Science.gov

Sample records for air solid waste

  1. Solid Waste, Air Pollution and Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kupchik, George J.; Franz, Gerald J.

    1976-01-01

    This article examines the relationships among solid waste disposal, air pollution, and human disease. It is estimated that solid waste disposal contributes 9.7 percent of the total air pollution and 9.9 percent of the total air pollution health effect. Certain disposal-resource recovery systems can be implemented to meet air quality standards. (MR)

  2. 40 CFR 60.752 - Standards for air emissions from municipal solid waste landfills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... municipal solid waste landfills. 60.752 Section 60.752 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... of Performance for Municipal Solid Waste Landfills § 60.752 Standards for air emissions from municipal solid waste landfills. (a) Each owner or operator of an MSW landfill having a design capacity...

  3. 40 CFR 60.752 - Standards for air emissions from municipal solid waste landfills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... municipal solid waste landfills. 60.752 Section 60.752 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... of Performance for Municipal Solid Waste Landfills § 60.752 Standards for air emissions from municipal solid waste landfills. (a) Each owner or operator of an MSW landfill having a design capacity...

  4. 40 CFR 60.752 - Standards for air emissions from municipal solid waste landfills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... municipal solid waste landfills. 60.752 Section 60.752 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... of Performance for Municipal Solid Waste Landfills § 60.752 Standards for air emissions from municipal solid waste landfills. (a) Each owner or operator of an MSW landfill having a design capacity...

  5. 40 CFR 60.752 - Standards for air emissions from municipal solid waste landfills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... municipal solid waste landfills. 60.752 Section 60.752 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... of Performance for Municipal Solid Waste Landfills § 60.752 Standards for air emissions from municipal solid waste landfills. (a) Each owner or operator of an MSW landfill having a design capacity...

  6. VITRIFICATION OF MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE COMBUSTION AIR POLLUTION CONTROL RESIDUES USING CORNING, INC. PROCESS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A demonstration was conducted to vitrify municipal solid waste (MSW) combustor air pollution control residue (APC) under the USEPA Municipal Waste Innovative Technology Evaluation Program. uplicate demonstration was conducted using a process developed by Corning Inc. in a cold cr...

  7. 40 CFR 60.752 - Standards for air emissions from municipal solid waste landfills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Standards for air emissions from municipal solid waste landfills. 60.752 Section 60.752 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for Municipal Solid...

  8. Wet air oxidation of solid waste made of polymers

    SciTech Connect

    Krisner, E.; Ambrosio, M.; Massiani, C.

    2000-03-01

    Wet air oxidation was attempted on synthetic (mixture of plastics of various compositions) and natural (cellulose substances) solid polymers. The temperature was maintained at 270 C and the oxygen pressure varied from 0 to 2 MPa (from understoichiometric conditions to oxygen excess). No valorizable compounds were found, even in runs carried out under an oxygen deficit. Suitable conditions for the total destruction of the initial polymers were temperatures above 270 C, an excess of oxygen, and a residence time of less than 1 h. Only such degradable compounds as acetic and benzoic acids are found at low concentrations. Formation of chlorine and gaseous hydrochloric acid can be limited by adding CaCO{sub 3} as a neutralizing agent.

  9. Solid waste transuranic storage and assay facility indoor air sampling

    SciTech Connect

    Pingel, L.A., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-08-20

    The purpose of the study is to collect and analyze samples of the indoor air at the Transuranic Storage and Assay Facility (TRUSAF), Westinghouse Hanford. A modified US EPA TO-14 methodology, using gas chromatography/mass spectrography, may be used for the collection and analysis of the samples. The information obtained will be used to estimate the total release of volatile organic compounds from TRUSAF to determine the need for air emmission permits.

  10. Characterization of air pollution control residues produced in a municipal solid waste incinerator in Portugal.

    PubMed

    Quina, Margarida J; Santos, Regina C; Bordado, João C; Quinta-Ferreira, Rosa M

    2008-04-01

    This study is mainly related with the physical and chemical characterization of a solid waste, produced in a municipal solid waste (MSW) incineration process, which is usually referred as air pollution control (APC) residue. The moisture content, loss on ignition (LOI), particle size distribution, density, porosity, specific surface area and morphology were the physical properties addressed here. At the chemical level, total elemental content (TC), total availability (TA) and the leaching behaviour with compliance tests were determined, as well as the acid neutralization capacity (ANC). The main mineralogical crystalline phases were identified, and the thermal behaviour of the APC residues is also shown. The experimental work involves several techniques such as laser diffraction spectrometry, mercury porosimetry, helium pycnometry, gas adsorption, flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS), ion chromatography, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray fluorescence (XRF), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and simultaneous thermal analysis (STA). The results point out that the APC residues do not comply with regulations in force at the developed countries, and therefore the waste should be considered hazardous. Among the considered heavy metals, lead, zinc and chromium were identified as the most problematic ones, and their total elemental quantities are similar for several samples collected in an industrial plant at different times. Moreover, the high amount of soluble salts (NaCl, KCl, calcium compounds) may constitute a major problem and should be taken into account for all management strategies. The solubility in water is very high (more than 24% for a solid/liquid ratio of 10) and thus the possible utilizations of this residue are very limited, creating difficulties also in the ordinary treatments, such as in solidification/stabilization with binders. PMID:17728059

  11. Hazardous solid wastes generated in the cleanup of air and water.

    PubMed Central

    Eisenbud, M

    1978-01-01

    Air and water pollution control programs sometimes result in production of solid wastes that are difficult to manage. The sludges from sewage treatment plants and flue gas scrubbers are two examples. In many coastal communities, there is no alternative to ocean dumpling of sewage sludges for the foreseeable future. The use of sludges as soil conditioners, their conversion to fuels by pyrolysis, and other alternatives are frequently mentioned options, but they have not been demonstrated to be practical on a large scale. The Federal requirement that ocean dumping be terminated by 1981 presents the large seaboard population centers with a dilemma, due to the absence of economically feasible alternative methods of disposal. Another major solid waste problem is arising from the Federal policy that requires flue gas desulfurization on practically all power plants. This policy, designed to reduce sulfur oxide emissions, will require that vast quantities of sludge be stored. Their environmental impact is as yet not fully evaluated. Commercial use of the sulfur or sulfates produced in these processes may be possible, but its practicability on a large scale remains to be demonstrated. PMID:738245

  12. Hazardous solid wastes generated in the cleanup of air and water.

    PubMed

    Eisenbud, M

    1978-12-01

    Air and water pollution control programs sometimes result in production of solid wastes that are difficult to manage. The sludges from sewage treatment plants and flue gas scrubbers are two examples. In many coastal communities, there is no alternative to ocean dumpling of sewage sludges for the foreseeable future. The use of sludges as soil conditioners, their conversion to fuels by pyrolysis, and other alternatives are frequently mentioned options, but they have not been demonstrated to be practical on a large scale. The Federal requirement that ocean dumping be terminated by 1981 presents the large seaboard population centers with a dilemma, due to the absence of economically feasible alternative methods of disposal. Another major solid waste problem is arising from the Federal policy that requires flue gas desulfurization on practically all power plants. This policy, designed to reduce sulfur oxide emissions, will require that vast quantities of sludge be stored. Their environmental impact is as yet not fully evaluated. Commercial use of the sulfur or sulfates produced in these processes may be possible, but its practicability on a large scale remains to be demonstrated. PMID:738245

  13. R&D on Micro-pyrolyzer for Solid Wastes Using High Temperature Steam and Air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Wei; Yoshikawa, Kunio

    An innovative micro-gasification system for solid wastes is proposed in this paper, whose technical feasibility is demonstrated by using rubber chips as a fuel. In this system, a batch-type fixed-bed pyrolyzer combined with a high temperature steam/air reformer is employed. In the present investigation, it is shown that supply of high temperature air into the pyrolyzer significantly increases the heating value of the pyrolysis gas. With the use of high temperature steam/air mixture as an oxidant for reforming, almost complete reforming of the tar components can be done and they are decomposed into CO, H2 and other hydrocarbon gases with reasonable decrease of the heating value of the reformed gas compared with that of the pyrolysis gas. With packing ceramic balls in the reformer, reforming reactions can be accelerated. The experimental results demonstrate that almost soot and tar free clean reformed gas with the heating value of above 1000kcal/Nm3 can be generated from rubber chips.

  14. Recycling of air pollution control residues from municipal solid waste incineration into lightweight aggregates.

    PubMed

    Quina, Margarida J; Bordado, João M; Quinta-Ferreira, Rosa M

    2014-02-01

    This work focuses on the assessment of technological properties and on the leaching behavior of lightweight aggregates (LWA) produced by incorporating different quantities of air pollution control (APC) residues from municipal solid waste (MSW) incineration. Currently this hazardous waste has been mostly landfilled after stabilization/solidification. The LWA were produced by pelletizing natural clay, APC residues as-received from incineration plant, or after a washing treatment, a small amount of oil and water. The pellets were fired in a laboratory chamber furnace over calcium carbonate. The main technological properties of the LWA were evaluated, mainly concerning morphology, bulk and particle densities, compressive strength, bloating index, water adsorption and porosity. Given that APC residues do not own expansive (bloating) properties, the incorporation into LWA is only possible in moderate quantities, such as 3% as received or 5% after pre-washing treatment. The leaching behavior of heavy metals from sintered LWA using water or acid solutions was investigated, and despite the low acid neutralization capacity of the synthetic aggregates, the released quantities were low over a wide pH range. In conclusion, after a washing pre-treatment and if the percentage of incorporation is low, these residues may be incorporated into LWA. However, the recycling of APC residues from MSW incineration into LWA does not revealed any technical advantage. PMID:24238798

  15. Mercury air-borne emissions from 5 municipal solid waste landfills in Guiyang and Wuhan, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Z. G.; Feng, X.; Li, P.; Liang, L.; Tang, S. L.; Wang, S. F.; Fu, X. W.; Qiu, G. L.; Shang, L. H.

    2010-01-01

    A detailed study on atmospheric mercury emissions from municipal solid waste (MSW) landfills in China is necessary to understand mercury behavior in this source category, simply because China disposes of bulk MSW by landfilling and a large quantity of mercury enters into landfills. Between 2003 and 2006, mercury airborne emissions through different pathways, as well as mercury speciation in landfill gas (LFG) were measured at 5 MSW landfills in Guiyang and Wuhan, China. The results showed that mercury content in the substrate fundamentally affected the magnitude of mercury emissions, resulting in the highest emission rate (as high as 57 651 ng Hg m-2 h-1) at the working face and in un-covered waste areas, and the lowest measured at soil covers and vegetation areas (less than 20 ng Hg m-2 h-1). Meteorological parameters, especially solar radiation, influenced the diurnal pattern of mercury surface-air emissions. Total gaseous mercury (TGM) in LFG varied from 2.0 to 1406.0 ng m-3, monomethyl mercury (MMHg) and dimethyl mercury (DMHg) in LFG averaged at 1.93 and 9.21 ng m-3, and accounted for 0.51% and 1.79% of the TGM in the LFG, respectively. Total mercury emitted from the five landfills ranged from 17 to 3285 g yr-1, with the highest from the working face, then soil covering, and finally the vent pipes.

  16. Experimental and kinetic modeling of oxygen-enriched air combustion of municipal solid waste.

    PubMed

    Liu, Guo Hui; Ma, Xiao Qian; Yu, Zhaosheng

    2009-02-01

    The characteristics of oxygen-enriched air combustion of raw municipal solid waste (MSW) were studied by thermogravimetric analysis. Experiments on oxidative pyrolysis of MSW were carried out under different atmospheres (N(2), N(2):O(2)=7:3, N(2):O(2)=5:5, N(2):O(2)=4:6, and N(2):O(2)=2:8) at 30 degrees C/min. Two distinct peaks of weight loss were obtained according to the derivative thermogravimetric curves; one of them is centered on 305 degrees C with about 40% weight loss, and the second is centered on 420 degrees C with about 20% weight loss. Effects of oxygen concentration on the decomposition process and char combustion were analyzed, and then the process of oxygen-enriched air combustion of MSW was divided into four steps. Kinetic parameters were observed by direct non-linear regressions. According to the obtained data, the apparent activation energy and reaction order decreases along with the combustion process, while that of char combustion increases as oxygen concentration increases. PMID:18691862

  17. Aromatic compound emissions from municipal solid waste landfill: Emission factors and their impact on air pollution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yanjun; Lu, Wenjing; Guo, Hanwen; Ming, Zhongyuan; Wang, Chi; Xu, Sai; Liu, Yanting; Wang, Hongtao

    2016-08-01

    Aromatic compounds (ACs) are major components of volatile organic compounds emitted from municipal solid waste (MSW) landfills. The ACs emissions from the working face of a landfill in Beijing were studied from 2014 to 2015 using a modified wind tunnel system. Emission factors (EFs) of fugitive ACs emissions from the working face of the landfill were proposed according to statistical analyses to cope with their uncertainty. And their impacts on air quality were assessed for the first time. Toluene was the dominant AC with an average emission rate of 38.8 ± 43.0 μg m-2 s-1 (at a sweeping velocity of 0.26 m s-1). An increasing trend in AC emission rates was observed from 12:00 to 18:00 and then peaked at 21:00 (314.3 μg m-2 s-1). The probability density functions (PDFs) of AC emission rates could be classified into three distributions: Gaussian, log-normal, and logistic. EFs of ACs from the working face of the landfill were proposed according to the 95th percentile cumulative emission rates and the wind effects on ACs emissions. The annual ozone formation and secondary organic aerosol formation potential caused by AC emissions from landfills in Beijing were estimated to be 8.86 × 105 kg year-1 and 3.46 × 104 kg year-1, respectively. Toluene, m + p-xylene, and 1,3,5-trimethylbenzene were the most significant contributors to air pollution. Although ACs pollutions from landfills accounts for less percentage (∼0.1%) compared with other anthropogenic sources, their fugitive emissions which cannot be controlled efficiently deserve more attention and further investigation.

  18. Statistical estimate of mercury removal efficiencies for air pollution control devices of municipal solid waste incinerators.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Fumitake; Kida, Akiko; Shimaoka, Takayuki

    2010-10-15

    Although representative removal efficiencies of gaseous mercury for air pollution control devices (APCDs) are important to prepare more reliable atmospheric emission inventories of mercury, they have been still uncertain because they depend sensitively on many factors like the type of APCDs, gas temperature, and mercury speciation. In this study, representative removal efficiencies of gaseous mercury for several types of APCDs of municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) were offered using a statistical method. 534 data of mercury removal efficiencies for APCDs used in MSWI were collected. APCDs were categorized as fixed-bed absorber (FA), wet scrubber (WS), electrostatic precipitator (ESP), and fabric filter (FF), and their hybrid systems. Data series of all APCD types had Gaussian log-normality. The average removal efficiency with a 95% confidence interval for each APCD was estimated. The FA, WS, and FF with carbon and/or dry sorbent injection systems had 75% to 82% average removal efficiencies. On the other hand, the ESP with/without dry sorbent injection had lower removal efficiencies of up to 22%. The type of dry sorbent injection in the FF system, dry or semi-dry, did not make more than 1% difference to the removal efficiency. The injection of activated carbon and carbon-containing fly ash in the FF system made less than 3% difference. Estimation errors of removal efficiency were especially high for the ESP. The national average of removal efficiency of APCDs in Japanese MSWI plants was estimated on the basis of incineration capacity. Owing to the replacement of old APCDs for dioxin control, the national average removal efficiency increased from 34.5% in 1991 to 92.5% in 2003. This resulted in an additional reduction of about 0.86Mg emission in 2003. Further study using the methodology in this study to other important emission sources like coal-fired power plants will contribute to better emission inventories. PMID:20713298

  19. Analysis of a waste-minimization program for nonhazardous solid wastes utilizing source-reduction and recycling techniques and its application to Air Force installations. Master's thesis

    SciTech Connect

    McDermott, B.G.

    1991-09-01

    This nation has fallen victim to its own excessive behavior and has created an overabundance of trash, referred to in this thesis as Nonhazardous Solid Waste (NSW). This situation has created environmental and health problems that can no longer be ignored. All types of communities are affected including Air Force installations. Unfortunately, the AF does not currently have a long term waste management policy or program regarding NHSW minimization. This research concentrates on the application of a NHSW minimization program for AF installations using the two most preferred methods, source reduction and recycling. The development of a comprehensive waste minimization program using the techniques described is the most effective and efficient way to decrease the solid waste burden. The construction and implementation of these programs is not easy, especially for an organization as complex and diverse as the AF. However, the payoffs from a well planned and executed program far outweigh any costs.

  20. The solid waste dilemma

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Amey, E.B.; Russell, J.A.; Hurdelbrink, R.J.

    1996-01-01

    In 1976, the U.S. Congress enacted the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) to further address the problem of increasing industrial and municipal waste. The main objectives of RCRA were to responsibly manage hazardous and solid waste and to procure materials made from recovered wastes. To fulfill these objectives, four main programs of waste management were developed. These programs were defined under Subtitle C, the Hazardous Waste Program; Subtitle D, the Solid Waste Program; Subtitle I, the Underground Storage Tank Program; and Subtitle J, the Medical Waste Program. Subtitle D illustrates the solid waste dilemma occurring in the United States. Under this program, states are encouraged to develop and implement their own waste management plans. These plans include the promotion of recycling solid wastes and the closing and upgrading of all environmentally unsound dumps. ?? 1996 International Association for Mathematical Geology.

  1. Municipal solid waste management health risk assessment from air emissions for China by applying life cycle analysis.

    PubMed

    Li, Hua; Nitivattananon, Vilas; Li, Peng

    2015-05-01

    This study is to quantify and objectively evaluate the extent of environmental health risks from three waste treatment options suggested by the national municipal solid waste management enhancing strategy (No [2011] 9 of the State Council, promulgated on 19 April 2011), which includes sanitary landfill, waste-to-energy incineration and compost, together with the material recovery facility through a case study in Zhangqiu City of China. It addresses potential chronic health risks from air emissions to residential receptors in the impacted area. It combines field survey, analogue survey, design documents and life cycle inventory methods in defining the source strength of chemicals of potential concern. The modelling of life cycle inventory and air dispersion is via integrated waste management(IWM)-2 and Screening Air Dispersion Model (Version 3.0) (SCREEN3). The health risk assessment is in accordance with United States Environmental Protection Agency guidance Risk Assessment Guidance for Superfund (RAGS), Volume I: Human Health Evaluation Manual (Part F, Supplemental Guidance for Inhalation Risk Assessment). The exposure concentration is based on long-term exposure to the maximum ground level contaminant in air under the 'reasonable worst situation' emissions and then directly compared with reference for concentration and unit risk factor/cancer slope factor derived from the national air quality standard (for a conventional pollutant) and toxicological studies (for a specific pollutant). Results from this study suggest that the option of compost with material recovery facility treatment may pose less negative health impacts than other options; the sensitivity analysis shows that the landfill integrated waste management collection rate has a great influence on the impact results. Further investigation is needed to validate or challenge the findings of this study. PMID:25908094

  2. S. 2458: A Bill to amend the Clean Air Act to establish a program for the control of the emissions of municipal solid waste incinerators, to initiate a program for the training of incinerator operators, to amend the Solid Waste Disposal Act to establish requirements for the disposal of incinerator ash from municipal solid waste incinerators, and for other purposes. Introduced in the Senate of the United States, One Hundredth Congress, Second Session, May 27, 1988

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-01-01

    A bill has been introduced in the Senate to amend the Clean Air Act to establish a program for the control of the emissions of municipal solid waste incinerators. This bill will initiate a program for the training of incinerator operators and will amend the Solid Waste Disposal Act to establish requirements for the disposal of incinerator ash from municipal solid waste incinerators.

  3. Solid Waste: Health Concerns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duel, Ward

    1975-01-01

    In this article the means of disposing solid wastes are discussed with reference to their health hazards and environmental desirability. Included in the discussion are solid waste dumps, landfills, incinerators, and grinders. Some attention is given to the reclamation of mineral resources from trash. (MA)

  4. Solid waste handling

    SciTech Connect

    Parazin, R.J.

    1995-05-31

    This study presents estimates of the solid radioactive waste quantities that will be generated in the Separations, Low-Level Waste Vitrification and High-Level Waste Vitrification facilities, collectively called the Tank Waste Remediation System Treatment Complex, over the life of these facilities. This study then considers previous estimates from other 200 Area generators and compares alternative methods of handling (segregation, packaging, assaying, shipping, etc.).

  5. Lyophilization -Solid Waste Treatment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Litwiller, Eric; Flynn, Michael; Fisher, John; Reinhard, Martin

    2004-01-01

    This paper discusses the development of a solid waste treatment system that has been designed for a Mars transit exploration mission. The technology described is an energy-efficient lyophilization technique that is designed to recover water from spacecraft solid wastes. Candidate wastes include feces, concentrated brines from water processors, and other solid wastes that contain free water. The system is designed to operate as a stand-alone process or to be integrated into the International Space Station Waste Collection System. In the lyophilization process, water in an aqueous waste is frozen and then sublimed, separating the waste into a dried solid material and liquid water. The sublimed water is then condensed in a solid ice phase and then melted to generate a liquid product. In the subject system the waste solids are contained within a 0.2 micron bio-guard bag and after drying are removed from the system and stored in a secondary container. This technology is ideally suited to applications such as the Mars Reference Mission, where water recovery rates approaching 100% are desirable but production of CO2 is not. The system is designed to minimize power consumption through the use of thermoelectric heat pumps. The results of preliminary testing of a prototype system and testing of the final configuration are provided. A mathematical model of the system is also described.

  6. Comparative Assessment of Particulate Air Pollution Exposure from Municipal Solid Waste Incinerator Emissions

    PubMed Central

    Ashworth, Danielle C.; Fuller, Gary W.; Toledano, Mireille B.; Font, Anna; Elliott, Paul; Hansell, Anna L.; de Hoogh, Kees

    2013-01-01

    Background. Research to date on health effects associated with incineration has found limited evidence of health risks, but many previous studies have been constrained by poor exposure assessment. This paper provides a comparative assessment of atmospheric dispersion modelling and distance from source (a commonly used proxy for exposure) as exposure assessment methods for pollutants released from incinerators. Methods. Distance from source and the atmospheric dispersion model ADMS-Urban were used to characterise ambient exposures to particulates from two municipal solid waste incinerators (MSWIs) in the UK. Additionally an exploration of the sensitivity of the dispersion model simulations to input parameters was performed. Results. The model output indicated extremely low ground level concentrations of PM10, with maximum concentrations of <0.01 μg/m3. Proximity and modelled PM10 concentrations for both MSWIs at postcode level were highly correlated when using continuous measures (Spearman correlation coefficients ~ 0.7) but showed poor agreement for categorical measures (deciles or quintiles, Cohen's kappa coefficients ≤ 0.5). Conclusion. To provide the most appropriate estimate of ambient exposure from MSWIs, it is essential that incinerator characteristics, magnitude of emissions, and surrounding meteorological and topographical conditions are considered. Reducing exposure misclassification is particularly important in environmental epidemiology to aid detection of low-level risks. PMID:23935644

  7. SOLID WASTE STUDY

    SciTech Connect

    PAUL G. ORTIZ - COLEMAN RESEARCH CORP /COMPA INDUSTRIES

    1995-08-01

    The purpose of this document is to study the solid waste issues brought about by a Type C Investigation; ``Disposal of Inappropriate Material in the Los Alamos County Landfill'' (May 28, 1993). The study was completed in August 1995 by Coleman Research Corporation, under subcontract number 405810005-Y for Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The study confirmed the issues identified in the Type C investigation, and also ascertained further issues or problems. During the course of this study two incidents involving hazardous waste resulted in the inappropriate disposal of the waste. An accidental spill, on June 8, 1995, at one of Laboratory buildings was not handled correctly, and ended up in the LAC Landfill. Hazardous waste was disposed of in a solid waste container and sent to the Los Alamos County Landfill. An attempt to locate the hazardous waste at the LAC Landfill was not successful. The second incident involving hazardous waste was discovered by the FSS-8, during a random dumpster surveillance. An interim dumpster program managed by FSS-8 discovered hazardous waste and copper chips in the solid waste, on August 9, 1995. The hazardous waste and copper chips would have been transported to the LAC Landfill if the audit team had not brought the problem to the awareness of the facility waste management personnel.

  8. Solid Waste Treatment Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hershaft, Alex

    1972-01-01

    Advances in research and commercial solid waste handling are offering many more processing choices. This survey discusses techniques of storage and removal, fragmentation and sorting, bulk reduction, conversion, reclamation, mining and mineral processing, and disposal. (BL)

  9. Emissions of air-borne mercury from five municipal solid waste landfills in Guiyang and Wuhan, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Z.-G.; Feng, X.; Li, P.; Liang, L.; Tang, S.-L.; Wang, S.-F.; Fu, X.-W.; Qiu, G.-L.; Shang, L.-H.

    2010-04-01

    China disposes of bulk Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) by landfilling, resulting in a large quantity of mercury that enters landfills through waste. A detailed study on atmospheric mercury emissions from MSW landfills in China is necessary to understand mercury behavior from this source. Between 2003 and 2006, mercury airborne emissions through different pathways, as well as mercury speciation in Landfill Gas (LFG) were measured at 5 MSW landfills in Guiyang and Wuhan, China. The results showed that mercury content in the substrate increased the magnitude of mercury emissions, with the highest emission rate measured at the working face and in uncovered waste areas, and the lowest measured near soil covers and vegetated areas. Meteorological parameters, especially solar radiation, influenced the diurnal pattern of mercury surface-air emissions. Total Gaseous Mercury (TGM) in LFG varied from 2.0 to 1406.0 ng m-3, Monomethyl Mercury (MMHg) and Dimethyl Mercury (DMHg) in LFG averaged at 1.93 and 9.21 ng m-3, and accounted for 0.51% and 1.79% of the TGM in the LFG, respectively. Total mercury emitted from the five landfills ranged from 17 to 3300 g yr-1, with the highest from the working face, then soil covering, and finally the vent pipes.

  10. Solid-Waste Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Science Teacher, 1973

    1973-01-01

    Consists of excerpts from a forthcoming publication of the United States Environmental Protection Agency, Student's Guide to Solid-Waste Management.'' Discusses the sources of wastes from farms, mines, factories, and communities, the job of governments, ways to collect trash, methods of disposal, processing, and suggests possible student action.…

  11. Health risk assessment of air emissions from a municipal solid waste incineration plant--a case study.

    PubMed

    Cangialosi, Federico; Intini, Gianluca; Liberti, Lorenzo; Notarnicola, Michele; Stellacci, Paolo

    2008-01-01

    A health risk assessment of long-term emissions of carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic air pollutants has been carried out for the municipal solid waste incinerator (MSWI) of the city of Taranto, Italy. Ground level air concentrations and soil deposition of carcinogenic (Polychlorinated Dibenzo-p-Dioxins/Furans and Cd) and non-carcinogenic (Pb and Hg) pollutants have been estimated using a well documented atmospheric dispersion model. Health risk values for air inhalation, dermal contact, soil and food ingestion have been calculated based on a combination of these concentrations and a matrix of environmental exposure factors. Exposure of the surrounding population has been addressed for different release scenarios based on four pollutants, four exposure pathways and two receptor groups (children and adults). Spatial risk distribution and cancer excess cases projected from plant emissions have been compared with background mortality records. Estimated results based on the MSWI emissions show: (1) individual risks well below maximum acceptable levels, (2) very small incremental cancer risk compared with background level. PMID:17611096

  12. Effect of municipal solid waste incinerator types on characteristics of ashes from different air pollution control devices.

    PubMed

    Lu, Chien-Hsing; Chuang, Kui-Hao

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to investigate the characteristics of fly and bottom ashes sampled from both fluidized bed (FB) and mass-burning (MB) municipal solid waste incinerators (MSWIs), respectively. Fly ashes from different locations at FB and MB MSWIs equipped with a cyclone, a semi-dry scrubber, and a bag filter as air pollution control devices were examined to provide the baseline information between physicochemical properties and leaching ability. Experimental results of leachability indicated that the bag filter fly ash (FB-FA(B)) from the FB incinerator meets Taiwan regulatory standards set through the toxicity characteristic leaching procedure. X-ray diffraction results revealed the presence of Cr5O12 and Pb2O3 in the cyclone fly ash (MB-FA(C)) and bag filter fly ash (MB-FA(B)), respectively, from the MB incinerator. To observe lead incorporation mechanism, mixture of simulate lead-laden waste with bed material were fired between 600 °C and 900 °C in a laboratory scale FB reactor. The results clearly demonstrate a substantial decrease in lead leaching ratio for products with an appropriate temperature. The concentration of Pb in the MB-FA(B) was 250 times that in the FB-FA(B), suggesting that incineration of MSW in FB is a good strategy for stabilizing hazardous metals. PMID:26226945

  13. Bisphenol A in Solid Waste Materials, Leachate Water, and Air Particles from Norwegian Waste-Handling Facilities: Presence and Partitioning Behavior.

    PubMed

    Morin, Nicolas; Arp, Hans Peter H; Hale, Sarah E

    2015-07-01

    The plastic additive bisphenol A (BPA) is commonly found in landfill leachate at levels exceeding acute toxicity benchmarks. To gain insight into the mechanisms controlling BPA emissions from waste and waste-handling facilities, a comprehensive field and laboratory campaign was conducted to quantify BPA in solid waste materials (glass, combustibles, vehicle fluff, waste electric and electronic equipment (WEEE), plastics, fly ash, bottom ash, and digestate), leachate water, and atmospheric dust from Norwegian sorting, incineration, and landfill facilities. Solid waste concentrations varied from below 0.002 mg/kg (fly ash) to 188 ± 125 mg/kg (plastics). A novel passive sampling method was developed to, for the first time, establish a set of waste-water partition coefficients, KD,waste, for BPA, and to quantify differences between total and freely dissolved concentrations in waste-facility leachate. Log-normalized KD,waste (L/kg) values were similar for all solid waste materials (from 2.4 to 3.1), excluding glass and metals, indicating BPA is readily leachable. Leachate concentrations were similar for landfills and WEEE/vehicle sorting facilities (from 0.7 to 200 μg/L) and dominated by the freely dissolved fraction, not bound to (plastic) colloids (agreeing with measured KD,waste values). Dust concentrations ranged from 2.3 to 50.7 mg/kgdust. Incineration appears to be an effective way to reduce BPA concentrations in solid waste, dust, and leachate. PMID:26055751

  14. Risk assessment of the health liabilities from exposure to toxic metals found in the composted material of Air Force municipal solid waste. Master's thesis

    SciTech Connect

    Merrymon, T.L.

    1993-09-01

    This thesis assesses the risk of the health liabilities from exposure to toxic metals found in the composted material of Air Force municipal solid waste (MSW). The goal is to determine the probability that the composted MSW could be a health hazard if it were used as a soil amendment. The research limited the assessment of the exposure risk to heavy metals found in raw MSW and its resulting compost. The thesis uses reviews of present literature to examine the food and soil ingestion exposure pathways. These pathways are assessed using the heavy metal concentrations found in MSW compost and the soil-plant partition coefficients of vegetables grown in soil mixed with sewage sludge or soil irrigated with sewage sludge or soil irrigated with sewage sludge leachate. The recommendation resulting from this research is that the Air Force should not use MSW composting as part of its future solid waste management plan. This alternative to landfilling contains a chronic health risk that is greater than the Environmental Protection Agency's guideline. If the Air Force would use MSW composting in the future, it may endanger Air Force personnel and others who use the compost created from Air Force MSW. Risk assessment, Heavy metals, Recycling municipal solid waste, Pollution, Composting.

  15. INCINERATION OF SOLID WASTE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The concern over solid waste disposal and dump-site clean-up has resulted in the passage of three major U.S. environmental laws. They are the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) of 1976, Public Law 94-580, the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) of 1976, Public Law 94-4...

  16. Illinois solid waste management legislation

    SciTech Connect

    1999-07-01

    Contents include: Degradable Plastic Act; Energy Assistance Act of 1989; Hazardous and Solid Waste Recycling and Treatment Act; Household Hazardous Waste Collection Program Act; Illinois Emergency Planning and Community Right to Know Act; Illinois Environmental Facilities Financing Act; Illinois Procurement Code; Illinois Solid Waste Management Act; Intergovernmental Cooperation Act; Junkyard Act; Litter Control Act; Local Solid Waste Disposal Act; Metro East Solid Waste Disposal and Energy Producing Service Act; Recycled Newsprint Use Act; Responsible Property Transfer Act of 1988; Solid Waste Disposal District Act; Solid Waste Planning and Recycling Act; Solid Waste Site Operator Certification Law; Township Refuse Collection and Disposal Act; Toxic Pollution Prevention Act; Used Motor Oil Recycling Act; Waste Oil Recovery Act; and Water Supply, Drainage and Flood Control Act.

  17. How to Reduce Solid Waste.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martins, George; Clapp, Leallyn B.

    1974-01-01

    Discusses the problem of solid waste disposal in the United States, suggests ways in which solid wastes might be reduced, and proposes a number of related topics for student debate in classes or in science clubs. (JR)

  18. Solid waste treatment processes for space station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marrero, T. R.

    1983-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the state-of-the-art of solid waste(s) treatment processes applicable to a Space Station. From the review of available information a source term model for solid wastes was determined. An overall system is proposed to treat solid wastes under constraints of zero-gravity and zero-leakage. This study contains discussion of more promising potential treatment processes, including supercritical water oxidation, wet air (oxygen) oxidation, and chemical oxidation. A low pressure, batch-type treament process is recommended. Processes needed for pretreatment and post-treatment are hardware already developed for space operations. The overall solid waste management system should minimize transfer of wastes from their collection point to treatment vessel.

  19. Detection of Pollution Caused by Solid Wastes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Golueke, Clarence G.

    1971-01-01

    To develop a means of detecting pollution, it s necessary to know something about the source and nature of the pollution. The type of pollution rising from solid wastes differs considerably from hat from liquid wastes or that from gaseous wastes ni its effect on the immediate environment. It may be "defined" by a series of negatives. When solid wastes are discarded on land, the resulting pollution is not land pollution in the sense of air and water pollution. For one thing, the solid wastes do not become a "part" of the land in that the wastes are neither intimately mixed nor homogenized into the land as are liquid and gaseous wastes into their respective media. The waste particles retain not only their chemical identity but also their visible (i.e., physical) characteristics. When buried, for example, the soil is under, above, and around the solids, because the wastes are there as discrete units. Secondly, solid wastes neither diffuse nor are they carried from the place at which they were deposited. In other words they remain stationary, providing of course the disposal site is land and not moving water. In a given area, solid wastes be not distributed uniformly over that area. Even the solid wastes falling into the specification of letter meets these specifications. In contrast liquid and gaseous wastes become intimately mixed, homogenized, and even dissolved in their media. Because solid wastes remain stationary, pollution constituted by their presence is highly localized and heavily concentrated, even to the extent that the pollution could be termed "micro" when compared to the macro-pollution arising from liquid and gasequs wastes.

  20. Air pollution control technology for municipal solid waste-to-energy conversion facilities: capabilities and research needs

    SciTech Connect

    Lynch, J F; Young, J C

    1980-09-01

    Three major categories of waste-to-energy conversion processes in full-scale operation or advanced demonstration stages in the US are co-combustion, mass incineration, and pyrolysis. These methods are described and some information on US conversion facilities is tabulated. Conclusions and recommendations dealing with the operation, performance, and research needs for these facilities are given. Section II identifies research needs concerning air pollution aspects of the waste-to-energy processes and reviews significant operating and research findings for the co-combustion, mass incinceration, and pyrolysis waste-to-energy systems.

  1. Solid Waste Management Plan. Revision 4

    SciTech Connect

    1995-04-26

    The waste types discussed in this Solid Waste Management Plan are Municipal Solid Waste, Hazardous Waste, Low-Level Mixed Waste, Low-Level Radioactive Waste, and Transuranic Waste. The plan describes for each type of solid waste, the existing waste management facilities, the issues, and the assumptions used to develop the current management plan.

  2. Effect of initial moisture content on the in-vessel composting under air pressure of organic fraction of municipal solid waste in Morocco

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the effect of initial moisture content on the in-vessel composting under air pressure of organic fraction of municipal solid waste in Morocco in terms of internal temperature, produced gases quantity, organic matter conversion rate, and the quality of the final composts. For this purpose, in-vessel bioreactor was designed and used to evaluate both appropriate initial air pressure and appropriate initial moisture content for the composting process. Moreover, 5 experiments were carried out within initial moisture content of 55%, 65%, 70%, 75% and 85%. The initial air pressure and the initial moisture content of the mixture showed a significant effect on the aerobic composting. The experimental results demonstrated that for composting organic waste, relatively high moisture contents are better at achieving higher temperatures and retaining them for longer times. This study suggested that an initial moisture content of around 75%, under 0.6 bar, can be considered as being suitable for efficient composting of organic fraction of municipal solid waste. These last conditions, allowed maximum value of temperature and final composting product with good physicochemical properties as well as higher organic matter degradation and higher gas production. Moreover, final compost obtained showed good maturity levels and can be used for agricultural applications. PMID:23369502

  3. Electrochemical processing of solid waste

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bockris, John OM.

    1987-01-01

    An investigation of electrochemical waste treatment methods suitable for closed, or partially closed, life support systems for manned space exploration is discussed. The technique being investigated involves the electrolysis of solid waste where the aim is to upgrade waste material (mainly fecal waste) to generate gases that can be recycled in a space station or planetary space environment.

  4. Marion County solid waste-to-energy facility boilers 1 and 2. Air emissions source test report. Executive summary

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-12-05

    The report presents the results of source testing conducted at the Ogden Martin Systems of Marion, Inc., facility in Marion County, Oregon. The 550 tons-per-day facility has two municipal solid waste-fired boilers, each equipped with dry-acid-gas scrubbing equipment and a baghouse. Source testing was conducted at the stack for nitrogen oxides, sulfur dioxide, carbon monoxide, total suspended particulate, volatile organic compounds, lead, beryllium, mercury, chlorides, fluoride, and tetra through octa-chlorodibenzo-o-dixons and -chlorodibenzofurans.

  5. Precision of the all-glass impinger and the andersen microbial impactor for air sampling in solid-waste handling facilities.

    PubMed Central

    Lembke, L L; Kniseley, R N; van Nostrand, R C; Hale, M D

    1981-01-01

    A method was devised to determine the precision of the all-glass impinger and the Andersen six-stage microbial impactor over a wide range of aerosol concentrations like those found in facilities which process solid waste. Simultaneous samples were collected inside a municipal solid-waste recovery system, and the data were treated statistically to estimate the precision of each air-sampling device. All-glass impingers yielded colony counts which indicated a linear relationship between samplers over an observed aerosol concentration of 1.1 X 10(3) to 2.8 X 10(7) colony-forming units per m3 of air. Impactors also yielded colony counts which indicated a linear relationship over an observed aerosol concentration range of 3.9 X 10(3) to 1.9 X 10(5) colony-forming units per m3 of air. The coefficients of variation for the all-glass impinger and the six-stage impactor in an environment with a high and variable dust level were determined to be 0.38 and 0.23, respectively. PMID:7025757

  6. From Solid Waste to Energy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wisely, F. E.; And Others

    A project designed to convert solid waste to energy is explained in this paper. In April, 1972, an investor-owned utility began to burn municipal solid waste as fuel for the direct production of electric power. This unique venture was a cooperative effort between the City of St. Louis, Missouri, and the Union Electric Company, with financial…

  7. Solid Wastes and Water Quality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeWalle, F. B.; Chian, E. S. K.

    1978-01-01

    Presents a literature review of solid wastes and water quality, covering publications of 1976-77. This review covers areas such as: (1) environmental impacts and health aspects for waste disposal, and (2) processed and hazardous wastes. A list of 80 references is also presented. (HM)

  8. Solid Waste Management Program Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Duncan, D.R.

    1990-08-01

    The objective of the Solid Waste Management Program Plan (SWMPP) is to provide a summary level comprehensive approach for the storage, treatment, and disposal of current and future solid waste received at the Hanford Site (from onsite and offsite generators) in a manner compliant with current and evolving regulations and orders (federal, state, and Westinghouse Hanford Company (Westinghouse Hanford)). The Plan also presents activities required for disposal of selected wastes currently in retrievable storage. The SWMPP provides a central focus for the description and control of cost, scope, and schedule of Hanford Site solid waste activities, and provides a vehicle for ready communication of the scope of those activities to onsite and offsite organizations. This Plan represents the most complete description available of Hanford Site Solid Waste Management (SWM) activities and the interfaces between those activities. It will be updated annually to reflect changes in plans due to evolving regulatory requirements and/or the SWM mission. 8 refs., 9 figs., 4 tabs.

  9. Compromising economic cost and air pollutant emissions of municipal solid waste management strategies by fuzzy multiobjective optimization model.

    PubMed

    Chang, Yao-Jen; Lin, Min-Der

    2013-06-01

    Municipal solid waste management (MSWM) is an important environmental challenge and subject in urban planning. A sustainable MSWM strategy should consider not only economic efficiency but also life-cycle assessment of environmental impact. This study employs the fuzzy multiobjective linear programming (FMOLP) technique to find the optimal compromise between economic optimization and pollutant emission reduction for the MSWM strategy. Taichung City in Taiwan is evaluated as a case study. The results indicate that the optimal compromise MSWM strategy can reduce significant amounts of pollutant emissions and still achieve positive net profits. Minimization of the sulfur oxide (SOx) and nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions are the two major priorities in achieving this optimal compromise strategy when recyclables recovery rate is lower; however minimization of the carbon monoxide (CO) and particulate matter (PM) emissions become priority factors when recovery rate is higher. PMID:23858997

  10. Leaching behavior and possible resource recovery from air pollution control residues of fluidized bed combustion of municipal solid waste

    SciTech Connect

    Abbas, Z.; Andersson, B.A.; Steenari, B.M.

    1999-07-01

    Ash residues are generated at several points during combustion of municipal solid waste (MSW), i.e., in cyclones, electrostatic precipitators and fabric filters. Such residues are of a complex physical and chemical nature and are often enriched in soluble salts and heavy metals such as Pb, Cd and Zn. Fluidized bed combustion (FBC) of MSW is a relatively new technique and very little information is available about the leaching behavior of its residues. In this study, the total elemental composition, mineralogy and leaching behavior of cyclone and bag-house filter ashes from a bubbling fluidized bed (BFB) boiler fired with municipal solid waste have been investigated. In addition, the possibilities of recovery heavy metals from these ashes were studied. The long-term leaching behavior of the ash constituents was evaluated using a two-step batch leaching test known as the CEN-test, whereas short and medium term leaching behavior was evaluated using a Column test. The extraction of elements from cyclone and filter ashes with various acidic solutions was also investigated. The leaching behavior of acid washed ashes was evaluated using the CEN test. The cyclone ash was mainly composed of aluminosilicate minerals, whereas the filter ash consisted of chlorides and hydroxides of alkali and alkaline earth metals. The concentration of heavy metals such as Zn, Cu, Cd and Pb was higher in the filter ash than in the cyclone ash. The leached amounts of sulfates and Pb from the cyclone ash decreased with leaching test contact time, indicating the formation of secondary mineral phases. Large amounts of chlorides, sulfates, Ca, Cu and Pb were leached from the filter ash. Acid extraction removed large amounts ({gt}50%) of Zn, Pb and Cu from the filter ash and approximately 56% of the total amount of Zn present in the cyclone ash. An efficient removal of heavy metal species from these types of ashes can probably be achieved by application of a recycling or multi-step process.

  11. Geologic and hydrologic data for the municipal solid waste landfill facility, U.S. Army Air Defense Artillery Center and Fort Bliss, El Paso County, Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Abeyta, Cynthia G.; Frenzel, P.F.

    1999-01-01

    Geologic and hydrologic data for the Municipal Solid Waste Landfill Facility on the U.S. Army Air Defense Artillery Center and Fort Bliss in El Paso County, Texas, were collected by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the U.S. Department of the Army. The 106.03-acre landfill has been in operation since January 1974. The landfill contains household refuse, Post solid wastes, bulky items, grass and tree trimmings from family housing, refuse from litter cans, construction debris, classified waste (dry), dead animals, asbestos, and empty oil cans. The depth of the filled areas is about 30 feet and the cover, consisting of locally derived material, is 2 to 3 feet thick. Geologic and hydrologic data were collected at or adjacent to the landfill during (1) drilling of 10 30- to 31-foot boreholes that were completed with gas-monitoring probes, (2) drilling of a 59-foot borehole, (3) drilling of a 355-foot borehole that was completed as a ground-water monitoring well, and (4) in situ measurements made on the landfill cover. After completion, the gas- monitoring probes were monitored on a quarterly basis (1 year total) for gases generated by the landfill. Water samples were collected from the ground-water monitoring well for chemical analysis. Data collection is divided into two elements: geologic data and hydrologic data. Geologic data include lithologic descriptions of cores and cuttings, geophysical logs, soil- gas and ambient-air analyses, and chemical analyses of soil. Hydrologic data include physical properties, total organic carbon, and pH of soil and sediment samples; soil-water chloride and soil-moisture analyses; physical properties of the landfill cover; measurements of depth to ground water; and ground-water chemical analyses. Interpretation of data is not included in this report.

  12. Possible global environmental impacts of solid waste practices

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, M.M.; Holter, G.M.; DeForest, T.J.; Stapp, D.C.; Dibari, J.C.

    1994-09-01

    Pollutants resulting from the management of solid waste have been shown to affect the air, land, oceans, and waterways. In addition, solid wastes have other, more indirect impacts such as reduction in feedstocks of natural resources, because useful materials are disposed of rather than recycled. The objective of this study is to evaluate solid waste management practices that have negative implications on the global environment and develop recommendations for reducing such impacts. Recommendations identifying needed changes are identified that will reduce global impacts of solid waste practices in the future. The scope of this study includes the range of non-hazardous solid wastes produced within our society, including municipal solid waste (MSW) and industrial solid waste (ISW), as well as industry-specific wastes from activities such as construction, demolition, and landclearing. Most solid waste management decisions continue to be made and implemented at very local levels, predominantly with a short-term focus to respond to relatively immediate pressures of landfill shortages, funding problems, political considerations, and the like. In this rush to address immediate local problems, little consideration is being given to potential impacts, either short- or long-term, at the national or global level resulting from solid waste management practices. More and more, the cumulative impacts from local decisions concerning solid waste management are beginning to manifest themselves in broader, longer-term impacts than are being addressed by the decision-makers or, at the very least, are presenting a greater and greater potential for such impacts.

  13. Sorting of solid radioactive wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Marek, J.; Pecival, I.; Hejtman, J.; Wildman, J.; Cechak, T.

    1993-12-31

    In the nuclear power plants solid radioactive wastes are produced during regular operation and during small repairs. It is necessary to sort them into the highly contaminated wastes for which a special procedure for storage is necessary and waste that is not radioactive and can be stored in the environment under specific regulations. The aim of the project was to propose and to construct equipment, which is able to sort the waste with a high degree of reliability and to distinguish highly contaminated wastes from wastes which are less dangerous to the environment. The sensitivity of the detection system was tested by a mathematical model. The radioactive wastes from the primary part of the nuclear power plant can have three composition types. Details of the composition of the radioisotopes mixture are presented.

  14. Hazardous solid waste from agriculture.

    PubMed Central

    Loehr, R C

    1978-01-01

    Large quantities of food processing, crop, forestry, and animal solid wastes are generated in the United States each year. The major components of these wastes are biodegradable. However, they also contain components such as nitrogen, human and animal pathogens, medicinals, feed additives, salts, and certain metals, that under uncontrolled conditions can be detrimental to aquatic, plant, animal, or human life. The most common method of disposal of these wastes is application to the land. Thus the major pathways for transmission of hazards are from and through the soil. Use of these wastes as animal feed also can be a pathway. While at this time there are no crises associated with hazardous materials in agricultural solid wastes, the potential for problems should not be underestimated. Manpower and financial support should be provided to obtain more detailed information in this area, esepcially to better delineate transport and dispersal and to determine and evaluate risks. PMID:367770

  15. Solid waste combustion for alpha waste incineration

    SciTech Connect

    Orloff, D.I.

