mixing ratio measurements compare favorably to other firn air studies, the isotope results show extreme 13C depletion at the deepest measurable depth (65 m), to values lower than δ13C = -80‰ vs. VPDB (the international stable carbon isotope scale), compared to present day surface tropospheric measurements near -40‰. Firn air modeling was used to interpret these measurements. Reconstructed atmospheric time series indicate even larger depletions (to -120‰) near 1950 AD, with subsequent rapid enrichment of the atmospheric reservoir of the compound to the present day value. Mass-balance calculations show that this change is likely to have been caused by a large change in the isotopic composition of anthropogenic CFC-12 emissions, probably due to technological advances in the CFC production process over the last 80 yr, though direct evidence is lacking.

  2. Extreme 13C depletion of CCl2F2 in firn air samples from NEEM, Greenland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zuiderweg, A.; Holzinger, R.; Martinerie, P.; Schneider, R.; Kaiser, J.; Witrant, E.; Etheridge, D.; Rubino, M.; Petrenko, V.; Blunier, T.; Röckmann, T.

    2012-07-01

    A series of 12 high volume air samples collected from the S2 firn core during the North Greenland Eemian Ice Drilling (NEEM) 2009 campaign have been measured for mixing ratio and stable carbon isotope composition of the chlorofluorocarbon CFC-12 (CCl2F2). While the mixing ratio measurements compare favorably to other firn air studies, the isotope results show extreme 13C depletion at the deepest measurable depth (65 m), to values lower than δ13C = -80‰ vs. VPDB (the international stable carbon isotope scale), compared to present day surface tropospheric measurements near -40‰. Firn air modeling was used to interpret these measurements. Reconstructed atmospheric time series indicate even larger depletions (to -120‰) near 1950 AD, with subsequent rapid enrichment of the atmospheric reservoir of the compound to the present day value. Mass-balance calculations show that this change must have been caused by a large change in the isotopic composition of anthropogenic CFC-12 emissions, probably due to technological changes in the CFC production process over the last 80 yr. Propagating the mass-balance calculations into the future demonstrates that as emissions decrease to zero, isotopic fractionation by the stratospheric sinks will lead to continued 13C enrichment in atmospheric CFC-12.

  3. Optimisation steps of an innovative air sampling method for semi volatile organic compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lazarov, Borislav; Swinnen, Rudi; Spruyt, Maarten; Goelen, Eddy; Stranger, Marianne; Desmet, Gilbert; Wauters, Eric

    2013-11-01

    This work describes optimisation steps of an innovative method for the measurement several groups of semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOCs) in air, collecting both gaseous and particulate air fractions. It is based on active air sampling on sorption tubes (consisting of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) and Tenax TA), followed by thermal desorption and gas chromatography mass spectrometry analysis (TD-GC-MS). The optimised method was validated in the laboratory for the measurement of selected target compounds from the following chemical classes: polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and phthalate esters (PEs). It was applied in different Belgian urban outdoor as well as indoor environments. The new method is characterised by limits of detection in the range of 0.003-0.3 ng m-3 for PAHs, 0.004-0.2 ng m-3 for PCBs, 0.113-0.201 ng m-3 for PBDEs and 0.002-0.2 ng m-3 for PEs, a linearity of 0.996 and a repeatability of less than 10% for all studied compounds.

  4. AIRNET Data from Los Alamos National Laboratory: Air Concentration Data by Site and Isotope/Element

    DOE Data Explorer

    Ambient monitoring is the systematic, long-term assessment of pollutant levels by measuring the quantity and types of certain pollutants in the surrounding, outdoor air. The purpose of AIRNET, LANL's ambient air monitoring network, is to monitor locations where people live or work. The community of Los Alamos is downwind from LANL, so there are many monitoring stations in and around the town. AIRNET stations monitor 24 hours a day, 365 days of the year. Particulates are collected on a filter and analyzed every two weeks for identification of analytes and assessment of the potential impact on the public. Emissions measurement is the process of monitoring materials vented from buildings. Air samples are taken from building exhaust units, called stacks, and are then analyzed for particulate matter, tritium, and radioactive gases and vapors. A computer model uses the emission data to determine the dispersion. Stack monitoring is also used to measure emissions that cannot be measured by AIRNET stations.

  5. Venturi air-jet vacuum ejectors for high-volume atmospheric sampling on aircraft platforms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hill, Gerald F.; Sachse, Glen W.; Young, Douglas C.; Wade, Larry O.; Burney, Lewis G.

    1992-01-01

    Documentation of the installation and use of venturi air-jet vacuum ejectors for high-volume atmospheric sampling on aircraft platforms is presented. Information on the types of venturis that are useful for meeting the pumping requirements of atmospheric-sampling experiments is also presented. A description of the configuration and installation of the venturi system vacuum line is included with details on the modifications that were made to adapt a venturi to the NASA Electra aircraft at GSFC, Wallops Flight Facility. Flight test results are given for several venturis with emphasis on applications to the Differential Absorption Carbon Monoxide Measurement (DACOM) system at LaRC. This is a source document for atmospheric scientists interested in using the venturi systems installed on the NASA Electra or adapting the technology to other aircraft.

  6. Ram-air sample collection device for a chemical warfare agent sensor

    DOEpatents

    Megerle, Clifford A.; Adkins, Douglas R.; Frye-Mason, Gregory C.

    2002-01-01

    In a surface acoustic wave sensor mounted within a body, the sensor having a surface acoustic wave array detector and a micro-fabricated sample preconcentrator exposed on a surface of the body, an apparatus for collecting air for the sensor, comprising a housing operatively arranged to mount atop the body, the housing including a multi-stage channel having an inlet and an outlet, the channel having a first stage having a first height and width proximate the inlet, a second stage having a second lower height and width proximate the micro-fabricated sample preconcentrator, a third stage having a still lower third height and width proximate the surface acoustic wave array detector, and a fourth stage having a fourth height and width proximate the outlet, where the fourth height and width are substantially the same as the first height and width.

  7. Hanford Site Environmental Surveillance Master Sampling Schedule for Calendar Year 2005

    SciTech Connect

    Bisping, Lynn E.

    2005-01-19

    Environmental surveillance of the Hanford Site and surrounding areas is conducted by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). Sampling is conducted to evaluate levels of radioactive and nonradioactive pollutants in the Hanford environs. This document contains the calendar year 2005 schedules for the routine and non-routine collection of samples for the Surface Environmental Surveillance Project (SESP) and Drinking Water Monitoring Project.

  8. Data Quality Objectives Supporting Radiological Air Emissions Monitoring for the Marine Sciences Laboratory, Sequim Site

    SciTech Connect

    Barnett, J. Matthew; Meier, Kirsten M.; Snyder, Sandra F.; Antonio, Ernest J.; Fritz, Brad G.; Poston, Theodore M.

    2012-12-27

    This document of Data Quality Objectives (DQOs) was prepared based on the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Guidance on Systematic Planning Using the Data Quality Objectives Process, EPA, QA/G4, 2/2006 (EPA 2006), as well as several other published DQOs. The intent of this report is to determine the necessary steps required to ensure that radioactive emissions to the air from the Marine Sciences Laboratory (MSL) headquartered at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory’s Sequim Marine Research Operations (Sequim Site) on Washington State’s Olympic Peninsula are managed in accordance with regulatory requirements and best practices. The Sequim Site was transitioned in October 2012 from private operation under Battelle Memorial Institute to an exclusive use contract with the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Pacific Northwest Site Office.

  9. Optimization of Sample Site Selection Imaging for OSIRIS-REx Using Asteroid Surface Analog Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanquary, Hannah E.; Sahr, Eric; Habib, Namrah; Hawley, Christopher; Weber, Nathan; Boynton, William V.; Kinney-Spano, Ellyne; Lauretta, Dante

    2014-11-01

    OSIRIS-REx will return a sample of regolith from the surface of asteroid 101955 Bennu. The mission will obtain high resolution images of the asteroid in order to create detailed maps which will satisfy multiple mission objectives. To select a site, we must (i) identify hazards to the spacecraft and (ii) characterize a number of candidate sites to determine the optimal location for sampling. To further characterize the site, a long-term science campaign will be undertaken to constrain the geologic properties. To satisfy these objectives, the distribution and size of blocks at the sample site and backup sample site must be determined. This will be accomplished through the creation of rock size frequency distribution maps. The primary goal of this study is to optimize the creation of these map products by assessing techniques for counting blocks on small bodies, and assessing the methods of analysis of the resulting data. We have produced a series of simulated surfaces of Bennu which have been imaged, and the images processed to simulate Polycam images during the Reconnaissance phase. These surface analog images allow us to explore a wide range of imaging conditions, both ideal and non-ideal. The images have been “degraded”, and are displayed as thumbnails representing the limits of Polycam resolution from an altitude of 225 meters. Specifically, this study addresses the mission requirement that the rock size frequency distribution of regolith grains < 2cm in longest dimension must be determined for the sample sites during Reconnaissance. To address this requirement, we focus on the range of available lighting angles. Varying illumination and phase angles in the simulated images, we can compare the size-frequency distributions calculated from the degraded images with the known size frequency distributions of the Bennu simulant material, and thus determine the optimum lighting conditions for satisfying the 2 cm requirement.

  10. US Air Force installation restoration program: Remedial investigation of former herbicide storage site at Johnston Island, Pacific Ocean

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-09-01

    This report represents a synthesis and reformatting of six primary documents and other related materials on soils, ocean sediments, air, and biota investigations conducted at Johnston Island (JI), Pacific Ocean, to characterize contamination resulting from storage of 1.37 million gallons of Herbicide Orange (HO) from 1972 through 1977. The individual study components comprise the Remedial Investigation (RI) of the former HO storage site at JI. This report describes the procedures, results, and conclusions of the sampling and analysis programs conducted at JI. Samples of site soils, ocean sediments, airborne particulates, dust, sweepings, and aquatic organisms were collected and analyzed for HO-derived 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D), 2,4,5-trichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4,5-T), and 2,3,7,8- tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD). Environmental media other than soils at the storage facility itself were found to be free of contamination or to contain very low contaminant concentrations. No contamination was found in ocean sediments, indicating possible dispersion of contaminants due to erosion. A few of the biological specimens collected were found to contain TCDD levels below the guidelines of 25 to 50 parts per trillion established by the US Food and Drug Administration; TCDD in all other biota samples was nondetectable. Analysis of samples of airborne particulates and of soils, dust, and sweepings from high-use and residential areas outside the boundaries of the former storage site indicated that there is little or no concern of adverse impacts from airborne transport and deposition of TCDD.

  11. Optimal Media for Use in Air Sampling To Detect Cultivable Bacteria and Fungi in the Pharmacy

    PubMed Central

    Joseph, Riya Augustin; Le, Theresa V.; Trevino, Ernest A.; Schaeffer, M. Frances; Vance, Paula H.

    2013-01-01

    Current guidelines for air sampling for bacteria and fungi in compounding pharmacies require the use of a medium for each type of organism. U.S. Pharmacopeia (USP) chapter <797> (http://www.pbm.va.gov/linksotherresources/docs/USP797PharmaceuticalCompoundingSterileCompounding.pdf) calls for tryptic soy agar with polysorbate and lecithin (TSApl) for bacteria and malt extract agar (MEA) for fungi. In contrast, the Controlled Environment Testing Association (CETA), the professional organization for individuals who certify hoods and clean rooms, states in its 2012 certification application guide (http://www.cetainternational.org/reference/CAG-009v3.pdf?sid=1267) that a single-plate method is acceptable, implying that it is not always necessary to use an additional medium specifically for fungi. In this study, we reviewed 5.5 years of data from our laboratory to determine the utility of TSApl versus yeast malt extract agar (YMEA) for the isolation of fungi. Our findings, from 2,073 air samples obtained from compounding pharmacies, demonstrated that the YMEA yielded >2.5 times more fungal isolates than TSApl. PMID:23903551

  12. SO 2 sorption characteristics of air sampling filter media using a new laboratory test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batterman, Stuart; Osak, Igor; Gelman, Charles

    A significant factor in the selection of filter media used for air sampling is the formation of artifacts due to the sorption of sulfur and nitrogen oxides on the filter. These artifacts can erroneously increase measured particulate concentrations. A technique is developed to measure the uptake of SO 2 and other gases and vapors on air sampling filter media. The static chamber technique features in-chamber measurements of SO 2 concentrations using FTIR spectrometry. The filter uptake, partition coefficient, and diffusion coefficient are estimated from the loss of gaseous SO 2 in the chamber. The technique provides rapid and precise results over a wide range of filter characteristics and avoids problems related to the extraction of target analytes from the filter. A total of 12 types of filters are evaluated, including glass fiber, Teflon-coated glass fiber, nylon, quartz fiber, Teflon, Supor, Nylasorb, and acrylic copolymer membranes. Results indicate that Teflon, quartz and acrylic copolymer filters have minimal sorption of SO 2 while quartz fiber, Supor and Nylasorb filters have high to moderate uptake of SO 2.

