Science.gov

Sample records for air source requirements

  1. 49 CFR 232.107 - Air source requirements and cold weather operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Air source requirements and cold weather... source requirements and cold weather operations. (a) Monitoring plans for yard air sources. (1) A... to the equipment and territory of that railroad to cover safe train operations during cold...

  2. 49 CFR 232.107 - Air source requirements and cold weather operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Air source requirements and cold weather... source requirements and cold weather operations. (a) Monitoring plans for yard air sources. (1) A... to the equipment and territory of that railroad to cover safe train operations during cold...

  3. 49 CFR 232.107 - Air source requirements and cold weather operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Air source requirements and cold weather... source requirements and cold weather operations. (a) Monitoring plans for yard air sources. (1) A... to the equipment and territory of that railroad to cover safe train operations during cold...

  4. 49 CFR 232.107 - Air source requirements and cold weather operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Air source requirements and cold weather... source requirements and cold weather operations. (a) Monitoring plans for yard air sources. (1) A... to the equipment and territory of that railroad to cover safe train operations during cold...

  5. 49 CFR 232.107 - Air source requirements and cold weather operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Air source requirements and cold weather... source requirements and cold weather operations. (a) Monitoring plans for yard air sources. (1) A... to the equipment and territory of that railroad to cover safe train operations during cold...

  6. 75 FR 22548 - Requirements for Control Technology Determinations for Major Sources in Accordance With Clean Air...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-29

    ... March 30, 2010, when EPA published a proposed rule (75 FR 15655) amending the Section 112(j) rule (40... as provided in the SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION section of the March 30, 2010 (75 FR 15655) Federal... in Accordance With Clean Air Act Sections, Sections 112(g) and 112(j) AGENCY:...

  7. Air pollution source identification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fordyce, J. S.

    1975-01-01

    Techniques for air pollution source identification are reviewed, and some results obtained with them are evaluated. Described techniques include remote sensing from satellites and aircraft, on-site monitoring, and the use of injected tracers and pollutants themselves as tracers. The use of a large number of trace elements in ambient airborne particulate matter as a practical means of identifying sources is discussed in detail. Sampling and analysis techniques are described, and it is shown that elemental constituents can be related to specific source types such as those found in the earth's crust and those associated with specific industries. Source identification sytems are noted which utilize charged particle X-ray fluorescence analysis of original field data.

  8. Managing residential sources of indoor air pollution

    SciTech Connect

    Tichenor, B.A.; Sparks, L.E.

    1994-12-31

    Sources of indoor air pollutants in residential environments can be managed to reduce occupant exposures. Techniques for managing indoor air pollution sources include: source elimination, substitution, modification, and pretreatment, and altering the amount, location, or time of use. Intelligent source management requires knowledge of the source`s emission characteristics, including chemical composition, emission rates, and decay rates. In addition, knowledge of outdoor air exchange rates, heating/air-conditioning duct flow rates, and kitchen/batch exhaust fan flow rates is needed to determine pollutant concentrations. Indoor air quality (IAQ) models use this information and occupant activity patterns to determine instantaneous and/or cumulative individual exposure. This paper describes a number of residential scenarios for various indoor air pollution VOC sources, several air flow conditions, and typical occupant activity patterns. IAQ model predictions of occupant exposures for these scenarios are given for selected source management options.

  9. Evaluating sources of indoor air pollution

    SciTech Connect

    Tichenor, B.A.; Sparks, L.A.; White, J.B.; Jackson, M.D. )

    1990-04-01

    Evaluation of indoor air pollution problems requires an understanding of the relationship between sources, air movement, and outdoor air exchange. Research is underway to investigate these relationships. A three-phase program is being implemented: (1) Environmental chambers are used to provide source emission factors for specific indoor pollutants; (2) An IAQ (Indoor Air Quality) model has been developed to calculate indoor pollutant concentrations based on chamber emissions data and the air exchange and air movement within the indoor environment; and (3) An IAQ test house is used to conduct experiments to evaluate the model results. Examples are provided to show how this coordinated approach can be used to evaluate specific sources of indoor air pollution. Two sources are examined: (1) para-dichlorobenzene emissions from solid moth repellant; and (2) emissions from unvented kerosene heaters. The evaluation process for both sources followed the three-phase approach discussed above. Para-dichlorobenzene emission factors were determined by small chamber testing at EPA's Air and Energy Engineering Research Laboratory. Particle emission factors for the kerosene heaters were developed in large chambers at the J.B. Pierce Foundation Laboratory. Both sources were subsequently evaluated in EPA's IAQ test house. The IAQ model predictions showed good agreement with the test house measurements when appropriate values were provided for source emissions, outside air exchange, in-house air movement, and deposition on sink surfaces.

  10. Air pollution source identification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fordyce, J. S.

    1975-01-01

    The techniques available for source identification are reviewed: remote sensing, injected tracers, and pollutants themselves as tracers. The use of the large number of trace elements in the ambient airborne particulate matter as a practical means of identifying sources is discussed. Trace constituents are determined by sensitive, inexpensive, nondestructive, multielement analytical methods such as instrumental neutron activation and charged particle X-ray fluorescence. The application to a large data set of pairwise correlation, the more advanced pattern recognition-cluster analysis approach with and without training sets, enrichment factors, and pollutant concentration rose displays for each element is described. It is shown that elemental constituents are related to specific source types: earth crustal, automotive, metallurgical, and more specific industries. A field-ready source identification system based on time and wind direction resolved sampling is described.

  11. 46 CFR 111.10-4 - Power requirements, generating sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... services include cooking, heating, air conditioning (where installed), domestic refrigeration, mechanical... ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Power Supply § 111.10-4 Power requirements, generating sources....

  12. Source apportionment of indoor air pollution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sexton, Ken; Hayward, Steven B.

    An understanding of the relative contributions from important pollutant sources to human exposures is necessary for the design and implementation of effective control strategies. In the past, societal efforts to control air pollution have focused almost exclusively on the outdoor (ambient) environment. As a result, substantial amounts of time and money have been spent to limit airborne discharges from mobile and stationary sources. Yet it is now recognized that exposures to elevated pollutant concentrations often occur as a result of indoor, rather than outdoor, emissions. While the major indoor sources have been identified, their relative impacts on indoor air quality have not been well defined. Application of existing source apportionment models to nonindustrial indoor environments is only just beginning. It is possible that these models might be used to distinguish between indoor and outdoor emissions, as well as to distinguish among indoor sources themselves. However, before the feasibility and suitability of source-apportionment methods for indoor applications can be assessed adequately, it is necessary to take account of model assumptions and associated data requirements. This paper examines the issue of indoor source apportionment and reviews the need for emission characterization studies to support such source-apportionment efforts.

  13. 42 CFR 84.142 - Air supply source; hand-operated or motor driven air blowers; Type A supplied-air respirators...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Air supply source; hand-operated or motor driven air blowers; Type A supplied-air respirators; minimum requirements. 84.142 Section 84.142 Public....142 Air supply source; hand-operated or motor driven air blowers; Type A supplied-air...

  14. 42 CFR 84.142 - Air supply source; hand-operated or motor driven air blowers; Type A supplied-air respirators...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Air supply source; hand-operated or motor driven air blowers; Type A supplied-air respirators; minimum requirements. 84.142 Section 84.142 Public....142 Air supply source; hand-operated or motor driven air blowers; Type A supplied-air...

  15. 42 CFR 84.142 - Air supply source; hand-operated or motor driven air blowers; Type A supplied-air respirators...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Air supply source; hand-operated or motor driven air blowers; Type A supplied-air respirators; minimum requirements. 84.142 Section 84.142 Public....142 Air supply source; hand-operated or motor driven air blowers; Type A supplied-air...

  16. 42 CFR 84.142 - Air supply source; hand-operated or motor driven air blowers; Type A supplied-air respirators...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Air supply source; hand-operated or motor driven air blowers; Type A supplied-air respirators; minimum requirements. 84.142 Section 84.142 Public....142 Air supply source; hand-operated or motor driven air blowers; Type A supplied-air...

  17. 42 CFR 84.142 - Air supply source; hand-operated or motor driven air blowers; Type A supplied-air respirators...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Air supply source; hand-operated or motor driven air blowers; Type A supplied-air respirators; minimum requirements. 84.142 Section 84.142 Public....142 Air supply source; hand-operated or motor driven air blowers; Type A supplied-air...

  18. Evaluating sources of indoor air pollution

    SciTech Connect

    Tichenor, B.A.; Sparks, L.E.; White, J.B.; Jackson, M.D. )

    1988-01-01

    Scientists and engineers in the Indoor Air Brand of EPS'a Air and Energy Engineering Research Laboratory are conducting research to increase the state of knowledge concerning indoor air pollution factors. A three phase program is being implemented. The purpose of this paper is to show how their approach can be used to evaluate specific sources of indoor air pollution. Pollutants from two sources are examined: para-dichlorobenzene emissions from moth crystal cakes; and particulate emissions from unvented kerosene heaters.

  19. 75 FR 81126 - Revisions to Lead Ambient Air Monitoring Requirements

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-27

    ..., that revised the NAAQS for lead and associated ambient air lead monitoring requirements (73 FR 66964... revisions to the requirements for both source-oriented and non-source-oriented monitoring for lead (74 FR... 1.0 tpy as part of the October 2008 lead NAAQS revisions (73 FR 66964, codified at 40 CFR part...

  20. 40 CFR 71.3 - Sources subject to permitting requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... because they are subject to 40 CFR part 61, subpart M—National Emission Standard for Hazardous Air... standard, limitation, or other requirement under section 111 of the Act; (3) Any source, including an area source, subject to a standard or other requirement under section 112 of the Act, except that a source...

  1. 40 CFR 71.3 - Sources subject to permitting requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... because they are subject to 40 CFR part 61, subpart M—National Emission Standard for Hazardous Air... standard, limitation, or other requirement under section 111 of the Act; (3) Any source, including an area source, subject to a standard or other requirement under section 112 of the Act, except that a source...

  2. SOURCE CHARACTERIZATION OF AIR FRESHENERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper discusses research in which five air fresheners of two styles were analyzed for their constituent volatile organic compounds. Both styles were refills to be inserted into heated electric plug-in units; one refill released the fragrance from a gel pack insert and the oth...

  3. Source Emissions in Multipollutant Air Quality Management

    EPA Science Inventory

    Human activities and natural processes that emit pollutants into the ambient atmosphere are the underlying cause of all air quality problems. In a technical sense, we refer to these activities and processes as pollutant sources. Although air quality management is usually concerne...

  4. Air Force and DOD solar power requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wise, Joseph F.

    1987-01-01

    It is noted that future power requirements are increasing for some expanded and new missions within the Air Force and Department of Defense. New requirements are needed in terms of lifetime, survivability, power level and performance. The photovoltaic arrays have a demonstrated record of reliable performance, life, affordable cost, and utility. It is argued that there is a need to push for the research and development resources needed to develop the technology base for these future power system needs.

  5. EVALUATING SOURCES OF INDOOR AIR POLLUTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The article discusses a three-phase approach, employing environmental chambers, indoor air quality (IAQ) models, and test house experiments, that is effective in linking sources of indoor pollutants to measured concentrations. mission factors developed in test chambers can be use...

  6. Standard operating procedure for air quality stationary source management at Air Force installations in the Air Force Materiel Command

    SciTech Connect

    Powell, C.M.; Ryckman, S.J.

    1997-12-31

    To sustain compliance and avoid future enforcement actions associated with air quality stationary sources and to provide installation commanders with a certification process for Title V permitting, and Air Force Materiel Command (AFMC) Standard Operating Procedure (SOP) for Stationary Source Management has been developed. The SOP consists of two major sections: Stationary Source Planning and Administration, and Stationary Source Operations These two main sections are further subdivided into twelve subsections which delineate requirements (e.g. maintaining inventories, applying for and maintaining permits, keeping records, reporting and certifying compliance) and assign ownership of processes and responsibilities (e.g. appointing a manager/alternate for each identified stationary air source). In addition, the SOP suggests training that should be provided from operator to commander levels to ensure that all personnel involved with a stationary air source are aware of their responsibilities. Implementation of the SOP should provide for the essential control necessary for installation commanders to eliminate stationary air source non-compliance and to certify compliance in accordance with the Title V Operating Permit requirements. This paper will discuss: the background and purpose for the SOPs content, the twelve subsections of the SOP, the success of implementation at various installations, the relevance or the recommended training, the success of negotiating with various labor unions for SOP implementation and the success of the SOP in reference to its intended purpose.

  7. 40 CFR 63.11402 - What are the standards and compliance requirements for new and existing sources?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES (CONTINUED) National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Carbon Black Production Area Sources Standards and Compliance Requirements § 63.11402 What are...

  8. 40 CFR 63.11402 - What are the standards and compliance requirements for new and existing sources?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES (CONTINUED) National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Carbon Black Production Area Sources Standards and Compliance Requirements § 63.11402 What are...

  9. 40 CFR 63.11402 - What are the standards and compliance requirements for new and existing sources?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES (CONTINUED) National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Carbon Black Production Area Sources Standards and Compliance Requirements § 63.11402 What are...

  10. Evaluating sources of indoor air pollution

    SciTech Connect

    Tichenor, B.A.; Sparks, L.E.; White, J.B.; Jackson, M.D.

    1988-05-01

    This paper discusses a three-phase approach, employing environmental chambers, indoor air quality (IAQ) models, and test-house experiments, that is effective in linking sources of indoor pollutants to measured concentrations. Emission factors developed in test chambers can be used to evaluate full-scale indoor environments. A PC-based IAQ model has been developed that can accurately predict indoor concentrations of specific pollutants under controlled conditions in a test house. The model is also useful in examining the effect of pollutant sinks and variations in ventilation parameters. Pollutants were examined from: (1) para-dichloro-benzene emissions from moth crystal cakes; and, (2) particulate emissions from unvented kerosene heaters. However, the approach has not been validated for other source types, including solvent based materials and aerosol products.

  11. 40 CFR 51.190 - Ambient air quality monitoring requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Ambient air quality monitoring... PROGRAMS REQUIREMENTS FOR PREPARATION, ADOPTION, AND SUBMITTAL OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Ambient Air Quality Surveillance § 51.190 Ambient air quality monitoring requirements. The requirements for monitoring ambient...

  12. 40 CFR 51.190 - Ambient air quality monitoring requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Ambient air quality monitoring... PROGRAMS REQUIREMENTS FOR PREPARATION, ADOPTION, AND SUBMITTAL OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Ambient Air Quality Surveillance § 51.190 Ambient air quality monitoring requirements. The requirements for monitoring ambient...

  13. 40 CFR 51.190 - Ambient air quality monitoring requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Ambient air quality monitoring... PROGRAMS REQUIREMENTS FOR PREPARATION, ADOPTION, AND SUBMITTAL OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Ambient Air Quality Surveillance § 51.190 Ambient air quality monitoring requirements. The requirements for monitoring ambient...

  14. 40 CFR 51.190 - Ambient air quality monitoring requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Ambient air quality monitoring... PROGRAMS REQUIREMENTS FOR PREPARATION, ADOPTION, AND SUBMITTAL OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Ambient Air Quality Surveillance § 51.190 Ambient air quality monitoring requirements. The requirements for monitoring ambient...

  15. 40 CFR 51.190 - Ambient air quality monitoring requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Ambient air quality monitoring... PROGRAMS REQUIREMENTS FOR PREPARATION, ADOPTION, AND SUBMITTAL OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Ambient Air Quality Surveillance § 51.190 Ambient air quality monitoring requirements. The requirements for monitoring ambient...

  16. Air toxics: sources and monitoring in Texas.

    PubMed Central

    Pendleton, D R

    1995-01-01

    Since the late 1980s, federal legislation has required industries to publicly report their annual emissions of toxic compounds. Industry reports show the largest contributor to toxic emission levels in Texas is the massive concentration of petrochemical industries along the Gulf Coast. It is interesting to note that although Texas produces over 50% of the nation's synthetic chemicals, it discharges less than 8% of the nation's toxic emissions. However, in response to growing concerns about the effects of these toxic emissions, the Texas Natural Resource Conservation Commission (TNRCC) initiated a long-term program for monitoring toxic chemicals in the air. This article provides details of this monitoring program as well as industry-funded toxic monitoring networks in Texas. This includes information on the technology currently being used for sample collection and analysis as well as plans for implementing methods that are on the technological horizon. Finally, details of some key measurements from the state's air toxics monitoring network will be provided along with an explanation of how they impact current air quality trends in Texas. PMID:8549477

  17. Air Plasma Source for Biomedical Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henriques, J.; Tatarova, E.; Dias, F. M.; Ferreira, C. M.; Gordiets, B.; IPFN-IST, 1049-001 LX, Portugal Team; Lebedev Physical Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences Team

    2011-10-01

    Plasma interactions with living matter are presently at the frontiers of plasma research and development. Plasmas contain numerous agents that influence biological activity. They provide essentially two types of biocidal species: reactive species, such as oxygen atoms that lead to lethality of micro-organisms through erosion, and UV radiation that can damage the DNA strands. In this work we investigate a surface wave (2.45 GHz) driven discharge plasma in air, with a small admixture of water vapor, as a source of ground state O(3P) oxygen atoms, NO molecules and UV radiation. A theoretical model describing both the wave driven discharge zone and its flowing afterglow is used to analyze the performance of this plasma source. The predicted plasma-generated NO(X) and O(3P) concentrations and NO(γ) radiation intensity along the source are presented and discussed as a function of the microwave power and water vapor percentage in the gas mixture. To validate the theoretical predictions, the relative concentrations of species have been determined by Mass Spectrometry, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy and Optical Spectroscopy. Acknowledgment: This work was funded by the Portuguese Foundation for Science and Technology, under research contract PTDC/FIS/108411/2008.

  18. 40 CFR 52.346 - Air quality monitoring requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Air Quality Monitoring plan as identified at 40 CFR 52.320 (c)(17). The revisions updated the plan to bring it into conformance with the Federal requirements for air quality monitoring as found in 40 CFR... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Air quality monitoring requirements....

  19. 40 CFR 52.346 - Air quality monitoring requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Air Quality Monitoring plan as identified at 40 CFR 52.320 (c)(17). The revisions updated the plan to bring it into conformance with the Federal requirements for air quality monitoring as found in 40 CFR... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Air quality monitoring requirements....

  20. 40 CFR 52.346 - Air quality monitoring requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Air Quality Monitoring plan as identified at 40 CFR 52.320 (c)(17). The revisions updated the plan to bring it into conformance with the Federal requirements for air quality monitoring as found in 40 CFR... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Air quality monitoring requirements....

  1. 40 CFR 52.346 - Air quality monitoring requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Air Quality Monitoring plan as identified at 40 CFR 52.320 (c)(17). The revisions updated the plan to bring it into conformance with the Federal requirements for air quality monitoring as found in 40 CFR... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Air quality monitoring requirements....

  2. 14 CFR 294.84 - Air competency requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Air competency requirements. 294.84 Section... PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS CANADIAN CHARTER AIR TAXI OPERATORS Terms, Conditions, and Limitations of This Part § 294.84 Air competency requirements. Registrants shall conform to the airworthiness...

  3. 14 CFR 294.84 - Air competency requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Air competency requirements. 294.84 Section... PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS CANADIAN CHARTER AIR TAXI OPERATORS Terms, Conditions, and Limitations of This Part § 294.84 Air competency requirements. Registrants shall conform to the airworthiness...

  4. 14 CFR 294.84 - Air competency requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Air competency requirements. 294.84 Section... PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS CANADIAN CHARTER AIR TAXI OPERATORS Terms, Conditions, and Limitations of This Part § 294.84 Air competency requirements. Registrants shall conform to the airworthiness...

  5. 40 CFR 52.346 - Air quality monitoring requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Air Quality Monitoring plan as identified at 40 CFR 52.320 (c)(17). The revisions updated the plan to bring it into conformance with the Federal requirements for air quality monitoring as found in 40 CFR... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Air quality monitoring requirements....

  6. 14 CFR 294.84 - Air competency requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Air competency requirements. 294.84 Section... PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS CANADIAN CHARTER AIR TAXI OPERATORS Terms, Conditions, and Limitations of This Part § 294.84 Air competency requirements. Registrants shall conform to the airworthiness...

  7. Quality Assurance Source Requirements Traceability Database

    SciTech Connect

    MURTHY, R., NAYDENOVA, A., DEKLEVER, R., BOONE, A.

    2006-01-30

    At the Yucca Mountain Project the Project Requirements Processing System assists in the management of relationships between regulatory and national/industry standards source criteria, and Quality Assurance Requirements and Description document (DOE/R W-0333P) requirements to create compliance matrices representing respective relationships. The matrices are submitted to the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission to assist in the commission's review, interpretation, and concurrence with the Yucca Mountain Project QA program document. The tool is highly customized to meet the needs of the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Office of Quality Assurance.

  8. Analysis of air quality management with emphasis on transportation sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    English, T. D.; Divita, E.; Lees, L.

    1980-01-01

    The current environment and practices of air quality management were examined for three regions: Denver, Phoenix, and the South Coast Air Basin of California. These regions were chosen because the majority of their air pollution emissions are related to mobile sources. The impact of auto exhaust on the air quality management process is characterized and assessed. An examination of the uncertainties in air pollutant measurements, emission inventories, meteorological parameters, atmospheric chemistry, and air quality simulation models is performed. The implications of these uncertainties to current air quality management practices is discussed. A set of corrective actions are recommended to reduce these uncertainties.

  9. An Algorithm for Source Checking Continuous Air Monitors Using Radon Progeny

    SciTech Connect

    Hogue, M.G.

    2000-03-06

    Department of Energy requirements contained within 10CFR835 require that continuous air monitors be periodically checked for operability. The DOE air monitoring implementation guide for 10CFR835 allows the use of radon progeny to perform the recommended weekly source check. The Defense Waste Processing Facility located at the Savannah River Site has demonstrated that, through the use of the Hypotheses Concerning Two Means, diurnal changes in the radon progeny detected by the monitors meets the requirements for weekly source checks. The use of the diurnal changes in radon progeny has replaced the man-hours expended performing direct weekly source checking with an automated system requiring minimal man-hour expenditure.

  10. Locating and estimating air emissions from sources of nickel

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-03-01

    To assist groups interested in inventorying air emissions of various potentially toxic substances, EPA is preparing a series of documents such as this to compile available information on sources and emissions of these substances. This document deals specifically with nickel. Its intended audience includes Federal, State and local air pollution personnel and others interested in locating potential emitters of nickel and in making gross estimates of air emissions therefrom. This document presents information on (1) the types of sources that may emit nickel, (2) process variations and release points that may be expected within these sources, and (3) available emissions information indicating the potential for nickel release into the air from each operation.

  11. The National Near-Road Mobile Source Air Toxics Study

    EPA Science Inventory

    Recently, much attention has been directed at understanding the impact of mobile sources on near-road air quality, especially PM and its components, NOx and CO, but little information exists for mobile source air toxics (MSATs). MSATs of interest to this project are 1,3-butadiene...

  12. WORKSHOP ON SOURCE EMISSION AND AMBIENT AIR MONITORING OF MERCURY

    EPA Science Inventory

    AN EPA/ORD Workshop on Source Emission and Ambient Air Monitoring of Mercury was held on 9/13-14/99, Bloomington, Minnesota. The purpose of the workshop was to discuss the state-of-the-science in source and ambient air mercury monitoring as well as mercury monitoring research and...

  13. Source calibrations and SDC calorimeter requirements

    SciTech Connect

    Green, D.

    1992-10-01

    Several studies of the problem of calibration of the SDC calorimeter exist. In this note the attempt is made to give a connected account of the requirements on the source calibration from the point of view of the desired, and acceptable, constant term induced in the EM resolution. It is assumed that a ``local`` calibration resulting from exposing each tower to a beam of electrons is not feasible. It is further assumed that an ``in situ`` calibration is either not yet performed, or is unavailable due to tracking alignment problems or high luminosity operation rendering tracking inoperative. Therefore, the assumptions used are rather conservative. In this scenario, each scintillator plate of each tower is exposed to a moving radioactive source. That reading is used to ``mask`` an optical ``cookie`` in a grey code chosen so as to make the response uniform. The source is assumed to be the sole calibration of the tower. Therefore, the phrase ``global`` calibration of towers by movable radioactive sources is adopted.

  14. Source calibrations and SDC calorimeter requirements

    SciTech Connect

    Green, D.

    1992-10-01

    Several studies of the problem of calibration of the SDC calorimeter exist. In this note the attempt is made to give a connected account of the requirements on the source calibration from the point of view of the desired, and acceptable, constant term induced in the EM resolution. It is assumed that a local'' calibration resulting from exposing each tower to a beam of electrons is not feasible. It is further assumed that an in situ'' calibration is either not yet performed, or is unavailable due to tracking alignment problems or high luminosity operation rendering tracking inoperative. Therefore, the assumptions used are rather conservative. In this scenario, each scintillator plate of each tower is exposed to a moving radioactive source. That reading is used to mask'' an optical cookie'' in a grey code chosen so as to make the response uniform. The source is assumed to be the sole calibration of the tower. Therefore, the phrase global'' calibration of towers by movable radioactive sources is adopted.

  15. Dynamic Radioactive Source for Evaluating and Demonstrating Time-dependent Performance of Continuous Air Monitors.

    PubMed

    McLean, Thomas D; Moore, Murray E; Justus, Alan L; Hudston, Jonathan A; Barbé, Benoît

    2016-11-01

    Evaluation of continuous air monitors in the presence of a plutonium aerosol is time intensive, expensive, and requires a specialized facility. The Radiation Protection Services Group at Los Alamos National Laboratory has designed a Dynamic Radioactive Source, intended to replace plutonium aerosol challenge testing. The Dynamic Radioactive Source is small enough to be inserted into the sampler filter chamber of a typical continuous air monitor. Time-dependent radioactivity is introduced from electroplated sources for real-time testing of a continuous air monitor where a mechanical wristwatch motor rotates a mask above an alpha-emitting electroplated disk source. The mask is attached to the watch's minute hand, and as it rotates, more of the underlying source is revealed. The measured alpha activity increases with time, simulating the arrival of airborne radioactive particulates at the air sampler inlet. The Dynamic Radioactive Source allows the temporal behavior of puff and chronic release conditions to be mimicked without the need for radioactive aerosols. The new system is configurable to different continuous air monitor designs and provides an in-house testing capability (benchtop compatible). It is a repeatable and reusable system and does not contaminate the tested air monitor. Test benefits include direct user control, realistic (plutonium) aerosol spectra, and iterative development of continuous air monitor alarm algorithms. Data obtained using the Dynamic Radioactive Source has been used to elucidate alarm algorithms and to compare the response time of two commercial continuous air monitors. PMID:27682903

  16. 40 CFR Table 4 to Subpart III of... - Compliance Requirements for Slabstock Foam Production Affected Sources Complying With the Source...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Foam Production Affected Sources Complying With the Source-Wide Emission Limitation 4 Table 4 to... Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Flexible Polyurethane Foam Production Pt. 63, Subpt. III, Table 4 Table 4 to Subpart III of Part 63—Compliance Requirements for Slabstock Foam Production Affected...

  17. 40 CFR Table 4 to Subpart III of... - Compliance Requirements for Slabstock Foam Production Affected Sources Complying With the Source...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Foam Production Affected Sources Complying With the Source-Wide Emission Limitation 4 Table 4 to...) National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Flexible Polyurethane Foam Production Pt. 63, Subpt. III, Table 4 Table 4 to Subpart III of Part 63—Compliance Requirements for Slabstock...

  18. 40 CFR Table 4 to Subpart III of... - Compliance Requirements for Slabstock Foam Production Affected Sources Complying With the Source...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Foam Production Affected Sources Complying With the Source-Wide Emission Limitation 4 Table 4 to...) National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Flexible Polyurethane Foam Production Pt. 63, Subpt. III, Table 4 Table 4 to Subpart III of Part 63—Compliance Requirements for Slabstock...

  19. 40 CFR Table 4 to Subpart III of... - Compliance Requirements for Slabstock Foam Production Affected Sources Complying With the Source...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Foam Production Affected Sources Complying With the Source-Wide Emission Limitation 4 Table 4 to... Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Flexible Polyurethane Foam Production Pt. 63, Subpt. III, Table 4 Table 4 to Subpart III of Part 63—Compliance Requirements for Slabstock Foam Production Affected...

  20. Advanced Neutron Sources: Plant Design Requirements

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-07-01

    The Advanced Neutron Source (ANS) is a new, world class facility for research using hot, thermal, cold, and ultra-cold neutrons. At the heart of the facility is a 350-MW{sub th}, heavy water cooled and moderated reactor. The reactor is housed in a central reactor building, with supporting equipment located in an adjoining reactor support building. An array of cold neutron guides fans out into a large guide hall, housing about 30 neutron research stations. Office, laboratory, and shop facilities are included to provide a complete users facility. The ANS is scheduled to begin operation at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory at the end of the decade. This Plant Design Requirements document defines the plant-level requirements for the design, construction, and operation of the ANS. This document also defines and provides input to the individual System Design Description (SDD) documents. Together, this Plant Design Requirements document and the set of SDD documents will define and control the baseline configuration of the ANS.

  1. Near-source air pollution and mitigation strategies

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract. Local-scale air pollution impact is of concern for populations located in close proximity to transit sources, including highway, port, rail, and other areas of concentrated diesel emissions. Previous near-road air monitoring research has prompted the U.S. EPA to implem...

  2. Short haul air passenger data sources in the United States

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Al-Kazily, J.; Gosling, G.; Horonjeff, R.

    1977-01-01

    The sources and characteristics of existing data on short haul air passenger traffic in the United States domestic air market are described along with data availability, processing, and costs. Reference is made to data derived from aircraft operations since these data can be used to insure that no short haul operators are omitted during the process of assembling passenger data.

  3. The use of video for air pollution source monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Ferreira, F.; Camara, A.

    1999-07-01

    The evaluation of air pollution impacts from single industrial emission sources is a complex environmental engineering problem. Recent developments in multimedia technologies used by personal computers improved the digitizing and processing of digital video sequences. This paper proposes a methodology where statistical analysis of both meteorological and air quality data combined with digital video images are used for monitoring air pollution sources. One of the objectives of this paper is to present the use of image processing algorithms in air pollution source monitoring. CCD amateur video cameras capture images that are further processed by computer. The use of video as a remote sensing system was implemented with the goal of determining some particular parameters, either meteorological or related with air quality monitoring and modeling of point sources. These parameters include the remote calculation of wind direction, wind speed, gases stack's outlet velocity, and stack's effective emission height. The characteristics and behavior of a visible pollutant's plume is also studied. Different sequences of relatively simple image processing operations are applied to the images gathered by the different cameras to segment the plume. The algorithms are selected depending on the atmospheric and lighting conditions. The developed system was applied to a 1,000 MW fuel power plant located at Setubal, Portugal. The methodology presented shows that digital video can be an inexpensive form to get useful air pollution related data for monitoring and modeling purposes.

  4. Advanced Neutron Source: Plant Design Requirements

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-07-01

    The Advanced Neutron Source will be a new world-class facility for research using hot, thermal, cold, and ultra-cold neutrons. The heart of the facility will be a 330-MW (fission), heavy-water cooled and heavy-water moderated reactor. The reactor will be housed in a central reactor building, with supporting equipment located in an adjoining reactor support building. An array of cold neutron guides will fan out into a large guide hall, housing about 30 neutron research stations. Appropriate office, laboratory, and shop facilities will be included to provide a complete facility for users. The ANS is scheduled to begin operation at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory early in the next decade. This PDR document defines the plant-level requirements for the design, construction, and operation of ANS. It also defines and provides input to the individual System Design Description (SDD) documents. Together, this PDR document and the set of SDD documents will define and control the baseline configuration of ANS.

  5. Identifying the contribution of different urban highway air pollution sources.

    PubMed

    Peace, H; Owen, B; Raper, D W

    2004-12-01

    This paper describes the methodology and results, and draws conclusions from a large-scale source apportionment study undertaken in a large urban conurbation in the northwest of England. Annual average oxides of nitrogen (NOx) emission and ambient air pollution contributions have been estimated for road traffic sources. Ground level air pollution concentrations were estimated over a 1552-km(2) area with a resolution of up to 20 m, using emissions estimates and the second generation ADMS-Urban Gaussian dispersion model. Road traffic emissions were split into car and motorcycles; heavy and light goods vehicles; and buses to represent domestic users; commercial users and bus companies. Car related emissions were split further in to journey lengths under 3 km; journeys between 3 and 8 km; and journeys over 8 km to represent journeys which could be either walked or cycled; journeys for which a bus can easily be used and other journeys. These source sections were chosen so that the relevant authorities could target key groups in terms of reducing air pollution. The results confirm that the areas most likely to exceed air quality objectives are typically close to main arterial routes and close to urban centres and that the major culprits of road traffic related air pollution are goods vehicles and car journeys over 8 km. The paper also discusses the implications of the results and suggests how these can be used in the assessment of actions to reduce air pollution concentrations. PMID:15504521

  6. 40 CFR 55.13 - Federal requirements that apply to OCS sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF AIR REGULATIONS § 55.13 Federal requirements that apply to OCS... boundaries shall not apply. (c) 40 CFR part 60 (NSPS) shall apply to OCS sources in the same manner as in the... CFR 52.21 (PSD) shall apply to OCS sources: (1) Located within 25 miles of a State's seaward...

  7. Temperature distribution of air source heat pump barn with different air flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, X.; Li, J. C.; Zhao, G. Q.

    2016-08-01

    There are two type of airflow form in tobacco barn, one is air rising, the other is air falling. They are different in the structure layout and working principle, which affect the tobacco barn in the distribution of temperature field and velocity distribution. In order to compare the temperature and air distribution of the two, thereby obtain a tobacco barn whose temperature field and velocity distribution are more uniform. Taking the air source heat pump tobacco barn as the investigated subject and establishing relevant mathematical model, the thermodynamics of the two type of curing barn was analysed and compared based on Fluent. Provide a reasonable evidence for chamber arrangement and selection of outlet for air source heat pump tobacco barn.

  8. Heat management in aluminum/air batteries: Sources of heat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patnaik, R. S. M.; Ganesh, S.; Ashok, G.; Ganesan, M.; Kapali, V.

    1994-07-01

    One of the problems with the aluminum/air battery is the generation of heat, during both idle and discharge periods. The main sources of heat are: (1) corrosion of the aluminum anode during the idle period; (2) inefficient, or less efficient, dissolution of anode during discharge; (3) Joule heat during discharge, and (4) non-uniform mass transfer during both discharge and idle periods. These components of heat act in a cumulative way because they are all interconnected. This paper addresses the basic reasons for the origin of these sources of heat. Suitable and practical remedial measures for the effective removal of such heat in the aluminum/air battery are suggested.

  9. Mobile Source Air Toxics Rule (released in AEO2008)

    EIA Publications

    2008-01-01

    On February 9, 2007, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) released its MSAT2 rule, which will establish controls on gasoline, passenger vehicles, and portable fuel containers. The controls are designed to reduce emissions of benzene and other hazardous air pollutants. Benzene is a known carcinogen, and the EPA estimates that mobile sources produced more than 70% of all benzene emissions in 1999. Other mobile source air toxics, including 1,3-butadiene, formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, acrolein, and naphthalene, also are thought to increase cancer rates or contribute to other serious health problems.

  10. 40 CFR 63.11396 - What are the standards and compliance requirements for new sources?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... SOURCE CATEGORIES (CONTINUED) National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Acrylic and... acrylic and modacrylic fiber produced. (c) You must comply with the requirements for storage vessels... with the requirements for process wastewater and maintenance wastewater from an acrylic and...

  11. 40 CFR 63.11396 - What are the standards and compliance requirements for new sources?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... SOURCE CATEGORIES (CONTINUED) National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Acrylic and... acrylic and modacrylic fiber produced. (c) You must comply with the requirements for storage vessels... with the requirements for process wastewater and maintenance wastewater from an acrylic and...

  12. 40 CFR 63.11396 - What are the standards and compliance requirements for new sources?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... SOURCE CATEGORIES (CONTINUED) National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Acrylic and... acrylic and modacrylic fiber produced. (c) You must comply with the requirements for storage vessels... with the requirements for process wastewater and maintenance wastewater from an acrylic and...

  13. 40 CFR 63.11396 - What are the standards and compliance requirements for new sources?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... SOURCE CATEGORIES (CONTINUED) National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Acrylic and... acrylic and modacrylic fiber produced. (c) You must comply with the requirements for storage vessels... with the requirements for process wastewater and maintenance wastewater from an acrylic and...

  14. 40 CFR 63.11396 - What are the standards and compliance requirements for new sources?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... SOURCE CATEGORIES (CONTINUED) National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Acrylic and... acrylic and modacrylic fiber produced. (c) You must comply with the requirements for storage vessels... with the requirements for process wastewater and maintenance wastewater from an acrylic and...

  15. Cleanliness Requirements For The Air In A BRDF Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asmail, Clara C.

    1990-01-01

    A method is presented for estimating the cleanliness level of the air contained in a BRDF measurement facility. The use of HEPA filters is assumed and a set of reasonable assumptions are set which provide a minimum criterion for the class of clean room required for a given minimum measurable BRDF desired. The basis of the method is the use of Rayleigh scattering theory.

  16. 40 CFR 63.11423 - What are the standards and compliance requirements for new and existing sources?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES (CONTINUED) National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for... standards for lead in 40 CFR 60.372. (b) You must meet the monitoring requirements in paragraphs (b)(1)...

  17. The Sources of Air Pollution and Their Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Air Pollution Control Administration (DHEW), Arlington, VA.

    The problems of air pollution and its control are discussed. Major consideration is given the sources of pollution - motor vehicles, industry, power plants, space heating, and refuse disposal. Annual emission levels of five principle pollutants - carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, hydrocarbons, and particulate matter - are listed…

  18. AIRBORNE PARTICLE SIZES AND SOURCES FOUND IN INDOOR AIR

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper summarizes results of a literature search into the sources, sizes, and concentrations of particles in indoor air, including the various types: plant, animal, mineral, combustion, home/personal care, and radioactive aerosols. This information, presented in a summary figu...

  19. An Air Quality Data Analysis System for Interrelating Effects, Standards and Needed Source Reductions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larsen, Ralph I.

    1973-01-01

    Makes recommendations for a single air quality data system (using average time) for interrelating air pollution effects, air quality standards, air quality monitoring, diffusion calculations, source-reduction calculations, and emission standards. (JR)

  20. Effect of low emission sources on air quality in Cracow

    SciTech Connect

    Nedoma, J.

    1995-12-31

    The paper presents calculation of power engineering low emission and results of stimulation of the effect of this emission on air quality in Cracow, Poland. It has been stated that the segment of low emission in central areas of the town makes up ca. 40% of the observed concentration of sulfur dioxide. Furthermore it has been stated that the capital investment must be concentrated in the central part of the town in order to reach noticeable improvement of air quality in Cracow. Neither the output of a separate power source nor the emission level and its individual harmful effect, but the location of the source and especially packing density of the sources must decide the priority of upgrading actions.

  1. Air pollutant emission rates for sources at the Deaf Smith County repository site

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-11-01

    This document summarizes the air-quality source terms used for the Deaf Smith County, Texas environmental assessment report and explains their derivation. The engineering data supporting these source terms appear as appendixes to this report and include summary equipment lists for the repository and detailed equipment lists for the exploratory shaft. Although substantial work has been performed in establishing the current repository design, a greater effort will be required for the final design. Consequently, the repository emission rates presented here should be considered as preliminary estimates. Another set of air pollution emission rates will be calculated after design data are more firmly established. 18 refs., 15 tabs.

