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Sample records for air ship hangar

  1. Aerial view of construction of both LTA ship hangars (looking ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Aerial view of construction of both LTA ship hangars (looking north) circa 1942. - Marine Corps Air Station Tustin, Northern Lighter Than Air Ship Hangar, Meffett Avenue & Maxfield Street, Tustin, Orange County, CA

  2. Aerial view of reroofing of northern LTA ship hangar, circa ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Aerial view of re-roofing of northern LTA ship hangar, circa 1957. - Marine Corps Air Station Tustin, Northern Lighter Than Air Ship Hangar, Meffett Avenue & Maxfield Street, Tustin, Orange County, CA

  3. Naval Air Station Lighter than Air Hangar, wood construction horizontal ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Naval Air Station Lighter than Air Hangar, wood construction horizontal rolling door. Drawing no. 2122 820. - Marine Corps Air Station Tustin, Northern Lighter Than Air Ship Hangar, Meffett Avenue & Maxfield Street, Tustin, Orange County, CA

  4. Site overview. View of hangar no. 1 at rear, hangar ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Site overview. View of hangar no. 1 at rear, hangar no. 2 at right. Looking 350 N. - Marine Corps Air Station Tustin, Northern Lighter Than Air Ship Hangar, Meffett Avenue & Maxfield Street, Tustin, Orange County, CA

  5. Naval Air Station Lighter than Air Hangar, wood construction horizontal ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Naval Air Station Lighter than Air Hangar, wood construction horizontal rolling door. Drawing no. 2122 820. - Marine Corps Air Station Tustin, East of Red Hill Avenue between Edinger Avenue & Barranca Parkway, Tustin, Orange County, CA

  6. Hangar no. 1 perspective view of south and east sides. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Hangar no. 1 perspective view of south and east sides. Seen from hangar apron. Looking 3152 N. - Marine Corps Air Station Tustin, Northern Lighter Than Air Ship Hangar, Meffett Avenue & Maxfield Street, Tustin, Orange County, CA

  7. Site overview. Hangar no. 1 at left. Hangar no. 2 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Site overview. Hangar no. 1 at left. Hangar no. 2 at rear center. Seen from McCord Street crosswalk between buildings no. 178 & 179. Looking 150 SSE. - Marine Corps Air Station Tustin, Northern Lighter Than Air Ship Hangar, Meffett Avenue & Maxfield Street, Tustin, Orange County, CA

  8. Hangar no. 2 south side seen from Summit Road. Looking ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Hangar no. 2 south side seen from Summit Road. Looking 14 N. - Marine Corps Air Station Tustin, Southern Lighter Than Air Ship Hangar, Near intersection of Windmill Road & Johnson Street, Tustin, Orange County, CA

  9. Hangar no. 1 south and east side. Site view seen ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Hangar no. 1 south and east side. Site view seen from main runway. Note control tower building. Looking 340 NNW. - Marine Corps Air Station Tustin, Northern Lighter Than Air Ship Hangar, Meffett Avenue & Maxfield Street, Tustin, Orange County, CA

  10. Hangar no. 2 site view seen from landing pad. Looking ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Hangar no. 2 site view seen from landing pad. Looking 106 E. - Marine Corps Air Station Tustin, Southern Lighter Than Air Ship Hangar, Near intersection of Windmill Road & Johnson Street, Tustin, Orange County, CA

  11. Site overview. West side hangar no. 1. Seen from Severyns ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Site overview. West side hangar no. 1. Seen from Severyns Road. Looking 170 S. - Marine Corps Air Station Tustin, Northern Lighter Than Air Ship Hangar, Meffett Avenue & Maxfield Street, Tustin, Orange County, CA

  12. Hangar no. 2 perspective view of west and south sides. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Hangar no. 2 perspective view of west and south sides. Looking 62 ENE. - Marine Corps Air Station Tustin, Southern Lighter Than Air Ship Hangar, Near intersection of Windmill Road & Johnson Street, Tustin, Orange County, CA

  13. Hangar no. 2 interior detail of west doors. Looking 90 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Hangar no. 2 interior detail of west doors. Looking 90 W. - Marine Corps Air Station Tustin, Southern Lighter Than Air Ship Hangar, Near intersection of Windmill Road & Johnson Street, Tustin, Orange County, CA

  14. Hangar no. 2 north side seen from Moffett drive. Looking ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Hangar no. 2 north side seen from Moffett drive. Looking 228 SW. - Marine Corps Air Station Tustin, Southern Lighter Than Air Ship Hangar, Near intersection of Windmill Road & Johnson Street, Tustin, Orange County, CA

  15. Site overview. South side of hangar no. 1. Note control ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Site overview. South side of hangar no. 1. Note control tower on right. Looking 4 N. - Marine Corps Air Station Tustin, Northern Lighter Than Air Ship Hangar, Meffett Avenue & Maxfield Street, Tustin, Orange County, CA

  16. Hangar no. 2 perspective view of west and south sides ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Hangar no. 2 perspective view of west and south sides seen from landing pad M. Looking 84 E. - Marine Corps Air Station Tustin, Southern Lighter Than Air Ship Hangar, Near intersection of Windmill Road & Johnson Street, Tustin, Orange County, CA

  17. Hangar no. 2 detail view of SW corner. Note angel ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Hangar no. 2 detail view of SW corner. Note angel of roof. Note door stops. Looking E. - Marine Corps Air Station Tustin, Southern Lighter Than Air Ship Hangar, Near intersection of Windmill Road & Johnson Street, Tustin, Orange County, CA

  18. Hangar no. 2 perspective view of south and east sides. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Hangar no. 2 perspective view of south and east sides. Looking 320 NW. - Marine Corps Air Station Tustin, Southern Lighter Than Air Ship Hangar, Near intersection of Windmill Road & Johnson Street, Tustin, Orange County, CA

  19. Site overview. North and west sides of hangar no. 1. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Site overview. North and west sides of hangar no. 1. Seen from intersection of copeland and cross roads. Looking 2186 S. - Marine Corps Air Station Tustin, Northern Lighter Than Air Ship Hangar, Meffett Avenue & Maxfield Street, Tustin, Orange County, CA

  20. Site overview. View of east side of hangar no. 2 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Site overview. View of east side of hangar no. 2 at left and hangar no. 1 at rear. Seen from south edge of base near Warner Avenue and Jamboree Road. Looking 310 NW. - Marine Corps Air Station Tustin, Northern Lighter Than Air Ship Hangar, Meffett Avenue & Maxfield Street, Tustin, Orange County, CA

  1. Site overview. View of hangar no. 2 from roof of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Site overview. View of hangar no. 2 from roof of hangar no. 1. Note control tower at middle distance center. Looking SE. - Marine Corps Air Station Tustin, Northern Lighter Than Air Ship Hangar, Meffett Avenue & Maxfield Street, Tustin, Orange County, CA

  2. Hangar no. 1 perspective view of south doors and west ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Hangar no. 1 perspective view of south doors and west side doors. Seen from hangar apron. Note hydrogen building at left edge distance. Looking 44 NE. - Marine Corps Air Station Tustin, Northern Lighter Than Air Ship Hangar, Meffett Avenue & Maxfield Street, Tustin, Orange County, CA

  3. The SRB recovery ship Liberty Star reenters the Hangar AF area at CCAS with a spent SRB used on STS-

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Seen carrying a spent solid rocket booster (SRB) from the STS-87 launch on Nov. 19 is the solid rocket booster recovery ship Liberty Star as it reenters the Hangar AF area at Cape Canaveral Air Station. Hangar AF is a building originally used for Project Mercury, the first U.S. manned space program. The SRBs are the largest solid propellant motors ever flown and the first designed for reuse. After a Shuttle is launched, the SRBs are jettisoned at two minutes, seven seconds into the flight. At six minutes and 44 seconds after liftoff, the spent SRBs, weighing about 165,000 lb., have slowed their descent speed to about 62 mph and splashdown takes place in a predetermined area. They are retrieved from the Atlantic Ocean by special recovery vessels and returned for refurbishment and eventual reuse on future Shuttle flights. Once at Hangar AF, the SRBs are unloaded onto a hoisting slip and mobile gantry cranes lift them onto tracked dollies where they are safed and undergo their first washing.

  4. The FUSE satellite is prepped for prelaunch processing at Hangar AE, Cape Canaveral Air Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Workers in Hangar AE, Cape Canaveral Air Station, get ready to remove the protective shipping cover from NASA's Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer (FUSE) satellite for prelaunch processing. FUSE will undergo a functional test of its systems, followed by installation of the flight batteries and solar arrays. Tests are also scheduled for the communications and data systems linking FUSE with the spacecraft control center at The Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Md. FUSE was developed and will be operated by The Johns Hopkins University under contract to Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md. FUSE will investigate the origin and evolution of the lightest elements in the universe - hydrogen and deuterium. In addition, the FUSE satellite will examine the forces and process involved in the evolution of the galaxies, stars and planetary systems by investigating light in the far ultraviolet portion of the electromagnetic spectrum. The launch aboard a Boeing Delta II rocket is targeted for May 20 at Launch Complex 17.

  5. Hangar no. 2 west doors. Note access door at bottom ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Hangar no. 2 west doors. Note access door at bottom center of left door. Note structure at bottom outside of doors for door opening mechanisms. Looking 124 ESE. - Marine Corps Air Station Tustin, Southern Lighter Than Air Ship Hangar, Near intersection of Windmill Road & Johnson Street, Tustin, Orange County, CA

  6. Hangar no. 2 interior detail of roof structures and interior ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Hangar no. 2 interior detail of roof structures and interior work spaces. Note concrete piers and cross bracing. Seen at trusses no. 42, 43, & 44. - Marine Corps Air Station Tustin, Southern Lighter Than Air Ship Hangar, Near intersection of Windmill Road & Johnson Street, Tustin, Orange County, CA

  7. Hangar no. 2 structural details of west door at SW ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Hangar no. 2 structural details of west door at SW corner. Note door tracks in underside of upper door structure. Looking 4 N. - Marine Corps Air Station Tustin, Southern Lighter Than Air Ship Hangar, Near intersection of Windmill Road & Johnson Street, Tustin, Orange County, CA

  8. Hangar no. 2 west door detail view. Note tracks. Note ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Hangar no. 2 west door detail view. Note tracks. Note box structures on doors for door opening mechanisms. Looking 4 N. - Marine Corps Air Station Tustin, Southern Lighter Than Air Ship Hangar, Near intersection of Windmill Road & Johnson Street, Tustin, Orange County, CA

  9. Hangar no. 2 door detail. Note door tracks and drainage ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Hangar no. 2 door detail. Note door tracks and drainage grates. Note box like structure for opening mechanism. Looking 114ESE. - Marine Corps Air Station Tustin, Southern Lighter Than Air Ship Hangar, Near intersection of Windmill Road & Johnson Street, Tustin, Orange County, CA

  10. Hangar no. 2 perspective detail view of west doors. Note ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Hangar no. 2 perspective detail view of west doors. Note door tracks in underside of upper door structure. Darkening at top of image due to lens vignetting. Looking 78 w. - Marine Corps Air Station Tustin, Southern Lighter Than Air Ship Hangar, Near intersection of Windmill Road & Johnson Street, Tustin, Orange County, CA

  11. Naval Air Station, Santa Ana, Calif. Lighterthanairhangar roof truss details. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Naval Air Station, Santa Ana, Calif. Lighter-than-air-hangar roof truss details. Drawing no. 212817. - Marine Corps Air Station Tustin, Northern Lighter Than Air Ship Hangar, Meffett Avenue & Maxfield Street, Tustin, Orange County, CA

  12. View of hangar access apron entering nose dock hangar. View ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of hangar access apron entering nose dock hangar. View shows exposed tail of aircraft being serviced inside the hangar. Operational apron in background. View to southeast - Offutt Air Force Base, Looking Glass Airborne Command Post, Operational & Hangar Access Aprons, Spanning length of northeast half of Project Looking Glass Historic District, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  13. Hangar no. 2 structural detail. Tool room/GSE between trusses no. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Hangar no. 2 structural detail. Tool room/GSE between trusses no. 38 an no. 39. South side of room seen from window. Note footing for concrete piers and cross bracing. Looking 180 S. - Marine Corps Air Station Tustin, Southern Lighter Than Air Ship Hangar, Near intersection of Windmill Road & Johnson Street, Tustin, Orange County, CA

  14. Hangar no. 2 structural detail. Tool room/GSE between trusses no. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Hangar no. 2 structural detail. Tool room/GSE between trusses no. 38 an no. 39. North side of room seen from door. Note footing for concrete piers and cross bracing. Looking 2 N. - Marine Corps Air Station Tustin, Southern Lighter Than Air Ship Hangar, Near intersection of Windmill Road & Johnson Street, Tustin, Orange County, CA

  15. Truscon Steel products operated straight slide doors L.T.A. hangars from ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Truscon Steel products operated straight slide doors L.T.A. hangars from U.S. Navy. Santa Ana, California. Drawing no. A-1872-1 1943 - Marine Corps Air Station Tustin, Northern Lighter Than Air Ship Hangar, Meffett Avenue & Maxfield Street, Tustin, Orange County, CA

  16. Delta-WIND Solar Panel Repair and Move at Cape Canaveral Air Station, Hangar AO

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This NASA Kennedy Space Center video release presents footage of workcrews moving the WIND solar panel in order to make repairs in Hangar AO prior to launch at Cape Canaveral Air Station, Sep. 13, 1994. WIND was launched on November 1, 1994 and is the first of two NASA spacecraft in the Global Geospace Science initiative and part of the International Solar Terrestrial Physics (ISTP) Project.

  17. The FUSE satellite is prepped for prelaunch processing at Hangar AE, Cape Canaveral Air Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    At Hangar AE, Cape Canaveral Air Station, NASA's Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer (FUSE) satellite stands alone after workstands have been removed. As part of prelaunch processing, FUSE will undergo a functional test of its systems, followed by installation of the flight batteries and solar arrays. Tests are also scheduled for the communications and data systems linking FUSE with the spacecraft control center at The Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Md. FUSE was developed and will be operated by The Johns Hopkins University under contract to Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md. FUSE will investigate the origin and evolution of the lightest elements in the universe - hydrogen and deuterium. In addition, the FUSE satellite will examine the forces and process involved in the evolution of the galaxies, stars and planetary systems by investigating light in the far ultraviolet portion of the electromagnetic spectrum. The launch aboard a Boeing Delta II rocket is targeted for May 20 at Launch Complex 17.

  18. The FUSE satellite is prepped for prelaunch processing at Hangar AE, Cape Canaveral Air Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Workers in Hangar AE, Cape Canaveral Air Station, begin removing the plastic covering from NASA's Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer (FUSE) satellite before prelaunch processing. FUSE will undergo a functional test of its systems, followed by installation of the flight batteries and solar arrays. Tests are also scheduled for the communications and data systems linking FUSE with the spacecraft control center at The Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Md. FUSE was developed and will be operated by The Johns Hopkins University under contract to Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md. FUSE will investigate the origin and evolution of the lightest elements in the universe - hydrogen and deuterium. In addition, the FUSE satellite will examine the forces and process involved in the evolution of the galaxies, stars and planetary systems by investigating light in the far ultraviolet portion of the electromagnetic spectrum. The launch aboard a Boeing Delta II rocket is targeted for May 20 at Launch Complex 17.

  19. The FUSE satellite is prepped for prelaunch processing at Hangar AE, Cape Canaveral Air Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    At Hangar AE, Cape Canaveral Air Station, NASA's Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer (FUSE) satellite is unveiled before prelaunch processing. FUSE will undergo a functional test of its systems, followed by installation of the flight batteries and solar arrays. Tests are also scheduled for the communications and data systems linking FUSE with the spacecraft control center at The Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Md. FUSE was developed and will be operated by The Johns Hopkins University under contract to Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md. FUSE will investigate the origin and evolution of the lightest elements in the universe - hydrogen and deuterium. In addition, the FUSE satellite will examine the forces and process involved in the evolution of the galaxies, stars and planetary systems by investigating light in the far ultraviolet portion of the electromagnetic spectrum. The launch aboard a Boeing Delta II rocket is targeted for May 20 at Launch Complex 17.

  20. View facing north of hangars on Hangar Loop Drive. Part ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View facing north of hangars on Hangar Loop Drive. Part of Building No. 28 is visible to the right. Building No. 249 is to the left of Building No. 28 - MacDill Air Force Base, Bounded by City of Tampa North, Tampa Bay South, Old Tampa Bay West, & Hillsborough Bay East, Tampa, Hillsborough County, FL

  1. View facing north of hangars on Hangar Loop Drive. Building ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View facing north of hangars on Hangar Loop Drive. Building No. 28 is small structure in center background. Part of Building No. 37 (Water Tower) is visible to the right - MacDill Air Force Base, Bounded by City of Tampa North, Tampa Bay South, Old Tampa Bay West, & Hillsborough Bay East, Tampa, Hillsborough County, FL

  2. View facing south of hangars on Hangar Loop Drive. Building ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View facing south of hangars on Hangar Loop Drive. Building No. 28 is to the left - MacDill Air Force Base, Bounded by City of Tampa North, Tampa Bay South, Old Tampa Bay West, & Hillsborough Bay East, Tampa, Hillsborough County, FL

  3. North Base hangars as seen from the edge of Rogers ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    North Base hangars as seen from the edge of Rogers Dry Lake, looking north northwest (338°). The security fence surrounding the hangars and aircraft apron appears in the foreground. From left to right appear Building 4305 (Unicon Portable Hangar), Building 4401 (Hangar No. 1), Building 4400 (warehouse), Building 4402 (Hangar No. 2) and Building 4505. - Edwards Air Force Base, North Base, North Base Road, Boron, Kern County, CA

  4. 24. LOOKING NORTHWEST AT SOUTHEAST FACE OF SEAPLANE HANGAR (BLDG ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    24. LOOKING NORTHWEST AT SOUTHEAST FACE OF SEAPLANE HANGAR (BLDG 1) COMPLETED STEEL FRAMEWORK. NEUTRALITY PATROL HANGAR (BLDG. 2) VISIBLE ON LEFT. USN PHOTO, OCTOBER 24, 1940. - Quonset Point Naval Air Station, Roger Williams Way, North Kingstown, Washington County, RI

  5. 13. Interior, Hangar 1301, showing bottom of a truss, steel ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. Interior, Hangar 1301, showing bottom of a truss, steel hinge point and expansion joint, and concrete buttress, looking north northwest - Dover Air Force Base, Hangar No. 1301, Dover, Kent County, DE

  6. The FUSE satellite is moved to a payload attach fitting in Hangar AE, Cape Canaveral Air Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Workers at Hangar AE, Cape Canaveral Air Station, maneuver an overhead crane toward NASA's Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer (FUSE) satellite standing between vertical workstands. The crane will lift FUSE to move it onto the Payload Attach Fitting (PAF) in front of it. FUSE is undergoing a functional test of its systems, plus installation of flight batteries and solar arrays. Developed by The Johns Hopkins University under contract to Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., FUSE will investigate the origin and evolution of the lightest elements in the universe - hydrogen and deuterium. In addition, the FUSE satellite will examine the forces and process involved in the evolution of the galaxies, stars and planetary systems by investigating light in the far ultraviolet portion of the electromagnetic spectrum. FUSE is scheduled to be launched May 27 aboard a Boeing Delta II rocket at Launch Complex 17.

  7. The FUSE satellite is moved to a payload attach fitting in Hangar AE, Cape Canaveral Air Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Suspended by a crane in Hangar AE, Cape Canaveral Air Station, NASA's Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer (FUSE) satellite is lowered onto a circular Payload Attach Fitting (PAF). FUSE is undergoing a functional test of its systems, plus installation of flight batteries and solar arrays. Developed by The Johns Hopkins University under contract to Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., FUSE will investigate the origin and evolution of the lightest elements in the universe - hydrogen and deuterium. In addition, the FUSE satellite will examine the forces and process involved in the evolution of the galaxies, stars and planetary systems by investigating light in the far ultraviolet portion of the electromagnetic spectrum. FUSE is scheduled to be launched May 27 aboard a Boeing Delta II rocket at Launch Complex 17.

  8. The FUSE satellite is moved to a payload attach fitting in Hangar AE, Cape Canaveral Air Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    While a crane lifts NASA's Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer (FUSE) satellite, workers at Hangar AE, Cape Canaveral Air Station, help guide it toward the circular Payload Attach Fitting (PAF) in front of it. FUSE is undergoing a functional test of its systems, plus installation of flight batteries and solar arrays. Developed by The Johns Hopkins University under contract to Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., FUSE will investigate the origin and evolution of the lightest elements in the universe - hydrogen and deuterium. In addition, the FUSE satellite will examine the forces and process involved in the evolution of the galaxies, stars and planetary systems by investigating light in the far ultraviolet portion of the electromagnetic spectrum. FUSE is scheduled to be launched May 27 aboard a Boeing Delta II rocket at Launch Complex 17.

  9. Fate and Transport Modeling of Selected Chlorinated Organic Compounds at Hangar 1000, U.S. Naval Air Station, Jacksonville, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Davis, J. Hal

    2003-01-01

    The Jacksonville Naval Air Station occupies 3,800 acres adjacent to the St. Johns River in Jacksonville, Florida. Two underground storage tanks at Hangar 1000 contained solvents from the late 1960s until they were removed in 1994. Ground-water samples at one of the tank sites had levels of trichloroethene (TCE) and total dichloroethene (DCE) of 8,710 micrograms per liter (mg/L) and 4,280 mg/L, respectively. Vinyl chloride (VC) at the site is the result of the biodegradation of DCE. Ground water beneath Hangar 1000 flows toward a storm sewer. TCE and DCE plumes travel with the ground water and presumably have reached the storm sewer, which discharges to the St. Johns River. Simulation of solute transport indicates that the traveltime from the storage tank site to the storm sewer is 16, 14, and 12 years for TCE, DCE, and VC respectively. TCE has the longest traveltime because it has the highest retardation factor at 2.5, DCE takes less time with a retardation factor of 2.0, and VC has the quickest traveltime because it has the lowest retardation factor of 1.7. Based on modeling results, the release of contaminants in the aquifer occurred more than 16 years ago. Model-derived dispersivity values at Hangar 1000 were: longitudinal 1.5 feet (ft), transverse 0.27 ft, and vertical 0.27 ft. The model-derived first order decay rates for biodegradation of TCE, DCE, and VC were 0.0002 per day (d-1), 0.0002 d-1, and 0.06 d-1, respectively. These rates are equivalent to half-lives of 13.7 years for TCE and DCE and 17 days for VC. Source area reductions in contaminant concentrations of 50 and 100 percent were modeled to simulate remediation. As expected, reducing the source concentration by 50 percent resulted in eventual TCE, DCE, and VC concentrations that were half of the original concentrations. About 16 years were needed for new steady-state TCE concentrations to develop, about 14 years for DCE, and about 12 years for VC. Reducing the source area concentrations by 100

  10. Air pollution from ships over Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    -Eleni Sotiropoulou, Rafaella; Tagaris, Efthimios

    2016-04-01

    Shipping sector is a large and growing source of emissions. Large quantities of nitrogen oxides (NOX) and sulphur dioxide (SO2) are emitted from ships affecting the chemical composition of the atmosphere in coastal areas. Changes of the world fleet over the past decades suggest a continuously increasing trend of the shipping emissions. Therefore, shipping emissions may partly offset the benefits from the reduction of anthropogenic emissions over land. The objective of this study is to assess the impact of shipping emissions on air quality degradation over Europe for a winter (January 2006) and a summer month (July 2006) using CMAQ modeling system and the TNO anthropogenic emission inventory for 2006. Results suggest that shipping emissions increase NO2 and SO2 mixing ratios more than 90% over the sea and close to the coastline, locally. Ship induced ozone contribution to total surface ozone exceeds 5% over the sea and near the coastline during the summer month. The largest impact is simulated over the Mediterranean Sea. Ship traffic emissions are estimated to increase PM2.5 concentration during winter up to 40% over the Mediterranean Sea while during summer an increase more than 50% is simulated over the sea.

  11. VIEW NORTHWEST, EAST SIDE OF FRANCIS HANGAR, FOSTER HANGAR, AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW NORTHWEST, EAST SIDE OF FRANCIS HANGAR, FOSTER HANGAR, AND OFFICE BUILDING, AND SOUTH SIDE OF FRANCIS HANGAR - Capital City Airport, Francis Aviation, North side of Grand River Avenue, Lansing, Ingham County, MI

  12. 10. COPY OF OBLIQUE PHOTOGRAPH SHOWING ARCH HANGAR AT RIGHT, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. COPY OF OBLIQUE PHOTOGRAPH SHOWING ARCH HANGAR AT RIGHT, BUILDING 8200 (OBSERVATION TOWER) AT LEFT, AND B-52 AIRCRAFT PARKED ALONG APRON IN BACKGROUND, DATED OCTOBER 1967, PHOTOGRAPH FROM BASE MASTER PLAN LOCATED AT AIR FORCE BASE CONVERSION AGENCY, LORING AIR FORCE BASE, MAINE. - Loring Air Force Base, Arch Hangar, East of Arizona Road near southern end of runway, Limestone, Aroostook County, ME

  13. Research experiments at Hangar L

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Research scientist Greg Goins monitors radish growth under a sulfur-microwave light at Hangar L at the Cape Canaveral Air Force Station. The research he is performing is one of many studies at the Biological Sciences Branch in the Spaceport Engineering and Technology Directorate at Kennedy Space Center. The branch's operations and research areas include life sciences Space Shuttle payloads, bioregenerative life-support for long- duration spaceflight and environmental/ecological stewardship.

  14. Research experiments at Hangar L

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Visiting scientist Cheryl Frazier monitors a prototype composting machine in Hangar L at the Cape Canaveral Air Force Station. The research she is performing is one of many studies at the Biological Sciences Branch in the Spaceport Engineering and Technology Directorate at Kennedy Space Center. The branch's operations and research areas include life sciences Space Shuttle payloads, bioregenerative life-support for long-duration spaceflight and environmental/ecological stewardship.

  15. Research experiments at Hangar L

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Research assistant Trisha Bruno performs an analysis on potato samples at Hangar L at the Cape Canaveral Air Force Station. The research she is performing is one of many studies at the Biological Sciences Branch in the Spaceport Engineering and Technology Directorate at Kennedy Space Center. The branch's operations and research areas include life sciences Space Shuttle payloads, bioregenerative life-support for long-duration spaceflight and environmental/ecological stewardship.

  16. 17. Photocopy of copy of drawing of Hangar 1301, dated ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. Photocopy of copy of drawing of Hangar 1301, dated June 15, 1944. Copy of drawing stored at 436 Civil Engineer Squadron, Design Management Element Cece, 600 8th Street, Dover Air Force Base, DE - Dover Air Force Base, Hangar No. 1301, Dover, Kent County, DE

  17. NACA Aircraft in hangar 1953 - clockwise from front center: YF-84A, D-558-1, D-558-2, B-47, X-1 ship

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1953-01-01

    the X-1 is the XF-92A (Air Force 46-682). Unlike the X-1 and D-558 aircraft, the XF-92A was not designed as a research aircraft, but as the prototype of a delta-wing fighter. While the effort was unsuccessful, the XF-92A offered the chance to test a delta wing aircraft. A brief series of 25 flights were made using the aircraft in 1953. These showed the aircraft had violent pitch-up tendencies during turns. Despite the problems, the XF-92A contributed to later delta wing aircraft, like the F-102, F-106, and B-58. Behind the B-47, in the back of the hangar, are four other aircraft. From left to right, they are the second X-4 (Air Force 46-677) research aircraft. It was operated by the NACA from May 8, 1950, to March 22, 1954, when it left the High-Speed Flight Research Station for the U.S. Air Force Museum. It was designed to test the use of swept wings but no horizontal stabilizers. This proved to have poor transonic stability. Next to it is the ETF-51D Mustang (NACA 148/Air Force 44-84958) used for low-speed chase missions, as well as support and liaison flights. On the right side of the B-47 is the first D-558-1. Originally given the Navy number 37970, it was flown as part of the Douglas contractor program. When this was completed, the aircraft was turned over to the NACA on April 11, 1949. Although the aircraft was designation 'NACA 140,' it was never flown again. Instead, it was used to provide spare parts to keep the third D-558-1 in operation. In this photo the aircraft is partially disassembled. The final aircraft is the first X-5 (Air Force 50-1838). This was a research aircraft used to test the concept of pivoting wings which could change their sweep angle in flight. The results were mixed; the X-5 had vicious stall behavior due to the poor position of the tail and stabilizers. The mechanism used by the 'variable-sweep wing' was also complex, which limited its usefulness. Despite these problems, the X-5's primary advantage was that it was equivalent to a whole

  18. 15. Interior view of hangar doors, dock no. 492. View ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. Interior view of hangar doors, dock no. 492. View to northwest. - Offutt Air Force Base, Looking Glass Airborne Command Post, Nose Docks, On either side of Hangar Access Apron at Northwest end of Project Looking Glass Historic District, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  19. 3. Detail of airplane tail protruding out of hangar doors, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Detail of airplane tail protruding out of hangar doors, dock no. 491. Detail of canvas gasket allowing doors to close tightly around fuselage. View to north. - Offutt Air Force Base, Looking Glass Airborne Command Post, Nose Docks, On either side of Hangar Access Apron at Northwest end of Project Looking Glass Historic District, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  20. 10. Detail of center hangar doors and canvas gasket, dock ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. Detail of center hangar doors and canvas gasket, dock no. 493. View to southwest. - Offutt Air Force Base, Looking Glass Airborne Command Post, Nose Docks, On either side of Hangar Access Apron at Northwest end of Project Looking Glass Historic District, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  1. 1. EXTERIOR VIEW, LOOKING SOUTHEAST, SHOWING FLIGHT TEST HANGARS IN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. EXTERIOR VIEW, LOOKING SOUTHEAST, SHOWING FLIGHT TEST HANGARS IN CENTER, BUILDING 7 ON LEFT, AND BUILDING 8 ON RIGHT. - Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Area B, Building 1/9, Flight Test Hangars, On flightline between Ninth & Tenth Streets, Dayton, Montgomery County, OH

  2. 25. LOOKING WEST AT EAST FACE OF SEAPLANE HANGAR (BLDG. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    25. LOOKING WEST AT EAST FACE OF SEAPLANE HANGAR (BLDG. 1). COMPLETED STEEL FRAMEWORK, SIDING INSTALLATION JUST BEGINNING. NEUTRALITY PATROL HANGAR (BLDG.2) VISIBLE IN REAR. USN PHOTO, OCTOBER 24, 1940. - Quonset Point Naval Air Station, Roger Williams Way, North Kingstown, Washington County, RI

  3. NACA Aircraft in hangar 1953 - clockwise from front center: YF-84A, D-558-1, D-558-2, B-47, X-1 ship

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1953-01-01

    the X-1 is the XF-92A (Air Force 46-682). Unlike the X-1 and D-558 aircraft, the XF-92A was not designed as a research aircraft, but as the prototype of a delta-wing fighter. While the effort was unsuccessful, the XF-92A offered the chance to test a delta wing aircraft. A brief series of 25 flights were made using the aircraft in 1953. These showed the aircraft had violent pitch-up tendencies during turns. Despite the problems, the XF-92A contributed to later delta wing aircraft, like the F-102, F-106, and B-58. Behind the B-47, in the back of the hangar, are four other aircraft. From left to right, they are the second X-4 (Air Force 46-677) research aircraft. It was operated by the NACA from May 8, 1950, to March 22, 1954, when it left the High-Speed Flight Research Station for the U.S. Air Force Museum. It was designed to test the use of swept wings but no horizontal stabilizers. This proved to have poor transonic stability. Next to it is the ETF-51D Mustang (NACA 148/Air Force 44-84958) used for low-speed chase missions, as well as support and liaison flights. On the right side of the B-47 is the first D-558-1. Originally given the Navy number 37970, it was flown as part of the Douglas contractor program. When this was completed, the aircraft was turned over to the NACA on April 11, 1949. Although the aircraft was designation 'NACA 140,' it was never flown again. Instead, it was used to provide spare parts to keep the third D-558-1 in operation. In this photo the aircraft is partially disassembled. The final aircraft is the first X-5 (Air Force 50-1838). This was a research aircraft used to test the concept of pivoting wings which could change their sweep angle in flight. The results were mixed; the X-5 had vicious stall behavior due to the poor position of the tail and stabilizers. The mechanism used by the 'variable-sweep wing' was also complex, which limited its usefulness. Despite these problems, the X-5's primary advantage was that it was equivalent to a whole

  4. 2. Southwest side of Building 1015 (land plane hangar), looking ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Southwest side of Building 1015 (land plane hangar), looking northeast - Naval Air Station Chase Field, Building 1015, Byrd Street, .82 mile South-southeast of intersection of Texas State Highway 202 & Independence Street, Beeville, Bee County, TX

  5. 4. Northeast side of Building 1015 (land plane hangar), looking ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Northeast side of Building 1015 (land plane hangar), looking southwest - Naval Air Station Chase Field, Building 1015, Byrd Street, .82 mile South-southeast of intersection of Texas State Highway 202 & Independence Street, Beeville, Bee County, TX

  6. 8. Interior of Building 1015 (land plane hangar), structural detail, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. Interior of Building 1015 (land plane hangar), structural detail, looking northeast - Naval Air Station Chase Field, Building 1015, Byrd Street, .82 mile South-southeast of intersection of Texas State Highway 202 & Independence Street, Beeville, Bee County, TX

  7. 3. Northwest side of Building 1015 (land plane hangar), looking ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Northwest side of Building 1015 (land plane hangar), looking east - Naval Air Station Chase Field, Building 1015, Byrd Street, .82 mile South-southeast of intersection of Texas State Highway 202 & Independence Street, Beeville, Bee County, TX

  8. 5. Southeast side of Building 1015 (land plane hangar), looking ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Southeast side of Building 1015 (land plane hangar), looking northwest - Naval Air Station Chase Field, Building 1015, Byrd Street, .82 mile South-southeast of intersection of Texas State Highway 202 & Independence Street, Beeville, Bee County, TX

  9. 6. Interior of Building 1015 (land plane hangar), looking north ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Interior of Building 1015 (land plane hangar), looking north - Naval Air Station Chase Field, Building 1015, Byrd Street, .82 mile South-southeast of intersection of Texas State Highway 202 & Independence Street, Beeville, Bee County, TX

  10. 7. Interior of Building 1015 (land plane hangar), structural detail, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Interior of Building 1015 (land plane hangar), structural detail, looking northeast - Naval Air Station Chase Field, Building 1015, Byrd Street, .82 mile South-southeast of intersection of Texas State Highway 202 & Independence Street, Beeville, Bee County, TX

  11. HANGAR SECTION WITH SHOPS ON RIGHT AND LEFT, FROM ENTERPRISE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    HANGAR SECTION WITH SHOPS ON RIGHT AND LEFT, FROM ENTERPRISE ROAD, VIEW FACING EAST-SOUTHEAST. - Naval Air Station Barbers Point, Assembly & Repair Shop, Between Enterprise Avenue & Wright, Midway, & Langley Streets, Ewa, Honolulu County, HI

  12. INTERIOR OF HANGAR SECTION FROM DOORS ON ENTERPRISE ROAD SIDE, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR OF HANGAR SECTION FROM DOORS ON ENTERPRISE ROAD SIDE, VIEW FACING EAST. - Naval Air Station Barbers Point, Assembly & Repair Shop, Between Enterprise Avenue & Wright, Midway, & Langley Streets, Ewa, Honolulu County, HI

  13. DETAIL OF INTERIOR OF HANGAR DOORS ON ENTERPRISE STREET SIDE, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL OF INTERIOR OF HANGAR DOORS ON ENTERPRISE STREET SIDE, VIEW FACING WEST-NORTHWEST. - Naval Air Station Barbers Point, Assembly & Repair Shop, Between Enterprise Avenue & Wright, Midway, & Langley Streets, Ewa, Honolulu County, HI

  14. SHOPS AND HANGAR SECTIONS OF BUILDING, VIEW FROM ENTERPRISE STREET, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    SHOPS AND HANGAR SECTIONS OF BUILDING, VIEW FROM ENTERPRISE STREET, VIEW FACING SOUTH-SOUTHEAST. - Naval Air Station Barbers Point, Assembly & Repair Shop, Between Enterprise Avenue & Wright, Midway, & Langley Streets, Ewa, Honolulu County, HI

  15. 23. LOOKING SOUTHEAST, ERECTING STEEL FRAMEWORK FOR SEAPLANE HANGAR (BLDG. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    23. LOOKING SOUTHEAST, ERECTING STEEL FRAMEWORK FOR SEAPLANE HANGAR (BLDG. 1). USN PHOTO, OCTOBER 3, 1940. - Quonset Point Naval Air Station, Roger Williams Way, North Kingstown, Washington County, RI

  16. General view of building 405 in context showing hangars in ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    General view of building 405 in context showing hangars in distance, facing west. - Albrook Air Force Station, Parachute & Armament Building, 200 feet north of Andrews Boulevard, Balboa, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  17. 18. C54G AIRCRAFT IN HANGAR. Photographic copy of historic photograph. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. C-54G AIRCRAFT IN HANGAR. Photographic copy of historic photograph. Jan.-June 1948 OAMA, (original print located at Ogden Air Logistics Center, Hill Air Force Base, Utah). Photographer unknown. - Hill Field, Airplane Repair Hangars No. 1-No. 4, 5875 Southgate Avenue, Layton, Davis County, UT

  18. 17. PT13 PLANES BEING STORED IN HANGAR #1. BY REMOVING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. PT-13 PLANES BEING STORED IN HANGAR #1. BY REMOVING THEIR WINGS, 239 PT-13s WERE STORED AT ONE TIME. Photographic copy of historic photograph. Jan.-June 1947 OAMA, (original print located at Ogden Air Logistics Center, Hill Air Force Base, Utah). Photographer unknown. - Hill Field, Airplane Repair Hangars No. 1-No. 4, 5875 Southgate Avenue, Layton, Davis County, UT

  19. 9. Detail of Hangar 1301's door well, seen at left ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. Detail of Hangar 1301's door well, seen at left in photographs DE-297-7 and DE-297-8, showing tracks that doors slide on and bumpers that stop the doors, looking east southeast - Dover Air Force Base, Hangar No. 1301, Dover, Kent County, DE

  20. Map of Naval Air Station (L.T.A.), Santa Ana, Calif. Showing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Map of Naval Air Station (L.T.A.), Santa Ana, Calif. Showing conditions on June 30, 1949. Drawing no. NA 91/A9-1(1) 1949 - Marine Corps Air Station Tustin, Northern Lighter Than Air Ship Hangar, Meffett Avenue & Maxfield Street, Tustin, Orange County, CA

  1. U.S. Marine Corps Air Facility, Santa Ana, California hangers no. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    U.S. Marine Corps Air Facility, Santa Ana, California hangers no. 1&2-building no. 28 &29. Drawing no. PW-66-044 - Marine Corps Air Station Tustin, Northern Lighter Than Air Ship Hangar, Meffett Avenue & Maxfield Street, Tustin, Orange County, CA

  2. LTA - Recent developments. [Lighter Than Air ships

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mayer, N. J.

    1977-01-01

    NASA-sponsored studies of existing and new LTA missions showed that airships looked very promising for some two dozen civil and military applications. These include surveillance of rural and urban areas, in the form of forest and police patrols; transport of very heavy large-volume maritime, industrial, and military payloads; coastal patrol and sea control; seismographic surveys; air pollution monitoring; and moving goods to remote areas; along with a number of less important but still attractive missions. A figure of merit of productivity (payload weight, ton moles per hour) was used to compare airships of various type and size. In each case, this criterion established an index of efficiency for evaluating not only conceptual approaches but also modes of flight. Some, in part unexpected, results of these studies are described.