  13. Optimal media for use in air sampling to detect cultivable bacteria and fungi in the pharmacy.

    PubMed

    Weissfeld, Alice S; Joseph, Riya Augustin; Le, Theresa V; Trevino, Ernest A; Schaeffer, M Frances; Vance, Paula H

    2013-10-01

    Current guidelines for air sampling for bacteria and fungi in compounding pharmacies require the use of a medium for each type of organism. U.S. Pharmacopeia (USP) chapter <797> (http://www.pbm.va.gov/linksotherresources/docs/USP797PharmaceuticalCompoundingSterileCompounding.pdf) calls for tryptic soy agar with polysorbate and lecithin (TSApl) for bacteria and malt extract agar (MEA) for fungi. In contrast, the Controlled Environment Testing Association (CETA), the professional organization for individuals who certify hoods and clean rooms, states in its 2012 certification application guide (http://www.cetainternational.org/reference/CAG-009v3.pdf?sid=1267) that a single-plate method is acceptable, implying that it is not always necessary to use an additional medium specifically for fungi. In this study, we reviewed 5.5 years of data from our laboratory to determine the utility of TSApl versus yeast malt extract agar (YMEA) for the isolation of fungi. Our findings, from 2,073 air samples obtained from compounding pharmacies, demonstrated that the YMEA yielded >2.5 times more fungal isolates than TSApl. PMID:23903551

  14. Solid-phase microextraction fiber development for sampling and analysis of volatile organohalogen compounds in air.

    PubMed

    Attari, Seyed Ghavameddin; Bahrami, Abdolrahman; Shahna, Farshid Ghorbani; Heidari, Mahmoud

    2014-01-01

    A green, environmental friendly and sensitive method for determination of volatile organohalogen compounds was described in this paper. The method is based on a homemade sol-gel single-walled carbon nanotube/silica composite coated solid-phase microextraction to develop for sampling and analysis of Carbon tetrachloride, Benzotrichloride, Chloromethyl methyl ether and Trichloroethylene in air. Application of this method was investigated under different laboratory conditions. Predetermined concentrations of each analytes were prepared in a home-made standard chamber and the influences of experimental parameters such as temperature, humidity, extraction time, storage time, desorption temperature, desorption time and the sorbent performance were investigated. Under optimal conditions, the use of single-walled carbon nanotube/silica composite fiber showed good performance, high sensitive and fast sampling of volatile organohalogen compounds from air. For linearity test the regression correlation coefficient was more than 98% for analyte of interest and linear dynamic range for the proposed fiber and the applied Gas Chromatography-Flame Ionization Detector technique was from 1 to 100 ngmL(-1). Method detection limits ranged between 0.09 to 0.2 ngmL(-1) and method quantification limits were between 0.25 and 0.7 ngmL(-1). Single-walled carbon nanotube/silica composite fiber was highly reproducible, relative standard deviations were between 4.3 to 11.7 percent. PMID:25279223

  15. March 2011 Groundwater Sampling at the Project Shoal Site (Data Validation Package)

    SciTech Connect

    2011-07-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management conducted annual sampling at the Project Shoal Area (Shoal) in March 2011. Wells HC-1, HC-2, HC-4, HC-5, HC-6, HC-7, MV-1, MV-2 and MV-3 were sampled as specified in the Sampling and Analysis Plan for U.S. Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management Sites (LMS/PLN/S04351, continually updated). Two extra tritium samples were collected from well HC-4, one sample (HC-4-400) was collected at about 1/3 of the purge volume (135 gallons), the second sample (HC-4-400) was collected at 2/3 of purge volume (270 gallons). These additional samples were collected prior to completing the well purging process to evaluate the effects well purging has on the analytical results. Samples were not collected from locations HC-3 and HC-8 at the direction of the S.M. Stoller Corporation site lead.

  16. In situ radiological surveying at the Double Tracks site, Nellis Air Force Range, Tonopah, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Riedhauser, S.R.; Tipton, W.J.

    1996-04-01

    A team from the Remote Sensing Laboratory conducted a series of in situ radiological measurements at the Double Tracks site on the Nellis Air Force Range just east of Goldfield, Nevada, during the periods of April 10-13 and June 5-9, 1995. The survey team measured the terrestrial gamma radiation at the site to determine the levels of natural and man-made radiation. This site includes the areas covered by previous surveys conducted from 1962 through 1993. The main purpose of the first expedition was to assess several new techniques for characterizing sites with dispersed plutonium. The two purposes of the second expedition were to characterize the distribution of transuranic contamination (primarily plutonium) at the site by measuring the gamma rays from americium-241 and to assess the performance of the two new detector platforms. Both of the new platforms performed well, and the characterization of the americium-241 activity at the site was completed. Several plots compare these ground-based system measurements and the 1993 aerial data. The agreement is good considering the systems are characterized and calibrated through independent means. During the April expedition, several methods for measuring the depth distribution of americium-241 in the field were conducted as a way of quickly and reliably obtaining depth profiles without the need to wait for laboratory analysis. Two of the methods were not very effective, but the results of the third method appear very promising.

  17. Radionuclide Air Emissions Report for the Hanford Site Calendar Year 1999

    SciTech Connect

    ROKKAN, D.J.

    2000-06-01

    This report documents radionuclide air emissions from the US. Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site in 1999 and the resulting effective dose equivalent to the maximally exposed individual (MEI) member of the public. The report has been prepared in accordance with the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR). Title 40, Protection of the Environment, Part 61. National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants, Subpart H, ''National Emission Standards for Emissions of Radionuclides Other than Radon from Department of Energy Facilities'', and with the Washington Administrative Code (WAC) Chapter 246-247. Radiation Protection-Air Emissions. The federal regulations in Subpart H of 40 CFR 61 require the measurement and reporting of radionuclides emitted from US. Department of Energy (DOE) facilities and the resulting offsite dose from those emissions. A standard of 10 mrem/yr effective dose equivalent (EDE) is imposed on them. The EDE to the MEI due to routine emissions in 1999 from Hanford Site point sources was 0.029 mrem (2.9 E-04 mSv), which is less than 0.3 percent of the federal standard. WAC 246-247 requires the reporting of radionuclide emissions from all Hanford Site sources, during routine as well as nonroutine operations. The state has adopted the 40 CFR 61 standard of 10 mrem/yr EDE into their regulations. The state further requires that the EDE to the MEI be calculated not only from point source emissions but also from diffuse and fugitive sources of emissions. The EDE from diffuse and fugitive emissions at the Hanford Site in 1999 was 0.039 mrem (3.9 E-04 mSv) EDE. The total dose from point sources and from diffuse and fugitive sources of radionuclide emissions during all operating conditions in 1999 was 0.068 mrem (6.8 E-04 mSv) EDE, which is less than 0.7 percent of the state standard.

  18. Significance of High-Speed Air Temperature Measurements in the Sampling Cell of a Closed-Path Gas Analyzer with a Short Tube

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kathilankal, James; Fratini, Gerardo; Burba, George

    2015-04-01

    fluctuations are attenuated, so calculating unbiased fluxes using fast dry mole fraction requires high-speed, precise temperature measurements of the air stream inside the cell. Fast pressure and water vapor content of the sampled air should also be measured in the sampling cell, and carefully aligned in time with gas and temperature measurements. This presentation examines data from the three different sites equipped with enclosed short-tube analyzers in order to evaluate the significance of high-speed, precise air temperature measurements in the sampling cell of the analyzer. Short-term and long-term effects are examined using half hourly fluxes of carbon dioxide and water vapor, as well as long-term carbon and water budgets.

  19. Air/Superfund national technical guidance study series, Volume 2. Estimation of baseline air emission at Superfund sites. Interim report(Final)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-01-01

    This volume is one in a series of manuals prepared for EPA to assist its Remedial Project Managers in the assessment of the air contaminant pathway and developing input data for risk assessment. The manual provides guidance on developing baseline-emission estimates from hazardous waste sites. Baseline-emission estimates (BEEs) are defined as emission rates estimated for a site in its undisturbed state. Specifically, the manual is intended to: Present a protocol for selecting the appropriate level of effort to characterize baseline air emissions; Assist site managers in designing an approach for BEEs; Describe useful technologies for developing site-specific baseline emission estimates (BEEs); Help site managers select the appropriate technologies for generating site-specific BEEs.

  20. Search for Mars lander/rover/sample-return sites: A status review

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Masursky, Harold; Dial, A. L., Jr.; Morris, E. C.; Strobell, M. E.; Applebee, D. J.; Chapman, M. G.

    1988-01-01

    Ten Mars sites were studied in the USA for four years. The sites are the Chasma Boreale (North Pole), Planum Australe (South Pole), Olympus Rupes, Mangala Valles, Memnonia Sulci, Candor Chasma, Kasel Valles, Nilosyrtis Mensae, Elysium Montes, and Apollinaris Patera. Seven sites are being studied by the USSR; their prime sites are located at the east mouth of Kasel Valles and near Uranius Patera. Thirteen geological maps of the first six USA sites are compiled and in review. Maps of the Mangala East and West sites at 1:1/2 million scale and a 1:2 million scale map show evidence of three episodes of small-channel formation interspersed with episodes of volcanism and tectonism that span the period from 3.5 to 0.6 b.y. ago. The tectonic and geological history of Mars, both ancient and modern, can be elucidated by sampling volcanic and fluvial geologic units at equatorial sites and layered deposits at polar sites. The evidence appears clear for multiple episodes of fluvial channeling, including some that are quite recent; this evidence contrasts with the theses of Baker and Partridge (1986) and many others that all channels are ancient. Verification of this hypothesis by Mars Observer will be an important step forward in the perception of the history of Mars.

  1. Equine Endometrial Gland Density and Endometrial Thickness Vary among Sampling Sites in Thoroughbred Mares

    PubMed Central

    HANADA, Michiko; MAEDA, Yousuke; OIKAWA, Masa-aki

    2012-01-01

    The secretions of the equine endometrial glands are essential for the survival, growth, and development of the conceptus in early pregnancy, and endometrial gland density is directly related to successful pregnancy outcome. Endometrial biopsy is routinely used to assess the reproductive potential of broodmares. Some previous studies have shown that equine endometrial glands are uniformly distributed throughout the uterus; however, other work has shown variation of the endometrial architecture between biopsy sites, suggesting that a single biopsy is not representative of the entire endometrium. The aims of this study were to assess and compare the endometrial gland density and thickness at four sampling sites in the uterus (the central segment of each uterine horn, the uterine horn-body junction, and the caudal portion of the uterine body). Endometrial samples from five nulliparous Thoroughbred mares in diestrus were obtained at necropsy and used for subsequent histomorphometric analysis. The caudal uterine body had a significantly lower endometrial gland density and endometrial thickness than the other sites. This may result in nutrient deprivation and reduced survival of embryos or fetuses in this region of the uterus. The endometrial gland density and endometrial thickness did not significantly differ between the other regions sampled, indicating that they are similarly suitable for embryonic implantation and fetal development. Our results suggest that the endometrial structure of the caudal uterine body of the mare is not representative of the endometrial morphology at other sites. Thus, the caudal uterine body is not a suitable site for routine endometrial biopsy. PMID:24833993

  2. Air Quality at a Ranch Site in the Western Part of the Eagle Ford shale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roest, G. S.; Schade, G. W.; Brooks, S. D.; Zenker, J.

