Science.gov

Sample records for air sampling system

  1. Air Sampling System Evaluation Template

    SciTech Connect

    Blunt, Brent

    2000-05-09

    The ASSET1.0 software provides a template with which a user can evaluate an Air Sampling System against the latest version of ANSI N13.1 "Sampling and Monitoring Releases of Airborne Radioactive Substances from the Stacks and Ducts of Nuclear Facilities". The software uses the ANSI N13.1 PIC levels to establish basic design criteria for the existing or proposed sampling system. The software looks at such criteria as PIC level, type of radionuclide emissions, physical state of the radionuclide, nozzle entrance effects, particulate transmission effects, system and component accuracy and precision evaluations, and basic system operations to provide a detailed look at the subsystems of a monitoring and sampling system/program. A GAP evaluation can then be completed which leads to identification of design and operational flaws in the proposed systems. Corrective measures can then be limited to the GAPs.

  2. Cold Vacuum Drying Facility Stack Air Sampling System Qualification Tests

    SciTech Connect

    Glissmeyer, John A.

    2001-01-24

    This report documents tests that were conducted to verify that the air monitoring system for the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility ventilation exhaust stack meets the applicable regulatory criteria regarding the placement of the air sampling probe, sample transport, and stack flow measurement accuracy.

  3. Ozone measurement system for NASA global air sampling program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tiefermann, M. W.

    1979-01-01

    The ozone measurement system used in the NASA Global Air Sampling Program is described. The system uses a commercially available ozone concentration monitor that was modified and repackaged so as to operate unattended in an aircraft environment. The modifications required for aircraft use are described along with the calibration techniques, the measurement of ozone loss in the sample lines, and the operating procedures that were developed for use in the program. Based on calibrations with JPL's 5-meter ultraviolet photometer, all previously published GASP ozone data are biased high by 9 percent. A system error analysis showed that the total system measurement random error is from 3 to 8 percent of reading (depending on the pump diaphragm material) or 3 ppbv, whichever are greater.

  4. Sampling of air streams and incorporation of samples in the Microtox{trademark} toxicity testing system

    SciTech Connect

    Kleinheinz, G.T.; St. John, W.P.

    1997-10-01

    A study was conducted to develop a rapid and reliable method for the collection and incorporation of biofiltration air samples containing volatile organic compounds (VOCs) into the Microtox toxicity testing system. To date, no method exists for this type of assay. A constant stream of VOCs was generated by air stripping compounds from a complex mixture of petroleum hydrocarbons (PHCs). Samples were collected on coconut charcoal ORBO tubes and the VOCs extracted with methylene chloride. The compounds extracted were then solvent exchanged into dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) under gaseous nitrogen. The resulting DMSO extract was directly incorporated into the Microtox toxicity testing system. In order to determine the efficiency of the solvent exchange, the VOCs in the DMSO extract were then extracted into hexane and subsequently analyzed using gas chromatography (GC) with a flame ionization detector (FID). It was determined that all but the most volatile VOCs could be effectively transferred from the ORBO tubes to DMSO for Microtox testing. Potential trace amounts of residual methylene chloride in the DMSO extracts showed no adverse effects in the Microtox system when compared to control samples.

  5. Air bubbles and hemolysis of blood samples during transport by pneumatic tube systems.

    PubMed

    Mullins, Garrett R; Bruns, David E

    2017-08-10

    Transport of blood samples through pneumatic tube systems (PTSs) generates air bubbles in transported blood samples and, with increasing duration of transport, the appearance of hemolysis. We investigated the role of air-bubble formation in PTS-induced hemolysis. Air was introduced into blood samples for 0, 1, 3 or 5min to form air bubbles. Hemolysis in the blood was assessed by (H)-index, lactate dehydrogenase (LD) and potassium in plasma. In an effort to prevent PTS-induced hemolysis, blood sample tubes were completely filled, to prevent air bubble formation, and compared with partially filled samples after PTS transport. We also compared hemolysis in anticoagulated vs clotted blood subjected to PTS transport. As with transport through PTSs, the duration of air bubble formation in blood by a gentle stream of air predicted the extent of hemolysis as measured by H-index (p<0.01), LD (p<0.01), and potassium (p<0.02) in plasma. Removing air space in a blood sample prevented bubble formation and fully protected the blood from PTS-induced hemolysis (p<0.02 vs conventionally filled collection tube). Clotted blood developed less foaming during PTS transport and was partially protected from hemolysis vs anticoagulated blood as indicated by lower LD (p<0.03) in serum than in plasma after PTS sample transport. Prevention of air bubble formation in blood samples during PTS transport protects samples from hemolysis. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  6. Air Sampling Filter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    General Metal Works' Accu-Vol is a high-volume air sampling system used by many government agencies to monitor air quality for pollution control purposes. Procedure prevents possible test-invalidating contamination from materials other than particulate pollutants, caused by manual handling or penetration of windblown matter during transit, a cassette was developed in which the filter is sealed within a metal frame and protected in transit by a snap-on aluminum cover, thus handled only under clean conditions in the laboratory.

  7. SWAB Air sampling

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2006-12-08

    ISS014-E-09425 (8 Dec. 2006) --- European Space Agency (ESA) astronaut Thomas Reiter, Expedition 14 flight engineer, conducts a Surface, Water and Air Biocharacterization (SWAB) air sampling in the Destiny laboratory of the International Space Station. Reiter holds a pair of scissors and the SWAB Air Sampling Device (ASD) floats freely near him.

  8. Mixed species radioiodine air sampling readout and dose assessment system

    DOEpatents

    Distenfeld, Carl H.; Klemish, Jr., Joseph R.

    1978-01-01

    This invention provides a simple, reliable, inexpensive and portable means and method for determining the thyroid dose rate of mixed airborne species of solid and gaseous radioiodine without requiring highly skilled personnel, such as health physicists or electronics technicians. To this end, this invention provides a means and method for sampling a gas from a source of a mixed species of solid and gaseous radioiodine for collection of the mixed species and readout and assessment of the emissions therefrom by cylindrically, concentrically and annularly molding the respective species around a cylindrical passage for receiving a conventional probe-type Geiger-Mueller radiation detector.

  9. SWAB Air sampling

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2006-12-08

    ISS014-E-09422 (8 Dec. 2006) --- European Space Agency (ESA) astronaut Thomas Reiter, Expedition 14 flight engineer, conducts a Surface, Water and Air Biocharacterization (SWAB) air sampling in the Destiny laboratory of the International Space Station.

  10. Qualification Tests for the New Air Sampling System at the 296-Z-1 Stack

    SciTech Connect

    Glissmeyer, John A.; Maughan, A D.; Jarvis, Timothy T.

    2002-09-19

    This report documents tests performed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory to verify that the new air monitoring system for the 296-Z-1 ventilation exhaust stack meets the applicable regulatory criteria regarding the placement of the air sampling probe, sample transport, and stack flow measurement accuracy. These criteria ensure that the contaminants in the stack are well mixed with the airflow at the location of the probe so that the collected sample represents the whole. The sequence of tests addresses the acceptability of the flow angle relative to the probe uniformity of air velocity and gaseous and particle tracers in the cross section of the stack delivery of the sample from the sampler nozzle to the collection filter. The tests conducted on the air monitoring system demonstrated that the location for the air-sampling probe meets all performance criteria for air sampling systems at nuclear facilities. The performance criterion for particle transport was also met. All tests were successful, and all acceptance criteria were met.

  11. Air bearing center cross gap of neutron stress spectrometer sample table support system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yang; Wu, Yunxin; Gong, Hai; Feng, Xiaolei

    2016-12-01

    A support system is the main load-bearing component of sample table for neutron stress spectrometer, and air bearing is an important element of a support system. The neutron stress spectrometer sample table was introduced, and the scheme for air bearing combination was selected. To study the performance of air bearing center cross gap, finite element models (FEMs) were established based on air motion and Reynolds equations, effects of air supply pressure, and gap parameters on the overturning moment and bearing capacity of air bearing center cross gap were analyzed. Results indicate that the width, depth, and height differences of the marble floor gap played important roles in the performance of the air bearing. When gap width is lesser than 1 mm and gap depth is lower than 0.4 mm, bearing capacity and overturning moment would vary rapidly with the variation of the width and depth. A gap height difference results in the bearing capacity dropping rapidly. The FEM results agree well with experimental results. Further, findings of the study could guide the design of the support system and marble floor.

  12. Inertial impaction air sampling device

    DOEpatents

    Dewhurst, K.H.

    1990-05-22

    An inertial impactor is designed which is to be used in an air sampling device for collection of respirable size particles in ambient air. The device may include a graphite furnace as the impaction substrate in a small-size, portable, direct analysis structure that gives immediate results and is totally self-contained allowing for remote and/or personal sampling. The graphite furnace collects suspended particles transported through the housing by means of the air flow system, and these particles may be analyzed for elements, quantitatively and qualitatively, by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. 3 figs.

  13. Inertial impaction air sampling device

    DOEpatents

    Dewhurst, Katharine H.

    1990-01-01

    An inertial impactor to be used in an air sampling device for collection of respirable size particles in ambient air which may include a graphite furnace as the impaction substrate in a small-size, portable, direct analysis structure that gives immediate results and is totally self-contained allowing for remote and/or personal sampling. The graphite furnace collects suspended particles transported through the housing by means of the air flow system, and these particles may be analyzed for elements, quantitatively and qualitatively, by atomic absorption spectrophotometry.

  14. Inertial impaction air sampling device

    DOEpatents

    Dewhurst, K.H.

    1987-12-10

    An inertial impactor to be used in an air sampling device for collection of respirable size particles in ambient air which may include a graphite furnace as the impaction substrate in a small-size, portable, direct analysis structure that gives immediate results and is totally self-contained allowing for remote and/or personal sampling. The graphite furnace collects suspended particles transported through the housing by means of the air flow system, and these particles may be analyzed for elements, quantitatively and qualitatively, by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. 3 figs.

  15. A new analysis system for whole air sampling: description and results from 2013 SENEX

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lerner, B. M.; Gilman, J.; Dumas, M.; Hughes, D.; Jaksich, A.; Hatch, C. D.; Graus, M.; Warneke, C.; Apel, E. C.; Hornbrook, R. S.; Holloway, J. S.; De Gouw, J. A.

    2014-12-01

    Accurate measurement of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the troposphere is critical for the understanding of emissions and physical and chemical processes that can impact both air quality and climate. Airborne VOC measurements have proven especially challenging due to the requirement of both high sensitivity (pptv) and short sample collection times (≤15 s) to maximize spatial resolution and sampling frequency for targeted plume analysis. The use of stainless steel canisters to collect whole air samples (WAS) for post-flight analysis has been pioneered by the groups of D. Blake and E. Atlas [Blake et al., 1992; Atlas et al., 1993]. For the 2013 Southeast Nexus Study (SENEX), the NOAA ESRL CSD laboratory undertook WAS measurements for the first time. This required the construction of three new, highly-automated, and field-portable instruments designed to sample, analyze, and clean the canisters for re-use. Analysis was performed with a new custom-built gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer system. The instrument pre-concentrates analyte cryostatically into two parallel traps by means of a Stirling engine, a novel technique which obviates the need for liquid nitrogen to reach trapping temperatures of -175C. Here we present an evaluation of the retrieval of target VOC species from WAS canisters. We discuss the effects of humidity and sample age on the analyte, particularly upon C8+ alkane and aromatic species and biogenic species. Finally, we present results from several research flights during SENEX that targeted emissions from oil/natural gas production.

  16. Atmospheric trace gas measurements with a new clean air sampling system

    SciTech Connect

    Leifer, R.; Sommers, K.; Guggenheim, S.F.

    1981-10-01

    The development of a new clean air sampling system for the Department of Energy's WB-57F aircraft has allowed the analysis of CCl/sub 3/F (Fluorocarbon-11), CCl/sub 2/F/sub 2/ (Fluorocarbon-12), CHClF/sub 2/ (Fluorocarbon-22), C/sub 2/Cl/sub 3/F/sub 3/ (Fluorocarbon-113), CH/sub 4/, CO, CO/sub 2/, N/sub 2/O, CH/sub 3/Cl, CCl/sub 4/, CH/sub 3/CCl/sub 3/, OCS and SF/sub 6/ in tropospheric and stratospheric samples. Samples collected during the interception of the plume from the eruption of Mount St. Helens indicate that OCS was injected into the stratosphere during the eruption. A large CO/sub 2/ gradient was found at 19.2 km on this flight.

  17. Aerosol sampling system

    DOEpatents

    Masquelier, Donald A.

    2004-02-10

    A system for sampling air and collecting particulate of a predetermined particle size range. A low pass section has an opening of a preselected size for gathering the air but excluding particles larger than the sample particles. An impactor section is connected to the low pass section and separates the air flow into a bypass air flow that does not contain the sample particles and a product air flow that does contain the sample particles. A wetted-wall cyclone collector, connected to the impactor section, receives the product air flow and traps the sample particles in a liquid.

  18. GUIDE TO CALCULATING TRANSPORT EFFICIENCY OF AEROSOLS IN OCCUPATIONAL AIR SAMPLING SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect

    Hogue, M.; Hadlock, D.; Thompson, M.; Farfan, E.

    2013-11-12

    This report will present hand calculations for transport efficiency based on aspiration efficiency and particle deposition losses. Because the hand calculations become long and tedious, especially for lognormal distributions of aerosols, an R script (R 2011) will be provided for each element examined. Calculations are provided for the most common elements in a remote air sampling system, including a thin-walled probe in ambient air, straight tubing, bends and a sample housing. One popular alternative approach would be to put such calculations in a spreadsheet, a thorough version of which is shared by Paul Baron via the Aerocalc spreadsheet (Baron 2012). To provide greater transparency and to avoid common spreadsheet vulnerabilities to errors (Burns 2012), this report uses R. The particle size is based on the concept of activity median aerodynamic diameter (AMAD). The AMAD is a particle size in an aerosol where fifty percent of the activity in the aerosol is associated with particles of aerodynamic diameter greater than the AMAD. This concept allows for the simplification of transport efficiency calculations where all particles are treated as spheres with the density of water (1g cm-3). In reality, particle densities depend on the actual material involved. Particle geometries can be very complicated. Dynamic shape factors are provided by Hinds (Hinds 1999). Some example factors are: 1.00 for a sphere, 1.08 for a cube, 1.68 for a long cylinder (10 times as long as it is wide), 1.05 to 1.11 for bituminous coal, 1.57 for sand and 1.88 for talc. Revision 1 is made to correct an error in the original version of this report. The particle distributions are based on activity weighting of particles rather than based on the number of particles of each size. Therefore, the mass correction made in the original version is removed from the text and the calculations. Results affected by the change are updated.

  19. Measurement of the Tracer Gradient and Sampling System Bias of the Hot Fuel Examination Facility Stack Air Monitoring System

    SciTech Connect

    Glissmeyer, John A.; Flaherty, Julia E.

    2011-07-20

    This report describes tracer gas uniformity and bias measurements made in the exhaust air discharge of the Hot Fuel Examination Facility at Idaho National Laboratory. The measurements were a follow-up on earlier measurements which indicated a lack of mixing of the two ventilation streams being discharged via a common stack. The lack of mixing is detrimental to the accuracy of air emission measurements. The lack of mixing was confirmed in these new measurements. The air sampling probe was found to be out of alignment and that was corrected. The suspected sampling bias in the air sample stream was disproved.

  20. SAMPLING SYSTEM

    DOEpatents

    Hannaford, B.A.; Rosenberg, R.; Segaser, C.L.; Terry, C.L.

    1961-01-17

    An apparatus is given for the batch sampling of radioactive liquids such as slurries from a system by remote control, while providing shielding for protection of operating personnel from the harmful effects of radiation.

  1. Evaluation of mixing downstream of tees in duct systems with respect to single point representative air sampling.

    PubMed

    Kim, Taehong; O'Neal, Dennis L; Ortiz, Carlos

    2006-09-01

    Air duct systems in nuclear facilities must be monitored with continuous sampling in case of an accidental release of airborne radionuclides. The purpose of this work is to identify the air sampling locations where the velocity and contaminant concentrations fall below the 20% coefficient of variation required by the American National Standards Institute/Health Physics Society N13.1-1999. Experiments of velocity and tracer gas concentration were conducted on a generic "T" mixing system which included combinations of three sub ducts, one main duct, and air velocities from 0.5 to 2 m s (100 to 400 fpm). The experimental results suggest that turbulent mixing provides the accepted velocity coefficients of variation after 6 hydraulic diameters downstream of the T-junction. About 95% of the cases achieved coefficients of variation below 10% by 6 hydraulic diameters. However, above a velocity ratio (velocity in the sub duct/velocity in the main duct) of 2, velocity profiles were uniform in a shorter distance downstream of the T-junction as the velocity ratio went up. For the tracer gas concentration, the distance needed for the coefficients of variation to drop 20% decreased with increasing velocity ratio due to the sub duct airflow momentum. The results may apply to other duct systems with similar geometries and, ultimately, be a basis for selecting a proper sampling location under the requirements of single point representative sampling.

  2. A New Technique for Sampling Firn Air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perron, F. E.; Dibb, J. E.; Albert, M. R.

    2004-12-01

    The discovery and subsequent interest in photochemical interactions between the polar snowpack and the atmosphere has spawned interest in reliable methods of measuring chemical concentrations in interstitial air. Consistent sampling of the interstitial air in the snowpack had been problematic due to great chemical differences possible from sampling different layers in the snow and the difficulties in acquiring a sample that could serve multiple investigators at the same time. This paper describes a new air sampling device that was developed to solve many of the sampling problems. This new system allows multiple simultaneous chemical analysis of air contained in the pore spaces of the arctic snowpack at unlimited increments from depths of 0 to 150 cm. The three major components are a 4 ft diameter highly UV transmittent acrylic "hood" with a 10 cm rim, a 10 cm diameter casing barrel, and an air probe head. These components operate along with a variety of sub-components that supplement the sampling process. The technique provides for a common sample collection, use for a variety of gases to be sampled, it eliminates short circuit air sampling, provides undisturbed snow for in-situ sampling at multiple sample depths in the same location. The design is discussed and possible extension as a platform for other sensors is described.

  3. Air Sampling Instruments for Evaluation of Atmospheric Contaminants. Fourth Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists, Cincinnati, OH.

    This text, a revision and extension of the first three editions, consists of papers discussing the basic considerations in sampling air for specific purposes, sampler calibration, systems components, sample collectors, and descriptions of air-sampling instruments. (BT)

  4. Development of automated preparation system for isotopocule analysis of N2O in various air samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toyoda, Sakae; Yoshida, Naohiro

    2016-05-01

    Nitrous oxide (N2O), an increasingly abundant greenhouse gas in the atmosphere, is the most important stratospheric ozone-depleting gas of this century. Natural abundance ratios of isotopocules of N2O, NNO molecules substituted with stable isotopes of nitrogen and oxygen, are a promising index of various sources or production pathways of N2O and of its sink or decomposition pathways. Several automated methods have been reported to improve the analytical precision for the isotopocule ratio of atmospheric N2O and to reduce the labor necessary for complicated sample preparation procedures related to mass spectrometric analysis. However, no method accommodates flask samples with limited volume or pressure. Here we present an automated preconcentration system which offers flexibility with respect to the available gas volume, pressure, and N2O concentration. The shortest processing time for a single analysis of typical atmospheric sample is 40 min. Precision values of isotopocule ratio analysis are < 0.1 ‰ for δ15Nbulk (average abundances of 14N15N16O and 15N14N16O relative to 14N14N16O), < 0.2 ‰ for δ18O (relative abundance of 14N14N18O), and < 0.5 ‰ for site preference (SP; difference between relative abundance of 14N15N16O and 15N14N16O). This precision is comparable to that of other automated systems, but better than that of our previously reported manual measurement system.

  5. Evaluation of a microfluidic chip system for preparation of bacterial DNA from swabs, air, and surface water samples.

    PubMed

    Julich, Sandra; Hotzel, Helmut; Gärtner, Claudia; Trouchet, Daniel; Fawzy El Metwaly Ahmed, Marwa; Kemper, Nicole; Tomaso, Herbert

    2016-11-01

    The detection of bacterial pathogens from complex sample matrices by PCR requires efficient DNA extraction. In this study, a protocol for extraction and purification of DNA from swabs, air, and water samples using a microfluidic chip system was established. The optimized protocol includes a combination of thermal, chemical and enzymatic lysis followed by chip-based DNA purification using magnetic particles. The procedure was tested using Gram-positive Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner var. kurstaki as a model organism for Bacillus anthracis and the attenuated live vaccine strain of Francisella tularensis subsp. holarctica as Gram-negative bacterium. The detection limits corresponded to 10(3) genome equivalents per milliliter (GE/ml) for surface water samples spiked with F. tularensis and 10(2) GE/ml for B. thuringiensis. In air, 10 GE of F. tularensis per 10 L and 1 GE of B. thuringiensis per 10 L were detectable. For swab samples obtained from artificially contaminated surfaces the detection limits were 4 × 10(3) GE/cm(2) for F. tularensis and 4 × 10(2) GE/cm(2) for B. thuringiensis. Suitability of the chip-assisted procedure for DNA preparation of real samples was demonstrated using livestock samples. The presence of thermophilic Campylobacter spp. DNA could be confirmed in air samples collected on pig and broiler farms. Copyright © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  6. Air sampling of smallpox virus

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, G.

    1974-01-01

    Airborne smallpox virus has been recovered in an isolation hospital using an adhesive surface sampling technique in the presence of very low aerosol concentrations. Previous work in this field is reviewed. Successful recovery of airborne virus depends on sampling large volumes of air with a suitable sampler and thorough investigation of the whole sample taken for the presence of viable virus. More information on the characteristics and behaviour of airborne smallpox virus is needed in particular with regard to the future design and siting of smallpox isolation units. PMID:4371586

  7. Surveillance of a Ventilated Rack System for Corynebacterium bovis by Sampling Exhaust-Air Manifolds

    PubMed Central

    Manuel, Christopher A; Pugazhenthi, Umarani; Leszczynski, Jori K

    2016-01-01

    Corynebacterium bovis causes an opportunistic infection of nude (Foxn1, nu/nu) mice, leading to nude mouse hyperkeratotic dermatitis (scaly skin disease). Enzootic in many nude mouse colonies, C. bovis spreads rapidly to naive nude mice, despite modern husbandry practices, and is very difficult to eradicate. To facilitate rapid detection in support of eradication efforts, we investigated a surveillance method based on quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) evaluation of swabs collected from the horizontal exhaust manifold (HEM) of an IVC rack system. We first evaluated the efficacy of rack sanitation methods for removing C. bovis DNA from the HEM of racks housing endemic colonies of infected nude mice. Pressurized water used to flush the racks’ air exhaust system followed by a standard rack-washer cycle was ineffective in eliminating C. bovis DNA. Only after autoclaving did all sanitized racks test negative for C. bovis DNA. We then measured the effects of stage of infection (early or established), cage density, and cage location on the rack on time-to-detection at the HEM. Stage of infection significantly affected time-to-detection, independent of cage location. Early infections required 7.3 ± 1.2 d whereas established infections required 1 ± 0 d for detection of C. bovis at the HEM. Cage density influenced the quantity of C. bovis DNA detected but not time-to-detection. The location of the cage on the rack affected the time-to-detection only during early C. bovis infections. We suggest that qPCR swabs of HEM are useful during the routine surveillance of nude mouse colonies for C. bovis infection. PMID:26817981

  8. Surveillance of a Ventilated Rack System for Corynebacterium bovis by Sampling Exhaust-Air Manifolds.

    PubMed

    Manuel, Christopher A; Pugazhenthi, Umarani; Leszczynski, Jori K

    2016-01-01

    Corynebacterium bovis causes an opportunistic infection of nude (Foxn1, nu/nu) mice, leading to nude mouse hyperkeratotic dermatitis (scaly skin disease). Enzootic in many nude mouse colonies, C. bovis spreads rapidly to naive nude mice, despite modern husbandry practices, and is very difficult to eradicate. To facilitate rapid detection in support of eradication efforts, we investigated a surveillance method based on quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) evaluation of swabs collected from the horizontal exhaust manifold (HEM) of an IVC rack system. We first evaluated the efficacy of rack sanitation methods for removing C. bovis DNA from the HEM of racks housing endemic colonies of infected nude mice. Pressurized water used to flush the racks' air exhaust system followed by a standard rack-washer cycle was ineffective in eliminating C. bovis DNA. Only after autoclaving did all sanitized racks test negative for C. bovis DNA. We then measured the effects of stage of infection (early or established), cage density, and cage location on the rack on time-to-detection at the HEM. Stage of infection significantly affected time-to-detection, independent of cage location. Early infections required 7.3 ± 1.2 d whereas established infections required 1 ± 0 d for detection of C. bovis at the HEM. Cage density influenced the quantity of C. bovis DNA detected but not time-to-detection. The location of the cage on the rack affected the time-to-detection only during early C. bovis infections. We suggest that qPCR swabs of HEM are useful during the routine surveillance of nude mouse colonies for C. bovis infection.

  9. Evaluation of an ambient air sampling system for tritium (as tritiated water vapor) using silica gel adsorbent columns

    SciTech Connect

    Patton, G.W.; Cooper, A.T.; Tinker, M.R.

    1995-08-01

    Ambient air samples for tritium analysis (as the tritiated water vapor [HTO] content of atmospheric moisture) are collected for the Hanford Site Surface Environmental Surveillance Project (SESP) using the solid adsorbent silica gel. The silica gel has a moisture sensitive indicator which allows for visual observation of moisture movement through a column. Despite using an established method, some silica gel columns showed a complete change in the color indicator for summertime samples suggesting that breakthrough had occurred; thus a series of tests was conducted on the sampling system in an environmental chamber. The purpose of this study was to determine the maximum practical sampling volume and overall collection efficiency for water vapor collected on silica gel columns. Another purpose was to demonstrate the use of an impinger-based system to load water vapor onto silica gel columns to provide realistic analytical spikes and blanks for the Hanford Site SESP. Breakthrough volumes (V{sub b}) were measured and the chromatographic efficiency (expressed as the number of theoretical plates [N]) was calculated for a range of environmental conditions. Tests involved visual observations of the change in the silica gel`s color indicator as a moist air stream was drawn through the column, measurement of the amount of a tritium tracer retained and then recovered from the silica gel, and gravimetric analysis for silica gel columns exposed in the environmental chamber.

  10. Monitoring organic nitrogen species in the UT/LS - a new system for analysis of CARIBIC whole air samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sauvage, Carina; Thorenz, Ute; Baker, Angela; Brenninkmeijer, Carl; Williams, Jonathan

    2014-05-01

    The CARIBIC project is a unique program for long term and global scale monitoring of the atmosphere (http://www.caribic-atmospheric.com). An instrument container is installed monthly into a civil aircraft operated by Lufthansa (Airbus A 340-600) and makes atmospheric observations en route from Frankfurt, Germany to various destinations around the globe. In four to six long distance flights at a cruising altitude of 10 to 12 km online measurements of various atmospheric tracers are performed during the flight as well as whole air samples are taken with two different sampling units (116 samples in both glass and stainless steel canisters). These samples are routinely analyzed for greenhouse gases, non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHC) and halogenated compounds. Nitrogen containing compounds play various important roles in the atmosphere. Alkyl nitrates (RONO2) are products of the reaction of NMHC with OH and other oxidants in the presence of NO. They can provide information on the oxidative history of an air mass. Moreover they influence photolchemical ozone formation and act as a transport mechanism for reactive nitrogen. Less reactive nitrogen containing species such as HCN and acetonitrile are important markers for biomass burning, while organic amines are involved in gas to particle partitioning. Finally N2O is a long lived nitrogen containing gas important for the Earth's radiative budget. Regular measurements of such nitrogen compounds would therefore be a significant contribution to the CARIBIC data set. Especially for high altitude samples, in which the mixing ratios of many species are expected to be in the low ppt range, a highly sensitive method for analysis is required. Therefore a new system for measurement of nitrogen compounds has been built up, comprising a gas chromatograph (GC) using a nitrogen chemiluminescence detector (NCD). An important advantage of the NCD is that it is selective for nitrogen and equimolar. The nitrogen compounds are sequentially pre

  11. Air Quality System (AQS)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Air Quality System (AQS) database contains measurements of air pollutant concentrations from throughout the United States and its territories. The measurements include both criteria air pollutants and hazardous air pollutants.

  12. Air sampling in the workplace. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Hickey, E.E.; Stoetzel, G.A.; Strom, D.J.; Cicotte, G.R.; Wiblin, C.M.; McGuire, S.A.

    1993-09-01

    This report provides technical information on air sampling that will be useful for facilities following the recommendations in the NRC`s Regulatory Guide 8.25, Revision 1, ``Air sampling in the Workplace.`` That guide addresses air sampling to meet the requirements in NRC`s regulations on radiation protection, 10 CFR Part 20. This report describes how to determine the need for air sampling based on the amount of material in process modified by the type of material, release potential, and confinement of the material. The purposes of air sampling and how the purposes affect the types of air sampling provided are discussed. The report discusses how to locate air samplers to accurately determine the concentrations of airborne radioactive materials that workers will be exposed to. The need for and the methods of performing airflow pattern studies to improve the accuracy of air sampling results are included. The report presents and gives examples of several techniques that can be used to evaluate whether the airborne concentrations of material are representative of the air inhaled by workers. Methods to adjust derived air concentrations for particle size are described. Methods to calibrate for volume of air sampled and estimate the uncertainty in the volume of air sampled are described. Statistical tests for determining minimum detectable concentrations are presented. How to perform an annual evaluation of the adequacy of the air sampling is also discussed.

  13. Early Detection of Foot-And-Mouth Disease Virus from Infected Cattle Using A Dry Filter Air Sampling System.

    PubMed

    Pacheco, J M; Brito, B; Hartwig, E; Smoliga, G R; Perez, A; Arzt, J; Rodriguez, L L

    2017-04-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is a highly contagious livestock disease of high economic impact. Early detection of FMD virus (FMDV) is fundamental for rapid outbreak control. Air sampling collection has been demonstrated as a useful technique for detection of FMDV RNA in infected animals, related to the aerogenous nature of the virus. In the current study, air from rooms housing individual (n = 17) or two groups (n = 4) of cattle experimentally infected with FDMV A24 Cruzeiro of different virulence levels was sampled to assess the feasibility of applying air sampling as a non-invasive, screening tool to identify sources of FMDV infection. Detection of FMDV RNA in air was compared with first detection of clinical signs and FMDV RNA levels in serum and oral fluid. FMDV RNA was detected in room air samples 1-3 days prior (seven animals) or on the same day (four animals) as the appearance of clinical signs in 11 of 12 individually housed cattle. Only in one case clinical signs preceded detection in air samples by one day. Overall, viral RNA in oral fluid or serum preceded detection in air samples by 1-2 days. Six individually housed animals inoculated with attenuated strains did not show clinical signs, but virus was detected in air in one of these cases 3 days prior to first detection in oral fluid. In groups of four cattle housed together, air detection always preceded appearance of clinical signs by 1-2 days and coincided more often with viral shedding in oral fluid than virus in blood. These data confirm that air sampling is an effective non-invasive screening method for detecting FMDV infection in confined to enclosed spaces (e.g. auction barns, milking parlours). This technology could be a useful tool as part of a surveillance strategy during FMD prevention, control or eradication efforts. Published 2015. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  14. Early detection of foot-and-mouth disease virus from infected cattle using a dry filter air sampling system

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is a highly contagious livestock disease of high economic impact. Early detection of FMD virus (FMDV) is fundamental for rapid outbreak control. Air sampling collection has been demonstrated as a useful technique for detection of FMDV RNA in infected animals, related to ...

  15. Results of inspection and cleaning of two radionuclide air-sampling systems based on the requirements of ANSI/HPS N13.1-1999.

    PubMed

    Barnett, J M; Ballinger, M Y; Gervais, T L; Douglas, D D; Edwards, D L

    2004-04-01

    The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory inspected and cleaned two radionuclide air-sampling systems that continuously monitor radioactive air emissions from research and development facilities. The inspection and cleaning was performed to evaluate effective methods and potential cost impacts of maintenance requirements in the revised American National Standard Institute standard Sampling and Monitoring Releases of Airborne Radioactive Substances from the Stacks and Ducts of Nuclear Facilities. The standard requires at least annual inspections of sampling systems followed by cleaning if deposits are visible. During 2001 and 2002, inspections were performed leaving the sampling systems in place and inserting videoscope cables into different access points to allow viewing of the inside and outside of sampling manifolds and transport lines. Cleaning was performed on one of the systems by disconnecting and extracting the sampling manifold, then washing it with de-ionized water and scrub brushes. The wash water was analyzed for radioactivity and solids. Results of the inspection showed greater deposition in one of the systems than would be expected by a High Efficiency Particulate Air (HEPA) filtered exhaust stream, possibly due to accumulation of dust from a short period when unfiltered air was exhausted from construction areas. The second system was also downstream of HEPA filters and appeared much cleaner. The videoscope was a useful and cost-effective tool and provided a better view than could be obtained with the naked eye. However, because even small amounts of deposition were made visible with the videoscope, clarification is needed in defining when probe washing is merited, particularly in existing sampling systems whose design is not conducive to easy removal and cleaning.

  16. Alveolar air volatile organic compound extractor for clinical breath sampling.

    PubMed

    de Silva, Geethanga; Beyette, Fred R

    2014-01-01

    Alveolar air Volatile Organic Compound (VOC) extractor is a handheld breath-sampling device for clinical breath analysis. The device consists two main components: (1) An alveolar air separator, (2) A VOC extractor. The alveolar air separator splits exhaled air based on total exhaled air volume directing alveolar air towards the VOC extractor and dead space air to into an exhaust channel. The VOC extractor collects the VOCs from alveolar air into a modified Sold Phase Micro Extraction (SPME) filament. Feasibility of using the SPME filament to collect a quantifiable breath sample directly from exhaled breath is experimentally validated. Exhaled breath acetone is quantified using alveolar air VOC extractor and a GC/MS system.

  17. Fluid sampling system

    DOEpatents

    Houck, E.D.

    1994-10-11

    An fluid sampling system allows sampling of radioactive liquid without spillage. A feed tank is connected to a liquid transfer jet powered by a pumping chamber pressurized by compressed air. The liquid is pumped upwardly into a sampling jet of a venturi design having a lumen with an inlet, an outlet, a constricted middle portion, and a port located above the constricted middle portion. The liquid is passed under pressure through the constricted portion causing its velocity to increase and its pressure to be decreased, thereby preventing liquid from escaping. A septum sealing the port can be pierced by a two pointed hollow needle leading into a sample bottle also sealed by a pierceable septum affixed to one end. The bottle is evacuated by flow through the sample jet, cyclic variation in the sampler jet pressure periodically leaves the evacuated bottle with lower pressure than that of the port, thus causing solution to pass into the bottle. The remaining solution in the system is returned to the feed tank via a holding tank. 4 figs.

  18. Fluid sampling system

    DOEpatents

    Houck, Edward D.

    1994-01-01

    An fluid sampling system allows sampling of radioactive liquid without spillage. A feed tank is connected to a liquid transfer jet powered by a pumping chamber pressurized by compressed air. The liquid is pumped upwardly into a sampling jet of a venturi design having a lumen with an inlet, an outlet, a constricted middle portion, and a port located above the constricted middle portion. The liquid is passed under pressure through the constricted portion causing its velocity to increase and its pressure to decreased, thereby preventing liquid from escaping. A septum sealing the port can be pierced by a two pointed hollow needle leading into a sample bottle also sealed by a pierceable septum affixed to one end. The bottle is evacuated by flow through the sample jet, cyclic variation in the sampler jet pressure periodically leaves the evacuated bottle with lower pressure than that of the port, thus causing solution to pass into the bottle. The remaining solution in the system is returned to the feed tank via a holding tank.

  19. Fluid sampling system

    SciTech Connect

    Houck, E.D.

    1993-12-31

    This invention comprises a fluid sampling system which allows sampling of radioactive liquid without spillage. A feed tank is connected to a liquid transfer jet powered by a pumping chamber pressurized by compressed air. The liquid is pumped up into a sampling jet of venturi design having a lumen with an inlet, an outlet, a constricted middle portion, and a port located above the constricted middle portion. The liquid is passed under pressure through the constricted portion causing its velocity to increase and its pressure to decrease, thereby preventing liquid from escaping. A septum sealing the port can be pierced by a two pointed hollow needle leading into a sample bottle also sealed by a pierceable septum affixed to one end. The bottle is evacuated by flow through the sample jet, cyclic variation in the sampler jet pressure periodicially leaves the evacuated bottle with lower pressure than that of the port, thus causing solution to pass into the bottle. The remaining solution in the system is returned to the feed tank via a holding tank.

  20. Testing of Continuous Sampling Air-ICP and Mercury Systems as Continuous Emission Monitors at the Diagnostic Instrumentation and Analysis Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    D.P. Baldwin; S.J. Bajic; D.E. Eckels; D.S. Zamzow; G.P. Miller; S. Tao; C.A. Waggoner

    2001-03-15

    This report has been prepared to document the performance of the continuous sampling reduced-pressure air-ICP-AES (inductively coupled plasma--atomic emission spectroscopy) and mercury-monitor systems developed by Ames Laboratory for use as continuous emission monitors (CEM). This work was funded by the U. S. Department of Energy, Office of Environmental Management, Office of Science and Technology, through the Mixed Waste Focus Area. The purpose of the project is to develop instrumentation and methods for spectroscopic field monitoring applications. During FY00 this included continued work on the development of the continuous sample introduction system and the multi-frequency AOTF-echelle spectrometer, used in conjunction with the reduced-pressure air-ICP-AES system as a multi-metal CEM. The assembly, development, and testing of an echelle spectrometer system for the detection of mercury (Hg) by atomic absorption was also completed during FY00. The continuous sampling system and the multi-metal air-ICP and mercury-monitor CEM systems were tested at Mississippi State University at the Diagnostic Instrumentation and Analysis Laboratory (DIAL) at the end of FY00. This report describes the characteristics and performance of these systems, and the results of the field tests performed at DIAL.

  1. Measurements of concentrations of chlorofluoromethanes (CFMs) carbon dioxide and carbon isotope ratio in stratospheric and tropospheric air by grab-sampling systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Itoh, T.; Kubo, H.; Honda, H.; Tominaga, T.; Makide, Y.; Yakohata, A.; Sakai, H.

    1985-01-01

    Measurements of concentrations of chlorofluoromethanes (CFMs), carbon dioxide and carbon isotope ratio in stratospheric and tropospheric air by grab-sampling systems are reported. The balloon-borne grab-sampling system has been launched from Sanriku Balloon Center three times since 1981. It consists of: (1) six sampling cylinders, (2) eight motor driven values, (3) control and monitor circuits, and (4) pressurized housing. Particular consideration is paid to the problem of contamination. Strict requirements are placed on the choice of materials and components, construction methods, cleaning techniques, vacuum integrity, and sampling procedures. An aluminum pressurized housing and a 4-m long inlet line are employed to prevent the sampling air from contamination by outgassing of sampling and control devices. The sampling is performed during the descent of the system. Vertical profiles of mixing ratios of CF2Cl2, CFCl3 and CH4 are given. Mixing ratios of CF2Cl2 and CFCl3 in the stratosphere do not show the discernible effect of the increase of those in the ground level background, and decrease with altitude. Decreasing rate of CFCl3 is larger than that of CF2Cl2. CH4 mixing ratio, on the other hand, shows diffusive equilibrium, as the photodissociation cross section of CH4 is small and concentrations of OH radical and 0(sup I D) are low.

  2. Measurements of concentrations of chlorofluoromethanes (CFMs) carbon dioxide and carbon isotope ratio in stratospheric and tropospheric air by grab-sampling systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Itoh, T.; Kubo, H.; Honda, H.; Tominaga, T.; Makide, Y.; Yakohata, A.; Sakai, H.

    1985-01-01

    Measurements of concentrations of chlorofluoromethanes (CFMs), carbon dioxide and carbon isotope ratio in stratospheric and tropospheric air by grab-sampling systems are reported. The balloon-borne grab-sampling system has been launched from Sanriku Balloon Center three times since 1981. It consists of: (1) six sampling cylinders, (2) eight motor driven values, (3) control and monitor circuits, and (4) pressurized housing. Particular consideration is paid to the problem of contamination. Strict requirements are placed on the choice of materials and components, construction methods, cleaning techniques, vacuum integrity, and sampling procedures. An aluminum pressurized housing and a 4-m long inlet line are employed to prevent the sampling air from contamination by outgassing of sampling and control devices. The sampling is performed during the descent of the system. Vertical profiles of mixing ratios of CF2Cl2, CFCl3 and CH4 are given. Mixing ratios of CF2Cl2 and CFCl3 in the stratosphere do not show the discernible effect of the increase of those in the ground level background, and decrease with altitude. Decreasing rate of CFCl3 is larger than that of CF2Cl2. CH4 mixing ratio, on the other hand, shows diffusive equilibrium, as the photodissociation cross section of CH4 is small and concentrations of OH radical and 0(sup I D) are low.

  3. Air sampling with solid phase microextraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martos, Perry Anthony

    There is an increasing need for simple yet accurate air sampling methods. The acceptance of new air sampling methods requires compatibility with conventional chromatographic equipment, and the new methods have to be environmentally friendly, simple to use, yet with equal, or better, detection limits, accuracy and precision than standard methods. Solid phase microextraction (SPME) satisfies the conditions for new air sampling methods. Analyte detection limits, accuracy and precision of analysis with SPME are typically better than with any conventional air sampling methods. Yet, air sampling with SPME requires no pumps, solvents, is re-usable, extremely simple to use, is completely compatible with current chromatographic equipment, and requires a small capital investment. The first SPME fiber coating used in this study was poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS), a hydrophobic liquid film, to sample a large range of airborne hydrocarbons such as benzene and octane. Quantification without an external calibration procedure is possible with this coating. Well understood are the physical and chemical properties of this coating, which are quite similar to those of the siloxane stationary phase used in capillary columns. The log of analyte distribution coefficients for PDMS are linearly related to chromatographic retention indices and to the inverse of temperature. Therefore, the actual chromatogram from the analysis of the PDMS air sampler will yield the calibration parameters which are used to quantify unknown airborne analyte concentrations (ppb v to ppm v range). The second fiber coating used in this study was PDMS/divinyl benzene (PDMS/DVB) onto which o-(2,3,4,5,6- pentafluorobenzyl) hydroxylamine (PFBHA) was adsorbed for the on-fiber derivatization of gaseous formaldehyde (ppb v range), with and without external calibration. The oxime formed from the reaction can be detected with conventional gas chromatographic detectors. Typical grab sampling times were as small as 5 seconds

  4. East Mountain Area 1995 air sampling results

    SciTech Connect

    Deola, R.A.

    1996-09-01

    Ambient air samples were taken at two locations in the East Mountain Area in conjunction with thermal testing at the Lurance Canyon Burn Site (LCBS). The samples were taken to provide measurements of particulate matter with a diameter less than or equal to 10 micrometers (PM{sub 10}) and volatile organic compounds (VOCs). This report summarizes the results of the sampling performed in 1995. The results from small-scale testing performed to determine the potentially produced air pollutants in the thermal tests are included in this report. Analytical results indicate few samples produced measurable concentrations of pollutants believed to be produced by thermal testing. Recommendations for future air sampling in the East Mountain Area are also noted.

  5. Air cushion landing system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boghami, K. M.; Captain, K. M.; Fish, R. B.

    1978-01-01

    Static and dynamic performance of air cushion landing system is simulated in computer program that treats four primary ACLS subsystems: fan, feeding system, trunk, and cushion. Configuration of systems is sufficiently general to represent variety of practical designs.

  6. Air cushion landing system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boghami, K. M.; Captain, K. M.; Fish, R. B.

    1978-01-01

    Static and dynamic performance of air cushion landing system is simulated in computer program that treats four primary ACLS subsystems: fan, feeding system, trunk, and cushion. Configuration of systems is sufficiently general to represent variety of practical designs.

  7. Review of low-flow bladder pump and high-volume air piston pump groundwater sampling systems at Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico.

    SciTech Connect

    Collins, Sue S.; Jackson, Timmie Okchumpulla (Weston Solutions, Inc., Albuquerque, NM); Bailey, Glenn A.

    2003-01-01

    Since 1996, Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico (SNL/NM) has run both a portable high-volume air-piston pump system and a dedicated, low-flow bladder pump system to collect groundwater samples. The groundwater contaminants of concern at SNL/NM are nitrate and the volatile organic compounds trichloroethylene (TCE) and tetrachloethene (PCE). Regulatory acceptance is more common for the high-volume air piston pump system, especially for programs like SNL/NM's, which are regulated under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). This paper describes logistical and analytical results of the groundwater sampling systems used at SNL/NM. With two modifications to the off-the-shelf low-flow bladder pump, SNL/NM consistently operates the dedicated low-flow system at depths greater than 450 feet below ground surface. As such, the low-flow sampling system requires fewer personnel, less time and materials, and generates less purge and decontamination water than does the high-volume system. However, the bladder pump cannot work in wells with less than 4 feet of water. A review of turbidity and laboratory analytical results for TCE, PCE, and chromium (Cr) from six wells highlight the affect or lack of affects the sampling systems have on groundwater samples. In the PVC wells, turbidity typically remained < 5 nephelometric turbidity units (NTU) regardless of the sampling system. In the wells with a stainless steel screen, turbidity typically remained < 5 NTU only with the low-flow system. When the high-volume system was used, the turbidity and Cr concentration typically increased an order of magnitude. TCE concentrations at two wells did not appear to be sensitive to the sampling method used. However, PCE and TCE concentrations dropped an order of magnitude when the high-volume system was used at two other wells. This paper recommends that SNL/NM collaborate with other facilities with similar groundwater depths, continue to pursue regulatory approval for using

  8. Review Of Low-Flow Bladder Pump And High-Volume Air Piston Pump Groundwater Sampling Systems At Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Collins, S. S.; Bailey, G. A.; Jackson, T. O.

    2003-02-25

    Since 1996, Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico (SNL/NM) has run both a portable high-volume air-piston pump system and a dedicated, low-flow bladder pump system to collect groundwater samples. The groundwater contaminants of concern at SNL/NM are nitrate and the volatile organic compounds trichloroethylene (TCE) and tetrachloethene (PCE). Regulatory acceptance is more common for the high-volume air piston pump system, especially for programs like SNL/NM's, which are regulated under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). This paper describes logistical and analytical results of the groundwater sampling systems used at SNL/NM. With two modifications to the off-the-shelf low-flow bladder pump, SNL/NM consistently operates the dedicated low-flow system at depths greater than 450 feet below ground surface. As such, the low-flow sampling system requires fewer personnel, less time and materials, and generates less purge and decontamination water than does the high-volume system. However, the bladder pump cannot work in wells with less than 4 feet of water. A review of turbidity and laboratory analytical results for TCE, PCE, and chromium (Cr) from six wells highlight the affect or lack of affects the sampling systems have on groundwater samples. In the PVC wells, turbidity typically remained < 5 nephelometric turbidity units (NTU) regardless of the sampling system. In the wells with a stainless steel screen, turbidity typically remained < 5 NTU only with the low-flow system. When the high-volume system was used, the turbidity and Cr concentration typically increased an order of magnitude. TCE concentrations at two wells did not appear to be sensitive to the sampling method used. However, PCE and TCE concentrations dropped an order of magnitude when the high-volume system was used at two other wells. This paper recommends that SNL/NM collaborate with other facilities with similar groundwater depths, continue to pursue regulatory approval for using

  9. High efficiency air cycle air conditioning system

    SciTech Connect

    Rannenberg, G. C.

    1985-11-19

    An air cycle air conditioning system is provided with regenerative heat exchangers upstream and downstream of an expansion turbine. A closedloop liquid circulatory system serially connects the two regenerative heat exchangers for regeneration without the bulk associated with air-to-air heat exchange. The liquid circulatory system may also provide heat transport to a remote sink heat exchanger and from a remote load as well as heat exchange within the sink heat exchanger and load for enhanced compactness and efficiency.

  10. Combination syringe provides air-free blood samples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pool, S. L.

    1970-01-01

    Standard syringe and spinal needle are combined in unique manner to secure air-free blood samples. Combination syringe obtains air free samples because air bubbles become insignificant when samples greater than 1 cc are drawn.

  11. A system for high-quality CO2 isotope analyses of air samples collected by the CARIBIC Airbus A340-600.

    PubMed

    Assonov, S; Taylor, P; Brenninkmeijer, C A M

    2009-05-01

    In 2007, JRC-IRMM began a series of atmospheric CO2 isotope measurements, with the focus on understanding instrumental effects, corrections as well as metrological aspects. The calibration approach at JRC-IRMM is based on use of a plain CO2 sample (working reference CO2) as a calibration carrier and CO2-air mixtures (in high-pressure cylinders) to determine the method-related correction under actual analytical conditions (another calibration carrier, in the same form as the samples). Although this approach differs from that in other laboratories, it does give a direct link to the primary reference NBS-19-CO2. It also helps to investigate the magnitude and nature for each of the instrumental corrections and allows for the quantification of the uncertainty introduced. Critical tests were focused on the instrumental corrections. It was confirmed that the use of non-symmetrical capillary crimping (an approach used here to deal with small samples) systematically modifies delta13C(CO2) and delta18O(CO2), with a clear dependence on the amount of extracted CO2. However, the calibration of CO2-air mixtures required the use of the symmetrical dual-inlet mode. As a proof of our approach, we found that delta13C(CO2) on extracts from mixtures agreed (within 0.010 per thousand) with values obtained from the 'mother' CO2 used for the mixtures. It was further found that very low levels of hydrocarbons in the pumping systems and the isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS) instrument itself were critical. The m/z 46 values (consequently the calculated delta18O(CO2) values) are affected by several other effects with traces of air co-trapped with frozen CO2 being the most critical. A careful cryo-distillation of the extracted CO2 is recommended. After extensive testing, optimisation, and routine automated use, the system was found to give precise data on air samples that can be traced with confidence to the primary standards. The typical total combined uncertainty in delta13C(CO2) and

  12. Culture systems: air quality.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Theodore

    2012-01-01

    Poor laboratory air quality is a known hazard to the culture of human gametes and embryos. Embryologists and chemists have employed analytical methods for identifying and measuring bulk and select air pollutants to assess the risk they pose to the embryo culture system. However, contaminant concentrations that result in gamete or embryotoxicity are poorly defined. Combating the ill effects of poor air quality requires an understanding of how toxicants can infiltrate the laboratory, the incubator, and ultimately the culture media. A further understanding of site-specific air quality can then lead to the consideration of laboratory design and management strategies that can minimize the deleterious effects that air contamination may have on early embryonic development in vitro.

  13. Concepts for Environmental Radioactive Air Sampling and Monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Barnett, J. Matthew

    2011-11-04

    Environmental radioactive air sampling and monitoring is becoming increasingly important as regulatory agencies promulgate requirements for the measurement and quantification of radioactive contaminants. While researchers add to the growing body of knowledge in this area, events such as earthquakes and tsunamis demonstrate how nuclear systems can be compromised. The result is the need for adequate environmental monitoring to assure the public of their safety and to assist emergency workers in their response. Two forms of radioactive air monitoring include direct effluent measurements and environmental surveillance. This chapter presents basic concepts for direct effluent sampling and environmental surveillance of radioactive air emissions, including information on establishing the basis for sampling and/or monitoring, criteria for sampling media and sample analysis, reporting and compliance, and continual improvement.

  14. Air heating system

    DOEpatents

    Primeau, John J.

    1983-03-01

    A self-starting, fuel-fired, air heating system including a vapor generator, a turbine, and a condenser connected in a closed circuit such that the vapor output from the vapor generator is conducted to the turbine and then to the condenser where it is condensed for return to the vapor generator. The turbine drives an air blower which passes air over the condenser for cooling the condenser. Also, a condensate pump is driven by the turbine. The disclosure is particularly concerned with the provision of heat exchanger and circuitry for cooling the condensed fluid output from the pump prior to its return to the vapor generator.

  15. Air injection system diagnostic

    SciTech Connect

    Kotzan, J.M.; Labus, G.E.