    1981-02-01

    Radioactive waste incinerator development at the Savannah River Laboratory has been augmented by fundamental combustion studies at the University of South Carolina. The objective was to measure and model pyrolysis and combustion rates of typical Savannah River Plant waste materials as a function of incinerator operating conditions. The analytical models developed in this work have been incorporated into a waste burning transient code. The code predicts maximum air requirement and heat energy release as a function of waste type, package size, combustion chamber size, and temperature. Historically, relationships have been determined by direct experiments that did not allow an engineering basis for predicting combustion rates in untested incinerators. The computed combustion rates and burning times agree with measured values in the Savannah River Laboratory pilot (1 lb/hr) and full-scale (12 lb/hr) alpha incinerators for a wide variety of typical waste materials.

  16. Regional solid waste management study

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-09-01

    In 1990, the Lower Savannah Council of Governments (LSCOG) began dialogue with the United States Department of Energy (DOE) regarding possibilities for cooperation and coordination of solid waste management practices among the local governments and the Savannah River Site. The Department of Energy eventually awarded a grant to the Lower Savannah Council of Governments for the development of a study, which was initiated on March 5, 1992. After careful analysis of the region`s solid waste needs, this study indicates a network approach to solid waste management to be the most viable. The network involves the following major components: (1) Rural Collection Centers, designed to provide convenience to rural citizens, while allowing some degree of participation in recycling; (2) Rural Drop-Off Centers, designed to give a greater level of education and recycling activity; (3) Inert landfills and composting centers, designed to reduce volumes going into municipal (Subtitle D) landfills and produce useable products from yard waste; (4) Transfer Stations, ultimate landfill disposal; (5) Materials Recovery Facilities, designed to separate recyclables into useable and sellable units, and (6) Subtitle D landfill for burial of all solid waste not treated through previous means.

  17. Occurrence and impact of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/dibenzofurans in the air and soil around a municipal solid waste incinerator.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Zhiguang; Ren, Yue; Chu, Jiazhi; Li, Nan; Zhen, Sen; Zhao, Hu; Fan, Shuang; Zhang, Hui; Xu, Pengjun; Qi, Li; Liang, Shuting; Zhao, Bin

    2016-06-01

    To assess the influence of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) on the environment in the vicinity of municipal solid waste incinerators (MSWIs), we determined the levels of PCDD/Fs in air and soil samples collected around a MSWI, which is the largest in China. The International Toxicity Equivalency Quantity (I-TEQ) concentrations of PCDD/Fs in air samples were from 0.0300 to 1.03pgI-TEQ/m(3) (0.445-13.6pg/m(3)), with an average of 0.237pgI-TEQ/m(3), while in soil samples they ranged from 0.520 to 3.40pgI-TEQ/g (2.41-88.7pg/g) with an average of 1.49pgI-TEQ/g. The concentrations of PCDD/Fs in air and soil samples were comparable to other areas, and PeCDFs were the dominant contributors, which was different from stack gas homologue patterns. Multivariate statistical analysis showed that PCDD/Fs emission from the MSWI did not directly affect the profiles of PCDD/Fs in air and soils, so that vehicles and unidentified emission sources should be considered. The daily inhalation levels of PCDD/Fs for children (0.0110 to 0.392pgI-TEQ/(kg·day) and adults (0.00600 to 0.221pgI-TEQ/(kg·day) near the MSWI were lower than the tolerable daily intake of 1.00 to 4.00pg WHO-TEQ/(kg·day), but in winter the values were higher than in summer. These results can be used as basic data for assessing the risk of PCDD/Fs exposure in residents living around this MSWI, and more monitoring programs and studies should be carried out around MSWIs. PMID:27266321

  18. Torrefaction Processing for Human Solid Waste Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Serio, Michael A.; Cosgrove, Joseph E.; Wójtowicz, Marek A.; Stapleton, Thomas J.; Nalette, Tim A.; Ewert, Michael K.; Lee, Jeffrey; Fisher, John

    2016-01-01

    This study involved a torrefaction (mild pyrolysis) processing approach that could be used to sterilize feces and produce a stable, odor-free solid product that can be stored or recycled, and also to simultaneously recover moisture. It was demonstrated that mild heating (200-250 C) in nitrogen or air was adequate for torrefaction of a fecal simulant and an analog of human solid waste (canine feces). The net result was a nearly undetectable odor (for the canine feces), complete recovery of moisture, some additional water production, a modest reduction of the dry solid mass, and the production of small amounts of gas and liquid. The liquid product is mainly water, with a small Total Organic Carbon content. The amount of solid vs gas plus liquid products can be controlled by adjusting the torrefaction conditions (final temperature, holding time), and the current work has shown that the benefits of torrefaction could be achieved in a low temperature range (< 250 C). These temperatures are compatible with the PTFE bag materials historically used by NASA for fecal waste containment and will reduce the energy consumption of the process. The solid product was a dry material that did not support bacterial growth and was hydrophobic relative to the starting material. In the case of canine feces, the solid product was a mechanically friable material that could be easily compacted to a significantly smaller volume (approx. 50%). The proposed Torrefaction Processing Unit (TPU) would be designed to be compatible with the Universal Waste Management System (UWMS), now under development by NASA. A stand-alone TPU could be used to treat the canister from the UWMS, along with other types of wet solid wastes, with either conventional or microwave heating. Over time, a more complete integration of the TPU and the UWMS could be achieved, but will require design changes in both units.

  19. Solid Waste/Energy Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vivan, V. Eugene; And Others

    Provided are solid waste/energy curriculum materials for grades K-2, 3-4, 5-6, 7-9, and 10-12. Separate folders containing units of study (focusing on trash, litter, and recycling) are provided for kindergarten (four units), grade 1 (two units), and grade 2 (two units). Folders contain teachers' directions and activity cards which include picture…

  20. Recycling Solid Waste in Chattanooga

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vredeveld, Ruth; Martin, Robin

    1973-01-01

    Students undertook a group project in collaboration with city officials to study garbage types in the community and possibilities of recycling solid wastes. Data collected from various sources revealed that public attitude was favorable for recycling efforts and that it was feasible economically. (PS)

  1. Controls for Burning Solid Wastes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toro, Richard F.; Weinstein, Norman J.

    1975-01-01

    Modern thermal solid waste processing systems are becoming more complex, incorporating features that require instrumentation and control systems to a degree greater than that previously required just for proper combustion control. With the advent of complex, sophisticated, thermal processing systems, TV monitoring and computer control should…

  2. RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN DIOXINS IN SOIL, AIR, ASH, AND EMISSIONS FROM A MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE INCINERATOR EMITTING LARGE AMOUNTS OF DIOXINS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Columbus Municipal Waste-to-Energy (Columbus WTE) facility in Columbus, Ohio, began operation in June, 1983 and ceased operation in December, 1994. During its operation, it was estimated to have released nearly 1000 grams of dioxin Toxic Equivalents (TEQs) per year. This co...

  3. Solid Waste Activity Packet for Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illinois Univ., Urbana. Cooperative Extension Service.

    This solid waste activity packet introduces students to the solid waste problem in Illinois. Topics explore consumer practices in the market place, packaging, individual and community garbage generation, and disposal practices. The activities provide an integrated approach to incorporating solid waste management issues into subject areas. The…

  4. Energy and solid/hazardous waste

    SciTech Connect

    1981-12-01

    This report addresses the past and potential future solid and hazardous waste impacts from energy development, and summarizes the major environmental, legislation applicable to solid and hazardous waste generation and disposal. A glossary of terms and acronyms used to describe and measure solid waste impacts of energy development is included. (PSB)

  5. 1993 Solid Waste Reference Forecast Summary

    SciTech Connect

    Valero, O.J.; Blackburn, C.L.; Kaae, P.S.; Armacost, L.L.; Garrett, S.M.K.

    1993-08-01

    This report, which updates WHC-EP-0567, 1992 Solid Waste Reference Forecast Summary, (WHC 1992) forecasts the volumes of solid wastes to be generated or received at the US Department of Energy Hanford Site during the 30-year period from FY 1993 through FY 2022. The data used in this document were collected from Westinghouse Hanford Company forecasts as well as from surveys of waste generators at other US Department of Energy sites who are now shipping or plan to ship solid wastes to the Hanford Site for disposal. These wastes include low-level and low-level mixed waste, transuranic and transuranic mixed waste, and nonradioactive hazardous waste.

  6. Composting of municipal solid waste.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Sunil

    2011-06-01

    This paper reviews the literature on the composting process, which is one of the technological options for the processing of municipal solid wastes (MSWs). The process assumes a great significance, particularly from the point of its economic viability, capability for recycling of nutrients and waste minimization with minimum environmental problems. A number of studies on various aspects of the composting process, including process control and monitoring parameters such as temperature, pH, moisture content, aeration, and porosity are reviewed. Salient observations on microbial properties of composting are described and details of vermicomposting, as well as a detailed analysis of patents on composting of MSW, are presented. PMID:20854128

  7. FFTF disposable solid waste cask

    SciTech Connect

    Thomson, J. D.; Goetsch, S. D.

    1983-01-01

    Disposal of radioactive waste from the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) will utilize a Disposable Solid Waste Cask (DSWC) for the transport and burial of irradiated stainless steel and inconel materials. Retrievability coupled with the desire for minimal facilities and labor costs at the disposal site identified the need for the DSWC. Design requirements for this system were patterned after Type B packages as outlined in 10 CFR 71 with a few exceptions based on site and payload requirements. A summary of the design basis, supporting analytical methods and fabrication practices developed to deploy the DSWC is provided in this paper.

  8. Solid waste management in Japan

    SciTech Connect

    Naito, S.

    1995-09-01

    On Friday 17 June 1994, as the invited speaker of the International Congress of IWM/ISWA at Torbay, UK the author presented a paper of {open_quotes}A framework for success: the role of legislation{close_quotes}. THis was to introduce the amendment of Waste Disposal Cleansing Law and the Basic Environment Law in 1991, but the combination of the two amended laws has enforced promoting and assisting the fulfillment of the responsibilities of corporations and citizens. In addition to such presentation, the author pointed out a new manner of solid waste management (SWM) in Japan.

  9. Burden of disease attributable to air pollutants from municipal solid waste incinerators in Seoul, Korea: a source-specific approach for environmental burden of disease.

    PubMed

    Kim, Young-Min; Kim, Jung-Wk; Lee, Hyun-Jung

    2011-05-01

    Few studies have attempted to quantify the integrated health burden, incorporating both mortality and morbidity as these factors pertain to air pollutants, on the population in the vicinity of the incinerators. The aims of this study are to estimate the attributable burden of disease caused by incinerators in Seoul, Korea and to present an approach based on source-specific exposure for the estimation of the environmental burden of disease (EBD). With particular attention on the development of a measurement means of the source-specific, exposure-based population attributable fraction (PAF), we integrated air dispersion modeling, Geographic Information Systems (GIS), the population distribution of exposure, and the exposure-response relationship. We then estimated the PAFs caused by additional concentrations of four air pollutants (PM(10), NO(2,) SO(2), and CO) emitted from four municipal solid waste incinerators (MSWIs) in Seoul in 2007. We, finally, estimated the attributable burden of disease, using the estimated PAF and the disability-adjusted life years (DALY) method developed by the Global Burden of Disease Group of the World Health Organization (WHO). The PAF for NO(2) to all-cause mortality was assessed at approximately 0.02% (95% CI: 0.003-0.036%), which was the highest among all air pollutants. The PAFs for respiratory and cardiovascular disease were 0.12% (95% CI: 0.01-0.16%) and 0.10% (95% CI: 0.04-0.16%), respectively. The sum of the attributable burden of disease for four pollutants was about 297 person-years (PYs) (95% CI: 121-472 PYs) when the incinerators observed to the emission standards. The attributable burdens of respiratory disease and cardiovascular disease were about 0.2% and 0.1%, respectively, of the total burden of respiratory disease and cardiovascular disease of Seoul citizens for the year 2007. Although the air emissions from one risk factor, an incinerator, are small, the burden of disease can be significant to the public health when

  10. Hydrogenation of organic solid wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, W.R.K.; Kawa, W.

    1980-02-01

    Eight organic solid wastes, six cellulosic and two noncellulosic, were hydrogenated batchwise with and without a catalyst. Conversions obtained range from 64 to 98 % of moisture- and ash-free (maf) raw material; oil yields, 10 to 59 %; and gaseous hydrocarbon yields, 7 to 16 %. Based on batch hydrogenation results, the oil production from large-scale hydrogenation of the wastes is projected to be 1.6 to 3.5 bbl/ton of maf raw material; the gaseous-hydrocarbon production, 2000 to 4100 standard cubic feet (scf). Activities of the two catalysts (SnCl/sub 2// and a combination of Fe/sub 2/O/sub 3/ and H/sub 2/S) used in the hydrogenation of the wastes are discussed. Also discussed are the chemical reactions and mechanisms involved in the hydrogenation, potential market for the product oil, and possible improvement of the oil yield. Elemental compositions of the hydrogenation oils and types of hydrocarbons including oxygenated hydrocarbons found in the oils are presented. The energy equivalent of the organic solid wastes generated in the United States in 1973 is shown to be 27 % of the nation's total 1972 energy production.

  11. Modules for estimating solid waste from fossil-fuel technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Crowther, M.A.; Thode, H.C. Jr.; Morris, S.C.

    1980-10-01

    Solid waste has become a subject of increasing concern to energy industries for several reasons. Increasingly stringent air and water pollution regulations result in a larger fraction of residuals in the form of solid wastes. Control technologies, particularly flue gas desulfurization, can multiply the amount of waste. With the renewed emphasis on coal utilization and the likelihood of oil shale development, increased amounts of solid waste will be produced. In the past, solid waste residuals used for environmental assessment have tended only to include total quantities generated. To look at environmental impacts, however, data on the composition of the solid wastes are required. Computer modules for calculating the quantities and composition of solid waste from major fossil fuel technologies were therefore developed and are described in this report. Six modules have been produced covering physical coal cleaning, conventional coal combustion with flue gas desulfurization, atmospheric fluidized-bed combustion, coal gasification using the Lurgi process, coal liquefaction using the SRC-II process, and oil shale retorting. Total quantities of each solid waste stream are computed together with the major components and a number of trace elements and radionuclides.

  12. Solid Waste Management in Recreational Forest Areas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spooner, Charles S.

    The Forest Service, U. S. Department of Agriculture, requested the Bureau of Solid Waste Management to conduct a study of National Forest recreation areas to establish waste generation rates for major recreation activities and to determine the cost of solid waste handling for selected Forest Service Districts. This report describes the 1968 solid…

  13. 1995 Baseline solid waste management system description

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, G.S.; Konynenbelt, H.S.

    1995-09-01

    This provides a detailed solid waste system description that documents the treatment, storage, and disposal (TSD) strategy for managing Hanford`s solid low-level waste, low-level mixed waste, transuranic and transuranic mixed waste, and greater-than-Class III waste. This system description is intended for use by managers of the solid waste program, facility and system planners, as well as system modelers. The system description identifies the TSD facilities that constitute the solid waste system and defines these facilities` interfaces, schedules, and capacities. It also provides the strategy for treating each of the waste streams generated or received by the Hanford Site from generation or receipt through final destination.

  14. Municipal solid wastes and their disposal.

    PubMed Central

    Stone, R

    1978-01-01

    A brief overview is given of the sources, characteristics, and toxic constituents of municipal solid wastes. Several methods are presented for handling, treating, and disposal of solid wastes. Monitoring the landfill site is necessary; there has been a trend to recognize that municipal solid wastes may be hazardous and to provide separate secure handling, treatment, and disposal for their dangerous constituents. Under current state and Federal regulations, permits are being required to assure that proper handling of conventional solid wastes and more hazardous constituents are carefully managed. PMID:738240

  15. Effects from past solid waste disposal practices.

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, L J; Daniel, D E; Abeele, W V; Ledbetter, J O; Hansen, W R

    1978-01-01

    This paper reviews documented environmental effects experience from the disposal of solid waste materials in the U.S. Selected case histories are discussed that illustrate waste migration and its actual or potential effects on human or environmental health. Principal conclusions resulting from this review were: solid waste materials do migrate beyond the geometric confines of the initial placement location; environmental effects have been experienced from disposal of municipal, agricultural, and toxic chemical wastes; and utilization of presently known science and engineering principles in sitting and operating solid waste disposal facilities would make a significant improvement in the containment capability of shallow land disposal facilities. PMID:367769

  16. Geohydrologic site characterization of the municipal solid waste landfill facility, US Army Air Defense Artillery Center and Fort Bliss, El Paso County, Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Abeyta, Cynthia G.

    1996-01-01

    Geohydrologic conditions of the Municipal Solid Waste Landfill Facility (MSWLF) on the U.S. Army Air Defense Artillery Center and Fort Bliss, El Paso County, Texas, were evaluated by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the U.S. Army. The 106.03-acre MSWLF has been in operation since January 1974. The landfill contains household refuse, Post solid wastes, bulky items, grass and tree trimmings from family housing, refuse from litter cans, construction debris, classified waste (dry), dead animals, asbestos, and empty oil cans. The MSWLF, located about 1,200 feet east of the nearest occupied structure, is estimated to receive an average of approximately 56 tons of municipal solid waste per day and, at a fill rate of 1-4 acres per year, is expected to reach its capacity by the year 2004. The MSWLF is located in the Hueco Bolson, 4 miles east of the Franklin Mountains. Elevations at the MSWLF range from 3,907 to 3,937 feet above sea level. The climate at the MSWLF and vicinity is arid continental, characterized by an abundance of sunny days, high summer temperatures, relatively cool winters typical of arid areas, scanty rainfall, and very low humidity throughout the year. Average annual temperature near the MSWLF and vicinity is 63.3 degrees Fahrenheit and annual precipitation is 7.8 inches. Potential evaporation in the El Paso area was estimated to be 65 inches per year. Soils at and adjacent to the MSWLF are nearly level to gently sloping, have a fine sandy loam subsoil, and are moderately deep over caliche. The MSWLF is underlain by Hueco Bolson deposits of Tertiary age and typically are composed of unconsolidated to slightly consolidated interbedded sands, clay, silt, gravel, and caliche. Individual beds are not well defined and range in thickness from a fraction of an inch to about 100 feet. The primary source of ground water in the MSWLF area is in the deposits of the Hueco Bolson. A relatively thick vadose zone of approximately 300 feet overlies the

  17. 36 CFR 13.1008 - Solid waste disposal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Solid waste disposal. 13.1008... § 13.1008 Solid waste disposal. (a) A solid waste disposal site may accept non-National Park Service solid waste generated within the boundaries of the park area. (b) A solid waste disposal site may...

  18. 36 CFR 13.1604 - Solid waste disposal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Solid waste disposal. 13.1604... Solid waste disposal. (a) A solid waste disposal site may accept non-National Park Service solid waste generated within the boundaries of the park area. (b) A solid waste disposal site may be located within...

  19. 36 CFR 13.1912 - Solid waste disposal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Solid waste disposal. 13.1912....1912 Solid waste disposal. (a) A solid waste disposal site may accept non-National Park Service solid waste generated within the boundaries of the park area. (b) A solid waste disposal site may be...

  20. 36 CFR 13.1008 - Solid waste disposal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Solid waste disposal. 13.1008... § 13.1008 Solid waste disposal. (a) A solid waste disposal site may accept non-National Park Service solid waste generated within the boundaries of the park area. (b) A solid waste disposal site may...

  1. 36 CFR 13.1604 - Solid waste disposal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Solid waste disposal. 13.1604... Solid waste disposal. (a) A solid waste disposal site may accept non-National Park Service solid waste generated within the boundaries of the park area. (b) A solid waste disposal site may be located within...

  2. 36 CFR 13.1008 - Solid waste disposal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Solid waste disposal. 13.1008... § 13.1008 Solid waste disposal. (a) A solid waste disposal site may accept non-National Park Service solid waste generated within the boundaries of the park area. (b) A solid waste disposal site may...

  3. 36 CFR 13.1912 - Solid waste disposal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Solid waste disposal. 13.1912....1912 Solid waste disposal. (a) A solid waste disposal site may accept non-National Park Service solid waste generated within the boundaries of the park area. (b) A solid waste disposal site may be...

  4. 36 CFR 13.1912 - Solid waste disposal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Solid waste disposal. 13.1912....1912 Solid waste disposal. (a) A solid waste disposal site may accept non-National Park Service solid waste generated within the boundaries of the park area. (b) A solid waste disposal site may be...

  5. 36 CFR 13.1008 - Solid waste disposal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Solid waste disposal. 13.1008... § 13.1008 Solid waste disposal. (a) A solid waste disposal site may accept non-National Park Service solid waste generated within the boundaries of the park area. (b) A solid waste disposal site may...

  6. 36 CFR 13.1912 - Solid waste disposal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Solid waste disposal. 13.1912....1912 Solid waste disposal. (a) A solid waste disposal site may accept non-National Park Service solid waste generated within the boundaries of the park area. (b) A solid waste disposal site may be...

  7. 36 CFR 13.1604 - Solid waste disposal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Solid waste disposal. 13.1604... Solid waste disposal. (a) A solid waste disposal site may accept non-National Park Service solid waste generated within the boundaries of the park area. (b) A solid waste disposal site may be located within...

  8. 36 CFR 13.1604 - Solid waste disposal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Solid waste disposal. 13.1604... Solid waste disposal. (a) A solid waste disposal site may accept non-National Park Service solid waste generated within the boundaries of the park area. (b) A solid waste disposal site may be located within...

  9. 76 FR 303 - Alaska: Adequacy of Alaska's Municipal Solid Waste Landfill Permit Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-04

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Parts 239 and 258 Alaska: Adequacy of Alaska's Municipal Solid Waste Landfill Permit... proposes to approve Alaska's modification of its approved Municipal Solid Waste Landfill (MSWLF) permit... Domenic Calabro, Office of Air, Waste, and Toxics, U.S. EPA, Region 10, 1200 Sixth Avenue, Suite...

  10. Managing America`s solid waste

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1998-03-02

    This report presents an historical overview of the federal role in municipal solid waste management from 1965 to approximately 1995. Attention is focuses on the federal role in safeguarding public health, protecting the environment, and wisely using material and energy resources. It is hoped that this report will provide important background for future municipal solid waste research and development initiatives.

  11. Solid Waste: Resource Recovery and Reuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernardo, James V.

    1973-01-01

    Discusses some of the processes involved in resource recovery (recycling) from municipal solid wastes. Provides specific examples of recovery of valuable resources, and suggests that the environmental consequences and technology related to solid waste treatment should be included in high school science courses. (JR)

  12. Land Use Management for Solid Waste Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Sanford M., Jr.

    1974-01-01

    The author discusses the problems of solid waste disposal and examines various land use management techniques. These include the land use plan, zoning, regionalization, land utilities, and interim use. Information concerning solid waste processing site zoning and analysis is given. Bibliography included. (MA)

  13. Municipal solid waste recycling issues

    SciTech Connect

    Lave, L.B.; Hendrickson, C.T.; Conway-Schempf, N.M.; McMichael, F.C.

    1999-10-01

    Municipal solid waste (MSW) recycling targets have been set nationally and in many states. Unfortunately, the definitions of recycling, rates of recycling, and the appropriate components of MSW vary. MSW recycling has been found to be costly for most municipalities compared to landfill disposal. MSW recycling policy should be determined by the cost to the community and to society more generally. In particular, recycling is a good policy only if environmental impacts and the resources used to collect, sort, and recycle a material are less than the environmental impacts and resources needed to provide equivalent virgin material plus the resources needed to dispose of the postconsumer material safely. From a review of the existing economic experience with recycling and an analysis of the environmental benefits (including estimation of external social costs), the authors find that, for most communities, curbside recycling is only justifiable for some postconsumer waste, such as aluminum and other metals. They argue that alternatives to curbside recycling collection should be explored, including product takeback for products with a toxic content (such as batteries) or product redesign to permit more effective product remanufacture.

  14. Solid-waste contracting: Questions and answers

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-05-01

    The increasing complexity of local government responsibilities is nowhere better illustrated than in solid waste management. In the past, when the adverse effects of waste disposal were less recognized, garbage was simply taken to local public dumps, or burned in backyard barrels or apartment building incinerators. Local governments must modernize their solid waste programs and operate within growing federal and state regulations. The changing regulatory environment of solid waste management presents a golden opportunity to contract with the private sector if interest of the community can be protected.

  15. Solid waste management in Asian countries: a review of solid waste minimisation (3'r) towards low carbon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, N. E.; Sion, H. C.

    2014-02-01

    The amount of solid-waste generated in Asian countries has increased tremendously, mainly due to the improvement in living standards, rapid developments in technology, growth in economy and population in the cities. Solid waste management is a global issue and major challenge facing Asian countries and neglecting its management may have negative consequences on the environment. Waste composition data proves the developed countries to have generated more recyclable materials while developing countries produce more organic and less recyclable waste such as paper, plastic and aluminium. In this regard, increase in number of landfills and disposal sites, will have an impact on GHG (greenhouse gas) emissions and pollutants to air and water. Alternative methods should therefore be taken to reduce the volume of waste. Most Asian countries have adopted the 3R (reduce, reuse, recycle) concept in order to reduce solid waste and their governments have implemented laws and regulations in order to support this. Implementation of 3R is the major contributor to the solid waste minimization and it can improve the quality of environmental sustainability and reduction of carbon dioxide emission in to the atmosphere. Based on our review, most of the countries practicing the 3R concept in tandem with laws and regulations perform better than those that just practice the 3R concept without any laws and regulations. The paper suggests that every country must focus on the laws and regulations relating to solid waste minimization so that it could be easily implemented as outlined.

  16. Solid waste burial grounds interim safety analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Saito, G.H.

    1994-10-01

    This Interim Safety Analysis document supports the authorization basis for the interim operation and restrictions on interim operations for the near-surface land disposal of solid waste in the Solid Waste Burial Grounds. The Solid Waste Burial Grounds Interim Safety Basis supports the upgrade progress for the safety analysis report and the technical safety requirements for the operations in the Solid Waste Burial Grounds. Accident safety analysis scenarios have been analyzed based on the significant events identified in the preliminary hazards analysis. The interim safety analysis provides an evaluation of the operations in the Solid Waste Burial Grounds to determine if the radiological and hazardous material exposures will be acceptable from an overall health and safety standpoint to the worker, the onsite personnel, the public, and the environment.

  17. Solid Waste Management Practices in EBRP Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mann, Nadine L.

    1994-01-01

    A Louisiana school district has made tremendous progress toward developing and implementing an environmentally friendly solid waste management program. Packaging changes in school food service, newspaper and aluminum can recycling, and composting of leaf and yard waste have contributed to reduced waste sent to the local landfill. (MLF)

  18. Solid waste 30-year volume summary

    SciTech Connect

    Valero, O.J.; Armacost, L.L.; DeForest, T.J.; Templeton, K.J.; Williams, N.C.

    1994-06-01

    A 30-year forecast of the solid waste volumes to be generated or received at the US Department of Energy Hanford Site is described in this report. The volumes described are low-level mixed waste (LLMW) and transuranic/transuranic mixed (TRU/TRUM) waste that will require treatment, storage, and disposal at Hanford`s Solid Waste Operations Complex (SWOC) during the 30-year period from FY 1994 through FY 2023. The data used to complete this document were collected from onsite and offsite waste generators who currently, or are planning to, ship solid wastes to the Hanford Site. An analysis of the data suggests that over 300,000 m{sup 3} of LLMW and TRU/TRUM waste will be managed at Hanford`s SWOC over the next 30 years. An extensive effort was made this year to collect this information. The 1993 solid waste forecast was used as a starting point, which identified approximately 100,000 m{sup 3} of LLMW and TRU/TRUM waste to be sent to the SWOC. After analyzing the forecast waste volume, it was determined that additional waste was expected from the tank waste remediation system (TWRS), onsite decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) activities, and onsite remedial action (RA) activities. Data presented in this report establish a starting point for solid waste management planning. It is recognized that forecast estimates will vary (typically increasing) as facility planning and missions continue to change and become better defined, but the information presented still provides useful insight into Hanford`s future solid waste management requirements.

  19. SIGNIFICANCE OF SIZE REDUCTION IN SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT. VOLUME 2

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report presents results of shredder tests using raw municipal solid waste, air-classified light fraction, and screened light fraction. The tests simulated single- and multiple-stage size reduction, using a 10-ton per hour swing hammermill and a small, high-speed fixed hammer...

  20. Optimizing Resource and Energy Recovery for Municipal Solid Waste Management

    EPA Science Inventory

    Significant reductions of carbon emissions and air quality impacts can be achieved by optimizing municipal solid waste (MSW) as a resource. Materials and discards management were found to contribute ~40% of overall U.S. GHG emissions as a result of materials extraction, transpo...

  1. Producing usable fuel from municipal solid waste

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohlsson, O. O.

    Refuse disposal is a matter of increasing concern for municipalities and state governments. As existing land-fills become filled to capacity, and new landfills become more costly to site, it has become critical to develop alternative disposal methods. Some of the refuse that is presently being landfilled has the potential to provide considerable quantities of energy and thereby replace conventional fossil fuels. Another environmental concern is the problem of the emissions associated with combustion of traditional fossil fuels. The Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 significantly restrict the level of sulfur dioxide (SO2) and nitrogen oxides (NO(x)) emissions permissible as effluent from combustion facilities. To address both of these concerns, Argonne National Laboratory, under sponsorship of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), has developed a means of producing fuel from municipal solid waste that can be co-fired with coal to supplement coal supplies and reduce problematic emissions.

  2. Producing usable fuel from municipal solid waste

    SciTech Connect

    Ohlsson, O.O.

    1995-03-01

    Refuse disposal is a matter of increasing concern for municipalities and state governments. As existing land-fills become filled to capacity, and new landfills become more costly to site, it has become critical to develop alternative disposal methods. Some of the refuse that is presently being landfilled has the potential to provide considerable quantities of energy and thereby replace conventional fossil fuels. Another environmental concern is the problem of the emissions associated with combustion of traditional fossil fuels. The Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 significantly restrict the level of sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) and nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}) emissions permissible as effluent from combustion facilities. To address both of these concerns, Argonne National Laboratory, under sponsorship of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), has developed a means of producing fuel from municipal solid waste that can be co-fired with coal to supplement coal supplies and reduce problematic emissions.

  3. 40 CFR 261.2 - Definition of solid waste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Definition of solid waste. 261.2 Section 261.2 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) IDENTIFICATION AND LISTING OF HAZARDOUS WASTE General § 261.2 Definition of solid waste. (a)(1) A solid waste is any discarded material that...

  4. Hanford Site Solid Waste Acceptance Criteria

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-11-17

    This manual defines the Hanford Site radioactive, hazardous, and sanitary solid waste acceptance criteria. Criteria in the manual represent a guide for meeting state and federal regulations; DOE Orders; Hanford Site requirements; and other rules, regulations, guidelines, and standards as they apply to acceptance of radioactive and hazardous solid waste at the Hanford Site. It is not the intent of this manual to be all inclusive of the regulations; rather, it is intended that the manual provide the waste generator with only the requirements that waste must meet in order to be accepted at Hanford Site TSD facilities.

  5. Program Planning Concepts in Solid Waste Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Sanford M., Jr.

    1972-01-01

    Presents a brief review of the program planning process, and uses the example of a solid waste program to illustrate what has or has not been accomplished through the use of the planning process. (LK)

  6. New technological developments in processing solid waste to energy

    SciTech Connect

    Sherwin, E.T.; Nollet, A.R.

    1980-01-01

    The state-of-the-art in production of energy from municipal solid waste outlining relative advantages, limitations, and economics of various systems is briefly reviewed including mass-burning versus RDF in spreader-stoker fired boilers; suspension-firing of RDF; pulverized fuel; pelletized fuels; and gaseous fuels generated by pyrolysis processes. A new system for processing solid waste for resource recovery separates the incoming waste by air-classification as the first processing step; conventional systems shred as the first processing step. This new system, originally developed to guard against shredder explosions, has the following supplemental advantages: produces a refuse-derived fuel (RDF) having higher heating values and less ash than conventional systems; and reclaims waste paper which can be used as paper-making furnish, utilizing current beneficiating and cleaning techniques. Production of paper from virgin materials requires 20 to 30 million Btu per ton of paper - versus 10 million Btu when waste paper is utilized as furnish. A new system proposed for storage, handling, and feeding refuse-derived fuel to large suspension-fired boilers is examined. This system proposes coarse shredding only of the light fraction at the solid waste processing plant; shipment in compactor trailers; storage in the same trailers; fine-shredding near the boiler; and air transport from the shredders using material handling fans injecting directly into the boilers. This system provides more efficient operation at less capital cost than systems utilized to date.

  7. Comparative Risk Analysis for Metropolitan Solid Waste Management Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Ni-Bin; Wang, S. F.

    1996-01-01

    Conventional solid waste management planning usually focuses on economic optimization, in which the related environmental impacts or risks are rarely considered. The purpose of this paper is to illustrate the methodology of how optimization concepts and techniques can be applied to structure and solve risk management problems such that the impacts of air pollution, leachate, traffic congestion, and noise increments can be regulated in the iong-term planning of metropolitan solid waste management systems. Management alternatives are sequentially evaluated by adding several environmental risk control constraints stepwise in an attempt to improve the management strategies and reduce the risk impacts in the long run. Statistics associated with those risk control mechanisms are presented as well. Siting, routing, and financial decision making in such solid waste management systems can also be achieved with respect to various resource limitations and disposal requirements.

  8. Tapping Resources in Municipal Solid Waste

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blum, S. L.

    1976-01-01

    Municipal solid waste disposal is becoming complex as costs, wastes, and environmental restrictions increase. Recovery and recycling of materials presents problems of financing, ownership, and operation, technology, and marketing. Energy and materials recovery offers long-term economic and environmental incentives in terms of growing shortages and…

  9. Air pollutants emissions from waste treatment and disposal facilities.

    PubMed

    Hamoda, Mohamed F

    2006-01-01

    This study examined the atmospheric pollution created by some waste treatment and disposal facilities in the State of Kuwait. Air monitoring was conducted in a municipal wastewater treatment plant, an industrial wastewater treatment plant established in a petroleum refinery, and at a landfill site used for disposal of solid wastes. Such plants were selected as models for waste treatment and disposal facilities in the Arabian Gulf region and elsewhere. Air measurements were made over a period of 6 months and included levels of gaseous emissions as well as concentrations of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Samples of gas and bioaerosols were collected from ambient air surrounding the treatment facilities. The results obtained from this study have indicated the presence of VOCs and other gaseous pollutants such as methane, ammonia, and hydrogen sulphide in air surrounding the waste treatment and disposal facilities. In some cases the levels exceeded the concentration limits specified by the air quality standards. Offensive odors were also detected. The study revealed that adverse environmental impact of air pollutants is a major concern in the industrial more than in the municipal waste treatment facilities but sitting of municipal waste treatment and disposal facilities nearby the urban areas poses a threat to the public health. PMID:16401572

  10. Improved FGD dewatering process cuts solid wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Moer, C.; Fernandez, J.; Carraro, B.

    2009-08-15

    In 2007, Duke Energy's W.H. Zimmer Station set out to advance the overall performance of its flue gas desulfurization (FGD) dewatering process. The plant implemented a variety of measures, including upgrading water-solids separation, improving polymer program effectiveness and reliability, optimizing treatment costs, reducing solid waste sent to the landfill, decreasing labor requirements, and maintaining septic-free conditions in clarifiers. The changes succeeded in greatly reducing solid waste generation and achieving total annual savings of over half a million dollars per year. 8 figs., 1 tab.

  11. Solid and Liquid Waste Drying Bag

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Litwiller, Eric (Inventor); Hogan, John A. (Inventor); Fisher, John W. (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    Method and system for processing waste from human activities, including solids, liquids and vapors. A fluid-impermeable bag, lined with a liquid-impermeable but vapor-permeable membrane, defining an inner bag, is provided. A vacuum force is provided to extract vapors so that the waste is moved toward a selected region in the inner bag, extracted vapors, including the waste vapors and vaporized portions of the waste liquids are transported across the membrane, and most or all of the solids remain within the liner. Extracted vapors are filtered, and sanitized components thereof are isolated and optionally stored. The solids remaining within the liner are optionally dried and isolated for ultimate disposal.

  12. Energy aspects of solid waste management: Proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-12-31

    The Eighteenth Annual Illinois Energy Conference entitled ``Energy Aspects of Solid Waste Management`` was held in Chicago, Illinois on October 29--30, 1990. The conference program was developed by a planning committee that drew upon Illinois energy and environmental specialists from the major sectors including energy industries, environmental organizations, research universities, utility companies, federal, state and local government agencies, and public interest groups. Within this framework, the committee identified a number of key topic areas surrounding solid waste management in Illinois which were the focus of the conference. These issues included: review of the main components of the solid waste cycle in the Midwest and what the relative impact of waste reduction, recycling, incineration and land disposal might be on Illinois` and the Midwest`s solid waste management program. Investigation of special programs in the Midwest dealing with sewage sludge, combustion residuals and medical/infectious wastes. Review of the status of existing landfills in Illinois and the Midwest and an examination of the current plans for siting of new land disposal systems. Review of the status of incinerators and waste-to-energy systems in Illinois and the Midwest, as well as an update on activities to maximize methane production from landfills in the Midwest.

  13. Energy aspects of solid waste management: Proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-01-01

    The Eighteenth Annual Illinois Energy Conference entitled Energy Aspects of Solid Waste Management'' was held in Chicago, Illinois on October 29--30, 1990. The conference program was developed by a planning committee that drew upon Illinois energy and environmental specialists from the major sectors including energy industries, environmental organizations, research universities, utility companies, federal, state and local government agencies, and public interest groups. Within this framework, the committee identified a number of key topic areas surrounding solid waste management in Illinois which were the focus of the conference. These issues included: review of the main components of the solid waste cycle in the Midwest and what the relative impact of waste reduction, recycling, incineration and land disposal might be on Illinois' and the Midwest's solid waste management program. Investigation of special programs in the Midwest dealing with sewage sludge, combustion residuals and medical/infectious wastes. Review of the status of existing landfills in Illinois and the Midwest and an examination of the current plans for siting of new land disposal systems. Review of the status of incinerators and waste-to-energy systems in Illinois and the Midwest, as well as an update on activities to maximize methane production from landfills in the Midwest.

  14. Lyophilization for Water Recovery From Solid Waste

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flynn, Michael; Litwiller, Eric; Reinhard, Martin

    2003-01-01

    This abstract describes the development of a solid waste treatment system designed for a near term human exploration mission. The technology being developed is an energy- efficient lyophilization technique that recovers water from spacecraft solid waste. In the lyophilization process water in an aqueous waste is frozen and then sublimed, resulting in the separation of the waste into a dried solid material and liquid water. This technology is ideally suited to applications where water recovery rates approaching 100% are desirable but production of CO, is not. Water contained within solid wastes accounts for approximately 3% of the total water balance. If 100% closure of the water loop is desired the water contained within this waste would need to be recovered. To facilitate operation in microgravity thermoelectric heat pumps have be used in place of traditional fluid cycle heat pumps. A mathematical model of a thermoelectric lyophilizer has been developed and used to generate energy use and processing rate parameters. The results of laboratory investigations and discussions with ALS program management have been used to iteratively arrive at a prototype design. This design address operational limitations which were identified in the laboratory studies and handling and health concerns raised by ALS program management. The current prototype design is capable of integration into the ISS Waste Collection System.

  15. 1995 Solid Waste 30-year volume summary

    SciTech Connect

    Valero, O.J.; DeForest, T.J.; Templeton, K.J.

    1995-06-01

    This document, prepared by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) under the direction of Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC), provides a description of the annual low-level mixed waste (LLMW) and transuranic/transuranic mixed solid waste (TRU-TRUM) volumes expected to be managed by Hanford`s Solid Waste Central Waste Complex (CWC) over the next 30 years. The waste generation sources and waste categories are also described. This document is intended to be used as a reference for short- and long-term planning of the Hanford treatment, storage, and disposal (TSD) activities over the next several decades. By estimating the waste volumes that will be generated in the future, facility planners can determine the timing of key waste management activities, evaluate alternative treatment strategies, and plan storage and disposal capacities. In addition, this document can be used by other waste sites and the general public to gain a better understanding of the types and volumes of waste that will be managed at Hanford.

  16. Electrochemical processing of solid waste

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bockris, J. OM.; Hitchens, G. D.; Kaba, L.

    1988-01-01

    The investigation into electrolysis as a means of waste treatment and recycling on manned space missions is described. The electrochemical reactions of an artificial fecal waste mixture was examined. Waste electrolysis experiments were performed in a single compartment reactor, on platinum electrodes, to determine conditions likely to maximize the efficiency of oxidation of fecal waste material to CO2. The maximum current efficiencies for artificial fecal waste electrolysis to CO2 was found to be around 50 percent in the test apparatus. Experiments involving fecal waste oxidation on platinum indicates that electrodes with a higher overvoltage for oxygen evolution such as lead dioxide will give a larger effective potential range for organic oxidation reactions. An electrochemical packed column reactor was constructed with lead dioxide as electrode material. Preliminary experiments were performed using a packed-bed reactor and continuous flow techniques showing this system may be effective in complete oxidation of fecal material. The addition of redox mediator Ce(3+)/Ce(4+) enhances the oxidation process of biomass components. Scientific literature relevant to biomass and fecal waste electrolysis were reviewed.

  17. 1993 baseline solid waste management system description

    SciTech Connect

    Armacost, L.L.; Fowler, R.A.; Konynenbelt, H.S.

    1994-02-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory has prepared this report under the direction of Westinghouse Hanford Company. The report provides an integrated description of the system planned for managing Hanford`s solid low-level waste, low-level mixed waste, transuranic waste, and transuranic mixed waste. The primary purpose of this document is to illustrate a collective view of the key functions planned at the Hanford Site to handle existing waste inventories, as well as solid wastes that will be generated in the future. By viewing this system as a whole rather than as individual projects, key facility interactions and requirements are identified and a better understanding of the overall system may be gained. The system is described so as to form a basis for modeling the system at various levels of detail. Model results provide insight into issues such as facility capacity requirements, alternative system operating strategies, and impacts of system changes (ie., startup dates). This description of the planned Hanford solid waste processing system: defines a baseline system configuration; identifies the entering waste streams to be managed within the system; identifies basic system functions and waste flows; and highlights system constraints. This system description will evolve and be revised as issues are resolved, planning decisions are made, additional data are collected, and assumptions are tested and changed. Out of necessity, this document will also be revised and updated so that a documented system description, which reflects current system planning, is always available for use by engineers and managers. It does not provide any results generated from the many alternatives that will be modeled in the course of analyzing solid waste disposal options; such results will be provided in separate documents.

  18. Solid wastes from nuclear power production.

    PubMed Central

    Soule, H F

    1978-01-01

    Radioactivity in nuclear power effluents is negligible compared to that in retained wastes to be disposed of as solids. Two basic waste categories are those for which shallow disposal is accepted and those for which more extreme isolation is desired. The latter includes "high level" wastes and others contaminated with radionuclides with the unusual combined properties of long radioactive half-life and high specific radiotoxicity. The favored method for extreme isolation is emplacement in a deep stable geologic formation. Necessary technologies for waste treatment and disposal are considered available. The present program to implement these technologies is discussed, including the waste management significance of current policy on spent nuclear fuel reprocessing. Recent difficulties with shallow disposal of waste are summarized. PMID:738244

  19. Biodrying for municipal solid waste: volume and weight reduction.

    PubMed

    Bilgin, Melayib; Tulun, Şevket

    2015-01-01

    Biodrying is a variation of aerobic decomposition used for the mechanical-biological treatment organic substances to dry and partially stabilize residual municipal waste. This study focuses on the volume and weight reduction biodegradation of the biodrying process using municipal solid waste and the appearance of a stable, final product. The materials were placed in a reactor with invariant airflow rates of 50 L/h and initial moisture contents of 48.49-50.00%. The laboratory-scale experiments were implemented using a 36-L biodrying reactor equipped with an air supply system, a biomass temperature sensor and air sensors. To determine the effect of temperature on biodrying, the process was repeated at various temperatures between 30 °C and 50 °C. The results obtained indicated that after 13 days, biodrying reduced the volume content of waste by 32% and the final product had a high calorific value (4680 kcal/kg). PMID:25571768

  20. Survival of coliform bacteria in static compost piles of dairy waste solids intended for freestall bedding.

    PubMed

    Mote, C R; Emerton, B L; Allison, J S; Dowlen, H H; Oliver, S P

    1988-06-01

    Dairy waste solids separated from a slurry by a centrifugal separator were composted in 12 static piles. Seven of the compost piles were naturally aerated, and five were aerated by a fan that forced air through the piles of solids. The natural aeration process aged the manure solids in an unconfined pile. The fan in the forced aeration process forced air into a perforated plenum beneath the compost piles. Dairy waste solids in each compost pile were heated into the thermophilic temperature range and generally composted well. At most sampling points, coliform bacteria declined to low or undetectable numbers early in the composting period. However, as the composting process proceeded, bacterial numbers increased to approximately those present in raw dairy waste solids. Findings of this study suggest that composting offers little benefit toward net reduction in coliform bacterial numbers in dairy waste solids. PMID:3403762

  1. Thermal Treatment of Solid Wastes Using the Electric Arc Furnace

    SciTech Connect

    O'Connor, W.K.; Turner, P.C.

    1999-09-01

    A thermal waste treatment facility has been developed at the Albany Research Center (ARC) over the past seven years to process a wide range of heterogeneous mixed wastes, on a scale of 227 to 907 kg/h (500 to 2,000 lb/h). The current system includes a continuous feed system, a 3-phase AC, 0.8 MW graphite electrode arc furnace, and a dedicated air pollution control system (APCS) which includes a close-coupled thermal oxidizer, spray cooler, baghouse, and wet scrubber. The versatility of the complete system has been demonstrated during 5 continuous melting campaigns, ranging from 11 to 25 mt (12 to 28 st) of treated wastes per campaign, which were conducted on waste materials such as (a) municipal incinerator ash, (b) simulated low-level radioactive, high combustible-bearing mixed wastes, (c) simulated low-level radioactive liquid tank wastes, (d) heavy metal contaminated soils, and (e) organic-contaminated dredging spoils. In all cases, the glass or slag products readily passed the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Toxicity Characteristic Leachability Program (TCLP) test. Additional studies are currently under way on electric utility wastes, steel and aluminum industry wastes, as well as zinc smelter residues. Thermal treatment of these solid waste streams is intended to produce a metallic product along with nonhazardous glass or slag products.

  2. The anaerobic digestion of solid organic waste.

    PubMed

    Khalid, Azeem; Arshad, Muhammad; Anjum, Muzammil; Mahmood, Tariq; Dawson, Lorna

    2011-08-01

    The accumulation of solid organic waste is thought to be reaching critical levels in almost all regions of the world. These organic wastes require to be managed in a sustainable way to avoid depletion of natural resources, minimize risk to human health, reduce environmental burdens and maintain an overall balance in the ecosystem. A number of methods are currently applied to the treatment and management of solid organic waste. This review focuses on the process of anaerobic digestion which is considered to be one of the most viable options for recycling the organic fraction of solid waste. This manuscript provides a broad overview of the digestibility and energy production (biogas) yield of a range of substrates and the digester configurations that achieve these yields. The involvement of a diverse array of microorganisms and effects of co-substrates and environmental factors on the efficiency of the process has been comprehensively addressed. The recent literature indicates that anaerobic digestion could be an appealing option for converting raw solid organic wastes into useful products such as biogas and other energy-rich compounds, which may play a critical role in meeting the world's ever-increasing energy requirements in the future. PMID:21530224

  3. Solid waste management complex site development plan

    SciTech Connect

    Greager, T.M.

    1994-09-30

    The main purpose of this Solid Waste Management Complex Site Development Plan is to optimize the location of future solid waste treatment and storage facilities and the infrastructure required to support them. An overall site plan is recommended. Further, a series of layouts are included that depict site conditions as facilities are constructed at the SWMC site. In this respect the report serves not only as the siting basis for future projects, but provides siting guidance for Project W-112, as well. The plan is intended to function as a template for expected growth of the site over the next 30 years so that future facilities and infrastructure will be properly integrated.

