Science.gov

Sample records for air space reduction

  1. Noise reduction evaluation of grids in a supersonic air stream with application to Space Shuttle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seiner, J. M.; Manning, J. C.; Nystrom, P.; Pao, S. P.

    1977-01-01

    Near field acoustic measurements were obtained for a model supersonic air jet perturbed by a screen. Noise reduction potential in the vicinity of the space shuttle vehicle during ground launch when the rocket exhaust flow is perturbed by a grid was determined. Both 10 and 12 mesh screens were utilized for this experiment, and each exhibited a noise reduction only at very low frequencies in the near field forward arc. A power spectrum analysis revealed that a modest reduction of from 3 to 5 decibels exists below a Strouhal number S sub t = 0.11. Above S sub t = 0.11 screen harmonics increased the observed sound pressure level. The favorable noise reductions obtained with screens for S sub t 0.11 may be of substantial interest for the space shuttle at ground launch.

  2. Space Derived Air Monitor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    COPAMS, Commonwealth of Pennsylvania Air Monitoring System, derives from technology involved in building unmanned spacecraft. The Nimbus spacecraft carried experimental sensors to measure temperature, pressure, ozone, and water vapor, and instruments for studying solar radiation and telemetry. The process which relayed these findings to Earth formed the basis for COPAMS. The COPAMS system consists of data acquisition units which measure and record pollution level, and sense wind speed and direction, etc. The findings are relayed to a central station where the information is computerized. The system is automatic and supplemented by PAQSS, PA Air Quality Surveillance System.

  3. Engine bleed air reduction in DC-10

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newman, W. H.; Viele, M. R.

    1980-01-01

    An 0.8 percent fuel savings was achieved by a reduction in engine bleed air through the use of cabin air recirculation. The recirculation system was evaluated in revenue service on a DC-10. The cabin remained comfortable with reductions in cabin fresh air (engine bleed air) as much as 50 percent. Flight test verified the predicted fuel saving of 0.8 percent.

  4. The connector space reduction mechanism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Milam, M. Bruce

    1990-01-01

    The Connector Space Reduction Mechanism (CSRM) is a simple device that can reduce the number of electromechanical devices on the Payload Interface Adapter/Station Interface Adapter (PIA/SIA) from 4 to 1. The device uses simplicity to attack the heart of the connector mating problem for large interfaces. The CSRM allows blind mate connector mating with minimal alignment required over short distances. This eliminates potential interface binding problems and connector damage. The CSRM is compatible with G and H connectors and Moog Rotary Shutoff fluid couplings. The CSRM can be used also with less forgiving connectors, as was demonstrated in the lab. The CSRM is NASA-Goddard exclusive design with patent applied for. The CSRM is the correct mechanism for the PIA/SIA interface as well as other similar berthing interfaces.

  5. Large N reduction on coset spaces

    SciTech Connect

    Kawai, Hikaru; Shimasaki, Shinji; Tsuchiya, Asato

    2010-04-15

    As an extension of our previous work concerning the large N reduction on group manifolds, we study the large N reduction on coset spaces. We show that large N field theories on coset spaces are described by certain corresponding matrix models. We also construct Chern-Simons-like theories on group manifolds and coset spaces, and give their reduced models.

  6. GRYPHON: Air launched space booster

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    The project chosen for the winter semester Aero 483 class was the design of a next generation Air Launched Space Booster. Based on Orbital Sciences Corporation's Pegasus concept, the goal of Aero 483 was to design a 500,000 pound air launched space booster capable of delivering 17,000 pounds of payload to Low Earth Orbit and 8,000 pounds of payload to Geosynchronous Earth Orbit. The resulting launch vehicle was named the Gryphon. The class of forty senior aerospace engineering students was broken down into eight interdependent groups. Each group was assigned a subsystem or responsibility which then became their field of specialization. Spacecraft Integration was responsible for ensuring compatibility between subsystems. This group kept up to date on subsystem redesigns and informed those parties affected by the changes, monitored the vehicle's overall weight and dimensions, and calculated the mass properties of the booster. This group also performed the cost/profitability analysis of the Gryphon and obtained cost data for competing launch systems. The Mission Analysis Group was assigned the task of determining proper orbits, calculating the vehicle's flight trajectory for those orbits, and determining the aerodynamic characteristics of the vehicle. The Propulsion Group chose the engines that were best suited to the mission. This group also set the staging configurations for those engines and designed the tanks and fuel feed system. The commercial satellite market, dimensions and weights of typical satellites, and method of deploying satellites was determined by the Payloads Group. In addition, Payloads identified possible resupply packages for Space Station Freedom and identified those packages that were compatible with the Gryphon. The guidance, navigation, and control subsystems were designed by the Mission Control Group. This group identified required tracking hardware, communications hardware telemetry systems, and ground sites for the location of the Gryphon