    1992-05-19

    This patent describes a method for diagnosing failures in an air control system that controls a quantity of air admitted into an exhaust path of an internal combustion engine. It comprises sensing the oxygen content of the exhaust gas of the engine at predetermined time intervals at a first predetermined point in the exhaust path of the engine, the oxygen content normally oscillating between a rich oxygen condition and a lean oxygen condition in the absence of air injected into the exhaust path above the first predetermined point; injecting a quantity of air into the exhaust path of the engine at a second predetermined point in the exhaust port, the second predetermined point being above the first predetermined point; counting the number of intervals at which the sensed oxygen content indicates a rich oxygen condition over a predetermined period of time; comparing the counted number of rich oxygen intervals to a predetermined threshold value, the threshold value being greater than a counted number of rich oxygen intervals over the predetermined period of time resulting from the normal oscillations between rich and lean oxygen conditions in the absence of air injected into the exhaust path; indicating the existence of a fault in the air control system when the number of rich oxygen intervals does not exceed the predetermined threshold value.

  16. Dental Compressed Air Systems.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-03-01

    I AL-TR-IWI-0uuu AD-A249 954 DENTAL COMPRESSED AIMYTM R Curtis D. Weyrmuch, Mejor, USAP, D Samuel P.Dvs iueatclpi SF.O N AEROSPACE MwaEDIN mwr~ComA G...FUNDING NUMBERS Dental Compressed Air Systems PE - 87714F PR - 7350 TA - 22 D. Weyrauch WU - XX Samuel P. Davis George W. Gaines 7. PERFORMING...words) The purpose of this report is to update guidelines on dental compressed air systems (DCA). Much of the information was obtained from a survey

  17. 40 CFR 1065.805 - Sampling system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Sampling system. 1065.805 Section 1065.805 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS... background samples for correcting dilution air for background concentrations of alcohols and carbonyls....

  18. 40 CFR 1065.805 - Sampling system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Sampling system. 1065.805 Section 1065.805 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS... background samples for correcting dilution air for background concentrations of alcohols and carbonyls....

  19. 40 CFR 1065.805 - Sampling system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Sampling system. 1065.805 Section 1065.805 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS... background samples for correcting dilution air for background concentrations of alcohols and carbonyls....

  20. 40 CFR 1065.805 - Sampling system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Sampling system. 1065.805 Section 1065.805 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS... background samples for correcting dilution air for background concentrations of alcohols and carbonyls....

  1. More about sampling and estimation of mercaptans in air samples.

    PubMed

    Moliner-Martínez, Y; Herráez-Hernández, R; Molins-Legua, C; Verdú-Andrés, J; Avella-Oliver, M; Campíns-Falcó, P

    2013-03-15

    Several strategies have been developed for sampling and determination of volatile thiols. The selectivity and sensitivity of the proposed methodologies are achieved by using a specific derivatizing reagent. The different procedures assayed are based on air sampling followed by derivatization of the analytes with OPA and isoleucine in alkaline solution. The derivatization products are separated and determined by liquid chromatography and fluorescence detection. To start, the derivatization conditions and stability of the derivates have been studied in order to establish the storage conditions. In general, the strategies studied consisted on trapping and detivatization the thiol compound on different support; a solution (Impinger) or sorbent (C₁₈ cartridges or glass fiber filter). The analytical properties of the different strategies have been obtained and compared. Procedures are recommended upon specific situations. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Innovations in air sampling to detect plant pathogens.

    PubMed

    West, Js; Kimber, Rbe

    2015-01-01

    Many innovations in the development and use of air sampling devices have occurred in plant pathology since the first description of the Hirst spore trap. These include improvements in capture efficiency at relatively high air-volume collection rates, methods to enhance the ease of sample processing with downstream diagnostic methods and even full automation of sampling, diagnosis and wireless reporting of results. Other innovations have been to mount air samplers on mobile platforms such as UAVs and ground vehicles to allow sampling at different altitudes and locations in a short space of time to identify potential sources and population structure. Geographical Information Systems and the application to a network of samplers can allow a greater prediction of airborne inoculum and dispersal dynamics. This field of technology is now developing quickly as novel diagnostic methods allow increasingly rapid and accurate quantifications of airborne species and genetic traits. Sampling and interpretation of results, particularly action-thresholds, is improved by understanding components of air dispersal and dilution processes and can add greater precision in the application of crop protection products as part of integrated pest and disease management decisions. The applications of air samplers are likely to increase, with much greater adoption by growers or industry support workers to aid in crop protection decisions. The same devices are likely to improve information available for detection of allergens causing hay fever and asthma or provide valuable metadata for regional plant disease dynamics.

  3. Innovations in air sampling to detect plant pathogens

    PubMed Central

    West, JS; Kimber, RBE

    2015-01-01

    Many innovations in the development and use of air sampling devices have occurred in plant pathology since the first description of the Hirst spore trap. These include improvements in capture efficiency at relatively high air-volume collection rates, methods to enhance the ease of sample processing with downstream diagnostic methods and even full automation of sampling, diagnosis and wireless reporting of results. Other innovations have been to mount air samplers on mobile platforms such as UAVs and ground vehicles to allow sampling at different altitudes and locations in a short space of time to identify potential sources and population structure. Geographical Information Systems and the application to a network of samplers can allow a greater prediction of airborne inoculum and dispersal dynamics. This field of technology is now developing quickly as novel diagnostic methods allow increasingly rapid and accurate quantifications of airborne species and genetic traits. Sampling and interpretation of results, particularly action-thresholds, is improved by understanding components of air dispersal and dilution processes and can add greater precision in the application of crop protection products as part of integrated pest and disease management decisions. The applications of air samplers are likely to increase, with much greater adoption by growers or industry support workers to aid in crop protection decisions. The same devices are likely to improve information available for detection of allergens causing hay fever and asthma or provide valuable metadata for regional plant disease dynamics. PMID:25745191

  4. Analysis of EPA and DOE WIPP Air Sampling Data

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    During the April 2014 EPA visit to WIPP, EPA co-located four ambient air samplers with existing Department of Energy (DOE) ambient air samplers to independently corroborate DOE's reported air sampling results.

  5. DUS II SOIL GAS SAMPLING AND AIR INJECTION TEST RESULTS

    SciTech Connect

    Noonkester, J.; Jackson, D.; Jones, W.; Hyde, W.; Kohn, J.; Walker, R.

    2012-09-20

    Soil vapor extraction (SVE) and air injection well testing was performed at the Dynamic Underground Stripping (DUS) site located near the M-Area Settling Basin (referred to as DUS II in this report). The objective of this testing was to determine the effectiveness of continued operation of these systems. Steam injection ended on September 19, 2009 and since this time the extraction operations have utilized residual heat that is present in the subsurface. The well testing campaign began on June 5, 2012 and was completed on June 25, 2012. Thirty-two (32) SVE wells were purged for 24 hours or longer using the active soil vapor extraction (ASVE) system at the DUS II site. During each test five or more soil gas samples were collected from each well and analyzed for target volatile organic compounds (VOCs). The DUS II site is divided into four parcels (see Figure 1) and soil gas sample results show the majority of residual VOC contamination remains in Parcel 1 with lesser amounts in the other three parcels. Several VOCs, including tetrachloroethylene (PCE) and trichloroethylene (TCE), were detected. PCE was the major VOC with lesser amounts of TCE. Most soil gas concentrations of PCE ranged from 0 to 60 ppmv with one well (VEW-22A) as high as 200 ppmv. Air sparging (AS) generally involves the injection of air into the aquifer through either vertical or horizontal wells. AS is coupled with SVE systems when contaminant recovery is necessary. While traditional air sparging (AS) is not a primary component of the DUS process, following the cessation of steam injection, eight (8) of the sixty-three (63) steam injection wells were used to inject air. These wells were previously used for hydrous pyrolysis oxidation (HPO) as part of the DUS process. Air sparging is different from the HPO operations in that the air was injected at a higher rate (20 to 50 scfm) versus HPO (1 to 2 scfm). . At the DUS II site the air injection wells were tested to determine if air sparging affected

  6. 40 CFR 61.34 - Air sampling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS National Emission Standard for Beryllium § 61.34 Air... detect maximum concentrations of beryllium in the ambient air. (b) All monitoring sites shall be operated...

  7. 40 CFR 61.34 - Air sampling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS National Emission Standard for Beryllium § 61.34 Air... detect maximum concentrations of beryllium in the ambient air. (b) All monitoring sites shall be operated...

  8. 40 CFR 61.34 - Air sampling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS National Emission Standard for Beryllium § 61.34 Air... detect maximum concentrations of beryllium in the ambient air. (b) All monitoring sites shall be operated...

  9. 40 CFR 61.34 - Air sampling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS National Emission Standard for Beryllium § 61.34 Air... detect maximum concentrations of beryllium in the ambient air. (b) All monitoring sites shall be operated...

  10. 40 CFR 61.34 - Air sampling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS National Emission Standard for Beryllium § 61.34 Air... detect maximum concentrations of beryllium in the ambient air. (b) All monitoring sites shall be operated...

  11. Diagnosing AIRS Sampling with CloudSat Cloud Classes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fetzer, Eric; Yue, Qing; Guillaume, Alexandre; Kahn, Brian

    2011-01-01

    AIRS yield and sampling vary with cloud state. Careful utilization of collocated multiple satellite sensors is necessary. Profile differences between AIRS and ECMWF model analyses indicate that AIRS has high sampling and excellent accuracy for certain meteorological conditions. Cloud-dependent sampling biases may have large impact on AIRS L2 and L3 data in climate research. MBL clouds / lower tropospheric stability relationship is one example. AIRS and CloudSat reveal a reasonable climatology in the MBL cloud regime despite limited sampling in stratocumulus. Thermodynamic parameters such as EIS derived from AIRS data map these cloud conditions successfully. We are working on characterizing AIRS scenes with mixed cloud types.

  12. Air System Information Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Filman, Robert E.

    2004-01-01

    I flew to Washington last week, a trip rich in distributed information management. Buying tickets, at the gate, in flight, landing and at the baggage claim, myriad messages about my reservation, the weather, our flight plans, gates, bags and so forth flew among a variety of travel agency, airline and Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) computers and personnel. By and large, each kind of information ran on a particular application, often specialized to own data formats and communications network. I went to Washington to attend an FAA meeting on System-Wide Information Management (SWIM) for the National Airspace System (NAS) (http://www.nasarchitecture.faa.gov/Tutorials/NAS101.cfm). NAS (and its information infrastructure, SWIM) is an attempt to bring greater regularity, efficiency and uniformity to the collection of stovepipe applications now used to manage air traffic. Current systems hold information about flight plans, flight trajectories, weather, air turbulence, current and forecast weather, radar summaries, hazardous condition warnings, airport and airspace capacity constraints, temporary flight restrictions, and so forth. Information moving among these stovepipe systems is usually mediated by people (for example, air traffic controllers) or single-purpose applications. People, whose intelligence is critical for difficult tasks and unusual circumstances, are not as efficient as computers for tasks that can be automated. Better information sharing can lead to higher system capacity, more efficient utilization and safer operations. Better information sharing through greater automation is possible though not necessarily easy.

  13. Air System Information Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Filman, Robert E.

    2004-01-01

    I flew to Washington last week, a trip rich in distributed information management. Buying tickets, at the gate, in flight, landing and at the baggage claim, myriad messages about my reservation, the weather, our flight plans, gates, bags and so forth flew among a variety of travel agency, airline and Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) computers and personnel. By and large, each kind of information ran on a particular application, often specialized to own data formats and communications network. I went to Washington to attend an FAA meeting on System-Wide Information Management (SWIM) for the National Airspace System (NAS) (http://www.nasarchitecture.faa.gov/Tutorials/NAS101.cfm). NAS (and its information infrastructure, SWIM) is an attempt to bring greater regularity, efficiency and uniformity to the collection of stovepipe applications now used to manage air traffic. Current systems hold information about flight plans, flight trajectories, weather, air turbulence, current and forecast weather, radar summaries, hazardous condition warnings, airport and airspace capacity constraints, temporary flight restrictions, and so forth. Information moving among these stovepipe systems is usually mediated by people (for example, air traffic controllers) or single-purpose applications. People, whose intelligence is critical for difficult tasks and unusual circumstances, are not as efficient as computers for tasks that can be automated. Better information sharing can lead to higher system capacity, more efficient utilization and safer operations. Better information sharing through greater automation is possible though not necessarily easy.

  14. Automated system for monitoring trace C2H2 in ambient air by cavity ring-down spectroscopy combined with sample preconcentration.

    PubMed

    Pradhan, Manik; Aziz, M S I; Grilli, Roberto; Orr-Ewing, Andrew J

    2008-10-01

    A fully automated instrument combining a continuous wave cavity ring-down spectrometer and dual-trap sample preconcentration has been implemented for monitoring C2H2 mixing ratios in ambient air. A distributed feedback diode laser operating in the near-infrared region (lambda approximately 1534.973 nm in air) detects C2H2 in absorption via the P(17) rotational line of the (v1 + v3) vibrational combination band. The instrument is shown to be capable of fast, quantitative, and precise monitoring of C2H2 mixing ratios, with a detection limit of approximately 8 pptv (parts per trillion by volume). It thus has potential to be deployed for analysis of air samples in many rural and urban environments. In situ measurements were carried out at 30 min intervals over periods of up to 15 h on several days for indoor and outdoor air samples. For indoor air monitored on a Sunday, the C2H2 mixing ratio was stable at 1.45 +/- 0.04 ppbv (parts per billion by volume). On weekdays, both indoor and outside air analyses showed peaks in the range 2-4 ppbv in the early morning and late afternoon that coincided with periods of busy road traffic.

  15. Minanre Gas Concentrators For Air Sampling

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. Seung Ho Hong

    2001-03-01

    The goal of this project was to demonstrate the feasibility of a compact, lightweight, gas-sampling device with rapid-cycle-time characteristics. The highlights of our Phase I work include: (1) Demonstration of a compact gas sampler with integrated heater. This device has an order of magnitude greater adsorption capacity and much faster heating/cooling times than commercial sorbent tubes. (2) Completion of computational fluid dynamics modeling of the gas sampler to determine airflow characteristics for various design options. These modeling efforts guided the development and testing of the Mesochannel Gas Sampler prototype. (3) Testing of the Mesochannel Gas Sampler in parallel with tests of two packed-bed samplers. These tests showed the Mesochannel Gas Sampler represents a substantial improvement compared with the packed-bed approach. Our mesochannel heat-exchanger/adsorber architecture allows very efficient use of adsorbent mass, high adsorbent loadings, and very low pressure drop, which makes possible very high air-sampling rates using a simple, low-power fan. This device is well-suited for collecting samples of trace-level contaminants. The integrated heater, which forms the adsorbent-coated mesochannel walls, allows direct heating of the adsorbent and results in very rapid desorption of the adsorbed species. We believe the Mesochannel Gas Sampler represents a promising technology for the improvement of trace-contaminant detection limits. In our Phase II proposal, we outline several improvements to the gas sampler that will further improve its performance.

  16. Air-storage systems

    SciTech Connect

    Doherty, T.J.

    1981-10-01

    The air storage system, the critical component making CAES technically and economically feasible, is described in three of its forms. All have geological containments and reflect economics of scale requiring fairly large plant ratings and storage capacities. All three systems also are based on good precedent experience and there are a number of willing bidders in the engineering and construction field attesting to the readiness of the technology. The salient features of each storage system type are summarized. Hard rock caverns have the widest siting opportunity in a variety of geology, are well within construction capability in good quality rock with maximum control of system design through engineering, have the highest cost of the storage system options study and the potential for longest time to startup, are difficult and expensive to expand for increased storage or plant rating. The salt-solutioned cavern has limited siting opportunities, is a very economical storage system, and storage increase is possible through cavern additions.

  17. Sampling video compression system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matsumoto, Y.; Lum, H. (Inventor)

    1977-01-01

    A system for transmitting video signal of compressed bandwidth is described. The transmitting station is provided with circuitry for dividing a picture to be transmitted into a plurality of blocks containing a checkerboard pattern of picture elements. Video signals along corresponding diagonal rows of picture elements in the respective blocks are regularly sampled. A transmitter responsive to the output of the sampling circuitry is included for transmitting the sampled video signals of one frame at a reduced bandwidth over a communication channel. The receiving station is provided with a frame memory for temporarily storing transmitted video signals of one frame at the original high bandwidth frequency.

  18. Air-storage systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doherty, T. J.

    1981-10-01

    The air storage system, the critical component making compressed air energy storage technically economically feasible, is described in three of its forms. All have geological containments and reflect economics of scale requiring fairly large plant ratings and storage capacities. All three systems also are based on good precedent experience and there are a number of willing bidders in the engineering and construction field attesting to the readiness of the technology. The salient features of each storage system type are summarized. Hard rock caverns have the widest siting opportunity with a variety of geology, are well within construction capability in good quality rock with maximum control of system design through engineering, and have the highest cost of the storage system options study. They have the potential for longest time to startup and are difficult and expensive to expand for increased storage or plant rating. The salt-solutioned cavern has limited siting opportunities, is a very economical storage system, and storage increase is possible through cavern additions.

  19. ENHANCEMENT OF ENVIRONMENTAL SAMPLING THROUGH AN IMPROVED AIR MONITORING TECHNIQUE

    SciTech Connect

    Hanks, D

    2010-06-07

    Environmental sampling (ES) is a key component of International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) safeguarding approaches throughout the world. Performance of ES (e.g. air, water, vegetation, sediments, soil and biota) supports the IAEAs mission of drawing conclusions concerning the absence of undeclared nuclear material or nuclear activities in a State and has been available since the introduction of safeguards strengthening measures approved by the IAEA Board of Governors (1992-1997). A recent step-change improvement in the gathering and analysis of air samples at uranium/plutonium bulk handling facilities is an important addition to the international nuclear safeguards inspector's toolkit. Utilizing commonly used equipment throughout the IAEA network of analytical laboratories for particle analysis, researchers are developing the next generation of ES equipment for air grab and constant samples. Isotopic analysis of collected particles from an Aerosol Contaminant Extractor (ACE) silicon substrate has been performed with excellent results in determining attribute and isotopic composition of chemical elements present in an actual test-bed sample. The new collection equipment will allow IAEA nuclear safeguards inspectors to develop enhanced safeguarding approaches for complicated facilities. This paper will explore the use of air monitoring to establish a baseline environmental signature of a particular facility that could be used for comparison of consistencies in declared operations. The implementation of air monitoring will be contrasted against the use of smear ES when used during unannounced inspections, design information verification, limited frequency unannounced access, and complementary access visits at bulk handling facilities. Technical aspects of the air monitoring device and the analysis of its environmental samples will demonstrate the essential parameters required for successful application of the system.

  20. Future Air Force systems.

    PubMed

    Tremaine, S A

    1986-10-01

    Planning for the future is under way in earnest at the Aeronautical Systems Division (ASD) at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base. It has been statistically established that it takes from 14-16 years from the generation of a new system idea to enter into engineering development. With this unpleasing, but realistic, schedule in mind, ASD has, during the last 3 years, been initiating long-term planning projects that are pre-starts for new system ideas. They are generated from throughout the Air Force and are locally managed and funded. Through this process, which spans from 12-14 months, specific and revolutionary new ideas for the systems of the future are generated. This article addresses more than a dozen specific new ideas in work at ASD today. These ideas range from a need to replace the C-130 type aircraft after the year 2000 to planning a follow-on to the B-18 well into the 21st century. Among other specific projects are investigation into an immortal fighter intended to be free of reliability and maintenance demands for an especially long period of operation, a new training system and advanced trainer to replace the T-38, a transatmospheric vehicle that could operate in the 100,000-500,000 foot flight region (30,480-152,400 m), and a new means of defending against hostile cruise missile launchers and cruise missiles. Other ideas are also addressed. The article concludes with emphasis on systems that can operate hypersonically in and out of the known atmosphere and greater use of airbreathing propulsion systems operating between Mach 3 and Mach 6.

  1. Air Mobile Utility Distribution Systems.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    WATER PIPES, AIR TRANSPORTABLE EQUIPMENT, POLYVINYL CHLORIDE, GLASS REINFORCED PLASTICS , FUEL HOSES, HOSES....PIPES, *PIPING SYSTEMS, INSULATION, FABRICATION, CORROSION INHIBITION, FEASIBILITY STUDIES, AIR FORCE FACILITIES, POLYURETHANE RESINS, PLASTICS

  2. Systematic Evaluation of Aggressive Air Sampling for Bacillus ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Report The primary objectives of this project were to evaluate the Aggressive Air Sampling (AAS) method compared to currently used surface sampling methods and to determine if AAS is a viable option for sampling Bacillus anthracis spores.

  3. Seabed observation & sampling system

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Blackwood, D.; Parolski, K.

    2001-01-01

    SEABOSS has proved to be a valuable addition to the USGS data-acquisition and processing field program. It has allowed researchers to collect high-quality images and seabed samples in a timely manner. It is a simple, dependable and trouble-free system with a track record of over 3,000 deployments. When used as part of the USGS seafloor mapping acquisition, processing, and ground-truth program, SEABOSS has been invaluable in providing information quickly and efficiently, with a minimum of downtime. SEABOSS enables scientists to collect high-quality images and samples of the seabed, essential to the study of sedimentary environments and biological habitats and to the interpretation of side-scan sonar and multibeam imagery, the most common tools for mapping the seabed.

  4. Balloon Operation for Stratospheric Air Sampling at Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Honda, H.; Yajima, N.; Yamagami, T.; Aoki, S.; Hashida, G.; Machida, T.; Morimoto, S.

    On January 3rd, 1998, a cryogenic air sampling experiment was carried out at Syowa Station (69S, 40E), which is the first successful trial in the world for collection of large amount of stratospheric air over the Antarctic. The samples are analyzed for CO2, CH4, CFCs, and C and O isotope ratios in CO2 in the laboratories. As the meteorological conditions for launching and payload recovery are both critical, feasibility on wind conditions over Syowa Station was studied in detail. The balloon launching operations had to be performed without a specialist. Facilities for balloon launching, tracking, and other support systems were newly designed for ready-to- and easy-to-use. Realtime remote support from Japan for the balloon launching and flight control operations was applied using a computer network linked by INMARSAT

  5. Air Quality System (AQS) Metadata

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency compiles air quality monitoring data in the Air Quality System (AQS). Ambient air concentrations are measured at a national network of more than 4,000 monitoring stations and are reported by state, local, and tribal

  6. Determination of aldehydes and ketones in air samples using cryotrapping sampling.

    PubMed

    Levart, A; Veber, M

    2001-08-01

    A cryotrapping sampling technique using glass traps cooled in liquid nitrogen for monitoring carbonyl compounds in air has been developed. Sampling was followed by derivatization by addition of acidified 2,4-dinitrophenyl hydrazine (DNPH) solution to the traps and an aliquot of the sample was analysed with a high performance liquid chromatograph system (HPLC), equipped with a diode array detector. The procedure was optimised concerning derivatization conditions and analytical parameters on formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, propanal, acetone, butanal and benzaldehyde. The technique was applied in monitoring their concentration in the urban atmosphere in Ljubljana.

  7. SpaceX Dragon Air Circulation System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hernandez, Brenda; Piatrovich, Siarhei; Prina, Mauro

    2011-01-01

    The Dragon capsule is a reusable vehicle being developed by Space Exploration Technologies (SpaceX) that will provide commercial cargo transportation to the International Space Station (ISS). Dragon is designed to be a habitable module while it is berthed to ISS. As such, the Dragon Environmental Control System (ECS) consists of pressure control and pressure equalization, air sampling, fire detection, illumination, and an air circulation system. The air circulation system prevents pockets of stagnant air in Dragon that can be hazardous to the ISS crew. In addition, through the inter-module duct, the air circulation system provides fresh air from ISS into Dragon. To utilize the maximum volume of Dragon for cargo packaging, the Dragon ECS air circulation system is designed around cargo rack optimization. At the same time, the air circulation system is designed to meet the National Aeronautics Space Administration (NASA) inter-module and intra-module ventilation requirements and acoustic requirements. A flight like configuration of the Dragon capsule including the air circulation system was recently assembled for testing to assess the design for inter-module and intra-module ventilation and acoustics. The testing included the Dragon capsule, and flight configuration in the pressure section with cargo racks, lockers, all of the air circulation components, and acoustic treatment. The air circulation test was also used to verify the Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) model of the Dragon capsule. The CFD model included the same Dragon internal geometry that was assembled for the test. This paper will describe the Dragon air circulation system design which has been verified by testing the system and with CFD analysis.

  8. A Mars Sample Return Sample Handling System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, David; Stroker, Carol

    2013-01-01

    We present a sample handling system, a subsystem of the proposed Dragon landed Mars Sample Return (MSR) mission [1], that can return to Earth orbit a significant mass of frozen Mars samples potentially consisting of: rock cores, subsurface drilled rock and ice cuttings, pebble sized rocks, and soil scoops. The sample collection, storage, retrieval and packaging assumptions and concepts in this study are applicable for the NASA's MPPG MSR mission architecture options [2]. Our study assumes a predecessor rover mission collects samples for return to Earth to address questions on: past life, climate change, water history, age dating, understanding Mars interior evolution [3], and, human safety and in-situ resource utilization. Hence the rover will have "integrated priorities for rock sampling" [3] that cover collection of subaqueous or hydrothermal sediments, low-temperature fluidaltered rocks, unaltered igneous rocks, regolith and atmosphere samples. Samples could include: drilled rock cores, alluvial and fluvial deposits, subsurface ice and soils, clays, sulfates, salts including perchlorates, aeolian deposits, and concretions. Thus samples will have a broad range of bulk densities, and require for Earth based analysis where practical: in-situ characterization, management of degradation such as perchlorate deliquescence and volatile release, and contamination management. We propose to adopt a sample container with a set of cups each with a sample from a specific location. We considered two sample cups sizes: (1) a small cup sized for samples matching those submitted to in-situ characterization instruments, and, (2) a larger cup for 100 mm rock cores [4] and pebble sized rocks, thus providing diverse samples and optimizing the MSR sample mass payload fraction for a given payload volume. We minimize sample degradation by keeping them frozen in the MSR payload sample canister using Peltier chip cooling. The cups are sealed by interference fitted heat activated memory

  9. Ambient Air Sampling During Quantum-dot Spray Deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Jankovic, John Timothy; Hollenbeck, Scott M

    2010-01-01

    Ambient air sampling for nano-size particle emissions was performed during spot spray coating operations with a Sono-Tek Exactacoat Benchtop system (ECB). The ECB consisted of the application equipment contained within an exhaust enclosure. The enclosure contained numerous small access openings, including an exhaust hook-up. Door access comprised most of the width and height of the front. The door itself was of the swing-out type. Two types of nanomaterials, Cadmium selenide (Cd-Se) quantum-dots (QDs) and Gold (Au) QDs, nominally 3.3 and 5 nm in diameter respectively, were applied during the evaluation. Median spray drop size was in the 20 to 60 micrometer size range.1 Surface coating tests were of short duration, on the order of one-half second per spray and ten spray applications between door openings. The enclosure was ventilated by connection to a high efficiency particulate aerosol (HEPA) filtered house exhaust system. The exhaust rate was nominally 80 ft3 per minute producing about 5 air changes per minute. Real time air monitoring with a scanning mobility particle size analyzer (SMPS ) with a size detection limit of 7 nm indicated a significant increase in the ambient air concentration upon early door opening. A handheld condensation particle counter (CPC) with a lower size limit of 10 nm did not record changes in the ambient background. This increase in the ambient was not observed when door opening was delayed for 2 minutes (~10 air changes). The ventilated enclosure controlled emissions except for cases of rapid door opening before the overspray could be removed by the exhaust. A time delay sufficient to provide 10 enclosure air changes (a concentration reduction of more than 99.99 %) before door opening prevented the release of aerosol particles in any size.2 Scanning-transmission electron microscopy (STEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) demonstrated the presence of agglomerates in the surfaces of the spray applied deposition. A filtered air sample of

  10. Sampling Interplanetary Dust Particles from Antarctic Air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, S.; Lever, J. H.; Alexander, C. M. O'D.; Brownlee, D. E.; Messenger, S.; Littler, L. R.; Stroud, R. M.; Wozniakiewicz, P.; Clement, S.

    2016-08-01

    We are undertaking a NASA and NSF supported project to filter large volumes of clean Antarctic air to collect a broad range of cosmic dust, including CP-IDPs, rare ultra-carbonaceous particles and particles derived from specific meteor streams.

  11. Liquid air mixing system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, Robert B. (Inventor)

    1997-01-01

    A device for mixing liquid nitrogen and liquid oxygen to form liquid air. The mixing device consists of a tube for transferring liquid oxygen positioned within a tube for transferring liquid nitrogen. Supply vessels for liquid oxygen and liquid nitrogen are equally pressurized and connected to the appropriate tubes. Liquid oxygen and nitrogen flow from the supply vessels through the respective tubes and are mixed to form liquid air upon exiting the outlets of the tube. The resulting liquid air is transferred to a holding vessel.

  12. Implementation of Fowler's method for end-tidal air sampling.

    PubMed

    Di Francesco, F; Loccioni, C; Fioravanti, M; Russo, A; Pioggia, G; Ferro, M; Roehrer, I; Tabucchi, S; Onor, M

    2008-09-01

    The design, realization and testing of a CO(2)-triggered breath sampler, capable of a separate collection of dead space and end-tidal air on multiple breaths, is presented. This sampling procedure has advantages in terms of the sample volume, insights regarding the origin of compounds, increased reproducibility and higher concentrations of compounds. The high quality of design and the speed of the components ensure a breath-by-breath estimate of dead volume, as well as the comfort and safety of the subject under test. The system represents a valid tool to contribute to the development of a standardized sampling protocol needed to compare results obtained by the various groups in this field.

  13. Air conditioning system

    DOEpatents

    Lowenstein, Andrew; Miller, Jeffrey; Gruendeman, Peter; DaSilva, Michael

    2005-02-01

    An air conditioner comprises a plurality of plates arranged in a successively stacked configuration with portions thereof having a spaced apart arrangement, and defining between successive adjacent pairs of plates at the spaced apart portions a first and second series of discrete alternating passages wherein a first air stream is passed through the first series of passages and a second air stream is passed through the second series of passages; and said stacked configuration of plates forming integrally therewith a liquid delivery means for delivering from a source a sufficient quantity of a liquid to the inside surfaces of the first series of fluid passages in a manner which provides a continuous flow of the liquid from a first end to a second end of the plurality of plates while in contact with the first air stream.

  14. Venturi Air-Jet Vacuum Ejector For Sampling Air

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hill, Gerald F.; Sachse, Glen W.; Burney, L. Garland; Wade, Larry O.

    1990-01-01

    Venturi air-jet vacuum ejector pump light in weight, requires no electrical power, does not contribute heat to aircraft, and provides high pumping speeds at moderate suctions. High-pressure motive gas required for this type of pump bled from compressor of aircraft engine with negligible effect on performance of engine. Used as source of vacuum for differential-absorption CO-measurement (DACOM), modified to achieve in situ measurements of CO at frequency response of 10 Hz. Provides improvement in spatial resolution and potentially leads to capability to measure turbulent flux of CO by use of eddy-correlation technique.

  15. Sampling system and method

    DOEpatents

    Decker, David L.; Lyles, Brad F.; Purcell, Richard G.; Hershey, Ronald Lee

    2013-04-16

    The present disclosure provides an apparatus and method for coupling conduit segments together. A first pump obtains a sample and transmits it through a first conduit to a reservoir accessible by a second pump. The second pump further conducts the sample from the reservoir through a second conduit.

  16. Advanced air revitalization system testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heppner, D. B.; Hallick, T. M.; Schubert, F. H.

    1983-01-01

    A previously developed experimental air revitalization system was tested cyclically and parametrically. One-button startup without manual interventions; extension by 1350 hours of tests with the system; capability for varying process air carbon dioxide partial pressure and humidity and coolant source for simulation of realistic space vehicle interfaces; dynamic system performance response on the interaction of the electrochemical depolarized carbon dioxide concentrator, the Sabatier carbon dioxide reduction subsystem, and the static feed water electrolysis oxygen generation subsystem, the carbon dioxide concentrator module with unitized core technology for the liquid cooled cell; and a preliminary design for a regenerative air revitalization system for the space station are discussed.

  17. Air ejector augmented compressed air energy storage system

    DOEpatents

    Ahrens, Frederick W.; Kartsounes, George T.

    1980-01-01

    Energy is stored in slack demand periods by charging a plurality of underground reservoirs with air to the same peak storage pressure, during peak demand periods throttling the air from one storage reservoir into a gas turbine system at a constant inlet pressure until the air pressure in the reservoir falls to said constant inlet pressure, thereupon permitting air in a second reservoir to flow into said gas turbine system while drawing air from the first reservoir through a variable geometry air ejector and adjusting said variable geometry air ejector, said air flow being essentially at the constant inlet pressure of the gas turbine system.

  18. Air ejector augmented compressed air energy storage system

    DOEpatents

    Ahrens, F.W.; Kartsounes, G.T.

    Energy is stored in slack demand periods by charging a plurality of underground reservoirs with air to the same peak storage pressure, during peak demand periods throttling the air from one storage reservoir into a gas turbine system at a constant inlet pressure until the air presure in the reservoir falls to said constant inlet pressure, thereupon permitting air in a second reservoir to flow into said gas turbine system while drawing air from the first reservoir through a variable geometry air ejector and adjusting said variable geometry air ejector, said air flow being essentially at the constant inlet pressure of the gas turbine system.

  19. Application of a dry-gas meter for measuring air sample volumes in an ambient air monitoring network

    SciTech Connect

    Fritz, Brad G.

    2009-05-24

    Ambient air monitoring for non-research applications (e.g. compliance) occurs at locations throughout the world. Often, the air sampling systems employed for these purposes employee simple yet robust equipment capable of handling the rigors of demanding sampling schedules. At the Hanford Site (near Richland, Washington) concentrations of radionuclides in ambient air are monitored continuously at 44 locations. In 2004, mechanical dry-gas meters were incorporated into the Hanford Site ambient air sample collection system to allow the direct measurement of sample volumes. These meters replaced a portable airflow measurement system that required two manual flow measurements and a sample duration measurement to determine sample volume. A six-month evaluation of the dry-gas meters compared sample volumes calculated using the original flow rate method to the direct sample volume measurement (new method). The results of the evaluation indicate that use of the dry-gas meters result in accurate sample volume measurements and provide greater confidence in the measured sample volumes. In several years of in-network use, the meters have proven to be reliable and have resulted in an improved sampling system.

  20. Liquid sampling system

    DOEpatents

    Larson, Loren L.

    1987-01-01

    A conduit extends from a reservoir through a sampling station and back to the reservoir in a closed loop. A jet ejector in the conduit establishes suction for withdrawing liquid from the reservoir. The conduit has a self-healing septum therein upstream of the jet ejector for receiving one end of a double-ended cannula, the other end of which is received in a serum bottle for sample collection. Gas is introduced into the conduit at a gas bleed between the sample collection bottle and the reservoir. The jet ejector evacuates gas from the conduit and the bottle and aspirates a column of liquid from the reservoir at a high rate. When the withdrawn liquid reaches the jet ejector the rate of flow therethrough reduces substantially and the gas bleed increases the pressure in the conduit for driving liquid into the sample bottle, the gas bleed forming a column of gas behind the withdrawn liquid column and interrupting the withdrawal of liquid from the reservoir. In the case of hazardous and toxic liquids, the sample bottle and the jet ejector may be isolated from the reservoir and may be further isolated from a control station containing remote manipulation means for the sample bottle and control valves for the jet ejector and gas bleed.

  1. Liquid sampling system

    DOEpatents

    Larson, L.L.

    1984-09-17

    A conduit extends from a reservoir through a sampling station and back to the reservoir in a closed loop. A jet ejector in the conduit establishes suction for withdrawing liquid from the reservoir. The conduit has a self-healing septum therein upstream of the jet ejector for receiving one end of a double-ended cannula, the other end of which is received in a serum bottle for sample collection. Gas is introduced into the conduit at a gas bleed between the sample collection bottle and the reservoir. The jet ejector evacuates gas from the conduit and the bottle and aspirates a column of liquid from the reservoir at a high rate. When the withdrawn liquid reaches the jet ejector the rate of flow therethrough reduces substantially and the gas bleed increases the pressure in the conduit for driving liquid into the sample bottle, the gas bleed forming a column of gas behind the withdrawn liquid column and interrupting the withdrawal of liquid from the reservoir. In the case of hazardous and toxic liquids, the sample bottle and the jet ejector may be isolated from the reservoir and may be further isolated from a control station containing remote manipulation means for the sample bottle and control valves for the jet ejector and gas bleed. 5 figs.

  2. Air Pollution Surveillance Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, George B.; And Others

    1970-01-01

    Describes atmospheric data monitoring as part of total airpollution control effort. Summarizes types of gaseous, liquid and solid pollutants and their sources; contrast between urban and rural environmental air quality; instrumentation to identify pollutants; and anticipated new non-wet chemical physical and physiochemical techniques tor cetection…

  3. Air Pollution Surveillance Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, George B.; And Others

    1970-01-01

    Describes atmospheric data monitoring as part of total airpollution control effort. Summarizes types of gaseous, liquid and solid pollutants and their sources; contrast between urban and rural environmental air quality; instrumentation to identify pollutants; and anticipated new non-wet chemical physical and physiochemical techniques tor cetection…

  4. Workplace air monitoring and sampling practices at DOE facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Swinth, K.L.; Kenoyer, J.L.; Selby, J.M.; Vallario, E.J.; Burphy, B.L.

    1986-03-01

    Current air monitoring and sampling practices at DOE facilities were surveyed as a part of an air monitoring upgrade task. A comprehensive questionnaire was developed and distributed to DOE contractors through the DOE field offices. Twenty-six facilities returned a completed questionnaire. Questionnaire replies indicate diversity in air sampling and monitoring practices among DOE facilities. The difference among the facilities exist in monitoring and sampling instrumentation, procedures, calibration, analytical methods, detection levels, and action levels. Many of these differences could be attributed to different operational needs.

  5. Evaluation of Legionella Air Contamination in Healthcare Facilities by Different Sampling Methods: An Italian Multicenter Study

    PubMed Central

    Montagna, Maria Teresa; De Giglio, Osvalda; Cristina, Maria Luisa; Napoli, Christian; Pacifico, Claudia; Agodi, Antonella; Baldovin, Tatjana; Casini, Beatrice; Coniglio, Maria Anna; D’Errico, Marcello Mario; Delia, Santi Antonino; Deriu, Maria Grazia; Guida, Marco; Laganà, Pasqualina; Liguori, Giorgio; Moro, Matteo; Mura, Ida; Pennino, Francesca; Privitera, Gaetano; Romano Spica, Vincenzo; Sembeni, Silvia; Spagnolo, Anna Maria; Tardivo, Stefano; Torre, Ida; Valeriani, Federica; Albertini, Roberto; Pasquarella, Cesira

    2017-01-01

    Healthcare facilities (HF) represent an at-risk environment for legionellosis transmission occurring after inhalation of contaminated aerosols. In general, the control of water is preferred to that of air because, to date, there are no standardized sampling protocols. Legionella air contamination was investigated in the bathrooms of 11 HF by active sampling (Surface Air System and Coriolis®μ) and passive sampling using settling plates. During the 8-hour sampling, hot tap water was sampled three times. All air samples were evaluated using culture-based methods, whereas liquid samples collected using the Coriolis®μ were also analyzed by real-time PCR. Legionella presence in the air and water was then compared by sequence-based typing (SBT) methods. Air contamination was found in four HF (36.4%) by at least one of the culturable methods. The culturable investigation by Coriolis®μ did not yield Legionella in any enrolled HF. However, molecular investigation using Coriolis®μ resulted in eight HF testing positive for Legionella in the air. Comparison of Legionella air and water contamination indicated that Legionella water concentration could be predictive of its presence in the air. Furthermore, a molecular study of 12 L. pneumophila strains confirmed a match between the Legionella strains from air and water samples by SBT for three out of four HF that tested positive for Legionella by at least one of the culturable methods. Overall, our study shows that Legionella air detection cannot replace water sampling because the absence of microorganisms from the air does not necessarily represent their absence from water; nevertheless, air sampling may provide useful information for risk assessment. The liquid impingement technique appears to have the greatest capacity for collecting airborne Legionella if combined with molecular investigations. PMID:28640202

  6. Evaluation of Legionella Air Contamination in Healthcare Facilities by Different Sampling Methods: An Italian Multicenter Study.

    PubMed

    Montagna, Maria Teresa; De Giglio, Osvalda; Cristina, Maria Luisa; Napoli, Christian; Pacifico, Claudia; Agodi, Antonella; Baldovin, Tatjana; Casini, Beatrice; Coniglio, Maria Anna; D'Errico, Marcello Mario; Delia, Santi Antonino; Deriu, Maria Grazia; Guida, Marco; Laganà, Pasqualina; Liguori, Giorgio; Moro, Matteo; Mura, Ida; Pennino, Francesca; Privitera, Gaetano; Romano Spica, Vincenzo; Sembeni, Silvia; Spagnolo, Anna Maria; Tardivo, Stefano; Torre, Ida; Valeriani, Federica; Albertini, Roberto; Pasquarella, Cesira

    2017-06-22

    Healthcare facilities (HF) represent an at-risk environment for legionellosis transmission occurring after inhalation of contaminated aerosols. In general, the control of water is preferred to that of air because, to date, there are no standardized sampling protocols. Legionella air contamination was investigated in the bathrooms of 11 HF by active sampling (Surface Air System and Coriolis(®)μ) and passive sampling using settling plates. During the 8-hour sampling, hot tap water was sampled three times. All air samples were evaluated using culture-based methods, whereas liquid samples collected using the Coriolis(®)μ were also analyzed by real-time PCR. Legionella presence in the air and water was then compared by sequence-based typing (SBT) methods. Air contamination was found in four HF (36.4%) by at least one of the culturable methods. The culturable investigation by Coriolis(®)μ did not yield Legionella in any enrolled HF. However, molecular investigation using Coriolis(®)μ resulted in eight HF testing positive for Legionella in the air. Comparison of Legionella air and water contamination indicated that Legionella water concentration could be predictive of its presence in the air. Furthermore, a molecular study of 12 L. pneumophila strains confirmed a match between the Legionella strains from air and water samples by SBT for three out of four HF that tested positive for Legionella by at least one of the culturable methods. Overall, our study shows that Legionella air detection cannot replace water sampling because the absence of microorganisms from the air does not necessarily represent their absence from water; nevertheless, air sampling may provide useful information for risk assessment. The liquid impingement technique appears to have the greatest capacity for collecting airborne Legionella if combined with molecular investigations.

  7. Industrial Hygiene Air Sampling and Bulk Sampling Instructions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-12-01

    registered trademark of Johns - Manville Products Corp., Denver, CO. "Cellosolve is a registered trademark of Union Carbide Corp., 270 Park Ave, New...registered trademark of Johns - Manville Products Corp., Denver, CO. 0 &Florisil is a registered trademark of Floridin Company, ITT System, Pittsburgh, PA. C...Thermosorb is a registered trademark of Johns - Manville Products Corp., Denver, CO. ®XAD-2 is a registered trademark of Rohm and Haas, Philadelphia, PA. C

  8. Commander De Winne poses for a photo during Air Sampling

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-11-11

    ISS021-E-024700 (11 Nov. 2009) --- European Space Agency astronaut Frank De Winne, Expedition 21 commander, uses the Microbial Air Sampler kit (floating freely near De Winne) to obtain microbiology (bacterial & fungal) air samples in the Kibo laboratory of the International Space Station.

  9. EML Surface Air Sampling Program, 1990--1993 data

    SciTech Connect

    Larsen, R.J.; Sanderson, C.G.; Kada, J.

    1995-11-01

    Measurements of the concentrations of specific atmospheric radionuclides in air filter samples collected for the Environmental Measurements Laboratory`s Surface Air Sampling Program (SASP) during 1990--1993, with the exception of April 1993, indicate that anthropogenic radionuclides, in both hemispheres, were at or below the lower limits of detection for the sampling and analytical techniques that were used to collect and measure them. The occasional detection of {sup 137}Cs in some air filter samples may have resulted from resuspension of previously deposited debris. Following the April 6, 1993 accident and release of radionuclides into the atmosphere at a reprocessing plant in the Tomsk-7 military nuclear complex located 16 km north of the Siberian city of Tomsk, Russia, weekly air filter samples from Barrow, Alaska; Thule, Greenland and Moosonee, Canada were selected for special analyses. The naturally occurring radioisotopes that the authors measure, {sup 7}Be and {sup 210}Pb, continue to be detected in most air filter samples. Variations in the annual mean concentrations of {sup 7}Be at many of the sites appear to result primarily from changes in the atmospheric production rate of this cosmogenic radionuclide. Short-term variations in the concentrations of {sup 7}Be and {sup 210}Pb continued to be observed at many sites at which weekly air filter samples were analyzed. The monthly gross gamma-ray activity and the monthly mean surface air concentrations of {sup 7}Be, {sup 95}Zr, {sup 137}Cs, {sup 144}Ce, and {sup 210}Pb measured at sampling sites in SASP during 1990--1993 are presented. The weekly mean surface air concentrations of {sup 7}Be, {sup 95}Zr, {sup 137}Cs, {sup 144}Ce, and {sup 210}Pb for samples collected during 1990--1993 are given for 17 sites.

  10. APPLICATION OF SEMIPERMEABLE MEMBRANE DEVICES TO INDOOR AIR SAMPLING

    EPA Science Inventory

    Semipermeable membrane devices (SPMDs) are a relatively new passive sampling technique for nonpolar organic compounds that have been extensively used for surface water sampling. A small body of literature indicates that SPMDs are also useful for air sampling. Because SPMDs ha...

  11. APPLICATION OF SEMIPERMEABLE MEMBRANE DEVICES TO INDOOR AIR SAMPLING

    EPA Science Inventory

    Semipermeable membrane devices (SPMDs) are a relatively new passive sampling technique for nonpolar organic compounds that have been extensively used for surface water sampling. A small body of literature indicates that SPMDs are also useful for air sampling. Because SPMDs ha...

  12. Sampling system and method

    DOEpatents

    Decker, David L.; Lyles, Brad F.; Purcell, Richard G.; Hershey, Ronald Lee

    2017-03-07

    In one embodiment, the present disclosure provides an apparatus and method for supporting a tubing bundle during installation or removal. The apparatus includes a clamp for securing the tubing bundle to an external wireline. In various examples, the clamp is external to the tubing bundle or integral with the tubing bundle. According to one method, a tubing bundle and wireline are deployed together and the tubing bundle periodically secured to the wireline using a clamp. In another embodiment, the present disclosure provides an apparatus and method for coupling conduit segments together. A first pump obtains a sample and transmits it through a first conduit to a reservoir accessible by a second pump. The second pump further conducts the sample from the reservoir through a second conduit. In a specific example, one or more clamps are used to connect the first and/or second conduits to an external wireline.

  13. [Ambient and enclosed space air sampling for determination of contaminants].

    PubMed

    Dorogova, V B

    2010-01-01

    The paper touches upon the issues how to correctly and maximally take single and average daily samples of ambient, residential and public building, and enclosed space air for further tests for the content of hazardous substances. The paper is debated.

  14. Cold air systems: Sleeping giant

    SciTech Connect

    MacCracken, C.D. )

    1994-04-01

    This article describes how cold air systems help owners increase the profits from their buildings by reducing electric costs and improving indoor air quality through lower relative humidity levels. Cold air distribution involves energy savings, cost savings, space savings, greater comfort, cleaner air, thermal storage, tighter ducting, coil redesign, lower relative humidities, retrofitting, and improved indoor air quality (IAQ). It opens a door for architects, engineers, owners, builders, environmentalists, retrofitters, designers, occupants, and manufacturers. Three things have held up cold air's usage: multiple fan-powered boxes that ate up the energy savings of primary fans. Cold air room diffusers that provided inadequate comfort. Condensation from ducts, boxes, and diffusers. Such problems have been largely eliminated through research and development by utilities and manufacturers. New cold air diffusers no longer need fan powered boxes. It has also been found that condensation is not a concern so long as the ducts are located in air conditioned space, such as drop ceilings or central risers, where relative humidity falls quickly during morning startup.

  15. Solid waste transuranic storage and assay facility indoor air sampling

    SciTech Connect

    Pingel, L.A., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-08-20

    The purpose of the study is to collect and analyze samples of the indoor air at the Transuranic Storage and Assay Facility (TRUSAF), Westinghouse Hanford. A modified US EPA TO-14 methodology, using gas chromatography/mass spectrography, may be used for the collection and analysis of the samples. The information obtained will be used to estimate the total release of volatile organic compounds from TRUSAF to determine the need for air emmission permits.

  16. Air Sampling for Chemotherapeutic Agents: a Literature Review

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-05-01

    and Health ( NIOSH ) do not provide guidelines on air sampling procedures on antineoplastic agents. Purpose The purpose of this document is to review...Facilities." To provide the most current information on air sampling for antineoplastic agents, the following organizations were contacted: NIOSH , The... prevention of exposure. All persons dealing with antineoplastic agents should be trained in the correct procedures of handling, disposal and storage of

  17. An automated atmospheric sampling system operating on 747 airliners

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perkins, P.; Gustafsson, U. R. C.

    1975-01-01

    An air sampling system that automatically measures the temporal and spatial distribution of selected particulate and gaseous constituents of the atmosphere has been installed on a number of commercial airliners and is collecting data on commercial air routes covering the world. Measurements of constituents related to aircraft engine emissions and other pollutants are made in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere (6 to 12 km) in support of the Global Air Sampling Program (GASP). Aircraft operated by different airlines sample air at latitudes from the Arctic to Australia. This system includes specialized instrumentation for measuring carbon monoxide, ozone, water vapor, and particulates, a special air inlet probe for sampling outside air, a computerized automatic control, and a data acquisition system. Air constituents and related flight data are tape recorded in flight for later computer processing on the ground.

  18. Evaluation of Urban Air Quality By Passive Sampling Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nunes, T. V.; Miranda, A. I.; Duarte, S.; Lima, M. J.

    Aveiro is a flat small city in the centre of Portugal, close to the Atlantic coast. In the last two decades an intensive development of demographic, traffic and industry growth in the region was observed which was reflected on the air quality degrada- tion. In order to evaluate the urban air quality in Aveiro, a field-monitoring network by passive sampling with high space resolution was implemented. Twenty-four field places were distributed in a area of 3x3 Km2 and ozone and NO2 concentrations were measured. The site distribution density was higher in the centre, 250x250 m2 than in periphery where a 500x500 m2 grid was used. The selection of field places took into consideration the choice criteria recommendation by United Kingdom environmental authorities, and three tubes and a blank tube for each pollutant were used at each site. The sampling system was mounted at 3m from the ground usually profiting the street lampposts. Concerning NO2 acrylic tubes were used with 85 mm of length and an in- ternal diameter of 12mm, where in one of the extremities three steel grids impregnated with a solution of TEA were placed and fixed with a polyethylene end cup (Heal et al., 1999); PFA Teflon tube with 53 mm of length and 9 mm of internal diameter and three impregnated glass filters impregnated with DPE solution fixed by a teflon end cup was used for ozone sampling (Monn and Hargartner, 1990). The passive sampling method for ozone and nitrogen dioxide was compared with continuous measurements, but the amount of measurements wasnSt enough for an accurate calibration and validation of the method. Although this constraint the field observations (June to August 2001) for these two pollutants assign interesting information about the air quality in the urban area. A krigger method of interpolation (Surfer- Golden Software-2000) was applied to field data to obtain isolines distribution of NO2 and ozone concentration for the studied area. Even the used passive sampling method has many

  19. Convair F-106B Delta Dart with Air Sampling Equipment

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1974-04-21

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Lewis Research Center’s Convair F-106B Delta Dart equipped with air sampling equipment in the mid-1970s. NASA Lewis created and managed the Global Air Sampling Program (GASP) in 1972 in partnership with several airline companies. NASA researchers used the airliners’ Boeing 747 aircraft to gather air samples to determine the amount of pollution present in the stratosphere. Private companies developed the air sampling equipment for the GASP program, and Lewis created a particle collector. The collector was flight tested on NASA Lewis’ F-106B in the summer of 1973. The sampling equipment was automatically operated once the proper altitude was achieved. The sampling instruments collected dust particles in the air so their chemical composition could be analyzed. The equipment analyzed one second’s worth of data at a time. The researchers also monitored carbon monoxide, monozide, ozone, and water vapor. The 747 flights began in December 1974 and soon included four airlines flying routes all over the globe. The F-106B augmented the airline data with sampling of its own, seen here. It gathered samples throughout this period from locations such as New Mexico, Texas, Michigan, and Ohio. In July 1977 the F-106B flew eight GASP flights in nine days over Alaska to supplement the earlier data gathered by the airlines.