    2015-12-01

    The booming unconventional oil and gas industry in the Eagle Ford shale in southern Texas continues to grow. Modeling studies of the air quality impacts of the Eagle Ford rely on emission inventories that may underestimate emissions from such operations, and air quality monitoring in the area remains limited. We conducted an air quality study on a ranch in Dimmit County, Texas, which was ranked 6th in Texas for natural gas production and 10th in Texas for oil production as of April 2015. An automated GC-FID was used to measure the concentration of hydrocarbons (C3 - C14), with concurrent measurements of CO, CO2, H2O, O3, NO/NOx. In addition, the concentration and sizing of aerosols ranging from 0.6 to 20 µm aerodynamic diameter were measured with a GRIMM aerosol spectrometer (GRIMM 1.108), and meteorological variables including wind speed, direction, temperature, relative humidity, precipitation, and insolation were recorded. We report on local air quality and changes during the process as observed during the measurement campaign. Local drilling on the ranch began in May 2015 and production started in June 2015, at a site approximately 5 km southeast of the air quality trailer. Local air quality showed typically low, near background abundances of CO and NOx early during the campaign, and more frequent local NOx plumes during the drilling and production phases. Aerosol mass measurements were also relatively low and well within attainment of NAAQS particulate matter standards. We assess OH radical reactivity of individual and/or groups of VOCs using observed concentrations and their reaction rate coefficient with OH, the dominant VOC sink in the troposphere.

  3. Solar-Powered Air Stripping at the Rocky Flats Site, Colorado - 12361

    SciTech Connect

    Boylan, John A.

    2012-07-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Rocky Flats Site (the Site), near Denver, Colorado, is a former nuclear weapons facility that was constructed beginning in 1951. With the end of the Cold War, the Site was cleaned up and closed in 2005. Four gravity-driven groundwater treatment systems were installed during cleanup, and their continued operation was incorporated into the final remedy for the Site. All utilities, including electrical power, were removed as part of this closure, so all Site electrical power needs are now met with small solar-powered systems. The Mound Site Plume Treatment System (MSPTS) was installed in 1998 as an innovative system based on zero-valent iron (ZVI). Groundwater flow from the Mound source area containing elevated concentrations of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), primarily in the tetrachloroethene (PCE)-trichloroethene (TCE) family of chlorinated solvents, is intercepted by a collection trench and routed to twin ZVI treatment cells. Later, in 2005, remediation of VOC-contaminated soils at a second up-gradient source area included adding an electron donor to the backfill to help stimulate biodegradation. This reduced concentrations of primary constituents but caused down-gradient groundwater to contain elevated levels of recalcitrant degradation byproducts, particularly cis-1,2-dichloroethene and vinyl chloride. A gravel drain installed as part of the 2005 remediation directs contaminated groundwater from this second source area to the MSPTS for treatment. This additional contaminant load, coupled with correspondingly reduced residence time within the ZVI media due to the increased flow rate, resulted in reduced treatment effectiveness. Elevated concentrations of VOCs were then detected in MSPTS effluent, as well as in surface water at the downstream performance monitoring location for the MSPTS. Subsequent consultations with the Site regulators led to the decision to add a polishing component to reduce residual VOCs in MSPTS effluent

  4. EPA GROUND WATER ISSUE: Ground Water Sample Preservation at ISCO Sites – Recommended Guidelines

    EPA Science Inventory

    In-situ chemical oxidation (ISCO) involves the introduction of a chemical oxidant into the subsurface for the purpose of transforming ground water contaminants into harmless byproducts. Due to oxidant persistence, ground water samples collected at hazardous waste sites may contai...

  5. Groundwater Sampling at ISCO Sites: Binary Mixtures of Volatile Organic Compounds and Persulfate

    EPA Science Inventory

    In-situ chemical oxidation involves the introduction of a chemical oxidant into the subsurface for the purpose of transforming ground-water contaminants into less harmful byproducts. Due to oxidant persistence, ground water samples collected at hazardous waste sites may contain o...

  6. ANASORB{reg_sign} 747 - A universal sorbent for air sampling?

    SciTech Connect

    Harper, M.

    1997-12-31

    A sorbent to be used for air sampling must meet certain performance criteria including sample background, capacity, stability, and recovery. Anasorb{sup R} 747 is a proprietary 20/40 mesh beaded active carbon prepared from raw materials with a very low ash content in a process which creates a regular pore structure. The background is very low for both inorganic and organic species, and the surface is more inert and less hydrophilic than coconut charcoal, while capacity is similar. The low catalytic activity of the surface means samples of many reactive compounds remain stable for longer periods. The sorbent is compatible with most solvent systems in use (e.g. carbon disulfide, methylene chloride, methanol, dimethyformamide). Anasorb 747 can be coated with chemicals for efficient adsorption of inorganic gases, which can be analyzed at very low levels because of low background interference. A large number of validated sampling methods use Anasorb 747, including methods from OSHA and NIOSH, corporate industrial hygiene laboratories, various branches of the EPA, and international agencies. These methods refer to around fifty different gases and vapors. Although this sorbent is not compatible with some compounds (e.g. low molecular weight aldehydes) it is quite close to being of universal application.

  7. Auditing of sampling methods for air toxics at coal-fired power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Agbede, R.O.; Clements, J.L.; Grunebach, M.G.

    1995-11-01

    Advanced Technology Systems, Inc. (ATS) with subcontract assistance from international Technology Corporation (IT) has provided external audit activities for Phase II of the Department of Energy-Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center`s air emission test program. The objective of the audits is to help ensure that the data obtained from the emission tests are precise, accurate, representative, scientifically sound and legally defensible. This paper presents the criteria that were used to perform the external audits of the emission test program. It also describes the approach used by ATS and It in performing their audits. Examples of findings of the audits along with the actions take to correct problems and the subsequent effect of those actions on the test data are presented. The results of audit spikes performed at the Plant 1 test site are also discussed.

  8. Background Information for the Nevada National Security Site Integrated Sampling Plan, Revision 0

    SciTech Connect

    Farnham, Irene; Marutzky, Sam

    2014-12-01

    This document describes the process followed to develop the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) Integrated Sampling Plan (referred to herein as the Plan). It provides the Plan’s purpose and objectives, and briefly describes the Underground Test Area (UGTA) Activity, including the conceptual model and regulatory requirements as they pertain to groundwater sampling. Background information on other NNSS groundwater monitoring programs—the Routine Radiological Environmental Monitoring Plan (RREMP) and Community Environmental Monitoring Program (CEMP)—and their integration with the Plan are presented. Descriptions of the evaluations, comments, and responses of two Sampling Plan topical committees are also included.

  9. Radionuclide Air Emissions Report for the Hanford Site Calendar year 1998

    SciTech Connect

    DIEDIKER, L.P.

    1999-06-15

    This report documents radionuclide air emissions from the Hanford Site in I998 and the resulting effective dose equivalent to the maximally exposed individual (MEI) member of the public. The report has been prepared in accordance with the Code of Federal Regulations, Title 40, Protection of the Environment, Part 61, National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (40 CFR SI), Subpart H, ''National Emission Standards for Emissions of Radionuclides Other than Radon from Department of Energy Facilities,'' and with the Washington Administrative Code Chapter 246-247, Radiation Protection--Air Emissions. The federal regulations in 40 CFR 61, Subpart H; require the measurement and reporting of radionuclides emitted from Department of Energy facilities and the resulting offsite dose from those emissions. A standard of 10 mrem/yr effective dose equivalent (EDE) is imposed on them. The EDE to the MEI due to routine emissions in 1998 from Hanford Site point sources was 1.3 E-02 mrem (1.3 E-04 mSv), which is 0.13 percent of the federal standard. Chapter 246-247 of the Washington Administrative Code (WAC) requires the reporting of radionuclide emissions from all Department of Energy Hanford Site sources. The state has adopted into these regulations the 40 CFR 61 standard of 10 mrem/yr EDE. The EDE to the MEI attributable to diffuse and fugitive radionuclide air emissions from the Hanford Site in 1998 was 2.5 E-02 mrem (2.5 E-04 mSv). This dose added to the dose from point sources gives a total for all sources of 3.8 E-02 mrem/yr (3.8 E-04 mSv) EDE, which is 0.38 percent of the 10 mrem/yr standard. An unplanned release on August 26, 1998, in the 300 Area of the Hanford Site resulted in a potential dose of 4.1 E-02 mrem to a hypothetical individual at the nearest point of public access to that area. This hypothetical individual was not the MEI since the wind direction on the day of the release was away from the MEI residence. The potential dose from the unplanned event

  10. An evaluation of analytical methods, air sampling techniques, and airborne occupational exposure of metalworking fluids.

    PubMed

    Verma, Dave K; Shaw, Don S; Shaw, M Lorraine; Julian, Jim A; McCollin, Shari-Ann; des Tombe, Karen

    2006-02-01

    This article summarizes an assessment of air sampling and analytical methods for both oil and water-based metalworking fluids (MWFs). Three hundred and seventy-four long-term area and personal airborne samples were collected at four plants using total (closed-face) aerosol samplers and thoracic samplers. A direct-reading device (DustTrak) was also used. The processes sampled include steel tube making, automotive component manufacturing, and small part manufacturing in a machine shop. The American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) Method PS42-97 of analysis was evaluated in the laboratory. This evaluation included sample recovery, determination of detection limits, and stability of samples during storage. Results of the laboratory validation showed (a) the sample recovery to be about 87%, (b) the detection limit to be 35 microg, and (c) sample stability during storage at room temperature to decline rapidly within a few days. To minimize sample loss, the samples should be stored in a freezer and analyzed within a week. The ASTM method should be the preferred method for assessing metalworking fluids (MWFs). The ratio of thoracic aerosol to total aerosol ranged from 0.6 to 0.7. A similar relationship was found between the thoracic extractable aerosol and total extractable aerosol. The DustTrak, with 10-microm sampling head, was useful in pinpointing the areas of potential exposure. MWF exposure at the four plants ranged from 0.04 to 3.84 mg/m3 with the geometric mean ranging between 0.22 to 0.59 mg/m3. Based on this data and the assumption of log normality, MWF exposures are expected to exceed the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health recommended exposure limit of 0.5 mg/m3 as total mass and 0.4 mg/m3 as thoracic mass about 38% of the time. In addition to controlling airborne MWF exposure, full protection of workers would require the institution of programs for fluid management and dermal exposure prevention. PMID:16361218

  11. Evaluation of sampling methods for toxicological testing of indoor air particulate matter.

    PubMed

    Tirkkonen, Jenni; Täubel, Martin; Hirvonen, Maija-Riitta; Leppänen, Hanna; Lindsley, William G; Chen, Bean T; Hyvärinen, Anne; Huttunen, Kati

    2016-09-01

    There is a need for toxicity tests capable of recognizing indoor environments with compromised air quality, especially in the context of moisture damage. One of the key issues is sampling, which should both provide meaningful material for analyses and fulfill requirements imposed by practitioners using toxicity tests for health risk assessment. We aimed to evaluate different existing methods of sampling indoor particulate matter (PM) to develop a suitable sampling strategy for a toxicological assay. During three sampling campaigns in moisture-damaged and non-damaged school buildings, we evaluated one passive and three active sampling methods: the Settled Dust Box (SDB), the Button Aerosol Sampler, the Harvard Impactor and the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) Bioaerosol Cyclone Sampler. Mouse RAW264.7 macrophages were exposed to particle suspensions and cell metabolic activity (CMA), production of nitric oxide (NO) and tumor necrosis factor (TNFα) were determined after 24 h of exposure. The repeatability of the toxicological analyses was very good for all tested sampler types. Variability within the schools was found to be high especially between different classrooms in the moisture-damaged school. Passively collected settled dust and PM collected actively with the NIOSH Sampler (Stage 1) caused a clear response in exposed cells. The results suggested the higher relative immunotoxicological activity of dust from the moisture-damaged school. The NIOSH Sampler is a promising candidate for the collection of size-fractionated PM to be used in toxicity testing. The applicability of such sampling strategy in grading moisture damage severity in buildings needs to be developed further in a larger cohort of buildings. PMID:27569522

  12. TRITIUM UNCERTAINTY ANALYSIS FOR SURFACE WATER SAMPLES AT THE SAVANNAH RIVER SITE

    SciTech Connect

    Atkinson, R.