  3. 180. BUILDING 4 (LANDPLANE HANGAR), 194041. ALBERT KAHN, INC., ARCHITECTS. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    180. BUILDING 4 (LANDPLANE HANGAR), 1940-41. ALBERT KAHN, INC., ARCHITECTS. VIEW FROM THE SOUTHWEST: DETAIL OF SIDE ELEVATION SHOWING TYPICAL CURTAIN WALL, WINDOW AND DOOR TREATMENT; PORTIONS OF FRAMING AND ROOF MONITOR VISIBLE. - Quonset Point Naval Air Station, Roger Williams Way, North Kingstown, Washington County, RI

  4. Aerial view looking southwest. Seaplane hangars buildings 29 and 68 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Aerial view looking southwest. Seaplane hangars buildings 29 and 68 at right. Location of seaplane ramps is just left of small boat docks in left center. Historic building district in center of photograph. - Naval Air Station North Island, North Island, San Diego, San Diego County, CA

  5. 24. 'HANGAR SHEDS ELEVATIONS DETAILS; ARCHITECTURAL PLANS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    24. 'HANGAR SHEDS - ELEVATIONS - DETAILS; ARCHITECTURAL PLANS - PLANT AREA; MODIFICATION CENTER NO. 1, DAGGETT, CALIFORNIA.' Partial elevations, and details of sliding doors and ventilator flaps, as built. Contract no. W509 Eng. 2743; File no. 555/81, revision B, dated April 6, 1943. No sheet number. - Barstow-Daggett Airport, Hangar Shed No. 4, 39500 National Trails Highway, Daggett, San Bernardino County, CA

  6. X-38 Suspended in Hangar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    The X-38 lifting body research vehicle is shown here suspended in a hangar at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center in 1998. The X-38 Crew Return Vehicle (CRV) research project is designed to develop the technology for a prototype emergency crew return vehicle, or lifeboat, for the International Space Station. The project is also intended to develop a crew return vehicle design that could be modified for other uses, such as a joint U.S. and international human spacecraft that could be launched on the French Ariane-5 Booster. The X-38 project is using available technology and off-the-shelf equipment to significantly decrease development costs. Original estimates to develop a capsule-type crew return vehicle were estimated at more than $2 billion. X-38 project officials have estimated that development costs for the X-38 concept will be approximately one quarter of the original estimate. Off-the-shelf technology is not necessarily 'old' technology. Many of the technologies being used in the X-38 project have never before been applied to a human-flight spacecraft. For example, the X-38 flight computer is commercial equipment currently used in aircraft and the flight software operating system is a commercial system already in use in many aerospace applications. The video equipment for the X-38 is existing equipment, some of which has already flown on the space shuttle for previous NASA experiments. The X-38's primary navigational equipment, the Inertial Navigation System/Global Positioning System, is a unit already in use on Navy fighters. The X-38 electromechanical actuators come from previous joint NASA, U.S. Air Force, and U.S. Navy research and development projects. Finally, an existing special coating developed by NASA will be used on the X-38 thermal tiles to make them more durable than those used on the space shuttles. The X-38 itself was an unpiloted lifting body designed at 80 percent of the size of a projected emergency crew return vehicle for the International

  7. Manipulating ship fuel sulfur content and modeling the effects on air quality and climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Partanen, Antti-Ilari; Laakso, Anton; Schmidt, Anja; Kokkola, Harri; Kuokkanen, Tuomas; Kerminen, Veli-Matti; Lehtinen, Kari E. J.; Laakso, Lauri; Korhonen, Hannele

    2013-04-01

    Aerosol emissions from international shipping are known to cause detrimental health effects on people mainly via increased lung cancer and cardiopulmonary diseases. On the other hand, the aerosol particles from the ship emissions modify the properties of clouds and are believed to have a significant cooling effect on the global climate. In recent years, aerosol emissions from shipping have been more strictly regulated in order to improve air quality and thus decrease the mortality due to ship emissions. Decreasing the aerosol emissions from shipping is projected to decrease their cooling effect, which would intensify the global warming even further. In this study, we use a global aerosol-climate model ECHAM5.5-HAM2 to test if continental air quality can be improved while still retaining the cooling effect from shipping. The model explicitly resolves emissions of aerosols and their pre-cursor gases. The model also calculates the interaction between aerosol particles and clouds, and can thus predict the changes in cloud properties due to aerosol emissions. We design and simulate a scenario where ship fuel sulfur content is strictly limited to 0.1% near all coastal regions, but doubled in the open oceans from the current global mean value of 2.7% (geo-ships). This scenario is compared to three other simulations: 1) No shipping emissions at all (no-ships), 2) present-day shipping emissions (std-ships) and 3) a future scenario where sulfur content is limited to 0.1% in the coastal zones and to 0.5% in the open ocean (future-ships). Global mean radiative flux perturbation (RFP) in std-ships compared to no-ships is calculated to be -0.4 W m-2, which is in the range of previous estimates for present-day shipping emissions. In the geo-ships simulation the corresponding global mean RFP is roughly equal, but RFP is spatially distributed more on the open oceans, as expected. In future-ships the decreased aerosol emissions provide weaker cooling effect of only -0.1 W m-2. In

  8. F-16XL in hangar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    The nose of NASA's single-seat F-16XL, featuring a delta 'cranked arrow' wing, offers a different perspective when viewed from above in a partially-lit hangar at the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. The aircraft was most recently used in the Cranked-Arrow Wing Aerodynamics Project (CAWAP) to test boundary layer pressures and distribution. Previously it had been used in a program to investigate the characteristics of sonic booms for NASA's High Speed Research Program. Data from the program will be used in the development of a high speed civilian transport. During the series of sonic boom research flights, the F-16XL was used to probe the shock waves being generated by a NASA SR-71 and record their shape and intensity.

  9. The contribution from shipping emissions to air quality and acid deposition in Europe.

    PubMed

    Derwent, Richard G; Stevenson, David S; Doherty, Ruth M; Collins, William J; Sanderson, Michael G; Johnson, Colin E; Cofala, Janusz; Mechler, Reinhard; Amann, Markus; Dentener, Frank J

    2005-02-01

    A global three-dimensional Lagrangian chemistry-transport model STOCHEM is used to describe the European regional acid deposition and ozone air quality impacts along the Atlantic Ocean seaboard of Europe, from the SO2, NOx, VOCs and CO emissions from international shipping under conditions appropriate to the year 2000. Model-derived total sulfur deposition from international shipping reaches over 200 mg S m(-2) yr(-1) over the southwestern approaches to the British Isles and Brittany. The contribution from international shipping to surface ozone concentrations during the summertime, peaks at about 6 ppb over Ireland, Brittany and Portugal. Shipping emissions act as an external influence on acid deposition and ozone air quality within Europe and may require control actions in the future if strict deposition and air quality targets are to be met.

  10. Climate and air quality trade-offs in altering ship fuel sulfur content

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Partanen, A.-I.; Laakso, A.; Schmidt, A.; Kokkola, H.; Kuokkanen, T.; Pietikäinen, J.-P.; Kerminen, V.-M.; Lehtinen, K. E. J.; Laakso, L.; Korhonen, H.

    2013-08-01

    Aerosol particles from shipping emissions both cool the climate and cause adverse health effects. The cooling effect is, however, declining because of shipping emission controls aiming to improve air quality. We used an aerosol-climate model ECHAM-HAMMOZ to test whether by altering ship fuel sulfur content, the present-day aerosol-induced cooling effect from shipping could be preserved while at the same time reducing premature mortality rates related to shipping emissions. We compared the climate and health effects of a present-day shipping emission scenario with (1) a simulation with strict emission controls in the coastal waters (ship fuel sulfur content of 0.1%) and twofold ship fuel sulfur content compared to current global average of 2.7% elsewhere; and (2) a scenario with global strict shipping emission controls (ship fuel sulfur content of 0.1% in coastal waters and 0.5% elsewhere) roughly corresponding to international agreements to be enforced by the year 2020. Scenario 1 had a slightly stronger aerosol-induced radiative flux perturbation (RFP) from shipping than the present-day scenario (-0.43 W m-2 vs. -0.39 W m-2) while reducing premature mortality from shipping by 69% (globally 34 900 deaths avoided per year). Scenario 2 decreased the RFP to -0.06 W m-2 and annual deaths by 96% (globally 48 200 deaths avoided per year) compared to present-day. A small difference in radiative effect (global mean of 0.04 W m-2) in the coastal regions between Scenario 1 and the present-day scenario imply that shipping emission regulation in the existing emission control areas should not be removed in hope of climate cooling. Our results show that the cooling effect of present-day emissions could be retained with simultaneous notable improvements in air quality, even though the shipping emissions from the open ocean clearly have a significant effect on continental air quality. However, increasing ship fuel sulfur content in the open ocean would violate existing

  11. Contribution of ship emissions to the concentration and deposition of air pollutants in Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aksoyoglu, S.; Prévôt, A. S. H.; Baltensperger, U.

    2015-11-01

    Emissions from the marine transport sector are one of the least regulated anthropogenic emission sources and contribute significantly to air pollution. Although strict limits were introduced recently for the maximum sulfur content in marine fuels in the SECAs (sulfur emission control areas) and in the EU ports, sulfur emissions outside the SECAs and emissions of other components in all European maritime areas have continued to increase in the last two decades. We have used the air quality model CAMx with and without ship emissions for the year 2006 to determine the effects of international shipping on the annual as well as seasonal concentrations of ozone, primary and secondary components of PM2.5 and the dry and wet deposition of nitrogen and sulfur compounds in Europe. Our results suggest that emissions from international shipping affect the air quality in northern and southern Europe differently and their contributions to the air concentrations vary seasonally. The largest changes in pollutant concentrations due to ship emissions were predicted for summer. Increased concentrations of the primary particle mass were found only along the shipping routes whereas concentrations of the secondary pollutants were affected over a larger area. Concentrations of particulate sulfate increased due to ship emissions in the Mediterranean (up to 60 %), in the English Channel and the North Sea (30-35 %) while increases in particulate nitrate levels were found especially in the north, around the Benelux area (20 %) where there were high NH3 land-based emissions. Our model results showed that not only the atmospheric concentrations of pollutants are affected by ship emissions, but also depositions of nitrogen and sulfur compounds increase significantly along the shipping routes. NOx emissions from the ships especially in the English Channel and the North Sea, cause a decrease in the dry deposition of reduced nitrogen at source regions by moving it from the gas-phase to the

  12. 22. CRUNCH BOARD #2 HANGAR BAY FRAME 100 STARBOARD SIDETERM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. CRUNCH BOARD #2 HANGAR BAY FRAME 100 STARBOARD SIDE-TERM CRUNCH REFERS TO HANGAR DECK MISHAPS WHICH RESULTED IN DAMAGE TO AIRCRAFT. - U.S.S. HORNET, Puget Sound Naval Shipyard, Sinclair Inlet, Bremerton, Kitsap County, WA

  13. VIEW NORTHWEST, EAST SIDE OF HEBERT'S 1949 HANGAR AND ONESTORY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW NORTHWEST, EAST SIDE OF HEBERT'S 1949 HANGAR AND ONE-STORY OFFICE, AND SOUTH SIDE OF HEBERT'S 1949 HANGAR - Capital City Airport, Capital City Aviation, North side of Grand River Avenue, Lansing, Ingham County, MI

  14. 1. AERIAL SHOT HANGARS 14 (IN CENTER OF VIEW), WEST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. AERIAL SHOT HANGARS 1-4 (IN CENTER OF VIEW), WEST FACING, SIDE LOOKING EAST. BUILDING 100 IS IN FOREGROUND. - Hill Field, Airplane Repair Hangars No. 1-No. 4, 5875 Southgate Avenue, Layton, Davis County, UT

  15. 2. AERIAL SHOT HANGARS 14 (IN CENTER OF VIEW), SOUTH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. AERIAL SHOT HANGARS 1-4 (IN CENTER OF VIEW), SOUTH AND WEST FACING SIDES. BUILDING 238 IS IN LOWER RIGHT FOREGROUND. - Hill Field, Airplane Repair Hangars No. 1-No. 4, 5875 Southgate Avenue, Layton, Davis County, UT

  16. 23. INTERIOR OF TAN 629 HANGAR, TAKEN FROM LOW ROOF, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    23. INTERIOR OF TAN 629 HANGAR, TAKEN FROM LOW ROOF, FACING NORTHEAST. SHOWS GROUND LEVEL USE OF FLOOR SPACE FOR TEMPORARY STORAGE OF CRATES. MOISTURE ON SURFACE IS FROM LEAKY HANGAR ROOF. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Area North, Hangar No. 629, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  17. 9. WEST SIDE OF HANGAR, FACING NORTHEAST. TAKEN FROM LOW ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. WEST SIDE OF HANGAR, FACING NORTHEAST. TAKEN FROM LOW ROOF OF TAN 679 ON WEST SIDE OF HANGAR. DETAIL OF ARCH ABUTMENTS, FOUNDATIONS, SMC WASTE HANDLING STRUCTURE. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Area North, Hangar No. 629, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  18. 8. EAST SIDE OF TAN 629 HANGAR, FACING SOUTHWEST. TAKEN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. EAST SIDE OF TAN 629 HANGAR, FACING SOUTHWEST. TAKEN FROM BERM EAST SIDE OF HANGAR. DETAIL OF BARREL VAULT, ARCH RIBS, CONSTRUCTION AND EXPANSION JOINTS, RUBBER MEMBRANE. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Area North, Hangar No. 629, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  19. Contribution of ship emissions to the concentration and deposition of air pollutants in Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aksoyoglu, Sebnem; Baltensperger, Urs; Prévôt, André S. H.

    2016-02-01

    Emissions from the marine transport sector are one of the least-regulated anthropogenic emission sources and contribute significantly to air pollution. Although strict limits were introduced recently for the maximum sulfur content in marine fuels in the SECAs (sulfur emission control areas) and in EU ports, sulfur emissions outside the SECAs and emissions of other components in all European maritime areas have continued to increase in the last two decades. We have used the air quality model CAMx (Comprehensive Air Quality Model with Extensions) with and without ship emissions for the year 2006 to determine the effects of international shipping on the annual as well as seasonal concentrations of ozone, primary and secondary components of PM2.5, and the dry and wet deposition of nitrogen and sulfur compounds in Europe. The largest changes in pollutant concentrations due to ship emissions were predicted for summer. Concentrations of particulate sulfate increased due to ship emissions in the Mediterranean (up to 60 %), the English Channel and the North Sea (30-35 %), while increases in particulate nitrate levels were found especially in the north, around the Benelux area (20 %), where there were high NH3 land-based emissions. Our model results showed that not only are the atmospheric concentrations of pollutants affected by ship emissions, but also depositions of nitrogen and sulfur compounds increase significantly along the shipping routes. NOx emissions from the ships, especially in the English Channel and the North Sea, cause a decrease in the dry deposition of reduced nitrogen at source regions by moving it from the gas phase to the particle phase which then contributes to an increase in the wet deposition at coastal areas with higher precipitation. In the western Mediterranean region, on the other hand, model results show an increase in the deposition of oxidized nitrogen (mostly HNO3) due to the ship traffic. Dry deposition of SO2 seems to be significant along

  20. 25. 'HANGAR SHEDS TRUSSES DETAILS; ARCHITECTURAL PLANS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    25. 'HANGAR SHEDS - TRUSSES - DETAILS; ARCHITECTURAL PLANS - PLANT AREA; MODIFICATION CENTER NO. 1, DAGGETT, CALIFORNIA.' Sections and details of trusses, ironwork, and joints, as modified to show ridge joint detail. As built. This blueline also shows the fire suppression system, added in orange pencil for 'Project 13: Bldgs. T-30, T-50, T-70, T-90' at a later, unspecified date. Contract no. W509 Eng. 2743; File no. 555/84, revision B, dated August 24, 1942. No sheet number. - Barstow-Daggett Airport, Hangar Shed No. 4, 39500 National Trails Highway, Daggett, San Bernardino County, CA

  1. High Concentrations of Organic Contaminants in Air from Ship Breaking Activities in Chittagong, Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Nøst, Therese H; Halse, Anne K; Randall, Scott; Borgen, Anders R; Schlabach, Martin; Paul, Alak; Rahman, Atiqur; Breivik, Knut

    2015-10-01

    The beaches on the coast of Chittagong in Bangladesh are one of the most intense ship breaking areas in the world. The aim of the study was to measure the concentrations of organic contaminants in the air in the city of Chittagong, including the surrounding ship breaking areas using passive air samplers (N = 25). The compounds detected in the highest amounts were the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and short-chain chlorinated paraffins (SCCPs), whereas dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes (DDTs), hexachlorobenzene (HCB), and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were several orders of magnitude lower in comparison. PCBs, PAHs, and HCB were highest at sites near the ship breaking activities, whereas DDTs and SCCPs were higher in the urban areas. Ship breaking activities likely act as atmospheric emission sources of PCBs, PAHs, and HCB, thus adding to the international emphasis on responsible recycling of ships. Concentrations of PAHs, PCBs, DDTs, HCB, and SCCPs in ambient air in Chittagong are high in comparison to those found in similar studies performed in other parts of Asia. Estimated toxic equivalent quotients indicate elevated human health risks caused by inhalation of PAHs at most sites. PMID:26351879

  2. High Concentrations of Organic Contaminants in Air from Ship Breaking Activities in Chittagong, Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Nøst, Therese H; Halse, Anne K; Randall, Scott; Borgen, Anders R; Schlabach, Martin; Paul, Alak; Rahman, Atiqur; Breivik, Knut

    2015-10-01

    The beaches on the coast of Chittagong in Bangladesh are one of the most intense ship breaking areas in the world. The aim of the study was to measure the concentrations of organic contaminants in the air in the city of Chittagong, including the surrounding ship breaking areas using passive air samplers (N = 25). The compounds detected in the highest amounts were the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and short-chain chlorinated paraffins (SCCPs), whereas dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes (DDTs), hexachlorobenzene (HCB), and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were several orders of magnitude lower in comparison. PCBs, PAHs, and HCB were highest at sites near the ship breaking activities, whereas DDTs and SCCPs were higher in the urban areas. Ship breaking activities likely act as atmospheric emission sources of PCBs, PAHs, and HCB, thus adding to the international emphasis on responsible recycling of ships. Concentrations of PAHs, PCBs, DDTs, HCB, and SCCPs in ambient air in Chittagong are high in comparison to those found in similar studies performed in other parts of Asia. Estimated toxic equivalent quotients indicate elevated human health risks caused by inhalation of PAHs at most sites.

  3. California current eddy formation: ship, air, and satellite results.

    PubMed

    Bernstein, R L; Breaker, L; Whritner, R

    1977-01-28

    Until recently, quantitative measurements of the circulation of the California Current were limited to hydrographic determinations [See figure in the PDF file] of temperature and salinity. This information is now being augmented by satellite data. Clouds permitting, satellite scanner systems can locate major ocean frontal boundaries if they are associated with even quite weak horizontal sea-surface temperature gradients. The satellite data are most usefully interpreted in a region such as that encompassing the California Current, where the surface and main thermocline temperature distributions bear some relation to each other. In such a region, it is possible to make interpretations of circulation based on satellite-derived sea-surface temperature patterns. The correctness of these interpretations depends heavily on the availability of historical and present-day subsurface data, collected by conventional methods from ships and aircraft. Satellite infrared scanners, in addition to providing information on circulation with vastly increased spatial resolution, have the potential (with cooperative weather) for providing increased time resolution. These improvements in resolution have permitted us to see that much of the spatial variation in the California Current takes place along welldefined fronts and to observe the evolution of one particular meander.

  4. Marine Technician's Handbook, Instructions for Taking Air Samples on Board Ship: Carbon Dioxide Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keeling, Charles D.

    This booklet is one of a series intended to provide explicit instructions for the collection of oceanographic data and samples at sea. The methods and procedures described have been used by the Scripps Institution of Oceanography and found reliable and up-to-date. Instructions are given for taking air samples on board ship to determine the…

  5. Effects of reducing SO2 and NOx emission from ships on air quality in Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tran, T. T.; Mölders, N.

    2011-12-01

    We performed simulations with the Alaska-adapted WRF/Chem using the same meteorological conditions of January 2000, but alternatively applying the emissions of 2000 (REF), emissions of 2000 with the ship-emission reductions for the planned North American Emission Contral Area (ECA) for SO2 only (ECA1) and SO2 and NOx (ECA2) that have been proposed by the International Maritime Organization for 2015. The analysis focused on the air quality along the international shipping lanes (ISL), in the ECA and over Alaska (AK). Our goal is to examine how the decreases in ship emissions in the ISL and ECA affect to air quality in Alaska. Our model results show that reducing SO2 and NOx ship-emissions reduces the concentration of sulfur and nitrogen compounds over Alaska despite of no changes in Alaska emissions. The reductions of pollutants over the ISL, ECA and AK stemming from concurrent SO2-NOx ship emission reductions are an order of magnitude of those stemming from SO2 reduction in ship emissions only. Reductions in sulfur compounds reach up to 14km while reductions of nitrogen compounds reach to only about 7km. Reductions of sulfate and nitrate in clouds are highest at the top of the boundary layer. Among the three regions of interest, strongest reductions occur over the ECA and ISL for sulfur and nitrogen compounds, respectively, since the ECA (ISL) has highest reductions of SO2 (NOx). The PM2.5 speciation partitioning over all three regions marginally changes when the ship emissions change. Sulfate is the major component of PM2.5 in all regions. Closer to the land, organic carbon (OC) partitioning is higher indicating the enhancing impacts of inland anthropogenic emissions to total PM2.5 concentrations over land.

  6. Impact of sulfur content regulations of shipping fuel on coastal air quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seyler, André; Wittrock, Folkard; Kattner, Lisa; Mathieu-Üffing, Barbara; Weigelt, Andreas; Peters, Enno; Richter, Andreas; Schmolke, Stefan; Burrows, John P.

    2016-04-01

    Shipping traffic is a sector that faces an enormous growth rate and contributes substantially to the emissions from the transportation sector, but lacks regulations and controls. Shipping is not enclosed in the Kyoto Protocol. However, the International Maritime Organization (IMO) introduced sufhur limits for marine heavy fuels, nitrogen oxide limits for newly-built ship engines and established Emission Control Areas (ECA) in the North and Baltic Sea as well as around North America with the International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships (MARPOL 73/78 Annex VI). Recently, on the 1st of January 2015, the allowed sulfur content of marine fuels inside Sulfur Emission Control Areas has been significantly decreased from 1.0% to 0.1%. However, measurements of reactive trace gases and the chemical composition of the marine troposphere along shipping routes are sparse and up to now there is no regular monitoring system available. The project MeSmarT (measurements of shipping emissions in the marine troposphere) is a cooperation between the University of Bremen, the German Federal Maritime and Hydrographic Agency (Bundesamt für Seeschifffahrt und Hydrographie, BSH) and the Helmholtz-Zentrum Geesthacht. This study aims to analyse the influence of shipping emissions on the coastal air quality by evaluating ground-based remote sensing measurements using the MAX-DOAS (Multi AXis Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy) technique. Measurements of the atmospheric trace gases nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and sulfur dioxide (SO2) have been carried out in the marine troposphere at the MeSmarT measurement sites in Wedel and on Neuwerk and on-board several ship cruises on the North and Baltic Sea. The capability of two-channel MAX-DOAS systems to do simultaneous measurements in the UV and visible spectral range has been used in the so called "onion-peeling" approach to derive spatial distributions of ship emissions and to analyse the movement of the exhausted

  7. PERSPECTIVE OF HANGAR AND ACCESS ROAD LOOKING EAST (During the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    PERSPECTIVE OF HANGAR AND ACCESS ROAD LOOKING EAST (During the 1940s the Arnold family leased part of their land to serve as a runway and airplane hangar. The building on the right of the photograph was originally two separate airplane hangars - they were joined in the early 1950s to provide covered combine parking between them. The building on the left of the photograph is a tractor shed. The building at a distance was gasoline and oil shed for the planes) - Arnold Farm, Hangar / Workshop, 1948 Arnold Road, Coupeville, Island County, WA

  8. Shuttle Enterprise Being Worked on in Hangar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    The Space Shuttle Enterprise being worked on in the weight & balance hangar. The Enterprise, the first orbiter built, was not spaceflight rated and was used in 1977 to verify the landing, approach, and glide characteristics of the orbiters in the Approach and Landing Tests (ALT) at Edwards Air Force Base, California. It was also used for engineering fit-checks at the shuttle launch facilities. Following approach and landing tests in 1977 and its use as an engineering vehicle, Enterprise was donated to the National Air and Space Museum in Washington, D.C. Space Shuttles are the main element of America's Space Transportation System and are used for space research and other space applications. The shuttles are the first vehicles capable of being launched into space and returning to Earth on a routine basis. Space Shuttles are used as orbiting laboratories in which scientists and mission specialists conduct a wide variety of scientific experiments. Crews aboard shuttles place satellites in orbit, rendezvous with satellites to carry out repair missions and return them to space, and retrieve satellites and return them to Earth for refurbishment and reuse. Space Shuttles are true aerospace vehicles. They leave Earth and its atmosphere under rocket power provided by three liquid-propellant main engines with two solid-propellant boosters attached plus an external liquid-fuel tank. After their orbital missions, they streak back through the atmosphere and land like airplanes. The returning shuttles, however, land like gliders, without power and on runways. Other rockets can place heavy payloads into orbit, but, they can only be used once. Space Shuttles are designed to be continually reused. When Space Shuttles are used to transport complete scientific laboratories into space, the laboratories remain inside the payload bay throughout the mission. They are then removed after the Space Shuttle returns to Earth and can be reused on future flights. Some of these orbital

  9. 21. HANGAR BAY #2 AFT LOOKING FORWARD ON CENTERLINE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    21. HANGAR BAY #2 - AFT LOOKING FORWARD ON CENTERLINE - STARBOARD SIDE SHOWING THREE (3) DEHUMIDIFICATION MACHINES, LIFE JACKET STORAGE BINS, UPTAKE SPACE AND AQUEOUS FIRE FIGHTING FOAM STATION - PORT SIDE SHOWING SCUPPER COVERS AND HANGAR DECK PLANE CONTROL STATION. - U.S.S. HORNET, Puget Sound Naval Shipyard, Sinclair Inlet, Bremerton, Kitsap County, WA

  10. 20. HANGAR BAY #2 FORWARD LOOKING AFT ON CENTERLINE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. HANGAR BAY #2 - FORWARD LOOKING AFT ON CENTERLINE - STARBOARD SIDE SHOWING CONFLAGRATION STATION, UPTAKE SPACE AND DEHUMIDIFICATION MACHINES - PORT SIDE SHOWING VARIOUS DECK WINCHES, ROLLER DOORS, HANGAR DECK PLANE CONTROL STATION AND AQUEOUS FIRE FIGHTING FOAM HOSE REELS. - U.S.S. HORNET, Puget Sound Naval Shipyard, Sinclair Inlet, Bremerton, Kitsap County, WA

  11. 34. Photographic copy of Hangar Doors (Ammann and Whitney and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    34. Photographic copy of Hangar Doors (Ammann and Whitney and The Ballinger Company, April 12, 1955). In files of the City of Philadelphia, Division of Aviaiton, Terminal E, Philadelphia International Airport. Reprinted with permission of the Division of Aviation. - TWA Maintenance Hangar, South side of Tinicum Island Road, Philadelphia International Airport, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  12. 41. INDEX OF ALL TAN 629 HANGAR DRAWINGS IN THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    41. INDEX OF ALL TAN 629 HANGAR DRAWINGS IN THE RALPH M. PARSONS SERIES OF DRAWINGS OF THE FLIGHT ENGINE TEST FACILITY. RALPH M. PARSONS DRAWING NUMBER: 1229-2 ANP/GE 5-100. DATED MARCH 15, 1957. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Area North, Hangar No. 629, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  13. 1. CONTEXTUAL VIEW OF TAN 629 HANGAR COMPLEX TAKEN FROM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. CONTEXTUAL VIEW OF TAN 629 HANGAR COMPLEX TAKEN FROM MAIN ACCESS ROAD, FACING NORTH. LOFT (LOSS-OF-FLUID TEST) REACTOR CONTAINMENT BUILDING (DOME) AT RIGHT OF PICTURE. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Area North, Hangar No. 629, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  14. 24. Photographic copy of photograph of mezzanine, interior of hangar, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    24. Photographic copy of photograph of mezzanine, interior of hangar, taken on March 22, 1957. Photographer unknown. Original photograph property of the City of Philadelphia, Division of Aviation. Reprinted with permission of the Division of Aviation. - TWA Maintenance Hangar, South side of Tinicum Island Road, Philadelphia International Airport, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  15. 32. Photographic copy of Hangar Roof Framing Plan (Ammann and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    32. Photographic copy of Hangar Roof Framing Plan (Ammann and Whitney and The Ballinger Company, April 12, 1955). In files of the City of Philadelphia, Division of Aviation, Terminal E, Philadelphia International Airport. Reprinted with permission of the Division of Aviation. - TWA Maintenance Hangar, South side of Tinicum Island Road, Philadelphia International Airport, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  16. 21. Photographic copy of photograph of interior of hangar looking ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    21. Photographic copy of photograph of interior of hangar looking east taken on March 22, 1957. Photographer unknown. Original photograph property of the City of Philadelphia, Division of Aviation. Reprinted with permission of the Division of Aviation. - TWA Maintenance Hangar, South side of Tinicum Island Road, Philadelphia International Airport, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  17. 23. Photographic copy of photograph of interior of hangar looking ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    23. Photographic copy of photograph of interior of hangar looking south taken on March 22, 1957. Photographer unknown. Original photograph property of the City of Philadelphia, Division of Aviation. Reprinted with permission of the Division of Aviation. - TWA Maintenance Hangar, South side of Tinicum Island Road, Philadelphia International Airport, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  18. 35. Photographic copy of Hangar Door Canopy Details (Ammann and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    35. Photographic copy of Hangar Door Canopy Details (Ammann and Whitney and The Ballinger Company. April 12, 1955). In files of the City of Philadelphia, Division of Aviation, Terminal E. Philadelphia International Airport. Reprinted with permission of the Division of Aviation. - TWA Maintenance Hangar, South side of Tinicum Island Road, Philadelphia International Airport, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  19. 22. Photographic copy of photograph of interior of hangar looking ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. Photographic copy of photograph of interior of hangar looking west taken on March 22, 1957. Photographer unknown. Original photograph property of the City of Philadelphia, Division of Aviation. Reprinted with permission of the Division of Aviation. - TWA Maintenance Hangar, South side of Tinicum Island Road, Philadelphia International Airport, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  20. DAST Being Calibrated for Flight in Hangar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    DAST-2, a modified BQM-34 Firebee II drone, undergoes calibration in a hangar at the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center. After the crash of the first DAST vehicle, project personnel fitted a second Firebee II (serial # 72-1558) with the rebuilt ARW-1 (ARW-1R) wing. The DAST-2 made a captive flight aboard the B-52 on October 29, 1982, followed by a free flight on November 3, 1982. During January and February of 1983, three launch attempts from the B-52 had to be aborted due to various problems. Following this, the project changed the launch aircraft to a DC-130A. Two captive flights occurred in May 1983. The first launch attempt from the DC-130 took place on June 1, 1983. The mothership released the DAST-2, but the recovery system immediately fired without being commanded. The parachute then disconnected from the vehicle, and the DAST-2 crashed into a farm field near Harper Dry Lake. Wags called this the 'Alfalfa Field Impact Test.' These are the image contact sheets for each image resolution of the NASA Dryden Drones for Aerodynamic and Structural Testing (DAST) Photo Gallery. From 1977 to 1983, the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, (under two different names) conducted the DAST Program as a high-risk flight experiment using a ground-controlled, pilotless aircraft. Described by NASA engineers as a 'wind tunnel in the sky,' the DAST was a specially modified Teledyne-Ryan BQM-34E/F Firebee II supersonic target drone that was flown to validate theoretical predictions under actual flight conditions in a joint project with the Langley Research Center, Hampton, Virginia. The DAST Program merged advances in electronic remote control systems with advances in airplane design. Drones (remotely controlled, missile-like vehicles initially developed to serve as gunnery targets) had been deployed successfully during the Vietnamese conflict as reconnaissance aircraft. After the war, the energy crisis of the 1970s led NASA to seek new ways to cut fuel use and

  1. Impact of ship emissions on air pollution and AOD over North Atlantic and European Arctic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaminski, Jacek W.; Struzewska, Joanna; Jefimow, Maciej; Durka, Pawel

    2016-04-01

    The iAREA project is combined of experimental and theoretical research in order to contribute to the new knowledge on the impact of absorbing aerosols on the climate system in the European Arctic (http://www.igf.fuw.edu.pl/iAREA). A tropospheric chemistry model GEM-AQ (Global Environmental Multiscale Air Quality) was used as a computational tool. The core of the model is based on a weather prediction model with environmental processes (chemistry and aerosols) implanted on-line and are interactive (i.e. providing feedback of chemistry on radiation and dynamics). The numerical grid covered the Euro-Atlantic region with the resolution of 50 km. Emissions developed by NILU in the ECLIPSE project was used (Klimont et al., 2013). The model was run for two 1-year scenarios. 2014 was chosen as a base year for simulations and analysis. Scenarios include a base run with most up-to-date emissions and a run without maritime emissions. The analysis will focus on the contribution of maritime emissions on levels of particulate matter and gaseous pollutants over the European Arctic, North Atlantic and coastal areas. The annual variability will be assessed based on monthly mean near-surface concentration fields. Analysis of shipping transport on near-surface air pollution over the Euro-Atlantic region will be assessed for ozone, NO2, SO2, CO, PM10, PM2.5. Also, a contribution of ship emissions to AOD will be analysed.

  2. An assessment of air emissions from liquefied natural gas ships using different power systems and different fuels.

    PubMed

    Afon, Yinka; Ervin, David

    2008-03-01

    The shipping industry has been an unrecognized source of criteria pollutants: nitrogen oxides (NOx), volatile organic compounds, coarse particulate matter (PM10), fine particulate matter (PM2.5), sulfur dioxide (SO2), and carbon monoxide (CO). Liquefied natural gas (LNG) has traditionally been transported via steam turbine (ST) ships. Recently, LNG shippers have begun using dual-fuel diesel engines (DFDEs) to propel and offload their cargoes. Both the conventional ST boilers and DFDE are capable of burning a range of fuels, from heavy fuel oil to boil-off-gas (BOG) from the LNG load. In this paper a method for estimating the emissions from ST boilers and DFDEs during LNG offloading operations at berth is presented, along with typical emissions from LNG ships during offloading operations under different scenarios ranging from worst-case fuel oil combustion to the use of shore power. The impact on air quality in nonattainment areas where LNG ships call is discussed. Current and future air pollution control regulations for ocean-going vessels (OGVs) such as LNG ships are also discussed. The objective of this study was to estimate and compare emissions of criteria pollutants from conventional ST and DFDE ships using different fuels. The results of this study suggest that newer DFDE ships have lower SO2 and PM2.5/PM10 emissions, conventional ST ships have lower NOx, volatile organic compound, and CO emissions; and DFDE ships utilizing shore power at berth produce no localized emissions because they draw their required power from the local electric grid.

  3. An assessment of air emissions from liquefied natural gas ships using different power systems and different fuels.

    PubMed

    Afon, Yinka; Ervin, David

    2008-03-01

    The shipping industry has been an unrecognized source of criteria pollutants: nitrogen oxides (NOx), volatile organic compounds, coarse particulate matter (PM10), fine particulate matter (PM2.5), sulfur dioxide (SO2), and carbon monoxide (CO). Liquefied natural gas (LNG) has traditionally been transported via steam turbine (ST) ships. Recently, LNG shippers have begun using dual-fuel diesel engines (DFDEs) to propel and offload their cargoes. Both the conventional ST boilers and DFDE are capable of burning a range of fuels, from heavy fuel oil to boil-off-gas (BOG) from the LNG load. In this paper a method for estimating the emissions from ST boilers and DFDEs during LNG offloading operations at berth is presented, along with typical emissions from LNG ships during offloading operations under different scenarios ranging from worst-case fuel oil combustion to the use of shore power. The impact on air quality in nonattainment areas where LNG ships call is discussed. Current and future air pollution control regulations for ocean-going vessels (OGVs) such as LNG ships are also discussed. The objective of this study was to estimate and compare emissions of criteria pollutants from conventional ST and DFDE ships using different fuels. The results of this study suggest that newer DFDE ships have lower SO2 and PM2.5/PM10 emissions, conventional ST ships have lower NOx, volatile organic compound, and CO emissions; and DFDE ships utilizing shore power at berth produce no localized emissions because they draw their required power from the local electric grid. PMID:18376643

  4. X-38 - Rear View in Hangar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    This photo shows a rear view of the X-38 Crew Return Vehicle in a hangar at the Dryden Flight Research Center shortly after its first successful free flight at the Center. The X-38 was dropped from a B-52 mothership and then glided to a landing under a large, steerable parafoil. The X-38 Crew Return Vehicle (CRV) research project is designed to develop the technology for a prototype emergency crew return vehicle, or lifeboat, for the International Space Station. The project is also intended to develop a crew return vehicle design that could be modified for other uses, such as a joint U.S. and international human spacecraft that could be launched on the French Ariane-5 Booster. The X-38 project is using available technology and off-the-shelf equipment to significantly decrease development costs. Original estimates to develop a capsule-type crew return vehicle were estimated at more than $2 billion. X-38 project officials have estimated that development costs for the X-38 concept will be approximately one quarter of the original estimate. Off-the-shelf technology is not necessarily 'old' technology. Many of the technologies being used in the X-38 project have never before been applied to a human-flight spacecraft. For example, the X-38 flight computer is commercial equipment currently used in aircraft and the flight software operating system is a commercial system already in use in many aerospace applications. The video equipment for the X-38 is existing equipment, some of which has already flown on the space shuttle for previous NASA experiments. The X-38's primary navigational equipment, the Inertial Navigation System/Global Positioning System, is a unit already in use on Navy fighters. The X-38 electromechanical actuators come from previous joint NASA, U.S. Air Force, and U.S. Navy research and development projects. Finally, an existing special coating developed by NASA will be used on the X-38 thermal tiles to make them more durable than those used on the space

  5. 37. HANGAR FROM RAILROAD DECK TELESCOPED IN COLUMN & SHOWING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    37. HANGAR FROM RAILROAD DECK TELESCOPED IN COLUMN & SHOWING PIN WHICH TRANSFERS LOAD FROM RAILROAD DECK TO TRUSS WHEN IN DOWN POSITION - Armour, Swift, Burlington Bridge, Kansas City, Jackson County, MO

  6. High-speed impact test of an air-transportable plutonium nitrate shipping container

    SciTech Connect

    Yoshimura, H.R.; Pope, R.B.; Leisher, W.B.; Joseph, B.J.

    1980-04-01

    To obtain information on package response for comparison with other test environments, a high-speed impact test was performed on a modified Federal Republic of Germany 18B plutonium nitrate air-transportable container. The container, modified with reinforcing rings for improved crush resistance around the inner tube assembly, was impacted at a velocity of 137 m/s onto an unyielding surface. Substantial crushing of the foam overpack and extensive deformation of the container cavity occurred, causing release of the liquid surrogate contents from the titanium shipping container. The container damage resulting from the high-speed pulldown test was more severe than that from a 185-m free fall onto a semirigid surface by a similar container or the crush environment produced by a 9-m drop of a 2-Mg block onto the container resting on an unyielding surface.

  7. 33. AS BUILT DRAWING OF TAN 629 HANGAR SHOWING GENERAL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    33. AS BUILT DRAWING OF TAN 629 HANGAR SHOWING GENERAL SITE PLAN AND RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN FLIGHT ENGINE TEST AREA TO ADMINISTRATION AND MAINTENANCE AREA, RAILROAD TRACKS AT SCALE OF 1 INCH TO 400 FEET. RALPH M. PARSONS DRAWING NUMBER: 1229-2 ANP/GE 5-101. DATED MARCH 15, 1957. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Area North, Hangar No. 629, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  8. General view, marine aviation hangars, looking northwest. Oral history has ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    General view, marine aviation hangars, looking northwest. Oral history has suggested that the north unit of the two surviving structures (in the background with the gable roof) was used as a repair shed by what is now the Philadelphia International Airport when it opened in 1925, and the south (doubled) unit was constructed as part of the 1926 Sesqui-Centennial Exposition. - Lazaretto Quarantine Station, Marine Aviation Hangars, Wanamaker Avenue and East Second Street, Essington, Delaware County, PA

  9. Modelling the emissions from ships in ports and their impact on air quality in the metropolitan area of Hamburg

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramacher, Martin; Karl, Matthias; Aulinger, Armin; Bieser, Johannes; Matthias, Volker; Quante, Markus

    2016-04-01

    Exhaust emissions from shipping contribute significantly to the anthropogenic burden of air pollutants such as nitrogen oxides (NOX) and particulate matter (PM). Ships emit not only when sailing on open sea, but also when approaching harbors, during port manoeuvers and at berth to produce electricity and heat for the ship's operations. This affects the population of harbor cities because long-term exposure to PM and NOX has significant effects on human health. The European Union has therefore has set air quality standards for air pollutants. Many port cities have problems meeting these standards. The port of Hamburg with around 10.000 ship calls per year is Germany's largest seaport and Europe's second largest container port. Air quality standard reporting in Hamburg has revealed problems in meeting limits for NO2 and PM10. The amount and contribution of port related ship emissions (38% for NOx and 17% for PM10) to the overall emissions in the metropolitan area in 2005 [BSU Hamburg (2012): Luftreinhalteplan für Hamburg. 1. Fortschreibung 2012] has been modelled with a bottom up approach by using statistical data of ship activities in the harbor, technical vessel information and specific emission algorithms [GAUSS (2008): Quantifizierung von gasförmigen Emissionen durch Maschinenanlagen der Seeschiffart an der deutschen Küste]. However, knowledge about the spatial distribution of the harbor ship emissions over the city area is crucial when it comes to air quality standards and policy decisions to protect human health. Hence, this model study examines the spatial distribution of harbor ship emissions (NOX, PM10) and their deposition in the Hamburg metropolitan area. The transport and chemical transformation of atmospheric pollutants is calculated with the well-established chemistry transport model TAPM (The Air Pollution Model). TAPM is a three-dimensional coupled prognostic meteorological and air pollution model with a condensed chemistry scheme including

  10. Assessing the Fire Risk for a Historic Hangar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Datta, Koushik; Morrison, Richard S.

    2010-01-01

    NASA Ames Research Center (ARC) is evaluating options of reuse of its historic Hangar 1. As a part of this evaluation, a qualitative fire risk assessment study was performed to evaluate the potential threat of combustion of the historic hangar. The study focused on the fire risk trade-off of either installing or not installing a Special Hazard Fire Suppression System in the Hangar 1 deck areas. The assessment methodology was useful in discussing the important issues among various groups within the Center. Once the methodology was deemed acceptable, the results were assessed. The results showed that the risk remained in the same risk category, whether Hangar 1 does or does not have a Special Hazard Fire Suppression System. Note that the methodology assessed the risk to Hangar 1 and not the risk to an aircraft in the hangar. If one had a high value aircraft, the aircraft risk analysis could potentially show a different result. The assessed risk results were then communicated to management and other stakeholders.