  20. Alaskan Air Defense and Early Warning Systems Clear Air ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Alaskan Air Defense and Early Warning Systems - Clear Air Force Station, Ballistic Missile Early Warning System Site II, One mile west of mile marker 293.5 on Parks Highway, 5 miles southwest of Anderson, Anderson, Denali Borough, AK

  1. Review of the Physical Science Facility Stack Air Sampling Probe Locations

    SciTech Connect

    Glissmeyer, John A.

    2007-09-30

    This letter report reviews compliance of the current design of the Physical Science Facility (PSF) stack air sampling locations with the ANSI/HPS N13.1-1999 standard. The review was based on performance criteria used for locating air sampling probes, the design documents provided and available information on systems previously tested for compliance with the criteria. Recommendations are presented for ways to bring the design into compliance with the requirements for the sampling probe placement.

  2. Air pollution surveillance systems.

    PubMed

    Morgan, G B; Ozolins, G; Tabor, E C

    1970-10-16

    Atmospheric surveillance is necessary in order to identify airborne pollutants, to establish ambient concentrations of these pollutants, and to record their trends and patterns. Air pollutants may occur in the form of gases, liquids, and solids, both singly and in combination. Gaseous pollutants make up about 90 percent of the total mass emitted to the atmosphere with particulates and aerosols accounting for the remaining 10 percent. Small particulates are of particular importance because they may be in the respirable size range. These small particles may contain biologically active elements and compounds. Furthermore, they tend to remain in the atmosphere where they interfere with both solar and terrestrial infrared radiation, which may affect climate on a global basis.

  3. Air samplings in a Campylobacter jejuni positive laying hen flock.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Marwa Fawzy El Metwaly; Schulz, Jochen; Hartung, Joerg

    2013-01-01

    The air in laying hen houses contains high concentrations of airborne bacteria. The numbers of these bacteria can be influenced by the efficiency of the chosen sampling method. In the presented study, AGI-30 Impingers and the Coriolis(®)µ air Sampler were compared in terms of their efficiency in sampling aerobic mesophilic bacteria in a laying hen house. Measurements were conducted in a laying hen flock with high prevalences of C. jejuni in order to investigate if culturable cells of this organism can also be detected by the applied methods. Airborne dust was also analyzed for the presence of C. jejuni specific DNA to assess the possible occurrence of non-culturable C. jejuni in the hen house air. The numbers of mesophilic airborne bacteria ranged from 8 × 10(4) - 2 × 10(6) CFU/m(-3) when sampled using AGI-30 Impingers, and from 2 × 10(5) - 4 × 10(6) CFU/m -3 when sampled using a Coriolis(®)µ air Sampler. The concentrations detected simultaneously by both devices correlated well (rPearson = 0.755), but the Coriolis(®)µ air Sampler showed a significantly higher sampling efficiency (p<0.001). Although, the within flock prevalence of C. jejuni was high during the experiments (between 70-93%), neither of the air sampling methods could detect culturable C. jejuni from the air. However, C. jejuni specific DNA was detected in 15 out of 18 airborne dust samples by mapA PCR. Based on the results, it can be concluded that airborne culturable C. jejuni were not detectable, even with an efficient air sampler, because of their low concentration. Therefore, the risk of airborne infection to poultry workers on inhaling airborne C. jejuni seems negligible. Also, the transmission of culturable C. jejuni to neighboring farms by the airborne route is unlikely. Otherwise, the detection of airborne C. jejuni specific DNA suggests that non-culturable cells could appear in the hen house air, and in future it should be verified whether sampling stress of the air sampling methods

  4. Comparison of stationary and personal air sampling with an ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Manganese (Mn) is ubiquitous in the environment and essential for normal growth and development, yet excessive exposure can lead to impairments in neurological function. This study modeled ambient Mn concentrations as an alternative to stationary and personal air sampling to assess exposure for children enrolled in the Communities Actively Researching Exposure Study in Marietta, OH. Ambient air Mn concentration values were modeled using US Environmental Protection Agency’s Air Dispersion Model AERMOD based on emissions from the ferromanganese refinery located in Marietta. Modeled Mn concentrations were compared with Mn concentrations from a nearby stationary air monitor. The Index of Agreement for modeled versus monitored data was 0.34 (48 h levels) and 0.79 (monthly levels). Fractional bias was 0.026 for 48 h levels and −0.019 for monthly levels. The ratio of modeled ambient air Mn to measured ambient air Mn at the annual time scale was 0.94. Modeled values were also time matched to personal air samples for 19 children. The modeled values explained a greater degree of variability in personal exposures compared with time-weighted distance from the emission source. Based on these results modeled Mn concentrations provided a suitable approach for assessing airborne Mn exposure in this cohort. The purpose of the study was to investigate the use of air-dispersion modeling as an approach to exposure assessment for ambient manganese.

  5. [Comparison Test Between PM2.5 Continuous Monitoring System and Manual Sampling Analysis for PM2.5 in Ambient Air].

    PubMed

    Wang, Qiang; Zhong, Qi; Chi, Ying; Zhang, Yang; Yang, Kai

    2015-05-01

    According to the U. S. EPA performance index and detection methods for comparison test of PM2.5 continuous monitoring system, in combination of the current related technical specifications in China, 4 types of typical imported and domestic PM2.5 continuous monitoring system with two different principles were tested and compared to the manual sampling measurement (gravimetric method) in spring, summer, autumn and winter. This research determined the quality control requirements ( parallelism of manual sampling measurement results ≤ 5 µg · m(-3) or 5%), the technical index (slope of linearity regression equation 1 ± 0.15; intercept 0 ± 10; correlation coefficient ≥ 0.95), and corresponding detection methods of reference method comparison test to PM2.5 continuous monitoring system, which meets the requirement of current environmental quality status and environmental monitoring and management in China. It also provided technical means and method of quality control for effective use and data quality of PM2.5 continuous monitoring system in China.

  6. Presence of organophosphorus pesticide oxygen analogs in air samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Armstrong, Jenna L.; Fenske, Richard A.; Yost, Michael G.; Galvin, Kit; Tchong-French, Maria; Yu, Jianbo

    2013-02-01

    A number of recent toxicity studies have highlighted the increased potency of oxygen analogs (oxons) of several organophosphorus (OP) pesticides. These findings were a major concern after environmental oxons were identified in environmental samples from air and surfaces following agricultural spray applications in California and Washington State. This paper reports on the validity of oxygen analog measurements in air samples for the OP pesticide, chlorpyrifos. Controlled environmental and laboratory experiments were used to examine artificial formation of chlorpyrifos-oxon using OSHA Versatile Sampling (OVS) tubes as recommended by NIOSH method 5600. Additionally, we compared expected chlorpyrifos-oxon attributable to artificial transformation to observed chlorpyrifos-oxon in field samples from a 2008 Washington State Department of Health air monitoring study using non-parametric statistical methods. The amount of artificially transformed oxon was then modeled to determine the amount of oxon present in the environment. Toxicity equivalency factors (TEFs) for chlorpyrifos-oxon were used to calculate chlorpyrifos-equivalent air concentrations. The results demonstrate that the NIOSH-recommended sampling matrix (OVS tubes with XAD-2 resin) was found to artificially transform up to 30% of chlorpyrifos to chlorpyrifos-oxon, with higher percentages at lower concentrations (<30 ng m-3) typical of ambient or residential levels. Overall, the 2008 study data had significantly greater oxon than expected by artificial transformation, but the exact amount of environmental oxon in air remains difficult to quantify with the current sampling method. Failure to conduct laboratory analysis for chlorpyrifos-oxon may result in underestimation of total pesticide concentration when using XAD-2 resin matrices for occupational or residential sampling. Alternative methods that can accurately measure both OP pesticides and their oxygen analogs should be used for air sampling, and a toxicity

  7. A simple novel device for air sampling by electrokinetic capture

    DOE PAGES

    Gordon, Julian; Gandhi, Prasanthi; Shekhawat, Gajendra; ...

    2015-12-27

    A variety of different sampling devices are currently available to acquire air samples for the study of the microbiome of the air. All have a degree of technical complexity that limits deployment. Here, we evaluate the use of a novel device, which has no technical complexity and is easily deployable. An air-cleaning device powered by electrokinetic propulsion has been adapted to provide a universal method for collecting samples of the aerobiome. Plasma-induced charge in aerosol particles causes propulsion to and capture on a counter-electrode. The flow of ions creates net bulk airflow, with no moving parts. A device and electrodemore » assembly have been re-designed from air-cleaning technology to provide an average air flow of 120 lpm. This compares favorably with current air sampling devices based on physical air pumping. Capture efficiency was determined by comparison with a 0.4 μm polycarbonate reference filter, using fluorescent latex particles in a controlled environment chamber. Performance was compared with the same reference filter method in field studies in three different environments. For 23 common fungal species by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR), there was 100 % sensitivity and apparent specificity of 87%, with the reference filter taken as “gold standard.” Further, bacterial analysis of 16S RNA by amplicon sequencing showed equivalent community structure captured by the electrokinetic device and the reference filter. Unlike other current air sampling methods, capture of particles is determined by charge and so is not controlled by particle mass. We analyzed particle sizes captured from air, without regard to specific analyte by atomic force microscopy: particles at least as low as 100 nM could be captured from ambient air. This work introduces a very simple plug-and-play device that can sample air at a high-volume flow rate with no moving parts and collect particles down to the sub-micron range. In conclusion, the performance of

  8. A simple novel device for air sampling by electrokinetic capture

    SciTech Connect

    Gordon, Julian; Gandhi, Prasanthi; Shekhawat, Gajendra; Frazier, Angel; Hampton-Marcell, Jarrad; Gilbert, Jack A.

    2015-12-27

    A variety of different sampling devices are currently available to acquire air samples for the study of the microbiome of the air. All have a degree of technical complexity that limits deployment. Here, we evaluate the use of a novel device, which has no technical complexity and is easily deployable. An air-cleaning device powered by electrokinetic propulsion has been adapted to provide a universal method for collecting samples of the aerobiome. Plasma-induced charge in aerosol particles causes propulsion to and capture on a counter-electrode. The flow of ions creates net bulk airflow, with no moving parts. A device and electrode assembly have been re-designed from air-cleaning technology to provide an average air flow of 120 lpm. This compares favorably with current air sampling devices based on physical air pumping. Capture efficiency was determined by comparison with a 0.4 μm polycarbonate reference filter, using fluorescent latex particles in a controlled environment chamber. Performance was compared with the same reference filter method in field studies in three different environments. For 23 common fungal species by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR), there was 100 % sensitivity and apparent specificity of 87%, with the reference filter taken as “gold standard.” Further, bacterial analysis of 16S RNA by amplicon sequencing showed equivalent community structure captured by the electrokinetic device and the reference filter. Unlike other current air sampling methods, capture of particles is determined by charge and so is not controlled by particle mass. We analyzed particle sizes captured from air, without regard to specific analyte by atomic force microscopy: particles at least as low as 100 nM could be captured from ambient air. This work introduces a very simple plug-and-play device that can sample air at a high-volume flow rate with no moving parts and collect particles down to the sub-micron range. In conclusion, the performance of the

  9. A simple novel device for air sampling by electrokinetic capture.

    PubMed

    Gordon, Julian; Gandhi, Prasanthi; Shekhawat, Gajendra; Frazier, Angel; Hampton-Marcell, Jarrad; Gilbert, Jack A

    2015-12-27

    A variety of different sampling devices are currently available to acquire air samples for the study of the microbiome of the air. All have a degree of technical complexity that limits deployment. Here, we evaluate the use of a novel device, which has no technical complexity and is easily deployable. An air-cleaning device powered by electrokinetic propulsion has been adapted to provide a universal method for collecting samples of the aerobiome. Plasma-induced charge in aerosol particles causes propulsion to and capture on a counter-electrode. The flow of ions creates net bulk airflow, with no moving parts. A device and electrode assembly have been re-designed from air-cleaning technology to provide an average air flow of 120 lpm. This compares favorably with current air sampling devices based on physical air pumping. Capture efficiency was determined by comparison with a 0.4 μm polycarbonate reference filter, using fluorescent latex particles in a controlled environment chamber. Performance was compared with the same reference filter method in field studies in three different environments. For 23 common fungal species by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR), there was 100 % sensitivity and apparent specificity of 87 %, with the reference filter taken as "gold standard." Further, bacterial analysis of 16S RNA by amplicon sequencing showed equivalent community structure captured by the electrokinetic device and the reference filter. Unlike other current air sampling methods, capture of particles is determined by charge and so is not controlled by particle mass. We analyzed particle sizes captured from air, without regard to specific analyte by atomic force microscopy: particles at least as low as 100 nM could be captured from ambient air. This work introduces a very simple plug-and-play device that can sample air at a high-volume flow rate with no moving parts and collect particles down to the sub-micron range. The performance of the device is

  10. [A membrane filter sampling method for determining microbial air pollution].

    PubMed

    Cherneva, P; Kiranova, A

    1996-01-01

    The method is a contribution in the evaluation of the exposition and the control of the standards for organic powders. The method concerns the sample-taking procedure and the analysis-making technique for determining of the concentration of the microbial pollution of the air. It is based on filtering of some amount of air through a membrane filter which is then processed for cultivating of microbial colonies on its surface. The results are obtained in number of microbial colonies per unit of air. The method presents opportunity to select and vary the filtered volume of air, to determine the respirable fraction, to determine the personal exposition, as well as for the simultaneous determining of the microbial pollution together with other important parameters of the particle pollutants of the air (metal, fibre and others).

  11. Air support facilities. [interface between air and surface transportation systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Airports are discussed in terms of the interface between the ground and air for transportation systems. The classification systems, design, facilities, administration, and operations of airports are described.

  12. Urine sampling and collection system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fogal, G. L.; Mangialardi, J. K.; Reinhardt, C. G.

    1971-01-01

    This specification defines the performance and design requirements for the urine sampling and collection system engineering model and establishes requirements for its design, development, and test. The model shall provide conceptual verification of a system applicable to manned space flight which will automatically provide for collection, volume sensing, and sampling of urine.

  13. 40 CFR 264.1055 - Standards: Sampling connection systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Standards: Sampling connection systems... FACILITIES Air Emission Standards for Equipment Leaks § 264.1055 Standards: Sampling connection systems. (a) Each sampling connection system shall be equipped with a closed-purge, closed-loop, or closed-vent...

  14. 40 CFR 264.1055 - Standards: Sampling connection systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Standards: Sampling connection systems... FACILITIES Air Emission Standards for Equipment Leaks § 264.1055 Standards: Sampling connection systems. (a) Each sampling connection system shall be equipped with a closed-purge, closed-loop, or closed-vent...

  15. 40 CFR 265.1055 - Standards: Sampling connection systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Standards: Sampling connection systems..., STORAGE, AND DISPOSAL FACILITIES Air Emission Standards for Equipment Leaks § 265.1055 Standards: Sampling connection systems. (a) Each sampling connection system shall be equipped with a closed-purge, closed-loop...

  16. 40 CFR 265.1055 - Standards: Sampling connection systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Standards: Sampling connection systems..., STORAGE, AND DISPOSAL FACILITIES Air Emission Standards for Equipment Leaks § 265.1055 Standards: Sampling connection systems. (a) Each sampling connection system shall be equipped with a closed-purge, closed-loop...

  17. 40 CFR 264.1055 - Standards: Sampling connection systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Standards: Sampling connection systems... FACILITIES Air Emission Standards for Equipment Leaks § 264.1055 Standards: Sampling connection systems. (a) Each sampling connection system shall be equipped with a closed-purge, closed-loop, or closed-vent...

  18. 40 CFR 265.1055 - Standards: Sampling connection systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Standards: Sampling connection systems..., STORAGE, AND DISPOSAL FACILITIES Air Emission Standards for Equipment Leaks § 265.1055 Standards: Sampling connection systems. (a) Each sampling connection system shall be equipped with a closed-purge, closed-loop...

  19. 40 CFR 264.1055 - Standards: Sampling connection systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Standards: Sampling connection systems... FACILITIES Air Emission Standards for Equipment Leaks § 264.1055 Standards: Sampling connection systems. (a) Each sampling connection system shall be equipped with a closed-purge, closed-loop, or closed-vent...

  20. 40 CFR 265.1055 - Standards: Sampling connection systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Standards: Sampling connection systems..., STORAGE, AND DISPOSAL FACILITIES Air Emission Standards for Equipment Leaks § 265.1055 Standards: Sampling connection systems. (a) Each sampling connection system shall be equipped with a closed-purge, closed-loop...

  1. Use of an airborne air sampling platform for regional air quality studies. Technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Wellman, D.L.; Luria, M.; Van Valin, C.C.; Boatman, J.F.

    1989-01-01

    A Beechcraft King Air, owned and operated by the Office of Aircraft Operations, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, was converted from a passenger airplane into an atmospheric air-quality sampling platform. The aircraft is equipped to measure atmospheric trace gases (SO{sub 2}, O{sub 3}, and NOx), aerosols, and meteorological parameters. The Western Atlantic Ocean Experiment project is used as an example to demonstrate the capabilities of the aircraft as a regional air-quality sampling platform. During this experiment, air samples were taken in the winter and spring seasons of 1985 and 1986 at two locations of the U.S. East Coast (Newport News, VA, and Boston, MA) and in the vicinity of Bermuda. Through the successful use of the aircraft, it was revealed that most of the pollutant transport within this region was being accomplished inside the boundary layer. Additionally, in several cases, contaminated air masses were observed in the free troposphere.

  2. Air Monitoring: New Advances in Sampling and Detection

    PubMed Central

    Watson, Nicola; Davies, Stephen; Wevill, David

    2011-01-01

    As the harmful effects of low-level exposure to hazardous organic air pollutants become more evident, there is constant pressure to improve the detection limits of indoor and ambient air monitoring methods, for example, by collecting larger air volumes and by optimising the sensitivity of the analytical detector. However, at the other end of the scale, rapid industrialisation in the developing world and growing pressure to reclaim derelict industrial land for house building is driving the need for air monitoring methods that can reliably accommodate very-high-concentration samples in potentially aggressive matrices. This paper investigates the potential of a combination of two powerful gas chromatography—based analytical enhancements—sample preconcentration/thermal desorption and time-of-flight mass spectrometry—to improve quantitative and qualitative measurement of very-low-(ppt) level organic chemicals, even in the most complex air samples. It also describes new, practical monitoring options for addressing equally challenging high-concentration industrial samples. PMID:22241966

  3. Magnus air turbine system

    DOEpatents

    Hanson, Thomas F.

    1982-01-01

    A Magnus effect windmill for generating electrical power is disclosed. A large nacelle-hub mounted pivotally (in Azimuth) atop a support tower carries, in the example disclosed, three elongated barrels arranged in a vertical plane and extending symmetrically radially outwardly from the nacelle. The system provides spin energy to the barrels by internal mechanical coupling in the proper sense to cause, in reaction to an incident wind, a rotational torque of a predetermined sense on the hub. The rotating hub carries a set of power take-off rollers which ride on a stationary circular track in the nacelle. Shafts carry the power, given to the rollers by the wind driven hub, to a central collector or accumulator gear assembly whose output is divided to drive the spin mechanism for the Magnus barrels and the main electric generator. A planetary gear assembly is interposed between the collector gears and the spin mechanism functioning as a differential which is also connected to an auxiliary electric motor whereby power to the spin mechanism may selectively be provided by the motor. Generally, the motor provides initial spin to the barrels for start-up after which the motor is braked and the spin mechanism is driven as though by a fixed ratio coupling from the rotor hub. During high wind or other unusual conditions, the auxiliary motor may be unbraked and excess spin power may be used to operate the motor as a generator of additional electrical output. Interposed between the collector gears of the rotating hub and the main electric generator is a novel variable speed drive-fly wheel system which is driven by the variable speed of the wind driven rotor and which, in turn, drives the main electric generator at constant angular speed. Reference is made to the complete specification for disclosure of other novel aspects of the system such as, for example, the aerodynamic and structural aspects of the novel Magnus barrels as well as novel gearing and other power coupling

  4. Jet engine air intake system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sorensen, N. E.; Latham, E. A. (Inventor)

    1977-01-01

    An axisymmetric air intake system for a jet aircraft engine comprising a fixed cowl extending outwardly from the face of the engine, a centerbody coaxially disposed within the cowl, and an actuator for axially displacing the centerbody within the cowl was developed. The cowl and centerbody define a main airflow passageway therebetween, the configuration of which is changed by displacement of the centerbody. The centerbody includes a forwardly-located closeable air inlet which communicates with a centerbody auxiliary airflow passageway to provide auxiliary airflow to the engine. In one embodiment, a system for opening and closing the centerbody air inlet is provided by a dual-member centerbody, the forward member of which may be displaced axially with respect to the aft member.

  5. Summary of gamma spectrometry on local air samples from 1985--1995

    SciTech Connect

    Winn, W.G.

    1997-04-02

    This report summarizes the 1985--1995 results of low-level HPGe gamma spectrometry analysis of high-volume air samples collected at the Aiken Airport, which is about 25 miles north of SRS. The author began analyzing these samples with new calibrations using the newly developed GRABGAM code in 1985. The air sample collections were terminated in 1995, as the facilities at the Aiken Airport were no longer available. Air sample measurements prior to 1985 were conducted with a different analysis system (and by others prior to 1984), and the data were not readily available. The report serves to closeout this phase of local NTS air sample studies, while documenting the capabilities and accomplishments. Hopefully, the information will guide other applications for this technology, both locally and elsewhere.

  6. Air-traffic surveillance systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macdoran, P. F.

    1979-01-01

    Passive ground-based radio-interferometry systems (RILS) monitor local air traffic by determining aircraft position in planes defined by surveillance area. Similar RILS arrangements are used to determine aircraft positions in three dimensions when combined with azimuth and range information obtained by radar. Information helps determine three-dimensional aircraft position without expensive encoding altimeters.

  7. Tactical Integrated Air Defense System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1978-06-09

    and a promise to complete the yrian air defense system with SA-6s and an 31 additional 40 MIG-21s. Pt the start of the 1973 war, the completed Arab air...p. 256; Insight Team of London Sunday Times, p. 189; and Palit, pp. 69-70.Ii _ _ _ _ __ *-I𔃾 ljr 0 I o.OR A Pt X M S a A Of A ;j IIv 0 N4, SOURCE...production mode’s carry only two Sidewinder mis- siles with a range of two miles and a 20am gun. This limits the F-16 to primarily visual short-range

  8. Optical air data systems and methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Caldwell, Loren M. (Inventor); O'Brien, Martin J. (Inventor); Weimer, Carl S. (Inventor); Nelson, Loren D. (Inventor)

    2005-01-01

    Systems and methods for sensing air outside a moving aircraft are presented. In one embodiment, a system includes a laser for generating laser energy. The system also includes one or more transceivers for projecting the laser energy as laser radiation to the air. Subsequently, each transceiver receives laser energy as it is backscattered from the air. A computer processes signals from the transceivers to distinguish molecular scattered laser radiation from aerosol scattered laser radiation and determines one or more air parameters based on the scattered laser radiation. Such air parameters may include air speed, air pressure, air temperature and aircraft orientation angle, such as yaw, angle of attack and sideslip.

  9. Optical air data systems and methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Caldwell, Loren M. (Inventor); Tang, Shoou-yu (Inventor); O'Brien, Martin (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    Systems and methods for sensing air outside a moving aircraft are presented. In one embodiment, a system includes a laser for generating laser energy. The system also includes one or more transceivers for projecting the laser energy as laser radiation to the air. Subsequently, each transceiver receives laser energy as it is backscattered from the air. A computer processes signals from the transceivers to distinguish molecular scattered laser radiation from aerosol scattered laser radiation and determines one or more air parameters based on the scattered laser radiation. Such air parameters may include air speed, air pressure, air temperature and aircraft orientation angle, such as yaw, angle of attack and sideslip.

  10. Radiological Air Sampling. Protocol Development for the Canadian Forces

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-03-01

    that filter must be removed from the sampler and counted by some method. If the efficiency of the radiation detector is D (in units of count rate per...unit activity), then the count rate R of the radiation detector will be R = CVFD. In practice, C is the unknown quantity. V is known from the sampling...Potential Solutions The problem, then, is that all air samples contain radon and thoron daughters that emit alpha, beta, and gamma radiation . Moreover

  11. Air sampling and analysis in a rubber vulcanization area.

    PubMed

    Rappaport, S M; Fraser, D A

    1977-05-01

    Results of sampling and analysis of air in a rubber vulcanization area are described. Organic compounds were collected on activated charcoal, desorbed with carbon disulfide and analyzed by gas chromatography. Several previously identified substances were quantitated, including styrene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and several oligomers of 1,3-butadiene. Concentrations ranged from 0.007 to 1.1 ppm.

  12. Air sampling of mold spores by slit impactors: yield comparison.

    PubMed

    Pityn, Peter J; Anderson, James

    2013-01-01

    The performance of simple slit impactors for air sampling of mold contamination was compared under field conditions. Samples were collected side-by-side, outdoors in quadruplicates with Burkhard (ambient sampler) and Allergenco MK3 spore traps and with two identical Allergenco slit cassettes operated at diverse flow rates of 5 and 15 L/min, respectively. The number and types of mold spores in each sample were quantified by microscopy. Results showed all four single-stage slit impactors produced similar spore yields. Moreover, paired slit cassettes produced similar outcomes despite a three-fold difference in their sampling rate. No measurable difference in the amount or mix of mold spores per m(3)of air was detected. The implications for assessment of human exposures and interpretation of indoor/outdoor fungal burden are discussed. These findings demonstrate that slit cassettes capture most small spores, effectively and without bias, when operated at a range of flow rates including the lower flow rates used for personal sampling. Our findings indicate sampling data for mold spores correlate for different single stage impactor collection methodologies and that data quality is not deteriorated by operating conditions deviating from manufacturers' norms allowing such sampling results to be used for scientific, legal, investigative, or property insurance purposes. The same conclusion may not be applied to other particle sampling instruments and mulit-stage impactors used for ambient particulate sampling, which represent an entirely different scenario. This knowledge may help facilitate comparison between scientific studies where methodological differences exist.

  13. A method to optimize sampling locations for measuring indoor air distributions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Yan; Shen, Xiong; Li, Jianmin; Li, Bingye; Duan, Ran; Lin, Chao-Hsin; Liu, Junjie; Chen, Qingyan

    2015-02-01

    Indoor air distributions, such as the distributions of air temperature, air velocity, and contaminant concentrations, are very important to occupants' health and comfort in enclosed spaces. When point data is collected for interpolation to form field distributions, the sampling locations (the locations of the point sensors) have a significant effect on time invested, labor costs and measuring accuracy on field interpolation. This investigation compared two different sampling methods: the grid method and the gradient-based method, for determining sampling locations. The two methods were applied to obtain point air parameter data in an office room and in a section of an economy-class aircraft cabin. The point data obtained was then interpolated to form field distributions by the ordinary Kriging method. Our error analysis shows that the gradient-based sampling method has 32.6% smaller error of interpolation than the grid sampling method. We acquired the function between the interpolation errors and the sampling size (the number of sampling points). According to the function, the sampling size has an optimal value and the maximum sampling size can be determined by the sensor and system errors. This study recommends the gradient-based sampling method for measuring indoor air distributions.

  14. 40 CFR 65.113 - Standards: Sampling connection systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Standards: Sampling connection systems... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONSOLIDATED FEDERAL AIR RULE Equipment Leaks § 65.113 Standards: Sampling connection... implementation date specified in § 65.1(f). (b) Equipment requirement. Each sampling connection system shall be...

  15. 40 CFR 65.113 - Standards: Sampling connection systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Standards: Sampling connection systems... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONSOLIDATED FEDERAL AIR RULE Equipment Leaks § 65.113 Standards: Sampling connection... implementation date specified in § 65.1(f). (b) Equipment requirement. Each sampling connection system shall be...

  16. 40 CFR 1065.516 - Sample system decontamination and preconditioning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Cycles § 1065.516 Sample system decontamination and preconditioning. This section describes how to manage... purified air or nitrogen. (3) When calculating zero emission levels, apply all applicable...

  17. Can car air filters be useful as a sampling medium for air pollution monitoring purposes?

    PubMed

    Katsoyiannis, Athanasios; Birgul, Askin; Ratola, Nuno; Cincinelli, Alessandra; Sweetman, Andy J; Jones, Kevin C

    2012-11-01

    Urban air quality and real human exposure to chemical environmental stressors is an issue of high scientific and political interest. In an effort to find innovative and inexpensive means for air quality monitoring, the ability of car engine air filters (CAFs) to act as efficient samplers collecting street level air, to which people are exposed to, was tested. In particular, in the case of taxis, air filters are replaced after regular distances, the itineraries are almost exclusively urban, cruising mode is similar and, thus, knowledge of the air flow can provide with an integrated city air sample. The present pilot study focused on polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), the most important category of organic pollutants associated with traffic emissions. Concentrations of ΣPAHs in CAFs ranged between 650 and 2900 μg CAF(-1), with benzo[b]fluoranthene, benzo[k]fluoranthene and indeno[123-cd]pyrene being the most abundant PAHs. Benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) ranged between 110 and 250 μg CAF(-1), accounting regularly for 5-15% of the total carcinogenic PAHs. The CAF PAH loads were used to derive road-level atmospheric PAH concentrations from a standard formula relating to the CAF air flow. Important parameters/assumptions for these estimates are the cruising speed and the exposure duration of each CAF. Based on information obtained from the garage experts, an average 'sampled air volume' of 48,750 m(3) per CAF was estimated, with uncertainty in this calculation estimated to be about a factor of 4 between the two extreme scenarios. Based on this air volume, ΣPAHs ranged between 13 and 56 ng m(-3) and BaP between 2.1 and 5.0 ng m(-3), suggesting that in-traffic BaP concentrations can be many times higher than the limit values set by the UK (0.25 ng m(-3)) and the European Union (1.0 ng m(-3)), or from active sampling stations normally cited on building roof tops or far from city centres. Notwithstanding the limitations of this approach, the very low cost, the continuous

  18. Rapid separation method for actinides in emergency air filter samples.

    PubMed

    Maxwell, Sherrod L; Culligan, Brian K; Noyes, Gary W

    2010-12-01

    A new rapid method for the determination of actinides and strontium in air filter samples has been developed at the Savannah River Site Environmental Lab (Aiken, SC, USA) that can be used in emergency response situations. The actinides and strontium in air filter method utilizes a rapid acid digestion method and a streamlined column separation process with stacked TEVA, TRU and Sr Resin cartridges. Vacuum box technology and rapid flow rates are used to reduce analytical time. Alpha emitters are prepared using cerium fluoride microprecipitation for counting by alpha spectrometry. The purified (90)Sr fractions are mounted directly on planchets and counted by gas flow proportional counting. The method showed high chemical recoveries and effective removal of interferences. This new procedure was applied to emergency air filter samples received in the NRIP Emergency Response exercise administered by the National Institute for Standards and Technology (NIST) in April, 2009. The actinide and (90)Sr in air filter results were reported in less than 4 h with excellent quality. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. RAPID SEPARATION METHOD FOR ACTINIDES IN EMERGENCY AIR FILTER SAMPLES

    SciTech Connect

    Maxwell, S.; Noyes, G.; Culligan, B.

    2010-02-03

    A new rapid method for the determination of actinides and strontium in air filter samples has been developed at the Savannah River Site Environmental Lab (Aiken, SC, USA) that can be used in emergency response situations. The actinides and strontium in air filter method utilizes a rapid acid digestion method and a streamlined column separation process with stacked TEVA, TRU and Sr Resin cartridges. Vacuum box technology and rapid flow rates are used to reduce analytical time. Alpha emitters are prepared using cerium fluoride microprecipitation for counting by alpha spectrometry. The purified {sup 90}Sr fractions are mounted directly on planchets and counted by gas flow proportional counting. The method showed high chemical recoveries and effective removal of interferences. This new procedure was applied to emergency air filter samples received in the NRIP Emergency Response exercise administered by the National Institute for Standards and Technology (NIST) in April, 2009. The actinide and {sup 90}Sr in air filter results were reported in {approx}4 hours with excellent quality.

  20. An air quality sensing system for cool air storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ngoy, T. J.; Joubert, T.-H.

    2016-02-01

    Cooling and ventilation systems play an important role in human occupied spaces. However, cooling using reversible air conditioners systems pollutes the environment and consumes a significant amount of energy. With global warming that experiences our environment, the large consumption of electrical energy and the operating instructions for reversible air conditioners, there is a need to find alternatives to those cooling systems. Hence this research project aims to investigate an air storage system, a microsystem reversible ventilation system using natural atmospheric air (renewable energy) for cooling at low consumption of energy. For the variation of the temperature range of comfort due to thermal heat produces by occupants, equipment and environment, an optimal transient automatic regulation of air flow as to be design in order to maintain the temperature of comfort in occupied spaces during peak hours.

  1. Evaluation of membrane filter field monitors for microbiological air sampling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fields, N. D.; Oxborrow, G. S.; Puleo, J. R.; Herring, C. M.

    1974-01-01

    Due to area constraints encountered in assembly and testing areas of spacecraft, the membrane filter field monitor (MF) and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration-accepted Reyniers slit air sampler were compared for recovery of airborne microbial contamination. The intramural air in a microbiological laboratory area and a clean room environment used for the assembly and testing of the Apollo spacecraft was studied. A significantly higher number of microorganisms was recovered by the Reyniers sampler. A high degree of consistency between the two sampling methods was shown by a regression analysis, with a correlation coefficient of 0.93. The MF samplers detected 79% of the concentration measured by the Reyniers slit samplers. The types of microorganisms identified from both sampling methods were similar.

  2. Evaluation of membrane filter field monitors for microbiological air sampling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fields, N. D.; Oxborrow, G. S.; Puleo, J. R.; Herring, C. M.

    1974-01-01

    Due to area constraints encountered in assembly and testing areas of spacecraft, the membrane filter field monitor (MF) and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration-accepted Reyniers slit air sampler were compared for recovery of airborne microbial contamination. The intramural air in a microbiological laboratory area and a clean room environment used for the assembly and testing of the Apollo spacecraft was studied. A significantly higher number of microorganisms was recovered by the Reyniers sampler. A high degree of consistency between the two sampling methods was shown by a regression analysis, with a correlation coefficient of 0.93. The MF samplers detected 79% of the concentration measured by the Reyniers slit samplers. The types of microorganisms identified from both sampling methods were similar.

  3. The NYC native air sampling pilot project: using HVAC filter data for urban biological incident characterization.

    PubMed

    Ackelsberg, Joel; Leykam, Frederic M; Hazi, Yair; Madsen, Larry C; West, Todd H; Faltesek, Anthony; Henderson, Gavin D; Henderson, Christopher L; Leighton, Terrance

    2011-09-01

    Native air sampling (NAS) is distinguished from dedicated air sampling (DAS) devices (eg, BioWatch) that are deployed to detect aerosol disseminations of biological threat agents. NAS uses filter samples from heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) systems in commercial properties for environmental sampling after DAS detection of biological threat agent incidents. It represents an untapped, scientifically sound, efficient, widely distributed, and comparably inexpensive resource for postevent environmental sampling. Calculations predict that postevent NAS would be more efficient than environmental surface sampling by orders of magnitude. HVAC filter samples could be collected from pre-identified surrounding NAS facilities to corroborate the DAS alarm and delineate the path taken by the bioaerosol plume. The New York City (NYC) Native Air Sampling Pilot Project explored whether native air sampling would be acceptable to private sector stakeholders and could be implemented successfully in NYC. Building trade associations facilitated outreach to and discussions with property owners and managers, who expedited contact with building managers of candidate NAS properties that they managed or owned. Nominal NAS building requirements were determined; procedures to identify and evaluate candidate NAS facilities were developed; data collection tools and other resources were designed and used to expedite candidate NAS building selection and evaluation in Manhattan; and exemplar environmental sampling playbooks for emergency responders were completed. In this sample, modern buildings with single or few corporate tenants were the best NAS candidate facilities. The Pilot Project successfully demonstrated that in one urban setting a native air sampling strategy could be implemented with effective public-private collaboration.

  4. Air Sampling Data for BP Spill/Deepwater Horizon

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Deepwater Horizon oil spill (also referred to as the BP oil spill) began on 20 April 2010 in the Gulf of Mexico on the BP-operated Macondo Prospect. Following the explosion and sinking of the Deepwater Horizon oil rig, a sea-floor oil gusher flowed for 87 days, until it was capped on 15 July 2010.In response to the BP oil spill, EPA sampled air, water, sediment, and waste generated by the cleanup operations.

  5. Ground vibration test and flutter analysis of air sampling probe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ellison, J. F.

    1986-01-01

    The Dryden Flight Research Facility of NASA Ames Research Center conducted a ground vibration test and a flutter analysis of an air sampling probe that was to be mounted on a Convair 990 airplane. The probe was a steel, wing-shaped structure used to gather atmospheric data. The ground vibration test was conducted to update the finite-element model used in the flutter analysis. The analysis predicted flutter speeds well outside the operating flight envelope of the Convair 990 airplane.

  6. Modeling and Qualification of a Modified Emission Unit for Radioactive Air Emissions Stack Sampling Compliance.

    PubMed

    Barnett, J Matthew; Yu, Xiao-Ying; Recknagle, Kurtis P; Glissmeyer, John A

    2016-11-01

    A planned laboratory space and exhaust system modification to the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Material Science and Technology Building indicated that a new evaluation of the mixing at the air sampling system location would be required for compliance to ANSI/HPS N13.1-2011. The modified exhaust system would add a third fan, thereby increasing the overall exhaust rate out the stack, thus voiding the previous mixing study. Prior to modifying the radioactive air emissions exhaust system, a three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics computer model was used to evaluate the mixing at the sampling system location. Modeling of the original three-fan system indicated that not all mixing criteria could be met. A second modeling effort was conducted with the addition of an air blender downstream of the confluence of the three fans, which then showed satisfactory mixing results. The final installation included an air blender, and the exhaust system underwent full-scale tests to verify velocity, cyclonic flow, gas, and particulate uniformity. The modeling results and those of the full-scale tests show agreement between each of the evaluated criteria. The use of a computational fluid dynamics code was an effective aid in the design process and allowed the sampling system to remain in its original location while still meeting the requirements for sampling at a well mixed location.

  7. Modeling and Qualification of a Modified Emission Unit for Radioactive Air Emissions Stack Sampling Compliance

    SciTech Connect

    Barnett, J. Matthew; Yu, Xiao-Ying; Recknagle, Kurtis P.; Glissmeyer, John A.

    2016-01-01

    A planned laboratory space and exhaust system modification to the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Material Science and Technology Building indicated a new evaluation of the mixing at the air sampling system location would be required for compliance to ANSI/HPS N13.1-2011. The modified exhaust system would add a third fan thereby increasing the overall exhaust rate out the stack thus voiding the previous mixing study. Prior to modifying the radioactive air emissions exhaust system, a three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics computer model was used to evaluate the mixing at the sampling system location. Modeling of the new original three-fan system indicated that not all mixing criteria could be met. A second modeling effort was conducted with the addition of an air blender downstream of the confluence of the three fans which then showed satisfactory mixing results. The final installation included an air blender, and the exhaust system underwent full-scale tests to verify velocity, cyclonic flow, gas, and particulate uniformity. The modeling results and those of the full-scale tests show agreement between each of the evaluated criteria. The use of a computational fluid dynamics code was an effective aid in the design process and allowed the sampling system to remain in its original location while still meeting the requirements for sampling at a well-mixed location.

  8. Development of a wireless air pollution sensor package for aerial-sampling of emissions

    EPA Science Inventory

    A new sensor system for mobile and aerial emission sampling was developed for open area pollutant sources, such as prescribed forest burns. The sensor system, termed “Kolibri”, consists of multiple low-cost air quality sensors measuring CO2, CO, samplers for particulate matter wi...

  9. Development of a wireless air pollution sensor package for aerial-sampling of emissions

    EPA Science Inventory

    A new sensor system for mobile and aerial emission sampling was developed for open area pollutant sources, such as prescribed forest burns. The sensor system, termed “Kolibri”, consists of multiple low-cost air quality sensors measuring CO2, CO, samplers for particulate matter wi...

  10. Air Sample Conditioner Helps the Waste Treatment Plant Meet Emissions Standards

    SciTech Connect

    Glissmeyer, John A.; Flaherty, Julia E.; Pekour, Mikhail S.

    2014-12-02

    The air in three of the Hanford Site Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) melter off-gas discharge stacks will be hot and humid after passing through the train of emission abatement equipment. The off-gas temperature and humidity levels will be incompatible with the airborne emissions monitoring equipment required for this type of stack. To facilitate sampling from these facilities, an air sample conditioner system will be installed to introduce cool, dry air into the sample stream to reduce the temperature and dew point. This will avoid thermal damage to the instrumentation and problematic condensation. The complete sample transport system must also deliver at least 50% of the particles in the sample airstream to the sample collection and on-line analysis equipment. The primary components of the sample conditioning system were tested in a laboratory setting. The sample conditioner itself is based on a commercially-available porous tube filter design. It consists of a porous sintered metal tube inside a coaxial metal jacket. The hot gas sample stream passes axially through the porous tube, and the dry, cool air is injected into the jacket and through the porous wall of the inner tube, creating an effective sample diluter. The dilution and sample air mix along the entire length of the porous tube, thereby simultaneously reducing the dew point and temperature of the mixed sample stream. Furthermore, because the dilution air enters through the porous tube wall, the sample stream does not come in contact with the porous wall and particle deposition is reduced in this part of the sampling system. Tests were performed with an environmental chamber to supply air with the temperature and humidity needed to simulate the off-gas conditions. Air from the chamber was passed through the conditioning system to test its ability to reduce the temperature and dew point of the sample stream. To measure particle deposition, oil droplets in the range of 9 to 11 micrometer

  11. Field evaluation of sampling and analysis for organic pollutants in indoor air

    SciTech Connect

    Chuang, J.C.; Mack, G.A.; Stockrahm, J.W.; Hannan, S.W.; Bridges, C.

    1988-08-01

    The objectives of the study were to determine the feasibility of the use of newly developed indoor air samplers in residential indoor air sampling and to evaluate methodology for characterization of the concentrations of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), PAH derivatives, and nicotine in residential air. Residential air sampling was conducted in Columbus, Ohio during the winter of 1986/87. The PAH derivatives were found at much lower levels than their parent PAH. Higher average indoor levels of all but three target compounds were found compared to outdoor levels. The higher outdoor levels of these three compounds (naphthalene dicarboxylic acid anhydride, pyrene dicarboxylic acid anhydride, and 2-nitrofluoranthene) are probably due to atmospheric transformation. Cigarette smoking was identified as the most-significant contributor to indoor levels of PAH and PAH derivatives. Homes with gas-heating systems appeared to have higher pollutant levels compared to homes with electric-heating systems.

  12. Compact drilling and sample system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gillis-Smith, Greg R.; Petercsak, Doug

    1998-01-01

    The Compact Drilling and Sample System (CDSS) was developed to drill into terrestrial, cometary, and asteroid material in a cryogenic, vacuum environment in order to acquire subsurface samples. Although drills were used by the Apollo astronauts some 20 years ago, this drill is a fraction of the mass and power and operates completely autonomously, able to drill, acquire, transport, dock, and release sample containers in science instruments. The CDSS has incorporated into its control system the ability to gather science data about the material being drilled by measuring drilling rate per force applied and torque. This drill will be able to optimize rotation and thrust in order to achieve the highest drilling rate possible in any given sample. The drill can be commanded to drill at a specified force, so that force imparted on the rover or lander is limited. This paper will discuss the cryo dc brush motors, carbide gears, cryogenic lubrication, quick-release interchangeable sampling drill bits, percussion drilling and the control system developed to achieve autonomous, cryogenic, vacuum, lightweight drilling.

  13. Stratospheric Air Sub-sampler (SAS) and its application to analysis of Δ17O(CO2) from small air samples collected with an AirCore

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janina Mrozek, Dorota; van der Veen, Carina; Hofmann, Magdalena E. G.; Chen, Huilin; Kivi, Rigel; Heikkinen, Pauli; Röckmann, Thomas

    2016-11-01

    We present the set-up and a scientific application of the Stratospheric Air Sub-sampler (SAS), a device to collect and to store the vertical profile of air collected with an AirCore (Karion et al., 2010) in numerous sub-samples for later analysis in the laboratory. The SAS described here is a 20 m long 1/4 inch stainless steel tubing that is separated by eleven valves to divide the tubing into 10 identical segments, but it can be easily adapted to collect smaller or larger samples. In the collection phase the SAS is directly connected to the outlet of an optical analyzer that measures the mole fractions of CO2, CH4 and CO from an AirCore sampler. The stratospheric part (or if desired any part of the AirCore air) is then directed through the SAS. When the SAS is filled with the selected air, the valves are closed and the vertical profile is maintained in the different segments of the SAS. The segments can later be analysed to retrieve vertical profiles of other trace gas signatures that require slower instrumentation. As an application, we describe the coupling of the SAS to an analytical system to determine the 17O excess of CO2, which is a tracer for photochemical processing of stratospheric air. For this purpose the analytical system described by Mrozek et al. (2015) was adapted for analysis of air directly from the SAS. The performance of the coupled system is demonstrated for a set of air samples from an AirCore flight in November 2014 near Sodankylä, Finland. The standard error for a 25 mL air sample at stratospheric CO2 mole fraction is 0.56 ‰ (1σ) for δ17O and 0.03 ‰ (1σ) for both δ18O and δ13C. Measured Δ17O(CO2) values show a clear correlation with N2O in agreement with already published data.

  14. Artifact peroxides produced during cryogenic sampling of ambient air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Staffelbach, Thomas; Neftel, Albrecht; Dasgupta, Purnendu K.

    Peroxides were found to be produced as artifacts during cryogenic sampling with Horibe traps. Cryogenic trap sampling was compared to collection with a wet effluent diffusion denuder and a Nafion membrane diffusion denuder. Hydrogen peroxide and hydroxymethyl hydroperoxide measured in the cryogenic trap samples were significantly higher. In comparison, no evidence of artifact methyl hydroperoxide production was found. The amount of artifact H2O2 and HMHP produced increased with decreasing trap temperature. Spiking ambient air with ethene or isoprene showed that these hydrocarbons, in the presence of ozone, can be responsible for the artifact production of peroxides. Our results clearly suggest that the peroxide data obtained by cryogenic sampling and reported in the literature should be interpreted with caution.

  15. Sampling intercomparisons for aldehydes in simulated workplace air.

    PubMed

    Goelen, E; Lambrechts, M; Geyskens, F

    1997-05-01

    Thirty one laboratories of various EU Member States have participated in two interlaboratory comparisons in order to assess errors of personal sampling methods associated with both the sampling and the analytical steps. In contrast to conventional quality control schemes, this project particularly focuses attention on the sampling and identification step; it is executed by means of sampling exercises and has included discussions on potential sources of error. In a sampling exercise, participants come to a central facility and perform measurements on synthetic workplace air in a laboratory installation. Concentration levels of formaldehyde, acrolein, glutaraldehyde and acetaldehyde between 0.1 and 2 times the limit value for workplace air were prepared at various humidity levels and with acetone, occasionally, as interferent. Sampling times varied from 1-4 h. The related analytical work is performed at the analyst's own laboratory. The intention is for each participant to determine the observed value of the delivered standard atmosphere using the sampling method of his own choice. Trueness (bias), precision and relative overall uncertainty of each method-laboratory combination is calculated and verified towards compliance with EN 482, which outlines minimum performance criteria. The first challenge involved the precise gas phase generation of the selected analytes in high air flows (up to 300 1 min-1) and calculating the true value only by direct reference to primary standards. This was accomplished by modifying the capillary dosage injection technique so that reactive compounds, like low molecular mass aldehydes, could be dosed with the same accuracy and precision as unreactive solvents. A permeation tube with high emission rate was developed for formaldehyde. Up to ten different sampling techniques were evaluated. The measurement methods used by the majority of the participants were based on pumped sampling on silica cartridges (or tubes) and glass fiber filters

  16. Radiocarbon analysis of stratospheric CO2 retrieved from AirCore sampling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paul, Dipayan; Chen, Huilin; Been, Henk A.; Kivi, Rigel; Meijer, Harro A. J.

    2016-10-01

    Radiocarbon (14C) is an important atmospheric tracer and one of the many used in the understanding of the global carbon budget, which includes the greenhouse gases CO2 and CH4. Measurement of radiocarbon in atmospheric CO2 generally requires the collection of large air samples (a few liters) from which CO2 is extracted and then the concentration of radiocarbon is determined using accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS). However, the regular collection of air samples from the stratosphere, for example using aircraft and balloons, is prohibitively expensive. Here we describe radiocarbon measurements in stratospheric CO2 collected by the AirCore sampling method. AirCore is an innovative atmospheric sampling system, which comprises a long tube descending from a high altitude with one end open and the other closed, and it has been demonstrated to be a reliable, cost-effective sampling system for high-altitude profile (up to ≈ 30 km) measurements of CH4 and CO2. In Europe, AirCore measurements have been being performed on a regular basis near Sodankylä (northern Finland) since September 2013. Here we describe the analysis of samples from two such AirCore flights made there in July 2014, for determining the radiocarbon concentration in stratospheric CO2. The two AirCore profiles were collected on consecutive days. The stratospheric part of the AirCore was divided into six sections, each containing ≈ 35 µg CO2 ( ≈ 9.6 µgC), and stored in a stratospheric air subsampler constructed from 1/4 in. coiled stainless steel tubing ( ≈ 3 m). A small-volume extraction system was constructed that enabled > 99.5 % CO2 extraction from the stratospheric air samples. Additionally, a new small-volume high-efficiency graphitization system was constructed for graphitization of these extracted CO2 samples, which were measured at the Groningen AMS facility. Since the stratospheric samples were very similar in mass, reference samples were also prepared in the same mass range for

  17. Strategy Guideline. Compact Air Distribution Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Burdick, Arlan

    2013-06-01

    This guideline discusses the benefits and challenges of using a compact air distribution system to handle the reduced loads and reduced air volume needed to condition the space within an energy efficient home. The decision criteria for a compact air distribution system must be determined early in the whole-house design process, considering both supply and return air design. However, careful installation of a compact air distribution system can result in lower material costs from smaller equipment, shorter duct runs, and fewer outlets; increased installation efficiencies, including ease of fitting the system into conditioned space; lower loads on a better balanced HVAC system, and overall improved energy efficiency of the home.

  18. Passive air sampling of gaseous elemental mercury: a critical review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McLagan, David S.; Mazur, Maxwell E. E.; Mitchell, Carl P. J.; Wania, Frank

    2016-03-01

    Because gaseous elemental mercury (GEM) is distributed globally through the atmosphere, reliable means of measuring its concentrations in air are important. Passive air samplers (PASs), designed to be cheap, simple to operate, and to work without electricity, could provide an alternative to established active sampling techniques in applications such as (1) long-term monitoring of atmospheric GEM levels in remote regions and in developing countries, (2) atmospheric mercury source identification and characterization through finely resolved spatial mapping, and (3) the recording of personal exposure to GEM. An effective GEM PAS requires a tightly constrained sampling rate, a large and stable uptake capacity, and a sensitive analytical technique. None of the GEM PASs developed to date achieve levels of accuracy and precision sufficient for the reliable determination of background concentrations over extended deployments. This is due to (1) sampling rates that vary due to meteorological factors and manufacturing inconsistencies, and/or (2) an often low, irreproducible and/or unstable uptake capacity of the employed sorbents. While we identify shortcomings of existing GEM PAS, we also reveal potential routes to overcome those difficulties. Activated carbon and nanostructured metal surfaces hold promise as effective sorbents. Sampler designs incorporating diffusive barriers should be able to notably reduce the influence of wind on sampling rates.