  2. Natural sources of atmospheric aerosols influencing air quality across Europe.

    PubMed

    Viana, M; Pey, J; Querol, X; Alastuey, A; de Leeuw, F; Lükewille, Anke

    2014-02-15

    Atmospheric aerosols are emitted by natural and anthropogenic sources. Contributions from natural sources to ambient aerosols vary widely with time (inter-annual and seasonal variability) and as a function of the distance to source regions. This work aims to identify the main natural sources of atmospheric aerosols affecting air quality across Europe. The origin, frequency, magnitude, and spatial and temporal variability of natural events were assessed for the years 2008 and 2009. The main natural sources of atmospheric aerosols identified were African dust, sea spray and wildfires. Primary biological particles were not included in the present work. Volcanic eruptions did not affect air quality significantly in Europe during the study period. The impact of natural episodes on air quality was significant in Southern and Western Europe (Cyprus, Spain, France, UK, Greece, Malta, Italy and Portugal), where they contributed to surpass the PM10 daily and annual limit values. In Central and Northern Europe (Germany, Austria and Latvia) the impact of these events was lower, as it resulted in the exceedance of PM daily but not annual limit values. Contributions from natural sources to mean annual PM10 levels in 2008 and 2009 ranged between 1 and 2 μg/m(3) in Italy, France and Portugal, between 1 and 4 μg/m(3) in Spain (10 μg/m(3) when including the Canary Islands), 5 μg/m(3) in UK, between 3 and 8 μg/m(3) in Greece, and reached up to 13 μg/m(3) in Cyprus. The evaluation of the number of monitoring stations per country reporting natural exceedances of the daily limit value (DLV) is suggested as a potential tool for air quality monitoring networks to detect outliers in the assessment of natural contributions. It is strongly suggested that a reference methodology for the identification and quantification of African dust contributions should be adopted across Europe. PMID:24342088

  3. Modeling population exposures to outdoor sources of hazardous air pollutants.

    PubMed

    Ozkaynak, Halûk; Palma, Ted; Touma, Jawad S; Thurman, James

    2008-01-01

    Accurate assessment of human exposures is an important part of environmental health effects research. However, most air pollution epidemiology studies rely upon imperfect surrogates of personal exposures, such as information based on available central-site outdoor concentration monitoring or modeling data. In this paper, we examine the limitations of using outdoor concentration predictions instead of modeled personal exposures for over 30 gaseous and particulate hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) in the US. The analysis uses the results from an air quality dispersion model (the ASPEN or Assessment System for Population Exposure Nationwide model) and an inhalation exposure model (the HAPEM or Hazardous Air Pollutant Exposure Model, Version 5), applied by the US. Environmental protection Agency during the 1999 National Air Toxic Assessment (NATA) in the US. Our results show that the total predicted chronic exposure concentrations of outdoor HAPs from all sources are lower than the modeled ambient concentrations by about 20% on average for most gaseous HAPs and by about 60% on average for most particulate HAPs (mainly, due to the exclusion of indoor sources from our modeling analysis and lower infiltration of particles indoors). On the other hand, the HAPEM/ASPEN concentration ratio averages for onroad mobile source exposures were found to be greater than 1 (around 1.20) for most mobile-source related HAPs (e.g. 1, 3-butadiene, acetaldehyde, benzene, formaldehyde) reflecting the importance of near-roadway and commuting environments on personal exposures to HAPs. The distribution of the ratios of personal to ambient concentrations was found to be skewed for a number of the VOCs and reactive HAPs associated with major source emissions, indicating the importance of personal mobility factors. We conclude that the increase in personal exposures from the corresponding predicted ambient levels tends to occur near locations where there are either major emission sources of HAPs

  4. 42 CFR 84.150 - Air-supply line tests; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Respirators § 84.150 Air-supply line tests; minimum requirements. Air supply lines employed on Type A, Type B, and Type C supplied-air respirators shall meet the minimum test requirements set forth in Table 8...

  5. 42 CFR 84.150 - Air-supply line tests; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Respirators § 84.150 Air-supply line tests; minimum requirements. Air supply lines employed on Type A, Type B, and Type C supplied-air respirators shall meet the minimum test requirements set forth in Table 8...

  6. 46 CFR 111.10-4 - Power requirements, generating sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 111.10-4 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Power Supply § 111.10-4 Power requirements, generating sources. (a) The aggregate capacity of the electric ship's service generating sources required in § 111.10-3...

  7. 46 CFR 111.10-4 - Power requirements, generating sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 111.10-4 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Power Supply § 111.10-4 Power requirements, generating sources. (a) The aggregate capacity of the electric ship's service generating sources required in § 111.10-3...

  8. 46 CFR 111.10-4 - Power requirements, generating sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 111.10-4 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Power Supply § 111.10-4 Power requirements, generating sources. (a) The aggregate capacity of the electric ship's service generating sources required in § 111.10-3...

  9. 46 CFR 111.10-4 - Power requirements, generating sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 111.10-4 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Power Supply § 111.10-4 Power requirements, generating sources. (a) The aggregate capacity of the electric ship's service generating sources required in § 111.10-3...

  10. HVAC SYSTEMS AS EMISSION SOURCES AFFECTING INDOOR AIR QUALITY: A CRITICAL REVIEW

    EPA Science Inventory

    The study evaluates heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems as contaminant emission sources that affect indoor air quality (IAQ). Various literature sources and methods for characterizing HVAC emission sources are reviewed. Available methods include in situ test...

  11. 40 CFR 60.1455 - What are the recordkeeping and reporting requirements for air curtain incinerators that burn 100...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... reporting requirements for air curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent yard waste? 60.1455 Section 60...) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for Small Municipal Waste... Reconstruction is Commenced After June 6, 2001 Air Curtain Incinerators That Burn 100 Percent Yard Waste §...

  12. 40 CFR 60.1455 - What are the recordkeeping and reporting requirements for air curtain incinerators that burn 100...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... reporting requirements for air curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent yard waste? 60.1455 Section 60...) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for Small Municipal Waste... Reconstruction is Commenced After June 6, 2001 Air Curtain Incinerators That Burn 100 Percent Yard Waste §...

  13. Indoor air quality environmental information handbook: Combustion sources

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-06-01

    This environmental information handbook was prepared to assist both the non-technical reader (i.e., homeowner) and technical persons (such as researchers, policy analysts, and builders/designers) in understanding the current state of knowledge regarding combustion sources of indoor air pollution. Quantitative and descriptive data addressing the emissions, indoor concentrations, factors influencing indoor concentrations, and health effects of combustion-generated pollutants are provided. In addition, a review of the models, controls, and standards applicable to indoor air pollution from combustion sources is presented. The emphasis is on the residential environment. The data presented here have been compiled from government and privately-funded research results, conference proceedings, technical journals, and recent publications. It is intended to provide the technical reader with a comprehensive overview and reference source on the major indoor air quality aspects relating to indoor combustion activities, including tobacco smoking. In addition, techniques for determining potential concentrations of pollutants in residential settings are presented. This is an update of a 1985 study documenting the state of knowledge of combustion-generated pollutants in the indoor environment. 191 refs., 51 figs., 71 tabs.

  14. 77 FR 17394 - Hazardous Materials: Approval and Communication Requirements for the Safe Transportation of Air...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-26

    ...: Approval and Communication Requirements for the Safe Transportation of Air Bag Inflators, Air Bag Modules... the Hazardous Materials Regulations applicable to air bag inflators, air bag modules, and seat-belt... material appropriately classified as a ] UN3268 air bag inflator, air bag module, or seat-belt...

  15. Source apportionment of visibility impairment using a three-dimensional source-oriented air quality model.

    PubMed

    Ying, Qi; Mysliwiec, Mitchell; Kleeman, Michael J

    2004-02-15

    A three-dimensional source-oriented Eulerian air quality model is developed that can predict source contributions to the visibility reduction. Particulate matter and precursor gases from 14 different sources (crustal material, paved road dust, diesel engines, meat cooking, noncatalyst-equipped gasoline engines, catalyst-equipped gasoline engines, high-sulfur fuel, sea salt, refrigerant losses, residential production, animals, soil and fertilizer application, other anthropogenic sources, and background sources) are tracked though a mathematical simulation of emission, chemical reaction, gas-to-particle conversion, transport, and deposition. A visibility model based on Mie theory is modified to use the calculated source contributions to airborne particulate matter size and composition as well as gas-phase pollutant concentrations to quantify total source contributions to visibility impairment. The combined air quality-visibility model is applied to predict source contributions to visibility reduction in southern California for a typical air pollution episode (September 23-25, 1996). The model successfully predicts a severe visibility reduction in the eastern portion of the South Coast Air Basin where the average daytime visibility is measured to be less than 10 km. In the relatively clean coastal portion of the domain, the model successfully predicts that the average daytime visibility is greater than 65 km. Transportation-related sources directly account for approximately 50% of the visibility reduction (diesel engines approximately 15-20%, catalyst-equipped gasoline engines approximately 10-20%, noncatalyst-equipped gasoline engines approximately 3-5%, crustal and paved road dust approximately 5%) in the region with the most severe visibility impairment. Ammonia emissions from animal sources account for approximately 10-15% of the visibility reduction. PMID:14998023

  16. Phase characteristic analysis of continuous depth air-gun source wavelet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xing, Lei; Liu, Huaishan; Zheng, Xilai; Liu, Xueqin; Zhang, Jin; Wang, Linfei; Zou, Zhihui; Xu, Yiming

    2016-10-01

    Air guns are important sources for marine seismic exploration. Far-field wavelet of air gun arrays, as a necessary parameter for pre-stack processing and source models, plays an important role during marine seismic data processing and interpretation. When an air gun fires, it generates a series of air bubbles. Similar to onshore seismic exploration, the water forms a plastic fluid near the bubble; the farther the air gun is located from the measurement, the more steady and more accurately represented the wavelet will be. In practice, hydrophones should be placed more than 100 m from the air gun; however, traditional seismic cables cannot meet this requirement. On the other hand, vertical cables provide a viable solution to this problem. This study uses a vertical cable to receive wavelets from 38 air guns and data are collected offshore Southeast Qiong, where the water depth is over 1000 m. In this study, the wavelets measured using this technique coincide very well with the simulated wavelets and can therefore represent the real shape of the wavelets. This experiment fills a technology gap in China.

  17. 42 CFR 84.131 - Supplied-air respirators; required components.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Supplied-air respirators; required components. 84... Supplied-Air Respirators § 84.131 Supplied-air respirators; required components. (a) Each supplied-air respirator described in § 84.130 shall, where its design requires, contain the following component parts:...

  18. 42 CFR 84.131 - Supplied-air respirators; required components.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Supplied-air respirators; required components. 84... Supplied-Air Respirators § 84.131 Supplied-air respirators; required components. (a) Each supplied-air respirator described in § 84.130 shall, where its design requires, contain the following component parts:...

  19. The transport sector as a source of air pollution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colvile, R. N.; Hutchinson, E. J.; Mindell, J. S.; Warren, R. F.

    Transport first became a significant source of air pollution after the problems of sooty smog from coal combustion had largely been solved in western European and North American cities. Since then, emissions from road, air, rail and water transport have been partly responsible for acid deposition, stratospheric ozone depletion and climate change. Most recently, road traffic exhaust emissions have been the cause of much concern about the effects of urban air quality on human health and tropospheric ozone production. This article considers the variety of transport impacts on the atmospheric environment by reviewing three examples: urban road traffic and human health, aircraft emissions and global atmospheric change, and the contribution of sulphur emissions from ships to acid deposition. Each example has associated with it a different level of uncertainty, such that a variety of policy responses to the problems are appropriate, from adaptation through precautionary emissions abatement to cost-benefit analysis and optimised abatement. There is some evidence that the current concern for road transport contribution to urban air pollution is justified, but aircraft emissions should also give cause for concern given that air traffic is projected to continue to increase. Emissions from road traffic are being reduced substantially by the introduction of technology especially three-way catalysts and also, most recently, by local traffic reduction measures especially in western European cities. In developing countries and Eastern Europe, however, there remains the possibility of great increase in car ownership and use, and it remains to be seen whether these countries will adopt measures now to prevent transport-related air pollution problems becoming severe later in the 21st Century.

  20. Air pollution source/receptor relationships in South Coast Air Basin, CA

    SciTech Connect

    Gao, N.

    1993-12-31

    This research project includes the application of some existing receptor models to study the air pollution source/receptor relationships in the South Coast Air Basin of southern California, the development of a new receptor model and the testing and the modifications of some existing models. These existing receptor models used include principal component factor analysis, potential source contribution function analysis, Kohonen`s neural network combined with Prim`s minimal spanning tree, and direct trilinear decomposition followed by a matrix reconstruction. The ambient concentration measurements used in this study are a subset of the data collected during the 1987 field exercise of Southern California Air Quality Study. It consists of a number of gaseous and particulate pollutants analyzed from samples collected by SCAQS samplers at eight sampling sites. Based on the information of emission inventories, meterology and ambient concentrations this receptor modeling study has revealed mechanisms that influence the air quality in SoCAB. Some of the mechanisms affecting the air quality in SoCAB that were revealed during this study include the following aspects. The SO{sub 2} collected at sampling sites is mainly contributed by refineries in the coastal area and the ships equipped with oil-fired boilers off shore. Combustion of fossil fuel by automobiles dominates the emission of NO{sub x} that is subsequently transformed and collected at sampling sites. Electric power plants also contribute HNO{sub 3} to the sampling sites. A large feedlot in the eastern region of SoCAB has been identified as the major source of NH{sub 3}. Possible contributions from other industrial sources such as smelters and incenerators were also revealed. The results of this study also suggest the possibility of DMS (dimethylsuflide) and NH{sub 3} emissions from off-shore sediments that have been contaminated by waste sludge disposal.

  1. 40 CFR 63.44 - Requirements for constructed or reconstructed major sources subject to a subsequently promulgated...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... standard is promulgated. In that event, the permitting authority shall incorporate the applicable... reconstructed major sources subject to a subsequently promulgated MACT standard or MACT requirement. 63.44... (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES Requirements...

  2. Emission inventories and modeling requirements for the development of air quality plans. Application to Madrid (Spain).

    PubMed

    Borge, Rafael; Lumbreras, Julio; Pérez, Javier; de la Paz, David; Vedrenne, Michel; de Andrés, Juan Manuel; Rodríguez, Ma Encarnación

    2014-01-01

    Modeling is an essential tool for the development of atmospheric emission abatement measures and air quality plans. Most often these plans are related to urban environments with high emission density and population exposure. However, air quality modeling in urban areas is a rather challenging task. As environmental standards become more stringent (e.g. European Directive 2008/50/EC), more reliable and sophisticated modeling tools are needed to simulate measures and plans that may effectively tackle air quality exceedances, common in large urban areas across Europe, particularly for NO₂. This also implies that emission inventories must satisfy a number of conditions such as consistency across the spatial scales involved in the analysis, consistency with the emission inventories used for regulatory purposes and versatility to match the requirements of different air quality and emission projection models. This study reports the modeling activities carried out in Madrid (Spain) highlighting the atmospheric emission inventory development and preparation as an illustrative example of the combination of models and data needed to develop a consistent air quality plan at urban level. These included a series of source apportionment studies to define contributions from the international, national, regional and local sources in order to understand to what extent local authorities can enforce meaningful abatement measures. Moreover, source apportionment studies were conducted in order to define contributions from different sectors and to understand the maximum feasible air quality improvement that can be achieved by reducing emissions from those sectors, thus targeting emission reduction policies to the most relevant activities. Finally, an emission scenario reflecting the effect of such policies was developed and the associated air quality was modeled.

  3. The impact of an air quality advisory program on voluntary mobile source air pollution reduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blanken, Peter D.; Dillon, Jennifer; Wismann, Genevieve

    Air pollution from mobile source emissions is a major cause of air quality degradation in the Denver, Colorado, metropolitan area. The projected increase in both population and vehicle miles driven, coupled with the high altitude, predominantly clear skies, and prevalent wintertime temperature inversions aid in the formation and retention of pollutants. The Colorado Department of Public Health issues an air quality advisory daily during the high pollution season (November 1-March 31) with the objective of improving air quality through voluntary driving restrictions and a mandatory wood burning ban. We hypothesized that the advisory had no effect on commuter behavior due to lack of awareness and understanding, lack of alternative means of travel, or lack of concern. We mailed an anonymous, self-administered survey to 1000 commuters living in the cities of Boulder and Westminster, Colorado. Despite the fact that the vast majority of the respondents were aware of the daily advisory (94%), understood what it meant (93%), and heard the posting at least once a day (71%) in time to choose alternative forms of transportation, the advisory did not alter commuter travel. Commuters traveled mainly as the sole occupant of a car and most (76%) never changed the way they commuted based on the daily advisory. Many claimed schedules or work locations did not allow them to use alternative transportation methods. We suggested a practical way to improve the advisory would be to reduce or eliminate public transit fares on poor air quality days.

  4. 42 CFR 84.147 - Type B supplied-air respirator; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Type B supplied-air respirator; minimum... DEVICES Supplied-Air Respirators § 84.147 Type B supplied-air respirator; minimum requirements. No Type B supplied-air respirator shall be approved for use with a blower or with connection to an air supply...

  5. 42 CFR 84.147 - Type B supplied-air respirator; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Type B supplied-air respirator; minimum... DEVICES Supplied-Air Respirators § 84.147 Type B supplied-air respirator; minimum requirements. No Type B supplied-air respirator shall be approved for use with a blower or with connection to an air supply...

  6. Air Pollution in China: Mapping of Concentrations and Sources

    PubMed Central

    Rohde, Robert A.; Muller, Richard A.

    2015-01-01

    China has recently made available hourly air pollution data from over 1500 sites, including airborne particulate matter (PM), SO2, NO2, and O3. We apply Kriging interpolation to four months of data to derive pollution maps for eastern China. Consistent with prior findings, the greatest pollution occurs in the east, but significant levels are widespread across northern and central China and are not limited to major cities or geologic basins. Sources of pollution are widespread, but are particularly intense in a northeast corridor that extends from near Shanghai to north of Beijing. During our analysis period, 92% of the population of China experienced >120 hours of unhealthy air (US EPA standard), and 38% experienced average concentrations that were unhealthy. China’s population-weighted average exposure to PM2.5 was 52 μg/m3. The observed air pollution is calculated to contribute to 1.6 million deaths/year in China [0.7–2.2 million deaths/year at 95% confidence], roughly 17% of all deaths in China. PMID:26291610

  7. Air Pollution in China: Mapping of Concentrations and Sources.

    PubMed

    Rohde, Robert A; Muller, Richard A

    2015-01-01

    China has recently made available hourly air pollution data from over 1500 sites, including airborne particulate matter (PM), SO2, NO2, and O3. We apply Kriging interpolation to four months of data to derive pollution maps for eastern China. Consistent with prior findings, the greatest pollution occurs in the east, but significant levels are widespread across northern and central China and are not limited to major cities or geologic basins. Sources of pollution are widespread, but are particularly intense in a northeast corridor that extends from near Shanghai to north of Beijing. During our analysis period, 92% of the population of China experienced >120 hours of unhealthy air (US EPA standard), and 38% experienced average concentrations that were unhealthy. China's population-weighted average exposure to PM2.5 was 52 μg/m3. The observed air pollution is calculated to contribute to 1.6 million deaths/year in China [0.7-2.2 million deaths/year at 95% confidence], roughly 17% of all deaths in China. PMID:26291610

  8. Sources of volatile organic compounds in Cairo's ambient air.

    PubMed

    Abu-Allaban, M; Lowenthal, D H; Gertler, A W; Labib, M

    2009-10-01

    The greater Cairo area suffers from extreme levels of gas and particulate phase air pollutants. In order to reduce the levels of ambient pollution, the USAID and the Egyptian Environmental Affairs Agency (EEAA) have supported the Cairo Air Improvement Project (CAIP). As part of this project, two intensive ambient monitoring studies were carried out during the period of February 22 to March 4 and October 27 to November 27, 1999. Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were measured on a 24-h basis at six sampling stations during each of the intensive periods. During the February/March study, samples were collected daily, while in the October/November study samples were collected every other day. The six intensive measurement sites represented background levels, mobile source impacts, industrial impacts, and residential exposure. High levels of NMHC were observed at all locations. NMHC concentrations ranged from 365 ppb C at Helwan to 1,848 ppb C at El Qualaly during winter, 1999 and from 461 ppb C at Kaha to 2,037 ppb C at El Qualaly during fall, 1999. El Qualaly, the site chosen to represent mobile emissions, displayed the highest average NMHC concentrations of any site, by a factor of 2 or more. The highest mobile source contributions were estimated at this site. The major contributors to NMHC at all sites were mobile emissions, lead smelting, and compressed natural gas. PMID:18843549

  9. Airborne particle sizes and sources found in indoor air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Owen, M. K.; Ensor, D. S.; Sparks, L. E.

    As concern about indoor air quality (IAQ) has grown in recent years, understanding indoor aerosols has become increasingly important so that control techniques may be implemented to reduce damaging health effects and soiling problems. This paper begins with a brief look at the mechanics of deposition in the lungs and the aerosol dynamics that influence particles at all times. This discussion shows that the particle diameters must be known to predict dose or soiling and to determine efficient mitigation techniques. The particle sizes produced by the various indoor sources, as well as unusual aspects of each type of source, must be known so that this process may begin. This paper summarizes the results of a literature search into the sources, sizes and concentrations of indoor particles. There are several types of indoor particles: plant and animal bioaerosols and mineral, combustion and home/personal care aerosols. These types may be produced indoors or outdoors, entering through building openings. The sources may be short term, seasonal or continuous. Particle sizes produced vary from submicrometer to larger than 10 μm. The particles may be toxic or allergenic. This information is presented in a summary table and is discussed in the text.

  10. Intake fraction variability between air pollution emission sources inside an urban area.

    PubMed

    Tainio, Marko; Holnicki, Piotr; Loh, Miranda M; Nahorski, Zbigniew

    2014-11-01

    The cost-effective mitigation of adverse health effects caused by air pollution requires information on the contribution of different emission sources to exposure. In urban areas the exposure potential of different sources may vary significantly depending on emission height, population density, and other factors. In this study, we quantified this intraurban variability by predicting intake fraction (iF) for 3,066 emission sources in Warsaw, Poland. iF describes the fraction of the pollutant that is inhaled by people in the study area. We considered the following seven pollutants: particulate matter (PM), nitrogen oxides (NOx), sulfur dioxide (SO2), benzo[a] pyrene (BaP), nickel (Ni), cadmium (Cd), and lead (Pb). Emissions for these pollutants were grouped into four emission source categories (Mobile, Area, High Point, and Other Point sources). The dispersion of the pollutants was predicted with the CALPUFF dispersion model using the year 2005 emission rate data and meteorological records. The resulting annual average concentrations were combined with population data to predict the contribution of each individual source to population exposure. The iFs for different pollutant-source category combinations varied between 51 per million (PM from Mobile sources) and 0.013 per million (sulfate PM from High Point sources). The intraurban iF variability for Mobile sources primary PM emission was from 4 per million to 100 per million with the emission-weighted iF of 44 per million. These results propose that exposure due to intraurban air pollution emissions could be decreased more effectively by specifically targeting sources with high exposure potency rather than all sources.

  11. 78 FR 42323 - Pilot Certification and Qualification Requirements for Air Carrier Operations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-15

    ... rulemaking (ANPRM) entitled ``New Pilot Certification Requirements for Air Carrier Operations'' (75 FR 6164... Requirements for Air Carrier Operations NPRM (77 FR 12374), which published in the Federal Register on February... for Air Carrier Operations NPRM (77 FR 12374), the FAA proposed to amend the existing requirements...

  12. 40 CFR 63.2343 - What are my requirements for emission sources not requiring control?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... SOURCE CATEGORIES (CONTINUED) National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Organic Liquids...), and (10)(i) in either the Notification of Compliance Status, according to the schedule specified in... Notification of Compliance Status, the Notification of Compliance Status must contain the information...

  13. ISS Ambient Air Quality: Updated Inventory of Known Aerosol Sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyer, Marit

    2014-01-01

    Spacecraft cabin air quality is of fundamental importance to crew health, with concerns encompassing both gaseous contaminants and particulate matter. Little opportunity exists for direct measurement of aerosol concentrations on the International Space Station (ISS), however, an aerosol source model was developed for the purpose of filtration and ventilation systems design. This model has successfully been applied, however, since the initial effort, an increase in the number of crewmembers from 3 to 6 and new processes on board the ISS necessitate an updated aerosol inventory to accurately reflect the current ambient aerosol conditions. Results from recent analyses of dust samples from ISS, combined with a literature review provide new predicted aerosol emission rates in terms of size-segregated mass and number concentration. Some new aerosol sources have been considered and added to the existing array of materials. The goal of this work is to provide updated filtration model inputs which can verify that the current ISS filtration system is adequate and filter lifetime targets are met. This inventory of aerosol sources is applicable to other spacecraft, and becomes more important as NASA considers future long term exploration missions, which will preclude the opportunity for resupply of filtration products.

  14. Air Pollution in Megacities: Sources and Regional/Global Effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Artaxo, P.

    2007-12-01

    Air Pollution in Megacities is increasing significantly in all continents. The socio-economic and health problems are escalating, especially in developing countries. In terms of sources, urban transportation is relevant in most cities, as well as industrial pollution. In Latin American Cities such as Sao Paulo, Mexico City and Santiago, serious governmental efforts are being doing to reduce emissions and effects. Latin America has about 300 cities with population above 300.000 people. In Sao Paulo, the significant increase in the use of ethanol as fuel brings important increase in aldehyde concentrations. In all 3 Megacities, high aerosol concentrations are observed, with clear effects on population health. Large studies on aerosol source apportionment were done in these 3 cities, and detailed results will be presented. Quantification of aerosol sources is a problem, especially in the organic aerosol component that is high in most of Megacities. In Asia and Africa, the problems are similar as in Latin America, and the large emissions from these urban centers are relevant and needs to be taken into account in policies to reduce carbon dioxide emissions.

  15. [Polluting agents and sources of urban air pollution].

    PubMed

    Cocheo, V

    2000-01-01

    This paper is an up-to-date review of the scientific evidence on mechanisms of pollutant generation and health effects for a number of urban air pollutants. The review focuses on main sources and health effect of ozone and photochemical smog, benzene, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and particulate matter. These agents are "priority pollutants", generated by vehicle traffic, and their regulation is currently being examined by the European Council and the European Commission. The aim is to reach, by the year 2010, values lower than 180 micrograms/m3 for ozone as maximum hourly concentration, 2.5 micrograms/m3 for benzene as an annual average, 93 micrograms/m3 for nitrogen dioxide as 98 degrees percentile of hourly concentrations, 50 micrograms/m3 for particulate as a daily average. The goal can be achieved only by means of immediate interventions on emissions. PMID:11293295

  16. 76 FR 57913 - Amendments to National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Area Sources: Plating...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-19

    ... Air Pollutants for Area Sources: Plating and Polishing'' which was published on June 20, 2011 (76 FR... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 63 RIN 2060-AQ74 Amendments to National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air... standards for hazardous air pollutants (NESHAP) for the plating and polishing area source category...

  17. Controlling Air Pollution; A Primer on Stationary Source Control Techniques.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corman, Rena

    This companion document to "Air Pollution Primer" is written for the nonexpert in air pollution; however, it does assume a familiarity with air pollution problems. This work is oriented toward providing the reader with knowledge about current and proposed air quality legislation and knowledge about available technology to meet these standards for…

  18. 76 FR 14839 - Delegation of National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Source Categories...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-18

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 63 Delegation of National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Source... County Air Pollution Control District AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Proposed... national emission standards for hazardous air pollutants (NESHAP) to the Maricopa County Air...

  19. 42 CFR 84.139 - Head and neck protection; supplied-air respirators; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Head and neck protection; supplied-air respirators... PROTECTIVE DEVICES Supplied-Air Respirators § 84.139 Head and neck protection; supplied-air respirators; minimum requirements. Type AE, BE, and CE supplied-air respirators shall be designed and constructed...

  20. 42 CFR 84.171 - Non-powered air-purifying particulate respirators; required components.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Non-powered air-purifying particulate respirators... PROTECTIVE DEVICES Non-Powered Air-Purifying Particulate Respirators § 84.171 Non-powered air-purifying particulate respirators; required components. (a) Each non-powered air-purifying particulate...

  1. 42 CFR 84.139 - Head and neck protection; supplied-air respirators; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Head and neck protection; supplied-air respirators... PROTECTIVE DEVICES Supplied-Air Respirators § 84.139 Head and neck protection; supplied-air respirators; minimum requirements. Type AE, BE, and CE supplied-air respirators shall be designed and constructed...

  2. 42 CFR 84.171 - Non-powered air-purifying particulate respirators; required components.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Non-powered air-purifying particulate respirators... PROTECTIVE DEVICES Non-Powered Air-Purifying Particulate Respirators § 84.171 Non-powered air-purifying particulate respirators; required components. (a) Each non-powered air-purifying particulate...

  3. Space radioisotope power source requirements update and technology status

    SciTech Connect

    Mondt, J.F.

    1998-07-01

    The requirements for a space advanced radioisotope power source are based on potential deep space missions being investigated for the NASA Advanced Space Systems Development Program. Since deep space missions have not been approved, updating requirements is a continuos parallel process of designing the spacecraft and the science instruments to accomplish the potential missions and developing the power source technology to meet changing requirements. There are at least two potential missions, Pluto/Kuiper Express and Europa Orbiter, which may require space advanced radioisotope power sources. The Europa Orbiter has been selected as the preferred first potential mission. However the final decision will depend on the technology readiness of all the subsystems and the project must be able to switch to Pluto Kuiper Express as the first mission as late as the beginning of fiscal year 2000. Therefore the requirements for the power source will cover both potential missions. As the deep space spacecraft design evolves to meet the science requirements and the Alkali Metal Thermal to Electric (AMTEC) technology matures the advanced radioisotope power source design requirements are updated The AMTEC technology developed to date uses stainless steel for the sodium containment material. The higher efficiency required for the space power system dictates that the AMTEC technology must operate at a higher temperature than possible with stainless steel. Therefore refractory materials have been selected as the baseline material for the AMTEC cell. These refractory materials are Nb1Zr for the hot side and Nb1Zr or Nb10Hf1Ti for the cold side. These materials were selected so the AMTEC cell can operate at 1150K to 1350K hot side temperature and 600K to 700K cold side temperature and meet the present power and mass requirements using four to six general purpose heat source modules as the heat source. The new containment materials and brazes will be evaluated as to lifetime

  4. 10 CFR 71.64 - Special requirements for plutonium air shipments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Special requirements for plutonium air shipments. 71.64... MATERIAL Package Approval Standards § 71.64 Special requirements for plutonium air shipments. (a) A package for the shipment of plutonium by air subject to § 71.88(a)(4), in addition to satisfying...

  5. 10 CFR 71.64 - Special requirements for plutonium air shipments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Special requirements for plutonium air shipments. 71.64... MATERIAL Package Approval Standards § 71.64 Special requirements for plutonium air shipments. (a) A package for the shipment of plutonium by air subject to § 71.88(a)(4), in addition to satisfying...

  6. 10 CFR 71.64 - Special requirements for plutonium air shipments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Special requirements for plutonium air shipments. 71.64... MATERIAL Package Approval Standards § 71.64 Special requirements for plutonium air shipments. (a) A package for the shipment of plutonium by air subject to § 71.88(a)(4), in addition to satisfying...

  7. 10 CFR 71.64 - Special requirements for plutonium air shipments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Special requirements for plutonium air shipments. 71.64... MATERIAL Package Approval Standards § 71.64 Special requirements for plutonium air shipments. (a) A package for the shipment of plutonium by air subject to § 71.88(a)(4), in addition to satisfying...

  8. 10 CFR 71.64 - Special requirements for plutonium air shipments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Special requirements for plutonium air shipments. 71.64... MATERIAL Package Approval Standards § 71.64 Special requirements for plutonium air shipments. (a) A package for the shipment of plutonium by air subject to § 71.88(a)(4), in addition to satisfying...

  9. Identification of requirements and sources for global digital topographic data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gesch, Dean B.

    1993-01-01

    Many of the physical processes being studied by global change researchers are affects by land surface topography and consequently topographic data are an important requirement for these investigations. Remotely sensed data, especially those that will be collected by the instruments of the Earth Observing System, require significant correction to remove topographic effects. Although some requirements are met by existing topographic data, there are serious data shortages that will affect global change science. The interdisciplinary and multi temporal natural of global change research requires that remotely sensed data be processed using a consistent, highly accurate global topographic database so that information extracted from these data for different areas and times can be compared quantitively. Cartographic and remote sensing sources for the generation of new topographic data exist or are planned and will be helpful for fulfilling these requirements. More consistent use of accuracy statement terminology by data users and producers is necessary to better compare the requirements with existing or future data sets.

  10. 40 CFR 63.44 - Requirements for constructed or reconstructed major sources subject to a subsequently promulgated...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES Requirements for... emission standard under section 112(d) or section 112(h) of the Act or the permitting authority makes a... subsequently promulgated MACT standard or MACT requirement. (a) If the Administrator promulgates an...

  11. 40 CFR 63.44 - Requirements for constructed or reconstructed major sources subject to a subsequently promulgated...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES Requirements for... emission standard under section 112(d) or section 112(h) of the Act or the permitting authority makes a... subsequently promulgated MACT standard or MACT requirement. (a) If the Administrator promulgates an...

  12. 40 CFR 63.44 - Requirements for constructed or reconstructed major sources subject to a subsequently promulgated...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES Requirements for... emission standard under section 112(d) or section 112(h) of the Act or the permitting authority makes a... subsequently promulgated MACT standard or MACT requirement. (a) If the Administrator promulgates an...

  13. 40 CFR 63.44 - Requirements for constructed or reconstructed major sources subject to a subsequently promulgated...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES Requirements for... emission standard under section 112(d) or section 112(h) of the Act or the permitting authority makes a... subsequently promulgated MACT standard or MACT requirement. (a) If the Administrator promulgates an...

  14. Experimental derivation of the fluence non-uniformity correction for air kerma near brachytherapy linear sources

    SciTech Connect

    Vianello, E. A.; Almeida, C. E. de

    2008-07-15

    In brachytherapy, one of the elements to take into account for measurements free in air is the non-uniformity of the photon fluence due to the beam divergence that causes a steep dose gradient near the source. The correction factors for this phenomenon have been usually evaluated by two available theories by Kondo and Randolph [Radiat. Res. 13, 37-60 (1960)] and Bielajew [Phys. Med. Biol. 35, 517-538 (1990)], both conceived for point sources. This work presents the experimental validation of the Monte Carlo calculations made by Rodriguez and deAlmeida [Phys. Med. Biol. 49, 1705-1709 (2004)] for the non-uniformity correction specifically for a Cs-137 linear source measured using a Farmer type ionization chamber. The experimental values agree very well with the Monte Carlo calculations and differ from the results predicted by both theoretical models widely used. This result confirms that for linear sources there are some important differences at short distances from the source and emphasizes that those theories should not be used for linear sources. The data provided in this study confirm the limitations of the mentioned theories when linear sources are used. Considering the difficulties and uncertainties associated with the experimental measurements, it is recommended to use the Monte Carlo data to assess the non-uniformity factors for linear sources in situations that require this knowledge.

  15. HVAC SYSTEMS AS EMISSION SOURCES AFFECTING INDOOR AIR QUALITY: A CRITICAL REVIEW

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper discusses results of an evaluation of literature on heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems as contaminant emission sources that affect indoor air quality (IAQ). The various literature sources and methods for characterizing HVAC emission sources are re...

  16. 40 CFR 141.83 - Source water treatment requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Source water treatment requirements. 141.83 Section 141.83 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS Control of Lead and Copper § 141.83...

  17. 40 CFR 141.83 - Source water treatment requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Source water treatment requirements. 141.83 Section 141.83 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS Control of Lead and Copper § 141.83...

  18. 40 CFR 141.83 - Source water treatment requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Source water treatment requirements. 141.83 Section 141.83 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS Control of Lead and Copper § 141.83...

  19. 40 CFR 141.83 - Source water treatment requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Source water treatment requirements. 141.83 Section 141.83 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS Control of Lead and Copper § 141.83...

  20. 40 CFR 141.83 - Source water treatment requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... water monitoring (§ 141.88(b)) and make a treatment recommendation to the State (§ 141.83(b)(1)) no... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Source water treatment requirements. 141.83 Section 141.83 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED)...

  1. 77 FR 67584 - Air Carrier Contract Maintenance Requirements

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-13

    ... Privacy Act Statement can be found in the Federal Register published on April 11, 2000 (65 FR 19477-19478...-certificated repair facilities, and the air carriers' outsourcing of maintenance. In each of those reports... maintenance outsourcing practices (Recommendation 2). \\3\\ Review of Air Carriers' Use of Aircraft...

  2. Open air mineral treatment operations and ambient air quality: assessment and source apportionment.

    PubMed

    Escudero, M; Alastuey, A; Moreno, T; Querol, X; Pérez, P

    2012-11-01

    We present a methodology for evaluating and quantifying the impact of inhalable mineral dust resuspension close to a potentially important industrial point source, in this case an open air plant producing sand, flux and kaolin in the Capuchinos district of Alcañiz (Teruel, NE Spain). PM(10) levels at Capuchinos were initially high (42 μg m(-3) as the annual average with 91 exceedances of the EU daily limit value during 2007) but subsequently decreased (26 μg m(-3) with 16 exceedances in 2010) due to a reduced demand for minerals from the ceramic industry and construction sector during the first stages of the economic crisis. Back trajectory and local wind pattern analyses revealed only limited contribution from exotic PM sources such as African dust intrusions whereas there was clearly a strong link with the mineral stockpiles of the local industry. This link was reinforced by chemical and mineral speciation and source apportionment analysis which showed a dominance of mineral matter (sum of CO(3)(2-), SiO(2), Al(2)O(3), Ca, Fe, K, Mg, P, and Ti: mostly aluminosilicates) which in 2007 contributed 76% of the PM(10) mass (44 μg m(-3) on average). The contribution from Secondary Inorganic Aerosols (SIA, sum of SO(4)(2-), NO(3)(-) and NH(4)(+)) reached 8.4 μg m(-3), accounting for 14% of the PM(10) mass, similar to the amount of calcareous road dust estimated to be present (8 μg m(-3); 13%). Organic matter and elemental carbon contributed 5.3 μg m(-3) (9%) whereas marine aerosol (Na + Cl) levels were minor with an average concentration of 0.4 μg m(-3) (1% of the PM(10) mass). Finally, chemical and mineralogical analysis of stockpile samples and comparison with filter samples confirmed the local industry to be the major source of ambient PM(10) in the area.

  3. Autonomous Integrated Receive System (AIRS) requirements definition. Volume 4: Functional specification for the prototype Automated Integrated Receive System (AIRS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chie, C. M.

    1984-01-01

    The functional requirements for the performance, design, and testing for the prototype Automated Integrated Receive System (AIRS) to be demonstrated for the TDRSS S-Band Single Access Return Link are presented.

  4. Intra-urban biomonitoring: Source apportionment using tree barks to identify air pollution sources.

    PubMed

    Moreira, Tiana Carla Lopes; de Oliveira, Regiani Carvalho; Amato, Luís Fernando Lourenço; Kang, Choong-Min; Saldiva, Paulo Hilário Nascimento; Saiki, Mitiko

    2016-05-01

    It is of great interest to evaluate if there is a relationship between possible sources and trace elements using biomonitoring techniques. In this study, tree bark samples of 171 trees were collected using a biomonitoring technique in the inner city of São Paulo. The trace elements (Al, Ba, Ca, Cl, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, P, Rb, S, Sr and Zn) were determined by the energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) spectrometry. The Principal Component Analysis (PCA) was applied to identify the plausible sources associated with tree bark measurements. The greatest source was vehicle-induced non-tailpipe emissions derived mainly from brakes and tires wear-out and road dust resuspension (characterized with Al, Ba, Cu, Fe, Mn and Zn), which was explained by 27.1% of the variance, followed by cement (14.8%), sea salt (11.6%) and biomass burning (10%), and fossil fuel combustion (9.8%). We also verified that the elements related to vehicular emission showed different concentrations at different sites of the same street, which might be helpful for a new street classification according to the emission source. The spatial distribution maps of element concentrations were obtained to evaluate the different levels of pollution in streets and avenues. Results indicated that biomonitoring techniques using tree bark can be applied to evaluate dispersion of air pollution and provide reliable data for the further epidemiological studies.

  5. Intra-urban biomonitoring: Source apportionment using tree barks to identify air pollution sources.

    PubMed

    Moreira, Tiana Carla Lopes; de Oliveira, Regiani Carvalho; Amato, Luís Fernando Lourenço; Kang, Choong-Min; Saldiva, Paulo Hilário Nascimento; Saiki, Mitiko

    2016-05-01

    It is of great interest to evaluate if there is a relationship between possible sources and trace elements using biomonitoring techniques. In this study, tree bark samples of 171 trees were collected using a biomonitoring technique in the inner city of São Paulo. The trace elements (Al, Ba, Ca, Cl, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, P, Rb, S, Sr and Zn) were determined by the energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) spectrometry. The Principal Component Analysis (PCA) was applied to identify the plausible sources associated with tree bark measurements. The greatest source was vehicle-induced non-tailpipe emissions derived mainly from brakes and tires wear-out and road dust resuspension (characterized with Al, Ba, Cu, Fe, Mn and Zn), which was explained by 27.1% of the variance, followed by cement (14.8%), sea salt (11.6%) and biomass burning (10%), and fossil fuel combustion (9.8%). We also verified that the elements related to vehicular emission showed different concentrations at different sites of the same street, which might be helpful for a new street classification according to the emission source. The spatial distribution maps of element concentrations were obtained to evaluate the different levels of pollution in streets and avenues. Results indicated that biomonitoring techniques using tree bark can be applied to evaluate dispersion of air pollution and provide reliable data for the further epidemiological studies. PMID:26995269

  6. BRIGHT SOURCE SUBTRACTION REQUIREMENTS FOR REDSHIFTED 21 cm MEASUREMENTS

    SciTech Connect

    Datta, A.; Bowman, J. D.; Carilli, C. L.

    2010-11-20

    The H I 21 cm transition line is expected to be an important probe into the cosmic dark ages and epoch of reionization. Foreground source removal is one of the principal challenges for the detection of this signal. This paper investigates the extragalactic point source contamination and how accurately bright sources ({approx}>1 Jy) must be removed in order to detect 21 cm emission with upcoming radio telescopes such as the Murchison Widefield Array. We consider the residual contamination in 21 cm maps and power spectra due to position errors in the sky model for bright sources, as well as frequency-independent calibration errors. We find that a source position accuracy of 0.1 arcsec will suffice for detection of the H I power spectrum. For calibration errors, 0.05% accuracy in antenna gain amplitude is required in order to detect the cosmic signal. Both sources of subtraction error produce residuals that are localized to small angular scales, k{sub perpendicular} {approx}> 0.05 Mpc{sup -1}, in the two-dimensional power spectrum.