  11. Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Launch Complex 39, Solid Rocket ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Launch Complex 39, Solid Rocket Booster Disassembly & Refurbishment Complex, Thrust Vector Control Deservicing Facility, Hangar Road, Cape Canaveral, Brevard County, FL

  12. Legionella species colonization of water distribution systems, pools and air conditioning systems in cruise ships and ferries

    PubMed Central

    Goutziana, Georgia; Mouchtouri, Varvara A; Karanika, Maria; Kavagias, Antonios; Stathakis, Nikolaos E; Gourgoulianis, Kostantinos; Kremastinou, Jenny; Hadjichristodoulou, Christos

    2008-01-01

    Background Legionnaires' disease continues to be a public health concern in passenger ships. This study was scheduled in order to investigate Legionella spp. colonization of water distribution systems (WDS), recreational pools, and air-conditioning systems on board ferries and cruise ships in an attempt to identify risk factors for Legionella spp. colonization associated with ship water systems and water characteristics. Methods Water systems of 21 ferries and 10 cruise ships including WDS, air conditioning systems and pools were investigated for the presence of Legionella spp. Results The 133 samples collected from the 10 cruise ships WDS, air conditioning systems and pools were negative for Legionella spp. Of the 21 ferries WDS examined, 14 (66.7%) were legionellae-positive. A total of 276 samples were collected from WDS and air conditioning systems. Legionella spp. was isolated from 37.8% of the hot water samples and 17.5% of the cold water samples. Of the total 96 positive isolates, 87 (90.6%) were L. pneumophila. Legionella spp. colonization was positively associated with ship age. The temperature of the hot water samples was negatively associated with colonization of L. pneumophila serogroup (sg) 1 and that of L. pneumophila sg 2 to 14. Increases in pH ≥7.8 and total plate count ≥400 CFU/L, correlated positively with the counts of L. pneumophila sg 2 to 14 and Legionella spp. respectively. Free chlorine of ≥0.2 mg/L inhibited colonization of Legionella spp. Conclusion WDS of ferries can be heavily colonized by Legionella spp. and may present a risk of Legionnaires' disease for passengers and crew members. Guidelines and advising of Legionnaires' disease prevention regarding ferries are needed, in particular for operators and crew members. PMID:19025638

  13. Impact of oil spill from ship on air quality around coastal regions of Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shon, Zang-Ho; Song, Sang-Keun

    2010-05-01

    Regional air quality around coastal regions, where regular maritime traffic emissions from cargo, other commercial, fishing and military vessels are significantly active, can be affected by their direct emission of primary air pollutants (NOx, SO2, particulate matter (PM), etc.). For instance, harbor traffic exerted an important impact on NO2, SO2, O3, and PM levels. In addition, regional air quality around coastal regions is also affected by oil spill caused by ship accident in the coast. On 7 Dec., 2007, a barge carrying a crane hit the oil tanker MT Hebei Sprit off the west coast of the Republic of Korea, Yellow Sea (approximately 10 km off the coast), at 0700 local time, causing the spill of total estimated 12,547 tons of Iranian heavy (IH) and Kuwait Export (KE) crude oils. Since then, oil began coming on shore late in the night on 7 Dec. More than 150 km of coastline had been identified as being impacted by 17 Dec. Much of the affected area is part of the Taean-gun National Park and the nearest coastal city to spilled area is Taean. On 8 Dec., the flow of oil from the tanker was stopped when the holes were patched. The accident is the worst oil spill in Korea and the spill area is about one-third of the size of the Exxon Valdez oil spill. The short- and long-term effects of oil spill on marine environment have been numerously studied, not on atmospheric environment. In this study, the air quality impact near spilled area by the evaporation of hydrocarbons from the oil spill is studied in detail. The evaporation rates of the volatile fractions of the crude oils released by oil spill were estimated based on their mole fractions of crude oils and mass transfer coefficients. Based on a molecular diffusion process, the flux of spilled oil component (Fivap, mol m-2 s-1) can be expressed as follows: Fivap = Kivap(Civap - C∞vap) (1) where Civap is concentration (mol m-3) of a component i of crude oil vapor in the air at the oil-air interface; C∞vap is the

  14. Modeling the Impact of Arctic Shipping Pollution on Air Quality off the Coast of Northern Norway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, J. L.; Law, K.; Marelle, L.; Raut, J.; Jalkanen, J.; Johansson, L.; Roiger, A.; Schlager, H.; Kim, J.; Reiter, A.; Weinzierl, B.; Rose, M.; Fast, J. D.

    2013-12-01

    As the Arctic is undergoing rapid and potentially irreversible changes, such as the shrinking and thinning of sea-ice cover, the levels of atmospheric pollution are expected to rise dramatically due to the emergence of local pollution sources including shipping. Shipping routes through the Arctic (such as Russia's Northern Sea Route) are already used as an alternative to the traditional global transit shipping routes. In summer 2012, the ACCESS (Arctic Climate Change, Economy, and Society) aircraft campaign focused on studying pollution sources off the coast of northern Norway to quantify emissions from shipping and other anthropogenic pollution sources. To complement these measurements, a regional chemical transport model is used to study the impact of shipping pollution on gas and aerosol concentrations in the region. WRF-Chem (The Weather Research and Forecasting Model with Chemistry, which simulates gas and aerosols simultaneously with meteorology) is run with real time shipping emissions from STEAM (Ship Traffic Emission Assessment Model) for July 2012. The STEAM model calculates gas and aerosol emissions of marine traffic based on the ship type and location provided by the Automatic Identification System (AIS). Use of real time position, speed, and ship specific information allows for development of emissions with very high spatial (1x1 km) and temporal (30 min) resolution, which are used in the regional model runs. STEAM emissions have been specifically generated for shipping off the coast of Norway during the entire ACCESS campaign period. Simulated ship plumes from high-resolution model runs are compared to aircraft measurements. The regional impact of current summertime shipping is also examined. At present, relatively light ship traffic off the coast of northern Norway results in only a small impact of shipping pollution on regional atmospheric chemistry. The impact of increased future shipping on regional atmospheric chemistry is also assessed.

  15. Regional Modelling of Air Quality in the Canadian Arctic: Impact of marine shipping and North American wild fire emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, W.; Beagley, S. R.; Zhang, J.; Cousineau, S.; Sassi, M.; Munoz-Alpizar, R.; Racine, J.; Menard, S.; Chen, J.

    2015-12-01

    Arctic atmospheric composition is strongly influenced by long-range transport from mid-latitudes as well as processes occurring in the Arctic locally. Using an on-line air quality prediction model GEM-MACH, simulations were carried out for the 2010 northern shipping season (April - October) over a regional Arctic domain. North American wildfire emissions and Arctic shipping emissions were represented, along with other anthropogenic and biogenic emissions. Sensitivity studies were carried out to investigate the principal sources and processes affecting air quality in the Canadian Northern and Arctic regions. In this paper, we present an analysis of sources, transport, and removal processes on the ambient concentrations and atmospheric loading of various pollutants with air quality and climate implications, such as, O3, NOx, SO2, CO, and aerosols (sulfate, black carbon, and organic carbon components). Preliminary results from a model simulation of a recent summertime Arctic field campaign will also be presented.

  16. Air quality monitoring in communities of the Canadian Arctic during the high shipping season with a focus on local and marine pollution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aliabadi, A. A.; Staebler, R. M.; Sharma, S.

    2014-11-01

    The Canadian Arctic has experienced decreasing sea ice extent and increasing shipping activity in the recent decades. While there are economic incentives to develop resources in the North, there are environmental concerns that increasing marine traffic will contribute to declining air quality in Northern communities. In an effort to characterize the relative impact of shipping on air quality in the North, two monitoring stations have been installed in Cape Dorset and Resolute, Nunavut, and have been operational since 1 June 2013. The impact of shipping and other sources of emissions on NOx, O3, SO2, BC, and PM2.5 pollution have been characterized for the 2013 shipping season from 1 June to 1 November. In addition, a high resolution Air Quality Health Index (AQHI) for both sites was computed. Shipping consistently increased O3 mixing ratio and PM2.5 concentration. The 90% confidence interval for mean difference in O3 mixing ratio between ship and no ship-influenced air masses were up to 4.6-4.7 ppb and 2.5-2.7 ppb for Cape Dorset and Resolute, respectively. The same intervals for PM2.5 concentrations were up to 1.8-1.9 μg m-3 and 0.5-0.6 μg m-3. Ship-influenced air masses consistently exhibited degraded air quality by an increase of 0.1 to 0.3 in the high resolution AQHI compared to no ship-influenced air masses. Trajectory cluster analysis in combination with ship traffic tracking provided an estimated range for percent ship contribution to NOx, O3, SO2, and PM2.5 that were 12.9-17.5%, 16.2-18.1%, 16.9-18.3%, and 19.5-31.7% for Cape Dorset and 1.0-7.2%, 2.9-4.8%, 5.5-10.0%, and 6.5-7.2% for Resolute during the 2013 shipping season. Additional measurements in Resolute suggested that percent ship contribution to black carbon was 4.3-9.8% and that black carbon constituted 1.3-9.7% of total PM2.5 mass in ship plumes. Continued air quality monitoring in the above sites for future shipping seasons will improve the statistics in our analysis as well as characterize

  17. The impact of shipping emissions on air pollution in the greater North Sea region - Part 1: Current emissions and concentrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aulinger, A.; Matthias, V.; Zeretzke, M.; Bieser, J.; Quante, M.; Backes, A.

    2016-01-01

    The North Sea is one of the areas with the highest ship traffic densities worldwide. At any time, about 3000 ships are sailing its waterways. Previous scientific publications have shown that ships contribute significantly to atmospheric concentrations of NOx, particulate matter and ozone. Especially in the case of particulate matter and ozone, this influence can even be seen in regions far away from the main shipping routes. In order to quantify the effects of North Sea shipping on air quality in its bordering states, it is essential to determine the emissions from shipping as accurately as possible. Within Interreg IVb project Clean North Sea Shipping (CNSS), a bottom-up approach was developed and used to thoroughly compile such an emission inventory for 2011 that served as the base year for the current emission situation. The innovative aspect of this approach was to use load-dependent functions to calculate emissions from the ships' current activities instead of averaged emission factors for the entire range of the engine loads. These functions were applied to ship activities that were derived from hourly records of Automatic Identification System signals together with a database containing the engine characteristics of the vessels that traveled the North Sea in 2011. The emission model yielded ship emissions among others of NOx and SO2 at high temporal and spatial resolution that were subsequently used in a chemistry transport model in order to simulate the impact of the emissions on pollutant concentration levels. The total emissions of nitrogen reached 540 Gg and those of sulfur oxides 123 Gg within the North Sea - including the adjacent western part of the Baltic Sea until 5° W. This was about twice as much of those of a medium-sized industrialized European state like the Netherlands. The relative contribution of ships to, for example, NO2 concentration levels ashore close to the sea can reach up to 25 % in summer and 15 % in winter. Some hundred kilometers

  18. The impact of shipping emissions on air pollution in the Greater North Sea region - Part 1: Current emissions and concentrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aulinger, A.; Matthias, V.; Zeretzke, M.; Bieser, J.; Quante, M.; Backes, A.

    2015-04-01

    The North Sea is one of the areas with the highest ship traffic densities worldwide. At any time, about 3000 ships are sailing its waterways. Previous scientific publications have shown that ships contribute significantly to atmospheric concentrations of NOx, particulate matter and ozone. Especially in the case of particulate matter and ozone this influence can even be seen in regions far away from the main shipping routes. In order to quantify the effects of North Sea shipping on air quality in its bordering states, it is essential to determine the emissions from shipping as accurately as possible. Within the Interreg IVb project Clean North Sea Shipping (CNSS) a bottom-up approach was developed and used to thoroughly compile such an emission inventory for 2011 that served as the base year for the current emission situation. The innovative aspect of this approach was to use load dependent functions to calculate emissions from the ships' current activities instead of averaged emission factors for the entire range of the engine loads. These functions were applied to ship activities that were derived from hourly records of Automatic Identification System signals together with a data base containing the engine characteristics of the vessels that traveled the North Sea in 2011. The emission model yielded ship emissions among others of NOx and SO2 in high temporal and spatial resolution that were subsequently used in a chemistry transport model in order to simulate the impact of the emissions on pollutant concentration levels. The total emissions of nitrogen reached 540 Gg and of sulfur oxides 123 Gg within the North Sea, which was about twice as much of those of a medium-sized industrialized European state like the Netherlands. The relative contribution of ships to, for example, NO2 concentration levels ashore close to the sea can reach up to 25% in summer and 15% in winter. Some hundred kilometers away from the sea the contribution was about 6% in summer and 4% in

  19. Air quality monitoring in communities of the Canadian Arctic during the high shipping season with a focus on local and marine pollution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aliabadi, A. A.; Staebler, R. M.; Sharma, S.

    2015-03-01

    The Canadian Arctic has experienced decreasing sea ice extent and increasing shipping activity in recent decades. While there are economic incentives to develop resources in the north, there are environmental concerns that increasing marine traffic will contribute to declining air quality in northern communities. In an effort to characterize the relative impact of shipping on air quality in the north, two monitoring stations have been installed in Cape Dorset and Resolute, Nunavut, and have been operational since 1 June 2013. The impact of shipping and other sources of emissions on NOx, O3, SO2, BC, and PM2.5 pollution have been characterized for the 2013 shipping season from 1 June to 1 November. In addition, a high-resolution Air Quality Health Index (AQHI) for both sites was computed. Shipping consistently increased O3 mixing ratio and PM2.5 concentration. The 90% confidence interval for mean difference in O3 mixing ratio between ship- and no ship-influenced air masses were up to 4.6-4.7 ppb and 2.5-2.7 ppb for Cape Dorset and Resolute, respectively. The same intervals for PM2.5 concentrations were up to 1.8-1.9 μg m-3 and 0.5-0.6 μg m-3. Ship-influenced air masses consistently exhibited an increase of 0.1 to 0.3 in the high-resolution AQHI compared to no ship-influenced air masses. Trajectory cluster analysis in combination with ship traffic tracking provided an estimated range for percent ship contribution to NOx, O3, SO2, and PM2.5 that were 12.9-17.5 %, 16.2-18.1 %, 16.9-18.3 %, and 19.5-31.7 % for Cape Dorset and 1.0-7.2 %, 2.9-4.8 %, 5.5-10.0 %, and 6.5-7.2 % for Resolute during the 2013 shipping season. Additional measurements in Resolute suggested that percent ship contribution to black carbon was 4.3-9.8 % and that black carbon constituted 1.3-9.7 % of total PM2.5 mass in ship plumes. Continued air quality monitoring in the above sites for future shipping seasons will improve the statistics in our analysis and characterize repeating seasonal patterns

  20. Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Area North, Hangar 629 -- Photographs, written historical and descriptive data

    SciTech Connect

    1994-12-31

    The report describes the history of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory`s Hangar 629. The hangar was built to test the possibility of linking jet engine technology with nuclear power. The history of the project is described along with the development and eventual abandonment of the Flight Engine Test hangar. The report contains historical photographs and architectural drawings.

  1. WEST ELEVATION OF USAIR MAINTENANCE HANGAR AT GREATER BUFFALO INTERNATIONAL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    WEST ELEVATION OF USAIR MAINTENANCE HANGAR AT GREATER BUFFALO INTERNATIONAL AIRPORT. A BOEING 737-200 HAS BEEN TOWED IN FOR AN OVERNIGHT (BALANCE) CHECK. THE TAIL DOCK STANDS ARE IN POSITION AT THE REAR OF THE AIRCRAFT TO FACILITATE INSPECTION. MAINTENANCE CREWS PERFORM NIGHTLY SERVICE ON UP TO 6 AIRCRAFT. THE NORMAL SEQUENCE OF 12 ROUTINE CHECKS COVERS SEVEN BASIC AREAS: INTERIOR, EXTERIOR, WINGS, LANDING GEAR, TAIL, AUXILIARY POWER UNIT (APU), AND ENGINES. THE WORK FORCE CONSISTS OF 5 INSPECTORS, 3 LEAD MECHANICS, AND 24 MECHANICS; NIGHTLY SCHEDULES ARE COORDINATED BY A PLANNER. - Greater Buffalo International Airport, Maintenance Hangar, Buffalo, Erie County, NY

  2. Model study of the ship emissions impact on the air quality in the Adriatic/Ionian area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karagiannidis, Athanasios; Poupkou, Anastasia; Liora, Natalia; Dimopoulos, Spiros; Giannaros, Christos; Melas, Dimitrios; Argiriou, Athanassios

    2015-04-01

    The increase of the ship traffic for touristic and commercial purposes is one of the EU Blue Growth targets. The Adriatic/Ionian is one of the sea-basin strategic areas for this target. The purpose of the study is the examination of the impact of the ship emissions on the gaseous and particulate pollutants concentrations in the Adriatic/Ionian area for which the current scientific knowledge is limited. The impact is simulated over a domain covering the Central and Eastern Mediterranean in 10 km resolution during a summer period (July) and a winter period (January) of the year 2012. The modeling system used consists of the photochemical model CAMx off line coupled with the meteorological model WRF. The zero-out modeling method is implemented involving CAMx simulations performed while including and omitting the ship emission data. The simulations are based on the European scale anthropogenic emission inventory of The Netherlands Organisation (TNO) for the reference year 2009. Natural emissions (NMVOCs from the vegetation, sea salt, wind-blown dust), estimated with the use of the Natural Emission MOdel (NEMO) developed by the Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, are accounted for in the photochemical model runs. The spatial distribution of the resulting differences in the gaseous and particulate pollutant concentration fields for both emission scenarios are presented and discussed, providing an estimation of the contribution of ship emissions on the determination of the air quality in the Adriatic/Ionian countries

  3. 18. HANGAR BAY #1 FORWARD LOOKING AFT ON CENTERLINE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. HANGAR BAY #1 - FORWARD LOOKING AFT ON CENTERLINE - STARBOARD SIDE SHOWING DECK WINCHES AND FORWARD BOMB ELEVATOR. PORT SIDE SHOWING AQUEOUS FIRE FIGHTING FOAM STATION, HATCHES AND BLOWER VENTS. - U.S.S. HORNET, Puget Sound Naval Shipyard, Sinclair Inlet, Bremerton, Kitsap County, WA

  4. 24. HANGAR BAY #3 FORWARD LOOKING AFT STARBOARD TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    24. HANGAR BAY #3 - FORWARD LOOKING AFT STARBOARD TO PORT SHOWING LADDERWAY TO THE GALLERY DECK, OVERHEAD RAILWAYS FOR ELECTRIC HOISTS, DEHUMIDIFICATION MACHINE, LIFE JACKET STORAGE BINS, HATCHES LEADING TO THE FANTAIL AND METAL SHOP WITH VARIOUS BOOMS AND ANTENNA SUPPORTS ON DECK. - U.S.S. HORNET, Puget Sound Naval Shipyard, Sinclair Inlet, Bremerton, Kitsap County, WA

  5. 19. HANGAR BAY #1 AFT LOOKING FORWARD ON CENTERLINE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. HANGAR BAY #1 - AFT LOOKING FORWARD ON CENTERLINE - STARBOARD SIDE SHOWING FORWARD BOMB ELEVATOR, DEHUMIDIFICATION MACHINE AND OFFICERS' QUARTER DECK - PORT SIDE SHOWING AQUEOUS FIRE FIGHTING FOAM STATION, HATCHES AND BLOWER VENTS. - U.S.S. HORNET, Puget Sound Naval Shipyard, Sinclair Inlet, Bremerton, Kitsap County, WA

  6. 23. HANGAR BAY #3 FORWARD LOOKING AFT ON CENTERLINE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    23. HANGAR BAY #3 - FORWARD LOOKING AFT ON CENTERLINE - STARBOARD SIDE SHOWING AFT ELEVATOR DOORS AND DEHUMIDIFICATION MACHINES. PORT SIDE SHOWING SCUPPER COVERS, LIFT JACKET STORAGE BIN AND LADDERWAY TO GALLERY DECK. - U.S.S. HORNET, Puget Sound Naval Shipyard, Sinclair Inlet, Bremerton, Kitsap County, WA

  7. HANGARS, WAREHOUSE (FACILITY NO. 410), AND BARRACKS (FACILITY NO. 424), ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    HANGARS, WAREHOUSE (FACILITY NO. 410), AND BARRACKS (FACILITY NO. 424), LOOKING EAST FROM RESERVOIR HILL. (Part 1 of a 3 view panorama; see also CA-2398-5 and CA-2398-6.) - Hamilton Field, East of Nave Drive, Novato, Marin County, CA

  8. 25. HANGAR BAY #3 AFT LOOKING FORWARD ON CENTERLINE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    25. HANGAR BAY #3 - AFT LOOKING FORWARD ON CENTERLINE - STARBOARD SIDE SHOWING AFTER BROW, ELEVATOR DOORS, FOG FOAM STATION #7, AND DEHUMIDIFICATION MACHINES. PORT SIDE SHOWING SCUPPER COVERS, LIFE JACKET BIN #16, PARTS STOREROOM, HATCH AND LADDERWAY TO GALLERY DECK. - U.S.S. HORNET, Puget Sound Naval Shipyard, Sinclair Inlet, Bremerton, Kitsap County, WA

  9. Naval Air Station, Santa Ana, Calif. Lighterthanairhangar roof truss details. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Naval Air Station, Santa Ana, Calif. Lighter-than-air-hangar roof truss details. Drawing no. 212817. - Marine Corps Air Station Tustin, East of Red Hill Avenue between Edinger Avenue & Barranca Parkway, Tustin, Orange County, CA

  10. A spent SRB used on STS-87 is lifted in a hoisting slip in Hangar AF at CCAS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    A spent solid rocket booster (SRB) from the STS-87 launch on Nov. 19 is lifted in a hoisting slip in the Hangar AF area at Cape Canaveral Air Station. Hangar AF is a building originally used for Project Mercury, the first U.S. manned space program. The SRBs are the largest solid propellant motors ever flown and the first designed for reuse. After a Shuttle is launched, the SRBs are jettisoned at two minutes, seven seconds into the flight. At six minutes and 44 seconds after liftoff, the spent SRBs, weighing about 165,000 lb., have slowed their descent speed to about 62 mph and splashdown takes place in a predetermined area. They are retrieved from the Atlantic Ocean by special recovery vessels and returned for refurbishment and eventual reuse on future Shuttle flights. Once at Hangar AF, the SRBs are unloaded onto a hoisting slip and mobile gantry cranes lift them onto tracked dollies where they are safed and undergo their first washing.

  11. The frustum of a forward skirt assembly of a spent SRB used on STS-87 is transported into the Hangar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    The frustum of a forward skirt assembly of a spent solid rocket booster (SRB) from the STS-87 launch on Nov. 19 is transported into the Hangar AF area at Cape Canaveral Air Station. Hangar AF is a building originally used for Project Mercury, the first U.S. manned space program. The SRBs are the largest solid propellant motors ever flown and the first designed for reuse. After a Shuttle is launched, the SRBs are jettisoned at two minutes, seven seconds into the flight. At six minutes and 44 seconds after liftoff, the spent SRBs, weighing about 165,000 lb., have slowed their descent speed to about 62 mph and splashdown takes place in a predetermined area. They are retrieved from the Atlantic Ocean by special recovery vessels and returned for refurbishment and eventual reuse on future Shuttle flights. Once at Hangar AF, the SRBs are unloaded onto a hoisting slip and mobile gantry cranes lift them onto tracked dollies where they are safed and undergo their first washing.

  12. 76 FR 72049 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutant Emissions for Shipbuilding and Ship...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-21

    ...@epa.gov . Background Information Document. On December 21, 2010 (75 FR 80220), the EPA proposed... Shipbuilding and Ship Repair (Surface Coating) were promulgated on December 15, 1995 (60 FR 64330), and... Manufacturing Operations were promulgated on December 7, 1995 (60 FR 62930), and codified at 40 CFR part...

  13. Aerial view of entire LTA base after completion of both ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Aerial view of entire LTA base after completion of both LTA ship hangars. Date unknown but probably circa 1945. - Marine Corps Air Station Tustin, Northern Lighter Than Air Ship Hangar, Meffett Avenue & Maxfield Street, Tustin, Orange County, CA

  14. Site overview. Part 1 of 3part panorama with nos. CA27022 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Site overview. Part 1 of 3-part panorama with nos. CA-2702-2 and CA-2707-3. Southern LTA ship hangar (building 28; hangar no. 2 in distant center of photograph. Seen from roadway leading to northern LTA ship hangar (building 29; hangar no. 1) landing pad. Looking 208 SSW. - Marine Corps Air Station Tustin, Northern Lighter Than Air Ship Hangar, Meffett Avenue & Maxfield Street, Tustin, Orange County, CA

  15. New Technology Demonstration Program, Kennedy Space Center, Hangar L Heat Pipe Project: Performance Evaluation Report

    SciTech Connect

    Hancock, C. E.; Reeves, P.

    1999-03-29

    In December of 1996, heat pipe heat exchangers were installed on three air handlers at Hangar L at the Cape Canaveral Air Station, Kennedy Space Center, Cape Canaveral, Florida. These retrofits were implemented with the intent to improve the dehumidification performance of the cooling systems, reduce the electric and steam energy required for reheating air, and reduce electric energy used by the chillers. Audits were conducted before and after the heat pipes were installed and a detailed monitoring system was set up to record hourly operating conditions of each of the three air-handling units. The audit information and monitored data were used to create a simulation model of the three air-handling systems and annual energy savings were predicted. Energy savings for air handling unit 1 (AHU-1) were found to be negligible. Heat pipe installation in AHU-1 may have been inappropriate because of the design of the original cooling coils. Annual savings for AHU-2 are small, primarily because the required reheat for the system was already small. AHU-3 was the best application for the heat pipes and showed savings of 70,000 kWh per year. Interior humidity conditions improved after installation of the heat pipes for AHU-2 and AHU-3.

  16. Air quality and radiative impacts of Arctic shipping emissions in the summertime in northern Norway: from the local to the regional scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marelle, Louis; Thomas, Jennie L.; Raut, Jean-Christophe; Law, Kathy S.; Jalkanen, Jukka-Pekka; Johansson, Lasse; Roiger, Anke; Schlager, Hans; Kim, Jin; Reiter, Anja; Weinzierl, Bernadett

    2016-02-01

    In this study, we quantify the impacts of shipping pollution on air quality and shortwave radiative effect in northern Norway, using WRF-Chem (Weather Research and Forecasting with chemistry) simulations combined with high-resolution, real-time STEAM2 (Ship Traffic Emissions Assessment Model version 2) shipping emissions. STEAM2 emissions are evaluated using airborne measurements from the ACCESS (Arctic Climate Change, Economy and Society) aircraft campaign, which was conducted in the summer 2012, in two ways. First, emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx) and sulfur dioxide (SO2) are derived for specific ships by combining in situ measurements in ship plumes and FLEXPART-WRF plume dispersion modeling, and these values are compared to STEAM2 emissions for the same ships. Second, regional WRF-Chem runs with and without STEAM2 ship emissions are performed at two different resolutions, 3 km × 3 km and 15 km × 15 km, and evaluated against measurements along flight tracks and average campaign profiles in the marine boundary layer and lower troposphere. These comparisons show that differences between STEAM2 emissions and calculated emissions can be quite large (-57 to +148 %) for individual ships, but that WRF-Chem simulations using STEAM2 emissions reproduce well the average NOx, SO2 and O3 measured during ACCESS flights. The same WRF-Chem simulations show that the magnitude of NOx and ozone (O3) production from ship emissions at the surface is not very sensitive (< 5 %) to the horizontal grid resolution (15 or 3 km), while surface PM10 particulate matter enhancements due to ships are moderately sensitive (15 %) to resolution. The 15 km resolution WRF-Chem simulations are used to estimate the regional impacts of shipping pollution in northern Norway. Our results indicate that ship emissions are an important source of pollution along the Norwegian coast, enhancing 15-day-averaged surface concentrations of NOx ( ˜ +80 %), SO2 ( ˜ +80 %), O3 ( ˜ +5 %), black carbon (

  17. X-Wing Research Vehicle in Hangar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    promoted to Lt. Col.) Patrick Morris, began in May and continued until October 1984, when the RSRA vehicle returned to Ames. The project manager at Dryden for the flights was Wen Painter. These early tests were preparatory for a future X-Wing rotor flight test project to be sponsored by NASA, the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA), and Sikorsky Aircraft. A later derivative X-Wing flew in 1987. The modified RSRA was developed to provide a vehicle for in-flight investigation and verification of new helicopter rotor-system concepts and supporting technology. The RSRA could be configured to fly as an airplane with fixed wings, as a helicopter, or as a compound vehicle that could transition between the two configurations. NASA and DARPA selected Sikorsky in 1984 to convert one of the original RSRAs to the new demonstrator aircraft for the X-Wing concept. Developers of X-Wing technology did not view the X-Wing as a replacement for either helicopters (rotor aircraft) or fixed-wing aircraft. Instead, they envisioned it as an aircraft with special enhanced capabilities to perform missions that call for the low-speed efficiency and maneuverability of helicopters combined with the high cruise speed of fixed-wing aircraft. Some such missions include air-to-air and air-to-ground tactical operations, airborne early warning, electronic intelligence, antisubmarine warfare, and search and rescue. The follow-on X-Wing project was managed by James W. Lane, chief of the RSRA/X-Wing Project Office, Ames Research Center. Coordinating the Ames-Dryden flight effort in 1987 was Jack Kolf. The X-Wing project was a joint effort of NASA-Ames, DARPA, the U.S. Army, and Sikorsky Aircraft, Stratford, Connecticut. The modified X-Wing aircraft was delivered to Ames-Dryden by Sikorsky Aircraft on September 25, 1986. Following taxi tests, initial flights in the aircraft mode without main rotors attached took place at Dryden in December 1997. Ames research pilot G. Warren Hall and Sikorsky's W

  18. Polyfluorinated compounds in ambient air from ship- and land-based measurements in northern Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dreyer, Annekatrin; Ebinghaus, Ralf

    Neutral volatile and semi-volatile polyfluorinated organic compounds (PFC) and ionic perfluorinated compounds were determined in air samples collected at two sites in the vicinity of Hamburg, Germany, and onboard the German research vessel Atair during a cruise in the German Bight, North Sea, in early November 2007. PUF/XAD-2/PUF cartridges and glass fiber filters as sampling media were applied to collect several fluorotelomer alcohols (FTOH), fluorotelomer acrylates (FTA), perfluoroalkyl sulfonamides (FASA), and perfluoroalkyl sulfonamido ethanols (FASE) in the gas- and particle-phase as well as a set of perfluorinated carboxylates (PFCA) and sulfonates (PFSA) in the particle-phase. This study presents the distribution of PFC in ambient air of the German North Sea and in the vicinity of Hamburg for the first time. Average total PFC concentrations in and around Hamburg (180 pg m -3) were higher than those observed in the German Bight (80 pg m -3). In the German Bight, minimum-maximum gas-phase concentrations of 17-82 pg m -3 for ΣFTOH, 2.6-10 pg m -3 for ΣFTA, 10-15 pg m -3 for ΣFASA, and 2-4.4 pg m -3 for ΣFASE were determined. In the vicinity of Hamburg, minimum-maximum gas-phase concentrations of 32-204 pg m -3 for ΣFTOH, 3-26 pg m -3 for ΣFTA, 3-18 pg m -3 for ΣFASA, and 2-15 pg m -3 for ΣFASE were detected. Concentrations of perfluorinated acids were in the range of 1-11 pg m -3. FTOH clearly dominated the substance spectrum; 8:2 FTOH occurred in maximum proportions. Air mass back trajectories, cluster, and correlation analyses revealed that the air mass origin and thus medium to long range atmospheric transport was the governing parameter for the amount of PFC in ambient air. Southwesterly located source regions seemed to be responsible for elevated PFC concentrations, local sources appeared to be of minor importance.

  19. Comparisons of Ship-based Observations of Air-Sea Energy Budgets with Gridded Flux Products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fairall, C. W.; Blomquist, B.

    2015-12-01

    Air-surface interactions are characterized directly by the fluxes of momentum, heat, moisture, trace gases, and particles near the interface. In the last 20 years advances in observation technologies have greatly expanded the database of high-quality direct (covariance) turbulent flux and irradiance observations from research vessels. In this paper, we will summarize observations from the NOAA sea-going flux system from participation in various field programs executed since 1999 and discuss comparisons with several gridded flux products. We will focus on comparisons of turbulent heat fluxes and solar and IR radiative fluxes. The comparisons are done for observing programs in the equatorial Pacific and Indian Oceans and SE subtropical Pacific.

  20. Inflatable Hangar for Assembly of Large Structures in Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilcox, Brian H.

    2012-01-01

    The NASA Human Space Flight program is interested in projects where humans, beyond low-Earth orbit (LEO), can make an important and unique contribution that cannot be reasonably accomplished purely by robotic means, and is commensurate with the effort and cost associated with human spaceflight. Robotic space telescope missions have been conceived and launched as completed assemblies (e.g., Hubble) or as jack-in-the-box one-time deployments (e.g., James Webb). If it were possible to assemble components of a very large telescope from one or two launches into a telescope that was vastly greater in light-gathering power and resolution, that would constitute a breakthrough. Large telescopes on Earth, like all one-off precision assembly tasks, are done by humans. Humans in shirtsleeves (or cleanroom bunny suits) can perform tasks of remarkable dexterity and precision. Unfortunately, astronauts in pressure suits cannot perform such dexterous and precise tasks because of the limitations of the pressurized gloves. If a large, inflatable hangar were placed in high orbit, along with all the components needed for a large assembly such as a large telescope, then humans in bunny suits could perform the same sorts of extremely precise and dexterous assembly that they could be expected to perform on Earth. Calculations show that such an inflatable hangar, and the necessary gas to make it safe to occupy by shirtsleeves humans wearing oxygen masks, fits within the mass and volume limitations of the proposed "Space Launch System" heavy-lift rocket. A second launch could bring up all the components of an approximately 100-meter-diameter or larger telescope. A large [200 ft (approximately 61 m) in diameter] inflated fabric sphere (or hangar) would contain four humans in bunny suits. The sphere would contain sufficient atmospheric pressure so that spacesuits would not be necessary [about 3.2 psi (approximately 22 kPa)]. The humans would require only oxygen masks and small backpacks

  1. M2-F1 in hangar with Pontiac tow vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1963-01-01

    The M2-F1 Lifting Body is seen here in a hangar with its hotrod Pontiac convertible tow vehicle at the Flight Research Center (later the Dryden Flight Research Center), Edwards, California. The car was a 1963 Pontiac Catalina convertible, fitted with a 421-cubic-inch tripower engine like those being run at the Daytona 500 auto race. The vehicle also had a four-speed transmission and a heavy-duty suspension and cooling system. A roll bar was also added and the passenger seat turned around so an observer could watch the M2-F1 while it was being towed. The rear seat was removed and a second, side-facing seat installed. The lifting-body team used the Pontiac for all the ground-tow flights over the next three years. The wingless, lifting body aircraft design was initially conceived as a means of landing an aircraft horizontally after atmospheric reentry. The absence of wings would make the extreme heat of re-entry less damaging to the vehicle. In 1962, Dryden management approved a program to build a lightweight, unpowered lifting body as a prototype to flight test the wingless concept. It would look like a 'flying bathtub,' and was designated the M2-F1, the 'M' referring to 'manned' and 'F' referring to 'flight' version. It featured a plywood shell placed over a tubular steel frame crafted at Dryden. Construction was completed in 1963. The first flight tests of the M2-F1 were over Rogers Dry Lake at the end of a tow rope attached to a hopped-up Pontiac convertible driven at speeds up to about 120 mph. This vehicle needed to be able to tow the M2-F1 on the Rogers Dry Lakebed adjacent to NASA's Flight Research Center (FRC) at a minimum speed of 100 miles per hour. To do that, it had to handle the 400-pound pull of the M2-F1. Walter 'Whitey' Whiteside, who was a retired Air Force maintenance officer working in the FRC's Flight Operations Division, was a dirt-bike rider and hot-rodder. Together with Boyden 'Bud' Bearce in the Procurement and Supply Branch of the FRC, Whitey

  2. Investigating the Impact of Marine Ship Emissions on Regional Air Quality using OMI Satellite NO2 Observations and the CMAQ Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ring, A.; Canty, T. P.; He, H.; Vinciguerra, T.; Lamsal, L. N.; Dickerson, R. R.; Salawitch, R. J.; Cohen, M.; Montgomery, L. N.; Dreessen, J.

    2015-12-01

    Commercial marine vessels (CMVs) emit significant amounts of NOx, an ozone precursor, which may contribute to negative health consequences for people living in areas near shipping lanes. In coastal US states, many metropolitan areas such as Baltimore and New York City are located near ports with CMVs. Many studies estimate that ships account for ~15-30% of the global anthropogenic NOx emissions. EPA developed emissions inventories are widely used by states to construct model scenarios for testing air quality attainment strategies. Currently, CMV emissions are generated by simply applying growth factors to aggregated emissions data from much earlier years. Satellite retrievals from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) have been successfully used to improve the veracity of marine emissions by incorporating observational data from the inventory year. In this study we use OMI NO2 observations and Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model outputs to improve the EPA marine emission estimates for the Mid-Atlantic region. Back trajectories from the NOAA Air Resources Laboratory HYSPLIT model are used to identify days with minimal continental influence on OMI tropospheric column NO2 over shipping lanes. We perform sensitivity analyses to quantify the impact of marine emissions on air quality and suggest strategies to better meet the EPA mandated ozone standard.

  3. Study of the impact of cruise and passenger ships on a Mediterranean port city air quality - Study of future emission mitigation scenarios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liora, Natalia; Poupkou, Anastasia; Kontos, Serafim; Giannaros, Christos; Melas, Dimitrios

    2015-04-01

    An increase of the passenger ships traffic is expected in the Mediterranean Sea as targeted by the EU Blue Growth initiative. This increase is expected to impact the Mediterranean port-cities air quality considering not only the conventional atmospheric pollutants but also the toxic ones that are emitted by the ships (e.g. Nickel). The aim of this study is the estimation of the present and future time pollutant emissions from cruise and passenger maritime transport in the port area of Thessaloniki (Greece) as well as the impact of those emissions on the city air quality. Cruise and passenger ship emissions have been estimated for the year 2013 over a 100m spatial resolution grid which covers the greater port area of Thessaloniki. Emissions have been estimated for the following macro-pollutants; NOx, SO2, NMVOC, CO, CO2 and particulate matter (PM). In addition, the most important micro-pollutants studied in this work are As, Cd, Pb, Ni and Benzo(a)pyrene for which air quality limits have been set by the EU. Emissions have been estimated for three operation modes; cruising, maneuvering and hotelling. For the calculation of the present time maritime emissions, the activity data used were provided by the Thessaloniki Port Authority S.A. Moreover, future pollutant emissions are estimated using the future activity data provided by the Port Authority and the IMO legislation for shipping in the future. In addition, two mitigation emission scenarios are examined; the use of Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) as a fuel used by ships and the implementation of cold ironing which is the electrification of ships during hotelling mode leading to the elimination of the corresponding emissions. The impact of the present and future passenger ship emissions on the air quality of Thessaloniki is examined with the use of the model CALPUFF applied over the 100m spatial resolution grid using the meteorology of WRF. Simulations of the modeling system are performed for four different emission

  4. Influence of ship emissions on air quality and input of contaminants in southern Alaska National Parks and Wilderness Areas during the 2006 tourist season

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mölders, Nicole; Porter, Stacy E.; Cahill, Catherine F.; Grell, Georg A.

    2010-04-01

    The impact of ship emissions on air quality in Alaska National Parks and Wilderness Areas was investigated using the Weather Research and Forecasting model inline coupled with chemistry (WRF/Chem). The visibility and deposition of atmospheric contaminants was analyzed for the length of the 2006 tourist season. WRF/Chem reproduced the meteorological situation well. It seems to have captured the temporal behavior of aerosol concentrations when compared with the few data available. Air quality follows certain predetermined patterns associated with local meteorological conditions and ship emissions. Ship emissions have maximum impacts in Prince William Sound where topography and decaying lows trap pollutants. Along sea-lanes and adjacent coastal areas, NO x, SO 2, O 3, PAN, HNO 3, and PM 2.5 increase up to 650 pptv, 325 pptv, 900 pptv, 18 pptv, 10 pptv, and 100 ng m -3. Some of these increases are significant (95% confidence). Enhanced particulate matter concentrations from ship emissions reduce visibility up to 30% in Prince William Sound and 5-25% along sea-lanes.

  5. Assessment of past, present and future health-cost externalities of air pollution in Europe and the contribution from international ship traffic using the EVA model system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brandt, J.; Silver, J. D.; Christensen, J. H.; Andersen, M. S.; Bønløkke, J. H.; Sigsgaard, T.; Geels, C.; Gross, A.; Hansen, A. B.; Hansen, K. M.; Hedegaard, G. B.; Kaas, E.; Frohn, L. M.

    2013-03-01

    An integrated model system, EVA (Economic Valuation of Air pollution), based on the impact-pathway chain has been developed, to assess the health-related economic externalities of air pollution resulting from specific emission sources or sectors. The model system can be used to support policy-making with respect to emission control. In this study, we apply the EVA system to Europe, and perform a more detailed assessment of past, present, and future health-cost externalities of the total air pollution levels in Europe (including both natural and anthropogenic sources), represented by the years 2000, 2007, 2011, and 2020. We also assess the contribution to the health-related external costs from international ship traffic with special attention to the international ship traffic in the Baltic and North Seas, since special regulatory actions on sulphur emissions, called SECA (sulphur emission control area), have been introduced in these areas,. We conclude that despite efficient regulatory actions in Europe in recent decades, air pollution still constitutes a serious problem to human health, hence the related external costs are considerable. The total health-related external costs for the whole of Europe is estimated at 803 bn Euro yr-1 for the year 2000, decreasing to 537 bn Euro yr-1 in the year 2020. We estimate the total number of premature deaths in Europe in the year 2000 due to air pollution to be around 680 000 yr-1, decreasing to approximately 450 000 in the year 2020. The contribution from international ship traffic in the Northern Hemisphere was estimated to 7% of the total health-related external costs in Europe in the year 2000, increasing to 12% in the year 2020. In contrast, the contribution from international ship traffic in the Baltic Sea and the North Sea decreases 36% due to the regulatory efforts of reducing sulphur emissions from ship traffic in SECA. Introducing this regulatory instrument for all international ship traffic in the Northern

  6. Assessment of past, present and future health-cost externalities of air pollution in Europe and the contribution from international ship traffic using the EVA model system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brandt, J.; Silver, J. D.; Christensen, J. H.; Andersen, M. S.; Bønløkke, J. H.; Sigsgaard, T.; Geels, C.; Gross, A.; Hansen, A. B.; Hansen, K. M.; Hedegaard, G. B.; Kaas, E.; Frohn, L. M.