  19. Passive air sampling of gaseous elemental mercury: a critical review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McLagan, D. S.; Mazur, M. E. E.; Mitchell, C. P. J.; Wania, F.

    2015-12-01

    Because gaseous elemental mercury (GEM) is distributed globally through the atmosphere, reliable means of measuring its concentrations in air are important. Passive air samplers (PASs), designed to be cheap, simple to operate, and to work without electricity, could provide an alternative to established active sampling techniques in applications such as (1) long term monitoring of atmospheric GEM levels in remote regions and in developing countries, (2) atmospheric mercury source identification and characterisation through finely-resolved spatial mapping, and (3) the recording of personal exposure to GEM. An effective GEM PAS requires a tightly constrained sampling rate, a large and stable uptake capacity, and a sensitive analytical technique. None of the GEM PASs developed to date achieves levels of accuracy and precision sufficient for the reliable determination of background concentrations over extended deployments. This is due to (1) sampling rates that vary due to meteorological factors and manufacturing inconsistencies and/or (2) an often low, irreproducible and/or unstable uptake capacity of the employed sorbents. While we identify shortcomings of existing GEM PAS, we also reveal potential routes to overcome those difficulties. Activated carbon and nano-structured metal surfaces hold promise as effective sorbents. Sampler designs incorporating diffusive barriers should be able to notably reduce the influence of wind on sampling rates.

  20. Evaluation of official air sampling methodologies in Ukraine

    SciTech Connect

    Nakonechniy, J.J.; Wadden, R.A.; Scheff, P.A.; Suero, M.

    1997-12-31

    In conjunction with an environmental epidemiology study of the health of Ukrainian children, a significant amount of air pollution measurement data was gathered from government agencies. The areas of interest were the industrial city of Dneprodzherzhinsk; and the Dniprovsky region of Kyiv. The data were for 1993 and, for some of the monitoring stations, 1994. The pollutants reported included dust (approximately equivalent to TSP, total suspended particulate matter), SO{sub 2}, CO, NO{sub 2}, NO, H{sub 2}S, phenol, HCl, NH{sub 3}, formaldehyde, BaP, and lead. The ultimate goal was to evaluate whether existing historical data are appropriate for developing measures of human exposure. In order to evaluate the data it was necessary to understand the sampling and analytical methodologies which were used. Small sample volumes coupled with dated analytical procedures resulted in very poor precision and detection limits for most of the measured pollutants. The measurement of particulate matter is a good example of the limits imposed by the sampling methodology. The short sample time (20 min), small sample volume (150 lpm), and limited analytical balances (0.5 mg resolution) result in a minimum lower limit of detection of 0.25 mg/m{sup 3}. For example at Kyiv Station 3 in 1993, only one of 545 measurements exceeded 0.2 mg/m{sup 3}. This minimum detectable quantity is over three times the former US annual TSP standard. In addition, even when operated on a 24-hour basis in the US, it has been shown that the sampling method only collected approximately 34% of that collected by a co-located hi-vol sampler. Consequently, official air pollution data for suspended dust are likely to severely under-represent actual ambient concentrations. Data for other pollutants are presented and sampling and analytical methods are similarly compared with Western methods in common use.

  1. Compressed air energy storage system

    DOEpatents

    Ahrens, Frederick W.; Kartsounes, George T.

    1981-01-01

    An internal combustion reciprocating engine is operable as a compressor during slack demand periods utilizing excess power from a power grid to charge air into an air storage reservoir and as an expander during peak demand periods to feed power into the power grid utilizing air obtained from the air storage reservoir together with combustible fuel. Preferably the internal combustion reciprocating engine is operated at high pressure and a low pressure turbine and compressor are also employed for air compression and power generation.

  2. Compressed air energy storage system

    DOEpatents

    Ahrens, F.W.; Kartsounes, G.T.

    An internal combustion reciprocating engine is operable as a compressor during slack demand periods utilizing excess power from a power grid to charge air into an air storage reservoir and as an expander during peak demand periods to feed power into the power grid utilizing air obtained from the air storage reservoir together with combustion reciprocating engine is operated at high pressure and a low pressure turbine and compressor are also employed for air compression and power generation.

  3. Chemical transformations during ambient air sampling for organic vapors

    SciTech Connect

    Pellizzari, E.D.; Drost, K.J.

    1984-09-01

    Potential chemical transformations of olefins in the presence of ozone and high levels (ppm) of halogens (Cl/sub 2/, Br/sub 2/) were demonstrated when sampling ambient air with a sorbent cartridge. The use of stryene-d/sub 8/ and cyclohexene-d/sub 10/ spiked sampling devices and capillary gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) analysis allowed the detection and identification of several deuteriated oxidation and halogenated products. Dimethylamine-d/sub 6/ was converted in trace quantities (5-10 mg) to dimethylnitrosamine-d/sub 6/ when sampling was conducted in the presence of NO/sub x/. Oxidation reactions were prevented when filters (2.5 cm) employed for removing particulates were impregnated with 5-10 mg of sodium thiosulfate and placed in front of the sorbent cartridge. Halogenation reactions were also consideraly reduced.

  4. Strategy Guideline: Compact Air Distribution Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Burdick, A.

    2013-06-01

    This Strategy Guideline discusses the benefits and challenges of using a compact air distribution system to handle the reduced loads and reduced air volume needed to condition the space within an energy efficient home. Traditional systems sized by 'rule of thumb' (i.e., 1 ton of cooling per 400 ft2 of floor space) that 'wash' the exterior walls with conditioned air from floor registers cannot provide appropriate air mixing and moisture removal in low-load homes. A compact air distribution system locates the HVAC equipment centrally with shorter ducts run to interior walls, and ceiling supply outlets throw the air toward the exterior walls along the ceiling plane; alternatively, high sidewall supply outlets throw the air toward the exterior walls. Potential drawbacks include resistance from installing contractors or code officials who are unfamiliar with compact air distribution systems, as well as a lack of availability of low-cost high sidewall or ceiling supply outlets to meet the low air volumes with good throw characteristics. The decision criteria for a compact air distribution system must be determined early in the whole-house design process, considering both supply and return air design. However, careful installation of a compact air distribution system can result in lower material costs from smaller equipment, shorter duct runs, and fewer outlets; increased installation efficiencies, including ease of fitting the system into conditioned space; lower loads on a better balanced HVAC system, and overall improved energy efficiency of the home.

  5. Interferometrically stable, enclosed, spinning sample cell for spectroscopic experiments on air-sensitive samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baranov, Dmitry; Hill, Robert J.; Ryu, Jisu; Park, Samuel D.; Huerta-Viga, Adriana; Carollo, Alexa R.; Jonas, David M.

    2017-01-01

    In experiments with high photon flux, it is necessary to rapidly remove the sample from the beam and to delay re-excitation until the sample has returned to equilibrium. Rapid and complete sample exchange has been a challenge for air-sensitive samples and for vibration-sensitive experiments. Here, a compact spinning sample cell for air and moisture sensitive liquid and thin film samples is described. The principal parts of the cell are a copper gasket sealed enclosure, a 2.5 in. hard disk drive motor, and a reusable, chemically inert glass sandwich cell. The enclosure provides an oxygen and water free environment at the 1 ppm level, as demonstrated by multi-day tests with sodium benzophenone ketyl radical. Inside the enclosure, the glass sandwich cell spins at ≈70 Hz to generate tangential speeds of 7-12 m/s that enable complete sample exchange at 100 kHz repetition rates. The spinning cell is acoustically silent and compatible with a ±1 nm rms displacement stability interferometer. In order to enable the use of the spinning cell, we discuss centrifugation and how to prevent it, introduce the cycle-averaged resampling rate to characterize repetitive excitation, and develop a figure of merit for a long-lived photoproduct buildup.

  6. Interferometrically stable, enclosed, spinning sample cell for spectroscopic experiments on air-sensitive samples.

    PubMed

    Baranov, Dmitry; Hill, Robert J; Ryu, Jisu; Park, Samuel D; Huerta-Viga, Adriana; Carollo, Alexa R; Jonas, David M

    2017-01-01

    In experiments with high photon flux, it is necessary to rapidly remove the sample from the beam and to delay re-excitation until the sample has returned to equilibrium. Rapid and complete sample exchange has been a challenge for air-sensitive samples and for vibration-sensitive experiments. Here, a compact spinning sample cell for air and moisture sensitive liquid and thin film samples is described. The principal parts of the cell are a copper gasket sealed enclosure, a 2.5 in. hard disk drive motor, and a reusable, chemically inert glass sandwich cell. The enclosure provides an oxygen and water free environment at the 1 ppm level, as demonstrated by multi-day tests with sodium benzophenone ketyl radical. Inside the enclosure, the glass sandwich cell spins at ≈70 Hz to generate tangential speeds of 7-12 m/s that enable complete sample exchange at 100 kHz repetition rates. The spinning cell is acoustically silent and compatible with a ±1 nm rms displacement stability interferometer. In order to enable the use of the spinning cell, we discuss centrifugation and how to prevent it, introduce the cycle-averaged resampling rate to characterize repetitive excitation, and develop a figure of merit for a long-lived photoproduct buildup.

  7. Mitigating factors on air concentrations of radon emanating from different granite samples

    SciTech Connect

    Qari, T.M.; Mamoon, A.M.; Abdul-Fattah, A.F. )

    1991-11-01

    Continuous exposure to increased air concentrations of radon in living areas is to be avoided according to the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and several published reports. Radon concentrations in ambient air are influenced by several factors related to the nature of the radon source itself, environmental conditions, and the presence of mitigating factors, if any. In this study, crushed granite samples of different types, particle diameters, and moisture contents were compared in simplified test systems with regard to radon emanation from the samples. The effects of selected mitigating factors, namely, ventilation and different barriers to diffusion of emanated radon were determined.

  8. Industrial Compressed Air System Energy Efficiency Guidebook.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1993-12-01

    Energy efficient design, operation and maintenance of compressed air systems in industrial plants can provide substantial reductions in electric power and other operational costs. This guidebook will help identify cost effective, energy efficiency opportunities in compressed air system design, re-design, operation and maintenance. The guidebook provides: (1) a broad overview of industrial compressed air systems, (2) methods for estimating compressed air consumption and projected air savings, (3) a description of applicable, generic energy conservation measures, and, (4) a review of some compressed air system demonstration projects that have taken place over the last two years. The primary audience for this guidebook includes plant maintenance supervisors, plant engineers, plant managers and others interested in energy management of industrial compressed air systems.

  9. Sampling technologies and air pollution control devices for gaseous and particulate arsenic: a review.

    PubMed

    Helsen, Lieve

    2005-09-01

    Direct measurement of arsenic release requires a good sampling and analysis procedure in order to capture and detect the total amount of metals emitted. The literature is extensively reviewed in order to evaluate the efficiency of full field-scale and laboratory scale techniques for capturing particulate and gaseous emissions of arsenic from the thermo-chemical treatment of different sources of arsenic. Furthermore, trace arsenic concentrations in ambient air, national standard sampling methods and arsenic analysis methods are considered. Besides sampling techniques, the use of sorbents is also reviewed with respect to both approaches (1) to prevent the metals from exiting with the flue gas and (2) to react or combine with the metals in order to be collected in air pollution control systems. The most important conclusion is that submicron arsenic fumes are difficult to control in conventional air pollution control devices. Complete capture of the arsenic species requires a combination of particle control and vapour control devices.

  10. Sample Manipulation System for Sample Analysis at Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mumm, Erik; Kennedy, Tom; Carlson, Lee; Roberts, Dustyn

    2008-01-01

    The Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM) instrument will analyze Martian samples collected by the Mars Science Laboratory Rover with a suite of spectrometers. This paper discusses the driving requirements, design, and lessons learned in the development of the Sample Manipulation System (SMS) within SAM. The SMS stores and manipulates 74 sample cups to be used for solid sample pyrolysis experiments. Focus is given to the unique mechanism architecture developed to deliver a high packing density of sample cups in a reliable, fault tolerant manner while minimizing system mass and control complexity. Lessons learned are presented on contamination control, launch restraint mechanisms for fragile sample cups, and mechanism test data.

  11. Air Sampling Logbook of Region 4 Yellow Bluff Air Study Wilcox County, Alabama SESD Project Identification Number:11-0068

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Contains the Air Sampling Logbook between 1-24-2011 thru 1-28-2011 from the Region 4 Yellow Bluff Air Study Wilcox County, Alabama SESD Project Identification Number:11-0068 November 2010-December 2010

  12. Versatile microanalytical system with porous polypropylene capillary membrane for calibration gas generation and trace gaseous pollutants sampling applied to the analysis of formaldehyde, formic acid, acetic acid and ammonia in outdoor air.

    PubMed

    Coelho, Lúcia H G; Melchert, Wanessa R; Rocha, Flavio R; Rocha, Fábio R P; Gutz, Ivano G R

    2010-11-15

    The analytical determination of atmospheric pollutants still presents challenges due to the low-level concentrations (frequently in the μg m(-3) range) and their variations with sampling site and time. In this work, a capillary membrane diffusion scrubber (CMDS) was scaled down to match with capillary electrophoresis (CE), a quick separation technique that requires nothing more than some nanoliters of sample and, when combined with capacitively coupled contactless conductometric detection (C(4)D), is particularly favorable for ionic species that do not absorb in the UV-vis region, like the target analytes formaldehyde, formic acid, acetic acid and ammonium. The CMDS was coaxially assembled inside a PTFE tube and fed with acceptor phase (deionized water for species with a high Henry's constant such as formaldehyde and carboxylic acids, or acidic solution for ammonia sampling with equilibrium displacement to the non-volatile ammonium ion) at a low flow rate (8.3 nL s(-1)), while the sample was aspirated through the annular gap of the concentric tubes at 2.5 mL s(-1). A second unit, in all similar to the CMDS, was operated as a capillary membrane diffusion emitter (CMDE), generating a gas flow with know concentrations of ammonia for the evaluation of the CMDS. The fluids of the system were driven with inexpensive aquarium air pumps, and the collected samples were stored in vials cooled by a Peltier element. Complete protocols were developed for the analysis, in air, of NH(3), CH(3)COOH, HCOOH and, with a derivatization setup, CH(2)O, by associating the CMDS collection with the determination by CE-C(4)D. The ammonia concentrations obtained by electrophoresis were checked against the reference spectrophotometric method based on Berthelot's reaction. Sensitivity enhancements of this reference method were achieved by using a modified Berthelot reaction, solenoid micro-pumps for liquid propulsion and a long optical path cell based on a liquid core waveguide (LCW). All

  13. The effect of compressed air foam on the detection of hydrocarbon fuels in fire debris samples.

    PubMed

    Coulson, S A; Morgan-Smith, R K; Noble, D

    2000-01-01

    In 1998/99 the New Zealand Fire Service implemented compressed air foam delivery systems for the suppression of fires in rural areas. This study investigated whether the introduction of the foam to the seat of the fire created any problems in subsequent analyses of fire debris samples. No significant interferences from the foam were found when the samples were analysed by direct headspace using activated carbon strips. The only foam component detected was limonene.

  14. A stringent comparison of sampling and analysis methods for VOCs in ambient air

    SciTech Connect

    Daughtrey, E.H. Jr.; Oliver, K.D.; Adams, J.R.; Kronmiller, K.G.; Lonneman, W.A.; McClenny, W.A.; Colon, M.

    1999-07-01

    A carefully designed study was conducted during the summer of 1998 to simultaneously collect samples of ambient air by canisters and compare the analysis results to direct sorbent preconcentration results taken at the time of sample collection. A total of 32 1-h sample sets were taken, each composed of a real-time sample analyzed by an autoGC/MS XonTech 930/Varian Saturn 2000 system, and SUMMA and Silco canisters. Hourly total non-methane organic carbon (TNMOC), ozone, and meteorological measurements were also made. Each of the canisters was analyzed on the autoGC/MS system for a target list of 108 VOCs and on a manual cryosampling GC/FID system. Comparisons are made between the collection and analysis methods. Because of the low sample loading (150--250 ppbC TNMOC), these comparisons are a stringent test of sample collection and analysis capabilities.

  15. Soyuz 22 Return Samples: Assessment of Air Quality Aboard the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jams, John T.

    2010-01-01

    Three mini-grab sample containers (m-GSCs) were returned aboard Soyuz 22 because of concerns that new air pollutants were present in the air and these were getting into the water recovery system. The Total Organic Carbon Analyzer had been giving increasing readings of total organic carbon (TOC) in the potable water, and it was postulated that an increased load into the system was responsible. The toxicological assessment of 3 m-GSCs from the ISS is shown in Table 1. The recoveries of the 3 standards (as listed above) from the GSCs averaged 103, 95 and 76%, respectively. Recovery from formaldehyde control badges were 90 and 91%.

  16. 32 CFR 806.27 - Samples of Air Force FOIA processing documents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Samples of Air Force FOIA processing documents. 806.27 Section 806.27 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE ADMINISTRATION AIR FORCE FREEDOM OF INFORMATION ACT PROGRAM § 806.27 Samples of Air Force FOIA...

  17. 32 CFR 806.27 - Samples of Air Force FOIA processing documents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Samples of Air Force FOIA processing documents. 806.27 Section 806.27 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE ADMINISTRATION AIR FORCE FREEDOM OF INFORMATION ACT PROGRAM § 806.27 Samples of Air Force FOIA...

  18. [Air quality control systems: heating, ventilating, and air conditioning (HVAC)].

    PubMed

    Bellucci Sessa, R; Riccio, G

    2004-01-01

    After a brief illustration of the principal layout schemes of Heating, Ventilating, and Air Conditioning (HVAC), the first part of this paper summarizes the standards, both voluntary and compulsory, regulating HVAC facilities design and installation with regard to the question of Indoor Air Quality (IAQ). The paper then examines the problem of ventilation systems maintenance and the essential hygienistic requirements in whose absence HVAC facilities may become a risk factor for people working or living in the building. Lastly, the paper deals with HVAC design strategies and methods, which aim not only to satisfy comfort and air quality requirements, but also to ensure easy and effective maintenance procedures.

  19. Use of a Radon Stripping Algorithm for Retrospective Assessment of Air Filter Samples

    SciTech Connect

    Robert Hayes

    2009-01-23

    An evaluation of a large number of air sample filters was undertaken using a commercial alpha and beta spectroscopy system employing a passive implanted planar silicon (PIPS) detector. Samples were only measured after air flow through the filters had ceased. Use of a commercial radon stripping algorithm was implemented to discriminate anthropogenic alpha and beta activity on the filters from the radon progeny. When uncontaminated air filters were evaluated, the results showed that there was a time-dependent bias in both average estimates and measurement dispersion with the relative bias being small compared to the dispersion. By also measuring environmental air sample filters simultaneously with electroplated alpha and beta sources, use of the radon stripping algorithm demonstrated a number of substantial unexpected deviations. Use of the current algorithm is therefore not recommended for assay applications and so use of the PIPS detector should only be utilized for gross counting without appropriate modifications to the curve fitting algorithm. As a screening method, the radon stripping algorithm might be expected to see elevated alpha and beta activities on air sample filters (not due to radon progeny) around the 200 dpm level.

  20. Monitoring airborne fungal spores in an experimental indoor environment to evaluate sampling methods and the effects of human activity on air sampling.

    PubMed Central

    Buttner, M P; Stetzenbach, L D

    1993-01-01

    Aerobiological monitoring was conducted in an experimental room to aid in the development of standardized sampling protocols for airborne microorganisms in the indoor environment. The objectives of this research were to evaluate the relative efficiencies of selected sampling methods for the retrieval of airborne fungal spores and to determine the effect of human activity on air sampling. Dry aerosols containing known concentrations of Penicillium chrysogenum spores were generated, and air samples were taken by using Andersen six-stage, Surface Air System, Burkard, and depositional samplers. The Andersen and Burkard samplers retrieved the highest numbers of spores compared with the measurement standard, an aerodynamic particle sizer located inside the room. Data from paired samplers demonstrated that the Andersen sampler had the highest levels of sensitivity and repeatability. With a carpet as the source of P. chrysogenum spores, the effects of human activity (walking or vacuuming near the sampling site) on air sampling were also examined. Air samples were taken under undisturbed conditions and after human activity in the room. Human activity resulted in retrieval of significantly higher concentrations of airborne spores. Surface sampling of the carpet revealed moderate to heavy contamination despite relatively low airborne counts. Therefore, in certain situations, air sampling without concomitant surface sampling may not adequately reflect the level of microbial contamination in indoor environments. PMID:8439150

  1. Uncertainties in monitoring of SVOCs in air caused by within-sampler degradation during active and passive air sampling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melymuk, Lisa; Bohlin-Nizzetto, Pernilla; Prokeš, Roman; Kukučka, Petr; Přibylová, Petra; Vojta, Šimon; Kohoutek, Jiří; Lammel, Gerhard; Klánová, Jana

    2017-10-01

    Degradation of semivolatile organic compounds (SVOCs) occurs naturally in ambient air due to reactions with reactive trace gases (e.g., ozone, NOx). During air sampling there is also the possibility for degradation of SVOCs within the air sampler, leading to underestimates of ambient air concentrations. We investigated the possibility of this sampling artifact in commonly used active and passive air samplers for seven classes of SVOCs, including persistent organic pollutants (POPs) typically covered by air monitoring programs, as well as SVOCs of emerging concern. Two active air samplers were used, one equipped with an ozone denuder and one without, to compare relative differences in mass of collected compounds. Two sets of passive samplers were also deployed to determine the influence of degradation during longer deployment times in passive sampling. In active air samplers, comparison of the two sampling configurations suggested degradation of particle-bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), with concentrations up to 2× higher in the denuder-equipped sampler, while halogenated POPs did not have clear evidence of degradation. In contrast, more polar, reactive compounds (e.g., organophosphate esters and current use pesticides) had evidence of losses in the sampler with denuder. This may be caused by the denuder itself, suggesting sampling bias for these compounds can be created when typical air sampling apparatuses are adapted to limit degradation. Passive air samplers recorded up to 4× higher concentrations when deployed for shorter consecutive sampling periods, suggesting that within-sampler degradation may also be relevant in passive air monitoring programs.

  2. AIRS: Andover's Individualized Reading System Sample Packet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andover Public Schools, MA.

    This packet contains portions of each component of a reading program designed to teach basic skills to children in grades one through six and to foster their enjoyment of literature. Various sections of the packet contain behavioral objectives for the skill areas of phonetic analysis, structural analysis, word meaning, comprehension, and word…

  3. Passive air sampling of organochlorine pesticides in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Wong, Fiona; Alegria, Henry A; Bidleman, Terry F; Alvarado, Víctor; Angeles, Felipe; Galarza, Alfredo Avila; Bandala, Erick R; Hinojosa, Idolina de la Cerda; Estrada, Ignacio Galindo; Reyes, Guillermo Galindo; Gold-Bouchot, Gerardo; Zamora, Jose Vinicio Macías; Murguía-González, Joaquín; Espinoza, Elias Ramirez

    2009-02-01

    The spatial and temporal variation of organochlorine pesticides (OCs) in air across Mexico was investigated by deploying passive samplers at eleven stations across the country during 2005-2006. Integrated samples were taken over three-month periods and quantified for DDT compounds, endosulfans, toxaphenes, components of technical chlordane, hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs), and dieldrin. Enantiomers of chiral chlordanes and o,p'-DDT were determined on chiral stationary phase columns as an indicator of source and age. Results are discussed in combination with pumped air samples taken at four other stations in southern Mexico during 2002-2004. DDT and its metabolites, endosulfan and toxaphene were the most abundant OCs detected in all sampling sites. Atmospheric concentrations of SigmaDDT (p,p'-DDT + o,p'-DDT + p,p'-DDE + o,p'-DDE + p,p'-DDD + o,p'-DDD) ranged from 15 to 2360 pg m(-3) with the highest concentrations found in southern Mexico and the lowest found in northern and central Mexico. A fresher DDT residue was observed at sites with greater DDT use and in the southern part of the country, as shown from the higher FDDTe = p,p'-DDT/(p,p'-DDT + p,p'-DDE) and nearly racemic o,p'-DDT. This agrees with the former heavy use of DDT in the endemic malarious area of the country. A local hotspot of endosulfan was identified at an agricultural area in Mazatlan, Sinaloa, with a annual mean concentration of SigmaENDO (endosulfans I + II + endosulfan sulfate) = 26,800 pg m(-3). At this site, higher concentrations of SigmaENDO were recorded during the winter (November to February) and spring (February to May) periods. From back trajectory analysis, this coincides with a shift in the air mass coming from the Pacific Ocean (May to November) to the inland agricultural area (November to May). The elevated SigmaENDO observed is likely due to the local agricultural usage. HCHs, chlordanes, transnonachlors, and dieldrin were more evenly distributed across the country likely due to

  4. Bias in air sampling techniques used to measure inhalation exposure

    SciTech Connect

    Cohen, B.S.; Harley, N.H.; Lippmann, M.

    1984-03-01

    Factors have been evaluated which contribute to the lack of agreement between inhalation exposure estimates obtained by time-weighted averaging of samples taken with mini hi-volume samplers, and those measured by time integrating, low-volume, lapel mounted, personal monitors. Measurements made with real-time aerosol monitors on workers at a Be-Cu production furnace show that part of the discrepancy results from variability of the aerosol concentration within the breathing zone. Field studies of sampler inlet bias, the influences of the electrostatic fields around polystyrene filter holders, and resuspension of dust from work clothing, were done in three areas of a Be plant. No significant differences were found in Be air concentrations measured simultaneously by open and closed face cassettes, and mini hi-volume samplers mounted on a test stand. No significant influence on Be collection was detected between either positively or negatively charged monitors and charge neutralized control monitors. The effect of contaminated work clothing on dust collection by lapel mounted monitors is most important. Beryllium release from the fabrics affected air concentrations measured by fabric mounted monitors more than it affected concentrations measured by monitors positioned above the fabrics. The latter were placed 16 cm from the vertically mounted fabrics, to simulate the position of the nose or mouth. The authors conclude that dust resuspended from work clothing is the major source of the observed discrepancy between exposures estimated from lapel mounted samplers and time-weighted averages.

  5. The microbiological quality of air improves when using air conditioning systems in cars

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Because of better comfort, air conditioning systems are a common feature in automobiles these days. However, its impact on the number of particles and microorganisms inside the vehicle - and by this its impact on the risk of an allergic reaction - is yet unknown. Methods Over a time period of 30 months, the quality of air was investigated in three different types of cars (VW Passat, VW Polo FSI, Seat Alhambra) that were all equipped with a automatic air conditioning system. Operation modes using fresh air from outside the car as well as circulating air from inside the car were examined. The total number of microorganisms and the number of mold spores were measured by impaction in a high flow air sampler. Particles of 0.5 to 5.0 μm diameter were counted by a laser particle counter device. Results Overall 32 occasions of sampling were performed. The concentration of microorganisms outside the cars was always higher than it was inside the cars. Few minutes after starting the air conditioning system the total number of microorganisms was reduced by 81.7%, the number of mold spores was reduced by 83.3%, and the number of particles was reduced by 87.8%. There were no significant differences neither between the types of cars nor between the types of operation mode of the air conditioning system (fresh air vs. circulating air). All parameters that were looked for in this study improved during utilization of the car's air conditioning system. Conclusions We believe that the risk of an allergic reaction will be reduced during use also. Nevertheless, we recommend regular maintenance of the system and replacement of older filters after defined changing intervals. PMID:20515449

  6. The microbiological quality of air improves when using air conditioning systems in cars.

    PubMed

    Vonberg, Ralf-Peter; Gastmeier, Petra; Kenneweg, Björn; Holdack-Janssen, Hinrich; Sohr, Dorit; Chaberny, Iris F

    2010-06-01

    Because of better comfort, air conditioning systems are a common feature in automobiles these days. However, its impact on the number of particles and microorganisms inside the vehicle--and by this its impact on the risk of an allergic reaction--is yet unknown. Over a time period of 30 months, the quality of air was investigated in three different types of cars (VW Passat, VW Polo FSI, Seat Alhambra) that were all equipped with a automatic air conditioning system. Operation modes using fresh air from outside the car as well as circulating air from inside the car were examined. The total number of microorganisms and the number of mold spores were measured by impaction in a high flow air sampler. Particles of 0.5 to 5.0 microm diameter were counted by a laser particle counter device. Overall 32 occasions of sampling were performed. The concentration of microorganisms outside the cars was always higher than it was inside the cars. Few minutes after starting the air conditioning system the total number of microorganisms was reduced by 81.7%, the number of mold spores was reduced by 83.3%, and the number of particles was reduced by 87.8%. There were no significant differences neither between the types of cars nor between the types of operation mode of the air conditioning system (fresh air vs. circulating air). All parameters that were looked for in this study improved during utilization of the car's air conditioning system. We believe that the risk of an allergic reaction will be reduced during use also. Nevertheless, we recommend regular maintenance of the system and replacement of older filters after defined changing intervals.

  7. Detection of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae by Air Sampling with a Nested PCR Assay

    PubMed Central

    Stärk, Katharina D. C.; Nicolet, Jacques; Frey, Joachim

    1998-01-01

    This article describes the first successful detection of airborne Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae under experimental and field conditions with a new nested PCR assay. Air was sampled with polyethersulfone membranes (pore size, 0.2 μm) mounted in filter holders. Filters were processed by dissolution and direct extraction of DNA for PCR analysis. For the PCR, two nested pairs of oligonucleotide primers were designed by using an M. hyopneumoniae-specific DNA sequence of a repeated gene segment. A nested PCR assay was developed and used to analyze samples collected in eight pig houses where respiratory problems had been common. Air was also sampled from a mycoplasma-free herd. The nested PCR was highly specific and 104 times as sensitive as a one-step PCR. Under field conditions, the sampling system was able to detect airborne M. hyopneumoniae on 80% of farms where acute respiratory disease was present. No airborne M. hyopneumoniae was detected on infected farms without acute cases. The chance of successful detection was increased if air was sampled at several locations within a room and at a lower air humidity. PMID:9464391

  8. Field evaluation of endotoxin air sampling assay methods.

    PubMed

    Thorne, P S; Reynolds, S J; Milton, D K; Bloebaum, P D; Zhang, X; Whitten, P; Burmeister, L F

    1997-11-01

    This study tested the importance of filter media, extraction and assay protocol, and bioaerosol source on the determination of endotoxin under field conditions in swine and poultry confinement buildings. Multiple simultaneous air samples were collected using glass fiber (GF) and polycarbonate (PC) filters, and these were assayed using two methods in two separate laboratories: an endpoint chromogenic Limulus amebocyte lysate (LAL) assay (QCL) performed in water and a kinetic chromogenic LAL assay (KQCL) performed in buffer with resistant-parallel line estimation analysis (KLARE). In addition, two aqueous filter extraction methods were compared in the QCL assay: 120 min extraction at 22 degrees C with vigorous shaking and 30 min extraction at 68 degrees C with gentle rocking. These extraction methods yielded endotoxin activities that were not significantly different and were very highly correlated. Reproducibility of endotoxin determinations from duplicate air sampling filters was very high (Cronbach alpha all > 0.94). When analyzed by the QCL method GF filters yielded significantly higher endotoxin activity than PC filters. QCL and KLARE methods gave similar estimates for endotoxin activity from PC filters; however, GF filters analyzed by the QCL method yielded significantly higher endotoxin activity estimates, suggesting enhancement of the QCL assay or inhibition of the KLARE asay with GF filters. Correlation between QCL-GF and QCL-PC was high (r = 0.98) while that between KLARE-GF and KLARE-PC was moderate (r = 0.68). Analysis of variance demonstrated that assay methodology, filter-type, barn-type, and interactions between assay and filter-type and between assay and barn-type were important factors influencing endotoxin exposure assessment.

  9. Wide Area Recovery and Resilency Program (WARRP). Video - Aggressive Air Sampling for B. anthracis Spores

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-09-14

    34Systematic Evaluation of Aggressive Air Sampling for Bacillus anthracis Spores", in which aggressive air sampling, used for asbestos fiber detection, was...Sep 2012 Final 01 Feb 2011 - 01 Sep 2012 Wide Area Recovery and Resiliency Program (WARRP) Video - Aggressive Air Sampling for B. anthracis Spores

  10. Automated biowaste sampling system feces monitoring system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunt, S. R.; Glanfield, E. J.

    1979-01-01

    The Feces Monitoring System (FMS) Program designed, fabricated, assembled and tested an engineering model waste collector system (WCS) to be used in support of life science and medical experiments related to Shuttle missions. The FMS design was patterned closely after the Shuttle WCS, including: interface provisions; mounting; configuration; and operating procedures. These similarities make it possible to eventually substitute an FMS for the Shuttle WCS of Orbiter. In addition, several advanced waste collection features, including the capability of real-time inertial fecal separation and fecal mass measurement and sampling were incorporated into the FMS design.

  11. Solar Hot-Air System --Memphis, Tennessee

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Solar collectors using air as collection medium provide space heating for four-building office complex in Memphis. 98 page report furnishes details on installation, including: description of system; system startup and acceptance-test results; technical data on collector; installation manuals for collectors, air handler and heat-storage unit.

  12. An Autosampler and Field Sample Carrier for Maximizing Throughput Using an Open-Air, Surface Sampling Ion Source for MS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A recently developed, commercially available, open-air, surface sampling ion source for mass spectrometers provides individual analyses in several seconds. To realize its full throughput potential, an autosampler and field sample carrier were designed and built. The autosampler ...

  13. An Autosampler and Field Sample Carrier for Maximizing Throughput Using an Open-Air, Surface Sampling Ion Source for MS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A recently developed, commercially available, open-air, surface sampling ion source for mass spectrometers provides individual analyses in several seconds. To realize its full throughput potential, an autosampler and field sample carrier were designed and built. The autosampler ...

  14. Passive Samplers for Investigations of Air Quality: Method Description, Implementation, and Comparison to Alternative Sampling Methods

    EPA Science Inventory

    This Paper covers the basics of passive sampler design, compares passive samplers to conventional methods of air sampling, and discusses considerations when implementing a passive sampling program. The Paper also discusses field sampling and sample analysis considerations to ensu...

  15. Passive Samplers for Investigations of Air Quality: Method Description, Implementation, and Comparison to Alternative Sampling Methods

    EPA Science Inventory

    This Paper covers the basics of passive sampler design, compares passive samplers to conventional methods of air sampling, and discusses considerations when implementing a passive sampling program. The Paper also discusses field sampling and sample analysis considerations to ensu...

  16. Rooftop Unitary Air Conditioner with Integral Dedicated Outdoor Air System

    SciTech Connect

    Tiax Llc

    2006-02-28

    Energy use of rooftop and other unitary air-conditioners in commercial applications accounts for about 1 quad (10{sup 15} Btu) of primary energy use annually in the U.S. [Reference 7]. The realization that this cooling equipment accounts for the majority of commercial building cooled floorspace and the majority also of commercial building energy use has spurred development of improved-efficiency equipment as well as development of stricter standards addressing efficiency levels. Another key market driver affecting design of rooftop air-conditioning equipment has been concern regarding comfort and the control of humidity. Trends for increases in outdoor air ventilation rates in certain applications, and the increasing concern about indoor air quality problems associated with humidity levels and moisture in buildings points to a need for improved dehumidification capability in air-conditioning equipment of all types. In many cases addressing this issue exacerbates energy efficiency, and vice versa. The integrated dedicated outdoor air system configuration developed in this project addresses both energy and comfort/humidity issues.

  17. Stability of multirate sampled-data systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stanford, D. P.; Caglayan, A. K.

    1975-01-01

    Current adaptive sampling schemes that can be used in sampled-data systems with variable rate sampling does not guarantee the stability of the resulting closed-loop system. A study was undertaken with the objective of finding a stable control law for multirate sampled-data systems. The problem is formulated such that the sampling interval is selected from a set of fixed number of sample intervals. A necessary and sufficient condition under which these types of systems can be stabilized is given. For a certain subclass of these types of systems, a sampling selection algorithm is given which results in a stable closed-loop system.

  18. Optical air data systems and methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Caldwell, Loren M. (Inventor); Tang, Shoou-yu (Inventor); Acott, Phillip E. (Inventor); Spaeth, Lisa G. (Inventor); O'Brien, Martin (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    Systems and methods for sensing air includes at least one, and in some embodiments three, transceivers for projecting the laser energy as laser radiation to the air. The transceivers are scanned or aligned along several different axes. Each transceiver receives laser energy as it is backscattered from the air. A computer processes signals from the transceivers to distinguish molecular scattered laser radiation from aerosol scattered laser radiation and determines air temperatures, wind speeds, and wind directions based on the scattered laser radiation. Applications of the system to wind power site evaluation, wind turbine control, traffic safety, general meteorological monitoring and airport safety are presented.

  19. Air leakage in residential solar heating systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shingleton, J. G.; Cassel, D. E.; Overton, R. L.

    1981-02-01

    A series of computer simulations was performed to evaluate the effects of component air leakage on system thermal performance for a typical residential solar heating system, located in Madison, Wisconsin. Auxiliary energy required to supplement solar energy for space heating was determined using the TRNSYS computer program, for a range of air leakage rates at the solar collector and pebble bed storage unit. The effects of heat transfer and mass transfer between the solar equipment room and the heated building were investigated. The effect of reduced air infiltration into the building due to pressurized by the solar air heating system were determined. A simple method of estimating the effect of collector array air leakage on system thermal performance was evaluated, using the f CHART method.

  20. ENVIRONMENTAL SAMPLING USING LOCATION SPECIFIC AIR MONITORING IN BULK HANDLING FACILITIES

    SciTech Connect

    Sexton, L.; Hanks, D.; Degange, J.; Brant, H.; Hall, G.; Cable-Dunlap, P.; Anderson, B.

    2011-06-07

    Since the introduction of safeguards strengthening measures approved by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Board of Governors (1992-1997), international nuclear safeguards inspectors have been able to utilize environmental sampling (ES) (e.g. deposited particulates, air, water, vegetation, sediments, soil and biota) in their safeguarding approaches at bulk uranium/plutonium handling facilities. Enhancements of environmental sampling techniques used by the IAEA in drawing conclusions concerning the absence of undeclared nuclear materials or activities will soon be able to take advantage of a recent step change improvement in the gathering and analysis of air samples at these facilities. Location specific air monitoring feasibility tests have been performed with excellent results in determining attribute and isotopic composition of chemical elements present in an actual test-bed sample. Isotopic analysis of collected particles from an Aerosol Contaminant Extractor (ACE) collection, was performed with the standard bulk sampling protocol used throughout the IAEA network of analytical laboratories (NWAL). The results yielded bulk isotopic values expected for the operations. Advanced designs of air monitoring instruments such as the ACE may be used in gas centrifuge enrichment plants (GCEP) to detect the production of highly enriched uranium (HEU) or enrichments not declared by a State. Researchers at Savannah River National Laboratory in collaboration with Oak Ridge National Laboratory are developing the next generation of ES equipment for air grab and constant samples that could become an important addition to the international nuclear safeguards inspector's toolkit. Location specific air monitoring to be used to establish a baseline environmental signature of a particular facility employed for comparison of consistencies in declared operations will be described in this paper. Implementation of air monitoring will be contrasted against the use of smear ES

  1. Carter Carburetor Weekly Air Monitoring & Sampling Report - November 23, 2015 – November 29, 2015

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Carter Carburetor Daily Weather Conditions, Dairly Work Activities, Daily Air Monitoring and Samplying Results, Air Monitoring/Samplying Results –Station 2 Linc 126, Air Monitoring/Sampling Results- Sation 3 Linc 123, Air Monitoring/Samplying Results-Stati

  2. Carter Carburetor Weekly Air Monitoring & Sampling Report - October 26, 2015 – November 1, 2015

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Carter Carburetor Daily Weather Conditions, Dairly Work Activities, Daily Air Monitoring and Samplying Results, Air Monitoring/Samplying Results –Station 2 Linc 126, Air Monitoring/Sampling Results- Sation 3 Linc 123, Air Monitoring/Samplying Results-Stati

  3. Carter Carburetor Weekly Air Monitoring & Sampling Report - March 7, 2013 - March 13, 2016

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Carter Carburetor Daily Weather Conditions, Dairly Work Activities, Daily Air Monitoring and Samplying Results, Air Monitoring/Samplying Results –Station 2 Linc 126, Air Monitoring/Sampling Results- Sation 3 Linc 123, Air Monitoring/Samplying Results-Stati

  4. Carter Carburetor Weekly Air Monitoring & Sampling Report - November 2, 2015 – November 8, 2015

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Carter Carburetor Daily Weather Conditions, Dairly Work Activities, Daily Air Monitoring and Samplying Results, Air Monitoring/Samplying Results –Station 2 Linc 126, Air Monitoring/Sampling Results- Sation 3 Linc 123, Air Monitoring/Samplying Results-Stati

  5. Carter Carburetor Weekly Air Monitoring & Sampling Report - November 9, 2015 – November 15, 2015

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Carter Carburetor Daily Weather Conditions, Dairly Work Activities, Daily Air Monitoring and Samplying Results, Air Monitoring/Samplying Results –Station 2 Linc 126, Air Monitoring/Sampling Results- Sation 3 Linc 123, Air Monitoring/Samplying Results-Stati

  6. Carter Carburetor Weekly Air Monitoring & Sampling Report - October 19, 2015 – October 25, 2015

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Carter Carburetor Daily Weather Conditions, Dairly Work Activities, Daily Air Monitoring and Samplying Results, Air Monitoring/Samplying Results –Station 2 Linc 126, Air Monitoring/Sampling Results- Sation 3 Linc 123, Air Monitoring/Samplying Results-Stati

  7. Carter Carburetor Weekly Air Monitoring & Sampling Report - November 16, 2015 – November 22, 2015

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Carter Carburetor Daily Weather Conditions, Dairly Work Activities, Daily Air Monitoring and Samplying Results, Air Monitoring/Samplying Results –Station 2 Linc 126, Air Monitoring/Sampling Results- Sation 3 Linc 123, Air Monitoring/Samplying Results-Stati

  8. Carter Carburetor Weekly Air Monitoring & Sampling Report - November 30, 2015 – December 6, 2015

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Carter Carburetor Daily Weather Conditions, Dairly Work Activities, Daily Air Monitoring and Samplying Results, Air Monitoring/Samplying Results –Station 2 Linc 126, Air Monitoring/Sampling Results- Sation 3 Linc 123, Air Monitoring/Samplying Results-Stati

  9. Carter Carburetor Weekly Air Monitoring & Sampling Report - February 15, 2016 – February 21, 2016

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Carter Carburetor Daily Weather Conditions, Dairly Work Activities, Daily Air Monitoring and Samplying Results, Air Monitoring/Samplying Results –Station 2 Linc 126, Air Monitoring/Sampling Results- Sation 3 Linc 123, Air Monitoring/Samplying Results-Stati

  10. Carter Carburetor Weekly Air Monitoring & Sampling Report - February 1, 2016 – February 7, 2016

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Carter Carburetor Daily Weather Conditions, Dairly Work Activities, Daily Air Monitoring and Samplying Results, Air Monitoring/Samplying Results –Station 2 Linc 126, Air Monitoring/Sampling Results- Sation 3 Linc 123, Air Monitoring/Samplying Results-Stati

  11. Carter Carburetor Weekly Air Monitoring & Sampling Report - October 5, 2015 – October 11, 2015

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Carter Carburetor Daily Weather Conditions, Dairly Work Activities, Daily Air Monitoring and Samplying Results, Air Monitoring/Samplying Results –Station 2 Linc 126, Air Monitoring/Sampling Results- Sation 3 Linc 123, Air Monitoring/Samplying Results-Stati

  12. Carter Carburetor Weekly Air Monitoring & Sampling Report - October 12, 2015 – October 18, 2015

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Carter Carburetor Daily Weather Conditions, Dairly Work Activities, Daily Air Monitoring and Samplying Results, Air Monitoring/Samplying Results –Station 2 Linc 126, Air Monitoring/Sampling Results- Sation 3 Linc 123, Air Monitoring/Samplying Results-Stati

  13. Carter Carburetor Weekly Air Monitoring & Sampling Report - September 28, 2015 – October 4, 2015

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Carter Carburetor Daily Weather Conditions, Dairly Work Activities, Daily Air Monitoring and Samplying Results, Air Monitoring/Samplying Results –Station 2 Linc 126, Air Monitoring/Sampling Results- Sation 3 Linc 123, Air Monitoring/Samplying Results-Stati

  14. The Air Program Information Management System (APIMS)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-11-02

    Technology November 2, 2011 The Air Program Information Management System (APIMS) Frank Castaneda, III, P.E. APIMS Program Manager AFCEE/TDNQ APIMS...NOV 2011 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2011 to 00-00-2011 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE The Air Program Information Management System (APIMS... Information   Management   System : Sustainability of  Enterprise air quality management system • Aspects and Impacts to Process • Auditing and Measurement

  15. Whole Air Sampling During NASA's March-April 1999 Pacific Exploratory Expedition (PEM-Tropics B)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blake, Donald R.

    2001-01-01

    University of California, Irvine (UCI) collected more than 4500 samples whole air samples collected over the remote Pacific Ocean during NASA's Global Tropospheric Experiment (GTE) Pacific Exploratory Mission-Tropics B (PEM-Tropics B) in March and early April 1999. Approximately 140 samples during a typical 8-hour DC-8 flight, and 120 canisters for each 8-hour flight aboard the P-3B. These samples were obtained roughly every 3-7 min during horizontal flight legs and 1-3 min during vertical legs. The filled canisters were analyzed in the laboratory at UCI within ten days of collection. The mixing ratios of 58 trace gases comprising hydrocarbons, halocarbons, alkyl nitrates and DMS were reported (and archived) for each sample. Two identical analytical systems sharing the same standards were operated simultaneously around the clock to improve canister turn-around time and to keep our measurement precision optimal. This report presents a summary of the results for sample collected.

  16. Fluid-bed air-supply system

    DOEpatents

    Atabay, Keramettin

    1979-01-01

    The air-supply system for a fluidized-bed furnace includes two air conduits for the same combustion zone. The conduits feed separate sets of holes in a distributor plate through which fluidizing air flows to reach the bed. During normal operation, only one conduit and set of holes is used, but the second conduit and set of holes is employed during start-up.

  17. Fluid-bed air-supply system

    DOEpatents

    Zielinski, Edward A.; Comparato, Joseph R.

    1979-01-01

    The air-supply system for a fluidized-bed furnace includes two air conduits for the same combustion zone. The conduits feed separate sets of holes in a distributor plate through which fluidizing air flows to reach the bed. During normal operation, only one conduit and set of holes is used, but the second conduit and set of holes is employed during start-up.

  18. Ten-year air sample analysis of Aspergillus prevalence in a university hospital.

    PubMed

    Falvey, D G; Streifel, A J

    2007-09-01

    Airborne fungal samples were collected on a monthly basis for 10 years, from 1995 to 2005, at a tertiary university hospital. Paired samples were cultured at 25 and 37 degrees C. Data were interpreted according to the air filtration systems serving each location. Samples cultured at 37 degrees C from the patient care areas had a mean recovery of 18% of the mean recovery from outdoor air (22 versus 122cfu/m(3)). Recovery of Aspergillus spp. at 37 degrees C in the high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA)-filtered locations was positive for Aspergillus spp. approximately one-third of the time; the rest of the patient care areas were positive half of the time and the outdoor samples were positive 95% of the time. We found 48 sporadic bursts at 37 degrees C which produced counts >3 SD above the mean. Hospital-acquired infection was related to high recovery of Aspergillus fumigatus on at least one occasion. We have found it impossible, without implementing impractical measures, to provide an environment completely devoid of Aspergillus spp. We conclude that routine air sampling is not an effective means of predicting hospital-acquired infections. However, a transient spike, or burst, may be useful in identifying an in-house source of contamination and may be used to consider additional interventional treatments for patients at risk. Emphasis should be placed on maintaining high-efficiency filtration of the outside air and on ensuring that other environmental control methods are used to prevent dissemination of environmental opportunistic fungal spores.

  19. Reliability of air displacement plethysmography in a large, heterogeneous sample.

    PubMed

    Noreen, Eric E; Lemon, Peter W R

    2006-08-01

    Several studies have assessed the validity of air displacement plethysmography (ADP), but few have assessed the reliability of ADP using a large, heterogeneous sample. This study was conducted to determine the reliability of ADP using the Bod Pod in a large, heterogeneous sample. A total of 980 healthy men and women (30 +/- 15 yr, mean +/- SD) completed two body composition assessments separated by 15-30 min. All testing was done in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions. A significant correlation (r = 0.992, P = 0.001) was found between body density (BD) 1 (1.046 +/- 0.001 kg.L(-1); mean +/- SEM) and BD 2 (1.046 +/- 0.001 kg.L(-1). A paired t-test revealed no significant difference between BD 1 and 2 (P = 0.935). The coefficient of variation (CV) for BD was 0.15%. A significant intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) was found for BD (ICC = 0.996, P = 0.001), and the standard error of measurement (SEM) was 0.001 kg.L(-1). Body mass (BM) 1 and 2 were correlated significantly (r = 0.999, P = 0.001); however, a significant (P = 0.001) decrease was seen from BM 1 (75.510 +/- 0.461 kg) to BM 2 (75.497 +/- 0.461 kg). Body volume (BV) tended to decrease (P = 0.08) from BV 1 (69.900 +/- 0.449 L) to BV 2 (69.884 +/- 0.449 L). ADP using the Bod Pod appears to assess BD reliably; however, the observed CV suggests that multiple trials are necessary to detect small treatment effects.

  20. Collection and analysis of NASA clean room air samples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sheldon, L. S.; Keever, J.

    1985-01-01

    The environment of the HALOE assembly clean room at NASA Langley Research Center is analyzed to determine the background levels of airborne organic compounds. Sampling is accomplished by pumping the clean room air through absorbing cartridges. For volatile organics, cartridges are thermally desorbed and then analyzed by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry, compounds are identified by searching the EPA/NIH data base using an interactive operator INCOS computer search algorithm. For semivolatile organics, cartridges are solvent entracted and concentrated extracts are analyzed by gas chromatography-electron capture detection, compound identification is made by matching gas chromatogram retention times with known standards. The detection limits for the semivolatile organics are; 0.89 ng cu m for dioctylphlhalate (DOP) and 1.6 ng cu m for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB). The detection limit for volatile organics ranges from 1 to 50 parts per trillion. Only trace quantities of organics are detected, the DOP levels do not exceed 2.5 ng cu m and the PCB levels do not exceed 454 ng cu m.

  1. Air-water flow in subsurface systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansen, A.; Mishra, P.

    2013-12-01

    Groundwater traces its roots to tackle challenges of safe and reliable drinking water and food production. When the groundwater level rises, air pressure in the unsaturated Vadose zone increases, forcing air to escape from the ground surface. Abnormally high and low subsurface air pressure can be generated when the groundwater system, rainfall, and sea level fluctuation are favorably combined [Jiao and Li, 2004]. Through this process, contamination in the form of volatile gases may diffuse from the ground surface into residential areas, or possibly move into groundwater from industrial waste sites. It is therefore crucial to understand the combined effects of air-water flow in groundwater system. Here we investigate theoretically and experimentally the effects of air and water flow in groundwater system.

  2. Air sampling filtration media: Collection efficiency for respirable size-selective sampling.

    PubMed

    Soo, Jhy-Charm; Monaghan, Keenan; Lee, Taekhee; Kashon, Mike; Harper, Martin

    2016-01-01

    The collection efficiencies of commonly used membrane air sampling filters in the ultrafine particle size range were investigated. Mixed cellulose ester (MCE; 0.45, 0.8, 1.2, and 5 μm pore sizes), polycarbonate (0.4, 0.8, 2, and 5 μm pore sizes), polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE; 0.45, 1, 2, and 5 μm pore sizes), polyvinyl chloride (PVC; 0.8 and 5 μm pore sizes), and silver membrane (0.45, 0.8, 1.2, and 5 μm pore sizes) filters were exposed to polydisperse sodium chloride (NaCl) particles in the size range of 10-400 nm. Test aerosols were nebulized and introduced into a calm air chamber through a diffusion dryer and aerosol neutralizer. The testing filters (37 mm diameter) were mounted in a conductive polypropylene filter-holder (cassette) within a metal testing tube. The experiments were conducted at flow rates between 1.7 and 11.2 l min(-1). The particle size distributions of NaCl challenge aerosol were measured upstream and downstream of the test filters by a scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS). Three different filters of each type with at least three repetitions for each pore size were tested. In general, the collection efficiency varied with airflow, pore size, and sampling duration. In addition, both collection efficiency and pressure drop increased with decreased pore size and increased sampling flow rate, but they differed among filter types and manufacturer. The present study confirmed that the MCE, PTFE, and PVC filters have a relatively high collection efficiency for challenge particles much smaller than their nominal pore size and are considerably more efficient than polycarbonate and silver membrane filters, especially at larger nominal pore sizes.