    2012-07-31

    Radiochemical analyses of surface water samples, in the framework of Environmental Monitoring, have associated uncertainties for the radioisotopic results reported. These uncertainty analyses pertain to the tritium results from surface water samples collected at five locations on the Savannah River near the U.S. Department of Energy's Savannah River Site (SRS). Uncertainties can result from the field-sampling routine, can be incurred during transport due to the physical properties of the sample, from equipment limitations, and from the measurement instrumentation used. The uncertainty reported by the SRS in their Annual Site Environmental Report currently considers only the counting uncertainty in the measurements, which is the standard reporting protocol for radioanalytical chemistry results. The focus of this work is to provide an overview of all uncertainty components associated with SRS tritium measurements, estimate the total uncertainty according to ISO 17025, and to propose additional experiments to verify some of the estimated uncertainties. The main uncertainty components discovered and investigated in this paper are tritium absorption or desorption in the sample container, HTO/H{sub 2}O isotopic effect during distillation, pipette volume, and tritium standard uncertainty. The goal is to quantify these uncertainties and to establish a combined uncertainty in order to increase the scientific depth of the SRS Annual Site Environmental Report.

  13. Saturation sampling for spatial variation in multiple air pollutants across an inversion-prone metropolitan area of complex terrain

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Characterizing intra-urban variation in air quality is important for epidemiological investigation of health outcomes and disparities. To date, however, few studies have been designed to capture spatial variation during select hours of the day, or to examine the roles of meteorology and complex terrain in shaping intra-urban exposure gradients. Methods We designed a spatial saturation monitoring study to target local air pollution sources, and to understand the role of topography and temperature inversions on fine-scale pollution variation by systematically allocating sampling locations across gradients in key local emissions sources (vehicle traffic, industrial facilities) and topography (elevation) in the Pittsburgh area. Street-level integrated samples of fine particulate matter (PM2.5), black carbon (BC), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), sulfur dioxide (SO2), and ozone (O3) were collected during morning rush and probable inversion hours (6-11 AM), during summer and winter. We hypothesized that pollution concentrations would be: 1) higher under inversion conditions, 2) exacerbated in lower-elevation areas, and 3) vary by season. Results During July - August 2011 and January - March 2012, we observed wide spatial and seasonal variability in pollution concentrations, exceeding the range measured at regulatory monitors. We identified elevated concentrations of multiple pollutants at lower-elevation sites, and a positive association between inversion frequency and NO2 concentration. We examined temporal adjustment methods for deriving seasonal concentration estimates, and found that the appropriate reference temporal trend differs between pollutants. Conclusions Our time-stratified spatial saturation approach found some evidence for modification of inversion-concentration relationships by topography, and provided useful insights for refining and interpreting GIS-based pollution source indicators for Land Use Regression modeling. PMID:24735818

  14. Transport of polluted boundary layer air from the Po Valley to high-alpine sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seibert, Petra; Kromp-kolb, Helga; Kasper, Anne; Kalina, Michael; Puxbaum, Hans; Jost, Dieter T.; Schwikowski, Margit; Baltensperger, Urs

    Within the EUROTRAC subproject ALPTRAC the occurrence of reactive trace species at high-alpine sites was investigated. As a part of these studies, the transport of boundary layer air from the Po Valley, which is one potential major source region for air pollution in the Alps, to the high-mountain sites Sonnblick (3106 m) in Austria and Jungfraujoch (3579 m) in Switzerland was studied. A case study based on isentropic trajectories derived from a fine-mesh analysis showed the potential of such transports to cause substantial peaks in the aerosol concentration at Sonnblick. However, on a climatological basis the Po Valley does not seem to cause higher-than-average concentrations of species such as SO 2, SO 2-4, NH +4 and NO -3. Its contribution was estimated to be about 15% in summer and much less in winter. Indications of orographically induced, subgrid vertical transports were found which are important for the interpretation of data from pollution monitoring programmes at high-alpine sites.

  15. Total Particulate Matter Air Sampling Data (TEOM) from Los Alamos National Laboratory

    DOE Data Explorer

    LANL measures the total particulate mass concentration in the air on a routine basis as well as during incidents that may affect ambient air. The collected data is added to the Air Quality Index (AQI). AQI is an index for reporting daily air quality. It tells you how clean or polluted your air is, and what associated health effects might be a concern for you. The AQI focuses on health effects you may experience within a few hours or days after breathing polluted air. EPA calculates the AQI for five major air pollutants regulated by the Clean Air Act.

  16. Hydrogeology and Physical Characteristics of Water Samples at the Red River Aluminum Site, Stamps, Arkansas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Czarnecki, J. B.; Stanton, G. P.; Freiwald, D. A.

    2001-12-01

    The Red River Aluminum site near Stamps, Arkansas, contains waste piles of salt cake and metal byproducts from the smelting of aluminum. The waste piles are subjected to about 50 inches of rainfall a year, resulting in the dissolution of the salts and metal. To assess the potential threat to underlying ground-water resources at the site, its hydrogeology was characterized by measuring water levels and field parameters of water quality in 23 wells and at 2 surface-water sites. Seventeen of these monitor wells were constructed at various depths for this study to allow for the separate characterization of the shallow and deep ground-water systems, the calculation of vertical gradients, and the collection of water samples at different depths within the flow system. Lithologic descriptions from drill-hole cuttings and geophysical logs indicate the presence of interbedded sands, gravels, silts, and clays to depths of 65 feet. The regionally important Sparta aquifer underlies the site. Water levels in shallow wells indicate radial flow away from the salt-cake pile located near the center of the site. Flow in the deep system is to the west and southwest toward Bodcau Creek. Water-level data from eight piezometer nests indicate a downward hydraulic gradient from the shallow to deep systems across the site. Values of specific conductance (an indicator of dissolved salts) ranged from 215 to 196,200 microsiemens per centimeter and indicate that saline waters are being transported horizontally and vertically downward away from the site.

  17. Vapor-phase and particulate-associated pesticides and PCB concentrations in eastern North Dakota air samples

    SciTech Connect

    Hawthorne, S.B.; Miller, D.J.; Louie, P.K.K.

    1996-05-01

    Vapor-phase and suspended particulate (<50 {mu}m) samples were collected on polyurethane foam (PUF) and quartz fiber filters in rural North Dakota to determine the air concentrations of pesticides in an area where agriculture is a primary source of semivolatile pollutants. Samples were collected at two sites from 1992 to 1994 that were at least 0.4 km from the nearest farmed fields and known application of pesticides, and analyzed for 22 different organochlorine, triazine, and acid herbicide pesticides. Fourteen pesticides were found above the detection limits (typically <1 pg/m{sup 3}). Concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners were much lower (<50 pg/m{sup 3} in all cases) than many of the pesticides. These results demonstrate that pesticides are among the most prevalent chlorinated semivolatile pollutants present in rural North Dakota, that significant transport of pesticides occurs both in the vapor-phase and on suspended particulate matter, and that blown soil may be a significant mechanism for introducing pesticides into surface and ground waters. 32 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs.

  18. Unmanned platform for long-range remote analysis of volatile compounds in air samples.

    PubMed

    da Costa, Eric T; Neves, Carlos A; Hotta, Guilherme M; Vidal, Denis T R; Barros, Marcelo F; Ayon, Arturo A; Garcia, Carlos D; do Lago, Claudimir Lucio

    2012-09-01

    This paper describes a long-range remotely controlled CE system built on an all-terrain vehicle. A four-stroke engine and a set of 12-V batteries were used to provide power to a series of subsystems that include drivers, communication, computers, and a capillary electrophoresis module. This dedicated instrument allows air sampling using a polypropylene porous tube, coupled to a flow system that transports the sample to the inlet of a fused-silica capillary. A hybrid approach was used for the construction of the analytical subsystem combining a conventional fused-silica capillary (used for separation) and a laser machined microfluidic block, made of PMMA. A solid-state cooling approach was also integrated in the CE module to enable controlling the temperature and therefore increasing the useful range of the robot. Although ultimately intended for detection of chemical warfare agents, the proposed system was used to analyze a series of volatile organic acids. As such, the system allowed the separation and detection of formic, acetic, and propionic acids with signal-to-noise ratios of 414, 150, and 115, respectively, after sampling by only 30 s and performing an electrokinetic injection during 2.0 s at 1.0 kV. PMID:22965708

  19. Indoor air sampling and mutagenicity studies of emissions from unvented coal combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Mumford, J.L.; Harris, D.B.; Williams, K.; Chuang, J.C.; Cooke, M.

    1987-03-01

    To develop sampling strategies and bioassay protocols for indoor air containing emissions from coal combustion in homes of the rural Xuan Wei County in China, the authors developed a medium-volume sampler to collect the <10-..mu..m particles and semivolatile organics by a filter and an XAD-2 resin, respectively. A high-volume particulate sampler was used for comparison. The coal was burned under conditions that simulated the open-pit combustion that occurs in Xuan Wei. High-volume and medium-volume sampling yielded similar, high particulate concentrations 38-39 mg/m/sup 3/. Fifteen percent of the total extractable organic mass was collected in the XAD-2 resin, and the remaining 85% was retained in the filter. The polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons found in the XAD were composed of four or fewer rings. In the Ames Salmonella assay, the XAD sample showed low mutagenic activity, and most of the mutagenic activity was found in the filter. The coal combustion emitted both direct- and indirect-acting mutagens, most of which were frameshift mutagens. 12 references, 2 figures, 3 tables.

  20. 24-HOUR DIFFUSIVE SAMPLING OF TOXIC VOCS IN AIR ONTO CARBOPACK X SOLID ADSORBENT FOLLOWED BY THERMAL DESORPTION/GC/MS ANALYSIS - LABORATORY STUDIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Diffusive sampling of a mixture of 42 volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in humidified, purified air onto the solid adsorbent Carbopack X was evaluated under controlled laboratory conditions. The evaluation included variations in sample air temperature, relative humidity, and ozon...

  1. Evaluation of a modified sampling method for molecular analysis of air microflora.

    PubMed

    Lech, T; Ziembinska-Buczynska, A

    2015-01-01

    A serious issue concerning the durability of economically important materials for humans related to cultural heritage is the process of biodeterioration. As a result of this phenomenon, priceless works of art, documents, and old prints have undergone a process of decomposition caused by microorganisms. Therefore, it is important to constantly monitor the presence and diversity of microorganisms in exposition rooms and storage areas of historical objects. In addition, the use of molecular biology tools for conservation studies will enable detailed research as well as reduce the time needed to perform the analyses compared with using conventional methods related to microbiology and conservation. The aim of this study was to adapt the sampling indoor air method for direct DNA extraction from microorganisms, including evaluating the extracted DNA quality and concentration. The obtained DNA was used to study the diversity of mold fungi in indoor air using polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis in specific archives and museum environments. The research was conducted in 2 storage rooms of the National Archives in Krakow and in 1 exposition room of the Archaeological Museum in Krakow (Poland). PMID:25966086

  2. Solvent Selection for Pressurized Liquid Extraction of Polymeric Sorbents Used in Air Sampling

    PubMed Central

    Primbs, Toby; Genualdi, Susan; Simonich, Staci

    2014-01-01

    Pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) was evaluated as a method for extracting semivolatile organic compounds (SOCs) from air sampling media; including quartz fiber filter (QFF), polyurethane foam (PUF), and a polystyrene divinyl benzene copolymer (XAD-2). Hansen solubility parameter plots were used to aid in the PLE solvent selection in order to reduce both co-extraction of polyurethane and save time in evaluating solvent compatibility during the initial steps of method development. A PLE solvent composition of 75:25% hexane:acetone was chosen for PUF. The XAD-2 copolymer was not solubilized under the PLE conditions used. The average percent PLE recoveries (and percent relative standard deviations) of 63 SOCs, including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and organochlorine, amide, triazine, thiocarbamate, and phosphorothioate pesticides, were 76.7 (6.2), 79.3 (8.1), and 93.4 (2.9) % for the QFF, PUF, and XAD-2, respectively. PMID:18220448

  3. Elemental analysis of cellular samples by in-air micro-PIXE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishii, K.; Sugimoto, A.; Tanaka, A.; Satoh, T.; Matsuyama, S.; Yamazaki, H.; Akama, C.; Amartivan, T.; Endoh, H.; Oishi, Y.; Yuki, H.; Sugihara, S.; Satoh, M.; Kamiya, T.; Sakai, T.; Arakawa, K.; Saidoh, M.; Oikawa, S.