  4. Solid Waste Burial Grounds/Central Waste Complex hazards assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Broz, R.E.

    1994-09-30

    This document establishes the technical basis in support of Emergency Planning Activities for Solid Waste Burial Grounds/Central Waste Complex on the Hanford Site. The document represents an acceptable interpretation of the implementing guidance document for DOE Order 5500.3A. Through this document, the technical basis for the development of facility specific Emergency Action Levels and the Emergency Planning Zone is documented.

  5. Model input and output files for the simulation of time of arrival of landfill leachate at the water table, Municipal Solid Waste Landfill Facility, U.S. Army Air Defense Artillery Center and Fort Bliss, El Paso County, Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Abeyta, Cynthia G.; Frenzel, Peter F.

    1999-01-01

    This report contains listings of model input and output files for the simulation of the time of arrival of landfill leachate at the water table from the Municipal Solid Waste Landfill Facility (MSWLF), about 10 miles northeast of downtown El Paso, Texas. This simulation was done by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the U.S. Department of the Army, U.S. Army Air Defense Artillery Center and Fort Bliss, El Paso, Texas. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency-developed Hydrologic Evaluation of Landfill Performance (HELP) and Multimedia Exposure Assessment (MULTIMED) computer models were used to simulate the production of leachate by a landfill and transport of landfill leachate to the water table. Model input data files used with and output files generated by the HELP and MULTIMED models are provided in ASCII format on a 3.5-inch 1.44-megabyte IBM-PC compatible floppy disk.

  6. National solid waste management plan for Iraq.

    PubMed

    Knowles, James A

    2009-06-01

    After decades of turmoil and international sanctions much of the key civil infrastructure within Iraq has fallen into disrepair, leading to a considerable decline in the provision of basic and essential municipal services. This is particularly true of waste and resource management services that have seen years of underdevelopment and deterioration. This has resulted in a lack of provision of basic public services in the waste sector which have been replaced by a burgeoning unregulated informal market in waste collection, disposal and recycling. In response, a National Solid Waste Management Plan (NSWMP) for Iraq was developed in 2007, to plan for the strategic development of all aspects of waste management in the country over the coming 20 years. In particular, the NSWMP focuses on policy development and integrated planning regarding regulatory framework, economic aspects, institutional capacity, citizen and technical education, and technical and operational development. This paper summarizes the key objectives, challenges and subsequent recommendations contained in the NSWMP for Iraq. PMID:19470543

  7. Solid waste recycling programs at Rocky Flats

    SciTech Connect

    Millette, R.L.; Blackman, T.E.; Shepard, M.D.

    1994-12-31

    The Rocky Flats (RFP) recycling programs for solid waste materials have been in place for over ten years. Within the last three years, the programs were centralized under the direction of the Rocky Flats Waste Minimization department, with the assistance of various plant organizations (e.g., Trucking, Building Services, Regulated Waste Operations, property Utilization and Disposal and Security). Waste Minimization designs collection and transportation systems for recyclable materials and evaluates recycling markets for opportunities to add new commodities to the existing programs. The Waste Minimization department also promotes employee participation in the Rocky Flats Recycling Programs, and collects all recycling data for publication. A description of the program status as of January 1994 is given.

  8. Biogasification of municipal solid wastes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diaz, L. F.; Savage, G. M.; Trezek, G. J.; Golueke, C. G.

    1981-06-01

    A series of experiments on the anaerobic digestion of the organic fraction of municipal refuse was performed. The refuse fraction used in the study was one of the portions segregated in a resource recovery system developed at the University of California, Berkeley. The scale of experiments includes 4, 9, and 1600-L digesters. The refuse used as feed was enriched by the addition of raw sewage sludge in various ratios, i.e., from 0-100 percent of the total volatile solids. No other sources of nutrients or chemicals for pH control were introduced into the reactors. Organic loading rates ranging from 1.1-6.4 g of volatile solids/Ld were obtained. Typical hydraulic detention times were 15 to 30 days. Temperatures were kept within the range of 72-104 F (22-40 C). Digestion efficiency was based on energy conversion and gas production.

  9. Feasibility study of solid waste resource recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-04-01

    This report presents the findings of a study of solid waste management alternatives applicable to the Kettle Moraine Solid Waste Management District. The Kettle Moraine Solid Waste Management District (the District'') is an unofficial name referring to the group of Washington County communities located in the planning area considered in the study. Knowing that demand for ultimate disposal will never be completely eliminated, the communities' objective is to examine other methods such as source separation/recycling, composting and incineration which would balance their reliance among several means of management. Finding the best available system of methods is therefore the basic study objective. The attached report is presented in several sections. It provides a stand-alone overview of findings in the other seven sections as well as provide conclusions and recommendations, presents basic solid waste characterization data in volume and composition terms as would become the basis of planning, and introduces the basic building block methods considered in conceiving balanced system alternatives. It presents economic attributes of the alternatives: environmental and permitting requirements, criteria for evaluation of sites, and the where-to-go-from-here considerations of implementation. 11 figs., 18 tabs.

  10. WAGE INCENTIVES FOR SOLID WASTE COLLECTION PERSONNEL

    EPA Science Inventory

    An assessment was made of a time and wage incentive program for solid waste collection and supervisory personnel in the test city, Covington, Kentucky. On an annualized basis, cost savings amounting to $113,000 (19 percent of budget) resulted from implementation of the new progra...

  11. Solid Waste Management Planning--A Methodology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Theisen, Hilary M.; And Others

    1975-01-01

    This article presents a twofold solid waste management plan consisting of a basic design methodology and a decision-making methodology. The former provides a framework for the developing plan while the latter builds flexibility into the design so that there is a model for use during the planning process. (MA)

  12. Methods of Predicting Solid Waste Characteristics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyd, Gail B.; Hawkins, Myron B.

    The project summarized by this report involved a preliminary design of a model for estimating and predicting the quantity and composition of solid waste and a determination of its feasibility. The novelty of the prediction model is that it estimates and predicts on the basis of knowledge of materials and quantities before they become a part of the…

  13. The Museum of Solid Waste and Energy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Energy Education Development Project, Reston, VA.

    This activity geared for grades 5-9 involves students in creating museum stations on eight solid waste and energy topics. While working in groups, students present their station topic to other students who are conducting a "museum tour." In doing so participants are encouraged to enhance their reading, writing, public speaking, and artistic skills…

  14. Solid waste electrical generating feasibility study

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-05-01

    The feasibility of recommissioning the existing 3 megawatt steam turbine driven electrical generator of the Municipal Utilities of Valley City, North Dakota, using steam generated in a new facility from the incineration of municipal solid waste generated in the area is examined. It is concluded that (1) there is sufficient municipal solid waste that can be obtained from Valley City, Moorhead and Jamestown (and/or West Fargo) to fuel the plant; (2) the seasonal fluctuation in the amounts of municipal solid waste indicates that a supplementary source of fuel for use during winter would increase plant efficiency; (3) the probable capital cost of the project will be $3,590,000.00; (4) the cost of production of electricity could range from 3.72 cents/kWh to 4.90 cents/kWh, depending on the construction costs, interest rate, lifetime of the project, availability for the plant and steam produced per ton of municipal solid waste; (5) there is no compelling reason why the tertiary cell of the sewage lagoon, cannot be used for cooling water; (6) the State Health Department is ambivalent toward the project; and (7) the public perception of the project is positive. 92 references.

  15. General survey of solid-waste management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reese, T. G.; Wadle, R. C.

    1974-01-01

    Potential ways of providing solid-waste management for a building complex serviced by a modular integrated utility system (MIUS) were explored. Literature surveys were conducted to investigate both conventional and unusual systems to serve this purpose. The advantages and disadvantages of the systems most compatible with MIUS are discussed.

  16. Cost/Benefits of Solid Waste Reuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schulz, Helmut W.

    1975-01-01

    Municipalities and industry are being forced to seek alternatives to sanitary landfills and incineration as means of eliminating solid wastes. Based on the Columbia study, the two most cost-effective, environmentally acceptable alternatives are the high temperature, oxygen-fed pyrolysis process and the co-combustion of refuse-derived fuel in…

  17. Solid Waste Program technical baseline description

    SciTech Connect

    Carlson, A.B.

    1994-07-01

    The system engineering approach has been taken to describe the technical baseline under which the Solid Waste Program is currently operating. The document contains a mission analysis, function analysis, system definition, documentation requirements, facility and project bases, and uncertainties facing the program.

  18. Municipal solid-waste management in Istanbul

    SciTech Connect

    Kanat, Gurdal

    2010-08-15

    Istanbul, with a population of around 13 million people, is located between Europe and Asia and is the biggest city in Turkey. Metropolitan Istanbul produces about 14,000 tons of solid waste per day. The aim of this study was to assess the situation of municipal solid-waste (MSW) management in Istanbul. This was achieved by reviewing the quantity and composition of waste produced in Istanbul. Current requirements and challenges in relation to the optimization of Istanbul's MSW collection and management system are also discussed, and several suggestions for solving the problems identified are presented. The recovery of solid waste from the landfills, as well as the amounts of landfill-generated biogas and electricity, were evaluated. In recent years, MSW management in Istanbul has improved because of strong governance and institutional involvement. However, efforts directed toward applied research are still required to enable better waste management. These efforts will greatly support decision making on the part of municipal authorities. There remains a great need to reduce the volume of MSW in Istanbul.

  19. Municipal solid-waste management in Istanbul.

    PubMed

    Kanat, Gurdal

    2010-01-01

    Istanbul, with a population of around 13 million people, is located between Europe and Asia and is the biggest city in Turkey. Metropolitan Istanbul produces about 14,000 tons of solid waste per day. The aim of this study was to assess the situation of municipal solid-waste (MSW) management in Istanbul. This was achieved by reviewing the quantity and composition of waste produced in Istanbul. Current requirements and challenges in relation to the optimization of Istanbul's MSW collection and management system are also discussed, and several suggestions for solving the problems identified are presented. The recovery of solid waste from the landfills, as well as the amounts of landfill-generated biogas and electricity, were evaluated. In recent years, MSW management in Istanbul has improved because of strong governance and institutional involvement. However, efforts directed toward applied research are still required to enable better waste management. These efforts will greatly support decision making on the part of municipal authorities. There remains a great need to reduce the volume of MSW in Istanbul. PMID:20185290

  20. Integrated solid waste management of Minneapolis, Minnesota

    SciTech Connect

    1995-11-01

    The subject document reports the results of an in-depth investigation of the fiscal year 1992 cost of the City of Minneapolis, Minnesota (Hennepin County) integrated municipal solid waste management (IMSWM) system, the energy consumed to operate the system, and the environmental performance requirements for each of the system`s waste-processing and disposal facilities. Actual data from records kept by participants is reported in this document. Every effort was made to minimize the use of assumptions, and no attempt is made to interpret the data reported. Analytical approaches are documented so that interested analysts may perform manipulation or further analysis of the data. As such, the report is a reference document for municipal solid waste (MSW) management professionals who are interested in the actual costs and energy consumption for a one-year period, of an operating IMSWM system.

  1. Municipal solid waste disposal in Portugal

    SciTech Connect

    Magrinho, Alexandre; Didelet, Filipe; Semiao, Viriato . E-mail: ViriatoSemiao@ist.utl.pt

    2006-07-01

    In recent years municipal solid waste (MSW) disposal has been one of the most important environmental problems for all of the Portuguese regions. The basic principles of MSW management in Portugal are: (1) prevention or reduction, (2) reuse, (3) recovery (e.g., recycling, incineration with heat recovery), and (4) polluter-pay principle. A brief history of legislative trends in waste management is provided herein as background for current waste management and recycling activities. The paper also presents and discusses the municipal solid waste management in Portugal and is based primarily on a national inquiry carried out in 2003 and directed to the MSW management entities. Additionally, the MSW responsibility and management structure in Portugal is presented, together with the present situation of production, collection, recycling, treatment and elimination of MSW. Results showed that 96% of MSW was collected mixed (4% was separately collected) and that 68% was disposed of in landfill, 21% was incinerated at waste-to-energy plants, 8% was treated at organic waste recovery plants and 3% was delivered to sorting. The average generation rate of MSW was 1.32 kg/capita/day.

  2. Mercury emissions from municipal solid waste combustors

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-05-01

    This report examines emissions of mercury (Hg) from municipal solid waste (MSW) combustion in the United States (US). It is projected that total annual nationwide MSW combustor emissions of mercury could decrease from about 97 tonnes (1989 baseline uncontrolled emissions) to less than about 4 tonnes in the year 2000. This represents approximately a 95 percent reduction in the amount of mercury emitted from combusted MSW compared to the 1989 mercury emissions baseline. The likelihood that routinely achievable mercury emissions removal efficiencies of about 80 percent or more can be assured; it is estimated that MSW combustors in the US could prove to be a comparatively minor source of mercury emissions after about 1995. This forecast assumes that diligent measures to control mercury emissions, such as via use of supplemental control technologies (e.g., carbon adsorption), are generally employed at that time. However, no present consensus was found that such emissions control measures can be implemented industry-wide in the US within this time frame. Although the availability of technology is apparently not a limiting factor, practical implementation of necessary control technology may be limited by administrative constraints and other considerations (e.g., planning, budgeting, regulatory compliance requirements, etc.). These projections assume that: (a) about 80 percent mercury emissions reduction control efficiency is achieved with air pollution control equipment likely to be employed by that time; (b) most cylinder-shaped mercury-zinc (CSMZ) batteries used in hospital applications can be prevented from being disposed into the MSW stream or are replaced with alternative batteries that do not contain mercury; and (c) either the amount of mercury used in fluorescent lamps is decreased to an industry-wide average of about 27 milligrams of mercury per lamp or extensive diversion from the MSW stream of fluorescent lamps that contain mercury is accomplished.

  3. 40 CFR 240.200 - Solid wastes accepted.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Solid wastes accepted. 240.200 Section 240.200 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES GUIDELINES FOR THE THERMAL PROCESSING OF SOLID WASTES Requirements and Recommended Procedures § 240.200...

  4. 40 CFR 240.201 - Solid wastes excluded.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Solid wastes excluded. 240.201 Section 240.201 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES GUIDELINES FOR THE THERMAL PROCESSING OF SOLID WASTES Requirements and Recommended Procedures § 240.201...

  5. 40 CFR 240.201 - Solid wastes excluded.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Solid wastes excluded. 240.201 Section 240.201 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES GUIDELINES FOR THE THERMAL PROCESSING OF SOLID WASTES Requirements and Recommended Procedures § 240.201...

  6. 40 CFR 240.201 - Solid wastes excluded.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Solid wastes excluded. 240.201 Section 240.201 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES GUIDELINES FOR THE THERMAL PROCESSING OF SOLID WASTES Requirements and Recommended Procedures § 240.201...

  7. 40 CFR 240.201 - Solid wastes excluded.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Solid wastes excluded. 240.201 Section 240.201 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES GUIDELINES FOR THE THERMAL PROCESSING OF SOLID WASTES Requirements and Recommended Procedures § 240.201...

  8. 40 CFR 240.200 - Solid wastes accepted.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Solid wastes accepted. 240.200 Section 240.200 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES GUIDELINES FOR THE THERMAL PROCESSING OF SOLID WASTES Requirements and Recommended Procedures § 240.200...

  9. 40 CFR 240.201 - Solid wastes excluded.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Solid wastes excluded. 240.201 Section 240.201 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES GUIDELINES FOR THE THERMAL PROCESSING OF SOLID WASTES Requirements and Recommended Procedures § 240.201...

  10. 40 CFR 240.200 - Solid wastes accepted.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Solid wastes accepted. 240.200 Section 240.200 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES GUIDELINES FOR THE THERMAL PROCESSING OF SOLID WASTES Requirements and Recommended Procedures § 240.200...

  11. 40 CFR 240.200 - Solid wastes accepted.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Solid wastes accepted. 240.200 Section 240.200 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES GUIDELINES FOR THE THERMAL PROCESSING OF SOLID WASTES Requirements and Recommended Procedures § 240.200...

  12. 40 CFR 240.200 - Solid wastes accepted.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Solid wastes accepted. 240.200 Section 240.200 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES GUIDELINES FOR THE THERMAL PROCESSING OF SOLID WASTES Requirements and Recommended Procedures § 240.200...

  13. COMPILATION OF DISPOSABLE SOLID WASTE CASK EVALUATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    THIELGES, J.R.; CHASTAIN, S.A.

    2007-06-21

    The Disposable Solid Waste Cask (DSWC) is a shielded cask capable of transporting, storing, and disposing of six non-fuel core components or approximately 27 cubic feet of radioactive solid waste. Five existing DSWCs are candidates for use in storing and disposing of non-fuel core components and radioactive solid waste from the Interim Examination and Maintenance Cell, ultimately shipping them to the 200 West Area disposal site for burial. A series of inspections, studies, analyses, and modifications were performed to ensure that these casks can be used to safely ship solid waste. These inspections, studies, analyses, and modifications are summarized and attached in this report. Visual inspection of the casks interiors provided information with respect to condition of the casks inner liners. Because water was allowed to enter the casks for varying lengths of time, condition of the cask liner pipe to bottom plate weld was of concern. Based on the visual inspection and a corrosion study, it was concluded that four of the five casks can be used from a corrosion standpoint. Only DSWC S/N-004 would need additional inspection and analysis to determine its usefulness. The five remaining DSWCs underwent some modification to prepare them for use. The existing cask lifting inserts were found to be corroded and deemed unusable. New lifting anchor bolts were installed to replace the existing anchors. Alternate lift lugs were fabricated for use with the new lifting anchor bolts. The cask tiedown frame was modified to facilitate adjustment of the cask tiedowns. As a result of the above mentioned inspections, studies, analysis, and modifications, four of the five existing casks can be used to store and transport waste from the Interim Examination and Maintenance Cell to the disposal site for burial. The fifth cask, DSWC S/N-004, would require further inspections before it could be used.

  14. 40 CFR 266.202 - Definition of solid waste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Definition of solid waste. 266.202 Section 266.202 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS FOR THE MANAGEMENT OF SPECIFIC HAZARDOUS WASTES AND SPECIFIC TYPES OF HAZARDOUS WASTE MANAGEMENT FACILITIES Military Munitions §...

  15. 40 CFR 266.202 - Definition of solid waste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Definition of solid waste. 266.202 Section 266.202 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS FOR THE MANAGEMENT OF SPECIFIC HAZARDOUS WASTES AND SPECIFIC TYPES OF HAZARDOUS WASTE MANAGEMENT FACILITIES Military Munitions §...

  16. Conversion of municipal solid waste to energy, Jacksonville, Florida

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frounfelker, R.; Belencan, H.

    1982-02-01

    A 227 megagram per day prototype auger combustor system is described and performance tests are discussed. The system is a two chamber, starved-air incinerator so named because of the auger located within the primary chamber which tumbles and moves the waste through the system. The feasibility evaluation of resource recovery in the city of Jacksonville, Florida, involved the determination of the following: (1) the amount and characteristics of the solid waste; (2) the location and requirement of candidate energy customers and materials markets; (3) the applicable incineration/heat recovery and resource recovery technologies; and (4) the institutional, legal, and environmental requirements for constructing a facility. The marketing plan developd to define the specific steps required to employ a waste-to-energy technology in the Jacksonville area is also discussed.

  17. System for chemically digesting low level radioactive, solid waste material

    DOEpatents

    Cowan, Richard G.; Blasewitz, Albert G.

    1982-01-01

    An improved method and system for chemically digesting low level radioactive, solid waste material having a high through-put. The solid waste material is added to an annular vessel (10) substantially filled with concentrated sulfuric acid. Concentrated nitric acid or nitrogen dioxide is added to the sulfuric acid within the annular vessel while the sulfuric acid is reacting with the solid waste. The solid waste is mixed within the sulfuric acid so that the solid waste is substantilly fully immersed during the reaction. The off gas from the reaction and the products slurry residue is removed from the vessel during the reaction.

  18. Minicipal-solid-waste biconversion technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leeper, S. A.; Wolfram, J. H.; Chow, M. L.; Dawley, L. J.

    1982-10-01

    The bioconversion approach in which municipal solid waste (MSW) is a resource from which methane, ethanol, and chemicals can be produced by anaerobic digestion and fermentation is discussed. The quantity and volume of MSW requiring disposal are reduced and stabilized. The relevant literature was surveyed and is reviewed. The availability, composition, and properties of MSW are reported. Pretreatment of lignocellulosic material, the predominant compound of MSW, is described and discussed, including mechanical chemical, and physical processes.

  19. Production of hydrogen from municipal solid waste

    SciTech Connect

    Coleman, S.L.

    1995-11-01

    The Gasification of Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) includes gasification and the process for producing a gasificable slurry from raw MSW by using high pressures of steam. A potential energy source, MSW is a composite of organic materials such as: paper, wood, food waste, etc. There are different paper grades producing different results with low-quality paper forming better slurries than high-quality papers; making MSW a difficult feedstock for gasification. The objective of the bench-scale laboratory work has been to establish operating conditions for a hydrothermal pre-processing scheme for municipal solid waste (MSW) that produces a good slurry product that can be pumped and atomized to the gasifier for the production of hydrogen. Batch reactors are used to determine product yields as a function of hydrothermal treatment conditions. Various ratios of water-to-paper were used to find out solid product, gas product, and soluble product yields of MSW. Experimental conditions covered were temperature, time, and water to feed ratio. Temperature had the strongest effect on product yields.

  20. Properties of solid waste incinerator fly ash

    SciTech Connect

    Poran, C.J. ); Ahtchi-Ali, F. )

    1989-08-01

    Since the late 1950s solid waste incinerators have become widely used in the United States. The incineration of solid waste produces large quantities of bottom and fly ash, which has been disposed of primarily by landfilling. However, as landfills become undesirable other disposal methods are being sought. An experimental research program is conducted to determine engineering properties of solid waste incinerator fly ash (SWIF) in order to evaluate the feasibility of using the material for compacted fill and road and subbase construction. Moisture-density relationship, permeability, shear strength, and California bearing ratio (CBR) are investigated. The effects of densification on these engineering properties are also examined. In addition, the effectiveness of cement and lime stabilization is investigated using two common mix ratios. Test results of stabilized mixes are compared to the unstabilized material. Cement stabilization is found to be very effective in reducing permeability, and increasing shear strength and CBR values of the material. The results indicate that SWIF with cement stabilization may be used effectively for compacted fill and road subbase construction. Finally, some environmental aspects related to these applications are examined.

  1. Solid Waste/Disease Relationships, A Literature Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanks, Thrift G.

    Presented is a comprehensive survey of the literature on the relationships between disease and solid wastes. Diseases are grouped on the basis of waste type or disease vector, such as chemical waste, human fecal waste, animal fecal waste, rodent-borne disease, mosquito-borne disease and miscellaneous communicable disease. The following format is…

  2. In-line ultrasonic monitoring of waste slurry suspended solids

    SciTech Connect

    Chien, H.-T.; Sheen, S.-H.; Raptis, A. C.

    2000-05-25

    During the transport of tank waste, it is very important to quantitatively measure the percent solids concentration (PSC) of the waste, which indicates the flow conditions and the extent of solids settling. At Argonne National Laboratory, an in-line, real-time, a nonintrusive ultrasonic monitoring system has been developed to measure the PSC and flow density of tank waste by measuring sound velocity and attenuation in the flow. This system consists of a pair of longitudinal transducers bonded to waveguides on the opposite sides of the pipe and operating at IMHz simultaneously in pulse-and-echo and pitch-and-catch modes. The PSC measurement is provided by attenuation, while the density measurement is calculated by impedance and sound velocity. A thermocouple is attached to one of the waveguides for automatic temperature correction of the measurements. This system was one of four evaluated for in-line measurement of slurry at Oak Ridge National Laboratory in 1998. The results indicate that the measurements are in good agreement with a Coriolis meter and that the system can be used to monitor PSC up to 40 wt.%. However, the system is greatly affected by entrained air bubbles within the solid flow during Puisair mixing. A different mixing mechanism will solve this problem.

  3. Municipal solid waste effective stress analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Shariatmadari, Nader; Machado, Sandro Lemos; Noorzad, Ali; Karimpour-Fard, Mehran

    2009-12-15

    The mechanical behavior of municipal solid waste (MSW) has attracted the attention of many researchers in the field of geo-environmental engineering in recent years and several aspects of waste mechanical response under loading have been elucidated. However, the mechanical response of MSW materials under undrained conditions has not been described in detail to date. The knowledge of this aspect of the MSW mechanical response is very important in cases involving MSW with high water contents, seismic ground motion and in regions where landfills are built with poor operation conditions. This paper presents the results obtained from 26 large triaxial tests performed both in drained and undrained conditions. The results were analyzed taking into account the waste particles compressibility and the deformation anisotropy of the waste samples. The waste particles compressibility was used to modify the Terzaghi effective stress equation, using the Skempton (1961) proposition. It is shown that the use of the modified effective stress equation led to much more compatible shear strength values when comparing Consolidated-Drained (CD) and Consolidated-Undrained (CU), results, explaining the high shear strength values obtained in CU triaxial tests, even when the pore pressure is almost equal to the confining stress.

  4. Municipal solid waste effective stress analysis.

    PubMed

    Shariatmadari, Nader; Machado, Sandro Lemos; Noorzad, Ali; Karimpour-Fard, Mehran

    2009-12-01

    The mechanical behavior of municipal solid waste (MSW) has attracted the attention of many researchers in the field of geo-environmental engineering in recent years and several aspects of waste mechanical response under loading have been elucidated. However, the mechanical response of MSW materials under undrained conditions has not been described in detail to date. The knowledge of this aspect of the MSW mechanical response is very important in cases involving MSW with high water contents, seismic ground motion and in regions where landfills are built with poor operation conditions. This paper presents the results obtained from 26 large triaxial tests performed both in drained and undrained conditions. The results were analyzed taking into account the waste particles compressibility and the deformation anisotropy of the waste samples. The waste particles compressibility was used to modify the Terzaghi effective stress equation, using the Skempton (1961) proposition. It is shown that the use of the modified effective stress equation led to much more compatible shear strength values when comparing Consolidated-Drained (CD) and Consolidated-Undrained (CU), results, explaining the high shear strength values obtained in CU triaxial tests, even when the pore pressure is almost equal to the confining stress. PMID:19744848

  5. Municipal solid waste management in Beijing City.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhen-shan; Yang, Lei; Qu, Xiao-Yan; Sui, Yu-mei

    2009-09-01

    This paper presents an overview of municipal solid waste (MSW) management in Beijing City. Beijing, the capital of China, has a land area of approximately 1368.32 km(2) with an urban population of about 13.33 million in 2006. Over the past three decades, MSW generation in Beijing City has increased tremendously from 1.04 million tons in 1978 to 4.134 million tons in 2006. The average generation rate of MSW in 2006 was 0.85 kg/capita/day. Food waste comprised 63.39%, followed by paper (11.07%), plastics (12.7%) and dust (5.78%). While all other wastes including tiles, textiles, glass, metals and wood accounted for less than 3%. Currently, 90% of MSW generated in Beijing is landfilled, 8% is incinerated and 2% is composted. Source separation collection, as a waste reduction method, has been carried out in a total of 2255 demonstration residential and commercial areas (covering about 4.7 million people) up to the end of 2007. Demonstration districts should be promoted over a wider range instead of demonstration communities. The capacity of transfer stations and treatment plants is an urgent problem as these sites are seriously overloaded. These problems should first be solved by constructing more sites and converting to new treatment technologies. Improvements in legislation, public education and the management of waste pickers are problematic issues which need to be addressed. PMID:19375298

  6. Integrated solid waste management of Springfield, Massachusetts

    SciTech Connect

    1995-11-01

    The subject document reports the results of an in-depth investigation of the fiscal year 1993 cost of the city of Springfield, Massachusetts, integrated municipal solid waste management (IMSWM) system, the energy consumed to operate the system, and the environmental performance requirements for each of the system`s waste-processing and disposal facilities. The document reports actual data from records kept by participants. Every effort was made to minimize the use of assumptions, and no attempt is made to interpret the data reported. Analytical approaches are documented so that interested analysts may perform manipulation or further analysis of the data. As such, the report is a reference document for Municipal Solid Waste management professionals who are interested in the actual costs and energy consumption, for a 1-year period, of an operating IMSWM system. The report is organized into two main parts. The first part is the executive summary and case study portion of the report. The executive summary provides a basic description of the study area and selected economic and energy information. Within the case study are detailed descriptions of each component operating during the study period; the quantities of solid waste collected, processed, and marketed within the study boundaries; the cost of managing MSW in Springfield; an energy usage analysis; a review of federal, state, and local environmental requirement compliance; a reference section; and a glossary of terms. The second part of the report focuses on a more detailed discourse on the above topics. In addition, the methodology used to determine the economic costs and energy consumption of the system components is found in the second portion of this report. The methodology created for this project will be helpful for those professionals who wish to break out the costs of their own integrated systems.

  7. Integrated solid waste management of Scottsdale, Arizona

    SciTech Connect

    1995-11-01

    The subject document reports the results of an in-depth investigation of the fiscal year 1992 cost of the city of Scottsdale, Arizona, integrated municipal solid waste management (IMSWM) system, the energy consumed to operate the system, and the environmental performance requirements for each of the system`s waste-processing and disposal facilities. The document reports actual data from records kept by participants. Every effort was made to minimize the use of assumptions, and no attempt is made to interpret the data reported. Analytical approaches are documented so that interested analysts may per-form manipulation or further analysis of the data. As such, the report is a reference document for municipal solid waste (MSW) management professionals who are interested in the actual costs and energy consumption, for a 1-year period, of an operating IMSWM system. The report is organized into two main parts. The first part is the executive summary and case study portion of the report. The executive summary provides a basic description of the study area and selected economic and energy information. Within the case study are detailed descriptions of each component operating during the study period; the quantities of solid waste collected, processed, and marketed within the study boundaries; the cost of MSW in Scottsdale; an energy usage analysis; a review of federal, state, and local environmental requirement compliance; a reference section; and a glossary of terms. The second part of the report focuses on a more detailed discourse on the above topics. In addition, the methodology used to determine the economic costs and energy consumption of the system components is found in the second portion of this report. The methodology created for this project will be helpful for those professionals who wish to break out the costs of their own integrated systems.

  8. Solid metabolic waste transport and stowage investigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burt, R. A.; Koesterer, M. G.; Hunt, S. R., Jr.

    1974-01-01

    The basic Waste Collection System (WCS) design under consideration utilized air flow to separate the stool from the WCS user and to transport the fecal material to a slinger device for subsequent deposition on a storage bowel. The major parameters governing stool separation and transport were found to be the area of the air inlet orifices, the configuration of the air inlet orifice and the transport air flow. Separation force and transport velocity of the stool were studied. The developed inlet orifice configuration was found to be an effective design for providing fecal separation and transport. Simulated urine tests and female user tests in zero gravity established air flow rates between 0.08 and 0.25 cu sm/min (3 and 9 scfm) as satisfactory for entrapment, containment and transport of urine using an urinal. The investigation of air drying of fecal material as a substitute for vacuum drying in a WCS breadboard system showed that using baseline conditions anticipated for the shuttle cabin ambient atmosphere, flow rates of 0.14 cu sm/min (5 cfm) were adequate for drying and maintaining biological stability of the fecal material.

  9. Air sampling with solid phase microextraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martos, Perry Anthony

    There is an increasing need for simple yet accurate air sampling methods. The acceptance of new air sampling methods requires compatibility with conventional chromatographic equipment, and the new methods have to be environmentally friendly, simple to use, yet with equal, or better, detection limits, accuracy and precision than standard methods. Solid phase microextraction (SPME) satisfies the conditions for new air sampling methods. Analyte detection limits, accuracy and precision of analysis with SPME are typically better than with any conventional air sampling methods. Yet, air sampling with SPME requires no pumps, solvents, is re-usable, extremely simple to use, is completely compatible with current chromatographic equipment, and requires a small capital investment. The first SPME fiber coating used in this study was poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS), a hydrophobic liquid film, to sample a large range of airborne hydrocarbons such as benzene and octane. Quantification without an external calibration procedure is possible with this coating. Well understood are the physical and chemical properties of this coating, which are quite similar to those of the siloxane stationary phase used in capillary columns. The log of analyte distribution coefficients for PDMS are linearly related to chromatographic retention indices and to the inverse of temperature. Therefore, the actual chromatogram from the analysis of the PDMS air sampler will yield the calibration parameters which are used to quantify unknown airborne analyte concentrations (ppb v to ppm v range). The second fiber coating used in this study was PDMS/divinyl benzene (PDMS/DVB) onto which o-(2,3,4,5,6- pentafluorobenzyl) hydroxylamine (PFBHA) was adsorbed for the on-fiber derivatization of gaseous formaldehyde (ppb v range), with and without external calibration. The oxime formed from the reaction can be detected with conventional gas chromatographic detectors. Typical grab sampling times were as small as 5 seconds

  10. Possibilities of municipal solid waste incinerator fly ash utilisation.

    PubMed

    Hartmann, Silvie; Koval, Lukáš; Škrobánková, Hana; Matýsek, Dalibor; Winter, Franz; Purgar, Amon

    2015-08-01

    Properties of the waste treatment residual fly ash generated from municipal solid waste incinerator fly ash were investigated in this study. Six different mortar blends with the addition of the municipal solid waste incinerator fly ash were evaluated. The Portland cement replacement levels of the municipal solid waste incinerator fly ash used were 25%, 30% and 50%. Both, raw and washed municipal solid waste incinerator fly ash samples were examined. According to the mineralogical composition measurements, a 22.6% increase in the pozzolanic/hydraulic properties was observed for the washed municipal solid waste incinerator fly ash sample. The maximum replacement level of 25% for the washed municipal solid waste incinerator fly ash in mortar blends was established in order to preserve the compressive strength properties. Moreover, the leaching characteristics of the crushed mortar blend was analysed in order to examine the immobilisation of its hazardous contents. PMID:26060198

  11. Municipal solid waste management in Nepal: practices and challenges

    SciTech Connect

    Pokhrel, D.; Viraraghavan, T. . E-mail: t.viraraghavan@uregina.ca

    2005-07-01

    Solid waste management in Kathmandu valley of Nepal, especially concerning the siting of landfills, has been a challenge for over a decade. The current practice of the illegal dumping of solid waste on the river banks has created a serious environmental and public health problem. The focus of this study was to carry out an evaluation of solid waste management in Nepal based on published information. The data showed that 70% of the solid wastes generated in Nepal are of organic origin. As such, composting of the solid waste and using it on the land is the best way of solid waste disposal. This will reduce the waste volume transported to the landfill and will increase its life.

  12. Nitty-Gritty Federalism: Managing Solid Waste. Teaching Strategy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaRocco, Joseph C.; Gregori, Harry E., Jr.

    1995-01-01

    Outlines the lesson plan that uses the issue of solid waste disposal to examine the relationship between local, state, and federal governments. Handouts include a quiz on solid waste management, an information sheet, and a simulation of a local problem. The simulation involves the location of a hazardous waste site. (MJP)

  13. Solid Waste Reduction--A Hands-on Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiessinger, Diane

    1991-01-01

    This lesson plan uses grocery shopping to demonstrate the importance of source reduction in the handling of solid waste problems. Students consider different priorities in shopping (convenience, packaging, and waste reduction) and draw conclusions about the relationship between packaging techniques and solid waste problems. (MCO)

  14. Pre-1970 transuranic solid waste at the Hanford Site

    SciTech Connect

    Greenhalgh, W.O.

    1995-05-23

    The document is based on a search of pre-1970 Hanford Solid Waste Records. The available data indicates seven out of thirty-one solid waste burial sites used for pre-1970 waste appear to be Transuranic (TRU). A burial site defined to be TRU contains >100 nCi/gm Transuranic nuclides.

  15. Waste management issues at US Air Force bases

    SciTech Connect

    Doesburg, J.M.

    1992-05-01

    Air Force installations are industrial bases for projecting men and machinery around the globe. Supporting this mission typically requires large quantities of stockpiled potentially hazardous materials. Over the past several decades, spills, poor accounting, mis-handling, and lack of understanding have led to discharges of hazardous substances into the environment. The Installation Restoration Program (IRP) is a Department of Defense directed program aimed at remediating discharges of hazardous substances, POL (petroleum, oil, and lubricants), and solid waste disposal at defense installations. The IRP is broader in scope than even the US EPA Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA), and requires the Air Force managers to integrate their programs with a broad range of regulations (See Table 1 below). Managing the wastes generated by the remediation program is one of the unexpected problems the Air Force has faced in their remediation efforts. The traditional approach to remediating sites in the US has been to remove the material and place it in a secure landfill, or in the case of groundwater, to pump and treat the effluent. These technologies have proven to be very expensive and don`t really fix the problem. The waste is just moved from one place to another. Moreover, these policies ignore a fundamental technology available to today`s environmental managers: waste minimization.

  16. Waste management issues at US Air Force bases

    SciTech Connect

    Doesburg, J.M.

    1992-05-01

    Air Force installations are industrial bases for projecting men and machinery around the globe. Supporting this mission typically requires large quantities of stockpiled potentially hazardous materials. Over the past several decades, spills, poor accounting, mis-handling, and lack of understanding have led to discharges of hazardous substances into the environment. The Installation Restoration Program (IRP) is a Department of Defense directed program aimed at remediating discharges of hazardous substances, POL (petroleum, oil, and lubricants), and solid waste disposal at defense installations. The IRP is broader in scope than even the US EPA Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA), and requires the Air Force managers to integrate their programs with a broad range of regulations (See Table 1 below). Managing the wastes generated by the remediation program is one of the unexpected problems the Air Force has faced in their remediation efforts. The traditional approach to remediating sites in the US has been to remove the material and place it in a secure landfill, or in the case of groundwater, to pump and treat the effluent. These technologies have proven to be very expensive and don't really fix the problem. The waste is just moved from one place to another. Moreover, these policies ignore a fundamental technology available to today's environmental managers: waste minimization.

  17. 36 CFR 13.1604 - Solid waste disposal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Solid waste disposal. 13.1604 Section 13.1604 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM UNITS IN ALASKA Special Regulations-Lake Clark National Park and Preserve § 13.1604 Solid waste disposal. (a) A solid...

  18. Conversion of municipal solid waste to chemicals

    SciTech Connect

    Abraham, T.J. Jr.

    1985-01-01

    The problem of waste disposal by municipalities is becoming a growing burden on local communities in the United States. At present, there is very little research being conducted to address the problem of municipal solid waste (MSW) disposal even though MSW could be considered a potentially vast resource. There are technically feasible processes available for the conversion of MSW to energy and these processes are being reviewed by local governments with some interest. These processes, however, are typically marginally economical at best. A more promising approach to the problem of MSW disposal might be the conversion of MSW to high value-added chemicals. This dissertation addresses the above problem by exploring the economics of the production of three chemical, ethanol, ethylene glycol and acetic acid, from MSW derived syngas.

  19. Integrated solid waste management of Seattle, Washington

    SciTech Connect

    1995-11-01

    The subject document reports the results of an in-depth investigation of the fiscal year 1992 cost of the City of Seattle, Washington, integrated municipal solid waste management (IMSWM) system, the energy consumed to operate the system, and the environmental performance requirements for each of the system`s waste-processing and disposal facilities. Actual data from records kept by participants is reported in this document. Every effort was made to minimize the use of assumptions, and no attempt is made to interpret the data reported. Analytical approaches are documented so that interested analysts may perform manipulation or further analysis of the data. As such, the report is a reference document for MSW management professionals who are interested in the actual costs and energy consumption for a one-year period, of an operating IMSWM systems.

  20. Integrated solid waste management of Sevierville, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    1995-11-01

    The subject document reports the results of an in-depth investigation of the fiscal year 1992 cost of the City of Sevierville, Tennessee integrated municipal solid waste management (IMSWM) system, the energy consumed to operate the system, and the environmental performance requirements for each of the system`s waste-processing and disposal facilities. Actual data from records kept by participants is reported in this document. Every effort was made to minimize the use of assumptions, and no attempt is made to interpret the data reported. Analytical approaches are documented so that interested analysts may perform manipulation or further analysis of the data. As such, the report is a reference document for MSW management professionals who are interested in the actual costs and energy consumption for a one-year period, of an operating IMSWM systems.

  1. Assessing total and volatile solids in municipal solid waste samples.

    PubMed

    Peces, M; Astals, S; Mata-Alvarez, J

    2014-01-01

    Municipal solid waste is broadly generated in everyday activities and its treatment is a global challenge. Total solids (TS) and volatile solids (VS) are typical control parameters measured in biological treatments. In this study, the TS and VS were determined using the standard methods, as well as introducing some variants: (i) the drying temperature for the TS assays was 105°C, 70°C and 50°C and (ii) the VS were determined using different heating ramps from room tempature to 550°C. TS could be determined at either 105°C or 70°C, but oven residence time was tripled at 70°C, increasing from 48 to 144 h. The VS could be determined by smouldering the sample (where the sample is burnt without a flame), which avoids the release of fumes and odours in the laboratory. However, smouldering can generate undesired pyrolysis products as a consequence of carbonization, which leads to VS being underestimated. Carbonization can be avoided using slow heating ramps to prevent the oxygen limitation. Furthermore, crushing the sample cores decreased the time to reach constant weight and decreased the potential to underestimate VS. PMID:25244131

  2. Pyrolysis processing for solid waste resource recovery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Serio, Michael A. (Inventor); Kroo, Erik (Inventor); Wojtowicz, Marek A. (Inventor); Suuberg, Eric M. (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    Solid waste resource recovery in space is effected by pyrolysis processing, to produce light gases as the main products (CH.sub.4, H.sub.2, CO.sub.2, CO, H.sub.2O, NH.sub.3) and a reactive carbon-rich char as the main byproduct. Significant amounts of liquid products are formed under less severe pyrolysis conditions, and are cracked almost completely to gases as the temperature is raised. A primary pyrolysis model for the composite mixture is based on an existing model for whole biomass materials, and an artificial neural network models the changes in gas composition with the severity of pyrolysis conditions.

  3. Integrated solid waste management in Japan

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-10-01

    The Japanese, through a combination of public policy, private market conditions, a geographic necessity, practice integrated municipal solid waste (MSW) management. The approach of MSW management in Japan is as follows: The basic concept of refuse treatment consists of recycling discharged refuse into usable resources, reusing such resources as much as possible, and then treating or disposing of the usable portion into a sanitary condition. Considering the difficulty of procuring land or seaside areas for such purpose as a refuse disposal site, it will be necessary to minimize the volume of refuse collected for treatment or disposal.

  4. SEMINAR PUBLICATION: ORGANIC AIR EMISSIONS FROM WASTE MANAGEMENT FACILITIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The organic chemicals contained in wastes processed during waste management operations can volatilize into the atmosphere and cause toxic or carcinogenic effects or contribute to ozone formation. Because air emissions from waste management operations pose a threat to human health...

  5. DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION OF COVERS FOR SOLID WASTE LANDFILLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report provides guidelines in selection, design, and construction of cover for management of municipal, industrial, and hazardous solid wastes (with the exception of radioactive waste). Natural soils as cover are the principal subject; however, synthetic membranes, chemicals,...

  6. 26. AERIAL VIEW OF WASTE CALCINING FACILITY WITH SOLIDS STORAGE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    26. AERIAL VIEW OF WASTE CALCINING FACILITY WITH SOLIDS STORAGE FACILITY BEHIND. CAMERA FACING EAST. INEEL PHOTO NUMBER PHOTO 72-4571. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Old Waste Calcining Facility, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  7. Solid-shape energy fuels from recyclable municipal solid waste and plastics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gug, Jeongin

    Diversion of waste streams, such as plastics, wood and paper, from municipal landfills and extraction of useful materials from landfills is an area of increasing interest across the country, especially in densely populated areas. One promising technology for recycling MSW (municipal solid waste) is to burn the high energy content components in standard coal boilers. This research seeks to reform wastes into briquette that are compatible with typical coal combustion processes. In order to comply with the standards of coal-fired power plants, the feedstock must be mechanically robust, moisture resistance, and retain high fuel value. Household waste with high paper and fibers content was used as the base material for this study. It was combined with recyclable plastics such as PE, PP, PET and PS for enhanced binding and energy efficiency. Fuel pellets were processed using a compression molding technique. The resulting moisture absorption, proximate analysis from burning, and mechanical properties were investigated after sample production and then compared with reference data for commercial coals and biomass briquettes. The effects of moisture content, compression pressure and processing temperature were studied to identify the optimal processing conditions with water uptake tests for the durability of samples under humid conditions and burning tests to examine the composition of samples. Lastly, mechanical testing revealed the structural stability of solid fuels. The properties of fuel briquettes produced from waste and recycled plastics improved with higher processing temperature but without charring the material. Optimization of moisture content and removal of air bubbles increased the density, stability and mechanical strength. The sample composition was found to be more similar to biomass fuels than coals because the majority of the starting material was paper-based solid waste. According to the proximate analysis results, the waste fuels can be expected to have

  8. Is Municipal Solid Waste Recycling Economically Efficient?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lavee, Doron

    2007-12-01

    It has traditionally been argued that recycling municipal solid waste (MSW) is usually not economically viable and that only when externalities, long-term dynamic considerations, and/or the entire product life cycle are taken into account, recycling becomes worthwhile from a social point of view. This article explores the results of a wide study conducted in Israel in the years 2000 2004. Our results reveal that recycling is optimal more often than usually claimed, even when externality considerations are ignored. The study is unique in the tools it uses to explore the efficiency of recycling: a computer-based simulation applied to an extensive database. We developed a simulation for assessing the costs of handling and treating MSW under different waste-management systems and used this simulation to explore possible cost reductions obtained by designating some of the waste (otherwise sent to landfill) to recycling. We ran the simulation on data from 79 municipalities in Israel that produce over 60% of MSW in Israel. For each municipality, we were able to arrive at an optimal method of waste management and compare the costs associated with 100% landfilling to the costs born by the municipality when some of the waste is recycled. Our results indicate that for 51% of the municipalities, it would be efficient to adopt recycling, even without accounting for externality costs. We found that by adopting recycling, municipalities would be able to reduce direct costs by an average of 11%. Through interviews conducted with representatives of municipalities, we were also able to identify obstacles to the utilization of recycling, answering in part the question of why actual recycling levels in Israel are lower than our model predicts they should be.

  9. Anaerobic digestion of municipal solid waste: Technical developments

    SciTech Connect

    Rivard, C.J.

    1996-01-01

    The anaerobic biogasification of organic wastes generates two useful products: a medium-Btu fuel gas and a compost-quality organic residue. Although commercial-scale digestion systems are used to treat municipal sewage wastes, the disposal of solid organic wastes, including municipal solid wastes (MSW), requires a more cost-efficient process. Modern biogasification systems employ high-rate, high-solids fermentation methods to improve process efficiency and reduce capital costs. The design criteria and development stages are discussed. These systems are also compared with conventional low-solids fermentation technology.

  10. Anaerobic pretreatment and increased solid destruction for vegetable solid waste codigested with cattle slurry.

    PubMed

    Mandachittibabu; Saravanane, R; Sivacoumar, R

    2009-01-01

    Municipal solid waste and industrial solid waste are considered to be a large quantity of organic fraction which have contributed to different levels of pollution on land and ground water. The present study was carried out for the determination of characteristics of vegetable solid wastes, cattle slurry and sewage sludge for effective anaerobic co-digestion. The objective of the work was to study the treatability of vegetable solid wastes by co-digestion with municipal sewage and cattle slurry in different ratios. The laboratory batch scale studies were carried out to determine effects of various process parameters on startup and digestion. The pretreatment on solid waste has resulted in effective co-digestion of vegetable solid waste and hence showed increased biogas yield. The optimum ratio of vegetable wastes to inoculum (cow dung and anaerobic sewage sludge in the ratio of 1:1) was found to be 1:2 for effective co-digestion and maximum biogas yield. PMID:21114156

  11. Characterization of urban solid waste in Chihuahua, Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Gomez, Guadalupe; Meneses, Montserrat; Ballinas, Lourdes; Castells, Francesc

    2008-12-15

    The characterization of urban solid waste generation is fundamental for adequate decision making in the management strategy of urban solid waste in a city. The objective of this study is to characterize the waste generated in the households of Chihuahua city, and to compare the results obtained in areas of the city with three different socioeconomic levels. In order to identify the different socioeconomic trends in waste generation and characterization, 560 samples of solid waste were collected during 1 week from 80 households in Chihuahua and were hand sorted and classified into 15 weighted fractions. The average waste generation in Chihuahua calculated in this study was 0.676 kg per capita per day in April 2006. The main fractions were: organic (48%), paper (16%) and plastic (12%). Results show an increased waste generation associated with the socioeconomic level. The characterization in amount and composition of urban waste is the first step needed for the successful implementation of an integral waste management system.