  3. Air sampling filtration media: Collection efficiency for respirable size-selective sampling

    PubMed Central

    Soo, Jhy-Charm; Monaghan, Keenan; Lee, Taekhee; Kashon, Mike; Harper, Martin

    2016-01-01

    The collection efficiencies of commonly used membrane air sampling filters in the ultrafine particle size range were investigated. Mixed cellulose ester (MCE; 0.45, 0.8, 1.2, and 5 μm pore sizes), polycarbonate (0.4, 0.8, 2, and 5 μm pore sizes), polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE; 0.45, 1, 2, and 5 μm pore sizes), polyvinyl chloride (PVC; 0.8 and 5 μm pore sizes), and silver membrane (0.45, 0.8, 1.2, and 5 μm pore sizes) filters were exposed to polydisperse sodium chloride (NaCl) particles in the size range of 10–400 nm. Test aerosols were nebulized and introduced into a calm air chamber through a diffusion dryer and aerosol neutralizer. The testing filters (37 mm diameter) were mounted in a conductive polypropylene filter-holder (cassette) within a metal testing tube. The experiments were conducted at flow rates between 1.7 and 11.2 l min−1. The particle size distributions of NaCl challenge aerosol were measured upstream and downstream of the test filters by a scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS). Three different filters of each type with at least three repetitions for each pore size were tested. In general, the collection efficiency varied with airflow, pore size, and sampling duration. In addition, both collection efficiency and pressure drop increased with decreased pore size and increased sampling flow rate, but they differed among filter types and manufacturer. The present study confirmed that the MCE, PTFE, and PVC filters have a relatively high collection efficiency for challenge particles much smaller than their nominal pore size and are considerably more efficient than polycarbonate and silver membrane filters, especially at larger nominal pore sizes. PMID:26834310

  4. Volatile organic components of air samples collected from Vertical Launch Missile capsules. Summary report

    SciTech Connect

    Tappan, D.V.; Knight, D.R.; Heyder, E.; Weathersby, P.K.

    1988-09-27

    Gas chromatographic/mass spectroscopic analyses are presented for the volatile organic components found in air samples collected from the inboard vents from Vertical Launch System (VLS) missile capsules aboard a 688 class submarine. Similar analyses were also conducted for a sample of the ship's high pressure air used to fill the missile tubes. A wide variety of organics was detected in the air from the missile capsules; and while no unique components have yet been identified, a significant contribution has been shown to be made by pressure-ventilation of the VLS capsules into the submarine atmosphere which is already heavily laden with volatile organic compounds. The most apparent conclusion from these preliminary analyses is that the mixtures of organic components in the air within VLS missile capsules vary greatly from capsule to capsule (and probably from time to time). Many such samples need to be investigated to provide sufficient information to judge the seriousness of the possibility of venting toxic components into the submarine atmosphere during the maintenance or firing of VLS missiles.

  5. AEROMETRIC INFORMATION RETRIEVAL SYSTEM (AIRS) - GRAPHICS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Aerometric Information Retrieval System (AIRS) is a computer-based repository of information about airborne pollution in the United States and various World Health Organization (WHO) member countries. AIRS is administered by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, and runs on t...

  6. Solar-powered hot-air system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    Solar-powered air heater supplies part or all of space heating requirements of residential or commercial buildings and is interfaced with air to water heat exchanger to heat domestic hot water. System has potential application in drying agricultural products such as cotton, lumber, corn, grains, and peanuts.

  7. Air Systems Provide Life Support to Miners

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2014-01-01

    Through a Space Act Agreement with Johnson Space Center, Paragon Space Development Corporation, of Tucson, Arizona, developed the Commercial Crew Transport-Air Revitalization System, designed to provide clean air for crewmembers on short-duration space flights. The technology is now being used to help save miners' lives in the event of an underground disaster.

  8. AEROMETRIC INFORMATION RETRIEVAL SYSTEM (AIRS) - GRAPHICS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Aerometric Information Retrieval System (AIRS) is a computer-based repository of information about airborne pollution in the United States and various World Health Organization (WHO) member countries. AIRS is administered by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, and runs on t...

  9. Solar-powered hot-air system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    Solar-powered air heater supplies part or all of space heating requirements of residential or commercial buildings and is interfaced with air to water heat exchanger to heat domestic hot water. System has potential application in drying agricultural products such as cotton, lumber, corn, grains, and peanuts.

  10. Data Quality Objectives for Regulatory Requirements for Hazardous and Radioactive Air Emissions Sampling and Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    MULKEY, C.H.

    1999-07-06

    This document describes the results of the data quality objective (DQO) process undertaken to define data needs for state and federal requirements associated with toxic, hazardous, and/or radiological air emissions under the jurisdiction of the River Protection Project (RPP). Hereafter, this document is referred to as the Air DQO. The primary drivers for characterization under this DQO are the regulatory requirements pursuant to Washington State regulations, that may require sampling and analysis. The federal regulations concerning air emissions are incorporated into the Washington State regulations. Data needs exist for nonradioactive and radioactive waste constituents and characteristics as identified through the DQO process described in this document. The purpose is to identify current data needs for complying with regulatory drivers for the measurement of air emissions from RPP facilities in support of air permitting. These drivers include best management practices; similar analyses may have more than one regulatory driver. This document should not be used for determining overall compliance with regulations because the regulations are in constant change, and this document may not reflect the latest regulatory requirements. Regulatory requirements are also expected to change as various permits are issued. Data needs require samples for both radionuclides and nonradionuclide analytes of air emissions from tanks and stored waste containers. The collection of data is to support environmental permitting and compliance, not for health and safety issues. This document does not address health or safety regulations or requirements (those of the Occupational Safety and Health Administration or the National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health) or continuous emission monitoring systems. This DQO is applicable to all equipment, facilities, and operations under the jurisdiction of RPP that emit or have the potential to emit regulated air pollutants.

  11. Bioaerosol sampling system with replicated optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gross, Mike; Cunningham, Nicholas; Erickson, Joshua; Manning, Christopher J.; Samuels, Alan C.

    2004-09-01

    There is a critical need throughout DoD, the U.S. government, and the commercial sector for cost-effective monitoring systems to detect airborne biological warfare (BW) agents. At present, solutions for this sensor need are relatively expensive and have a high false alarm rate. Manning Applied Technology is developing a compact, portable bioaerosol sampling system for continuous monitoring of air quality, both at field locations and fixed installations. The instrument is premised on optical interrogation via a multi-step process. The first step is electrostatic concentration, to improve detection limits. An advantage of electrostatic particle concentration is the power efficiency, relative to impactors, cyclones and filter-based systems. The second step is presentation for particle analysis, which would employ one of several unique FT spectrometer designs. The advantage of spectroscopic interrogation of bioaerosol particles is the very low cost of each analysis, with no consumables required. It is thought that mid-IR and THz frequency ranges offer the best potential for accurate discrimination. The third, optional step, is archiving the collected particles for further analysis. To reduce component costs in the Fourier transform spectrometer, an optical replication process has been developed and tested, with promising results. The replication and optical testing methods are described in detail.

  12. Breakthrough of 1,3-dichloropropene and chloropicrin from 600 mg XAD-4 air sampling tubes

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Accurately measuring air concentrations of agricultural fumigants is important for the regulation of air quality. Understanding the conditions under which sorbent tubes can effectively retain such fumigants during sampling is critical in mitigating chemical breakthrough from the tubes and facilitati...

  13. The effects of air leaks on solar air heating systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elkin, R.; Cash, M.

    1979-01-01

    This paper presents the results of an investigation to determine the effects of leakages in collector and duct work on the system performance of a typical single-family residence solar air heating system. Positive (leakage out) and negative (leakage in) pressure systems were examined. Collector and duct leakage rates were varied from 10 to 30 percent of the system flow rate. Within the range of leakage rates investigated, solar contribution to heated space and domestic hot water loads was found to be reduced up to 30 percent from the no-leak system contribution with duct leakage equally divided between supply and return duct; with supply duct leakage greater than return leakage a reduction of up to 35 percent was noted. The negative pressure system exhibited a reduction in solar contribution somewhat larger than the positive pressure system for the same leakage rates.

  14. Air Defence Systems and Weapons

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-05-01

    logging, and playing soccer . ii TABLE OF CONTENT CHAPTER PAGE DISCLAIMER i BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH ii I INTRODUCTION 1 II 1 - RADAR CAPABILITY 4 2 - NEW...a national air space is fundamental to every nations security, and at first sight, appears to require little more than the ability to accurately place...and in the event of losses of radar assets, the ability to rapidly redeploy those still existing may prove to be the only means of restoring adequate

  15. 40 CFR 63.1032 - Sampling connection systems standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 11 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Sampling connection systems standards. 63.1032 Section 63.1032 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... (CONTINUED) National Emission Standards for Equipment Leaks-Control Level 2 Standards § 63.1032...

  16. 40 CFR 63.1032 - Sampling connection systems standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 10 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Sampling connection systems standards. 63.1032 Section 63.1032 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... (CONTINUED) National Emission Standards for Equipment Leaks-Control Level 2 Standards § 63.1032...

  17. 40 CFR 63.1032 - Sampling connection systems standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 11 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Sampling connection systems standards. 63.1032 Section 63.1032 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... (CONTINUED) National Emission Standards for Equipment Leaks-Control Level 2 Standards § 63.1032...

  18. 40 CFR 63.1032 - Sampling connection systems standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 11 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Sampling connection systems standards. 63.1032 Section 63.1032 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... (CONTINUED) National Emission Standards for Equipment Leaks-Control Level 2 Standards § 63.1032...

  19. Automated simultaneous measurement of the δ(13) C and δ(2) H values of methane and the δ(13) C and δ(18) O values of carbon dioxide in flask air samples using a new multi cryo-trap/gas chromatography/isotope ratio mass spectrometry system.

    PubMed

    Brand, Willi A; Rothe, Michael; Sperlich, Peter; Strube, Martin; Wendeberg, Magnus

    2016-07-15

    The isotopic composition of greenhouse gases helps to constrain global budgets and to study sink and source processes. We present a new system for high-precision stable isotope measurements of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen in atmospheric methane and carbon dioxide. The design is intended for analyzing flask air samples from existing sampling programs without the need for extra sample air for methane analysis. CO2 and CH4 isotopes are measured simultaneously using two isotope ratio mass spectrometers, one for the analysis of δ(13) C and δ(18) O values and the second one for δ(2) H values. The inlet carousel delivers air from 16 sample positions (glass flasks 1-5 L and high-pressure cylinders). Three 10-port valves take aliquots from the sample stream. CH4 from 100-mL air aliquots is preconcentrated in 0.8-mL sample loops using a new cryo-trap system. A precisely calibrated working reference air is used in parallel with the sample according to the Principle of Identical Treatment. It takes about 36 hours for a fully calibrated analysis of a complete carousel including extractions of four working reference and one quality control reference air. Long-term precision values, as obtained from the quality control reference gas since 2012, account for 0.04 ‰ (δ(13) C values of CO2 ), 0.07 ‰ (δ(18) O values of CO2 ), 0.11 ‰ (δ(13) C values of CH4 ) and 1.0 ‰ (δ(2) H values of CH4 ). Within a single day, the system exhibits a typical methane δ(13) C standard deviation (1σ) of 0.06 ‰ for 10 repeated measurements. The system has been in routine operation at the MPI-BGC since 2012. Consistency of the data and compatibility with results from other laboratories at a high precision level are of utmost importance. A high sample throughput and reliability of operation are important achievements of the presented system to cope with the large number of air samples to be analyzed. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. D0 Cryo Instrument Air Backup System

    SciTech Connect

    Urbin, J.; /Fermilab

    1990-11-20

    The D0 instrument air system for cryo controls has an emergency backup supply of nitrogen gas. The backup system consists of a high pressure tube trailer (38 tubes - 2400 psig MAWP), piping, valves, regulators and pressure monitoring instrumentation. The trailer is located south of DAB alongside the LN{sub 2} Dewar. Fixed piping ties to the trailer with a flex-hose. The piping follows the cryo piping bridge entering the south wall of DAB. where it passes through the pipe chase and into the cryo pump room (Rm 315). The high pressure gas is regulated down to 90 psig before tying into the compressor supplied instrument air system. Check valves are installed at the tee for the primary air and the backup N{sub 2}. Normal operating pressure for instrument air is 100-120 psig. With the backup supply pressure set to 90 psig, 'emergency air' is supplied whenever primary air pressure falls below 90 psig. There are two additional, outside connections to the system: one is a connection for repumping the trailer after a minimum backup volume is reached and the other is an auxiliary flex-hose connection for another trailer. All manual valves at system connections will be locked closed when not in use. The system's maximum allowable working pressure (MAWP) is 2400 psi, which is the trailer MAWP. All piping and components have a minimum 2400 psi working pressure. Actual component working pressures are included in the component list.

  1. Development of Sample Verification System for Sample Return Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Toda, Risaku; McKinney, Colin; Jackson, Shannon P.; Mojarradi, Mohammad; Trebi-Ollennu, Ashitey; Manohara, Harish

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes the development of a proof of-concept sample verification system (SVS) for in-situ mass measurement of planetary rock and soil sample in future robotic sample return missions. Our proof-of-concept SVS device contains a 10 cm diameter pressure sensitive elastic membrane placed at the bottom of a sample canister. The membrane deforms under the weight of accumulating planetary sample. The membrane is positioned in proximity to an opposing substrate with a narrow gap. The deformation of the membrane makes the gap to be narrower, resulting in increased capacitance between the two nearly parallel plates. Capacitance readout circuitry on a nearby printed circuit board (PCB) transmits data via a low-voltage differential signaling (LVDS) interface. The fabricated SVS proof-of-concept device has successfully demonstrated approximately 1pF/gram capacitance change

  2. Development of Sample Verification System for Sample Return Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Toda, Risaku; McKinney, Colin; Jackson, Shannon P.; Mojarradi, Mohammad; Trebi-Ollennu, Ashitey; Manohara, Harish

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes the development of a proof of-concept sample verification system (SVS) for in-situ mass measurement of planetary rock and soil sample in future robotic sample return missions. Our proof-of-concept SVS device contains a 10 cm diameter pressure sensitive elastic membrane placed at the bottom of a sample canister. The membrane deforms under the weight of accumulating planetary sample. The membrane is positioned in proximity to an opposing substrate with a narrow gap. The deformation of the membrane makes the gap to be narrower, resulting in increased capacitance between the two nearly parallel plates. Capacitance readout circuitry on a nearby printed circuit board (PCB) transmits data via a low-voltage differential signaling (LVDS) interface. The fabricated SVS proof-of-concept device has successfully demonstrated approximately 1pF/gram capacitance change

  3. Air quality and future energy system planning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sobral Mourao, Zenaida; Konadu, Dennis; Lupton, Rick

    2016-04-01

    Ambient air pollution has been linked to an increasing number of premature deaths throughout the world. Projected increases in demand for food, energy resources and manufactured products will likely contribute to exacerbate air pollution with an increasing impact on human health, agricultural productivity and climate change. Current events such as tampering emissions tests by VW car manufacturers, failure to comply with EU Air Quality directives and WHO guidelines by many EU countries, the problem of smog in Chinese cities and new industrial emissions regulations represent unique challenges but also opportunities for regulators, local authorities and industry. However current models and practices of energy and resource use do not consider ambient air impacts as an integral part of the planing process. Furthermore the analysis of drivers, sources and impacts of air pollution is often fragmented, difficult to understand and lacks effective visualization tools that bring all of these components together. This work aims to develop a model that links impacts of air quality on human health and ecosystems to current and future developments in the energy system, industrial and agricultural activity and patterns of land use. The model will be added to the ForeseerTM tool, which is an integrated resource analysis platform that has been developed at the University of Cambridge initially with funding from BP and more recently through the EPSRC funded Whole Systems Energy Modeling (WholeSEM) project. The basis of the tool is a set of linked physical models for energy, water and land, including the technologies that are used to transform these resources into final services such as housing, food, transport and household goods. The new air quality model will explore different feedback effects between energy, land and atmospheric systems with the overarching goal of supporting better communication about the drivers of air quality and to incorporate concerns about air quality into

  4. Review of Various Air Sampling Methods for Solvent Vapors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maykoski, R. T.

    Vapors of trichloroethylene, toluene, methyl ethyl ketone, and butyl cellosolve in air were collected using Scotchpac and Tedlar bags, glass prescription bottles, and charcoal adsorption tubes. Efficiencies of collection are reported. (Author/RH)

  5. Review of Various Air Sampling Methods for Solvent Vapors.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    Vapors of trichloroethylene, toluene, methyl ethyl ketone, and butyl cellosolve in air were collected using Scotchpac and Tedlar bags, glass ...prescription bottles , and charcoal adsorption tubes. Efficiencies of collection are reported. (Author)

  6. Review of Various Air Sampling Methods for Solvent Vapors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maykoski, R. T.

    Vapors of trichloroethylene, toluene, methyl ethyl ketone, and butyl cellosolve in air were collected using Scotchpac and Tedlar bags, glass prescription bottles, and charcoal adsorption tubes. Efficiencies of collection are reported. (Author/RH)

  7. Determination of air-loop volume and radon partition coefficient for measuring radon in water sample.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kil Yong; Burnett, William C

    A simple method for the direct determination of the air-loop volume in a RAD7 system as well as the radon partition coefficient was developed allowing for an accurate measurement of the radon activity in any type of water. The air-loop volume may be measured directly using an external radon source and an empty bottle with a precisely measured volume. The partition coefficient and activity of radon in the water sample may then be determined via the RAD7 using the determined air-loop volume. Activity ratios instead of absolute activities were used to measure the air-loop volume and the radon partition coefficient. In order to verify this approach, we measured the radon partition coefficient in deionized water in the temperature range of 10-30 °C and compared the values to those calculated from the well-known Weigel equation. The results were within 5 % variance throughout the temperature range. We also applied the approach for measurement of the radon partition coefficient in synthetic saline water (0-75 ppt salinity) as well as tap water. The radon activity of the tap water sample was determined by this method as well as the standard RAD-H2O and BigBottle RAD-H2O. The results have shown good agreement between this method and the standard methods.

  8. RAZOR EX anthrax air detection system.

    PubMed

    Spaulding, Usha K; Christensen, Clarissa J; Crisp, Robert J; Vaughn, Michael B; Trauscht, Robert C; Gardner, Jordan R; Thatcher, Stephanie A; Clemens, Kristine M; Teng, David H F; Bird, Abigail; Ota, Irene M; Hadfield, Ted; Ryan, Valorie; Brunelle, Sharon L

    2012-01-01

    The RAZOR EX Anthrax Air Detection System, developed by Idaho Technology, Inc. (ITI), is a qualitative method for the detection of Bacillus anthracis spores collected by air collection devices. This system comprises a DNA extraction kit, a freeze-dried PCR reagent pouch, and the RAZOR EX real-time PCR instrument. Each pouch contains three assays, which distinguish potentially virulent B. anthracis from avirulent B. anthracis and other Bacillus species. These assays target the pXO1 and pXO2 plasmids and chromosomal DNA. When all targets are detected, the instrument makes an "anthrax detected" call, meaning that virulence genes of the anthrax bacillus are present. This report describes results from AOAC Method Developer (MD) and Independent Laboratory Validation (ILV) studies, which include matrix, inclusivity/exclusivity, environmental interference, upper and lower LOD of DNA, robustness, product consistency and stability, and instrument variation testing. In the MD studies, the system met the acceptance criteria for sensitivity and specificity, and the performance was consistent, stable, and robust for all components of the system. For the matrix study, the acceptance criteria of 95/96 expected calls was met for three of four matrixes, clean dry filters being the exception. Ninety-four of the 96 clean dry filter samples tested gave the expected calls. The nucleic acid limit of detection was 5-fold lower than AOAC's acceptable minimum detection limit. The system demonstrated no tendency for false positives when tested with Bacillus cereus. Environmental substances did not inhibit accurate detection of B. anthracis. The ILV studies yielded similar results for the matrix and inclusivity/exclusivity studies. The ILV environmental interference study included environmental substances and environmental organisms. Subsoil at a high concentration was found to negatively interfere with the pXO1 reaction. No interference was observed from the environmental organisms. The

  9. Highly integrated system solutions for air conditioning.

    PubMed

    Bartz, Horst

    2002-08-01

    Starting with the air handling unit, new features concerning energy efficient air treatment in combination with optimisation of required space were presented. Strategic concepts for the supply of one or more operating suites with a modular based air handling system were discussed. The operating theatre ceiling itself, as a major part of the whole integrated system, is no longer a simple air outlet: additional functions have been added in so-called media-bridges, so that it has changed towards a medical apparatus serving as a daily tool for the physicians and the operating staff. Last and not least, the servicing of the whole system has become an integral part of the facility management with remote access to the main functions and controls. The results are understood to be the basis for a discussion with specialists from medical and hygienic disciplines as well as with technically orientated people representing the hospital and building-engineering.

  10. Systemic Analysis Approaches for Air Transportation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Conway, Sheila

    2005-01-01

    Air transportation system designers have had only limited success using traditional operations research and parametric modeling approaches in their analyses of innovations. They need a systemic methodology for modeling of safety-critical infrastructure that is comprehensive, objective, and sufficiently concrete, yet simple enough to be used with reasonable investment. The methodology must also be amenable to quantitative analysis so issues of system safety and stability can be rigorously addressed. However, air transportation has proven itself an extensive, complex system whose behavior is difficult to describe, no less predict. There is a wide range of system analysis techniques available, but some are more appropriate for certain applications than others. Specifically in the area of complex system analysis, the literature suggests that both agent-based models and network analysis techniques may be useful. This paper discusses the theoretical basis for each approach in these applications, and explores their historic and potential further use for air transportation analysis.

  11. 30 CFR 75.1730 - Compressed air; general; compressed air systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Compressed air; general; compressed air systems... Compressed air; general; compressed air systems. (a) All pressure vessels shall be constructed, installed... Safety and Health district office. (b) Compressors and compressed-air receivers shall be equipped...

  12. 30 CFR 75.1730 - Compressed air; general; compressed air systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Compressed air; general; compressed air systems... Compressed air; general; compressed air systems. (a) All pressure vessels shall be constructed, installed... Safety and Health district office. (b) Compressors and compressed-air receivers shall be equipped...

  13. 30 CFR 75.1730 - Compressed air; general; compressed air systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Compressed air; general; compressed air systems... Compressed air; general; compressed air systems. (a) All pressure vessels shall be constructed, installed... Safety and Health district office. (b) Compressors and compressed-air receivers shall be equipped...

  14. 30 CFR 75.1730 - Compressed air; general; compressed air systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Compressed air; general; compressed air systems... Compressed air; general; compressed air systems. (a) All pressure vessels shall be constructed, installed... Safety and Health district office. (b) Compressors and compressed-air receivers shall be equipped...

  15. 30 CFR 75.1730 - Compressed air; general; compressed air systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Compressed air; general; compressed air systems... Compressed air; general; compressed air systems. (a) All pressure vessels shall be constructed, installed... Safety and Health district office. (b) Compressors and compressed-air receivers shall be equipped...

  16. 49 CFR 570.57 - Air brake system and air-over-hydraulic brake subsystem.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Air brake system and air-over-hydraulic brake... STANDARDS Vehicles With GVWR of More Than 10,000 Pounds § 570.57 Air brake system and air-over-hydraulic brake subsystem. The following requirements apply to vehicles with air brake and...

  17. Soyuz 23 Return Samples: Assessment of Air Quality Aboard the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    James, John T.

    2011-01-01

    Six mini-grab sample containers (m-GSCs) were returned aboard Soyuz 23 because of concerns that new air pollutants had been present in the air and these were getting into the water recovery system. The Total Organic Carbon Analyzer had been giving increasing readings of total organic carbon (TOC) in the potable water, and it was postulated that an increased load into the system was responsible. The TOC began to decline in late October, 2010. The toxicological assessment of 6 m-GSCs from the ISS is shown in Table 1. The recoveries of 13C-acetone, fluorobenzene, and chlorobenzene from the GSCs averaged 73, 82, and 59%, respectively. We are working to understand the sub-optimal recovery of chlorobenzene.

  18. Water sample-collection and distribution system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brooks, R. R.

    1978-01-01

    Collection and distribution system samples water from six designated stations, filtered if desired, and delivers it to various analytical sensors. System may be controlled by Water Monitoring Data Acquisition System or operated manually.

  19. Detection of pollen grains in multifocal optical microscopy images of air samples.

    PubMed

    Landsmeer, Sander H; Hendriks, Emile A; de Weger, Letty A; Reiber, Johan H C; Stoel, Berend C

    2009-06-01

    Pollen is a major cause of allergy and monitoring pollen in the air is relevant for diagnostic purposes, development of pollen forecasts, and for biomedical and biological researches. Since counting airborne pollen is a time-consuming task and requires specialized personnel, an automated pollen counting system is desirable. In this article, we present a method for detecting pollen in multifocal optical microscopy images of air samples collected by a Burkard pollen sampler, as a first step in an automated pollen counting procedure. Both color and shape information was used to discriminate pollen grains from other airborne material in the images, such as fungal spores and dirt. A training set of 44 images from successive focal planes (stacks) was used to train the system in recognizing pollen color and for optimization. The performance of the system has been evaluated using a separate set of 17 image stacks containing 65 pollen grains, of which 86% was detected. The obtained precision of 61% can still be increased in the next step of classifying the different pollen in such a counting system. These results show that the detection of pollen is feasible in images from a pollen sampler collecting ambient air. This first step in automated pollen detection may form a reliable basis for an automated pollen counting system.

  20. Isotopic air sampling in a tallgrass prairie to partition net ecosystem CO2 exchange

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lai, Chun-Ta; Schauer, Andrew J.; Owensby, Clenton; Ham, Jay M.; Ehleringer, James R.

    2003-09-01

    Stable isotope ratios of various ecosystem components and net ecosystem exchange (NEE) CO2 fluxes were measured in a C3-C4 mixture tallgrass prairie near Manhattan, Kansas. The July 2002 study period was chosen because of contrasting soil moisture contents, which allowed us to address the effects of drought on photosynthetic CO2 uptake and isotopic discrimination. Significantly higher NEE fluxes were observed for both daytime uptake and nighttime respiration during well-watered conditions when compared to a drought period. Given these differences, we investigated two carbon-flux partitioning questions: (1) What proportions of NEE were contributed by C3 versus C4 species? (2) What proportions of NEE fluxes resulted from canopy assimilation versus ecosystem respiration? To evaluate these questions, air samples were collected every 2 hours during daytime for 3 consecutive days at the same height as the eddy covariance system. These air samples were analyzed for both carbon isotope ratios and CO2 concentrations to establish an empirical relationship for isoflux calculations. An automated air sampling system was used to collect nighttime air samples to estimate the carbon isotope ratios of ecosystem respiration (δR) at weekly intervals for the entire growing season. Models of C3 and C4 photosynthesis were employed to estimate bulk canopy intercellular CO2 concentration in order to calculate photosynthetic discrimination against 13C. Our isotope/NEE results showed that for this grassland, C4 vegetation contributed ˜80% of the NEE fluxes during the drought period and later ˜100% of the NEE fluxes in response to an impulse of intense precipitation. For the entire growing season, the C4 contribution ranged from ˜68% early in the spring to nearly 100% in the late summer. Using an isotopic approach, the calculated partitioned respiratory fluxes were slightly greater than chamber-measured estimates during midday under well-watered conditions. In addition, time series

  1. Biomimetic air sampling for detection of low concentrations of molecules and bioagents : LDRD 52744 final report.

    SciTech Connect

    Hughes, Robert Clark

    2003-12-01

    Present methods of air sampling for low concentrations of chemicals like explosives and bioagents involve noisy and power hungry collectors with mechanical parts for moving large volumes of air. However there are biological systems that are capable of detecting very low concentrations of molecules with no mechanical moving parts. An example is the silkworm moth antenna which is a highly branched structure where each of 100 branches contains about 200 sensory 'hairs' which have dimensions of 2 microns wide by 100 microns long. The hairs contain about 3000 pores which is where the gas phase molecules enter the aqueous (lymph) phase for detection. Simulations of diffusion of molecules indicate that this 'forest' of hairs is 'designed' to maximize the extraction of the vapor phase molecules. Since typical molecules lose about 4 decades in diffusion constant upon entering the liquid phase, it is important to allow air diffusion to bring the molecule as close to the 'sensor' as possible. The moth acts on concentrations as low as 1000 molecules per cubic cm. (one part in 1e16). A 3-D collection system of these dimensions could be fabricated by micromachining techniques available at Sandia. This LDRD addresses the issues involved with extracting molecules from air onto micromachined structures and then delivering those molecules to microsensors for detection.

  2. Method, system and apparatus for monitoring and adjusting the quality of indoor air

    DOEpatents

    Hartenstein, Steven D.; Tremblay, Paul L.; Fryer, Michael O.; Hohorst, Frederick A.

    2004-03-23

    A system, method and apparatus is provided for monitoring and adjusting the quality of indoor air. A sensor array senses an air sample from the indoor air and analyzes the air sample to obtain signatures representative of contaminants in the air sample. When the level or type of contaminant poses a threat or hazard to the occupants, the present invention takes corrective actions which may include introducing additional fresh air. The corrective actions taken are intended to promote overall health of personnel, prevent personnel from being overexposed to hazardous contaminants and minimize the cost of operating the HVAC system. The identification of the contaminants is performed by comparing the signatures provided by the sensor array with a database of known signatures. Upon identification, the system takes corrective actions based on the level of contaminant present. The present invention is capable of learning the identity of previously unknown contaminants, which increases its ability to identify contaminants in the future. Indoor air quality is assured by monitoring the contaminants not only in the indoor air, but also in the outdoor air and the air which is to be recirculated. The present invention is easily adaptable to new and existing HVAC systems. In sum, the present invention is able to monitor and adjust the quality of indoor air in real time by sensing the level and type of contaminants present in indoor air, outdoor and recirculated air, providing an intelligent decision about the quality of the air, and minimizing the cost of operating an HVAC system.

  3. Microbial Air and Surface Monitoring Results from International Space Station Samples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ott, C. Mark; Bruce, Rebekah J.; Castro, Victoria A.; Novikova, Natalia D.; Pierson, D. L.

    2005-01-01

    Over the course of long-duration spaceflight, spacecraft develop a microbial ecology that directly interacts with the crew of the vehicle. While most microorganisms are harmless or beneficial to the inhabitants of the vehicle, the presence of medically significant organisms appearing in this semi-closed environment could adversely affect crew health and performance. The risk of exposure of the crew to medically significant organisms during a mission is estimated using information gathered during nominal and contingency environmental monitoring. Analysis of the air and surface microbiota in the habitable compartments of the International Space Station (ISS) over the last four years indicate a high presence of Staphylococcus species reflecting the human inhabitants of the vehicle. Generally, air and surface microbial concentrations are below system design specifications, suggesting a lower risk of contact infection or biodegradation. An evaluation of sample frequency indicates a decrease in the identification of new species, suggesting a lower potential for unknown microorganisms to be identified. However, the opportunistic pathogen, Staphylococcus aureus, has been identified in 3 of the last 5 air samples and 5 of the last 9 surface samples. In addition, 47% of the coagulase negative Staphylococcus species that were isolated from the crew, ISS, and its hardware were found to be methicillin resistance. In combination, these observations suggest the potential of methicillin resistant infectious agents over time.

  4. Microbial Air and Surface Monitoring Results from International Space Station Samples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ott, C. Mark; Bruce, Rebekah J.; Castro, Victoria A.; Novikova, Natalia D.; Pierson, D. L.

    2005-01-01

    Over the course of long-duration spaceflight, spacecraft develop a microbial ecology that directly interacts with the crew of the vehicle. While most microorganisms are harmless or beneficial to the inhabitants of the vehicle, the presence of medically significant organisms appearing in this semi-closed environment could adversely affect crew health and performance. The risk of exposure of the crew to medically significant organisms during a mission is estimated using information gathered during nominal and contingency environmental monitoring. Analysis of the air and surface microbiota in the habitable compartments of the International Space Station (ISS) over the last four years indicate a high presence of Staphylococcus species reflecting the human inhabitants of the vehicle. Generally, air and surface microbial concentrations are below system design specifications, suggesting a lower risk of contact infection or biodegradation. An evaluation of sample frequency indicates a decrease in the identification of new species, suggesting a lower potential for unknown microorganisms to be identified. However, the opportunistic pathogen, Staphylococcus aureus, has been identified in 3 of the last 5 air samples and 5 of the last 9 surface samples. In addition, 47% of the coagulase negative Staphylococcus species that were isolated from the crew, ISS, and its hardware were found to be methicillin resistance. In combination, these observations suggest the potential of methicillin resistant infectious agents over time.

  5. 78 FR 36633 - National Automotive Sampling System

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-18

    ... upgrade the National Automotive Sampling System (NASS) by improving the information technology (IT...; Modernize the information technology (IT) infrastructure; Re-examine the electronic formats in which the..., provide information on the new sample design and describe the information ] technology...

  6. Molecular-beam gas-sampling system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, W. S.; Knuth, E. L.

    1972-01-01

    A molecular beam mass spectrometer system for rocket motor combustion chamber sampling is described. The history of the sampling system is reviewed. The problems associated with rocket motor combustion chamber sampling are reported. Several design equations are presented. The results of the experiments include the effects of cooling water flow rates, the optimum separation gap between the end plate and sampling nozzle, and preliminary data on compositions in a rocket motor combustion chamber.

  7. Water vapor measurement system in global atmospheric sampling program, appendix

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Englund, D. R.; Dudzinski, T. J.

    1982-01-01

    The water vapor measurement system used in the NASA Global Atmospheric Sampling Program (GASP) is described. The system used a modified version of a commercially available dew/frostpoint hygrometer with a thermoelectrically cooled mirror sensor. The modifications extended the range of the hygrometer to enable air sample measurements with frostpoint temperatures down to -80 C at altitudes of 6 to 13 km. Other modifications were made to permit automatic, unattended operation in an aircraft environment. This report described the hygrometer, its integration with the GASP system, its calibration, and operational aspects including measurement errors. The estimated uncertainty of the dew/frostpoint measurements was + or - 1.7 Celsius.

  8. Rapid on-site air sampling with a needle extraction device for evaluating the indoor air environment in school facilities.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Mitsuru; Mizuguchi, Ayako; Ueta, Ikuo; Takahashi, Kazuya; Saito, Yoshihiro

    2013-01-01

    A rapid on-site air sampling technique was developed with a miniaturized needle-type sample preparation device for a systematic evaluation of the indoor air environments in school facilities. With the in-needle extraction device packed with a polymer particle of divinylbenzene and activated carbon particles, various types of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were successfully extracted. For evaluating the indoor air qualities in school facilities, air samples in renovated rooms using organic solvent as a thinner of the paint were analyzed along with measurements of several VOCs in indoor air samples taken in newly built primary schools mainly using low-VOCs materials. After periodical renovation/maintenance, the time-variation profile of typical VOCs found in the school facilities has also been monitored. From the results, it could be observed that the VOCs in most of the rooms in these primary schools were at a quite low level; however, a relatively higher concentration of VOCs was found in some specially designed rooms, such as music rooms. In addition, some non-regulated compounds, including benzyl alcohol and branched alkanes, were detected in these primary schools. The results showed a good applicability of the needle device to indoor air analysis in schools, suggesting a wide range of future employment of the needle device, especially for indoor air analysis in other types of facilities and rooms including hospitals and hotels.

  9. Microgravity Testing of a Surface Sampling System for Sample Return from Small Solar System Bodies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Franzen, M. A.; Preble, J.; Schoenoff, M.; Halona, K.; Long, T. E.; Park, T.; Sears, D. W. G.

    2004-01-01

    The return of samples from solar system bodies is becoming an essential element of solar system exploration. The recent National Research Council Solar System Exploration Decadal Survey identified six sample return missions as high priority missions: South-Aitken Basin Sample Return, Comet Surface Sample Return, Comet Surface Sample Return-sample from selected surface sites, Asteroid Lander/Rover/Sample Return, Comet Nucleus Sample Return-cold samples from depth, and Mars Sample Return [1] and the NASA Roadmap also includes sample return missions [2] . Sample collection methods that have been flown on robotic spacecraft to date return subgram quantities, but many scientific issues (like bulk composition, particle size distributions, petrology, chronology) require tens to hundreds of grams of sample. Many complex sample collection devices have been proposed, however, small robotic missions require simplicity. We present here the results of experiments done with a simple but innovative collection system for sample return from small solar system bodies.

  10. 14 CFR 23.1109 - Turbocharger bleed air system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Turbocharger bleed air system. 23.1109... Induction System § 23.1109 Turbocharger bleed air system. The following applies to turbocharged bleed air systems used for cabin pressurization: (a) The cabin air system may not be subject to hazardous...

  11. 14 CFR 23.1109 - Turbocharger bleed air system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Turbocharger bleed air system. 23.1109... Induction System § 23.1109 Turbocharger bleed air system. The following applies to turbocharged bleed air systems used for cabin pressurization: (a) The cabin air system may not be subject to...

  12. 14 CFR 23.1109 - Turbocharger bleed air system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Turbocharger bleed air system. 23.1109... Induction System § 23.1109 Turbocharger bleed air system. The following applies to turbocharged bleed air systems used for cabin pressurization: (a) The cabin air system may not be subject to...

  13. 14 CFR 23.1109 - Turbocharger bleed air system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Turbocharger bleed air system. 23.1109... Induction System § 23.1109 Turbocharger bleed air system. The following applies to turbocharged bleed air systems used for cabin pressurization: (a) The cabin air system may not be subject to hazardous...

  14. Advanced Overfire Air system and design

    SciTech Connect

    Gene berkau

    2004-07-30

    The objective of the proposed project is to design, install and optimize a prototype advanced tangential OFA air system on two mass feed stoker boilers that can burn coal, biomass and a mixture of these fuels. The results will be used to develop a generalized methodology for retrofit designs and optimization of advanced OFA air systems. The advanced OFA system will reduce particulate and NOx emissions and improve overall efficiency by reducing carbon in the ash and excess oxygen. The advanced OFA will also provide capabilities for carrying full load and improved load following and transitional operations.

  15. Urgent problems of improving background air pollution monitoring systems.

    PubMed

    Berlyand, M E; Volberg, N S; Lavrinenko, R F; Rusina, E N

    1988-01-01

    For more than 12 years, systematic observations of background air pollution have been carried out in accordance with the WMO Programme using the network of USSR stations located in sparsely populated settlements and in a number of neighbouring cities. The parameters involved include spectral radiation measurements, determination of chemical composition of precipitation and the concentrations of a number of atmospheric pollutants. Analysis of the data obtained allows conclusions to be drawn on the capabilities of the current system and to evaluate methods of improving it.In order to further improve the monitoring system, it is recommended that the system should perform the same observations on air pollution and precipitation as carried out by other international and national programs, and also to create centralized laboratories to deal with the analysis of samples from these monitoring stations. Additionally, solid sorbents are emerging as an effective means of sampling certain air pollutants. They may be sent by post, they increase the accuracy of measurements and allow air sampling intervals of up to 7-10 days, thus synchronizing this period with the interval of precipitation sampling.

  16. Low power, constant-flow air pump systems

    SciTech Connect

    Polito, M.D.; Albert, B.

    1994-01-01

    A rugged, yet small and lightweight constant-flow air pump system has been designed. Flow control is achieved using a novel approach which is three times more power efficient than previous designs. The resultant savings in battery size and weight makes these pumps ideal for sampling air on balloon platforms. The pump package includes meteorological sensors and an onboard computer that stores time and sensor data and turns the constant-flow pump circuit on/off. Some applications of these systems are also presented in this report.

  17. Air-Bearing-Piston Suspension System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mullen, Donald; Bishop, Stephen J.

    1992-01-01

    Suspension system based on air-bearing piston holds up steel ball against gravitation while allowing ball to translate vertically and rotate freely. System designed to simulate effect of microgravity on ball. Applicable to suppression of vibrations and delicate machining processes.

  18. Chemical reactivities of ambient air samples in three Southern California communities.

    PubMed

    Eiguren-Fernandez, Arantza; Di Stefano, Emma; Schmitz, Debra A; Guarieiro, Aline Lefol Nani; Salinas, Erika M; Nasser, Elina; Froines, John R; Cho, Arthur K

    2015-03-01

    The potential adverse health effects of PM2.5 (particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter<2.5 μm) and vapor samples from three communities that neighbor railyards, Commerce (CM), Long Beach (LB), and San Bernardino (SB), were assessed by determination of chemical reactivities attributed to the induction of oxidative stress by air pollutants. The assays used were dithiothreitol (DTT)- and dihydrobenzoic acid (DHBA)-based procedures for prooxidant content and a glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) assay for electrophiles. Prooxidants and electrophiles have been proposed as the reactive chemical species responsible for the induction of oxidative stress by air pollution mixtures. The PM2.5 samples from CM and LB sites showed seasonal differences in reactivities, with higher levels in the winter, whereas the SB sample differences were reversed. The reactivities in the vapor samples were all very similar, except for the summer SB samples, which contained higher levels of both prooxidants and electrophiles. The results suggest that the observed reactivities reflect general geographical differences rather than direct effects of the railyards. Distributional differences in reactivities were also observed, with PM2.5 fractions containing most of the prooxidants (74-81%) and the vapor phase most of the electrophiles (82-96%). The high levels of the vapor-phase electrophiles and their potential for adverse biological effects point out the importance of the vapor phase in assessing the potential health effects of ambient air. PM2.5 and its corresponding vapor phase, containing semivolatile organics, were collected in three communities in the Los Angeles Basin and examined with toxicologically relevant chemical assays. The PM2.5 phase contained most of the prooxidants and the vapor phase contained most of the electrophiles, whose content was highest in summer samples from a receptor site that reflected greater photochemical processing of the air parcel during

  19. [Microbial air purity in hospitals. Operating theatres with air conditioning system].

    PubMed

    Krogulski, Adam; Szczotko, Maciej

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to show the influence of air conditioning control for microbial contamination of air inside the operating theatres equipped with correctly working air-conditioning system. This work was based on the results of bacteria and fungi concentration in hospital air obtained since 2001. Assays of microbial air purity conducted on atmospheric air in parallel with indoor air demonstrated that air filters applied in air-conditioning systems worked correctly in every case. To show the problem of fluctuation of bacteria concentration more precisely, every sequences of single results from successive measure series were examined independently.

  20. The Integrated Air Transportation System Evaluation Tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wingrove, Earl R., III; Hees, Jing; Villani, James A.; Yackovetsky, Robert E. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Throughout U.S. history, our nation has generally enjoyed exceptional economic growth, driven in part by transportation advancements. Looking forward 25 years, when the national highway and skyway systems are saturated, the nation faces new challenges in creating transportation-driven economic growth and wealth. To meet the national requirement for an improved air traffic management system, NASA developed the goal of tripling throughput over the next 20 years, in all weather conditions while maintaining safety. Analysis of the throughput goal has primarily focused on major airline operations, primarily through the hub and spoke system.However, many suggested concepts to increase throughput may operate outside the hub and spoke system. Examples of such concepts include the Small Aircraft Transportation System, civil tiltrotor, and improved rotorcraft. Proper assessment of the potential contribution of these technologies to the domestic air transportation system requires a modeling capability that includes the country's numerous smaller airports, acting as a fundamental component of the National Air space System, and the demand for such concepts and technologies. Under this task for NASA, the Logistics Management Institute developed higher fidelity demand models that capture the interdependence of short-haul air travel with other transportation modes and explicitly consider the costs of commercial air and other transport modes. To accomplish this work, we generated forecasts of the distribution of general aviation based aircraft and GA itinerant operations at each of nearly 3.000 airport based on changes in economic conditions and demographic trends. We also built modules that estimate the demand for travel by different modes, particularly auto, commercial air, and GA. We examined GA demand from two perspectives: top-down and bottom-up, described in detail.

  1. U.S. Air Force School of Aerospace Medicine Laboratory Sampling and Analysis Guide

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-11-15

    AFRL-SA-WP-SR-2016-0023 U.S. Air Force School of Aerospace Medicine Laboratory Sampling and Analysis Guide Maj...Crystalyn E. Brown November 2016 Air Force Research Laboratory 711th Human Performance Wing School of Aerospace Medicine ...COVERED (From – To) November 2013 – October 2016 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE U.S. Air Force School of Aerospace Medicine Laboratory Sampling and Analysis

  2. 30 CFR 70.205 - Approved sampling devices; operation; air flowrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... flowrate. 70.205 Section 70.205 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... § 70.205 Approved sampling devices; operation; air flowrate. (a) Sampling devices approved in... flowrate of 2.0 liters of air per minute, or at a different flowrate as prescribed by the Secretary and the...

  3. 30 CFR 70.205 - Approved sampling devices; operation; air flowrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... flowrate. 70.205 Section 70.205 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... § 70.205 Approved sampling devices; operation; air flowrate. (a) Sampling devices approved in... flowrate of 2.0 liters of air per minute, or at a different flowrate as prescribed by the Secretary and the...

  4. Effect based monitoring of seasonal ambient air exposures in Australia sampled by PUF passive air samplers

    PubMed Central

    Kennedy, Karen; Macova, Miroslava; Bartkow, Michael E.; Hawker, Darryl W.; Zhao, Bin; Denison, Michael S.; Mueller, Jochen F.

    2011-01-01

    There has been relatively little bioanalytical effect based monitoring conducted using samples derived from polyurethane foam (PUF) passive air samplers. Combining these techniques may provide a more convenient and cost effective means of monitoring the potential for biological effects resulting from exposure to complex mixtures in a range of scenarios. Seasonal polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) levels were monitored at sites around Australia using direct chemical analysis. In addition, both indirect acting genotoxicity (umuC assay) and aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) activity (chemically activated fluorescent gene expression [CAFLUX assay]), which are effects potentially relevant to subsequent carcinogenesis for these compounds, were measured. The levels of PAHs as well as genotoxicity and AhR activity were all higher in winter compared to summer and for sites in urban capital cities compared to other locations. Statistically significant relationships were found between the levels of PAHs and both genotoxicity and AhR activity. The dominant contributors to the total AhR activity, were found to be for compounds which are not resistant to H2SO4/silica gel treatment and were relatively rapidly metabolised that is consistent with a PAH type response. Relative potency estimates for individual PAHs determined for the first time on the CAFLUX assay were used to estimate the proportion of total AhR activity (≤ 3.0%) accounted by PAHs monitored. Observed responses are thus largely due to non-quantified AhR active compounds. PMID:21552507

  5. Air Storage System Energy Transfer (ASSET) plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stys, Z. S.

    1983-09-01

    The design features and performance capabilities of Air Storage System Energy Transfer (ASSET) plants for transferring off-peak utility electricity to on-peak hours are described. The plant operations involve compressing ambient air with an axial flow compressor and depositing it in an underground reservoir at 70 bar pressure. Released during a peaking cycle, the pressure is reduced to 43 bar, the air is heated to 550 C, passed through an expander after a turbine, and passed through a low pressure combustion chamber to be heated to 850 C. A West German plant built in 1978 to supply over 300 MW continuous power for up to two hours is detailed, noting its availability factor of nearly 98 percent and power delivery cost of $230/kW installed. A plant being constructed in Illinois will use limestone caverns as the air storage tank.

  6. Low-cost monitoring of Campylobacter in poultry houses by air sampling and quantitative PCR.

    PubMed

    Søndergaard, M S R; Josefsen, M H; Löfström, C; Christensen, L S; Wieczorek, K; Osek, J; Hoorfar, J

    2014-02-01

    The present study describes the evaluation of a method for the quantification of Campylobacter by air sampling in poultry houses. Sampling was carried out in conventional chicken houses in Poland, in addition to a preliminary sampling in Denmark. Each measurement consisted of three air samples, two standard boot swab fecal samples, and one airborne particle count. Sampling was conducted over an 8-week period in three flocks, assessing the presence and levels of Campylobacter in boot swabs and air samples using quantitative real-time PCR. The detection limit for air sampling was approximately 100 Campylobacter cell equivalents (CCE)/m3. Airborne particle counts were used to analyze the size distribution of airborne particles (0.3 to 10 μm) in the chicken houses in relation to the level of airborne Campylobacter. No correlation was found. Using air sampling, Campylobacter was detected in the flocks right away, while boot swab samples were positive after 2 weeks. All samples collected were positive for Campylobacter from week 2 through the rest of the rearing period for both sampling techniques, although levels 1- to 2-log CCE higher were found with air sampling. At week 8, the levels were approximately 10(4) and 10(5) CCE per sample for boot swabs and air, respectively. In conclusion, using air samples combined with quantitative real-time PCR, Campylobacter contamination could be detected earlier than by boot swabs and was found to be a more convenient technique for monitoring and/or to obtain enumeration data useful for quantitative risk assessment of Campylobacter.

  7. Gas-Surface Interactions in Cryogenic Whole Air Sampling.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-05-01

    incomplete condensation, occurs at relatively high temperatures, where the adatom, population is controlled by the rates of adsorption and desorption as...NUMS ’ Princeton University 62101F Princeton, New Jersey 08544 668703AB 1I. CONTROLLING OFFICE NAME AND ADDRESS 12. REPORT DATE Air Force Geophysics...background species. The growth of this structure is kinetically controlled , with condensation temperature being a complex function of beam intensity, energy

  8. Sample introduction system for a flow cytometer

    DOEpatents

    Engh, G. van den

    1997-02-11

    A sample introduction system for a flow cytometer allows easy change of sample containers such as test tubes and facilitates use in high pressure environments. The sample container includes a cap having a pressure supply chamber and a sample container attachment cavity. A sample container may be automatically positioned into the attachment cavity so as to sealably engage the end of the sample container as its outer surface. This positioning may be accomplished through some sample introduction mechanism. To facilitate cleaning, HPLC tubing and fittings may be used in a manner which facilitates removing of the entire tubing from both the nozzle container and other sample container cap to permit its replacement to avoid contamination. The sample container support may include horizontal stops which loosely limit the movement of the sample container and thus avoid further stresses upon it. 3 figs.

  9. Sample introduction system for a flow cytometer

    DOEpatents

    Van den Engh, Ger

    1997-01-01

    A sample introduction system for a flow cytometer allows easy change of sample containers such as test tubes and facilitates use in high pressure environments. The sample container includes a cap having a pressure supply chamber and a sample container attachment cavity. A sample container may be automatically positioned into the attachment cavity so as to sealably engage the end of the sample container as its outer surface. This positioning may be accomplished through some sample introduction mechanism. To facilitate cleaning, HPLC tubing and fittings may be used in a manner which facilitates removing of the entire tubing from both the nozzle container and other sample container cap to permit its replacement to avoid contamination. The sample container support may include horizontal stops which loosely limit the movement of the sample container and thus avoid further stresses upon it.

  10. Planetary Sample Caching System Design Options

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collins, Curtis; Younse, Paulo; Backes, Paul

    2009-01-01

    Potential Mars Sample Return missions would aspire to collect small core and regolith samples using a rover with a sample acquisition tool and sample caching system. Samples would need to be stored in individual sealed tubes in a canister that could be transfered to a Mars ascent vehicle and returned to Earth. A sample handling, encapsulation and containerization system (SHEC) has been developed as part of an integrated system for acquiring and storing core samples for application to future potential MSR and other potential sample return missions. Requirements and design options for the SHEC system were studied and a recommended design concept developed. Two families of solutions were explored: 1)transfer of a raw sample from the tool to the SHEC subsystem and 2)transfer of a tube containing the sample to the SHEC subsystem. The recommended design utilizes sample tool bit change out as the mechanism for transferring tubes to and samples in tubes from the tool. The SHEC subsystem design, called the Bit Changeout Caching(BiCC) design, is intended for operations on a MER class rover.