    2013-08-01

    An integrated model system, EVA (Economic Valuation of Air pollution), based on the impact-pathway chain has been developed to assess the health-related economic externalities of air pollution resulting from specific emission sources or sectors. The model system can be used to support policy-making with respect to emission control. In this study, we apply the EVA system to Europe, and perform a more detailed assessment of past, present, and future health-cost externalities of the total air pollution levels in Europe (including both natural and anthropogenic sources), represented by the years 2000, 2007, 2011, and 2020. We also assess the contribution to the health-related external costs from international ship traffic with special attention to the international ship traffic in the Baltic and North seas, since special regulatory actions on sulfur emissions, called SECA (sulfur emission control area), have been introduced in these areas. We conclude that, despite efficient regulatory actions in Europe in recent decades, air pollution still constitutes a serious problem for human health. Hence the related external costs are considerable. The total health-related external costs for the whole of Europe are estimated at 803 bn euros yr-1 for the year 2000, decreasing to 537 bn euros yr-1 in the year 2020. We estimate the total number of premature deaths in Europe in the year 2000 due to air pollution to be around 680 000 yr-1, decreasing to approximately 450 000 in the year 2020. The contribution from international ship traffic in the Northern Hemisphere was estimated to 7% of the total health-related external costs in Europe in the year 2000, increasing to 12% in the year 2020. In contrast, the contribution from international ship traffic in the Baltic Sea and the North Sea decreases 36% due to the regulatory efforts of reducing sulfur emissions from ship traffic in SECA. Introducing this regulatory instrument for all international ship traffic in the Northern

  7. The impact of shipping emissions on air pollution in the greater North Sea region - Part 2: Scenarios for 2030

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matthias, V.; Aulinger, A.; Backes, A.; Bieser, J.; Geyer, B.; Quante, M.; Zeretzke, M.

    2016-01-01

    Scenarios for future shipping emissions in the North Sea have been developed in the framework of the Clean North Sea Shipping project. The effects of changing NOx and SO2 emissions were investigated with the CMAQ chemistry transport model for the year 2030 in the North Sea area. It has been found that, compared to today, the contribution of shipping to the NO2 and O3 concentrations will increase due to the expected enhanced traffic by more than 20 and 5 %, respectively, by 2030 if no regulation for further emission reductions is implemented in the North Sea area. PM2.5 will decrease slightly because the sulfur contents in ship fuels will be reduced as international regulations foresee. The effects differ largely between regions, seasons and date of the implementation of stricter regulations for NOx emissions from newly built ships.

  8. F-100A with nose through hangar wall following Scott Crossfield's emergency landing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1954-01-01

    A NACA High-Speed Flight Station hangar wall meets the nose of a North American F-100A Super Sabre airplane on 8 September 1954. On the first NACA research flight of airplane #52-5778, pilot Scott Crossfield had to make a powerless 'deadstick' landing following an engine fire warning. This was something North American's own test pilots doubted could be done, for the early F-100 lacked flaps and landed 'hot as hell.' Crossfield followed up the flawless approach and landing by coasting off the lakebed, up the ramp, and then through the front door of the NACA hangar, frantically trying to stop the F-100A, which had used up its emergency brake power. Crossfield missed the NACA X fleet, but crunched the nose of the aircraft through the hangar's side wall. It is reported that Chuck Yeager then proclaimed that while the sonic wall had been his, the hangar wall was Crossfield's! The hangar wall and the F-100A were repaired, and the airplane flew again.

  9. Site overview. Part 1 of 3part panorama with nos. CA27022 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Site overview. Part 1 of 3-part panorama with nos. CA-2702-2 and CA-2707-3. Southern LTA ship hangar (building 28; hangar no. 2 in distant center of photograph. Seen from roadway leading to northern LTA ship hangar (building 29; hangar no. 1) landing pad. Looking 208 SSW. - Marine Corps Air Station Tustin, East of Red Hill Avenue between Edinger Avenue & Barranca Parkway, Tustin, Orange County, CA

  10. Site overview. Part 3 of 3part panorama with nos. CA27071 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Site overview. Part 3 of 3-part panorama with nos. CA2707-1 and CA-2707-2. Hangar no. 1. Seen from roadway leading to hangar no. 1 landing pad. Looking 250 WSW. - Marine Corps Air Station Tustin, Northern Lighter Than Air Ship Hangar, Meffett Avenue & Maxfield Street, Tustin, Orange County, CA

  11. Site overview. Part 2 of 3part panorama with nos. CA27021 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Site overview. Part 2 of 3-part panorama with nos. CA-2702-1 and CA-2707-3. Hanger no. 2 at left rear. Hangar no. 1 at right rear. Hangar no. 1 landing pad road in center. Looking 232 SW. - Marine Corps Air Station Tustin, Northern Lighter Than Air Ship Hangar, Meffett Avenue & Maxfield Street, Tustin, Orange County, CA

  12. Ship Hydrodynamics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lafrance, Pierre

    1978-01-01

    Explores in a non-mathematical treatment some of the hydrodynamical phenomena and forces that affect the operation of ships, especially at high speeds. Discusses the major components of ship resistance such as the different types of drags and ways to reduce them and how to apply those principles for the hovercraft. (GA)

  13. Prediction of the radiation situation during conditioned radioactive waste storage in hangar-type storage facilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosnovskii, S. V.; Bulka, S. K.

    2014-02-01

    An original technology for the conditioning of solidified radioactive waste was developed by the Novovoronezh nuclear power plant (NPP) staff. The technology provides for waste placement inside NZK-150-1.5P containers with their further storage at light hangar-type storage facilities. A number of technical solutions were developed that allow for reducing the gamma-radiation dose rate from the package formed. A methodology for prediction of the radiation situation around hangars, depending on the radiation characteristics of irrecoverable shielding containers (ISCs) located in the peripheral row of a storage facility, was developed with the purpose of assuring safe storage. Based on empirical data, the field background gamma-radiation dose rate at an area as a function of the average dose rate at the hangar surface and the average dose rate close packages, placed in the peripheral row of the storage facility, was calculated. The application of the developed methodology made it possible to reduce by ten times the expenditures for the conditioning and holding of solidified radioactive waste (SRW) while unconditionally providing storage safety.

  14. 224. BUILDING 60. (AIR REWORK FACILITY) 194041; ALTERED 194849 GIBBS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    224. BUILDING 60. (AIR REWORK FACILITY) 1940-41; ALTERED 1948-49 GIBBS AND HALL, ARCHITECTS, WORKING FROM PLANS BY ROBERT AND CO. FOR NAS JACKSONVILLE; SOUTH END OF THE HANGAR WING. VIEW FROM SOUTHEAST. - Quonset Point Naval Air Station, Roger Williams Way, North Kingstown, Washington County, RI

  15. Assessment of Past, Present and Future Health-Cost Ex-ternalities of Air Pollution in Europe and the contribution from International Ship Traffic using the EVA Model System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brandt, Jørgen; Silver, Jeremy D.; Christensen, Jesper H.; Andersen, Mikael S.; Bønløkke, Jakob H.; Sigsgaard, Torben; Geels, Camilla; Gross, Allan; Hansen, Ayoe B.; Hansen, Kaj M.; Hedegaard, Gitte B.; Kaas, Eigil; Frohn, Lise M.

    2013-04-01

    An integrated model system, EVA (Economic Valuation of Air pollution), based on the impact-pathway chain has been developed, to assess the health-related economic externalities of air pollution resulting from specific emission sources or sectors. The model system can be used to support policy-making with respect to emission control. In this study, we apply the EVA system to Europe, and perform a more detailed assessment of past, present, and future health-cost externalities of the total air pollution levels in Europe (including both natural and anthropogenic sources), represented by the years 2000, 2007, 2011, and 2020. We also assess the contribution to the health-related external costs from international ship traffic with special attention to the international ship traffic in the Baltic and North Seas, since special regulatory actions on sulphur emissions, called SECA (sulphur emission control area), have been intro-duced in these areas,. We conclude that despite efficient regulatory actions in Europe in recent decades, air pollution still constitutes a serious problem to human health, hence the related external costs are considerable. The total health-related external costs for the whole of Europe is estimated at 803 bn Euro/year for the year 2000, decreasing to 537 bn Euro/year in the year 2020. We estimate the total number of premature deaths in Europe in the year 2000 due to air pollution to be around 680,000/year, decreasing to approximately 450,000 in the year 2020. The contribution from international ship traffic in the Northern Hemisphere was estimated to 7% of the total health-related external costs in Europe in the year 2000, increasing to 12% in the year 2020. In contrast, the contribution from international ship traffic in the Baltic Sea and the North Sea decreases 36% due to the regulatory efforts of reducing sulphur emissions from ship traffic in SECA. Introducing this regulatory instrument for all international ship traffic in the Northern

  16. Dynamics of air-sea CO2 fluxes in the northwestern European shelf based on voluntary observing ship and satellite observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marrec, P.; Cariou, T.; Macé, E.; Morin, P.; Salt, L. A.; Vernet, M.; Taylor, B.; Paxman, K.; Bozec, Y.

    2015-09-01

    From January 2011 to December 2013, we constructed a comprehensive pCO2 data set based on voluntary observing ship (VOS) measurements in the western English Channel (WEC). We subsequently estimated surface pCO2 and air-sea CO2 fluxes in northwestern European continental shelf waters using multiple linear regressions (MLRs) from remotely sensed sea surface temperature (SST), chlorophyll a concentration (Chl a), wind speed (WND), photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) and modeled mixed layer depth (MLD). We developed specific MLRs for the seasonally stratified northern WEC (nWEC) and the permanently well-mixed southern WEC (sWEC) and calculated surface pCO2 with uncertainties of 17 and 16 μatm, respectively. We extrapolated the relationships obtained for the WEC based on the 2011-2013 data set (1) temporally over a decade and (2) spatially in the adjacent Celtic and Irish seas (CS and IS), two regions which exhibit hydrographical and biogeochemical characteristics similar to those of WEC waters. We validated these extrapolations with pCO2 data from the SOCAT and LDEO databases and obtained good agreement between modeled and observed data. On an annual scale, seasonally stratified systems acted as a sink of CO2 from the atmosphere of -0.6 ± 0.3, -0.9 ± 0.3 and -0.5 ± 0.3 mol C m-2 yr-1 in the northern Celtic Sea, southern Celtic sea and nWEC, respectively, whereas permanently well-mixed systems acted as source of CO2 to the atmosphere of 0.2 ± 0.2 and 0.3 ± 0.2 mol C m-2 yr-1 in the sWEC and IS, respectively. Air-sea CO2 fluxes showed important inter-annual variability resulting in significant differences in the intensity and/or direction of annual fluxes. We scaled the mean annual fluxes over these provinces for the last decade and obtained the first annual average uptake of -1.11 ± 0.32 Tg C yr-1 for this part of the northwestern European continental shelf. Our study showed that combining VOS data with satellite observations can be a powerful tool to

  17. Dynamics of air-sea CO2 fluxes in the North-West European Shelf based on Voluntary Observing Ship (VOS) and satellite observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marrec, P.; Cariou, T.; Macé, E.; Morin, P.; Salt, L. A.; Vernet, M.; Taylor, B.; Paxman, K.; Bozec, Y.

    2015-04-01

    From January 2011 to December 2013, we constructed a comprehensive pCO2 dataset based on voluntary observing ship (VOS) measurements in the Western English Channel (WEC). We subsequently estimated surface pCO2 and air-sea CO2 fluxes in north-west European continental shelf waters using multiple linear regressions (MLRs) from remotely sensed sea surface temperature (SST), chlorophyll a concentration (Chl a), the gas transfer velocity coefficient (K), photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) and modeled mixed layer depth (MLD). We developed specific MLRs for the seasonally stratified northern WEC (nWEC) and the permanently well-mixed southern WEC (sWEC) and calculated surface pCO2 with relative uncertainties of 17 and 16 μatm, respectively. We extrapolated the relationships obtained for the WEC based on the 2011-2013 dataset (1) temporally over a decade and (2) spatially in the adjacent Celtic and Irish Seas (CS and IS), two regions which exhibit hydrographical and biogeochemical characteristics similar to those of WEC waters. We validated these extrapolations with pCO2 data from the SOCAT database and obtained relatively robust results with an average precision of 4 ± 22 μatm in the seasonally stratified nWEC and the southern and northern CS (sCS and nCS), but less promising results in the permanently well-mixed sWEC, IS and Cap Lizard (CL) waters. On an annual scale, seasonally stratified systems acted as a sink of CO2 from the atmosphere of -0.4, -0.9 and -0.4 mol C m-2 year-1 in the nCS, sCS and nWEC, respectively, whereas, permanently well-mixed systems acted as source of CO2 to the atmosphere of 0.2, 0.4 and 0.4 mol C m-2 year-1 in the sWEC, CL and IS, respectively. Air-sea CO2 fluxes showed important inter-annual variability resulting in significant differences in the intensity and/or direction of annual fluxes. We scaled the mean annual fluxes over six provinces for the last decade and obtained the first annual average uptake of -0.95 Tg C year-1 for this

  18. Ship Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Guided missile cruiser equipped with advanced Aegis fleet defense system which automatically tracks hundreds of attacking aircraft or missiles, then fires and guides the ship's own weapons in response. Designed by Ingalls Shipbuilding for the US Navy, the U.S.S. Ticonderoga is the first of four CG-47 cruisers to be constructed. NASTRAN program was used previously in another Navy/Ingalls project involving design and construction of four DDG-993 Kidd Class guided missile destroyers.

  19. Comparison of Fire Model Predictions with Experiments Conducted in a Hangar With a 15 Meter Ceiling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, W. D.; Notarianni, K. A.; McGrattan, K. B.

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the predictive capabilities of fire models using the results of a series of fire experiments conducted in an aircraft hangar with a ceiling height of about 15 m. This study is designed to investigate model applicability at a ceiling height where only a limited amount of experimental data is available. This analysis deals primarily with temperature comparisons as a function of distance from the fire center and depth beneath the ceiling. Only limited velocity measurements in the ceiling jet were available but these are also compared with those models with a velocity predictive capability.

  20. Air

    MedlinePlus

    ... do to protect yourself from dirty air . Indoor air pollution and outdoor air pollution Air can be polluted indoors and it can ... this chart to see what things cause indoor air pollution and what things cause outdoor air pollution! Indoor ...

  1. Synfuel production ship

    SciTech Connect

    Corbett, M.J.

    1986-02-04

    This patent describes a ship for producing gasoline while sailing. The ship consists of: 1.) a top deck; 2.) absorption venturi towers arranged in a multiple row and column orientation and mounted along an extended area of the deck and inclined toward the bow to capture air in an ellipsoid tapered air stream tube as the ship moves forward; 3.) means for delivering NaOH solution to the towers; means for forming droplets of NaOH solution and directing the droplets to pass through air, in the towers, thus causing CO/sub 2/ in the air to be absorbed by the solution for which results in a carbonate solution of sodium bicarbonate/hypo carbonate; 4.) means for communicating with the droplet forming means for receiving the carbonate solution and combining Cl/sub 2/ for stripping CO/sub 2/ as a first by-product from the carbonate solution and NaCl/NaOCI as a second by-product; 5.) means connected to the stripping for transferring the CO/sub 2/ to a methanol converter; 6.) electrolysis means for disassociating H/sub 2/ and O/sub 2/ from water provided to it; 7.) means connected to the electrolysis mechanism for transferring the H/sub 2/ to the methanol converter; 8.) a hydrocarbon synthesizer connected to an outlet of the methanol converter for converting methanol to gasoline; 9.) a boiler connected to the stripping for separating O/sub 2/ from the NaCl/NaOCI solution resulting in a NaCl solution; 10.) a chlor-alkali cell convertor connected to the boiler for converting the NaCl solution to (a) Cl/sub 2/ which is recycled, and (b) NaOH solution which is re-introduced to the NaOH droplet forming means; 11.) a nuclear reactor for generating steam; 12.) output for delivering the electrical power.

  2. Shipping Monitor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Through a SBIR contract between Kennedy Space Center and Silicon Designs, came the tri-axial data acquisition system, known commercially as the G-Logger. It is a portable, self-contained device that stores and analyzes shock, vibration, and temperature data during payload transport. It is sealed for protection from the weather and can be left unattended for up to three weeks as it collects data. It can easily be linked with any desktop or laptop computer in order to download the collected data. It serves uses in the automotive, shipping, aerospace, and machining industries.

  3. 75 FR 8176 - Shipping Coordinating Committee; Notice of Committee Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-23

    ... ballast water --Recycling of ships --Prevention of air pollution from ships --Consideration and adoption... the meeting coordinator, LCDR Brian Moore, by e-mail at brian.e.moore@uscg.mil , by phone at (202)...

  4. Emissions of NOx, SO2, CO, and HCHO from commercial marine shipping during Texas Air Quality Study (TexAQS) 2006

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, E. J.; Lerner, B. M.; Murphy, P. C.; Herndon, S. C.; Zahniser, M. S.

    2009-11-01

    We report measurements of NOx, SO2, CO, and HCHO mass-based emission factors from more than 200 commercial vessel encounters in the Gulf of Mexico and the Houston-Galveston region of Texas during August and September, 2006. For underway ships, bulk freight carriers have the highest average NOx emissions at ˜87 g NOx (kg fuel)-1, followed by tanker ships at ˜79 g NOx (kg fuel)-1, while container carriers, passenger ships, and tugs all emit an average of about ˜60 g NOx (kg fuel)-1. Emission of NOx from stationary vessels was lower, except for container ships and tugs, and likely reflects use of medium-speed diesel engines. Overall, our mean NOx emission factors are 10-15% lower than published data. Average emission of SO2 was lower for passenger ships and tugs and tows (6-7 g SO2 (kg fuel)-1) than for larger cargo vessels (20-30 g SO2 (kg fuel)-1). Our data for large cargo ships in this region indicate an average residual fuel sulfur content of ˜1.4% which is a factor of two lower than the global average of 2.7%. Emission of CO was low for all categories (7-16 g CO (kg fuel)-1), although our mean overall CO emission factor is about 10% higher than published data. Emission of HCHO was less than 5% that of CO. Despite considerable variability, no functional relationships, such as emissions changes with engine speed or load, could be discerned. Comparison of emission factors from ships to those from other sources suggests ship emissions in this region cannot be ignored.

  5. Delta XTE Spacecraft Solar Panel Deployment, Hangar AO at Cape Canaveral Air Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    The footage shows technicians in the clean room checking and adjusting the deployment mechanism of the solar panel for XTE spacecraft. Other scenes show several technicians making adjustments to software for deployment of the solar panels.

  6. D-558-2 being mounted to P2B-1S launch aircraft in hangar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1954-01-01

    This 1954 photograph shows a Douglas D-558-2 under the P2B-1S (Navy designation for a B-29) launch aircraft. The P2B-1S has been lifted on mechanical jacks in the hangar for a possible 'fit check' or the attachment of the Skyrocket for a flight. The P2B-1S had the nickname 'Fertile Myrtle.' On the side of its fuselage is a series of images indicating 41 launches by the mothership of D-558-2 #2 (NACA 144) and 44 by D-558-2 #3 (NACA 145). The Douglas D-558-2 'Skyrockets' were among the early transonic research airplanes like the X-1, X-4, X-5, and XF-92A. Three of the single-seat, swept-wing aircraft flew from 1948 to 1956 in a joint program involving the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA), with its flight research done at the NACA's Muroc Flight Test Unit in Calif., redesignated in 1949 the High-Speed Flight Research Station (HSFRS); the Navy-Marine Corps; and the Douglas Aircraft Co. The HSFRS became the High-Speed Flight Station in 1954 and is now known as the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center. The Skyrocket made aviation history when it became the first airplane to fly twice the speed of sound. The 2 in the aircraft's designation referred to the fact that the Skyrocket was the phase-two version of what had originally been conceived as a three-phase program, with the phase-one aircraft having straight wings. The third phase, which never came to fruition, would have involved constructing a mock-up of a combat-type aircraft embodying the results from the testing of the phase one and two aircraft. Douglas pilot John F. Martin made the first flight at Muroc Army Airfield (later renamed Edwards Air Force Base) in Calif. on February 4, 1948. The goals of the program were to investigate the characteristics of swept-wing aircraft at transonic and supersonic speeds with particular attention to pitch-up (uncommanded rotation of the nose of the airplane upwards)--a problem prevalent in high-speed service aircraft of that era, particularly at low speeds

  7. A Seismic Isolation Application Using Rubber Bearings; Hangar Project in Turkey

    SciTech Connect

    Sesigur, Haluk; Cili, Feridun

    2008-07-08

    Seismic isolation is an effective design strategy to mitigate the seismic hazard wherein the structure and its contents are protected from the damaging effects of an earthquake. This paper presents the Hangar Project in Sabiha Goekcen Airport which is located in Istanbul, Turkey. Seismic isolation system where the isolation layer arranged at the top of the columns is selected. The seismic hazard analysis, superstructure design, isolator design and testing were based on the Uniform Building Code (1997) and met all requirements of the Turkish Earthquake Code (2007). The substructure which has the steel vertical trusses on facades and RC H shaped columns in the middle axis of the building was designed with an R factor limited to 2.0 in accordance with Turkish Earthquake Code. In order to verify the effectiveness of the isolation system, nonlinear static and dynamic analyses are performed. The analysis revealed that isolated building has lower base shear (approximately 1/4) against the non-isolated structure.

  8. Aerial views of construction on the RLV hangar at the Shuttle Landing Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    An aerial view shows the early construction of a multi-purpose hangar, which is part of the $8 million Reusable Launch Vehicle (RLV) Support Complex at Kennedy Space Center. In the background, toward the west, is Banana Creek, flowing into the Indian River Lagoon, and below it the Shuttle Landing Facility's landing strip. The RLV complex will also include facilities for related ground support equipment and administrative/ technical support. It will be available to accommodate the Space Shuttle; the X-34 RLV technology demonstrator; the L-1011 carrier aircraft for Pegasus and X-34; and other RLV and X-vehicle programs. The complex is jointly funded by the Spaceport Florida Authority, NASA's Space Shuttle Program and KSC. The facility will be operational in early 2000.

  9. Aerial views of construction on the RLV hangar at the Shuttle Landing Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Looking southwest, this view shows ongoing construction of a multi-purpose hangar, which is part of the $8 million Reusable Launch Vehicle (RLV) Support Complex at Kennedy Space Center. Edging the construction is Sharkey Road, which parallels the landing strip of the Shuttle Landing Facility nearby. The RLV complex will include facilities for related ground support equipment and administrative/ technical support. It will be available to accommodate the Space Shuttle; the X-34 RLV technology demonstrator; the L-1011 carrier aircraft for Pegasus and X-34; and other RLV and X-vehicle programs. The complex is jointly funded by the Spaceport Florida Authority, NASA's Space Shuttle Program and KSC. The facility will be operational in early 2000.

  10. Ships and shipping: a comprehensive guide

    SciTech Connect

    Nersesian, R.L.

    1981-01-01

    A guide to petroleum industry ships and shipping is presented. The world fleet is discussed, along with forecasting tanker demand and shipping economics. In addition, tankers, liquefied gas carriers, general cargo and container vessels, bulk carriers, and combination carriers are discussed. (JMT)

  11. 78 FR 14400 - Shipping Coordinating Committee; Notice of Committee Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-05

    ... the following: --Harmful aquatic organisms in ballast water; --Recycling of ships; --Air pollution and... activities for the protection of the marine environment; ] --Role of the human element; --Noise...

  12. Ship exhaust gas plume cooling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schleijpen, H. M. A.; Neele, Filip P.

    2004-08-01

    The exhaust gas plume is an important and sometimes dominating contributor to the infrared signature of ships. Suppression of the infrared ship signatures has been studied by TNO for the Royal Netherlands Navy over considerable time. This study deals with the suppression effects, which can be achieved using a spray of cold water in the inner parts of the exhaust system. The effects are compared with the effect of cooling with air. A typical frigate size diesel engine serves as an example for gas flow, composition and temperature of the plume. The infrared emission of the cooled an un-cooled exhaust gases is calculated. Both the spectral behaviour and the integrated values over typical bands are discussed. Apart from the signature also some advantages of water exhaust gas cooling for the ship design are discussed.

  13. Ship Creek bioassessment investigations

    SciTech Connect

    Cushing, C.E.; Mueller, R.P.; Murphy, M.T.

    1995-06-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) was asked by Elmendorf Air Force Base (EAFB) personnel to conduct a series of collections of macroinvertebrates and sediments from Ship Creek to (1) establish baseline data on these populations for reference in evaluating possible impacts from Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) activities at two operable units, (2) compare current population indices with those found by previous investigations in Ship Creek, and (3) determine baseline levels of concentrations of any contaminants in the sediments associated with the macroinvertebrates. A specific suite of indices established by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) was requested for the macroinvertebrate analyses; these follow the Rapid Bioassessment Protocol developed by Plafkin et al. (1989) and will be described. Sediment sample analyses included a Microtox bioassay and chemical analysis for contaminants of concern. These analyses included, volatile organic compounds, total gasoline and diesel hydrocarbons (EPA method 8015, CA modified), total organic carbon, and an inductive-coupled plasma/mass spectrometry (ICP/MS) metals scan. Appendix A reports on the sediment analyses. The Work Plan is attached as Appendix B.

  14. HL-20 at the LaRC Hangar in the Early Morning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    The NASA Langley Research Center lifting body, called the HL-20, is shown here in front of the Langley hangar in Hampton, Virginia. Langley developed the technology for a small space vehicle which one day may be used to transport up to 10 astronauts and small cargo to and from low-Earth orbit. The HL-20 is one of two concepts being considered by NASA as a type of Personnel Launch System (PLS). The PLS is a small space taxi system envisioned as a future addition to the manned launch capability of the United States. The system would assure rapid manned access to space and minimized maintenance cost. The PLS would be launched with and expendable booster and would be capable of conventional runway landings. With its wings folded, the HL-20 PLS could fit within the Shuttle's payload bay. The full-scale engineering model is 29.5 feet long and 23.5 feet across the wingspan. The HL-20 model will be used at NASA Langley and at the NASA Johnson Space Center, Houston, Texas, to study crew seating arrangements, habitability, equipment layout, crew ingress and egress, pilot visibility, and maintenance and handling operations.

  15. D-558-2 being mounted to P2B-1S launch aircraft in hangar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1954-01-01

    This 1954 photograph shows a Douglas D-558-2 under the P2B-1S (Navy designation for a B-29) launch aircraft. The P2B-1S has been lifted on mechanical jacks in the hangar for a possible 'fit check' or the attachment of the Skyrocket for a flight. The P2B-1S had the nickname 'Fertile Myrtle.' On the side of its fuselage is a series of images indicating 41 launches by the mothership of D-558-2 #2 (NACA 144) and 44 by D-558-2 #3 (NACA 145). The Douglas D-558-2 'Skyrockets' were among the early transonic research airplanes like the X-1, X-4, X-5, and XF-92A. Three of the single-seat, swept-wing aircraft flew from 1948 to 1956 in a joint program involving the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA), with its flight research done at the NACA's Muroc Flight Test Unit in Calif., redesignated in 1949 the High-Speed Flight Research Station (HSFRS); the Navy-Marine Corps; and the Douglas Aircraft Co. The HSFRS became the High-Speed Flight Station in 1954 and is now known as the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center. The Skyrocket made aviation history when it became the first airplane to fly twice the speed of sound. The 2 in the aircraft's designation referred to the fact that the Skyrocket was the phase-two version of what had originally been conceived as a three-phase program, with the phase-one aircraft having straight wings. The third phase, which never came to fruition, would have involved constructing a mock-up of a combat-type aircraft embodying the results from the testing of the phase one and two aircraft. Douglas pilot John F. Martin made the first flight at Muroc Army Airfield (later renamed Edwards Air Force Base) in Calif. on February 4, 1948. The goals of the program were to investigate the characteristics of swept-wing aircraft at transonic and supersonic speeds with particular attention to pitch-up (uncommanded rotation of the nose of the airplane upwards)--a problem prevalent in high-speed service aircraft of that era, particularly at low speeds

  16. Ship-Track Clouds, Aerosol, and Ship Dynamic Effects; A Climate Perspective from Ship-Based Measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Porch, W.M.

    1998-10-13

    Ship-track clouds are marine boundary layer clouds that form behind ocean ships and are observed from satellites in the visible and near infrared. Ship-track clouds provide a rare opportunity to connect aerosol cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) emissions and observable changes in marine stratiform clouds. A very small change in the reflectivity of these eastern Pacific and Atlantic clouds (about 4%) provides a climate feedback of similar magnitude to doubling CO{sub 2} (increasing cloud reflectivity corresponds to global cooling). The Department of Energy sponsored research from 1991 to 1995 to study ship-track clouds including two ocean-based experiments in the summers of 1991 and 1994. These experiments showed that ship-track cloud properties were often more complex those related to a reduction of droplet size with an increase in number associated with increasing CCN from the ship's plume. The clouds showed evidence of morphological changes more likely to be associated with cloud dynamic effects either initiated by the increased CCN or directly by the ship's heat output or turbulent air wake. The fact that marine stratiform clouds, that are susceptible to ship track formation, are starved for both CCN and convective turbulence complicates the separation of the two effects.

  17. Infections on Cruise Ships.

    PubMed

    Kak, Vivek

    2015-08-01

    The modern cruise ship is a small city on the seas, with populations as large as 5,000 seen on large ships. The growth of the cruise ship industry has continued in the twenty-first century, and it was estimated that nearly 21.3 million passengers traveled on cruise ships in 2013, with the majority of these sailing from North America. The presence of large numbers of individuals in close proximity to each other facilitates transmission of infectious diseases, often through person-to-person spread or via contaminated food or water. An infectious agent introduced into the environment of a cruise ship has the potential to be distributed widely across the ship and to cause significant morbidity. The median cruise ship passenger is over 45 years old and often has chronic medical problems, so it is important that, to have a safe cruise ship experience, any potential for the introduction of an infecting agent as well as its transmission be minimized. The majority of cruise ship infections involve respiratory and gastrointestinal infections. This article discusses infectious outbreaks on cruise ships and suggests preventative measures for passengers who plan to travel on cruise ships. PMID:26350312

  18. Infections on Cruise Ships.

    PubMed

    Kak, Vivek

    2015-08-01

    The modern cruise ship is a small city on the seas, with populations as large as 5,000 seen on large ships. The growth of the cruise ship industry has continued in the twenty-first century, and it was estimated that nearly 21.3 million passengers traveled on cruise ships in 2013, with the majority of these sailing from North America. The presence of large numbers of individuals in close proximity to each other facilitates transmission of infectious diseases, often through person-to-person spread or via contaminated food or water. An infectious agent introduced into the environment of a cruise ship has the potential to be distributed widely across the ship and to cause significant morbidity. The median cruise ship passenger is over 45 years old and often has chronic medical problems, so it is important that, to have a safe cruise ship experience, any potential for the introduction of an infecting agent as well as its transmission be minimized. The majority of cruise ship infections involve respiratory and gastrointestinal infections. This article discusses infectious outbreaks on cruise ships and suggests preventative measures for passengers who plan to travel on cruise ships.

  19. Monitoring compliance with sulfur content regulations of shipping fuel by in situ measurements of ship emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kattner, L.; Mathieu-Üffing, B.; Burrows, J. P.; Richter, A.; Schmolke, S.; Seyler, A.; Wittrock, F.

    2015-09-01

    In 1997 the International Maritime Organisation (IMO) adopted MARPOL Annex VI to prevent air pollution by shipping emissions. It regulates, among other issues, the sulfur content in shipping fuels, which is transformed into the air pollutant sulfur dioxide (SO2) during combustion. Within designated Sulfur Emission Control Areas (SECA), the sulfur content was limited to 1 %, and on 1 January 2015, this limit was further reduced to 0.1 %. Here we present the set-up and measurement results of a permanent ship emission monitoring site near Hamburg harbour in the North Sea SECA. Trace gas measurements are conducted with in situ instruments and a data set from September 2014 to January 2015 is presented. By combining measurements of carbon dioxide (CO2) and SO2 with ship position data, it is possible to deduce the sulfur fuel content of individual ships passing the measurement station, thus facilitating the monitoring of compliance of ships with the IMO regulations. While compliance is almost 100 % for the 2014 data, it decreases only very little in 2015 to 95.4 % despite the much stricter limit. We analysed more than 1400 ship plumes in total and for months with favourable conditions, up to 40 % of all ships entering and leaving Hamburg harbour could be checked for their sulfur fuel content.

  20. MAX-DOAS measurements of shipping emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seyler, André; Wittrock, Folkard; Kattner, Lisa; Mathieu-Üffing, Barbara; Peters, Enno; Richter, Andreas; Schmolke, Stefan; Theobald, Norbert; Burrows, John P.

    2015-04-01

    Air pollution from ships contributes to overall air quality problems and it has direct health effects on the population in particular in coastal regions, and in harbor cities. In order to reduce the emissions the International Maritime Organisation (IMO) have tightened the regulations for air pollution. E.g. Sulfur Emission Control Areas (SECA) have been introduced where the sulfur content of marine fuel is limited. Recently, on the 1st of January 2015, the allowed sulfur content of marine fuels inside Sulfur Emission Control Areas has been significantly decreased from 1.0% to 0.1%. However, up to now there is no regular monitoring system available to verify that ships are complying with the new regulations. Furthermore measurements of reactive trace gases in marine environments are in general sparse. The project MeSMarT (Measurements of shipping emissions in the marine troposphere, www.mesmart.de) has been established as a cooperation between the University of Bremen and the German Bundesamt für Seeschifffahrt und Hydrographie (Federal Maritime and Hydrographic Agency) with support of the Helmholtz Research Centre Geesthacht to estimate the influence of ship emissions on the chemistry of the atmospheric boundary layer and to establish a monitoring system for main shipping routes. Here we present MAX-DOAS observations of NO2 and SO2 carried out from two permanent sites close to the Elbe river (Wedel, Germany) and on the island Neuwerk close to the mouths of Elbe and Weser river since the year 2013. Mixing ratios of both trace gases have been retrieved using different approaches (pure geometric and taking into account the radiative transfer) and compared to in situ observations (see Kattner et al., Monitoring shipping fuel sulfur content regulations with in-situ measurements of shipping emissions). Furthermore, simple approaches have been used to calculate emission factors of NOx and SO2 for single ships.

  1. Ocean drilling ship chosen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richman, Barbara T.

    The Sedco/BP 471, owned jointly by Sedco, Inc., of Dallas, Tex., and British Petroleum, has been selected as the drill ship for the Ocean Drilling Program (ODP). The contract, with a specified initial term of 4 years with 10 1-year options after that, is expected to be signed by mid March by Texas A&M University, the ODP science operator, and Sedco, Inc. Texas A&M will develop the design for scientific and laboratory spaces aboard the Sedco/BP 471 and will oversee the ship conversion. Testing and shakedown of the ship is scheduled for the coming autumn; the first scientific cruise is scheduled for next January.One year ago, the commercial drilling market sagged, opening up the option for leasing a commercial drill ship (Eos, February 22, 1983, p. 73). Previously, the ship of choice had been the Glomar Explorer; rehabilitating the former CIA salvage ship would have been extremely expensive, however.

  2. Assessment of the ability of amphibious assault ship (LHA class) to perform sustained air operations in a chemical environment. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Henry, B.C.; Laughlin, L.L.

    1988-03-10

    This report describes how an attack with chemical warfare agents would affect air operations on an LHA operating in support of an amphibious assault. This report overlays a chemical attack on normal flight deck operational sequences and describes in detail how having to operate in a chemically contaminated environment affects the sortie rate of troop airlift (CH-46 and CH-53 helicopters) and close air support (AH-1T) a their specific tasks while wearing the chemical protective overgarment, protective overboots and gloves. b. All the chemical defense equipment required by existing Navy directives is available and has been issued for use; c. Additional personnel required to conduct flight operations in a chemical environment are available and cross trained to perform tasks assigned in this study; d. There are no accidents, incidents, aircraft losses or battle damage which affect the tempo of flight deck operations; e. After four hours, the chemical contamination has been reduced sufficiently by weathering that flight deck personnel were able to reduce their protective posture to Mask Only. The report describes a series of recommendations to improve overall flight deck operations in a chemical environment.

  3. 46 CFR 154.345 - Air locks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Air locks. 154.345 Section 154.345 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES SAFETY STANDARDS FOR SELF-PROPELLED VESSELS CARRYING BULK LIQUEFIED GASES Design, Construction and Equipment Ship Arrangements § 154.345 Air locks. (a) An air lock may...

  4. Estimation Of The Average Velocity Of Ship(s) Using Multi Sensor Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srinivasa Rao, N.; Ali, M. M.; Rao, M. V.; Ramana, I. V.

    IRS_P4 (OCM) and NOAA-AVHRR are ocean sensors. These sensors have variety of applications besides being used for retrieval of ocean parameters like chlorophyll, suspended matter, dissolved organic matter Sea surface temperature (SST) and Identification of Potential Fishing Zones (PFZ). Apart from this an attempt has been made to track the ship(s) and estimated its velocity. It is important to keep the track of the ship movement and velocity for surveillance of oil tankers and large vessels, ply in the shipping routes for possible assessment of oil spill and defense applications. The ships while moving uses fossil fuel and release their exhaust in the form of Sulfur dioxide (SO2) gas. This Sulfur dioxide when comes in contact with water vapour, leads to the formation of Sulfate Aerosol's. These aerosol's act as the nuclei or 'seeds', these nuclei are called as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN), around which cloud droplets take shape and together these droplets form clouds. Narrow lines of perturbed regions in marine stratiform clouds, caused by moving ships, appear brighter in satellite imagery. They can also appear as narrow lines of clouds in an otherwise cloud-free sky. Ship tracks are the long lived cloud lines that are formed from ship exhaust. The track of large ships is sometimes visualized as a trail, known as ship track. These are typically very long even 500km sometimes, i.e. long enough to be seen in Satellite imagery. These tracks formed in marine boundary layers that were between 300 to 750m height, high relative humidity, small Air-Sea temperature difference (0.5°C), moderate winds (average of 7 m/s) (Durkee et.al 2000).These tracks directly scattering solar radiation back to space and increasing cloud reflectivity through increased droplet concentrations, these clouds reflect much more solar energy than the ocean surface. In Infra red (IR) region the reflectance of the cloud is more compared with visual Bands, and thus we get ship track information

  5. Optical influence of ship wakes.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaodong; Lewis, Marlon; Bissett, W Paul; Johnson, Bruce; Kohler, Dave

    2004-05-20

    The optical variations observed within ship wakes are largely due to the generation of copious amounts of air bubbles in the upper ocean, a fraction of which accumulate as foam at the surface, where they release scavenged surfactants. Field experiments were conducted to test previous theoretical predictions of the variations in optical properties that result from bubble injection in the surface ocean. Variations in remote-sensing reflectance and size distribution of bubbles within the ship-wake zone were determined in three different optical water types: the clear equatorial Pacific Ocean, moderately turbid coastal waters, and very turbid coastal waters, the latter two of which were offshore of New Jersey. Bubbles introduced by moving vessels increased the backscattering in all cases, which in turn enhanced the reflectance over the entire visible and infrared wave bands. The elevated reflectance had different spectral characteristics in the three locations. The color of ship wakes appears greener in the open ocean, whereas little change in color was observed in near-coastal turbid waters, consistent with predictions. Colorless themselves, bubbles increase the reflected radiance and change the color of the ocean in a way that depends on the spectral backscattering and absorption of the undisturbed background waters. For remote observation from aircraft or satellite, the foam and added surfactants further enhance the reflectance to a degree dependent on the illumination and the viewing geometry.

  6. Ships to the Sea.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of the Navy, Washington, DC.

    This lesson contains materials for the U.S. Navy Museum's "Ships to the Sea" program. The program is appropriate for students in grades 2-4 and was designed in accordance with local and national social studies standards. The materials introduce students to the world of ship technology and naval terminology. The lesson is presented in five…

  7. Modeling, Analysis, and Preservation Techniques for Historic Reinforced Concrete Structures in Seismic Prone Regions Case Study: Augusta Airship Hangar, Sicily

    SciTech Connect

    Cronin, Kelly; Whyte, Catherine; Reiner, Tom

    2008-07-08

    Throughout the world there are hundreds of historic monuments and structures considered to be invaluable and irreplaceable. They are symbols of cultural identity and a means of educating people about history. Preservation of historic monuments and structures is therefore an important part of safeguarding these cultural heritage sites so that they retain their value for future generations.This report discusses a procedure for the investigation of seismic hazards in existing buildings and possible steps that can be taken to avoid damage caused by these hazards. The Augusta Airship Hangar located in Sicily, will be used as a case study however the topics addressed in this paper can be applied to other structures of historic value around the world.First state-of-the-art scanning procedures were used to create scale digital models that were imported into a structural analysis program. Within this program dynamic analyses were performed on the model based on actual ground motions taken close to the site. This data was used to determine the period and mode shapes of the structure. Then a nonlinear analysis, including a static pushover analysis, was implemented on a two-dimensional model of the structural frame. From this analysis the failure mechanisms of the structure were revealed with relation to an allowable roof displacement. The structural integrity of the structure was evaluated based on pre-defined performance goals. Finally multiple suggestions were made how the Augusta Airship Hangar might be repaired and strengthened so that this structure will not be destroyed should an earthquake occur.The results of our study show that historic structures, despite their age, can still be strong and ductile. Also there are a multitude of effective preservation and retrofit techniques that can be used to strengthen these historic structures, should an earthquake occur. Through this study, the Augusta Airship Hangar has proven to be not only a historic symbol for Sicily but

  8. 77 FR 54648 - Shipping Coordinating Committee; Notice of Committee Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-05

    ... include: --Harmful aquatic organisms in ballast water; --Recycling of ships; --Air pollution and energy... phone at (202) 372-1431; or in writing to Ms. Regina Bergner, Commandant (CG-OES-3), U.S. Coast...

  9. 77 FR 52105 - Shipping Coordinating Committee; Notice of Committee Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-28

    ... include: --Harmful aquatic organisms in ballast water; --Recycling of ships; --Air pollution and energy... phone at (202) 372-1431; or in writing to Ms. Regina Bergner, Commandant (CG-OES-3), U.S. Coast...

  10. Bionetics Company technician preparing to remove rats from shipping container

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    A Bionetics Company technician in Hanger L at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, is preparing to remove 5 rats from their shipping container. They will fly aboard the shuttle Challenger in the Spacelab module.