  12. Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Launch Complex 39, Solid Rocket ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Launch Complex 39, Solid Rocket Booster Disassembly & Refurbishment Complex, Thrust Vector Control Deservicing Facility, Hangar Road, Cape Canaveral, Brevard County, FL

  13. Evaluation of municipal solid waste management in egyptian rural areas.

    PubMed

    El-Messery, Mamdouh A; Ismail, Gaber A; Arafa, Anwaar K

    2009-01-01

    A two years study was conducted to evaluate the solid waste management system in 143 villages representing the Egyptian rural areas. The study covers the legal responsibilities, service availability, environmental impacts, service providers, financial resources, private sector participation and the quality of collection services. According to UN reports more than 55% of Egyptian population lives in rural areas. A drastic change in the consumption pattern altered the quantity and quality of the generated solid wastes from these areas. Poor solid waste management systems are stigmata in most of the Egyptian rural areas. This causes several environmental and health problems. It has been found that solid waste collection services cover only 27% of the surveyed villages, while, the statistics show that 75% of the surveyed villages are formally covered. The service providers are local villager units, private contractors and civil community associations with a percentage share 71%, 24% and 5% respectively. The operated services among these sectors were 25%, 71% and 100% respectively. The share of private sector in solid waste management in rural areas is still very limited as a result of the poverty of these communities and the lack of recyclable materials in their solid waste. It has been found that direct throwing of solid waste on the banks of drains and canals as well as open dumping and uncontrolled burning of solid waste are the common practice in most of the Egyptian rural areas. The available land for landfill is not enough, pitiable designed, defectively constructed and unreliably operated. Although solid waste generated in rural areas has high organic contents, no composting plant was installed. Shortage in financial resources allocated for valorization of solid waste management in the Egyptian rural areas and lower collection fees are the main points of weakness which resulted in poor solid waste management systems. On the other hand, the farmer's participation

  14. Risk mitigation methodology for solid waste landfills. Doctoral thesis

    SciTech Connect

    Nixon, W.B.

    1995-05-01

    Several recent models have attempted to simulate or assess the probability and consequences of the leakage of aqueous contaminant leakage from solid waste landfills. These models incorporate common factors, including climatological and geological characteristics. Each model, however, employs a unique approach to the problem, assigns different relative weights to factors, and relies upon extrapolated small-scale experimental data and/or subjective judgment in predicting the full-scale landfill failure mechanisms leading to contaminant migration. As a result, no two models are likely to equally assess a given landfill, and no one model has been validated as a predictor of long-term performance. The United States Air Force maintains a database for characterization of potential hazardous waste sites. Records include more than 500 landfills, providing such information as waste, soil, aquifer, monitoring location data, and the results of sample testing. Through analysis of this information, nearly 300 landfills were assessed to have sufficiently, partially, or inadequately contained hazardous constituents of the wastes placed within them.

  15. Municipal solid waste management in Malaysia: practices and challenges.

    PubMed

    Manaf, Latifah Abd; Samah, Mohd Armi Abu; Zukki, Nur Ilyana Mohd

    2009-11-01

    Rapid economic development and population growth, inadequate infrastructure and expertise, and land scarcity make the management of municipal solid waste become one of Malaysia's most critical environmental issues. The study is aimed at evaluating the generation, characteristics, and management of solid waste in Malaysia based on published information. In general, the per capita generation rate is about 0.5-0.8 kg/person/day in which domestic waste is the primary source. Currently, solid waste is managed by the Ministry of Housing and Local Government, with the participation of the private sector. A new institutional and legislation framework has been structured with the objectives to establish a holistic, integrated, and cost-effective solid waste management system, with an emphasis on environmental protection and public health. Therefore, the hierarchy of solid waste management has given the highest priority to source reduction through 3R, intermediate treatment and final disposal. PMID:19540745

  16. Municipal solid waste management in Malaysia: Practices and challenges

    SciTech Connect

    Manaf, Latifah Abd Samah, Mohd Armi Abu; Zukki, Nur Ilyana Mohd

    2009-11-15

    Rapid economic development and population growth, inadequate infrastructure and expertise, and land scarcity make the management of municipal solid waste become one of Malaysia's most critical environmental issues. The study is aimed at evaluating the generation, characteristics, and management of solid waste in Malaysia based on published information. In general, the per capita generation rate is about 0.5-0.8 kg/person/day in which domestic waste is the primary source. Currently, solid waste is managed by the Ministry of Housing and Local Government, with the participation of the private sector. A new institutional and legislation framework has been structured with the objectives to establish a holistic, integrated, and cost-effective solid waste management system, with an emphasis on environmental protection and public health. Therefore, the hierarchy of solid waste management has given the highest priority to source reduction through 3R, intermediate treatment and final disposal.

  17. Hydrogen production from municipal solid waste

    SciTech Connect

    Wallman, P.H.; Richardson, J.H.; Thorsness, C.B.

    1996-06-28

    We have modified a Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) hydrothermal pretreatment pilot plant for batch operation and blowdown of the treated batch to low pressure. We have also assembled a slurry shearing pilot plant for particle size reduction. Waste paper and a mixture of waste paper/polyethylene plastic have been run in the pilot plant with a treatment temperature of 275{degrees}C. The pilot-plant products have been used for laboratory studies at LLNL. The hydrothermal/shearing pilot plants have produced acceptable slurries for gasification tests from a waste paper feedstock. Work is currently underway with combined paper/plastic feedstocks. When the assembly of the Research Gasification Unit at Texaco (feed capacity approximately 3/4-ton/day) is complete (4th quarter of FY96), gasification test runs will commence. Laboratory work on slurry samples during FY96 has provided correlations between slurry viscosity and hydrothermal treatment temperature, degree of shearing, and the presence of surfactants and admixed plastics. To date, pumpable slurries obtained from an MSW surrogate mixture of treated paper and plastic have shown heating values in the range 13-15 MJ/kg. Our process modeling has quantified the relationship between slurry heating value and hydrogen yield. LLNL has also performed a preliminary cost analysis of the process with the slurry heating value and the MSW tipping fee as parameters. This analysis has shown that the overall process with a 15 MJ/kg slurry gasifier feed can compete with coal-derived hydrogen with the assumption that the tipping fee is of the order $50/ton.

  18. 40 CFR 257.3 - Criteria for classification of solid waste disposal facilities and practices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES CRITERIA FOR CLASSIFICATION OF SOLID WASTE DISPOSAL FACILITIES AND PRACTICES Classification of Solid Waste Disposal Facilities and Practices § 257.3 Criteria for classification of solid waste disposal facilities and practices. Solid waste disposal facilities or...

  19. Municipal solid waste (garbage): problems and benefits

    SciTech Connect

    Stillman, G.I.

    1983-05-01

    The average person in the USA generates from 3 1/2 to 7 lb of garbage/day. The combustible portion of garbage consists primarily of paper products, plastics, textiles, and wood. Problems connected with energy production from municipal solid waste (garbage), and the social, economic, and environmental factors associated with this technology are discussed. The methods for using garbage as a fuel for a combustion process are discussed. One method processes the garbage to produce a fuel that is superior to raw garbage, the other method of using garbage as a fuel is to burn it directly - the mass burning approach. The involvement of the Power Authority of the State of New York in garbage-to-energy technology is discussed.

  20. Life-cycle assessment of municipal solid wastes: development of the WASTED model.

    PubMed

    Diaz, R; Warith, M

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes the development of the Waste Analysis Software Tool for Environmental Decisions (WASTED) model. This model provides a comprehensive view of the environmental impacts of municipal solid waste management systems. The model consists of a number of separate submodels that describe a typical waste management process: waste collection, material recovery, composting, energy recovery from waste and landfilling. These submodels are combined to represent a complete waste management system. WASTED uses compensatory systems to account for the avoided environmental impacts derived from energy recovery and material recycling. The model is designed to provide solid waste decision-makers and environmental researchers with a tool to evaluate waste management plans and to improve the environmental performance of solid waste management strategies. The model is user-friendly and compares favourably with other earlier models. PMID:16153816

  1. Life-cycle assessment of municipal solid wastes: Development of the WASTED model

    SciTech Connect

    Diaz, R.; Warith, M. . E-mail: mwarith@ryerson.ca

    2006-07-01

    This paper describes the development of the Waste Analysis Software Tool for Environmental Decisions (WASTED) model. This model provides a comprehensive view of the environmental impacts of municipal solid waste management systems. The model consists of a number of separate submodels that describe a typical waste management process: waste collection, material recovery, composting, energy recovery from waste and landfilling. These submodels are combined to represent a complete waste management system. WASTED uses compensatory systems to account for the avoided environmental impacts derived from energy recovery and material recycling. The model is designed to provide solid waste decision-makers and environmental researchers with a tool to evaluate waste management plans and to improve the environmental performance of solid waste management strategies. The model is user-friendly and compares favourably with other earlier models.

  2. 36 CFR 13.1008 - Solid waste disposal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Solid waste disposal. 13.1008 Section 13.1008 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM UNITS IN ALASKA Special Regulations-Gates of the Arctic National Park and Preserve § 13.1008 Solid waste disposal. (a) A...

  3. 36 CFR 13.1912 - Solid waste disposal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Solid waste disposal. 13.1912 Section 13.1912 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM UNITS IN ALASKA Special Regulations-Wrangell-St. Elias National Park and Preserve § 13.1912 Solid waste disposal. (a) A...

  4. TRIBAL SOLID WASTE CODES, ORDINANCES, AND REGULATION ON INDIAN COUNTRY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of the document is to address the TRIBAL SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT CODE in Indian Country. This document is not a regulation and should not be used as such to establish a Tribal Authority and Inherent Sovereign Power to manage and regulate solid waste environmental code...

  5. Survey of Environmental Technician Employment Needs in Solid Waste Occupations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sen, Satyakam

    A study was done to determine the extent of current employment, expected job growth, necessary job skills, and the educational background preferred by employers in the solid waste field. Eight different questionnaires were developed and representatives of the solid waste management industry from 1,004 state agencies, municipalities, and private…

  6. Solid domestic wastes as a renewable resource: European experience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fridland, V. S.; Livshits, I. M.

    2011-01-01

    Ways in which different types of solid domestic wastes, such as wastepaper, crushed glass, plastics and worn-out tires, can be efficiently included into the production, raw-material, and energy balances of the national economy are shown taking Germany and other European countries an example. Methods for recycling these solid domestic wastes and application fields of the obtained products are discussed.

  7. Solid Waste Management: A List of Available Literature, October 1972.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Protection Agency, Cincinnati, OH.

    Listed are 269 solid waste management publications available from the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). There are EPA publications reporting on results of the research, development, and demonstrations in progress as authorized by the Solid Waste Disposal Act of 1965. Certain conference proceedings, findings of various commissions and…

  8. Youth Solid Waste Educational Materials List, November 1991.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY. Cooperative Extension Service.

    This guide provides a brief description and ordering information for approximately 300 educational materials for grades K-12 on the subject of solid waste. The materials cover a variety of environmental issues and actions related to solid waste management. Entries are divided into five sections including audiovisual programs, books, magazines,…

  9. Solid Waste Management: A List of Available Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Protection Agency, Cincinnati, OH.

    Information, demonstration projects, and other activities, pertaining to solid-waste-related research, available from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), are contained in this document. These EPA publications are reports of the research, development, and demonstrations in progress as authorized by the Solid Waste Disposal Act of 1965.…

  10. Preparation of nonwoven and green composites from tannery solid wastes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The disposal of solid wastes, such as trimmings and splits generated in various manufacturing processes in a tannery, is a serious challenge to the hides and leather industries. Our effort to address this challenge is to develop new uses and novel biobased products from solid wastes to improve prosp...

  11. Composting of Municipal Solid Wastes in the United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Breidenbach, Andrew W.

    To gain more comprehensive knowledge about composting as a solid waste management tool and to better assess the limited information available, the Federal solid waste management program, within the U. S. Public Health Service, entered into a joint experimental windrow composting project in 1966 with the Tennessee Valley Authority and the City of…

  12. Solid Waste Management: Abstracts From the Literature - 1964.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connolly, John A.; Stainback, Sandra E.

    The Solid Waste Disposal Act of 1965 (Public Law 89-272, Title II) and its amending legislation, the Resource Recovery Act of 1970 (Public Law 91-512, Title I), authorize collection, storage, and retrieval of information relevant to all aspects of solid-waste management. As part of this effort, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's…

  13. NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL/ENERGY WORKFORCE ASSESSMENT. SOLID WASTE PROGRAMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    There are very few solid waste management programs currently being conducted in the United States. There are individual course offerings available at approximately 74 institutions. The criteria utilized for selection of an institution's program in the area of solid waste manageme...

  14. 77 FR 69769 - Solid Waste Rail Transfer Facilities

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-21

    ...These final rules govern land-use-exemption permits for solid waste rail transfer facilities. The Clean Railroads Act of 2008 amended the U.S. Code to restrict the jurisdiction of the Surface Transportation Board over solid waste rail transfer facilities. The Act also added three new statutory provisions that address the Board's regulation of such facilities, which is now limited to issuance......

  15. Process and material that encapsulates solid hazardous waste

    DOEpatents

    O'Brien, Michael H.; Erickson, Arnold W.

    1999-01-01

    A method of encapsulating mixed waste in which a thermoplastic polymer having a melting temperature less than about 150.degree. C. and sulfur and mixed waste are mixed at an elevated temperature not greater than about 200.degree. C. and mixed for a time sufficient to intimately mix the constituents, and then cooled to a solid. The resulting solid is also disclosed.

  16. Solid waste plan helps preserve wilderness area

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-06-01

    This article reports that a decade after an initial study identified alternatives for solid waste disposal, 18 towns within Essex County, New York now have a regional landfill and a county-wide recycling program that reduces their environmental impact on the scenic Adirondack Mountains. Regulators, local governments, and the 37,000 area residents seem equally pleased with the system, leaving only the black bears disgruntled over losing some favorite scavenging grounds. The area is tightly regulated by the Adirondack Park Agency. The cornerstone for the county's plan is a new 26-acre regional landfill in the town of Lewis. This allowed 16 municipal landfills that were failing new standards to close by a consent order. The former dumps have been replaced by a network of waste transfer stations at these sites. Eight have 70-cu yd mechanical compactors, and eight other satellites operate with nonmechanical, 40-cu yd collection bins. Approximately one year after implementation, these provide adequate capacity for the lightly-populated wilderness and resort area that encompasses 1,907 square miles.

  17. 76 FR 63252 - Hazardous and Solid Waste Management System: Identification and Listing of Special Wastes...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-12

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Parts 257, 261, 264, 265, 268, 271 and 302 RIN 2050-AE81 Hazardous and Solid Waste...: Hazardous and Solid Waste Management System: Identification and Listing of Special Wastes; Disposal of Coal... FR 35127). This information is generally categorized as: Chemical constituent data from...

  18. Solid waste management in Macao: Practices and challenges

    SciTech Connect

    Jin Jianjun . E-mail: ya27402@umac.mo; Wang Zhishi . E-mail: zswang@umac.mo; Ran Shenghong . E-mail: ransh@igsnrr.ac.cn

    2006-07-01

    The rapid economic development and population growth in Macao have resulted in a large increase in refuse generated over the past decade. In 2003, the quantity of solid waste generated reached 249,255 tons, corresponding to 1.52 kg/day per capita. This figure has been gradually increasing. Domestic solid waste is the primary source of solid waste generation. The data showed that a considerable amount of the solid waste generated can be recycled and reutilized. Due to Macao's small geographic area and high cost of land, landfilling has the lowest priority for waste disposal. Solid waste incineration has been given a top priority over other waste disposal methods although it is much more expensive. In the last decade, more than 80% of the total waste in Macao was incinerated. However, the incineration capacity of the Macao Incineration Plant is going to reach its saturation earlier than expected. Waste minimization, the establishment of an effective waste collection and disposal fee system, and alternate ways dealing with the limited capacity of waste treatment facilities are regarded to be major challenges in the future.

  19. Energy recovery from solid waste. Volume 1: Summary report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    A systems analysis of energy recovery from solid waste which demonstrates the feasibility of several processes for converting solid waste to an energy form is presented. The social, legal, environmental, and political factors are considered and recommendations made in regard to legislation and policy. A technical and economic evaluation of available and developing energy-recovery processes is given with emphasis on thermal decomposition and biodegradation. A pyrolysis process is suggested. The use of prepared solid waste as a fuel supplemental to coal is considered to be the most economic process for recovery of energy from solid waste. Markets are discussed with suggestions for improving market conditions and for developing market stability. A decision procedure is given to aid a community in deciding on its options in dealing with solid waste.

  20. 1995 solid waste 30-year container volume summary

    SciTech Connect

    Templeton, K.J.; DeForest, T.J.; Patridge, M.D.

    1995-07-01

    This report describes a 30-year forecast of the solid waste volumes by container category. The volumes described are low-level mixed waste (LLMW) and transuranic/transuranic mixed (TRU-TRUM) waste. These volumes and their associated container categories will be generated or received at the US Department of Energy Hanford Site for storage, treatment, and disposal at Westinghouse Hanford Company`s Solid Waste Operations Complex (SWOC) during a 30-year period from FY 1995 through FY 2024. The data presented in this report establish a baseline for solid waste management both in the present and future. With knowledge of the volumes by container type, decisions on the facility handling and storage requirements can be adequately made. It is recognized that the forecast estimates will vary as facility planning and missions continue to change and become better defined; however, the data presented in this report still provide useful insight into Hanford`s future solid waste management requirements.

  1. Integral urban solid waste management program in a Mexican university

    SciTech Connect

    Espinosa, R.M. Turpin, S.; Polanco, G.; Torre, A. de la; Delfin, I.; Raygoza, I.

    2008-07-01

    The Azcapotzalco campus of the Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana (UAM-A) has implemented an Integral Urban Solid Waste Management Program, 'Segregation for a Better UAM Environment' (Separaccion por un mejor UAMbiente). This program is directed to create awareness and involve the academic community of the UAM-A concerning the problem of solid wastes, at the same time fulfilling the local environmental legislation. The program consists in separating solid wastes into two classes: (1) recoverable wastes (glass and PET bottles, aluminum cans, Tetrapak packages) and (2) other wastes (non-recoverable). During the past three years, thanks to this program, the amount of solid wastes delivered monthly to municipal collecting services has been considerably reduced. In this period, UAM-A has sent to recycling: 2.2 tons of glass bottles; 2.3 tons of PET bottles; 1.2 tons of Tetrapak packages and 27.5 kg of aluminum cans.

  2. Integral urban solid waste management program in a Mexican university.

    PubMed

    Espinosa, R M; Turpin, S; Polanco, G; De Latorre, A; Delfín, I; Raygoza, I

    2008-01-01

    The Azcapotzalco campus of the Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana (UAM-A) has implemented an Integral Urban Solid Waste Management Program, "Segregation for a Better UAM Environment" (Separacción por un mejor UAMbiente). This program is directed to create awareness and involve the academic community of the UAM-A concerning the problem of solid wastes, at the same time fulfilling the local environmental legislation. The program consists in separating solid wastes into two classes: (1) recoverable wastes (glass and PET bottles, aluminum cans, Tetrapak packages) and (2) other wastes (non-recoverable). During the past three years, thanks to this program, the amount of solid wastes delivered monthly to municipal collecting services has been considerably reduced. In this period, UAM-A has sent to recycling: 2.2 tons of glass bottles; 2.3 tons of PET bottles; 1.2 tons of Tetrapak packages and 27.5 kg of aluminum cans. PMID:18586482

  3. Processing and properties of a solid energy fuel from municipal solid waste (MSW) and recycled plastics.

    PubMed

    Gug, JeongIn; Cacciola, David; Sobkowicz, Margaret J

    2015-01-01

    Diversion of waste streams such as plastics, woods, papers and other solid trash from municipal landfills and extraction of useful materials from landfills is an area of increasing interest especially in densely populated areas. One promising technology for recycling municipal solid waste (MSW) is to burn the high-energy-content components in standard coal power plant. This research aims to reform wastes into briquettes that are compatible with typical coal combustion processes. In order to comply with the standards of coal-fired power plants, the feedstock must be mechanically robust, free of hazardous contaminants, and moisture resistant, while retaining high fuel value. This study aims to investigate the effects of processing conditions and added recyclable plastics on the properties of MSW solid fuels. A well-sorted waste stream high in paper and fiber content was combined with controlled levels of recyclable plastics PE, PP, PET and PS and formed into briquettes using a compression molding technique. The effect of added plastics and moisture content on binding attraction and energy efficiency were investigated. The stability of the briquettes to moisture exposure, the fuel composition by proximate analysis, briquette mechanical strength, and burning efficiency were evaluated. It was found that high processing temperature ensures better properties of the product addition of milled mixed plastic waste leads to better encapsulation as well as to greater calorific value. Also some moisture removal (but not complete) improves the compacting process and results in higher heating value. Analysis of the post-processing water uptake and compressive strength showed a correlation between density and stability to both mechanical stress and humid environment. Proximate analysis indicated heating values comparable to coal. The results showed that mechanical and moisture uptake stability were improved when the moisture and air contents were optimized. Moreover, the briquette

  4. Delivery system for molten salt oxidation of solid waste

    DOEpatents

    Brummond, William A.; Squire, Dwight V.; Robinson, Jeffrey A.; House, Palmer A.

    2002-01-01

    The present invention is a delivery system for safety injecting solid waste particles, including mixed wastes, into a molten salt bath for destruction by the process of molten salt oxidation. The delivery system includes a feeder system and an injector that allow the solid waste stream to be accurately metered, evenly dispersed in the oxidant gas, and maintained at a temperature below incineration temperature while entering the molten salt reactor.

  5. Using Financial Incentives to Manage the Solid Waste Stream.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spindler, Charles J.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reviews two approaches to solid waste stream management that encourage recycling in the beverage industry, a model categorizing public policies directed at diverting postconsumer waste from the waste system, and industry initiatives in the context of these policies. Preemptive and compelled partnerships represent innovations in…

  6. Source Separation and Composting of Organic Municipal Solid Waste.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gould, Mark; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Describes a variety of composting techniques that may be utilized in a municipal level solid waste management program. Suggests how composting system designers should determine the amount and type of organics in the waste stream, evaluate separation approaches and assess collection techniques. Outlines the advantages of mixed waste composting and…

  7. Research challenges in municipal solid waste logistics management.

    PubMed

    Bing, Xiaoyun; Bloemhof, Jacqueline M; Ramos, Tania Rodrigues Pereira; Barbosa-Povoa, Ana Paula; Wong, Chee Yew; van der Vorst, Jack G A J

    2016-02-01

    During the last two decades, EU legislation has put increasing pressure on member countries to achieve specified recycling targets for municipal household waste. These targets can be obtained in various ways choosing collection methods, separation methods, decentral or central logistic systems, etc. This paper compares municipal solid waste (MSW) management practices in various EU countries to identify the characteristics and key issues from a waste management and reverse logistics point of view. Further, we investigate literature on modelling municipal solid waste logistics in general. Comparing issues addressed in literature with the identified issues in practice result in a research agenda for modelling municipal solid waste logistics in Europe. We conclude that waste recycling is a multi-disciplinary problem that needs to be considered at different decision levels simultaneously. A holistic view and taking into account the characteristics of different waste types are necessary when modelling a reverse supply chain for MSW recycling. PMID:26704064

  8. Prototype demonstration of dual sorbent injection for acid gas control on municipal solid waste combustion units

    SciTech Connect

    1994-05-01

    This report gathered and evaluated emissions and operations data associated with furnace injection of dry hydrated lime and duct injection of dry sodium bicarbonate at a commercial, 1500 ton per day, waste-to-energy facility. The information compiled during the project sheds light on these sorbents to affect acid gas emissions from municipal solid waste combustors. The information assesses the capability of these systems to meet the 1990 Clean Air Act and 1991 EPA Emission Guidelines.

  9. Process waste assessment for solid low-level radioactive waste and solid TRU waste

    SciTech Connect

    Haney, L.; Gamble, G.S.

    1994-04-01

    Process Waste Assessments (PWAs) are a necessary and important part of a comprehensive waste management plan. PWAs are required by Federal RCRA regulations, certain state regulations and Department of Energy Orders. This paper describes the assessment process and provides examples used by Law Environmental, Inc., in performing numerous PWAs at the Savannah River Site in Aiken, SC.

  10. A comprehensive approach to solid waste and recycling at Sandia National Laboratories

    SciTech Connect

    King, G.G.

    1997-10-01

    The abrupt closure of a nearby, and historically utilized, Kirtland Air Force Base landfill imposed a multitude of solid waste management problems for the Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico (SNL) research and development facilities operated by Lockheed Martin Company. Due to the close proximity of KAFB, SNL historically used KAFB`s landfill for disposal of solid waste. Under this arrangement SNL paid little or no cost for disposal of its solid waste stream. The disadvantage was that KAFB personnel did not track waste volumes entering the landfill from SNL. On August 1, 1994 this all came to an end. KAFB, without advance notice, closed the sanitary waste and asbestos cells of the landfill. The rapid resolution of unique regulatory issues; the aggressive accomplishment of reviewing options and implementing transport, screening, recycling and disposal procedures; and the construction and operation of a model, on-site Solid Waste Transfer Facility (SWTF) can serve as a case study for servicing DOE solid waste management and recycling needs in a safe, compliant, and timely manor.

  11. Risks of municipal solid waste incineration: an environmental perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Denison, R.A.; Silbergeld, E.K.

    1988-09-01

    The central focus of the debate over incineration of municipal solid waste (MSW) has shifted from its apparent management advantages to unresolved risk issues. This shift is a result of the lack of comprehensive consideration of risks associated with incineration. We discuss the need to expand incinerator risk assessment beyond the limited view of incinerators as stationary air pollution sources to encompass the following: other products of incineration, ash in particular, and pollutants other than dioxins, metals in particular; routes of exposure in addition to direct inhalation; health effects in addition to cancer; and the cumulative nature of exposure and health effects induced by many incinerator-associated pollutants. Rational MSW management planning requires that the limitations as well as advantages of incineration be recognized. Incineration is a waste-processing--not a waste disposal--technology, and its products pose substantial management and disposal problems of their own. Consideration of the nature of these products suggests that incineration is ill-suited to manage the municipal wastestream in its entirety. In particular, incineration greatly enhances the mobility and bioavailability of toxic metals present in MSW. These factors suggest that incineration must be viewed as only one component in an integrated MSW management system. The potential for source reduction, separation, and recycling to increase the safety and efficiency of incineration should be counted among their many benefits. Risk considerations dictate that alternatives to the use of toxic metals at the production stage also be examined in designing an effective, long-term MSW management strategy.

  12. 40 CFR 60.33c - Emission guidelines for municipal solid waste landfill emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Emission guidelines for municipal solid waste landfill emissions. 60.33c Section 60.33c Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Emission Guidelines and Compliance Times for...

  13. METRO-APEX Volume 9.1: Solid Waste Manager's Manual. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    University of Southern California, Los Angeles. COMEX Research Project.

    The Solid Waste Manager's Manual is one of a set of twenty-one manuals used in METRO-APEX 1974, a computerized college and professional level, computer-supported, role-play, simulation exercise of a community with "normal" problems. Stress is placed on environmental quality considerations. APEX 1974 is an expansion of APEX--Air Pollution Exercise…

  14. Air emissions assessment and air quality permitting for a municipal waste landfill treating municipal sewage sludge

    SciTech Connect

    Koehler, J.

    1998-12-31

    This paper presents a case study into the air quality permitting of a municipal solid waste (MSW) landfill in the San Francisco Bay Area undergoing a proposed expansion in operations to increase the life of the landfill. The operations of this facility include MSW landfilling, the treatment and disposal of municipal sewage sludge, the aeration of petroleum-contaminated soils, the construction of a new on-site plant to manufacture soil amendment products from waste wood and other organic material diverted from the landfill, and the installation of a vaporator to create steam from leachate for injection into the landfill gas flare. The emissions assessment for each project component relied upon interpretation of source tests from similar operations, incorporation of on-site measurements into emissions models and mass balances, and use of AP-42 procedures for emissions sources such as wind-blown dust, material handling and transfer operations, and fugitive landfill gas. Air permitting issues included best available control technology (BACT), emission offset thresholds, new source performance standards (NSPS), potential air toxics health risk impacts, and compliance with federal Title V operating permit requirements. With the increasing difficulties of siting new landfills, increasing pressures to reduce the rate of waste placement into existing landfills, and expanding regulatory requirements on landfill operations, experiences similar to those described in this paper are likely to increase in the future as permitting scenarios become more complex.

  15. Optimization of municipal solid waste collection and transportation routes

    SciTech Connect

    Das, Swapan Bhattacharyya, Bidyut Kr.

    2015-09-15

    Graphical abstract: Display Omitted - Highlights: • Profitable integrated solid waste management system. • Optimal municipal waste collection scheme between the sources and waste collection centres. • Optimal path calculation between waste collection centres and transfer stations. • Optimal waste routing between the transfer stations and processing plants. - Abstract: Optimization of municipal solid waste (MSW) collection and transportation through source separation becomes one of the major concerns in the MSW management system design, due to the fact that the existing MSW management systems suffer by the high collection and transportation cost. Generally, in a city different waste sources scatter throughout the city in heterogeneous way that increase waste collection and transportation cost in the waste management system. Therefore, a shortest waste collection and transportation strategy can effectively reduce waste collection and transportation cost. In this paper, we propose an optimal MSW collection and transportation scheme that focus on the problem of minimizing the length of each waste collection and transportation route. We first formulize the MSW collection and transportation problem into a mixed integer program. Moreover, we propose a heuristic solution for the waste collection and transportation problem that can provide an optimal way for waste collection and transportation. Extensive simulations and real testbed results show that the proposed solution can significantly improve the MSW performance. Results show that the proposed scheme is able to reduce more than 30% of the total waste collection path length.

  16. Processing and properties of a solid energy fuel from municipal solid waste (MSW) and recycled plastics

    SciTech Connect

    Gug, JeongIn Cacciola, David Sobkowicz, Margaret J.

    2015-01-15

    Highlights: • Briquetting was used to produce solid fuels from municipal solid waste and recycled plastics. • Optimal drying, processing temperature and pressure were found to produce stable briquettes. • Addition of waste plastics yielded heating values comparable with typical coal feedstocks. • This processing method improves utilization of paper and plastic diverted from landfills. - Abstract: Diversion of waste streams such as plastics, woods, papers and other solid trash from municipal landfills and extraction of useful materials from landfills is an area of increasing interest especially in densely populated areas. One promising technology for recycling municipal solid waste (MSW) is to burn the high-energy-content components in standard coal power plant. This research aims to reform wastes into briquettes that are compatible with typical coal combustion processes. In order to comply with the standards of coal-fired power plants, the feedstock must be mechanically robust, free of hazardous contaminants, and moisture resistant, while retaining high fuel value. This study aims to investigate the effects of processing conditions and added recyclable plastics on the properties of MSW solid fuels. A well-sorted waste stream high in paper and fiber content was combined with controlled levels of recyclable plastics PE, PP, PET and PS and formed into briquettes using a compression molding technique. The effect of added plastics and moisture content on binding attraction and energy efficiency were investigated. The stability of the briquettes to moisture exposure, the fuel composition by proximate analysis, briquette mechanical strength, and burning efficiency were evaluated. It was found that high processing temperature ensures better properties of the product addition of milled mixed plastic waste leads to better encapsulation as well as to greater calorific value. Also some moisture removal (but not complete) improves the compacting process and results in

  17. Potential for energy recovery from municipal solid waste in the Duck and Elk Rivers area

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-02-01

    Options for developing resource recovery projects in Bedford, Coffee, Franklin, Lincoln, and Moore Counties in Middle Tennessee are described. The solid waste inventory for the area; energy use inventory; energy and resource recovery technology alternatives; energy recovery project proposals (resource recovery plan, cogeneration option, subregional option); risk management; financial alternatives; design, procurement, and construction management alternatives; and system management alternatives are discussed in separate chapters. Energy and resource recovery technology alternatives cover incineration (waste heat recovery systems, modular controlled air incinerators, modular refractory incinerators, waterwall rotary combustor, waterwall incineration with unprocessed waste and processed waste, environmental aspects); refuse-derived fuel; pyrolysis systems; materials separation and recovery (handpicking, mechanical separation, and source separation). Information provided in appendices is: energy user data forms; transfer stations; TVA experimental cogeneration program; manpower requirements; state of Tennessee loan program; Warren County solid waste inventory; and comments from the state of Tennessee Department of Public Health. (MCW)

  18. Geohydrology of the unsaturated zone and simulated time of arrival of landfill leachate at the water table, municipal solid waste landfill facility, US Army Air Defense Artillery Center and Fort Bliss, El Paso County, Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Frenzel, Peter F.; Abeyta, Cynthia G.

    1999-01-01

    The U.S. Air Defense Artillery Center and Fort Bliss Municipal Solid Waste Landfill Facility (MSWLF) is located about 10 miles northeast of downtown El Paso, Texas. The landfill is built on the Hueco Bolson, a deposit that yields water to five public-supply wells within 1.1 miles of the landfill boundary on all sides. The bolson deposits consist of lenses and mixtures of sand, clay, silt, gravel, and caliche. The unsaturated zone at the landfill is about 300 feet thick. The Hydrologic Evaluation of Landfill Performance (HELP) and the Multimedia Exposure Assessment Model for Evaluating the Land Disposal of Wastes (MULTIMED) computer models were used to simulate the time of first arrival of landfill leachate at the water table. Site-specific data were collected for model input. At five sites on the landfill cover, hydraulic conductivity was measured by an in situ method; in addition, laboratory values were obtained for porosity, moisture content at field capacity, and moisture content at wilting point. Twenty-seven sediment samples were collected from two adjacent boreholes drilled near the southwest corner of the landfill. Of these, 23 samples were assumed to represent the unsaturated zone beneath the landfill. The core samples were analyzed in the laboratory for various characteristics required for the HELP and MULTIMED models: initial moisture content, dry bulk density, porosity, saturated hydraulic conductivity, moisture retention percentages at various suction values, total organic carbon, and pH. Parameters were calculated for the van Genuchten and Brooks-Corey equations that relate hydraulic conductivity to saturation. A reported recharge value of 0.008 inch per year was estimated on the basis of soil- water chloride concentration. The HELP model was implemented using input values that were based mostly on site-specific data or assumed in a conservative manner. Exceptions were the default values used for waste characteristics. Flow through the landfill was

  19. Municipal solid waste composition determination supporting the integrated solid waste management system in the island of Crete

    SciTech Connect

    Gidarakos, E. . E-mail: gidarako@mred.tuc.gr; Havas, G.; Ntzamilis, P.

    2006-07-01

    A one-year survey was conducted in the greater region of Crete (located at the lower region of the Aegean Sea) for the purpose of identifying waste composition (including chemical and physical characterization), as well as any seasonal variation. The investigation was carried out repeatedly at seven landfills and one transfer station in Crete, in four phases. Each sampling phase corresponded to a season (autumn, winter, spring, summer). ASTM D5231-92(2003) standard method and RCRA Waste Sampling Draft Technical Guidance were used. Hand sorting was used for classifying the collected wastes into the following categories: plastics, paper, metals, aluminium, leather-wood-textiles-rubbers, organic wastes, non-combustibles and miscellaneous. Further analysis included proximate and ultimate analysis of combustible materials. Metals such as lead, cadmium and mercury were also investigated. The results show that there has been a significant decrease of organic wastes during the last decade due to the increase of packaging materials, as a result of a change in consumption patterns. Three main waste categories were determined: organic wastes, paper and plastics, which combined represent 76% of the total waste in Crete. Furthermore, a high fraction of glass and a seasonal variation of aluminium indicate a strong correlation of waste composition with certain human activities, such as tourism. There is also a variation between the municipal solid waste (MSW) composition in the region of Crete (2003-2004) and MSW composition suggested in the National Solid Waste Planning (2000) [National Solid Waste Planning, 2000. Completion and particularization of Common Ministerial Act 113944//1944/1997: National Solid Waste Planning, June 2000]. The results of this survey are to be utilized by the regional solid waste authorities in order to establish an integrated waste treatment site, capable of fulfilling the regional waste management demands.

  20. Municipal solid waste composition determination supporting the integrated solid waste management system in the island of Crete.

    PubMed

    Gidarakos, E; Havas, G; Ntzamilis, P

    2006-01-01

    A one-year survey was conducted in the greater region of Crete (located at the lower region of the Aegean Sea) for the purpose of identifying waste composition (including chemical and physical characterization), as well as any seasonal variation. The investigation was carried out repeatedly at seven landfills and one transfer station in Crete, in four phases. Each sampling phase corresponded to a season (autumn, winter, spring, summer). ASTM D5231-92(2003) standard method and RCRA Waste Sampling Draft Technical Guidance were used. Hand sorting was used for classifying the collected wastes into the following categories: plastics, paper, metals, aluminium, leather-wood-textiles-rubbers, organic wastes, non-combustibles and miscellaneous. Further analysis included proximate and ultimate analysis of combustible materials. Metals such as lead, cadmium and mercury were also investigated. The results show that there has been a significant decrease of organic wastes during the last decade due to the increase of packaging materials, as a result of a change in consumption patterns. Three main waste categories were determined: organic wastes, paper and plastics, which combined represent 76% of the total waste in Crete. Furthermore, a high fraction of glass and a seasonal variation of aluminium indicate a strong correlation of waste composition with certain human activities, such as tourism. There is also a variation between the municipal solid waste (MSW) composition in the region of Crete (2003-2004) and MSW composition suggested in the National Solid Waste Planning (2000) [National Solid Waste Planning, 2000. Completion and particularization of Common Ministerial Act 113944//1944/1997: National Solid Waste Planning, June 2000]. The results of this survey are to be utilized by the regional solid waste authorities in order to establish an integrated waste treatment site, capable of fulfilling the regional waste management demands. PMID:16207528

  1. High Strength Lightweight Nanocomposite from Domestic Solid Waste

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masturi, Swardhani, Anggi Puspita; Sustini, Euis; Bukit, Minsyahril; Mora, Khairurrijal, Abdullah, Mikrajuddin

    2010-10-01

    The issue of waste problems needs innovative efforts to solve. One of them is solid waste utilization as nanocomposite using polyurethane (PU) polymer as matrix. Beside using solid waste as filler, nanosilica is also added to improve the material strength of composite-produced. These materials were mixed by simple mixing with variative compositions, and then hot-pressed at 30 MPa and 100° C for 30 minutes. From compressive strength test, it was found that composite with composition 2:8 of PU and solid waste has optimum compressive strength, i.e. 160 MPa. Into this optimum composition, nanosilica then is added to improve the compressive strength and found that at composition 1:40:160 of nanosilica, PU and solid waste, the composite has optimum compressive strength 200 MPa, or increases 25% of that without nanosilica. The composite-produced is also lightweight material with the density is 0.69 g/cm.

  2. Solid waste treatment opportunities in the Palestinian authority areas.

    PubMed

    Khatib, Imad; Al-Khateeb, Nader

    2009-05-01

    Municipal services in the Palestinian Authority (PA) areas, including the West Bank and Gaza Strip (WBGS), are facing serious difficulties that have been intensified following the outbreak of the Palestinian uprising in late September 2000. The solid waste management services, being the most essential services provided by the municipalities and village councils, are mostly affected by the ongoing harsh situation and hence proper solutions that take into account the actual amount of generated municipal solid waste and its composition is a pre-requisite for planning proper treatment. Hence, a study was carried out to identify the actual status of solid waste in eight West Bank districts. A social survey was also conducted to collect information concerning the level of public awareness among communities surveyed to the perception of solid waste recycling and reuse. The results of the survey conducted in 2001-2002 were later reviewed during July-October 2008 to assess if the trend of domestic solid waste generation had changed. Based on the survey and post-assessment, it is found that political and economic conditions have both significantly impacted the trend of generated municipal solid waste and since no improvements in either condition are forthcoming, it is concluded that survey results could be used in a planning study. A possible handling of the generated wastes may entail transferring the recyclable waste to Israeli recycling industries, and in constructing three composting plants in different accessible locations in the West Bank. PMID:19121576

  3. Conversion of municipal solid waste to hydrogen

    SciTech Connect

    Richardson, J.H.; Rogers, R.S.; Thorsness, C.B.

    1995-09-01

    LLNL and Texaco are cooperatively developing a physical and chemical treatment method for the conversion of municipal solid waste (MSW) to hydrogen via the steps of hydrothermal pretreatment, gasification and purification. LLNL`s focus has been on hydrothermal pretreatment of MSW in order to prepare a slurry of suitable viscosity and heating value to allow efficient and economical gasification and hydrogen production. The project has evolved along 3 parallel paths: laboratory scale experiments, pilot scale processing, and process modeling. Initial laboratory-scale MSW treatment results (e.g., viscosity, slurry solids content) over a range of temperatures and times with newspaper and plastics will be presented. Viscosity measurements have been correlated with results obtained at MRL. A hydrothermal treatment pilot facility has been rented from Texaco and is being reconfigured at LLNL; the status of that facility and plans for initial runs will be described. Several different operational scenarios have been modeled. Steady state processes have been modeled with ASPEN PLUS; consideration of steam injection in a batch mode was handled using continuous process modules. A transient model derived from a general purpose packed bed model is being developed which can examine the aspects of steam heating inside the hydrothermal reactor vessel. These models have been applied to pilot and commercial scale scenarios as a function of MSW input parameters and have been used to outline initial overall economic trends. Part of the modeling, an overview of the MSW gasification process and the modeling of the MSW as a process material, was completed by a DOE SERS (Science and Engineering Research Semester) student. The ultimate programmatic goal is the technical demonstration of the gasification of MSW to hydrogen at the laboratory and pilot scale and the economic analysis of the commercial feasibility of such a process.

  4. Conversion of municipal solid waste to hydrogen

    SciTech Connect

    Richardson, J.H.; Rogers, R.S.; Thorsness, C.B.

    1995-04-01

    LLNL and Texaco are cooperatively developing a physical and chemical treatment method for the conversion of municipal solid waste (MSW) to hydrogen via the steps of hydrothermal pretreatment, gasification and purification. LLNL`s focus has been on hydrothermal pretreatment of MSW in order to prepare a slurry of suitable viscosity and heating value to allow efficient and economical gasification and hydrogen production. The project has evolved along 3 parallel paths: laboratory scale experiments, pilot scale processing, and process modeling. Initial laboratory-scale MSW treatment results (e.g., viscosity, slurry solids content) over a range of temperatures and times with newspaper and plastics will be presented. Viscosity measurements have been correlated with results obtained at MRL. A hydrothermal treatment pilot facility has been rented from Texaco and is being reconfigured at LLNL; the status of that facility and plans for initial runs will be described. Several different operational scenarios have been modeled. Steady state processes have been modeled with ASPEN PLUS; consideration of steam injection in a batch mode was handled using continuous process modules. A transient model derived from a general purpose packed bed model is being developed which can examine the aspects of steam heating inside the hydrothermal reactor vessel. These models have been applied to pilot and commercial scale scenarios as a function of MSW input parameters and have been used to outline initial overall economic trends. Part of the modeling, an overview of the MSW gasification process and the modeling of the MSW as a process material, was completed by a DOE SERS (Science and Engineering Research Semester) student. The ultimate programmatic goal is the technical demonstration of the gasification of MSW to hydrogen at the laboratory and pilot scale and the economic analysis of the commercial feasibility of such a process.

  5. Conversion of municipal solid waste to hydrogen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richardson, J. H.; Rogers, R. S.; Thorsness, C. B.

    1995-04-01

    LLNL and Texaco are cooperatively developing a physical and chemical treatment method for the conversion of municipal solid waste (MSW) to hydrogen via the steps of hydrothermal pretreatment, gasification and purification. LLNL's focus has been on hydrothermal pretreatment of MSW in order to prepare a slurry of suitable viscosity and heating value to allow efficient and economical gasification and hydrogen production. The project has evolved along 3 parallel paths: laboratory scale experiments, pilot scale processing, and process modeling. Initial laboratory-scale MSW treatment results (e.g., viscosity, slurry solids content) over a range of temperatures and times with newspaper and plastics will be presented. Viscosity measurements have been correlated with results obtained at MRL. A hydrothermal treatment pilot facility has been rented from Texaco and is being reconfigured at LLNL; the status of that facility and plans for initial runs will be described. Several different operational scenarios have been modeled. Steady state processes have been modeled with ASPEN PLUS; consideration of steam injection in a batch mode was handled using continuous process modules. A transient model derived from a general purpose packed bed model is being developed which can examine the aspects of steam heating inside the hydrothermal reactor vessel. These models have been applied to pilot and commercial scale scenarios as a function of MSW input parameters and have been used to outline initial overall economic trends. Part of the modeling, an overview of the MSW gasification process and the modeling of the MSW as a process material, was completed by a DOE SERS (Science and Engineering Research Semester) student. The ultimate programmatic goal is the technical demonstration of the gasification of MSW to hydrogen at the laboratory and pilot scale and the economic analysis of the commercial feasibility of such a process.

  6. Municipal Solid Waste Management in Kadapa Town: A Case Study.

    PubMed

    Sumithra, S; Sunitha, V; Nagaraju, G

    2014-01-01

    Solid waste management (SWM) is a worldwide phenomenon. It is a big challenge all over the world for human beings. The problem of municipal solid waste management (MSWM) is also prevailing in the environment of Kadapa town in India. Therefore, the present study was undertaken to find out the problems and prospects of municipal solid waste in Kadapa town. A detailed investigation was made regarding the methods of practices associated with sources, quantity generated, collection, transportation, storage, treatment and disposal of municipal solid waste in the study area. The data related to SWM in the study area was obtained through questionnaire, individual field visits, interaction with people and authentic record of municipal corporation. Status of the MSW in Kadapa town was studied. The results indicated that the major constituents of municipal solid waste were organic in nature and approximately one fourth of municipal solid waste was recyclable. Detailed data on solid waste management practices, including collection, recovery and disposal method, has been presented in this paper. PMID:26445765

  7. Impact of socioeconomic status on municipal solid waste generation rate.

    PubMed

    Khan, D; Kumar, A; Samadder, S R

    2016-03-01

    The solid waste generation rate was expected to vary in different socioeconomic groups due to many environmental and social factors. This paper reports the assessment of solid waste generation based on different socioeconomic parameters like education, occupation, income of the family, number of family members etc. A questionnaire survey was conducted in the study area to identify the different socioeconomic groups that may affect the solid waste generation rate and composition. The average waste generated in the municipality is 0.41 kg/capita/day in which the maximum waste was found to be generated by lower middle socioeconomic group (LMSEG) with average waste generation of 0.46 kg/capita/day. Waste characterization indicated that there was no much difference in the composition of wastes among different socioeconomic groups except ash residue and plastic. Ash residue is found to increase as we move lower down the socioeconomic groups with maximum (31%) in lower socioeconomic group (LSEG). The study area is a coal based city hence application of coal and wood as fuel for cooking in the lower socioeconomic group is the reason for high amount of ash content. Plastic waste is maximum (15%) in higher socioeconomic group (HSEG) and minimum (1%) in LSEG. Food waste is a major component of generated waste in almost every socioeconomic group with maximum (38%) in case of HSEG and minimum (28%) in LSEG. This study provides new insights on the role of various socioeconomic parameters on generation of household wastes. PMID:26831564

  8. Problems associated with solid wastes from energy systems

    SciTech Connect

    Chiu, S.Y.; Fradkin, L.; Barisas, S.; Surles, T.; Morris, S.; Crowther, A.; DeCarlo, V.