    2001-07-01

    We developed a micro-PIXE system for the analysis of frozen cellular samples at atmospheric pressure under helium gas cooling. We analyzed bovine aortic endothelial (BAE) cells previously cultured in a medium containing bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU). It is known that these cells take BrdU into their nuclei at the S phase of their metabolic cycle. We examined the Br uptake for incubation times of 6, 12 and 24 h, respectively. The Br maps showed an accumulation in the nuclei and the Br concentration was found strongly dependent on the incubation time. We have demonstrated that in-air micro-PIXE analysis is a relevant technique for examining the molecular uptake in cells.

  4. Sampling of power plant stacks for air toxic emissions: Topical report for Phases 1 and 2

    SciTech Connect

    1995-02-21

    Under contract with the US Department of Energy (DE-AC22-92PCO0367), Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center, Radian Corporation has conducted a test program to collect and analyze size-fractionated stack gas particulate samples for selected inorganic hazardous air pollutants (HAPS). Specific goals of the program are (1) the collection of one-gram quantities of size-fractionated stack gas particulate matter for bulk (total) and surface chemical charactization, and (2) the determination of the relationship between particle size, bulk and surface (leachable) composition, and unit load. The information obtained from this program identifies the effects of unit load, particle size, and wet FGD system operation on the relative toxicological effects of exposure to particulate emissions.

  5. Sampling and analyses report for December 1991 semiannual postburn sampling at the RM1 UCG site, Hanna, Wyoming

    SciTech Connect

    Lindblom, S.R.

    1992-01-01

    The Rocky Mountain 1 (RM1) underground coal gasification (UCG) test was conducted from November 16, 1987, through February 26, 1988 at a site approximately one mile south of Hanna, Wyoming. The test consisted of a dual-module operation to evaluate the controlled retracting injection point (CRIP) technology, the elongated linked well (ELW) technology, and the interaction of closely spaced modules operating simultaneously. The test caused two cavities to form in the Hanna No. 1 coal seam and associated overburden. The Hanna No. 1 coal seam was approximately 30 ft thick and lay at depths between 350 and 365 ft below the surface in the test area. The coal seam was overlain by sandstones, siltstones, and claystones deposited by various fluvial environments. The groundwater monitoring was designed to satisfy the requirements of the Wyoming Department of Environmental Quality (WDEQ) in addition to providing research data toward the development of UCG technology that minimizes environmental impacts. Further background material and the sampling and analytical procedures associated with the sampling task are described in the Rocky Mountain 1 Postburn Groundwater Monitoring Quality Assurance Plan (Mason and Johnson 1988).

  6. GUIDE TO CALCULATING TRANSPORT EFFICIENCY OF AEROSOLS IN OCCUPATIONAL AIR SAMPLING SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect

    Hogue, M.; Hadlock, D.; Thompson, M.; Farfan, E.

    2013-11-12

    This report will present hand calculations for transport efficiency based on aspiration efficiency and particle deposition losses. Because the hand calculations become long and tedious, especially for lognormal distributions of aerosols, an R script (R 2011) will be provided for each element examined. Calculations are provided for the most common elements in a remote air sampling system, including a thin-walled probe in ambient air, straight tubing, bends and a sample housing. One popular alternative approach would be to put such calculations in a spreadsheet, a thorough version of which is shared by Paul Baron via the Aerocalc spreadsheet (Baron 2012). To provide greater transparency and to avoid common spreadsheet vulnerabilities to errors (Burns 2012), this report uses R. The particle size is based on the concept of activity median aerodynamic diameter (AMAD). The AMAD is a particle size in an aerosol where fifty percent of the activity in the aerosol is associated with particles of aerodynamic diameter greater than the AMAD. This concept allows for the simplification of transport efficiency calculations where all particles are treated as spheres with the density of water (1g cm-3). In reality, particle densities depend on the actual material involved. Particle geometries can be very complicated. Dynamic shape factors are provided by Hinds (Hinds 1999). Some example factors are: 1.00 for a sphere, 1.08 for a cube, 1.68 for a long cylinder (10 times as long as it is wide), 1.05 to 1.11 for bituminous coal, 1.57 for sand and 1.88 for talc. Revision 1 is made to correct an error in the original version of this report. The particle distributions are based on activity weighting of particles rather than based on the number of particles of each size. Therefore, the mass correction made in the original version is removed from the text and the calculations. Results affected by the change are updated.

  7. Evaluation of sampling and analytical methods for the determination of chlorodifluoromethane in air.

    PubMed

    Seymour, M J; Lucas, M F

    1993-05-01

    In January 1989, the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) published revised permissible exposure limits (PELs) for 212 compounds and established PELs for 164 additional compounds. In cases where regulated compounds did not have specific sampling and analytical methods, methods were suggested by OSHA. The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) Manual of Analytical Methods (NMAM) Method 1020, which was developed for 1,1,2-trichloro-1,2,2-trifluoroethane, was suggested by OSHA for the determination of chlorodifluoromethane in workplace air. Because this method was developed for a liquid and chlorodifluoromethane is a gas, the ability of NMAM Method 1020 to adequately sample and quantitate chlorodifluoromethane was questioned and tested by researchers at NIOSH. The evaluation of NMAM Method 1020 for chlorodifluoromethane showed that the capacity of the 100/50-mg charcoal sorbent bed was limited, the standard preparation procedure was incorrect for a gas analyte, and the analyte had low solubility in carbon disulfide. NMAM Method 1018 for dichlorodifluoromethane uses two coconut-shell charcoal tubes in series, a 400/200-mg tube followed by a 100/50-mg tube, which are desorbed with methylene chloride. This method was evaluated for chlorodifluoromethane. Test atmospheres, with chlorodifluoromethane concentrations from 0.5-2 times the PEL were generated. Modifications of NMAM Method 1018 included changes in the standard preparation procedure, and the gas chromatograph was equipped with a capillary column. These revisions to NMAM 1018 resulted in a 96.5% recovery and a total precision for the method of 7.1% for chlorodifluoromethane. No significant bias in the method was found. Results indicate that the revised NMAM Method 1018 is suitable for the determination of chlorodifluoromethane in workplace air. PMID:8498360

  8. Indoor air sampling for fine particulate matter and black carbon in industrial communities in Pittsburgh.

    PubMed

    Tunno, Brett J; Naumoff Shields, Kyra; Cambal, Leah; Tripathy, Sheila; Holguin, Fernando; Lioy, Paul; Clougherty, Jane E

    2015-12-01

    Impacts of industrial emissions on outdoor air pollution in nearby communities are well-documented. Fewer studies, however, have explored impacts on indoor air quality in these communities. Because persons in northern climates spend a majority of their time indoors, understanding indoor exposures, and the role of outdoor air pollution in shaping such exposures, is a priority issue. Braddock and Clairton, Pennsylvania, industrial communities near Pittsburgh, are home to an active steel mill and coke works, respectively, and the population experiences elevated rates of childhood asthma. Twenty-one homes were selected for 1-week indoor sampling for fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and black carbon (BC) during summer 2011 and winter 2012. Multivariate linear regression models were used to examine contributions from both outdoor concentrations and indoor sources. In the models, an outdoor infiltration component explained 10 to 39% of variability in indoor air pollution for PM2.5, and 33 to 42% for BC. For both PM2.5 models and the summer BC model, smoking was a stronger predictor than outdoor pollution, as greater pollutant concentration increases were identified. For winter BC, the model was explained by outdoor pollution and an open windows modifier. In both seasons, indoor concentrations for both PM2.5 and BC were consistently higher than residence-specific outdoor concentration estimates. Mean indoor PM2.5 was higher, on average, during summer (25.8±22.7 μg/m3) than winter (18.9±13.2 μg/m3). Contrary to the study's hypothesis, outdoor concentrations accounted for only little to moderate variability (10 to 42%) in indoor concentrations; a much greater proportion of PM2.5 was explained by cigarette smoking. Outdoor infiltration was a stronger predictor for BC compared to PM2.5, especially in winter. Our results suggest that, even in industrial communities of high outdoor pollution concentrations, indoor activities--particularly cigarette smoking--may play a larger

  9. Excreta Sampling as an Alternative to In Vivo Measurements at the Hanford Site.

    PubMed

    Carbaugh, Eugene H; Antonio, Cheryl L; Lynch, Timothy P

    2015-08-01

    The capabilities of indirect radiobioassay by urine and fecal sample analysis were compared with the direct radiobioassay methods of whole body counting and lung counting for the most common radionuclides and inhalation exposure scenarios encountered by Hanford workers. Radionuclides addressed by in vivo measurement included 137Cs, 60Co, 154Eu, and 241Am as an indicator for plutonium mixtures. The same radionuclides were addressed using gamma energy analysis of urine samples, augmented by radiochemistry and alpha spectrometry methods for plutonium in urine and fecal samples. It was concluded that in vivo whole body counting and lung counting capability should be maintained at the Hanford Site for the foreseeable future, however, urine and fecal sample analysis could provide adequate, though degraded, monitoring capability for workers as a short-term alternative, should in vivo capability be lost due to planned or unplanned circumstances. PMID:26102322

  10. Organic composition of size segregated atmospheric particulate matter, during summer and winter sampling campaigns at representative sites in Madrid, Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mirante, Fátima; Alves, Célia; Pio, Casimiro; Pindado, Oscar; Perez, Rosa; Revuelta, M.a. Aranzazu; Artiñano, Begoña

    2013-10-01

    Madrid, the largest city of Spain, has some and unique air pollution problems, such as emissions from residential coal burning, a huge vehicle fleet and frequent African dust outbreaks, along with the lack of industrial emissions. The chemical composition of particulate matter (PM) was studied during summer and winter sampling campaigns, conducted in order to obtain size-segregated information at two different urban sites (roadside and urban background). PM was sampled with high volume cascade impactors, with 4 stages: 10-2.5, 2.5-1, 1-0.5 and < 0.5 μm. Samples were solvent extracted and organic compounds were identified and quantified by GC-MS. Alkanes, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), alcohols and fatty acids were chromatographically resolved. The PM1-2.5 was the fraction with the highest mass percentage of organics. Acids were the organic compounds that dominated all particle size fractions. Different organic compounds presented apparently different seasonal characteristics, reflecting distinct emission sources, such as vehicle exhausts and biogenic sources. The benzo[a]pyrene equivalent concentrations were lower than 1 ng m- 3. The estimated carcinogenic risk is low.

  11. Installation restoration program final remedial investigation report IRP sites 8 and 10. 151st air refueling group Utah Air National Guard, Salt Lake City, Utah. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1996-06-01

    This report presents the results from a Remedial Investigation (RI) for two sites at the Utah Air National Guard (UANG) Base located in Salt Lake City, Utah. The two sites investigated are identified as Installation Restoration Program (IRP) Site 8, a former underground storage tank (UST) location, and IRP Site 10, an existing petroleum, oil, and lubricants (POL) yard. The RI was conducted as outlined in the Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study (RI/FS) Work Plan prepared by Stone Webster and submitted to and approved by the ANG in May 1993. The field work associated with the RI was performed in June, July, and August 1995.

  12. Le site acheuléen de plein air d'Holon (Israël) : premiers résultatsThe Acheulian open-air site from Holon (Israel): preliminary results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chazan, Michael; Monchot, Hervé; Porat, Naomi; Lister, Adrian; Davies, Paul; Kolska Horwitz, Liora

    2001-02-01

    The open-air site of Holon (Israel), dated to an age of 200 000 years has yielded a large Acheulean bone and lithic assemblage. The association between the lithics and fauna clearly demonstrates that Hominids were the prime agents in creating the assemblage. The site of Holon plays a major role in understanding the Lower Palaeolithic of the Levantine coastal area.