  11. 5. VIEW OF SHIPPING AND RECEIVING ROOM (109) FROM SOUTHEAST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. VIEW OF SHIPPING AND RECEIVING ROOM (109) FROM SOUTHEAST CORNER SHOWING EXTERIOR DOORS IN NORTH WALLS - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Vehicle Support Building, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  12. 4. VIEW OF SHIPPING AND RECEIVING ROOM (109) FROM NORTHEAST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. VIEW OF SHIPPING AND RECEIVING ROOM (109) FROM NORTHEAST CORNER SHOWING INTERIOR DOORS TO ASSEMBLY ROOM (101) IN SOUTH WALL - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Vehicle Support Building, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  13. Do Waveless Ships Exist?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trinh, Philippe; Chapman, Jon; vanden-Broeck, Jean-Marc

    2009-11-01

    Consider two-dimensional ideal and low-speed flow past a ship modeled as a semi-infinite body with constant draft. In the 1970s, on the basis of numerical evidence, it was conjectured that ships with a single front face will always generate a wake. Later in the 1980s, seemingly waveless ships with bulbous profiles were discovered. And finally, conflicting evidence in the 1990s suggested that the waves were in fact present, but simply too small to be recognized. In this talk, we will show how recent techniques in exponential asymptotics can be used in order to study the ship-wave problem. In particular, we will show how the formation of waves near a ship are a necessary consequence of singularities in ship's geometry, such as those corresponding to sharp corners or stagnation points. Finally, we will show how the theory can be applied in order to prove that certain ship profiles will or will not produce a wake in the low-speed limit.

  14. The Helios Prototype flying wing stretches almost the full length of the 300-foot-long hangar at NAS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The Helios Prototype flying wing stretches almost the full length of the 300-foot-long hangar at NASA's Dryden flight Research Center, Edwards, California. The 247-foot span solar-powered aircraft, resting on its ground maneuvering dolly, was on display for a visit of NASA Administrator Sean O'Keefe and other NASA officials on January 31, 2002. The unique solar-electric flying wing reached an altitude of 96,863 feet during an almost 17-hour flight near Hawaii on August 13, 2001, a world record for sustained horizontal flight by a non-rocket powered aircraft. Developed by AeroVironment, Inc., under NASA's Environmental Research Aircraft and Sensor Technology (ERAST) project, the Helios Prototype is the forerunner of a planned fleet of slow-flying, long duration, high-altitude uninhabited aerial vehicles (UAV) which can serve as 'atmospheric satellites,' performing Earth science missions or functioning as telecommunications relay platforms in the stratosphere.

  15. DC-8 being pushed out of the Arena Arctica hangar in Kiruna, Sweden for the second flight of the SAG

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This photo shows NASA's DC-8 being pushed out of the Arena Arctica hangar in Kiruna, Sweden for the second flight of the SAGE III Ozone Loss and Validation Experiment (SOLVE). One of Dryden's high-flying ER-2 Airborne Science aircraft, a civilian variant of Lockheed's U-2, and another NASA flying laboratory, Dryden's DC-8, were based north of the Arctic Circle in Kiruna, Sweden during the winter of 2000 to study ozone depletion as part of SOLVE. A large hangar built especially for research, 'Arena Arctica' housed the instrumented aircraft and the scientists. Scientists observed unusually low levels of ozone over the Arctic during recent winters, raising concerns that ozone depletion there could become more widespread as in the Antarctic ozone hole. The NASA-sponsored international mission took place between November 1999 and March 2000 and was divided into three phases. The DC-8 was involved in all three phases returning to Dryden between each phase. The ER-2 flew science collection flights between January and March, remaining in Sweden from Jan. 9 through March 16. 'The collaborative campaign will provide an immense new body of information about the Arctic stratosphere,' said program scientist Dr. Michael Kurylo, NASA Headquarters. 'Our understanding of the Earth's ozone will be greatly enhanced by this research.' NASA is using a DC-8 aircraft as a flying science laboratory. The platform aircraft, based at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, Calif., collects data for many experiments in support of scientific projects serving the world scientific community. Included in this community are NASA, federal, state, academic and foreign investigators. Data gathered by the DC-8 at flight altitude and by remote sensing have been used for scientific studies in archeology, ecology, geography, hydrology, meteorology, oceanography, volcanology, atmospheric chemistry, soil science and biology.

  16. Columbus ships at KSC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    On the 500th arniversary of Christopher Columbus' discovery of the New World, replicas of his three ships sailed past the launch pad at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) while the space shuttle Columbia sat poised for lift off.

  17. Robot mother ship design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Budulas, Peter P.; Young, Stuart H.; Emmerman, Philip J.

    2000-07-01

    Small physical agents will be ubiquitous on the battlefield of the 21st century, principally to lower the exposure to harm of our ground forces. Teams of small collaborating physical agents conducting tasks such as Reconnaissance, Surveillance, and Target Acquisition (RSTA); chemical and biological agent detection, logistics, sentry; and communications relay will have advanced sensor and mobility characteristics. The mother ship much effectively deliver/retrieve, service, and control these robots as well as fuse the information gathered by these highly mobile robot teams. The mother ship concept presented in this paper includes the case where the mother ship is itself a robot or a manned system. The mother ship must have long-range mobility to deploy the small, highly maneuverable agents that will operate in urban environments and more localized areas, and act as a logistics base for the robot teams. The mother ship must also establish a robust communications network between the agents and is an up-link point for disseminating the intelligence gathered by the smaller agents; and, because of its global knowledge, provides the high-level information fusion, control and planning for the collaborative physical agents. Additionally, the mother ship incorporates battlefield visualization, information fusion, and multi-resolution analysis, and intelligent software agent technology, to support mission planning and execution. This paper discusses on going research at the U.S. Army Research Laboratory that supports the development of a robot mother ship. This research includes docking, battlefield visualization, intelligent software agents, adaptive communications, information fusion, and multi- modal human computer interaction.

  18. 46 CFR 154.1415 - Air compressor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Air compressor. 154.1415 Section 154.1415 Shipping COAST... Equipment § 154.1415 Air compressor. Each vessel must have an air compressor to recharge the bottles for the air-breathing apparatus....

  19. 46 CFR 154.1415 - Air compressor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Air compressor. 154.1415 Section 154.1415 Shipping COAST... Equipment § 154.1415 Air compressor. Each vessel must have an air compressor to recharge the bottles for the air-breathing apparatus....

  20. 46 CFR 45.133 - Air pipes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Air pipes. 45.133 Section 45.133 Shipping COAST GUARD....133 Air pipes. (a) Where an air pipe to any tank extends above the freeboard or superstructure deck— (1) The exposed part of the air pipe must be made of steel and of sufficient thickness to...

  1. 46 CFR 154.1415 - Air compressor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Air compressor. 154.1415 Section 154.1415 Shipping COAST... Equipment § 154.1415 Air compressor. Each vessel must have an air compressor to recharge the bottles for the air-breathing apparatus....

  2. 46 CFR 45.133 - Air pipes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Air pipes. 45.133 Section 45.133 Shipping COAST GUARD....133 Air pipes. (a) Where an air pipe to any tank extends above the freeboard or superstructure deck— (1) The exposed part of the air pipe must be made of steel and of sufficient thickness to...

  3. 46 CFR 45.133 - Air pipes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Air pipes. 45.133 Section 45.133 Shipping COAST GUARD....133 Air pipes. (a) Where an air pipe to any tank extends above the freeboard or superstructure deck— (1) The exposed part of the air pipe must be made of steel and of sufficient thickness to...

  4. 46 CFR 45.133 - Air pipes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Air pipes. 45.133 Section 45.133 Shipping COAST GUARD....133 Air pipes. (a) Where an air pipe to any tank extends above the freeboard or superstructure deck— (1) The exposed part of the air pipe must be made of steel and of sufficient thickness to...

  5. 46 CFR 154.1415 - Air compressor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Air compressor. 154.1415 Section 154.1415 Shipping COAST... Equipment § 154.1415 Air compressor. Each vessel must have an air compressor to recharge the bottles for the air-breathing apparatus....

  6. 46 CFR 154.1415 - Air compressor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Air compressor. 154.1415 Section 154.1415 Shipping COAST... Equipment § 154.1415 Air compressor. Each vessel must have an air compressor to recharge the bottles for the air-breathing apparatus....

  7. 46 CFR 45.133 - Air pipes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Air pipes. 45.133 Section 45.133 Shipping COAST GUARD....133 Air pipes. (a) Where an air pipe to any tank extends above the freeboard or superstructure deck— (1) The exposed part of the air pipe must be made of steel and of sufficient thickness to...

  8. Simulators for Safer Shipping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    Each year one ship out of every five afloat collides with another vessel, rams a dock, or runs a ground. CAORF (Computer Aided Operations Research Facility), designed and built by Sperry Rand Corporation, incorporates technology developed in a wide variety of aerospace simulation and technical training programs. CAORF can be set up to duplicate the exact handling qualities of any vessel under various conditions of wind, tide and current. Currently a dozen different ships can be "plugged in." Bridge instrumentation is typical of modern shipboard equipment including radar, internal and external c.ommunications and new collision avoidance systems. From repetitive operation of simulated ships, MarAd is building a valuable data base for improving marine safety.

  9. Automated ship image acquisition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hammond, T. R.

    2008-04-01

    The experimental Automated Ship Image Acquisition System (ASIA) collects high-resolution ship photographs at a shore-based laboratory, with minimal human intervention. The system uses Automatic Identification System (AIS) data to direct a high-resolution SLR digital camera to ship targets and to identify the ships in the resulting photographs. The photo database is then searchable using the rich data fields from AIS, which include the name, type, call sign and various vessel identification numbers. The high-resolution images from ASIA are intended to provide information that can corroborate AIS reports (e.g., extract identification from the name on the hull) or provide information that has been omitted from the AIS reports (e.g., missing or incorrect hull dimensions, cargo, etc). Once assembled into a searchable image database, the images can be used for a wide variety of marine safety and security applications. This paper documents the author's experience with the practicality of composing photographs based on AIS reports alone, describing a number of ways in which this can go wrong, from errors in the AIS reports, to fixed and mobile obstructions and multiple ships in the shot. The frequency with which various errors occurred in automatically-composed photographs collected in Halifax harbour in winter time were determined by manual examination of the images. 45% of the images examined were considered of a quality sufficient to read identification markings, numbers and text off the entire ship. One of the main technical challenges for ASIA lies in automatically differentiating good and bad photographs, so that few bad ones would be shown to human users. Initial attempts at automatic photo rating showed 75% agreement with manual assessments.

  10. 76 FR 28226 - Ndahendekire Barbara v. African Shipping; Njoroge Muhia; Alco Logistics, Llc; Brenda Alexander...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-16

    ... Ndahendekire Barbara v. African Shipping; Njoroge Muhia; Alco Logistics, Llc; Brenda Alexander; and AIR 7 Seas... ``Complainant,'' against African Shipping; Njoroge Muhia, ALCO Logistics, LLC; Brenda Alexander; and Air 7 Seas Transport Logistics, Inc.; hereinafter ``Respondents''. Complainant asserts that she is acting agent...

  11. Ship propulsion system

    SciTech Connect

    Kimon, P.M.

    1986-01-21

    This patent describes an improved efficiency propulsion system for a ship operated at both deep and shallow water depths, and at variable loaded and ballast waterlines. This propulsion system consists of a number of elements interactive in their operation. The first component of the system detailed is a variable diameter propeller means equipped with a mechanism for varying the diameter of the propeller between a maximum extended diameter and a minimum diameter. The next component of the system depicted in the patent is a propeller shaft mounting which enables the propeller to rotate in the stern portion of the ship. The propeller shaft is characterized as extending parallel to the bottom keel of the ship and having an axis of rotation displaced from the bottom keel a distance less than one-half the maximum diameter of the propeller means but more than one-half of the minimum diameter of the propeller means. As a consequence of the systems design characteristics the ship may obtain maximum propeller efficiency by means of the extension in diameter of the propeller means when it is operated in a fully loaded condition in deep water.

  12. Wallops Ship Surveillance System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Donna C.

    2011-01-01

    Approved as a Wallops control center backup system, the Wallops Ship Surveillance Software is a day-of-launch risk analysis tool for spaceport activities. The system calculates impact probabilities and displays ship locations relative to boundary lines. It enables rapid analysis of possible flight paths to preclude the need to cancel launches and allow execution of launches in a timely manner. Its design is based on low-cost, large-customer- base elements including personal computers, the Windows operating system, C/C++ object-oriented software, and network interfaces. In conformance with the NASA software safety standard, the system is designed to ensure that it does not falsely report a safe-for-launch condition. To improve the current ship surveillance method, the system is designed to prevent delay of launch under a safe-for-launch condition. A single workstation is designated the controller of the official ship information and the official risk analysis. Copies of this information are shared with other networked workstations. The program design is divided into five subsystems areas: 1. Communication Link -- threads that control the networking of workstations; 2. Contact List -- a thread that controls a list of protected item (ocean vessel) information; 3. Hazard List -- threads that control a list of hazardous item (debris) information and associated risk calculation information; 4. Display -- threads that control operator inputs and screen display outputs; and 5. Archive -- a thread that controls archive file read and write access. Currently, most of the hazard list thread and parts of other threads are being reused as part of a new ship surveillance system, under the SureTrak project.

  13. FIRE_ACE_SHIP_SSFR

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2015-10-28

    ... Platform:  SHEBA Ship Instrument:  Solar Spectral Flux Radiometer Spatial Coverage:  Fairbanks, ... IDL SSFR Additional Info:  Surface Heat Budget of the Arctic Ocean (SHEBA) Ship SCAR-B Block:  ...

  14. The US Cruise Ship Industry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Willis H.

    1985-01-01

    The cruise ship industry relates directly to many features of the natural and cultural environments. The U.S. cruise ship industry is analyzed. Discusses the size of the industry, precruise passenger liners, current cruise ships, cruise regions and routes, ports of call, major ports, passengers, and future prospects. (RM)

  15. Mathematical Modeling: Convoying Merchant Ships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mathews, Susann M.

    2004-01-01

    This article describes a mathematical model that connects mathematics with social studies. Students use mathematics to model independent versus convoyed ship deployments and sinkings to determine if the British should have convoyed their merchant ships during World War I. During the war, the British admiralty opposed sending merchant ships grouped…

  16. Ship and Shoot

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woods, Ron

    2012-01-01

    Ron Woods shared incredibly valuable insights gained during his 28 years at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) packaging Flight Crew Equipment for shuttle and ISS missions. In particular, Woods shared anecdotes and photos from various processing events. The moral of these stories and the main focus of this discussion were the additional processing efforts and effects related to a "ship-and-shoot" philosophy toward flight hardware.

  17. 46 CFR 154.345 - Air locks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... mechanically ventilated to make the pressure in the space greater than that in the air lock; and (2) Has a... when the pressure in the space falls to or below the pressure in the air lock. ... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Air locks. 154.345 Section 154.345 Shipping COAST...

  18. Wave energy propelling marine ship

    SciTech Connect

    Kitabayashi, S.

    1982-06-29

    A wave energy propelling marine ship comprises a cylindrical ship body having a hollow space therein for transporting fluid material therewithin, a ship body disposed in or on the sea; a propeller attached to the ship body for the purpose of propelling the marine ship for sailing; a rudder for controlling the moving direction of the marine ship; at least one rotary device which includes a plurality of compartments which are each partitioned into a plurality of water chambers by a plurality of radial plates, and a plurality of water charge and/or discharge ports, wherein wave energy is converted into mechanical energy; and device for adjusting buoyancy of the marine ship so that the rotary device is positioned advantageously on the sea surface.

  19. Analysis of a ship-to-ship collision

    SciTech Connect

    Porter, V.L.; Ammerman, D.J.

    1996-02-01

    Sandia National Laboratories is involved in a safety assessment for the shipment of radioactive material by sea. One part of this study is investigation of the consequences of ship-to-ship collisions. This paper describes two sets of finite element analyses performed to assess the structural response of a small freighter and the loading imparted to radioactive material (RAM) packages during several postulated collision scenarios with another ship. The first series of analyses was performed to evaluate the amount of penetration of the freighter hull by a striking ship of various masses and initial velocities. Although these analyses included a representation of a single RAM package, the package was not impacted during the collision so forces on the package could not be computed. Therefore, a second series of analyses incorporating a representation of a row of seven packages was performed to ensure direct package impact by the striking ship. Average forces on a package were evaluated for several initial velocities and masses of the striking ship. In addition to. providing insight to ship and package response during a few postulated ship collisions scenarios, these analyses will be used to benchmark simpler ship collision models used in probabilistic risk assessment analyses.

  20. Airborne measurements of NO2 shipping emissions using imaging DOAS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meier, Andreas C.; Schönhardt, Anja; Richter, Andreas; Seyler, André; Ruhtz, Thomas; Lindemann, Carsten; Wittrock, Folkard; Burrows, John P.

    2014-05-01

    NOx (NO and NO2) play a key role in tropospheric chemistry and affect human health and the environment. Shipping emissions contribute substantially to the global emissions of anthropogenic NOx. Due to globalization and increased trade volume, the relative importance emissions from ships gain even more importance. The Airborne imaging DOAS instrument for Measurements of Atmospheric Pollution (AirMAP), developed at IUP Bremen, has been used to perform measurements of NO2 in the visible spectral range. The observations allow the determination of spatial distributions of column densities of NO2 below the aircraft. Airborne measurements were performed over Northern Germany and adjacent coastal waters during the NOSE (NO2 from Shipping Emissions) campaign in August 2013. The focus of the campaign activities was on shipping emissions, but NO2 over cities and power plants has been measured as well. The measurements have a spatial resolution below the order of 100 × 30 m2, and they reveal the large spatial variability of NO2 and the evolution of NO2 plumes behind point sources. Shipping lanes as well as plumes of individual ships are detected by the AirMAP instrument. In this study, first results from the NOSE campaign are presented for selected measurement areas.

  1. Operational options for green ships

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sherbaz, Salma; Duan, Wenyang

    2012-09-01

    Environmental issues and rising fuel prices necessitate better energy-efficiency in all sectors. The shipping industry is one of the major stakeholders, responsible for 3% of global CO2 emissions, 14%-15% of global NO X emissions, and 16% of global SO X emissions. In addition, continuously rising fuel prices are also an incentive to focus on new ways for better energy-effectiveness. The green ship concept requires exploring and implementing technology on ships to increase energy-efficiency and reduce emissions. Ship operation is an important topic with large potential to increase cost-and-energy-effectiveness. This paper provided a comprehensive review of basic concepts, principles, and potential of operational options for green ships. The key challenges pertaining to ship crew i.e. academic qualifications prior to induction, in-service training and motivation were discussed. The author also deliberated on remedies to these challenges.

  2. 46 CFR 42.15-50 - Air pipes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Air pipes. 42.15-50 Section 42.15-50 Shipping COAST... Conditions of Assignment of Freeboard § 42.15-50 Air pipes. (a) Where air pipes to ballast and other tanks.... Satisfactory means permanently attached, shall be provided for closing the openings of the air pipes....

  3. 46 CFR 42.15-50 - Air pipes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Air pipes. 42.15-50 Section 42.15-50 Shipping COAST... Conditions of Assignment of Freeboard § 42.15-50 Air pipes. (a) Where air pipes to ballast and other tanks.... Satisfactory means permanently attached, shall be provided for closing the openings of the air pipes....

  4. 46 CFR 42.15-50 - Air pipes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Air pipes. 42.15-50 Section 42.15-50 Shipping COAST... Conditions of Assignment of Freeboard § 42.15-50 Air pipes. (a) Where air pipes to ballast and other tanks.... Satisfactory means permanently attached, shall be provided for closing the openings of the air pipes....

  5. 46 CFR 42.15-50 - Air pipes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Air pipes. 42.15-50 Section 42.15-50 Shipping COAST... Conditions of Assignment of Freeboard § 42.15-50 Air pipes. (a) Where air pipes to ballast and other tanks.... Satisfactory means permanently attached, shall be provided for closing the openings of the air pipes....

  6. 46 CFR 42.15-50 - Air pipes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Air pipes. 42.15-50 Section 42.15-50 Shipping COAST... Conditions of Assignment of Freeboard § 42.15-50 Air pipes. (a) Where air pipes to ballast and other tanks.... Satisfactory means permanently attached, shall be provided for closing the openings of the air pipes....

  7. Experiments on bubble generation by a hydrofoil moving beneath the water surface for reducing ship drag

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumagai, Ichiro; Murai, Yuichi; Takahashi, Yoshiaki; Sakamaki, Haruki; Tsukahara, Takahiro; Ozaki, Tsubasa; Tasaka, Yuji; Oishi, Yoshihiko

    2014-04-01

    We have invented two types of hydrofoil bubble generator for drag reduction of ship that can reduce the energy for air bubble generation on the ship hull. Their fundamental process of air entrainment and subsequent bubble generation by the hydrofoil facility are described by a simple fluid dynamic model. We experimentally determined the critical velocity of the bubble generation and the relationship between air volume flow rate and the hydrofoil velocity. The magnitude of the negative pressure produced above the hydrofoil, which is a driving force of the air entrainment, depends on the shape of the hydrofoil, gap ratio (normalized depth of the hydrofoil), Reynolds number, Froude number, and angle of attack. Recent applications of the drag-reduction technology with air bubbles to a ship save about 10%-15% of the total energy consumption of the ship. The device works as a self-priming pump when the draft of the ship is shallow (< ˜5 m) as predicted by the theory. For ships of deeper draft, the device needs the assistance of an air compressor. Because the magnitude of the negative pressure above the hydrofoil depends on the flow condition around the hydrofoil, proper operation of compressors is necessary. We also show experimental results on optimization of hydrofoils to enhance the hydrofoil performance of air entrainment and air bubble generation.

  8. Merchant Marine Ship Reactor

    DOEpatents

    Sankovich, M. F.; Mumm, J. F.; North, Jr, D. C.; Rock, H. R.; Gestson, D. K.

    1961-05-01

    A nuclear reactor for use in a merchant marine ship is described. The reactor is of pressurized, light water cooled and moderated design in which three passes of the water through the core in successive regions of low, intermediate, and high heat generation and downflow in a fuel region are made. The design makes a compact reactor construction with extended core life. The core has an egg-crate lattice containing the fuel elements that are confined between a lower flow baffle and upper grid plate, with the latter serving also as part of a turn- around manifold from which the entire coolant is distributed into the outer fuel elements for the second pass through the core. The inner fuel elements are cooled in the third pass. (AEC)

  9. MERCHANT MARINE SHIP REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Mumm, J.F.; North, D.C. Jr.; Rock, H.R.; Geston, D.K.

    1961-05-01

    A nuclear reactor is described for use in a merchant marine ship. The reactor is of pressurized light water cooled and moderated design in which three passes of the water through the core in successive regions of low, intermediate, and high heat generation and downflow in a fuel region are made. The foregoing design makes a compact reactor construction with extended core life. The core has an egg-crate lattice containing the fuel elements confined between a lower flow baffle and upper grid plate, with the latter serving also as part of a turn- around manifold from which the entire coolant is distributed into the outer fuel elements for the second pass through the core. The inner fuel elements are cooled in the third pass.

  10. Modeling the chemical effects of ship exhaust in the cloud-free marine boundary layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    von Glasow, R.; Lawrence, M. G.; Sander, R.; Crutzen, P. J.

    2003-02-01

    The chemical evolution of the exhaust plumes of ocean-going ships in the cloud-free marine boundary layer is examined with a box model. Dilution of the ship plume via entrainment of background air was treated as in studies of aircraft emissions and was found to be a very important process that significantly alters model results. We estimated the chemical lifetime (defined as the time when differences between plume and background air are reduced to 5% or less) of the exhaust plume of a single ship to be 2 days. Increased concentrations of NOx (= NO + NO2) in the plume air lead to higher catalytical photochemical production rates of O3 and also of OH. Due to increased OH concentrations in the plume, the lifetime of many species (especially NOx) is significantly reduced in plume air. The chemistry on background aerosols has a significant effect on gas phase chemistry in the ship plume, while partly soluble ship-produced aerosols are computed to only have a very small effect. Soot particles emitted by ships showed no effect on gas phase chemistry. Halogen species that are released from sea salt aerosols are slightly increased in plume air. In the early plume stages, however, the mixing ratio of BrO is decreased because it reacts rapidly with NO. To study the global effects of ship emissions we used a simple upscaling approach which suggested that the parameterization of ship emissions in global chemistry models as a constant source at the sea surface leads to an overestimation of the effects of ship emissions on O3 of about 50% and on OH of roughly a factor of 2. The differences are mainly caused by a strongly reduced lifetime (compared to background air) of NOxin the early stages of a ship plume.

  11. Modeling the chemical effects of ship exhaust in the cloud-free marine boundary layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    von Glasow, R.; Lawrence, M. G.; Sander, R.; Crutzen, P. J.

    2002-06-01

    The chemical evolution of the exhaust plumes of ocean-going ships in the cloud-free marine boundary layer is examined with a box model. Dilution of the ship plume via entrainment of background air was treated as in studies of aircraft emissions and was found to be a very important process that significantly alters model results. We estimated the chemical lifetime (defined as the time when differences between plume and background air are reduced to 5% or less) of the exhaust plume of a single ship to be 2 days. Increased concentrations of NOx in the plume air lead to higher catalytical photochemical production rates of O3 and also of OH. Due to increased OH concentrations in the plume, the lifetime of many species (especially NOx) is reduced in plume air. The chemistry on background aerosols has a significant effect on gas phase chemistry in the ship plume, while partly soluble ship-produced aerosols are computed to only have a very small effect. Soot particles emitted by ships showed no effect on gas phase chemistry. Halogen species that are released from sea salt aerosols are slightly increased in plume air. In the early plume stages, however, the mixing ratio of BrO is decreased because it reacts rapidly with NO. To study the global effects of ship emissions we used a simple upscaling approach which suggested that the parameterization of ship emissions in global chemistry models as a constant source at the sea surface leads to an overestimation of the effects of ship emissions of roughly a factor of 2. The differences are caused by a strongly reduced lifetime (compared to background air) of NOx in the early stages of a ship plume.

  12. 46 CFR Sec. 19 - Ship Repair Summaries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Ship Repair Summaries. Sec. 19 Section 19 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION A-NATIONAL SHIPPING AUTHORITY PROCEDURE FOR ACCOMPLISHMENT OF VESSEL REPAIRS UNDER NATIONAL SHIPPING AUTHORITY MASTER LUMP SUM REPAIR...

  13. 46 CFR Sec. 19 - Ship Repair Summaries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Ship Repair Summaries. Sec. 19 Section 19 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION A-NATIONAL SHIPPING AUTHORITY PROCEDURE FOR ACCOMPLISHMENT OF VESSEL REPAIRS UNDER NATIONAL SHIPPING AUTHORITY MASTER LUMP SUM REPAIR...

  14. 46 CFR Sec. 19 - Ship Repair Summaries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Ship Repair Summaries. Sec. 19 Section 19 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION A-NATIONAL SHIPPING AUTHORITY PROCEDURE FOR ACCOMPLISHMENT OF VESSEL REPAIRS UNDER NATIONAL SHIPPING AUTHORITY MASTER LUMP SUM REPAIR...

  15. 46 CFR Sec. 19 - Ship Repair Summaries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Ship Repair Summaries. Sec. 19 Section 19 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION A-NATIONAL SHIPPING AUTHORITY PROCEDURE FOR ACCOMPLISHMENT OF VESSEL REPAIRS UNDER NATIONAL SHIPPING AUTHORITY MASTER LUMP SUM REPAIR...

  16. 46 CFR Sec. 19 - Ship Repair Summaries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Ship Repair Summaries. Sec. 19 Section 19 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION A-NATIONAL SHIPPING AUTHORITY PROCEDURE FOR ACCOMPLISHMENT OF VESSEL REPAIRS UNDER NATIONAL SHIPPING AUTHORITY MASTER LUMP SUM REPAIR...

  17. Ship emissions and their externalities for the port of Piraeus - Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tzannatos, Ernestos

    2010-01-01

    Air pollution from shipping is currently dominating the international and European agenda on environmental protection. Although port emissions are not significantly contributing to the overall picture of ship-generated emissions, it is important to note that the impact of ship exhaust pollutants has a direct effect on the human population and built environment of many urbanized ports. The passenger (main) port of Piraeus qualifies for a ship emission and externality study by virtue of its dominant presence in the Mediterranean expressed in terms of the most frequent port calls by coastal passenger ships and cruise ships operating in the region, as well as in terms of being a most crowded port city through hosting a sizeable resident and visiting (employers and otherwise) population over a relatively small area. An in-port ship activity-based methodology was applied for manoeuvring and berthing of coastal passenger ships and cruise ships calling at the passenger port of Piraeus, in order to estimate the emission of the main ship exhaust pollutants (NO X, SO 2 and PM 2.5) over a twelve-month period in 2008-2009. The estimated emissions were analyzed in terms of gas species, seasonality, activity and shipping sector. The application of external cost factors led to the estimation of the emission externalities, in an attempt to evaluate the economic impact of the damage emissions produce mainly upon the human population and the built environment. The results indicate that ship emissions in the passenger port of Piraeus reach 2600 tons annually and their estimated externalities over this period are around 51 million euro. Summer emissions and associated impacts are more profound and coastal passenger shipping, as opposed to cruise shipping, is the dominant contributor of emissions and associated externalities. Overall, in a port city such as Piraeus, the need to introduce stringent control on the emissions produced by passenger ships, beyond that dictated by the current

  18. Occurrence of lower cloud albedo in ship tracks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Y.-C.; Christensen, M. W.; Xue, L.; Sorooshian, A.; Stephens, G. L.; Rasmussen, R. M.; Seinfeld, J. H.

    2012-05-01

    The concept of geoengineering by marine cloud brightening is based on seeding marine stratocumulus clouds with sub-micrometer sea-salt particles to enhance the cloud droplet number concentration and cloud albedo, thereby producing a climate cooling effect. The efficacy of this as a strategy for global cooling rests on the extent to which aerosol-perturbed marine clouds will respond with increased albedo. Ship tracks, cloud regions impacted by ship exhaust, are a well-known manifestation of the effect of aerosol injection on marine clouds. We present here an analysis of the albedo responses in ship tracks, based on in situ aircraft measurements and three years of satellite observations of 589 individual ship tracks. It is found that the sign (increase or decrease) and magnitude of the albedo response in ship tracks depends on the mesoscale cloud structure, the free tropospheric humidity, and cloud top height. In a closed cell structure (cloud cells ringed by a perimeter of clear air), nearly 30% of ship tracks exhibited a decreased albedo. Detailed cloud responses must be accounted for in global studies of the potential efficacy of sea-spray geoengineering as a means to counteract global warming.

  19. Occurrence of lower cloud albedo in ship tracks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Y.-C.; Christensen, M. W.; Xue, L.; Sorooshian, A.; Stephens, G. L.; Rasmussen, R. M.; Seinfeld, J. H.

    2012-09-01

    The concept of geoengineering by marine cloud brightening is based on seeding marine stratocumulus clouds with sub-micrometer sea-salt particles to enhance the cloud droplet number concentration and cloud albedo, thereby producing a climate cooling effect. The efficacy of this as a strategy for global cooling rests on the extent to which aerosol-perturbed marine clouds will respond with increased albedo. Ship tracks, quasi-linear cloud features prevalent in oceanic regions impacted by ship exhaust, are a well-known manifestation of the effect of aerosol injection on marine clouds. We present here an analysis of the albedo responses in ship tracks, based on in situ aircraft measurements and three years of satellite observations of 589 individual ship tracks. It is found that the sign (increase or decrease) and magnitude of the albedo response in ship tracks depends on the mesoscale cloud structure, the free tropospheric humidity, and cloud top height. In a closed cell structure (cloud cells ringed by a perimeter of clear air), nearly 30% of ship tracks exhibited a decreased albedo. Detailed cloud responses must be accounted for in global studies of the potential efficacy of sea-spray geoengineering as a means to counteract global warming.

  20. KSC-03PD-0414

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA.-More debris from the Space Shuttle Columbia is delivered to the RLV Hangar by tractor-trailer. The debris is being shipped to KSC from the collection point at Barksdale Air Force Base, Shreveport, La. As part of the ongoing investigation into the tragic accident that claimed Columbia and her crew of seven, workers will attempt to reconstruct the orbiter inside the hangar.

  1. Occupational accidents aboard merchant ships

    PubMed Central

    Hansen, H; Nielsen, D; Frydenberg, M

    2002-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate the frequency, circumstances, and causes of occupational accidents aboard merchant ships in international trade, and to identify risk factors for the occurrence of occupational accidents as well as dangerous working situations where possible preventive measures may be initiated. Methods: The study is a historical follow up on occupational accidents among crew aboard Danish merchant ships in the period 1993–7. Data were extracted from the Danish Maritime Authority and insurance data. Exact data on time at risk were available. Results: A total of 1993 accidents were identified during a total of 31 140 years at sea. Among these, 209 accidents resulted in permanent disability of 5% or more, and 27 were fatal. The mean risk of having an occupational accident was 6.4/100 years at sea and the risk of an accident causing a permanent disability of 5% or more was 0.67/100 years aboard. Relative risks for notified accidents and accidents causing permanent disability of 5% or more were calculated in a multivariate analysis including ship type, occupation, age, time on board, change of ship since last employment period, and nationality. Foreigners had a considerably lower recorded rate of accidents than Danish citizens. Age was a major risk factor for accidents causing permanent disability. Change of ship and the first period aboard a particular ship were identified as risk factors. Walking from one place to another aboard the ship caused serious accidents. The most serious accidents happened on deck. Conclusions: It was possible to clearly identify work situations and specific risk factors for accidents aboard merchant ships. Most accidents happened while performing daily routine duties. Preventive measures should focus on workplace instructions for all important functions aboard and also on the prevention of accidents caused by walking around aboard the ship. PMID:11850550

  2. X-15 ship #3 on lakebed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1962-01-01

    The X-15 ship #3 (56-6672) is seen here on the lakebed at the Edwards Air Force Base, Edwards, California. Ship #3 made 65 flights during the program, attaining a top speed of Mach 5.65 and a maximum altitude of 354,200 feet. Only 10 of the 12 X-15 pilots flew Ship #3, and only eight of them earned their astronaut wings during the program. Robert White, Joseph Walker, Robert Rushworth, John 'Jack' McKay, Joseph Engle, William 'Pete' Knight, William Dana, and Michael Adams all earned their astronaut wings in Ship #3. Neil Armstrong and Milton Thompson also flew Ship #3. In fact, Armstrong piloted Ship #3 on its first flight, on 20 December 1961. On 15 November 1967, Ship #3 was launched over Delamar Lake, Nevada with Maj. Michael J. Adams at the controls. The vehicle soon reached a speed of Mach 5.2, and a peak altitude of 266,000 feet. During the climb, an electrical disturbance degraded the aircraft's controllability. Ship #3 began a slow drift in heading, which soon became a spin. Adams radioed that the X-15 'seems squirrelly,' and then said 'I'm in a spin.' Through some combination of pilot technique and basic aerodynamic stability, Adams recovered from the spin, and entered an inverted Mach 4.7 dive. As the X-15 plummeted into the increasingly thicker atmosphere, the Honeywell adaptive flight control system caused the vehicle to begin oscillating. As the pitching motion increased, aerodynamic forces finally broke the aircraft into several major pieces. Adams was killed when the forward fuselage impacted the desert. This was the only fatal accident during the entire X-15 program. The X-15 was a rocket powered aircraft 50 ft long with a wingspan of 22 ft. It was a missile-shaped vehicle with an unusual wedge-shaped vertical tail, thin stubby wings, and unique side fairings that extended along the side of the fuselage. The X-15 weighed about 14,000 lb empty and approximately 34,000 lb at launch. The XLR-99 rocket engine, manufactured by Thiokol Chemical Corp., was

  3. Travelers' Health: Cruise Ship Travel

    MedlinePlus

    ... provider before travel. Passengers should practice good respiratory hygiene and cough etiquette. Passengers should report their respiratory ... from: http://www.who.int/water_sanitation_health/hygiene/ships/en/shipsancomp.pdf?ua=1 . Chapter 6 - ...

  4. 46 CFR 42.05-63 - Ship(s) and vessel(s).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Ship(s) and vessel(s). 42.05-63 Section 42.05-63... BY SEA Definition of Terms Used in This Subchapter § 42.05-63 Ship(s) and vessel(s). The terms ship(s) and vessel(s) are interchangeable or synonymous words, and include every description of...

  5. 46 CFR 42.05-63 - Ship(s) and vessel(s).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Ship(s) and vessel(s). 42.05-63 Section 42.05-63... BY SEA Definition of Terms Used in This Subchapter § 42.05-63 Ship(s) and vessel(s). The terms ship(s) and vessel(s) are interchangeable or synonymous words, and include every description of...

  6. 46 CFR 197.310 - Air compressor system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Air compressor system. 197.310 Section 197.310 Shipping... GENERAL PROVISIONS Commercial Diving Operations Equipment § 197.310 Air compressor system. A compressor used to supply breathing air to a diver must have— (a) A volume tank that is— (1) Built and stamped...

  7. 46 CFR 197.310 - Air compressor system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Air compressor system. 197.310 Section 197.310 Shipping... GENERAL PROVISIONS Commercial Diving Operations Equipment § 197.310 Air compressor system. A compressor used to supply breathing air to a diver must have— (a) A volume tank that is— (1) Built and stamped...

  8. Air to air view of Endeavour, OV-105, atop SCA approaches Ellington runway

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    Air to air view of Endeavour, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 105, atop a Shuttle Carrier Aircraft (SCA) NASA 911, a modified Boeing 747, approaches touchdown for a brief stopover at Ellington Field, near JSC. Visible below the spacecraft/aircraft combination are the NASA T-38 flight line, NASA aircraft hangars and facilities, and a runway. OV-105 rolled out at Rockwell's Palmdale facility on 04-25-91 to once more bring to four the total of NASA Shuttles available for flight assignment. The spacecraft and aircraft-tandem left Houston later on this day headed for another stop in Mississippi before landing in Florida on 05-07-91. This photograph was taken from a T-38 aircraft by Sheri J. Dunnette of JSC's Image Science Division (ISD).

  9. DFRC F-16 fleet 1997 - F-16XL Ship #2, F-16A, AFTI F-16, and F-16XL Ship #1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Four different versions of the General Dynamics F-16 shared the ramp at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center at Edwards, California, in this 1997 photo. At left and right are the only two F-16XL prototypes built. The two-seat version to the left, NASA registration number 848, was flown in a supersonic laminar flow control experiment until late 1996. The single-seat F-16XL at right, NASA registration number 849, was flown in a variety of experiments, including an earlier laminar-flown study and sonic boom attenuation research. At center left is a single-seat F-16A, NASA registration number 816, the only civil registered F-16 in existence. Although it is flight-worthy, it is not currently flown at Dryden and is carried in 'flyable storage.' At center right is the U.S. Air Force Advanced Fighter Technology Integration (AFTI) F-16A. NASA Dryden provided hangar space and maintenance services for this Air Force program which evaluated a variety of new sensors and control systems to enhance the combat capability of future tactical aircraft.

  10. Math Model for Naval Ship Handling Trainer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Golovcsenko, Igor V.

    The report describes the math model for an experimental ship handling trainer. The training task is that of a replenishment operation at sea. The model includes equations for ship dynamics of a destroyer, propeller-engine response times, ship separation, interaction effects between supply ship and destroyer, and outputs to a visual display system.…

  11. Dynamic fugacity model for accidental oil release during Arctic shipping.

    PubMed

    Afenyo, Mawuli; Khan, Faisal; Veitch, Brian; Yang, Ming

    2016-10-15

    Improved understanding of ecological risk associated with Arctic shipping would help advance effective oil spill prevention, control, and mitigation strategies. Ecological risk assessment involves analysis of a release (oil), its fate, and dispersion, and the exposure and intake of the contaminant to different receptors. Exposure analysis is a key step of the detailed ecological risk assessment, which involves the evaluation of the concentration and persistence of released pollutants in the media of contact. In the present study, a multimedia fate and transport model is presented, which is developed using a fugacity-based approach. This model considers four media: air, water, sediment, and ice. The output of the model is the concentration of oil (surrogate hydrocarbons-naphthalene) in these four media, which constitutes the potential exposure to receptors. The concentration profiles can subsequently be used to estimate ecological risk thereby providing guidance to policies for Arctic shipping operations, ship design, and ecological response measures.

  12. Dynamic fugacity model for accidental oil release during Arctic shipping.

    PubMed

    Afenyo, Mawuli; Khan, Faisal; Veitch, Brian; Yang, Ming

    2016-10-15

    Improved understanding of ecological risk associated with Arctic shipping would help advance effective oil spill prevention, control, and mitigation strategies. Ecological risk assessment involves analysis of a release (oil), its fate, and dispersion, and the exposure and intake of the contaminant to different receptors. Exposure analysis is a key step of the detailed ecological risk assessment, which involves the evaluation of the concentration and persistence of released pollutants in the media of contact. In the present study, a multimedia fate and transport model is presented, which is developed using a fugacity-based approach. This model considers four media: air, water, sediment, and ice. The output of the model is the concentration of oil (surrogate hydrocarbons-naphthalene) in these four media, which constitutes the potential exposure to receptors. The concentration profiles can subsequently be used to estimate ecological risk thereby providing guidance to policies for Arctic shipping operations, ship design, and ecological response measures. PMID:27377002

  13. Impact of cruise ship emissions in Victoria, BC, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poplawski, Karla; Setton, Eleanor; McEwen, Bryan; Hrebenyk, Dan; Graham, Mark; Keller, Peter

    2011-02-01

    Characterization of the effects of cruise ship emissions on local air quality is scarce. Our objective was to investigate community level concentrations of fine particulate matter (PM 2.5), nitrogen dioxide (NO 2) and sulphur dioxide (SO 2) associated with cruise ships in James Bay, Victoria, British Columbia (BC), Canada. Data obtained over four years (2005-2008) at the nearest air quality network site located 3.5 km from the study area, a CALPUFF modeling exercise (2007), and continuous measurements taken in the James Bay community over a three-month period during the 2009 cruise ship season were examined. Concentrations of PM 2.5 and nitrogen oxide (NO) were elevated on weekends with ships present with winds from the direction of the terminal to the monitoring station. SO 2 displayed the greatest impact from the presence of cruise ships in the area. Network data showed peaks in hourly SO 2 when ships were in port during all years. The CALPUFF modeling analysis found predicted 24-hour SO 2 levels to exceed World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines of 20 μg m -3 for approximately 3% of 24-hour periods, with a maximum 24-hour concentration in the community of 41 μg m -3; however, the CALPUFF model underestimated concentrations when predicted and measured concentrations were compared at the network site. Continuous monitoring at the location in the community predicted to experience highest SO 2 concentrations measured a maximum 24-hour concentration of 122 μg m -3 and 16% of 24-hour periods were above the WHO standard. The 10-minute concentrations of SO 2 reached up to 599 μg m -3 and exceeded the WHO 10-minute SO 2 guideline (500 μg m -3) for 0.03% of 10-minute periods. No exceedences of BC Provincial or Canadian guidelines or standards were observed.