  7. GRYPHON: Air launched space booster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1993-06-01

    The project chosen for the winter semester Aero 483 class was the design of a next generation Air Launched Space Booster. Based on Orbital Sciences Corporation's Pegasus concept, the goal of Aero 483 was to design a 500,000 pound air launched space booster capable of delivering 17,000 pounds of payload to Low Earth Orbit and 8,000 pounds of payload to Geosynchronous Earth Orbit. The resulting launch vehicle was named the Gryphon. The class of forty senior aerospace engineering students was broken down into eight interdependent groups. Each group was assigned a subsystem or responsibility which then became their field of specialization. Spacecraft Integration was responsible for ensuring compatibility between subsystems. This group kept up to date on subsystem redesigns and informed those parties affected by the changes, monitored the vehicle's overall weight and dimensions, and calculated the mass properties of the booster. This group also performed the cost/profitability analysis of the Gryphon and obtained cost data for competing launch systems. The Mission Analysis Group was assigned the task of determining proper orbits, calculating the vehicle's flight trajectory for those orbits, and determining the aerodynamic characteristics of the vehicle. The Propulsion Group chose the engines that were best suited to the mission. This group also set the staging configurations for those engines and designed the tanks and fuel feed system. The commercial satellite market, dimensions and weights of typical satellites, and method of deploying satellites was determined by the Payloads Group. In addition, Payloads identified possible resupply packages for Space Station Freedom and identified those packages that were compatible with the Gryphon. The guidance, navigation, and control subsystems were designed by the Mission Control Group. This group identified required tracking hardware, communications hardware telemetry systems, and ground sites for the location of the Gryphon

  8. National Air and Space Museum Library.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pietropaoli, Frank A.

    1986-01-01

    A branch of Smithsonian Institution Libraries, the National Air and Space Museum Library provides materials and services to support research programs of National Air and Space Museum. Brief histories of museum and its library and summary of museum programs provide background for overview of current library users, resources, and services.…

  9. SpaceX Dragon Air Circulation System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hernandez, Brenda; Piatrovich, Siarhei; Prina, Mauro

    2011-01-01

    The Dragon capsule is a reusable vehicle being developed by Space Exploration Technologies (SpaceX) that will provide commercial cargo transportation to the International Space Station (ISS). Dragon is designed to be a habitable module while it is berthed to ISS. As such, the Dragon Environmental Control System (ECS) consists of pressure control and pressure equalization, air sampling, fire detection, illumination, and an air circulation system. The air circulation system prevents pockets of stagnant air in Dragon that can be hazardous to the ISS crew. In addition, through the inter-module duct, the air circulation system provides fresh air from ISS into Dragon. To utilize the maximum volume of Dragon for cargo packaging, the Dragon ECS air circulation system is designed around cargo rack optimization. At the same time, the air circulation system is designed to meet the National Aeronautics Space Administration (NASA) inter-module and intra-module ventilation requirements and acoustic requirements. A flight like configuration of the Dragon capsule including the air circulation system was recently assembled for testing to assess the design for inter-module and intra-module ventilation and acoustics. The testing included the Dragon capsule, and flight configuration in the pressure section with cargo racks, lockers, all of the air circulation components, and acoustic treatment. The air circulation test was also used to verify the Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) model of the Dragon capsule. The CFD model included the same Dragon internal geometry that was assembled for the test. This paper will describe the Dragon air circulation system design which has been verified by testing the system and with CFD analysis.

  10. The Conquest of Air and Space

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eisley, J. G.

    1971-01-01

    Describes a course for non-engineering students as an introduction to: (1) the physical principles of flight within the atmosphere and in space, (2) the major historical developments in the conquest of air and space, and (3) the current state of aeronautical developments. (Author/TS)

  11. High temperature dimensional reduction in Snyder space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nozari, K.; Hosseinzadeh, V.; Gorji, M. A.

    2015-11-01

    In this paper, we formulate the statistical mechanics in Snyder space that supports the existence of a minimal length scale. We obtain the corresponding invariant Liouville volume which properly determines the number of microstates in the semiclassical regime. The results show that the number of accessible microstates drastically reduces at the high energy regime such that there is only one degree of freedom for a particle. Using the Liouville volume, we obtain the deformed partition function and we then study the thermodynamical properties of the ideal gas in this setup. Invoking the equipartition theorem, we show that 2/3 of the degrees of freedom freeze at the high temperature regime when the thermal de Broglie wavelength becomes of the order of the Planck length. This reduction of the number of degrees of freedom suggests an effective dimensional reduction of the space from 3 to 1 at the Planck scale.

  12. The Nature of Reduction in Space Weathering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKay, D. S.; Allen, C. C.