  11. Radiological air monitoring and sample analysis research and development progress report. Calendar year, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-12-31

    Sponsored by a Department Of Energy (DOE) research and development grant, the State of Idaho INEL Oversight Program (OP) personnel designed an independent air monitoring system that provides detection of the presence of priority airborne contaminants potentially migrating beyond INEL boundaries. Initial locations for off-site ambient air monitoring stations were chosen in consultation with: DOE and NOAA reports; Mesodif modeling; review of the relevant literature; and communication with private contractors and experts in pertinent fields. Idaho State University (ISU) has initiated an Environmental Monitoring Program (EMP). The EMP provides an independent monitoring function as well as a training ground for students. Students learn research techniques dedicated to environmental studies and learn analytical skills and rules of compliance related to monitoring. ISU-EMP assisted OP in specific aspects of identifying optimum permanent monitoring station locations, and in selecting appropriate sample collection equipment for each station. The authorization to establish, prepare and install sampling devices on selected sites was obtained by OP personnel in conjunction with ISU-EMP personnel. All samples described in this program are collected by OP or ISU-EMP personnel and returned to the ISU for analysis. This report represents the summary of results of those samples collected and analyzed for radioactivity during the year of 1992.

  12. 24 CFR 3280.715 - Circulating air systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Circulating air systems. 3280.715... Systems § 3280.715 Circulating air systems. (a) Supply system. (1) Supply ducts and any dampers contained..., Class 1, or Class 2 air ducts. Class 2 air ducts shall be located at least 3 feet from the...

  13. 24 CFR 3280.715 - Circulating air systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Circulating air systems. 3280.715... Systems § 3280.715 Circulating air systems. (a) Supply system. (1) Supply ducts and any dampers contained..., Class 1, or Class 2 air ducts. Class 2 air ducts shall be located at least 3 feet from the...

  14. 24 CFR 3280.715 - Circulating air systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Circulating air systems. 3280.715... Systems § 3280.715 Circulating air systems. (a) Supply system. (1) Supply ducts and any dampers contained..., Class 1, or Class 2 air ducts. Class 2 air ducts shall be located at least 3 feet from the...

  15. Bioaerosols chemometric characterization by laser-induced fluorescence: air sample analysis.

    PubMed

    Cabredo, Susana; Parra, Alejandro; Sáenz, Cecilia; Anzano, Jesús

    2009-03-15

    A laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) system was optimized using a solution of Micrococcus luteus in ethanol/water 50% (v/v) to obtain spectra in the gas phase of 46 bioaerosols. Experimental designs such as Plackett-Burman and factorial design were applied. The fluorescence spectra were treated chemometrically by principal component analysis, linear discriminant analysis and hierarchical cluster analysis to classify the microorganisms according to family, morphology and gram. The best results were obtained using LDA. The method was applied to air samples and the LIF results allowed to characterize bioaerosols reliability. The robustness of the technique was demonstrated by the identification of many bacteria.

  16. Toxicological Assessment of ISS Air Quality: Contingency Sampling - February 2013

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyers, Valerie

    2013-01-01

    Two grab sample containers (GSCs) were collected by crew members onboard ISS in response to a vinegar-like odor in the US Lab. On February 5, the first sample was collected approximately 1 hour after the odor was noted by the crew in the forward portion of the Lab. The second sample was collected on February 22 when a similar odor was noted and localized to the end ports of the microgravity science glovebox (MSG). The crewmember removed a glove from the MSG and collected the GSC inside the glovebox volume. Both samples were returned on SpaceX-2 for ground analysis.

  17. Combined air and water pollution control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolverton, Billy C. (Inventor); Jarrell, Lamont (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    A bioaquatic air pollution control system for controlling both water and atmospheric pollution is disclosed. The pollution control system includes an exhaust for directing polluted gases out of a furnace and a fluid circulating system which circulates fluid, such as waste water, from a source, past the furnace where the fluid flow entrains the pollutants from the furnace. The combined fluid and pollutants are then directed through a rock/plant/microbial filtering system. A suction pump pumps the treated waste water from the filter system past the exhaust to again entrain more pollutants from the furnace where they are combined with the fluid (waste water) and directed to the filter system.

  18. Air-sampled Filter Analysis for Endotoxins and DNA Content.

    PubMed

    Lang-Yona, Naama; Mazar, Yinon; Pardo, Michal; Rudich, Yinon

    2016-03-07

    Outdoor aerosol research commonly uses particulate matter sampled on filters. This procedure enables various characterizations of the collected particles to be performed in parallel. The purpose of the method presented here is to obtain a highly accurate and reliable analysis of the endotoxin and DNA content of bio-aerosols extracted from filters. The extraction of high molecular weight organic molecules, such as lipopolysaccharides, from sampled filters involves shaking the sample in a pyrogen-free water-based medium. The subsequent analysis is based on an enzymatic reaction that can be detected using a turbidimetric measurement. As a result of the high organic content on the sampled filters, the extraction of DNA from the samples is performed using a commercial DNA extraction kit that was originally designed for soils and modified to improve the DNA yield. The detection and quantification of specific microbial species using quantitative polymerase chain reaction (q-PCR) analysis are described and compared with other available methods.

  19. Secondary air injection system and method

    DOEpatents

    Wu, Ko-Jen; Walter, Darrell J.

    2014-08-19

    According to one embodiment of the invention, a secondary air injection system includes a first conduit in fluid communication with at least one first exhaust passage of the internal combustion engine and a second conduit in fluid communication with at least one second exhaust passage of the internal combustion engine, wherein the at least one first and second exhaust passages are in fluid communication with a turbocharger. The system also includes an air supply in fluid communication with the first and second conduits and a flow control device that controls fluid communication between the air supply and the first conduit and the second conduit and thereby controls fluid communication to the first and second exhaust passages of the internal combustion engine.

  20. The combined effects of sampling parameters on the sorbent tube sampling of phthalates in air

    PubMed Central

    Jo, Sang-Hee; Kim, Ki-Hyun; Kwon, Kyenghee

    2017-01-01

    The adsorption properties of various sorbent materials were investigated to assess the factors affecting biases in the sorbent tube (ST) sampling of airborne phthalates. The recovery of phthalates was assessed critically in relation to four key sampling parameters: (1) three types of sorbent materials (quartz wool (QW), glass wool (GW), and quartz wool plus Tenax TA (QWTN)), (2) the concentration level of phthalate standards, (3) purge flow rate, and (4) purge volume for analysis based on a ‘sorbent tube-thermal desorption-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (ST-TD-GC-MS)’ system. Among these parameters, the type of ST was the most influential in determining the recovery of phthalates. For a given ST type, the recovery of phthalates tends to improve with increases in the concentration level of standards. In case of QW and QWTN tubes, the breakthrough of phthalates was not observed up to the maximum purge volume (100 L) tested in this work; however, in case of GW, the recovery decreased drastically to 60% even at a purge volume of 1 L for low molecular weight phthalates. The results of our study demonstrate that accurate analysis of airborne phthalates can be achieved through proper control of key sampling parameters, particularly the choice of sorbent material. PMID:28361993

  1. The combined effects of sampling parameters on the sorbent tube sampling of phthalates in air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jo, Sang-Hee; Kim, Ki-Hyun; Kwon, Kyenghee

    2017-03-01

    The adsorption properties of various sorbent materials were investigated to assess the factors affecting biases in the sorbent tube (ST) sampling of airborne phthalates. The recovery of phthalates was assessed critically in relation to four key sampling parameters: (1) three types of sorbent materials (quartz wool (QW), glass wool (GW), and quartz wool plus Tenax TA (QWTN)), (2) the concentration level of phthalate standards, (3) purge flow rate, and (4) purge volume for analysis based on a ‘sorbent tube-thermal desorption-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (ST-TD-GC-MS)’ system. Among these parameters, the type of ST was the most influential in determining the recovery of phthalates. For a given ST type, the recovery of phthalates tends to improve with increases in the concentration level of standards. In case of QW and QWTN tubes, the breakthrough of phthalates was not observed up to the maximum purge volume (100 L) tested in this work; however, in case of GW, the recovery decreased drastically to 60% even at a purge volume of 1 L for low molecular weight phthalates. The results of our study demonstrate that accurate analysis of airborne phthalates can be achieved through proper control of key sampling parameters, particularly the choice of sorbent material.

  2. Fluid sampling system for a nuclear reactor

    DOEpatents

    Lau, Louis K.; Alper, Naum I.

    1994-01-01

    A system of extracting fluid samples, either liquid or gas, from the interior of a nuclear reactor containment utilizes a jet pump. To extract the sample fluid, a nonradioactive motive fluid is forced through the inlet and discharge ports of a jet pump located outside the containment, creating a suction that draws the sample fluid from the containment through a sample conduit connected to the pump suction port. The mixture of motive fluid and sample fluid is discharged through a return conduit to the interior of the containment. The jet pump and means for removing a portion of the sample fluid from the sample conduit can be located in a shielded sample grab station located next to the containment. A non-nuclear grade active pump can be located outside the grab sampling station and the containment to pump the nonradioactive motive fluid through the jet pump.

  3. Fluid sampling system for a nuclear reactor

    DOEpatents

    Lau, L.K.; Alper, N.I.

    1994-11-22

    A system of extracting fluid samples, either liquid or gas, from the interior of a nuclear reactor containment utilizes a jet pump. To extract the sample fluid, a nonradioactive motive fluid is forced through the inlet and discharge ports of a jet pump located outside the containment, creating a suction that draws the sample fluid from the containment through a sample conduit connected to the pump suction port. The mixture of motive fluid and sample fluid is discharged through a return conduit to the interior of the containment. The jet pump and means for removing a portion of the sample fluid from the sample conduit can be located in a shielded sample grab station located next to the containment. A non-nuclear grade active pump can be located outside the grab sampling station and the containment to pump the nonradioactive motive fluid through the jet pump. 1 fig.

  4. A novel Whole Air Sample Profiler (WASP) for the quantification of volatile organic compounds in the boundary layer

    SciTech Connect

    Mak, J. E.; Su, L.; Guenther, Alex B.; Karl, Thomas G.

    2013-10-16

    The emission and fate of reactive VOCs is of inherent interest to those studying chemical biosphere-atmosphere interactions. In-canopy VOC observations are obtainable using tower-based samplers, but the lack of suitable sampling systems for the full boundary 5 layer has limited the data characterizing the vertical structure of such gases above the canopy height and still in the boundary layer. This is the important region where many reactive VOCs are oxidized or otherwise removed. Here we describe an airborne sampling system designed to collect a vertical profile of air into a 3/800 OD tube 150m in length. The inlet ram air pressure is used to flow sampled air through the 10 tube, which results in a varying flow rate based on aircraft speed and altitude. Since aircraft velocity decreases during ascent, it is necessary to account for the variable flow rate into the tube. This is accomplished using a reference gas that is pulsed into the air stream so that the precise altitude of the collected air can be reconstructed post-collection. The pulsed injections are also used to determine any significant effect 15 from diffusion/mixing within the sampling tube, either during collection or subsequent extraction for gas analysis. This system has been successfully deployed, and we show some measured vertical profiles of isoprene and its oxidation products methacrolein and methyl vinyl ketone from a mixed canopy near Columbia, Missouri.

  5. Advanced Air Data Systems for Commercial Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    It is possible to get a crude estimate of wind speed and direction while driving a car at night in the rain, with the motion of the raindrop reflections in the headlights providing clues about the wind. The clues are difficult to interpret, though, because of the relative motions of ground, car, air, and raindrops. More subtle interpretation is possible if the rain is replaced by fog, because the tiny droplets would follow the swirling currents of air around an illuminated object, like, for example, a walking pedestrian. Microscopic particles in the air (aerosols) are better for helping make assessments of the wind, and reflective air molecules are best of all, providing the most refined measurements. It takes a bright light to penetrate fog, so it is easy to understand how other factors, like replacing the headlights with the intensity of a searchlight, can be advantageous. This is the basic principle behind a lidar system. While a radar system transmits a pulse of radiofrequency energy and interprets the received reflections, a lidar system works in a similar fashion, substituting a near-optical laser pulse. The technique allows the measurement of relative positions and velocities between the transmitter and the air, which allows measurements of relative wind and of air temperature (because temperature is associated with high-frequency random motions on a molecular level). NASA, as well as the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), have interests in this advanced lidar technology, as much of their explorative research requires the ability to measure winds and turbulent regions within the atmosphere. Lidar also shows promise for providing warning of turbulent regions within the National Airspace System to allow commercial aircraft to avoid encounters with turbulence and thereby increase the safety of the traveling public. Both agencies currently employ lidar and optical sensing for a variety of weather-related research projects, such as analyzing

  6. Glyphosate–rich air samples induce IL–33, TSLP and generate IL–13 dependent airway inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Sudhir; Khodoun, Marat; Kettleson, Eric M.; McKnight, Christopher; Reponen, Tiina; Grinshpun, Sergey A.; Adhikari, Atin

    2014-01-01

    Several low weight molecules have often been implicated in the induction of occupational asthma. Glyphosate, a small molecule herbicide, is widely used in the world. There is a controversy regarding a role of glyphosate in developing asthma and rhinitis among farmers, the mechanism of which is unexplored. The aim of this study was to explore the mechanisms of glyphosate induced pulmonary pathology by utilizing murine models and real environmental samples. C57BL/6, TLR4−/−, and IL-13−/− mice inhaled extracts of glyphosate-rich air samples collected on farms during spraying of herbicides or inhaled different doses of glyphosate and ovalbumin. The cellular response, humoral response, and lung function of exposed mice were evaluated. Exposure to glyphosate-rich air samples as well as glyphosate alone to the lungs increased: eosinophil and neutrophil counts, mast cell degranulation, and production of IL-33, TSLP, IL-13, and IL-5. In contrast, in vivo systemic IL-4 production was not increased. Co-administration of ovalbumin with glyphosate did not substantially change the inflammatory immune response. However, IL-13-deficiency resulted in diminished inflammatory response but did not have a significant effect on airway resistance upon methacholine challenge after 7 or 21 days of glyphosate exposure. Glyphosate-rich farm air samples as well as glyphosate alone were found to induce pulmonary IL-13-dependent inflammation and promote Th2 type cytokines, but not IL-4 for glyphosate alone. This study, for the first time, provides evidence for the mechanism of glyphosate-induced occupational lung disease. PMID:25172162

  7. Performance of air cleaners in a residential forced air system

    SciTech Connect

    Offermann, F.J. III; Loiselle, S.A.; Sextro, G. )

    1992-07-01

    Increased attention is now being given to particles found indoors that have human health implications. The objective is to reduce the indoor particle concentrations of such pollutants as radon progeny, tobacco smoke, fibers and microbiological matter. Radon progeny (radioactive isotopes of polonium, bismuth and lead) are chemically active (unlike their chemically inert parents), and can adhere to indoor surfaces including airborne particles, room surfaces or lung tissue. Modeling of the expected lung dose (based on their alpha radiation) indicates that radon progeny not attached to particles have greater health risks than those attached to particles. Environmental tobacco smoke particles are liquid droplets of condensed tobacco combustion vapors that contain numerous organic compounds including known and suspected carcinogens and tumor promoters. It is the particulate phase of tobacco smoke that is suspected of causing lung cancer. Several particle control techniques exist (including mechanical and electrostatic filters) that may be used as part of a residential forced air heating/cooling system to substantially reduce the indoor concentrations of respirable particles. Unducted or stand-alone control devices are also available, and previous reports discuss an evaluation of these devices. In this paper the authors discuss the effects of air cleaning devices on indoor particle concentrations.

  8. Detection of the urban release of a bacillus anthracis simulant by air sampling.

    PubMed

    Garza, Alexander G; Van Cuyk, Sheila M; Brown, Michael J; Omberg, Kristin M

    2014-01-01

    In 2005 and 2009, the Pentagon Force Protection Agency (PFPA) staged deliberate releases of a commercially available organic pesticide containing Bacillus amyloliquefaciens to evaluate PFPA's biothreat response protocols. In concert with, but independent of, these releases, the Department of Homeland Security sponsored experiments to evaluate the efficacy of commonly employed air and surface sampling techniques for detection of an aerosolized biological agent. High-volume air samplers were placed in the expected downwind plume, and samples were collected before, during, and after the releases. Environmental surface and personal air samples were collected in the vicinity of the high-volume air samplers hours after the plume had dispersed. The results indicate it is feasible to detect the release of a biological agent in an urban area both during and after the release of a biological agent using high-volume air and environmental sampling techniques.

  9. Detection of the Urban Release of a Bacillus anthracis Simulant by Air Sampling

    PubMed Central

    Garza, Alexander G.; Van Cuyk, Sheila M.; Brown, Michael J.

    2014-01-01

    In 2005 and 2009, the Pentagon Force Protection Agency (PFPA) staged deliberate releases of a commercially available organic pesticide containing Bacillus amyloliquefaciens to evaluate PFPA's biothreat response protocols. In concert with, but independent of, these releases, the Department of Homeland Security sponsored experiments to evaluate the efficacy of commonly employed air and surface sampling techniques for detection of an aerosolized biological agent. High-volume air samplers were placed in the expected downwind plume, and samples were collected before, during, and after the releases. Environmental surface and personal air samples were collected in the vicinity of the high-volume air samplers hours after the plume had dispersed. The results indicate it is feasible to detect the release of a biological agent in an urban area both during and after the release of a biological agent using high-volume air and environmental sampling techniques. PMID:24697146

  10. Comparison of mold concentrations quantified by MSQPCR in indoor and outdoor air sampled simultaneously

    PubMed Central

    Meklin, Teija; Reponen, Tiina; McKinstry, Craig; Cho, Seung-Hyun; Grinshpun, Sergey A.; Nevalainen, Aino; Vepsäläinen, Asko; Haugland, Richard A.; LeMasters, Grace; Vesper, Stephen J.

    2007-01-01

    Mold specific quantitative PCR (MSQPCR) was used to measure the concentrations of the 36 mold species in indoor and outdoor air samples that were taken simultaneously for 48 h in and around 17 homes in Cincinnati, Ohio. The total spore concentrations of 353 per m3 of indoor air and 827 per m3 of outdoor air samples were significantly different (p≤0.05). However, only the concentrations of Aspergillus penicillioides, Cladosporium cladosporioides types 1 and 2 and Cladosporium herbarum were correlated in indoor and outdoor air samples (p-value≤0.05 and sufficient data for estimate and absolute value rho estimate ≥0.5). These results suggest that interpretation of the meaning of short-term (<48 h) mold measurements in indoor and outdoor air samples must be made with caution. PMID:17467772

  11. Comparison of mold concentrations quantified by MSQPCR in indoor and outdoor air sampled simultaneously.

    PubMed

    Meklin, Teija; Reponen, Tiina; McKinstry, Craig; Cho, Seung-Hyun; Grinshpun, Sergey A; Nevalainen, Aino; Vepsäläinen, Asko; Haugland, Richard A; Lemasters, Grace; Vesper, Stephen J

    2007-08-15

    Mold specific quantitative PCR (MSQPCR) was used to measure the concentrations of the 36 mold species in indoor and outdoor air samples that were taken simultaneously for 48 h in and around 17 homes in Cincinnati, Ohio. The total spore concentrations of 353 per m(3) of indoor air and 827 per m(3) of outdoor air samples were significantly different (pair samples (p-valueor=0.5). These results suggest that interpretation of the meaning of short-term (<48 h) mold measurements in indoor and outdoor air samples must be made with caution.

  12. Comparison of stationary and personal air sampling with an air dispersion model for children's ambient exposure to manganese.

    PubMed

    Fulk, Florence; Haynes, Erin N; Hilbert, Timothy J; Brown, David; Petersen, Dan; Reponen, Tiina

    2016-09-01

    Manganese (Mn) is ubiquitous in the environment and essential for normal growth and development, yet excessive exposure can lead to impairments in neurological function. This study modeled ambient Mn concentrations as an alternative to stationary and personal air sampling to assess exposure for children enrolled in the Communities Actively Researching Exposure Study in Marietta, OH. Ambient air Mn concentration values were modeled using US Environmental Protection Agency's Air Dispersion Model AERMOD based on emissions from the ferromanganese refinery located in Marietta. Modeled Mn concentrations were compared with Mn concentrations from a nearby stationary air monitor. The Index of Agreement for modeled versus monitored data was 0.34 (48 h levels) and 0.79 (monthly levels). Fractional bias was 0.026 for 48 h levels and -0.019 for monthly levels. The ratio of modeled ambient air Mn to measured ambient air Mn at the annual time scale was 0.94. Modeled values were also time matched to personal air samples for 19 children. The modeled values explained a greater degree of variability in personal exposures compared with time-weighted distance from the emission source. Based on these results modeled Mn concentrations provided a suitable approach for assessing airborne Mn exposure in this cohort.

  13. Tomorrows' Air Transportation System Breakout Series Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this presentation is to discuss tomorrow's air transportation system. Section of this presentation includes: chair comments; other general comments; surface congestion alleviation; runway productivity; enhanced arrival/departure tools; integrated airspace decision support tools; national traffic flow management, runway independent operations; ATM TFM weather; and terminal weather.

  14. Comparison of indoor air sampling and dust collection methods for fungal exposure assessment using quantitative PCR.

    PubMed

    Cox, Jennie; Indugula, Reshmi; Vesper, Stephen; Zhu, Zheng; Jandarov, Roman; Reponen, Tiina

    2017-08-31

    Evaluating fungal contamination indoors is complicated because of the many different sampling methods utilized. In this study, fungal contamination was evaluated using five sampling methods and four matrices for results. The five sampling methods were a 48 hour indoor air sample collected with a Button™ inhalable aerosol sampler and four types of dust samples: a vacuumed floor dust sample, newly settled dust collected for four weeks onto two types of electrostatic dust cloths (EDCs) in trays, and a wipe sample of dust from above floor surfaces. The samples were obtained in the bedrooms of asthmatic children (n = 14). Quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) was used to analyze the dust and air samples for the 36 fungal species that make up the Environmental Relative Moldiness Index (ERMI). The results from the samples were compared by four matrices: total concentration of fungal cells, concentration of fungal species associated with indoor environments, concentration of fungal species associated with outdoor environments, and ERMI values (or ERMI-like values for air samples). The ERMI values for the dust samples and the ERMI-like values for the 48 hour air samples were not significantly different. The total cell concentrations of the 36 species obtained with the four dust collection methods correlated significantly (r = 0.64-0.79, p < 0.05), with the exception of the vacuumed floor dust and newly settled dust. In addition, fungal cell concentrations of indoor associated species correlated well between all four dust sampling methods (r = 0.68-0.86, p < 0.01). No correlation was found between the fungal concentrations in the air and dust samples primarily because of differences in concentrations of Cladosporium cladosporioides Type 1 and Epicoccum nigrum. A representative type of dust sample and a 48 hour air sample might both provide useful information about fungal exposures.

  15. 14 CFR 23.1091 - Air induction system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Air induction system. 23.1091 Section 23... § 23.1091 Air induction system. (a) The air induction system for each engine and auxiliary power unit and their accessories must supply the air required by that engine and auxiliary power unit and...

  16. 30 CFR 77.412 - Compressed air systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Compressed air systems. 77.412 Section 77.412... for Mechanical Equipment § 77.412 Compressed air systems. (a) Compressors and compressed-air receivers... involving the pressure system of compressors, receivers, or compressed-air-powered equipment shall not...

  17. 14 CFR 23.1091 - Air induction system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Air induction system. 23.1091 Section 23... § 23.1091 Air induction system. (a) The air induction system for each engine and auxiliary power unit and their accessories must supply the air required by that engine and auxiliary power unit and...

  18. 14 CFR 23.1091 - Air induction system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Air induction system. 23.1091 Section 23... § 23.1091 Air induction system. (a) The air induction system for each engine and auxiliary power unit and their accessories must supply the air required by that engine and auxiliary power unit and...

  19. 30 CFR 77.412 - Compressed air systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Compressed air systems. 77.412 Section 77.412... for Mechanical Equipment § 77.412 Compressed air systems. (a) Compressors and compressed-air receivers... involving the pressure system of compressors, receivers, or compressed-air-powered equipment shall not be...

  20. 30 CFR 77.412 - Compressed air systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... involving the pressure system of compressors, receivers, or compressed-air-powered equipment shall not be... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Compressed air systems. 77.412 Section 77.412... for Mechanical Equipment § 77.412 Compressed air systems. (a) Compressors and compressed-air receivers...

  1. 21. DETAIL OF AIR HANDLER 1 (MST AIRCONDITIONING SYSTEM) INTERIOR, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    21. DETAIL OF AIR HANDLER 1 (MST AIR-CONDITIONING SYSTEM) INTERIOR, SOUTHEAST CORNER, STATION 30, SLC-3W MST - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Pad 3 West, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  2. Comparison of air dispersion modeling results with ambient air sampling data: A case study at Tacoma Landfill, a National Priorities List Site

    SciTech Connect

    Griffin, L.R. ); Rutherford, T.L. )

    1994-08-01

    Air dispersion modeling, ambient air sampling, and emissions testing of landfill sources have been performed to evaluate the effects of remedial activities on ambient air surrounding the Tacoma Landfill. In 1983, the Tacoma Landfill was placed on the National Priorities List (NPL) as part of the Commencement Bay/South Tacoma Channel Superfund site. Remedial activities completed, or near completion, at the 190 acre (768,903 m[sup 2]) Tacoma Landfill include a groundwater extraction system and air stripping units used to remove volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from groundwater, landfill gas extraction and flare system to control gas migration from the landfill, landfill liner and leachate collection system for an active section of the landfill, and a landfill cap that covers the inactive portions of the landfill. Dispersion modeling was performed with measured stack emission data using Industrial Source Complex (ISC) to determine the groundlevel concentrations of VOCs from the air stripper, flares, and active portion of the landfill for comparison with the measured ambient air data collected during 1992. 9 refs., 3 figs., 6 tabs.

  3. Air Conditioning System using Rankine Cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagatomo, Shigemi; Yamaguchi, Hiroichi; Hattori, Hitoshi; Futamura, Motonori

    Natural gas is used as the energy source to cope with the recent situation of increasing demand for electricity especially in summer. In this paper, the performance of a Rankine cycle air conditioning system driven by natural gas was studied. The following results were obtained : (1) Basic equations of performance, refrigerant mass flow rate and expander volume were developed by using the values of heating efficiency, regeneration efficiency, expander efficiency and compressor efficiency. (2) R134a refrigerant has been considered to be suitable for the Rankine cycle air conditioning system, compared with other refrigerants. (3)A Rankine cycle cooling system using R134a refrigerant as a single working fluid was developed. System COP of 0.47 was attained at typical operating condition.

  4. Gas sampling system for a mass spectrometer

    DOEpatents

    Taylor, Charles E; Ladner, Edward P

    2003-12-30

    The present invention relates generally to a gas sampling system, and specifically to a gas sampling system for transporting a hazardous process gas to a remotely located mass spectrometer. The gas sampling system includes a capillary tube having a predetermined capillary length and capillary diameter in communication with the supply of process gas and the mass spectrometer, a flexible tube surrounding and coaxial with the capillary tube intermediate the supply of process gas and the mass spectrometer, a heat transfer tube surrounding and coaxial with the capillary tube, and a heating device in communication the heat transfer tube for substantially preventing condensation of the process gas within the capillary tube.

  5. RaPToRS Sample Delivery System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henchen, Robert; Shibata, Kye; Krieger, Michael; Pogozelski, Edward; Padalino, Stephen; Glebov, Vladimir; Sangster, Craig

    2010-11-01

    At various labs (NIF, LLE, NRL), activated material samples are used to measure reaction properties. The Rapid Pneumatic Transport of Radioactive Samples (RaPToRS) system quickly and safely moves these radioactive samples through a closed PVC tube via airflow. The carrier travels from the reaction chamber to the control and analysis station, pneumatically braking at the outlet. A reversible multiplexer routes samples from various locations near the shot chamber to the analysis station. Also, the multiplexer allows users to remotely load unactivated samples without manually approaching the reaction chamber. All elements of the system (pneumatic drivers, flow control valves, optical position sensors, multiplexers, Geiger counters, and release gates at the analysis station) can be controlled manually or automatically using a custom LabVIEW interface. A prototype is currently operating at NRL in Washington DC. Prospective facilities for Raptors systems include LLE and NIF.

  6. Fuel-air ratio controlled carburetion system

    SciTech Connect

    Abbey, H. G.

    1980-02-12

    An automatic control system is disclosed supplying a fuel-air mixture to an internal combustion engine including a variable-venturi carburetor. Air is fed into the input of the venturi, the air passing through the throat thereof whose effective area is adjusted by a mechanism operated by a servo motor. Fuel is fed into the input of the venturi from a fuel reservoir through a main path having a fixed orifice and an auxiliary path formed by a metering valve operated by an auxiliary fuel-control motor. The differential air pressure developed between the inlet of the venturi and the throat thereof is sensed to produce an airvelocity command signal that is applied to a controller adapted to compare the command signal with the servo motor set point to produce an output for governing the servo motor to cause it to seek a null point, thereby defining a closed process control loop. The intake manifold vacuum, which varies in degree as a function of load and speed conditions is sensed to govern the auxiliary fuel-control motor accordingly, is at the same time converted into an auxiliary signal which is applied to the controller in the closed loop to modulate the command signal in a manner establishing an optimum air-fuel ratio under the varying conditions of load and speed.

  7. Unmanned platform for long-range remote analysis of volatile compounds in air samples.

    PubMed

    da Costa, Eric T; Neves, Carlos A; Hotta, Guilherme M; Vidal, Denis T R; Barros, Marcelo F; Ayon, Arturo A; Garcia, Carlos D; do Lago, Claudimir Lucio

    2012-09-01

    This paper describes a long-range remotely controlled CE system built on an all-terrain vehicle. A four-stroke engine and a set of 12-V batteries were used to provide power to a series of subsystems that include drivers, communication, computers, and a capillary electrophoresis module. This dedicated instrument allows air sampling using a polypropylene porous tube, coupled to a flow system that transports the sample to the inlet of a fused-silica capillary. A hybrid approach was used for the construction of the analytical subsystem combining a conventional fused-silica capillary (used for separation) and a laser machined microfluidic block, made of PMMA. A solid-state cooling approach was also integrated in the CE module to enable controlling the temperature and therefore increasing the useful range of the robot. Although ultimately intended for detection of chemical warfare agents, the proposed system was used to analyze a series of volatile organic acids. As such, the system allowed the separation and detection of formic, acetic, and propionic acids with signal-to-noise ratios of 414, 150, and 115, respectively, after sampling by only 30 s and performing an electrokinetic injection during 2.0 s at 1.0 kV. © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Minimum detectable activity concentration in direct alpha spectrometry from outdoor air samples: continuous monitoring versus separate sampling and counting.

    PubMed

    Pöllänen, R; Siiskonen, T

    2006-02-01

    Rapid method for identifying the presence of alpha particle emitting radionuclides in outdoor air is of paramount importance should a nuclear or radiological incident occur. Minimum detectable activity concentrations of U, U, Pu, and Pu in outdoor air are calculated for two direct alpha spectrometry methods: continuous air monitoring is compared with separate sampling and subsequent alpha particle counting in a vacuum chamber. The radon progeny activity concentration typical for outdoor air and the effects for the alpha particle spectra caused by the properties of the filter and the aerosol particles are taken into account using measurements and Monte Carlo simulations. Continuous air monitoring is a faster method for identifying the presence of (trans)uranium elements when their activity concentration is considerably higher than the typical detection limit. Separate sampling and counting in a vacuum chamber is a more sensitive method when concentrations are close to the detection limit and when the duration of the sampling-counting cycle is greater than approximately 2 h. The method may serve as a tool for rapid field measurements.

  9. Sampling for Contaminants in Ecological Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eberhardt, L. Lee; And Others

    1976-01-01

    This paper is concerned with problems in assessing the behavior of trace substances introduced into natural systems, sampling models of five classes that might be used in the study of contaminants are reviewed. Adaptation of an industrial experimentation method and techniques used in economic geology to ecological sampling is recommended.…

  10. Modular microfluidic system for biological sample preparation

    DOEpatents

    Rose, Klint A.; Mariella, Jr., Raymond P.; Bailey, Christopher G.; Ness, Kevin Dean

    2015-09-29

    A reconfigurable modular microfluidic system for preparation of a biological sample including a series of reconfigurable modules for automated sample preparation adapted to selectively include a) a microfluidic acoustic focusing filter module, b) a dielectrophoresis bacteria filter module, c) a dielectrophoresis virus filter module, d) an isotachophoresis nucleic acid filter module, e) a lyses module, and f) an isotachophoresis-based nucleic acid filter.

  11. Sampling for Contaminants in Ecological Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eberhardt, L. Lee; And Others

    1976-01-01

    This paper is concerned with problems in assessing the behavior of trace substances introduced into natural systems, sampling models of five classes that might be used in the study of contaminants are reviewed. Adaptation of an industrial experimentation method and techniques used in economic geology to ecological sampling is recommended.…

  12. Rotary Mode Core Sample System availability improvement

    SciTech Connect

    Jenkins, W.W.; Bennett, K.L.; Potter, J.D.; Cross, B.T.; Burkes, J.M.; Rogers, A.C.

    1995-02-28

    The Rotary Mode Core Sample System (RMCSS) is used to obtain stratified samples of the waste deposits in single-shell and double-shell waste tanks at the Hanford Site. The samples are used to characterize the waste in support of ongoing and future waste remediation efforts. Four sampling trucks have been developed to obtain these samples. Truck I was the first in operation and is currently being used to obtain samples where the push mode is appropriate (i.e., no rotation of drill). Truck 2 is similar to truck 1, except for added safety features, and is in operation to obtain samples using either a push mode or rotary drill mode. Trucks 3 and 4 are now being fabricated to be essentially identical to truck 2.

  13. Heating, Ventilation and Air-Conditioning Systems, Part of Indoor Air Quality Design Tools for Schools

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The main purposes of a Heating, Ventilation, and Air-Conditioning system are to help maintain good indoor air quality through adequate ventilation with filtration and provide thermal comfort. HVAC systems are among the largest energy consumers in schools.

  14. [Sanitary and epidemiological evaluation of the ventilation and air-conditioning systems of public buildings].

    PubMed

    Dvorianov, V V

    2012-01-01

    The microbial contamination of ventilation and air conditioning systems was examined in the administrative buildings. The author proposes a set of indicators, methods for determining the scope of investigations, as well as sampling tactics and criteria for evaluating the microbial contamination of the ventilation and air-conditioning systems. The content of yeasts and molds in the delivered air has been found to be of importance for evaluating the sanitary-and epidemiological state of ventilation systems.

  15. Evaluation of a new JMA aircraft flask sampling system and laboratory trace gas analysis system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsuboi, K.; Matsueda, H.; Sawa, Y.; Niwa, Y.; Nakamura, M.; Kuboike, D.; Saito, K.; Ohmori, H.; Iwatsubo, S.; Nishi, H.; Hanamiya, Y.; Tsuji, K.; Baba, Y.

    2013-05-01

    We established and evaluated a flask air sampling system on a cargo C-130H aircraft, as well as a trace gas measurement system for the flask samples, as part of a new operational monitoring program of the Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA). Air samples were collected during each flight, between Kanagawa Prefecture (near Tokyo) and Minamitorishima (an island located nearly 2000 km southeast of Tokyo), from the air-conditioning system on the aircraft. Prior to the operational employment of the sampling system, a quality assurance test of the sampled air was made by specially coordinated flights at a low altitude of 1000 ft over Minamitorishima and comparing the flask values with those obtained at the surface. Based on our storage tests, the flask samples remained nearly stable until analyses. The trace gas measurement system has, in addition to the nondispersive infrared (NDIR) and vacuum ultraviolet resonance fluorescence (VURF) analyzers, two laser-based analyzers using wavelength-scanned cavity ring-down spectroscopy (WS-CRDS) and off-axis integrated cavity output spectroscopy (ICOS). Laboratory tests of the laser-based analyzers for measuring flask samples indicated relatively high reproducibility with overall precisions of less than ±0.06 ppm for CO2, ±0.68 ppb for CH4, ±0.36 ppb for CO, and ±0.03 ppb for N2O. Flask air sample measurements, conducted concurrently on different analyzers were compared. These comparisons showed a negligible bias in the averaged measurements between the laser-based measurement techniques and the other methods currently in use. We also estimated that there are no significant isotope effects for CH4, CO and N2O using standard gases with industrial isotopic compositions to calibrate the laser-based analyzers, but CO2 was found to possess isotope effects larger than its analytical precision.

  16. Mercury vapor levels in exhaust air from dental vacuum systems.

    PubMed

    Stone, Mark E; Cohen, Mark E; Debban, Brad A

    2007-05-01

    This study was undertaken to determine mercury (Hg) vapor levels in the air exhausted from dental vacuum systems. Hg vapor concentrations from the dental vacuum system exhaust ports of three dental clinics were measured utilizing the Jerome 431-X mercury vapor analyzer and the United States Occupational Safety and Health Administration's (OSHA) method ID-140 in units of ng Hg/m3. Air velocity measurements and temperatures were determined with a constant temperature thermal anemometer. Hg emissions per unit time were then calculated in ng Hg/min. Ambient Hg concentrations from a location approximately 1000 feet away from the closest clinic sampled in this study were measured with an Ohio Lumex Inc. RA-915+ Hg vapor analyzer. Mean Hg vapor concentrations analyzed with the Jerome 431-X were: 46,526, 72,211, and 36,895 ng/m3 for clinic I (110 chairs), clinic II (30 chairs) and clinic III (2 chairs), respectively. Mean Hg vapor concentrations utilizing OSHA method ID-140 were 45,316, 73,737, and 35,421 ng/m3, respectively. Air flow values were: 11.6, 1.8, and 0.5 standard m3/min, respectively. Hg emission data utilizing air flow measurements were calculated to be 532,684, 131,353, and 18,079 ng/min, respectively, (P<0.001). There was no statistical difference between the two methods used to measure Hg vapor concentrations. The mean Hg concentration in ambient air approximately 1000 feet from the nearest clinic sampled was 13.2 ng/m3. The two different methods used to measure Hg vapor concentrations provided similar estimates of Hg concentrations from the exhaust air of three dental vacuum systems. Hg vapor release to the atmosphere from dental vacuums can be substantial and can exceed human exposure limits.

  17. Monte Carlo simulation of air sampling methods for the measurement of radon decay products.

    PubMed

    Sima, Octavian; Luca, Aurelian; Sahagia, Maria

    2017-02-21

    A stochastic model of the processes involved in the measurement of the activity of the (222)Rn decay products was developed. The distributions of the relevant factors, including air sampling and radionuclide collection, are propagated using Monte Carlo simulation to the final distribution of the measurement results. The uncertainties of the (222)Rn decay products concentrations in the air are realistically evaluated.

  18. Variables Related to Pre-Service Cannabis Use in a Sample of Air Force Enlistees.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mullins, Cecil J.; And Others

    This report is an attempt to add to the existing information about cannabis use, its correlates, and its effects. The sample population consisted of self-admitted abusers of various drugs, identified shortly after entering the Air Force. The subjects (N=4688) were located through the Drug Control Office at Lackland Air Force Base. Variables…

  19. Sampling and Analyzing Air Pollution: An Apparatus Suitable for Use in Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rockwell, Dean M.; Hansen, Tony

    1994-01-01

    Describes two variations of an air sampler and analyzer that are inexpensive to construct, easy to operate, and designed to be used in an educational program. Variations use vacuum cleaners and aquarium pumps, and white facial tissues serve as filters. Samples of air pollution obtained by this method may be used from early grade school to advanced…

  20. Salmonella recovery following air chilling for matched neck-skin and whole carcass sampling methodologies

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The prevalence and serogroups of Salmonella recovered following air chilling were determined for both enriched neck skin and matching enriched whole carcass samples. Commercially processed and eviscerated carcasses were air chilled to 4C before removing the neck skin (8.3 g) and stomaching in 83 mL...

  1. Sampling and Analyzing Air Pollution: An Apparatus Suitable for Use in Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rockwell, Dean M.; Hansen, Tony

    1994-01-01

    Describes two variations of an air sampler and analyzer that are inexpensive to construct, easy to operate, and designed to be used in an educational program. Variations use vacuum cleaners and aquarium pumps, and white facial tissues serve as filters. Samples of air pollution obtained by this method may be used from early grade school to advanced…

  2. Sampling, storage, and analysis of C2-C7 non-methane hydrocarbons from the US National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Cooperative Air Sampling Network glass flasks.

    PubMed

    Pollmann, Jan; Helmig, Detlev; Hueber, Jacques; Plass-Dülmer, Christian; Tans, Pieter

    2008-04-25

    An analytical technique was developed to analyze light non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHC), including ethane, propane, iso-butane, n-butane, iso-pentane, n-pentane, n-hexane, isoprene, benzene and toluene from whole air samples collected in 2.5l-glass flasks used by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Earth System Research Laboratory, Global Monitoring Division (NOAA ESRL GMD, Boulder, CO, USA) Cooperative Air Sampling Network. This method relies on utilizing the remaining air in these flasks (which is at below-ambient pressure at this stage) after the completion of all routine greenhouse gas measurements from these samples. NMHC in sample aliquots extracted from the flasks were preconcentrated with a custom-made, cryogen-free inlet system and analyzed by gas chromatography (GC) with flame ionization detection (FID). C2-C7 NMHC, depending on their ambient air mixing ratios, could be measured with accuracy and repeatability errors of generally < or =10-20%. Larger deviations were found for ethene and propene. Hexane was systematically overestimated due to a chromatographic co-elution problem. Saturated NMHC showed less than 5% changes in their mixing ratios in glass flask samples that were stored for up to 1 year. In the same experiment ethene and propene increased at approximately 30% yr(-1). A series of blank experiments showed negligible contamination from the sampling process and from storage (<10 pptv yr(-1)) of samples in these glass flasks. Results from flask NMHC analyses were compared to in-situ NMHC measurements at the Global Atmospheric Watch station in Hohenpeissenberg, Germany. This 9-months side-by-side comparison showed good agreement between both methods. More than 94% of all data comparisons for C2-C5 alkanes, isoprene, benzene and toluene fell within the combined accuracy and precision objectives of the World Meteorological Organization Global Atmosphere Watch (WMO-GAW) for NMHC measurements.

  3. IceBreaker: Mars Drill and Sample Delivery System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mellerowicz, B. L.; Paulsen, G. L.; Zacny, K.; McKay, C.; Glass, B. J.; Dave, A.; Davila, A. F.; Marinova, M.

    2012-12-01

    We report on the development and testing of a one meter class prototype Mars drill and cuttings sample delivery system. The IceBreaker drill consists of a rotary-percussive drill head, a sampling auger with a bit at the end having an integrated temperature sensor, a Z-stage for advancing the auger into the ground, and a sam-pling station for moving the augered ice shavings or soil cuttings into a sample cup. The drill is deployed from a 3 Degree of Freedom (DOF) robotic arm. The drill demonstrated drilling in ice-cemented ground, ice, and rocks at the 1-1-100-100 level; that is the drill reached 1 meter in 1 hour with 100 Watts of power and 100 Newton Weight on Bit. This cor-responds to an average energy of 100 Whr. The drill has been extensively tested in the Mars chamber to a depth of 1 meter, as well as in the Antarctic and the Arctic Mars analog sites. We also tested three sample delivery systems: 1) 4 DOF arm with a custom soil scoop at the end; 2) Pneumatic based, and 3) Drill based enabled by the 3 (DOF) drill deployment boom. In all approaches there is an air-gap between the sterilized drill (which penetrates subsurface) and the sample transfer hardware (which is not going to be sterilized). The air gap satisfies the planetary protection requirements. The scoop acquires cuttings sample once they are augered to the surface, and drops them into an in-strument inlet port. The system has been tested in the Mars chamber and in the Arctic. The pneumatic sample delivery system uses compressed gas to move the sample captured inside a small chamber inte-grated with the auger, directly into the instrument. The system was tested in the Mars chamber. In the third approach the drill auger captures the sample on its flutes, the 3 DOF boom positions the tip of the auger above the instrument, and then the auger discharges the sample into an instrument. This approach was tested in the labolatory (at STP). The above drilling and sample delivery tests have shown that drilling

  4. Community Multiscale Air Quality Modeling System (CMAQ)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    CMAQ is a computational tool used for air quality management. It models air pollutants including ozone, particulate matter and other air toxics to help determine optimum air quality management scenarios.

  5. A STRINGENT COMPARISON OF SAMPLING AND ANALYSIS METHODS FOR VOCS IN AMBIENT AIR

    EPA Science Inventory

    A carefully designed study was conducted during the summer of 1998 to simultaneously collect samples of ambient air by canisters and compare the analysis results to direct sorbent preconcentration results taken at the time of sample collection. A total of 32 1-h sample sets we...

  6. A STRINGENT COMPARISON OF SAMPLING AND ANALYSIS METHODS FOR VOCS IN AMBIENT AIR

    EPA Science Inventory

    A carefully designed study was conducted during the summer of 1998 to simultaneously collect samples of ambient air by canisters and compare the analysis results to direct sorbent preconcentration results taken at the time of sample collection. A total of 32 1-h sample sets we...

  7. 30 CFR 90.205 - Approved sampling devices; operation; air flowrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... flowrate. 90.205 Section 90.205 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... DEVELOPMENT OF PNEUMOCONIOSIS Sampling Procedures § 90.205 Approved sampling devices; operation; air flowrate... examined each shift by a person certified in accordance with § 90.202 (Certified person; sampling) during...

  8. TECHNOLOGY EVALUATION REPORT CEREX ENVIRONMENTAL SERVICES UV HOUND POINT SAMPLE AIR MONITOR

    EPA Science Inventory

    The USEPA's National Homeland Security Research Center (NHSRC) Technology Testing and Evaluation Program (TTEP) is carrying out performance tests on homeland security technologies. Under TTEP, Battelle evaluated the performance of the Cerex UV Hound point sample air monitor in de...

  9. TECHNOLOGY EVALUATION REPORT CEREX ENVIRONMENTAL SERVICES UV HOUND POINT SAMPLE AIR MONITOR

    EPA Science Inventory

    The USEPA's National Homeland Security Research Center (NHSRC) Technology Testing and Evaluation Program (TTEP) is carrying out performance tests on homeland security technologies. Under TTEP, Battelle evaluated the performance of the Cerex UV Hound point sample air monitor in de...

  10. NEW APPLICATION OF PASSIVE SAMPLING DEVICES FOR ASSESSMENT OF RESPIRATORY EXPOSURE TO PESTICIDES IN INDOOR AIR

    EPA Science Inventory

    The United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has long maintained an interest in potential applications of passive sampling devices (PSDs) for estimating the concentrations of various pollutants in air. Typically PSDs were designed for the workplace monitoring of vola...

  11. A method for reducing and evaluating blanks in Tenax air sampling cartridges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hubbard, Sarah A.; Russwurm, George M.; Walburn, Stephen G.

    Clean sorbent cartridges are essential in ambient air sampling to avoid false analytical results. This paper describes a procedure for the construction and cleaning of a Tenax cartridge. A definition is formulated to describe a clean cartridge quantitatively.

  12. Radiological air monitoring and sample analysis; Research and development progress report, January--March 1993

    SciTech Connect

    1993-12-31

    The INEL Oversight Program (OP) began work in 1992 to establish a network of permanent air monitoring stations around the perimeter of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). Sponsored as a Department of Energy (DOE) research and development grant, the project was designed to provide the public with an independent assessment of air quality resulting from operations at the INEL. This progress report summarizes the results of air sampling during the first quarter of 1993. During 1992 and the first half of 1993, the OP obtained and operated air sampling equipment from EPA-Las Vegas and EG and G Idaho. These samplers were obtained on loan until the OP could develop specifications for and purchase instruments to be used in the permanent air monitoring network. These samplers were deployed at selected air sampling locations, while quality assurance plans and specifications for permanent samplers were developed. The results presented in this progress report should be considered as research data. During the initial phase of establishing the air monitoring network, several modifications were made to sampling instruments and, in some cases, sampling locations. Therefore, the OP did not complete a formal quality assurance plan during this development program.

  13. Radiological air monitoring and sample analysis; Research and development progress report, April--June 1993

    SciTech Connect

    1993-12-31

    The INEL Oversight Program (OP) began work in 1992 to establish a network of permanent air monitoring stations around the perimeter of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). Sponsored as a Department of Energy (DOE) research and development grant, the project was designed to provide the public with an independent assessment of air quality resulting from operations at the INEL. This progress report summarizes the results of air sampling during the second quarter of 1993. During 1992 and the first half of 1993, the OP obtained and operated air sampling equipment from EPA-Las Vegas and EG and G Idaho. These samplers were obtained on loan until the OP could develop specifications for and purchase instruments to be used in the permanent air monitoring network. These sampler were deployed at selected air sampling locations, while quality assurance plans and specifications for permanent samplers were developed. The results presented in this progress report should be considered as research data. During the initial phase of establishing the air monitoring network, several modifications were made to sampling instruments and, in some cases, sampling locations. Therefore, the OP Did not complete a formal quality assurance plan during this developmental program.

  14. Sampling of power plant stacks for air toxic emissions: Final report for Phases 1 and 2

    SciTech Connect

    1995-04-28

    A test program to collect and analyze size-fractionated stack gas particulate samples for selected inorganic hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) was conducted . Specific goals of the program are (1) the collection of one-gram quantities of size-fractionated stack gas particulate matter for bulk (total) and surface chemical characterization, and (2) the determination of the relationship between particle size, bulk and surface (leachable) composition, and unit load. The information obtained from this program identifies the effects of unit load, particle size, and wet FGD system operation on the relative toxicological effects of exposure to particulate emissions. Field testing was conducted in two phases. The Phase I field program was performed over the period of August 24 through September 20, 1992, at the Tennessee Valley Authority Widows Creek Unit 8 Power Station, located near Stevenson (Jackson County), Alabama, on the Tennessee River. Sampling activities for Phase II were conducted from September 11 through October 14, 1993. Widows Creek Unit 8 is a 575-megawatt plant that uses bituminous coal averaging 3.7% sulfur and 13% ash. Downstream of the boiler, a venture wet scrubbing system is used for control of both sulfur dioxide and particulate emissions. There is no electrostatic precipitator (ESP) in this system. This system is atypical and represents only about 5% of the US utility industry. However, this site was chosen for this study because of the lack of information available for this particulate emission control system.

  15. Automated syringe sampler. [remote sampling of air and water

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Purgold, G. C. (Inventor)

    1981-01-01

    A number of sampling services are disposed in a rack which slides into a housing. In response to a signal from an antenna, the circutry elements are activated which provide power individually, collectively, or selectively to a servomechanism thereby moving an actuator arm and the attached jawed bracket supporting an evaculated tube towards a stationary needle. One open end of the needle extends through the side wall of a conduit to the interior and the other open end is maintained within the protective sleeve, supported by a bifurcated bracket. A septum in punctured by the end of the needle within the sleeve and a sample of the fluid medium in the conduit flows through the needle and is transferred to a tube. The signal to the servo is then reversed and the actuator arm moves the tube back to its original position permitting the septum to expand and seal the hole made by the needle. The jawed bracket is attached by pivot to the actuator to facilitate tube replacement.

  16. Comparison of stationary and personal air sampling with an air dispersion model for children’s ambient exposure to manganese

    EPA Science Inventory

    Manganese (Mn) is ubiquitous in the environment and essential for normal growth and development, yet excessive exposure can lead to impairments in neurological function. This study modeled ambient Mn concentrations as an alternative to stationary and personal air sampling to asse...

  17. Comparison of stationary and personal air sampling with an air dispersion model for children’s ambient exposure to manganese

    EPA Science Inventory

    Manganese (Mn) is ubiquitous in the environment and essential for normal growth and development, yet excessive exposure can lead to impairments in neurological function. This study modeled ambient Mn concentrations as an alternative to stationary and personal air sampling to asse...