  7. LARGE-SCALE PREDICTIONS OF MOBILE SOURCE CONTRIBUTIONS TO CONCENTRATIONS OF TOXIC AIR POLLUTANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This presentation shows concentrations and deposition of toxic air pollutants predicted by a 3-D air quality model, the Community Multi Scale Air Quality (CMAQ) modeling system. Contributions from both on-road and non-road mobile sources are analyzed.

  8. 77 FR 41146 - Delegation of National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Source Categories...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-12

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 63 Delegation of National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Source.... SUMMARY: Pursuant to section 112(l) of the Clean Air Act as amended in 1990, EPA is proposing to grant delegation of specific national emission standards for hazardous air pollutants (NESHAP) to the Gila...

  9. 75 FR 8888 - Delegation of National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Source Categories...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-26

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 63 Delegation of National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Source...). ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY: Pursuant to section 112(l) of the 1990 Clean Air Act, EPA granted delegation of specific national emission standards for hazardous air pollutants (NESHAP) to the...

  10. 42 CFR 84.148 - Type C supplied-air respirator, continuous flow class; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Type C supplied-air respirator, continuous flow... RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Supplied-Air Respirators § 84.148 Type C supplied-air respirator, continuous flow class; minimum requirements. (a) Respirators tested under this section shall be approved only...

  11. 42 CFR 84.140 - Air velocity and noise levels; hoods and helmets; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Air velocity and noise levels; hoods and helmets; minimum requirements. 84.140 Section 84.140 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND... PROTECTIVE DEVICES Supplied-Air Respirators § 84.140 Air velocity and noise levels; hoods and...

  12. 42 CFR 84.140 - Air velocity and noise levels; hoods and helmets; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Air velocity and noise levels; hoods and helmets; minimum requirements. 84.140 Section 84.140 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND... PROTECTIVE DEVICES Supplied-Air Respirators § 84.140 Air velocity and noise levels; hoods and...

  13. 42 CFR 84.140 - Air velocity and noise levels; hoods and helmets; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Air velocity and noise levels; hoods and helmets; minimum requirements. 84.140 Section 84.140 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND... PROTECTIVE DEVICES Supplied-Air Respirators § 84.140 Air velocity and noise levels; hoods and...

  14. 42 CFR 84.140 - Air velocity and noise levels; hoods and helmets; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Air velocity and noise levels; hoods and helmets; minimum requirements. 84.140 Section 84.140 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND... PROTECTIVE DEVICES Supplied-Air Respirators § 84.140 Air velocity and noise levels; hoods and...

  15. 42 CFR 84.140 - Air velocity and noise levels; hoods and helmets; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Air velocity and noise levels; hoods and helmets; minimum requirements. 84.140 Section 84.140 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND... PROTECTIVE DEVICES Supplied-Air Respirators § 84.140 Air velocity and noise levels; hoods and...

  16. 47 CFR 22.873 - Construction requirements for commercial aviation air-ground systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... aviation air-ground systems. 22.873 Section 22.873 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION... Aviation Air-Ground Systems § 22.873 Construction requirements for commercial aviation air-ground systems. Licensees authorized to use more than one megahertz (1 MHz) of the 800 MHz commercial aviation...

  17. 47 CFR 22.873 - Construction requirements for commercial aviation air-ground systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... aviation air-ground systems. 22.873 Section 22.873 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION... Aviation Air-Ground Systems § 22.873 Construction requirements for commercial aviation air-ground systems. Licensees authorized to use more than one megahertz (1 MHz) of the 800 MHz commercial aviation...

  18. 47 CFR 22.873 - Construction requirements for commercial aviation air-ground systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... aviation air-ground systems. 22.873 Section 22.873 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION... Aviation Air-Ground Systems § 22.873 Construction requirements for commercial aviation air-ground systems. Licensees authorized to use more than one megahertz (1 MHz) of the 800 MHz commercial aviation...

  19. 47 CFR 22.873 - Construction requirements for commercial aviation air-ground systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... aviation air-ground systems. 22.873 Section 22.873 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION... Aviation Air-Ground Systems § 22.873 Construction requirements for commercial aviation air-ground systems. Licensees authorized to use more than one megahertz (1 MHz) of the 800 MHz commercial aviation...

  20. 47 CFR 22.873 - Construction requirements for commercial aviation air-ground systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... aviation air-ground systems. 22.873 Section 22.873 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION... Aviation Air-Ground Systems § 22.873 Construction requirements for commercial aviation air-ground systems. Licensees authorized to use more than one megahertz (1 MHz) of the 800 MHz commercial aviation...

  1. Indoor air: Contemporary sources, exposures and global implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morawska, Lidia; Salthammer, Tunga

    2015-04-01

    Recent 'Global Burden of Disease' studies have provided quantitative evidence of the significant role air pollution plays as a human health risk factor (Lim et al., The Lancet, 380: 2224-2260, 2012). Tobacco smoke, including second hand smoke, household air pollution from solid fuels and ambient particulate matter are among the top risks, leading to lower life expectancy around the world.

  2. Temperature and Humidity Independent Control Research on Ground Source Heat Pump Air Conditioning System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, G.; Wang, L. L.

    Taking green demonstration center building air conditioning system as an example, this paper presents the temperature and humidity independent control system combined with ground source heat pump system, emphasis on the design of dry terminal device system, fresh air system and ground source heat pump system.

  3. Analysis of mobile source air toxics (MSATs)–Near-Road VOC and carbonyl concentrations

    EPA Science Inventory

    Exposures to mobile source air toxics (MSATs) have been associated with numerous adverse health effects. While thousands of air toxic compounds are emitted from mobile sources, a subset of compounds are considered high priority due to their significant contribution to cancer and...

  4. Panama Canal Expansion Illustrates Need for Multimodal Near-Source Air Quality Assessment

    EPA Science Inventory

    The compelling issue raised is potential major changes in goods movement due to the Panama Canal expansion and considerations for near-source air quality. Near-source air quality may be affected both at near-port areas as well as along the freight transportation corridor.

  5. Requirements and limitations on beam quality in synchrotron radiation sources

    SciTech Connect

    Cornacchia, M.

    1989-07-01

    The requirements and limitations of the third generation of synchrotron radiation facilities are reviewed. These machines are designed to emit radiation of very high intensity, extreme brightness, very short pulses, and laserlike coherence. These performance goals put severe requirements on the quality of the electron or positron beams. Phenomena affecting the injection process and the beam lifetime are discussed. Gas desorption by synchrotron radiation, collective effects (coupled bunch oscillations) and ion trapping (for an electron beam) play an important role. Low emittance lattices are more sensitive to quadrupole movements and at the same time, in order not to lose the benefits of high brilliance, require tighter tolerances on the allowed movement of the photon beam source. 22 refs., 9 figs.

  6. Air Quality Science and Regulatory Efforts Require Geostationary Satellite Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pickering, Kenneth E.; Allen, D. J.; Stehr, J. W.

    2006-01-01

    Air quality scientists and regulatory agencies would benefit from the high spatial and temporal resolution trace gas and aerosol data that could be provided by instruments on a geostationary platform. More detailed time-resolved data from a geostationary platform could be used in tracking regional transport and in evaluating mesoscale air quality model performance in terms of photochemical evolution throughout the day. The diurnal cycle of photochemical pollutants is currently missing from the data provided by the current generation of atmospheric chemistry satellites which provide only one measurement per day. Often peak surface ozone mixing ratios are reached much earlier in the day during major regional pollution episodes than during local episodes due to downward mixing of ozone that had been transported above the boundary layer overnight. The regional air quality models often do not simulate this downward mixing well enough and underestimate surface ozone in regional episodes. Having high time-resolution geostationary data will make it possible to determine the magnitude of this lower-and mid-tropospheric transport that contributes to peak eight-hour average ozone and 24-hour average PM2.5 concentrations. We will show ozone and PM(sub 2.5) episodes from the CMAQ model and suggest ways in which geostationary satellite data would improve air quality forecasting. Current regulatory modeling is typically being performed at 12 km horizontal resolution. State and regional air quality regulators in regions with complex topography and/or land-sea breezes are anxious to move to 4-km or finer resolution simulations. Geostationary data at these or finer resolutions will be useful in evaluating such models.

  7. Power Output and Air Requirements of a Two-stroke Cycle Engine for Aeronautical Use

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paton, C R; Kemper, Carlton

    1927-01-01

    This investigation was undertaken to determine the pressure and amount of air necessary for satisfactory high-speed, two-stroke cycle operation and thus permit the power requirements of the air pump or blower to be determined. Based on power output and air requirement here obtained the two-stroke cycle engine would seem to be favorable for aeronautical use. No attempts were made to secure satisfactory operation at idling speeds.

  8. Temporal lineage tracing of Aire-expressing cells reveals a requirement for Aire in their maturation program.

    PubMed

    Nishikawa, Yumiko; Nishijima, Hitoshi; Matsumoto, Minoru; Morimoto, Junko; Hirota, Fumiko; Takahashi, Satoru; Luche, Hervé; Fehling, Hans Joerg; Mouri, Yasuhiro; Matsumoto, Mitsuru

    2014-03-15

    Understanding the cellular dynamics of Aire-expressing lineage(s) among medullary thymic epithelial cells (AEL-mTECs) is essential for gaining insight into the roles of Aire in establishment of self-tolerance. In this study, we monitored the maturation program of AEL-mTECs by temporal lineage tracing, in which bacterial artificial chromosome transgenic mice expressing tamoxifen-inducible Cre recombinase under control of the Aire regulatory element were crossed with reporter strains. We estimated that the half-life of AEL-mTECs subsequent to Aire expression was ∼7-8 d, which was much longer than that reported previously, owing to the existence of a post-Aire stage. We found that loss of Aire did not alter the overall lifespan of AEL-mTECs, inconsistent with the previous notion that Aire expression in medullary thymic epithelial cells (mTECs) might result in their apoptosis for efficient cross-presentation of self-antigens expressed by AEL-mTECs. In contrast, Aire was required for the full maturation program of AEL-mTECs, as exemplified by the lack of physiological downregulation of CD80 during the post-Aire stage in Aire-deficient mice, thus accounting for the abnormally increased CD80(high) mTECs seen in such mice. Of interest, increased CD80(high) mTECs in Aire-deficient mice were not mTEC autonomous and were dependent on cross-talk with thymocytes. These results further support the roles of Aire in the differentiation program of AEL-mTECs.

  9. 15 CFR 923.45 - Air and water pollution control requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Air and water pollution control....45 Air and water pollution control requirements. The program must incorporate, by reference or otherwise, all requirements established by the Federal Water Pollution Control Act, as amended (Clean...

  10. 15 CFR 923.45 - Air and water pollution control requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Air and water pollution control....45 Air and water pollution control requirements. The program must incorporate, by reference or otherwise, all requirements established by the Federal Water Pollution Control Act, as amended (Clean...

  11. 15 CFR 923.45 - Air and water pollution control requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Air and water pollution control....45 Air and water pollution control requirements. The program must incorporate, by reference or otherwise, all requirements established by the Federal Water Pollution Control Act, as amended (Clean...

  12. 15 CFR 923.45 - Air and water pollution control requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Air and water pollution control....45 Air and water pollution control requirements. The program must incorporate, by reference or otherwise, all requirements established by the Federal Water Pollution Control Act, as amended (Clean...

  13. 15 CFR 923.45 - Air and water pollution control requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Air and water pollution control....45 Air and water pollution control requirements. The program must incorporate, by reference or otherwise, all requirements established by the Federal Water Pollution Control Act, as amended (Clean...

  14. MODELING POPULATION EXPOSURES TO OUTDOOR SOURCES OF HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Accurate assessment of human exposures is an important part of environmental health effects research. However, most air pollution epidemiology studies rely upon imperfect surrogates of personal exposures, such as information based on available central-site outdoor concentration ...

  15. Space-based detection of missing sulfur dioxide sources of global air pollution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McLinden, Chris A.; Fioletov, Vitali; Shephard, Mark W.; Krotkov, Nick; Li, Can; Martin, Randall V.; Moran, Michael D.; Joiner, Joanna

    2016-07-01

    Sulfur dioxide is designated a criteria air contaminant (or equivalent) by virtually all developed nations. When released into the atmosphere, sulfur dioxide forms sulfuric acid and fine particulate matter, secondary pollutants that have significant adverse effects on human health, the environment and the economy. The conventional, bottom-up emissions inventories used to assess impacts, however, are often incomplete or outdated, particularly for developing nations that lack comprehensive emission reporting requirements and infrastructure. Here we present a satellite-based, global emission inventory for SO2 that is derived through a simultaneous detection, mapping and emission-quantifying procedure, and thereby independent of conventional information sources. We find that of the 500 or so large sources in our inventory, nearly 40 are not captured in leading conventional inventories. These missing sources are scattered throughout the developing world--over a third are clustered around the Persian Gulf--and add up to 7 to 14 Tg of SO2 yr-1, or roughly 6-12% of the global anthropogenic source. Our estimates of national total emissions are generally in line with conventional numbers, but for some regions, and for SO2 emissions from volcanoes, discrepancies can be as large as a factor of three or more. We anticipate that our inventory will help eliminate gaps in bottom-up inventories, independent of geopolitical borders and source types.

  16. Space-Based Detection of Missing Sulfur Dioxide Sources of Global Air Pollution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McLinden, Chris A.; Fioletov, Vitali; Shephard, Mark W.; Krotkov, Nick; Li, Can; Martin, Randall V.; Moran, Michael D.; Joiner, Joanna

    2016-01-01

    Sulfur dioxide is designated a criteria air contaminant (or equivalent) by virtually all developed nations. When released into the atmosphere, sulfur dioxide forms sulfuric acid and fine particulate matter, secondary pollutants that have significant adverse effects on human health, the environment and the economy. The conventional, bottom-up emissions inventories used to assess impacts, however, are often incomplete or outdated, particularly for developing nations that lack comprehensive emission reporting requirements and infrastructure. Here we present a satellite-based, global emission inventory for SO2 that is derived through a simultaneous detection, mapping and emission-quantifying procedure, and thereby independent of conventional information sources. We find that of the 500 or so large sources in our inventory, nearly 40 are not captured in leading conventional inventories. These missing sources are scattered throughout the developing world-over a third are clustered around the Persian Gulf-and add up to 7 to 14 Tg of SO2 yr(exp -1), or roughly 6-12% of the global anthropogenic source. Our estimates of national total emissions are generally in line with conventional numbers, but for some regions, and for SO2 emissions from volcanoes, discrepancies can be as large as a factor of three or more. We anticipate that our inventory will help eliminate gaps in bottom-up inventories, independent of geopolitical borders and source types.

  17. 77 FR 66543 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Delaware; Requirements for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-06

    ...; Requirements for Prevention of Significant Deterioration and Nonattainment New Source Review; Fine Particulate... (SIP). The revisions pertain to preconstruction requirements under the Prevention of Significant Deterioration (PSD) and nonattainment New Source Review (NSR) programs. The correction of this omission does...

  18. Source evaluation report phase 2 investigation: Limited field investigation. Final report: United States Air Force Environmental Restoration Program, Eielson Air Force Base, Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-10-01

    This report describes the limited field investigation work done to address issues and answer unresolved questions regarding a collection of potential contaminant sources at Eielson Air Force Base (AFB), near Fairbanks, Alaska. These sources were listed in the Eielson AFB Federal Facility Agreement supporting the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) cleanup of the base. The limited field investigation began in 1993 to resolve all remaining technical issues and provide the data and analysis required to evaluate the environmental hazard associated with these sites. The objective of the limited field investigation was to allow the remedial project managers to sort each site into one of three categories: requiring remedial investigation/feasibility study, requiring interim removal action, or requiring no further remedial action.

  19. 40 CFR 63.42 - Program requirements governing construction or reconstruction of major sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR... Accordance With Clean Air Act Sections, Sections 112(g) and 112(j) § 63.42 Program requirements governing... cause by EPA to apply the sanctions and remedies set forth in the Clean Air Act section 502(I)....

  20. 40 CFR 63.42 - Program requirements governing construction or reconstruction of major sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR... Accordance With Clean Air Act Sections, Sections 112(g) and 112(j) § 63.42 Program requirements governing... cause by EPA to apply the sanctions and remedies set forth in the Clean Air Act section 502(I)....

  1. 40 CFR 63.42 - Program requirements governing construction or reconstruction of major sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR... Accordance With Clean Air Act Sections, Sections 112(g) and 112(j) § 63.42 Program requirements governing... cause by EPA to apply the sanctions and remedies set forth in the Clean Air Act section 502(I)....

  2. 40 CFR 63.42 - Program requirements governing construction or reconstruction of major sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR... Accordance With Clean Air Act Sections, Sections 112(g) and 112(j) § 63.42 Program requirements governing... cause by EPA to apply the sanctions and remedies set forth in the Clean Air Act section 502(I)....

  3. 78 FR 5140 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Colorado; Revisions to New Source...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-24

    ... submitted revisions to 5 CCR 1001-5, Regulation Number 3, Air Pollution Emission Notice and Permitting... A. Lempke, Administrator, for revisions made to Regulation Number 3, Air Pollution Emission Notice..., to Regulation No. 3 (Air Pollutant Emission Notice and Permitting Requirements). Colorado...

  4. Energy sources and requirements of the exercising horse.

    PubMed

    Harris, P

    1997-01-01

    This review outlines the energy sources available to the horse, from its diet and from its body stores, at rest and while exercising. It looks at the current ways of describing the energy potential of diets fed to horses and discusses the relative advantages and disadvantages of the digestible energy and net energy systems. The more empirical net energy system for calculating the energy available for maintenance and work is compared with a more physiological partitioning system. Finally, the energy requirements for maintenance and exercise are discussed, together with how they may be practically determined and achieved through different diets.

  5. 40 CFR Table 3 to Subpart III of... - Compliance Requirements for Slabstock Foam Production Affected Sources Complying With the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Foam Production Affected Sources Complying With the Emission Point Specific Limitations 3 Table 3 to... Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Flexible Polyurethane Foam Production Pt. 63, Subpt. III, Table 3 Table 3 to Subpart III of Part 63—Compliance Requirements for Slabstock Foam Production Affected...

  6. 40 CFR Table 3 to Subpart III of... - Compliance Requirements for Slabstock Foam Production Affected Sources Complying With the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Foam Production Affected Sources Complying With the Emission Point Specific Limitations 3 Table 3 to... Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Flexible Polyurethane Foam Production Pt. 63, Subpt. III, Table 3 Table 3 to Subpart III of Part 63—Compliance Requirements for Slabstock Foam Production Affected...

  7. 40 CFR Table 3 to Subpart III of... - Compliance Requirements for Slabstock Foam Production Affected Sources Complying With the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Foam Production Affected Sources Complying With the Emission Point Specific Limitations 3 Table 3 to...) National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Flexible Polyurethane Foam Production Pt. 63, Subpt. III, Table 3 Table 3 to Subpart III of Part 63—Compliance Requirements for Slabstock...

  8. 40 CFR Table 3 to Subpart III of... - Compliance Requirements for Slabstock Foam Production Affected Sources Complying With the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Foam Production Affected Sources Complying With the Emission Point Specific Limitations 3 Table 3 to...) National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Flexible Polyurethane Foam Production Pt. 63, Subpt. III, Table 3 Table 3 to Subpart III of Part 63—Compliance Requirements for Slabstock...

  9. 40 CFR Table 3 to Subpart III of... - Compliance Requirements for Slabstock Foam Production Affected Sources Complying With the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Foam Production Affected Sources Complying With the Emission Point Specific Limitations 3 Table 3 to... Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Flexible Polyurethane Foam Production Pt. 63, Subpt. III, Table 3 Table 3 to Subpart III of Part 63—Compliance Requirements for Slabstock Foam Production Affected...

  10. 40 CFR 63.10446 - Do title V permitting requirements apply to area sources subject to this subpart?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 CFR part 70 or 40 CFR part 71, provided you are not otherwise required by law to obtain a permit under 40 CFR 70.3(a) or 40 CFR 71.3(a). Notwithstanding the previous sentence, you must continue to... AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES (CONTINUED) National Emission Standards for Hospital...

  11. 40 CFR 63.10446 - Do title V permitting requirements apply to area sources subject to this subpart?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 CFR part 70 or 40 CFR part 71, provided you are not otherwise required by law to obtain a permit under 40 CFR 70.3(a) or 40 CFR 71.3(a). Notwithstanding the previous sentence, you must continue to... AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES (CONTINUED) National Emission Standards for Hospital...

  12. 40 CFR 63.10446 - Do title V permitting requirements apply to area sources subject to this subpart?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 CFR part 70 or 40 CFR part 71, provided you are not otherwise required by law to obtain a permit under 40 CFR 70.3(a) or 40 CFR 71.3(a). Notwithstanding the previous sentence, you must continue to... AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES (CONTINUED) National Emission Standards for Hospital...

  13. 40 CFR 63.10446 - Do title V permitting requirements apply to area sources subject to this subpart?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 CFR part 70 or 40 CFR part 71, provided you are not otherwise required by law to obtain a permit under 40 CFR 70.3(a) or 40 CFR 71.3(a). Notwithstanding the previous sentence, you must continue to... AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES (CONTINUED) National Emission Standards for Hospital...

  14. 40 CFR 49.138 - Rule for the registration of air pollution sources and the reporting of emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 10 § 49.138 Rule for the registration of air pollution sources and the reporting of emissions. (a... maintain a current and accurate record of air pollution sources and their emissions within the Indian... part 71 source or an air pollution source that is subject to a standard established under section...

  15. 40 CFR 49.138 - Rule for the registration of air pollution sources and the reporting of emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Reservations in Epa Region 10 § 49.138 Rule for the registration of air pollution sources and the reporting of... develop and maintain a current and accurate record of air pollution sources and their emissions within the... operates a part 71 source or an air pollution source that is subject to a standard established...

  16. 40 CFR 49.138 - Rule for the registration of air pollution sources and the reporting of emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Reservations in Epa Region 10 § 49.138 Rule for the registration of air pollution sources and the reporting of... develop and maintain a current and accurate record of air pollution sources and their emissions within the... operates a part 71 source or an air pollution source that is subject to a standard established...

  17. 40 CFR 49.138 - Rule for the registration of air pollution sources and the reporting of emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Reservations in Epa Region 10 § 49.138 Rule for the registration of air pollution sources and the reporting of... develop and maintain a current and accurate record of air pollution sources and their emissions within the... operates a part 71 source or an air pollution source that is subject to a standard established...

  18. 40 CFR 49.138 - Rule for the registration of air pollution sources and the reporting of emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Reservations in Epa Region 10 § 49.138 Rule for the registration of air pollution sources and the reporting of... develop and maintain a current and accurate record of air pollution sources and their emissions within the... operates a part 71 source or an air pollution source that is subject to a standard established...

  19. Spatial resolution requirements for traffic-related air pollutant exposure evaluations

    EPA Science Inventory

    Vehicle emissions represent one of the most important air pollution sources in most urban areas, and elevated concentrations of pollutants found near major roads have been associated with many adverse health impacts. To understand these impacts, exposure estimates should reflect ...

  20. Spatial resolution requirements for traffic-related air pollutant exposure evaluations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batterman, Stuart; Chambliss, Sarah; Isakov, Vlad

    2014-09-01

    Vehicle emissions represent one of the most important air pollution sources in most urban areas, and elevated concentrations of pollutants found near major roads have been associated with many adverse health impacts. To understand these impacts, exposure estimates should reflect the spatial and temporal patterns observed for traffic-related air pollutants. This paper evaluates the spatial resolution and zonal systems required to estimate accurately intraurban and near-road exposures of traffic-related air pollutants. The analyses use the detailed information assembled for a large (800 km2) area centered on Detroit, Michigan, USA. Concentrations of nitrogen oxides (NOx) due to vehicle emissions were estimated using hourly traffic volumes and speeds on 9700 links representing all but minor roads in the city, the MOVES2010 emission model, the RLINE dispersion model, local meteorological data, a temporal resolution of 1 h, and spatial resolution as low as 10 m. Model estimates were joined with the corresponding shape files to estimate residential exposures for 700,000 individuals at property parcel, census block, census tract, and ZIP code levels. We evaluate joining methods, the spatial resolution needed to meet specific error criteria, and the extent of exposure misclassification. To portray traffic-related air pollutant exposure, raster or inverse distance-weighted interpolations are superior to nearest neighbor approaches, and interpolations between receptors and points of interest should not exceed about 40 m near major roads, and 100 m at larger distances. For census tracts and ZIP codes, average exposures are overestimated since few individuals live very near major roads, the range of concentrations is compressed, most exposures are misclassified, and high concentrations near roads are entirely omitted. While smaller zones improve performance considerably, even block-level data can misclassify many individuals. To estimate exposures and impacts of traffic

  1. Spatial Resolution Requirements for Traffic-Related Air Pollutant Exposure Evaluations.

    PubMed

    Batterman, Stuart; Chambliss, Sarah; Isakov, Vlad

    2014-09-01

    Vehicle emissions represent one of the most important air pollution sources in most urban areas, and elevated concentrations of pollutants found near major roads have been associated with many adverse health impacts. To understand these impacts, exposure estimates should reflect the spatial and temporal patterns observed for traffic-related air pollutants. This paper evaluates the spatial resolution and zonal systems required to estimate accurately intraurban and near-road exposures of traffic-related air pollutants. The analyses use the detailed information assembled for a large (800 km(2)) area centered on Detroit, Michigan, USA. Concentrations of nitrogen oxides (NOx) due to vehicle emissions were estimated using hourly traffic volumes and speeds on 9,700 links representing all but minor roads in the city, the MOVES2010 emission model, the RLINE dispersion model, local meteorological data, a temporal resolution of 1 hr, and spatial resolution as low as 10 m. Model estimates were joined with the corresponding shape files to estimate residential exposures for 700,000 individuals at property parcel, census block, census tract, and ZIP code levels. We evaluate joining methods, the spatial resolution needed to meet specific error criteria, and the extent of exposure misclassification. To portray traffic-related air pollutant exposure, raster or inverse distance-weighted interpolations are superior to nearest neighbor approaches, and interpolations between receptors and points of interest should not exceed about 40 m near major roads, and 100 m at larger distances. For census tracts and ZIP codes, average exposures are overestimated since few individuals live very near major roads, the range of concentrations is compressed, most exposures are misclassified, and high concentrations near roads are entirely omitted. While smaller zones improve performance considerably, even block-level data can misclassify many individuals. To estimate exposures and impacts of traffic

  2. Air stripping of contaminated water sources - air emissions and controls. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Vancit, M.A.; Howle, R.H.; Herndon, D.J.; Shareef, S.A.

    1987-08-01

    Air-stripping towers are being used to remove low concentrations of organic contaminants from water. The report describes the technology and methods used to control air pollution resulting from this procedure. The cost of the controls is presented along with other positive and negative impacts of the technology.

  3. AIRBORNE PARTICLE SIZES AND SOURCES FOUND IN INDOOR AIR

    EPA Science Inventory

    As concern about indoor air quality (IAQ) has grown in recent years, understanding indoor aerosols has become increasingly important so that control techniques may be implemented to reduce damaging health effects and soiling problems. This paper begins with a brief look at the me...

  4. 75 FR 31895 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Area Sources: Industrial, Commercial...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-04

    ... implemented this provision in 1999 in the Integrated Urban Air Toxics Strategy (Strategy), (64 FR 38715, July... combustion. See 63 FR 17849. We listed these source categories under CAA section 112(c)(6) based on the.... Both source categories were included in the area source list published on July 19, 1999 (64 FR...

  5. Modeling exposure close to air pollution sources in naturally ventilated residences: association of turbulent diffusion coefficient with air change rate.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Kai-Chung; Acevedo-Bolton, Viviana; Jiang, Ruo-Ting; Klepeis, Neil E; Ott, Wayne R; Fringer, Oliver B; Hildemann, Lynn M

    2011-05-01

    For modeling exposure close to an indoor air pollution source, an isotropic turbulent diffusion coefficient is used to represent the average spread of emissions. However, its magnitude indoors has been difficult to assess experimentally due to limitations in the number of monitors available. We used 30-37 real-time monitors to simultaneously measure CO at different angles and distances from a continuous indoor point source. For 11 experiments involving two houses, with natural ventilation conditions ranging from <0.2 to >5 air changes per h, an eddy diffusion model was used to estimate the turbulent diffusion coefficients, which ranged from 0.001 to 0.013 m² s⁻¹. The model reproduced observed concentrations with reasonable accuracy over radial distances of 0.25-5.0 m. The air change rate, as measured using a SF₆ tracer gas release, showed a significant positive linear correlation with the air mixing rate, defined as the turbulent diffusion coefficient divided by a squared length scale representing the room size. The ability to estimate the indoor turbulent diffusion coefficient using two readily measurable parameters (air change rate and room dimensions) is useful for accurately modeling exposures in close proximity to an indoor pollution source.

  6. 40 CFR 63.11622 - What are the monitoring requirements for new and existing sources?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... must monitor inlet flow rate, inlet velocity, pressure drop, or fan amperage at least once per day when... PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES (CONTINUED) National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants...

  7. Negative air ions as a source of superoxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldstein, Naum I.; Goldstein, Roman N.; Merzlyak, Mark N.

    1992-06-01

    The physico-chemical characteristics and possible formation mechanisms of negative air ions are considered. It was found that the products of oxygen and nitrogen negative ionization reduce ferricytochrome c and nitroblue tetrazolium, and that these reactions were inhibited by superoxide dismutase. The interaction of negatively ionized oxygen with water led to hydrogen peroxide accumulation, which was inhibited by tetranitromethane or catalase. Nitrogen ionization under these conditions caused the formation of the hydrated electron e{aq/—} and the superoxide anion O{2/—}. The data obtained indicate that the biological activity of negative air ions may be dependent on superoxide. The generation of reactive oxygen ions in the gas phase and also at a gas/water interface is described. A scheme for superoxide production under oxygen and nitrogen ionization is proposed.

  8. 40 CFR 63.11417 - What are the compliance requirements for new and existing sources?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Flexible Polyurethane Foam Production and Fabrication Area Sources Standards and Compliance Requirements... a slabstock flexible polyurethane foam production affected source, you must comply with the... affected source, or a loop slitter at a flexible polyurethane foam fabrication affected source you...

  9. 40 CFR 63.11417 - What are the compliance requirements for new and existing sources?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Flexible Polyurethane Foam Production and Fabrication Area Sources Standards and Compliance Requirements... a slabstock flexible polyurethane foam production affected source, you must comply with the... affected source, or a loop slitter at a flexible polyurethane foam fabrication affected source you...

  10. 40 CFR 63.11417 - What are the compliance requirements for new and existing sources?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Flexible Polyurethane Foam Production and Fabrication Area Sources Standards and Compliance Requirements... a slabstock flexible polyurethane foam production affected source, you must comply with the... affected source, or a loop slitter at a flexible polyurethane foam fabrication affected source you...

  11. 40 CFR 63.42 - Program requirements governing construction or reconstruction of major sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... construction or reconstruction of major sources. 63.42 Section 63.42 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES Requirements for Control Technology Determinations for Major Sources in... achievable control technology emission limitation for new sources....

  12. Biodiesel and Cold Temperature Effect on Speciated Mobile Source Air Toxics from Modern Diesel Trucks

    EPA Science Inventory

    Speciated volatile organic compounds (VOCs) with a particular focus on mobile source air toxics (MSATs) were measured in diesel exhaust from three heavy-duty trucks equipped with modern aftertreatment technologies. Emissions testing was conducted on a temperature controlled chass...

  13. Biodiesel and Cold Temperature Effects on Speciated Mobile Source Air Toxics from Modern Diesel Trucks

    EPA Science Inventory

    Speciated volatile organic compounds (VOCs) with a particular focus on mobile source air toxics (MSATs) were measured in diesel exhaust from three heavy-duty trucks equipped with modern aftertreatment technologies. Emissions testing was conducted on a temperature controlled chass...

  14. Air Quality Modeling Needs for Exposure Assessment form the Source-To-Outcome Perspective

    EPA Science Inventory

    Humans are exposed continuously to mixtures of air pollutants. The compositions of these mixtures vary with time and location and their components originate from many types of sources, both local and distant, including industrial facilities, vehicles, consumer products, and more....

  15. Assessment of Near-Source Air Pollution at a Fine Spatial Scale Utilizing Mobile Monitoring Approach

    EPA Science Inventory

    Mobile monitoring is an emerging strategy to characterize spatially and temporally variable air pollution in areas near sources. EPA’s Geospatial Monitoring of Air Pollution (GMAP) vehicle – an all-electric vehicle measuring real-time concentrations of particulate and gaseous po...

  16. Analysis of Mobile Source Air Toxics (MSATS)–Near-Road VOC and CarbonylConcentrations

    EPA Science Inventory

    This presentation examines data from a year-long study of measured near-road mobile source air toxic (MSAT) concentrations and compares these data with modeled 2005 National Air Toxic Assessment (NATA) results. Field study measurements were collected during a field campaign in ...

  17. Assessment of Near-Source Air Pollution at a Fine Spatial Scale Utilizing Mobile Monitoring Approach

    EPA Science Inventory

    Mobile monitoring is an emerging strategy to characterize spatially and temporally variable air pollution in areas near sources. EPA’s Geospatial Monitoring of Air Pollution (GMAP) vehicle – an all-electric vehicle measuring real-time concentrations of particulate an...

  18. 40 CFR 68.215 - Permit content and air permitting authority or designated agency requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... authority or designated agency requirements. 68.215 Section 68.215 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CHEMICAL ACCIDENT PREVENTION PROVISIONS Other... requested by the air permitting authority or designated agency. (c) For 40 CFR part 70 or part 71...

  19. 40 CFR 68.215 - Permit content and air permitting authority or designated agency requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... authority or designated agency requirements. 68.215 Section 68.215 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CHEMICAL ACCIDENT PREVENTION PROVISIONS Other... requested by the air permitting authority or designated agency. (c) For 40 CFR part 70 or part 71...

  20. 40 CFR 68.215 - Permit content and air permitting authority or designated agency requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... authority or designated agency requirements. 68.215 Section 68.215 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CHEMICAL ACCIDENT PREVENTION PROVISIONS Other... requested by the air permitting authority or designated agency. (c) For 40 CFR part 70 or part 71...

  1. 40 CFR 68.215 - Permit content and air permitting authority or designated agency requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... authority or designated agency requirements. 68.215 Section 68.215 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CHEMICAL ACCIDENT PREVENTION PROVISIONS Other... requested by the air permitting authority or designated agency. (c) For 40 CFR part 70 or part 71...

  2. 40 CFR 68.215 - Permit content and air permitting authority or designated agency requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... authority or designated agency requirements. 68.215 Section 68.215 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CHEMICAL ACCIDENT PREVENTION PROVISIONS Other... requested by the air permitting authority or designated agency. (c) For 40 CFR part 70 or part 71...

  3. 42 CFR 84.1139 - Air velocity and noise levels; hoods and helmets; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Air velocity and noise levels; hoods and helmets; minimum requirements. 84.1139 Section 84.1139 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH... Efficiency Respirators and Combination Gas Masks § 84.1139 Air velocity and noise levels; hoods and...

  4. 42 CFR 84.202 - Air velocity and noise levels; hoods and helmets; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Air velocity and noise levels; hoods and helmets; minimum requirements. 84.202 Section 84.202 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND... PROTECTIVE DEVICES Chemical Cartridge Respirators § 84.202 Air velocity and noise levels; hoods and...

  5. 42 CFR 84.1139 - Air velocity and noise levels; hoods and helmets; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Air velocity and noise levels; hoods and helmets; minimum requirements. 84.1139 Section 84.1139 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH... Efficiency Respirators and Combination Gas Masks § 84.1139 Air velocity and noise levels; hoods and...

  6. 42 CFR 84.202 - Air velocity and noise levels; hoods and helmets; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Air velocity and noise levels; hoods and helmets; minimum requirements. 84.202 Section 84.202 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND... PROTECTIVE DEVICES Chemical Cartridge Respirators § 84.202 Air velocity and noise levels; hoods and...

  7. 42 CFR 84.1139 - Air velocity and noise levels; hoods and helmets; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Air velocity and noise levels; hoods and helmets; minimum requirements. 84.1139 Section 84.1139 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH... Efficiency Respirators and Combination Gas Masks § 84.1139 Air velocity and noise levels; hoods and...

  8. 42 CFR 84.1139 - Air velocity and noise levels; hoods and helmets; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Air velocity and noise levels; hoods and helmets; minimum requirements. 84.1139 Section 84.1139 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH... Efficiency Respirators and Combination Gas Masks § 84.1139 Air velocity and noise levels; hoods and...

  9. 42 CFR 84.202 - Air velocity and noise levels; hoods and helmets; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Air velocity and noise levels; hoods and helmets; minimum requirements. 84.202 Section 84.202 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND... PROTECTIVE DEVICES Chemical Cartridge Respirators § 84.202 Air velocity and noise levels; hoods and...

  10. 42 CFR 84.1139 - Air velocity and noise levels; hoods and helmets; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Air velocity and noise levels; hoods and helmets; minimum requirements. 84.1139 Section 84.1139 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH... Efficiency Respirators and Combination Gas Masks § 84.1139 Air velocity and noise levels; hoods and...

  11. 42 CFR 84.202 - Air velocity and noise levels; hoods and helmets; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Air velocity and noise levels; hoods and helmets; minimum requirements. 84.202 Section 84.202 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND... PROTECTIVE DEVICES Chemical Cartridge Respirators § 84.202 Air velocity and noise levels; hoods and...

  12. 42 CFR 84.202 - Air velocity and noise levels; hoods and helmets; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Air velocity and noise levels; hoods and helmets; minimum requirements. 84.202 Section 84.202 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND... PROTECTIVE DEVICES Chemical Cartridge Respirators § 84.202 Air velocity and noise levels; hoods and...

  13. 32 CFR 861.4 - DOD air transportation quality and safety requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... so as to ensure proper crew rest and considers quality-of-life factors. Attention is given to the... FORCE AIRCRAFT DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE COMMERCIAL AIR TRANSPORTATION QUALITY AND SAFETY REVIEW PROGRAM § 861.4 DOD air transportation quality and safety requirements. (a) General. The DOD, as a customer...

  14. 32 CFR 861.4 - DOD air transportation quality and safety requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... so as to ensure proper crew rest and considers quality-of-life factors. Attention is given to the... FORCE AIRCRAFT DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE COMMERCIAL AIR TRANSPORTATION QUALITY AND SAFETY REVIEW PROGRAM § 861.4 DOD air transportation quality and safety requirements. (a) General. The DOD, as a customer...

  15. 32 CFR 861.4 - DOD air transportation quality and safety requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... so as to ensure proper crew rest and considers quality-of-life factors. Attention is given to the... FORCE AIRCRAFT DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE COMMERCIAL AIR TRANSPORTATION QUALITY AND SAFETY REVIEW PROGRAM § 861.4 DOD air transportation quality and safety requirements. (a) General. The DOD, as a customer...

  16. 32 CFR 861.4 - DOD air transportation quality and safety requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... so as to ensure proper crew rest and considers quality-of-life factors. Attention is given to the... FORCE AIRCRAFT DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE COMMERCIAL AIR TRANSPORTATION QUALITY AND SAFETY REVIEW PROGRAM § 861.4 DOD air transportation quality and safety requirements. (a) General. The DOD, as a customer...

  17. Nonpoint sources of volatile organic compounds in urban areas - Relative importance of land surfaces and air

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lopes, T.J.; Bender, D.A.

    1998-01-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) commonly detected in urban waters across the United States include gasoline-related compounds (e.g. toluene, xylene) and chlorinated compounds (e.g. chloroform, tetrachloroethane [PCE], trichloroethene [TCE]). Statistical analysis of observational data and results of modeling the partitioning of VOCs between air and water suggest that urban land surfaces are the primary nonpoint source of most VOCs. Urban air is a secondary nonpoint source, but could be an important source of the gasoline oxygenate methyl-tert butyl ether (MTBE). Surface waters in urban areas would most effectively be protected by controlling land-surface sources.

  18. A technique for the local measurement of air kerma rate from small Caesium-137 sources.

    PubMed

    Aukett, R J

    1991-10-01

    A method is described in which a Farmer ionization chamber is used for the direct measurement of the air kerma rate in air from small spherical Caesium-137 sources at distances of 35 to 70 mm. The calibration factor and corrections for source and ion chamber geometry are examined. For quality assurance purposes, the results obtained are in sufficient agreement with other methods of calibration.

  19. 48 CFR 1352.271-72 - Additional Item Requirements (AIR)-growth work

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Clauses 1352.271-72 Additional Item Requirements (AIR)—growth work As prescribed in 48 CFR 1371.103... Cleaning/Water Blasting, Tank Cleaning, Welding, Burning, Brazing, Blacksmithing, Machining (inside...

  20. 48 CFR 1352.271-72 - Additional Item Requirements (AIR)-growth work

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Clauses 1352.271-72 Additional Item Requirements (AIR)—growth work As prescribed in 48 CFR 1371.103... Cleaning/Water Blasting, Tank Cleaning, Welding, Burning, Brazing, Blacksmithing, Machining (inside...

  1. 48 CFR 1352.271-72 - Additional Item Requirements (AIR)-growth work

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Clauses 1352.271-72 Additional Item Requirements (AIR)—growth work As prescribed in 48 CFR 1371.103... alteration, modification, or repair. The following functions are identified as direct production:...

  2. 48 CFR 1352.271-72 - Additional Item Requirements (AIR)-growth work

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Clauses 1352.271-72 Additional Item Requirements (AIR)—growth work As prescribed in 48 CFR 1371.103... alteration, modification, or repair. The following functions are identified as direct production:...