  13. Sampling and analytical methods of stable isotopes and dissolved inorganic carbon from CO2 injection sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Geldern, Robert; Myrttinen, Anssi; Becker, Veith; Barth, Johannes A. C.

    2010-05-01

    The isotopic composition (δ13C) of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC), in combination with DIC concentration measurements, can be used to quantify geochemical trapping of CO2 in water. This is of great importance in monitoring the fate of CO2 in the subsurface in CO2 injection projects. When CO2 mixes with water, a shift in the δ13C values, as well as an increase in DIC concentrations is observed in the CO2-H2O system. However, when using standard on-site titration methods, it is often challenging to determining accurate in-situ DIC concentrations. This may be due to CO2 degassing and CO2-exchange between the sample and the atmosphere during titration, causing a change in the pH value or due to other unfavourable conditions such as turbid water samples or limited availability of fluid samples. A way to resolve this problem is by simultaneously determining the DIC concentration and carbon isotopic composition using a standard continuous flow Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometry (CF-IRMS) setup with a Gasbench II coupled to Delta plusXP mass spectrometer. During sampling, in order to avoid atmospheric contact, water samples taken from the borehole-fluid-sampler should be directly transferred into a suitable container, such as a gasbag. Also, to avoid isotope fractionation due to biological activity in the sample, it is recommended to stabilize the gasbags prior to sampling with HgCl2 for the subsequent stable isotope analysis. The DIC concentration of the samples can be determined from the area of the sample peaks in a chromatogram from a CF-IRMS analysis, since it is directly proportional to the CO2 generated by the reaction of the water with H3PO4. A set of standards with known DIC concentrations should be prepared by mixing NaHCO3 with DIC free water. Since the DIC concentrations of samples taken from CO2 injection sites are expected to be exceptionally high due to the additional high amounts of added CO2, the DIC concentration range of the standards should be set high

  14. Ambient airborne solids concentrations including volcanic ash at Hanford, Washington sampling sites subsequent to the Mount St. Helens eruption

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sehmel, G. A.

    1982-01-01

    Airborne solids concentrations were measured on a near daily basis at two Hanford, Washington sites after the eruption of Mount St. Helens on May 18, 1980. These sites are about 211 km east of Mount St. Helens. Collected airborne solids included resuspended volcanic ash plus normal ambient solids. Average airborne solids concentrations were greater at the Hanford meteorological station sampling site which is 24 km northwest of the Horn Rapids dam sampling site. These increased concentrations reflect the sampling site proximity to greater ash fallout depths. Both sites are in low ash fallout areas although the Hanford meteorological station site is closer to the greater ash fallout areas. Airborne solids concentrations were decreased by rain, but airborne solids concentrations rapidly increased as surfaces dried. Airborne concentrations tended to become nearly the same at both sampling sites only for July 12 and 13.

  15. Modeling Feedbacks between Biogenic Emissions and Air Chemistry from Site to Globe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butler, T. M.; Grote, R.

    2014-12-01

    We present the implementation of a new model describing light dependent emission of volatile organic compounds (BVOC) that derives isoprenoid production directly from the electron transport potential and consumption from photosynthesis. Photosynthesis information requirements are designed to be met by many recent land-surface models that apply the Farquhar assimilation scheme, e.g. JULES or CLM. The new approach has the advantages that 1) the commonly observed decrease of (isoprene) emission with increasing CO2 air concentration is considered by the competition on energy between photosynthesis and emission processes, and 2) air pollution impacts may be considered as inducing emissions by activating emission enzymes as well as decreasing substrate supply from photosynthesis, and 3) many environmental drivers of BVOC emissions are implicitly considered in the description of plant photosynthesis and phenology, reducing the demand for species-specific emission parameters. We investigate the parameter sensitivity of the suggested model as well as the sensitivity of emissions to a range of environmental conditions with a particular focus on CO2 responses. We present evaluation at the site level and compare the model with other approaches. Finally, we demonstrate the implementation into a coupled global-air chemistry model and discuss the requirements to appropriately parameterize plant functional types.

  16. Influence of air mass origin on aerosol properties at a remote Michigan forest site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    VanReken, T. M.; Mwaniki, G. R.; Wallace, H. W.; Pressley, S. N.; Erickson, M. H.; Jobson, B. T.; Lamb, B. K.

    2015-04-01

    The northern Great Lakes region of North America is a large, relatively pristine area. To date, there has only been limited study of the atmospheric aerosol in this region. During summer 2009, a detailed characterization of the atmospheric aerosol was conducted at the University of Michigan Biological Station (UMBS) as part of the Community Atmosphere-Biosphere Interactions Experiment (CABINEX). Measurements included particle size distribution, water-soluble composition, and CCN activity. Aerosol properties were strongly dependent on the origin of the air masses reaching the site. For ∼60% of the study period, air was transported from sparsely populated regions to the northwest. During these times aerosol loadings were low, with mean number and volume concentrations of 1630 cm-3 and 1.91 μm3 cm-3, respectively. The aerosol during clean periods was dominated by organics, and exhibited low hygroscopicities (mean κ = 0.18 at s = 0.3%). When air was from more populated regions to the east and south (∼29% of the time), aerosol properties reflected a stronger anthropogenic influence, with 85% greater particle number concentrations, 2.5 times greater aerosol volume, six times more sulfate mass, and increased hygroscopicity (mean k = 0.24 at s = 0.3%). These trends are have the potential to influence forest-atmosphere interactions and should be targeted for future study.

  17. High Mercury Wet Deposition at a "Clean Air" Site in Puerto Rico.

    PubMed

    Shanley, James B; Engle, Mark A; Scholl, Martha; Krabbenhoft, David P; Brunette, Robert; Olson, Mark L; Conroy, Mary E

    2015-10-20

    Atmospheric mercury deposition measurements are rare in tropical latitudes. Here we report on seven years (April 2005 to April 2012, with gaps) of wet Hg deposition measurements at a tropical wet forest in the Luquillo Mountains, northeastern Puerto Rico, U.S. Despite receiving unpolluted air off the Atlantic Ocean from northeasterly trade winds, during two complete years the site averaged 27.9 μg m(-2) yr(-1) wet Hg deposition, or about 30% more than Florida and the Gulf Coast, the highest deposition areas within the U.S. These high Hg deposition rates are driven in part by high rainfall, which averaged 2855 mm yr(-1). The volume-weighted mean Hg concentration was 9.8 ng L(-1), and was highest during summer and lowest during the winter dry season. Rainout of Hg (decreasing concentration with increasing rainfall depth) was minimal. The high Hg deposition was not supported by gaseous oxidized mercury (GOM) at ground level, which remained near global background concentrations (<10 pg m(-3)). Rather, a strong positive correlation between Hg concentrations and the maximum height of rain detected within clouds (echo tops) suggests that droplets in high convective cloud tops scavenge GOM from above the mixing layer. The high wet Hg deposition at this "clean air" site suggests that other tropical areas may be hotspots for Hg deposition as well. PMID:26368125

  18. Selecting a landing site of astrobiological interest for Mars landers and sample return missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wills, D.; Monaghan, E.; Foing, B. H.

    2008-09-01

    Abstract The landscape of Mars, despite its apparent hostility to life, is riddled with geological and mineralogical signs of past or present hydrological activity. As such, it is a key target for astrobiological exploration. There are, however, many factors that will need to be considered when planning in-situ and sample return missions, if these missions are indeed to adequately exploit the science potential of this intriguing world. These will not only take into account the environment of the landing site in terms of topography and ambient atmosphere etc., but also the geochemical make up of the surface regolith, evidence of hydrological processes and various other considerations. The knowledge base in all aspects of Martian science is being added to on an almost daily basis, and the aim of this work is to combine data and studies to nominate top priority landing locations for the search for evidence of life on Mars. We report in particular on science and technical criteria and our data analysis for sites of astrobiological interest. This includes information from previous missions (such as Mars Express, MGS, Odyssey, MRO and MER rovers) on mineralogical composition, geomorphology, evidence from past water history from imaging and spectroscopic data, and existence of in-situ prior information from landers and rovers (concerning evidences for volatiles, organics and habitability conditions). We discuss key mission objectives, and assess what sort of sites should be targeted in the light of these. We consider the accessibility of chosen locations, taking into account difficulties presented in accessing the polar regions and other regions of high altitude. We describe what additional measurements are needed, and outline the technical and scientific operations requirements of such in-situ landers and sample return missions. Approach In the first step of this study we focus on the science objectives of in-situ and sample return missions to Mars. We investigate the

  19. FAST TRACK COMMUNICATION Determination of atomic site susceptibility tensors from neutron diffraction data on polycrystalline samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gukasov, A.; Brown, P. J.

    2010-12-01

    Polarized neutron diffraction can provide information about the atomic site susceptibility tensor χij characterizing the magnetic response of individual atoms to an external magnetic field (Gukasov and Brown 2002 J. Phys.: Condens. Mater. 14 8831). The six independent atomic susceptibility parameters (ASPs) can be determined from polarized neutron flipping ratio measurements on single crystals and visualized as magnetic ellipsoids which are analogous to the thermal ellipsoids obtained from atomic displacement parameters (ADPs). We demonstrate now that the information about local magnetic susceptibility at different magnetic sites in a crystal can also be obtained from polarized and unpolarized neutron diffraction measurements on magnetized powder samples. The validity of the method is illustrated by the results of such measurements on a polycrystalline sample of Tb2Sn2O7.

  20. The Application of Adaptive Sampling and Analysis Program (ASAP) Techniques to NORM Sites

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Robert; Smith, Karen P.; Quinn, John

    1999-10-29

    The results from the Michigan demonstration establish that this type of approach can be very effective for NORM sites. The advantages include (1) greatly reduced per sample analytical costs; (2) a reduced reliance on soil sampling and ex situ gamma spectroscopy analyses; (3) the ability to combine characterization with remediation activities in one fieldwork cycle; (4) improved documentation; and (5) ultimately better remediation, as measured by greater precision in delineating soils that are not in compliance with requirements from soils that are in compliance. In addition, the demonstration showed that the use of real-time technologies, such as the RadInSoil, can facilitate the implementation of a Multi-Agency Radiation Survey and Site Investigation Manual (MARSSIM)-based final status survey program

  1. Results of soil, ground-water, surface-water, and streambed-sediment sampling at Air Force Plane 85, Columbus, Ohio, 1996

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Parnell, J.M.

    1997-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with Aeronautical Systems Center, Environmental Management Directorate, Restoration Division, prepared the Surface- and Ground- Water Monitoring Work Plan for Air Force Plant 85 (AFP 85 or Plant), Columbus, Ohio, under the Air Force Installation Restoration Program to characterize any ground-water, surface-water, and soil contamination that may exist at AFP 85. The USGS began the study in November 1996. The Plant was divided into nine sampling areas, which included some previously investi gated study sites. The investigation activities included the collection and presentation of data taken during drilling and water-quality sampling. Data collection focused on the saturated and unsatur ated zones and surface water. Twenty-three soil borings were completed. Ten monitoring wells (six existing wells and four newly constructed monitoring wells) were selected for water-quality sam pling. Surface-water and streambed-sediment sampling locations were chosen to monitor flow onto and off of the Plant. Seven sites were sampled for both surface-water and streambed-sediment quality. This report presents data on the selected inorganic and organic constituents in soil, ground water, surface water, and streambed sediments at AFP 85. The methods of data collection and anal ysis also are included. Knowledge of the geologic and hydrologic setting could aid Aeronautical Systems Center, Environmental Management Directorate, Restoration Division, and its governing regulatory agencies in future remediation studies.

  2. Across North America Tracer Experiment (ANATEX). Volume 3. Sampling at tower and remote sites. Technical memo

    SciTech Connect

    Heffter, J.L.; Draxler, R.R.