    1980-09-01

    Waste streams from many energy-related technologies including coal, oil shale, tar sands, geothermal, oil and gas extraction, and nuclear power generation are reviewed with an emphasis on waste streams from coal and oil shale technologies. This study has two objectives. The first objective is to outline the available information on energy-related solid wastes. Data on chemical composition and hazardous biological characteristics are included, supplemented by regulatory reviews and data on legally designated hazardous waste streams. The second objective is to provide disposal and utilization options. Solid waste disposal and recovery requirements specified under the RCRA are emphasized. Information presented herein should be useful for policy, environmental control, and research and development decision making regarding solid and hazardous wastes from energy production.

  9. Solid Waste Management with Emphasis on Environmental Aspect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinha, Navin Kr.; Choudhary, Binod Kumar; Shree, Shalini

    2011-12-01

    In this paper focus on Solid waste management. Its comprises of purposeful and systematic control of generation, storage, collection, transport, separations, processing, recycling, recovery and disposal of solid waste. Awareness of Four R's management & EMS support also for management Solid waste. Basel convention on the Control of transboundary movements of hazardous wastes and their Disposal usually known simply as the Basel Convention, is an international treaty that was designed to reduce the movements of hazardous waste between nations, and specifically to prevent transfer of hazardous waste from developed to less developed countries (LDCs). it came into force 5 May 1992. According to this "Substances or objects which are disposed of or are intended to be disposed of or are required to be disposed of by the provisions of national law"(UNEP).

  10. Towards sustainable solid waste management: Investigating household participation in solid waste management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akil, A. M.; Ho, C. S.

    2014-02-01

    The aim of this paper is to assess the readiness of Iskandar Malaysia community to accept solid waste recycling. The research is based on quantitative research design and descriptive survey of the households at Iskandar Malaysia using the stratified sampling method for a sample of 670. The survey was conducted using a structured questionnaire that covered two basic principles; a) recycling knowledge; b) willingness to recycle. Data was analysed using the SPSS to carry out statistical analysis. The finding shows households' knowledge towards the solid waste recycling is good and positive. However, finding also shows that respondents have incomprehensive knowledge on the method of disposal as more than 50% of householders only recycle papers and textiles. Most of the households agreed to participate in the activities of the separation of waste if the facility will be made available at their kerbside. Therefore, it is recommended that government should provide more in-depth knowledge by intensifying the awareness of the households in the recycling programs. In term of urban planning and management, the location of recycling facility can be analysing by using GIS. This is important to understand the catchment area of each neighbourhood or precinct to ensure effective household participation.

  11. Race, Wealth, and Solid Waste Facilities in North Carolina

    PubMed Central

    Norton, Jennifer M.; Wing, Steve; Lipscomb, Hester J.; Kaufman, Jay S.; Marshall, Stephen W.; Cravey, Altha J.

    2007-01-01

    Background Concern has been expressed in North Carolina that solid waste facilities may be disproportionately located in poor communities and in communities of color, that this represents an environmental injustice, and that solid waste facilities negatively impact the health of host communities. Objective Our goal in this study was to conduct a statewide analysis of the location of solid waste facilities in relation to community race and wealth. Methods We used census block groups to obtain racial and economic characteristics, and information on solid waste facilities was abstracted from solid waste facility permit records. We used logistic regression to compute prevalence odds ratios for 2003, and Cox regression to compute hazard ratios of facilities issued permits between 1990 and 2003. Results The adjusted prevalence odds of a solid waste facility was 2.8 times greater in block groups with ≥50% people of color compared with block groups with < 10% people of color, and 1.5 times greater in block groups with median house values < $60,000 compared with block groups with median house values ≥$100,000. Among block groups that did not have a previously permitted solid waste facility, the adjusted hazard of a new permitted facility was 2.7 times higher in block groups with ≥50% people of color compared with block groups with < 10% people of color. Conclusion Solid waste facilities present numerous public health concerns. In North Carolina solid waste facilities are disproportionately located in communities of color and low wealth. In the absence of action to promote environmental justice, the continued need for new facilities could exacerbate this environmental injustice. PMID:17805426

  12. Municipal Solid Waste Management: Recycling, Resource Recovery, and Landfills. LC Science Tracer Bullet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meikle, Teresa, Comp.

    Municipal solid waste refers to waste materials generated by residential, commercial, and institutional sources, and consists predominantly of paper, glass, metals, plastics, and food and yard waste. Within the definition of the Solid Waste Disposal Act, municipal solid waste does not include sewage sludge or hazardous waste. The three main…

  13. Municipal solid waste characterization, Tehran-Iran.

    PubMed

    Heravi, Helen Morabi; Sabour, Mohammad Reza; Mahvi, Amir Hossein

    2013-08-15

    Effective waste management has been greatly restricted by insufficient statistical data on the generation, processing and waste disposal. This study was undertaken in the municipality of Tehran. A total of 6,060 samples were compared by statistically comparing source generation, destination and intermediate stations. The results from these analyses showed that the average per capita waste generation in Tehran was 589 g day(-1). It was also observed that, of the total amount of waste generated in the municipality of Tehran, 73% was domestic waste and 27% was non-domestic waste. In addition, 68% of total household waste was organic waste, while 41% of non-domestic waste was organic waste. Furthermore, 61% of waste in Tehran was generated at the source, while 72% of the waste coming into the Aradkoh disposal and processing center was organic waste. The physical analysis was showed that there was no significant difference between the wastes generated in 2004 and those generated in 2009 and that there was not equal percentage of wet waste coming into the disposal center with urban service stations. This indicates that active source separation programs in metropolitan Tehran. PMID:24498828

  14. A legislator`s guide to municipal solid waste management

    SciTech Connect

    Starkey, D; Hill, K

    1996-08-01

    The purpose of this guide is to allow individual state legislators to gain a better understanding of municipal solid waste (MSW) management issues in general, and examine the applicability of these concerns to their state. This guide incorporates a discussion of MSW management issues and a comprehensive overview of the components of an integrated solid waste management system. Major MSW topics discussed include current management issues affecting states, federal activities, and state laws and local activities. Solid waste characteristics and management approaches are also detailed.

  15. Backyard waste management - problems and benefits of individuals managing their solid waste at home

    SciTech Connect

    Whalen, M.

    1995-05-01

    The problems and benefits of individuals managing their solid wastes at home are surveyed. The survey indicates that as the population rises people tend to burn only the combustible portions of their waste. Some communities have limited ordinances that ban the burning of raw garbage, but other municipalities allow residents to burn all of their wastestream, even though some materials are not combustible and cannot be burned. Potential environmental effects involve both the ash residue and the air emissions. While selected burning can reduce some of the environmental hazards these would probably only be marginally less than the impacts of burning it all. The study clearly indicates that the environmental problems of burn barrels are not insignificant. However, the attitudes and motivations of those who burn waste will have to be addressed by the communities that attempt or should attempt to control this problem. These include: avoidance of waste collection costs; availability of trash cartage services; and habit. Habit is probably as strong a motivation as cost avoidance and ease of collection combined. Residents have often burned trash for several generations and regard the practice as a {open_quotes}god-given right.{close_quotes}

  16. Modelling biogas production of solid waste: application of the BGP model to a synthetic landfill

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodrigo-Ilarri, Javier; Segura-Sobrino, Francisco

    2013-04-01

    Production of biogas as a result of the decomposition of organic matter included on solid waste landfills is still an issue to be understood. Reports on this matter are rarely included on the engineering construction projects of solid waste landfills despite it can be an issue of critical importance while operating the landfill and after its closure. This paper presents an application of BGP (Bio-Gas-Production) model to a synthetic landfill. The evolution in time of the concentrations of the different chemical compounds of biogas is studied. Results obtained show the impact on the air quality of different management alternatives which are usually performed in real landfills.

  17. Searching quality data for municipal solid waste planning.

    PubMed

    Chowdhury, Moe

    2009-08-01

    Effective waste reduction and recycling is predicated upon credible data on refuse generation and disposal. Despite improvements in the quality of data for municipal solid wastes (MSW) disposal, dependable generation and recycling statistics to support planning, regulation and administration are lacking. The available aggregates on national waste production from two sources do not conform to each other and fail to serve the requirements of local solid waste planning. As recycling estimates will be difficult to discern, the collection of generation data based on weighing waste samples at generator sites has been portrayed as the key for developing sustainable local databases. The coefficients developed from the databases for the various categories of residential, commercial, industrial and institutional wastes can be used as variables for waste generation models. PMID:19410445

  18. Solid waste retrieval. Phase 1, Operational basis

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, D.M.

    1994-09-30

    This Document describes the operational requirements, procedures, and options for execution of the retrieval of the waste containers placed in buried storage in Burial Ground 218W-4C, Trench 04 as TRU waste or suspect TRU waste under the activity levels defining this waste in effect at the time of placement. Trench 04 in Burial Ground 218W-4C is totally dedicated to storage of retrievable TRU waste containers or retrievable suspect TRU waste containers and has not been used for any other purpose.

  19. Hanford Site Solid Waste Acceptance Criteria

    SciTech Connect

    MCDOWELL, A.K.; TRINER, G.C.

    2002-03-28

    DOE Order 435.1 requires that each treatment, storage, and/or disposal facility (referred to in this document as TSD unit) that manages low-level or transuranic (TRU) waste (including mixed waste and TSCA PCB waste) maintain waste acceptance criteria. These criteria must address the various requirements to operate the TSD unit in compliance with applicable safety and environmental requirements. This document sets forth the baseline criteria for acceptance of waste at TSD units operated by WMP. The criteria for each TSD unit have been established to ensure that waste accepted can be managed in a manner that is within the operating requirements of the unit, including environmental regulations, DOE Orders, permits, technical safety requirements, waste analysis plans, performance assessments, and other applicable requirements. Revisions to the acceptance criteria document require an Unreviewed Safety Question review to document that the changes are consistent with current applicable safety analysis. Acceptance criteria apply to the following TSD units: the Low-Level Burial Grounds (LLBG) including both the nonregulated portions of the LLBG and trenches 31 and 34 of the 218-W-5 Burial Ground for mixed waste disposal; Central Waste Complex (CWC); Waste Receiving and Processing (WRAP) Facility; and T-Plant facility. Waste from all generators, both from the Hanford Site and from offsite facilities, must comply with these criteria. Exceptions can be granted as provided in Section 1.6. Specific waste streams could have additional requirements based on the identified TSD pathway. These requirements are communicated in the waste specification records (WSRds) and/or waste stream profile sheet approvals. The Hanford Site manages nonradioactive waste through direct shipments to offsite contractors. The waste acceptance requirements of the offsite TSD facility must be met for these nonradioactive wastes. This document does not address the acceptance requirements of these offsite

  20. Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Launch Complex 39, The Solid ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Launch Complex 39, The Solid Rocket Booster Assembly and Refurbishment Facility Manufacturing Building, Southeast corner of Schwartz Road and Contractors Road, Cape Canaveral, Brevard County, FL

  1. Complex utilization of snf processing wastes in air plasma of high-frequency torch discharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karengin, A. G.; Karengin, A. A.; Podgornaya, O. D.; Shlotgauer, E. E.

    2014-10-01

    We present results of complex spent nuclear fuel wastes utilization process in air plasma of high-frequency torch discharge in form of dispersed water-organic compositions. We demonstrate the possibility to apply magnetic separation for effective extraction of obtained dispersed solid products including magnetic iron oxide from water suspension.

  2. Hanford Site solid waste acceptance criteria

    SciTech Connect

    Ellefson, M.D.

    1998-07-01

    Order 5820.2A requires that each treatment, storage, and/or disposal facility (referred to in this document as TSD unit) that manages low-level or transuranic waste (including mixed waste and TSCA PCB waste) maintain waste acceptance criteria. These criteria must address the various requirements to operate the TSD unit in compliance with applicable safety and environmental requirements. This document sets forth the baseline criteria for acceptance of radioactive waste at TSD units operated by WMH. The criteria for each TSD unit have been established to ensure that waste accepted can be managed in a manner that is within the operating requirements of the unit, including environmental regulations, DOE Orders, permits, technical safety requirements, waste analysis plans, performance assessments, and other applicable requirements. Acceptance criteria apply to the following TSD units: the Low-Level Burial Grounds (LLBG) including both the nonregulated portions of the LLBG and trenches 31 and 34 of the 218-W-5 Burial Ground for mixed waste disposal; Central Waste Complex (CWC); Waste Receiving and Processing Facility (WRAP); and T Plant Complex. Waste from all generators, both from the Hanford Site and from offsite facilities, must comply with these criteria. Exceptions can be granted as provided in Section 1.6. Specific waste streams could have additional requirements based on the 1901 identified TSD pathway. These requirements are communicated in the Waste Specification Records (WSRds). The Hanford Site manages nonradioactive waste through direct shipments to offsite contractors. The waste acceptance requirements of the offsite TSD facility must be met for these nonradioactive wastes. This document does not address the acceptance requirements of these offsite facilities.

  3. Energy recovery from solid waste. [production engineering model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dalton, C.; Huang, C. J.

    1974-01-01

    A recent group study on the problem of solid waste disposal provided a decision making model for a community to use in determining the future for its solid waste. The model is a combination of the following factors: technology, legal, social, political, economic and environmental. An assessment of local or community needs determines what form of energy recovery is desirable. A market for low pressure steam or hot water would direct a community to recover energy from solid waste by incineration to generate steam. A fuel gas could be produced by a process known as pyrolysis if there is a local market for a low heating value gaseous fuel. Solid waste can also be used directly as a fuel supplemental to coal in a steam generator. An evaluation of these various processes is made.

  4. CONSIDERATIONS IN SELECTING CONVEYORS FOR SOLID WASTE APPLICATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    An engineering evaluation and experimental program involving several types of conveyors applied to processed fractions of municipal solid wastes was conducted by the National Center for Resource Recovery. This final project report discusses the properties and characteristics of w...

  5. A PNEUMATIC CONVEYING TEST RIG FOR MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE FRACTIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report analyzes the material properties and system parameters relevant to the pneumatic conveying of municipal solid waste and its processed fractions. Comparisons are made with the conveying of conventional industrial feedstocks, and a rationale for sizing and specification...

  6. ECONOMICS OF MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT: THE CHICAGO CASE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The study provides an extension of the theory of demand, with specific application to collection and disposal services for household solid waste. The empirical investigation involving several socioeconomic variables (income, race, household size) repeated the analysis of an earli...

  7. SIGNIFICANCE OF SIZE REDUCTION IN SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report provides information from laboratory research conducted to characterize the size reduction of municipal solid waste (MSW). Results and data are presented on the relationships between refuse size distribution, particle size, grinding speed, moisture content, energy con...

  8. Disposal of solid wastes with simultaneous energy recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Ghosh, S.

    1980-01-01

    The need for resource recovery from solid wastes is discussed. The incentives for a comprehensive system, a gasification based disposal system, and biological recovery methods are reviewed. Biogas process development and the Lanfilgas process are described. (MHR)

  9. Geotechnical hazards associated with closed municipal solid waste landfill sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Powrie, W.; Richards, D.; Beaven, R.

    2015-09-01

    As pressure for new infrastructure and development grows, it is inevitable that building projects will encounter some of the c20,000 closed former solid waste landfills in the UK, many of which will have accepted municipal solid wastes (MSW). Construction on or across these sites brings a special set of geohazards associated with the potential for large and difficult to predict settlements, gas (and odour) release or generation, contaminated leachate and the breach of containment systems and other environmental controls. The presentation will discuss these issues with reference to recent research into understanding and predicting settlements in municipal solid waste landfills; assessing the total, current and residual gas potential of biodegradable wastes; the role of the hydraulic regime in the flushing of contaminants from the waste and the quality of leachate; and the need or otherwise for the long term integrity of engineered barriers and controls.

  10. The feasibility study of the waste heat air-conditioning system for automobile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Gui-Ping; Yuan, Xiu-Gan; Mei, Zhi-Guang

    1994-06-01

    In this paper, the feasibility of application of a solid-absorption system using ammonia and chlorides as working pair to automobile air-conditioning system is investigated. This system has the advantages of minimum environmental problem and utilizing waste heat from the automobile engine as thermal energy input. Analyses show that the main problem associated with the application of solid-absorption system is the size of the reactors. Techniques to solve this problem are discussed.

  11. Environmental implications of municipal solid waste-derived ethanol.

    PubMed

    Kalogo, Youssouf; Habibi, Shiva; MacLean, Heather L; Joshi, Satish V

    2007-01-01

    We model a municipal solid waste (MSW)-to-ethanol facility that employs dilute acid hydrolysis and gravity pressure vessel technology and estimate life cycle energy use and air emissions. We compare our results, assuming the ethanol is utilized as E85 (blended with 15% gasoline) in a light-duty vehicle, with extant life cycle assessments of gasoline, corn-ethanol, and energy crop-cellulosic-ethanol fueled vehicles. We also compare MSW-ethanol production, as a waste management alternative, with landfilling with gas recovery options. We find that the life cycle total energy use per vehicle mile traveled for MSW-ethanol is less than that of corn-ethanol and cellulosic-ethanol; and energy use from petroleum sources for MSW-ethanol is lower than for the other fuels. MSW-ethanol use in vehicles reduces net greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by 65% compared to gasoline, and by 58% when compared to corn-ethanol. Relative GHG performance with respect to cellulosic ethanol depends on whether MSW classification is included or not. Converting MSW to ethanol will result in net fossil energy savings of 397-1830 MJ/MT MSW compared to net fossil energy consumption of 177-577 MJ/MT MSW for landfilling. However, landfilling with LFG recovery either for flaring or for electricity production results in greater reductions in GHG emissions compared to MSW-to-ethanol conversion. PMID:17265924

  12. 40 CFR 63.1216 - What are the standards for solid fuel boilers that burn hazardous waste?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true What are the standards for solid fuel boilers that burn hazardous waste? 63.1216 Section 63.1216 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES National...

  13. 75 FR 41121 - Hazardous and Solid Waste Management System; Identification and Listing of Special Wastes...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-15

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Parts 257, 261, 264, 265, 268, 271 and 302 RIN 2050-AE81 Hazardous and Solid Waste... 21, 2010 (75 FR 35128). Additional information on the proposed rule can be found at http://www.epa...), 3001, 3004, 3005, and 4004 of the Solid Waste Disposal Act of 1970, as amended by the...

  14. Chemical digestion of low level nuclear solid waste material

    DOEpatents

    Cooley, Carl R.; Lerch, Ronald E.

    1976-01-01

    A chemical digestion for treatment of low level combustible nuclear solid waste material is provided and comprises reacting the solid waste material with concentrated sulfuric acid at a temperature within the range of 230.degree.-300.degree.C and simultaneously and/or thereafter contacting the reacting mixture with concentrated nitric acid or nitrogen dioxide. In a special embodiment spent ion exchange resins are converted by this chemical digestion to noncombustible gases and a low volume noncombustible residue.

  15. Electric controlled air incinerator for radioactive wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Hootman, H.E.; Warren, J.H.

    1981-04-07

    A two-stage incinerator is provided which includes a primary combustion chamber and an afterburner chamber for off-gases. The latter is formed by a plurality of vertical tubes in combination with associated manifolds which connect the tubes together to form a continuous tortuous path. Electrically-controlled heaters surround the tubes while electrically-controlled plate heaters heat the manifolds. A gravity-type ash removal system is located at the bottom of the first afterburner tube while an air mixer is disposed in that same tube just above the outlet from the primary chamber. A ram injector in combination with rotary magazine feeds waste to a horizontal tube forming the primary combustion chamber.

  16. Electric controlled air incinerator for radioactive wastes

    DOEpatents

    Warren, Jeffery H.; Hootman, Harry E.

    1981-01-01

    A two-stage incinerator is provided which includes a primary combustion chamber and an afterburner chamber for off-gases. The latter is formed by a plurality of vertical tubes in combination with associated manifolds which connect the tubes together to form a continuous tortuous path. Electrically-controlled heaters surround the tubes while electrically-controlled plate heaters heat the manifolds. A gravity-type ash removal system is located at the bottom of the first afterburner tube while an air mixer is disposed in that same tube just above the outlet from the primary chamber. A ram injector in combination with rotary magazine feeds waste to a horizontal tube forming the primary combustion chamber.

  17. Municipal solid waste management in Rasht City, Iran

    SciTech Connect

    Alavi Moghadam, M.R. Mokhtarani, N. Mokhtarani, B.

    2009-01-15

    Pollution and health risks generated by improper solid waste management are important issues concerning environmental management in developing countries. In most cities, the use of open dumps is common for the disposal of wastes, resulting in soil and water resource contamination by leachate in addition to odors and fires. Solid waste management infrastructure and services in developing countries are far from achieving basic standards in terms of hygiene and efficient collection and disposal. This paper presents an overview of current municipal solid waste management in Rasht city, Gilan Province, Iran, and provides recommendations for system improvement. The collected data of different MSW functional elements were based on data from questionnaires, visual observations of the authors, available reports and several interviews and meetings with responsible persons. Due to an increase in population and changes in lifestyle, the quantity and quality of MSW in Rasht city has changed. Lack of resources, infrastructure, suitable planning, leadership, and public awareness are the main challenges of MSW management of Rasht city. However, the present situation of solid waste management in this city, which generates more than 400 tons/d, has been improved since the establishment of an organization responsible only for solid waste management. Source separation of wastes and construction of a composting plant are the two main activities of the Rasht Municipality in recent years.

  18. Surface emission of landfill gas from solid waste landfill

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Jin-Won; Shin, Ho-Chul

    The surface emission of landfill gas (LFG) was studied to estimate the amount of LFG efflux from solid waste landfills using an air flux chamber. LFG efflux increased as atmospheric temperature increased during the day, and the same pattern for the surface emission was observed for the change of seasons. LFG efflux rate decreased from summer through winter. The average LFG efflux rates of winter, spring and summer were 0.1584, 0.3013 and 0.8597 m 3 m -2 h -1 respectively. The total amount of surface emission was calculated based on the seasonal LFG efflux rate and the landfill surface area. From the estimates of LFG generation, it is expected that about 30% of the generated LFG may be released through the surface without extraction process. As forced extraction with a blower proceeded, the extraction well pressure decreased from 1100 to -100 mm H 2O, and the LFG surface efflux decreased markedly above 80%. Thus, the utilization of LFG by forced extraction would be the good solution for global warming and air pollution by LFG.

  19. 40 CFR 266.202 - Definition of solid waste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... disposal as defined in 40 CFR 261.2(c)(1), or burning for energy recovery as defined in 40 CFR 261.2(c)(2... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Definition of solid waste. 266.202... (CONTINUED) STANDARDS FOR THE MANAGEMENT OF SPECIFIC HAZARDOUS WASTES AND SPECIFIC TYPES OF HAZARDOUS...

  20. 40 CFR 266.202 - Definition of solid waste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... disposal as defined in 40 CFR 261.2(c)(1), or burning for energy recovery as defined in 40 CFR 261.2(c)(2... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Definition of solid waste. 266.202... (CONTINUED) STANDARDS FOR THE MANAGEMENT OF SPECIFIC HAZARDOUS WASTES AND SPECIFIC TYPES OF HAZARDOUS...

  1. 40 CFR 266.202 - Definition of solid waste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... disposal as defined in 40 CFR 261.2(c)(1), or burning for energy recovery as defined in 40 CFR 261.2(c)(2... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Definition of solid waste. 266.202... (CONTINUED) STANDARDS FOR THE MANAGEMENT OF SPECIFIC HAZARDOUS WASTES AND SPECIFIC TYPES OF HAZARDOUS...

  2. ENVIRONMENTAL AND RESOURCE CONSERVATION CONSIDERATIONS OF STEEL INDUSTRY SOLID WASTE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report examines the solid wastes generated by the iron and steel industry relative to the impact of Section 4004 of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. The quantities, properties, and origin of wastes which pose a potential problem are identified using flow diagrams, ...

  3. Fire hazards analysis for solid waste burial grounds

    SciTech Connect

    McDonald, K.M.

    1995-09-28

    This document comprises the fire hazards analysis for the solid waste burial grounds, including TRU trenches, low-level burial grounds, radioactive mixed waste trenches, etc. It analyzes fire potential, and fire damage potential for these facilities. Fire scenarios may be utilized in future safety analysis work, or for increasing the understanding of where hazards may exist in the present operation.

  4. Solid waste management problems in secondary schools in Ibadan, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Ana, G R E E; Oloruntoba, E O; Shendell, D; Elemile, O O; Benjamin, O R; Sridhar, M K C

    2011-09-01

    Inappropriate solid waste management practices in schools in less-developed countries, particularly in major urban communities, constitute one of the major factors leading to declining environmental health conditions. The objective of the authors' descriptive, cross-sectional study was to assess solid waste management problems in selected urban schools in Ibadan, Nigeria. Eight secondary schools with average pupil populations not less than 500 per school were selected randomly. Four hundred questionnaires (50 per school) were administered. In addition, an observational checklist was used to assess the physical environment. Paper and plastics were the most frequently generated wastes. Common methods of solid waste disposal reported were use of dustbins for collection and open burning. Major problems perceived with current refuse disposal methods by the study students were odors, pest infestation, and spillages. Littering and spillages of solid waste were also common features reported. Data suggested inadequate waste management facilities and practices in study schools. The lack of refuse bins may have contributed to waste spillages and the burning practices. Odors may have arisen from both the decay of overstored organic waste rich in moisture and emissions from refuse burning. This scenario poses a community environmental health nuisance and may compromise school environmental quality. PMID:21949981

  5. Energy in Solid Waste: A Citizen Guide to Saving.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Citizens Advisory Committee on Environmental Quality.

    This booklet contains information for citizens on solid wastes. It discusses the possible energy available in combustible and noncombustible trash. It suggests how citizens can reduce waste at home through discriminating buying practices and through recycling and reuse of resources. Recommendations are given for community action along with state…

  6. CHEMICAL AND BIOLOGICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF LEACHATES FROM COAL SOLID WASTES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of the chemical and mineralogical characterization of coal solid wastes. The wastes included three Lurgi gasification ashes, mineral residues from the SRC-1 and H-Coal liquefaction processes, two chars, two coal-cleaning residues, and a fly-ash-and-water-...

  7. Bases for solid waste volume estimates for tank waste remediation system

    SciTech Connect

    Reddick, G.W., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-08-01

    This document presents the background and basis for the Tank Waste Remediation System forecast for solid waste submitted in June 1996. The forecast was generated for single-shell tank and double-shell tank activities including operations through retrieval and disposal of chemical tank waste.

  8. Urban Environmental Education Project, Curriculum Module VI: Solid Waste - Trash or Treasure?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biglan, Barbara

    Included in this module are four activities dealing with issues of solid waste disposal relative to urban concerns. Included activities are: (1) sources and composition of solid waste; (2) a "garbage game"; (3) disposal options for solid waste; and (4) an example county plan for solid waste disposal. Also included are an overview, teacher…

  9. Solid waste recycling in Rajshahi city of Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Bari, Q Hamidul; Hassan, K Mahbub; Haque, M Ehsanul

    2012-11-01

    Efficient recycling of solid wastes is now a global concern for a sustainable and environmentally sound management. In this study, traditional recycling pattern of solid waste was investigated in Rajshahi municipality which is the fourth largest city of Bangladesh. A questionnaire survey had been carried out in various recycle shops during April 2010 to January 2011. There were 140 recycle shops and most of them were located in the vicinity of Stadium market in Rajshahi. About 1906 people were found to be involved in recycling activities of the city. The major fraction of recycled wastes were sent to capital city Dhaka for further manufacture of different new products. Only a small amount of wastes, specially plastics, were processed in local recycle factories to produce small washing pots and bottle caps. Everyday, an estimated 28.13 tons of recycled solid wastes were handled in Rajshahi city area. This recycled portion accounted for 8.25% of the daily total generated wastes (341 ton d(-1)), 54.6% of total recyclable wastes (51.49 ton d(-1)) and 68.29% of readily recyclable wastes (41.19 ton d(-1)). Major recycled materials were found to be iron, glass, plastic, and papers. Only five factories were involved in preliminary processing of recyclable wastes. Collecting and processing secondary materials, manufacturing recycled-content products, and then buying recycled products created a circle or loop that ensured the overall success of recycling and generated a host of financial, environmental, and social returns. PMID:22749721

  10. Risks of municipal solid waste incineration: an environmental perspective.

    PubMed

    Denison, R A; Silbergeld, E K

    1988-09-01

    The central focus of the debate over incineration of municipal solid waste (MSW) has shifted from its apparent management advantages to unresolved risk issues. This shift is a result of the lack of comprehensive consideration of risks associated with incineration. We discuss the need to expand incinerator risk assessment beyond the limited view of incinerators as stationary air pollution sources to encompass the following: other products of incineration, ash in particular, and pollutants other than dioxins, metals in particular; routes of exposure in addition to direct inhalation; health effects in addition to cancer; and the cumulative nature of exposure and health effects induced by many incinerator-associated pollutants. Rational MSW management planning requires that the limitations as well as advantages of incineration be recognized. Incineration is a waste-processing--not a waste disposal--technology, and its products pose substantial management and disposal problems of their own. Consideration of the nature of these products suggests that incineration is ill-suited to manage the municipal wastestream in its entirety. In particular, incineration greatly enhances the mobility and bioavailability of toxic metals present in MSW. These factors suggest that incineration must be viewed as only one component in an integrated MSW management system. The potential for source reduction, separation, and recycling to increase the safety and efficiency of incineration should be counted among their many benefits. Risk considerations dictate that alternatives to the use of toxic metals at the production stage also be examined in designing an effective, long-term MSW management strategy. PMID:3201012

  11. Municipal solid waste management in Tehran: current practices, opportunities and challenges.

    PubMed

    Damghani, Abdolmajid Mahdavi; Savarypour, Gholamreza; Zand, Eskandar; Deihimfard, Reza

    2008-01-01

    Tehran, the capital city of Iran and a metropolis with a population of 8.2 million and containing 2.4 million households, generated 2,626,519 tons of solid waste in 2005. The present study is aimed at evaluating the generation, characteristics and management of solid waste in Tehran. Municipal solid waste comprises more than 97% of Tehran's solid waste, while three other types of solid waste comprise less than 3% of it, namely hospital waste (1.0%), industrial waste (0.6%) and construction and demolition waste (0.5%). The contribution of household solid waste to total municipal solid waste is about 62.5%. The municipality of Tehran is responsible for the solid waste management of the city; the waste is mainly landfilled in three centers in Tehran, with a small part of it usually recycled or processed as compost. However, an informal sector is also active in collecting recyclable materials from solid waste. The municipality has recently initiated some activities to mechanize solid waste management and reduce waste generation. There remain important challenges in solid waste management in Tehran which include: the proper collection and management of hospital waste; public education aimed at reducing and separating household waste and educating municipal workers in order to optimize the waste collection system; and the participation of other related organizations and the private sector in solid waste management. PMID:17881212

  12. Solid waste integrated cost analysis model: 1991 project year report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of the City of Houston's 1991 Solid Waste Integrated Cost Analysis Model (SWICAM) project was to continue the development of a computerized cost analysis model. This model is to provide solid waste managers with tool to evaluate the dollar cost of real or hypothetical solid waste management choices. Those choices have become complicated by the implementation of Subtitle D of the Resources Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) and the EPA's Integrated Approach to managing municipal solid waste;. that is, minimize generation, maximize recycling, reduce volume (incinerate), and then bury (landfill) only the remainder. Implementation of an integrated solid waste management system involving all or some of the options of recycling, waste to energy, composting, and landfilling is extremely complicated. Factors such as hauling distances, markets, and prices for recyclable, costs and benefits of transfer stations, and material recovery facilities must all be considered. A jurisdiction must determine the cost impacts of implementing a number of various possibilities for managing, handling, processing, and disposing of waste. SWICAM employs a single Lotus 123 spreadsheet to enable a jurisdiction to predict or assess the costs of its waste management system. It allows the user to select his own process flow for waste material and to manipulate the model to include as few or as many options as he or she chooses. The model will calculate the estimated cost for those choices selected. The user can then change the model to include or exclude waste stream components, until the mix of choices suits the user. Graphs can be produced as a visual communication aid in presenting the results of the cost analysis. SWICAM also allows future cost projections to be made.

  13. Science/Society Case Study. Solid Wastes: Diamonds in the Rough?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, John W., Ed.; Moore, Elizabeth A., Ed.

    1976-01-01

    Expounds on the current solid waste disposal problems of the United States and current methods of waste disposal. Includes a description of the use of solid waste in power generating plants. A bibliography of suggested readings is provided. (CP)

  14. Process and apparatus for dehydrating waste solids concentrates

    SciTech Connect

    Bonanno, A.J.; Greenfield, C.

    1983-03-22

    An apparatus and process for dehydrating waste solids concentrates including secondary and digested sewage sludges and those concentrates prone to form emulsions upon the addition of oil are obtained and accomplished by mixing the sludge or other concentrate with fluidizing oil prior to dehydration by heat evaporation to maintain pumpability; recycling a portion of the substantially anhydrous waste solids and oil evaporator output slurry, and admixing it with the fluidizing oil and input sludge or concentrate to regulate the solids content and viscosity of the steady state feed mixture and thereby prevent fouling of the evaporator heat transfer surfaces and convert emulsions to suspensions.

  15. Thermoelectric energy harvesting for a solid waste processing toilet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stokes, C. David; Baldasaro, Nicholas G.; Bulman, Gary E.; Stoner, Brian R.

    2014-06-01

    Over 2.5 billion people do not have access to safe and effective sanitation. Without a sanitary sewer infrastructure, self-contained modular systems can provide solutions for these people in the developing world and remote areas. Our team is building a better toilet that processes human waste into burnable fuel and disinfects the liquid waste. The toilet employs energy harvesting to produce electricity and does not require external electrical power or consumable materials. RTI has partnered with Colorado State University, Duke University, and Roca Sanitario under a Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation Reinvent the Toilet Challenge (RTTC) grant to develop an advanced stand-alone, self-sufficient toilet to effectively process solid and liquid waste. The system operates through the following steps: 1) Solid-liquid separation, 2) Solid waste drying and sizing, 3) Solid waste combustion, and 4) Liquid waste disinfection. Thermoelectric energy harvesting is a key component to the system and provides the electric power for autonomous operation. A portion of the exhaust heat is captured through finned heat-sinks and converted to electricity by thermoelectric (TE) devices to provide power for the electrochemical treatment of the liquid waste, pumps, blowers, combustion ignition, and controls.

  16. Municipal Solid Waste - Sustainable Materials Management

    EPA Science Inventory

    The MSW DST was initially developed in the 1990s and has evolved over the years to better account for changes in waste management practices, waste composition, and improvements in decision support tool design and functionality. The most recent version of the tool is publicly ava...

  17. Household solid waste characteristics and management in Chittagong, Bangladesh

    SciTech Connect

    Sujauddin, Mohammad Huda, S.M.S.; Hoque, A.T.M. Rafiqul

    2008-07-01

    Solid waste management (SWM) is a multidimensional challenge faced by urban authorities, especially in developing countries like Bangladesh. We investigated per capita waste generation by residents, its composition, and the households' attitudes towards waste management at Rahman Nagar Residential Area, Chittagong, Bangladesh. The study involved a structured questionnaire and encompassed 75 households from five different socioeconomic groups (SEGs): low (LSEG), lower middle (LMSEG), middle (MSEG), upper middle (UMSEG) and high (HSEG). Wastes, collected from all of the groups of households, were segregated and weighed. Waste generation was 1.3 kg/household/day and 0.25 kg/person/day. Household solid waste (HSW) was comprised of nine categories of wastes with vegetable/food waste being the largest component (62%). Vegetable/food waste generation increased from the HSEG (47%) to the LSEG (88%). By weight, 66% of the waste was compostable in nature. The generation of HSW was positively correlated with family size (r{sub xy} = 0.236, p < 0.05), education level (r{sub xy} = 0.244, p < 0.05) and monthly income (r{sub xy} = 0.671, p < 0.01) of the households. Municipal authorities are usually the responsible agencies for solid waste collection and disposal, but the magnitude of the problem is well beyond the ability of any municipal government to tackle. Hence dwellers were found to take the service from the local waste management initiative. Of the respondents, an impressive 44% were willing to pay US$0.3 to US$0.4 per month to waste collectors and it is recommended that service charge be based on the volume of waste generated by households. Almost a quarter (22.7%) of the respondents preferred 12-1 pm as the time period for their waste to be collected. This study adequately shows that household solid waste can be converted from burden to resource through segregation at the source, since people are aware of their role in this direction provided a mechanism to assist them

  18. Experimental analysis to utilize the solid wastes in brick production.

    PubMed

    Varadarajan, Rajagopalan; Govindan, Venkatesan

    2013-07-01

    Utilization of industrial, municipal, agricultural and other waste products in the industry has been the focus of research for economical, environmental, and technical reasons. Two solid wastes, i.e. Sugar-cane bagasse--is a fibrous waste-product of the sugar refining industry and granite processing industry generates a large amount of wastes mainly in the form of powder during sawing and polishing processes, which pollute and damage the environment, have been taken to experimental study. The objective of this study is to utilize the bagasse ash and granite waste for the manufacturing of bricks. Mixtures were prepared with 0, 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50% wastes of total weight of clay. The produced bricks are tested for mechanical properties, such as water absorption and compressive strength, according to Indian Standard Code. The result showed that 20% of bagasse ash and granite waste is optimum percentage to be used in the manufacturing of conventional bricks. PMID:25509952

  19. Modeling of Solid Waste Processing Options in BIO-Plex

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rodriguez, Luis F.; Finn, Cory; Kang, Sukwon; Hogan, John; Luna, Bernadette (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    BIO-Plex is a ground-based test bed currently under development by NASA for testing technologies and practices that may be utilized in future long-term life support missions. All aspects of such an Advanced Life Support (ALS) System must be considered to confidently construct a reliable system, which will not only allow the crew to survive in harsh environments, but allow the crew time to perform meaningful research. Effective handling of solid wastes is a critical aspect of the system, especially when recovery of resources contained in the waste is required. This is particularly important for ALS Systems configurations that include a Biomass Production Chamber. In these cases, significant amounts of inedible biomass waste may be produced, which can ultimately serve as a repository of necessary resources for sustaining life, notably carbon, water, and plant nutrients. Numerous biological and physicochemical solid waste processing options have been considered. Biological options include composting, aerobic digestion, and anaerobic digestion. Physicochemical options include pyrolysis, SCWO (supercritical water oxidation), various incineration configurations, microwave incineration, magnetically assisted gasification, and low temperature plasma reaction. Modeling of these options is a necessary step to assist in the design process. A previously developed top-level model of BIO-Plex implemented in MATLAB Simulink (r) for the use of systems analysis and design has been adopted for this analysis. Presently, this model only considered incineration for solid waste processing. Present work, reported here, includes the expansion of this model to include a wider array of solid waste processing options selected from the above options, bearing in mind potential, near term solid waste treatment systems. Furthermore, a trade study has also been performed among these solid waste processing technologies in an effort to determine the ideal technology for long-term life support

  20. Space monitoring of municipal solid waste landfills in Kazakhstan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skakova, Olga; Shagarova, Lyudmila

    Municipal solid waste (MSW) landfills are special facilities designed for waste isolation and disposal ensuring sanitary and epidemiological safety of population. A solid waste landfill is a complex object with its own specific features. Modern remote-sensing methods are an indispensable source of information for the analysis of space images of solid waste landfills in Kazakhstan. Space monitoring of solid waste landfills includes the following tasks: 1. Identification and mapping of landfill areas according to the data of remote earth sensing. 2. Studying of energy and structural characteristics of landfills based on remote sensing data. 3. Analysis of the state of landfills based on a comparison of current and archive remote sensing data. Space monitoring of territories of municipal solid waste landfills uses modern computer technologies. They include satellite imagery combined with sub-satellite research, as well as other sources of information used for identification and mapping of landfill territories. Investigation of municipal solid waste landfills requires targeted survey of landfill areas, remote sensing using operational and archival data including theoretical foundations of physical optics and statistical data. Processing of digital satellite information uses methods of pattern recognition, automated image processing and correlation analysis. Based on spectral energy and textural characteristics of municipal solid waste landfills obtained by remote sensing methods, the technology of space monitoring of landfill areas, including landfill recognition and characterization of solid waste landfills from remote observations was developed. Monitoring of MSW landfills uses satellite images of ultrahigh and medium spatial resolution. Medium-resolution images are used to determine temperature, vegetation cover and soil degradation. High-resolution images are used to detect landfills, to determine forms of soil degradation, to calculate geometrical parameters, and

  1. From dumping to sanitary landfills - solid waste management in Israel

    SciTech Connect

    Nissim, I. . E-mail: ilan@sviva.gov.il; Shohat, T.; Inbar, Y.

    2005-07-01

    To address the problem of solid waste in Israel, the Ministry of the Environment has formulated a policy based on integrated waste management. The policy calls for reduction of waste at source, reuse, recycling (including composting), waste-to-energy technologies, and landfilling. Due to the implementation of this policy, all the large dumps were closed, state-of-the art landfills were built, and recovery rates have increased from 3% in the beginning of the 1990s to almost 20% in 2003. More than 95% of the municipal solid waste is disposed and treated in an environmentally sound manner - in comparison to a mere 10% just a decade ago. The policy was implemented utilizing both enforcement and financial support ('stick and carrot' approach)

  2. Management of immunization solid wastes in Kano State, Nigeria

    SciTech Connect

    Oke, I.A.

    2008-12-15

    Inadequate management of waste generated from injection activities can have a negative impact on the community and environment. In this paper, a report on immunization wastes management in Kano State (Nigeria) is presented. Eight local governments were selected randomly and surveyed by the author. Solid wastes generated during the Expanded Programme on Immunization were characterised using two different methods: one by weighing the waste and the other by estimating the volume. Empirical data was obtained on immunization waste generation, segregation, storage, collection, transportation, and disposal; and waste management practices were assessed. The study revealed that immunization offices were accommodated in either in local government buildings, primary health centres or community health care centres. All of the stations demonstrated a high priority for segregation of the infectious wastes. It can be deduced from the data obtained that infectious waste ranged from 67.6% to 76.7% with an average of 70.1% by weight, and 36.0% to 46.1% with an average of 40.1% by volume. Non-infectious waste generated ranged from 23.3% to 32.5% with an average of 29.9% by weight and 53.9% to 64.0% with an average of 59.9% by volume. Out of non-infectious waste (NIFW) and infectious waste (IFW), 66.3% and 62.4% by weight were combustible and 33.7% and 37.6% were non-combustible respectively. An assessment of the treatment revealed that open pit burning and burial and small scale incineration were the common methods of disposal for immunization waste, and some immunization centres employed the services of the state or local government owned solid waste disposal board for final collection and disposal of their immunization waste at government approved sites.

  3. Radioactive solid waste handling at the Plutonium Finishing Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Manthos, E.J.

    1990-05-01

    The Plutonium Finishing Plant is located on the Hanford Site in the southeast section of Washington State. It has been in operation since 1949. The mission of the plant is to produce plutonium metal and related products for the US Department of Energy defense programs. Solid transuranic, low-level, and mixed wastes are generated at the plant, the radioactive contaminants in the waste being primarily alpha emitting. This paper discusses present waste-handling methods at the plant and recent changes that were made to improve waste characterization. 2 refs.

  4. Composting: Dirty riches. [Composting organic wastes from the municiple solid waste stream

    SciTech Connect

    Sachs, A.

    1993-08-01

    Up to three-quarters of municiple solid waste (MSW) is organic, readily biodegradable material, such as food, leaves, and paper. If this waste were allowed to root properly, the solid waste crisis would be less serious. However, rotting isn't easy in a tightly packed mountain of garbage at a typical landfill. The last few years have at least established composing as a rising green industry, especially in the most populous regions of the developed world. However, the variety of composting programs is too inefficient to divert any more than a tiny fraction of the compostable waste stream away from landfills and incinerators. This article discusses the problems of mixed municiple solid wastes and composting organic wastes, and possible solutions.

  5. Characteristics of elements in waste ashes from a solid waste incinerator in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Chang, Cheng-Yuan; Wang, Chu-Fang; Mui, D T; Cheng, Man-Ting; Chiang, Hung-Lung

    2009-06-15

    Incineration, one of the most effective methods used to treat solid wastes, reduces the volume of solid wastes significantly and enables recovery of thermal energy. However, during this waste treatment, a small amount of heavy metals can be present in the form of fly ash or vapor in the flue gas, becoming a threat to human health and other living organisms once emitted into the environment. This study focuses on the characteristics and behavior of elements contained in the combustion residues and their impact on various wastes at Taiwan's municipal solid waste incinerator (MSWI). Three kinds of waste, municipal solid waste (MSW), industrial waste (IW), and biomass waste (BM), were analyzed to obtain their physical properties and elemental composition before incineration. The combustion residues were collected with a sampler at various locations such as the furnace bottom, a heat economizer, a semi-dry scrubber, a bag-house filter and a gas stack. Twenty-one elements were determined to establish the actual mass fraction and to estimate the possible impact on the environment. Owing to its volatility, Cd was found in high concentrations in bag-house filter ash. In addition, the mass fraction of Zn, As, Pb, Sb and V in bag-house filter ash was found greater than 20% for the three kinds of wastes. Iron (Fe) content was found to be high in MSW, S, Cd, Ni, Pb and Sb content were high in IW and Se content was high in BW. PMID:19046804

  6. LEGACY NONCONFORMANCE ISSUE IN SOLID WASTE DISPOSAL

    SciTech Connect

    ROGERS, C.A.

    2002-12-16

    Beginning in 1968 waste from sectioning, sampling, and assaying of reactor fuels was sent to underground burial caissons in the 200-W Area of the Hanford Plant in Richland, Washington. In 2002 a review of inventory records revealed that criticality safety storage limits had been exceeded. This prompted declaration of a Criticality Prevention Specification nonconformance. The corrective action illustrates the difficulties in demonstrating compliance to fissile material limits decades after waste disposal.

  7. Plates made with solid waste from the recycled paper industry.

    PubMed

    Pelegrini, M; Gohr Pinheiro, I; Valle, J A B

    2010-02-01

    The results of assays carried out on plates used in the construction industry, manufactured entirely with solid wastes of a recycled paper plant, are presented and compared with the results obtained using agglomerated wood and plywood plates. Previous results had shown that wastes are composed essentially of polymers when these wastes are generated by recycled paper produced with the "waved type II" shavings. These solid wastes were placed in a mold that was heated and pressed with a hydraulic press in order to obtain the plates. The waste-produced plates were submitted to tests for humidity, swelling, water absorption, density, modulus of rupture-static bending, modulus of elasticity and direct screw withdrawal. These same assays had been carried out on two types of commercial wood plates, agglomerated wood and plywood, in order to compare the results with those obtained with the waste plate. Waste plates had similar behavior to the agglomerated wood plate, but it was possible to distinguish greater flexibility in the waste-produced plate and a significant difference in the tests for swelling and water absorption which showed the waste plate had a better performance than the agglomerated wood and plywood plates. PMID:19793642

  8. Economic evaluation of radiation processing in urban solid wastes treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carassiti, F.; Lacquaniti, L.; Liuzzo, G.

    During the last few years, quite a number of studies have been done, or are still in course, on disinfection of urban liquid wastes by means of ionizing radiations. The experience gained by SANDIA pilot plant of irradiation on dried sewage sludge, together with the recently presented conceptual design of another plant handling granular solids, characterized by high efficiency and simple running, have shown the possibility of extending this process to the treatment of urban solid wastes. As a matter of fact, the problems connected to the pathogenic aspects of sludge handling are often similar to those met during the disposal of urban solid wastes. This is even more so in the case of their reuse in agriculture and zootechny. The present paper introduces the results of an analysis carried out in order to evaluate the economical advantage of inserting irradiation treatment in some process scheme for management of urban solid wastes. Taking as an example a comprehensive pattern of urban solid wastes management which has been analysed and estimated economically in previous works, we first evaluated the extra capital and operational costs due to the irradiation and then analysed economical justification, taking into account the increasing commercial value of the by-products.