  3. Evaluation of environmental impact of air pollution sources

    SciTech Connect

    Holnicki, P.

    2004-10-15

    This paper addresses the problem of evaluation and comparison of environmental impact of emission sources in the case of a complex, multisource emission field. The analysis is based on the forecasts of a short-term, dynamic dispersion model. The aim is to get a quantitative evaluation of the contribution of the selected sources according to the predefined, environmental cost function. The approach utilizes the optimal control technique for distributed parameter systems. The adjoint equation, related to the main transport equation of the forecasting model, is applied to calculate the sensitivity of the cost function to the emission intensity of the specified sources. An example implementation of a regional-scale, multilayer dynamic model of SOx transport is discussed as the main forecasting tool. The test computations have been performed for a set of the major power plants in a selected industrial region of Poland.

  4. Challenges of Achieving 2012 IECC Air Sealing Requirements in Multifamily Dwellings

    SciTech Connect

    Klocke, S.; Faakye, O.; Puttagunta, S.

    2014-10-01

    While previous versions of the International Energy Conservation Code (IECC) have included provisions to improve the air tightness of dwellings, for the first time, the 2012 IECC mandates compliance verification through blower door testing. Simply completing the Air Barrier and Insulation Installation checklist through visual inspection is no longer sufficient by itself. In addition, the 2012 IECC mandates a significantly stricter air sealing requirement. In Climate Zones 3 through 8, air leakage may not exceed 3 ACH50, which is a significant reduction from the 2009 IECC requirement of 7 ACH50. This requirement is for all residential buildings, which includes low-rise multifamily dwellings. While this air leakage rate requirement is an important component to achieving an efficient building thermal envelope, currently, the code language doesn't explicitly address differences between single family and multifamily applications. In addition, the 2012 IECC does not provide an option to sample dwellings for larger multifamily buildings, so compliance would have to be verified on every unit. With compliance with the 2012 IECC air leakage requirements on the horizon, several of Consortium for Advanced Residential Building's (CARB’s) multifamily builder partners are evaluating how best to comply with this requirement. Builders are not sure whether it is more practical or beneficial to simply pay for guarded testing or to revise their air sealing strategies to improve compartmentalization to comply with code requirements based on unguarded blower door testing. This report summarizes CARB's research that was conducted to assess the feasibility of meeting the 2012 IECC air leakage requirements in 3 multifamily buildings.

  5. Challenges of Achieving 2012 IECC Air Sealing Requirements in Multifamily Dwellings

    SciTech Connect

    Klocke, S.; Faakye, O.; Puttagunta, S.

    2014-10-01

    ​While previous versions of the International Energy Conservation Code (IECC) have included provisions to improve the air tightness of dwellings, for the first time, the 2012 IECC mandates compliance verification through blower door testing. Simply completing the Air Barrier and Insulation Installation checklist through visual inspection is no longer sufficient by itself. In addition, the 2012 IECC mandates a significantly stricter air sealing requirement. In Climate Zones 3 through 8, air leakage may not exceed 3 ACH50, which is a significant reduction from the 2009 IECC requirement of 7 ACH50. This requirement is for all residential buildings, which includes low-rise multifamily dwellings. While this air leakage rate requirement is an important component to achieving an efficient building thermal envelope, currently, the code language doesn't explicitly address differences between single family and multifamily applications. In addition, the 2012 IECC does not provide an option to sample dwellings for larger multifamily buildings, so compliance would have to be verified on every unit. With compliance with the 2012 IECC air leakage requirements on the horizon, several of CARB's multifamily builder partners are evaluating how best to comply with this requirement. Builders are not sure whether it is more practical or beneficial to simply pay for guarded testing or to revise their air sealing strategies to improve compartmentalization to comply with code requirements based on unguarded blower door testing. This report summarizes CARB's research that was conducted to assess the feasibility of meeting the 2012 IECC air leakage requirements in 3 multifamily buildings.

  6. Autonomous Integrated Receive System (AIRS) requirements definition. Volume 2: Design and development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chie, C. M.; White, M. A.; Lindsey, W. C.; Davarian, F.; Dixon, R. C.

    1984-01-01

    Functional requirements and specifications are defined for an autonomous integrated receive system (AIRS) to be used as an improvement in the current tracking and data relay satellite system (TDRSS), and as a receiving system in the future tracking and data acquisition system (TDAS). The AIRS provides improved acquisition, tracking, bit error rate (BER), RFI mitigation techniques, and data operations performance compared to the current TDRSS ground segment receive system. A computer model of the AIRS is used to provide simulation results predicting the performance of AIRS. Cost and technology assessments are included.

  7. Air spark-like plasma source for antimicrobial NOx generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pavlovich, M. J.; Ono, T.; Galleher, C.; Curtis, B.; Clark, D. S.; Machala, Z.; Graves, D. B.

    2014-12-01

    We demonstrate and analyse the generation of nitrogen oxides and their antimicrobial efficacy using atmospheric air spark-like plasmas. Spark-like discharges in air in a 1 L confined volume are shown to generate NOx at an initial rate of about 1.5  ×  1016 NOx molecules/J dissipated in the plasma. Such a discharge operating in this confined volume generates on the order of 6000 ppm NOx in 10 min. Around 90% of the NOx is in the form of NO2 after several minutes of operation in the confined volume, suggesting that NO2 is the dominant antimicrobial component. The strong antimicrobial action of the NOx mixture after several minutes of plasma operation is demonstrated by measuring rates of E. coli disinfection on surfaces and in water exposed to the NOx mixture. Some possible applications of plasma generation of NOx (perhaps followed by dissolution in water) include disinfection of surfaces, skin or wound antisepsis, and sterilization of medical instruments at or near room temperature.

  8. Information Requirements for Supervisory Air Traffic Controllers in Support of a Wake Vortex Departure System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lohr, Gary W.; Williams, Daniel M.; Trujillo, Anna C.

    2008-01-01

    Closely Space Parallel Runway (CSPR) configurations are capacity limited for departures due to the requirement to apply wake vortex separation standards from traffic departing on the adjacent parallel runway. To mitigate the effects of this constraint, a concept focusing on wind dependent departure operations has been developed, known as the Wake Turbulence Mitigation for Departures (WTMD). This concept takes advantage of the fact that crosswinds of sufficient velocity blow wakes generated by aircraft departing from the downwind runway away from the upwind runway. Consequently, under certain conditions, wake separations on the upwind runway would not be required based on wakes generated by aircraft on the downwind runway, as is currently the case. It follows that information requirements, and sources for this information, would need to be determined for airport traffic control tower (ATCT) supervisory personnel who would be charged with decisions regarding use of the procedure. To determine the information requirements, data were collected from ATCT supervisors and controller-in-charge qualified individuals at Lambert-St. Louis International Airport (STL) and George Bush Houston Intercontinental Airport (IAH). STL and IAH were chosen as data collection sites based on the implementation of a WTMD prototype system, operating in shadow mode, at these locations. The 17 total subjects (STL: 5, IAH: 12) represented a broad-base of air traffic experience. Results indicated that the following information was required to support the conduct of WTMD operations: current and forecast weather information, current and forecast traffic demand and traffic flow restrictions, and WTMD System status information and alerting. Subjects further indicated that the requisite information is currently available in the tower cab with the exception of the WTMD status and alerting. Subjects were given a demonstration of a display supporting the prototype systems and unanimously stated that the

  9. CHARACTERIZATION OF INDOOR AND OUTDOOR AIR POLLUTION EXPOSURES AND SOURCES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Human exposures to indoor and outdoor pollutants vary depending on the sources and concentrations of pollutants as well as human behavioral factors that determine the extent of an individual's contact with indoor or outdoor pollutants. In general, the older populations spend more...

  10. Source levels of northern elephant seal vocalizations in-air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Insley, Stephen J.; Southall, Brandon L.

    2005-09-01

    Accurate measurements of vocalization sound-pressure levels are necessary to determine the acoustical active space of animals in natural and human-altered ambient noise conditions. Despite this basic need, such data are limited or nonexistent for most species. Our study characterized aerial ambient noise and vocalization source levels for northern elephant seals during the breeding season. Subjects were adult males, lactating females, and dependent offspring (pups) at An~o Nuevo State Reserve. Source level measurements were made using a Type 1 sound level meter and calibrated microphones on-axis: (1) at 1 m; (2) at several known distances (laser measured); and (3) simultaneously at 1 m and a second known distance. Concurrent ambient noise conditions were measured in situ (non-weighted 5 min Leq integrated averages) and recorded for later spectral analysis. Measurements were made at two sites, one relatively noisy and the other relatively quiet, to determine whether animals compensate for higher noise conditions by increasing source levels (Lombard effect). Results indicate a wide range in signal strength, particularly for adult males whose vocalization source levels appear to be correlated with dominance rank and related to ambient noise conditions. The Lombard effect was not observed for adult females or elephant seal pups.

  11. Assessment of 2012 on-road mobile source episode specific emissions on air quality in Houston

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, H.; Shen, X.; Sarker, S.; Du, H.; Huque, Z.; Kommalapati, R. R.

    2015-12-01

    Houston has long been known to suffer from poor air quality, especially ground ozone level produced from photochemical reactions between nitrogen oxides (NOx) and Volatile Organic Compounds (VOC) in the presence of sunlight. In order to investigate impact of various emissions on air quality in Houston, combination of biogenic emissions with anthropogenic emissions were simulated for 2012 ozone episode. In this research, impact of on-road mobile source emissions on air quality in Houston were assessed. On-road mobile source inventories were developed using the EPA's MOVES (MOtor Vehicle Emission Simulator) model. Emissions Preprocessor System was used to convert the developed on-road mobile source inventories to suitable format. The converted on-road mobile source inventories were combined with biogenic emissions as the air quality model input. CAMx (Comprehensive Air quality Model with extensions) model was used to simulate various air pollutants concentrations for 2012 ozone episode. Simulation results showed that various transportation patterns have quite different influences on the air quality in this region.

  12. Emissions of CO2 and criteria air pollutants from mobile sources: Insights from integrating real-time traffic data into local air quality models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gately, C.; Hutyra, L.; Sue Wing, I.; Peterson, S.; Janetos, A.

    2015-12-01

    In 2013, on-road mobile sources were responsible for over 26% of U.S. fossil fuel carbon dioxide (ffCO2) emissions, and over 34% of both CO and NOx emissions. However, accurate representations of these emissions at the scale of urban areas remains a difficult challenge. Quantifying emissions at the scale of local streets and highways is critical to provide policymakers with the information needed to develop appropriate mitigation strategies and to guide research into the underlying process that drive mobile emissions. Quantification of vehicle ffCO2 emissions at high spatial and temporal resolutions requires a detailed synthesis of data on traffic activity, roadway attributes, fleet characteristics and vehicle speeds. To accurately characterize criteria air pollutant emissions, information on local meteorology is also critical, as the temperature and relative humidity can affect emissions rates of these pollutants by as much as 400%. As the health impacts of air pollutants are more severe for residents living in close proximity (<500m) to road sources, it is critical that inventories of these emissions rely on highly resolved source data to locate potential hot-spots of exposure. In this study we utilize real-time GPS estimates of vehicle speeds to estimate ffCO2 and criteria air pollutant emissions at multiple spatial and temporal scales across a large metropolitan area. We observe large variations in emissions associated with diurnal activity patterns, congestion, sporting and civic events, and weather anomalies. We discuss the advantages and challenges of using highly-resolved source data to quantify emissions at a roadway scale, and the potential of this methodology for forecasting the air quality impacts of changes in infrastructure, urban planning policies, and regional climate.

  13. Emissions of CO2 and criteria air pollutants from mobile sources: Insights from integrating real-time traffic data into local air quality models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gately, Conor; Hutyra, Lucy

    2016-04-01

    In 2013, on-road mobile sources were responsible for over 26% of U.S. fossil fuel carbon dioxide (ffCO2) emissions, and over 34% of both CO and NOx emissions. However, accurate representations of these emissions at the scale of urban areas remains a difficult challenge. Quantifying emissions at the scale of local streets and highways is critical to provide policymakers with the information needed to develop appropriate mitigation strategies and to guide research into the underlying process that drive mobile emissions. Quantification of vehicle ffCO2 emissions at high spatial and temporal resolutions requires a detailed synthesis of data on traffic activity, roadway attributes, fleet characteristics and vehicle speeds. To accurately characterize criteria air pollutant emissions, information on local meteorology is also critical, as the temperature and relative humidity can affect emissions rates of these pollutants by as much as 400%. As the health impacts of air pollutants are more severe for residents living in close proximity (<500m) to road sources, it is critical that inventories of these emissions rely on highly resolved source data to locate potential hot-spots of exposure. In this study we utilize real-time GPS estimates of vehicle speeds to estimate ffCO2 and criteria air pollutant emissions at multiple spatial and temporal scales across a large metropolitan area. We observe large variations in emissions associated with diurnal activity patterns, congestion, sporting and civic events, and weather anomalies. We discuss the advantages and challenges of using highly-resolved source data to quantify emissions at a roadway scale, and the potential of this methodology for forecasting the air quality impacts of changes in infrastructure, urban planning policies, and regional climate.

  14. Locating and estimating air emissions from sources of arsenic and arsenic compounds. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1998-06-01

    This document describes the properties of arsenic and arsenic compounds as air pollutants, defines production and use patterns, identifies source categories of air emissions, and provides emission factors. Arsenic is emitted as an air pollutant from external combustion boilers, municipal and hazardous waste incineration, primary copper and zinc smelting, glass manufacturing, copper ore mining, and primary and secondary lead smelting. Emissions of arsenic from these activities are due to the presence of trace amounts of arsenic in fuels and materials being processed. In such cases, the emissions may be quite variable because the trace presence of arsenic is not constant. Arsenic emissions also occur from agricultural chemical production and application, and also from metal processing due to the use of arsenic in these activities. In addition to the arsenic source information, information is provided that specifies how individual sources of arsenic may be tested to quantify air emissions.

  15. Advanced Neutron Source: Plant Design Requirements. Revision 4

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-07-01

    The Advanced Neutron Source will be a new world-class facility for research using hot, thermal, cold, and ultra-cold neutrons. The heart of the facility will be a 330-MW (fission), heavy-water cooled and heavy-water moderated reactor. The reactor will be housed in a central reactor building, with supporting equipment located in an adjoining reactor support building. An array of cold neutron guides will fan out into a large guide hall, housing about 30 neutron research stations. Appropriate office, laboratory, and shop facilities will be included to provide a complete facility for users. The ANS is scheduled to begin operation at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory early in the next decade. This PDR document defines the plant-level requirements for the design, construction, and operation of ANS. It also defines and provides input to the individual System Design Description (SDD) documents. Together, this PDR document and the set of SDD documents will define and control the baseline configuration of ANS.

  16. SOLUTIONS TO INDOOR AIR PROBLEMS-LET'S FIRST UNDERSTAND THE SOURCE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper shows how EPA's Source Ranking Database (SRD) can be used, together with literature studies, to identify industrial product categories worthy of indoor air source characterization research. The SRD is a tool under development by EPA to identify potentially hazardous in...

  17. 78 FR 25242 - Delegation of New Source Performance Standards and National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-30

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Parts 60 and 61 Delegation of New Source Performance Standards and National Emission... Source Performance Standards (NSPS) and National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP... identity or contact information unless you provide it in the body of your comment. If you send...

  18. 40 CFR 63.11955 - What are my initial and continuous compliance requirements for other emission sources?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES (CONTINUED) National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air... gallons, whichever is larger, at standard temperature and pressure. (b) Before opening a...

  19. 40 CFR 63.11955 - What are my initial and continuous compliance requirements for other emission sources?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES (CONTINUED) National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air... gallons, whichever is larger, at standard temperature and pressure. (b) Before opening a...

  20. 40 CFR 63.11955 - What are my initial and continuous compliance requirements for other emission sources?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES (CONTINUED) National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air... gallons, whichever is larger, at standard temperature and pressure. (b) Before opening a...

  1. 40 CFR 74.16 - Application requirements for combustion sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... thermal energy, a thermal energy plan as provided in § 74.47 for combustion sources; and (11) A statement... combustion sources. 74.16 Section 74.16 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... for combustion sources. (a) Opt-in permit application. Each complete opt-in permit application for...

  2. 40 CFR 74.16 - Application requirements for combustion sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... thermal energy, a thermal energy plan as provided in § 74.47 for combustion sources; and (11) A statement... combustion sources. 74.16 Section 74.16 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... for combustion sources. (a) Opt-in permit application. Each complete opt-in permit application for...

  3. 41 CFR 51-5.2 - Mandatory source requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... mandatory sources of supply for all entities of the Government for commodities and services included on the... List by entities of the Government shall be made from sources authorized by the Committee. These sources may include nonprofit agencies, central nonprofit agencies, Government central supply...

  4. 41 CFR 51-5.2 - Mandatory source requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... mandatory sources of supply for all entities of the Government for commodities and services included on the... List by entities of the Government shall be made from sources authorized by the Committee. These sources may include nonprofit agencies, central nonprofit agencies, Government central supply...

  5. Near-source air quality impacts of large olefin flares.

    PubMed

    Olaguer, Eduardo P

    2012-08-01

    Large petrochemicalflares, common in the Houston Ship Channel (the Ship Channel) and other industrialized areas in the Gulfof Mexico region, emit hundreds to thousands of pounds per hour of highly reactive volatile organic compounds (HRVOCs). We employedfine horizontal resolution (200 mx200 m) in a three-dimensional (3D) Eulerian chemical transport model to simulate two historical Ship Channel flares. The model reasonably reproduced the observed ozone rise at the nearest monitoring stations downwind of the flares. The larger of the two flares had an olefin emission rate exceeding 1400 lb/hr. In this case, the model simulated a rate of increase in peak ozone greater than 40 ppb/hr over a 12 kmx12 km horizontal domain without any unusual meteorological conditions. In this larger flare, formaldehyde emissions typically neglected in official inventories enhanced peak ozone by as much as 16 ppb and contributed over 10 ppb to ambient formaldehyde up to approximately 8 km downwind of the flare. The intense horizontal gradients in large flare plumes cannot be simulated by coarse models typically used to demonstrate ozone attainment. Moreover even the relatively dense monitoring network in the Ship Channel may not be able to detect many transient high ozone events (THOEs) caused by industrial flare emissions in the absence of stagnant air recirculation or stalled sea breeze fronts, even though such conditions are unnecessary for the occurrence of THOEs.

  6. Air

    MedlinePlus

    ... do to protect yourself from dirty air . Indoor air pollution and outdoor air pollution Air can be polluted indoors and it can ... this chart to see what things cause indoor air pollution and what things cause outdoor air pollution! Indoor ...

  7. Source apportionment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and their derivatives in indoor air

    SciTech Connect

    Ray, B.; Mitra, S.

    1996-12-31

    The average person spends more than 80% of his time indoors, thus analysis of the sources of airborne pollutants in indoor air is an important issue. In this paper, we use factor analysis and multiple regression to identify and apportion the different sources of select indoor polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), their derivatives, and nicotine in indoor air, using data gathered in eight homes in Columbus, OH during the winter of 1986/1987. These homes had different indoor PAH sources, namely, environmental tobacco smoke, gas cooking/heating, and electrical cooking stoves. We find that, of all the sources, environmental tobacco smoke appears to have the greatest impact on the total indoor PAH concentrations. In smokers` homes, more than 87% of the total PAH is due to this source. Background sources are the largest contributor to PAHs in nonsmokers` homes. Very little PAH can be attributed to gas or electric appliances in the home. 16 refs., 3 tabs.

  8. Data Quality Objectives for Regulatory Requirements for Hazardous and Radioactive Air Emissions Sampling and Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    MULKEY, C.H.

    1999-07-06

    This document describes the results of the data quality objective (DQO) process undertaken to define data needs for state and federal requirements associated with toxic, hazardous, and/or radiological air emissions under the jurisdiction of the River Protection Project (RPP). Hereafter, this document is referred to as the Air DQO. The primary drivers for characterization under this DQO are the regulatory requirements pursuant to Washington State regulations, that may require sampling and analysis. The federal regulations concerning air emissions are incorporated into the Washington State regulations. Data needs exist for nonradioactive and radioactive waste constituents and characteristics as identified through the DQO process described in this document. The purpose is to identify current data needs for complying with regulatory drivers for the measurement of air emissions from RPP facilities in support of air permitting. These drivers include best management practices; similar analyses may have more than one regulatory driver. This document should not be used for determining overall compliance with regulations because the regulations are in constant change, and this document may not reflect the latest regulatory requirements. Regulatory requirements are also expected to change as various permits are issued. Data needs require samples for both radionuclides and nonradionuclide analytes of air emissions from tanks and stored waste containers. The collection of data is to support environmental permitting and compliance, not for health and safety issues. This document does not address health or safety regulations or requirements (those of the Occupational Safety and Health Administration or the National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health) or continuous emission monitoring systems. This DQO is applicable to all equipment, facilities, and operations under the jurisdiction of RPP that emit or have the potential to emit regulated air pollutants.

  9. Assessment of PM10 pollution level and required source emission reduction in Belgrade area.

    PubMed

    Todorović, Marija N; Perišić, Mirjana D; Kuzmanoski, Maja M; Stojić, Andreja M; Sostarić, Andrej I; Mijić, Zoran R; Rajšić, Slavica F

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess PM10 pollution level and estimate required source emission reduction in Belgrade area, the second largest urban center in the Balkans. Daily mass concentrations and trace metal content (As, Cd, Cr, Mn, Ni, Pb) of PM10 were evaluated for three air quality monitoring sites of different types: urban-traffic (Slavija), suburban (Lazarevac) and rural (Grabovac) under the industrial influence, during the period of 2012-13. Noncompliance with current Air Quality Standards (AQS) was noticeable: annual means were higher than AQS at Slavija and Lazarevac, and daily frequency threshold was exceeded at all three locations. Annual means of As at Lazarevac were about four times higher than the target concentration, which could be attributed to the proximity of coal-fired power plants, and dust resuspension from coal basin and nearby ash landfills. Additionally, levels of Ni and Cr were significantly higher than in other European cities. Carcinogenic health risk of inhabitants' exposure to trace metals was assessed as well. Cumulative cancer risk exceeded the upper limit of acceptable US EPA range at two sites, with Cr and As as the major contributors. To estimate source emission reduction, required to meet AQS, lognormal, Weibull and Pearson 5 probability distribution, functions (PDF) were used to fit daily PM10 concentrations. Based on the rollback equation and best fitting PDF, estimated reduction was within the range of 28-98%. Finally, the required reduction obtained using two-parameter exponential distribution suggested that risks associated to accidental releases of pollutants should be of greater concern.

  10. Assessment of PM10 pollution level and required source emission reduction in Belgrade area.

    PubMed

    Todorović, Marija N; Perišić, Mirjana D; Kuzmanoski, Maja M; Stojić, Andreja M; Sostarić, Andrej I; Mijić, Zoran R; Rajšić, Slavica F

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess PM10 pollution level and estimate required source emission reduction in Belgrade area, the second largest urban center in the Balkans. Daily mass concentrations and trace metal content (As, Cd, Cr, Mn, Ni, Pb) of PM10 were evaluated for three air quality monitoring sites of different types: urban-traffic (Slavija), suburban (Lazarevac) and rural (Grabovac) under the industrial influence, during the period of 2012-13. Noncompliance with current Air Quality Standards (AQS) was noticeable: annual means were higher than AQS at Slavija and Lazarevac, and daily frequency threshold was exceeded at all three locations. Annual means of As at Lazarevac were about four times higher than the target concentration, which could be attributed to the proximity of coal-fired power plants, and dust resuspension from coal basin and nearby ash landfills. Additionally, levels of Ni and Cr were significantly higher than in other European cities. Carcinogenic health risk of inhabitants' exposure to trace metals was assessed as well. Cumulative cancer risk exceeded the upper limit of acceptable US EPA range at two sites, with Cr and As as the major contributors. To estimate source emission reduction, required to meet AQS, lognormal, Weibull and Pearson 5 probability distribution, functions (PDF) were used to fit daily PM10 concentrations. Based on the rollback equation and best fitting PDF, estimated reduction was within the range of 28-98%. Finally, the required reduction obtained using two-parameter exponential distribution suggested that risks associated to accidental releases of pollutants should be of greater concern. PMID:26252876

  11. Methods, fluxes and sources of gas phase alkyl nitrates in the coastal air.

    PubMed

    Dirtu, Alin C; Buczyńska, Anna J; Godoi, Ana F L; Favoreto, Rodrigo; Bencs, László; Potgieter-Vermaak, Sanja S; Godoi, Ricardo H M; Van Grieken, René; Van Vaeck, Luc

    2014-10-01

    The daily and seasonal atmospheric concentrations, deposition fluxes and emission sources of a few C3-C9 gaseous alkyl nitrates (ANs) at the Belgian coast (De Haan) on the Southern North Sea were determined. An adapted sampler design for low- and high-volume air-sampling, optimized sample extraction and clean-up, as well as identification and quantification of ANs in air samples by means of gas chromatography mass spectrometry, are reported. The total concentrations of ANs ranged from 0.03 to 85 pptv and consisted primarily of the nitro-butane and nitro-pentane isomers. Air mass backward trajectories were calculated by the Hybrid Single-Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory (HYSPLIT) model to determine the influence of main air masses on AN levels in the air. The shorter chain ANs have been the most abundant in the Atlantic/Channel/UK air masses, while longer chain ANs prevailed in continental air. The overall mean N fluxes of the ANs were slightly higher for summer than those for winter-spring, although their contributions to the total nitrogen flux were low. High correlations between AN and HNO₂ levels were observed during winter/spring. During summer, the shorter chain ANs correlated well with precipitation. Source apportionment by means of principal component analysis indicated that most of the gas phase ANs could be attributed to traffic/combustion, secondary photochemical formation and biomass burning, although marine sources may also have been present and a contributing factor. PMID:24952420

  12. Methods, fluxes and sources of gas phase alkyl nitrates in the coastal air.

    PubMed

    Dirtu, Alin C; Buczyńska, Anna J; Godoi, Ana F L; Favoreto, Rodrigo; Bencs, László; Potgieter-Vermaak, Sanja S; Godoi, Ricardo H M; Van Grieken, René; Van Vaeck, Luc

    2014-10-01

    The daily and seasonal atmospheric concentrations, deposition fluxes and emission sources of a few C3-C9 gaseous alkyl nitrates (ANs) at the Belgian coast (De Haan) on the Southern North Sea were determined. An adapted sampler design for low- and high-volume air-sampling, optimized sample extraction and clean-up, as well as identification and quantification of ANs in air samples by means of gas chromatography mass spectrometry, are reported. The total concentrations of ANs ranged from 0.03 to 85 pptv and consisted primarily of the nitro-butane and nitro-pentane isomers. Air mass backward trajectories were calculated by the Hybrid Single-Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory (HYSPLIT) model to determine the influence of main air masses on AN levels in the air. The shorter chain ANs have been the most abundant in the Atlantic/Channel/UK air masses, while longer chain ANs prevailed in continental air. The overall mean N fluxes of the ANs were slightly higher for summer than those for winter-spring, although their contributions to the total nitrogen flux were low. High correlations between AN and HNO₂ levels were observed during winter/spring. During summer, the shorter chain ANs correlated well with precipitation. Source apportionment by means of principal component analysis indicated that most of the gas phase ANs could be attributed to traffic/combustion, secondary photochemical formation and biomass burning, although marine sources may also have been present and a contributing factor.

  13. An Analysis of Skill Requirements for Operators of Amphibious Air Cushion Vehicles (ACVs).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKnight, A. James; And Others

    This report describes the skills required in the operation of an amphibious air cushion vehicle (ACV) in Army tactical and logistic missions. The research involved analyzing ACV characteristics, operating requirements, environmental effects, and results of a simulation experiment. The analysis indicates that ACV operation is complicated by an…

  14. 78 FR 44873 - Pilot Certification and Qualification Requirements for Air Carrier Operations; Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-25

    ... rule; correction. SUMMARY: The FAA is correcting a final rule published on July 15, 2013 (78 FR 42324... entitled, ``Pilot Certification and Qualification Requirements for Air Carrier Operations'' (78 FR 42324... requirements for an airline transport pilot (ATP) certificate in Sec. 61.159(a) by adding paragraph...

  15. 10 CFR 35.67 - Requirements for possession of sealed sources and brachytherapy sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... brachytherapy sources. 35.67 Section 35.67 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION MEDICAL USE OF BYPRODUCT... brachytherapy sources. (a) A licensee in possession of any sealed source or brachytherapy source shall follow... brachytherapy sources, except for gamma stereotactic radiosurgery sources, shall conduct a semi-annual...

  16. 10 CFR 35.67 - Requirements for possession of sealed sources and brachytherapy sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... brachytherapy sources. 35.67 Section 35.67 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION MEDICAL USE OF BYPRODUCT... brachytherapy sources. (a) A licensee in possession of any sealed source or brachytherapy source shall follow... brachytherapy sources, except for gamma stereotactic radiosurgery sources, shall conduct a semi-annual...

  17. 10 CFR 35.67 - Requirements for possession of sealed sources and brachytherapy sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... brachytherapy sources. 35.67 Section 35.67 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION MEDICAL USE OF BYPRODUCT... brachytherapy sources. (a) A licensee in possession of any sealed source or brachytherapy source shall follow... brachytherapy sources, except for gamma stereotactic radiosurgery sources, shall conduct a semi-annual...

  18. 10 CFR 35.67 - Requirements for possession of sealed sources and brachytherapy sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... brachytherapy sources. 35.67 Section 35.67 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION MEDICAL USE OF BYPRODUCT... brachytherapy sources. (a) A licensee in possession of any sealed source or brachytherapy source shall follow... brachytherapy sources, except for gamma stereotactic radiosurgery sources, shall conduct a semi-annual...

  19. 10 CFR 35.67 - Requirements for possession of sealed sources and brachytherapy sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... brachytherapy sources. 35.67 Section 35.67 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION MEDICAL USE OF BYPRODUCT... brachytherapy sources. (a) A licensee in possession of any sealed source or brachytherapy source shall follow... brachytherapy sources, except for gamma stereotactic radiosurgery sources, shall conduct a semi-annual...

  20. Energy requirements for CO2 capture from ambient air (DAC) competitive with capture from flue-gas (PCC)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meinrenken, Christoph

    2015-03-01

    Capture of CO2, whether from a flue gas source (PCC) or from distributed sources via ambient air (DAC), is a key enabling technology to provide carbon for sustainable synthetic energy carriers such as solar fuels. Based on thermodynamic minimum considerations, DAC is often expected to require about 3 times more energy (per ton CO2 captured) than PCC because CO2 in ambient air is more dilute. Here, we calculate the energy required for a humidity swing-based DAC installation that uses an anionic exchange resin as sorbent. The calculation uses recently measured equilibrium CO2 loadings of the sorbent as function of partial CO2 pressure, temperature, and humidity. We calculate the installation's electricity consumption to be about 45 kJ per mole of pure CO2 at 1 bar (scenario-dependent). Furthermore, we estimate the amount of heat provided by ambient air and thus provide context of the overall energy and entropy balance and thermodynamic minimum views. The electricity consumption is competitive with typical parasitic loads of PCC-equipped coal-fired power plants (40-50 kJ per mole at same pressure) and significantly lower than predicted for other DAC installations such as Na(OH) sorbent-based systems. Our analyses elucidate why DAC is not always more energy-intensive that PCC, thus alleviating often cited concerns of significant cost impediments. Financial support by ABB for research presented herein is gratefully acknowledged.

  1. A large volume 2000 MPA air source for the radiatively driven hypersonic wind tunnel

    SciTech Connect

    Constantino, M

    1999-07-14

    An ultra-high pressure air source for a hypersonic wind tunnel for fluid dynamics and combustion physics and chemistry research and development must provide a 10 kg/s pure air flow for more than 1 s at a specific enthalpy of more than 3000 kJ/kg. The nominal operating pressure and temperature condition for the air source is 2000 MPa and 900 K. A radial array of variable radial support intensifiers connected to an axial manifold provides an arbitrarily large total high pressure volume. This configuration also provides solutions to cross bore stress concentrations and the decrease in material strength with temperature. [hypersonic, high pressure, air, wind tunnel, ground testing

  2. Ultraviolet-B radiation enhancement in dielectric barrier discharge based xenon chloride exciplex source by air

    SciTech Connect

    Gulati, P.; Prakash, R.; Pal, U. N.; Kumar, M.; Vyas, V.

    2014-07-07

    A single barrier dielectric barrier discharge tube of quartz with multi-strip Titanium-Gold (Ti-Au) coatings have been developed and utilized for ultraviolet-B (UV-B) radiation production peaking at wavelength 308 nm. The observed radiation at this wavelength has been examined for the mixtures of the Xenon together with chlorine and air admixtures. The gas mixture composition, chlorine gas content, total gas pressure, and air pressure dependency of the UV intensity, has been analyzed. It is found that the larger concentration of Cl{sub 2} deteriorates the performance of the developed source and around 2% Cl{sub 2} in this source produced optimum results. Furthermore, an addition of air in the xenon and chlorine working gas environment leads to achieve same intensity of UV-B light but at lower working gas pressure where significant amount of gas is air.

  3. New National Air-Kerma Standard for Low-Energy Electronic Brachytherapy Sources

    PubMed Central

    Seltzer, Stephen M; O’Brien, Michelle; Mitch, Michael G

    2014-01-01

    The new primary standard for low-energy electronic brachytherapy sources for the United States is described. These miniature x-ray tubes are inserted in catheters for interstitial radiation therapy and operate at tube potentials of up to about 50 kV. The standard is based on the realization of the air kerma produced by the x-ray beam at a reference distance in air of 50 cm. PMID:26601044

  4. Oxidative potential and inflammatory impacts of source apportioned ambient air pollution in Beijing.

    PubMed

    Liu, Qingyang; Baumgartner, Jill; Zhang, Yuanxun; Liu, Yanju; Sun, Yongjun; Zhang, Meigen

    2014-11-01

    Air pollution exposure is associated with a range of adverse health impacts. Knowledge of the chemical components and sources of air pollution most responsible for these health effects could lead to an improved understanding of the mechanisms of such effects and more targeted risk reduction strategies. We measured daily ambient fine particulate matter (<2.5 μm in aerodynamic diameter; PM2.5) for 2 months in peri-urban and central Beijing, and assessed the contribution of its chemical components to the oxidative potential of ambient air pollution using the dithiothreitol (DTT) assay. The composition data were applied to a multivariate source apportionment model to determine the PM contributions of six sources or factors: a zinc factor, an aluminum factor, a lead point factor, a secondary source (e.g., SO4(2-), NO3(2-)), an iron source, and a soil dust source. Finally, we assessed the relationship between reactive oxygen species (ROS) activity-related PM sources and inflammatory responses in human bronchial epithelial cells. In peri-urban Beijing, the soil dust source accounted for the largest fraction (47%) of measured ROS variability. In central Beijing, a secondary source explained the greatest fraction (29%) of measured ROS variability. The ROS activities of PM collected in central Beijing were exponentially associated with in vivo inflammatory responses in epithelial cells (R2=0.65-0.89). We also observed a high correlation between three ROS-related PM sources (a lead point factor, a zinc factor, and a secondary source) and expression of an inflammatory marker (r=0.45-0.80). Our results suggest large differences in the contribution of different PM sources to ROS variability at the central versus peri-urban study sites in Beijing and that secondary sources may play an important role in PM2.5-related oxidative potential and inflammatory health impacts.

  5. Levels, sources, and health risks of carbonyls in residential indoor air in Hangzhou, China.

    PubMed

    Weng, Mili; Zhu, Lizhong; Yang, Kun; Chen, Shuguang

    2010-04-01

    Concentrations of formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, acetone, propionaldehyde, i-pentanal, and butyraldehyde in residential indoor air in Hangzhou were determined. The mean concentration of the total carbonyl compounds in summer was 222.6 microg/m(3), higher than that in winter (68.5 microg/m(3)). The concentration of a specific carbonyl in indoor air was higher than the outdoor air measurement, indicating the release of carbonyls from the indoor sources. Formaldehyde and acetone were the most abundant carbonyls detected in summer and winter, respectively. Multiple regression analysis indicated that carbonyl concentrations in residential indoor air depended on the age of decoration and furniture, as well as their concentrations in outdoor air. In addition, a primary estimation showed that the health risks of carbonyls in summer were higher than those in winter.

  6. 42 CFR 84.149 - Type C supplied-air respirator, demand and pressure demand class; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Type C supplied-air respirator, demand and pressure... be approved only when used to supply respirable air at the pressures and quantities required. (b) The manufacturer shall specify the range of air pressure at the point of attachment of the air-supply hose to...

  7. 42 CFR 84.149 - Type C supplied-air respirator, demand and pressure demand class; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Type C supplied-air respirator, demand and pressure... be approved only when used to supply respirable air at the pressures and quantities required. (b) The manufacturer shall specify the range of air pressure at the point of attachment of the air-supply hose to...

  8. 42 CFR 84.149 - Type C supplied-air respirator, demand and pressure demand class; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Type C supplied-air respirator, demand and pressure... be approved only when used to supply respirable air at the pressures and quantities required. (b) The manufacturer shall specify the range of air pressure at the point of attachment of the air-supply hose to...

  9. 42 CFR 84.149 - Type C supplied-air respirator, demand and pressure demand class; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Type C supplied-air respirator, demand and pressure... be approved only when used to supply respirable air at the pressures and quantities required. (b) The manufacturer shall specify the range of air pressure at the point of attachment of the air-supply hose to...

  10. 42 CFR 84.149 - Type C supplied-air respirator, demand and pressure demand class; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Type C supplied-air respirator, demand and pressure... be approved only when used to supply respirable air at the pressures and quantities required. (b) The manufacturer shall specify the range of air pressure at the point of attachment of the air-supply hose to...

  11. Air-kerma strength determination of a new directional {sup 103}Pd source

    SciTech Connect

    Aima, Manik Reed, Joshua L.; DeWerd, Larry A.; Culberson, Wesley S.

    2015-12-15

    Purpose: A new directional {sup 103}Pd planar source array called a CivaSheet™ has been developed by CivaTech Oncology, Inc., for potential use in low-dose-rate (LDR) brachytherapy treatments. The array consists of multiple individual polymer capsules called CivaDots, containing {sup 103}Pd and a gold shield that attenuates the radiation on one side, thus defining a hot and cold side. This novel source requires new methods to establish a source strength metric. The presence of gold material in such close proximity to the active {sup 103}Pd region causes the source spectrum to be significantly different than the energy spectra of seeds normally used in LDR brachytherapy treatments. In this investigation, the authors perform air-kerma strength (S{sub K}) measurements, develop new correction factors for these measurements based on an experimentally verified energy spectrum, and test the robustness of transferring S{sub K} to a well-type ionization chamber. Methods: S{sub K} measurements were performed with the variable-aperture free-air chamber (VAFAC) at the University of Wisconsin Medical Radiation Research Center. Subsequent measurements were then performed in a well-type ionization chamber. To realize the quantity S{sub K} from a directional source with gold material present, new methods and correction factors were considered. Updated correction factors were calculated using the MCNP 6 Monte Carlo code in order to determine S{sub K} with the presence of gold fluorescent energy lines. In addition to S{sub K} measurements, a low-energy high-purity germanium (HPGe) detector was used to experimentally verify the calculated spectrum, a sodium iodide (NaI) scintillating counter was used to verify the azimuthal and polar anisotropy, and a well-type ionization chamber was used to test the feasibility of disseminating S{sub K} values for a directional source within a cylindrically symmetric measurement volume. Results: The UW VAFAC was successfully used to measure the S

  12. Modeling indoor air concentrations near emission sources in imperfectly mixed rooms.

    PubMed

    Furtaw, E J; Pandian, M D; Nelson, D R; Behar, J V

    1996-09-01

    Assessments of exposure to indoor air pollutants usually employ spatially well-mixed models which assume homogeneous concentrations throughout a building or room. However, practical experience and experimental data indicate that concentrations are not uniform in rooms containing point sources of emissions; concentrations tend to be greater in close proximity to the source than they are further from it. This phenomenon could account for the observation that "personal air" monitors frequently yield higher concentrations than nearby microenvironmental monitors (i.e., the so-called "personal cloud" effect). In this project, we systematically studied the concentrations of a tracer gas at various distances from its emission source in a controlled-environment, room-size chamber under a variety of ventilation conditions. Measured concentrations in the proximity of the source deviated significantly above the predictions of a conventional well-mixed single-compartment mass balance model. The deviation was found to be a function of distance from the source and total room air flow rate. At typical air flow rates, the average concentration at arm's length (approximately 0.4 meters) from the source exceeds the theoretical well-mixed concentration by a ratio of about 2:1. However, this ratio is not constant; the monitored concentration appears to vary randomly from near the theoretical value to several times above it. Concentration data were fitted to a two-compartment model with the source located in a small virtual compartment within the room compartment. These two compartments were linked with a stochastic air transfer rate parameter. The resulting model provides a more realistic simulation of exposure concentrations than does the well-mixed model for assessing exposure to emissions from active sources. Parameter values are presented for using the enhanced model in a variety of typical situations. PMID:8925388

  13. 40 CFR 60.2260 - What are the recordkeeping and reporting requirements for air curtain incinerators?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... SOURCES Standards of Performance for Commercial and Industrial Solid Waste Incineration Units Air Curtain... paper copy or electronic format, unless the Administrator approves another format, for at least 5 years...) Submit initial and annual opacity test reports as electronic or paper copy on or before the...