  18. Massilia norwichensis sp. nov., isolated from an air sample.

    PubMed

    Orthová, Ivana; Kämpfer, Peter; Glaeser, Stefanie P; Kaden, René; Busse, Hans-Jürgen

    2015-01-01

    A Gram-negative, rod-shaped and motile bacterial isolate, designated strain NS9(T), isolated from air of the Sainsbury Centre for Visual Arts in Norwich, UK, was subjected to a polyphasic taxonomic study including phylogenetic analyses based on partial 16S rRNA, gyrB and lepA gene sequences and phenotypic characterization. The 16S rRNA gene sequence of NS9(T) identified Massilia haematophila CCUG 38318(T), M. niastensis 5516S-1(T) (both 97.7% similarity), M. aerilata 5516S-11(T) (97.4%) and M. tieshanensis TS3(T) (97.4%) as the next closest relatives. In partial gyrB and lepA sequences, NS9(T) shared the highest similarities with M. haematophila CCUG 38318(T) (94.5%) and M. aerilata 5516-11(T) (94.3%), respectively. These sequence data demonstrate the affiliation of NS9(T) to the genus Massilia. The detection of the predominant ubiquinone Q-8, a polar lipid profile consisting of the major compounds diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine and phosphatidylglycerol and a polyamine pattern containing 2-hydroxyputrescine and putrescine were in agreement with the assignment of strain NS9(T) to the genus Massilia. Major fatty acids were summed feature 3 (C16:1ω7c and/or iso-C15 : 0 2-OH), C16:0, C18: 1ω7c and C10:0 3-OH. Dissimilarities in partial lepA and gyrB gene sequences as well as results from DNA-DNA hybridizations demonstrate that strain NS9(T) is a representative of an as-yet undescribed species of the genus Massilia that is also distinguished from its close relatives based on physiological and biochemical traits. Hence, we describe a novel species, for which we propose the name Massilia norwichensis sp. nov., with the type strain NS9(T) ( = CCUG 65457(T) =LMG 28164(T)). © 2015 IUMS.

  19. Airborne Asbestos Exposures from Warm Air Heating Systems in Schools.

    PubMed

    Burdett, Garry J; Dewberry, Kirsty; Staff, James

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the concentrations of airborne asbestos that can be released into classrooms of schools that have amosite-containing asbestos insulation board (AIB) in the ceiling plenum or other spaces, particularly where there is forced recirculation of air as part of a warm air heating system. Air samples were collected in three or more classrooms at each of three schools, two of which were of CLASP (Consortium of Local Authorities Special Programme) system-built design, during periods when the schools were unoccupied. Two conditions were sampled: (i) the start-up and running of the heating systems with no disturbance (the background) and (ii) running of the heating systems during simulated disturbance. The simulated disturbance was designed to exceed the level of disturbance to the AIB that would routinely take place in an occupied classroom. A total of 60 or more direct impacts that vibrated and/or flexed the encapsulated or enclosed AIB materials were applied over the sampling period. The impacts were carried out at the start of the sampling and repeated at hourly intervals but did not break or damage the AIB. The target air volume for background samples was ~3000 l of air using a static sampler sited either below or ~1 m from the heater outlet. This would allow an analytical sensitivity (AS) of 0.0001 fibres per millilitre (f ml(-1)) to be achieved, which is 1000 times lower than the EU and UK workplace control limit of 0.1 f ml(-1). Samples with lower volumes of air were also collected in case of overloading and for the shorter disturbance sampling times used at one site. The sampler filters were analysed by phase contrast microscopy (PCM) to give a rapid determination of the overall concentration of visible fibres (all types) released and/or by analytical transmission electron microscopy (TEM) to determine the concentration of asbestos fibres. Due to the low number of fibres, results were reported in terms of both the calculated

  20. Airborne Asbestos Exposures from Warm Air Heating Systems in Schools

    PubMed Central

    Burdett, Garry J.; Dewberry, Kirsty; Staff, James

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the concentrations of airborne asbestos that can be released into classrooms of schools that have amosite-containing asbestos insulation board (AIB) in the ceiling plenum or other spaces, particularly where there is forced recirculation of air as part of a warm air heating system. Air samples were collected in three or more classrooms at each of three schools, two of which were of CLASP (Consortium of Local Authorities Special Programme) system-built design, during periods when the schools were unoccupied. Two conditions were sampled: (i) the start-up and running of the heating systems with no disturbance (the background) and (ii) running of the heating systems during simulated disturbance. The simulated disturbance was designed to exceed the level of disturbance to the AIB that would routinely take place in an occupied classroom. A total of 60 or more direct impacts that vibrated and/or flexed the encapsulated or enclosed AIB materials were applied over the sampling period. The impacts were carried out at the start of the sampling and repeated at hourly intervals but did not break or damage the AIB. The target air volume for background samples was ~3000 l of air using a static sampler sited either below or ~1 m from the heater outlet. This would allow an analytical sensitivity (AS) of 0.0001 fibres per millilitre (f ml−1) to be achieved, which is 1000 times lower than the EU and UK workplace control limit of 0.1 f ml−1. Samples with lower volumes of air were also collected in case of overloading and for the shorter disturbance sampling times used at one site. The sampler filters were analysed by phase contrast microscopy (PCM) to give a rapid determination of the overall concentration of visible fibres (all types) released and/or by analytical transmission electron microscopy (TEM) to determine the concentration of asbestos fibres. Due to the low number of fibres, results were reported in terms of both the calculated

  1. BIBLE A whole-air sampling as a window on Asian biogeochemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elliott, Scott; Blake, Donald R.; Blake, Nicola J.; Dubey, Manvendra K.; Rowland, F. Sherwood; Sive, Barkley C.; Smith, Felisa A.

    2003-02-01

    Asian trace gas and aerosol emissions into carbon, nitrogen, and other elemental cycles will figure prominently in near term Earth system evolution. Atmospheric hydrocarbon measurements resolve numerous chemical species and can be used to investigate sourcing for key geocarriers. A recent aircraft study of biomass burning and lightning (BIBLE A) explored the East Asian atmosphere and was unique in centering on the Indonesian archipelago. Samples of volatile organics taken over/between the islands of Japan, Saipan, Java, and Borneo are here examined as a guide to whole-air-based studies of future Asian biogeochemistry. The midlatitude onshore/offshore pulse and tropical convection strongly influence concentration distributions. As species of increasing molecular weight are considered, rural, combustion, and industrial source regimes emerge. Methane-rich inputs such as waste treatment and rice cultivation are evidenced in the geostrophic outflow. The Indonesian atmosphere is rich in biomass burning markers and also those of vehicular activity. Complexity of air chemistry in the archipelago is a direct reflection of diverse topography, land use, and local economies in a rapidly developing nation. Conspicuous in its absence is the fingerprint for liquefied petroleum gas leakage, but it can be expected to appear as demand for clean fossil fuels rises along with per capita incomes. Combustion tracers indicate high nitrogen mobilization rates, linking regional terrestrial geocycles with open marine ecosystems. Sea to air fluxes are superimposed on continental and marine backgrounds for the methyl halides. However, ocean hot spots are not coordinated and suggest an intricate subsurface kinetics. Levels of long-lived anthropogenic halocarbons attest to the success of international environmental treaties while reactive chlorine containing species track industrial air masses. The dozens of hydrocarbons resolvable by gas chromatographic methods will enable monitoring of

  2. Low Cost Air Combat Training System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flynn, Earl

    1987-10-01

    Air combat training has evolved into a highly sophisticated and expensive process. To effectively train fighter pilots in air-to-air combat, interaction between pilots is essential. This interaction can be accomplished using multiple low cost laser image projections of friend and/or foe aircraft controlled by pilots in a multiple dome configuration. A Laser Target Projector (LTP) produces a calligraphically written aircraft model comprised of up to 200 vectors which are updated at a 60 Hz rate. The resulting wire frame image imparts both position, velocity, distance and altitude information to the pilots. Using a laser light source guarantees high luminance levels and provides large depths of field. This large depth of field allows for unique packaging arrangements and cost saving attributes. The LTP has total dome coverage via a computer-controlled, servo-driven, gimb-alled two-axis assembly that projects the wire frame aircraft image onto the dome surface. To unburden the host computer, all dome-to-dome communication, real world-to-dome coordinate transformations and all geometry corrections are done by a special purpose high-speed computer called a Dome Master. Each dome has one Dome Master that can drive up to six LTP's. This paper will deal with the technical aspects of the design and development of the LTP and Dome Master as a low cost air combat training system.

  3. 14 CFR 23.1111 - Turbine engine bleed air system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Turbine engine bleed air system. 23.1111 Section 23.1111 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... Induction System § 23.1111 Turbine engine bleed air system. For turbine engine bleed air systems, the...

  4. 14 CFR 23.1111 - Turbine engine bleed air system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Turbine engine bleed air system. 23.1111 Section 23.1111 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... Induction System § 23.1111 Turbine engine bleed air system. For turbine engine bleed air systems, the...

  5. 14 CFR 23.1111 - Turbine engine bleed air system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Turbine engine bleed air system. 23.1111 Section 23.1111 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... Induction System § 23.1111 Turbine engine bleed air system. For turbine engine bleed air systems, the...

  6. 14 CFR 23.1111 - Turbine engine bleed air system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Turbine engine bleed air system. 23.1111 Section 23.1111 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... Induction System § 23.1111 Turbine engine bleed air system. For turbine engine bleed air systems,...

  7. 14 CFR 23.1111 - Turbine engine bleed air system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Turbine engine bleed air system. 23.1111 Section 23.1111 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... Induction System § 23.1111 Turbine engine bleed air system. For turbine engine bleed air systems,...

  8. Formaldehyde quantitation in air samples by thiazolidine derivatization: Factors affecting analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Yasuhara, A.; Shibamoto, T. )

    1989-11-01

    A new method for the determination of trace levels of formaldehyde in air was developed and validated. The method is based on the reaction of formaldehyde with cysteamine to form thiazolidine. Air samples containing trace levels of formaldehyde were prepared from paraformaldehyde. The percent yield of formaldehyde from paraformaldehyde was 85.1 +/- 1.14%. Air samples were bubbled into an aqueous cysteamine trap. Thiazolidine formed from formaldehyde and cysteamine in the trap was determined by gas chromatography with a fused silica capillary column and a nitrogen-phosphorus detector (NPD). The lowest detection level for thiazolidine was 17.2 pg, equivalent to 5.80 pg formaldehyde. The recovery efficiency of trace gas phase formaldehyde in air was greater than 90%. Formaldehyde levels in ambient laboratory air were 48.9-56.2 ppb (v/v).

  9. 49 CFR 570.57 - Air brake system and air-over-hydraulic brake subsystem.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Air brake system and air-over-hydraulic brake... STANDARDS Vehicles With GVWR of More Than 10,000 Pounds § 570.57 Air brake system and air-over-hydraulic... brake systems. Trailer(s) must be coupled to a truck or truck-tractor for the purpose of this inspection...

  10. 49 CFR 570.57 - Air brake system and air-over-hydraulic brake subsystem.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Air brake system and air-over-hydraulic brake... STANDARDS Vehicles With GVWR of More Than 10,000 Pounds § 570.57 Air brake system and air-over-hydraulic... brake systems. Trailer(s) must be coupled to a truck or truck-tractor for the purpose of this inspection...

  11. 49 CFR 570.57 - Air brake system and air-over-hydraulic brake subsystem.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Air brake system and air-over-hydraulic brake... STANDARDS Vehicles With GVWR of More Than 10,000 Pounds § 570.57 Air brake system and air-over-hydraulic... brake systems. Trailer(s) must be coupled to a truck or truck-tractor for the purpose of this inspection...

  12. Effect of air pressure differential on vapor flow through sample building walls

    SciTech Connect

    Stewart, W.E. Jr.

    1998-12-31

    Laboratory scale experiments were performed on two small sample composite walls of typical building construction to determine the approximate opposing air pressure difference required to stop or significantly reduce the transmission of water vapor due to a water vapor pressure difference. The experiments used wall section samples between two controlled atmosphere chambers. One chamber was held at a temperature and humidity condition approximating that of a typical summer day, while the other chamber was controlled at a condition typical of indoor conditioned space. Vapor transmission data through the wall samples were obtained over a range of vapor pressure differentials and opposing air pressure differentials. The results show that increasing opposing air pressure differences decrease water vapor transmission, as expected, and relatively small opposing air pressure differentials are required for wall materials of small vapor permeability and large air permeability. The opposing air pressure that stopped or significantly reduced the flow of water vapor through the wall sample was determined experimentally and also compared to air pressures as predicted by an analytical model.

  13. Annular denuder systems: Precision and applicability to stratospheric sampling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Randtke, Stephen J.; Lane, Dennis D.

    1991-01-01

    Annular denuder systems (ADS) are designed to sample both gases and particles from ambient air without cross interference. The ADS's were used to detect chemical gradients over rural forest canopies. Accurate and precise methods for the sampling and analysis of low concentrations of gaseous and particulate species over short sampling periods were developed. Typical analytical precision data for nitrate and sulfate are shown. Both sampling and analytical precision data for a 2 hour test using four collocated ADS's are presented. On this particular day, the overall precision for HNO3 was unusually poor. The overall precision for the major constituents of interest is generally about 3 to 5 percent for typical ambient concentrations. The ADS's could potentially be used to determine the concentrations of HNO3 and fine-particle nitrate in the stratosphere, and to simultaneously characterize the chemical composition of stratospheric aerosols. Assuming 50 mb pressure, a 2 hour sampling time, a 50 Lpm sampling rate, and a low blank value, an overal precision of about 15 percent should be possible for 1 ppbv of HNO3 or nitrate, which would include nitric-acid trihydrate (NAT); and pump-driven systems could accommodate more complex systems involving denuders and filter packs in sequence. Alternate coatings could possibly be developed to selectively sample species such as Cl2 and ClNO3. The ADS's might also be useful in laboratory studies of heterogeneous chemical reactions involving NAT aerosols.

  14. Candidate sample acquisition systems for the Rosetta

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Magnani, P. G.; Gerli, C.; Colombina, G.; Vielmo, P.

    1989-01-01

    The Comet Nucleus Sample Return (CNSR) mission, one of the four cornerstones of the ESA scientific program, is one of the most complex space ventures within the next century, both from technological and deep space exploration point of view. In the Rosetta scenario the sample acquisition phase represents the most critical point for the global mission's success. The proposed paper illustrates the main results obtained in the context of the CNSR-SAS ongoing activity. The main areas covered are related to: (1) sample properties characterization (comet soil model, physical/chemical properties, reference material for testing); (2) concepts identification for coring, shovelling, harpooning and anchoring; (3) preferred concept (trade off among concepts, identification of the preferred configuration); and (4) proposed development activity for gaining the necessary confidence before finalizing the CNSR mission. Particular emphasis will be given to the robotic and flexibility aspects of the identified sample acquisition systems (SAS) configuration, intended as a means for the overall system performance enhancement.

  15. Spectrophotometric determination of nitrogen dioxide in air and nitrite in water and soil samples

    SciTech Connect

    Pandurangappa, M.; Balasubramanian, N.

    1995-02-01

    A sensitive spectrophotometric method for the determination of nitrogen dioxide in air and nitrite in water and soil samples is described. Nitrogen dioxide in air is fixed as nitrite ion in alkaline sodium arsenite or in triethanolamine absorber solutions. The method is based on the diazo coupling reaction between p-nitro aniline and 1-hydroxy-2-naphthoic acid. The azo dye formed under aqueous condition has an absorption maximum at 585nm and obeys Beer`s law over the range 0-25{mu}g of nitrite. The colour system is stable for 72h. The relative standard deviation is 2.7% for ten determinations at 15{mu}g of nitrite. The dye is extracted with 1:1 isoamyl alcohol-IBMK mixture and stabilisation with methanolic potassium hydroxide showed {lambda}{sub max} at 610nm. It obeys Beer`s law over the range 0-4{mu}g of nitrite. The colour system is stable for 40h in organic phase and the relative standard deviation is 2.5% for ten determinations at 3{mu}g of nitrite. The molar absorptivity of the colour system is 3.68 x 10{sup 4} Lmol{sup {minus}1} cm{sup {minus}1}. The effect of interfering gases and other ions on the determination of nitrite is described. The developed method has been applied for the determination of residual nitrogen dioxide gas present in the laboratory fume cupboard and automobile exhaust gases. In addition, the method has been applied for the determination of nitrite and nitrate in samples like water, soil and radiator coolants.

  16. ANASORB{reg_sign} 747 - A universal sorbent for air sampling?

    SciTech Connect

    Harper, M.

    1997-12-31

    A sorbent to be used for air sampling must meet certain performance criteria including sample background, capacity, stability, and recovery. Anasorb{sup R} 747 is a proprietary 20/40 mesh beaded active carbon prepared from raw materials with a very low ash content in a process which creates a regular pore structure. The background is very low for both inorganic and organic species, and the surface is more inert and less hydrophilic than coconut charcoal, while capacity is similar. The low catalytic activity of the surface means samples of many reactive compounds remain stable for longer periods. The sorbent is compatible with most solvent systems in use (e.g. carbon disulfide, methylene chloride, methanol, dimethyformamide). Anasorb 747 can be coated with chemicals for efficient adsorption of inorganic gases, which can be analyzed at very low levels because of low background interference. A large number of validated sampling methods use Anasorb 747, including methods from OSHA and NIOSH, corporate industrial hygiene laboratories, various branches of the EPA, and international agencies. These methods refer to around fifty different gases and vapors. Although this sorbent is not compatible with some compounds (e.g. low molecular weight aldehydes) it is quite close to being of universal application.

  17. Detection of bioterror agents in air samples using real-time PCR.

    PubMed

    Fykse, E M; Langseth, B; Olsen, J S; Skogan, G; Blatny, J M

    2008-08-01

    To use real-time PCR for the detection of bacterial bioterror agents in a liquid air sample containing potential airborne interferences, including bacteria, without the need for DNA extraction. Bacteria in air were isolated after passive sedimentation onto R2A agar plates and characterized by 16S rRNA sequencing. Real-time PCR was used to identify different bacterial bioterror agents in an artificial air sample consisting of a liquid air sample and a mixture of miscellaneous airborne bacteria showing different colony morphology on R2A agar plates. No time-consuming DNA extraction was performed. Specifically designed fluorescent hybridization probes were used for identification. Fourteen different bacterial genera were classified by 16S rRNA gene sequencing of selected bacterial colonies showing growth on R2A agar plates. Real-time PCR amplification of all the bacterial bioterror agents was successfully obtained in the artificial air sample containing commonly found airborne bacteria and other potential airborne PCR interferences. Bacterial bioterror agents can be detected within 1 h in a liquid air sample containing a variety of commonly found airborne bacteria using real-time PCR. Airborne viable bacteria at Kjeller (Norway) were classified to the genera level using 16S rRNA gene sequencing.

  18. Sample collection system for gel electrophoresis

    DOEpatents

    Olivares, Jose A.; Stark, Peter C.; Dunbar, John M.; Hill, Karen K.; Kuske, Cheryl R.; Roybal, Gustavo

    2004-09-21

    An automatic sample collection system for use with an electrophoretic slab gel system is presented. The collection system can be used with a slab gel have one or more lanes. A detector is used to detect particle bands on the slab gel within a detection zone. Such detectors may use a laser to excite fluorescently labeled particles. The fluorescent light emitted from the excited particles is transmitted to low-level light detection electronics. Upon the detection of a particle of interest within the detection zone, a syringe pump is activated, sending a stream of buffer solution across the lane of the slab gel. The buffer solution collects the sample of interest and carries it through a collection port into a sample collection vial.

  19. 40 CFR 86.509-90 - Exhaust gas sampling system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Section 86.509-90 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS... mixture of exhaust and dilution air must be measured and a continuously proportioned volume of sample must... description, PDP-CVS. The PDP-CVS, Figure F90-1, consists of a dilution air filter and mixing assembly,...

  20. 40 CFR 86.509-90 - Exhaust gas sampling system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Section 86.509-90 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS... mixture of exhaust and dilution air must be measured and a continuously proportioned volume of sample must... description, PDP-CVS. The PDP-CVS, Figure F90-1, consists of a dilution air filter and mixing assembly,...

  1. 40 CFR 86.509-90 - Exhaust gas sampling system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Section 86.509-90 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS... mixture of exhaust and dilution air must be measured and a continuously proportioned volume of sample must... description, PDP-CVS. The PDP-CVS, Figure F90-1, consists of a dilution air filter and mixing assembly,...

  2. 40 CFR 86.509-90 - Exhaust gas sampling system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Section 86.509-90 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS... mixture of exhaust and dilution air must be measured and a continuously proportioned volume of sample must... description, PDP-CVS. The PDP-CVS, Figure F90-1, consists of a dilution air filter and mixing assembly,...

  3. 40 CFR 86.509-90 - Exhaust gas sampling system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Section 86.509-90 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS... mixture of exhaust and dilution air must be measured and a continuously proportioned volume of sample must... description, PDP-CVS. The PDP-CVS, Figure F90-1, consists of a dilution air filter and mixing assembly,...

  4. Fabrication and characterization of buckypapers for use in air sampling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oh, Jonghwa

    Occupational exposure to volatile organic compounds (VOCs) is a concern from a public health perspective. In many industrial activities, workers' exposure to VOCs can be sufficiently high to induce adverse health effects, so their monitoring is necessary. In exposure assessment, post sampling extraction and quantification are the typical analytical procedures. Recently, our group developed the photothermal desorption (PTD) technique in which a pulse of light thermally desorbs an analyte directly from a sorbent. Advantages of this technique are; it is solvent free, repeated analysis is possible, sorbents are reusable, and no high cost of equipment is required. PTD overcomes almost all drawbacks of current extraction methods. This study was aimed to develop and test a new sorbent which will efficiently work with PTD. Single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) were examined as potential sorbents because of their high surface area, great thermal conductivity, and efficient light absorption. SWNTs were fabricated into a self-supporting form (i.e., buckypaper (BP)) which will preserve its physical integrity under normal working conditions. Largely two types of SWNTs were used, arc discharge (AD) and high-pressure carbon monoxide (HiPco), and different fabrication methods were examined. Upon fabrication, their adsorption properties were characterized in terms of Brunauer, Emmett, and Teller (BET) surface area, pore size, and toluene adsorption capacity. HiPco BP and methanol-cleaned AD BP (suspended/rinsed with methanol) were the top two materials, showing the highest surface area (649 and 387 m²/g, respectively) and adsorption capacity (106 and 46 mg/g, respectively) with relatively small mean pore diameter (7.7 and 8.8 nm, respectively). To further improve the adsorption properties, specific heat treatment conditions for each type of BPs were employed. After initial treatments only HiPco BP and acetone-cleaned AD BP (suspended/rinsed with acetone) were selected for further

  5. The variation of the relative humidity of air released from canisters after ambient sampling

    SciTech Connect

    McClenny, W.A.; Schmidt, S.M.; Kronmiller, K.G.

    1997-12-31

    Dalton`s Law of partial pressures and the hypothesis that water vapor equilibrium above a canister surface is identical to that established above liquid water are used to predict the variation of the percent relative humidity (%RH) of air released from canisters used in ambient air sampling, typically 6L canisters pressurized with 18L of air. During sampling, some water vapor is adsorbed on the canister wall. When (and if) the water vapor partial pressure exceeds its saturation vapor pressure, water vapor condensation begins and the condensation rate equals the sampling rate of water vapor into the canister. Under constant temperature conditions, the air subsequently released from the canister is less humid than the original sample, following the relationship, %RH = 100% (6L/V{sub s}) for V{sub s} > V{sub r} where V{sub s} is the residual air volume and V{sub r} is the residual air volume at which water is completely removed (except for adsorbed water vapor) from the canister wall. For V{sub s} < V{sub r} the %RH is constant and equal to its value at V{sub r}, V{sub r} is shown to depend on the %RH of the ambient air sample. Experimental values to agree reasonably well with predictions; however, experimental values were systematically lower than predicted especially when ambient air with mid-range %RH was sampled. This difference is related to the mass of water vapor remaining adsorbed on the canister surface as water evaporates. This paper has been reviewed in accordance with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency`s peer and administrative review policies and approved for presentation and publication. Mention of trade names or commercial products does not constitute endorsement or recommendation for use.

  6. Roots Air Management System with Integrated Expander

    SciTech Connect

    Stretch, Dale; Wright, Brad; Fortini, Matt; Fink, Neal; Ramadan, Bassem; Eybergen, William

    2016-07-06

    PEM fuel cells remain an emerging technology in the vehicle market with several cost and reliability challenges that must be overcome in order to increase market penetration and acceptance. The DOE has identified the lack of a cost effective, reliable, and efficient air supply system that meets the operational requirements of a pressurized PEM 80kW fuel cell as one of the major technological barriers that must be overcome. This project leveraged Roots positive displacement development advancements and demonstrated an efficient and low cost fuel cell air management system. Eaton built upon its P-Series Roots positive displacement design and shifted the peak efficiency making it ideal for use on an 80kW PEM stack. Advantages to this solution include: • Lower speed of the Roots device eliminates complex air bearings present on other systems. • Broad efficiency map of Roots based systems provides an overall higher drive cycle fuel economy. • Core Roots technology has been developed and validated for other transportation applications. Eaton modified their novel R340 Twin Vortices Series (TVS) Roots-type supercharger for this application. The TVS delivers more power and better fuel economy in a smaller package as compared to other supercharger technologies. By properly matching the helix angle with the rotor’s physical aspect ratio, the supercharger’s peak efficiency can be moved to the operating range where it is most beneficial for the application. The compressor was designed to meet the 90 g/s flow at a pressure ratio of 2.5, similar in design to the P-Series 340. A net shape plastic expander housing with integrated motor and compressor was developed to significantly reduce the cost of the system. This integrated design reduced part count by incorporating an overhung expander and motor rotors into the design such that only four bearings and two shafts were utilized.

  7. Calibration of NASA Turbulent Air Motion Measurement System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barrick, John D. W.; Ritter, John A.; Watson, Catherine E.; Wynkoop, Mark W.; Quinn, John K.; Norfolk, Daniel R.

    1996-01-01

    A turbulent air motion measurement system (TAMMS) was integrated onboard the Lockheed 188 Electra airplane (designated NASA 429) based at the Wallops Flight Facility in support of the NASA role in global tropospheric research. The system provides air motion and turbulence measurements from an airborne platform which is capable of sampling tropospheric and planetary boundary-layer conditions. TAMMS consists of a gust probe with free-rotating vanes mounted on a 3.7-m epoxy-graphite composite nose boom, a high-resolution inertial navigation system (INS), and data acquisition system. A variation of the tower flyby method augmented with radar tracking was implemented for the calibration of static pressure position error and air temperature probe. Additional flight calibration maneuvers were performed remote from the tower in homogeneous atmospheric conditions. System hardware and instrumentation are described and the calibration procedures discussed. Calibration and flight results are presented to illustrate the overall ability of the system to determine the three-component ambient wind fields during straight and level flight conditions.

  8. An expert system for air traffic control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sensui, Takashi

    1987-01-01

    The objective was to design a control logic which automates all or part of the guidance function for air traffic control systems. Particular interest was focused on automation of the terminal area control system. A preliminary study was done on the development of an expert system. The system may be used to assist controllers by providing them with feasible options in guiding each aircraft in the control area to its desired destination.

  9. Determination of critical micelle concentration with the rotating sample system.

    PubMed

    Kao, Linus T; Shetty, Gautam N; Gratzl, Miklós

    2008-12-01

    A novel experimental approach using the rotating sample system (RSS) is proposed here for the determination of the critical micelle concentration (CMC) of surfactants. The RSS has been conceived in our laboratory as a convection platform for physicochemical studies and analyses in microliter-sized sample drops. The scheme allows for vigorous rotation of the drop despite its small size through efficient air-liquid mechanical coupling. Thus, changes in surface properties of aqueous samples result in corresponding modulation of the hydrodynamic performance of the RSS, which can be utilized to investigate interfacial phenomena. In this work, we demonstrate that the RSS can be used to study the effects of surfactants on the surface and in the bulk of very small samples with hydrodynamic electrochemistry. Potassium ferrocyanide is employed here with cyclic voltammetry to probe the air-water interface of solutions containing Triton X-100. The CMC of this surfactant determined using this approach is 140 ppm, which agrees well with reported values obtained with conventional methods in much larger samples. The results also demonstrate that besides the CMC, variations in bulk rheological properties can also be investigated in very small specimens using the RSS with a simple method.

  10. EPA Region 2 AIRS Aerometric Information Retrieval System and the Air Quality System (AIRS/AQS) GIS Layer

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This ArcGIS 10.2 point feature class contains identification, location and status information for EPA Region 2 facilities (NYS, NJ, Puerto Rico and the US Virgin Islands) registered in the Aerometric Information Retrieval System and the Air Quality System (AIRS/AQS). AIRS is the national repository for information concerning airborne pollution in the United States. AQS is EPA's repository of ambient air quality data. AQS stores data from over 10,000 monitors. The data provided in this service are obtained from EPA's Facility Registry System (FRS).All data for EPA Region 2 Regulated Facility GIS layers are extracted from the Facility Registry System (FRS) of Envirofacts on a monthly basis using R2GIS SQL procedures and Linked Server definitions. The attributes for each media specific R2GIS Regulated Facility layer provides the ID, name, address and environmental interest (permit designation or regulated activity) from the parent media program system and the best available coordinates from the FRS Geospatial Tables except for the Region 2 CERLIS layers were all locational data is from the CERCLIS database only. There are a small percentage of EPA Regulated Facilities for which no coordinate information has been registered in any of the related EPA or State Program System Databases. These facilities will have attribute table records in the Facility GIS layer but will not appear as points in the display map. For the much larger set of program system records with

  11. 40 CFR 1065.1107 - Sample media and sample system preparation; sample system assembly.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... number of repeat tests. Note that when repeating test cycles to increase sample mass, you may replace the... with methylene chloride for 24 hours and dry over dry nitrogen in a low-temperature vacuum oven. (2... methanol, 22 hours with methylene chloride, and 22 hours with toluene, followed by drying with nitrogen....

  12. The LITA Drill and Sample Delivery System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paulsen, G.; Yoon, S.; Zacny, K.; Wettergreeng, D.; Cabrol, N. A.

    2013-12-01

    The Life in the Atacama (LITA) project has a goal of demonstrating autonomous roving, sample acquisition, delivery and analysis operations in Atacama, Chile. To enable the sample handling requirement, Honeybee Robotics developed a rover-deployed, rotary-percussive, autonomous drill, called the LITA Drill, capable of penetrating to ~80 cm in various formations, capturing and delivering subsurface samples to a 20 cup carousel. The carousel has a built-in capability to press the samples within each cup, and position target cups underneath instruments for analysis. The drill and sample delivery system had to have mass and power requirements consistent with a flight system. The drill weighs 12 kg and uses less than 100 watt of power to penetrate ~80 cm. The LITA Drill auger has been designed with two distinct stages. The lower part has deep and gently sloping flutes for retaining powdered sample, while the upper section has shallow and steep flutes for preventing borehole collapse and for efficient movement of cuttings and fall back material out of the hole. The drill uses the so called 'bite-sampling' approach that is samples are taken in short, 5-10 cm bites. To take the first bite, the drill is lowered onto the ground and upon drilling of the first bite it is then retracted into an auger tube. The auger with the auger tube are then lifted off the ground and positioned next to the carousel. To deposit the sample, the auger is rotated and retracted above the auger tube. The cuttings retained on the flutes are either gravity fed or are brushed off by a passive side brush into the cup. After the sample from the first bite has been deposited, the drill is lowered back into the same hole to take the next bite. This process is repeated until a target depth is reached. The bite sampling is analogous to peck drilling in the machining process where a bit is periodically retracted to clear chips. If there is some fall back into the hole once the auger has cleared the hole, this

  13. Microbial counts and particulate matter levels in roadside air samples under skytrain stations, Bangkok, Thailand.

    PubMed

    Luksamijarulkul, Pipat; Kongtip, Pornpimol

    2010-05-01

    In conditions with heavy traffic and crowds of people on roadside areas under skytrain stations in Bangkok, the natural air ventilation may be insufficient and air quality may be poor. A study of 350 air samples collected from the roadside, under skytrain stations in Bangkok, was carried out to assess microbial counts (210 air samples) and particulate matter (PM10) levels (140 samples). The results reveal the mean +/- standard deviation bacterial counts and fungal counts were 406.8 +/- 302.7 cfu/m3 and 128.9 +/- 89.7 cfu/m3, respectively. The PM10 level was 186.1 +/- 188.1 microg/m3. When compared to recommended levels, 4.8% of air samples (10/210 samples) had bacterial counts more than recommended levels (> 1,000 cfu/ m3) and 27.1% (38/140 samples) had PM10 levels more than recommended levels (> 120 microg/m3). These may affect human health, especially of street venders who spend most of their working time in these areas.

  14. 24 CFR 3280.715 - Circulating air systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Circulating air systems. 3280.715... Systems § 3280.715 Circulating air systems. Link to an amendment published at 78 FR 73989, Dec. 9, 2013... steel, tin-plated steel, or aluminum, or shall be listed Class 0, Class 1, or Class 2 air ducts. Class...

  15. Centrifugal Blower for Personal Air Ventilation System (PAVS) - Phase 1

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-02-01

    To) May 2007 – November 2007 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE CENTRIFUGAL BLOWER FOR PERSONAL AIR VENTILATION SYSTEM (PAVS) – PHASE I 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER...Contract. A Personal Air Ventilation System (PAVS) blower was designed beginning with an analytical design based on aerodynamic similarity. A radial...18    1 CENTRIFUGAL BLOWER FOR THE PERSONAL AIR VENTILATION SYSTEM (PAVS) – PHASE I 1

  16. Sampling of power plant stacks for air toxic emissions: Topical report for Phases 1 and 2

    SciTech Connect

    1995-02-21

    Under contract with the US Department of Energy (DE-AC22-92PCO0367), Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center, Radian Corporation has conducted a test program to collect and analyze size-fractionated stack gas particulate samples for selected inorganic hazardous air pollutants (HAPS). Specific goals of the program are (1) the collection of one-gram quantities of size-fractionated stack gas particulate matter for bulk (total) and surface chemical charactization, and (2) the determination of the relationship between particle size, bulk and surface (leachable) composition, and unit load. The information obtained from this program identifies the effects of unit load, particle size, and wet FGD system operation on the relative toxicological effects of exposure to particulate emissions.

  17. DEVELOPMENT OF A SUB-SLAB AIR SAMPLING PROTOCOL TO SUPPORT ASSESSMENT OF VAPOR INTRUSION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The primary purpose of this research effort is to develop a methodology for sub-slab sampling to support the EPA guidance and vapor intrusion investigations after vapor intrusion has been established at a site. Methodologies for sub-slab air sampling are currently lacking in ref...

  18. EVALUATION OF THE FILTER PACK FOR LONG-DURATION SAMPLING OF AMBIENT AIR

    EPA Science Inventory

    A 14-week filter pack (FP) sampler evaluation field study was conducted at a site near Bondville, IL to investigate the impact of weekly sampling duration. Simultaneous samples were collected using collocated filter packs (FP) from two independent air quality monitoring networks...

  19. EVALUATION OF THE FILTER PACK FOR LONG-DURATION SAMPLING OF AMBIENT AIR

    EPA Science Inventory

    A 14-week filter pack (FP) sampler evaluation field study was conducted at a site near Bondville, IL to investigate the impact of weekly sampling duration. Simultaneous samples were collected using collocated filter packs (FP) from two independent air quality monitoring networks...

  20. Report on sampling and analysis of ambient air at the central waste complex

    SciTech Connect

    Stauffer, M., Fluor Daniel Hanford

    1997-02-13

    Over 160 ambient indoor air samples were collected from warehouses at the Central Waste Complex used for the storage of low- level radioactive and mixed wastes. These grab (SUMMA) samples were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry using a modified EPA TO-14 procedure. The data from this survey suggest that several buildings had elevated concentrations of volatile organic compounds.

  1. DEVELOPMENT OF A SUB-SLAB AIR SAMPLING PROTOCOL TO SUPPORT ASSESSMENT OF VAPOR INTRUSION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The primary purpose of this research effort is to develop a methodology for sub-slab sampling to support the EPA guidance and vapor intrusion investigations after vapor intrusion has been established at a site. Methodologies for sub-slab air sampling are currently lacking in ref...

  2. Marine Technician's Handbook, Instructions for Taking Air Samples on Board Ship: Carbon Dioxide Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keeling, Charles D.

    This booklet is one of a series intended to provide explicit instructions for the collection of oceanographic data and samples at sea. The methods and procedures described have been used by the Scripps Institution of Oceanography and found reliable and up-to-date. Instructions are given for taking air samples on board ship to determine the…

  3. Development of a multicopter-carried whole air sampling apparatus and its applications in environmental studies.

    PubMed

    Chang, Chih-Chung; Wang, Jia-Lin; Chang, Chih-Yuan; Liang, Mao-Chang; Lin, Ming-Ren

    2016-02-01

    To advance the capabilities of probing chemical composition aloft, we designed a lightweight remote-controlled whole air sampling component (WASC) and integrated it into a multicopter drone with agile maneuverability to perform aerial whole air sampling. A field mission hovering over an exhaust shaft of a roadway tunnel to collect air samples was performed to demonstrate the applicability of the multicopter-carried WASC apparatus. Ten aerial air samples surrounding the shaft vent were collected by the multicopter-carried WASC. Additional five samples were collected manually inside the shaft for comparison. These samples were then analyzed in the laboratory for the chemical composition of 109 volatile organic compounds (VOCs), CH4, CO, CO2, or CO2 isotopologues. Most of the VOCs in the upwind samples (the least affected by shaft exhaust) were low in concentrations (5.9 ppbv for total 109 VOCs), posting a strong contrast to those in the shaft exhaust (235.8 ppbv for total 109 VOCs). By comparing the aerial samples with the in-shaft samples for chemical compositions, the influence of the shaft exhaust on the surrounding natural air was estimated. Through the aerial measurements, three major advantages of the multicopter-carried WASC were demonstrated: 1. The highly maneuverable multicopter-carried WASC can be readily deployed for three-dimensional environmental studies at a local scale (0-1.5 km); 2. Aerial sampling with superior sample integrity and preservation conditions can now be performed with ease; and 3. Data with spatial resolution for a large array of gaseous species with high precision can be easily obtained.

  4. Electrochemical air revitalization system optimization investigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woods, R. R.; Schubert, F. H.; Hallick, T. M.

    1975-01-01

    A program to characterize a Breadboard of an Electrochemical Air Revitalization System (BEARS) was successfully completed. The BEARS is composed of three components: (1) a water vapor electrolysis module (WVEM) for O2 production and partial humidity control, (2) an electrochemical depolarized carbon dioxide concentrator module (EDCM) for CO2 control, and (3) a power-sharing controller, designed to utilize the power produced by the EDCM to partially offset the WVEM power requirements. It is concluded from the results of this work that the concept of electrochemical air revitalization with power-sharing is a viable solution to the problem of providing a localized topping force for O2 generation, CO2 removal and partial humidity control aboard manned spacecraft. Continued development of the EARS concept is recommended, applying the operational experience and limits identified during the BEARS program to testing of a one-man capacity system and toward the development of advanced system controls to optimize EARS operation for given interfaces and requirements. Successful completion of this development will produce timely technology necessary to plan future advanced environmental control and life support system programs and experiments.

  5. UV Disinfection System for Cabin Air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, Soojung

    Ultraviolet (UV) radiation is commonly used for disinfection of water. As a result of advancements made in the last 10-15 years, the analysis and design of UV disinfection systems for water is well developed. UV disinfection is also used for disinfection of air; however, despite the fact the UV-air systems have a longer record of application than UV-water systems, the methods used to analyze and design UV-air disinfection systems remain quite empirical. It is well-established that the effectiveness of UV-air systems is strongly affected by the type of microorganisms, the irradiation level/type (lamp power and wavelength), duration of irradiation (exposure time), air movement pattern (mixing degree), and relative humidity. This paper will describe ongoing efforts to evaluate, design and test a UV-air system based on first principles. Specific issues to be addressed in this work will include laboratory measurements of relevant kinetics (i.e., UV dose-response behavior) and numerical simulations designed to represent fluid mechanics and the radiation intensity field. UV dose-response behavior of test microorganism was measured using a laboratory (bench-scale) system. Target microorganisms (e.g., bacterial spores) were first applied to membrane filters at sub-monolayer coverage. The filters were then transferred to an environmental chamber at fixed relative humidity (RH) and allowed to equilibrate with their surroundings. Microorganisms were then subjected to UV exposure under a collimated beam. The experiment was repeated at RH values ranging from 20% to 100%. UV dose-response behavior was observed to vary with RH. For example, at 100% RH, a UV dose of 20 mJ/cm2 accomplished 90% (1 log10 units) of the B. subtilis spore inactivation, whereas 99 % (2 log10 units) inactivation was accomplished at this same UV dose under 20% RH conditions. However, at higher doses, the result was opposite of that in low dose. Reactor behavior is simulated using an integrated application

  6. Assessment of hazardous air pollutants for advanced power systems

    SciTech Connect

    Brekke, D.W.; Erickson, T.A.

    1995-12-01

    The 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA) identified 189 substances as air toxics or hazardous air pollutants (HAPs). Under the CAAA, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) must regulate emissions of these HAPs at their sources, including advanced power systems used for the production of electricity. This project focused on evaluating and manipulating the advanced power systems HAP data currently available for presentation to the US Department of Energy (DOE). The data were analyzed for trends associated with emission control systems and operating conditions. This project was an addition to an existing DOE program entitled Trace Element Emissions (TEE), which is being conducted by the Energy and Environmental Research Center (EERC). The purpose of this addition is to evaluate the current results of HAP emissions sampling from full-scale and demonstration units employing advanced power or hot-gas cleanup systems. The specific objectives of this program are to (1) perform a technical review and assessment of the data accumulated on the fate of trace metals in advanced coal power systems and compare them to emissions from conventional coal-fired power plants, and (2) assess the effectiveness of conventional and innovative control technologies relative to potential regulation requirements.

  7. Determination of radiocarbon in stratospheric CO2, obtained through AirCore sampling.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paul, Dipayan; Chen, Huilin; Been, Henk A.; Kivi, Rigel; Meijer, Harro A. J.

    2016-04-01

    The concentration of Greenhouse Gases (GHG), with carbon dioxide as the most prominent example, has been and still is increasing, predominantly due to emissions from fossil fuel combustion. CO2 is also the most important component of the global carbon cycle. Among other tracers, radiocarbon (Carbon-14) is a unique and an important atmospheric tracer used in the understanding of the global carbon cycle. Radiocarbon is a naturally occurring isotope (radioactive, t 1/2 = 5730 ± 40 years) of carbon produced through the interaction of thermalized neutrons and nitrogen in the upper atmosphere. Generally, for performing atmospheric radiocarbon measurements in the higher atmosphere, large samples (few liters of air) were collected using aircrafts and balloons. However, collecting stratospheric samples on a regular basis for radiocarbon analysis is extremely expensive. Here we describe the determination of radiocarbon concentrations in stratospheric CO2, collected using AirCore sampling. AirCore is an innovative sampling technique for obtaining vertical atmospheric profiles and, in Europe, is done on a regular basis at Sodankylä, Finland for CO2, CH4 and CO. The stratospheric parts of two such AirCore profiles were used in this study as a proof-of-principle. CO2 from the stratospheric air samples were extracted and converted to elemental carbon, which were then measured at the Accelerator Mass Spectrometric (AMS) facility of the Centre for Isotope Research (CIO) at the University of Groningen. The stratospheric part of the AirCore profile was divided into six sections, each contained approximately 10 μg C. A detailed description of the extraction, graphitization, AMS analysis and the derivation of the stratospheric radiocarbon profile will be the main focus. Through our results, we will show that AirCore is a viable sampling method for performing high-precision radiocarbon measurements of stratospheric CO2 with reasonably good spatial resolution on a regular basis

  8. The promise of air cargo: System aspects and vehicle design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitehead, A. H., Jr.

    1976-01-01

    The current operation of the air cargo system is reviewed. An assessment of the future of air cargo is provided by: (1) analyzing statistics and trends, (2) by noting system problems and inefficiencies, (3) by analyzing characteristics of 'air eligible' commodities, and (4) by showing the promise of new technology for future cargo aircraft with significant improvements in costs and efficiency. The following topics are discussed: (1) air cargo demand forecasts; (2) economics of air cargo transport; (3) the integrated air cargo system; (4) evolution of airfreighter design; and (5) the span distributed load concept.

  9. Pesticide detection in air samples from contrasted houses and in their inhabitants' hair.

    PubMed

    Raeppel, Caroline; Salquèbre, Guillaume; Millet, Maurice; Appenzeller, Brice M R

    2016-02-15

    In order to identify associations between indoor air contamination and human exposure to pesticides, hair samples from 14 persons (9 adults and 5 children below 12 years) were collected simultaneously with the air of their 5 contrasted houses. Three houses were situated in Alsace (France), one in Lorraine (France) and one in Luxembourg (Luxembourg). Houses were located in urban (n=3), semi-urban (n=1) and rural areas (n=1). Twenty five (25) pesticides were detected at least once in indoor air samples and 20 pesticides were detected at least once in hair samples. The comparison between hair and air samples for the same sampling periods shows that pesticides detected in the two matrices were not necessarily associated. Exposure profiles varied from one home to another but also between inhabitants of the same home, suggesting that exposure can be different between inhabitants of the same home. This study demonstrated the usefulness and the complementarity of hair analysis, for the personalized biomonitoring of people exposure to pesticides, and air analysis, for the identification of airborne exposure and house contamination.

  10. Operating systems in the air transportation environment.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cherry, G. W.

    1971-01-01

    Consideration of the problems facing air transport at present, and to be expected in the future. In the Northeast Corridor these problems involve community acceptance, airway and airport congestion and delays, passenger acceptance, noise reduction, and improvements in low-density short-haul economics. In the development of a superior short-haul operating system, terminal-configured vs cruise-configured vehicles are evaluated. CTOL, STOL, and VTOL aircraft of various types are discussed. In the field of noise abatement, it is shown that flight procedural techniques are capable of supplementing ?quiet engine' technology.

  11. Comparison of mold concentrations quantified by MSQPCR in indoor and outdoor air sampled simultaneously

    SciTech Connect

    Meklin, Teija; Reponen, Tina; McKinstry, Craig A.; Cho, Seung H.; Grinshpun, Sergey A.; Nevalainen, Aino; Vepsalainen, Asko; Haugland, Richard A.; Lemasters, Grace; Vesper, Sephen J.

    2007-08-15

    Mold specific quantitative PCR (MSQPCR) was used to measure the concentrations of 36 mold species in dust and in indoor and in outdoor air samples that were taken simultaneously in 17 homes in Cincinnati with no-known water damage. The total spore concentrations in the indoor (I) and outdoor (O) air samples were statistically significantly different and the concentrations in the three sample types of many of the individual species were significantly different (p < 0.05 based on the Wilcoxon Signed Rank Test). The I/O ratios of the averages or geometric means of the individual species were generally less than 1; but these I/O ratios were quite variable ranging from 0.03 for A. sydowii to 1.2 for Acremonium strictum. There were no significant correlations for the 36 specific mold concentrations between the dust samples and the indoor or outdoor air samples (based on the Spearman’s Rho test). The indoor and outdoor air concentrations of 32 of the species were not correlated. Only Aspergillus penicillioides, C. cladosporioides types 1 and 2 and C. herbarum had sufficient data to estimate a correlation at rho > 0.5 with signicance (p < 0.05) In six of these homes, a previous dust sample had been collected and analyzed 2 years earlier. The ERMI© values for the dust samples taken in the same home two years apart were not significantly different (p=0.22) based on Wilcoxon Signed Rank Test.

  12. Harpoon-based sample Acquisition System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernal, Javier; Nuth, Joseph; Wegel, Donald

    2012-02-01

    Acquiring information about the composition of comets, asteroids, and other near Earth objects is very important because they may contain the primordial ooze of the solar system and the origins of life on Earth. Sending a spacecraft is the obvious answer, but once it gets there it needs to collect and analyze samples. Conceptually, a drill or a shovel would work, but both require something extra to anchor it to the comet, adding to the cost and complexity of the spacecraft. Since comets and asteroids are very low gravity objects, drilling becomes a problem. If you do not provide a grappling mechanism, the drill would push the spacecraft off the surface. Harpoons have been proposed as grappling mechanisms in the past and are currently flying on missions such as ROSETTA. We propose to use a hollow, core sampling harpoon, to act as the anchoring mechanism as well as the sample collecting device. By combining these two functions, mass is reduced, more samples can be collected and the spacecraft can carry more propellant. Although challenging, returning the collected samples to Earth allows them to be analyzed in laboratories with much greater detail than possible on a spacecraft. Also, bringing the samples back to Earth allows future generations to study them.

  13. Comparison of sampling methods for radiocarbon dating of carbonyls in air samples via accelerator mass spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schindler, Matthias; Kretschmer, Wolfgang; Scharf, Andreas; Tschekalinskij, Alexander

    2016-05-01

    Three new methods to sample and prepare various carbonyl compounds for radiocarbon measurements were developed and tested. Two of these procedures utilized the Strecker synthetic method to form amino acids from carbonyl compounds with either sodium cyanide or trimethylsilyl cyanide. The third procedure used semicarbazide to form crystalline carbazones with the carbonyl compounds. The resulting amino acids and semicarbazones were then separated and purified using thin layer chromatography. The separated compounds were then combusted to CO2 and reduced to graphite to determine 14C content by accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS). All of these methods were also compared with the standard carbonyl compound sampling method wherein a compound is derivatized with 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine and then separated by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC).

  14. Air sampling in the breathing zone of neonatal foals for prediction of subclinical Rhodococcus equi infection.

    PubMed

    Chicken, C; Muscatello, G; Freestone, J; Anderson, G A; Browning, G F; Gilkerson, J R

    2012-03-01

    Disease caused by Rhodococcus equi is a significant burden to the horse breeding industry worldwide. Early detection of rhodococcal pneumonia, albeit important to minimise treatment costs, is difficult because of the insidious nature of the disease and the lack of definitive diagnostic tests. To investigate air sampling from the breathing zone of neonatal foals as a predictor of subsequent rhodococcal pneumonia. Air samples were collected from the breathing zone of 53 neonatal foals (age ≤10 days) and again at the time of routine ultrasonographic screening for R. equi pneumonia (age 1-2 months). Pneumonia was diagnosed ultrasonographically in 23% of foals. Virulent R. equi was detected in air from the breathing zone of 19% of neonatal foals and 45% of foals at age 1-2 months. There was no association between virulent R. equi in the breathing zone of foals and the subsequent ultrasonographic diagnosis of rhodococcal pneumonia. The median concentration of virulent R. equi in the breathing zone of both neonates (0 [range 0-4] colony-forming units [cfu]/250 l) and older foals (0 [range 0-3] cfu/250 l) was not significantly different from that in background air samples (0 [range 0-6] cfu/250 l). There was no difference in the concentration of virulent R. equi in the breathing zone of older foals that were diagnosed with rhodococcal pneumonia or clinically normal foals. Detection of virulent R. equi in air from the breathing zone was not a positive predictor of rhodococcal pneumonia in foals up to age ≤2 months. Selective culture of air samples from the breathing zone of young foals is not better at diagnosing rhodococcal pneumonia than early ultrasonographic screening. However, culture of air samples from the breathing zone of older foals remains a useful herd-based epidemiological tool. © 2012 EVJ Ltd.

  15. 3D Air Quality and the Clean Air Interstate Rule: Lagrangian Sampling of CMAQ Model Results to Aid Regional Accountability Metrics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fairlie, T. D.; Szykman, Jim; Pierce, Robert B.; Gilliland, A. B.; Engel-Cox, Jill; Weber, Stephanie; Kittaka, Chieko; Al-Saadi, Jassim A.; Scheffe, Rich; Dimmick, Fred; hide

    2008-01-01

    The Clean Air Interstate Rule (CAIR) is expected to reduce transport of air pollutants (e.g. fine sulfate particles) in nonattainment areas in the Eastern United States. CAIR highlights the need for an integrated air quality observational and modeling system to understand sulfate as it moves in multiple dimensions, both spatially and temporally. Here, we demonstrate how results from an air quality model can be combined with a 3d monitoring network to provide decision makers with a tool to help quantify the impact of CAIR reductions in SO2 emissions on regional transport contributions to sulfate concentrations at surface monitors in the Baltimore, MD area, and help improve decision making for strategic implementation plans (SIPs). We sample results from the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model using ensemble back trajectories computed with the NASA Langley Research Center trajectory model to provide Lagrangian time series and vertical profile information, that can be compared with NASA satellite (MODIS), EPA surface, and lidar measurements. Results are used to assess the regional transport contribution to surface SO4 measurements in the Baltimore MSA, and to characterize the dominant source regions for low, medium, and high SO4 episodes.