  14. 78 FR 37527 - Draft Environmental Impact Statement for the Disposition of Hangars 2 and 3, Fort Wainwright, Alaska

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-21

    ... potential environmental impacts associated with proposed disposition options for two historic World War II.... Environmental consequences were evaluated for seven resource areas: Air quality, cultural resources, hazardous... the Ladd Field National Historic Landmark (Ladd Field NHL) as well as the Ladd Air Force Base Cold...

  15. Identification of SHIP-1 and SHIP-2 homologs in channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Erin B; Nayak, Deepak K; Quiniou, Sylvie M A; Bengten, Eva; Wilson, Melanie

    2015-07-01

    Src homology domain 2 (SH2) domain-containing inositol 5'-phosphatases (SHIP) proteins have diverse roles in signal transduction. SHIP-1 and SHIP-2 homologs were identified in channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus, based on sequence homology to murine and human SHIP sequences. Full-length cDNAs for catfish SHIP-1 and SHIP-2 (IpSHIP-1 and IpSHIP-2) were obtained using 5' and 3' RACE protocols. Catfish SHIP molecules share a high degree of sequence identity to their respective SHIP sequences from diverse taxa and both are encoded by single copy genes. IpSHIP-1 and IpSHIP-2 transcripts were expressed in all catfish tissues analyzed except for skin, and IpSHIP-1 message was more abundant than IpSHIP-2 message in lymphoid tissues. Catfish clonal B, cytotoxic T, and macrophage cell lines also expressed message for both molecules. IpSHIP-1 and IpSHIP-2 SH2 domains were expressed as recombinant proteins and were both found to be bound by cross-reacting rabbit anti-mouse SHIP-1 pAb. The anti-mouse SHIP-1 pAb also reacted with cell lysates from the cytotoxic T cell lines, macrophages and stimulated PBL. SHIP-1 is also phosphorylated at a conserved tyrosine residue, as shown by immunoprecipitation studies.

  16. DEVELOPMENT OF THE H1700 SHIPPING PACKAGE

    SciTech Connect

    Abramczyk, G.; Loftin, B.; Mann, P.

    2009-06-05

    The H1700 Package is based on the DOE-EM Certified 9977 Packaging. The H1700 will be certified by the Packaging Certification Division of the National Nuclear Security Administration for the shipment of plutonium by air by the United Stated Military both within the United States and internationally. The H1700 is designed to ship radioactive contents in assemblies of Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators (RTGs) or arrangements of nested food-pack cans. The RTG containers are designed and tested to remain leaktight during transport, handling, and storage; however, their ability to remain leaktight during transport in the H1700 is not credited. This paper discusses the design and special operation of the H1700.

  17. F-16XL ship #1 CAWAP flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    The single-seat F-16XL (ship #1) makes another run during the Cranked-Arrow Wing Aerodynamic Project (CAWAP) at Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. The modified airplane features a delta 'cranked-arrow' wing with strips of tubing along the leading edge to the trailing edge to sense static on the wing and obtain pressure distribution data. The right wing receives data on pressure distribution and the left wing has three types of instrumentation - preston tubes to measure local skin friction, boundary layer rakes to measure boundary layer profiles (the layer where the air interacts with the surfaces of a moving aircraft), and hot films to determine boundary layer transition locations. The first flight of CAWAP occurred on November 21, 1995, and the test program ended in April 1996.

  18. F-16XL ship #1 CAWAP flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    The single-seat F-16XL (ship #1) makes another run during the Cranked-Arrow Wing Aerodynamic Project (CAWAP) at Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. The modified airplane features a delta 'cranked-arrow' wing with strips of tubing along the leading edge to the trailing edge to sense static on the wing and obtain pressure distribution data. The right wing receives data on pressure distribution and the left wing has three types of instrumentation - preston tubes to measure local skin friction, boundary layer rakes to measure boundary layer profiles (the layer where the air interacts with the surfaces of a moving aircraft), and hot films to determine boundary layer transition locations. The program also gathered aero data on two wing planforms for NASA's High Speed Research Program. The first flight of CAWAP occurred on November 21, 1995, and the test program ended in April 1996.

  19. Monitoring shipping emissions with MAX-DOAS measurements of reactive trace gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wittrock, Folkard; Peters, Enno; Seyler, André; Kattner, Lisa; Mathieu-Üffing, Barbara; Burrows, John P.; Chirkov, Maksym; Meier, Andreas C.; Richter, Andreas; Schönhardt, Anja; Schmolke, Stefan; Theobald, Norbert

    2014-05-01

    Air pollution from ships contributes to overall air quality problems and it has direct health effects on the population in particular in coastal regions, and in harbor cities. In order to reduce the emissions the International Maritime Organisation (IMO) have tightened the regulations for air pollution. E.g. Sulfur Emission Control Areas (SECA) have been introduced where the sulfur content of marine fuel is limited. However, up to now there is no regular monitoring system available to verify that ships are complying with the new regulations. Furthermore measurements of reactive trace gases in marine environments are in general sparse. The project MeSMarT (Measurements of shipping emissions in the marine troposphere, www.mesmart.de) has been established as a cooperation between the University of Bremen and the German Bundesamt für Seeschifffahrt und Hydrographie (Federal Maritime and Hydrographic Agency) with support of the Helmholtz Research Centre Geesthacht to estimate the influence of ship emissions on the chemistry of the atmospheric boundary layer and to establish a monitoring system for main shipping routes. Here we present MAX-DOAS observations of NO2 and SO2 carried out during ship campaigns in the North and Baltic Sea and from two permanent sites close to the Elbe river (Wedel, Germany) and on the island Neuwerk close to the mouths of Elbe and Weser river. Mixing ratios of both trace gases have been retrieved using different approaches (pure geometric and taking into account the radiative transfer) and compared to in situ and air borne observations (see Kattner et al., Monitoring shipping emissions with in-situ measurements of trace gases, and Meier et al., Airborne measurements of NO2 shipping emissions using imaging DOAS) observations. Furthermore simple approaches have been used to calculate emission factors of NOx and SO2 for single ships.

  20. NASA tracking ship navigation systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mckenna, J. J.

    1976-01-01

    The ship position and attitude measurement system that was installed aboard the tracking ship Vanguard is described. An overview of the entire system is given along with a description of how precise time and frequency is utilized. The instrumentation is broken down into its basic components. Particular emphasis is given to the inertial navigation system. Each navigation system used, a mariner star tracker, navigation satellite system, Loran C and OMEGA in conjunction with the inertial system is described. The accuracy of each system is compared along with their limitations.

  1. Shipping container for fissile material

    DOEpatents

    Crowder, H.E.

    1984-12-17

    The present invention is directed to a shipping container for the interstate transportation of enriched uranium materials. The shipping container is comprised of a rigid, high-strength, cylindrical-shaped outer vessel lined with thermal insulation. Disposed inside the thermal insulation and spaced apart from the inner walls of the outer vessel is a rigid, high-strength, cylindrical inner vessel impervious to liquid and gaseous substances and having the inner surfaces coated with a layer of cadmium to prevent nuclear criticality. The cadmium is, in turn, lined with a protective shield of high-density urethane for corrosion and wear protection. 2 figs.

  2. Enhanced PM10 bounded PAHs from shipping emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pongpiachan, S.; Hattayanone, M.; Choochuay, C.; Mekmok, R.; Wuttijak, N.; Ketratanakul, A.

    2015-05-01

    Earlier studies have highlighted the importance of maritime transport as a main contributor of air pollutants in port area. The authors intended to investigate the effects of shipping emissions on the enhancement of PM10 bounded polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and mutagenic substances in an industrial area of Rayong province, Thailand. Daily PM10 speciation data across two air quality observatory sites in Thailand during 2010-2013 were collected. Diagnostic binary ratios of PAH congeners, analysis of variances (ANOVA), and principal component analysis (PCA) were employed to evaluate the enhanced genotoxicity of PM10 during the docking period. Significant increase of PAHs and mutagenic index (MI) of PM10 were observed during the docking period in both sampling sites. Although stationary sources like coal combustions from power plants and vehicular exhausts from motorway can play a great role in enhancing PAH concentrations, regulating shipping emissions from diesel engine in the port area like Rayong is predominantly crucial.

  3. 46 CFR 42.05-63 - Ship(s) and vessel(s).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Ship(s) and vessel(s). 42.05-63 Section 42.05-63 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) LOAD LINES DOMESTIC AND FOREIGN VOYAGES BY SEA Definition of Terms Used in This Subchapter § 42.05-63 Ship(s) and vessel(s). The terms...

  4. 46 CFR 42.05-63 - Ship(s) and vessel(s).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Ship(s) and vessel(s). 42.05-63 Section 42.05-63 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) LOAD LINES DOMESTIC AND FOREIGN VOYAGES BY SEA Definition of Terms Used in This Subchapter § 42.05-63 Ship(s) and vessel(s). The terms...

  5. 46 CFR 42.05-63 - Ship(s) and vessel(s).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Ship(s) and vessel(s). 42.05-63 Section 42.05-63 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) LOAD LINES DOMESTIC AND FOREIGN VOYAGES BY SEA Definition of Terms Used in This Subchapter § 42.05-63 Ship(s) and vessel(s). The terms...

  6. Norovirus transmission on cruise ship.

    PubMed

    Isakbaeva, Elmira T; Widdowson, Marc-Alain; Beard, R Suzanne; Bulens, Sandra N; Mullins, James; Monroe, Stephan S; Bresee, Joseph; Sassano, Patricia; Cramer, Elaine H; Glass, Roger I

    2005-01-01

    An outbreak of norovirus gastroenteritis affected passengers on two consecutive cruises of ship X and continued on 4 subsequent cruises despite a 1-week sanitization. We documented transmission by food and person-to-person contact; persistence of virus despite sanitization onboard, including introductions of new strains; and seeding of an outbreak on land.

  7. Aerosol dynamics in ship tracks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Russell, Lynn M.; Seinfeld, John H.; Flagan, Richard C.; Ferek, Ronald J.; Hegg, Dean A.; Hobbs, Peter V.; Wobrock, Wolfram; Flossmann, Andrea I.; O'Dowd, Colin D.; Nielsen, Kurt E.; Durkee, Phillip A.

    1999-01-01

    Ship tracks are a natural laboratory to isolate the effect of anthropogenic aerosol emissions on cloud properties. The Monterey Area Ship Tracks (MAST) experiment in the Pacific Ocean west of Monterey, California, in June 1994, provides an unprecedented data set for evaluating our understanding of the formation and persistence of the anomalous cloud features that characterize ship tracks. The data set includes conditions in which the marine boundary layer is both clean and continentally influenced. Two case studies during the MAST experiment are examined with a detailed aerosol microphysical model that considers an external mixture of independent particle populations. The model allows tracking individual particles through condensational and coagulational growth to identify the source of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN). In addition, a cloud microphysics model was employed to study specific effects of precipitation. Predictions and observations reveal important differences between clean (particle concentrations below 150 cm-3) and continentally influenced (particle concentrations above 400 cm-3) background conditions: in the continentally influenced conditions there is a smaller change in the cloud effective radius, drop number and liquid water content in the ship track relative to the background than in the clean marine case. Predictions of changes in cloud droplet number concentrations and effective radii are consistent with observations although there is significant uncertainty in the absolute concentrations due to a lack of measurements of the plume dilution. Gas-to-particle conversion of sulfur species produced by the combustion of ship fuel is predicted to be important in supplying soluble aerosol mass to combustion-generated particles, so as to render them available as CCN. Studies of the impact of these changes on the cloud's potential to precipitate concluded that more complex dynamical processes must be represented to allow sufficiently long drop

  8. 49 CFR 176.24 - Shipping papers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... receiving a shipping paper required by this section must retain a copy or an electronic image thereof, that... reasonable times and locations. For a hazardous waste, each shipping paper copy must be retained for...

  9. 49 CFR 174.24 - Shipping papers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... person receiving a shipping paper required by this section must retain a copy or an electronic image... reasonable times and locations. For a hazardous waste, each shipping paper copy must be retained for...

  10. 49 CFR 174.24 - Shipping papers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... person receiving a shipping paper required by this section must retain a copy or an electronic image... reasonable times and locations. For a hazardous waste, each shipping paper copy must be retained for...

  11. 49 CFR 176.24 - Shipping papers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... receiving a shipping paper required by this section must retain a copy or an electronic image thereof, that... reasonable times and locations. For a hazardous waste, each shipping paper copy must be retained for...

  12. 49 CFR 174.24 - Shipping papers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... person receiving a shipping paper required by this section must retain a copy or an electronic image... reasonable times and locations. For a hazardous waste, each shipping paper copy must be retained for...

  13. 49 CFR 176.24 - Shipping papers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... receiving a shipping paper required by this section must retain a copy or an electronic image thereof, that... reasonable times and locations. For a hazardous waste, each shipping paper copy must be retained for...

  14. How To Improve You Shipping and Receiving.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sturgeon, Julie

    2001-01-01

    Discusses how two universities improved their shipping and receiving operations and cut costs. Examples from the University of Texas at Dallas and John Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland, illustrate how they established greater shipping and receiving department efficiencies. (GR)

  15. An Investigation on the Effects of Ship Sourced Emissions in Izmir Port, Turkey

    PubMed Central

    Saraçoğlu, Halil; Kılıç, Alper

    2013-01-01

    Maritime transportation is a major source of climate change and air pollution. Shipping emissions cause severe impacts on health and environment. These effects of emissions are emerged especially in territorial waters, inland seas, canals, straits, bays, and port regions. In this paper, exhaust gas emissions from ships in Izmir Port, which is one of the main ports in Turkey, are calculated by the ship activity-based methodology. Total emissions from ships in the port is estimated as 1923 ton y−1 for NOx, 1405 ton y−1 for SO2, 82753 ton y−1 for CO2, ton y−1 for HC, and 165 ton y−1 for PM in the year 2007. These emissions are classified regarding operation modes and types of ships. The results are compared with the other studies including amounts of exhaust pollutants generated by ships. According to the findings, it is clear that the ships calling the Izmir Port are important air polluting causes of the Izmir city and its surroundings. PMID:24198720

  16. An investigation on the effects of ship sourced emissions in Izmir Port, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Saraçoğlu, Halil; Deniz, Cengiz; Kılıç, Alper

    2013-01-01

    Maritime transportation is a major source of climate change and air pollution. Shipping emissions cause severe impacts on health and environment. These effects of emissions are emerged especially in territorial waters, inland seas, canals, straits, bays, and port regions. In this paper, exhaust gas emissions from ships in Izmir Port, which is one of the main ports in Turkey, are calculated by the ship activity-based methodology. Total emissions from ships in the port is estimated as 1923 ton y⁻¹ for NO(x), 1405 ton y⁻¹ for SO₂, 82753 ton y⁻¹ for CO₂, ton y⁻¹ for HC, and 165 ton y⁻¹ for PM in the year 2007. These emissions are classified regarding operation modes and types of ships. The results are compared with the other studies including amounts of exhaust pollutants generated by ships. According to the findings, it is clear that the ships calling the Izmir Port are important air polluting causes of the Izmir city and its surroundings.

  17. 6. DETAIL OF HIGHPRESSURE COMPRESSED AIR HOSE IN SOUTHWEST CORNER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. DETAIL OF HIGH-PRESSURE COMPRESSED AIR HOSE IN SOUTHWEST CORNER OF SHIPPING AND RECEIVING ROOM (109) - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Vehicle Support Building, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  18. Fiberboard humidity data for 9975 shipping packages

    SciTech Connect

    Daugherty, W. L.

    2015-07-31

    The 9975 surveillance program is identifying a technical basis to support extending the storage period of 9975 packages in KAC beyond the currently approved 15 years. A key element of this effort is developing a better understanding of degradation of the fiberboard assembly under storage conditions. This degradation is influenced greatly by the moisture content of the fiberboard, which is not well characterized on an individual package basis.Two efforts have been undertaken to better understand the levels and behavior of moisture within the fiberboard assemblies of the 9975 shipping package. In the first effort, an initial survey of humidity and temperature in the upper air space of 26 packages stored in KAC was made. The data collected within this first effort help to illustrate how the upper air space humidity varies with the local ambient temperature and package heat load. In the second effort, direct measurements of two test packages are providing a correlation between humidity and fiberboard moisture levels within the package, and variations in moisture throughout the fiberboard assembly. This effort has examined packages with cane fiberboard and internal heat levels of 5 and 10W to date. Additional testing is expected to include 15 and 19W heat levels, and then repeat the same four heat levels with softwood fiberboard assemblies. This report documents the data collected to date within these two efforts.

  19. Fiberboard Humidity Data for 9975 Shipping Packages

    SciTech Connect

    Daugherty, W.

    2015-07-31

    The 9975 surveillance program is identifying a technical basis to support extending the storage period of 9975 packages in KAC beyond the currently approved 15 years. A key element of this effort is developing a better understanding of degradation of the fiberboard assembly under storage conditions. This degradation is influenced greatly by the moisture content of the fiberboard, which is not well characterized on an individual package basis. Two efforts have been undertaken to better understand the levels and behavior of moisture within the fiberboard assemblies of the 9975 shipping package. In the first effort, an initial survey of humidity and temperature in the upper air space of 26 packages stored in KAC was made. The data collected within this first effort help to illustrate how the upper air space humidity varies with the local ambient temperature and package heat load. In the second effort, direct measurements of two test packages are providing a correlation between humidity and fiberboard moisture levels within the package, and variations in moisture throughout the fiberboard assembly. This effort has examined packages with cane fiberboard and internal heat levels of 5 and 10W to date. Additional testing is expected to include 15 and 19W heat levels, and then repeat the same four heat levels with softwood fiberboard assemblies. This report documents the data collected to date within these two efforts

  20. 27 CFR 44.254 - Shipping containers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Shipping containers. 44.254 Section 44.254 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU... Requirements § 44.254 Shipping containers. Each shipping case, crate, or other container, in which cigars...

  1. 27 CFR 44.187 - Shipping containers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Shipping containers. 44... Shipping containers. Each shipping case, crate, or other container in which tobacco products, or cigarette... same containers in which they were received from the factory. (72 Stat. 1418, as amended; 26...

  2. 46 CFR 310.4 - Training Ship.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... sea. All other property otherwise lost or destroyed shall be replaced at the expense of the State. (2...) damage inflicted by the Training Ship upon any other ship or other property. Such reports shall be... School: This training ship is the property of the United States of America. It is furnished to the...

  3. 46 CFR 310.4 - Training Ship.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... sea. All other property otherwise lost or destroyed shall be replaced at the expense of the State. (2...) damage inflicted by the Training Ship upon any other ship or other property. Such reports shall be... School: This training ship is the property of the United States of America. It is furnished to the...

  4. 46 CFR 310.4 - Training Ship.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... sea. All other property otherwise lost or destroyed shall be replaced at the expense of the State. (2...) damage inflicted by the Training Ship upon any other ship or other property. Such reports shall be... School: This training ship is the property of the United States of America. It is furnished to the...

  5. 46 CFR 310.4 - Training Ship.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... sea. All other property otherwise lost or destroyed shall be replaced at the expense of the State. (2...) damage inflicted by the Training Ship upon any other ship or other property. Such reports shall be... School: This training ship is the property of the United States of America. It is furnished to the...

  6. 46 CFR 310.4 - Training Ship.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... sea. All other property otherwise lost or destroyed shall be replaced at the expense of the State. (2...) damage inflicted by the Training Ship upon any other ship or other property. Such reports shall be... School: This training ship is the property of the United States of America. It is furnished to the...

  7. Underwater radiated noise from modern commercial ships.

    PubMed

    McKenna, Megan F; Ross, Donald; Wiggins, Sean M; Hildebrand, John A

    2012-01-01

    Underwater radiated noise measurements for seven types of modern commercial ships during normal operating conditions are presented. Calibrated acoustic data (<1000 Hz) from an autonomous seafloor-mounted acoustic recorder were combined with ship passage information from the Automatic Identification System. This approach allowed for detailed measurements (i.e., source level, sound exposure level, and transmission range) on ships of opportunity. A key result was different acoustic levels and spectral shapes observed from different ship-types. A 54 kGT container ship had the highest broadband source level at 188 dB re 1 μPa@1m; a 26 kGT chemical tanker had the lowest at 177 dB re 1 μPa@1m. Bulk carriers had higher source levels near 100 Hz, while container ship and tanker noise was predominantly below 40 Hz. Simple models to predict source levels of modern merchant ships as a group from particular ship characteristics (e.g., length, gross tonnage, and speed) were not possible given individual ship-type differences. Furthermore, ship noise was observed to radiate asymmetrically. Stern aspect noise levels are 5 to 10 dB higher than bow aspect noise levels. Collectively, these results emphasize the importance of including modern ship-types in quantifying shipping noise for predictive models of global, regional, and local marine environments. PMID:22280574

  8. 49 CFR 176.24 - Shipping papers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Shipping papers. 176.24 Section 176.24... Requirements § 176.24 Shipping papers. (a) A person may not accept a hazardous material for transportation or transport a hazardous material by vessel unless that person has received a shipping paper prepared...

  9. 49 CFR 174.24 - Shipping papers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Shipping papers. 174.24 Section 174.24... Requirements § 174.24 Shipping papers. (a) A person may not accept a hazardous material for transportation or transport a hazardous material by rail unless that person receives a shipping paper prepared in...

  10. 49 CFR 177.817 - Shipping papers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Shipping papers. 177.817 Section 177.817... Information and Regulations § 177.817 Shipping papers. (a) General requirements. A person may not accept a... received a shipping paper prepared in accordance with part 172 of this subchapter or the material...

  11. 7 CFR 953.7 - Ship.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Ship. 953.7 Section 953.7 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND... Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 953.7 Ship. Ship is synonymous with handle and means...

  12. 7 CFR 953.7 - Ship.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Ship. 953.7 Section 953.7 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and... Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 953.7 Ship. Ship is synonymous with handle and means...

  13. 7 CFR 953.7 - Ship.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Ship. 953.7 Section 953.7 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and... Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 953.7 Ship. Ship is synonymous with handle and means...

  14. 7 CFR 989.106 - Ship.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Ship. 989.106 Section 989.106 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and... CALIFORNIA Administrative Rules and Regulations Definitions § 989.106 Ship. Ship means the physical...

  15. 7 CFR 953.7 - Ship.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Ship. 953.7 Section 953.7 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and... Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 953.7 Ship. Ship is synonymous with handle and means...

  16. 7 CFR 989.106 - Ship.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Ship. 989.106 Section 989.106 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND... CALIFORNIA Administrative Rules and Regulations Definitions § 989.106 Ship. Ship means the physical...

  17. 7 CFR 989.106 - Ship.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Ship. 989.106 Section 989.106 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and... CALIFORNIA Administrative Rules and Regulations Definitions § 989.106 Ship. Ship means the physical...

  18. 7 CFR 989.106 - Ship.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Ship. 989.106 Section 989.106 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND... CALIFORNIA Administrative Rules and Regulations Definitions § 989.106 Ship. Ship means the physical...

  19. 7 CFR 989.106 - Ship.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Ship. 989.106 Section 989.106 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and... CALIFORNIA Administrative Rules and Regulations Definitions § 989.106 Ship. Ship means the physical...

  20. 7 CFR 953.7 - Ship.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Ship. 953.7 Section 953.7 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND... Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 953.7 Ship. Ship is synonymous with handle and means...

  1. 49 CFR 176.24 - Shipping papers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Shipping papers. 176.24 Section 176.24... Requirements § 176.24 Shipping papers. (a) A person may not accept a hazardous material for transportation or transport a hazardous material by vessel unless that person has received a shipping paper prepared...

  2. 49 CFR 174.24 - Shipping papers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Shipping papers. 174.24 Section 174.24... Requirements § 174.24 Shipping papers. (a) A person may not accept a hazardous material for transportation or transport a hazardous material by rail unless that person receives a shipping paper prepared in...

  3. 49 CFR 177.817 - Shipping papers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Shipping papers. 177.817 Section 177.817... Information and Regulations § 177.817 Shipping papers. (a) General requirements. A person may not accept a... received a shipping paper prepared in accordance with part 172 of this subchapter or the material...

  4. 46 CFR 112.50-7 - Compressed air starting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Compressed air starting. 112.50-7 Section 112.50-7... air starting. A compressed air starting system must meet the following: (a) The starting, charging... air compressors addressed in paragraph (c)(3)(i) of this section. (b) The compressed air...

  5. Identification of SHIP-1 and SHIP-2 homologs in channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Src homology domain 2 (SH2) domain-containing inositol 5’-phosphatases (SHIP) proteins have diverse roles in signal transduction. SHIP-1 and SHIP-2 homologs were identified in channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus, based on sequence homology to murine and human SHIP sequences. Full-length cDNAs for ...

  6. An assistant ship surgeon's account of cholera at sea.

    PubMed

    Goodyer, Bronwen E J

    2008-09-01

    The diary of Thomas Graham, a naval ship surgeon, brings the voyage of HMS troopship Apollo in 1849 to life. A year after England's second great cholera outbreak, the pervasive fear of the disease became a reality onboard when cholera broke out. The intended voyage from England to China was diverted to South America where the ship was put into quarantine. So bad were the conditions onboard that the Times correspondent wrote: 'I have never seen a convict-ship in which the convicts were not more comfortably lodged'. Graham's writing provides an insightful record of life at sea in the mid-nineteenth century and the circumstances that led to this cholera outbreak, namely the overcrowding and poor hygiene. He wrote about the current beliefs and assumptions surrounding the disease; that the foul air was to blame. He also noted the varied methods taken to confine patients and treat the disease. The diary is supported by evidence from naval records and newspaper articles. Graham's writing gives us a glimpse into the life of a man who saw the world from a perspective inaccessible to us and the experience of observing newly discovered continents, cultures and wildlife, which he meticulously recorded. This was Graham's last piece of writing as he died unexpectedly of malaria shortly after the journey's end. The diary encapsulates the struggle to overcome disease and the tragic plight a humble ship surgeon shared with the crew.

  7. 46 CFR 197.310 - Air compressor system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Air compressor system. 197.310 Section 197.310 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS GENERAL PROVISIONS Commercial Diving Operations Equipment § 197.310 Air compressor system. A...

  8. Ship motion estimation from polarized Doppler spectra from ship wakes on two-dimensional sea surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Wang-Qiang; Zhang, Min; Nie, Ding; Sun, Rong-Qing

    2016-07-01

    The main purpose of this paper is to investigate the Doppler spectra from ship wakes on two-dimensional sea surfaces and further estimate the ship motion characteristics. The analysis of the ship wakes is helpful to detect the existence of ships on sea surface. And it will be an alternative method when the radar cross-section values are not competent to identify the ship target. In the study, Doppler spectra for different polarizations are compared with and without ship's wakes based on the second-order small slope approximation method. As expected, there appears the second spectral peak when ship's wake is considered. Moreover, the ship velocities, wind speed, and direction are also analyzed. As the results shown, there is a good linearity relation between the position of the second Doppler spectral peak and the ship velocity. Therefore, it is feasible to detect ship according the Doppler spectra.

  9. Research Opportunities on board Virgin Galactic's SpaceShipTwo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Attenborough, S.; Pomerantz, W.; Stephens, K.

    2013-09-01

    Virgin Galactic is building the world's first commercial spaceline. Our suborbital spaceflight system, pictured in Figure 1, consists of two vehicles: WhiteKnightTwo (WK2) and SpaceShipTwo (SS2). WhiteKnightTwo is a four-engine, dual-fuselage jet aircraft capable of high-altitude heavy lift missions, including, but not limited to fulfilling its role as a mothership for SpaceShipTwo, an air-launched, suborbital spaceplane capable of routinely reaching an apogee up to 110 kilometers. In conjunction, these two vehicles allow access to space and to regions of the atmosphere ranging from the troposphere to the thermosphere; additionally, they provide extended periods of microgravity in a reliable and affordable way. SpaceShipTwo, with a payload capacity of up to 1,300 lbs. (~600 kg), features payload mounting interfaces that are compatible with standard architectures such as NASA Space Shuttle Middeck Lockers, Cargo Transfer Bags, and server racks, in addition to custom structures. With the standard interface, payloads are allowed access to the large 17 inch diameter cabin windows for external observations. Each dedicated research flight will be accompanied by a Virgin Galactic Flight Test Engineer, providing an opportunity for limited in-flight interaction. In addition, tended payloads - a flight that includes the researcher and his or her payload - are also an option. At a price point that is highly competitive with parabolic aircraft and sounding rockets and significantly cheaper than orbital flights, SpaceShipTwo is a unique platform that can provide frequent and repeatable research opportunities. Suborbital flights on SpaceShipTwo offer researchers several minutes of microgravity time and views of the external environment in the upper atmosphere and in outer space. In addition to serving as an important research platform in and of itself, SpaceShipTwo also offers researchers a means to test, iterate, and calibrate experiments designed for orbital platforms

  10. World Ships - Architectures & Feasibility Revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hein, A. M.; Pak, M.; Putz, D.; Buhler, C.; Reiss, P.

    A world ship is a concept for manned interstellar flight. It is a huge, self-contained and self-sustained interstellar vehicle. It travels at a fraction of a per cent of the speed of light and needs several centuries to reach its target star system. The well- known world ship concept by Alan Bond and Anthony Martin was intended to show its principal feasibility. However, several important issues haven't been addressed so far: the relationship between crew size and robustness of knowledge transfer, reliability, and alternative mission architectures. This paper addresses these gaps. Furthermore, it gives an update on target star system choice, and develops possible mission architectures. The derived conclusions are: a large population size leads to robust knowledge transfer and cultural adaptation. These processes can be improved by new technologies. World ship reliability depends on the availability of an automatic repair system, as in the case of the Daedalus probe. Star systems with habitable planets are probably farther away than systems with enough resources to construct space colonies. Therefore, missions to habitable planets have longer trip times and have a higher risk of mission failure. On the other hand, the risk of constructing colonies is higher than to establish an initial settlement on a habitable planet. Mission architectures with precursor probes have the potential to significantly reduce trip and colonization risk without being significantly more costly than architectures without. In summary world ships remain an interesting concept, although they require a space colony-based civilization within our own solar system before becoming feasible.

  11. 48 CFR 1336.270 - Special requirements for ship construction

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Contracting for Construction 1336.270 Special requirements for ship construction See 48 CFR 1371 for special requirements for acquisition involving ship construction and ship repair. ... ship construction 1336.270 Section 1336.270 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT...

  12. 48 CFR 1336.270 - Special requirements for ship construction

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Contracting for Construction 1336.270 Special requirements for ship construction See 48 CFR 1371 for special requirements for acquisition involving ship construction and ship repair. ... ship construction 1336.270 Section 1336.270 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT...

  13. 48 CFR 1336.270 - Special requirements for ship construction

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Contracting for Construction 1336.270 Special requirements for ship construction See 48 CFR 1371 for special requirements for acquisition involving ship construction and ship repair. ... ship construction 1336.270 Section 1336.270 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT...

  14. 48 CFR 1336.270 - Special requirements for ship construction

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Contracting for Construction 1336.270 Special requirements for ship construction See 48 CFR 1371 for special requirements for acquisition involving ship construction and ship repair. ... ship construction 1336.270 Section 1336.270 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT...

  15. 48 CFR 1336.270 - Special requirements for ship construction

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Contracting for Construction 1336.270 Special requirements for ship construction See 48 CFR 1371 for special requirements for acquisition involving ship construction and ship repair. ... ship construction 1336.270 Section 1336.270 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT...

  16. Predicting ship fuel consumption: Update. Technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Schrady, D.A.; Smyth, G.K.; Vassian, R.B.

    1996-07-01

    This report is concerned with the prediction of ship propulsion fuel consumption as a function of ship speed for U.S. Navy combatant and auxiliary ships. Prediction is based on fitting an analytic function to published ship class speed-fuel use data using nonlinear regression. The form of the analytic function fitted is motivated by the literature on ship powering and resistance. The report discusses data sources and data issues, and the impact of ship propulsion plant configuration on fuel use. The regression coefficients of the exponential function fitted, tabular numerical comparison of predicted and actual fuel use data, the standard error of the estimate, and plots of actual and fitted data are given for 22 classes of Navy ships.

  17. EFFECTS OF MOISTURE IN THE 9975 SHIPPING PACKAGE FIBERBOARD ASSEMBLY

    SciTech Connect

    Daugherty, W.; Dunn, K.; Murphy, J.; Hackney, B.

    2010-02-11

    The fiberboard assembly used in 9975 shipping packages as an impact-absorption and insulation component has the capacity to absorb moisture, with an accompanying change to its properties. While package fabrication requirements generally maintain the fiberboard moisture content within manufacturing range, there is the potential during use or storage for atypical handling or storage practices which result in the absorption of additional moisture. In addition to performing a transportation function, the 9975 shipping packages are used as a facility storage system for special nuclear materials at the Savannah River Site. A small number of packages after extended storage have been found to contain elevated moisture levels. Typically, this condition is accompanied by an axial compaction of the bottom fiberboard layers, and the growth of mold. In addition to potential atypical practices, fiberboard can exchange moisture with the surrounding air, depending on the ambient humidity. Laboratory data have been generated to correlate the equilibrium moisture content of cane fiberboard with the humidity of the surrounding air. These data are compared to measurements taken within shipping packages. With a reasonable measurement of the fiberboard moisture content, an estimate of the fiberboard properties can be made. Over time, elevated moisture levels will negatively impact performance properties, and promote fiberboard mold growth and resultant degradation.

  18. 46 CFR Sec. 5 - Measures to protect ship's payrolls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Measures to protect ship's payrolls. Sec. 5 Section 5 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION A-NATIONAL SHIPPING AUTHORITY BONDING OF SHIP'S PERSONNEL Sec. 5 Measures to protect ship's payrolls. (a) General Agents are not required...

  19. 46 CFR 167.05-25 - Nautical school ship.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Nautical school ship. 167.05-25 Section 167.05-25 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS PUBLIC NAUTICAL SCHOOL SHIPS Definitions § 167.05-25 Nautical school ship. The term nautical school ship means a...

  20. 46 CFR 167.05-25 - Nautical school ship.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Nautical school ship. 167.05-25 Section 167.05-25 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS PUBLIC NAUTICAL SCHOOL SHIPS Definitions § 167.05-25 Nautical school ship. The term nautical school ship means a...

  1. 46 CFR 167.05-25 - Nautical school ship.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Nautical school ship. 167.05-25 Section 167.05-25 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS PUBLIC NAUTICAL SCHOOL SHIPS Definitions § 167.05-25 Nautical school ship. The term nautical school ship means a...

  2. 46 CFR 167.05-25 - Nautical school ship.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Nautical school ship. 167.05-25 Section 167.05-25 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS PUBLIC NAUTICAL SCHOOL SHIPS Definitions § 167.05-25 Nautical school ship. The term nautical school ship means a...

  3. 46 CFR 167.05-25 - Nautical school ship.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Nautical school ship. 167.05-25 Section 167.05-25 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS PUBLIC NAUTICAL SCHOOL SHIPS Definitions § 167.05-25 Nautical school ship. The term nautical school ship means a...

  4. Study on a PEFC propulsion system for surface ships

    SciTech Connect

    Ono, Ryuta; Tsuchiyama, Syozo

    1996-12-31

    This Abstract summarizes a series of presentations to the present Seminar, covering various aspects of a 1,000 kW PEFC system envisaged as propulsion system to equip a 1,500 DWT Cargo vessel, reported under the following titles: (1) Performance Evaluation of 1kW PEFC (2) Performance of Catalysts for CO Removal by Methanation Reaction (3) Development of a Selective Oxidation CO Removal Reactor for Methanol Reformate Gas (4) Experimental Investigation on a Turbine Compressor for Air Supply System of a Fuel Cell (5) Dynamic Simulator for PEFC Propulsion Plant (6) Power Feature Required for PEFC Powered Electric Propulsion Ship The purpose of this study is to identify subjects requiring further development toward the realization of a practical fuel cell system to power ships.

  5. Relationship between container ship underwater noise levels and ship design, operational and oceanographic conditions

    PubMed Central

    McKenna, Megan F.; Wiggins, Sean M.; Hildebrand, John A.

    2013-01-01

    Low-frequency ocean ambient noise is dominated by noise from commercial ships, yet understanding how individual ships contribute deserves further investigation. This study develops and evaluates statistical models of container ship noise in relation to design characteristics, operational conditions, and oceanographic settings. Five-hundred ship passages and nineteen covariates were used to build generalized additive models. Opportunistic acoustic measurements of ships transiting offshore California were collected using seafloor acoustic recorders. A 5–10 dB range in broadband source level was found for ships depending on the transit conditions. For a ship recorded multiple times traveling at different speeds, cumulative noise was lowest at 8 knots, 65% reduction in operational speed. Models with highest predictive power, in order of selection, included ship speed, size, and time of year. Uncertainty in source depth and propagation affected model fit. These results provide insight on the conditions that produce higher levels of underwater noise from container ships.

  6. 47 CFR 80.1121 - Receipt and acknowledgement of distress alerts by ship stations and ship earth stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... by ship stations and ship earth stations. 80.1121 Section 80.1121 Telecommunication FEDERAL... § 80.1121 Receipt and acknowledgement of distress alerts by ship stations and ship earth stations. (a) Ship or ship earth stations that receive a distress alert must, as soon as possible, inform the...

  7. 47 CFR 80.1121 - Receipt and acknowledgement of distress alerts by ship stations and ship earth stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... by ship stations and ship earth stations. 80.1121 Section 80.1121 Telecommunication FEDERAL... § 80.1121 Receipt and acknowledgement of distress alerts by ship stations and ship earth stations. (a) Ship or ship earth stations that receive a distress alert must, as soon as possible, inform the...

  8. 47 CFR 80.1121 - Receipt and acknowledgement of distress alerts by ship stations and ship earth stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... by ship stations and ship earth stations. 80.1121 Section 80.1121 Telecommunication FEDERAL... § 80.1121 Receipt and acknowledgement of distress alerts by ship stations and ship earth stations. (a) Ship or ship earth stations that receive a distress alert must, as soon as possible, inform the...

  9. 47 CFR 80.1121 - Receipt and acknowledgement of distress alerts by ship stations and ship earth stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... by ship stations and ship earth stations. 80.1121 Section 80.1121 Telecommunication FEDERAL... § 80.1121 Receipt and acknowledgement of distress alerts by ship stations and ship earth stations. (a) Ship or ship earth stations that receive a distress alert must, as soon as possible, inform the...

  10. 47 CFR 80.1121 - Receipt and acknowledgement of distress alerts by ship stations and ship earth stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... by ship stations and ship earth stations. 80.1121 Section 80.1121 Telecommunication FEDERAL... § 80.1121 Receipt and acknowledgement of distress alerts by ship stations and ship earth stations. (a) Ship or ship earth stations that receive a distress alert must, as soon as possible, inform the...

  11. IR susceptibility of naval ships using ShipIR/NTCS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaitekunas, David A.

    2010-04-01

    Methods of analysing the signature and susceptibility of naval platforms to infrared detection are described. An unclassified ShipIR destroyer model is used to illustrate the primary sources of infrared signature and detection: the exhaust system, solar-heating, and operating climate. The basic detection algorithm used by the Naval Threat Countermeasure Simulator (NTCS) component of ShipIR is described and used to analyse the effectiveness of various stealth technologies: stack suppression, low solar absorptive (LSA) paints, and Active Hull Cooling (AHC). Standard marine climate statistics are used to determine a minimum (5%), average (50%) and maximum (95%) signature condition for each operating region. The change in detection range of two wave-band sensors (3-5μm, 8-12 μm) operating at different altitudes (10m, 270m) in each of four climatic conditions is used to assess the effectiveness of each stealth solution, providing a more integral approach to infrared stealth design. These tools and methods form the basis on which future platform designs are being evaluated.

  12. 46 CFR 35.35-85 - Air compressors-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Air compressors-TB/ALL. 35.35-85 Section 35.35-85 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS OPERATIONS Cargo Handling § 35.35-85 Air compressors—TB/ALL. No person may operate, install, or reinstall an air compressor in a cargo area...

  13. 46 CFR 35.35-85 - Air compressors-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Air compressors-TB/ALL. 35.35-85 Section 35.35-85 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS OPERATIONS Cargo Handling § 35.35-85 Air compressors—TB/ALL. No person may operate, install, or reinstall an air compressor in a cargo area...

  14. 46 CFR 35.35-85 - Air compressors-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Air compressors-TB/ALL. 35.35-85 Section 35.35-85 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS OPERATIONS Cargo Handling § 35.35-85 Air compressors—TB/ALL. No person may operate, install, or reinstall an air compressor in a cargo area...

  15. 46 CFR 35.35-85 - Air compressors-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Air compressors-TB/ALL. 35.35-85 Section 35.35-85 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS OPERATIONS Cargo Handling § 35.35-85 Air compressors—TB/ALL. No person may operate, install, or reinstall an air compressor in a cargo area...