  14. 40 CFR 60.2260 - What are the recordkeeping and reporting requirements for air curtain incinerators?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... SOURCES Standards of Performance for Commercial and Industrial Solid Waste Incineration Units Air Curtain... paper copy or electronic format, unless the Administrator approves another format, for at least 5 years...) Submit initial and annual opacity test reports as electronic or paper copy on or before the...

  15. Air toxics concentrations, source identification, and health risks: An air pollution hot spot in southwest Memphis, TN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jia, Chunrong; Foran, Jeffery

    2013-12-01

    Southwest Memphis is a residential region surrounded by fossil fuel burning, steel, refining, and food processing industries, and considerable mobile sources whose emissions may pose adverse health risks to local residents. This study characterizes cancer and non-cancer risks resulting from exposure to ambient air toxics in southwest Memphis. Air toxics samples were collected at a central location every 6 days from June 5, 2008 to January 8, 2010. Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were collected in evacuated stainless-steel canisters and aldehydes by DNPH cartridges, and samples were analyzed for 73 target compounds. A total of 60 compounds were detected and 39 were found in over 86% of the samples. Mean concentrations of many compounds were higher than those measured in many industrial communities throughout the U.S. The cumulative cancer risk associated with exposure to 13 carcinogens found in southwest Memphis air was 2.3 × 10-4, four times higher than the national average of 5.0 × 10-5. Three risk drivers were identified: benzene, formaldehyde, and acrylonitrile, which contributed 43%, 19%, and 14% to the cumulative risk, respectively. This is the first field study to confirm acrylonitrile as a potential risk driver. Mobile, secondary, industrial, and background sources contributed 57%, 24%, 14%, and 5% of the risk, respectively. The results of this study indicate that southwest Memphis, a region of significant income, racial, and social disparities, is also a region under significant environmental stress compared with surrounding areas and communities.

  16. 40 CFR Table 4 to Subpart III of... - Compliance Requirements for Slabstock Foam Production Affected Sources Complying With the Source...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 11 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Compliance Requirements for Slabstock Foam Production Affected Sources Complying With the Source-Wide Emission Limitation 4 Table 4 to... Complying With the Source-Wide Emission Limitation Emission point Emission point compliance option...

  17. The Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990: Hazardous Air Pollutant Requirements and the DOE Clean Coal Technology Program

    SciTech Connect

    Moskowitz, P.D.; DePhillips, M.; Fthenakis, V.M.; Hemenway, A.

    1991-12-31

    The purpose of the US Department of Energy -- Office of Fossil Energy (DOE FE) Clean Coal Technology Program (CCTP) is to provide the US energy marketplace with advanced, efficient, and environmentally sound coal-based technologies. The design, construction, and operation of Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Projects (CCTDP) will generate data needed to make informed, confident decisions on the commercial readiness of these technologies. These data also will provide information needed to ensure a proactive response by DOE and its industrial partners to the establishment of new regulations or a reactive response to existing regulations promulgated by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The objectives of this paper are to: (1) Present a preliminary examination of the potential implications of the Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA) -- Title 3 Hazardous Air Pollutant requirements to the commercialization of CCTDP; and (2) help define options available to DOE and its industrial partners to respond to this newly enacted Legislation.

  18. The Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990: Hazardous Air Pollutant Requirements and the DOE Clean Coal Technology Program

    SciTech Connect

    Moskowitz, P.D.; DePhillips, M.; Fthenakis, V.M. ); Hemenway, A. )

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of the US Department of Energy -- Office of Fossil Energy (DOE FE) Clean Coal Technology Program (CCTP) is to provide the US energy marketplace with advanced, efficient, and environmentally sound coal-based technologies. The design, construction, and operation of Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Projects (CCTDP) will generate data needed to make informed, confident decisions on the commercial readiness of these technologies. These data also will provide information needed to ensure a proactive response by DOE and its industrial partners to the establishment of new regulations or a reactive response to existing regulations promulgated by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The objectives of this paper are to: (1) Present a preliminary examination of the potential implications of the Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA) -- Title 3 Hazardous Air Pollutant requirements to the commercialization of CCTDP; and (2) help define options available to DOE and its industrial partners to respond to this newly enacted Legislation.

  19. Perspective use of direct human blood as an energy source in air-breathing hybrid microfluidic fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dector, A.; Escalona-Villalpando, R. A.; Dector, D.; Vallejo-Becerra, V.; Chávez-Ramírez, A. U.; Arriaga, L. G.; Ledesma-García, J.

    2015-08-01

    This work presents a flexible and light air-breathing hybrid microfluidic fuel cell (HμFC) operated under biological conditions. A mixture of glucose oxidase, glutaraldehyde, multi-walled carbon nanotubes and vulcan carbon (GOx/VC-MWCNT-GA) was used as the bioanode. Meanwhile, integrating an air-exposed electrode (Pt/C) as the cathode enabled direct oxygen delivery from air. The microfluidic fuel cell performance was evaluated using glucose obtained from three different sources as the fuel: 5 mM glucose in phosphate buffer, human serum and human blood. For the last fuel, an open circuit voltage and maximum power density of 0.52 V and 0.20 mW cm-2 (at 0.38 V) were obtained respectively; meanwhile the maximum current density was 1.1 mA cm-2. Furthermore, the stability of the device was measured in terms of recovery after several polarization curves, showing excellent results. Although this air-breathing HμFC requires technological improvements before being tested in a biomedical device, it represents the best performance to date for a microfluidic fuel cell using human blood as glucose source.

  20. 40 CFR 60.3068 - What are the recordkeeping and reporting requirements for air curtain incinerators that burn only...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... reporting requirements for air curtain incinerators that burn only wood waste, clean lumber, and yard waste... Model Rule-Air Curtain Incinerators That Burn Only Wood Waste, Clean Lumber, and Yard Waste § 60.3068 What are the recordkeeping and reporting requirements for air curtain incinerators that burn only...

  1. 40 CFR 60.2973 - What are the recordkeeping and reporting requirements for air curtain incinerators that burn only...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... reporting requirements for air curtain incinerators that burn only wood waste, clean lumber, and yard waste... Qualification Air Curtain Incinerators That Burn Only Wood Waste, Clean Lumber, and Yard Waste § 60.2973 What are the recordkeeping and reporting requirements for air curtain incinerators that burn only...

  2. 40 CFR 60.3068 - What are the recordkeeping and reporting requirements for air curtain incinerators that burn only...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... reporting requirements for air curtain incinerators that burn only wood waste, clean lumber, and yard waste... Model Rule-Air Curtain Incinerators That Burn Only Wood Waste, Clean Lumber, and Yard Waste § 60.3068 What are the recordkeeping and reporting requirements for air curtain incinerators that burn only...

  3. 40 CFR 60.3068 - What are the recordkeeping and reporting requirements for air curtain incinerators that burn only...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... reporting requirements for air curtain incinerators that burn only wood waste, clean lumber, and yard waste... Model Rule-Air Curtain Incinerators That Burn Only Wood Waste, Clean Lumber, and Yard Waste § 60.3068 What are the recordkeeping and reporting requirements for air curtain incinerators that burn only...

  4. 40 CFR 60.3068 - What are the recordkeeping and reporting requirements for air curtain incinerators that burn only...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... reporting requirements for air curtain incinerators that burn only wood waste, clean lumber, and yard waste... Model Rule-Air Curtain Incinerators That Burn Only Wood Waste, Clean Lumber, and Yard Waste § 60.3068 What are the recordkeeping and reporting requirements for air curtain incinerators that burn only...

  5. 40 CFR 60.2973 - What are the recordkeeping and reporting requirements for air curtain incinerators that burn only...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... reporting requirements for air curtain incinerators that burn only wood waste, clean lumber, and yard waste... Qualification Air Curtain Incinerators That Burn Only Wood Waste, Clean Lumber, and Yard Waste § 60.2973 What are the recordkeeping and reporting requirements for air curtain incinerators that burn only...

  6. 75 FR 30159 - Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast (ADS-B) Out Performance Requirements To Support Air...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-28

    ...) Out Performance Requirements To Support Air Traffic Control (ATC) Service; Final Rule #0;#0;Federal...--Broadcast (ADS-B) Out Performance Requirements To Support Air Traffic Control (ATC) Service AGENCY: Federal... air traffic control from a radar-based system to a satellite-derived aircraft location system....

  7. 42 CFR 84.143 - Terminal fittings or chambers; Type B supplied-air respirators; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... respirators; minimum requirements. 84.143 Section 84.143 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Supplied-Air Respirators § 84.143 Terminal fittings or chambers; Type B supplied-air respirators; minimum requirements. (a) Blowers or connections to air supplies...

  8. 40 CFR 60.1455 - What are the recordkeeping and reporting requirements for air curtain incinerators that burn 100...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... reporting requirements for air curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent yard waste? 60.1455 Section 60... Reconstruction is Commenced After June 6, 2001 Air Curtain Incinerators That Burn 100 Percent Yard Waste § 60.1455 What are the recordkeeping and reporting requirements for air curtain incinerators that burn...

  9. 40 CFR 60.2973 - What are the recordkeeping and reporting requirements for air curtain incinerators that burn only...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... reporting requirements for air curtain incinerators that burn only wood waste, clean lumber, and yard waste... Qualification Air Curtain Incinerators That Burn Only Wood Waste, Clean Lumber, and Yard Waste § 60.2973 What are the recordkeeping and reporting requirements for air curtain incinerators that burn only...

  10. 40 CFR 60.3068 - What are the recordkeeping and reporting requirements for air curtain incinerators that burn only...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... reporting requirements for air curtain incinerators that burn only wood waste, clean lumber, and yard waste... Model Rule-Air Curtain Incinerators That Burn Only Wood Waste, Clean Lumber, and Yard Waste § 60.3068 What are the recordkeeping and reporting requirements for air curtain incinerators that burn only...

  11. Dependence with air density of the response of the PTW SourceCheck ionization chamber for low energy brachytherapy sources

    SciTech Connect

    Tornero-López, Ana M.; Guirado, Damián; Ruiz-Arrebola, Samuel; Perez-Calatayud, Jose; Simancas, Fernando; Lallena, Antonio M.; Gazdic-Santic, Maja

    2013-12-15

    Purpose: Air-communicating well ionization chambers are commonly used to assess air kerma strength of sources used in brachytherapy. The signal produced is supposed to be proportional to the air density within the chamber and, therefore, a density-independent air kerma strength is obtained when the measurement is corrected to standard atmospheric conditions using the usual temperature and pressure correction factor. Nevertheless, when assessing low energy sources, the ionization chambers may not fulfill that condition and a residual density dependence still remains after correction. In this work, the authors examined the behavior of the PTW 34051 SourceCheck ionization chamber when measuring the air kerma strength of {sup 125}I seeds.Methods: Four different SourceCheck chambers were analyzed. With each one of them, two series of measurements of the air kerma strength for {sup 125}I selectSeed{sup TM} brachytherapy sources were performed inside a pressure chamber and varying the pressure in a range from 747 to 1040 hPa (560 to 780 mm Hg). The temperature and relative humidity were kept basically constant. An analogous experiment was performed by taking measurements at different altitudes above sea level.Results: Contrary to other well-known ionization chambers, like the HDR1000 PLUS, in which the temperature-pressure correction factor overcorrects the measurements, in the SourceCheck ionization chamber they are undercorrected. At a typical atmospheric situation of 933 hPa (700 mm Hg) and 20 °C, this undercorrection turns out to be 1.5%. Corrected measurements show a residual linear dependence on the density and, as a consequence, an additional density dependent correction must be applied. The slope of this residual linear density dependence is different for each SourceCheck chamber investigated. The results obtained by taking measurements at different altitudes are compatible with those obtained with the pressure chamber.Conclusions: Variations of the altitude and

  12. EXPOSURE VERSION 2 - A COMPUTER MODEL FOR ANALYZING THE EFFECTS OF INDOOR AIR POLLUTANT SOURCES ON INDIVIDUAL EXPOSURE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report presents a model for calculating individual exposure to indoor pollutants from sources. The model calculates exposure due to individual, as opposed to population, activity patterns and source use. The model uses data on source emissions, room- to- room air flows, air e...

  13. Implementation of the Clean Air Act, Title V operating permit program requirements for the U.S. DOE Oak Ridge Reservation facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Humphreys, M.P.

    1998-12-31

    Title V of the Clean Air Act (CAA) establishes a new permit program requiring major sources and sources subject to Title III (Hazardous Air Pollutants) to obtain a state operating permit. Historically, most states have issued operating permits for individual emission units. Under the Title V permit program, a single permit will be issued for all of the emission units at the facility much like the current National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit program. The permit will specify all reporting, monitoring, and record-keeping requirements for the facility. Sources required to obtain permits include (a) major sources that emit 100 tons per year or more of any criteria air contaminant, (b) any source subject to the HAP provisions of Title III, (c) any source subject to the acid rain provisions of Title IV, (d) any source subject to New Source Performance Standards, and (e) any source subject to new source review under the nonattainment or Prevention of Significant Deterioration provisions. The State of Tennessee Title V Operating Permit Program was approved by EPA on August 28, 1996. This paper will provide details of initiatives underway at US Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) Facilities for implementation of requirements under the Title V Operating Permit Program. The ORR encompasses three DOE Facilities: the Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), and the East Tennessee Technology Park (ETTP). The Y-12 Plant manufactures component parts for the national nuclear weapons program; the ORNL is responsible for research and development activities including nuclear engineering, engineering technologies, and the environmental sciences; and the ETTP conducts a variety of research and development activities and is the home of a mixed waste incinerator. Each of the three DOE Facilities is considered a major source under Title V of the CAA.

  14. Analysis of operational requirements for medium density air transportation. Volume 1: Summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    The medium density air travel market was studied to determine the aircraft design and operational requirements. The impact of operational characteristics on the air travel system and the economic viability of the study aircraft were also evaluated. Medium density is defined in terms of numbers of people transported (20 to 500 passengers per day on round trip routes), and frequency of service ( a minumium of two and maximum of eight round trips per day) for 10 regional carriers. The operational characteristics of aircraft best suited to serve the medium density air transportation market are determined and a basepoint aircraft is designed from which tradeoff studies and parametric variations could be conducted. The impact of selected aircraft on the medium density market, economics, and operations is ascertained. Research and technology objectives for future programs in medium density air transportation are identified and ranked.

  15. Experimental verification of HVDC test sources requirements for pollution tests

    SciTech Connect

    Chagas, F.A.; Kuffel, E.

    1995-04-01

    This paper presents the results of tests conducted to verify the effect of the voltage source on the critical flashover voltage of dc insulators under pollution. Tests were performed under 3 pollution levels using voltage sources with different voltage drop x leakage current characteristics. A data acquisition system was used to record all current pulses above a certain pre selected current pulse duration, which made possible a complete analysis of current pulses and voltage drops characteristics. The experimental results show that the present restrictions imposed on the dc voltage sources can probably be relaxed. Also from the experimental data collected it was found that the insulator tested presents a constant impedance x current characteristic. This characteristic can be useful in checking theoretical models for polluted insulator flashover.

  16. Pattern recognition methods and air pollution source identification. [based on wind direction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leibecki, H. F.; King, R. B.

    1978-01-01

    Directional air samplers, used for resolving suspended particulate matter on the basis of time and wind direction were used to assess the feasibility of characterizing and identifying emission source types in urban multisource environments. Filters were evaluated for 16 elements and X-ray fluorescence methods yielded elemental concentrations for direction, day, and the interaction of direction and day. Large numbers of samples are necessary to compensate for large day-to-day variations caused by wind perturbations and/or source changes.

  17. Laser wakefield accelerator based light sources: potential applications and requirements

    SciTech Connect

    Albert, F.; Thomas, A. G.; Mangles, S. P.D.; Banerjee, S.; Corde, S.; Flacco, A.; Litos, M.; Neely, D.; Viera, J.; Najmudin, Z.; Bingham, R.; Joshi, C.; Katsouleas, T.

    2015-01-15

    In this article we review the prospects of laser wakefield accelerators as next generation light sources for applications. This work arose as a result of discussions held at the 2013 Laser Plasma Accelerators Workshop. X-ray phase contrast imaging, X-ray absorption spectroscopy, and nuclear resonance fluorescence are highlighted as potential applications for laser-plasma based light sources. We discuss ongoing and future efforts to improve the properties of radiation from plasma betatron emission and Compton scattering using laser wakefield accelerators for these specific applications.

  18. Source apportionment of airborne particulate matter in Southeast Texas using a source-oriented 3D air quality model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Hongliang; Ying, Qi

    2010-09-01

    A nested version of the source-oriented externally mixed UCD/CIT model was developed to study the source contributions to airborne particulate matter (PM) during a two-week long air quality episode during the Texas 2000 Air Quality Study (TexAQS 2000). Contributions to primary PM and secondary ammonium sulfate in the Houston-Galveston Bay (HGB) and Beaumont-Port Arthur (BPA) areas were determined. The predicted 24-h elemental carbon (EC), organic compounds (OC), sulfate, ammonium ion and primary PM 2.5 mass are in good agreement with filter-based observations. Predicted concentrations of hourly sulfate, ammonium ion, and primary OC from diesel and gasoline engines and biomass burning organic aerosol (BBOA) at La Porte, Texas agree well with measurements from an Aerodyne Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (AMS). The UCD/CIT model predicts that EC is mainly from diesel engines and majority of the primary OC is from internal combustion engines and industrial sources. Open burning contributes large fractions of EC, OC and primary PM 2.5 mass. Road dust, internal combustion engines and industries are the major sources of primary PM 2.5. Wildfire dominates the contributions to all primary PM components in areas near the fires. The predicted source contributions to primary PM are in general agreement with results from a chemical mass balance (CMB) model. Discrepancy between the two models suggests that further investigations on the industrial PM emissions are necessary. Secondary ammonium sulfate accounts for the majority of the secondary inorganic PM. Over 80% of the secondary sulfate in the 4 km domain is produced in upwind areas. Coal combustion is the largest source of sulfate. Ammonium ion is mainly from agriculture sources and contributions from gasoline vehicles are significant in urban areas.

  19. Preconceptual design requirements for the X-1 Advanced Radiation Source

    SciTech Connect

    Rochau, G.E.; Hands, J.A.; Raglin, P.S.; Ramirez, J.J.; Goldstein, S.A.; Cereghino, S.J.; MacLeod, G.

    1998-09-01

    The X-1 Advanced Radiation Source represents the next step in providing the US Department of Energy`s Stockpile Stewardship Program with the high-energy, large volume, laboratory x-ray source for the Radiation Effects Science and Simulation, Inertial Confinement Fusion, and Weapon Physics Programs. Advances in fast pulsed power technology and in z-pinch hohlraums on Sandia National Laboratories` Z Accelerator provide sufficient basis for pursuing the development of X-1. The X-1 plan follows a strategy based on scaling the 2 MJ x-ray output on Z via a 3-fold increase in z-pinch load current. The large volume (>5 cm{sup 3}), high temperature (>150 eV), temporally long (>10 ns) hohlraums are unique outside of underground nuclear weapon testing. Analytical scaling arguments and hydrodynamic simulations indicate that these hohlraums at temperatures of 230--300 eV will ignite thermonuclear fuel and drive the reaction to a yield of 200 to 1,000 MJ in the laboratory. X-1 will provide the high-fidelity experimental capability to certify the survivability and performance of non-nuclear weapon components in hostile radiation environments. Non-ignition sources will provide cold x-ray environments (<15 keV), and high yield fusion burn sources will provide high fidelity warm x-ray environments (15 keV--80 keV).

  20. Development of PM2.5 source impact spatial fields using a hybrid source apportionment air quality model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivey, C. E.; Holmes, H. A.; Hu, Y. T.; Mulholland, J. A.; Russell, A. G.

    2015-01-01

    An integral part of air quality management is knowledge of the impact of pollutant sources on ambient concentrations of particulate matter (PM). There is also a growing desire to directly use source impact estimates in health studies; however, source impacts cannot be directly measured. Several limitations are inherent in most source apportionment methods, which has led to the development of a novel hybrid approach that is used to estimate source impacts by combining the capabilities of receptor modeling (RM) and chemical transport modeling (CTM). The hybrid CTM-RM method calculates adjustment factors to refine the CTM-estimated impact of sources at monitoring sites using pollutant species observations and the results of CTM sensitivity analyses, though it does not directly generate spatial source impact fields. The CTM used here is the Community Multi-Scale Air Quality (CMAQ) model, and the RM approach is based on the Chemical Mass Balance model. This work presents a method that utilizes kriging to spatially interpolate source-specific impact adjustment factors to generate revised CTM source impact fields from the CTM-RM method results, and is applied to January 2004 over the continental United States. The kriging step is evaluated using data withholding and by comparing results to data from alternative networks. Directly applied and spatially interpolated hybrid adjustment factors at withheld monitors had a correlation coefficient of 0.89, a linear regression slope of 0.83 ± 0.02, and an intercept of 0.14 ± 0.02. Refined source contributions reflect current knowledge of PM emissions (e.g., significant differences in biomass burning impact fields). Concentrations of 19 species and total PM2.5 mass were reconstructed for withheld monitors using directly applied and spatially interpolated hybrid adjustment factors. The mean concentrations of total PM2.5 for withheld monitors were 11.7 (± 8.3), 16.3 (± 11), 8.59 (± 4.7), and 9.20 (± 5.7) μg m-3 for the

  1. CANDLES AND INCENSE AS POTENTIAL SOURCES OF INDOOR AIR POLLUTION: MARKET ANALYSIS AND LITERATURE SEARCH

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report summarizes available information on candles and incense as potential sources of indoor air pollution. It covers market information and a review of the scientific literature. The market information collected focuses on production and sales data, typical uses in the U.S....

  2. Temporal and modal characterization of DoD source air toxic emission factors: final report

    EPA Science Inventory

    This project tested three, real-/near real-time monitoring techniques to develop air toxic emission factors for Department of Defense (DoD) platform sources. These techniques included: resonance enhanced multi photon ionization time of flight mass spectrometry (REMPI-TOFMS) for o...

  3. An Inexpensive Autosampler to Maximize Throughput for an Ion Source that Samples Surfaces in Open Air

    EPA Science Inventory

    An autosampler was built to pull cotton swab heads mounted into a 3-foot long, square Al rod in ambient air through the He ionizing beam of a Direct Analysis in Real Time (DART) ion source interfaced to an orthogonal acceleration, time-of-flight mass spectrometer. The cost of th...

  4. 76 FR 74708 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Source Categories

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-01

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 63 National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Source Categories CFR Correction In Title 40 of the Code of Federal Regulations, Part 63 (Sec. Sec. 63.600 to 63.1199), revised as of July 1, 2011, on page 602, Sec. 63.1196 is reinstated to read as follows: Sec. 63.1196...

  5. Identification of secondary lead sources in the air of an urban environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiaradia, Massimo; Gulson, Brian L.; James, Matthew; William Jameson, C.; Johnson, David

    High precision lead isotopic data have been measured from particulates deposited on filters from two suburbs of Sydney (NSW, Australia) and gasoline from two main brands to evaluate the source of lead in air following the phasing out of leaded gasoline in Sydney in 1986 and a 25% reduction of lead in leaded gasoline in 1994. These measures have resulted in a 75% reduction of lead in Sydney air nowadays. Despite these positive figures, our results indicate that gasoline still accounts for more than 90% of the lead in the atmosphere of this city. However, when compared with an earlier investigation carried out in the period 1979-1981, our data show that a background source with a 206Pb/ 204Ph isotopic ratio higher than petrol has become detectable. We have used a best fitting mathematical procedure to identify the isotopic ratio and percentage contribution of this source to the air. The values that we have obtained are ˜ 18.2 and ˜7%, respectively, for the 206Pb/204Pb ratio and the percentage contribution. Several local background sources are considered, including natural lead from soils, wood burning, coal burning in power stations and aircraft profellants. We also draw attention to the similarity of the background isotopic composition in Sydney air aid isotopic ratios measured in snows of Antarctica.

  6. Separating the Air Quality Impact of a Major Highway and Nearby Sources by Nonparametric Trajectory Analysis

    EPA Science Inventory

    Nonparametric Trajectory Analysis (NTA), a receptor-oriented model, was used to assess the impact of local sources of air pollution at monitoring sites located adjacent to highway I-15 in Las Vegas, NV. Measurements of black carbon, carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, and sulfur di...

  7. 40 CFR 86.161-00 - Air conditioning environmental test facility ambient requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... elements that are discussed are ambient air temperature and humidity, minimum test cell size, solar heating... be shown that all of the ambient test condition performance requirements are satisfied. (d) Solar heat loading. (1)(i) Acceptable types of radiant energy emitters that may be used for simulating...

  8. 40 CFR 86.161-00 - Air conditioning environmental test facility ambient requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... elements that are discussed are ambient air temperature and humidity, minimum test cell size, solar heating... be shown that all of the ambient test condition performance requirements are satisfied. (d) Solar heat loading. (1)(i) Acceptable types of radiant energy emitters that may be used for simulating...

  9. 40 CFR 86.161-00 - Air conditioning environmental test facility ambient requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... to simulate the impact of an ambient heat load on the power requirements of the vehicle's air conditioning compressor while operating on a specific driving cycle. The environmental facility control... heat load are: (A) Metal halide; (B) Quartz halogen with dichroic mirrors; and (C) Sodium iodide....

  10. 78 FR 9865 - Air Carrier Contract Maintenance Requirements; Extension of Comment Period

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-12

    ... Maintenance Requirements'' (77 FR 67584). Comments to that document were to be received on or before February... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Parts 121 and 135 RIN 2120-AJ33 Air Carrier Contract Maintenance... maintenance regulations for domestic, flag, and supplemental operations, and commuter and on-demand...

  11. 32 CFR 861.4 - DOD air transportation quality and safety requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... § 861.4 DOD air transportation quality and safety requirements. (a) General. The DOD, as a customer of.... For example, when specific medical treatment is obtained on an individual basis by or for DOD... considered in the evaluation process. The specifics of the applicable DOD contract or agreement (if any),...

  12. 76 FR 22095 - Clean Air Act: Opportunity To Comment, Activities Required by Federal Facilities Compliance...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-20

    ... companion Consent Agreement and Final Order (CAFO), Docket No. CAA-04-2010-1528(b), that TVA failed to... perform substantially the same relief as required by the Compliance Agreement. Neither the CAFO nor the... emissions of various air pollutants from units at the plants identified above. The CAFO assesses a...

  13. 78 FR 37164 - Revisions to the Air Emissions Reporting Requirements: Revisions to Lead (Pb) Reporting Threshold...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-20

    ... of the EPA's air quality planning efforts. Having the model inputs allows the EPA to use the latest... requirement for reporting the input parameters that can ] be used to run the EPA models that generate the... index. Although listed in the index, some information is not publicly available, e.g., CBI or...

  14. 77 FR 12373 - Pilot Certification and Qualification Requirements for Air Carrier Operations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-29

    ... Statement in the Federal Register published on April 11, 2000 (65 FR 19477-78) or you may visit http... rulemaking (ANPRM) entitled ``New Pilot Certification Requirements for Air Carrier Operations.'' (75 FR 6164... commercial pilots were adequate (75 FR 6164). In the ANPRM, the Agency asked whether all part 121...

  15. 48 CFR 1352.271-72 - Additional Item Requirements (AIR)-growth work

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... include: Testing, Quality Assurance (inspection), Engineering (support), Planning (including involvement... Clauses 1352.271-72 Additional Item Requirements (AIR)—growth work As prescribed in 48 CFR 1371.103..., Painting, Boilermaking, Pipe Fitting, Engineering (Production), Sheetmetal Work, Staging/Scaffolding,...

  16. 40 CFR 86.161-00 - Air conditioning environmental test facility ambient requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... elements that are discussed are ambient air temperature and humidity, minimum test cell size, solar heating... be shown that all of the ambient test condition performance requirements are satisfied. (d) Solar heat loading. (1)(i) Acceptable types of radiant energy emitters that may be used for simulating...

  17. Determining enforceability of air quality requirements for the Title V permit

    SciTech Connect

    Raasch, C.W.; Trinkle, J.A.; Radocha, D.

    1997-12-31

    The focus of this paper is two-fold: (1) Outline the importance, from the perspective of the regulated source, of the identification of state-only enforceable requirements versus federally enforceable requirements in a Title V permit; (2) Describe how to determine the enforceability of requirements as part of a Title V permitting study, including available tools. Contained also in this paper is a case study of enforceability determinations of requirements included in the Title V permit for an integrated pulp and paper mill. The case study is presented to provide an impetus for sources to thoroughly review their draft Title V permits to ensure correct determinations of enforceability.

  18. The impact of TXV heating on the performance of air-source heat pump in heating mode

    SciTech Connect

    Gao, Zhiming

    2010-01-01

    The paper discusses the strategy of TXV heating, which adds a limited amount of heat on the surface of TXV sensor, to achieve energy saving and low cost in air-source heat pumps. The TXV heating is able to retard the valve closing so as to boost energy saving in heating mode. The testing results demonstrate the appropriate TXV heating achieves a remarkable improvement in COP and thermal comfort. The required heating power is not more than 40w. The additional equipment cost of TXV heating is less than $20. Thus, the strategy of TXV heating is practical from the view of technology and economy.

  19. Open Source Patient-Controlled Analgesic Pump Requirements Documentation.

    PubMed

    Larson, Brian R; Hatcliff, John; Chalin, Patrice

    2013-01-01

    The dynamic nature of the medical domain is driving a need for continuous innovation and improvement in techniques for developing and assuring medical devices. Unfortunately, research in academia and communication between academics, industrial engineers, and regulatory authorities is hampered by the lack of realistic non-proprietary development artifacts for medical devices. In this paper, we give an overview of a detailed requirements document for a Patient-Controlled Analgesic (PCA) pump developed under the US NSF's Food and Drug Administration (FDA) Scholar-in-Residence (SIR) program. This 60+ page document follows the methodology outlined in the US Federal Aviation Administrations (FAA) Requirements Engineering Management Handbook (REMH) and includes a domain overview, use cases, statements of safety & security requirements, and formal top-level system architectural description. Based on previous experience with release of a requirements document for a cardiac pacemaker that spawned a number of research and pedagogical activities, we believe that the described PCA requirements document can be an important research enabler within the formal methods and software engineering communities.

  20. Source-emissions testing of the air-stripping process, Vance Air Force Base, Oklahoma. Final report, 21 May-25 May 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Binovi, R.D.; Vaughn, R.W.

    1990-08-01

    At the request of HQ ATC/DEEV through HQ ATC/SGPB, source emissions testing for methylene chloride emissions in the air stripping tower vent and tower influent and effluent was performed at the pretreatment facility at Vance AFB on 21-25 May 90. Testing was conducted to provide data for the air quality permit to operate the pretreatment facility's air stripping tower as required by the Oklahoma State Department of Health. Results show the plant has operational problems, based on the percent removal calculations from the wastewater stream. The pretreatment plant is also not meeting the Federal pretreatment standard limits for methylene chloride from a new facility treating metal finishing waste (40 CFR 433.17). Recommendations included: (1) optimizing the plant operations by determining proper coagulant dosage and cleaning the stripping tower; (2) contacting the manufacturer to determine the design efficiency of the stripping tower; if not efficient enough, additional treatment such as carbon absorption needs to be added; and (3) completing another round of emissions testing after the plant's operation has been optimized.

  1. Dynamic effects on containment of air-curtain fume hood operated with heat source.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jia-Kun; Huang, Rong Fung; Hsin, Pei-Yi

    2012-01-01

    This study focused on the leakage characteristics of the air-curtain fume hood that are subject to the influences of sash movement and walk-by motion while a high temperature heat source was operated in the hood. The flow visualization and trace gas test method were used to investigate the performance of the air-curtain fume hood. An electric heater was placed in the hood to simulate the heat source. The temperature of the heat source installed inside the air-curtain fume hood varied between 180°C and 300°C. Trace gas tests following the dynamic test methods of EN-14175 protocol were employed to measure the spillages of sulfur hexafluoride gas that were released in the hood. When subject to the influence of sash movement at a heat source temperature lower than 260°C, the leakage level was high at the suction velocity V(s) < 8 m/sec but was negligibly small at V(s) > 10 m/sec. When subject to the influence of people walk-by, the leakage level was relatively low at the suction velocity larger than 8 m/sec at sash height H = 50 cm. The height of the sash opening was a crucial parameter for the containment of the air-curtain fume hood. At the sash opening lower than about 25 cm, suction velocity less than or equal to 6 m/sec was enough to make the sulfur hexafluoride leakage less than the threshold value, 0.65 ppm, suggested by the BG Chemie. The air-curtain fume hood presented a great performance to resist the effect of drafts even though there was a high temperature heat source working in the hood. PMID:23009207

  2. Background information on sources of low-level radionuclide emissions to air

    SciTech Connect

    Corbit, C.D.; Herrington, W.N.; Higby, D.P.; Stout, L.A.; Corley, J.P.

    1983-09-01

    This report provides a general description and reported emissions for eight low-level radioactive source categories, including facilties that are licensed by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and Agreement States, and non-Department of Energy (DOE) federal facilities. The eight categories of low-level radioactive source facilities covered by this report are: research and test reactors, accelerators, the radiopharmaceutical industry, source manufacturers, medical facilities, laboratories, naval shipyards, and low-level commercial waste disposal sites. Under each category five elements are addressed: a general description, a facility and process description, the emission control systems, a site description, and the radionuclides released to air (from routine operations).

  3. 41 CFR 51-5.2 - Mandatory source requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Procurement List, as provided in § 51-1.2 of this chapter. (b) Purchases of commodities on the Procurement... shall require other persons providing commodities which are on the Procurement List to entities of the...) Procedures for obtaining military resale commodities are contained in § 51-6.4 of this chapter....

  4. Sources of Indoor Air Pollution and Respiratory Health in Preschool Children

    PubMed Central

    Fuentes-Leonarte, Virginia; Ballester, Ferran; Tenías, José Maria

    2009-01-01

    We carried out bibliographic searches in PubMed and Embase.com for the period from 1996 to 2008 with the aim of reviewing the scientific literature on the relationship between various sources of indoor air pollution and the respiratory health of children under the age of five. Those studies that included adjusted correlation measurements for the most important confounding variables and which had an adequate population size were considered to be more relevant. The results concerning the relationship between gas energy sources and children's respiratory health were heterogeneous. Indoor air pollution from biomass combustion in the poorest countries was found to be an important risk factor for lower respiratory tract infections. Solvents involved in redecorating, DYI work, painting, and so forth, were found to be related to an increased risk for general respiratory problems. The distribution of papers depending on the pollution source showed a clear relationship with life-style and the level of development. PMID:20168984

  5. Sources of indoor air pollution and respiratory health in preschool children.

    PubMed

    Fuentes-Leonarte, Virginia; Ballester, Ferran; Tenías, José Maria

    2009-01-01

    We carried out bibliographic searches in PubMed and Embase.com for the period from 1996 to 2008 with the aim of reviewing the scientific literature on the relationship between various sources of indoor air pollution and the respiratory health of children under the age of five. Those studies that included adjusted correlation measurements for the most important confounding variables and which had an adequate population size were considered to be more relevant. The results concerning the relationship between gas energy sources and children's respiratory health were heterogeneous. Indoor air pollution from biomass combustion in the poorest countries was found to be an important risk factor for lower respiratory tract infections. Solvents involved in redecorating, DYI work, painting, and so forth, were found to be related to an increased risk for general respiratory problems. The distribution of papers depending on the pollution source showed a clear relationship with life-style and the level of development.

  6. Sources of indoor air pollution and respiratory health in preschool children.

    PubMed

    Fuentes-Leonarte, Virginia; Ballester, Ferran; Tenías, José Maria

    2009-01-01

    We carried out bibliographic searches in PubMed and Embase.com for the period from 1996 to 2008 with the aim of reviewing the scientific literature on the relationship between various sources of indoor air pollution and the respiratory health of children under the age of five. Those studies that included adjusted correlation measurements for the most important confounding variables and which had an adequate population size were considered to be more relevant. The results concerning the relationship between gas energy sources and children's respiratory health were heterogeneous. Indoor air pollution from biomass combustion in the poorest countries was found to be an important risk factor for lower respiratory tract infections. Solvents involved in redecorating, DYI work, painting, and so forth, were found to be related to an increased risk for general respiratory problems. The distribution of papers depending on the pollution source showed a clear relationship with life-style and the level of development. PMID:20168984

  7. Required distribution of noise sources for Green's function recovery in diffusive fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shamsalsadati, S.; Weiss, C. J.

    2011-12-01

    In the most general sense, noise is the part of the signal of little or no interest, due to a multitude of reasons such as operator error, imperfect instrumentation, experiment design, or inescapable background interference. Considering the latter, it has been shown that Green's function can be extracted from cross-correlation of the ambient, diffusive wavefields arising from background random noise sources. Pore pressure and low-frequency electromagnetic induction are two such examples of diffusive fields. In theory, applying Green's function method in geophysical exploration requires infinity of volumetrically distributed sources; however, in the real world the number of noise sources in an area is limited, and furthermore, unevenly distributed in time, space and spectral content. Hence, quantification of the requisite noise sources that enable us to calculate Green's function acceptably well remains an open research question. The purpose of this study is to find the area of noise sources that contribute most to the Green's function estimation in diffusive systems. We call such a region the Volume of Relevance (VoR). Our analysis builds upon recent work in 1D homogeneous system where it was shown that sources located between two receivers positions are the most important ones for the purpose of Green's function recovery. Our results confirm the previous finding but we also examine the effect of heterogeneity, dimensionality and receiver location in both 1D and 2D at a fixed frequency. We demonstrate that for receivers located symmetrically across an interface between regions of contrasting diffusivity, the VoR rapidly shifts from one side of the interface to the other, and back again, as receiver separation increases. We also demonstrate that where the receiver pair is located on the interface itself, the shifting is less rapid, and for moderate to high diffusivity contrasts, the VoR remains entirely on the more diffusive side. In addition, because classical

  8. Retrieval of air temperatures from crowd-sourced battery temperatures of cell phones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Overeem, Aart; Robinson, James; Leijnse, Hidde; Uijlenhoet, Remko; Steeneveld, Gert-Jan; Horn, Berthold K. P.

    2013-04-01

    Accurate air temperature observations are important for urban meteorology, for example to study the urban heat island and adverse effects of high temperatures on human health. The number of available temperature observations is often relatively limited. A new development is presented to derive temperature information for the urban canopy from an alternative source: cell phones. Battery temperature data were collected by users of an Android application for cell phones (opensignal.com). The application automatically sends battery temperature data to a server for storage. In this study, battery temperatures are averaged in space and time to obtain daily averaged battery temperatures for each city separately. A regression model, which can be related to a physical model, is employed to retrieve daily air temperatures from battery temperatures. The model is calibrated with observed air temperatures from a meteorological station of an airport located in or near the city. Time series of air temperatures are obtained for each city for a period of several months, where 50% of the data is for independent verification. Results are presented for Buenos Aires, London, Los Angeles, Paris, Mexico City, Moscow, Rome, and Sao Paulo. The evolution of the retrieved air temperatures often correspond well with the observed ones. The mean absolute error of daily air temperatures is less than 2 degrees Celsius, and the bias is within 1 degree Celsius. This shows that monitoring air temperatures employing an Android application holds great promise. Since 75% of the world's population has a cell phone, 20% of the land surface of the earth has cellular telephone coverage, and 500 million devices use the Android operating system, there is a huge potential for measuring air temperatures employing cell phones. This could eventually lead to real-time world-wide temperature maps.

  9. Metrology laboratory requirements for third-generation synchrotron radiation sources

    SciTech Connect

    Takacs, P.Z.; Quian, Shinan

    1997-11-01

    New third-generation synchrotron radiation sources that are now, or will soon, come on line will need to decide how to handle the testing of optical components delivered for use in their beam lines. In many cases it is desirable to establish an in-house metrology laboratory to do the work. We review the history behind the formation of the Optical Metrology Laboratory at Brookhaven National Laboratory and the rationale for its continued existence. We offer suggestions to those who may be contemplating setting up similar facilities, based on our experiences over the past two decades.

  10. Classifying Sources Influencing Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) Using Artificial Neural Network (ANN).

    PubMed

    Saad, Shaharil Mad; Andrew, Allan Melvin; Shakaff, Ali Yeon Md; Saad, Abdul Rahman Mohd; Kamarudin, Azman Muhamad Yusof; Zakaria, Ammar

    2015-05-20

    Monitoring indoor air quality (IAQ) is deemed important nowadays. A sophisticated IAQ monitoring system which could classify the source influencing the IAQ is definitely going to be very helpful to the users. Therefore, in this paper, an IAQ monitoring system has been proposed with a newly added feature which enables the system to identify the sources influencing the level of IAQ. In order to achieve this, the data collected has been trained with artificial neural network or ANN--a proven method for pattern recognition. Basically, the proposed system consists of sensor module cloud (SMC), base station and service-oriented client. The SMC contain collections of sensor modules that measure the air quality data and transmit the captured data to base station through wireless network. The IAQ monitoring system is also equipped with IAQ Index and thermal comfort index which could tell the users about the room's conditions. The results showed that the system is able to measure the level of air quality and successfully classify the sources influencing IAQ in various environments like ambient air, chemical presence, fragrance presence, foods and beverages and human activity.