    1989-10-01

    The Across North America Tracer Experiment (ANATEX) was designed to provide a comprehensive data base for assessing the performance of long-range transport and diffusion models. Three distinct perfluorocarbon tracers (PMCH, oPDCH, and PTCH) were released simultaneously for a 3-h duration every 2 1/2 days from 2 sites; PTCH from Glasgow, Montana, and oPDCH and PMCH (every fifth day) from St. Cloud, Minnesota for the 84-day period January 5, 1987 through March 29, 1987. The report describes the experimental design of the sampling programs at the tower and remote sites, discusses the measured data and how they were analyzed and quality assured, summarizes data characteristics, discusses data use, and presents complete data tables for both tower and remote sites. The report also describes the characteristics, format, and accessibility of data sets created from the data analysis.

  3. Deuterium content of H2 measured on air samples from the CARIBIC project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batenburg, A. M.; Schuck, T.; Brenninkmeijer, C. A. M.; Röckmann, T.

    2009-04-01

    H2 is present in the atmosphere at levels of ~500 ppb; its largest sources are the oxidation of methane and other hydrocarbons and combustion processes. In the coming decades, H2 levels are expected to rise due to use of hydrogen as an energy carrier. This may affect methane lifetimes and stratospheric ozone depletion. Unfortunately, large uncertainties still exist in the global H2budget. The different sources and sinks of H2 have very distinct isotopic signatures and fractionation coefficients, respectively. For this reason, measurements of isotopic composition are a promising tool to gain insight into H2 source and sink processes and to constrain the terms in the global budget. The CARIBIC project uses an automated instrument container on board of a commercial passenger aircraft to carry out in situ measurements of trace gases and aerosols and to collect air samples. The use of a commercial airliner results in samples mostly from the Upper Troposphere-Lower Stratosphere (UTLS) region. Although the UTLS region is considered to be an interesting part of the atmosphere, relatively few measurements have been made there before. The CARIBIC samples are routinely analyzed for various gases, including four important greenhouse gases. In addition, air samples of 15 CARIBIC flights have now been analyzed for molecular hydrogen concentration (H2) and H2 deuterium content (^D-H2) in the isotope laboratory of the Institute of Marine and Atmospheric Research Utrecht (IMAU). A GC-IRMS system (similar to Rhee et al. [2004]) is used to determine the concentration and deuterium content of atmospheric H2 precisely and routinely. This poster will present a selection of the first results. For some flights, samples close to the takeoff and landing region show strong contamination signatures (high H2 concentrations and low ^D-H2 values). With the exclusion of these samples, ^D values correlate negatively with methane concentration, as observed previously by Rahn et al. [2003] and R

  4. Combined-sewer overflow data and methods of sample collection for selected sites, Detroit, Michigan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sweat, M.J.; Wolf, J.R.

    1997-01-01

    From October 1, 1994 through December 31, 1995, four combined-sewer discharging to the Detroit River in Detroit, Michigan were monitored to characterize storm-related water quantity and quality. Water velocity, stage, discharge, and precipitation were measured continuously and recorded at 5-minute intervals. Water-quality samples were collected at discrete times during each storm and analyzed for inorganic and organic pollutants. This report includes the sampling approach, field collection and processing techniques, and methods of chemical analysis, as well as a compilation of combined sewer discharge volumes, chemical data, and quality control data. These data may be used by resource managers and scientists (1) to describe temporal variation for pollutant concentrations in combined-sewage for various overflow events; (2) to describe spatial distribution of selected pollutants in the four combined-sewer overflows discharging to the Detroit River; (3) to calculate pollutant loads to the Detroit River from the four overflow sites for the monitored storm events; (4) to estimate pollutant loadings form other overflow sites; and, (5) to provide data and information which can be used to define appropriate management methods to reduce or eliminate untreated combined-sewer overflows. Selected combined-sewers were sampled between 30 and 82 times for inorganic pollutants, and between 14 and 22 times for organic pollutants, depending on the site. These samples represented between 8 and 17 storms during which one or more combined-sewers overflowed. The monitored pollutants included fecal coliform, fecal streptococci, and Escherichia coli; antimony, arsenic, beryllium, cadmium, hexavalent chromium, total chromium, cobalt, copper, iron, lead, manganese, mercury, nickel, silver, thallium and zinc; and polychlorinated biphenyl congeners, volatile organic compounds, and polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons. In general, metal and non-metal inorganic pollutants were detected at all

  5. Volatile N-nitrosamines in environmental tobacco smoke: Sampling, analysis, emission factors, and indoor air exposures

    SciTech Connect

    Mahanama, K.R.R.; Daisey, J.M.

    1996-05-01

    A more convenient sampling and analysis method for the volatile N-nitrosamines (VNA) in environmental tobacco smoke (ETS), using commercially available Thermosorb/N cartridges, was developed and validated. Using the method, emission factors for the two major VNA in ETS were determined in a room-sized environmental chamber for six commercial cigarette brands, which together accounted for 62.5% of the total market in California in 1990. The average emission factors were 565{+-}115 and 104{+-}20 ng per cigarette for N-nitrosodimethylamine and N-nitrosopyrrolidine, respectively. The emission factors were used to estimate VNA exposures from ETS in a typical office building and an average residence. Indoor concentrations of N,N-dimethylnitrosamine from ETS for these modeled scenarios were less than 10% of the reported median outdoor concentration. This median outdoor concentration, however, includes many measurements made in source-dominated areas and may be considerably higher than one based on more representative sampling of outdoor air. 35 refs., 4 tabs.

  6. Uncertainties in Air Exchange using Continuous-Injection, Long-Term Sampling Tracer-Gas Methods

    SciTech Connect

    Sherman, Max H.; Walker, Iain S.; Lunden, Melissa M.

    2013-12-01

    The PerFluorocarbon Tracer (PFT) method is a low-cost approach commonly used for measuring air exchange in buildings using tracer gases. It is a specific application of the more general Continuous-Injection, Long-Term Sampling (CILTS) method. The technique is widely used but there has been little work on understanding the uncertainties (both precision and bias) associated with its use, particularly given that it is typically deployed by untrained or lightly trained people to minimize experimental costs. In this article we will conduct a first-principles error analysis to estimate the uncertainties and then compare that analysis to CILTS measurements that were over-sampled, through the use of multiple tracers and emitter and sampler distribution patterns, in three houses. We find that the CILTS method can have an overall uncertainty of 10-15percent in ideal circumstances, but that even in highly controlled field experiments done by trained experimenters expected uncertainties are about 20percent. In addition, there are many field conditions (such as open windows) where CILTS is not likely to provide any quantitative data. Even avoiding the worst situations of assumption violations CILTS should be considered as having a something like a ?factor of two? uncertainty for the broad field trials that it is typically used in. We provide guidance on how to deploy CILTS and design the experiment to minimize uncertainties.

  7. Determination of reduced sulfur compounds in air samples for the monitoring of malodor caused by landfills.

    PubMed

    Borrás, Esther; Tortajada-Genaro, Luis Antonio; Muñoz, Amalia

    2016-02-01

    A reliable method for determining malodorous reduced sulfur compounds (RSC) in atmospheric samples has been developed. The method uses an activated coconut solid-phase sorbent for active sampling, hexane as desorption solvent, and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) technique for specific and sensitive separation-detection. The compounds analyzed were hydrogen sulfide, ethyl mercaptan, dimethyl sulfide, carbon disulfide, butyl mercaptan and dimethyl disulfide. Recovery efficiency varied between 75% and 97% and no detectable losses were observed during storage at -20°C. Satisfactory analytical parameters were reported, such as good linearity (r(2)>0.98), low detection limits (0.6-59 pg m(-3)), adequate repeatability (9%) and reproducibility (17%), and fast GC-MS analysis (<6.5 min). The accurate determination of RSCs, free of interferences from atmospheric components, such as ozone or water was demonstrated. The method has been applied to analyze the composition of environmental air close to three landfills processing urban and industrial solid wastes. The results indicated that hydrogen sulfide and ethyl mercaptan were the main molecules responsible of malodor phenomenon in the study areas. PMID:26653474

  8. Influence of meteorological parameters on particulates and atmospheric pollutants at Taichung harbor sampling site.

    PubMed

    Fang, Guor-Cheng; Wu, Yuh-Shen; Wen, Chih-Chung; Lee, Wen-Jhy; Chang, Shih-Yu

    2007-05-01

    Atmospheric aerosol particles and metallic concentrations, ionic species were monitored at the Experimental harbor of Taichung sampling site in this study. This work attempted to characterize metallic elements and ionic species associated with meteorological conditions variation on atmospheric particulate matter in TSP, PM2.5, PM2.5-10. The concentration distribution trend between TSP, PM2.5, PM2.5-10 particle concentration at the TH (Taichung harbor) sampling site were also displayed in this study. Besides, the meteorological conditions variation of metallic elements (Fe, Mg, Cr, Cu, Zn, Mn and Pb) and ions species (Cl(-), NO3 (-), SO4 (2-), NH4+, Mg2+, Ca2+ and Na+) concentrations attached with those particulate were also analyzed in this study. On non-parametric (Spearman) correlation analysis, the results indicated that the meteorological conditions have high correlation at largest particulate concentrations for TSP at TH sampling site in this study. In addition, the temperature and relative humidity of meteorological conditions that played a key role to affect particulate matter (PM) and have higher correlations then other meteorological conditions such as wind speed and atmospheric pressure. The parameter temperature and relative humidity also have high correlations with atmospheric pollutants compared with those of the other meteorological variables (wind speed, atmospheric pressure and prevalent wind direction). In addition, relative statistical equations between pollutants and meteorological variables were also characterized in this study. PMID:17057996

  9. Remaining Sites Verification Package for the 100-D-24, 119-D Sample Building Drywell, Waste Site Reclassification Form 2006-004

    SciTech Connect

    L. M. Dittmer

    2006-09-19

    The 100-D-24 Sample Building Drywell waste site was a drywell that received drainage from a floor drain in the 119-D Sample Building. Confirmatory sampling was conducted on November 3, 2005. The waste site meets the remedial action objectives specified in the Remaining Sites ROD. The results of confirmatory sampling show that residual contaminant concentrations do not preclude any future uses and allow for unrestricted use of shallow zone soils. The results also demonstrate that residual contaminant concentrations are protective of groundwater and the Columbia River.

  10. Sample site selection for tracer studies applying a unidirectional circulatory approach

    SciTech Connect

    Layman, D.K.; Wolfe, R.R.

    1987-08-01

    The optimal arterial or venous sites for infusion and sampling during isotopic tracer studies have not been established. This study determined the relationship of plasma and tissue enrichment (E) when isotopes were infused in an artery and sampled from a vein (av mode) or infused in a vein and sampled from an artery (va mode). Adult dogs were given primed constant infusions of (3-/sup 13/C)lactate, (1-/sup 13/C)leucine, and /sup 14/C-labeled bicarbonate. Simultaneous samples were drawn from the vena cava, aortic arch, and breath. Tissue samples were removed from skeletal muscle, liver, kidney, and gut. Breath samples were analyzed for /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ by liquid scintillation counting and plasma isotopic enrichments of (/sup 13/C)lactate, (/sup 13/C)leucine, and alpha-(/sup 13/C)ketoisocaproate (KIC) were determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. By using the va mode, the plasma E for lactate and leucine were 30-40% above tissue E. The av mode provided an accurate reflection of tissue E for lactate, which equilibrates rapidly with tissues, and a reasonable estimate for leucine, which exchanges more slowly. The isotopic enrichment of plasma KIC more directly reflected tissue leucine E than did plasma leucine E, and KIC enrichment was insensitive to sampling site. We also evaluated theoretically a circulatory model that predicts venous isotopic enrichments when the va mode is used. We conclude that the av mode is optimal but that the problems arising from use of the va mode can be overcome by use of a metabolic product (i.e., KIC) or by calculation of venous specific activity with our circulatory mode.