  9. Partnerships for development: municipal solid waste management in Kasese, Uganda.

    PubMed

    Christensen, David; Drysdale, David; Hansen, Kenneth; Vanhille, Josefine; Wolf, Andreas

    2014-11-01

    Municipal solid waste management systems of many developing countries are commonly constrained by factors such as limited financial resources and poor governance, making it a difficult proposition to break with complex, entrenched and unsustainable technologies and systems. This article highlights strategic partnerships as a way to affect a distributed agency among several sets of stakeholders to break so-called path dependencies, which occur when such unsustainable pathways arise, stabilize and become self-reinforcing over time. Experiences from a North-South collaborative effort provide some lessons in such partnership building: In Uganda and Denmark, respectively, the World Wildlife Fund and the network organization access2innovation have mobilized stakeholders around improving the municipal solid waste management system in Kasese District. Through a municipal solid waste management system characterization and mapping exercise, some emergent lessons and guiding principles in partnership building point to both pitfalls and opportunities for designing sustainable pathways. First, socio-technical lock-in effects in the municipal solid waste management system can stand in the way of partnerships based on introducing biogas or incineration technologies. However, opportunities in the municipal solid waste management system can exist within other areas, and synergies can be sought with interlinking systems, such as those represented with sanitation. PMID:25378254

  10. Field survey of enteric viruses in solid waste landfill leachates.

    PubMed Central

    Sobsey, M D

    1978-01-01

    Because municipal solid waste may contain fecal material from a variety of sources, there is concern that the leachate discharged from some solid waste landfills may contain enteric pathogens, including enteric viruses. In this study, 22 leachate samples from 21 different landfills in the United States and Canada were examined for enteric viruses. The sites represented a broad range of conditions for solid waste landfills and the leachate samples ranged from 10.3 to 18 liters in volume. Enteric viruses were found in only one of the 22 leachate samples examined. Two viruses, identified as poliovirus types 1 and 3, were found in an 11.8 liter sample obtained from a site where solid waste landfill practice was deficient. The low levels of enteric viruses detected in field samples of raw leachate and the opportunities for further reductions in the virus concentration of leachates by such processes as thermal inactivation, removal by soil and dilution in ground and surface waters, suggest that leachates from properly operated solid waste landfills do not constitute an environmental or public health hazard due to enteric viruses. PMID:28677

  11. Gaseous emissions from management of solid waste: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Pardo, Guillermo; Moral, Raúl; Aguilera, Eduardo; Del Prado, Agustín

    2015-03-01

    The establishment of sustainable soil waste management practices implies minimizing their environmental losses associated with climate change (greenhouse gases: GHGs) and ecosystems acidification (ammonia: NH3 ). Although a number of management strategies for solid waste management have been investigated to quantify nitrogen (N) and carbon (C) losses in relation to varied environmental and operational conditions, their overall effect is still uncertain. In this context, we have analyzed the current scientific information through a systematic review. We quantified the response of GHG emissions, NH3 emissions, and total N losses to different solid waste management strategies (conventional solid storage, turned composting, forced aerated composting, covering, compaction, addition/substitution of bulking agents and the use of additives). Our study is based on a meta-analysis of 50 research articles involving 304 observations. Our results indicated that improving the structure of the pile (waste or manure heap) via addition or substitution of certain bulking agents significantly reduced nitrous oxide (N2 O) and methane (CH4 ) emissions by 53% and 71%, respectively. Turned composting systems, unlike forced aerated composted systems, showed potential for reducing GHGs (N2 O: 50% and CH4 : 71%). Bulking agents and both composting systems involved a certain degree of pollution swapping as they significantly promoted NH3 emissions by 35%, 54%, and 121% for bulking agents, turned and forced aerated composting, respectively. Strategies based on the restriction of O2 supply, such as covering or compaction, did not show significant effects on reducing GHGs but substantially decreased NH3 emissions by 61% and 54% for covering and compaction, respectively. The use of specific additives significantly reduced NH3 losses by 69%. Our meta-analysis suggested that there is enough evidence to refine future Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) methodologies from solid waste

  12. Gaseous emissions from management of solid waste: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Pardo, Guillermo; Moral, Raúl; Aguilera, Eduardo; del Prado, Agustín

    2015-01-01

    The establishment of sustainable soil waste management practices implies minimizing their environmental losses associated with climate change (greenhouse gases: GHGs) and ecosystems acidification (ammonia: NH3). Although a number of management strategies for solid waste management have been investigated to quantify nitrogen (N) and carbon (C) losses in relation to varied environmental and operational conditions, their overall effect is still uncertain. In this context, we have analyzed the current scientific information through a systematic review. We quantified the response of GHG emissions, NH3 emissions, and total N losses to different solid waste management strategies (conventional solid storage, turned composting, forced aerated composting, covering, compaction, addition/substitution of bulking agents and the use of additives). Our study is based on a meta-analysis of 50 research articles involving 304 observations. Our results indicated that improving the structure of the pile (waste or manure heap) via addition or substitution of certain bulking agents significantly reduced nitrous oxide (N2O) and methane (CH4) emissions by 53% and 71%, respectively. Turned composting systems, unlike forced aerated composted systems, showed potential for reducing GHGs (N2O: 50% and CH4: 71%). Bulking agents and both composting systems involved a certain degree of pollution swapping as they significantly promoted NH3 emissions by 35%, 54%, and 121% for bulking agents, turned and forced aerated composting, respectively. Strategies based on the restriction of O2 supply, such as covering or compaction, did not show significant effects on reducing GHGs but substantially decreased NH3 emissions by 61% and 54% for covering and compaction, respectively. The use of specific additives significantly reduced NH3 losses by 69%. Our meta-analysis suggested that there is enough evidence to refine future Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) methodologies from solid waste

  13. Sustainable recycling of municipal solid waste in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Troschinetz, Alexis M; Mihelcic, James R

    2009-02-01

    This research focuses on recycling in developing countries as one form of sustainable municipal solid waste management (MSWM). Twenty-three case studies provided municipal solid waste (MSW) generation and recovery rates and composition for compilation and assessment. The average MSW generation rate was 0.77 kg/person/day, with recovery rates from 5-40%. The waste streams of 19 of these case studies consisted of 0-70% recyclables and 17-80% organics. Qualitative analysis of all 23 case studies identified barriers or incentives to recycling, which resulted in the development of factors influencing recycling of MSW in developing countries. The factors are government policy, government finances, waste characterization, waste collection and segregation, household education, household economics, MSWM (municipal solid waste management) administration, MSWM personnel education, MSWM plan, local recycled-material market, technological and human resources, and land availability. Necessary and beneficial relationships drawn among these factors revealed the collaborative nature of sustainable MSWM. The functionality of the factor relationships greatly influenced the success of sustainable MSWM. A correlation existed between stakeholder involvement and the three dimensions of sustainability: environment, society, and economy. The only factors driven by all three dimensions (waste collection and segregation, MSWM plan, and local recycled-material market) were those requiring the greatest collaboration with other factors. PMID:18657963

  14. Sustainable recycling of municipal solid waste in developing countries

    SciTech Connect

    Troschinetz, Alexis M. Mihelcic, James R.

    2009-02-15

    This research focuses on recycling in developing countries as one form of sustainable municipal solid waste management (MSWM). Twenty-three case studies provided municipal solid waste (MSW) generation and recovery rates and composition for compilation and assessment. The average MSW generation rate was 0.77 kg/person/day, with recovery rates from 5-40%. The waste streams of 19 of these case studies consisted of 0-70% recyclables and 17-80% organics. Qualitative analysis of all 23 case studies identified barriers or incentives to recycling, which resulted in the development of factors influencing recycling of MSW in developing countries. The factors are government policy, government finances, waste characterization, waste collection and segregation, household education, household economics, MSWM (municipal solid waste management) administration, MSWM personnel education, MSWM plan, local recycled-material market, technological and human resources, and land availability. Necessary and beneficial relationships drawn among these factors revealed the collaborative nature of sustainable MSWM. The functionality of the factor relationships greatly influenced the success of sustainable MSWM. A correlation existed between stakeholder involvement and the three dimensions of sustainability: environment, society, and economy. The only factors driven by all three dimensions (waste collection and segregation, MSWM plan, and local recycled-material market) were those requiring the greatest collaboration with other factors.

  15. Exploring residents' attitudes and willingness to pay for solid waste management in Macau.

    PubMed

    Song, Qingbin; Wang, Zhishi; Li, Jinhui

    2016-08-01

    Increasing public attention has been brought to bear on the solid waste management in Macau, due to the continually increasing generation of amount and the limited space. In this study, we discussed residents' attitudes and willingness to pay (WTP) for solid waste management through a questionnaire survey. The results showed that Macau residents owned a relatively high environmental awareness. In regard to Macau environmental quality, most respondents (92.4 %) expressed their satisfactions on the current situation. About 50.2 % respondents thought that the solid waste pollution in Macau should be paid more attention than the other three environmental pollution ways (air pollution, water pollution, and soil pollution). The survey data revealed the positive attitudes toward source separation in Macau. About 95.7 % respondents were willing to sort the solid waste at home, if the government required them to do it. In addition, for the question on how to improve the solid waste issues in Macau, "Enhancing residents' environmental awareness" was considered as the most effective method, accounting for about 38.5 % respondents. In our study, most respondents (85.4 %) also provided positive answers to the questions about WTP. Using the logistic regression method, these survey results support the hypothesis that the probability of the respondents' saying "yes" to the WTP question increases with education level. The monthly mean WTP was 38.5 MOP per household, and the annual WTP was approximately 79.7 million MOP for all of Macau. The results of our study can help managers develop more effective environmental management policies for solid waste disposal. PMID:27164886

  16. 1995 solid waste 30-year characteristics volume summary

    SciTech Connect

    Templeton, K.J.; DeForest, T.J.; Rice, G.I.; Valero, O.J.

    1995-10-01

    The Hanford Site has been designated by the US Department of Energy (DOE) to store, treat, and dispose of solid waste received from both onsite and offsite generators. This waste is currently or planned to be generated from ongoing operations, maintenance and deactivation activities, decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) of facilities, and environmental restoration (ER) activities. This document, prepared by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) under the direction of Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC), describes the characteristics of the waste to be shipped to Hanford`s SWOC. The physical waste forms and hazardous constituents are described for the low-level mixed waste (LLMW) and the transuranic - transuranic mixed waste (TW{underscore}TRUM).

  17. Municipal solid waste development phases: Evidence from EU27.

    PubMed

    Vujić, Goran; Gonzalez-Roof, Alvaro; Stanisavljević, Nemanja; Ragossnig, Arne M

    2015-12-01

    Many countries in the European Union (EU) have very developed waste management systems. Some of its members have managed to reduce their landfilled waste to values close to zero during the last decade. Thus, European Union legislation is very stringent regarding waste management for their members and candidate countries, too. This raises the following questions: Is it possible for developing and developed countries to comply with the European Union waste legislation, and under what conditions? How did waste management develop in relation to the economic development in the countries of the European Union? The correlation between waste management practices and economic development was analysed for 27 of the European Union Member States for the time period between 1995 and 2007. In addition, a regression analysis was performed to estimate landfilling of waste in relation to gross domestic product for every country. The results showed a strong correlation between the waste management variables and the gross domestic product of the EU27 members. The definition of the municipal solid waste management development phases followed a closer analysis of the relation between gross domestic product and landfilled waste. The municipal solid waste management phases are characterised by high landfilling rates at low gross domestic product levels, and landfilling rates near zero at high gross domestic product levels. Hence the results emphasize the importance of wider understanding of what is required for developing countries to comply with the European Union initiatives, and highlight the importance of allowing developing countries to make their own paths of waste management development. PMID:26574580

  18. EXPERIMENTAL METHODS TO ESTIMATE ACCUMULATED SOLIDS IN NUCLEAR WASTE TANKS

    SciTech Connect

    Duignan, M.; Steeper, T.; Steimke, J.

    2012-12-10

    The Department of Energy has a large number of nuclear waste tanks. It is important to know if fissionable materials can concentrate when waste is transferred from staging tanks prior to feeding waste treatment plants. Specifically, there is a concern that large, dense particles, e.g., plutonium containing, could accumulate in poorly mixed regions of a blend tank heel for tanks that employ mixing jet pumps. At the request of the DOE Hanford Tank Operations Contractor, Washington River Protection Solutions, the Engineering Development Laboratory of the Savannah River National Laboratory performed a scouting study in a 1/22-scale model of a waste tank to investigate this concern and to develop measurement techniques that could be applied in a more extensive study at a larger scale. Simulated waste tank solids and supernatant were charged to the test tank and rotating liquid jets were used to remove most of the solids. Then the volume and shape of the residual solids and the spatial concentration profiles for the surrogate for plutonium were measured. This paper discusses the overall test results, which indicated heavy solids only accumulate during the first few transfer cycles, along with the techniques and equipment designed and employed in the test. Those techniques include: Magnetic particle separator to remove stainless steel solids, the plutonium surrogate from a flowing stream; Magnetic wand used to manually remove stainless steel solids from samples and the tank heel; Photographs were used to determine the volume and shape of the solids mounds by developing a composite of topographical areas; Laser rangefinders to determine the volume and shape of the solids mounds; Core sampler to determine the stainless steel solids distribution within the solids mounds; Computer driven positioner that placed the laser rangefinders and the core sampler over solids mounds that accumulated on the bottom of a scaled staging tank in locations where jet velocities were low. These

  19. Remedial strategies for municipal solid waste management in China.

    PubMed

    Wang, H; Nie, Y

    2001-02-01

    The purpose of this investigation is to evaluate the current status and to identify the problems of municipal solid waste (MSW) management in China to determine appropriate remedial strategies. This is the second of two papers proposed on this topic. Major problems or difficulties identified in MSW management in China include MSW land, air, and water pollution, commingled collection, poor administration, shortage of funds, lack of facilities, and problems of training and public awareness. In order to solve these problems and to improve MSW management in China, remedial strategies in three areas are recommended: institutional reform, technology development, and legislation and administrative improvement. The primary principle involved in institutional reform is unifying legislative responsibilities into one body and developing a market mechanism for handling MSW. Composting, landfills, and incineration should be equally developed in accordance with China's needs. The feasibility of developing technology to handle MSW in China is discussed. Also recommended is the establishment of sound regulatory systems, including a service fee system, a source separation system, and a training program. China is presently undergoing economic and institutional reform at the national and local levels. Results of this study will provide useful information on MSW management in China. PMID:11256501

  20. [Extracting municipal solid waste dumps based on high resolution images].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Fang-Li; Du, Shi-Hong; Guo, Zhou

    2013-08-01

    The dramatically increasing informal MSW dumps are endangering the urban environment. Remote sensing (RS) technologies are more efficient to monitor and manage municipal solid wastes (MSW) than traditional survey-based methods. In high spatial resolution remotely sensed images, these irregularly distributed dumps have complex compositions and strong heterogeneities, thus it is still hard to extract them automatically no matter the pixel-or object-based image analysis method is used. Therefore, based on the analysis of MSW characteristics, the present study develops a multiresolution strategy to extract MSW dumps by combining image features at both high resolution and resampled low heterogeneity images, while the high resolution images can provide detailed information and the low resolution images can suppress the strong heterogeneities of informal MSW dumps. Taking the QuickBird image covering part of Beijing as an example, this multi-resolution strategy produced a high accuracy (75%), indicating that this multi-resolution strategy is quite effective for extracting the open-air informal MSW dumps. PMID:24159838

  1. Metallic elements fractionation in municipal solid waste incineration residues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kowalski, Piotr R.; Kasina, Monika; Michalik, Marek

    2016-04-01

    Municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) residues are represented by three main materials: bottom ash, fly ash and air pollution control (APC) residues. Among them ˜80 wt% is bottom ash. All of that materials are products of high temperature (>1000° C) treatment of waste. Incineration process allows to obtain significant reduction of waste mass (up to 70%) and volume (up to 90%) what is commonly used in waste management to reduce the amount need to be landfilled or managed in other way. Incineration promote accumulation non-combustible fraction of waste, which part are metallic elements. That type of concentration is object of concerns about the incineration residues impact on the environment and also gives the possibility of attempts to recover them. Metallic elements are not equally distributed among the materials. Several factors influence the process: melting points, volatility and place and forms of metallic occurrence in the incinerated waste. To investigate metallic elements distribution in MSWI residues samples from one of the biggest MSW incineration plant in Poland were collected in 2015. Chemical analysis with emphasis on the metallic elements content were performed using inductively coupled plasma optical emission (ICP-OES) and mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The bottom ash was a SiO2-CaO-Al2O3-Fe2O3-Na2O rich material, whereas fly ash and APC residues were mostly composed of CaO and SiO2. All of the materials were rich in amorphous phase occurring together with various, mostly silicate crystalline phases. In a mass of bottom ash 11 wt% were metallic elements but also in ashes 8.5 wt% (fly ash) and ˜4.5 wt% (APC residues) of them were present. Among the metallic elements equal distribution between bottom and fly ash was observed for Al (˜3.85 wt%), Mn (770 ppm) and Ni (˜65 ppm). In bottom ash Fe (5.5 wt%), Cr (590 ppm) and Cu (1250 ppm) were concentrated. These values in comparison to fly ash were 5-fold higher for Fe, 3-fold for Cu and 1.5-fold for

  2. Air-stable n-type colloidal quantum dot solids.

    PubMed

    Ning, Zhijun; Voznyy, Oleksandr; Pan, Jun; Hoogland, Sjoerd; Adinolfi, Valerio; Xu, Jixian; Li, Min; Kirmani, Ahmad R; Sun, Jon-Paul; Minor, James; Kemp, Kyle W; Dong, Haopeng; Rollny, Lisa; Labelle, André; Carey, Graham; Sutherland, Brandon; Hill, Ian; Amassian, Aram; Liu, Huan; Tang, Jiang; Bakr, Osman M; Sargent, Edward H

    2014-08-01

    Colloidal quantum dots (CQDs) offer promise in flexible electronics, light sensing and energy conversion. These applications rely on rectifying junctions that require the creation of high-quality CQD solids that are controllably n-type (electron-rich) or p-type (hole-rich). Unfortunately, n-type semiconductors made using soft matter are notoriously prone to oxidation within minutes of air exposure. Here we report high-performance, air-stable n-type CQD solids. Using density functional theory we identify inorganic passivants that bind strongly to the CQD surface and repel oxidative attack. A materials processing strategy that wards off strong protic attack by polar solvents enabled the synthesis of an air-stable n-type PbS CQD solid. This material was used to build an air-processed inverted quantum junction device, which shows the highest current density from any CQD solar cell and a solar power conversion efficiency as high as 8%. We also feature the n-type CQD solid in the rapid, sensitive, and specific detection of atmospheric NO2. This work paves the way for new families of electronic devices that leverage air-stable quantum-tuned materials. PMID:24907929

  3. Scenario of solid waste reuse in Khulna city of Bangladesh

    SciTech Connect

    Bari, Quazi H.; Mahbub Hassan, K.; Haque, R.

    2012-12-15

    The reuse and recycling of waste materials are now sincerely considered to be an integral part of solid waste management in many parts of the world. In this context, a vast number of options ranging from small scale decentralized to larger scale centralized plants have been adopted. This study aimed at investigating the waste reuse schemes in Khulna city located in the southern part of Bangladesh and ranked third largest city in the country. The shops for reusable material (SRM) were mostly situated around railway, waterway, and truck station markets which provided easy transportation to further locations. For the reuses of waste materials and products, a chain system was found to collect reusable wastes under a total number of 310 identified SRM with 859 persons directly or indirectly involved in the scheme. This was a decentralized waste management system with self sufficient (autonomous) management. According to mass balance, about 38.52 tons d{sup -1} solid wastes were reused in Khulna city area, accounting for 7.65% of the total generated wastes. This study revealed that apparently a silent, systematic, smooth, and clean reuse chain has been established in Khulna city area under private initiatives, whose sustainability was confirmed over the years in the country without any official or formal funds. However, proper adjustment between the higher and lower chain in the materials flow path, as well as personal hygiene training for the workers, would further improve the achievements of the established reuse scheme.

  4. Mathematical modeling to predict residential solid waste generation

    SciTech Connect

    Ojeda Benitez, Sara; Vega, Carolina Armijo de

    2008-07-01

    One of the challenges faced by waste management authorities is determining the amount of waste generated by households in order to establish waste management systems, as well as trying to charge rates compatible with the principle applied worldwide, and design a fair payment system for households according to the amount of residential solid waste (RSW) they generate. The goal of this research work was to establish mathematical models that correlate the generation of RSW per capita to the following variables: education, income per household, and number of residents. This work was based on data from a study on generation, quantification and composition of residential waste in a Mexican city in three stages. In order to define prediction models, five variables were identified and included in the model. For each waste sampling stage a different mathematical model was developed, in order to find the model that showed the best linear relation to predict residential solid waste generation. Later on, models to explore the combination of included variables and select those which showed a higher R{sup 2} were established. The tests applied were normality, multicolinearity and heteroskedasticity. Another model, formulated with four variables, was generated and the Durban-Watson test was applied to it. Finally, a general mathematical model is proposed to predict residential waste generation, which accounts for 51% of the total.

  5. Scenario of solid waste reuse in Khulna city of Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Bari, Quazi H; Mahbub Hassan, K; Haque, R

    2012-12-01

    The reuse and recycling of waste materials are now sincerely considered to be an integral part of solid waste management in many parts of the world. In this context, a vast number of options ranging from small scale decentralized to larger scale centralized plants have been adopted. This study aimed at investigating the waste reuse schemes in Khulna city located in the southern part of Bangladesh and ranked third largest city in the country. The shops for reusable material (SRM) were mostly situated around railway, waterway, and truck station markets which provided easy transportation to further locations. For the reuses of waste materials and products, a chain system was found to collect reusable wastes under a total number of 310 identified SRM with 859 persons directly or indirectly involved in the scheme. This was a decentralized waste management system with self sufficient (autonomous) management. According to mass balance, about 38.52 tons d(-1) solid wastes were reused in Khulna city area, accounting for 7.65% of the total generated wastes. This study revealed that apparently a silent, systematic, smooth, and clean reuse chain has been established in Khulna city area under private initiatives, whose sustainability was confirmed over the years in the country without any official or formal funds. However, proper adjustment between the higher and lower chain in the materials flow path, as well as personal hygiene training for the workers, would further improve the achievements of the established reuse scheme. PMID:22871492

  6. Forecasting municipal solid waste generation using artificial intelligence modelling approaches.

    PubMed

    Abbasi, Maryam; El Hanandeh, Ali

    2016-10-01

    Municipal solid waste (MSW) management is a major concern to local governments to protect human health, the environment and to preserve natural resources. The design and operation of an effective MSW management system requires accurate estimation of future waste generation quantities. The main objective of this study was to develop a model for accurate forecasting of MSW generation that helps waste related organizations to better design and operate effective MSW management systems. Four intelligent system algorithms including support vector machine (SVM), adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS), artificial neural network (ANN) and k-nearest neighbours (kNN) were tested for their ability to predict monthly waste generation in the Logan City Council region in Queensland, Australia. Results showed artificial intelligence models have good prediction performance and could be successfully applied to establish municipal solid waste forecasting models. Using machine learning algorithms can reliably predict monthly MSW generation by training with waste generation time series. In addition, results suggest that ANFIS system produced the most accurate forecasts of the peaks while kNN was successful in predicting the monthly averages of waste quantities. Based on the results, the total annual MSW generated in Logan City will reach 9.4×10(7)kg by 2020 while the peak monthly waste will reach 9.37×10(6)kg. PMID:27297046

  7. Production of gaseous fuel by pyrolysis of municipal solid waste

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crane, T. H.; Ringer, H. N.; Bridges, D. W.

    1975-01-01

    Pilot plant tests were conducted on a simulated solid waste which was a mixture of shredded newspaper, wood waste, polyethylene plastics, crushed glass, steel turnings, and water. Tests were conducted at 1400 F in a lead-bath pyrolyser. Cold feed was deaerated by compression and was dropped onto a moving hearth of molten lead before being transported to a sealed storage container. About 80 percent of the feed's organic content was converted to gaseous products which contain over 90 percent of the potential waste energy; 12 percent was converted to water; and 8 percent remained as partially pyrolyzed char and tars. Nearly half of the carbon in the feed is converted to benzene, toluene and medium-quality fuel gas, a potential credit of over $25 per ton of solid waste. The system was shown to require minimal preprocessing and less sorting then other methods.

  8. 40 CFR 264.101 - Corrective action for solid waste management units.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Corrective action for solid waste... (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS FOR OWNERS AND OPERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE TREATMENT, STORAGE, AND DISPOSAL FACILITIES Releases From Solid Waste Management Units § 264.101 Corrective action...

  9. 40 CFR 264.101 - Corrective action for solid waste management units.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Corrective action for solid waste... (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS FOR OWNERS AND OPERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE TREATMENT, STORAGE, AND DISPOSAL FACILITIES Releases From Solid Waste Management Units § 264.101 Corrective action...

  10. 40 CFR 260.31 - Standards and criteria for variances from classification as a solid waste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... from classification as a solid waste. 260.31 Section 260.31 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) HAZARDOUS WASTE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM: GENERAL Rulemaking Petitions § 260.31 Standards and criteria for variances from classification as a solid waste. (a)...

  11. 40 CFR 260.31 - Standards and criteria for variances from classification as a solid waste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... from classification as a solid waste. 260.31 Section 260.31 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) HAZARDOUS WASTE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM: GENERAL Rulemaking Petitions § 260.31 Standards and criteria for variances from classification as a solid waste. (a)...

  12. 40 CFR 264.101 - Corrective action for solid waste management units.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Corrective action for solid waste... (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS FOR OWNERS AND OPERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE TREATMENT, STORAGE, AND DISPOSAL FACILITIES Releases From Solid Waste Management Units § 264.101 Corrective action...

  13. 40 CFR 264.101 - Corrective action for solid waste management units.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Corrective action for solid waste... (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS FOR OWNERS AND OPERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE TREATMENT, STORAGE, AND DISPOSAL FACILITIES Releases From Solid Waste Management Units § 264.101 Corrective action...

  14. 40 CFR 264.101 - Corrective action for solid waste management units.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Corrective action for solid waste... (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS FOR OWNERS AND OPERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE TREATMENT, STORAGE, AND DISPOSAL FACILITIES Releases From Solid Waste Management Units § 264.101 Corrective action...

  15. PUBLIC HEALTH, OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY, AND ENVIRONMENTAL CONCERNS IN MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE RECYCLING OPERATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Effective management of municipal solid waste is a challenge facing the United States as the amount of waste generated per capita increases. n response to this challenge, recycling is actively being promoted and integrated into State solid waste management plans. ith solid waste ...

  16. 40 CFR 262.215 - Unwanted material that is not solid or hazardous waste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS APPLICABLE TO GENERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE Alternative... Eligible Academic Entities § 262.215 Unwanted material that is not solid or hazardous waste. (a) If an unwanted material does not meet the definition of solid waste in § 261.2, it is no longer subject to...

  17. 40 CFR 260.30 - Non-waste determinations and variances from classification as a solid waste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Non-waste determinations and variances from classification as a solid waste. 260.30 Section 260.30 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) HAZARDOUS WASTE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM: GENERAL Rulemaking Petitions § 260.30...

  18. 40 CFR 260.30 - Non-waste determinations and variances from classification as a solid waste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Non-waste determinations and variances from classification as a solid waste. 260.30 Section 260.30 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) HAZARDOUS WASTE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM: GENERAL...

  19. 40 CFR 260.30 - Non-waste determinations and variances from classification as a solid waste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Non-waste determinations and variances from classification as a solid waste. 260.30 Section 260.30 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) HAZARDOUS WASTE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM: GENERAL...

  20. 40 CFR 260.30 - Non-waste determinations and variances from classification as a solid waste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Non-waste determinations and variances from classification as a solid waste. 260.30 Section 260.30 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) HAZARDOUS WASTE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM: GENERAL...

  1. 40 CFR 260.30 - Non-waste determinations and variances from classification as a solid waste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Non-waste determinations and variances from classification as a solid waste. 260.30 Section 260.30 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) HAZARDOUS WASTE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM: GENERAL...

  2. Method of encapsulating solid radioactive waste material for storage

    DOEpatents

    Bunnell, Lee Roy; Bates, J. Lambert

    1976-01-01

    High-level radioactive wastes are encapsulated in vitreous carbon for long-term storage by mixing the wastes as finely divided solids with a suitable resin, formed into an appropriate shape and cured. The cured resin is carbonized by heating under a vacuum to form vitreous carbon. The vitreous carbon shapes may be further protected for storage by encasement in a canister containing a low melting temperature matrix material such as aluminum to increase impact resistance and improve heat dissipation.

  3. Westmorland-Albert Solid Waste Corporation annual report, 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1998-12-31

    Formed under the Clean Environment Act the Corporation has been involved in landfill sites and in recycling and composting programs in New Brunswick. This report includes the Chairman`s summary of issues and accomplishment over the past year, followed by a list of WASWC members. The largest part of the document is composed of financial statements. Statistics provided in appendices covers solid waste received from each municipality by waste category (residential / commercial or industrial / commercial / institutional).

  4. Optimization of municipal solid waste collection and transportation routes.

    PubMed

    Das, Swapan; Bhattacharyya, Bidyut Kr

    2015-09-01

    Optimization of municipal solid waste (MSW) collection and transportation through source separation becomes one of the major concerns in the MSW management system design, due to the fact that the existing MSW management systems suffer by the high collection and transportation cost. Generally, in a city different waste sources scatter throughout the city in heterogeneous way that increase waste collection and transportation cost in the waste management system. Therefore, a shortest waste collection and transportation strategy can effectively reduce waste collection and transportation cost. In this paper, we propose an optimal MSW collection and transportation scheme that focus on the problem of minimizing the length of each waste collection and transportation route. We first formulize the MSW collection and transportation problem into a mixed integer program. Moreover, we propose a heuristic solution for the waste collection and transportation problem that can provide an optimal way for waste collection and transportation. Extensive simulations and real testbed results show that the proposed solution can significantly improve the MSW performance. Results show that the proposed scheme is able to reduce more than 30% of the total waste collection path length. PMID:26152365

  5. Solid waste characterization and recycling potential for a university campus

    SciTech Connect

    Armijo de Vega, Carolina Ojeda Benitez, Sara; Ramirez Barreto, Ma. Elizabeth

    2008-07-01

    Integrated waste management systems are one of the greatest challenges for sustainable development. For these systems to be successful, the first step is to carry out waste characterization studies. In this paper are reported the results of a waste characterization study performed in the Campus Mexicali I of the Autonomous University of Baja California (UABC). The aim of this study was to set the basis for implementation of a recovery, reduction and recycling waste management program at the campus. It was found that the campus Mexicali I produces 1 ton of solid wastes per day; more than 65% of these wastes are recyclable or potentially recyclable. These results showed that a program for segregation and recycling is feasible on a University Campus. The study also showed that the local market for recyclable waste, under present conditions - number of recycling companies and amounts of recyclables accepted - can absorb all of these wastes. Some alternatives for the potentially recyclables wastes are discussed. Finally some strategies that could be used to reduce waste at the source are discussed as well.

  6. 40 CFR 257.3 - Criteria for classification of solid waste disposal facilities and practices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Criteria for classification of solid waste disposal facilities and practices. 257.3 Section 257.3 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES CRITERIA FOR CLASSIFICATION OF SOLID WASTE DISPOSAL FACILITIES AND PRACTICES Classification of Solid...

  7. 40 CFR 258.16 - Closure of existing municipal solid waste landfill units.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Closure of existing municipal solid waste landfill units. 258.16 Section 258.16 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES CRITERIA FOR MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE LANDFILLS Location Restrictions § 258.16 Closure of existing municipal solid...

  8. 40 CFR 258.16 - Closure of existing municipal solid waste landfill units.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Closure of existing municipal solid... (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES CRITERIA FOR MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE LANDFILLS Location Restrictions § 258.16 Closure of existing municipal solid waste landfill units. (a) Existing MSWLF units that cannot make...

  9. 40 CFR 258.16 - Closure of existing municipal solid waste landfill units.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Closure of existing municipal solid... (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES CRITERIA FOR MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE LANDFILLS Location Restrictions § 258.16 Closure of existing municipal solid waste landfill units. (a) Existing MSWLF units that cannot make...

  10. 40 CFR 257.3 - Criteria for classification of solid waste disposal facilities and practices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Criteria for classification of solid... PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES CRITERIA FOR CLASSIFICATION OF SOLID WASTE DISPOSAL FACILITIES AND PRACTICES Classification of Solid Waste Disposal Facilities and Practices § 257.3 Criteria...

  11. 40 CFR 258.16 - Closure of existing municipal solid waste landfill units.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Closure of existing municipal solid... (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES CRITERIA FOR MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE LANDFILLS Location Restrictions § 258.16 Closure of existing municipal solid waste landfill units. (a) Existing MSWLF units that cannot make...

  12. 40 CFR 257.3 - Criteria for classification of solid waste disposal facilities and practices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Criteria for classification of solid... PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES CRITERIA FOR CLASSIFICATION OF SOLID WASTE DISPOSAL FACILITIES AND PRACTICES Classification of Solid Waste Disposal Facilities and Practices § 257.3 Criteria...

  13. 40 CFR 257.3 - Criteria for classification of solid waste disposal facilities and practices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Criteria for classification of solid... PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES CRITERIA FOR CLASSIFICATION OF SOLID WASTE DISPOSAL FACILITIES AND PRACTICES Classification of Solid Waste Disposal Facilities and Practices § 257.3 Criteria...

  14. Hydrogen recovery from the thermal plasma gasification of solid waste.

    PubMed

    Byun, Youngchul; Cho, Moohyun; Chung, Jae Woo; Namkung, Won; Lee, Hyeon Don; Jang, Sung Duk; Kim, Young-Suk; Lee, Jin-Ho; Lee, Carg-Ro; Hwang, Soon-Mo

    2011-06-15

    Thermal plasma gasification has been demonstrated as one of the most effective and environmentally friendly methods for solid waste treatment and energy utilization in many of studies. Therefore, the thermal plasma process of solid waste gasification (paper mill waste, 1.2 ton/day) was applied for the recovery of high purity H(2) (>99.99%). Gases emitted from a gasification furnace equipped with a nontransferred thermal plasma torch were purified using a bag-filter and wet scrubber. Thereafter, the gases, which contained syngas (CO+H(2)), were introduced into a H(2) recovery system, consisting largely of a water gas shift (WGS) unit for the conversion of CO to H(2) and a pressure swing adsorption (PSA) unit for the separation and purification of H(2). It was successfully demonstrated that the thermal plasma process of solid waste gasification, combined with the WGS and PSA, produced high purity H(2) (20 N m(3)/h (400 H(2)-Nm(3)/PMW-ton), up to 99.99%) using a plasma torch with 1.6 MWh/PMW-ton of electricity. The results presented here suggest that the thermal plasma process of solid waste gasification for the production of high purity H(2) may provide a new approach as a future energy infrastructure based on H(2). PMID:21497018

  15. Prediction of municipal solid waste generation using nonlinear autoregressive network.

    PubMed

    Younes, Mohammad K; Nopiah, Z M; Basri, N E Ahmad; Basri, H; Abushammala, Mohammed F M; Maulud, K N A

    2015-12-01

    Most of the developing countries have solid waste management problems. Solid waste strategic planning requires accurate prediction of the quality and quantity of the generated waste. In developing countries, such as Malaysia, the solid waste generation rate is increasing rapidly, due to population growth and new consumption trends that characterize society. This paper proposes an artificial neural network (ANN) approach using feedforward nonlinear autoregressive network with exogenous inputs (NARX) to predict annual solid waste generation in relation to demographic and economic variables like population number, gross domestic product, electricity demand per capita and employment and unemployment numbers. In addition, variable selection procedures are also developed to select a significant explanatory variable. The model evaluation was performed using coefficient of determination (R(2)) and mean square error (MSE). The optimum model that produced the lowest testing MSE (2.46) and the highest R(2) (0.97) had three inputs (gross domestic product, population and employment), eight neurons and one lag in the hidden layer, and used Fletcher-Powell's conjugate gradient as the training algorithm. PMID:26573690

  16. The Consumer's Handbook for Reducing Solid Waste.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC.

    This profusely illustrated and informally written booklet describes how people can help solve a growing problem--garbage. The following 12 tips are presented: (1) Reduce the amount of unnecessary packaging; (2) Adopt practices that reduce waste toxicity; (3) Consider reusable products; (4) Maintain and repair durable products; (5) Reuse bags,…

  17. SYNTHETIC FUEL PRODUCTION FROM SOLID WASTES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The work described in this report has two objectives: first, to evaluate potential catalysts for the commercial practice of the gasification of chars produced by the pyrolysis of municipal or industrial wastes; second, to determine the potential for synthetic fuel production from...

  18. SOLID WASTE LEACHING CHEMISTRY AND LEACH TESTING

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. EPA Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) is the most common test used by regulatory agencies for classifying and comparing the leaching characteristics of different waste matrices. However, the test has several practical limitations and it simulates only one...

  19. Solid waste management in Kolkata, India: Practices and challenges

    SciTech Connect

    Hazra, Tumpa; Goel, Sudha

    2009-01-15

    This paper presents an overview of current solid waste management (SWM) practices in Kolkata, India and suggests solutions to some of the major problems. More than 2920 ton/d of solid waste are generated in the Kolkata Municipal Corporation (KMC) area and the budget allocation for 2007-2008 was Rs. 1590 million (US$40 million), which amounts to Rs. 265/cap-y (US$6.7/cap-d) on SWM. This expenditure is insufficient to provide adequate SWM services. Major deficiencies were found in all elements of SWM. Despite 70% of the SWM budget being allocated for collection, collection efficiency is around 60-70% for the registered residents and less than 20% for unregistered residents (slum dwellers). The collection process is deficient in terms of manpower and vehicle availability. Bin capacity provided is adequate but locations were found to be inappropriate, thus contributing to the inefficiency of the system. At this time, no treatment is provided to the waste and waste is dumped on open land at Dhapa after collection. Lack of suitable facilities (equipment and infrastructure) and underestimates of waste generation rates, inadequate management and technical skills, improper bin collection, and route planning are responsible for poor collection and transportation of municipal solid wastes.

  20. Solid waste management in Kolkata, India: practices and challenges.

    PubMed

    Hazra, Tumpa; Goel, Sudha

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of current solid waste management (SWM) practices in Kolkata, India and suggests solutions to some of the major problems. More than 2920ton/d of solid waste are generated in the Kolkata Municipal Corporation (KMC) area and the budget allocation for 2007-2008 was Rs. 1590 million (US$40 million), which amounts to Rs. 265/cap-y (US$6.7/cap-d) on SWM. This expenditure is insufficient to provide adequate SWM services. Major deficiencies were found in all elements of SWM. Despite 70% of the SWM budget being allocated for collection, collection efficiency is around 60-70% for the registered residents and less than 20% for unregistered residents (slum dwellers). The collection process is deficient in terms of manpower and vehicle availability. Bin capacity provided is adequate but locations were found to be inappropriate, thus contributing to the inefficiency of the system. At this time, no treatment is provided to the waste and waste is dumped on open land at Dhapa after collection. Lack of suitable facilities (equipment and infrastructure) and underestimates of waste generation rates, inadequate management and technical skills, improper bin collection, and route planning are responsible for poor collection and transportation of municipal solid wastes. PMID:18434129

  1. Municipal solid waste slope failure. 1: Waste and foundation soil properties

    SciTech Connect

    Eid, H.T.; Stark, T.D.; Evans, W.D.; Sherry, P.E.

    2000-05-01

    This paper describes a slope failure in a municipal solid waste landfill, with lateral and vertical displacements of up to 275 and 61 m, respectively. The waste slide involved approximately 1.2 mill in m{sup 3} of waste, making it the largest landfill slope failure to occur in the US. Failure developed through the weak native soil underlying the waste. The analyses and related studies conducted to determine the cause of the failure are the subject of this and a companion paper by Stark et al. (2000). To facilitate the analyses, this paper investigates shear strength of municipal solid waste using field and laboratory test results and back-analysis of failed waste slopes. It also presents details of a geological study and laboratory testing program undertaken to quantify the mobilized shear strength of the weak native soil.

  2. RCRA, superfund and EPCRA hotline training module. Introduction to: Solid waste programs updated July 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1996-07-01

    The module focuses on EPA`s efforts in two areas: municipal and industrial solid waste. The garbage that is managed by the local governments is known as municipal solid waste (MSW). Garbage excluded from hazardous waste regulation but not typically collected by local governments is commonly known as industrial solid waste. This category includes domestic sewage and other wastewater treatment sludge, demolition and construction wastes, agricultural and mining residues, combustion ash, and industrial process wastes.

  3. Planet Patrol. An Educational Unit on Solid Waste Solutions for Grades 4-6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shively, Patti J.; And Others

    This educational unit on solid waste solutions is intended to convey to students an understanding of the four methods of solid waste handling, in priority order, as recommended by the Environmental Protection Agency: (1) reduction in the volume of waste produced; (2) recycling and composting; (3) waste combustion, i.e., incineration of waste; and…

  4. A choice experiment analysis for solid waste disposal option: a case study in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Pek, Chuen-Khee; Jamal, Othman

    2011-11-01

    In Malaysia, most municipal wastes currently are disposed into poorly managed 'controlled tipping' systems with little or no pollution protection measures. This study was undertaken to assist the relevant governmental bodies and service providers to identify an improved waste disposal management strategy. The study applied the choice experiment technique to estimate the nonmarket values for a number of waste disposal technologies. Implicit prices for environmental attributes such as psychological fear, land use, air pollution, and river water quality were estimated. Compensating surplus estimates incorporating distance from the residences of the respondents to the proposed disposal facility were calculated for a number of generic and technology-specific choice sets. The resulting estimates were higher for technology-specific options, and the distance factor was a significant determinant in setting an equitable solid waste management fee. PMID:21820795

  5. Community Solutions for Solid Waste Pollution, Level 6. Teacher Guide. Operation Waste Watch.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Virginia State Dept. of Waste Management, Richmond. Div. of Litter & Recycling.

    Operation Waste Watch is a series of seven sequential learning units which addresses the subject of litter control and solid waste management. Each unit may be used in a variety of ways, depending on the needs and schedules of individual schools, and may be incorporated into various social studies, science, language arts, health, mathematics, and…

  6. Supersonic Air Flow due to Solid-Liquid Impact

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gekle, Stephan; Peters, Ivo R.; Gordillo, José Manuel; van der Meer, Devaraj; Lohse, Detlef

    2010-01-01

    A solid object impacting on liquid creates a liquid jet due to the collapse of the impact cavity. Using visualization experiments with smoke particles and multiscale simulations, we show that in addition, a high-speed air jet is pushed out of the cavity. Despite an impact velocity of only 1m/s, this air jet attains supersonic speeds already when the cavity is slightly larger than 1 mm in diameter. The structure of the air flow closely resembles that of compressible flow through a nozzle—with the key difference that here the “nozzle” is a liquid cavity shrinking rapidly in time.

  7. Solid waste drum array fire performance

    SciTech Connect

    Louie, R.L.; Haecker, C.F.; Beitel, J.J.; Gottuck, D.T.; Rhodes, B.T.; Bayier, C.L.

    1995-09-01

    Fire hazards associated with drum storage of radioactively contaminated waste are a major concern in DOE waste storage facilities. This report is the second of two reports on fire testing designed to provide data relative to the propagation of a fire among storage drum arrays. The first report covers testing of individual drums subjected to an initiating fire and the development of the analytical methodology to predict fire propagation among storage drum arrays. This report is the second report, which documents the results of drum array fire tests. The purpose of the array tests was to confirm the analytical methodology developed by Phase I fire testing. These tests provide conclusive evidence that fire will not propagate from drum to drum unless an continuous fuel source other than drum contents is provided.

  8. A history of solid waste packaging at the Hanford Site

    SciTech Connect

    Duncan, D.R.; Weyns-Rollosson, D.I.; Pottmeyer, J.A.; Stratton, T.J.

    1995-02-01

    Since the initiation of the defense materials product mission, a total of more than 600,000 m{sup 3} of radioactive solid waste has been stored or disposed at the US Department of Energy`s (DOE) Hanford Site, located in southeastern Washington State. As the DOE complex prepares for its increasing role in environmental restoration and waste remediation, the characterization of buried and retrievably stored waste will become increasingly important. Key to this characterization is an understanding of the standards and specifications to which waste was packaged; the regulations that mandated these standards and specifications; the practices used for handling and packaging different waste types; and the changes in these practices with time.

  9. Oxygen separation from air using zirconia solid electrolyte membranes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Suitor, J. W.; Marner, W. J.; Schroeder, J. E.; Losey, R. W.; Ferrall, J. F.

    1988-01-01

    Air separation using a zirconia solid electrolyte membrane is a possible alternative source of oxygen. The process of zirconia oxygen separation is reviewed, and an oxygen plant concept using such separation is described. Potential cell designs, stack designs, and testing procedures are examined. Fabrication of the materials used in a zirconia module as well as distribution plate design and fabrication are examined.

  10. Potential useful products from solid wastes.

    PubMed

    Golueke, C G; Diaz, L F

    1991-10-01

    Wastes have been aptly defined as "items, i.e. resources, that have been discarded because their possessors no longer have an apparent use for them". Accordingly, "wastes" have a significance only in relation to the items and those who have discarded them. The discarded items now are resources awaiting reclamation. Reclamation usually involves either salvage or conversion--or in modern terminology, "reuse" or "recycling". Reclamation for reuse consists in refurbishing or other upgrading without significantly altering original form and composition. Examples of wastes amenable to reuse are containers (bottles, etc.), cartons and repairable tires. With "recycling" (i.e. conservation), the discarded items are processed such that they become raw material, i.e. resources in the manufacture of "new" products. The variety of processes is wide, ranging from simply physical (grinding) through thermal (melting, gasification, combustion), to biological (composting, biogasification, hydrolysis, microbial protein production). In the paper, reuse and recycling (conversion) are evaluated in terms of advantages and disadvantages (limitations) and their respective technologies are described and discussed in detail. PMID:11537693

  11. Comparative lysimeters studies for landfill leachate characterization and settlement variation in partly sorted municipal solid waste and fully sorted organic wastes.

    PubMed

    Khan, A S; Narulkar, S M

    2010-04-01

    About three-quarters of the countries and territories around the world use crude 'open dumping' method of disposal for municipal solid waste (MSW) which is the easiest and cheapest method of removing waste from the immediate environment but it creates serious environmental problems like groundwater contamination and air pollution. Land-filling is considered to be the most cost-effective method for solid waste disposal in developing countries if adequate sites are available. Bioreactor landfill is a promising biotechnological option for faster stabilization of municipal solid waste. The bioreactor landfill provides control and process optimization, primarily through the addition ofleachate or other liquid amendments. In the present study, Lysimeter experiments were carried out for the comparison of leachate characterization and settlement variation of "MSW except recyclable and domestic hazardous wastes" and "organic waste" to know the bioreactor feasibility in Indian context, because in India organic content of the solid waste is more due to consumption of unprocessed food items. Three Lysimeters under different operational conditions have been experimented for leachate characterization and settlement variation of the wastes. The results indicate the faster decay of pollutants in bioreactor in comparison to open dumps. The trend indicating the decay of pollutants elements in the produced leachate is encouraging. PMID:21114117

  12. Solid waste management in the hospitality industry: a review.

    PubMed

    Pirani, Sanaa I; Arafat, Hassan A

    2014-12-15

    Solid waste management is a key aspect of the environmental management of establishments belonging to the hospitality sector. In this study, we reviewed literature in this area, examining the current status of waste management for the hospitality sector, in general, with a focus on food waste management in particular. We specifically examined the for-profit subdivision of the hospitality sector, comprising primarily of hotels and restaurants. An account is given of the causes of the different types of waste encountered in this sector and what strategies may be used to reduce them. These strategies are further highlighted in terms of initiatives and practices which are already being implemented around the world to facilitate sustainable waste management. We also recommended a general waste management procedure to be followed by properties of the hospitality sector and described how waste mapping, an innovative yet simple strategy, can significantly reduce the waste generation of a hotel. Generally, we found that not many scholarly publications are available in this area of research. More studies need to be carried out on the implementation of sustainable waste management for the hospitality industry in different parts of the world and the challenges and opportunities involved. PMID:25194519

  13. Relationship between recycling rate and air pollution: Waste management in the state of Massachusetts

    SciTech Connect

    Giovanis, Eleftherios

    2015-06-15

    Highlights: • This study examines the relationship between recycling rate of solid waste and air pollution. • Fixed effects Stochastic Frontier Analysis model with panel data are employed. • The case study is a waste municipality survey in the state of Massachusetts during 2009–2012. • The findings support that a negative relationship between air pollution and recycling. - Abstract: This study examines the relationship between recycling rate of solid waste and air pollution using data from a waste municipality survey in the state of Massachusetts during the period 2009–2012. Two econometric approaches are applied. The first approach is a fixed effects model, while the second is a Stochastic Frontier Analysis (SFA) with fixed effects model. The advantage of the first approach is the ability of controlling for stable time invariant characteristics of the municipalities, thereby eliminating potentially large sources of bias. The second approach is applied in order to estimate the technical efficiency and rank of each municipality accordingly. The regressions control for various demographic, economic and recycling services, such as income per capita, population density, unemployment, trash services, Pay-as-you-throw (PAYT) program and meteorological data. The findings support that a negative relationship between particulate particles in the air 2.5 μm or less in size (PM{sub 2.5}) and recycling rate is presented. In addition, the pollution is increased with increases on income per capita up to $23,000–$26,000, while after this point income contributes positively on air quality. Finally, based on the efficiency derived by the Stochastic Frontier Analysis (SFA) model, the municipalities which provide both drop off and curbside services for trash, food and yard waste and the PAYT program present better performance regarding the air quality.