  11. Classifying Sources Influencing Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) Using Artificial Neural Network (ANN)

    PubMed Central

    Mad Saad, Shaharil; Melvin Andrew, Allan; Md Shakaff, Ali Yeon; Mohd Saad, Abdul Rahman; Muhamad Yusof @ Kamarudin, Azman; Zakaria, Ammar

    2015-01-01

    Monitoring indoor air quality (IAQ) is deemed important nowadays. A sophisticated IAQ monitoring system which could classify the source influencing the IAQ is definitely going to be very helpful to the users. Therefore, in this paper, an IAQ monitoring system has been proposed with a newly added feature which enables the system to identify the sources influencing the level of IAQ. In order to achieve this, the data collected has been trained with artificial neural network or ANN—a proven method for pattern recognition. Basically, the proposed system consists of sensor module cloud (SMC), base station and service-oriented client. The SMC contain collections of sensor modules that measure the air quality data and transmit the captured data to base station through wireless network. The IAQ monitoring system is also equipped with IAQ Index and thermal comfort index which could tell the users about the room’s conditions. The results showed that the system is able to measure the level of air quality and successfully classify the sources influencing IAQ in various environments like ambient air, chemical presence, fragrance presence, foods and beverages and human activity. PMID:26007724

  12. Locating and estimating air emissions from sources of styrene. Interim report

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell, D.

    1991-10-01

    To assist groups interested in inventorying air emissions of various potentially toxic substances, EPA is preparing a series of documents such as this to compile available information on sources and emission of these substances. The document deals specifically with styrene. Its intended audience includes Federal, State and local air pollution personnel and others interested in locating potential emitters of styrene and in making gross estimates of air emissions therefrom. The document presents information on: (1) the types of sources that may emit styrene; (2) process variations and release points that may be emitted within these sources; and (3) available emissions information indicating the potential for styrene releases into the air from each operation. The document is being released as an interim document pending incorporation of testing results from the U.S. EPA. The EPA is currently testing several unsaturated polyester resin fabricators who produce cultured marble bathroom fixtures. When the test results are available, the EPA will publish a final report including these data.

  13. A source of electrical energy using an air-aluminum element (AAE)

    SciTech Connect

    Anisin, A.V.; Borisenok, V.A.; Potemkin, G.A.

    1996-04-01

    An air-aluminium element (AAE) is a chemical current source (CCS) with an aluminium anode and an oxygen gas-diffusion cathode. An AAE may be relegated to intermediate types of CCS, occupying a position between primary and fuel cells. The consumable material is aluminium, and the oxidizer is oxygen in the air coming from the external environment. The electrolyte is an aqueous solution of sodium chloride. Sea water may be used in this capacity. The end product of AAE operation is aluminium hydroxide, which can be regenerated into the initial anode aluminium, and is a non-toxic product.

  14. Computer software and hardware requirements for a CTDMPLUS air quality modeling study

    SciTech Connect

    Karpovich, R.A.; Holland, D.; Barone, J.B.; Eichinger, M.

    1994-12-31

    The Complex Terrain Dispersion Model (CTDMPLUS) is an atmospheric dispersion model for sources that are located in complex terrain settings. The model requires detailed information about the meteorological conditions and topographic terrain features surrounding the source. The authors have completed a 1-year on-site meteorological data program using a 100-meter tower and a Doppler radar system (SODAR). This paper presents the steps required to process the on-site meteorological data and the hardware and software requirements necessary for regulatory use of CTDMPLUS (in conjunction with the Industrial Source Complex Short Term (ISCST) model). The paper also presents software and data sources that can be used to generate CTDMPLUS terrain and receptor input information.

  15. Outdoor air pollution in close proximity to a continuous point source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klepeis, Neil E.; Gabel, Etienne B.; Ott, Wayne R.; Switzer, Paul

    Data are lacking on human exposure to air pollutants occurring in ground-level outdoor environments within a few meters of point sources. To better understand outdoor exposure to tobacco smoke from cigarettes or cigars, and exposure to other types of outdoor point sources, we performed more than 100 controlled outdoor monitoring experiments on a backyard residential patio in which we released pure carbon monoxide (CO) as a tracer gas for continuous time periods lasting 0.5-2 h. The CO was emitted from a single outlet at a fixed per-experiment rate of 120-400 cc min -1 (˜140-450 mg min -1). We measured CO concentrations every 15 s at up to 36 points around the source along orthogonal axes. The CO sensors were positioned at standing or sitting breathing heights of 2-5 ft (up to 1.5 ft above and below the source) and at horizontal distances of 0.25-2 m. We simultaneously measured real-time air speed, wind direction, relative humidity, and temperature at single points on the patio. The ground-level air speeds on the patio were similar to those we measured during a survey of 26 outdoor patio locations in 5 nearby towns. The CO data exhibited a well-defined proximity effect similar to the indoor proximity effect reported in the literature. Average concentrations were approximately inversely proportional to distance. Average CO levels were approximately proportional to source strength, supporting generalization of our results to different source strengths. For example, we predict a cigarette smoker would cause average fine particle levels of approximately 70-110 μg m -3 at horizontal distances of 0.25-0.5 m. We also found that average CO concentrations rose significantly as average air speed decreased. We fit a multiplicative regression model to the empirical data that predicts outdoor concentrations as a function of source emission rate, source-receptor distance, air speed and wind direction. The model described the data reasonably well, accounting for ˜50% of the log

  16. 30 CFR 285.659 - What requirements must I include in my SAP, COP, or GAP regarding air quality?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What requirements must I include in my SAP, COP, or GAP regarding air quality? 285.659 Section 285.659 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE... must I include in my SAP, COP, or GAP regarding air quality? (a) You must comply with the Clean Air...

  17. 40 CFR 62.14825 - What are the recordkeeping and reporting requirements for air curtain incinerators that burn 100...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... reporting requirements for air curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent wood wastes, clean lumber, and/or... Commenced Construction On or Before November 30, 1999 Air Curtain Incinerators That Burn 100 Percent Wood... for air curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent wood wastes, clean lumber, and/or yard waste?...

  18. 40 CFR 62.14825 - What are the recordkeeping and reporting requirements for air curtain incinerators that burn 100...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... reporting requirements for air curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent wood wastes, clean lumber, and/or... Commenced Construction On or Before November 30, 1999 Air Curtain Incinerators That Burn 100 Percent Wood... for air curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent wood wastes, clean lumber, and/or yard waste?...

  19. 40 CFR 62.14825 - What are the recordkeeping and reporting requirements for air curtain incinerators that burn 100...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... reporting requirements for air curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent wood wastes, clean lumber, and/or... Commenced Construction On or Before November 30, 1999 Air Curtain Incinerators That Burn 100 Percent Wood... for air curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent wood wastes, clean lumber, and/or yard waste?...

  20. 42 CFR 84.154 - Airflow resistance test; Type B and Type BE supplied-air respirators; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Supplied-Air Respirators § 84.154 Airflow resistance test; Type B and Type BE supplied-air respirators; minimum requirements. (a) Airflow resistance shall be... diameter. (b) Airflow resistance shall not exceed 38 mm. (1.5 inches) of water-column height to air...

  1. 42 CFR 84.156 - Airflow resistance test; Type C supplied-air respirator, demand class; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Airflow resistance test; Type C supplied-air... APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Supplied-Air Respirators § 84.156 Airflow resistance test; Type C supplied-air respirator, demand class; minimum requirements. (a) Inhalation resistance shall...

  2. 42 CFR 84.154 - Airflow resistance test; Type B and Type BE supplied-air respirators; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Supplied-Air Respirators § 84.154 Airflow resistance test; Type B and Type BE supplied-air respirators; minimum requirements. (a) Airflow resistance shall be... diameter. (b) Airflow resistance shall not exceed 38 mm. (1.5 inches) of water-column height to air...

  3. 42 CFR 84.156 - Airflow resistance test; Type C supplied-air respirator, demand class; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Airflow resistance test; Type C supplied-air... APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Supplied-Air Respirators § 84.156 Airflow resistance test; Type C supplied-air respirator, demand class; minimum requirements. (a) Inhalation resistance shall...

  4. 42 CFR 84.154 - Airflow resistance test; Type B and Type BE supplied-air respirators; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Supplied-Air Respirators § 84.154 Airflow resistance test; Type B and Type BE supplied-air respirators; minimum requirements. (a) Airflow resistance shall be... diameter. (b) Airflow resistance shall not exceed 38 mm. (1.5 inches) of water-column height to air...

  5. 42 CFR 84.154 - Airflow resistance test; Type B and Type BE supplied-air respirators; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Supplied-Air Respirators § 84.154 Airflow resistance test; Type B and Type BE supplied-air respirators; minimum requirements. (a) Airflow resistance shall be... diameter. (b) Airflow resistance shall not exceed 38 mm. (1.5 inches) of water-column height to air...

  6. 42 CFR 84.156 - Airflow resistance test; Type C supplied-air respirator, demand class; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Airflow resistance test; Type C supplied-air... APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Supplied-Air Respirators § 84.156 Airflow resistance test; Type C supplied-air respirator, demand class; minimum requirements. (a) Inhalation resistance shall...

  7. 42 CFR 84.156 - Airflow resistance test; Type C supplied-air respirator, demand class; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Airflow resistance test; Type C supplied-air... APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Supplied-Air Respirators § 84.156 Airflow resistance test; Type C supplied-air respirator, demand class; minimum requirements. (a) Inhalation resistance shall...

  8. 42 CFR 84.154 - Airflow resistance test; Type B and Type BE supplied-air respirators; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Supplied-Air Respirators § 84.154 Airflow resistance test; Type B and Type BE supplied-air respirators; minimum requirements. (a) Airflow resistance shall be... diameter. (b) Airflow resistance shall not exceed 38 mm. (1.5 inches) of water-column height to air...

  9. 40 CFR 62.14825 - What are the recordkeeping and reporting requirements for air curtain incinerators that burn 100...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... reporting requirements for air curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent wood wastes, clean lumber, and/or... Commenced Construction On or Before November 30, 1999 Air Curtain Incinerators That Burn 100 Percent Wood... for air curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent wood wastes, clean lumber, and/or yard waste?...

  10. 40 CFR 52.36 - What are the requirements of the Federal Implementation Plans (FIPs) for the Clean Air Interstate...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Federal Implementation Plans (FIPs) for the Clean Air Interstate Rule (CAIR) relating to emissions of... What are the requirements of the Federal Implementation Plans (FIPs) for the Clean Air Interstate Rule... part 97 of this chapter constitute the Clean Air Interstate Rule Federal Implementation Plan...

  11. 40 CFR 52.36 - What are the requirements of the Federal Implementation Plans (FIPs) for the Clean Air Interstate...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Federal Implementation Plans (FIPs) for the Clean Air Interstate Rule (CAIR) relating to emissions of... What are the requirements of the Federal Implementation Plans (FIPs) for the Clean Air Interstate Rule... part 97 of this chapter constitute the Clean Air Interstate Rule Federal Implementation Plan...

  12. 40 CFR 60.3061 - What are the requirements for temporary-use incinerators and air curtain incinerators used in...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...-use incinerators and air curtain incinerators used in disaster recovery? 60.3061 Section 60.3061... Incinerators and Air Curtain Incinerators Used in Disaster Recovery § 60.3061 What are the requirements for temporary-use incinerators and air curtain incinerators used in disaster recovery? Your incinerator or...

  13. 40 CFR 60.3061 - What are the requirements for temporary-use incinerators and air curtain incinerators used in...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...-use incinerators and air curtain incinerators used in disaster recovery? 60.3061 Section 60.3061... Incinerators and Air Curtain Incinerators Used in Disaster Recovery § 60.3061 What are the requirements for temporary-use incinerators and air curtain incinerators used in disaster recovery? Your incinerator or...

  14. 40 CFR 60.2969 - What are the requirements for temporary-use incinerators and air curtain incinerators used in...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...-use incinerators and air curtain incinerators used in disaster recovery? 60.2969 Section 60.2969... Curtain Incinerators Used in Disaster Recovery § 60.2969 What are the requirements for temporary-use incinerators and air curtain incinerators used in disaster recovery? Your incinerator or air...

  15. 40 CFR 60.3061 - What are the requirements for temporary-use incinerators and air curtain incinerators used in...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...-use incinerators and air curtain incinerators used in disaster recovery? 60.3061 Section 60.3061... Incinerators and Air Curtain Incinerators Used in Disaster Recovery § 60.3061 What are the requirements for temporary-use incinerators and air curtain incinerators used in disaster recovery? Your incinerator or...

  16. 40 CFR 60.3061 - What are the requirements for temporary-use incinerators and air curtain incinerators used in...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...-use incinerators and air curtain incinerators used in disaster recovery? 60.3061 Section 60.3061... Incinerators and Air Curtain Incinerators Used in Disaster Recovery § 60.3061 What are the requirements for temporary-use incinerators and air curtain incinerators used in disaster recovery? Your incinerator or...

  17. 40 CFR 60.2969 - What are the requirements for temporary-use incinerators and air curtain incinerators used in...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...-use incinerators and air curtain incinerators used in disaster recovery? 60.2969 Section 60.2969... Curtain Incinerators Used in Disaster Recovery § 60.2969 What are the requirements for temporary-use incinerators and air curtain incinerators used in disaster recovery? Your incinerator or air...

  18. 40 CFR 60.3061 - What are the requirements for temporary-use incinerators and air curtain incinerators used in...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...-use incinerators and air curtain incinerators used in disaster recovery? 60.3061 Section 60.3061... Incinerators and Air Curtain Incinerators Used in Disaster Recovery § 60.3061 What are the requirements for temporary-use incinerators and air curtain incinerators used in disaster recovery? Your incinerator or...

  19. 40 CFR 60.2969 - What are the requirements for temporary-use incinerators and air curtain incinerators used in...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...-use incinerators and air curtain incinerators used in disaster recovery? 60.2969 Section 60.2969... Curtain Incinerators Used in Disaster Recovery § 60.2969 What are the requirements for temporary-use incinerators and air curtain incinerators used in disaster recovery? Your incinerator or air...

  20. 40 CFR 52.36 - What are the requirements of the Federal Implementation Plans (FIPs) for the Clean Air Interstate...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Federal Implementation Plans (FIPs) for the Clean Air Interstate Rule (CAIR) relating to emissions of... What are the requirements of the Federal Implementation Plans (FIPs) for the Clean Air Interstate Rule... part 97 of this chapter constitute the Clean Air Interstate Rule Federal Implementation Plan...

  1. 40 CFR 62.14825 - What are the recordkeeping and reporting requirements for air curtain incinerators that burn 100...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... reporting requirements for air curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent wood wastes, clean lumber, and/or... Commenced Construction On or Before November 30, 1999 Air Curtain Incinerators That Burn 100 Percent Wood... for air curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent wood wastes, clean lumber, and/or yard waste?...

  2. A GIS-based multi-source and multi-box modeling approach (GMSMB) for air pollution assessment--a North American case study.

    PubMed

    Wang, Bao-Zhen; Chen, Zhi

    2013-01-01

    This article presents a GIS-based multi-source and multi-box modeling approach (GMSMB) to predict the spatial concentration distributions of airborne pollutant on local and regional scales. In this method, an extended multi-box model combined with a multi-source and multi-grid Gaussian model are developed within the GIS framework to examine the contributions from both point- and area-source emissions. By using GIS, a large amount of data including emission sources, air quality monitoring, meteorological data, and spatial location information required for air quality modeling are brought into an integrated modeling environment. It helps more details of spatial variation in source distribution and meteorological condition to be quantitatively analyzed. The developed modeling approach has been examined to predict the spatial concentration distribution of four air pollutants (CO, NO(2), SO(2) and PM(2.5)) for the State of California. The modeling results are compared with the monitoring data. Good agreement is acquired which demonstrated that the developed modeling approach could deliver an effective air pollution assessment on both regional and local scales to support air pollution control and management planning.

  3. Diagnostic air quality model evaluation of source-specific primary and secondary fine particulate carbon.

    PubMed

    Napelenok, Sergey L; Simon, Heather; Bhave, Prakash V; Pye, Havala O T; Pouliot, George A; Sheesley, Rebecca J; Schauer, James J

    2014-01-01

    Ambient measurements of 78 source-specific tracers of primary and secondary carbonaceous fine particulate matter collected at four midwestern United States locations over a full year (March 2004-February 2005) provided an unprecedented opportunity to diagnostically evaluate the results of a numerical air quality model. Previous analyses of these measurements demonstrated excellent mass closure for the variety of contributing sources. In this study, a carbon-apportionment version of the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model was used to track primary organic and elemental carbon emissions from 15 independent sources such as mobile sources and biomass burning in addition to four precursor-specific classes of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) originating from isoprene, terpenes, aromatics, and sesquiterpenes. Conversion of the source-resolved model output into organic tracer concentrations yielded a total of 2416 data pairs for comparison with observations. While emission source contributions to the total model bias varied by season and measurement location, the largest absolute bias of -0.55 μgC/m(3) was attributed to insufficient isoprene SOA in the summertime CMAQ simulation. Biomass combustion was responsible for the second largest summertime model bias (-0.46 μgC/m(3) on average). Several instances of compensating errors were also evident; model underpredictions in some sectors were masked by overpredictions in others.

  4. Diagnostic air quality model evaluation of source-specific primary and secondary fine particulate carbon.

    PubMed

    Napelenok, Sergey L; Simon, Heather; Bhave, Prakash V; Pye, Havala O T; Pouliot, George A; Sheesley, Rebecca J; Schauer, James J

    2014-01-01

    Ambient measurements of 78 source-specific tracers of primary and secondary carbonaceous fine particulate matter collected at four midwestern United States locations over a full year (March 2004-February 2005) provided an unprecedented opportunity to diagnostically evaluate the results of a numerical air quality model. Previous analyses of these measurements demonstrated excellent mass closure for the variety of contributing sources. In this study, a carbon-apportionment version of the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model was used to track primary organic and elemental carbon emissions from 15 independent sources such as mobile sources and biomass burning in addition to four precursor-specific classes of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) originating from isoprene, terpenes, aromatics, and sesquiterpenes. Conversion of the source-resolved model output into organic tracer concentrations yielded a total of 2416 data pairs for comparison with observations. While emission source contributions to the total model bias varied by season and measurement location, the largest absolute bias of -0.55 μgC/m(3) was attributed to insufficient isoprene SOA in the summertime CMAQ simulation. Biomass combustion was responsible for the second largest summertime model bias (-0.46 μgC/m(3) on average). Several instances of compensating errors were also evident; model underpredictions in some sectors were masked by overpredictions in others. PMID:24245475

  5. Field Test of High Efficiency Residential Buildings with Ground-source and Air-source Heat Pump Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Ally, Moonis Raza; Munk, Jeffrey D; Baxter, Van D

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes the field performance of space conditioning and water heating equipment in four single-family residential structures with advanced thermal envelopes. Each structure features a different, advanced thermal envelope design: structural insulated panel (SIP); optimum value framing (OVF); insulation with embedded phase change materials (PCM) for thermal storage; and exterior insulation finish system (EIFS). Three of the homes feature ground-source heat pumps (GSHPs) for space conditioning and water heating while the fourth has a two-capacity air-source heat pump (ASHP) and a heat pump water heater (HPWH). Two of the GCHP-equipped homes feature horizontal ground heat exchange (GHX) loops that utillize the existing foundation and utility service trenches while the third features a vertical borehole with vertical u-tube GHX. All of the houses were operated under the same simulated occupancy conditions. Operational data on the house HVAC/Water heating (WH) systems are presented and factors influencing overall performance are summarized.

  6. Identifying and quantifying transported vs. local sources of New York City PM 2.5 fine particulate matter air pollution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lall, Ramona; Thurston, George D.

    pollution has a major role in NYC's fine PM pollution. Reliably meeting the ambient PM 2.5 air quality standards in New York will require that upwind sources, outside of the city, will also need to be controlled.

  7. Direct measurement of air kerma rate in air from CDCS J-type caesium-137 therapy sources using a Farmer ionization chamber.

    PubMed

    Poynter, A J

    2000-04-01

    A simple method for directly measuring the reference air kerma rate from J-type 137Cs sources using a Farmer 2571 chamber has been evaluated. The method is useful as an independent means of verifying manufacturers' test data.

  8. Megacity and country emissions from combustion sources-Buenos Aires-Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dawidowski, L.; Gomez, D.; Matranga, M.; D'Angiola, A.; Oreggioni, G.

    2010-12-01

    Historic time series (1970-2006) emissions of greenhouse gases and air pollutants arising from stationary and mobile combustion sources were estimated at national level for Argentina and at regional level for the metropolitan area of Buenos Aires (MABA). All emissions were estimated using a bottom-up approach following the IPCC good practice guidance. For mobile sources, national emissions include all transport categories. Regional emissions account thus far only for on-road. For national emissions, methodologies and guidance by the IPCC were employed, applying the highest possible tier and using: i)country-specific emission factors for carbon and sulphur and technology-based information for other species, ii)activity data from energy balance series (1970-2007), and iii)complementary information concerning the non-energy use of fuels. Regional emissions in 2006 were estimated in-depth using a technology-based approach for the city of Buenos Aires (CBA) and the 24 neighboring districts composing the MABA. A regional emissions factors database was developed to better characterize Latin American fleets and driving conditions employing COPERT III-IV algorithms and emission factors measured in dynamometers and circulating vehicles in Argentina, Brazil, Chile and Colombia. Past emissions were back estimated from 2005 to 1970 using the best available information, which differs greatly among categories, spatial disaggregation and time periods. The time series of stationary and mobile combustion sources at the national and regional level allowed the identification of distinct patterns. National greenhouse gas emissions in 2006 amounted to ~ 150 million ton CO2-equivalent, 70% of which were contributed by stationary sources. On-road transport was the major contributor within mobile sources (28.1 %). The increasing emissions trends are dominated by on-road transport, agriculture and residential categories while the variability is largely associated with energy industries

  9. Hydrogen peroxide in exhaled air: a source of error, a paradox and its resolution

    PubMed Central

    Peters, Stefan; Kronseder, Angelika; Karrasch, Stefan; Neff, Petra A.; Haaks, Matz; Koczulla, Andreas R.; Reinhold, Petra; Nowak, Dennis

    2016-01-01

    The concentration of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) in exhaled air has been reported to be elevated in asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), but results are inconsistent and difficult to reproduce. As H2O2 occurs in ambient air, we examined its association with exhaled H2O2 in human subjects. Exhaled breath condensate (EBC) of 12 COPD patients and nine healthy control subjects was collected either with an inhalation filter (efficiency 81%) or without. Ambient air condensate (AAC) was collected in parallel and samples were analysed for H2O2. Additionally, ambient H2O2 was recorded by an atmospheric measuring device (online fluorometric measurement). H2O2 concentration in AAC was significantly higher (p<0.001) than in EBC. AAC variations were concordant with the data from the atmospheric measuring instrument. In both subjects' groups, the inhalation filter reduced H2O2 values (p<0.01). Despite generally low levels in exhaled air, analysis by a mathematical model revealed a contribution from endogenous H2O2 production. The low H2O2 levels in exhaled air are explained by the reconditioning of H2O2-containing inhaled air in the airways. Inhaled H2O2 may be one factor in the heterogeneity and limited reproducibility of study results. A valid determination of endogenous H2O2 production requires inhalation filters. PMID:27730191

  10. Spatial structures in microtubular solutions requiring a sustained energy source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tabony, J.; Job, D.

    1990-08-01

    MICROTUBULES are believed to be the principal organizers of the cell interior1. Cells respond to a variety of stimuli by modifying the spatial distribution of the microtubules. These effects are central to cell division and morphogenesis2, and embryo development3. During embryo development, macroscopic patterns are frequently observed3. Here we report that microtubular solutions spontaneously form alternating white and dark stripes about 1 mm wide and 1 cm long. Small-angle neutron scattering measurements show that in each segment the microtubules are aligned obliquely to the direction of the stripe, and that the white and dark stripes differ in having mutually orthogonal orientations. The formation of these structures requires an initial reservoir of organic phosphate. Phosphorus NMR measurements show that the process is accompanied by the energy-liberating conversion of organic to inorganic phosphate. These observations, together with similarities to the dissipative spatial structure formed by the Belousov-Zhabotinski reaction4-6, provide strong evidence that the observed structures are energy-dissipative in nature. Dissipative structures are thought to be critical to the appearence of complex living organisms7,8. Our results strongly suggest that microtubules are capable of forming such structures. Microtubular dissipative structures may occur during mitosis and embryo morphogenesis.

  11. PAH air pollution at a Portuguese urban area: carcinogenic risks and sources identification.

    PubMed

    Slezakova, K; Pires, J C M; Castro, D; Alvim-Ferraz, M C M; Delerue-Matos, C; Morais, S; Pereira, M C

    2013-06-01

    This study aimed to characterize air pollution and the associated carcinogenic risks of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAHs) at an urban site, to identify possible emission sources of PAHs using several statistical methodologies, and to analyze the influence of other air pollutants and meteorological variables on PAH concentrations.The air quality and meteorological data were collected in Oporto, the second largest city of Portugal. Eighteen PAHs (the 16 PAHs considered by United States Environment Protection Agency (USEPA) as priority pollutants, dibenzo[a,l]pyrene, and benzo[j]fluoranthene) were collected daily for 24 h in air (gas phase and in particles) during 40 consecutive days in November and December 2008 by constant low-flow samplers and using polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) membrane filters for particulate (PM10 and PM2.5 bound) PAHs and pre-cleaned polyurethane foam plugs for gaseous compounds. The other monitored air pollutants were SO2, PM10, NO2, CO, and O3; the meteorological variables were temperature, relative humidity, wind speed, total precipitation, and solar radiation. Benzo[a]pyrene reached a mean concentration of 2.02 ng m(-3), surpassing the EU annual limit value. The target carcinogenic risks were equal than the health-based guideline level set by USEPA (10(-6)) at the studied site, with the cancer risks of eight PAHs reaching senior levels of 9.98 × 10(-7) in PM10 and 1.06 × 10(-6) in air. The applied statistical methods, correlation matrix, cluster analysis, and principal component analysis, were in agreement in the grouping of the PAHs. The groups were formed according to their chemical structure (number of rings), phase distribution, and emission sources. PAH diagnostic ratios were also calculated to evaluate the main emission sources. Diesel vehicular emissions were the major source of PAHs at the studied site. Besides that source, emissions from residential heating and oil refinery were identified to contribute to PAH levels at

  12. Development of PM2.5 source impact spatial fields using a hybrid source apportionment air quality model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivey, C. E.; Holmes, H. A.; Hu, Y. T.; Mulholland, J. A.; Russell, A. G.

    2015-07-01

    An integral part of air quality management is knowledge of the impact of pollutant sources on ambient concentrations of particulate matter (PM). There is also a growing desire to directly use source impact estimates in health studies; however, source impacts cannot be directly measured. Several limitations are inherent in most source apportionment methods motivating the development of a novel hybrid approach that is used to estimate source impacts by combining the capabilities of receptor models (RMs) and chemical transport models (CTMs). The hybrid CTM-RM method calculates adjustment factors to refine the CTM-estimated impact of sources at monitoring sites using pollutant species observations and the results of CTM sensitivity analyses, though it does not directly generate spatial source impact fields. The CTM used here is the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model, and the RM approach is based on the chemical mass balance (CMB) model. This work presents a method that utilizes kriging to spatially interpolate source-specific impact adjustment factors to generate revised CTM source impact fields from the CTM-RM method results, and is applied for January 2004 over the continental United States. The kriging step is evaluated using data withholding and by comparing results to data from alternative networks. Data withholding also provides an estimate of method uncertainty. Directly applied (hybrid, HYB) and spatially interpolated (spatial hybrid, SH) hybrid adjustment factors at withheld observation sites had a correlation coefficient of 0.89, a linear regression slope of 0.83 ± 0.02, and an intercept of 0.14 ± 0.02. Refined source contributions reflect current knowledge of PM emissions (e.g., significant differences in biomass burning impact fields). Concentrations of 19 species and total PM2.5 mass were reconstructed for withheld observation sites using HYB and SH adjustment factors. The mean concentrations of total PM2.5 at withheld observation sites were

  13. Sewer Gas: An Indoor Air Source of PCE to Consider During Vapor Intrusion Investigations

    PubMed Central

    Pennell, Kelly G.; Scammell, Madeleine Kangsen; McClean, Michael D.; Ames, Jennifer; Weldon, Brittany; Friguglietti, Leigh; Suuberg, Eric M.; Shen, Rui; Indeglia, Paul A.; Heiger-Bernays, Wendy J.

    2013-01-01

    The United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) is finalizing its vapor intrusion guidelines. One of the important issues related to vapor intrusion is background concentrations of volatile organic chemicals (VOCs) in indoor air, typically attributed to consumer products and building materials. Background concentrations can exist even in the absence of vapor intrusion and are an important consideration when conducting site assessments. In addition, the development of accurate conceptual models that depict pathways for vapor entry into buildings is important during vapor intrusion site assessments. Sewer gas, either as a contributor to background concentrations or as part of the site conceptual model, is not routinely evaluated during vapor intrusion site assessments. The research described herein identifies an instance where vapors emanating directly from a sanitary sewer pipe within a residence were determined to be a source of tetrachloroethylene (PCE) detected in indoor air. Concentrations of PCE in the bathroom range from 2.1 to 190 ug/m3 and exceed typical indoor air concentrations by orders of magnitude resulting in human health risk classified as an “Imminent Hazard” condition. The results suggest that infiltration of sewer gas resulted in PCE concentrations in indoor air that were nearly two-orders of magnitude higher as compared to when infiltration of sewer gas was not known to be occurring. This previously understudied pathway whereby sewers serve as sources of PCE (and potentially other VOC) vapors is highlighted. Implications for vapor intrusion investigations are also discussed. PMID:23950637

  14. Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in air from Nisyros Island (Dodecanese Archipelago, Greece): Natural versus anthropogenic sources.

    PubMed

    Tassi, F; Capecchiacci, F; Giannini, L; Vougioukalakis, G E; Vaselli, O

    2013-09-01

    This study presents the chemical composition of VOCs in air and gas discharges collected at Nisyros Island (Dodecanese Archipelago, Greece). The main goals are i) to discriminate between natural and anthropogenic VOC sources and ii) to evaluate their impact on local air quality. Up to 63 different VOCs were recognized and quantitatively determined in 6 fumaroles and 19 air samples collected in the Lakki caldera, where fumarolic emissions are located, and the outer ring of the island, including the Mandraki village and the main harbor. Air samples from the crater area show significant concentrations of alkanes, alkenes, cyclic, aromatics, and S- and O-bearing heterocycles directly deriving from the hydrothermal system, as well as secondary O-bearing compounds from oxidation of primary VOCs. At Mandraki village, C6H6/Σ(methylated aromatics) and Σ(linear)/Σ(branched) alkanes ratios <1 allow to distinguish an anthropogenic source related to emissions from outlet pipes of touristic and private boats and buses. PMID:23747819

  15. Scuba tanks as a compressed air source in positive-pressure ventilation.

    PubMed

    Stewart, T

    1992-06-01

    Throughout the developing world there is a general problem of ensuring regular deliveries of medical supplies to hospitals. This includes the supply of compressed gases. At one regional hospital in Vanuatu, we were faced with the problem of how to provide economically a source of compressed gas at regulated pressure to drive an anaesthetic ventilator. We eventually adapted the output from a Scuba cylinder for this purpose. This paper describes the simple modifications necessary and suggests other uses for this source of compressed air that could be implemented in hospitals with small to medium case loads and access to a diving compressor.

  16. Technical assessment of workplace air sampling requirements at tank farm facilities. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Olsen, P.A.

    1994-09-21

    WHC-CM-1-6 is the primary guidance for radiological control at Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC). It was written to implement DOE N 5480.6 ``US Department of Energy Radiological Control Manual`` as it applies to programs at Hanford which are now overseen by WHC. As such, it complies with Title 10, Part 835 of the Code of Federal Regulations. In addition to WHC-CM-1-6, there is HSRCM-1, the ``Hanford Site Radiological Control Manual`` and several Department of Energy (DOE) Orders, national consensus standards, and reports that provide criteria, standards, and requirements for workplace air sampling programs. This document provides a summary of these, as they apply to WHC facility workplace air sampling programs. This document also provides an evaluation of the compliance of Tank Farms` workplace air sampling program to the criteria, standards, and requirements and documents compliance with the requirements where appropriate. Where necessary, it also indicates changes needed to bring specific locations into compliance.

  17. Characterization of an atmospheric pressure air plasma source for polymer surface modification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Shujun; Tang, Jiansheng

    2013-10-01

    An atmospheric pressure air plasma source was generated through dielectric barrier discharge (DBD). It was used to modify polyethyleneterephthalate (PET) surfaces with very high throughput. An equivalent circuit model was used to calculate the peak average electron density. The emission spectrum from the plasma was taken and the main peaks in the spectrum were identified. The ozone density in the down plasma region was estimated by Absorption Spectroscopy. NSF and ARC-ODU

  18. Air-Source Integrated Heat Pump for Near-Zero Energy Houses: Technology Status Report

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, Richard W; Rice, C Keith; Baxter, Van D; Craddick, William G

    2007-07-01

    This report documents the development of an air-source integrated heat pump (AS-IHP) through the third quarter of FY2007. It describes the design, analyses and testing of the AS-IHP, and provides performance specifications for a field test prototype and proposed control strategy. The results obtained so far continue to support the AS-IHP being a promising candidate to meet the energy service needs for DOE's development of a Zero Energy Home (ZEH) by the year 2020.

  19. 29 CFR 1919.22 - Requirements governing braking devices and power sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Requirements governing braking devices and power sources. 1919.22 Section 1919.22 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH... Requirements governing braking devices and power sources. All types of winches and cranes shall be...

  20. 48 CFR 52.208-8 - Required Sources for Helium and Helium Usage Data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Helium and Helium Usage Data. 52.208-8 Section 52.208-8 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL... Provisions and Clauses 52.208-8 Required Sources for Helium and Helium Usage Data. As prescribed in 8.505, insert the following clause: Required Sources for Helium and Helium Usage Data (APR 2002) (a)...

  1. 48 CFR 52.208-8 - Required Sources for Helium and Helium Usage Data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Helium and Helium Usage Data. 52.208-8 Section 52.208-8 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL... Provisions and Clauses 52.208-8 Required Sources for Helium and Helium Usage Data. As prescribed in 8.505, insert the following clause: Required Sources for Helium and Helium Usage Data (APR 2002) (a)...

  2. 48 CFR 52.208-8 - Required Sources for Helium and Helium Usage Data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Helium and Helium Usage Data. 52.208-8 Section 52.208-8 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL... Provisions and Clauses 52.208-8 Required Sources for Helium and Helium Usage Data. As prescribed in 8.505, insert the following clause: Required Sources for Helium and Helium Usage Data (APR 2014) (a)...

  3. 29 CFR 1919.22 - Requirements governing braking devices and power sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Requirements governing braking devices and power sources. 1919.22 Section 1919.22 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH... Requirements governing braking devices and power sources. All types of winches and cranes shall be...

  4. 48 CFR 52.208-8 - Required Sources for Helium and Helium Usage Data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Helium and Helium Usage Data. 52.208-8 Section 52.208-8 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL... Provisions and Clauses 52.208-8 Required Sources for Helium and Helium Usage Data. As prescribed in 8.505, insert the following clause: Required Sources for Helium and Helium Usage Data (APR 2002) (a)...

  5. 48 CFR 52.208-8 - Required Sources for Helium and Helium Usage Data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Helium and Helium Usage Data. 52.208-8 Section 52.208-8 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL... Provisions and Clauses 52.208-8 Required Sources for Helium and Helium Usage Data. As prescribed in 8.505, insert the following clause: Required Sources for Helium and Helium Usage Data (APR 2002) (a)...

  6. Source-specific fine particulate air pollution and systemic inflammation in ischaemic heart disease patients

    PubMed Central

    Siponen, Taina; Yli-Tuomi, Tarja; Aurela, Minna; Dufva, Hilkka; Hillamo, Risto; Hirvonen, Maija-Riitta; Huttunen, Kati; Pekkanen, Juha; Pennanen, Arto; Salonen, Iiris; Tiittanen, Pekka; Salonen, Raimo O; Lanki, Timo

    2015-01-01

    Objective To compare short-term effects of fine particles (PM2.5; aerodynamic diameter <2.5 µm) from different sources on the blood levels of markers of systemic inflammation. Methods We followed a panel of 52 ischaemic heart disease patients from 15 November 2005 to 21 April 2006 with clinic visits in every second week in the city of Kotka, Finland, and determined nine inflammatory markers from blood samples. In addition, we monitored outdoor air pollution at a fixed site during the study period and conducted a source apportionment of PM2.5 using the Environmental Protection Agency's model EPA PMF 3.0. We then analysed associations between levels of source-specific PM2.5 and markers of systemic inflammation using linear mixed models. Results We identified five source categories: regional and long-range transport (LRT), traffic, biomass combustion, sea salt, and pulp industry. We found most evidence for the relation of air pollution and inflammation in LRT, traffic and biomass combustion; the most relevant inflammation markers were C-reactive protein, interleukin-12 and myeloperoxidase. Sea salt was not positively associated with any of the inflammatory markers. Conclusions Results suggest that PM2.5 from several sources, such as biomass combustion and traffic, are promoters of systemic inflammation, a risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. PMID:25479755

  7. 30 CFR 585.659 - What requirements must I include in my SAP, COP, or GAP regarding air quality?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... implementing regulations as promulgated by the EPA under 40 CFR part 55. (b) For air quality modeling that you... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false What requirements must I include in my SAP, COP... What requirements must I include in my SAP, COP, or GAP regarding air quality? (a) You must comply...

  8. 30 CFR 585.659 - What requirements must I include in my SAP, COP, or GAP regarding air quality?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... implementing regulations as promulgated by the EPA under 40 CFR part 55. (b) For air quality modeling that you... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false What requirements must I include in my SAP, COP... What requirements must I include in my SAP, COP, or GAP regarding air quality? (a) You must comply...

  9. 30 CFR 585.659 - What requirements must I include in my SAP, COP, or GAP regarding air quality?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... implementing regulations as promulgated by the EPA under 40 CFR part 55. (b) For air quality modeling that you... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false What requirements must I include in my SAP, COP... What requirements must I include in my SAP, COP, or GAP regarding air quality? (a) You must comply...

  10. 30 CFR 285.659 - What requirements must I include in my SAP, COP, or GAP regarding air quality?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false What requirements must I include in my SAP, COP, or GAP regarding air quality? 285.659 Section 285.659 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF OCEAN ENERGY... Pipeline Deviations § 285.659 What requirements must I include in my SAP, COP, or GAP regarding air...

  11. 40 CFR 60.2973 - What are the recordkeeping and reporting requirements for air curtain incinerators that burn only...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... reporting requirements for air curtain incinerators that burn only wood waste, clean lumber, and yard waste... Wood Waste, Clean Lumber, and Yard Waste § 60.2973 What are the recordkeeping and reporting requirements for air curtain incinerators that burn only wood waste, clean lumber, and yard waste? (a) Prior...

  12. 40 CFR 60.2973 - What are the recordkeeping and reporting requirements for air curtain incinerators that burn only...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... reporting requirements for air curtain incinerators that burn only wood waste, clean lumber, and yard waste... Wood Waste, Clean Lumber, and Yard Waste § 60.2973 What are the recordkeeping and reporting requirements for air curtain incinerators that burn only wood waste, clean lumber, and yard waste? (a) Prior...

  13. Building America Case Study: Challenges of Achieving 2012 IECC Air Sealing Requirements in Multifamily Dwellings, Upstate New York (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2014-11-01

    While previous versions of the International Energy Conservation Code (IECC) have included provisions to improve the air tightness of dwellings, for the first time, the 2012 IECC mandates compliance verification through blower door testing. Simply completing the Air Barrier and Insulation Installation checklist through visual inspection is no longer sufficient by itself. In addition, the 2012 IECC mandates a significantly stricter air sealing requirement. In Climate Zones 3 through 8, air leakage may not exceed 3 ACH50, which is a significant reduction from the 2009 IECC requirement of 7 ACH50. This requirement is for all residential buildings, which includes low-rise multifamily dwellings. While this air leakage rate requirement is an important component to achieving an efficient building thermal envelope, currently, the code language doesn't explicitly address differences between single family and multifamily applications. In addition, the 2012 IECC does not provide an option to sample dwellings for larger multifamily buildings, so compliance would have to be verified on every unit. With compliance with the 2012 IECC air leakage requirements on the horizon, several of CARB's multifamily builder partners are evaluating how best to comply with this requirement. Builders are not sure whether it is more practical or beneficial to simply pay for guarded testing or to revise their air sealing strategies to improve compartmentalization to comply with code requirements based on unguarded blower door testing. This report summarizes CARB's research that was conducted to assess the feasibility of meeting the 2012 IECC air leakage requirements in 3 multifamily buildings.

  14. 42 CFR 84.153 - Airflow resistance test, Type A and Type AE supplied-air respirators; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Airflow resistance test, Type A and Type AE supplied-air respirators; minimum requirements. 84.153 Section 84.153 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE... A and Type AE supplied-air respirators; minimum requirements. (a) Airflow resistance will...

  15. 42 CFR 84.153 - Airflow resistance test, Type A and Type AE supplied-air respirators; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Airflow resistance test, Type A and Type AE supplied-air respirators; minimum requirements. 84.153 Section 84.153 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE... A and Type AE supplied-air respirators; minimum requirements. (a) Airflow resistance will...