  16. 46 CFR 35.35-85 - Air compressors-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Air compressors-TB/ALL. 35.35-85 Section 35.35-85 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS OPERATIONS Cargo Handling § 35.35-85 Air compressors—TB/ALL. No person may operate, install, or reinstall an air compressor in a cargo area...

  17. SHIPPING CONTAINER FOR RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL

    DOEpatents

    Nachbar, H.D.; Biggs, B.B.; Tariello, P.J.; George, K.O.

    1963-01-15

    A shipping container is described for transponting a large number of radioactive nuclear fuel element modules which produce a substantial amount of heat. The container comprises a primary pressure vessel and shield, and a rotatable head having an access port that can be indexed with module holders in the container. In order to remove heat generated in the fuel eleme nts, a heat exchanger is arranged within the container and in contact with a heat exchange fluid therein. The heat exchanger communicates with additional external heat exchangers, which dissipate heat to the atmosphere. (AEC)

  18. Ice Nucleation from Ship Emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomson, E. S.; Weber, D.; Tuomi, J.; Pettersson, J.; Bingemer, H. G.

    2015-12-01

    Atmospheric ice particles play a significant role in many atmospheric processes and are central to the role of clouds in determining the global radiative balance. Atmospheric ice originates when Ice Nucleating Particles (INP) lower the free energy barrier to phase transformation. The Earth's polar regions are well isolated from the middle and lower latitudes and thus have limited access to INP, and therefore small changes in terms of regional sources or large scale transport of particulate may have significant impacts on polar ice cloud formation. Here we describe field measurements of INP collected in the Port of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden. The port is the largest Scandinavian seaport and thus has heavy and diverse ocean vessel traffic. Unique to this study was the ability to isolate the INP contribution directly from the ship traffic by utilizing a sampling method that nearly simultaneously captured transiting ship plumes and the background aerosol. A small but potentially significant increase in IN from marine vessels was observed over two consecutive years. The results have implications for Arctic and global climate in the context of growing global commerce and trans-polar transport.

  19. Coal-fired ships reappear

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-09-01

    A situation now exists where, in many countries, coal prices are almost half those of oil, and indications point toward this trend continuing. It is not surprising, therefore, that many shipowners are planning and building the next generation of steamships with coal-fired propulsion units. Six new coal-fired ships, the first for over 25 years, are now being built in Italy, Japan, and Spain. In the forefront in technology and systems for handling coal and ash is the British company Macawber Engineering. It has developed on-board systems responding to the problems created by coal handling on a modern steamship, problems that formed a major reason for the universal changeover to oil firing in the 1950s and 1960s. The traditional method of handling coal uses mechanical systems such as belt and draglink conveyors, and bucket elevators. These methods have disadvantages that make their use on ships far from satisfactory. Pneumatic conveying systems, due to their totally enclosed construction and relative simplicity, overcome these problems. The type of pneumatic system chosen, however, has to accommodate several other constraints imposed by on-board handling of coal. (SC)

  20. Shipping Cask Design Review Analysis.

    1998-01-04

    Version 01 SCANS (Shipping Cask ANalysis System) is a microcomputer based system of computer programs and databases for evaluating safety analysis reports on spent fuel shipping casks. SCANS calculates the global response to impact loads, pressure loads, and thermal conditions, providing reviewers with an independent check on analyses submitted by licensees. Analysis options are based on regulatory cases described in the Code of Federal Regulations (1983) and Regulatory Guides published by the NRC in 1977more » and 1978. The system is composed of a series of menus and input entry cask analysis, and output display programs. An analysis is performed by preparing the necessary input data and then selecting the appropriate analysis: impact, thermal (heat transfer), thermally-induced stress, or pressure-induced stress. All data are entered through input screens with descriptive data requests, and, where possible, default values are provided. Output (i.e., impact force, moment and sheer time histories; impact animation; thermal/stress geometry and thermal/stress element outlines; temperature distributions as isocontours or profiles; and temperature time histories) is displayed graphically and can also be printed.« less

  1. F-16XL ship #1 crew

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    November 27, 1995 Photograph of the F-16XL Ship #1 Cranked-Arrow Wing Aerodynamic Project (CAWAP) Test Team; from left to right, Ron Wilcox; Operations Engineer, Art Cope; Aircraft Mechanic, Dave Fisher; Chief Project Engineer, Dick Denman; Aircraft Mechanic, Bob Garcia; A/C Crew Chief, Susan Ligon; Aircraft Mechanic, Rodger Tarango; Mobile Operations Facility (MOF) Staff, Jerry Cousins; Aircraft Mechanic, Bruce Gallmeyer; MOF Staff, and Mike Reardon; Aircraft Mechanic/Helper. The modified airplane features a delta 'cranked-arrow' wing with strips of tubing along the leading edge to the trailing edge to sense static on the wing and obtain pressure distribution data. The right wing receives data on pressure distribution and the left wing has three types of instrumentation - preston tubes to measure local skin friction, boundary layer rakes to measure boundary layer profiles (the layer where the air interacts with the surfaces of a moving aircraft), and hot films to determine boundary layer transition locations. The first flight of CAWAP occurred at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, on November 21, 1995, and the test program ended in April 1996.

  2. Study on photovoltaic power system on ships

    SciTech Connect

    Katagi, Takeshi; Fujii, Yoshimi; Nishikawa, Eiichi; Hashimoto, Takeshi

    1995-11-01

    This paper presents the application of photovoltaic power systems to ships. Two types of leisure or fishing boats powered by photovoltaics are designed. The boats described are single hull and catamaran type with twin hulls. The design of a new electric power system using a photovoltaic power system in a harbor ship having 20 tons is also proposed. The results of this study show that the photovoltaic power system can apply to small ships.

  3. Constraints on ship NOx emissions in Europe using OMI NO2 observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vinken, G. C. M.; Boersma, K. F.

    2012-04-01

    About 90% of world trade is transported by oceangoing ships, and seaborne trade has been shown to have increased by about 5% per year in the past decade. Global ship traffic is currently not regulated under international treaties (e.g. Kyoto protocol) and ships are still allowed to burn low-grade bunker fuel. As a result, ships emit large quantities of nitrogen oxides (NOx = NO + NO2), important precursors for ozone (O3) and particulate matter formation. Previous studies indicated that the global NOx emissions from shipping are in the range 3.0-10.4 Tg N per year (15-30% of total global NOx emissions). Because most ships sail within 400 km of the coast, it is important to understand the contribution of ship emissions to atmospheric composition in the densely populated coastal regions. Chemistry Transport Models (CTMs), in combination with emission inventories, are used to simulate atmospheric concentrations of air pollutants to assess the impact of ship emissions. However, these bottom-up inventories, based on extrapolation of a few engine measurements and strong assumptions, suffer from large uncertainties. In this study we provide top-down constraints on ship NOx emissions in Europe using satellite observations of NO2 columns. We use the nested version of the GEOS-Chem model (0.5°-0.667°) to simulate tropospheric NO2 columns over Europe for the years 2005-2006, using our plume-in-grid treatment of ship NOx emissions. We improve the NO2 retrievals from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI v2.0) by replacing the coarse a priori (TM4) vertical NO2 profiles (2°-3°) with the high-resolution GEOS-Chem profiles. This ensures consistency between the retrievals and model simulations. GEOS-Chem simulations of tropospheric NO2 columns show remarkable quantitative agreement with the observed OMI columns over Europe (R2=0.89, RMS difference < 0.2-1015 molec. cm-2), providing confidence in the ability of the model to simulate NO2 pollution over the European mainland. We

  4. Convolution neural networks for ship type recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rainey, Katie; Reeder, John D.; Corelli, Alexander G.

    2016-05-01

    Algorithms to automatically recognize ship type from satellite imagery are desired for numerous maritime applications. This task is difficult, and example imagery accurately labeled with ship type is hard to obtain. Convolutional neural networks (CNNs) have shown promise in image recognition settings, but many of these applications rely on the availability of thousands of example images for training. This work attempts to under- stand for which types of ship recognition tasks CNNs might be well suited. We report the results of baseline experiments applying a CNN to several ship type classification tasks, and discuss many of the considerations that must be made in approaching this problem.

  5. Ship emissions and their externalities for Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tzannatos, Ernestos

    2010-06-01

    The existing and emerging international and European policy framework for the reduction of ship exhaust emissions dictates the need to produce reliable national, regional and global inventories in order to monitor emission trends and consequently provide the necessary support for future policy making. Furthermore, the inventories of ship exhaust emissions constitute the basis upon which their external costs are estimated in an attempt to highlight the economic burden they impose upon the society and facilitate the cost-benefit analysis of the proposed emission abatement technologies, operational measures and market-based instruments prior to their implementation. The case of Greece is of particular interest mainly because the dense ship traffic within the Greek seas directly imposes the impact of its exhaust emission pollutants (NO x, SO 2 and PM) upon the highly populated, physically sensitive and culturally precious Greek coastline, as well as upon the land and seas of Greece in general, whereas the contribution of Greece in the global CO 2 inventory at a time of climatic change awareness cannot be ignored. In this context, this paper presents the contribution of Greece in ship exhaust emissions of CO 2, NO x, SO 2 and PM from domestic and international shipping over the last 25 years (1984-2008), utilizing the fuel-based (fuel sales) emission methodology. Furthermore, the ship exhaust emissions generated within the Greek seas and their externalities are estimated for the year 2008, through utilizing the fuel-based (fuel sales) approach for domestic shipping and the activity-based (ship traffic) approach for international shipping. On this basis, it was found that during the 1984 to 2008 period the fuel-based (fuel sales) ship emission inventory for Greece increased at an average annual rate of 2.85%. In 2008, the CO 2, NO x, SO 2 and PM emissions reached 12.9 million tons (of which 12.4 million tons of CO 2) and their externalities were found to be around 3

  6. 46 CFR 197.432 - Surface-supplied air diving.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Surface-supplied air diving. 197.432 Section 197.432...-supplied air diving. The diving supervisor shall insure that— (a) Surface-supplied air diving is conducted... space; and (f) The surface-supplied air diver has the equipment required by § 197.346 (b) or (d)....

  7. Ship's doctors qualifications required for cruise ships: Recruiter's comments on the German-Norwegian debate.

    PubMed

    Ottomann, Christian

    2015-01-01

    This contribution is intended to fertilise the current discussion of ship's doctors qualifications required for cruise ships. Therefore 10 points are added to the debate containing different considerations focussing on the recommendations of the German Society of Maritime Medicine, the American College of Emergency Physicians (ACEP's) Health Care Guidelines for Cruise Ship Medical Facilities and the different skills a ship's doctor should have from the perspective of the recruiter. PMID:26394316

  8. Ship's doctors qualifications required for cruise ships: Recruiter's comments on the German-Norwegian debate.

    PubMed

    Ottomann, Christian

    2015-01-01

    This contribution is intended to fertilise the current discussion of ship's doctors qualifications required for cruise ships. Therefore 10 points are added to the debate containing different considerations focussing on the recommendations of the German Society of Maritime Medicine, the American College of Emergency Physicians (ACEP's) Health Care Guidelines for Cruise Ship Medical Facilities and the different skills a ship's doctor should have from the perspective of the recruiter.

  9. Shipping, Ships and Waterways: A Marine Education Infusion Unit. Northern New England Marine Education Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maine Univ., Orono. Coll. of Education.

    This multidisciplinary unit is designed to increase familiarity with various types of ships and purposes for different varieties of marine vessels. It seeks to increase familiarity with routes of ocean shipping and the effect of ocean conditions such as currents upon shipping route patterns. A discussion treats the uses of various navigation…

  10. Bee Line BR-1 Racer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1926-01-01

    Bee Line BR-1 Racer: The Bee Line BR-1 was a racing aircraft used to compete in the 1922 Pulitzer Air Race. The aircraft and its sister ship, the Bee Line BR-2, came to Langley and the NACA in 1926. The BR-1 is shown in the NACA hangar at Langley Field in early 1926.

  11. SNF shipping cask shielding analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, J.O.; Pace, J.V. III

    1996-01-01

    The Waste Management and Remedial Action Division has planned a modification sequence for storage facility 7827 in the Solid Waste Storage Area (SWSA). The modification cycle is: (1) modify an empty caisson, (2) transfer the spent nuclear fuel (SNF) of an occupied caisson to a hot cell in building 3525 for inspection and possible repackaging, and (3) return the package to the modified caisson in the SWSA. Although the SNF to be moved is in the solid form, it has different levels of activity. Thus, the following 5 shipping casks will be available for the task: the Loop Transport Carrier, the In- Pile Loop LITR HB-2 Carrier, the 6.5-inch HRLEL Carrier, the HFIR Hot Scrap Carrier, and the 10-inch ORR Experiment Removal Shield Cask. This report describes the shielding tasks for the 5 casks: determination of shielding characteristics, any streaming avenues, estimation of thermal limits, and shielding calculational uncertainty for use in the transportation plan.

  12. Considerations of a ship defense with a pulsed COIL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takehisa, K.

    2015-10-01

    Ship defense system with a pulsed COIL (Chemical Oxygen-Iodine Laser) has been considered. One of the greatest threats for battle ships and carriers in warfare are supersonic anti-ship cruise missiles (ASCMs). A countermeasure is considered to be a supersonic RAM (Rolling Airframe Missile) at first. A gun-type CIWS (Close-In Weapon System) should be used as the last line of defense. However since an ASCM can be detected at only 30-50km away due to radar horizon, a speed-of-light weapon is desirable as the first defense especially if the ASCM flies at >Mach 6. Our previous report explained several advantages of a giant pulse from a chemical oxygen laser (COL) to shoot down supersonic aircrafts. Since the first defense has the target distance of ~30km, the use of COIL is better considering its beam having high transmissivity in air. Therefore efficient operation of a giant-pulsed COIL has been investigated with rate-equation simulations. The simulation results indicate that efficient single-pass amplification can be expected. Also a design example of a giant-pulsed COIL MOPA (master oscillator and power amplifier) system has been shown, in which the output energy can be increased without limit.

  13. A new shipping container for an intense neutron emitter

    SciTech Connect

    Bigelow, J.E.; Alexander, C.W.; Pace, J.V. III; Simmons, C.M.

    1994-06-01

    Californium-252 is an intense neutron emitter (2.34 {times} 10{sup 12} n/s{center_dot}g) used in medicine, research, and industry. The western world`s sole source of this rare radioisotope is the Californium Facility at Oak Ridge National Laboratory`s Radiochemical Engineering Development Center (REDC). A project has been initiated at the REDC to design a new Type B Californium Shipping Container. This effort is essential for future transportation of californium to meet the needs of users all over the world. The shipping container must meet all requirements for transport by motor freight, air, vessel, and rail, both domestic and foreign. There are unique problems in the design, fabrication, and licensing of a new Type B shipping container that will accommodate up to 60 milligrams of californium-252. One of the first challenges in the design phase of the project is the selection of a material to shield the high neutron flux. The more stringent safety precautions of today`s world impel us to consider more exotic materials for such a purpose. The candidate materials must be examined not just for their neutron shielding properties, but also in conjunction with other properties such as thermal and structural requirements to withstand the hypothetical accident conditions. The design and building of such a container is a formidable task requiring much planning. The licensing process, with the complex, interactive federal codes, is a special challenge and may be the biggest on the project in terms of time and money.

  14. 46 CFR 151.45-7 - Shipping papers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Shipping papers. 151.45-7 Section 151.45-7 Shipping... BULK LIQUID HAZARDOUS MATERIAL CARGOES Operations § 151.45-7 Shipping papers. Each barge carrying... towing vessel shall either have a copy of the shipping papers for each barge in his tow or he shall...

  15. 47 CFR 80.1189 - Portable ship earth stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Portable ship earth stations. 80.1189 Section....1189 Portable ship earth stations. (a) Portable ship earth stations are authorized to operate on board more than one ship. Portable ship earth stations are also authorized to be operated on board...

  16. 47 CFR 80.1189 - Portable ship earth stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Portable ship earth stations. 80.1189 Section....1189 Portable ship earth stations. (a) Portable ship earth stations are authorized to operate on board more than one ship. Portable ship earth stations are also authorized to be operated on board...

  17. 47 CFR 80.1189 - Portable ship earth stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Portable ship earth stations. 80.1189 Section....1189 Portable ship earth stations. (a) Portable ship earth stations are authorized to operate on board more than one ship. Portable ship earth stations are also authorized to be operated on board...

  18. 47 CFR 80.1189 - Portable ship earth stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Portable ship earth stations. 80.1189 Section....1189 Portable ship earth stations. (a) Portable ship earth stations are authorized to operate on board more than one ship. Portable ship earth stations are also authorized to be operated on board...

  19. 47 CFR 80.1189 - Portable ship earth stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Portable ship earth stations. 80.1189 Section....1189 Portable ship earth stations. (a) Portable ship earth stations are authorized to operate on board more than one ship. Portable ship earth stations are also authorized to be operated on board...

  20. 46 CFR 151.45-7 - Shipping papers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Shipping papers. 151.45-7 Section 151.45-7 Shipping... BULK LIQUID HAZARDOUS MATERIAL CARGOES Operations § 151.45-7 Shipping papers. Each barge carrying... towing vessel shall either have a copy of the shipping papers for each barge in his tow or he shall...

  1. 46 CFR 173.051 - Public nautical school ships.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Public nautical school ships. 173.051 Section 173.051... PERTAINING TO VESSEL USE School Ships § 173.051 Public nautical school ships. Each public nautical school ship must comply with— (a) Section 171.070(a) of this subchapter as a passenger vessel carrying 400...

  2. 29 CFR 1926.30 - Shipbuilding and ship repairing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Shipbuilding and ship repairing. 1926.30 Section 1926.30... Provisions § 1926.30 Shipbuilding and ship repairing. (a) General. Shipbuilding, ship repairing, alterations, and maintenance performed on ships under Government contract, except naval ship construction, is...

  3. 46 CFR 173.052 - Civilian nautical school ships.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Civilian nautical school ships. 173.052 Section 173.052... PERTAINING TO VESSEL USE School Ships § 173.052 Civilian nautical school ships. Each civilian nautical school ship must comply with part 171 of this subchapter as though it were a passenger vessel. In addition...

  4. 46 CFR Sec. 5 - Measures to protect ship's payrolls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Measures to protect ship's payrolls. Sec. 5 Section 5... SHIP'S PERSONNEL Sec. 5 Measures to protect ship's payrolls. (a) General Agents are not required to... paying off the crew should be either the Master, or purser, or some other member of the ship's...

  5. 46 CFR Sec. 5 - Measures to protect ship's payrolls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Measures to protect ship's payrolls. Sec. 5 Section 5... SHIP'S PERSONNEL Sec. 5 Measures to protect ship's payrolls. (a) General Agents are not required to... paying off the crew should be either the Master, or purser, or some other member of the ship's...

  6. 46 CFR Sec. 5 - Measures to protect ship's payrolls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Measures to protect ship's payrolls. Sec. 5 Section 5... SHIP'S PERSONNEL Sec. 5 Measures to protect ship's payrolls. (a) General Agents are not required to... paying off the crew should be either the Master, or purser, or some other member of the ship's...

  7. 46 CFR 2.75-60 - Hazardous ships' stores.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Hazardous ships' stores. 2.75-60 Section 2.75-60 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY PROCEDURES APPLICABLE TO THE PUBLIC VESSEL... Personnel § 2.75-60 Hazardous ships' stores. Hazardous ships' stores, as defined in § 147.3 of this...

  8. 46 CFR 173.051 - Public nautical school ships.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Public nautical school ships. 173.051 Section 173.051... PERTAINING TO VESSEL USE School Ships § 173.051 Public nautical school ships. Each public nautical school ship must comply with— (a) Section 171.070(a) of this subchapter as a passenger vessel carrying 400...

  9. 48 CFR 1371.118 - Changes-ship repair.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Changes-ship repair. 1371... SUPPLEMENTAL REGULATIONS ACQUISITIONS INVOLVING SHIP CONSTRUCTION AND SHIP REPAIR Provisions and Clauses 1371.118 Changes—ship repair. Insert clause 1352.271-87, Changes—Ship Repair, in all solicitations...

  10. 46 CFR 173.051 - Public nautical school ships.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Public nautical school ships. 173.051 Section 173.051... PERTAINING TO VESSEL USE School Ships § 173.051 Public nautical school ships. Each public nautical school ship must comply with— (a) Section 171.070(a) of this subchapter as a passenger vessel carrying 400...

  11. 46 CFR Sec. 5 - Measures to protect ship's payrolls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Measures to protect ship's payrolls. Sec. 5 Section 5... SHIP'S PERSONNEL Sec. 5 Measures to protect ship's payrolls. (a) General Agents are not required to... paying off the crew should be either the Master, or purser, or some other member of the ship's...

  12. 48 CFR 1371.118 - Changes-ship repair.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Changes-ship repair. 1371... SUPPLEMENTAL REGULATIONS ACQUISITIONS INVOLVING SHIP CONSTRUCTION AND SHIP REPAIR Provisions and Clauses 1371.118 Changes—ship repair. Insert clause 1352.271-87, Changes—Ship Repair, in all solicitations...

  13. 46 CFR 173.052 - Civilian nautical school ships.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Civilian nautical school ships. 173.052 Section 173.052... PERTAINING TO VESSEL USE School Ships § 173.052 Civilian nautical school ships. Each civilian nautical school ship must comply with part 171 of this subchapter as though it were a passenger vessel. In addition...

  14. 46 CFR 173.052 - Civilian nautical school ships.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Civilian nautical school ships. 173.052 Section 173.052... PERTAINING TO VESSEL USE School Ships § 173.052 Civilian nautical school ships. Each civilian nautical school ship must comply with part 171 of this subchapter as though it were a passenger vessel. In addition...

  15. 47 CFR 80.1085 - Ship radio equipment-General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Ship radio equipment-General. 80.1085 Section... Requirements for Ship Stations § 80.1085 Ship radio equipment—General. This section contains the general equipment requirements for all ships subject to this subpart. (a) Ships must be provided with: (1) A...

  16. 46 CFR 2.75-60 - Hazardous ships' stores.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Hazardous ships' stores. 2.75-60 Section 2.75-60 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY PROCEDURES APPLICABLE TO THE PUBLIC VESSEL... Personnel § 2.75-60 Hazardous ships' stores. Hazardous ships' stores, as defined in § 147.3 of this...

  17. 46 CFR 173.051 - Public nautical school ships.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Public nautical school ships. 173.051 Section 173.051... PERTAINING TO VESSEL USE School Ships § 173.051 Public nautical school ships. Each public nautical school ship must comply with— (a) Section 171.070(a) of this subchapter as a passenger vessel carrying 400...

  18. 29 CFR 1926.30 - Shipbuilding and ship repairing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Shipbuilding and ship repairing. 1926.30 Section 1926.30... Provisions § 1926.30 Shipbuilding and ship repairing. (a) General. Shipbuilding, ship repairing, alterations, and maintenance performed on ships under Government contract, except naval ship construction, is...

  19. 48 CFR 1371.118 - Changes-ship repair.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Changes-ship repair. 1371... SUPPLEMENTAL REGULATIONS ACQUISITIONS INVOLVING SHIP CONSTRUCTION AND SHIP REPAIR Provisions and Clauses 1371.118 Changes—ship repair. Insert clause 1352.271-87, Changes—Ship Repair, in all solicitations...

  20. 47 CFR 80.1085 - Ship radio equipment-General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Ship radio equipment-General. 80.1085 Section... Requirements for Ship Stations § 80.1085 Ship radio equipment—General. This section contains the general equipment requirements for all ships subject to this subpart. (a) Ships must be provided with: (1) A...

  1. 46 CFR 2.75-60 - Hazardous ships' stores.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Hazardous ships' stores. 2.75-60 Section 2.75-60 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY PROCEDURES APPLICABLE TO THE PUBLIC VESSEL... Personnel § 2.75-60 Hazardous ships' stores. Hazardous ships' stores, as defined in § 147.3 of this...

  2. 48 CFR 1371.118 - Changes-ship repair.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Changes-ship repair. 1371... SUPPLEMENTAL REGULATIONS ACQUISITIONS INVOLVING SHIP CONSTRUCTION AND SHIP REPAIR Provisions and Clauses 1371.118 Changes—ship repair. Insert clause 1352.271-87, Changes—Ship Repair, in all solicitations...

  3. 29 CFR 1926.30 - Shipbuilding and ship repairing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Shipbuilding and ship repairing. 1926.30 Section 1926.30... Provisions § 1926.30 Shipbuilding and ship repairing. (a) General. Shipbuilding, ship repairing, alterations, and maintenance performed on ships under Government contract, except naval ship construction, is...

  4. 46 CFR 173.052 - Civilian nautical school ships.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Civilian nautical school ships. 173.052 Section 173.052... PERTAINING TO VESSEL USE School Ships § 173.052 Civilian nautical school ships. Each civilian nautical school ship must comply with part 171 of this subchapter as though it were a passenger vessel. In addition...

  5. 29 CFR 1926.30 - Shipbuilding and ship repairing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Shipbuilding and ship repairing. 1926.30 Section 1926.30... Provisions § 1926.30 Shipbuilding and ship repairing. (a) General. Shipbuilding, ship repairing, alterations, and maintenance performed on ships under Government contract, except naval ship construction, is...

  6. 46 CFR 2.75-60 - Hazardous ships' stores.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Hazardous ships' stores. 2.75-60 Section 2.75-60 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY PROCEDURES APPLICABLE TO THE PUBLIC VESSEL... Personnel § 2.75-60 Hazardous ships' stores. Hazardous ships' stores, as defined in § 147.3 of this...

  7. 29 CFR 1926.30 - Shipbuilding and ship repairing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Shipbuilding and ship repairing. 1926.30 Section 1926.30... Provisions § 1926.30 Shipbuilding and ship repairing. (a) General. Shipbuilding, ship repairing, alterations, and maintenance performed on ships under Government contract, except naval ship construction, is...

  8. 48 CFR 1371.118 - Changes-ship repair.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Changes-ship repair. 1371... SUPPLEMENTAL REGULATIONS ACQUISITIONS INVOLVING SHIP CONSTRUCTION AND SHIP REPAIR Provisions and Clauses 1371.118 Changes—ship repair. Insert clause 1352.271-87, Changes—Ship Repair, in all solicitations...

  9. 46 CFR 173.051 - Public nautical school ships.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Public nautical school ships. 173.051 Section 173.051... PERTAINING TO VESSEL USE School Ships § 173.051 Public nautical school ships. Each public nautical school ship must comply with— (a) Section 171.070(a) of this subchapter as a passenger vessel carrying 400...

  10. 46 CFR 173.052 - Civilian nautical school ships.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Civilian nautical school ships. 173.052 Section 173.052... PERTAINING TO VESSEL USE School Ships § 173.052 Civilian nautical school ships. Each civilian nautical school ship must comply with part 171 of this subchapter as though it were a passenger vessel. In addition...

  11. 47 CFR 80.1085 - Ship radio equipment-General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Ship radio equipment-General. 80.1085 Section... Requirements for Ship Stations § 80.1085 Ship radio equipment—General. This section contains the general equipment requirements for all ships subject to this subpart. (a) Ships must be provided with: (1) A...

  12. 46 CFR 2.75-60 - Hazardous ships' stores.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Hazardous ships' stores. 2.75-60 Section 2.75-60 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY PROCEDURES APPLICABLE TO THE PUBLIC VESSEL... Personnel § 2.75-60 Hazardous ships' stores. Hazardous ships' stores, as defined in § 147.3 of this...

  13. 46 CFR 151.45-7 - Shipping papers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Shipping papers. 151.45-7 Section 151.45-7 Shipping... BULK LIQUID HAZARDOUS MATERIAL CARGOES Operations § 151.45-7 Shipping papers. Each barge carrying... towing vessel shall either have a copy of the shipping papers for each barge in his tow or he shall...

  14. 46 CFR 151.45-7 - Shipping papers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Shipping papers. 151.45-7 Section 151.45-7 Shipping... BULK LIQUID HAZARDOUS MATERIAL CARGOES Operations § 151.45-7 Shipping papers. Each barge carrying... towing vessel shall either have a copy of the shipping papers for each barge in his tow or he shall...

  15. 46 CFR 151.45-7 - Shipping papers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Shipping papers. 151.45-7 Section 151.45-7 Shipping... BULK LIQUID HAZARDOUS MATERIAL CARGOES Operations § 151.45-7 Shipping papers. Each barge carrying... towing vessel shall either have a copy of the shipping papers for each barge in his tow or he shall...

  16. A life-saving device for ships

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Converti, P.

    1985-01-01

    A life-saving device is described which can be used on either ships or airplanes. The device consists of an airtight container for passengers equipped with elements needed for survival (oxygen, food, medicines, etc.), an energy source, and a parachute. This device can be ejected from the plane or ship when an emergency arises.

  17. 33 CFR 151.29 - Foreign ships.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ....29 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION VESSELS CARRYING OIL, NOXIOUS LIQUID SUBSTANCES, GARBAGE, MUNICIPAL OR COMMERCIAL WASTE, AND BALLAST WATER... Pertains to Pollution from Ships Oil Pollution § 151.29 Foreign ships. (a) Each oil tanker of 150...

  18. 33 CFR 151.29 - Foreign ships.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ....29 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION VESSELS CARRYING OIL, NOXIOUS LIQUID SUBSTANCES, GARBAGE, MUNICIPAL OR COMMERCIAL WASTE, AND BALLAST WATER... Pertains to Pollution from Ships Oil Pollution § 151.29 Foreign ships. (a) Each oil tanker of 150...

  19. 33 CFR 151.29 - Foreign ships.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ....29 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION VESSELS CARRYING OIL, NOXIOUS LIQUID SUBSTANCES, GARBAGE, MUNICIPAL OR COMMERCIAL WASTE, AND BALLAST WATER... Pertains to Pollution from Ships Oil Pollution § 151.29 Foreign ships. (a) Each oil tanker of 150...

  20. 33 CFR 151.29 - Foreign ships.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ....29 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION VESSELS CARRYING OIL, NOXIOUS LIQUID SUBSTANCES, GARBAGE, MUNICIPAL OR COMMERCIAL WASTE, AND BALLAST WATER... Pertains to Pollution from Ships Oil Pollution § 151.29 Foreign ships. (a) Each oil tanker of 150...

  1. 33 CFR 151.29 - Foreign ships.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ....29 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION VESSELS CARRYING OIL, NOXIOUS LIQUID SUBSTANCES, GARBAGE, MUNICIPAL OR COMMERCIAL WASTE, AND BALLAST WATER... Pertains to Pollution from Ships Oil Pollution § 151.29 Foreign ships. (a) Each oil tanker of 150...

  2. Mother ship and physical agents collaboration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, Stuart H.; Budulas, Peter P.; Emmerman, Philip J.

    1999-07-01

    This paper discusses ongoing research at the U.S. Army Research Laboratory that investigates the feasibility of developing a collaboration architecture between small physical agents and a mother ship. This incudes the distribution of planning, perception, mobility, processing and communications requirements between the mother ship and the agents. Small physical agents of the future will be virtually everywhere on the battlefield of the 21st century. A mother ship that is coupled to a team of small collaborating physical agents (conducting tasks such as Reconnaissance, Surveillance, and Target Acquisition (RSTA); logistics; sentry; and communications relay) will be used to build a completely effective and mission capable intelligent system. The mother ship must have long-range mobility to deploy the small, highly maneuverable agents that will operate in urban environments and more localized areas, and act as a logistics base for the smaller agents. The mother ship also establishes a robust communications network between the agents and is the primary information disseminating and receiving point to the external world. Because of its global knowledge and processing power, the mother ship does the high-level control and planning for the collaborative physical agents. This high level control and interaction between the mother ship and its agents (including inter agent collaboration) will be software agent architecture based. The mother ship incorporates multi-resolution battlefield visualization and analysis technology, which aids in mission planning and sensor fusion.

  3. 49 CFR 177.817 - Shipping papers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    .... Except for a hazardous waste, the certification is not required for shipments to be transported entirely... shipping paper required by this section must retain a copy or an electronic image thereof, that is... locations. For a hazardous waste, the shipping paper copy must be retained for three years after...

  4. 49 CFR 177.817 - Shipping papers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    .... Except for a hazardous waste, the certification is not required for shipments to be transported entirely... shipping paper required by this section must retain a copy or an electronic image thereof, that is... locations. For a hazardous waste, the shipping paper copy must be retained for three years after...

  5. 29 CFR 1915.162 - Ship's boilers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Ship's boilers. (a) Before work is performed in the fire, steam, or water spaces of a boiler where employees may be subject to injury from the direct escape of a high temperature medium such as steam, or... 29 Labor 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Ship's boilers. 1915.162 Section 1915.162 Labor...

  6. 29 CFR 1915.162 - Ship's boilers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Ship's boilers. (a) Before work is performed in the fire, steam, or water spaces of a boiler where employees may be subject to injury from the direct escape of a high temperature medium such as steam, or... 29 Labor 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Ship's boilers. 1915.162 Section 1915.162 Labor...

  7. 29 CFR 1915.162 - Ship's boilers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Ship's boilers. (a) Before work is performed in the fire, steam, or water spaces of a boiler where employees may be subject to injury from the direct escape of a high temperature medium such as steam, or... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Ship's boilers. 1915.162 Section 1915.162 Labor...

  8. 29 CFR 1915.162 - Ship's boilers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Ship's boilers. (a) Before work is performed in the fire, steam, or water spaces of a boiler where employees may be subject to injury from the direct escape of a high temperature medium such as steam, or... 29 Labor 7 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Ship's boilers. 1915.162 Section 1915.162 Labor...

  9. 29 CFR 1915.162 - Ship's boilers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Ship's boilers. (a) Before work is performed in the fire, steam, or water spaces of a boiler where employees may be subject to injury from the direct escape of a high temperature medium such as steam, or... 29 Labor 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Ship's boilers. 1915.162 Section 1915.162 Labor...

  10. A Bayesian approach for understanding the role of ship speed in whale-ship encounters.

    PubMed

    Gende, Scott M; Hendrix, A Noble; Harris, Karin R; Eichenlaub, Bill; Nielsen, Julie; Pyare, Sanjay

    2011-09-01

    Mandatory or voluntary reductions in ship speed are a common management strategy for reducing deleterious encounters between large ships and large whales. This has produced strong resistance from shipping and marine transportation entities, in part because very few studies have empirically demonstrated whether or to what degree ship speed influences ship-whale encounters. Here we present the results of four years of humpback whale sightings made by observers aboard cruise ships in Alaska, representing 380 cruises and 891 ship-whale encounters. Encounters occurred at distances from 21 m to 1000 m (x = 567 m) with 61 encounters (7%) occurring between 200 m and 100 m, and 19 encounters (2%) within 100 m. Encounters were spatially aggregated and highly variable across all ship speeds. Nevertheless a Bayesian change-point model found that the relationship between whale distance and ship speed changed at 11.8 knots (6.1 m/s) with whales encountering ships, on average, 114 m closer when ship speeds were above 11.8 knots. Binning encounter distances by 1-knot speed increments revealed a clear decrease in encounter distance with increasing ship speed over the range of 7-17 knots (3.6-8.7 m/s). Our results are the first to demonstrate that speed influences the encounter distance between large ships and large whales. Assuming that the closer ships come to whales the more likely they are to be struck, our results suggest that reduced ship speed may be an effective management action in reducing the probability of a collision.

  11. Cruise Ship Plume Tracking Survey Report

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2002-09-01

    The U. S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is developing a Cruise Ship Discharge Assessment Report in response to a petition the agency received in March 2000. The petition requested that EPA assess and where necessary control discharges from cruise ships. Comments received during public hearings, in 2000, resulted in the EPA agreeing to conduct a survey to assess the discharge plumes resulting from cruise ships, operating in ocean waters off the Florida coast and to compare the results to the Alaska dispersion models. This survey report describes the daily activities of August 2001 Cruise Ship Plume Tracking Survey, and provides a synopsis of the observations from the survey. It also provides data that can be used to assess dispersion of cruise ship wastewater discharges, while in transit. A description of the survey methods is provided in Section 2. Survey results are presented in Section 3. Findings and conclusions are discussed in Section 4.

  12. Call for improving air quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2013-01-01

    The European Environmental Bureau (EEB), a federation of citizen organizations, has called for stricter policies in Europe to protect human health and the environment. "Air pollution emanates from sources all around us, be they cars, industrial plants, shipping, agriculture, or waste. The [European Union] must propose ambitious legislation to address all of these sources if it is to tackle the grave public health consequences of air pollution," EEB secretary general Jeremy Wates said on 8 January.

  13. ER-2 #809 and DC-8 in Arena Arctica hangar in Kiruna, Sweden prior to the SAGE III Ozone Loss and Va

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    NASA ER-2 # 809 and its DC-8 shown in Arena Arctica before the SAGE III Ozone Loss and Validation Experiment (SOLVE). The two airborne science platforms were based north of the Arctic Circle in Kiruna, Sweden, during the winter of 2000 to study ozone depletion as part of SOLVE. A large hangar built especially for research, 'Arena Arctica' housed the instrumented aircraft and the scientists. Scientists have observed unusually low levels of ozone over the Arctic during recent winters, raising concerns that ozone depletion there could become more widespread as in the Antarctic ozone hole. The NASA-sponsored international mission took place between November 1999 and March 2000 and was divided into three phases. The DC-8 was involved in all three phases returning to Dryden between each phase. The ER-2 flew sample collection flights between January and March, remaining in Sweden from Jan. 9 through March 16. 'The collaborative campaign will provide an immense new body of information about the Arctic stratosphere,' said program scientist Dr. Michael Kurylo, NASA Headquarters. 'Our understanding of the Earth's ozone will be greatly enhanced by this research.' ER-2s bearing tail numbers 806 and 809 are used as airborne science platforms by NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center. The aircraft are platforms for a variety of high-altitude science missions flown over various parts of the world. They are also used for earth science and atmospheric sensor research and development, satellite calibration and data validation. The ER-2s are capable of carrying a maximum payload of 2,600 pounds of experiments in a nose bay, the main equipment bay behind the cockpit, two wing-mounted superpods and small underbody and trailing edges. Most ER-2 missions last about six hours with ranges of about 2,200 nautical miles. The aircraft typically fly at altitudes above 65,000 feet. On November 19, 1998, an ER-2 set a world record for medium weight aircraft reaching an altitude of 68,700 feet. The

  14. Ship2Shore Marine Educators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ewing, N. R.; Sen, G.; Doehler, S.

    2012-12-01

    The Ocean Networks Canada (ONC) Observatory, comprised of VENUS and NEPTUNE Canada (NC) cabled networks, supports transformative coastal to deep ocean research and enables real-time interactive experiments. Engaging students, educators and the public is critical to increasing the global awareness of our integral relationship with the ocean. One way to accomplish this is to encourage educators to incorporate marine science concepts into their lesson plans. ONC's new initiative, Ship2Shore Marine Educators (S2SME), enables educators to learn first hand about marine science and technology by going to sea on a maintenance/research cruise. While at sea Marine Educators (ME) participate in technology deployments, assist with water and core sampling, write daily blogs, produce short video updates, develop learning resources and conduct presentations to students on shore via video conferencing. MEs participating in the last NC cruise -"Wiring the Abyss 2012" - were fascinated with being a part of science in the real world. They had an experience of a lifetime and anticipate incorporating what they have learned into their lessons during the upcoming semester. Outreach between the MEs and ONC communication staff aboard the ship resulted in nearly 7,000 unique visitors to the "Wiring the Abyss 2012'' cruise website. Live ROPOS video feeds (~ 9,000 views), highlight videos (436 views/day), daily blogs (~1200 views) and stunning images (~391 views/day) were among the top rated pages. Visitors from 10 countries tuned in to "Wiring the Abyss 2012" and experienced the Pacific's deep sea! One of the best experiences for the MEs was connecting with students and teachers on shore via video conferencing. Roughly 300 students in BC and USA received a live connection from approximately 200km off the west coast. Students were most fascinated by a demo involving compressed Styrofoam cups, showing the intensity of pressure at the bottom of the sea. Successes: A positive working

  15. 76 FR 2403 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Ship's Store Declaration

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-13

    ... SECURITY Customs and Border Protection Agency Information Collection Activities: Ship's Store Declaration... and other Federal agencies to comment on an information collection requirement concerning the Ship's... CBP is soliciting comments concerning the following information collection: Title: Ship's...

  16. 78 FR 15031 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Ship's Store Declaration

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-08

    ... SECURITY U.S. Customs and Border Protection Agency Information Collection Activities: Ship's Store... public and other Federal agencies to comment on an information collection requirement concerning the Ship... CBP is soliciting comments concerning the following information collection: Title: Ship's...

  17. Current and future emission estimates of exhaust gases and particles from shipping at the largest port in Korea.

    PubMed

    Song, Sang-Keun; Shon, Zang-Ho

    2014-05-01

    The emissions of exhaust gases (NOx , SO2, VOCs, and CO2) and particles (e.g., PM) from ships traversing Busan Port in Korea were estimated over three different years (the years 2006, 2008, and 2009). This analysis was performed according to the ship operational modes ("at sea," "maneuvering," and "in port") and ship types based on an activity-based method. The ship emissions for current (base year 2009) and future scenarios (years 2020 and 2050) were also compared. The annual emissions of SO2, VOCs, PM, and CO2 were highest (9.6 × 10(3), 374, 1.2 × 10(3), and 5.6 × 10(5) ton year(-1), respectively) in 2008. In contrast, the annual NO x emissions were highest (11.7 × 10(3) ton year(-1)) in 2006 due mainly to the high NO x emission factor. The emissions of air pollutants for each ship operational mode differed considerably, with the largest emission observed in "in port" mode. In addition, the largest fraction (approximately 45-67%) of the emissions of all air pollutants during the study period was emitted from container ships. The future ship emissions of most pollutants (except for SO2 and PM) in 2020 and 2050 are estimated to be 1.4-1.8 and 4.7-6.1 times higher than those in 2009 (base year), respectively. PMID:24497306

  18. Green Ships: Keeping Oceans Blue

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katsioloudis, Petros J.