  14. Hazardous-waste reduction: Naval Air Station Oceana

    SciTech Connect

    Clarkson, E.A.

    1991-06-01

    This is a project to research Naval Air Station (NAS) Oceana's present operations in the area of hazardous waste controls from processing to disposal. The research project was generated in response to NAS Oceana's requirement to meet and implement OPNAVINST 4110.2 (dated 20 June 89). Areas of concern include waste management, regulatory compliance, and waste reduction. Waste reduction is seen as one key way to help NAS Oceana (and other naval bases) improve waste management by reducing liability, operational cost, disposal costs and environmental, health, and safety issues. The Resource Conservation and Recovery Act places strict controls on the storage, treatment and disposal of hazardous waste. Presently, NAS Oceana has a disposal plan that is operational and complies with all associated regulations. This study addresses hazardous waste minimization through hazardous material reduction.

  15. MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE (MSW) COMBUSTOR ASH DEMONSTRATION PROGRAM - "THE BOATHOUSE"

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report presents the results of a research program designed to examine the engineering and environmental acceptability of using municipal solid waste (MSW) combustor ash as an aggregate substitute in the manufacture of construction quality cement blocks. 50 tons of MSW combust...

  16. Alternative solid forms for Savannah River Plant defense waste

    SciTech Connect

    Stone, J.A.; Goforth, S.T.; Smith, P.K.

    1980-01-01

    Solid forms and processes were evaluated for immobilization of SRP high-level radioactive waste, which contains bulk chemicals such as hydrous iron and aluminium oxides. Borosilicate glass currently is the best overall choice. High-silica glass, tailored ceramics, and coated ceramics are potentially superior products, but require more difficult processes.

  17. Leaching of nano-ZnO in municipal solid waste.

    PubMed

    Sakallioglu, T; Bakirdoven, M; Temizel, I; Demirel, B; Copty, N K; Onay, T T; Uyguner Demirel, C S; Karanfil, T

    2016-11-01

    Despite widespread use of engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) in commercial products and their potential disposal in landfills, the fate of ENMs in solid waste environments are still not well understood. In this study, the leaching behavior of nano ZnO -one of the most used ENMs- in fresh municipal solid waste (MSW) was investigated. Batch reactors containing municipal solid waste samples were spiked with three different types of nano ZnO having different surface stabilization. The leaching of ZnO was examined under acidic, basic and elevated ionic strength (IS) conditions. The results of the 3-day batch tests showed that the percent of the added nano-ZnO mass retained within the solid waste matrix ranged between 80% and 93% on average for the three types of nano-ZnO tested. The pH and IS conditions did not significantly influence the leaching behavior of ZnO. To further analyze the behavior of ZnO in the MSW matrix, a kinetic particle deposition/detachment model was developed. The model was able to reproduce the main trends of the batch experiments. Reaction rate constants for the batch tests ranged from 0.01 to 0.4 1/hr, reflecting the rapid deposition of nano-ZnO within the MSW matrix. PMID:27318728

  18. 36 CFR 13.1118 - Solid waste disposal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Solid waste disposal. 13.1118 Section 13.1118 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM UNITS IN ALASKA Special Regulations-Glacier Bay National Park and Preserve...

  19. 36 CFR 13.1118 - Solid waste disposal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Solid waste disposal. 13.1118 Section 13.1118 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM UNITS IN ALASKA Special Regulations-Glacier Bay National Park and Preserve...

  20. 36 CFR 13.1118 - Solid waste disposal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Solid waste disposal. 13.1118 Section 13.1118 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM UNITS IN ALASKA Special Regulations-Glacier Bay National Park and Preserve...

  1. 36 CFR 13.1118 - Solid waste disposal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Solid waste disposal. 13.1118 Section 13.1118 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM UNITS IN ALASKA Special Regulations-Glacier Bay National Park and Preserve...

  2. 36 CFR 13.1118 - Solid waste disposal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Solid waste disposal. 13.1118 Section 13.1118 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM UNITS IN ALASKA Special Regulations-Glacier Bay National Park and Preserve...

  3. HANDBOOK: MATERIAL RECOVERY FACILITIES FOR MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE.

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of this document is to address the technical and economic aspects of material recovery facility (MRF) equipment and technology in such a manner that the document may be of assistance to solid waste planners and engineers at the local community level. This docum...

  4. 76 FR 16538 - Solid Waste Rail Transfer Facilities

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-24

    ... the Board, a solid waste rail transfer facility need not comply with State laws, regulations, orders, and other requirements affecting the siting of the facility, except to the extent that the Board... rail transfer facility must comply with all applicable Federal and State requirements respecting...

  5. MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE DISPOSAL IN ESTUARIES AND COASTAL MARSHLANDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report is a survey of the existing situation with regards to municipal solid waste disposal in the coastal zone. Both the scientific literature and the regulatory community were surveyed to determine the state-of-knowledge of the impact of such disposal on the environment, p...

  6. Academia's Garbage: Campus/Community Solid Waste Projects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyles, Marcia

    The nation's overall efforts in solid waste management are noted, and suggestions and examples are presented concerning activities that can be undertaken by institutions of higher education to assist their communities to achieve safer and cleaner environments. The federal regulatory agency, The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), is concerned…

  7. EVALUATION OF MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE LANDFILL COVER DESIGNS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The HELP (Hydrologic Evaluation of Landfill Performance) Model was used to evaluate the hydrologic behavior of a series of one-, two-, and three-layer cover designs for municipal solid waste landfill cover designs were chosen to isolate the effects of features such as surface veg...

  8. FORECASTS OF THE QUALITY AND COMPOSITION OF SOLID WASTE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Projections of the quantity and composition of solid waste involving 14 materials in 21 product categories are made to 1990 under five different scenarios. Results of the scenarios are compared with other studies, including the EPA Annual Reports to Congress on Resource Recovery ...

  9. Community-Based Solid Waste Management: A Training Facilitator's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peace Corps, Washington, DC. Information Collection and Exchange Div.

    Urban environmental management and environmental health issues are of increasing concern worldwide. The need for urban environmental management work at the local level where the Peace Corps works most effectively is significant, but training materials dedicated specifically to community-based solid waste management work in urban areas are lacking.…

  10. APPLICATION OF PULSE COMBUSTION TO SOLID AND HAZARDOUS WASTE INCINERATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper discusses the application of pulse combustion to solid and hazardous waste incineration. otary kiln incinerator simulator was retrofitted with a frequency-tunable pulse combustor to enhance the efficiency of combustion. he pulse combustor excites pulsations in the kiln ...

  11. USE OF MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE LANDFILLS AS BIOCHEMICAL REACTORS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Municipal solid waste (MSW) from the nation is managed predominantly in anitary landfills. ue to the physical, chemical and biological makeup f he aste he landfill acts as a biochemical reactor and degrades the organic matter. urrent practices are to use covers and liners as engi...

  12. Data summary of municipal solid waste management alternatives

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-10-01

    This appendix contains background information, technical descriptions, economic data, mass and energy balances, and information on environmental releases for the refuse derived fuels (RDF) option in municipal solid waste management alternatives. Demonstration programs at St. Louis, Missouri; Franklin, Ohio; and Delaware are discussed. Information on pellet production and cofiring with coal is also presented.

  13. Influence of vermicomposting on solid wastes decomposition kinetics in soils*

    PubMed Central

    Nourbakhsh, Farshid

    2007-01-01

    The effect of vermicomposting on kinetic behavior of the products is not well recognized. An incubation study was conducted to investigate C mineralization kinetics of cow manure, sugarcane filter cake and their vermicomposts. Two different soils were treated with the four solid wastes at a rate of 0.5 g solid waste C per kg soil with three replications. Soils were incubated for 56 d. The CO2-C respired was monitored periodically and a first-order kinetic model was used to calculate the kinetic parameters of C mineralization. Results indicated that the percentage of C mineralized during the incubation period ranged from 31.9% to 41.8% and 55.9% to 73.4% in the calcareous and acidic soils, respectively. The potentially mineralizable C (C 0) of the treated soils was lower in the solid waste composts compared to their starting materials. Overall, it can be concluded that decomposable fraction of solid wastes has decreased due to vermicomposting. PMID:17910115

  14. Data summary of municipal solid waste management alternatives

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-10-01

    This appendix contains the numerically indexed bibliography for the complete group of reports on municipal solid waste management alternatives. The list references information on the following topics: mass burn technologies, RDF technologies, fluidized bed combustion, pyrolysis and gasification of MSW, materials recovery- recycling technologies, sanitary landfills, composting and anaerobic digestion of MSW.

  15. The tribal environment: solid waste in Indian country.

    PubMed

    Ortiz, James

    2003-03-01

    The issue of solid waste management in Indian country is multidimensional in scope because it affects more than just regulatory concerns. There are more than 550 federally recognized Alaska Native and American Indian Tribes in the United States. Tribes are sovereign nations that have a special relationship to the federal government and a unique legal status. The environmental problems faced by tribes are many, and it is only fair that tribes, as sovereigns, specify the levels of protection on their lands. The one-size-fits-all regulatory approach to environmental problems and solid waste management in particular does not work and often leads to conflict between tribes and the federal and state governments. Inherent tensions also exist between tribes and various levels of government concerning jurisdiction of lands and managing solid waste. These intergovernmental relationships are often complex and present unique challenges to all. More research needs to be done on targeting resources to meet the capacity-building needs of tribes, as well as the overall environmental management needs of Indian country under the federal trust obligation. Successful intergovernmental relationships can be fostered through partnership arrangements between tribes and federal, state, and local governments. In the area of solid waste such partnerships have worked. It requires that all levels of government deal with tribes with careful consideration of their cultural, historic, and socioeconomic aspects, which are often intertwined. PMID:12592451

  16. Municipal solid waste disposal in estuaries and coastal marshlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacGregor, K. A.; Klein, M. S.; Bazzolo, J. S.; Delaney, M. E.

    1980-12-01

    The existing situation with regards to municipal solid waste disposal in the coastal zone was assessed. Both the scientific literature and the regulatory community were surveyed to determine the state of knowledge of the impact of such disposal on the environment, past and present disposal techniques, and the attitudes of the regulatory community.

  17. MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE COMBUSTOR ASH DEMONSTRATION PROGRAM - "THE BOATHOUSE"

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report presents the results of a research program designed to examine the engineering and environmental acceptability of using municipal solid waste (MSW) combustor ash as an aggregate substitute in the manufacture of construction quality cement blocks. 50 tons of MSW combust...

  18. HOLISTIC APPROACH TO ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT OF MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper presents results from the application of a new municipal solid waste (MSW) management planning aid to EPA's new facility in the Research Triangle Park, NC. This planning aid, or decision support tool, is computer software that analyzes the cost and environmental impact ...

  19. AVR Teacher's Resource Guide for Solid Waste and Recycling Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pedicord, Susan

    Although there has been a number of teacher's guides for solid waste and recycling published, none have been specific to the state of Vermont or tailored to the needs of its teachers. This guide is designed to fill that need and is meant to give busy teachers a resource for integrating this important topic into their existing schedules and…

  20. INVESTIGATION OF FLUID BED COMBUSTION OF MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE

    EPA Science Inventory

    An experimental study was undertaken to burn processed municipal solid waste in a fluid-bed combustor containing water-cooled tubes in the bed. The 300-hour test was performed without incident and terminated on schedule. The combustor and ducting were clean on inspection after th...

  1. Teaching and Learning about Solid Waste: Aspects of Content Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cinquetti, Heloisa Chalmers Sisla; de Carvalho, Luiz Marcelo

    2007-01-01

    This paper investigates aspects of content knowledge related to teaching and learning about solid waste, focusing on the processes of learning and teaching by Elementary School teachers in Brazil, in two modalities of continuing education: courses and school-based meetings. We analyse elements of teachers' reflections whilst referring to three…

  2. Guidelines for Local Governments on Solid Waste Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Association of Counties, Washington, DC. Research Foundation.

    This document consists of ten guides on Solid Waste Management to assist local elected and appointed policy-making officials. They are entitled: Areawide Approaches; Legal Authority, Planning, Organization Design and Operation, Financing, Technical and Financial Assistance, Citizen Support, Personnel, and Action Plan and Bibliography. The guides…

  3. Iowa's Clean Solid Waste Environmental Education Project (SWEEP).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eells, Jean Crim; And Others

    The Iowa Clean SWEEP program is designed to provide educators, K-12, with a series of activities focusing upon critical concepts related to Iowa's solid waste problem. This activity packet contains 19 activities for grades K-6, and 25 activities for grades 7-12. Key concepts addressed throughout the activity packet include: (1) an overview, the…

  4. An Accounting System for Solid Waste Management in Small Communities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zausner, Eric R.

    This pamphlet provides a guide to the type and quantity of information to be collected for effective solid waste management in small communities. It is directed at municipal or private personnel involved in the operation and ownership of management facilities. Sample activity reports are included for reference. (CS)

  5. Sustainable solutions for solid waste management in Southeast Asian countries

    SciTech Connect

    Uyen Nguyen Ngoc Schnitzer, Hans

    2009-06-15

    Human activities generate waste and the amounts tend to increase as the demand for quality of life increases. Today's rate in the Southeast Asian Nations (ASEANs) is alarming, posing a challenge to governments regarding environmental pollution in the recent years. The expectation is that eventually waste treatment and waste prevention approaches will develop towards sustainable waste management solutions. This expectation is for instance reflected in the term 'zero emission systems'. The concept of zero emissions can be applied successfully with today's technical possibilities in the agro-based processing industry. First, the state-of-the-art of waste management in Southeast Asian countries will be outlined in this paper, followed by waste generation rates, sources, and composition, as well as future trends of waste. Further on, solutions for solid waste management will be reviewed in the discussions of sustainable waste management. The paper emphasizes the concept of waste prevention through utilization of all wastes as process inputs, leading to the possibility of creating an ecosystem in a loop of materials. Also, a case study, focusing on the citrus processing industry, is displayed to illustrate the application of the aggregated material input-output model in a widespread processing industry in ASEAN. The model can be shown as a closed cluster, which permits an identification of opportunities for reducing environmental impacts at the process level in the food processing industry. Throughout the discussion in this paper, the utilization of renewable energy and economic aspects are considered to adapt to environmental and economic issues and the aim of eco-efficiency. Additionally, the opportunities and constraints of waste management will be discussed.

  6. Solid waste management challenges for cities in developing countries

    SciTech Connect

    Abarca Guerrero, Lilliana; Maas, Ger; Hogland, William

    2013-01-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Stakeholders. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Factors affecting performance waste management systems. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Questionnaire as Annex for waste management baseline assessment. - Abstract: Solid waste management is a challenge for the cities' authorities in developing countries mainly due to the increasing generation of waste, the burden posed on the municipal budget as a result of the high costs associated to its management, the lack of understanding over a diversity of factors that affect the different stages of waste management and linkages necessary to enable the entire handling system functioning. An analysis of literature on the work done and reported mainly in publications from 2005 to 2011, related to waste management in developing countries, showed that few articles give quantitative information. The analysis was conducted in two of the major scientific journals, Waste Management Journal and Waste Management and Research. The objective of this research was to determine the stakeholders' action/behavior that have a role in the waste management process and to analyze influential factors on the system, in more than thirty urban areas in 22 developing countries in 4 continents. A combination of methods was used in this study in order to assess the stakeholders and the factors influencing the performance of waste management in the cities. Data was collected from scientific literature, existing data bases, observations made during visits to urban areas, structured interviews with relevant professionals, exercises provided to participants in workshops and a questionnaire applied to stakeholders. Descriptive and inferential statistic methods were used to draw conclusions. The outcomes of the research are a comprehensive list of stakeholders that are relevant in the waste management systems and a set of factors that reveal the most important causes for the systems' failure. The information provided is very

  7. Low temperature ozone oxidation of solid waste surrogates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nabity, James A.; Lee, Jeffrey M.

    2015-09-01

    Solid waste management presents a significant challenge to human spaceflight and especially, long-term missions beyond Earth orbit. A six-month mission will generate over 300 kg of solid wastes per crewmember that must be dealt with to eliminate the need for storage and prevent it from becoming a biological hazard to the crew. There are several methods for the treatment of wastes that include oxidation via ozone, incineration, microbial oxidation or pyrolysis and physical methods such as microwave drying and compaction. In recent years, a low temperature oxidation process using ozonated water has been developed for the chemical conversion of organic wastes to CO2 and H2O. Experiments were conducted to evaluate the rate and effectiveness with which ozone oxidized several different waste materials. Increasing the surface area by chopping or shredding the solids into small pieces more than doubled the rate of oxidation. A greater flow of ozone and agitation of the ozonated water system also increased processing rates. Of the materials investigated, plastics have proven the most difficult to oxidize. The processing of plastics above the glass transition temperatures caused the plastics to clump together which reduced the exposed surface area, while processing at lower temperatures reduced surface reaction kinetics.

  8. Combustion of oil palm solid wastes in fluidized bed combustor

    SciTech Connect

    Shamsuddin, A.H.; Sopian, K.

    1995-12-31

    The palm oil industry of Malaysia is the largest in the world producing about 55% of the world production. The industry has approximately 270 mills throughout the country with processing sizes ranging from 10 tonnes/hour to 120 tonnes/hour. All mills produce solid wastes, about 50% of the fresh fruit bunches in terms of weight. The solid wastes produced are in the form of empty fruit bunches, fibers and shells. These wastes have high energy value, ranging from 14 to 18 MJ/kg. The industry is currently self-sufficient in terms of energy. Fibers and shell wastes are being used as boiler fuel to raise steam for electrical power production and process steam. However, the combustion technology currently being employed is obsolete with low efficiency and polluting. A fluidized bed combustor pilot plant is designed and constructed at Combustion Research Laboratory, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia. The combustor is made up of 600 mm {times} 900 mm rectangular bed filled with sand up to 400 mm height, static. A bank of heat transfer tubes is imbedded in the bed, designed to absorb 50% of heat released by the fuel in the bed. The remaining heat is transferred in tubes placed on the wall of the freeboard area. Experimental studies were carried out in the pilot plant using palm oil solid wastes. The combustion temperatures were maintained in the range 800--900 C. The performance of the combustor was evaluated in terms of combustion and boiler efficiencies and flue gas emissions monitored.

  9. Evaluation Criteria for Solid Waste Processing Research and Technology Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levri, Julie A.; Hogan, J. A.; Alazraki, M. P.

    2001-01-01

    A preliminary list of criteria is proposed for evaluation of solid waste processing technologies for research and technology development (R&TD) in the Advanced Life Support (ALS) Program. Completion of the proposed list by current and prospective ALS technology developers, with regard to specific missions of interest, may enable identification of appropriate technologies (or lack thereof) and guide future development efforts for the ALS Program solid waste processing area. An attempt is made to include criteria that capture information about the technology of interest as well as its system-wide impacts. Some of the criteria in the list are mission-independent, while the majority are mission-specific. In order for technology developers to respond to mission-specific criteria, critical information must be available on the quantity, composition and state of the waste stream, the wast processing requirements, as well as top-level mission scenario information (e.g. safety, resource recovery, planetary protection issues, and ESM equivalencies). The technology readiness level (TRL) determines the degree to which a technology developer is able to accurately report on the list of criteria. Thus, a criteria-specific minimum TRL for mandatory reporting has been identified for each criterion in the list. Although this list has been developed to define criteria that are needed to direct funding of solid waste processing technologies, this list processes significant overlap in criteria required for technology selection for inclusion in specific tests or missions. Additionally, this approach to technology evaluation may be adapted to other ALS subsystems.

  10. Co-firing coal and municipal solid waste

    SciTech Connect

    Demirbas, A.

    2008-07-01

    The aim of this study was to experimentally investigate how different the organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW) or municipal solid waste (MSW) utilizing strategies affects the gas emission in simple fluidized bed combustion (FBC) of biomass. In this study, ground OFMSW and pulverized coal (PC) were used for co-firing tests. The tests were carried out in a bench-scale bubbling FBC. Coal and bio-waste fuels are quite different in composition. Ash composition of the bio-waste fuels is fundamentally different from ash composition of the coal. Chlorine (Cl) in the MSW may affect operation by corrosion. Ash deposits reduce heat transfer and also may result in severe corrosion at high temperatures. Nitrogen (N) and carbon ) assessments can play an important role in a strategy to control carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) and nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions while raising revenue. Regulations such as subsidies for oil, liquid petroleum gas (LPG) for natural gas powered vehicles, and renewables, especially biomass lines, to reduce emissions may be more cost-effective than assessments. Research and development (RD) resources are driven by energy policy goals and can change the competitiveness of renewables, especially solid waste. The future supply of co-firing depends on energy prices and technical progress, both of which are driven by energy policy priorities.

  11. Method for storage of solid waste

    DOEpatents

    Mecham, William J.

    1976-01-01

    Metal canisters for long-term storage of calcined highlevel radioactive wastes can be made self-sealing against a breach in the canister wall by the addition of powdered cement to the canister with the calcine before it is sealed for storage. Any breach in the canister wall will permit entry of water which will mix with the cement and harden to form a concrete patch, thus sealing the opening in the wall of the canister and preventing the release of radioactive material to the cooling water or atmosphere.

  12. LOW ACTIVITY WASTE FEED SOLIDS CARACTERIZATION AND FILTERABILITY TESTS

    SciTech Connect

    McCabe, D.; Crawford, C.; Duignan, M.; Williams, M.; Burket, P.

    2014-04-03

    The primary treatment of the tank waste at the DOE Hanford site will be done in the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) that is currently under construction. The baseline plan for the WTP Pretreatment facility is to treat the waste, splitting it into High Level Waste (HLW) feed and Low Activity Waste (LAW) feed. Both waste streams are then separately vitrified as glass and sealed in canisters. The LAW glass will be disposed onsite in the Integrated Disposal Facility (IDF). There are currently no plans to treat the waste to remove technetium in the WTP Pretreatment facility, so its disposition path is the LAW glass. Options are being explored to immobilize the LAW portion of the tank waste, i.e., the LAW feed from the WTP Pretreatment facility. Removal of {sup 99}Tc from the LAW Feed, followed by off-site disposal of the {sup 99}Tc, would eliminate a key risk contributor for the IDF Performance Assessment (PA) for supplemental waste forms, and has potential to reduce treatment and disposal costs. Washington River Protection Solutions (WRPS) is developing some conceptual flow sheets for LAW treatment and disposal that could benefit from technetium removal. One of these flowsheets will specifically examine removing {sup 99}Tc from the LAW feed stream to supplemental immobilization. The conceptual flow sheet of the {sup 99}Tc removal process includes a filter to remove insoluble solids prior to processing the stream in an ion exchange column, but the characteristics and behavior of the liquid and solid phases has not previously been investigated. This report contains results of testing of a simulant that represents the projected composition of the feed to the Supplemental LAW process. This feed composition is not identical to the aqueous tank waste fed to the Waste Treatment Plant because it has been processed through WTP Pretreatment facility and therefore contains internal changes and recycle streams that will be generated within the WTP process. Although

  13. Bioremediation of municipal solid waste by windrow composting.

    PubMed

    Manjula, G; Ravikannan, S P; Meenambal, T

    2013-10-01

    Due to rapid urbanization and economic development the urban cities are facing the problem of solid waste management. It is one among the major challenges faced by governing bodies. Bioremediation of municipal solid waste can be effectively done by windrow composting. In this study, a consortium of effective microorganisms was used for the windrow composting process. About 500 kg of shredded waste was placed in two windrows and 1 litre effective microorganisms were sprayed on one of the windrows. The variation in physical and chemical parameters was monitored throughout the process. The results indicate that usage of effective microorganisms not only shortens the stabilization time but also improves product quality. The final product was more stable and homogenous and can be effectively used as soil conditioner. PMID:25906592

  14. Solid Waste Information and Tracking System (SWITS) Software Requirements Specification

    SciTech Connect

    MAY, D.L.

    2000-03-22

    This document is the primary document establishing requirements for the Solid Waste Information and Tracking System (SWITS) as it is converted to a client-server architecture. The purpose is to provide the customer and the performing organizations with the requirements for the SWITS in the new environment. This Software Requirement Specification (SRS) describes the system requirements for the SWITS Project, and follows the PHMC Engineering Requirements, HNF-PRO-1819, and Computer Software Qualify Assurance Requirements, HNF-PRO-309, policies. This SRS includes sections on general description, specific requirements, references, appendices, and index. The SWITS system defined in this document stores information about the solid waste inventory on the Hanford site. Waste is tracked as it is generated, analyzed, shipped, stored, and treated. In addition to inventory reports a number of reports for regulatory agencies are produced.

  15. Does municipal solid waste composting make economic sense?

    SciTech Connect

    Renkow, M.; Rubin, A.R.

    1998-08-01

    Currently there is a widespread interest on the part of local governments in incorporating municipal solid waste (MSW) composting into their integrated solid waste management systems. However, there is little information on the costs of MSW composting and how those costs compare with the costs of alternative forms of waste disposal (especially traditional land disposal). This article begins to fill this information gap by reporting the results of a survey of 19 MSW compositing facilities around the US. Results indicate that MSW composting generally costs around $50 per ton, and that very few facilities receive any revenues from the sale of compost to offset operating costs. Additional economic analysis indicates that, at present, MSW composting cannot be justified on financial grounds in most parts of the US, but may be competitive with land disposal where the cost of landfilling is high (such as the north-east).

  16. A Li-O₂/air battery using an inorganic solid-state air cathode.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaofei; Zhu, Ding; Song, Ming; Cai, Shengrong; Zhang, Lei; Chen, Yungui

    2014-07-23

    The "(-) lithium (Li) anode|organic anolyte + inorganic catholyte|solid-state cathode (+)" Li-O2/air battery based on an inorganic solid-state air cathode was fabricated with a simple method. The electrochemical performance and reaction products of the Li-O2/air batteries under pure O2 and ambient air were investigated, respectively. The inorganic Li-ion conductive solid-state electrolyte Li1.3Al0.3Ti1.7(PO4)3 was stable during cycling and avoided the decomposition and volatilization problems that conventional organic electrolytes faced. Moreover, the porous air cathode provided a sufficient gas-phase O2-transport channel, facilitating the achievement of a high capacity of 14192 or 7869 mA h g(-1) under pure O2 or ambient air, respectively. Our results demonstrate that the Li-O2/air battery using an inorganic porous air cathode has a great potential for practical application. PMID:24959838

  17. Electricity production from municipal solid waste using microbial fuel cells.

    PubMed

    Chiu, H Y; Pai, T Y; Liu, M H; Chang, C A; Lo, F C; Chang, T C; Lo, H M; Chiang, C F; Chao, K P; Lo, W Y; Lo, S W; Chu, Y L

    2016-07-01

    The organic content of municipal solid waste has long been an attractive source of renewable energy, mainly as a solid fuel in waste-to-energy plants. This study focuses on the potential to use microbial fuel cells to convert municipal solid waste organics into energy using various operational conditions. The results showed that two-chamber microbial fuel cells with carbon felt and carbon felt allocation had a higher maximal power density (20.12 and 30.47 mW m(-2) for 1.5 and 4 L, respectively) than those of other electrode plate allocations. Most two-chamber microbial fuel cells (1.5 and 4 L) had a higher maximal power density than single-chamber ones with corresponding electrode plate allocations. Municipal solid waste with alkali hydrolysis pre-treatment and K3Fe(CN)6 as an electron acceptor improved the maximal power density to 1817.88 mW m(-2) (~0.49% coulomb efficiency, from 0.05-0.49%). The maximal power density from experiments using individual 1.5 and 4 L two-chamber microbial fuel cells, and serial and parallel connections of 1.5 and 4 L two-chamber microbial fuel cells, was found to be in the order of individual 4 L (30.47 mW m(-2)) > serial connection of 1.5 and 4 L (27.75) > individual 1.5 L (20.12) > parallel connection of 1.5 and 4 L (17.04) two-chamber microbial fuel cells . The power density using municipal solid waste microbial fuel cells was compared with information in the literature and discussed. PMID:27231132

  18. Method for determination of methane potentials of solid organic waste

    SciTech Connect

    Hansen, Trine L.; Schmidt, Jens Ejbye; Angelidaki, Irini; Marca, Emilia; Jansen, Jes la Cour; Mosboek, Hans; Christensen, Thomas H

    2004-07-01

    A laboratory procedure is described for measuring methane potentials of organic solid waste. Triplicate reactors with 10 grams of volatile solids were incubated at 55 deg. C with 400 ml of inoculum from a thermophilic biogas plant and the methane production was followed over a 50-day period by regular measurements of methane on a gas chromatograph. The procedure involves blanks as well as cellulose controls. Methane potentials have been measured for source-separated organic household waste and for individual waste materials. The procedure has been evaluated regarding practicality, workload, detection limit, repeatability and reproducibility as well as quality control procedures. For the source-separated organic household waste a methane potential of 495 ml CH{sub 4}/g VS was found. For fat and oil a lag-phase of several days was seen. The protein sample was clearly inhibited and the maximal methane potential was therefore not achieved. For paper bags, starch and glucose 63, 84 and 94% of the theoretical methane potential was achieved respectively. A detection limit of 72.5 ml CH{sub 4}/g VS was calculated from the results. This is acceptable, since the methane potential of the tested waste materials was in the range of 200-500 ml CH{sub 4}/g VS. The determination of methane potentials is a biological method subject to relatively large variation due to the use of non-standardized inoculum and waste heterogeneity. Therefore, procedures for addressing repeatability and reproducibility are suggested.

  19. Municipal solid waste management in China: status, problems and challenges.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Dong Qing; Tan, Soon Keat; Gersberg, Richard M

    2010-08-01

    This paper presents an examination of MSW generation and composition in China, providing an overview of the current state of MSW management, an analysis of existing problems in MSW collection, separation, recycling and disposal, and some suggestions for improving MSW systems in the future. In China, along with urbanization, population growth and industrialization, the quantity of municipal solid waste (MSW) generation has been increasing rapidly. The total MSW amount increased from 31.3 million tonnes in 1980 to 212 million tonnes in 2006, and the waste generation rate increased from 0.50 kg/capita/day in 1980 to 0.98 kg/capita/year in 2006. Currently, waste composition in China is dominated by a high organic and moisture content, since the concentration of kitchen waste in urban solid waste makes up the highest proportion (at approximately 60%) of the waste stream. The total amount of MSW collected and transported was 148 million tonnes in 2006, of which 91.4% was landfilled, 6.4% was incinerated and 2.2% was composted. The overall MSW treatment rate in China was approximately 62% in 2007. In 2007, there were 460 facilities, including 366 landfill sites, 17 composing plants, and 66 incineration plants. This paper also considers the challenges faced and opportunities for MSW management in China, and a number of recommendations are made aimed at improving the MSW management system. PMID:20413209

  20. Method for determination of methane potentials of solid organic waste.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Trine L; Schmidt, Jens Ejbye; Angelidaki, Irini; Marca, Emilia; Jansen, Jes la Cour; Mosbaek, Hans; Christensen, Thomas H

    2004-01-01

    A laboratory procedure is described for measuring methane potentials of organic solid waste. Triplicate reactors with 10 grams of volatile solids were incubated at 55 degrees C with 400 ml of inoculum from a thermophilic biogas plant and the methane production was followed over a 50-day period by regular measurements of methane on a gas chromatograph. The procedure involves blanks as well as cellulose controls. Methane potentials have been measured for source-separated organic household waste and for individual waste materials. The procedure has been evaluated regarding practicality, workload, detection limit, repeatability and reproducibility as well as quality control procedures. For the source-separated organic household waste a methane potential of 495 ml CH4/g VS was found. For fat and oil a lag-phase of several days was seen. The protein sample was clearly inhibited and the maximal methane potential was therefore not achieved. For paper bags, starch and glucose 63, 84 and 94% of the theoretical methane potential was achieved respectively. A detection limit of 72.5 ml CH4/g VS was calculated from the results. This is acceptable, since the methane potential of the tested waste materials was in the range of 200-500 ml CH4/g VS. The determination of methane potentials is a biological method subject to relatively large variation due to the use of non-standardized inoculum and waste heterogeneity. Therefore, procedures for addressing repeatability and reproducibility are suggested. PMID:15081067

  1. Summary of radioactive solid waste received in the 200 Areas during calendar year 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Hladek, K.L.

    1996-06-06

    Westinghouse Hanford Company manages and operates the Hanford Site 200 Area radioactive solid waste storage and disposal facilities for the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office. These facilities include radioactive solid waste disposal sites and radioactive solid waste storage areas. This document summarizes the amount of radioactive materials that have been buried and stored in the 200 Area radioactive solid waste storage and disposal facilities since startup in 1944 through calendar year 1995. This report does not include backlog waste, solid radioactive wastes in storage or disposed of in other areas, or facilities such as the underground tank farms. Unless packaged within the scope of WHC-EP-0063, Hanford Site Solid Waste Acceptance Criteria, liquid waste data are not included in this document. This annual report provides a summary of the radioactive solid waste received in the both the 200-East and 200-West Areas during the calendar year 1995.

  2. Data summary of municipal solid waste management alternatives

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-10-01

    This appendix on Mass Burn Technologies is the first in a series designed to identify, describe and assess the suitability of several currently or potentially available generic technologies for the management of municipal solid waste (MSW). These appendices, which cover eight core thermoconversion, bioconversion and recycling technologies, reflect public domain information gathered from many sources. Representative sources include: professional journal articles, conference proceedings, selected municipality solid waste management plans and subscription technology data bases. The information presented is intended to serve as background information that will facilitate the preparation of the technoeconomic and life cycle mass, energy and environmental analyses that are being developed for each of the technologies. Mass burn has been and continues to be the predominant technology in Europe for the management of MSW. In the United States, the majority of the existing waste-to-energy projects utilize this technology and nearly 90 percent of all currently planned facilities have selected mass burn systems. Mass burning generally refers to the direct feeding and combustion of municipal solid waste in a furnace without any significant waste preprocessing. The only materials typically removed from the waste stream prior to combustion are large bulky objects and potentially hazardous or undesirable wastes. The technology has evolved over the last 100 or so years from simple incineration to the most highly developed and commercially proven process available for both reducing the volume of MSW and for recovering energy in the forms of steam and electricity. In general, mass burn plants are considered to operate reliably with high availability.

  3. COMPARISON OF AIR POLLUTANT EMISSIONS FROM VAPORIZING AND AIR ATOMIZING WASTE OIL HEATERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper gives results of a characterization of gaseous and particulate emissions and vaporizing pot solid residues resulting from the combustion of waste crankcase oil in space heaters. Two types of waste oil burners were tested: a vaporizing oil burner rated at 35.2 kW, and an...

  4. Municipal Solid Waste Landfills Harbor Distinct Microbiomes.

    PubMed

    Stamps, Blake W; Lyles, Christopher N; Suflita, Joseph M; Masoner, Jason R; Cozzarelli, Isabelle M; Kolpin, Dana W; Stevenson, Bradley S

    2016-01-01

    Landfills are the final repository for most of the discarded material from human society and its "built environments." Microorganisms subsequently degrade this discarded material in the landfill, releasing gases (largely CH4 and CO2) and a complex mixture of soluble chemical compounds in leachate. Characterization of "landfill microbiomes" and their comparison across several landfills should allow the identification of environmental or operational properties that influence the composition of these microbiomes and potentially their biodegradation capabilities. To this end, the composition of landfill microbiomes was characterized as part of an ongoing USGS national survey studying the chemical composition of leachates from 19 non-hazardous landfills across 16 states in the continental U.S. The landfills varied in parameters such as size, waste composition, management strategy, geography, and climate zone. The diversity and composition of bacterial and archaeal populations in leachate samples were characterized by 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, and compared against a variety of physical and chemical parameters in an attempt to identify their impact on selection. Members of the Epsilonproteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria, Clostridia, and candidate division OP3 were the most abundant. The distribution of the observed phylogenetic diversity could best be explained by a combination of variables and was correlated most strongly with the concentrations of chloride and barium, rate of evapotranspiration, age of waste, and the number of detected household chemicals. This study illustrates how leachate microbiomes are distinct from those of other natural or built environments, and sheds light on the major selective forces responsible for this microbial diversity. PMID:27148222

  5. Municipal Solid Waste Landfills Harbor Distinct Microbiomes

    PubMed Central

    Stamps, Blake W.; Lyles, Christopher N.; Suflita, Joseph M.; Masoner, Jason R.; Cozzarelli, Isabelle M.; Kolpin, Dana W.; Stevenson, Bradley S.

    2016-01-01

    Landfills are the final repository for most of the discarded material from human society and its “built environments.” Microorganisms subsequently degrade this discarded material in the landfill, releasing gases (largely CH4 and CO2) and a complex mixture of soluble chemical compounds in leachate. Characterization of “landfill microbiomes” and their comparison across several landfills should allow the identification of environmental or operational properties that influence the composition of these microbiomes and potentially their biodegradation capabilities. To this end, the composition of landfill microbiomes was characterized as part of an ongoing USGS national survey studying the chemical composition of leachates from 19 non-hazardous landfills across 16 states in the continental U.S. The landfills varied in parameters such as size, waste composition, management strategy, geography, and climate zone. The diversity and composition of bacterial and archaeal populations in leachate samples were characterized by 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, and compared against a variety of physical and chemical parameters in an attempt to identify their impact on selection. Members of the Epsilonproteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria, Clostridia, and candidate division OP3 were the most abundant. The distribution of the observed phylogenetic diversity could best be explained by a combination of variables and was correlated most strongly with the concentrations of chloride and barium, rate of evapotranspiration, age of waste, and the number of detected household chemicals. This study illustrates how leachate microbiomes are distinct from those of other natural or built environments, and sheds light on the major selective forces responsible for this microbial diversity. PMID:27148222

  6. Method of draining water through a solid waste site without leaching

    DOEpatents

    Treat, Russell L.; Gee, Glendon W.; Whyatt, Greg A.

    1993-01-01

    The present invention is a method of preventing water from leaching solid waste sites by preventing atmospheric precipitation from contacting waste as the water flows through a solid waste site. The method comprises placing at least one drain hole through the solid waste site. The drain hole is seated to prevent waste material from entering the drain hole, and the solid waste site cover material is layered and graded to direct water to flow toward the drain hole and to soil beneath the waste site.

  7. Method of draining water through a solid waste site without leaching

    DOEpatents

    Treat, R.L.; Gee, G.W.; Whyatt, G.A.

    1993-02-02

    The present invention is a method of preventing water from leaching solid waste sites by preventing atmospheric precipitation from contacting waste as the water flows through a solid waste site. The method comprises placing at least one drain hole through the solid waste site. The drain hole is seated to prevent waste material from entering the drain hole, and the solid waste site cover material is layered and graded to direct water to flow toward the drain hole and to soil beneath the waste site.

  8. CONTROLLING SO2 EMISSIONS FROM COAL-FIRED STEAM-ELECTRIC GENERATORS: SOLID WASTE IMPACT. VOLUME II. TECHNICAL DISCUSSION

    EPA Science Inventory

    ;Contents: Summary--(Quantification of solid wastes, Characterization of untreated wastes, Potential environmental impact, Waste disposal, Utilization, Economics); Quantification of solid wastes--(Basis for the study, Implications of current and stricter NSPS emissions regulation...

  9. Municipal solid waste generation in municipalities: quantifying impacts of household structure, commercial waste and domestic fuel.

    PubMed

    Lebersorger, S; Beigl, P

    2011-01-01

    Waste management planning requires reliable data concerning waste generation, influencing factors on waste generation and forecasts of waste quantities based on facts. This paper aims at identifying and quantifying differences between different municipalities' municipal solid waste (MSW) collection quantities based on data from waste management and on socio-economic indicators. A large set of 116 indicators from 542 municipalities in the Province of Styria was investigated. The resulting regression model included municipal tax revenue per capita, household size and the percentage of buildings with solid fuel heating systems. The model explains 74.3% of the MSW variation and the model assumptions are met. Other factors such as tourism, home composting or age distribution of the population did not significantly improve the model. According to the model, 21% of MSW collected in Styria was commercial waste and 18% of the generated MSW was burned in domestic heating systems. While the percentage of commercial waste is consistent with literature data, practically no literature data are available for the quantity of MSW burned, which seems to be overestimated by the model. The resulting regression model was used as basis for a waste prognosis model (Beigl and Lebersorger, in preparation). PMID:21689921

  10. Municipal solid waste generation in municipalities: Quantifying impacts of household structure, commercial waste and domestic fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Lebersorger, S.; Beigl, P.

    2011-09-15

    Waste management planning requires reliable data concerning waste generation, influencing factors on waste generation and forecasts of waste quantities based on facts. This paper aims at identifying and quantifying differences between different municipalities' municipal solid waste (MSW) collection quantities based on data from waste management and on socio-economic indicators. A large set of 116 indicators from 542 municipalities in the Province of Styria was investigated. The resulting regression model included municipal tax revenue per capita, household size and the percentage of buildings with solid fuel heating systems. The model explains 74.3% of the MSW variation and the model assumptions are met. Other factors such as tourism, home composting or age distribution of the population did not significantly improve the model. According to the model, 21% of MSW collected in Styria was commercial waste and 18% of the generated MSW was burned in domestic heating systems. While the percentage of commercial waste is consistent with literature data, practically no literature data are available for the quantity of MSW burned, which seems to be overestimated by the model. The resulting regression model was used as basis for a waste prognosis model (Beigl and Lebersorger, in preparation).

  11. [Hygienic aspects of the impact of solid waste disposal sites on the habitat].

    PubMed

    Prokhorov, N I; Drozdova, T V

    2004-01-01

    The "Dmitrovsky" solid garbage (SG) ground is one of the largest enterprises of this kind in the Moscow Region. A total of 200,000-750,000 tons of solid garbage (91%) and industrial waste products (9%) annually come to the ground. A total of 5,500,000 tons of garbage and waste products have been accumulated since it was put into operation. From the accumulated SG deposits, iron, manganese, beryllium, titanium, barium, boron, petroleum products enter the surface and underground waters, methane, carbon oxide, ammonia, toluene, xylene, hydrogen sulfide, cresol, phenol come into the atmospheric air; the compounds of zinc, lead, cadmium, copper, nickel, magnesium, and cobalt do into the soil. The studies conducted in 1997-2002 make it possible to establish that the ground has a negative impact on the environment and to evaluate the efficiency of nature-conservation and hygienic measures, and to improve the technological process of SG utilization. PMID:15197847

  12. Comparison of aerobic and anaerobic degradation of municipal solid waste in bioreactor landfills.

    PubMed

    Erses, A Suna; Onay, Turgut T; Yenigun, Orhan

    2008-09-01

    Two landfill bioreactors were operated under aerobic and anaerobic conditions in a thermo-insulated room at a constant temperature of 32 degrees C. Reactors were filled with 19.5 kg of shredded synthetic solid waste prepared according to the average municipal solid waste compositions determined in Istanbul and operated under wet-tomb management strategy by using leachate recirculation. Aerobic conditions in the reactor were developed by using an air compressor. The results of experiments indicated that aerobic reactor had higher organic, nitrogen, phosphorus and alkali metal removal efficiencies than the anaerobic one. Furthermore, stabilization time considerably decreased when using aerobic processes with leachate recirculation compared to the anaerobic system with the same recirculation scheme. PMID:18082400

  13. System and method for removing contaminants from solid surfaces and decontaminating waste

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, T.L.; Geiss, A.J.; Grieco, S.; Neubauer, E.D.; Rhea, J.R.

    1995-10-10

    A method and system are disclosed for removing a surface layer contaminated with radioactive and/or hazardous material and subsequently treating the waste to remove contaminants and provide an essentially contaminant-free final effluent. The contaminated material is removed by blasting the surface with a pressurized stream of air and sodium bicarbonate abrasive media, and the media is dissolved in water subsequent to the blasting operation. The resulting waste is treated in a sequence of steps including adjustment of pH, aeration and separation into primarily solid and liquid phases by precipitation of solids, which are removed for appropriate disposal. The primarily liquid phase is successively passed through a particle filter, a granulated activated carbon filter and a polishing unit to produce the clean final effluent. 1 fig.

  14. 40 CFR 1.47 - Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Office of Solid Waste and Emergency... ORGANIZATION AND GENERAL INFORMATION Headquarters § 1.47 Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response. The Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response (OSWER), under the supervision of the...

  15. 40 CFR 1.47 - Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Office of Solid Waste and Emergency... ORGANIZATION AND GENERAL INFORMATION Headquarters § 1.47 Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response. The Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response (OSWER), under the supervision of the...

  16. 40 CFR 22.37 - Supplemental rules governing administrative proceedings under the Solid Waste Disposal Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... administrative proceedings under the Solid Waste Disposal Act. 22.37 Section 22.37 Protection of Environment... Supplemental rules governing administrative proceedings under the Solid Waste Disposal Act. (a) Scope. This... sections 3005(d) and (e), 3008, 9003 and 9006 of the Solid Waste Disposal Act (42 U.S.C. 6925(d) and...

  17. 40 CFR 258.16 - Closure of existing municipal solid waste landfill units.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES CRITERIA FOR MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE LANDFILLS Location Restrictions § 258.16 Closure of existing municipal solid waste landfill units. (a) Existing MSWLF units that cannot make the... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Closure of existing municipal...

  18. 40 CFR 62.14353 - Standards for municipal solid waste landfill emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 8 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Standards for municipal solid waste... POLLUTANTS Federal Plan Requirements for Municipal Solid Waste Landfills That Commenced Construction Prior to... municipal solid waste landfill emissions. (a) The owner or operator of a designated facility having a...

  19. 40 CFR 62.14353 - Standards for municipal solid waste landfill emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standards for municipal solid waste... POLLUTANTS Federal Plan Requirements for Municipal Solid Waste Landfills That Commenced Construction Prior to... municipal solid waste landfill emissions. (a) The owner or operator of a designated facility having a...

  20. 40 CFR 256.02 - Scope of the State solid waste management plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Scope of the State solid waste management plan. 256.02 Section 256.02 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES GUIDELINES FOR DEVELOPMENT AND IMPLEMENTATION OF STATE SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT PLANS Purpose, General Requirements, Definitions §...

  1. 40 CFR 256.02 - Scope of the State solid waste management plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Scope of the State solid waste management plan. 256.02 Section 256.02 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES GUIDELINES FOR DEVELOPMENT AND IMPLEMENTATION OF STATE SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT PLANS Purpose, General Requirements, Definitions §...

  2. 40 CFR 22.37 - Supplemental rules governing administrative proceedings under the Solid Waste Disposal Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... administrative proceedings under the Solid Waste Disposal Act. 22.37 Section 22.37 Protection of Environment... Supplemental rules governing administrative proceedings under the Solid Waste Disposal Act. (a) Scope. This... sections 3005(d) and (e), 3008, 9003 and 9006 of the Solid Waste Disposal Act (42 U.S.C. 6925(d) and...