  16. 40 CFR 60.1930 - What are the recordkeeping and reporting requirements for air curtain incinerators that burn 100...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... reporting requirements for air curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent yard waste? 60.1930 Section 60... Incinerators That Burn 100 Percent Yard Waste § 60.1930 What are the recordkeeping and reporting requirements for air curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent yard waste? (a) Provide a notice of...

  17. Technical assessment of compliance with workplace air sampling requirements at WRAP

    SciTech Connect

    HACKWORTH, M.F.

    1999-06-02

    The purpose of this Technical Assessment is to satisfy HSRCM-1, ''Hanford Site Radiological Control Manual'' Article 551.4 for a documented study of facility Workplace Air Monitoring (WAM) programs. HSRCM-1 is the primary guidance for radiological control at Waste Management Federal Services of Hanford, Inc. (WMH). The HSRCM-1 complies with Title 10. Part 835 of the Code of Federal Regulations (10CFR835). This document provides an evaluation of the compliance of the Waste Receiving and Processing facility (WRAP) WAM program to the criteria standards, requirements, and documents compliance with the requirements where appropriate. Where necessary, it also indicates changes needed to bring specific locations into compliance.

  18. Sources of indoor air pollution in New York City residences of asthmatic children.

    PubMed

    Habre, Rima; Coull, Brent; Moshier, Erin; Godbold, James; Grunin, Avi; Nath, Amit; Castro, William; Schachter, Neil; Rohr, Annette; Kattan, Meyer; Spengler, John; Koutrakis, Petros

    2014-01-01

    Individuals spend ∼90% of their time indoors in proximity to sources of particulate and gaseous air pollutants. The sulfur tracer method was used to separate indoor concentrations of particulate matter (PM) PM2.5 mass, elements and thermally resolved carbon fractions by origin in New York City residences of asthmatic children. Enrichment factors relative to sulfur concentrations were used to rank species according to the importance of their indoor sources. Mixed effects models were used to identify building characteristics and resident activities that contributed to observed concentrations. Significant indoor sources were detected for OC1, Cl, K and most remaining OC fractions. We attributed 46% of indoor PM2.5 mass to indoor sources related to OC generation indoors. These sources include cooking (NO2, Si, Cl, K, OC4 and OP), cleaning (most OC fractions), candle/incense burning (black carbon, BC) and smoking (K, OC1, OC3 and EC1). Outdoor sources accounted for 28% of indoor PM2.5 mass, mainly photochemical reaction products, metals and combustion products (EC, EC2, Br, Mn, Pb, Ni, Ti, V and S). Other indoor sources accounted for 26% and included re-suspension of crustal elements (Al, Zn, Fe, Si and Ca). Indoor sources accounted for ∼72% of PM2.5 mass and likely contributed to differences in the composition of indoor and outdoor PM2.5 exposures. PMID:24169876

  19. Sources of indoor air pollution in New York City residences of asthmatic children.

    PubMed

    Habre, Rima; Coull, Brent; Moshier, Erin; Godbold, James; Grunin, Avi; Nath, Amit; Castro, William; Schachter, Neil; Rohr, Annette; Kattan, Meyer; Spengler, John; Koutrakis, Petros

    2014-01-01

    Individuals spend ∼90% of their time indoors in proximity to sources of particulate and gaseous air pollutants. The sulfur tracer method was used to separate indoor concentrations of particulate matter (PM) PM2.5 mass, elements and thermally resolved carbon fractions by origin in New York City residences of asthmatic children. Enrichment factors relative to sulfur concentrations were used to rank species according to the importance of their indoor sources. Mixed effects models were used to identify building characteristics and resident activities that contributed to observed concentrations. Significant indoor sources were detected for OC1, Cl, K and most remaining OC fractions. We attributed 46% of indoor PM2.5 mass to indoor sources related to OC generation indoors. These sources include cooking (NO2, Si, Cl, K, OC4 and OP), cleaning (most OC fractions), candle/incense burning (black carbon, BC) and smoking (K, OC1, OC3 and EC1). Outdoor sources accounted for 28% of indoor PM2.5 mass, mainly photochemical reaction products, metals and combustion products (EC, EC2, Br, Mn, Pb, Ni, Ti, V and S). Other indoor sources accounted for 26% and included re-suspension of crustal elements (Al, Zn, Fe, Si and Ca). Indoor sources accounted for ∼72% of PM2.5 mass and likely contributed to differences in the composition of indoor and outdoor PM2.5 exposures.

  20. Source assessment of particulate air pollutants measured at the southwest european coast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pio, Casimiro A.; Castro, Luis M.; Cerqueira, Mario A.; Santos, Isabel M.; Belchior, Filipa; Salgueiro, Maria L.

    Aerosol particles and gaseous species were measured in air masses transported to the west coast of Portugal, between November 1993 and August 1994. Samples were taken during four monitoring campaigns distributed along the various seasons of the year, integrated in the EC Project: BMCAPE. Aerosol particles were collected with separation in two size fractions and analysed in relation to total mass, water soluble ions, trace elements and black/organic carbon. Local micro-meteorological parameters and air mass backward trajectories were compared with analytical results in order to define characteristic air mass types and to evaluate the origin of pollutants. Average concentrations on the Portuguese west coast, even in maritime air masses, are higher than values observed in remote oceanic locations. This is probably a consequence of continental European air masses recirculation through the eastern Atlantic Ocean, reinforced by situations of mesoscale transport from the Iberian Peninsula. Principal Component Analysis permitted the identification of five source groups for the fine and coarse aerosol fractions, namely combustion plus road traffic, sea salt spray, secondary aerosol production, soil and possibly non-ferrous metallurgy industries. In the aerosol fine fraction road traffic and combustion contribute on average with 25% of the total fine aerosol mass, while sea spray and secondary production represent 14% and 31%, respectively of the mass loading. Sea spray is by far the major contributor to the coarse fraction with an average of 88% of the suspended coarse aerosol mass.

  1. Source apportionment of visual impairment during the California regional PM 10/PM 2.5 air quality study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jianjun; Ying, Qi; Kleeman, Michael J.

    2009-12-01

    Gases and particulate matter predictions from the UCD/CIT air quality model were used in a visibility model to predict source contributions to visual impairment in the San Joaquin Valley (SJV), the southern portion of California's Central Valley, during December 2000 and January 2001. Within the SJV, daytime (0800-1700 PST) light extinction was dominated by scattering associated with airborne particles. Measured daytime particle scattering coefficients were compared to predicted values at approximately 40 locations across the SJV after correction for the increased temperature and decreased relative humidity produced by "smart heaters" placed upstream of nephelometers. Mean fractional bias and mean fractional error were -0.22 and 0.65, respectively, indicating reasonable agreement between model predictions and measurements. Particulate water, nitrate, organic matter, and ammonium were the major particulate species contributing to light scattering in the SJV. Daytime light extinction in the SJV averaged between December 25, 2000 and January 7, 2001 was mainly associated with animal ammonia sources (28%), diesel engines (18%), catalyst gasoline engines (9%), other anthropogenic sources (9%), and wood smoke (7%) with initial and boundary conditions accounting for 13%. The source apportionment results from this study apply to wintertime conditions when airborne particulate matter concentrations are typically at their annual maximum. Further study would be required to quantify source contributions to light extinction in other seasons.

  2. Analysis of air quality observations with the aid of the source-receptor relationship approach.

    PubMed

    Astitha, Marina; Kallos, George; Mihalopoulos, Nikos

    2005-04-01

    In this study, an attempt was made to analyze time series of air quality measurements (O3, SO2, SO4(2-), NOx) conducted at a remote place in the eastern Mediterranean (Finokalia at Crete Island in 1999) to obtain concrete information on potential contributions from emission sources. For the definition of a source-receptor relationship, advanced meteorological and dispersion models appropriate to identify "areas of influence" have been used. The model tools used are the Regional Atmospheric Modeling System and the Lagrangian-type particle dispersion model (forward and backward in time), with capabilities to derive influence functions and definition of "areas of influence." When high levels of pollutants have been measured at the remote location of Finokalia, particles are released from this location (receptor) and traced backward in time. The influence function derived from particle distributions characterizes dispersion conditions in the atmosphere and also provides information on potential contributions from emission sources within the modeling domain to this high concentration. As was shown in the simulation results, the experimental site of Finokalia in Crete is influenced during the selected case studies, primarily by pollutants emitted from the urban conglomerate of Athens. Secondarily, it is influenced by polluted air masses arriving from Italy and/or the Black Sea Region. For some specific cases, air pollutants monitored at Finokalia were possibly related to war activities in the West Balkan Region (Kosovo). PMID:15887895

  3. Spatial variations, temporal trends, and emission sources of air pollutants in seven cities of northern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    LI, WEI; TAO, SHU; WANG, CHEN

    2014-05-01

    Particulate matter (PM), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and the derivatives of PAHs (nitro-PAHs and oxy-PAHs) were measured each month between April, 2010 and March, 2011 in seven large cities (18 sites) in the ambient air of northern China. Similarities in the concentrations of PM, PAHs and oxy-PAHs between rural village and urban area are found, indicating the severe air pollution in the rural villages and strong contribution of solid fuels combustion. Higher nitro-PAHs concentrations in the cities than those in the rural area suggests the influence of motor vehicles, both on primary emission and secondary formation. Without local emission sources, pollutants levels in the rural field area are the lowest. Air pollution in the less developed west China is as severe as that in the east with more population and urbanization, both heavier than that in the coastal area. Such spatial patterns are caused by differences in the sources of contaminants and the removal process. A strong seasonality of all pollutants with higher concentrations in winter and lower in summer is observed due to large heating demand for solid fuel combustion in winter and rich precipitation in summer. Natural sources such as sandstorms also take effects on the spatial distribution and temporal trend of PM.

  4. JV Task 86 - Identifying the Source of Benzene in Indoor Air Using Different Compound Classes from TO-15 Data

    SciTech Connect

    Steven B. Hawthorne

    2007-04-15

    Volatile organic compound (VOC) data that had already been collected using EPA method TO-15 at four different sites under regulatory scrutiny (a school, strip mall, apartment complex, and business/residential neighborhood) were evaluated to determine whether the source of indoor air benzene was outdoor air or vapor intrusion from contaminated soil. Both the use of tracer organics characteristic of different sources and principal component statistical analysis demonstrated that the source of indoor air at virtually all indoor sampling locations was a result of outdoor air, and not contaminated soil in and near the indoor air-sampling locations. These results show that proposed remediation activities to remove benzene-contaminated soil are highly unlikely to reduce indoor air benzene concentrations. A manuscript describing these results is presently being prepared for submission to a peer-reviewed journal.

  5. 40 CFR Table 2 to Subpart B of... - MON Source Categories

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES Requirements for Control Technology Determinations for Major Sources in Accordance With Clean Air Act Sections,...

  6. 40 CFR Table 2 to Subpart B of... - MON Source Categories

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES Requirements for Control Technology Determinations for Major Sources in Accordance With Clean Air Act Sections,...

  7. 40 CFR Table 2 to Subpart B of... - MON Source Categories

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES Requirements for Control Technology Determinations for Major Sources in Accordance With Clean Air Act Sections,...

  8. 40 CFR Table 2 to Subpart B of... - MON Source Categories

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES Requirements for Control Technology Determinations for Major Sources in Accordance With Clean Air Act Sections,...

  9. Mapping Air Pollution Concentrations and Sources in China from Ground-Level Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rohde, R. A.; Muller, R. A.

    2014-12-01

    China has recently established an extensive air quality monitoring system with over 1500 sites providing hourly data on airborne particulate matter (PM2.5 / PM10), sulfur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), ozone (O3), and carbon monoxide (CO). Based on Kriging interpolation of these surface data, we derive a detailed map of air pollution across the eastern half of China. In northern and central China, the pollution is widespread; contrary to popular belief, pollution is not simply localized to major cities such as Beijing, Shanghai, or Chongqing, or in geologic basins. Pollution levels are lower in southern China, in part due to frequent rains. By incorporating wind measurements and estimating pollution transport, we also infer source distributions for key pollutants. Sources are widespread, but many of the largest sources are often situated in or near major population centers. A northeast corridor extending from near Shanghai to north of Beijing includes many of the most significant pollution sources in China. Roughly 5% of the study region accounts for 25% of observed particulate matter emissions. During the analysis period, roughly half of the population of China was subjected to a long-term average pollution level in the unhealthy range, according to standards used by the US Environmental Protection Agency. In addition, nearly all of China's population (>90%) was exposed to unhealthy levels of air pollution at least some of the time. Based on health impact estimates from the Huai River Study, we estimate that the observed levels of particulate matter pollution contribute to about 1.4 million deaths every year in China, about 3500 per day, in agreement with prior estimates. Identification of sources from pollution data was facilitated by the reporting of hourly measurements, and we encourage other nations around the world to follow China's example and provide such time-resolved data.

  10. Smog O3 Production Rate in California Air: Marker Compounds Allow Checks on Source Attribution to Fire and Other Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chatfield, R. B.; Esswein, R. F.; Cai, C.; Kaduwela, A.; Kulkarni, S.; Blake, D. R.; Weinheimer, A. J.; Fried, A.; Huey, L. G.

    2012-12-01

    We are able to attribute sources of both radical reactivity and NO that determined the smog-chemical production rate of ozone, P(O3), for NASA's wide-ranging sampling of California air in June, 2008, part of the ARCTAS intensive. We relate formaldehyde, HCHO, and reactive nitrogen oxides, NOx, to a variety of distinct "marker" species that identify origins. We have labeled the sources and markers as (i) Fire emissions (CH3CN), (ii) Biogenic emissions (Isoprene), (iii) Urban/business emissions (CHCl3), (iv) Transport-related fuel consumption, (SO2), and (v) Refining/Port emissions ("residual" toluene). We use multiple linear regression with some appropriate restrictions. We achieve R-squared or explained variance of 88% for HCHO (VOC's) and 60% for NOx. HCHO and NOx are slowly evolving measures of potential ozone generation. The two related but radiation-influenced measures j (HCHO->H+HCO) x [HCHO] and [NO] quantitatively, but non-linearly, relate to instantaneous ozone production in California air, with R-squared of 86-93%, just as in New York City (Chatfield et al., Atmos. Environ., 2010). Maps of attribution for 650 samples from the Port of San Diego to the Northern Sierra foothills, and offshore -— all show huge variability in source attributions for VOCs and NOx. They indicate a widespread fire-emission influence on VOCs as they produce peroxy radicals, but show no positive influence on NOx, in fact consuming NOx from other sources. Comparisons with simulations help to refine our attribution classes and also to check balances of VOC emissions in available inventories. The use of the P(O3) measures is directly translatable to a method for estimate smog-ozone production rate from space, as data from another intensive, DISCOVER-AQ, show. (Left) A rare example where all sources contribute significantly, with markers and tentative attributions marked. (Right) Three different situations describing the control of smog ozone production, all from the same geographic

  11. Radiocarbon ( 14C) measurements to quantify sources of atmospheric carbon monoxide in urban air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klouda, George A.; Connolly, Michael V.

    Atmospheric air samples were collected during the winter of 1989-1990 in Albuquerque, NM, U.S.A., for radiocarbon ( 14C) analysis of carbon monoxide (CO). An experimental sample design was prepared to target periods when the concentration of CO exceeds the 9 μl l-1 (volume fraction), 8 h National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS) and during periods of attainment. Sampling sites, time of day, sampling duration, and meteorology were carefully considered so that source impacts be optimal. A balanced sampling factorial design was used to yield maximum information from the constraints imposed; the number of samples was limited by the number of sample canisters available, time and resources. Radiocarbon measurements of urban CO, " clean-air" CO background from Niwot Ridge, Colorado, average (wood) logs and oxygenated-gasolines were used in a three-source model to calculate the contribution of wood burning to the total atmospheric CO burden in Albuquerque. Results show that the estimated fractional contribution of residential wood combustion (Θ' Rwc) ranged from 0 to 0.30 of CO concentrations corrected for " clean-air" background. For these same samples, the respective CO concentrations attributed to wood burning range from 0 to 0.90 μmol mol -1 (mole fraction), well below the NAAQS. In all cases, fossil CO is the predominant source of ambient CO concentrations ranging from 0.96 to 6.34 μmol mol -1 A final comment is made on the potential of fossil CO measurements as an indirect tracer of atmospheric benzene, relevant to exposure risk estimates of motor vehicle emissions and occupational health and safety standards.

  12. Alternative methods of reducing air pollution from low-emissions sources in Krakow

    SciTech Connect

    Bieda, J.; Bardel, J.; Nedoma, J.; Pierce, B.

    1994-10-01

    A study on air quality monitoring carried out in the 1980s indicated that around 40% of the high concentrations of air pollutants adversely affecting residents and the natural environment were contributed by coal-fired home stoves and boiler houses using solid fuels. These heat sources discharging particulate matters at low heights, basically lacking any pollution control devices, are called the ``low emission sources.`` The American-Polish Program on Clean Fossil Fuels and Energy Efficiency in Krakow, which began in 1992, was preceded by a detailed inventory of low emissions sources completed in 1991. In the American-Polish program it has been accepted that all possible technical means would be used to reduce pollution, mainly those which enable utilization of reserves present in the existing networks of: district heating; gas distribution; and power distribution. The analysis indicated that the following activities can bring about realistic progress in reducing air pollution: elimination of the existing solid fuel boiler houses by connecting the buildings they serve to the municipal district heating network; elimination of solid fuel boiler houses by converting them to natural gas; elimination of solid fuel-fired home stoves by replacing them with electric heating; modernization of those solid fuel boiler houses which cannot by eliminated because of their function; and reducing the adverse environmental effects of home stove use throughout the city by changes in the combustion process, eliminating coal and replacing it with natural gas or electricity, and/or looking for combustion devices that can burn coal without producing air pollutants.

  13. Quantifying the effect of the air/water interface in marine active source EM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wright, David

    2015-07-01

    The marine controlled source EM surveying method has become an accepted tool for deep water exploration for oil and gas reserves. In shallow water (< 500 m) data are complicated by the signal which interacts with the water-air interface which can dominate the response at the receiver. By decomposing the 1-D response to an impulsive current dipole source in the time domain and frequency domain I separate the response into: (1) an earth response, (2) a direct arrival, (3) a coupled airwave which travels through the air and (4) a surface coupling term which travels through the earth. The last two terms are coupled to the sea surface as well as to the earth resistivity structure but one travels through the air between source and receiver and the other only through the earth. Using a range of simple models I quantify the effect of these four terms in the time domain and the frequency domain. The results show that in shallow water the total response is significantly larger than in very deep water and that a large part of this extra energy comes from surface coupling, which is reflected at the sea surface and does not propagate through the air but through the earth. As a result, this term is highly sensitive to the resistivity of the earth. This means that the sea surface in shallow water not only significantly increases the signal strength of CSEM data but also enhances the sensitivity to subsurface resistivity structure. Compared with the surface coupling term, the coupled part of the airwave contains very little information about the earth, and is limited to the near surface. Time domain separation of the airwave from the surface coupling response results in greater sensitivity to a deep resistive target than frequency domain separation although there is also reasonable sensitivity in the frequency domain.

  14. Investigation and estimation of emission sources of 54 volatile organic compounds in ambient air in Tokyo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoshi, Jun-ya; Amano, Saeko; Sasaki, Yuko; Korenaga, Takashi

    Atmospheric concentrations of 52 hydrocarbons and two aldehydes at roadside and urban sites in Tokyo metropolitan area, Japan were analyzed using GC/MS and HPLC. Monthly sampling was conducted during April 2003-March 2005. Annual average concentrations of individual volatile organic compounds (VOCs) at the roadside site were 1.7-1.9 times higher than at the urban site, suggesting that vehicle exhausts strongly affect VOC concentrations. Since high temperatures and under the stagnant meteorological conditions might increase VOC concentrations in air, the levels of alkanes, alkenes, and aromatic hydrocarbons rose in summer and autumn in 2003 and 2004. The VOCs concentrations against benzene (VOCs/Bz) suggest classifying three groups of VOCs: those mainly from mobile emission sources, those mainly from stationary sources, and those comprising unstable compounds such as aldehydes and 1,3-butadiene. The VOC/Bz technique was applied to registered VOC data from the Pollutant Release and Transfer Register (PRTR). Results show that these VOCs in ambient air in Tokyo reflect the PRTR estimated release amounts. The VOC/Bz technique based on environmental monitoring data is useful to estimate non-registered VOCs such as butane and isopentane. Results show the possibility of estimating emission sources using VOC/Bz ratios from environmental monitoring data, even when sufficient information on the emission sources are not available.

  15. A fast pulsed power source applied to treatment of conducting liquids and air

    SciTech Connect

    Heesch, E.J.M. van; Pemen, A.J.M.; Huijbrechts, P.A.H.J.; Laan, P.C.T. van der; Ptasinski, K.J.; Zanstra, G.J.; Jong, P. de

    2000-02-01

    Two pilot pulsed power sources were developed for fundamental investigations and industrial demonstrations of treatment of conducting liquids. The developed heavy-duty power sources have an output voltage of 100 kV (rise time 10 ns, pulse duration 150 ns, pulse repetition rate maximum 1,000 pps). A pulse energy of 0.5--3 J/pulse and an average pulse power of 1.5 kW have been achieved with an efficiency of about 80%. In addition, adequate electromagnetic compatibility is achieved between the high-voltage pulse sources and the surrounding equipment. Various applications, such as the use of pulsed electric fields (PEF's) or pulsed corona discharges for inactivation of microorganisms in liquids or air, have been tested in the laboratory. For PEF treatment, homogeneous electric fields in the liquid of up to 70 kV/cm at a pulse repetition rate of 10--400 pps could be achieved. The inactivation is found to be 85 kJ/L per log reduction for Pseudomonas fluorescens and 500 kJ/L per log reduction for spores of Bacillus cereus. Corona directly applied to the liquid is found to be more efficient than PEF. With direct corona they achieve 25 kJ/L per log reduction for both Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria. For air disinfection using their corona pulse source, the measured efficiencies are excellent: 2 J/L per log reduction.

  16. C-PORT: A Community-Scale Near-Source Air Quality System to Assess Port-Related Air Quality Impacts

    EPA Science Inventory

    With increasing activity in global trade, there has been increased activity in transportation by rail, road and ships to move cargo. Based upon multiple near-road and near-source monitoring studies, both busy roadways and large emission source at the ports may impact local air qu...

  17. Linking source and effect: resuspended soil lead, air lead, and children's blood lead levels in Detroit, Michigan.

    PubMed

    Zahran, Sammy; Laidlaw, Mark A S; McElmurry, Shawn P; Filippelli, Gabriel M; Taylor, Mark

    2013-03-19

    This study evaluates atmospheric concentrations of soil and Pb aerosols, and blood lead levels (BLLs) in 367839 children (ages 0-10) in Detroit, Michigan from 2001 to 2009 to test a hypothesized soil → air dust → child pathway of contemporary Pb risk. Atmospheric soil and Pb show near-identical seasonal properties that match seasonal variation in children's BLLs. Resuspended soil appears to be a significant underlying source of atmospheric Pb. A 1% increase in the amount of resuspended soil results in a 0.39% increase in the concentration of Pb in the atmosphere (95% CI, 0.28 to 0.50%). In turn, atmospheric Pb significantly explains age-dependent variation in child BLLs. Other things held equal, a change of 0.0069 μg/m(3) in atmospheric Pb increases BLL of a child 1 year of age by 10%, while approximately 3 times the concentration of Pb in air (0.023 μg/m(3)) is required to induce the same increase in BLL of a child 7 years of age. Similarly, a 0.0069 μg/m(3) change in air Pb increases the odds of a child <1 year of age having a BLL ≥ 5 μg/dL by a multiplicative factor of 1.32 (95% CI, 1.26 to 1.37). Overall, the resuspension of Pb contaminated soil explains observed seasonal variation in child BLLs.

  18. A Next Generation Air Monitor: Combining Orion and ISS Requirements for a Common Major Constituent Analyzer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burchfield, David E.; Tissandier, Michael; Hsein-ChiNiu, William; Lewis, John F.

    2012-01-01

    The Major Constituent Analyzer (MCA) is a mass spectrometer-based instrument designed to provide critical monitoring of six major atmospheric constituents; nitrogen, oxygen, hydrogen, carbon dioxide, methane, and water vapor on-board the International Space Station. The analyzer has been an integral part of the Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) since the station went on-line. The Orion Air Monitor (OAM) was derived from the MCA and heavily optimized for reduced mass, lower power, faster water vapor response, and maintenance-free operation. The resulting OAM is approximately the size of the analyzer portion of the MCA, orbital-replacement unit 02 (ORU 02), while incorporating the functions of three other modules: Data Processing and Communication (ORU 01), Verification Gas Assembly (ORU 08), and Low Voltage Power Supply (ORU 04). The overlap in MCA and OAM requirements makes it possible to derive a common Air Monitor design that spans both applications while minimally impacting the weight and power limits imposed by the Multipurpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV). Benefits to ISS include the retirement of ORUs 01, 04, and 08, reducing up-mass and eliminating EEE parts obsolescence issues through the extended ISS mission phases. Benefits to MPCV and future deployed habitats under the Constellation program include greater interchangeability across ECLSS subsystems. This paper discusses the results of the requirements development study, where a superset of ISS and Orion air monitoring requirements were distilled; evaluated against increases in OAM functionality, mass, and power; and traded-off where possible using simple operating mode modifications. A system architecture and preliminary design addressing the common requirements will be presented.

  19. A Next Generation Air Monitor: Combining Orion and ISS Requirements for a Common Major Constituent Analyzer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burchfield, David E.; Tissandier, Michael; Niu, William Hsein-Chi; Lewis, John F.

    2013-01-01

    The Major Constituent Analyzer (MCA) is a mass spectrometer-based instrument designed to provide critical monitoring of six major atmospheric constituents; nitrogen, oxygen, hydrogen, carbon dioxide, methane, and water vapor on-board the International Space Station. The analyzer has been an integral part of the Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) since the station went on-line. The Orion Air Monitor (OAM) was derived from the MCA and heavily optimized for reduced mass, lower power, faster water vapor response, and maintenance-free operation. The resulting OAM is approximately the size of the analyzer portion of the MCA, orbital-replacement unit 02 (ORU 02), while incorporating the functions of three other modules: Data Processing and Communication (ORU 01), Verification Gas Assembly (ORU 08), and Low Voltage Power Supply (ORU 04). The overlap in MCA and OAM requirements makes it possible to derive a common Air Monitor design that spans both applications while minimally impacting the weight and power limits imposed by the Multipurpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV). Benefits to ISS include the retirement of ORUs 01, 04, and 08, reducing up-mass and eliminating EEE parts obsolescence issues through the extended ISS mission phases. Benefits to MPCV and future deployed habitats under the Constellation program include greater interchangeability across ECLSS subsystems. This paper discusses the results of the requirements development study, where a superset of ISS and Orion air monitoring requirements were distilled; evaluated against increases in OAM functionality, mass, and power; and traded-off where possible using simple operating mode modifications. A system architecture and preliminary design addressing the common requirements will be presented.

  20. German Air Forces experiences with plastic media blasting and future requirements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoermer, Matthias

    1993-03-01

    German Air Force (GAF) has been researching a method of paint removal for a couple of years to replace the chemical method still in use. This is to improve corrosion prevention, environmental protection and health care. With the support of German aerospace company MBB and the University of the Armed Forces in Munich GAF selected Plastic Media Blasting (PMB) as the most suitable method. Having a stripping facility for the entire aircraft at MBB Manching already in existence, GAF decided that the next step forward to gain more experiences is to establish a smaller 'stripping cabin' at an air force base. This cabin is suitable for stripping removable parts and components of aircraft and equipment with the max. size of a half dismantled TORNADO wing. With these gained experiences GAF will be in position to formulate the specific requirements for an entire on-base aircraft stripping plant which will be suitable for F-4's, TORNADO's and EFA's, too.

  1. 77 FR 60053 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Delaware; Requirements for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-02

    ...; Requirements for Prevention of Significant Deterioration and Nonattainment New Source Review; Fine Particulate... promulgated on May 16, 2008 (73 FR 28321). The second is the ``Prevention of Significant Deterioration (PSD.... This SIP revision pertaining to Delaware's Prevention of Significant Deterioration (PSD)...

  2. Entrainment Rate in Shallow Cumuli: Dependence on Entrained Dry Air Sources and Probability Density Functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, C.; Liu, Y.; Niu, S.; Vogelmann, A. M.

    2012-12-01

    In situ aircraft cumulus observations from the RACORO field campaign are used to estimate entrainment rate for individual clouds using a recently developed mixing fraction approach. The entrainment rate is computed based on the observed state of the cloud core and the state of the air that is laterally mixed into the cloud at its edge. The computed entrainment rate decreases when the air is entrained from increasing distance from the cloud core edge; this is because the air farther away from cloud edge is drier than the neighboring air that is within the humid shells around cumulus clouds. Probability density functions of entrainment rate are well fitted by lognormal distributions at different heights above cloud base for different dry air sources (i.e., different source distances from the cloud core edge). Such lognormal distribution functions are appropriate for inclusion into future entrainment rate parameterization in large scale models. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first time that probability density functions of entrainment rate have been obtained in shallow cumulus clouds based on in situ observations. The reason for the wide spread of entrainment rate is that the observed clouds are affected by entrainment mixing processes to different extents, which is verified by the relationships between the entrainment rate and cloud microphysics/dynamics. The entrainment rate is negatively correlated with liquid water content and cloud droplet number concentration due to the dilution and evaporation in entrainment mixing processes. The entrainment rate is positively correlated with relative dispersion (i.e., ratio of standard deviation to mean value) of liquid water content and droplet size distributions, consistent with the theoretical expectation that entrainment mixing processes are responsible for microphysics fluctuations and spectral broadening. The entrainment rate is negatively correlated with vertical velocity and dissipation rate because entrainment

  3. A framework for air quality monitoring based on free public data and open source tools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikolov, Hristo; Borisova, Denitsa

    2014-10-01

    In the recent years more and more widely accepted by the Space agencies (e.g. NASA, ESA) is the policy toward provision of Earth observation (EO) data and end products concerning air quality especially in large urban areas without cost to researchers and SMEs. Those EO data are complemented by increasing amount of in-situ data also provided at no cost either from national authorities or having crowdsourced origin. This accessibility together with the increased processing capabilities of the free and open source software is a prerequisite for creation of solid framework for air modeling in support of decision making at medium and large scale. Essential part of this framework is web-based GIS mapping tool responsible for dissemination of the output generated. In this research an attempt is made to establish a running framework based solely on openly accessible data on air quality and on set of freely available software tools for processing and modeling taking into account the present status quo in Bulgaria. Among the primary sources of data, especially for bigger urban areas, for different types of gases and dust particles, noted should be the National Institute of Meteorology and Hydrology of Bulgaria (NIMH) and National System for Environmental Monitoring managed by Bulgarian Executive Environmental Agency (ExEA). Both authorities provide data for concentration of several gases just to mention CO, CO2, NO2, SO2, and fine suspended dust (PM10, PM2.5) on monthly (for some data on daily) basis. In the framework proposed these data will complement the data from satellite-based sensors such as OMI instrument aboard EOS-Aura satellite and from TROPOMI instrument payload for future ESA Sentinel-5P mission. Integral part of the framework is the modern map for the land use/land cover which is provided from EEA by initiative GIO Land CORINE. This map is also a product from EO data distributed at European level. First and above all, our effort is focused on provision to the

  4. Air exposure of coral is a significant source of dimethylsulfide (DMS) to the atmosphere

    PubMed Central

    Hopkins, Frances E.; Bell, Thomas G.; Yang, Mingxi; Suggett, David J.; Steinke, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Corals are prolific producers of dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP). High atmospheric concentrations of the DMSP breakdown product dimethylsulfide (DMS) have been linked to coral reefs during low tides. DMS is a potentially key sulfur source to the tropical atmosphere, but DMS emission from corals during tidal exposure is not well quantified. Here we show that gas phase DMS concentrations (DMSgas) increased by an order of magnitude when three Indo-Pacific corals were exposed to air in laboratory experiments. Upon re-submersion, an additional rapid rise in DMSgas was observed, reflecting increased production by the coral and/or dissolution of DMS-rich mucus formed by the coral during air exposure. Depletion in DMS following re-submersion was likely due to biologically-driven conversion of DMS to dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO). Fast Repetition Rate fluorometry showed downregulated photosynthesis during air exposure but rapid recovery upon re-submersion, suggesting that DMS enhances coral tolerance to oxidative stress during a process that can induce photoinhibition. We estimate that DMS emission from exposed coral reefs may be comparable in magnitude to emissions from other marine DMS hotspots. Coral DMS emission likely comprises a regular and significant source of sulfur to the tropical marine atmosphere, which is currently unrecognised in global DMS emission estimates and Earth System Models. PMID:27796323

  5. Nature of air pollution, emission sources, and management in the Indian cities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guttikunda, Sarath K.; Goel, Rahul; Pant, Pallavi

    2014-10-01

    The global burden of disease study estimated 695,000 premature deaths in 2010 due to continued exposure to outdoor particulate matter and ozone pollution for India. By 2030, the expected growth in many of the sectors (industries, residential, transportation, power generation, and construction) will result in an increase in pollution related health impacts for most cities. The available information on urban air pollution, their sources, and the potential of various interventions to control pollution, should help us propose a cleaner path to 2030. In this paper, we present an overview of the emission sources and control options for better air quality in Indian cities, with a particular focus on interventions like urban public transportation facilities; travel demand management; emission regulations for power plants; clean technology for brick kilns; management of road dust; and waste management to control open waste burning. Also included is a broader discussion on key institutional measures, like public awareness and scientific studies, necessary for building an effective air quality management plan in Indian cities.

  6. Development of an Air-Source Heat Pump Integrated with a Water Heating / Dehumidification Module

    SciTech Connect

    Rice, C Keith; Uselton, Robert B.; Shen, Bo; Baxter, Van D; Shrestha, Som S

    2014-01-01

    A residential-sized dual air-source integrated heat pump (AS-IHP) concept is under development in partnership between ORNL and a manufacturer. The concept design consists of a two-stage air-source heat pump (ASHP) coupled on the air distribution side with a separate novel water heating/dehumidification (WH/DH) module. The motivation for this unusual equipment combination is the forecast trend for home sensible loads to be reduced more than latent loads. Integration of water heating with a space dehumidification cycle addresses humidity control while performing double-duty. This approach can be applied to retrofit/upgrade applications as well as new construction. A WH/DH module capable of ~1.47 L/h water removal and ~2 kW water heating capacity was assembled by the manufacturer. A heat pump system model was used to guide the controls design; lab testing was conducted and used to calibrate the models. Performance maps were generated and used in a TRNSYS sub-hourly simulation to predict annual performance in a well-insulated house. Annual HVAC/WH energy savings of ~35% are predicted in cold and hot-humid U.S. climates compared to a minimum efficiency baseline.

  7. Air Pollution in São Paulo and Santiago de Chile: Sources and Impacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Artaxo, P.; Castanho, A.; Oyolla, P.; Gramsch, E.; Martinez, R.

    2007-05-01

    Urban air pollution is a serious issue for millions in Latin America. São Paulo, Santiago de Chile, México City and many other large urban conglomerates. Fast industrialization, large population growth, emissions from the transportation sectors and many other issues are the cause for the air pollution in these mega cities. São Paulo, with 17 million people, 5.5 million vehicles and strong industry suffers from severe particulate matter and ozone exposure. Santiago de Chile with very unfavorable dispersion characteristics also has problems with PM10 and ozone. Health effects in these areas are a public health concern. In Sao Paulo alone, about 30,000 excess deaths are attributable to air pollution issues. There are also critical institutional issues in the São Paulo metropolitan area, which has 39 municipalities, as well as three other metropolitan areas within a 100-km radius. In Santiago de Chile, a dry climate makes ressuspended soil dust an important PM10 component, and vehicle emissions produces high concentration of secondary organic aerosols. Old diesel buses make black carbon concentrations very high in Santiago. We carried out extensive aerosol source apportionment studies for several years, using PIXE as trace element analysis technique and multivariate statistical analysis to separate and quantify aerosol sources in Santiago and Sao Paulo. We will present results from 5 years studies in both Santiago and Sao Paulo. Vehicles and soil dust dominates the picture, with a strong sulfate component in Santiago de Chile.

  8. Forecasting daily source air quality using multivariate statistical analysis and radial basis function networks.

    PubMed

    Sun, Gang; Hoff, Steven J; Zelle, Brian C; Nelson, Minda A

    2008-12-01

    It is vital to forecast gas and particle matter concentrations and emission rates (GPCER) from livestock production facilities to assess the impact of airborne pollutants on human health, ecological environment, and global warming. Modeling source air quality is a complex process because of abundant nonlinear interactions between GPCER and other factors. The objective of this study was to introduce statistical methods and radial basis function (RBF) neural network to predict daily source air quality in Iowa swine deep-pit finishing buildings. The results show that four variables (outdoor and indoor temperature, animal units, and ventilation rates) were identified as relative important model inputs using statistical methods. It can be further demonstrated that only two factors, the environment factor and the animal factor, were capable of explaining more than 94% of the total variability after performing principal component analysis. The introduction of fewer uncorrelated variables to the neural network would result in the reduction of the model structure complexity, minimize computation cost, and eliminate model overfitting problems. The obtained results of RBF network prediction were in good agreement with the actual measurements, with values of the correlation coefficient between 0.741 and 0.995 and very low values of systemic performance indexes for all the models. The good results indicated the RBF network could be trained to model these highly nonlinear relationships. Thus, the RBF neural network technology combined with multivariate statistical methods is a promising tool for air pollutant emissions modeling.

  9. Sources and sinks of acetone, methanol, and acetaldehyde in North Atlantic marine air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewis, A. C.; Hopkins, J. R.; Carpenter, L. J.; Stanton, J.; Read, K. A.; Pilling, M. J.

    2005-08-01

    Measurements of acetone, methanol, acetaldehyde and a range of non-methane hydrocarbons have been made in North Atlantic marine air at the Mace Head observatory. Under maritime conditions the combination of OVOCs (acetone, methanol and acetaldehyde) contributed up to 85% of the total mass of measured non methane organics in air and up to 80% of the OH radical organic sink, when compared with the sum of all other organic compounds including non-methane hydrocarbons, DMS and OH-reactive halocarbons (trichloromethane and tetrachloroethylene). The observations showed anomalies in the variance and abundance of acetaldehyde and acetone over that expected for species with a remote terrestrial emission source and OH controlled chemical lifetime. A detailed model incorporating an explicit chemical degradation mechanism indicated in situ formation during air mass transport was on timescales longer than the atmospheric lifetime of precursor hydrocarbons or primary emission. The period over which this process was significant was similar to that of airmass motion on intercontinental scales, and formation via this route may reproduce that of a widespread diffuse source. The model indicates that continued short chain OVOC formation occurs many days from the point of emission, via longer lived intermediates of oxidation such as organic peroxides and long chain alcohols.

  10. Sources and sinks of acetone, methanol, and acetaldehyde in North Atlantic air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewis, A. C.; Hopkins, J. R.; Carpenter, L. J.; Stanton, J.; Read, K. A.; Pilling, M. J.

    2005-03-01

    Measurements of acetone, methanol, acetaldehyde and a range of non-methane hydrocarbons have been made in North Atlantic marine air at the Mace Head observatory. Under maritime conditions the combination of OVOCs (acetone, methanol and 5 acetaldehyde) contributed up to 85% of the total mass of measured non methane organics in air and up to 80% of the OH radical organic sink, when compared with the sum of all other organic compounds including non-methane hydrocarbons, DMS and OH-reactive halocarbons (trichloromethane and tetrachloroethylene). The observations showed anomalies in the variance and abundance of acetaldehyde and acetone 10 over that expected for species with a remote terrestrial emission source and OH controlled chemical lifetime. A detailed model incorporating an explicit chemical degradation mechanism indicated in situ formation during air mass transport was on timescales longer than the atmospheric lifetime of precursor hydrocarbons or primary emission. The period over which this process was significant was similar to that of airmass mo15 tion on intercontinental scales, and formation via this route may reproduce that of a widespread diffuse source. The model indicates that continued short chain OVOC formation occurs many days from the point of emission, via longer lived intermediates of oxidation such as organic peroxides and long chain alcohols.

  11. Field investigation source area ST58 old Quartermaster service station, Eielson Air Force Base, Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Liikala, T.L.; Evans, J.C.

    1995-01-01

    Source area ST58 is the site of the old Quartermaster service station at Eielson Air Force Base, Alaska. The source area is one of several Source Evaluation Report sites being investigated by Pacific Northwest Laboratory for the US Air Force as candidates for no further remedial action, interim removal action, or a remedial investigation/feasibility study under a Federal Facilities Agreement. The purpose of this work was to characterize source area ST58 and excavate the most contaminated soils for use in composting treatability studies. A field investigation was conducted to determine the nature and extent of soil contamination. The field investigation entailed a records search; grid node location, surface geophysical, and soil gas surveys; and test pit soil sampling. Soil excavation followed based on the results of the field investigation. The site was backfilled with clean soil. Results from this work indicate close spatial correlation between screening instruments, used during the field investigation and soil excavation, and laboratory analyses. Gasoline was identified as the main subsurface contaminant based on the soil gas surveys and test pit soil sampling. A center of contamination was located near the northcentral portion of the source area, and a center was located in the northwestern comer. The contamination typically occurred near or below a former soil horizon probably as a result of surface spills and leaks from discontinuities and/or breaks in the underground piping. Piping locations were delineated during the surface geophysical surveys and corresponded very well to unscaled drawings of the site. The high subsurface concentrations of gasoline detected in the northwestern comer of the source area probably reflect ground-water contamination and/or possibly floating product.