  16. Geographical Information Systems (GIS) Mapping of Environmental Samples across College Campuses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Purvis-Roberts, Kathleen L.; Moeur, Harriet P.; Zanella, Andrew

    2007-01-01

    In this laboratory experiment, students take environmental samples at various locations around the college campuses, take geospatial coordinates with a global position systems (GPS) unit, and map their results on a geo-referenced campus map with geographical information systems (GIS) software. Nitrogen dioxide air pollution sampling is used as an…

  17. Geographical Information Systems (GIS) Mapping of Environmental Samples across College Campuses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Purvis-Roberts, Kathleen L.; Moeur, Harriet P.; Zanella, Andrew

    2007-01-01

    In this laboratory experiment, students take environmental samples at various locations around the college campuses, take geospatial coordinates with a global position systems (GPS) unit, and map their results on a geo-referenced campus map with geographical information systems (GIS) software. Nitrogen dioxide air pollution sampling is used as an…

  18. Photonics-assisted compressive sampling systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Qiang; Chen, Hongwei; Chen, Minghua; Yang, Sigang; Xie, Shizhong

    2016-11-01

    In this paper, a systematic review is made on our research related to photonics-assisted compressive sampling (CS) systems including principle, structure and applications. We demonstrate their utility in wideband spectrum sensing and high throughput flow cytometry. Photonics-assisted CS systems not only can significantly reduce the data acquisition rate but also can achieve a large operational bandwidth (several GHz or even a few tens of GHz), which is one to two orders of magnitude larger than that of traditional electric CS systems. Single-channel and multi-channel photonicsassisted CS systems are presented in this paper and demonstrated to enable accurate reconstruction of frequency-sparse signals from only a few percent of the measurements required for Nyquist sampling. On the other hand, we also implement time-stretch-based single-pixel imaging systems with high frame rates, three orders of magnitude faster than conventional single-pixel cameras. To show their utility in biomedical applications, a real-time high-throughput imaging flow cytometer is demonstrated. In general, photonics-assisted CS systems show great potential in both wideband spectrum sensing and biomedical imaging applications.

  19. Air conditioning system and component therefore distributing air flow from opposite directions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Obler, H. D.; Bauer, H. B. (Inventor)

    1974-01-01

    The air conditioning system comprises a plurality of separate air conditioning units coupled to a common supply duct such that air may be introduced into the supply duct in two opposite flow directions. A plurality of outlets such as registers or auxiliary or branch ducts communicate with the supply duct and valve means are disposed in the supply duct at at least some of the outlets for automatically channelling a controllable amount of air from the supply duct to the associated outlet regardless of the direction of air flow within the supply duct. The valve means comprises an automatic air volume control apparatus for distribution within the air supply duct into which air may be introduced from two opposite directions. The apparatus incorporates a freely swinging movable vane in the supply duct to automatically channel into the associated outlet only the deflected air flow which has the higher relative pressure.

  20. 14 CFR 23.1091 - Air induction system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... indicate to the flight crew when it is not closed. (c) For turbine engine powered airplanes— (1) There must... § 23.1091 Air induction system. (a) The air induction system for each engine and auxiliary power unit and their accessories must supply the air required by that engine and auxiliary power unit and...

  1. 14 CFR 33.66 - Bleed air system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Bleed air system. 33.66 Section 33.66... STANDARDS: AIRCRAFT ENGINES Design and Construction; Turbine Aircraft Engines § 33.66 Bleed air system. The engine must supply bleed air without adverse effect on the engine, excluding reduced thrust or power...

  2. 46 CFR 197.310 - Air compressor system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Air compressor system. 197.310 Section 197.310 Shipping... GENERAL PROVISIONS Commercial Diving Operations Equipment § 197.310 Air compressor system. A compressor used to supply breathing air to a diver must have— (a) A volume tank that is— (1) Built and stamped...

  3. 14 CFR 33.66 - Bleed air system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Bleed air system. 33.66 Section 33.66... STANDARDS: AIRCRAFT ENGINES Design and Construction; Turbine Aircraft Engines § 33.66 Bleed air system. The engine must supply bleed air without adverse effect on the engine, excluding reduced thrust or...

  4. 46 CFR 197.310 - Air compressor system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Air compressor system. 197.310 Section 197.310 Shipping... GENERAL PROVISIONS Commercial Diving Operations Equipment § 197.310 Air compressor system. A compressor used to supply breathing air to a diver must have— (a) A volume tank that is— (1) Built and stamped...

  5. 46 CFR 197.310 - Air compressor system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Air compressor system. 197.310 Section 197.310 Shipping... GENERAL PROVISIONS Commercial Diving Operations Equipment § 197.310 Air compressor system. A compressor used to supply breathing air to a diver must have— (a) A volume tank that is— (1) Built and stamped...

  6. 46 CFR 197.310 - Air compressor system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Air compressor system. 197.310 Section 197.310 Shipping... GENERAL PROVISIONS Commercial Diving Operations Equipment § 197.310 Air compressor system. A compressor used to supply breathing air to a diver must have— (a) A volume tank that is— (1) Built and stamped...

  7. Permeation passive sampling as a tool for the evaluation of indoor air quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zabiegała, B.; Górecki, T.; Przyk, E.; Namieśnik, J.

    Time-weighted average concentrations of selected volatile organic air pollutants were determined in eight apartments in the city of Gdańsk (Poland) using permeation passive sampling. The samplers were recalibrated prior to use by controlled exposure to standard gaseous mixtures of the analytes. Small but statistically significant differences were found between the calibration constants determined initially and after one year of field use of the samplers for some of the analytes. The results obtained by the passive sampling technique were compared to those obtained by dynamic sampling using active charcoal-filled tubes, and dynamic sampling using Tenax-TA tubes. Overall, the results obtained by the three techniques were similar. Maximum allowable concentrations of the analytes were not exceeded in any of the apartments examined. The results of total volatile organic compounds determination indicated that some VOCs were unaccounted for in the experiment. The effect of outside air infiltration on indoor air quality was evaluated by comparing analyte concentrations in indoor air and in outdoor air in the very vicinity of the apartment. This effect was found to be minimal.

  8. Designing an enhanced groundwater sample collection system

    SciTech Connect

    Schalla, R.

    1994-10-01

    As part of an ongoing technical support mission to achieve excellence and efficiency in environmental restoration activities at the Laboratory for Energy and Health-Related Research (LEHR), Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) provided guidance on the design and construction of monitoring wells and identified the most suitable type of groundwater sampling pump and accessories for monitoring wells. The goal was to utilize a monitoring well design that would allow for hydrologic testing and reduce turbidity to minimize the impact of sampling. The sampling results of the newly designed monitoring wells were clearly superior to those of the previously installed monitoring wells. The new wells exhibited reduced turbidity, in addition to improved access for instrumentation and hydrologic testing. The variable frequency submersible pump was selected as the best choice for obtaining groundwater samples. The literature references are listed at the end of this report. Despite some initial difficulties, the actual performance of the variable frequency, submersible pump and its accessories was effective in reducing sampling time and labor costs, and its ease of use was preferred over the previously used bladder pumps. The surface seals system, called the Dedicator, proved to be useful accessory to prevent surface contamination while providing easy access for water-level measurements and for connecting the pump. Cost savings resulted from the use of the pre-production pumps (beta units) donated by the manufacturer for the demonstration. However, larger savings resulted from shortened field time due to the ease in using the submersible pumps and the surface seal access system. Proper deployment of the monitoring wells also resulted in cost savings and ensured representative samples.

  9. Profiling quinones in ambient air samples collected from the Athabasca region (Canada).

    PubMed

    Wnorowski, Andrzej; Charland, Jean-Pierre

    2017-09-05

    This paper presents new findings on polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon oxidation products-quinones that were collected in ambient air samples in the proximity of oil sands exploration. Quinones were characterized for their diurnal concentration variability, phase partitioning, and molecular size distribution. Gas-phase (GP) and particle-phase (PM) ambient air samples were collected separately in the summer; a lower quinone content was observed in the PM samples from continuous 24-h sampling than from combined 12-h sampling (day and night). The daytime/nocturnal samples demonstrated that nighttime conditions led to lower concentrations and some quinones not being detected. The highest quinone levels were associated with wind directions originating from oil sands exploration sites. The statistical correlation with primary pollutants directly emitted from oil sands industrial activities indicated that the bulk of the detected quinones did not originate directly from primary emission sources and that quinone formation paralleled a reduction in primary source NOx levels. This suggests a secondary chemical transformation of primary pollutants as the origin of the determined quinones. Measurements of 19 quinones included five that have not previously been reported in ambient air or in Standard Reference Material 1649a/1649b and seven that have not been previously measured in ambient air in the underivatized form. This is the first paper to report on quinone characterization in secondary organic aerosols originating from oil sands activities, to distinguish chrysenequinone and anthraquinone positional isomers in ambient air, and to report the requirement of daylight conditions for benzo[a]pyrenequinone and naphthacenequinone to be present in ambient air. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. 30 CFR 77.412 - Compressed air systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... for Mechanical Equipment § 77.412 Compressed air systems. (a) Compressors and compressed-air receivers... used at connections to machines of high-pressure hose lines of 1-inch inside diameter or larger,...

  11. One man electrochemical air revitalization system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huddleston, J. C.; Aylward, J. R.

    1975-01-01

    An integrated water vapor electrolysis (WVE) hydrogen depolarized CO2 concentrator (HDC) system sized for one man support over a wide range of inlet air conditions was designed, fabricated, and tested. Data obtained during 110 days of testing verified that this system can provide the necessary oxygen, CO2 removal, and partial humidity control to support one man (without exceeding a cabin partial pressure of 3.0 mmHg for CO2 and while maintaining a 20% oxygen level), when operated at a WVE current of 50 amperes and an HDC current of 18 amperes. An evaluation to determine the physical properties of tetramethylammonium bicarbonate (TMAC) and hydroxide was made. This provides the necessary electrolyte information for designing an HDC cell using TMAC.

  12. Colonization by Cladosporium spp. of painted metal surfaces associated with heating and air conditioning systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ahearn, D. G.; Simmons, R. B.; Switzer, K. F.; Ajello, L.; Pierson, D. L.

    1991-01-01

    Cladosporium cladosporioides and C. hebarum colonized painted metal surfaces of covering panels and register vents of heating, air conditioning and ventilation systems. Hyphae penetrated the paint film and developed characteristic conidiophores and conidia. The colonies were tightly appressed to the metal surface and conidia were not readily detectable via standard air sampling procedures.

  13. Colonization by Cladosporium spp. of painted metal surfaces associated with heating and air conditioning systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ahearn, D. G.; Simmons, R. B.; Switzer, K. F.; Ajello, L.; Pierson, D. L.

    1991-01-01

    Cladosporium cladosporioides and C. hebarum colonized painted metal surfaces of covering panels and register vents of heating, air conditioning and ventilation systems. Hyphae penetrated the paint film and developed characteristic conidiophores and conidia. The colonies were tightly appressed to the metal surface and conidia were not readily detectable via standard air sampling procedures.

  14. Mobile Variable Depth Sampling System Design Study

    SciTech Connect

    BOGER, R.M.

    2000-08-25

    A design study is presented for a mobile, variable depth sampling system (MVDSS) that will support the treatment and immobilization of Hanford LAW and HLW. The sampler can be deployed in a 4-inch tank riser and has a design that is based on requirements identified in the Level 2 Specification (latest revision). The waste feed sequence for the MVDSS is based on Phase 1, Case 3S6 waste feed sequence. Technical information is also presented that supports the design study.

  15. Use of Whatman-41 filters in air quality sampling networks (with applications to elemental analysis)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neustadter, H. E.; Sidik, S. M.; King, R. B.; Fordyce, J. S.; Burr, J. C.

    1974-01-01

    The operation of a 16-site parallel high volume air sampling network with glass fiber filters on one unit and Whatman-41 filters on the other is reported. The network data and data from several other experiments indicate that (1) Sampler-to-sampler and filter-to-filter variabilities are small; (2) hygroscopic affinity of Whatman-41 filters need not introduce errors; and (3) suspended particulate samples from glass fiber filters averaged slightly, but not statistically significantly, higher than from Whatman-41-filters. The results obtained demonstrate the practicability of Whatman-41 filters for air quality monitoring and elemental analysis.

  16. Cleanliness of common air sampling sorbents for application to phenolic compounds measurement using supercritical fluid extraction

    SciTech Connect

    Bowyer, J.R.; Pleil, J.D.

    1994-12-31

    The trace-level measurement of phenolic compounds in the ambient air is complicated by the acidic and polar nature of the compounds especially during recovery from the sampling medium. Recently, supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) has been proposed as an alternative extraction method to Soxhlet extraction or thermal desorption to achieve more efficient recoveries. For such methodology to become practical, the candidate sorbents must first be tested for stability and cleanliness under SFE conditions. This paper describes exploratory research results of background contamination tests and cleanup properties of some common air sampling sorbent media with respect to future application to phenolic compounds monitoring.

  17. Cleanliness of common air sampling sorbents for application to phenolic compounds measurement using supercritical fluid extraction

    SciTech Connect

    Bowyer, J.R.; Pleil, J.D.

    1994-01-01

    The trace-level measurement of phenolic compounds in the ambient air is complicated by the acidic and polar nature of the compounds especially during recovery from the sampling medium. Recently, supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) has been proposed as an alternative extraction method to Soxhlet extraction or thermal desorption to achieve more efficient recoveries. For such methodology to become practical, the candidate sorbents must first be tested for stability and cleanliness under SFE conditions. The paper describes exploratory research results of background contamination tests and cleanup properties of some common air sampling sorbent media with respect to future application to phenolic compounds monitoring.

  18. Machine & electrical double control air dryer for vehicle air braking system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xuan; Yang, Liu; Wang, Xian Yan; Tan, Xiao Yan; Wang, Wei

    2017-09-01

    As is known to all, a vehicle air brake system, in which usually contains moisture. To solve the problem, it is common to use air dryer to dry compressed air effectively and completely remove the moisture and oil of braking system. However, the existing air dryer is not suitable for all commercial vehicles. According to the operational status of the new energy vehicles in the initial operating period, the structure design principle of the machine & electric control air dryer is expounded from the aspects of the structure and operating principle, research & development process.

  19. Variable volume combustor with an air bypass system

    DOEpatents

    Johnson, Thomas Edward; Ziminsky, Willy Steve; Ostebee, Heath Michael; Keener, Christopher Paul

    2017-02-07

    The present application provides a combustor for use with flow of fuel and a flow of air in a gas turbine engine. The combustor may include a number of micro-mixer fuel nozzles positioned within a liner and an air bypass system position about the liner. The air bypass system variably allows a bypass portion of the flow of air to bypass the micro-mixer fuel nozzles.

  20. Environmental Assessment for Kirtland Air Force Base Arsenic Compliance System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-09-01

    have migrated from the area (Between Nov. 1-Feb. 28). Implementation of these burrowing owl avoidance measures would prevent any long-term impacts to...FINAL ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT FOR KIRTLAND AIR FORCE BASE ARSENIC COMPLIANCE SYSTEM September 2003 Prepared for 377th Air Base Wing Air...Kirtland Air Force Base Arsenic Compliance System 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e

  1. Scheduling whole-air samples above the Trade Wind Inversion from SUAS using real-time sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freer, J. E.; Greatwood, C.; Thomas, R.; Richardson, T.; Brownlow, R.; Lowry, D.; MacKenzie, A. R.; Nisbet, E. G.

    2015-12-01

    Small Unmanned Air Systems (SUAS) are increasingly being used in science applications for a range of applications. Here we explore their use to schedule the sampling of air masses up to 2.5km above ground using computer controlled bespoked Octocopter platforms. Whole-air sampling is targeted above, within and below the Trade Wind Inversion (TWI). On-board sensors profiled the TWI characteristics in real time on ascent and, hence, guided the altitudes at which samples were taken on descent. The science driver for this research is investigation of the Southern Methane Anomaly and, more broadly, the hemispheric-scale transport of long-lived atmospheric tracers in the remote troposphere. Here we focus on the practical application of SUAS for this purpose. Highlighting the need for mission planning, computer control, onboard sensors and logistics in deploying such technologies for out of line-of-sight applications. We show how such a platform can be deployed successfully, resulting in some 60 sampling flights within a 10 day period. Challenges remain regarding the deployment of such platforms routinely and cost-effectively, particularly regarding training and support. We present some initial results from the methane sampling and its implication for exploring and understanding the Southern Methane Anomaly.

  2. 40 CFR 91.327 - Sampling system requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Sampling system requirements. 91.327....327 Sampling system requirements. (a) Sample component surface temperature. For sampling systems which..., sample line section, filters, and so forth) in the heated portion of the sampling system that has a...

  3. Controlling energy in an air-conditioning system

    SciTech Connect

    Lamar, R. H.; Davis, R. A.

    1985-03-26

    A system for minimizing the energy consumption in a central air conditioning unit incorporating a refrigeration unit which is normally in operation to supplement or substitute for the cooling effect of outside air. The system employs sensor to sense the enthalpy of the return air entering the unit from the work space, the outside air entering the unit from the outside, and the washer air discharged into the work space from the unit, and controls the operation of the unit in accordance with the relative levels of enthalpy at these points. The energy content of the discharged washer air may be modified by modulating dampers controlling the proportion of outside and recirculated air, and also by modulating the washer which provides evaporative cooling and, in addition, cooling by refrigeration. The controls keep the outdoor air dampers normally closed when the enthalpy of the outdoor air is higher than the enthalpy of the return air and keep the outdoor air dampers normally opened when the enthalpy of the outside air is less than the enthalpy of the return air. Regulating means provide auxiliary signals to modulate the dampers to avoid adversely affecting the conditioning effect of the washer air in the work area, and also to enable the continued operation of the refrigeration unit without damage when the system would otherwise call for operating the unit at less than the minimum safe operating load.

  4. Air-sampling inlet contamination by aircraft emissions on the NASA CV-990 aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Condon, E. P.; Vedder, J. F.

    1984-01-01

    Results of an experimental investigation of the contamination of air sampling inlets by aircraft emissions from the NASA CV-990 research aircraft are presented. This four-engine jet aircraft is a NASA facility used for many different atmospheric and meteorological experiments, as well as for developing spacecraft instrumentation for remote measurements. Our investigations were performed to provide information on which to base the selection of sampling locations for a series of multi-instrument missions for measuring tropospheric trace gases. The major source of contamination is the exhaust from the jet engines, which generate many of the same gases that are of interest in atmospheric chemistry, as well as other gases that may interfere with sampling measurements. The engine exhaust contains these gases in mixing ratios many orders of magnitude greater than those that occur in the clean atmosphere which the missions seek to quantify. Pressurized samples of air were collected simultaneously from a scoop located forward of the engines to represent clean air and from other multiport scoops at various aft positions on the aircraft. The air samples were analyzed in the laboratory by gas chromatography for carbon monoxide, an abundant combustion by-product. Data are presented for various scoop locations under various flight conditions.

  5. Passive dosimeters for nitrogen dioxide in personal/indoor air sampling: A review

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Chang Ho; Morandi, Maria T.; Weisel, Clifford P.

    2015-01-01

    Accurate measurement of nitrogen dioxide concentrations in both outdoor and indoor environments, including personal exposures, is a fundamental step for linking atmospheric nitrogen dioxide levels to potential health and ecological effects. The measurement has been conducted generally in two ways: active (pumped) sampling and passive (diffusive) sampling. Diffusion samplers, initially developed and used for workplace air monitoring, have been found to be useful and cost-effective alternatives to conventional pumped samplers for monitoring ambient, indoor and personal exposures at the lower concentrations found in environmental settings. Since the 1970s, passive samplers have been deployed for ambient air monitoring in urban and rural sites, and to determine personal and indoor exposure to NO2. This article reviews the development of NO2 passive samplers, the sampling characteristics of passive samplers currently available, and their application in ambient and indoor air monitoring and personal exposure studies. The limitations and advantages of the various passive sampler geometries (i.e., tube, badge, and radial type) are also discussed. This review provides researchers and risk assessors with practical information about NO2 passive samplers, especially useful when designing field sampling strategies for exposure and indoor/outdoor air sampling. PMID:18446185

  6. Air-sampling inlet contamination by aircraft emissions on the NASA CV-990 aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Condon, E. P.; Vedder, J. F.

    1984-01-01

    Results of an experimental investigation of the contamination of air sampling inlets by aircraft emissions from the NASA CV-990 research aircraft are presented. This four-engine jet aircraft is a NASA facility used for many different atmospheric and meteorological experiments, as well as for developing spacecraft instrumentation for remote measurements. Our investigations were performed to provide information on which to base the selection of sampling locations for a series of multi-instrument missions for measuring tropospheric trace gases. The major source of contamination is the exhaust from the jet engines, which generate many of the same gases that are of interest in atmospheric chemistry, as well as other gases that may interfere with sampling measurements. The engine exhaust contains these gases in mixing ratios many orders of magnitude greater than those that occur in the clean atmosphere which the missions seek to quantify. Pressurized samples of air were collected simultaneously from a scoop located forward of the engines to represent clean air and from other multiport scoops at various aft positions on the aircraft. The air samples were analyzed in the laboratory by gas chromatography for carbon monoxide, an abundant combustion by-product. Data are presented for various scoop locations under various flight conditions.

  7. A new air quality monitoring and early warning system: Air quality assessment and air pollutant concentration prediction.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zhongshan; Wang, Jian

    2017-10-01

    Air pollution in many countries is worsening with industrialization and urbanization, resulting in climate change and affecting people's health, thus, making the work of policymakers more difficult. It is therefore both urgent and necessary to establish amore scientific air quality monitoring and early warning system to evaluate the degree of air pollution objectively, and predict pollutant concentrations accurately. However, the integration of air quality assessment and air pollutant concentration prediction to establish an air quality system is not common. In this paper, we propose a new air quality monitoring and early warning system, including an assessment module and forecasting module. In the air quality assessment module, fuzzy comprehensive evaluation is used to determine the main pollutants and evaluate the degree of air pollution more scientifically. In the air pollutant concentration prediction module, a novel hybridization model combining complementary ensemble empirical mode decomposition, a modified cuckoo search and differential evolution algorithm, and an Elman neural network, is proposed to improve the forecasting accuracy of six main air pollutant concentrations. To verify the effectiveness of this system, pollutant data for two cities in China are used. The result of the fuzzy comprehensive evaluation shows that the major air pollutants in Xi'an and Jinan are PM10 and PM2.5 respectively, and that the air quality of Xi'an is better than that of Jinan. The forecasting results indicate that the proposed hybrid model is remarkably superior to all benchmark models on account of its higher prediction accuracy and stability. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. HVAC system performance and indoor air quality

    SciTech Connect

    Newman, J.L. )

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports that in the mid-seventies, the American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE) promulgated ASHRAE Standard 90-75 Energy Conservation in New Building Design, which called for revised minimum ventilation rates and the elimination of energy-wasting HVAC systems. Most building codes which cover energy conservation in the late seventies and eighties referred to this standard. This lowering of ventilation rates, coupled with the tighter building envelope (walls, windows, doors and roof) led to a reduction in outside air, both by engineering design and by minimizing infiltration through the structure. The minimum ventilation rates are based on the assumption that average concentrations of tobacco smoke exist in all enclosed spaces (30 percent of the population being smokers at two cigarettes per hour), rather than having separate rates for smoking and nonsmoking areas, as in the 1981 revision of the Standard. If tobacco smoke is ever declared a carcinogen, it will undoubtedly prompt a review of Standard 62-1989, as well as hasten totally smoke-free buildings.

  9. Solubility testing of actinides on breathing-zone and area air samples

    SciTech Connect

    Metzger, R.L.; Jessop, B.H.; McDowell, B.L.

    1996-02-01

    A solubility testing method for several common actinides has been developed with sufficient sensitivity to allow profiles to be determined from routine breathing zone and area air samples in the workplace. Air samples are covered with a clean filter to form a filter-sample-filter sandwich which is immersed in an extracellular lung serum simulant solution. The sample is moved to a fresh beaker of the lung fluid simulant each day for one week, and then weekly until the end of the 28 day test period. The soak solutions are wet ashed with nitric acid and hydrogen peroxide to destroy the organic components of the lung simulant solution prior to extraction of the nuclides of interest directly into an extractive scintillator for subsequent counting on a Photon-Electron Rejecting Alpha Liquid Scintillation (PERALS{reg_sign}) spectrometer. Solvent extraction methods utilizing the extractive scintillators have been developed for the isotopes of uranium, plutonium, and curium. The procedures normally produce an isotopic recovery greater than 95% and have been used to develop solubility profiles from air samples with 40 pCi or less of U{sub 3}O{sub 8}. Profiles developed for U{sub 3}O{sub 8} samples show good agreement with in vitro and in vivo tests performed by other investigators on samples from the same uranium mills.

  10. Direct digital control of air washer cooling system

    SciTech Connect

    Elben, T.; Roseblock, R.; Lawler, R.; McCord, J.

    1990-01-01

    The purpose of this project was to make a practical evaluation of using new technology to extend the life of obsolete HVAC mechanical equipment. The specific exercises in this project involved the application of software driven control algorithms to operate and manage open loop air washer cooling systems in the air handling units located in the Municipal Auditorium in Kansas City, Missouri. The specific opportunity evaluated in this project involved eight air handling units at the Municipal Auditorium. The air handling systems utilize outdated air washer cooling systems that provide air conditioning and dehumidification to the areas they serve. We utilized direct digital control to assume total control of the operation of the air handling units. We also found it necessary to upgrade some components of the air handling units in order to allow the new control applications to execute their functions. This report describes the plan used to execute the project and the results. 20 tabs.

  11. 40 CFR 63.166 - Standards: Sampling connection systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 10 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Standards: Sampling connection systems...: Sampling connection systems. (a) Each sampling connection system shall be equipped with a closed-purge... defined in 40 CFR part 261. (c) In-situ sampling systems and sampling systems without purges are exempt...

  12. 40 CFR 63.166 - Standards: Sampling connection systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 10 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Standards: Sampling connection systems...: Sampling connection systems. (a) Each sampling connection system shall be equipped with a closed-purge... defined in 40 CFR part 261. (c) In-situ sampling systems and sampling systems without purges are exempt...

  13. Air Force Officer Evaluation System Project

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-01-01

    supervisor-subordinate relationships, and most private sector organizations ti"-n supervisors to give such feedback. AIR FORCE CULTURE o There exists...Alternative OER designs should reflect and sustain the larger Air Force culture ; 0 Within the Air Force, the alternative OER designs should encourage change...given the Air Force history and culture favoring "firewalling*, there is substantial risk that this approach would meet considerable resistance to

  14. SYSBIONS: nested sampling for systems biology.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Rob; Kirk, Paul; Stumpf, Michael P H

    2015-02-15

    Model selection is a fundamental part of the scientific process in systems biology. Given a set of competing hypotheses, we routinely wish to choose the one that best explains the observed data. In the Bayesian framework, models are compared via Bayes factors (the ratio of evidences), where a model's evidence is the support given to the model by the data. A parallel interest is inferring the distribution of the parameters that define a model. Nested sampling is a method for the computation of a model's evidence and the generation of samples from the posterior parameter distribution. We present a C-based, GPU-accelerated implementation of nested sampling that is designed for biological applications. The algorithm follows a standard routine with optional extensions and additional features. We provide a number of methods for sampling from the prior subject to a likelihood constraint. The software SYSBIONS is available from http://www.theosysbio.bio.ic.ac.uk/resources/sysbions/ m.stumpf@imperial.ac.uk, robert.johnson11@imperial.ac.uk. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press.

  15. Multi-Sensor Aerosol Products Sampling System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Petrenko, M.; Ichoku, C.; Leptoukh, G.

    2011-01-01

    Global and local properties of atmospheric aerosols have been extensively observed and measured using both spaceborne and ground-based instruments, especially during the last decade. Unique properties retrieved by the different instruments contribute to an unprecedented availability of the most complete set of complimentary aerosol measurements ever acquired. However, some of these measurements remain underutilized, largely due to the complexities involved in analyzing them synergistically. To characterize the inconsistencies and bridge the gap that exists between the sensors, we have established a Multi-sensor Aerosol Products Sampling System (MAPSS), which consistently samples and generates the spatial statistics (mean, standard deviation, direction and rate of spatial variation, and spatial correlation coefficient) of aerosol products from multiple spacebome sensors, including MODIS (on Terra and Aqua), MISR, OMI, POLDER, CALIOP, and SeaWiFS. Samples of satellite aerosol products are extracted over Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) locations as well as over other locations of interest such as those with available ground-based aerosol observations. In this way, MAPSS enables a direct cross-characterization and data integration between Level-2 aerosol observations from multiple sensors. In addition, the available well-characterized co-located ground-based data provides the basis for the integrated validation of these products. This paper explains the sampling methodology and concepts used in MAPSS, and demonstrates specific examples of using MAPSS for an integrated analysis of multiple aerosol products.

  16. Integrating silicon nanowire field effect transistor, microfluidics and air sampling techniques for real-time monitoring biological aerosols.

    PubMed

    Shen, Fangxia; Tan, Miaomiao; Wang, Zhenxing; Yao, Maosheng; Xu, Zhenqiang; Wu, Yan; Wang, Jindong; Guo, Xuefeng; Zhu, Tong

    2011-09-01

    Numerous threats from biological aerosol exposures, such as those from H1N1 influenza, SARS, bird flu, and bioterrorism activities necessitate the development of a real-time bioaerosol sensing system, which however is a long-standing challenge in the field. Here, we developed a real-time monitoring system for airborne influenza H3N2 viruses by integrating electronically addressable silicon nanowire (SiNW) sensor devices, microfluidics and bioaerosol-to-hydrosol air sampling techniques. When airborne influenza H3N2 virus samples were collected and delivered to antibody-modified SiNW devices, discrete nanowire conductance changes were observed within seconds. In contrast, the conductance levels remained relatively unchanged when indoor air or clean air samples were delivered. A 10-fold increase in virus concentration was found to give rise to about 20-30% increase in the sensor response. The selectivity of the sensing device was successfully demonstrated using H1N1 viruses and house dust allergens. From the simulated aerosol release to the detection, we observed a time scale of 1-2 min. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) tests revealed that higher virus concentrations in the air samples generally corresponded to higher conductance levels in the SiNW devices. In addition, the display of detection data on remote platforms such as cell phone and computer was also successfully demonstrated with a wireless module. The work here is expected to lead to innovative methods for biological aerosol monitoring, and further improvements in each of the integrated elements could extend the system to real world applications.

  17. [Fungi and bacteria on air filters from heating, ventilation and air-conditioning systems: a method for determination of fungi and bacteria on air filters].

    PubMed

    Möritz, M; Martiny, H

    1997-04-01

    A method was developed for the determination of microorganism concentrations on air filters of HVAC systems, and the influence of different test parameters on the microbiological results was examined by considering various used air filters from several such systems. Microorganisms are detected by shaking air filter samples in fluid, where their concentration is then determined as surface cultures. Since varying the shaking time (30, 60, 90 min) had no influence on the quantitative microorganism determination, a shaking time of 60 minutes was chosen for detection of bacteria, yeasts and moulds. Incubation of blood agar plates either for 4 days at 20 degrees C +/- 2 degrees C or for 2 days at 36 degrees C +/- 1 degree C yielded identical concentrations of bacteria and yeasts. Since results obtained with malt extract agar and Czapek-Dox agar are comparable, one of the two culture media is sufficient for the quantitative determination of moulds on air filters. For statistical evaluation, the inoculation of three parallel agar plates per growth medium was found to be adequate, and the arithmetic mean and the median proved to be equivalent. Investigation on the detection rate showed that, on the average, the method developed demonstrated 80% of the microorganisms detectable on an air filter sample. Thus a simple method is available for quantitative determination of microorganisms on air filters.

  18. Double Shell Tank (DST) Ventilation System Vapor Sampling and Analysis Plan

    SciTech Connect

    SASAKI, L.M.

    2000-06-08

    This sampling and analysis plan (SAP) identifies characterization objectives pertaining to sample collection, laboratory analytical evaluation, and reporting requirements for vapor samples from the primary ventilation systems of the AN, AP, AW, and AY/AZ tank farms. Sampling will be performed in accordance with Data Quality Objectives for Regulatory Requirements for Hazardous and Radioactive Air Emissions Sampling and Analysis (Air DQO) (Mulkey 1999). The sampling will verify if current air emission estimates used in the permit application are correct and provide information for future air permit applications. Vapor samples will be obtained from tank farm ventilation systems, downstream from the tanks and upstream of any filtration. Samples taken in support of the DQO will consist of SUMMA{trademark} canisters, triple sorbent traps (TSTs), sorbent tube trains (STTs), polyurethane foam (PUF) samples. Particulate filter samples and tritium traps will be taken for radiation screening to allow the release of the samples for analysis. The following sections provide the general methodology and procedures to be used in the preparation, retrieval, transport, analysis, and reporting of results from the vapor samples.

  19. Professional judgment and the interpretation of viable mold air sampling data.

    PubMed

    Johnson, David; Thompson, David; Clinkenbeard, Rodney; Redus, Jason

    2008-10-01

    Although mold air sampling is technically straightforward, interpreting the results to decide if there is an indoor source is not. Applying formal statistical tests to mold sampling data is an error-prone practice due to the extreme data variability. With neither established exposure limits nor useful statistical techniques, indoor air quality investigators often must rely on their professional judgment, but the lack of a consensus "decision strategy" incorporating explicit decision criteria requires professionals to establish their own personal set of criteria when interpreting air sampling data. This study examined the level of agreement among indoor air quality practitioners in their evaluation of airborne mold sampling data and explored differences in inter-evaluator assessments. Eighteen investigators independently judged 30 sets of viable mold air sampling results to indicate: "definite indoor mold source," "likely indoor mold source," "not enough information to decide," "likely no indoor mold source," or "definitely no indoor mold source." Kappa coefficient analysis indicated weak inter-observer reliability, and comparison of evaluator mean scores showed clear inter-evaluator differences in their overall scoring patterns. The responses were modeled on indicator "traits" of the data sets using a generalized, linear mixed model approach and showed several traits to be associated with respondents' ratings, but they also demonstrated distinct and divergent inter-evaluator response patterns. Conclusions were that there was only weak overall agreement in evaluation of the mold sampling data, that particular traits of the data were associated with the conclusions reached, and that there were substantial inter-evaluator differences that were likely due to differences in the personal decision criteria employed by the individual evaluators. The overall conclusion was that there is a need for additional work to rigorously explore the constellation of decision criteria

  20. Measured phenol concentrations in air and rain water samples collected near a wood preserving facility

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, S.K.; Allen, C.W.

    1995-12-31

    Phenol concentrations were determined in air and rain water samples collected downwind from a coal tar creosote wood preserving facility in Terre Haute, IN. Coal tar creosote is known to contain a large number of constituents and is composed chiefly of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), phenols, and N-, S-, and O-heterocycles. Phenol was chosen as a marker compound for coal tar creosote emissions because it is present at a large mole fraction in coal tar creosote. Phenol was determined by HPLC with UV-Visible detection. Phenol in collected rain water samples was determined directly by HPLC after acidification and filtration. Phenol concentrations in collected air samples ranged from 4.1 to 15.7 {micro}g/m3 while rain water concentrations ranged from 7.9 to 28.2 {micro}g/L. Using a value for the thermodynamic Henry`s law constant of K{sub H} = 4.5 {times} 10{sup {minus}4} L atm/mole at 20 C for phenol and measured gas-phase phenol concentrations, even higher rain water concentrations would be expected if equilibrium was established. This indicates that the amount of phenol present in the air parcels sampled exceeded the amount that could be scavenged by rain drops under the conditions prevailing at the time of sampling. The values for phenol concentrations reported here are roughly two orders of magnitude higher than results from previous studies where phenol concentrations in air and rain water samples collected in urban areas were reported. It is likely that other more toxic constituents of coal tar creosote are also present at high concentrations in air parcels that receive emissions from wood treatment facilities.

  1. Air sampling by pumping through a filter: effects of air flow rate, concentration, and decay of airborne substances.

    PubMed

    Šoštarić, Marko; Petrinec, Branko; Babić, Dinko

    2016-12-01

    This paper tackles the issue of interpreting the number of airborne particles adsorbed on a filter through which a certain volume of sampled air has been pumped. This number is equal to the product of the pumped volume and particle concentration in air, but only if the concentration is constant over time and if there is no substance decomposition on the filter during sampling. If this is not the case, one must take into account the inconstancy of the concentration and the decay law for a given substance, which is complicated even further if the flow rate through the filter is not constant. In this paper, we develop a formalism which considers all of these factors, resulting in a single, compact expression of general applicability. The use of this expression is exemplified by addressing a case of sampling airborne radioactive matter, where the decay law is already well known. This law is combined with three experimentally observed time dependence of the flow rate and two models for the time dependence of the particle concentration. We also discuss the implications of these calculations for certain other situations of interest to environmental studies.

  2. Development and calibration of real-time PCR for quantification of airborne microorganisms in air samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    An, Hey Reoun; Mainelis, Gediminas; White, Lori

    This manuscript describes the coupling of bioaerosol collection and the use of real-time PCR (RT-PCR) to quantify the airborne bacteria. The quantity of collected bacteria determined by RT-PCR is compared with conventional quantification techniques, such as culturing, microscopy and airborne microorganism counting by using optical particle counter (OPC). Our data show that an experimental approach used to develop standard curves for use with RT-PCR is critical for accurate sample quantification. Using universal primers we generated 12 different standard curves which were used to quantify model organism Escherichia coli (Migula) Catellani from air samples. Standard curves prepared using a traditional approach, where serially diluted genomic DNA extracted from pure cultured bacteria were used in PCR reaction as a template DNA yielded significant underestimation of sample quantities compared to airborne microorganism concentration as measured by an OPC. The underestimation was especially pronounced when standard curves were built using colony forming units (CFUs). In contrast, the estimate of cell concentration in an air sample by RT-PCR was more accurate (˜60% compared to the airborne microorganism concentration) when the standard curve was built using aerosolized E. coli. The accuracy improved even further (˜100%) when air samples used to build the standard curves were diluted first, then the DNA extracted from each dilution was amplified by the RT-PCR—to mimic the handling of air samples with unknown and possibly low concentration. Therefore, our data show that standard curves used for quantification by RT-PCR needs to be prepared using the same environmental matrix and procedures as handling of the environmental sample in question. Reliance on the standard curves generated with cultured bacterial suspension (a traditional approach) may lead to substantial underestimation of microorganism quantities in environmental samples.

  3. Ultimate detectability of volatile organic compounds: how much further can we reduce their ambient air sample volumes for analysis?

    PubMed

    Kim, Yong-Hyun; Kim, Ki-Hyun

    2012-10-02

    To understand the ultimately lowest detection range of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in air, application of a high sensitivity analytical system was investigated by coupling thermal desorption (TD) technique with gas chromatography (GC) and time-of-flight (TOF) mass spectrometry (MS). The performance of the TD-GC/TOF MS system was evaluated using liquid standards of 19 target VOCs prepared in the range of 35 pg to 2.79 ng per μL. Studies were carried out using both total ion chromatogram (TIC) and extracted ion chromatogram (EIC) mode. EIC mode was used for calibration to reduce background and to improve signal-to-noise. The detectability of 19 target VOCs, if assessed in terms of method detection limit (MDL, per US EPA definition) and limit of detection (LOD), averaged 5.90 pg and 0.122 pg, respectively, with the mean coefficient of correlation (R(2)) of 0.9975. The minimum quantifiable mass of target analytes, when determined using real air samples by the TD-GC/TOF MS, is highly comparable to the detection limits determined experimentally by standard. In fact, volumes for the actual detection of the major aromatic VOCs like benzene, toluene, and xylene (BTX) in ambient air samples were as low as 1.0 mL in the 0.11-2.25 ppb range. It was thus possible to demonstrate that most target compounds including those in low abundance could be reliably quantified at concentrations down to 0.1 ppb at sample volumes of less than 10 mL. The unique sensitivity of this advanced analytical system can ultimately lead to a shift in field sampling strategy with smaller air sample volumes facilitating faster, simpler air sampling (e.g., use of gas syringes rather than the relative complexity of pumps or bags/canisters), with greatly reduced risk of analyte breakthrough and minimal interference, e.g., from atmospheric humidity. The improved detection limits offered by this system can also enhance accuracy and measurement precision.

  4. Mockup Small-Diameter Air Distribution System

    SciTech Connect

    A. Poerschke and A. Rudd

    2016-05-01

    This report investigates the feasibility of using a home-run manifold small-diameter duct system to provide space conditioning air to individual thermal zones in a low-load home. This compact layout allows duct systems to be brought easily within conditioned space via interior partition walls. Centrally locating the air hander unit in the house significantly reduces duct lengths. The plenum box is designed so that each connected duct receives an equal amount of airflow, regardless of the duct position on the box. Furthermore, within a reasonable set of length restrictions, each duct continues to receive similar airflow. The design method uses an additive approach to reach the total needed zonal airflow. Once the cubic feet per minute needed to satisfy the thermal load of a zone has been determined, the total number of duct runs to a zone can be calculated by dividing the required airflow by the standard airflow from each duct. The additive approach greatly simplifies the design effort and reduces the potential for duct design mistakes to be made. Measured results indicate that this plenum design can satisfy the heating load. However, the total airflow falls short of satisfying the cooling load in a hypothetical building. Static pressure inside the plenum box of 51.5 Pa limited the total airflow of the attached mini-split heat pump blower, thus limiting the total thermal capacity. Fan energy consumption is kept to 0.16 to 0.22 watt/CFM by using short duct runs and smooth duct material.

  5. COMPARISON OF FAST GC/TOFMS WITH METHOD TO-14 FOR ANALYSIS OF AMBIENT AIR SAMPLES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Field studies using portable gas chromatographs (PGC) to analyze volatile organic compounds in ambient air usually include, as reference standard method, the analysis of concurrent, collocated canister samples by EPA Method TO-14. Each laboratory analysis takes about an hour a...

  6. COMPARISON OF FAST GC/TOFMS WITH METHOD TO-14 FOR ANALYSIS OF AMBIENT AIR SAMPLES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Field studies using portable gas chromatographs (PGC) to analyze volatile organic compounds in ambient air usually include, as reference standard method, the analysis of concurrent, collocated canister samples by EPA Method TO-14. Each laboratory analysis takes about an hour a...

  7. COMPARISON OF MOLD CONCENTRATIONS IN INDOOR AND OUTDOOR AIR SAMPLED SIMULTANEOUSLY AND THEN QUANTIFIED BY MSQPCR

    EPA Science Inventory

    Mold specific quantitative PCR (MSQPCR) was used to measure the concentrations of the 36 mold species in indoor and outdoor air samples that were taken simultaneously for 48 hours in and around 17 homes in Cincinnati, Ohio. The total spore concentrations of 353 per m3...

  8. Air and smear sample calculational tool for Fluor Hanford Radiological control

    SciTech Connect

    BAUMANN, B.L.

    2003-07-11

    A spreadsheet calculation tool was developed to automate the calculations performed for determining the concentration of airborne radioactivity and smear counting as outlined in HNF-13536, Section 5.2.7, ''Analyzing Air and Smear Samples''. This document reports on the design and testing of the calculation tool. Radiological Control Technicians (RCTs) will save time and reduce hand written and calculation errors by using an electronic form for documenting and calculating work place air samples. Current expectations are RCTs will perform an air sample and collect the filter or perform a smear for surface contamination. RCTs will then survey the filter for gross alpha and beta/gamma radioactivity and with the gross counts utilize either hand calculation method or a calculator to determine activity on the filter. The electronic form will allow the RCT with a few key strokes to document the individual's name, payroll, gross counts, instrument identifiers; produce an error free record. This productivity gain is realized by the enhanced ability to perform mathematical calculations electronically (reducing errors) and at the same time, documenting the air sample.

  9. Technical assessment of workplace air sampling requirements at tank farm facilities. Revision 2

    SciTech Connect

    Olsen, P.A.; Brown, R.L.

    1995-03-22

    Tank Farm facilities compliance with the workplace air sampling (WPAS) program has been assessed. Requirements bases for determining compliance and recommendations are included. In the current condition all buildings are in compliance with the WPAS program. This document also supersedes WHC-SD-SQA-TA-20012, revision 0.

  10. Air and smear sample calculational tool for Fluor Hanford Radiological control

    SciTech Connect

    BAUMANN, B.L.

    2003-09-24

    A spreadsheet calculation tool was developed to automate the calculations performed for determining the concentration of airborne radioactivity and smear counting as outlined in HNF-13536, Section 5.2.7, Analyzing Air and smear Samples. This document reports on the design and testing of the calculation tool.

  11. 30 CFR 71.205 - Approved sampling devices; operation; air flowrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... flowrate. 71.205 Section 71.205 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... flowrate. (a) Sampling devices approved in accordance with part 74 (Coal Mine Dust Personal Sampler Units) of this title shall be operated at the flowrate of 2.0 liters of air per minute, or at a different...

  12. 30 CFR 71.205 - Approved sampling devices; operation; air flowrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... flowrate. 71.205 Section 71.205 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... flowrate. (a) Sampling devices approved in accordance with part 74 (Coal Mine Dust Personal Sampler Units) of this title shall be operated at the flowrate of 2.0 liters of air per minute, or at a different...

  13. COMPARISON OF MOLD CONCENTRATIONS IN INDOOR AND OUTDOOR AIR SAMPLED SIMULTANEOUSLY AND THEN QUANTIFIED BY MSQPCR

    EPA Science Inventory

    Mold specific quantitative PCR (MSQPCR) was used to measure the concentrations of the 36 mold species in indoor and outdoor air samples that were taken simultaneously for 48 hours in and around 17 homes in Cincinnati, Ohio. The total spore concentrations of 353 per m3...

  14. Collecting Samples of Workplace Air. Module 8. Vocational Education Training in Environmental Health Sciences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Consumer Dynamics Inc., Rockville, MD.

    This module, one of 25 on vocational education training for careers in environmental health occupations, contains self-instructional materials on collecting samples of workplace air. Following guidelines for students and instructors and an introduction that explains what the student will learn are three lessons: (1) collecting information about…

  15. Air elimination capability in rapid infusion systems.

    PubMed

    Zoremba, N; Gruenewald, C; Zoremba, M; Rossaint, R; Schaelte, G

    2011-11-01

    Pressure infusion devices are used in clinical practice to apply large volumes of fluid over a short period of time. Although air infusion is a major complication, they have limited capability to detect and remove air during pressure infusion. In this investigation, we tested the air elimination capabilities of the Fluido(®) (The Surgical Company), Level 1(®) (Level 1 Technologies Inc.) and Ranger(®) (Augustine Medical GmbH) pressure infusion devices. Measurements were undertaken with a crystalloid solution during an infusion flow of 100, 200, 400 and 800 ml.min(-1). Four different volumes of air (25, 50, 100 and 200 ml) were injected as boluses in one experimental setting, or infused continuously over the time needed to perfuse 2 l saline in the other setting. The perfusion fluid was collected in an airtight infusion bag and the amount of air obtained in the bag was measured. The delivered air volume was negligible and would not cause any significant air embolism in all experiments. In our experimental setting, we found, during high flow, an increased amount of uneliminated air in all used devices compared with lower perfusion flows. All tested devices had a good air elimination capability. The use of ultrasonic air detection coupled with an automatic shutoff is a significant safety improvement and can reliably prevent accidental air embolism at rapid flows. © 2011 The Authors. Anaesthesia © 2011 The Association of Anaesthetists of Great Britain and Ireland.

  16. Systems evaluation of low density air transportation concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bruce, R. W.; Webb, H. M.

    1972-01-01

    Methods were studied for improving air transportation to low-density population regions in the U.S. through the application of new aeronautical technology. The low-density air service concepts are developed for selected regions, and critical technologies that presently limit the effective application of low-density air transportation systems are identified.

  17. AIR TEMPERATURE DISTRIBUTION IN SEED COTTON DRYING SYSTEMS

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Ten tests were conducted in the fall of 2007 to measure air temperature variation within various heated air seed cotton drying systems with the purpose of: checking validation of recommendations by a professional engineering society and measuring air temperature variation across the airflow ductwork...

  18. Deuterium content of H2 measured on air samples from the CARIBIC project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batenburg, A. M.; Schuck, T.; Brenninkmeijer, C. A. M.; Röckmann, T.

    2009-04-01

    H2 is present in the atmosphere at levels of ~500 ppb; its largest sources are the oxidation of methane and other hydrocarbons and combustion processes. In the coming decades, H2 levels are expected to rise due to use of hydrogen as an energy carrier. This may affect methane lifetimes and stratospheric ozone depletion. Unfortunately, large uncertainties still exist in the global H2budget. The different sources and sinks of H2 have very distinct isotopic signatures and fractionation coefficients, respectively. For this reason, measurements of isotopic composition are a promising tool to gain insight into H2 source and sink processes and to constrain the terms in the global budget. The CARIBIC project uses an automated instrument container on board of a commercial passenger aircraft to carry out in situ measurements of trace gases and aerosols and to collect air samples. The use of a commercial airliner results in samples mostly from the Upper Troposphere-Lower Stratosphere (UTLS) region. Although the UTLS region is considered to be an interesting part of the atmosphere, relatively few measurements have been made there before. The CARIBIC samples are routinely analyzed for various gases, including four important greenhouse gases. In addition, air samples of 15 CARIBIC flights have now been analyzed for molecular hydrogen concentration (H2) and H2 deuterium content (^D-H2) in the isotope laboratory of the Institute of Marine and Atmospheric Research Utrecht (IMAU). A GC-IRMS system (similar to Rhee et al. [2004]) is used to determine the concentration and deuterium content of atmospheric H2 precisely and routinely. This poster will present a selection of the first results. For some flights, samples close to the takeoff and landing region show strong contamination signatures (high H2 concentrations and low ^D-H2 values). With the exclusion of these samples, ^D values correlate negatively with methane concentration, as observed previously by Rahn et al. [2003] and R

  19. System and Method for Isolation of Samples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhang, Ye (Inventor); Wu, Honglu (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    Systems and methods for isolating samples are provided. The system comprises a first membrane and a second membrane disposed within an enclosure. First and second reservoirs can also be disposed within the enclosure and adapted to contain one or more reagents therein. A first valve can be disposed within the enclosure and in fluid communication with the first reservoir, the second reservoir, or both. The first valve can also be in fluid communication with the first or second membranes or both. The first valve can be adapted to selectively regulate the flow of the reagents from the first reservoir, through at least one of the first and second membranes, and into the second reservoir.

  20. A sample storage management system for biobanks.

    PubMed

    Voegele, C; Alteyrac, L; Caboux, E; Smans, M; Lesueur, F; Le Calvez-Kelm, F; Hainaut, P

    2010-11-01

    Establishment of large-scale biobanks of human specimens is essential to conduct molecular pathological or epidemiological studies. This requires automation of procedures for specimen cataloguing and tracking through complex analytical processes. The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) develops a large portfolio of studies broadly aimed at cancer prevention and including cohort, case-control and case-only studies in various parts of the world. This diversity of study designs, structure, annotations and specimen collections is extremely difficult to accommodate into a single sample management system (SMS). Current commercial or academic SMS are often restricted to a few sample types and tailored to a limited number of analytic workflows [Voegele et al. (2007) A laboratory information management system (LIMS) for a high throughput genetic platform aimed at candidate gene mutation screening. Bioinformatics, 23, 2504-2506]. Thus, we developed a system based on a three-tier architecture and relying on an Oracle database and an Oracle Forms web application. Data are imported through forms or csv files, and information retrieval is enabled via multi-criteria queries that can generate different types of reports including tables, Excel files, trees, pictures and graphs. The system is easy to install, flexible, expandable and implemented with a high degree of data security and confidentiality. Both the database and the interface have been modeled to be compatible with and adaptable to almost all types of biobanks. The SMS source codes, which are under the GNU General Public License, and supplementary data are freely available at 'http://www-gcs.iarc.fr/sms.php' Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.