  11. Development of automated preparation system for isotopocule analysis of N2O in various air samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toyoda, Sakae; Yoshida, Naohiro

    2016-05-01

    Nitrous oxide (N2O), an increasingly abundant greenhouse gas in the atmosphere, is the most important stratospheric ozone-depleting gas of this century. Natural abundance ratios of isotopocules of N2O, NNO molecules substituted with stable isotopes of nitrogen and oxygen, are a promising index of various sources or production pathways of N2O and of its sink or decomposition pathways. Several automated methods have been reported to improve the analytical precision for the isotopocule ratio of atmospheric N2O and to reduce the labor necessary for complicated sample preparation procedures related to mass spectrometric analysis. However, no method accommodates flask samples with limited volume or pressure. Here we present an automated preconcentration system which offers flexibility with respect to the available gas volume, pressure, and N2O concentration. The shortest processing time for a single analysis of typical atmospheric sample is 40 min. Precision values of isotopocule ratio analysis are < 0.1 ‰ for δ15Nbulk (average abundances of 14N15N16O and 15N14N16O relative to 14N14N16O), < 0.2 ‰ for δ18O (relative abundance of 14N14N18O), and < 0.5 ‰ for site preference (SP; difference between relative abundance of 14N15N16O and 15N14N16O). This precision is comparable to that of other automated systems, but better than that of our previously reported manual measurement system.

  12. Sampling, storage, and analysis of C2-C7 non-methane hydrocarbons from the US National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Cooperative Air Sampling Network glass flasks.

    PubMed

    Pollmann, Jan; Helmig, Detlev; Hueber, Jacques; Plass-Dülmer, Christian; Tans, Pieter

    2008-04-25

    An analytical technique was developed to analyze light non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHC), including ethane, propane, iso-butane, n-butane, iso-pentane, n-pentane, n-hexane, isoprene, benzene and toluene from whole air samples collected in 2.5l-glass flasks used by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Earth System Research Laboratory, Global Monitoring Division (NOAA ESRL GMD, Boulder, CO, USA) Cooperative Air Sampling Network. This method relies on utilizing the remaining air in these flasks (which is at below-ambient pressure at this stage) after the completion of all routine greenhouse gas measurements from these samples. NMHC in sample aliquots extracted from the flasks were preconcentrated with a custom-made, cryogen-free inlet system and analyzed by gas chromatography (GC) with flame ionization detection (FID). C2-C7 NMHC, depending on their ambient air mixing ratios, could be measured with accuracy and repeatability errors of generally < or =10-20%. Larger deviations were found for ethene and propene. Hexane was systematically overestimated due to a chromatographic co-elution problem. Saturated NMHC showed less than 5% changes in their mixing ratios in glass flask samples that were stored for up to 1 year. In the same experiment ethene and propene increased at approximately 30% yr(-1). A series of blank experiments showed negligible contamination from the sampling process and from storage (<10 pptv yr(-1)) of samples in these glass flasks. Results from flask NMHC analyses were compared to in-situ NMHC measurements at the Global Atmospheric Watch station in Hohenpeissenberg, Germany. This 9-months side-by-side comparison showed good agreement between both methods. More than 94% of all data comparisons for C2-C5 alkanes, isoprene, benzene and toluene fell within the combined accuracy and precision objectives of the World Meteorological Organization Global Atmosphere Watch (WMO-GAW) for NMHC measurements. PMID:18355832

  13. Cryogenic separation of oxygen-argon mixture in natural air samples for isotopic and molecular ratios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Habeeb Rahman, Keedakkadan; Abe, Osamu

    2014-05-01

    The discovery of mass independent isotope fractionation in oxygen during the formation of ozone in the stratosphere has initiated a wide application in isotope geochemistry field. Separation of oxygen-argon mixture has become the foundation of high precision analysis of Δ17O and δ(O2/Ar) for geochemical applications. Here we present precise and simplified cryogenic separation of argon oxygen mixture from the atmospheric and dissolved air using 30/60 mesh 5A molecular sieve zeolite. A pioneer study of this method was conducted by Thiemens and Meagher in 1984. The column which is made of glass tube contains about 1.1 grams of molecular sieve zeolite and both ends of column was filled with glass wools. The experimental set up was tested for different combination of molecular sieves and slurry temperatures. We found the most efficient condition for the separation was at a column temperature of -103°C. For complete transfer of O2 and Ar mixture usually takes in 15-20 minutes time. The isotopic ratios of oxygen were analyzed using mass spectrometer (Thermo Fischer Delta Plus) relative to reference oxygen-argon mixture at 3V of m/z 32 for both sample and reference side. The signals of m/z 28, 32, and 40 were measured by dynamically to determine oxygen -argon ratio and to check nitrogen contamination. Repeated measurements of atmospheric air yielded a reproducibility (SE n=80) of 0.006, 0.004 and 0.19‰ for δ17O, δ18O and δO2/Ar respectively. The isotopic and molecular fractionation of argon- oxygen mixture during gas adsorption and desorption while using molecular sieve under liquid nitrogen temperature was studied. We have established a linear relationship governing the effect of 13X and 5A molecular sieves on molecular fractionation. And suggested the use of single 1/8" pellet 13X molecular sieve provided a negligible fractionation.

  14. Across North America Tracer Experiment (ANATEX). Volume 1. Description, ground-level sampling at primary sites, and meteorology. Technical memo

    SciTech Connect

    Draxler, R.R.; Heffter, J.L.

    1989-01-01

    Contents include: experimental design; the ground-level air-sampling system; description and design of perfluorocarbon tracer (PFT) analysis system; PFT sampler data management; PFT data quality assurance; meteorology.

  15. Importance sampling for Lambda-coalescents in the infinitely many sites model.

    PubMed

    Birkner, Matthias; Blath, Jochen; Steinrücken, Matthias

    2011-06-01

    We present and discuss new importance sampling schemes for the approximate computation of the sample probability of observed genetic types in the infinitely many sites model from population genetics. More specifically, we extend the 'classical framework', where genealogies are assumed to be governed by Kingman's coalescent, to the more general class of Lambda-coalescents and develop further Hobolth et al.'s (2008) idea of deriving importance sampling schemes based on 'compressed genetrees'. The resulting schemes extend earlier work by Griffiths and Tavaré (1994), Stephens and Donnelly (2000), Birkner and Blath (2008) and Hobolth et al. (2008). We conclude with a performance comparison of classical and new schemes for Beta- and Kingman coalescents. PMID:21296095

  16. Level sensor replacement/sampling of Tank 241-SY-101 at the Hanford Site

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-01-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) is responsible for management and storage of waste accumulated from the processing of defense reactor irradiated fuels for plutonium recovery at the Hanford Site. DOE is proposing to remove three level detectors from Tank 241-SY-101 and analyze the waste that is presently encrusted on the detectors. The proposed sampling is less intrusive than core sampling and will provide data regarding characterization of the crust to support future core sampling. The purpose of this environmental assessment (EA) is to provide information about the proposed action such that a decision can be made on whether a Finding of No Significant Impact should be issued or an environmental impact statement should be prepared. Therefore, this EA evaluates the proposed action and the no action alternative, in keeping with requirements of the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA) and regulations of the Council on Environmental Quality, Title 40, Code of Federal Regulations, parts 1500--1508. 6 refs.

  17. Utilizing the partitioning properties of silicone for the passive sampling of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in indoor air.

    PubMed

    Vorkamp, Katrin; Odsbjerg, Lisbeth; Langeland, Majbrith; Mayer, Philipp

    2016-10-01

    The former use of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in construction materials can lead to elevated indoor air concentrations. We studied the partitioning of PCB congeners between indoor air and silicone with a view to establish passive sampling of PCBs. The release of PCB congeners from silicone followed first order kinetics and confirmed air-side rate-limited mass transfer. Logarithmic elimination rate constants decreased linearly with the logKOA values of the PCB congeners, but varied in a non-linear way with air velocity. Linear uptake of PCBs was found for silicone disks (0.5 mm thickness) in a petri dish, while PCBs reached equilibrium in silicone-coated paper sheets (0.001 mm silicone on each side) exposed to indoor air for 1-2 weeks. The ratios of equilibrium concentrations in silicone and conventionally measured air concentrations were roughly comparable with silicone-air partition coefficients, but further research is required for the determination of silicone-air partition coefficients. Avoiding performance reference compounds (PRCs) because of the indoor setting, the two formats were calibrated against conventional active measurements. Comparisons of air concentrations derived from active and kinetic passive sampling showed a divergence by factors of 2.4 and 2.0 (median values) for the petri dishes and the silicone-coated paper, respectively. With promising results for sensitivity and precision, the calibration of kinetic passive samplers remains the main challenge and will need suitable, non-hazardous PRCs. Equilibrium sampling indicated promising alternatives. PMID:27389945

  18. Indoor Air Contamination from Hazardous Waste Sites: Improving the Evidence Base for Decision-Making.

    PubMed

    Johnston, Jill; MacDonald Gibson, Jacqueline

    2015-12-01

    At hazardous waste sites, volatile chemicals can migrate through groundwater and soil into buildings, a process known as vapor intrusion. Due to increasing recognition of vapor intrusion as a potential indoor air pollution source, in 2015 the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) released a new vapor intrusion guidance document. The guidance specifies two conditions for demonstrating that remediation is needed: (1) proof of a vapor intrusion pathway; and (2) evidence that human health risks exceed established thresholds (for example, one excess cancer among 10,000 exposed people). However, the guidance lacks details on methods for demonstrating these conditions. We review current evidence suggesting that monitoring and modeling approaches commonly employed at vapor intrusion sites do not adequately characterize long-term exposure and in many cases may underestimate risks. On the basis of this evidence, we recommend specific approaches to monitoring and modeling to account for these uncertainties. We propose a value of information approach to integrate the lines of evidence at a site and determine if more information is needed before deciding whether the two conditions specified in the vapor intrusion guidance are satisfied. To facilitate data collection and decision-making, we recommend a multi-directional community engagement strategy and consideration of environment justice concerns. PMID:26633433

  19. Potential overflow of Mojave Creek near disposal site, Edwards Air Force Base, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dinehart, Randy L.; Harmon, Jerry G.

    1998-01-01

    Sedimentological evidence in Mojave Creek near Edwards, California, indicates that the largest discharge in the last hundred years near the disposal site of the Main Base Landfill at Edwards Air Force Base was a few hundred cubic feet per second. The distal ends of two alluvial fans on the Mojave Creek floodplain near the Main Base Landfill have not been eroded substantially since sediment supply was cut off by a railroad grade completed in 1884. Previous estimates of flood discharges were 4,000 cubic feet per second and larger in this reach; the estimates were calculated by regression equations derived from regional characteristics. However, a 100-year rainfall in 1983 failed to produce erosion in Mojave Creek commensurate with discharges of greater than about 100 cubic feet per second. To test the potential for the creek to overflow and reach the disposal site, a hypothetical discharge was used to determine the depth of flooding at local cross sections. Although the access road from Mojave Boulevard to the Main Base Landfill may be inundated during a flood, the artificial grade at the disposal site would not be reached at a discharge of 2,000 cubic feet per second, which is an order of magnitude greater than the apparent flood discharges that occurred during the past hundred years in Mojave Creek near the present Main Base Landfill.

  20. Indoor Air Contamination from Hazardous Waste Sites: Improving the Evidence Base for Decision-Making

    PubMed Central

    Johnston, Jill; MacDonald Gibson, Jacqueline

    2015-01-01

    At hazardous waste sites, volatile chemicals can migrate through groundwater and soil into buildings, a process known as vapor intrusion. Due to increasing recognition of vapor intrusion as a potential indoor air pollution source, in 2015 the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) released a new vapor intrusion guidance document. The guidance specifies two conditions for demonstrating that remediation is needed: (1) proof of a vapor intrusion pathway; and (2) evidence that human health risks exceed established thresholds (for example, one excess cancer among 10,000 exposed people). However, the guidance lacks details on methods for demonstrating these conditions. We review current evidence suggesting that monitoring and modeling approaches commonly employed at vapor intrusion sites do not adequately characterize long-term exposure and in many cases may underestimate risks. On the basis of this evidence, we recommend specific approaches to monitoring and modeling to account for these uncertainties. We propose a value of information approach to integrate the lines of evidence at a site and determine if more information is needed before deciding whether the two conditions specified in the vapor intrusion guidance are satisfied. To facilitate data collection and decision-making, we recommend a multi-directional community engagement strategy and consideration of environment justice concerns. PMID:26633433