  12. One century of air deposition of hydrocarbons recorded in travertine in North Tibetan Plateau, China: Sources and evolution.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Guo-Li; Wu, Ming-Zhe; Sun, Yong; Li, Jun; Li, Jing-Chao; Wang, Gen-Hou

    2016-08-01

    The characteristic distribution patterns of hydrocarbons have been used for fingerprinting to identify their sources. The historical air depositions of hydrocarbons recorded in natural media help to understand the evolution of the air environment. Travertine is a natural acceptor of air deposition that settles on the ground layer by layer. To reconstruct the historical air environment of hydrocarbons in the North Tibetan Plateau (NTP), a unique background region, twenty-seven travertine samples were collected systematically from a travertine column according to its precipitated year. For each sample, the precipitated year was dated while n-alkanes and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were determined. Based on source identification, the air environment of hydrocarbons in the past century was studied for the region of NTP. Before World War II, the anthropogenic sources of hydrocarbons showed little influence on the air environment. During World War II and China's War of Liberation, hydrocarbons increased significantly, mainly from the use of fossil fuels. Between 1954 and 1963, hydrocarbons in the air decreased significantly because the sources of petroleum combustion decreased. From the mid-1960s through the end of the 1990s, air hydrocarbons, which mainly originated from biomass burning, increased gradually because agriculture and animal husbandry were developing steadily in Tibet and China. From the late 1990s, hydrocarbons in the atmosphere increased rapidly due to the rapid increase of tourism activities, which might increase hydrocarbon emissions from traffic. The reconstruction of the historical air hydrocarbons in NTP clearly reflects the evolution of the region and global development.

  13. Development of a Mobile Tracer Correlation Techniques for Assessment of Air Emissions from Landfills and Other Area Sources

    EPA Science Inventory

    Improved understanding of air emissions from large area sources such as landfills, waste water ponds, open-source processing, and agricultural operations is a topic of increasing environmental importance. In many cases, the size of the area source, coupled with spatial-heteroge...

  14. Source apportionment of size resolved particulate matter at a European air pollution hot spot.

    PubMed

    Pokorná, P; Hovorka, J; Klán, M; Hopke, P K

    2015-01-01

    Positive Matrix Factorization-PMF was applied to hourly resolved elemental composition of fine (PM0.15-1.15) and coarse (PM1.15-10) aerosol particles to apportion their sources in the airshed of residential district, Ostrava-Radvanice and Bartovice in winter 2012. Multiple-site measurement by PM2.5 monitors complements the source apportionment. As there were no statistical significant differences amongst the monitors, the source apportionment derived for the central site data is expected to apply to whole residential district. The apportioned sources of the fine aerosol particles were coal combustion (58.6%), sinter production-hot phase (22.9%), traffic (15%), raw iron production (3.5%), and desulfurization slag processing (<0.5%) whilst road dust (47.3%), sinter production-cold phase (27.7%), coal combustion (16.8%), and raw iron production (8.2%) were resolved being sources of the coarse aerosol particles. The shape and elemental composition of size-segregated aerosol airborne-sampled by an airship aloft presumed air pollution sources helped to interpret the PMF solution. PMID:25260163

  15. Polychlorinated naphthalenes in the air over the equatorial Indian Ocean: Occurrence, potential sources, and toxicity.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yumei; Li, Jun; Xu, Yue; Xu, Weihai; Zhong, Guangcai; Liu, Xiang; Zhang, Gan

    2016-06-15

    Monitoring of marine polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs) is crucial, as they are considered persistent organic pollutants (POPs) by the Stockholm Convention. Data on PCNs in marine environment are scarce. In this study, 19 air samples were collected during a cruise in the equatorial Indian Ocean on board the Chinese research vessel Shiyan I from 4/2011 to 5/2011. PCN concentration of these air samples ranged from 0.033 to 2.56pgm(-3), with an average of 0.518pgm(-3), equal to or lower than the values reported for other oceans, seas, and lakes worldwide. Tri- and tetra-CNs were the main homologues in most samples. Reemission of Halowax mixtures and incineration processes were the major sources of atmospheric PCNs in the study area. The PCN-corresponding toxic equivalency values ranged from 0 to 0.190fgm(-3) (average: 0.038fgm(-3)), falling in the low end of global range.

  16. The sources and fate of (210)Po in the urban air: A review.

    PubMed

    Długosz-Lisiecka, Magdalena

    2016-09-01

    The origin of (210)Po activity and its fluctuations in the air are discussed in this paper. In the case of atmospheric aerosol samples, a comparison of the (210)Po/(210)Pb and (210)Bi/(210)Pb activity ratios makes it possible not only to determine aerosol residence times but also to appraise the contribution of the unsupported (210)Po coming from other sources than (222)Rn decay, such as human industrial activities, especially coal combustion. A simple mathematical method makes it possible to observe the seasonal fluctuations of the anthropogenic excess of (210)Po in the urban air. The average doses of (210)Po intake with food (including drinking water) and inhalation of urban aerosols are usually lower than those from (210)Po intake by cigarette smokers and negligible in comparison to total natural radiation exposure. PMID:27295049

  17. Source apportionment and air quality impact assessment studies in Beijing/China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suppan, P.; Schrader, S.; Shen, R.; Ling, H.; Schäfer, K.; Norra, S.; Vogel, B.; Wang, Y.

    2012-04-01

    More than 15 million people in the greater area of Beijing are still suffering from severe air pollution levels caused by sources within the city itself but also from external impacts like severe dust storms and long range advection from the southern and central part of China. Within this context particulate matter (PM) is the major air pollutant in the greater area of Beijing (Garland et al., 2009). PM did not serve only as lead substance for air quality levels and therefore for adverse health impact effects but also for a strong influence on the climate system by changing e.g. the radiative balance. Investigations on emission reductions during the Olympic Summer Games in 2008 have caused a strong reduction on coarser particles (PM10) but not on smaller particles (PM2.5). In order to discriminate the composition of the particulate matter levels, the different behavior of coarser and smaller particles investigations on source attribution, particle characteristics and external impacts on the PM levels of the city of Beijing by measurements and modeling are performed: Examples of long term measurements of PM2.5 filter sampling in 2005 with the objectives of detailed chemical (source attribution, carbon fraction, organic speciation and inorganic composition) and isotopic analyses as well as toxicological assessment in cooperation with several institutions (Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (IfGG/IMG), Helmholtz Zentrum München (HMGU), University Rostock (UR), Chinese University of Mining and Technology Beijing, CUMTB) will be discussed. Further experimental studies include the operation of remote sensing systems to determine continuously the MLH (by a ceilometer) and gaseous air pollutants near the ground (by DOAS systems) as well as at the 320 m measurement tower (adhesive plates at different heights for passive particle collection) in cooperation with the Institute of Atmospheric Physics (IAP) of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS). The influence of the MLH on

  18. 40 CFR 63.11467 - What are the initial compliance demonstration requirements for new and existing sources?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Notification of Compliance Status. (c) For each existing and new affected source, you must conduct an initial... AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES (CONTINUED) National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air... a Notification of Compliance Status in accordance with § 63.11469(b). (b) You must conduct...

  19. The contribution of outdoor air pollution sources to premature mortality on a global scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lelieveld, J.; Evans, J. S.; Fnais, M.; Giannadaki, D.; Pozzer, A.

    2015-09-01

    Assessment of the global burden of disease is based on epidemiological cohort studies that connect premature mortality to a wide range of causes, including the long-term health impacts of ozone and fine particulate matter with a diameter smaller than 2.5 micrometres (PM2.5). It has proved difficult to quantify premature mortality related to air pollution, notably in regions where air quality is not monitored, and also because the toxicity of particles from various sources may vary. Here we use a global atmospheric chemistry model to investigate the link between premature mortality and seven emission source categories in urban and rural environments. In accord with the global burden of disease for 2010 (ref. 5), we calculate that outdoor air pollution, mostly by PM2.5, leads to 3.3 (95 per cent confidence interval 1.61-4.81) million premature deaths per year worldwide, predominantly in Asia. We primarily assume that all particles are equally toxic, but also include a sensitivity study that accounts for differential toxicity. We find that emissions from residential energy use such as heating and cooking, prevalent in India and China, have the largest impact on premature mortality globally, being even more dominant if carbonaceous particles are assumed to be most toxic. Whereas in much of the USA and in a few other countries emissions from traffic and power generation are important, in eastern USA, Europe, Russia and East Asia agricultural emissions make the largest relative contribution to PM2.5, with the estimate of overall health impact depending on assumptions regarding particle toxicity. Model projections based on a business-as-usual emission scenario indicate that the contribution of outdoor air pollution to premature mortality could double by 2050.

  20. The contribution of outdoor air pollution sources to premature mortality on a global scale.

    PubMed

    Lelieveld, J; Evans, J S; Fnais, M; Giannadaki, D; Pozzer, A

    2015-09-17

    Assessment of the global burden of disease is based on epidemiological cohort studies that connect premature mortality to a wide range of causes, including the long-term health impacts of ozone and fine particulate matter with a diameter smaller than 2.5 micrometres (PM2.5). It has proved difficult to quantify premature mortality related to air pollution, notably in regions where air quality is not monitored, and also because the toxicity of particles from various sources may vary. Here we use a global atmospheric chemistry model to investigate the link between premature mortality and seven emission source categories in urban and rural environments. In accord with the global burden of disease for 2010 (ref. 5), we calculate that outdoor air pollution, mostly by PM2.5, leads to 3.3 (95 per cent confidence interval 1.61-4.81) million premature deaths per year worldwide, predominantly in Asia. We primarily assume that all particles are equally toxic, but also include a sensitivity study that accounts for differential toxicity. We find that emissions from residential energy use such as heating and cooking, prevalent in India and China, have the largest impact on premature mortality globally, being even more dominant if carbonaceous particles are assumed to be most toxic. Whereas in much of the USA and in a few other countries emissions from traffic and power generation are important, in eastern USA, Europe, Russia and East Asia agricultural emissions make the largest relative contribution to PM2.5, with the estimate of overall health impact depending on assumptions regarding particle toxicity. Model projections based on a business-as-usual emission scenario indicate that the contribution of outdoor air pollution to premature mortality could double by 2050.

  1. [Metabolic characteristics of air microbial communities from sandstorm source areas of the Taklamakan desert].

    PubMed

    Duan, Wei-Wei; Lou, Kai; Zeng, Jun; Hu, Rong; Shi, Ying-Wu; He, Qing; Liu, Xin-Chun; Sun, Jian; Chao, Qun-Fang

    2012-01-01

    The aim was to compare the characteristics and the differences in carbon catabolic diversity of air samples collected from five locations that around the edge of Taklamakan desert. The characteristics and the differences of carbon metabolic profiles were detected by using the BIOLOG micro plate (BIOLOG EcoPlate). The results showed that the average well color development (AWCD) curve of all five samples did not reach clear saturation during the incubation time (10 days), but differences among them were significant. The highest AWCD value appeared in Shache and the lowest was in Hotan, which were 0.24 and 0.1, respectively. Carbon utilization showed that all samples exhibited high level of polymer, carbohydrates, amino acids and carboxylic acid; however, amine and the phenol compound were the lowest. Principal components analysis (PCA) indicated that twenty categories of carbon significantly related to PC1 and twelve categories for PC2. Hierarchical cluster analysis showed these five areas could be divided into 2 clusters: (1) Hotan, Pishan, (2) Shache, Luntai, Ulugqat. Canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) showed that those community functional diversities were highly affected by some environmental factors, such as wind speed, altitude, humidity. Further investigation by correlation analysis revealed that the microbial communities using single carbon source were significantly affected by abiotic factors, such as the utilization of beta-methyl-D-glucoside, D-galacturonic acid and putrescine had significantly positive correlation (P < 0.05) with latitude; 2-hydroxy benzoic acid and alpha-D-lactose significantly related to wind speed (P < 0.05); and D-glucosaminic acid was positive with air pressure, but it negatively correlated with altitude (P < 0.05). In conclusion,the carbon sources provided by BIOLOG EcoPlate were utilized slowly by air microbial communities; and the characteristics of the air community carbon catabolic along the edge of the Taklamakan desert

  2. The contribution of outdoor air pollution sources to premature mortality on a global scale.

    PubMed

    Lelieveld, J; Evans, J S; Fnais, M; Giannadaki, D; Pozzer, A

    2015-09-17

    Assessment of the global burden of disease is based on epidemiological cohort studies that connect premature mortality to a wide range of causes, including the long-term health impacts of ozone and fine particulate matter with a diameter smaller than 2.5 micrometres (PM2.5). It has proved difficult to quantify premature mortality related to air pollution, notably in regions where air quality is not monitored, and also because the toxicity of particles from various sources may vary. Here we use a global atmospheric chemistry model to investigate the link between premature mortality and seven emission source categories in urban and rural environments. In accord with the global burden of disease for 2010 (ref. 5), we calculate that outdoor air pollution, mostly by PM2.5, leads to 3.3 (95 per cent confidence interval 1.61-4.81) million premature deaths per year worldwide, predominantly in Asia. We primarily assume that all particles are equally toxic, but also include a sensitivity study that accounts for differential toxicity. We find that emissions from residential energy use such as heating and cooking, prevalent in India and China, have the largest impact on premature mortality globally, being even more dominant if carbonaceous particles are assumed to be most toxic. Whereas in much of the USA and in a few other countries emissions from traffic and power generation are important, in eastern USA, Europe, Russia and East Asia agricultural emissions make the largest relative contribution to PM2.5, with the estimate of overall health impact depending on assumptions regarding particle toxicity. Model projections based on a business-as-usual emission scenario indicate that the contribution of outdoor air pollution to premature mortality could double by 2050. PMID:26381985

  3. [Metabolic characteristics of air microbial communities from sandstorm source areas of the Taklamakan desert].

    PubMed

    Duan, Wei-Wei; Lou, Kai; Zeng, Jun; Hu, Rong; Shi, Ying-Wu; He, Qing; Liu, Xin-Chun; Sun, Jian; Chao, Qun-Fang

    2012-01-01

    The aim was to compare the characteristics and the differences in carbon catabolic diversity of air samples collected from five locations that around the edge of Taklamakan desert. The characteristics and the differences of carbon metabolic profiles were detected by using the BIOLOG micro plate (BIOLOG EcoPlate). The results showed that the average well color development (AWCD) curve of all five samples did not reach clear saturation during the incubation time (10 days), but differences among them were significant. The highest AWCD value appeared in Shache and the lowest was in Hotan, which were 0.24 and 0.1, respectively. Carbon utilization showed that all samples exhibited high level of polymer, carbohydrates, amino acids and carboxylic acid; however, amine and the phenol compound were the lowest. Principal components analysis (PCA) indicated that twenty categories of carbon significantly related to PC1 and twelve categories for PC2. Hierarchical cluster analysis showed these five areas could be divided into 2 clusters: (1) Hotan, Pishan, (2) Shache, Luntai, Ulugqat. Canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) showed that those community functional diversities were highly affected by some environmental factors, such as wind speed, altitude, humidity. Further investigation by correlation analysis revealed that the microbial communities using single carbon source were significantly affected by abiotic factors, such as the utilization of beta-methyl-D-glucoside, D-galacturonic acid and putrescine had significantly positive correlation (P < 0.05) with latitude; 2-hydroxy benzoic acid and alpha-D-lactose significantly related to wind speed (P < 0.05); and D-glucosaminic acid was positive with air pressure, but it negatively correlated with altitude (P < 0.05). In conclusion,the carbon sources provided by BIOLOG EcoPlate were utilized slowly by air microbial communities; and the characteristics of the air community carbon catabolic along the edge of the Taklamakan desert

  4. Characterization and control of organic compounds emitted from air pollution sources. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Schauer, J.J.; Kleeman, M.J.; Cass, G.R.; Simoneit, B.R.T.

    1998-04-01

    A dilution source sampling system is used to quantify the air pollutant emissions from major urban air pollution sources. The emissions from catalyst-equipped gasoline powered-motor vehicles, noncatalyst gasoline-powered motor vehicls, diesel trucks, meat charbroiling, the cooking of vegetables with seed oils, fireplace combustion of softwood and hardwood, cigarette combustion, and paint spray coating operations are characterized. Semi-volatile and particle-phase organic compounds in the diluted source emissions are collected simultaneously by both a traditional filter/PUF (polyurethane foam) sampling train and by an advanced organic compound-based denuder/filter/PUF sampling train to provide information on the gas/particle phase distribution of the semi-volatile organic compounds. Emission rates of hundreds of organic compounds, spanning carbon number from C1 to C29 are determined by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry and gas chromatography with flame ionization detection. Fine partile mass emission rates and fine particle elemental chemical composition are measured as well.

  5. Analytical dispersion model for the chain of primary and secondary air pollutants released from point source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Juodis, Laurynas; Filistovič, Vitold; Maceika, Evaldas; Remeikis, Vidmantas

    2016-03-01

    An analytical model for dispersion of air pollutants released from a point source forming a secondary pollutant (e.g. chemical transformation or parent-daughter radionuclide chain) is formulated considering the constant wind speed and eddy diffusivities as an explicit function of downwind distance from the source in Cauchy (reflection-deposition type) boundary conditions. The dispersion of pollutants has been investigated by using the Gaussian plume dispersion parameters σy and σz instead of the diffusivity parameters Ky and Kz. For primary pollutant it was proposed to use the derived dry deposition factor instead of the source depletion alternative. An analytical solution for steady-state two-dimensional pollutant transport in the atmosphere is presented. Derived formulas include dependency from effective release height, gravitational and dry deposition velocities of primary and secondary pollutants, advection, surface roughness length and empirical dispersion parameters σy and σz. Demonstration of analytical solution application is provided by calculation of 135Xe and 135C air activity concentrations and the applicability of the model for the solution of atmospheric pollution transport problems.

  6. Aldehydes in relation to air pollution sources: A case study around the Beijing Olympics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Altemose, Brent; Gong, Jicheng; Zhu, Tong; Hu, Min; Zhang, Liwen; Cheng, Hong; Zhang, Lin; Tong, Jian; Kipen, Howard M.; Ohman-Strickland, Pamela; Meng, Qingyu; Robson, Mark G.; Zhang, Junfeng

    2015-05-01

    This study was carried out to characterize three aldehydes of health concern (formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, and acrolein) at a central Beijing site in the summer and early fall of 2008 (from June to October). Aldehydes in polluted atmospheres come from both primary and secondary sources, which limits the control strategies for these reactive compounds. Measurements were made before, during, and after the Beijing Olympics to examine whether the dramatic air pollution control measures implemented during the Olympics had an impact on concentrations of the three aldehydes and their underlying primary and secondary sources. Average concentrations of formaldehyde, acetaldehyde and acrolein were 29.3 ± 15.1 μg/m3, 27.1 ± 15.7 μg/m3 and 2.3 ± 1.0 μg/m3, respectively, for the entire period of measurements, all being at the high end of concentration ranges measured in cities around the world in photochemical smog seasons. Formaldehyde and acrolein increased during the pollution control period compared to the pre-Olympic Games, followed the changing pattern of temperature, and were significantly correlated with ozone and with a secondary formation factor identified by principal component analysis (PCA). In contrast, acetaldehyde had a reduction in mean concentration during the Olympic air pollution control period compared to the pre-Olympic period and was significantly correlated with several pollutants emitted from local emission sources (e.g., NO2, CO, and PM2.5). Acetaldehyde was also more strongly associated with primary emission sources including vegetative burning and oil combustion factors identified through the PCA. All three aldehydes were lower during the post-Olympic sampling period compared to the before and during Olympic periods, likely due to seasonal and regional effects. Our findings point to the complexity of source control strategies for secondary pollutants.

  7. Impact of HONO sources on the performance of mesoscale air quality models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonçalves, M.; Dabdub, D.; Chang, W. L.; Jorba, O.; Baldasano, J. M.

    2012-07-01

    Nitrous acid (HONO) photolysis constitutes a primary source of OH in the early morning, which leads to changes in model gas-phase and particulate matter concentrations. However, state-of-the-art models of chemical mechanisms share a common representation of gas-phase chemistry leading to HONO that fails in reproducing the observed profiles. Hence, there is a growing interest in improving the definition of additional HONO sources within air quality models, i.e. direct emissions or heterogeneous reactions. In order to test their feasibility under atmospheric conditions, the WRF-ARW/HERMES/CMAQ modeling system is applied with high horizontal resolution (4 × 4 km2) to Spain for November 24-27, 2008. HONO modeled sources include: (1) direct emissions from on-road transport; NO2 hydrolysis on aerosol and ground surfaces, the latter with (2) kinetics depending exclusively on available surfaces for reaction and (3) refined kinetics considering also relative humidity dependence; and (4) photoenhanced NO2 reduction on ground surfaces. The DOMINO measurement campaign performed in El Arenosillo (Southern Spain) provides valuable HONO observations. Modeled HONO results are consistently below observations, even when the most effective scenario is assessed, corresponding to contributions of direct emissions and NO2 hydrolysis with the simplest kinetics parameterization. With the additional sources of HONO, PM2.5 predictions can be up to 14% larger in urban areas. Quantified impacts on secondary pollutants have to be taken as a low threshold, due to the proven underestimation of HONO levels. It is fundamental to improve HONO sources definition within air quality models, both for the scientific community and decision makers.

  8. Aldehydes in Relation to Air Pollution Sources: A Case Study around the Beijing Olympics

    PubMed Central

    Altemose, Brent; Gong, Jicheng; Zhu, Tong; Hu, Min; Zhang, Liwen; Cheng, Hong; Zhang, Lin; Tong, Jian; Kipen, Howard M.; Strickland, Pamela Ohman; Meng, Qingyu; Robson, Mark G.; Zhang, Junfeng

    2015-01-01

    This study was carried out to characterize three aldehydes of health concern (formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, and acrolein) at a central Beijing site in the summer and early fall of 2008 (from June to October). Aldehydes in polluted atmospheres come from both primary and secondary sources, which limits the control strategies for these reactive compounds. Measurements were made before, during, and after the Beijing Olympics to examine whether the dramatic air pollution control measures implemented during the Olympics had an impact on concentrations of the three aldehydes and their underlying primary and secondary sources. Average concentrations of formaldehyde, acetaldehyde and acrolein were 29.3±15.1 μg/m3, 27.1±15.7 μg/m3 and 2.3±1.0 μg/m3, respectively, for the entire period of measurements, all being at the high end of concentration ranges measured in cities around the world in photochemical smog seasons. Formaldehyde and acrolein increased during the pollution control period compared to the pre-Olympic Games, followed the changing pattern of temperature, and were significantly correlated with ozone and with a secondary formation factor identified by principal component analysis (PCA). In contrast, acetaldehyde had a reduction in mean concentration during the Olympic air pollution control period compared to the pre-Olympic period and was significantly correlated with several pollutants emitted from local emission sources (e.g., NO2, CO, and PM2.5). Acetaldehyde was also more strongly associated with primary emission sources including vegetative burning and oil combustion factors identified through the PCA. All three aldehydes were lower during the post-Olympic sampling period compared to the before and during Olympic periods, likely due to seasonal and regional effects. Our findings point to the complexity of source control strategies for secondary pollutants. PMID:25883528

  9. Assessment of exposure to indoor air contaminants from combustion sources: methodology and application.

    PubMed

    Leaderer, B P; Zagraniski, R T; Berwick, M; Stolwijk, J A

    1986-08-01

    A methodology for assessing indoor air pollutant exposures is presented, with specific application to unvented combustion by-products. This paper describes the method as applied to a study of acute respiratory illness associated with the use of unvented kerosene space heaters in 333 residences in the New Haven, Connecticut, area from September 1982 to April 1983. The protocol serves as a prototype for a nested design of exposure assessment which could be applied to large-scale field studies of indoor air contaminant levels. Questionnaires, secondary records, and several methods of air monitoring offer a reliable method of estimating environmental exposures for assessing associations with health effects at a reasonable cost. Indoor to outdoor ratios of NO2 concentrations were found to be 0.58 +/- 0.31 for residences without known sources of NO2. Levels of NO2 were found to be comparable for homes with a kerosene heater only and those with a gas cooking stove only. Homes with a kerosene heater and a gas stove had average two-week NO2 levels approximately double those with only one source. Presence of tobacco smokers had a small but significant impact on indoor NO2 levels. Two-week average levels of indoor NO2 were found to be excellent predictors of total personal NO2 exposure for a small sample of adults. Residences with kerosene space heaters had SO2 levels corresponding to the number of hours of heater use and the sulfur content of the fuel. Formaldehyde levels were found to be low and not related to unvented combustion sources. NO2, SO2, and CO2 levels measured in some of the residences were found to exceed those levels specified in current national health standards.

  10. 78 FR 59939 - Announcement of Requirements and Registration for Respirator Trusted-Source Mobile Application...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-30

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Announcement of Requirements and Registration for Respirator Trusted-Source Mobile Application Challenge AGENCY: Centers for Disease Control and...: Thomas R. Frieden, MD, MPH, Director, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and...

  11. 40 CFR 63.11440 - What are the monitoring requirements for new and existing sources?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... (i.e., no visible emissions) using EPA Method 22 (40 CFR part 60, appendix A-7); or (ii) Using an... Clay Ceramics Manufacturing Area Sources Standards, Compliance, and Monitoring Requirements §...

  12. 40 CFR 63.11440 - What are the monitoring requirements for new and existing sources?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (i.e., no visible emissions) using EPA Method 22 (40 CFR part 60, appendix A-7); or (ii) Using an... Clay Ceramics Manufacturing Area Sources Standards, Compliance, and Monitoring Requirements §...

  13. 40 CFR 63.11440 - What are the monitoring requirements for new and existing sources?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... (i.e., no visible emissions) using EPA Method 22 (40 CFR part 60, appendix A-7); or (ii) Using an... Clay Ceramics Manufacturing Area Sources Standards, Compliance, and Monitoring Requirements §...

  14. 40 CFR 63.11440 - What are the monitoring requirements for new and existing sources?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... (i.e., no visible emissions) using EPA Method 22 (40 CFR part 60, appendix A-7); or (ii) Using an... Clay Ceramics Manufacturing Area Sources Standards, Compliance, and Monitoring Requirements §...

  15. 40 CFR 63.11440 - What are the monitoring requirements for new and existing sources?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... (i.e., no visible emissions) using EPA Method 22 (40 CFR part 60, appendix A-7); or (ii) Using an... Clay Ceramics Manufacturing Area Sources Standards, Compliance, and Monitoring Requirements §...

  16. 29 CFR 1919.22 - Requirements governing braking devices and power sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Requirements governing braking devices and power sources. All types of winches and cranes shall be provided... motion and set the brakes without any action on the part of the operator. Current for operation...

  17. An Autosampler and Field Sample Carrier for Maximizing Throughput Using an Open-Air, Surface Sampling Ion Source for MS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A recently developed, commercially available, open-air, surface sampling ion source for mass spectrometers provides individual analyses in several seconds. To realize its full throughput potential, an autosampler and field sample carrier were designed and built. The autosampler ...

  18. IN VIVO EVIDENCE OF FREE RADICAL FORMATION IN THE RAT LUNG AFTER EXPOSURE TO AN EMISSION SOURCE AIR POLLUTION PARTICLE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Exposure to air pollution particles can be associated with increased human morbidity and mortality. The mechanism(s) of lung injury remains unknown. We tested the hypothesis that lung exposure to oil fly ash (an emission source air pollution particle) causes in vivo free radical ...

  19. Assessment of Near-Source Air Pollution at a Fine Spatial Scale Utilizing a Mobile Monitoring Approach

    EPA Science Inventory

    Mobile monitoring is an emerging strategy to characterize spatially and temporally variable air pollution in areas near sources. EPA’s Geospatial Monitoring of Air Pollution (GMAP) vehicle – an all-electric vehicle measuring real-time concentrations of particulate and gaseous po...

  20. Assessment of near-source air pollution at a fine spatial scale utilizing a mobile measurement platform approach

    EPA Science Inventory

    Mobile monitoring is an emerging strategy to characterize spatially and temporally variable air pollution in areas near sources. EPA’s Geospatial Monitoring of Air Pollution (GMAP) vehicle, an all-electric vehicle measuring real-time concentrations of particulate and gaseous poll...

  1. Assessment of near-source air pollution at a fine spatial scale using a mobile monitoring method

    EPA Science Inventory

    Mobile monitoring is an emerging strategy to characterize spatially and temporally variable air pollution in areas near sources. EPA’s Geospatial Monitoring of Air Pollution (GMAP) vehicle, an all-electric vehicle measuring real-time concentrations of particulate and gaseou...

  2. Assessment of source-specific health effects associated with an unknown number of major sources of multiple air pollutants: a unified Bayesian approach.

    PubMed

    Park, Eun Sug; Hopke, Philip K; Oh, Man-Suk; Symanski, Elaine; Han, Daikwon; Spiegelman, Clifford H

    2014-07-01

    There has been increasing interest in assessing health effects associated with multiple air pollutants emitted by specific sources. A major difficulty with achieving this goal is that the pollution source profiles are unknown and source-specific exposures cannot be measured directly; rather, they need to be estimated by decomposing ambient measurements of multiple air pollutants. This estimation process, called multivariate receptor modeling, is challenging because of the unknown number of sources and unknown identifiability conditions (model uncertainty). The uncertainty in source-specific exposures (source contributions) as well as uncertainty in the number of major pollution sources and identifiability conditions have been largely ignored in previous studies. A multipollutant approach that can deal with model uncertainty in multivariate receptor models while simultaneously accounting for parameter uncertainty in estimated source-specific exposures in assessment of source-specific health effects is presented in this paper. The methods are applied to daily ambient air measurements of the chemical composition of fine particulate matter ([Formula: see text]), weather data, and counts of cardiovascular deaths from 1995 to 1997 for Phoenix, AZ, USA. Our approach for evaluating source-specific health effects yields not only estimates of source contributions along with their uncertainties and associated health effects estimates but also estimates of model uncertainty (posterior model probabilities) that have been ignored in previous studies. The results from our methods agreed in general with those from the previously conducted workshop/studies on the source apportionment of PM health effects in terms of number of major contributing sources, estimated source profiles, and contributions. However, some of the adverse source-specific health effects identified in the previous studies were not statistically significant in our analysis, which probably resulted because we

  3. Trends and sources vs air mass origins in a major city in South-western Europe: Implications for air quality management.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Camacho, R; de la Rosa, J D; Sánchez de la Campa, A M

    2016-05-15

    This study presents a 17-years air quality database comprised of different parameters corresponding to the largest city in the south of Spain (Seville) where atmospheric pollution is frequently attributed to traffic emissions and is directly affected by Saharan dust outbreaks. We identify the PM10 contributions from both natural and anthropogenic sources in this area associated to different air mass origins. Hourly, daily and seasonal variation of PM10 and gaseous pollutant concentrations (CO, NO2 and SO2), all of them showing negative trends during the study period, point to the traffic as one of the main sources of air pollution in Seville. Mineral dust, secondary inorganic compounds (SIC) and trace elements showed higher concentrations under North African (NAF) air mass origins than under Atlantic. We observe a decreasing trend in all chemical components of PM10 under both types of air masses, NAF and Atlantic. Principal component analysis using more frequent air masses in the area allows the identification of five PM10 sources: crustal, regional, marine, traffic and industrial. Natural sources play a more relevant role during NAF events (20.6 μg · m(-3)) than in Atlantic episodes (13.8 μg · m(-3)). The contribution of the anthropogenic sources under NAF doubles the one under Atlantic conditions (33.6 μg · m(-3) and 15.8 μg · m(-3), respectively). During Saharan dust outbreaks the frequent accumulation of local anthropogenic pollutants in the lower atmosphere results in poor air quality and an increased risk of mortality. The results are relevant when analysing the impact of anthropogenic emissions on the exposed population in large cities. The increase in potentially toxic elements during Saharan dust outbreaks should also be taken into account when discounting the number of exceedances attributable to non-anthropogenic or natural origins.

  4. Trends and sources vs air mass origins in a major city in South-western Europe: Implications for air quality management.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Camacho, R; de la Rosa, J D; Sánchez de la Campa, A M

    2016-05-15

    This study presents a 17-years air quality database comprised of different parameters corresponding to the largest city in the south of Spain (Seville) where atmospheric pollution is frequently attributed to traffic emissions and is directly affected by Saharan dust outbreaks. We identify the PM10 contributions from both natural and anthropogenic sources in this area associated to different air mass origins. Hourly, daily and seasonal variation of PM10 and gaseous pollutant concentrations (CO, NO2 and SO2), all of them showing negative trends during the study period, point to the traffic as one of the main sources of air pollution in Seville. Mineral dust, secondary inorganic compounds (SIC) and trace elements showed higher concentrations under North African (NAF) air mass origins than under Atlantic. We observe a decreasing trend in all chemical components of PM10 under both types of air masses, NAF and Atlantic. Principal component analysis using more frequent air masses in the area allows the identification of five PM10 sources: crustal, regional, marine, traffic and industrial. Natural sources play a more relevant role during NAF events (20.6 μg · m(-3)) than in Atlantic episodes (13.8 μg · m(-3)). The contribution of the anthropogenic sources under NAF doubles the one under Atlantic conditions (33.6 μg · m(-3) and 15.8 μg · m(-3), respectively). During Saharan dust outbreaks the frequent accumulation of local anthropogenic pollutants in the lower atmosphere results in poor air quality and an increased risk of mortality. The results are relevant when analysing the impact of anthropogenic emissions on the exposed population in large cities. The increase in potentially toxic elements during Saharan dust outbreaks should also be taken into account when discounting the number of exceedances attributable to non-anthropogenic or natural origins. PMID:26930305

  5. Calculation Package: Derivation of Facility-Specific Derived Air Concentration (DAC) Values in Support of Spallation Neutron Source Operations

    SciTech Connect

    McLaughlin, David A

    2009-12-01

    Derived air concentration (DAC) values for 175 radionuclides* produced at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Spallation Neutron Source (SNS), but not listed in Appendix A of 10 CFR 835 (01/01/2009 version), are presented. The proposed DAC values, ranging between 1 E-07 {micro}Ci/mL and 2 E-03 {micro}Ci/mL, were calculated in accordance with the recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP), and are intended to support an exemption request seeking regulatory relief from the 10 CFR 835, Appendix A, requirement to apply restrictive DACs of 2E-13 {micro}Ci/mL and 4E-11 {micro}Ci/mL and for non-listed alpha and non-alpha-emitting radionuclides, respectively.

  6. 40 CFR 141.88 - Monitoring requirements for lead and copper in source water.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... copper in source water. 141.88 Section 141.88 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS Control of Lead and Copper § 141.88 Monitoring requirements for lead and copper in source water. (a) Sample location,...

  7. 40 CFR 141.88 - Monitoring requirements for lead and copper in source water.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... copper in source water. 141.88 Section 141.88 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS Control of Lead and Copper § 141.88 Monitoring requirements for lead and copper in source water. (a) Sample location,...

  8. 48 CFR 35.004 - Publicizing requirements and expanding research and development sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... and expanding research and development sources. 35.004 Section 35.004 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION SPECIAL CATEGORIES OF CONTRACTING RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT CONTRACTING 35.004 Publicizing requirements and expanding research and development sources. (a) In order...

  9. System considerations, projected requirements and applications for aeronautical mobile satellite communications for air traffic services

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcdonald, K. D.; Miller, C. M.; Scales, W. C.; Dement, D. K.

    1990-01-01

    The projected application and requirements in the near term (to 1995) and far term (to 2010) for aeronautical mobile services supporting air traffic control operations are addressed. The implications of these requirements on spectrum needs, and the resulting effects on the satellite design and operation are discussed. The U.S. is working with international standards and regulatory organizations to develop the necessary aviation standards, signalling protocols, and implementation methods. In the provision of aeronautical safety services, a number of critical issues were identified, including system reliability and availability, access time, channel restoration time, interoperability, pre-emption techniques, and the system network interfaces. Means for accomplishing these critical services in the aeronautical mobile satellite service (AMSS), and the various activities relating to the future provision of aeronautical safety services are addressed.

  10. Development of an ambient air sampler that satisfies RF plant monitoring requirements

    SciTech Connect

    Nininger, R.C.; Pauley, B.J.

    1993-05-01

    EG&G Rocky Flats Plant (RFP) is developing a new ambient air particulate sampler to replace units that have been in service for about twenty years. The new sampler is required to operate at a flow rate approximately twice that of the existing samplers and admit particles as large as 70 micrometers aerodynamic diameter. The sampler provides two size fractions with separation at 10 micrometers. using a single stage impactor designed at RFP and carrying a Department of Energy (DOE) patent. The sampler is modular for easy servicing in the field and its operation can be checked via radiotelemetry. The sampler, designed to meet Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) requirements for PM-10 sampling, is currently being characterized in EPA`s laboratories at Research Triangle Park, North Carolina.

  11. Development of an ambient air sampler that satisfies RF plant monitoring requirements

    SciTech Connect

    Nininger, R.C.; Pauley, B.J.

    1993-01-01

    EG G Rocky Flats Plant (RFP) is developing a new ambient air particulate sampler to replace units that have been in service for about twenty years. The new sampler is required to operate at a flow rate approximately twice that of the existing samplers and admit particles as large as 70 micrometers aerodynamic diameter. The sampler provides two size fractions with separation at 10 micrometers. using a single stage impactor designed at RFP and carrying a Department of Energy (DOE) patent. The sampler is modular for easy servicing in the field and its operation can be checked via radiotelemetry. The sampler, designed to meet Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) requirements for PM-10 sampling, is currently being characterized in EPA's laboratories at Research Triangle Park, North Carolina.

  12. Determination of releaes from a fugitive or diffuse source using downwind air-monitoring and site-specific meteorological data

    SciTech Connect

    Culp, T.; Kovacic, J.; Deola, R.

    1996-12-31

    In order to demonstrate compliance with annual radiological dose limits, air-dispersion modeling is often performed. Many air-dispersion models calculate the effects of radionuclide releases. These models do not determine the actual release; they rely on either measured release data from the source or an estimate of the source release based on process knowledge. The EPA provides clear guidance for the determination of annual radionuclide releases from point sources (i.e. facility stacks and vents). However, clear guidance for the determination of radionuclide releases from diffuse or fugitive sources is not available.

  13. HVAC systems as emission sources affecting indoor air quality: A critical review. Final report, September 1993-June 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Batterman, S.; Burge, H.

    1995-02-01

    The study evaluates heating, ventilating and air conditioning (HVAC) systems as contaminant emission sources that affect indoor air quality (IAQ). Various literature sources and methods for characterizing HVAC emission sources are reviewed. Available methods include in situ tests, longitudinal and cross-sectional studies, and laboratory studies. Based on the available literature, several HVAC components are cited fairly frequently as emission sources, and there is broad agreement regarding their significance. IAQ problems appear to be exacerbated by dust accumulation and by the presence of fibrous insulation. Other problems include entrainment, migration, and infiltration of indoor and outdoor contaminants that are distributed to indoor spaces by the HVAC system.

  14. 42 CFR 84.153 - Airflow resistance test, Type A and Type AE supplied-air respirators; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Supplied-Air Respirators § 84.153 Airflow resistance test, Type A and Type AE supplied-air respirators; minimum requirements. (a) Airflow resistance will be... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Airflow resistance test, Type A and Type...

  15. 42 CFR 84.153 - Airflow resistance test, Type A and Type AE supplied-air respirators; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Supplied-Air Respirators § 84.153 Airflow resistance test, Type A and Type AE supplied-air respirators; minimum requirements. (a) Airflow resistance will be... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Airflow resistance test, Type A and Type...

  16. 42 CFR 84.153 - Airflow resistance test, Type A and Type AE supplied-air respirators; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Supplied-Air Respirators § 84.153 Airflow resistance test, Type A and Type AE supplied-air respirators; minimum requirements. (a) Airflow resistance will be... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Airflow resistance test, Type A and Type...

  17. 42 CFR 84.1143 - Dust, fume, and mist air-purifying filter tests; performance requirements; general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Efficiency Respirators and Combination Gas Masks § 84.1143 Dust, fume, and mist air-purifying filter tests; performance requirements; general. Dust, fume, and mist respirators will be tested in accordance with the... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Dust, fume, and mist air-purifying filter...

  18. 42 CFR 84.1143 - Dust, fume, and mist air-purifying filter tests; performance requirements; general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Efficiency Respirators and Combination Gas Masks § 84.1143 Dust, fume, and mist air-purifying filter tests; performance requirements; general. Dust, fume, and mist respirators will be tested in accordance with the... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Dust, fume, and mist air-purifying filter...

  19. 42 CFR 84.1143 - Dust, fume, and mist air-purifying filter tests; performance requirements; general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Efficiency Respirators and Combination Gas Masks § 84.1143 Dust, fume, and mist air-purifying filter tests; performance requirements; general. Dust, fume, and mist respirators will be tested in accordance with the... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Dust, fume, and mist air-purifying filter...

  20. 40 CFR 60.1930 - What are the recordkeeping and reporting requirements for air curtain incinerators that burn 100...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... reporting requirements for air curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent yard waste? 60.1930 Section 60... Municipal Waste Combustion Units Constructed on or Before August 30, 1999 Model Rule-Air Curtain Incinerators That Burn 100 Percent Yard Waste § 60.1930 What are the recordkeeping and reporting...