    2010-01-01

    The marine transport sector contributes significantly to air and water pollution, particularly in coastal areas. In the oceans, the threat to marine life comes in various forms, such as overexploitation and harvesting, dumping of waste, pollution, alien species, land reclamation, dredging, and global climate change. A congressional research report…

  19. Source apportionment of PM10 in the Western Mediterranean based on observations from a cruise ship

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schembari, C.; Bove, M. C.; Cuccia, E.; Cavalli, F.; Hjorth, J.; Massabò, D.; Nava, S.; Udisti, R.; Prati, P.

    2014-12-01

    Two intensive PM10 sampling campaigns were performed in the summers of 2009 and 2010 on the ship Costa Pacifica during cruises in the Western Mediterranean. Samples, mainly collected on an hourly basis, were analysed with different techniques (Particle Induced X-Ray Emission, PIXE; Energy Dispersive - X Ray Fluorescence, ED-XRF; Ion Chromatography, IC; Thermo-optical analysis) to retrieve the PM10 composition and its time pattern. The data were used for obtaining information about the sources of aerosol, with a focus on ship emissions, through apportionment using chemical marker compounds, correlation analysis and Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF) receptor modelling. For the campaign in 2010, 66% of the aerosol sulphate was found to be anthropogenic, only minor contributions of dust and sea salt sulphate were observed while the biogenic contribution, estimated based on the measurements of MSA, was found to be more important (26%), but influenced by large uncertainties. V and Ni were found to be suitable tracers of ship emissions during the campaigns. Four sources of aerosol were resolved by the PMF analysis; the source having the largest impact on PM10, BC and sulphate was identified as a mixed source, comprising emissions from ships. The correlations between sulphate and V and Ni showed the influence of ship emissions on sulphate in marine air masses. For the leg Palma-Tunis crossing a main ship route, the correlations between aerosol sulphate and V and Ni were particularly strong (r2 = 0.9 for both elements).

  20. Towards an integrated environmental risk assessment of emissions from ships' propulsion systems.

    PubMed

    Blasco, Julián; Durán-Grados, Vanesa; Hampel, Miriam; Moreno-Gutiérrez, Juan

    2014-05-01

    Large ships, particularly container ships, tankers, bulk carriers and cruise ships are significant individual contributors to air pollution. The European Environment Agency recognizes that air pollution in Europe is a local, regional and transborder problem caused by the emission of specific pollutants, which either directly or through chemical reactions lead to negative impacts, such as damage to human health and ecosystems. In the Marine Strategy Framework Directive 2008/56/EC of the European Parliament emissions from ships are mentioned explicitly in the list of pressures and impacts that should be reduced or minimized to maintain or obtain a good ecological status. While SOx and NOx contribute mainly to ocean and soil acidification and climate change, PM (particularly ultrafine particles in the range of nanoparticles) has the potential to act more directly on human and ecosystem health. Thus, in terms of risk assessment, one of the most dangerous atmospheric aerosols for environmental and human health is in the size range of nanoparticles. To our knowledge, no study has been carried out on the effects of the fraction that ends up in the water column and to which aquatic and sediment-dwelling organisms are exposed. Therefore, an integrated environmental risk assessment of the effects of emissions from oceangoing ships including the aquatic compartment is necessary. Research should focus on the quantitative and qualitative determination of pollutant emissions from ships and their distribution and fate. This will include the in situ measurement of emissions in ships in order to derive realistic emission factors, and the application of atmospheric and oceanographic transportation and chemistry models.

  1. Study of SHE at SHIP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hofmanna, Sigurd

    2010-06-01

    The nuclear shell model predicts that the next doubly magic shell-closure beyond 208Pb is at a proton number Z = 114, 120, or 126 and at a neutron number N = 184. The outstanding aim of experimental investigations is the exploration of this region of spherical `SuperHeavy Elements' (SHEs). Experimental methods are described, which allowed for the identification of elements produced on a cross-section level of about 1 pb. Reactions used at SHIP are based on targets of lead and uranium. The decay data reveal that for the heaviest elements, the dominant decay mode is alpha emission, not fission. Decay properties as well as reaction cross-sections are compared with results obtained at other laboratories and with results of theoretical investigations. Finally, plans are presented for the further development of the experimental set-up and the application of new techniques, as for instance the precise mass measurement of the produced nuclei using ion traps. At increased sensitivity, detailed exploration of the region of spherical SHEs will start, after first steps on the island of SHEs were made in recent years.

  2. Shipping lanes or offshore rigs

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-09-01

    This information was from the Los Angeles Steamship Association (LASSA) luncheon meeting. The problems of limiting access and availability of the Santa Barbara/Santa Catalina channels to commercial vessel traffic and other related uses. LASSA speaks for about 85% of the maritime industry in Southern California. The Association is actively seeking a compromise with the oil companies in keeping the Vessel Traffic Separation Scheme (VTSS) in the channels; however, the Western Oil and Gas Association (WOGA) is seeking to abolish VTSS as currently established in the channels and move the sea lanes outside the Channel Islands, and open up the entire Santa Barbara Channel to unlimited drilling sites. LASSA claims that moving the VTSS sea lanes outside of the Channel Islands would add 18 to 22 miles to the average trip from San Francisco to Los Angeles, with fuel cost etc. would make for a big loss to the merchant ship operators. LASSA has offered to support the concept of opening up the Buffer Zone that separates the Sea Lanes themselves to exploratory drilling. This two mile wide stretch of water is off limits to vessels and it would open new areas to the oil companies heretofore unaccessible to them. (DP)

  3. Studies of SHE at SHIP

    SciTech Connect

    Hofmann, Sigurd

    2010-04-30

    The nuclear shell model predicts that the next doubly magic shell-closure beyond {sup 208}Pb is at a proton number Z = 114, 120, or 126 and at a neutron number N = 184. The outstanding aim of experimental investigations is the exploration of this region of spherical 'Super-Heavy Elements'(SHEs). Experimental methods are described, which allowed for the identification of elements produced on a cross-section level of about 1 pb. Reactions used at SHIP are based on targets of lead and uranium. The decay data reveal that for the heaviest elements, the dominant decay mode is alpha emission, not fission. Decay properties as well as reaction cross-sections are compared with results obtained at other laboratories and with results of theoretical investigations. Finally, plans are presented for the further development of the experimental setup and the application of new techniques, as for instance the precise mass measurement of the produced nuclei using ion traps. At increased sensitivity, detailed exploration of the region of spherical SHEs will start, after first steps on the island of SHEs were made in recent years.

  4. Study of SHE at SHIP

    SciTech Connect

    Hofmanna, Sigurd

    2010-06-01

    The nuclear shell model predicts that the next doubly magic shell-closure beyond {sup 208}Pb is at a proton number Z = 114, 120, or 126 and at a neutron number N = 184. The outstanding aim of experimental investigations is the exploration of this region of spherical 'SuperHeavy Elements'(SHEs). Experimental methods are described, which allowed for the identification of elements produced on a cross-section level of about 1 pb. Reactions used at SHIP are based on targets of lead and uranium. The decay data reveal that for the heaviest elements, the dominant decay mode is alpha emission, not fission. Decay properties as well as reaction cross-sections are compared with results obtained at other laboratories and with results of theoretical investigations. Finally, plans are presented for the further development of the experimental set-up and the application of new techniques, as for instance the precise mass measurement of the produced nuclei using ion traps. At increased sensitivity, detailed exploration of the region of spherical SHEs will start, after first steps on the island of SHEs were made in recent years.

  5. CCN concentrations and BC warming influenced by maritime ship emitted aerosol plumes over southern Bay of Bengal.

    PubMed

    Ramana, M V; Devi, Archana

    2016-01-01

    Significant quantities of carbon soot aerosols are emitted into pristine parts of the atmosphere by marine shipping. Soot impacts the radiative balance of the Earth-atmosphere system by absorbing solar-terrestrial radiation and modifies the microphysical properties of clouds. Here we examined the impact of black carbon (BC) on net warming during monsoon season over southern Bay-of-Bengal, using surface and satellite measurements of aerosol plumes from shipping. Shipping plumes had enhanced the BC concentrations by a factor of four around the shipping lane and exerted a strong positive influence on net warming. Compiling all the data, we show that BC atmospheric heating rates for relatively-clean and polluted-shipping corridor locations to be 0.06 and 0.16 K/day respectively within the surface layer. Emissions from maritime ships had directly heated the lower troposphere by two-and-half times and created a gradient of around 0.1 K/day on either side of the shipping corridor. Furthermore, we show that ship emitted aerosol plumes were responsible for increase in the concentration of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) by an order of magnitude that of clean air. The effects seen here may have significant impact on the monsoonal activity over Bay-of-Bengal and implications for climate change mitigation strategies.

  6. CCN concentrations and BC warming influenced by maritime ship emitted aerosol plumes over southern Bay of Bengal

    PubMed Central

    Ramana, M. V.; Devi, Archana

    2016-01-01

    Significant quantities of carbon soot aerosols are emitted into pristine parts of the atmosphere by marine shipping. Soot impacts the radiative balance of the Earth-atmosphere system by absorbing solar-terrestrial radiation and modifies the microphysical properties of clouds. Here we examined the impact of black carbon (BC) on net warming during monsoon season over southern Bay-of-Bengal, using surface and satellite measurements of aerosol plumes from shipping. Shipping plumes had enhanced the BC concentrations by a factor of four around the shipping lane and exerted a strong positive influence on net warming. Compiling all the data, we show that BC atmospheric heating rates for relatively-clean and polluted-shipping corridor locations to be 0.06 and 0.16 K/day respectively within the surface layer. Emissions from maritime ships had directly heated the lower troposphere by two-and-half times and created a gradient of around 0.1 K/day on either side of the shipping corridor. Furthermore, we show that ship emitted aerosol plumes were responsible for increase in the concentration of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) by an order of magnitude that of clean air. The effects seen here may have significant impact on the monsoonal activity over Bay-of-Bengal and implications for climate change mitigation strategies. PMID:27480275

  7. CCN concentrations and BC warming influenced by maritime ship emitted aerosol plumes over southern Bay of Bengal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramana, M. V.; Devi, Archana

    2016-08-01

    Significant quantities of carbon soot aerosols are emitted into pristine parts of the atmosphere by marine shipping. Soot impacts the radiative balance of the Earth-atmosphere system by absorbing solar-terrestrial radiation and modifies the microphysical properties of clouds. Here we examined the impact of black carbon (BC) on net warming during monsoon season over southern Bay-of-Bengal, using surface and satellite measurements of aerosol plumes from shipping. Shipping plumes had enhanced the BC concentrations by a factor of four around the shipping lane and exerted a strong positive influence on net warming. Compiling all the data, we show that BC atmospheric heating rates for relatively-clean and polluted-shipping corridor locations to be 0.06 and 0.16 K/day respectively within the surface layer. Emissions from maritime ships had directly heated the lower troposphere by two-and-half times and created a gradient of around 0.1 K/day on either side of the shipping corridor. Furthermore, we show that ship emitted aerosol plumes were responsible for increase in the concentration of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) by an order of magnitude that of clean air. The effects seen here may have significant impact on the monsoonal activity over Bay-of-Bengal and implications for climate change mitigation strategies.

  8. CCN concentrations and BC warming influenced by maritime ship emitted aerosol plumes over southern Bay of Bengal.

    PubMed

    Ramana, M V; Devi, Archana

    2016-01-01

    Significant quantities of carbon soot aerosols are emitted into pristine parts of the atmosphere by marine shipping. Soot impacts the radiative balance of the Earth-atmosphere system by absorbing solar-terrestrial radiation and modifies the microphysical properties of clouds. Here we examined the impact of black carbon (BC) on net warming during monsoon season over southern Bay-of-Bengal, using surface and satellite measurements of aerosol plumes from shipping. Shipping plumes had enhanced the BC concentrations by a factor of four around the shipping lane and exerted a strong positive influence on net warming. Compiling all the data, we show that BC atmospheric heating rates for relatively-clean and polluted-shipping corridor locations to be 0.06 and 0.16 K/day respectively within the surface layer. Emissions from maritime ships had directly heated the lower troposphere by two-and-half times and created a gradient of around 0.1 K/day on either side of the shipping corridor. Furthermore, we show that ship emitted aerosol plumes were responsible for increase in the concentration of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) by an order of magnitude that of clean air. The effects seen here may have significant impact on the monsoonal activity over Bay-of-Bengal and implications for climate change mitigation strategies. PMID:27480275

  9. 48 CFR 47.305-16 - Shipping characteristics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... CONTRACT MANAGEMENT TRANSPORTATION Transportation in Supply Contracts 47.305-16 Shipping characteristics. (a) Required shipping weights. The contracting officer shall insert in solicitations and...

  10. 48 CFR 47.305-16 - Shipping characteristics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... CONTRACT MANAGEMENT TRANSPORTATION Transportation in Supply Contracts 47.305-16 Shipping characteristics. (a) Required shipping weights. The contracting officer shall insert in solicitations and...

  11. [Histoplasmosis outbreak in Morón, Buenos Aires Province, Argentina].

    PubMed

    Negroni, R; Duré, R; Ortiz Nareto, A; Arechavala, A I; Maiolo, E I; Santiso, G M; Iovannitti, C; Ibarra-Camou, B; Canteros, C E

    2010-01-01

    A histoplasmosis outbreak affecting 6 previously healthy Air Force cadets is herein presented. The patients suffered from fever and respiratory symptoms after having cleaned an abandoned hangar soiled with pigeons and bat droppings. They all presented fever, myalgia, tachypnea, and nonproductive cough. Chest X-ray and CT scan studies showed disseminated reticulonodular images affecting both lungs. Hiliar adenomegalies were also observed. All patients achieved a favourable outcome without antifungal treatment. Both serologic tests searching for specificic antibodies (immunodiffusion and counterimmunoelectrophoresis) and histoplasmin skin tests were positive in all cases. Five soil samples mixed with pigeons and bat droppings were collected from the hangar. Suspensions of these samples were inoculated into 20 hamsters by intraperitoneal injection; mycelial phase of H. capsulatum was isolated from liver and spleen cultures. The genetic profile of this strain was compared with 12 isolates obtained from Argentinean patients, and a great degree of homogeneity was observed (> 96% similarity). Although histoplasmosis is endemic in the wet Pampas, this is the first epidemic outbreak reported south of the 34th parallel.

  12. [Histoplasmosis outbreak in Morón, Buenos Aires Province, Argentina].

    PubMed

    Negroni, R; Duré, R; Ortiz Nareto, A; Arechavala, A I; Maiolo, E I; Santiso, G M; Iovannitti, C; Ibarra-Camou, B; Canteros, C E

    2010-01-01

    A histoplasmosis outbreak affecting 6 previously healthy Air Force cadets is herein presented. The patients suffered from fever and respiratory symptoms after having cleaned an abandoned hangar soiled with pigeons and bat droppings. They all presented fever, myalgia, tachypnea, and nonproductive cough. Chest X-ray and CT scan studies showed disseminated reticulonodular images affecting both lungs. Hiliar adenomegalies were also observed. All patients achieved a favourable outcome without antifungal treatment. Both serologic tests searching for specificic antibodies (immunodiffusion and counterimmunoelectrophoresis) and histoplasmin skin tests were positive in all cases. Five soil samples mixed with pigeons and bat droppings were collected from the hangar. Suspensions of these samples were inoculated into 20 hamsters by intraperitoneal injection; mycelial phase of H. capsulatum was isolated from liver and spleen cultures. The genetic profile of this strain was compared with 12 isolates obtained from Argentinean patients, and a great degree of homogeneity was observed (> 96% similarity). Although histoplasmosis is endemic in the wet Pampas, this is the first epidemic outbreak reported south of the 34th parallel. PMID:21229193

  13. Mapping probability of shipping sound exposure level.

    PubMed

    Gervaise, Cédric; Aulanier, Florian; Simard, Yvan; Roy, Nathalie

    2015-06-01

    Mapping vessel noise is emerging as one method of identifying areas where sound exposure due to shipping noise could have negative impacts on aquatic ecosystems. The probability distribution function (pdf) of sound exposure levels (SEL) is an important metric for identifying areas of concern. In this paper a probabilistic shipping SEL modeling method is described to obtain the pdf of SEL using the sonar equation and statistical relations linking the pdfs of ship traffic density, source levels, and transmission losses to their products and sums.

  14. Attribution of atmospheric sulfur dioxide over the English Channel to dimethyl sulfide and changing ship emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Mingxi; Bell, Thomas G.; Hopkins, Frances E.; Smyth, Timothy J.

    2016-04-01

    Atmospheric sulfur dioxide (SO2) was measured continuously from the Penlee Point Atmospheric Observatory (PPAO) near Plymouth, United Kingdom, between May 2014 and November 2015. This coastal site is exposed to marine air across a wide wind sector. The predominant southwesterly winds carry relatively clean background Atlantic air. In contrast, air from the southeast is heavily influenced by exhaust plumes from ships in the English Channel as well as near Plymouth Sound. A new International Maritime Organization (IMO) regulation came into force in January 2015 to reduce the maximum allowed sulfur content in ships' fuel 10-fold in sulfur emission control areas such as the English Channel. Our observations suggest a 3-fold reduction in ship-emitted SO2 from 2014 to 2015. Apparent fuel sulfur content calculated from coincidental SO2 and carbon dioxide (CO2) peaks from local ship plumes show a high level of compliance to the IMO regulation (> 95 %) in both years (˜ 70 % of ships in 2014 were already emitting at levels below the 2015 cap). Dimethyl sulfide (DMS) is an important source of atmospheric SO2 even in this semi-polluted region. The relative contribution of DMS oxidation to the SO2 burden over the English Channel increased from about one-third in 2014 to about one-half in 2015 due to the reduction in ship sulfur emissions. Our diel analysis suggests that SO2 is removed from the marine atmospheric boundary layer in about half a day, with dry deposition to the ocean accounting for a quarter of the total loss.

  15. Estimating shipping emissions in the region of the Sea of Marmara, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Deniz, Cengiz; Durmuşoğlu, Yalçin

    2008-02-01

    Ship emissions are significantly increasing globally and have remarkable impact on air quality on sea and land. These emissions contribute serious adverse health and environmental effects. Territorial waters, inland seas and ports are the regions most affected by ship emissions. As an inland sea the Sea of Marmara is an area that has too much ship traffic. Since the region of the Marmara is highly urbanized, emissions from ships affect human health and the overall environment. In this paper exhaust gas emissions from ships in the Sea of Marmara and the Turkish Straits are calculated by utilizing the data acquired in 2003. Main engine types, fuel types, operations types, navigation times and speeds of vessels are taken into consideration in the study. Total emissions from ships in the study area were estimated as 5,451,224 t y(-1) for CO(2), 111,039 t y(-1) for NO(x), 87,168 t y(-1) for SO(2), 20,281 t y(-1) for CO, 5801 t y(-1) for VOC, 4762 t y(-1) for PM. The shipping emissions in the region are equivalent to 11% of NO(x) 0.1% of CO and 0.12% of PM of the corresponding total emissions in Turkey. The shipping emissions in the area are 46% of NO(x), 25% of PM and 1.5% of CO of road traffic emissions in Turkey data between which and correspond to a higher level than aircraft emissions and rail emissions in Turkey.

  16. Global Volunteer Observing Ship (VOS) Program Data

    DOE Data Explorer

    CDIAC provides data management support for the Global Volunteer Observing Ship (VOS) Program. The VOS project is coordinated by the UNESCO International Ocean Carbon Coordination Project (IOCCP). The international groups from 14 countries have been outfitting research ships and commercial vessels with automated CO2 sampling equipment to analyze the carbon exchange between the ocean and atmosphere. [copied from http://cdiac.ornl.gov/oceans/genInfo.html] CDIAC provides a map interface with the shipping routes of the 14 countries involved marked in different colors. Clicking on the ship's name on that route brings up information about the vessel, the kinds of measurements collected and the timeframe, links to project pages, and, most important, the links to the data files themselves. The 14 countries are: United States, United Kingdom, Japan, France, Germany, Australia, Canada, Spain, Norway, New Zealand, China (including Taiwan), Iceland, and the Netherlands. Both archived and current, underway data can be accessed from the CDIAC VOS page.

  17. Projections and predictability of Arctic shipping accessibility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melia, Nathanael; Haines, Keith; Hawkins, Ed

    2016-04-01

    The observed reduction in Arctic sea ice opens up the potential for shorter shipping routes across the Arctic Ocean, leading to potentially significant global economic savings. We demonstrate, using bias-corrected global climate models, that the projected sea ice melt through the 21st century increases opportunities for ships to sail through the Arctic between North Atlantic and East Asian ports. Transit potential for Open Water vessels doubles from early to mid-century and coincides with the opening of the trans-polar sea route. Although seasonal, routes become more reliable with an overall increased shipping season length, but with considerable variability from year-to-year. We also demonstrate that there is potential predictability for whether a particular season will be relatively open or closed to shipping access from a few months ahead.

  18. Ship dynamics for maritime ISAR imaging.

    SciTech Connect

    Doerry, Armin Walter

    2008-02-01

    Demand is increasing for imaging ships at sea. Conventional SAR fails because the ships are usually in motion, both with a forward velocity, and other linear and angular motions that accompany sea travel. Because the target itself is moving, this becomes an Inverse- SAR, or ISAR problem. Developing useful ISAR techniques and algorithms is considerably aided by first understanding the nature and characteristics of ship motion. Consequently, a brief study of some principles of naval architecture sheds useful light on this problem. We attempt to do so here. Ship motions are analyzed for their impact on range-Doppler imaging using Inverse Synthetic Aperture Radar (ISAR). A framework for analysis is developed, and limitations of simple ISAR systems are discussed.

  19. Radioactive materials shipping cask anticontamination enclosure

    DOEpatents

    Belmonte, Mark S.; Davis, James H.; Williams, David A.

    1982-01-01

    An anticontamination device for use in storing shipping casks for radioactive materials comprising (1) a seal plate assembly; (2) a double-layer plastic bag; and (3) a water management system or means for water management.

  20. Humanitarian otolaryngology: a navy hospital ship experience.

    PubMed

    Chadwick, Jonathan L; Sridhara, Shankar; Goodrich, Jennifer; Mitchell, Allen O; Gessler, Eric M

    2014-12-01

    The USNS Comfort (T-AH-20) is 1 of 2 United States Navy hospital ships. In 2011, she deployed to 9 countries in Central and South America including Jamaica, Peru, Colombia, Ecuador, Nicaragua, Guatemala, El Salvador, Costa Rica, and Haiti. Eight surgical specialties including otolaryngology were involved, for a combined total of about 150 cases per country. An advance team coordinated patients with the Host Nation to be seen for presurgical screening. Selected patients were then taken aboard the ship for surgery and recovered in either the ship's intensive care unit or ward. They were then discharged prior to ship embarkment to the next country. A total of 95 otolaryngology cases were performed during 9 mission stops. The mean number of procedures performed was 12 per country, with thyroidectomy being the most common. A wide variety of general otolaryngology procedures were performed without significant complications, markedly impacting the quality of life in these underserved countries. PMID:25193516

  1. Asteroids as Propulsion Systems of Space Ships

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bolonkin, Alexander

    2003-01-01

    Currently, rockets are used to change the trajectory of space ships and probes. This method is very expensive and requires a lot of fuel, which limits the feasibility of space stations, interplanetary space ships, and probes. Sometimes space probes use the gravity field of a planet However, there am only nine planets in the Solar System, all separated by great distances. There are tons of millions of asteroids in outer space. This paper offers a revolutionary method for changing the trajectory of space probes. The method uses the kinetic or rotary energy of asteroids, comet nuclei, meteorites or other space bodies (small planets, natural planetary satellites, space debris, etc.) to increase (to decrease) ship (probe) speed up to 1000 m/sec (or more) and to achieve any new direction in outer space. The flight possibilities of space ships and probes are increased by a factor of millions.

  2. Humanitarian otolaryngology: a navy hospital ship experience.

    PubMed

    Chadwick, Jonathan L; Sridhara, Shankar; Goodrich, Jennifer; Mitchell, Allen O; Gessler, Eric M

    2014-12-01

    The USNS Comfort (T-AH-20) is 1 of 2 United States Navy hospital ships. In 2011, she deployed to 9 countries in Central and South America including Jamaica, Peru, Colombia, Ecuador, Nicaragua, Guatemala, El Salvador, Costa Rica, and Haiti. Eight surgical specialties including otolaryngology were involved, for a combined total of about 150 cases per country. An advance team coordinated patients with the Host Nation to be seen for presurgical screening. Selected patients were then taken aboard the ship for surgery and recovered in either the ship's intensive care unit or ward. They were then discharged prior to ship embarkment to the next country. A total of 95 otolaryngology cases were performed during 9 mission stops. The mean number of procedures performed was 12 per country, with thyroidectomy being the most common. A wide variety of general otolaryngology procedures were performed without significant complications, markedly impacting the quality of life in these underserved countries.

  3. MeSMarT - Measurements of Shipping Emissions in the Marine Troposphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kattner, Lisa; Mathieu-Üffing, Barbara; Chirkov, Maksym; Burrows, John; Matthias, Volker; Richter, Andreas; Schmolke, Stefan; Theobald, Norbert; Weigelt-Krenz, Sieglinde; Wittrock, Folkard

    2013-04-01

    A new project called MeSMarT (Measurements of shipping emissions in the marine troposphere) to estimate the influence of ship emissions on the chemistry of the atmospheric boundary layer over the North Sea has been established in cooperation with the German Bundesamt für Seeschifffahrt und Hydrographie (Federal Maritime and Hydrographic Agency). Over the last years discussions about ship emissions have increased and grown in importance due to the increase of commercial shipping as well as studies about their dangerous health effects. While industrial and traffic air pollution from ashore is decreasing because of technological improvements and stronger political regulations the impact of ship emissions becomes more relevant, especially in coastal areas and harbor cities. The establishment of a Sulfur Emission Controlled Area (SECA) for the North Sea and the Baltic Sea has been a first step to control and reduce ship emissions by consecutively regulating the sulfur content of fuels. The project MeSMarT aims to monitor background concentration as well as elevated signals of gases and particles related to ship emissions with various physical and chemical methods to cover a wide range of relevant pollutants and their spatial and seasonal distribution. SO2, NO2, NO, CO2 and O3 are measured with in situ techniques, SO2 and NO2 as well by remote sensing applying the MAXDOAS-technique. The data will also be compared with satellite measurements and passive sampling in order to find a method to observe the long-term effect of regulations like SECA. High volume filter samples will be taken and analyzed especially for sulfate, nitrate, organics and elemental composition to investigate possible sources, sinks and conversion of ship emission derived compounds. Measurements and sampling take place during ship campaigns primarily in the North Sea and will be complemented with stationary measurements located on a coastal site close to the main shipping routes through the German

  4. 46 CFR 154.1710 - Exclusion of air from cargo tank vapor spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Exclusion of air from cargo tank vapor spaces. 154.1710 Section 154.1710 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS... Operating Requirements § 154.1710 Exclusion of air from cargo tank vapor spaces. When a vessel is...

  5. X-31 Wing Storage for Shipping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    The right wing of the X-31 Enhanced Fighter Maneuverability Technology Demonstrator Aircraft is seen here being put into a shipping container May 18, 1995, at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, by U.S. and German members of the program. To fit inside an Air Force Reserve C-5 transport, which was used to ferry the X-31 to Europe on May 22, 1995, the right wing had to be removed. Manching, Germany, was used as a staging base to prepare the aircraft for participation in the Paris Air Show. At the air show on June 11 through the 18th, the X-31 demonstrated the value of using thrust vectoring (directing engine exhaust flow) coupled with advanced flight control systems to provide controlled flight at very high angles of attack. The aircraft arrived back at Edwards in an Air Force Reserve C-5 on June 25, 1995, and off loaded at Dryden the 27th. The X-31 aircraft was developed jointly by Rockwell International's North American Aircraft Division (now part of Boeing) and Daimler-Benz Aerospace (formerly Messerschmitt-Bolkow-Blohm), under sponsorship by the U.S. Department of Defense and The German Federal Ministry of Defense. The X-31 Enhanced Fighter Maneuverability (EFM) demonstrator flew at the Ames- Dryden Flight Research Facility, Edwards, California (redesignated the Dryden Flight Research Center in 1994) from February 1992 until 1995 and before that at the Air Force's Plant 42 in Palmdale, California. The goal of the project was to provide design information for the next generation of highly maneuverable fighter aircraft. This program demonstrated the value of using thrust vectoring (directing engine exhaust flow) coupled with an advanced flight control system to provide controlled flight to very high angles of attack. The result was a significant advantage over most conventional fighters in close-in combat situations. The X-31 flight program focused on agile flight within the post-stall regime, producing technical data to give aircraft

  6. Structural health monitoring for ship structures

    SciTech Connect

    Farrar, Charles; Park, Gyuhae; Angel, Marian; Bement, Matthew; Salvino, Liming

    2009-01-01

    Currently the Office of Naval Research is supporting the development of structural health monitoring (SHM) technology for U.S. Navy ship structures. This application is particularly challenging because of the physical size of these structures, the widely varying and often extreme operational and environmental conditions associated with these ships missions, lack of data from known damage conditions, limited sensing that was not designed specifically for SHM, and the management of the vast amounts of data that can be collected during a mission. This paper will first define a statistical pattern recognition paradigm for SHM by describing the four steps of (1) Operational Evaluation, (2) Data Acquisition, (3) Feature Extraction, and (4) Statistical Classification of Features as they apply to ship structures. Note that inherent in the last three steps of this process are additional tasks of data cleansing, compression, normalization and fusion. The presentation will discuss ship structure SHM challenges in the context of applying various SHM approaches to sea trials data measured on an aluminum multi-hull high-speed ship, the HSV-2 Swift. To conclude, the paper will discuss several outstanding issues that need to be addressed before SHM can make the transition from a research topic to actual field applications on ship structures and suggest approaches for addressing these issues.

  7. Nonlinear ship waves and computational fluid dynamics.

    PubMed

    Miyata, Hideaki; Orihara, Hideo; Sato, Yohei

    2014-01-01

    Research works undertaken in the first author's laboratory at the University of Tokyo over the past 30 years are highlighted. Finding of the occurrence of nonlinear waves (named Free-Surface Shock Waves) in the vicinity of a ship advancing at constant speed provided the start-line for the progress of innovative technologies in the ship hull-form design. Based on these findings, a multitude of the Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) techniques have been developed over this period, and are highlighted in this paper. The TUMMAC code has been developed for wave problems, based on a rectangular grid system, while the WISDAM code treats both wave and viscous flow problems in the framework of a boundary-fitted grid system. These two techniques are able to cope with almost all fluid dynamical problems relating to ships, including the resistance, ship's motion and ride-comfort issues. Consequently, the two codes have contributed significantly to the progress in the technology of ship design, and now form an integral part of the ship-designing process.

  8. Inspiration of the functional localization of a US naval hospital ship on a Chinese hospital ship.

    PubMed

    Li, Da-Wei; Zhang, Zhi-Cheng; Zhu, Wen-Ya; Sun, Tao

    2016-01-01

    Through the experience of being stationed on the USS Mercy hospital ship (T-AH19) and a preliminary comprehension of the personnel and material arrangements, processing and functional formats, and the multi-platform contributions of US Navy hospital ships, we briefly introduce the characteristics of US hospital ships regarding medical support, emergency rescue exercises, communications and training, international humanitarian aid, etc. We discuss the function and responsibility of Chinese hospital ships, focusing on the investigation of the construction mode and positioning in the navy. PMID:27051523

  9. Inspiration of the functional localization of a US naval hospital ship on a Chinese hospital ship.

    PubMed

    Li, Da-Wei; Zhang, Zhi-Cheng; Zhu, Wen-Ya; Sun, Tao

    2016-01-01

    Through the experience of being stationed on the USS Mercy hospital ship (T-AH19) and a preliminary comprehension of the personnel and material arrangements, processing and functional formats, and the multi-platform contributions of US Navy hospital ships, we briefly introduce the characteristics of US hospital ships regarding medical support, emergency rescue exercises, communications and training, international humanitarian aid, etc. We discuss the function and responsibility of Chinese hospital ships, focusing on the investigation of the construction mode and positioning in the navy.

  10. Research experiments at Hangar L

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Research technician Lisa Ruffa works with a wheat sample that is part of ground testing for the first International Space Station plant experiment, scheduled to fly in October 2001. The payload process testing is one of many studies being performed at the Biological Sciences Branch in the Spaceport Engineering and Technology Directorate at Kennedy Space Center. The branch's operations and research areas include life sciences Space Shuttle payloads, bioregenerative life-support for long-duration spaceflight and environmental/ecological stewardship.

  11. Research experiments at Hangar L

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Researchers work with wheat samples that are part of ground testing for the first International Space Station plant experiment, scheduled to fly in October 2001. From left are research scientist Oscar Monje and research technicians Lisa Ruffa and Ignacio Eraso. The payload process testing they are performing is one of many studies at the Biological Sciences Branch in the Spaceport Engineering and Technology Directorate at Kennedy Space Center. The branch's operations and research areas include life sciences Space Shuttle payloads, bioregenerative life-support for long-duration spaceflight and environmental/ecological stewardship.

  12. F-16XL in hangar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    A bug's-eye view of NASA's F-16XL at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, shows the unique shape of its delta 'cranked arrow' wing. The aircraft was most recently used in the Cranked-Arrow Wing Aerodynamics Project (CAWAP) to test boundary layer pressures and distribution. Previously it been used in a program to investigate the characteristics of sonic booms for NASA's High Speed Research Program. Data from the program could be used in the development of a high speed civilian transport. During the series of sonic boom research flights, the F-16XL was used to probe the shock waves being generated by a NASA SR-71 to record their shape and intensity.

  13. 46 CFR 197.432 - Surface-supplied air diving.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Surface-supplied air diving. 197.432 Section 197.432... STANDARDS GENERAL PROVISIONS Commercial Diving Operations Specific Diving Mode Procedures § 197.432 Surface-supplied air diving. The diving supervisor shall insure that— (a) Surface-supplied air diving is...

  14. 46 CFR 154.1852 - Air breathing equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Air breathing equipment. 154.1852 Section 154.1852... STANDARDS FOR SELF-PROPELLED VESSELS CARRYING BULK LIQUEFIED GASES Operations § 154.1852 Air breathing equipment. (a) The master shall ensure that a licensed officer inspects the compressed air...

  15. 46 CFR 154.1852 - Air breathing equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Air breathing equipment. 154.1852 Section 154.1852... STANDARDS FOR SELF-PROPELLED VESSELS CARRYING BULK LIQUEFIED GASES Operations § 154.1852 Air breathing equipment. (a) The master shall ensure that a licensed officer inspects the compressed air...

  16. 46 CFR 154.1852 - Air breathing equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Air breathing equipment. 154.1852 Section 154.1852... STANDARDS FOR SELF-PROPELLED VESSELS CARRYING BULK LIQUEFIED GASES Operations § 154.1852 Air breathing equipment. (a) The master shall ensure that a licensed officer inspects the compressed air...

  17. 46 CFR 154.1852 - Air breathing equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Air breathing equipment. 154.1852 Section 154.1852... STANDARDS FOR SELF-PROPELLED VESSELS CARRYING BULK LIQUEFIED GASES Operations § 154.1852 Air breathing equipment. (a) The master shall ensure that a licensed officer inspects the compressed air...

  18. 46 CFR 91.60-45 - American Bureau of Shipping.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false American Bureau of Shipping. 91.60-45 Section 91.60-45 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CARGO AND MISCELLANEOUS VESSELS INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION Certificates Under International Convention for Safety of Life at Sea, 1974 § 91.60-45 American Bureau of Shipping. (a)...

  19. 46 CFR 169.817 - Master to instruct ship's company.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Master to instruct ship's company. 169.817 Section 169.817 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS SAILING SCHOOL VESSELS Operations § 169.817 Master to instruct ship's company. The master shall conduct drills and...

  20. 32 CFR 700.872 - Ships and craft in drydock.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Ships and craft in drydock. 700.872 Section 700... Special Circumstances/ships in Naval Stations and Shipyards § 700.872 Ships and craft in drydock. (a) The commanding officer of a ship in drydock shall be responsible for effecting adequate closure, during...

  1. 46 CFR 188.10-73 - Ships' stores and supplies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Ships' stores and supplies. 188.10-73 Section 188.10-73 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OCEANOGRAPHIC RESEARCH VESSELS GENERAL PROVISIONS Definition of Terms Used in This Subchapter § 188.10-73 Ships' stores and supplies. This...

  2. 46 CFR 71.75-5 - Passenger Ship Safety Certificate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Passenger Ship Safety Certificate. 71.75-5 Section 71.75... Passenger Ship Safety Certificate. (a) All vessels on or certificated for an international voyage are required to have a “ SOLAS Passenger Ship Safety Certificate.” (b) All such vessels shall meet...

  3. 47 CFR 80.1083 - Ship radio installations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies of this standard can be inspected at the Federal... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Ship radio installations. 80.1083 Section 80... for Ship Stations § 80.1083 Ship radio installations. (a) Ships must be provided with...

  4. 47 CFR 80.1123 - Watch requirements for ship stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Watch requirements for ship stations. 80.1123... Procedures for Distress and Safety Communications § 80.1123 Watch requirements for ship stations. (a) While at sea, all ships must maintain a continuous watch: (1) On VHF DSC channel 70, if the ship is...

  5. 32 CFR 761.12 - Ships: Group authorizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Ships: Group authorizations. 761.12 Section 761... TRUST TERRITORY OF THE PACIFIC ISLANDS Entry Authorization § 761.12 Ships: Group authorizations. Ships or other craft in the following categories, except those ships which have been denied...

  6. 46 CFR 45.51 - Types of ships.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Types of ships. 45.51 Section 45.51 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) LOAD LINES GREAT LAKES LOAD LINES Freeboards § 45.51 Types of ships. (a) For the purpose of this subpart, a type A vessel has— (1) No cargo ports or similar...

  7. 32 CFR 761.12 - Ships: Group authorizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Ships: Group authorizations. 761.12 Section 761... TRUST TERRITORY OF THE PACIFIC ISLANDS Entry Authorization § 761.12 Ships: Group authorizations. Ships or other craft in the following categories, except those ships which have been denied...

  8. 7 CFR 987.62 - Reports of dates shipped.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Reports of dates shipped. 987.62 Section 987.62... dates shipped. Each handler who ships dates during a crop year shall submit to the Committee, in such... shipped by him and such other information pertinent thereto as the Committee may specify....

  9. 33 CFR 104.295 - Additional requirements-cruise ships.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... ships. 104.295 Section 104.295 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... requirements—cruise ships. (a) At all MARSEC Levels, the owner or operator of a cruise ship must ensure the... cruise ship must ensure that security briefs to passengers about the specific threat are provided....

  10. 46 CFR 176.910 - Passenger Ship Safety Certificate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Passenger Ship Safety Certificate. 176.910 Section 176..., as Amended (SOLAS) § 176.910 Passenger Ship Safety Certificate. (a) A vessel, which carries more than 12 passengers on an international voyage must have a valid SOLAS Passenger Ship Safety...

  11. 27 CFR 26.114 - Permit to ship required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Permit to ship required... Liquors and Articles in Puerto Rico Permit to Ship Liquors and Articles § 26.114 Permit to ship required... paid or deferred as prescribed in this subpart, may be shipped to the United States, a permit to...

  12. 46 CFR 71.75-5 - Passenger Ship Safety Certificate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Passenger Ship Safety Certificate. 71.75-5 Section 71.75... Passenger Ship Safety Certificate. (a) All vessels on or certificated for an international voyage are required to have a “ SOLAS Passenger Ship Safety Certificate.” (b) All such vessels shall meet...

  13. 33 CFR 104.295 - Additional requirements-cruise ships.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... ships. 104.295 Section 104.295 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... requirements—cruise ships. (a) At all MARSEC Levels, the owner or operator of a cruise ship must ensure the... cruise ship must ensure that security briefs to passengers about the specific threat are provided....

  14. 7 CFR 987.62 - Reports of dates shipped.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Reports of dates shipped. 987.62 Section 987.62... dates shipped. Each handler who ships dates during a crop year shall submit to the Committee, in such... shipped by him and such other information pertinent thereto as the Committee may specify....

  15. 46 CFR 71.75-5 - Passenger Ship Safety Certificate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Passenger Ship Safety Certificate. 71.75-5 Section 71.75... Passenger Ship Safety Certificate. (a) All vessels on or certificated for an international voyage are required to have a “ SOLAS Passenger Ship Safety Certificate.” (b) All such vessels shall meet...

  16. 46 CFR 176.910 - Passenger Ship Safety Certificate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Passenger Ship Safety Certificate. 176.910 Section 176..., as Amended (SOLAS) § 176.910 Passenger Ship Safety Certificate. (a) A vessel, which carries more than 12 passengers on an international voyage must have a valid SOLAS Passenger Ship Safety...

  17. 46 CFR 115.910 - Passenger Ship Safety Certificate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Passenger Ship Safety Certificate. 115.910 Section 115... Ship Safety Certificate. (a) A vessel that carries more than 12 passengers on an international voyage must have a valid SOLAS Passenger Ship Safety Certificate. The Commandant authorizes the...

  18. 44 CFR 402.5 - Forwarding commodities previously shipped.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... previously shipped. 402.5 Section 402.5 Emergency Management and Assistance DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE AND DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION SHIPMENTS ON AMERICAN FLAG SHIPS AND AIRCRAFT (T-1, INT. 1) § 402.5 Forwarding commodities previously shipped. Order T-1 applies to transportation on or discharge from ships...

  19. 46 CFR 176.910 - Passenger Ship Safety Certificate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Passenger Ship Safety Certificate. 176.910 Section 176..., as Amended (SOLAS) § 176.910 Passenger Ship Safety Certificate. (a) A vessel, which carries more than 12 passengers on an international voyage must have a valid SOLAS Passenger Ship Safety...

  20. 47 CFR 80.1123 - Watch requirements for ship stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Watch requirements for ship stations. 80.1123... Procedures for Distress and Safety Communications § 80.1123 Watch requirements for ship stations. (a) While at sea, all ships must maintain a continuous watch: (1) On VHF DSC channel 70, if the ship is...