  3. 40 CFR 262.215 - Unwanted material that is not solid or hazardous waste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Unwanted material that is not solid or... (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS APPLICABLE TO GENERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE Alternative... Eligible Academic Entities § 262.215 Unwanted material that is not solid or hazardous waste. (a) If...

  4. 40 CFR 262.215 - Unwanted material that is not solid or hazardous waste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Unwanted material that is not solid or... (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS APPLICABLE TO GENERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE Alternative... Eligible Academic Entities § 262.215 Unwanted material that is not solid or hazardous waste. (a) If...

  5. 40 CFR 22.37 - Supplemental rules governing administrative proceedings under the Solid Waste Disposal Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... administrative proceedings under the Solid Waste Disposal Act. 22.37 Section 22.37 Protection of Environment... Supplemental rules governing administrative proceedings under the Solid Waste Disposal Act. (a) Scope. This... sections 3005(d) and (e), 3008, 9003 and 9006 of the Solid Waste Disposal Act (42 U.S.C. 6925(d) and...

  6. 40 CFR 262.215 - Unwanted material that is not solid or hazardous waste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Unwanted material that is not solid or... (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS APPLICABLE TO GENERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE Alternative... Eligible Academic Entities § 262.215 Unwanted material that is not solid or hazardous waste. (a) If...

  7. 40 CFR 262.215 - Unwanted material that is not solid or hazardous waste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Unwanted material that is not solid or... (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS APPLICABLE TO GENERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE Alternative... Eligible Academic Entities § 262.215 Unwanted material that is not solid or hazardous waste. (a) If...

  8. 40 CFR 22.37 - Supplemental rules governing administrative proceedings under the Solid Waste Disposal Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... administrative proceedings under the Solid Waste Disposal Act. 22.37 Section 22.37 Protection of Environment... Supplemental rules governing administrative proceedings under the Solid Waste Disposal Act. (a) Scope. This... sections 3005(d) and (e), 3008, 9003 and 9006 of the Solid Waste Disposal Act (42 U.S.C. 6925(d) and...

  9. Solid-waste management in Jalandhar city and its impact on community health

    PubMed Central

    Puri, Avinash; Kumar, Manoj; Johal, Eonkar

    2008-01-01

    In this study, solid-waste management practices were evaluated in order to find out its link with occurrence of vector-borne disease. Strategies for solid-waste management were employed as practical model to solve the problems regarding pollution which is originated by solid-waste. PMID:20040983

  10. Planet Patrol. An Environmental Unit on Solid Waste Solutions for Grades 4-6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Procter and Gamble Educational Services, Cincinnati, OH.

    This classroom unit was developed for use in grades 4-6 to help teach the concept of solid waste management. The teacher's guide provides an overview of the issue of solid waste disposal, a description of government, industry, and consumer roles in resolving the solid waste issue, and four lessons involving sanitary landfills, the reduction of…

  11. 40 CFR 1.47 - Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response. 1.47 Section 1.47 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL STATEMENT OF ORGANIZATION AND GENERAL INFORMATION Headquarters § 1.47 Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response. The Office of Solid Waste and...

  12. 40 CFR 1.47 - Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response. 1.47 Section 1.47 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL STATEMENT OF ORGANIZATION AND GENERAL INFORMATION Headquarters § 1.47 Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response. The Office of Solid Waste and...

  13. 40 CFR 1.47 - Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response. 1.47 Section 1.47 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL STATEMENT OF ORGANIZATION AND GENERAL INFORMATION Headquarters § 1.47 Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response. The Office of Solid Waste and...

  14. 75 FR 53268 - Adequacy of New Hampshire Municipal Solid Waste Landfill Permit Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-31

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Parts 239 and 258 Adequacy of New Hampshire Municipal Solid Waste Landfill Permit Program... approve New Hampshire's modification of its approved Municipal Solid Waste Landfill Program. On March 22... be issued to certain municipal solid waste landfills by approved states. On June 28, 2010...

  15. 77 FR 65875 - Adequacy of Arizona Municipal Solid Waste Landfill Permit Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-31

    ... AGENCY Adequacy of Arizona Municipal Solid Waste Landfill Permit Program AGENCY: Environmental Protection... determination to approve a modification to Arizona's municipal solid waste landfill (MSWLF) permit program to... amending the municipal solid waste landfill criteria at 40 CFR 258.4 to allow for Research,...

  16. 76 FR 9772 - Adequacy of Arizona Municipal Solid Waste Landfill Permit Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-22

    ... AGENCY Adequacy of Arizona Municipal Solid Waste Landfill Permit Program AGENCY: Environmental Protection... municipal solid waste landfill (MSWLF) permit program to allow the State to issue research, development, and.... Background On March 22, 2004, EPA issued a final rule amending the municipal solid waste landfill criteria...

  17. 78 FR 20073 - Adequacy of Oregon's Municipal Solid Waste Landfill Permit Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-03

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Parts 239 and 258 Adequacy of Oregon's Municipal Solid Waste Landfill Permit Program AGENCY... modification to the State of Oregon's approved Municipal Solid Waste Landfill Program. On March 22, 2004, EPA... certain municipal solid waste landfills by approved states. On June 14, 2012, Oregon submitted...

  18. 78 FR 5350 - Adequacy of Massachusetts Municipal Solid Waste Landfill Permit Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-25

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Parts 239 and 258 Adequacy of Massachusetts Municipal Solid Waste Landfill Permit Program... approve Massachusetts's modification of its approved Municipal Solid Waste Landfill Program. On March 22... be issued to certain municipal solid waste landfills by approved states. On December 7,...

  19. Attitudes of Preservice Social Studies Teachers towards Solid Wastes and Recycle

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karatekin, Kadir; Merey, Zihni

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study is to determine the attitudes of preservice social studies-teachers towards solid wastes and recycle. This study used the screening model, In order to determine the attitudes of preservice teachers towards solid wastes and recycle, we used the "Scale for the Attitudes of Preservice Teachers towards Solid Wastes and…

  20. 76 FR 55256 - Definition of Solid Waste Disposal Facilities for Tax-Exempt Bond Purposes; Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-07

    ... Internal Revenue Service 26 CFR Part 1 RIN 1545-BD04 Definition of Solid Waste Disposal Facilities for Tax... published in the Federal Register on Friday, August 19, 2011, on the definition of solid waste disposal... solid waste disposal facilities and to taxpayers that use those facilities. DATES: This correction...

  1. 75 FR 53220 - Adequacy of New Hampshire Municipal Solid Waste Landfill Permit Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-31

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Parts 239 and 258 Adequacy of New Hampshire Municipal Solid Waste Landfill Permit Program... modification to New Hampshire's approved municipal solid waste landfill (MSWLF) program. The approved... March 22, 2004, EPA issued a final rule amending the municipal solid waste landfill criteria in 40...

  2. 78 FR 20035 - Adequacy of Oregon Municipal Solid Waste Landfill Permit Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-03

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Parts 239 and 258 Adequacy of Oregon Municipal Solid Waste Landfill Permit Program AGENCY... to the State of Oregon's approved Municipal Solid Waste Landfill (MSWLF) permit program. The approved... regulations allowing RD&D Permits to be issued to certain municipal solid waste landfills by approved...

  3. Solid waste management challenges for cities in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Guerrero, Lilliana Abarca; Maas, Ger; Hogland, William

    2013-01-01

    Solid waste management is a challenge for the cities' authorities in developing countries mainly due to the increasing generation of waste, the burden posed on the municipal budget as a result of the high costs associated to its management, the lack of understanding over a diversity of factors that affect the different stages of waste management and linkages necessary to enable the entire handling system functioning. An analysis of literature on the work done and reported mainly in publications from 2005 to 2011, related to waste management in developing countries, showed that few articles give quantitative information. The analysis was conducted in two of the major scientific journals, Waste Management Journal and Waste Management and Research. The objective of this research was to determine the stakeholders' action/behavior that have a role in the waste management process and to analyze influential factors on the system, in more than thirty urban areas in 22 developing countries in 4 continents. A combination of methods was used in this study in order to assess the stakeholders and the factors influencing the performance of waste management in the cities. Data was collected from scientific literature, existing data bases, observations made during visits to urban areas, structured interviews with relevant professionals, exercises provided to participants in workshops and a questionnaire applied to stakeholders. Descriptive and inferential statistic methods were used to draw conclusions. The outcomes of the research are a comprehensive list of stakeholders that are relevant in the waste management systems and a set of factors that reveal the most important causes for the systems' failure. The information provided is very useful when planning, changing or implementing waste management systems in cities. PMID:23098815

  4. Solid-phase fluorescence spectroscopy to characterize organic wastes.

    PubMed

    Muller, Mathieu; Milori, Débora Marcondes Bastos Pereira; Déléris, Stéphane; Steyer, Jean-Philippe; Dudal, Yves

    2011-01-01

    The production of solid organic waste (SOW) such as sewage sludge (SS) or municipal solid waste (MSW) has been continuously increasing in Europe since the beginning of the 1990'. Today, the European Union encourages the stabilization of these wastes using biologic processes such as anaerobic digestion and/or composting to produce bio-energy and organic fertilizers. However, the design and management of such biologic processes require knowledge about the quantity and quality of the organic matter (OM) contained in the SOW. The current methods to characterize SOW are tedious, time-consuming and often insufficiently informative. In this paper, we assess the potential of solid-phase fluorescence (SPF) spectroscopy to quickly provide a relevant characterization of SOW. First, we tested well known model compounds (tryptophan, bovine serum albumin, lignin and humic acid) and biologic matrix (Escherichia coli) in three dimensional solid-phase fluorescence (3D-SPF) spectroscopy. We recorded fluorescence spectra from proteinaceous samples but we could not record the fluorescence emitted by lignin and humic acid powders. For SOW samples, fluorescence spectra were successfully recorded for MSW and most of its sub-components (foods, cardboard) but impossible for SS, sludge compost (SC) and ligno-cellulosic wastes. Based on visual observations and additional assays, we concluded that the presence of highly light-absorptive chemical structures in such dark-colored samples was responsible for this limitation. For such samples, i.e. lignin, humic acid, SS, SC and ligno-cellulosic wastes, we show that laser induced fluorescence (LIF) spectroscopy enables the acquisition of 2D fluorescence spectra. PMID:21696938

  5. Logistics modeling of future solid waste storage, treatment, and disposal

    SciTech Connect

    Holter, G.M.; Stiles, D.L.; Shaver, S.R.; Armacost, L.L.

    1993-11-01

    Logistics modeling is a powerful analytical technique for effective planning of waste storage, treatment, and disposal activities. Logistics modeling facilitates analyses of alternate scenarios for future waste flows, facility schedules, and processing or handling capacities. These analyses provide an increased understanding of the specific needs for waste storage, treatment, and disposal while adequate time remains to plan accordingly. They also help to determine the sensitivity of these needs to various system parameters. This paper discusses a logistics modeling system developed by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to aid in solid waste planning for a large industrial complex managing many different types and classifications of waste. The basic needs for such a system are outlined, and the approach adopted in developing the system is described. A key component of this approach is the development of a conceptual model that provides a flexible framework for modeling the waste management system and addressing the range of logistics and economic issues involved. Developing an adequate description of the waste management system being analyzed is discussed. Examples are then provided of the types of analyses that have been conducted. The potential application of this modeling system to different settings is also examined.

  6. Chemical changes during vermicomposting of sago industry solid wastes.

    PubMed

    Subramanian, Selvi; Sivarajan, M; Saravanapriya, S

    2010-07-15

    A laboratory study was undertaken to examine the temporal changes in physico-chemical properties during vermicomposting of sago industry waste. The sago industry waste was blended with cow dung, poultry manure at various proportions, kept for pre-treatment for 21 days and subsequently vermicomposted for a period of 45 days under shade. Earthworm species (Eisenia foetida) was introduced at the rate of 50 g/kg of waste. The substrate moisture content and temperature were monitored regularly. The vermicomposts were sampled at 0, 15, 30 and 45 days for the assessment of temporal changes in physico-chemical properties. The data revealed vermicomposting of sago wastes, cow dung and poultry manure mixed at equal proportion (1:1:1) produced a superior quality manure with desirable C:N ratio and higher nutritional status than composting. E. foetida is an earthworm suitable for composting organic wastes such as poultry manure with extreme pH and high temperature and sago waste with high organic carbon in a shorter period of time. This study suggests that the sago industry solid waste could be effectively converted into highly valuable manure that can be exploited to promote crop production. PMID:20359816

  7. Flight test of an improved solid waste collection system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thornton, W.; Brasseaux, H.; Whitmore, H.

    1991-01-01

    A system for human waste collection is described and evaluated on the basis of a prototype employed for the shuttle flight STS-35. The manually operated version of the unit is designed to collect, compact, and store human waste and cleaning material in replaceable volumes. The system is presented with illustrations and descriptions of the disposable pads that are used to clean the cylinder and occlusive air valves as well as seal the unit. Temporary retention and waste entrainment are provided by the variable airflow in the manual unit tested. The prototype testing indicates that sufficient airflow is achieved at 45 CFM and that the stowage volume (18.7 cu in.) is adequate for storing human waste with minimal logistical support. Higher compaction pressure and the use of a directed airstream are proposed for improving the packing efficiency of the unit.

  8. Atmospheric pollution problems and control proposals associated with solid waste management in China: a review.

    PubMed

    Tian, Hezhong; Gao, Jiajia; Hao, Jiming; Lu, Long; Zhu, Chuanyong; Qiu, Peipei

    2013-05-15

    Along with population growth, rapid urbanization and industrialization process, the volume of municipal solid waste (MSW) generation in China has been increasing sharply in the past 30 years and the total amount of MSW yields will continue to increase. Nowadays, due to global warming warrants particular attention throughout the world, a series of air pollutants (including greenhouse gases, odorous gases, PCDD/Fs, heavy metals, PM, etc.) discharged from waste disposal and treatment processes have become one of the new significant emerging air pollution sources, which arousing great concerns about their adverse effects on surrounding ambient air quality and public health. At present, the overall safely disposed ratio of the collected MSW in China is reported at approximately 78% in 2010, and there are mainly three types of MSW disposal methods practiced in China, including landfill, composting and incineration. The characteristics of air pollutants and greenhouse gases discharge vary substantially among different MSW disposal methods. By presenting a thorough review of MSW generation in China and providing a summarization of the current status of MSW disposal methods practices, this review article makes an integrated overview analysis of existing air pollution problems associated with MSW collection, separation, and disposal processes. Furthermore, some comprehensive control proposals to prevent air pollution for improving MSW management of China in the future are put forward. PMID:23500797

  9. Solid waste operations complex engineering verification program plan

    SciTech Connect

    Bergeson, C.L.

    1994-09-28

    This plan supersedes, but does not replace, the previous Waste Receiving and Processing/Solid Waste Engineering Development Program Plan. In doing this, it does not repeat the basic definitions of the various types or classes of development activities nor provide the rigorous written description of each facility and assign the equipment to development classes. The methodology described in the previous document is still valid and was used to determine the types of verification efforts required. This Engineering Verification Program Plan will be updated on a yearly basis. This EVPP provides programmatic definition of all engineering verification activities for the following SWOC projects: (1) Project W-026 - Waste Receiving and Processing Facility Module 1; (2) Project W-100 - Waste Receiving and Processing Facility Module 2A; (3) Project W-112 - Phase V Storage Facility; and (4) Project W-113 - Solid Waste Retrieval. No engineering verification activities are defined for Project W-112 as no verification work was identified. The Acceptance Test Procedures/Operational Test Procedures will be part of each project`s Title III operation test efforts. The ATPs/OTPs are not covered by this EVPP.

  10. Approximate cost functions for solid waste treatment facilities.

    PubMed

    Tsilemou, Konstantinia; Panagiotakopoulos, Demetrios

    2006-08-01

    Cost estimation is a basic requirement for planning municipal solid waste management systems. The variety of organizational, financial and management schemes and the continuously developing technological advancements render the economic analysis a complex task, made more complex by the scarcity of real cost data. The objectives of this paper were: (1) to explore the problems arising in getting cost estimates from scattered and limited published data; (2) to suggest a procedure for generating cost functions relating initial set-up cost and operating cost with facility size; and (3) to present such cost functions, relevant to European states, for selected types of solid waste treatment and disposal facilities. Regarding the problems of available scarce data, one needs to deal with cost figures which correspond to facilities with variations in size, technology, year of construction, working conditions, level of technological automation, environmental impacts, social acceptance, capacity utilization rate, composition of inflowing waste, waste management policies, degree of compliance with quality standards, etc. The paper addresses this issue and discusses the proper use of statistical analyses in such cases of fragmented data; moreover, it points out some usual misuses of statistics by analysts and the danger of getting erroneous results. The suggested process for generating cost functions acceptable to the decision-makers is pivoted around the question of acceptable approximation level. Finally, approximate cost curves are suggested for waste-to-energy facilities, landfilling facilities, anaerobic digestion facilities and composting facilities. PMID:16941990

  11. Data summary of municipal solid waste management alternatives

    SciTech Connect

    Gupta, Bimleshwar; Shepherd, Philip

    1992-10-01

    The enthusiasm for and commitment to recycling of municipal solid wastes is based on several intuitive benefits: Conservation of landfill capacity; Conservation of non-renewable natural resources and energy sources; Minimization of the perceived potential environmental impacts of MSW combustion and landfilling; Minimization of disposal costs, both directly and through material resale credits. In this discussion, recycling'' refers to materials recovered from the waste stream. It excludes scrap materials that are recovered and reused during industrial manufacturing processes and prompt industrial scrap. Materials recycling is an integral part of several solid waste management options. For example, in the preparation of refuse-derived fuel (RDF), ferrous metals are typically removed from the waste stream both before and after shredding. Similarly, composting facilities, often include processes for recovering inert recyclable materials such as ferrous and nonferrous metals, glass, Plastics, and paper. While these two technologies have as their primary objectives the production of RDF and compost, respectively, the demonstrated recovery of recyclables emphasizes the inherent compatibility of recycling with these MSW management strategies. This appendix discusses several technology options with regard to separating recyclables at the source of generation, the methods available for collecting and transporting these materials to a MRF, the market requirements for post-consumer recycled materials, and the process unit operations. Mixed waste MRFs associated with mass bum plants are also presented.

  12. Codisposal of oil wastes with Domestic solid wastes in landfills: leaching and persistence of oil

    SciTech Connect

    Barber, C.; Bull, S.C.; Johnson, R.G.; Maris, P.J.

    1983-03-01

    Controlled landfill offers a possible alternative for the disposal of oily wastes, and research has been carried out to assess the impact of these practices using laboratory simulations and a site study. These studies showed that oil emulsions were rapidly broken down to free oil and an associated aqueous phase in the landfill. The oil was readily sorbed by domestic waste solids, whereas the aqueous phase was flushed out with leachate. Concentrations of oil in leachate were, in most cases, similar to those found in leachate from domestic wastes only. It was probable that under anaerobic conditions in the fill, oil was not significantly degraded by microorganisms, small losses of oil being mainly due to leaching. It is concluded that water pollution (surface or groundwater) from the disposal of small volumes of oily wastes with domestic wastes will not be significantly greater than pollution by leachates from domestic wastes only.

  13. Successful recycling for sludge and solid waste

    SciTech Connect

    Kovacik, T.L.

    1987-01-01

    We have mixed digested primary sewage sludge with undigested, thickened waste activated sludge, dewatered in polymer conditioned belt presses, and add lime and cement kiln dust in post press operations. For at least seven days the combined mixture is aerated. The product is far more community acceptable than traditional sludge cake, and is clearly environmentally safe and meets the most stringent new regulatory controls. Even when the kiln dust treated sludge was stressed to a pH of 4, which is far more acidic than would be expected in agricultural soils, the sludge/kiln dust mixture easily met EPA criteria. The process results in a reduction in the weight and in the volume of material. In our Sylvania Pilot Project, 555 tons of sludge were treated with 178 tons of kiln dust, resulting in 504 tons of finished product - a 10% reduction in sludge weight and a far greater reduction in sludge volume. The product can be stored for long periods of time without deterioration. Thus, we see a process that requires about seven days for total treatment. We see a process with limited capital requirements. We see a process with operating costs at or below traditional PSRP processes and far less than alternative PFRP options. We see a community acceptable, storable, nearly odorless, granular, pasteurized product that provides built in protection against pathogen regrowth, odors, and the migration of toxic compounds. We see a product that has multiple market options. The N-Viro Soil product optimizes the nutrient values of sludge, provides potassium, sulphur, and even trace minerals from kiln dust and provides sufficient calcium carbonate to provide both liming and long-term soil calcium requirements. This combination is attractive to agricultural interests, is ideal for reclamation projects or landfill cover materials, and is an excellent landscape fertilizer and soil conditioner.

  14. Bio-pretreatment of municipal solid waste prior to landfilling and its kinetics.

    PubMed

    Mahar, Rasool Bux; Liu, Jianguo; Li, Huan; Nie, Yongfeng

    2009-06-01

    The conventional landfilling does not promote sustainable waste management due to uncontrolled emissions which potentially degrade the environment. Pretreatment of municipal solid waste prior to landfilling significantly enhances waste stabilization, reduces the emissions and provides many advantages. Therefore, pretreatment of municipal solid waste methods were investigated. The major objectives of biological pretreatment are to degrade most easily degradable organic matters of MSW in a short duration under controlled conditions so as to produce desired quality for landfill. To investigate the suitable pretreatment method prior to landfilling for developing countries four pretreatment simulators were developed in the laboratory: (i) anaerobic simulator (R(1)), (ii) aerobic pretreatment simulator by natural convection of air (R(2)), (iii) aerobic pretreatment simulator by natural convection of air with leachate recirculation (R(3)) and (iv) forced aeration and leachate recirculation (R(4)). During the pretreatment organic matter, elemental composition, i.e., carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen and settlement were determined for bench scale experiments. A two-component kinetic model is proposed for the biodegradation of organic matter. Biodegradation kinetic constants were determined for readily and slowly degradable organic matter. The biodegradation of organic matter efficiency in terms of kinetic rate constants for the pretreatment simulators was observed as R(4) > R(3) > R(2) > R(1). Biodegradation rate constants for readily degradable matter in simulators R(4) and R(3) were 0.225 and 0.222 per day. R(3) and R(4) simulators were more effective in reducing methane emissions about 45% and 55%, respectively, as compared to anaerobic simulator R(1). Pretreatment of MSW, by natural convection of air with leachate recirculation R(3) is sustainable method to reduce the emissions and to stabilize the waste prior to landfilling. PMID:18923914

  15. A LABORATORY STUDY TO INVESTIGATE GASEOUS EMISSIONS AND SOLIDS DECOMPOSITION DURING COMPOSTING OF MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of a materials flow analysis performed for composting municipal solid waste (MSW) and specific biodegradable organic components of MSW. (NOTE: This work is part of an overall U.S. EPA project providing cost, energy, and materials flow information on diffe...

  16. Forecasting municipal solid waste generation using prognostic tools and regression analysis.

    PubMed

    Ghinea, Cristina; Drăgoi, Elena Niculina; Comăniţă, Elena-Diana; Gavrilescu, Marius; Câmpean, Teofil; Curteanu, Silvia; Gavrilescu, Maria

    2016-11-01

    For an adequate planning of waste management systems the accurate forecast of waste generation is an essential step, since various factors can affect waste trends. The application of predictive and prognosis models are useful tools, as reliable support for decision making processes. In this paper some indicators such as: number of residents, population age, urban life expectancy, total municipal solid waste were used as input variables in prognostic models in order to predict the amount of solid waste fractions. We applied Waste Prognostic Tool, regression analysis and time series analysis to forecast municipal solid waste generation and composition by considering the Iasi Romania case study. Regression equations were determined for six solid waste fractions (paper, plastic, metal, glass, biodegradable and other waste). Accuracy Measures were calculated and the results showed that S-curve trend model is the most suitable for municipal solid waste (MSW) prediction. PMID:27454099

  17. Privatization of solid waste collection services: Lessons from Gaborone

    SciTech Connect

    Bolaane, Benjamin Isaac, Emmanuel

    2015-06-15

    Highlights: • We compared efficiency and effectiveness of waste collection by the public and private sector. • Public sector performs better than private sector in some areas and vice versa. • Outsourcing waste collection in developing countries is hindered by limited capacity on contractual issues. • Outsourcing collection in developing countries is hampered by inadequate waste information. • There is need to build capacity in the public sector of developing countries to support outsourcing. - Abstract: Formal privatization of solid waste collection activities has often been flagged as a suitable intervention for some of the challenges of solid waste management experienced by developing countries. Proponents of outsourcing collection to the private sector argue that in contrast to the public sector, it is more effective and efficient in delivering services. This essay is a comparative case study of efficiency and effectiveness attributes between the public and the formal private sector, in relation to the collection of commercial waste in Gaborone. The paper is based on analysis of secondary data and key informant interviews. It was found that while, the private sector performed comparatively well in most of the chosen indicators of efficiency and effectiveness, the public sector also had areas where it had a competitive advantage. For instance, the private sector used the collection crew more efficiently, while the public sector was found to have a more reliable workforce. The study recommends that, while formal private sector participation in waste collection has some positive effects in terms of quality of service rendered, in most developing countries, it has to be enhanced by building sufficient capacity within the public sector on information about services contracted out and evaluation of performance criteria within the contracting process.

  18. Continuous high-solids anaerobic co-digestion of organic solid wastes under mesophilic conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Dong-Hoon; Oh, Sae-Eun

    2011-09-15

    Highlights: > High-solids (dry) anaerobic digestion is attracting a lot of attention these days. > One reactor was fed with food waste (FW) and paper waste. > Maximum biogas production rate of 5.0 m{sup 3}/m{sup 3}/d was achieved at HRT 40 d and 40% TS. > The other reactor was fed with FW and livestock waste (LW). > Until a 40% LW content increase, the reactor exhibited a stable performance. - Abstract: With increasing concerns over the limited capacity of landfills, conservation of resources, and reduction of CO{sub 2} emissions, high-solids (dry) anaerobic digestion of organic solid waste (OSW) is attracting a great deal of attention these days. In the present work, two dry anaerobic co-digestion systems fed with different mixtures of OSW were continuously operated under mesophilic conditions. Dewatered sludge cake was used as a main seeding source. In reactor (I), which was fed with food waste (FW) and paper waste (PW), hydraulic retention time (HRT) and solid content were controlled to find the maximum treatability. At a fixed solid content of 30% total solids (TS), stable performance was maintained up to an HRT decrease to 40 d. However, the stable performance was not sustained at 30 d HRT, and hence, HRT was increased to 40 d again. In further operation, instead of decreasing HRT, solid content was increased to 40% TS, which was found to be a better option to increase the treatability. The biogas production rate (BPR), CH{sub 4} production yield (MPY) and VS reduction achieved in this condition were 5.0 m{sup 3}/m{sup 3}/d, 0.25 m{sup 3} CH{sub 4}/g COD{sub added}, and 80%, respectively. Reactor (II) was fed with FW and livestock waste (LW), and LW content was increased during the operation. Until a 40% LW content increase, reactor (II) exhibited a stable performance. A BPR of 1.7 m{sup 3}/m{sup 3}/d, MPY of 0.26 m{sup 3} CH{sub 4}/g COD{sub added}, and VS reduction of 72% was achieved at 40% LW content. However, when the LW content was increased to 60

  19. Assessment of plastic waste generation and its potential recycling of household solid waste in Can Tho City, Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Thanh, Nguyen Phuc; Matsui, Yasuhiro; Fujiwara, Takeshi

    2011-04-01

    Plastic solid waste has become a serious problem when considering the disposal alternatives following the sequential hierarchy of sound solid waste management. This study was undertaken to assess the quantity and composition of household solid waste, especially plastic waste to identify opportunities for waste recycling. A 1-month survey of 130 households was carried out in Can Tho City, the capital city of the Mekong Delta region in southern Vietnam. Household solid waste was collected from each household and classified into ten physical categories; especially plastic waste was sorted into 22 subcategories. The average household solid waste generation rate was 281.27 g/cap/day. The compostable and recyclable shares respectively accounted for high percentage as 80.74% and 11%. Regarding plastic waste, the average plastic waste generation rate was 17.24 g/cap/day; plastic packaging and plastic containers dominated with the high percentage, 95.64% of plastic waste. Plastic shopping bags were especially identified as the major component, accounting for 45.72% of total plastic waste. Relevant factors such as household income and household size were found to have an existing correlation to plastic waste generation in detailed composition. The household habits and behaviors of plastic waste discharge and the aspects of environmental impacts and resource consumption for plastic waste disposal alternatives were also evaluated. PMID:20490914

  20. Air electrode composition for solid oxide fuel cell

    DOEpatents

    Kuo, L.; Ruka, R.J.; Singhal, S.C.

    1999-08-03

    An air electrode composition for a solid oxide fuel cell is disclosed. The air electrode material is based on lanthanum manganite having a perovskite-like crystal structure ABO{sub 3}. The A-site of the air electrode composition comprises a mixed lanthanide in combination with rare earth and alkaline earth dopants. The B-site of the composition comprises Mn in combination with dopants such as Mg, Al, Cr and Ni. The mixed lanthanide comprises La, Ce, Pr and, optionally, Nd. The rare earth A-site dopants preferably comprise La, Nd or a combination thereof, while the alkaline earth A-site dopant preferably comprises Ca. The use of a mixed lanthanide substantially reduces raw material costs in comparison with compositions made from high purity lanthanum starting materials. The amount of the A-site and B-site dopants is controlled in order to provide an air electrode composition having a coefficient of thermal expansion which closely matches that of the other components of the solid oxide fuel cell. 3 figs.

  1. Air electrode composition for solid oxide fuel cell

    DOEpatents

    Kuo, Lewis; Ruka, Roswell J.; Singhal, Subhash C.

    1999-01-01

    An air electrode composition for a solid oxide fuel cell is disclosed. The air electrode material is based on lanthanum manganite having a perovskite-like crystal structure ABO.sub.3. The A-site of the air electrode composition comprises a mixed lanthanide in combination with rare earth and alkaline earth dopants. The B-site of the composition comprises Mn in combination with dopants such as Mg, Al, Cr and Ni. The mixed lanthanide comprises La, Ce, Pr and, optionally, Nd. The rare earth A-site dopants preferably comprise La, Nd or a combination thereof, while the alkaline earth A-site dopant preferably comprises Ca. The use of a mixed lanthanide substantially reduces raw material costs in comparison with compositions made from high purity lanthanum starting materials. The amount of the A-site and B-site dopants is controlled in order to provide an air electrode composition having a coefficient of thermal expansion which closely matches that of the other components of the solid oxide fuel cell.

  2. Definitions of solid and hazardous wastes. [Contains Glossary

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-08-01

    This guidance document explains the definitions of solid and hazardous waste under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). The definitions are presented in flowchart form to provide the reader with a method of utilizing applicable regulations to determine whether or not a material meets the definition of a solid or hazardous waste. A narrative adjacent to each step of the flowchart elaborates on the specific subject and clarifies the role of the step. The text also contains cross references to other parts of this document for further clarification. The information is provided in terms of a decision-making process. The flowcharts and accompanying text include all major information from the RCRA regulations found in Title 40 of the Code of Federal Regulations, Part 261 (40 CFR Part 261). In some cases, regulatory language has been supplemented with language from EPA rulemaking preambles.

  3. Municipal solid waste management in Indian cities - A review.

    PubMed

    Sharholy, Mufeed; Ahmad, Kafeel; Mahmood, Gauhar; Trivedi, R C

    2008-01-01

    Municipal solid waste management (MSWM) is one of the major environmental problems of Indian cities. Improper management of municipal solid waste (MSW) causes hazards to inhabitants. Various studies reveal that about 90% of MSW is disposed of unscientifically in open dumps and landfills, creating problems to public health and the environment. In the present study, an attempt has been made to provide a comprehensive review of the characteristics, generation, collection and transportation, disposal and treatment technologies of MSW practiced in India. The study pertaining to MSWM for Indian cities has been carried out to evaluate the current status and identify the major problems. Various adopted treatment technologies for MSW are critically reviewed, along with their advantages and limitations. The study is concluded with a few fruitful suggestions, which may be beneficial to encourage the competent authorities/researchers to work towards further improvement of the present system. PMID:17433664

  4. A review on current status of municipal solid waste management in India.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Neha; Yadav, Krishna Kumar; Kumar, Vinit

    2015-11-01

    Municipal solid waste management is a major environmental issue in India. Due to rapid increase in urbanization, industrialization and population, the generation rate of municipal solid waste in Indian cities and towns is also increased. Mismanagement of municipal solid waste can cause adverse environmental impacts, public health risk and other socio-economic problem. This paper presents an overview of current status of solid waste management in India which can help the competent authorities responsible for municipal solid waste management and researchers to prepare more efficient plans. PMID:26574106

  5. Pollution prevention opportunity assessment for Building 922 solid office waste

    SciTech Connect

    Phillips, N.M.

    1995-01-01

    Building 922 houses all of SNL/California`s ES and H Departments: Health Protection, Environmental Protection, Safety, and Environmental Operations. It covers approximately 10,000 square feet and houses about 80 people. The office personnel generate nonhazardous solid office wastes in their daily activities. To determine the types and amounts of waste generated, a special PPOA sorting team sorted all of the trash collected from the building for a period of one-week (including paper and aluminum cans in the recycling bins). The team sorted the trash into major categories: paper, plastic, metals, glass, wet garbage, rest room waste, and miscellaneous materials. They then sorted it into subcategories within each major category. Rest room waste was collected but not sorted. The waste in each category was weighed separately. The total amount of trash collected during the week was approximately 168.8 kg (371.4 lbs). The results of this PPOA indicate that SNL/California is minimizing most nonhazardous office waste and reductions planned for the near future will add significantly to the minimization efforts.

  6. LCA comparison of container systems in municipal solid waste management

    SciTech Connect

    Rives, Jesus; Rieradevall, Joan; Gabarrell, Xavier

    2010-06-15

    The planning and design of integrated municipal solid waste management (MSWM) systems requires accurate environmental impact evaluation of the systems and their components. This research assessed, quantified and compared the environmental impact of the first stage of the most used MSW container systems. The comparison was based on factors such as the volume of the containers, from small bins of 60-80 l to containers of 2400 l, and on the manufactured materials, steel and high-density polyethylene (HDPE). Also, some parameters such as frequency of collections, waste generation, filling percentage and waste container contents, were established to obtain comparable systems. The methodological framework of the analysis was the life cycle assessment (LCA), and the impact assessment method was based on CML 2 baseline 2000. Results indicated that, for the same volume, the collection systems that use HDPE waste containers had more of an impact than those using steel waste containers, in terms of abiotic depletion, global warming, ozone layer depletion, acidification, eutrophication, photochemical oxidation, human toxicity and terrestrial ecotoxicity. Besides, the collection systems using small HDPE bins (60 l or 80 l) had most impact while systems using big steel containers (2400 l) had less impact. Subsequent sensitivity analysis about the parameters established demonstrated that they could change the ultimate environmental impact of each waste container collection system, but that the comparative relationship between systems was similar.

  7. Determinants of sustainability in solid waste management--the Gianyar Waste Recovery Project in Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Zurbrügg, Christian; Gfrerer, Margareth; Ashadi, Henki; Brenner, Werner; Küper, David

    2012-11-01

    According to most experts, integrated and sustainable solid waste management should not only be given top priority, but must go beyond technical aspects to include various key elements of sustainability to ensure success of any solid waste project. Aside from project sustainable impacts, the overall enabling environment is the key feature determining performance and success of an integrated and affordable solid waste system. This paper describes a project-specific approach to assess typical success or failure factors. A questionnaire-based assessment method covers issues of: (i) social mobilisation and acceptance (social element), (ii) stakeholder, legal and institutional arrangements comprising roles, responsibilities and management functions (institutional element); (iii) financial and operational requirements, as well as cost recovery mechanisms (economic element). The Gianyar Waste Recovery Project in Bali, Indonesia was analysed using this integrated assessment method. The results clearly identified chief characteristics, key factors to consider when planning country wide replication but also major barriers and obstacles which must be overcome to ensure project sustainability. The Gianyar project consists of a composting unit processing 60 tons of municipal waste per day from 500,000 inhabitants, including manual waste segregation and subsequent composting of the biodegradable organic fraction. PMID:22330265

  8. Safety evaluation for packaging (onsite) disposable solid waste cask

    SciTech Connect

    Flanagan, B.D., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-12-20

    This safety evaluation for packaging (SEP) evaluates and documents the ability of the Disposable Solid Waste Cask (DSWC) to meet the packaging requirements of HNF-CM-2-14, Hazardous Material Packaging and Shipping, for the onsite transfer of special form, highway route controlled quantity, Type B fissile radioactive material. This SEP evaluates five shipments of DSWCs used for the transport and storage of Fast Flux Test Facility unirradiated fuel to the Plutonium Finishing Plant Protected Area.

  9. Radiation and transmutation effects relevant to solid nuclear waste forms

    SciTech Connect

    Vance, E.R.; Roy, R.; Pillay, K.K.S.

    1981-03-15

    Radiation effects in insulating solids are discussed in a general way as an introduction to the quite sparse published work on radiation effects in candidate nuclear waste forms other than glasses. Likely effects of transmutation in crystals and the chemical mitigation strategy are discussed. It seems probable that radiation effects in solidified HLW will not be serious if the actinides can be wholly incorporated in such radiation-resistant phases as monazite or uraninite.

  10. Micronutrient dynamics after thermal pretreatment of olive mill solid waste.

    PubMed

    Almansa, Ana R; Rodriguez-Galan, Monica; Borja, Rafael; Fermoso, Fernando G

    2015-09-01

    This study investigated metal dynamics, and their bioavailability, before and after thermal pretreatment of olive mill solid waste (OMSW), using a sequential metal extraction scheme. The 11.5% increase of cobalt in the most available fraction after the pretreatment coupled to the increase of methane production rate have been a good indicator that the OMSW anaerobic digestion might be metal limited due to the lack of cobalt. PMID:26004390

  11. Municipal solid waste management in Kurdistan Province, Iran.

    PubMed

    Abduli, Mohammad Ali; Nasrabadi, Touraj

    2007-03-01

    Kurdistan Province, with an area of 28,203 square kilometers, is located in a mountainous area in the western part of Iran. From 1967 to 1997, the urban population in the major eight cities of the Kurdistan Province-namely, Baneh, Bijar, Divan Darreh, Saghez, Sanandaj, Ghorveh, Kamyaran, and Marivan-increased from 102,250 to 705,715. The proportion of the population residing in urban areas increased 90 percent during this period. In most of the cities, solid waste handling remains primitive, and well-organized procedures for it have not been established. Traditional methods of disposal, with marginal inclusion of modern conveniences, appear to be the common practice. In general, the shortcomings of the prevailing practices can be summarized as follows: The municipal solid waste management systems (MSWMSs) in this province include unsegregated collection and open dumping of municipal solid wastes. Separation of municipal solid waste in this province is in the hands of scavengers. The MSWMSs in this province lack essential infrastructure. Thus, design and implementation of modern MSWMSs in this province are essential. Principal criteria for and methods of implementing these systems are as follows: (1) rationally evaluating all functional elements so that they operate in a steady-state or equilibrium manner; (2) creating all support elements for the MSWMS in each city; (3) introducing gradual privatization of MSWMS activities; (4) creating guidelines, regulations, and instructions for all elements of MSWMSs; and (5) giving priorities to source separation and recycling programs. This paper reviews the present status of MSWMSs in eight major cities of Kurdistan Province and outlines the principle guidelines and alternatives for MSWMSs. PMID:17390903

  12. Energy implications of integrated solid waste management systems. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Little, R.E.; McClain, G.; Becker, M.; Ligon, P.; Shapiro, K.

    1994-07-01

    This study develops estimates of energy use and recovery from managing municipal solid waste (MSW) under various collection, processing, and disposal scenarios. We estimate use and recovery -- or energy balance -- resulting from MSW management activities such as waste collection, transport, processing, and disposal, as well as indirect use and recovery linked to secondary materials manufacturing using recycled materials. In our analysis, secondary materials manufacturing displaces virgin materials manufacturing for 13 representative products. Energy implications are expressed as coefficients that measure the net energy saving (or use) of displacing products made from virgin versus recycled materials. Using data developed for the 1992 New York City Master Plan as a starting point, we apply our method to an analysis of various collection systems and 30 types of facilities to illustrate bow energy balances shift as management systems are modified. In sum, all four scenarios show a positive energy balance indicating the energy and advantage of integrated systems versus reliance on one or few technology options. That is, energy produced or saved exceeds the energy used to operate the solid waste system. The largest energy use impacts are attributable to processing, including materials separation and composting. Collection and transportation energy are relatively minor contributors. The largest two contributors to net energy savings are waste combustion and energy saved by processing recycled versus virgin materials. An accompanying spatial analysis methodology allocates energy use and recovery to New York City, New York State outside the city, the U.S., and outside the U.S. Our analytical approach is embodied in a spreadsheet model that can be used by energy and solid waste analysts to estimate impacts of management scenarios at the state and substate level.

  13. Integrated technologies for solid waste bin monitoring system.

    PubMed

    Arebey, Maher; Hannan, M A; Basri, Hassan; Begum, R A; Abdullah, Huda

    2011-06-01

    The integration of communication technologies such as radio frequency identification (RFID), global positioning system (GPS), general packet radio system (GPRS), and geographic information system (GIS) with a camera are constructed for solid waste monitoring system. The aim is to improve the way of responding to customer's inquiry and emergency cases and estimate the solid waste amount without any involvement of the truck driver. The proposed system consists of RFID tag mounted on the bin, RFID reader as in truck, GPRS/GSM as web server, and GIS as map server, database server, and control server. The tracking devices mounted in the trucks collect location information in real time via the GPS. This information is transferred continuously through GPRS to a central database. The users are able to view the current location of each truck in the collection stage via a web-based application and thereby manage the fleet. The trucks positions and trash bin information are displayed on a digital map, which is made available by a map server. Thus, the solid waste of the bin and the truck are being monitored using the developed system. PMID:20703798

  14. Municipal solid waste management (MSWM) in India: a critical review.

    PubMed

    Goel, Sudha

    2008-10-01

    Solid waste management (SWM) is one of the most neglected aspects of India's environment and the recent Municipal Solid Waste (Management and Handling) Rules 2000 have made it mandatory for the administrative authority of any area to undertake responsibility for all activities relating to municipal solid waste management (MSWM). A survey of MSWM practices in Indian urban local bodies (ULBs) and the literature suggest that major problems in MSWM in India are: underestimation of generation rates and therefore, underestimation of resource requirements, lack of technical and managerial inputs, and lack of reliable and updated information to the public and practitioners in the field. India is a developing country whose economy is currently growing at an extremely rapid annual growth rate of 8 to 9%. Based on trends in countries like the US, and China, and European countries, it is clear that a growing economy and population are likely to result in growth rates of 11 to 12% in MSW generation. These growth rates are much higher than the current expert estimates of 1.3 % for per capita MSW generation and 4.2% for total MSW generation. The present ad hoc approach to MSW collection and transport results in inefficient utilization of resources. Modern technology and tools like remote sensing, GIS and mathematical optimatization methods can be used for more efficient allocation and utilization of resources. PMID:19697768

  15. Method for producing synthetic fuels from solid waste

    DOEpatents

    Antal, Jr., Michael J.

    1976-11-23

    Organic solid wastes represented by the general chemical formula C.sub.X H.sub.Y O.sub.Z are reacted with steam at elevated temperatures to produce H.sub.2 and CO.sub.2. The overall process is represented by the reaction C.sub.X H.sub.Y O.sub.Z + 2(X-Z/2)H.sub.2 O.fwdarw..sup..delta.XCO.sub.2 + [(Y/2) + 2(X-Z/2)] H.sub.2 . (1) reaction (1) is endothermic and requires heat. This heat is supplied by a tower top solar furnace; alternatively, some of the solid wastes can be burned to supply heat for the reaction. The hydrogen produced by reaction (1) can be used as a fuel or a chemical feedstock. Alternatively, methanol can be produced by the commercial process CO.sub.2 + 3H.sub.2 .fwdarw. CH.sub.3 OH + H.sub.2 O . (2) since reaction (1) is endothermic, the system represents a method for storing heat energy from an external source in a chemical fuel produced from solid wastes.

  16. Solid waste recycling activities at the Kansas City Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, D.L.; Huyett, J.D.; Westlake, N.M.

    1992-02-01

    The DCP has as Proactive Solid Waste Recycling Program. Historical activities have consisted of extensive Precious and Scarp Metal Recovery through dedicated efforts of the Excess and Reclamation department. This is the only organization at the KCP that pays for itself'' through utilization of manpower to recover reclaimable material from the teardown of scrap parts, equipment, and machinery. The KCP also initiated an expansion of this program through increased efforts to recovery recyclable materials from normal plant trash. Efforts to date have resulted in the establishment of waste paper and cafeteria grease recycling programs. Another initiative nearing fruition is to recycle waste styrofoam. Activities are also underway to establish future programs to recycle spent carbon, other plastic resins, glass and cardboard.

  17. Solid waste recycling activities at the Kansas City Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, D.L.; Huyett, J.D.; Westlake, N.M.

    1992-02-01

    The DCP has as Proactive Solid Waste Recycling Program. Historical activities have consisted of extensive Precious and Scarp Metal Recovery through dedicated efforts of the Excess and Reclamation department. This is the only organization at the KCP that ``pays for itself`` through utilization of manpower to recover reclaimable material from the teardown of scrap parts, equipment, and machinery. The KCP also initiated an expansion of this program through increased efforts to recovery recyclable materials from normal plant trash. Efforts to date have resulted in the establishment of waste paper and cafeteria grease recycling programs. Another initiative nearing fruition is to recycle waste styrofoam. Activities are also underway to establish future programs to recycle spent carbon, other plastic resins, glass and cardboard.

  18. Shear strength of municipal solid waste for stability analyses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stark, Timothy D.; Huvaj-Sarihan, Nejan; Li, Guocheng

    2009-06-01

    This paper investigates the shear strength of municipal solid waste (MSW) using the back analysis of failed waste slopes as well as field and laboratory test results. Shear strength of MSW is a function of many factors such as waste type, composition, compaction, daily cover, moisture conditions, age, decomposition, overburden pressure, etc. These factors together with non-standardized sampling methods, insufficient sample size to be representative of in situ conditions, and limited shear displacement or axial strain imposed during the laboratory shear testing have created considerable scatter in reported results. Based on the data presented herein, large shear displacements are required to mobilize the peak shear strength of MSW which can lead to displacement incompatibility between MSW and the underlying material(s) such as geosynthetic interfaces and foundation soils. The data presented herein are used to develop displacement compatible shear strength parameters for MSW. Recommendations are presented for modeling the displacement and stress dependent strength envelope in stability analyses.

  19. Data summary of municipal solid waste management alternatives

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-10-01

    The overall objective of the study in this report was to gather data on waste management technologies to allow comparison of various alternatives for managing municipal solid waste (MSW). The specific objectives of the study were to: 1. Compile detailed data for existing waste management technologies on costs, environmental releases, energy requirements and production, and coproducts such as recycled materials and compost. Identify missing information necessary to make energy, economic, and environmental comparisons of various MSW management technologies, and define needed research that could enhance the usefulness of the technology. 3. Develop a data base that can be used to identify the technology that best meets specific criteria defined by a user of the data base. Volume I contains the report text. Volume II contains supporting exhibits. Volumes III through X are appendices, each addressing a specific MSW management technology. Volumes XI and XII contain project bibliographies.

  20. Considerations in selecting conveyors for solid waste applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kahn, Z.; Renard, M. L.; Campbell, J.

    1982-09-01

    An engineering evaluation and experimental program involving several types of conveyors applied to processed fractions of municipal solid wastes was conducted. The properties and characteristics of waste affecting conveyability are discussed and experimentally determined values or observed characteristics are presented. A procedure is developed for the selection, assessment and operation of belt conveyors based on spillage rate. Corroborating experimental results from a recirculating test rig operated with six waste fractions over a range of belt configurations, velocities and flow rates are presented. Experiments conducted on a vibrating pan conveyor with six feedstocks and over a range of frequencies and stroke length, and on a small apron conveyor (batch basis on two feedstocks), are described and the test results analyzed.