    1993-07-01

    Space weathering is a broad term that includes a number of complex effects of the exposure of materials to the environment of space. The processes that drive space weathering include micrometeorite impact, radiation from the Sun and cosmic rays, and exposure to the vacuum of space. One of the important effects caused by these processes is the tendency for chemical reduction of oxide and silicate materials (including glasses), with accompanying loss of oxygen and production of reduced metal. Such chemical reduction and accompanying metal production may have an important influence on the chemistry of the outermost volume of individual grains as well as on the optical properties of this material. Hapke [1] discussed five processes that have been suggested for producing submicroscopic iron metal in the lunar soil: (1) shock reduction, (2) heating in a thermal blanket in vacuum, (3) shock heating of solar-wind-impregnated grains, (4) coatings deposited by solar wind sputtering, and (5) coatings deposited by impact vaporization. As noted by Hapke, "Processes (1) and (2) have been refuted by laboratory experiments. Processes (4) and (5) have produced submicroscopic iron metal in laboratory simulations. Although no experiments have been done to simulate process (3), it is widely accepted." We have been performing experimental reduction of simulated and actual lunar materials [2-5] and have shown that, under conditions of exposure to hydrogen at elevated temperatures, reduction of FeO readily occurs in ilmenite and lunar composition glass, and occurs at a slower rate in pyroxene and olivine. Even plagioclase feldspar containing minor FeO is readily reduced with formation of metallic iron blebs on surfaces [4]. A comparison of natural lunar samples to hydrogen-reduced samples or simulants in which we are searching for reduction evidence in various soil phases is underway. Preliminary data for mature soils show, in agreement with earlier results, that reduced iron produced in

  13. Air Leakage and Air Transfer Between Garage and Living Space

    SciTech Connect

    Rudd, A.

    2014-09-01

    This research project focused on evaluation of air transfer between the garage and living space in a single-family detached home constructed by a production homebuilder in compliance with the 2009 International Residential Code and the 2009 International Energy Conservation Code. The project gathered important information about the performance of whole-building ventilation systems and garage ventilation systems as they relate to minimizing flow of contaminated air from garage to living space. A series of 25 multi-point fan pressurization tests and additional zone pressure diagnostic testing characterized the garage and house air leakage, the garage-to-house air leakage, and garage and house pressure relationships to each other and to outdoors using automated fan pressurization and pressure monitoring techniques. While the relative characteristics of this house may not represent the entire population of new construction configurations and air tightness levels (house and garage) throughout the country, the technical approach was conservative and should reasonably extend the usefulness of the results to a large spectrum of house configurations from this set of parametric tests in this one house. Based on the results of this testing, the two-step garage-to-house air leakage test protocol described above is recommended where whole-house exhaust ventilation is employed. For houses employing whole-house supply ventilation (positive pressure) or balanced ventilation (same pressure effect as the Baseline condition), adherence to the EPA Indoor airPLUS house-to-garage air sealing requirements should be sufficient to expect little to no garage-to-house air transfer.

  14. Air Leakage and Air Transfer Between Garage and Living Space

    SciTech Connect

    Rudd, Armin

    2014-09-01

    This research project focused on evaluation of air transfer between the garage and living space in a single-family detached home constructed by a production homebuilder in compliance with the 2009 International Residential Code and the 2009 International Energy Conservation Code. The project gathered important information about the performance of whole-building ventilation systems and garage ventilation systems as they relate to minimizing flow of contaminated air from garage to living space. A series of 25 multi-point fan pressurization tests and additional zone pressure diagnostic testing characterized the garage and house air leakage, the garage-to-house air leakage, and garage and house pressure relationships to each other and to outdoors using automated fan pressurization and pressure monitoring techniques. While the relative characteristics of this house may not represent the entire population of new construction configurations and air tightness levels (house and garage) throughout the country, the technical approach was conservative and should reasonably extend the usefulness of the results to a large spectrum of house configurations from this set of parametric tests in this one house. Based on the results of this testing, the two-step garage-to-house air leakage test protocol described above is recommended where whole-house exhaust ventilation is employed.

  15. NASA's Orbital Space Plane Risk Reduction Strategy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dumbacher, Dan

    2003-01-01

    This paper documents the transformation of NASA s Space Launch Initiative (SLI) Second Generation Reusable Launch Vehicle Program under the revised Integrated Space Transportation Plan, announced November 2002. Outlining the technology development approach followed by the original SLI, this paper gives insight into the current risk-reduction strategy that will enable confident development of the Nation s first orbital space plane (OSP). The OSP will perform an astronaut and contingency cargo transportation function, with an early crew rescue capability, thus enabling increased crew size and enhanced science operations aboard the International Space Station. The OSP design chosen for full-scale development will take advantage of the latest innovations American industry has to offer. The OSP Program identifies critical technologies that must be advanced to field a safe, reliable, affordable space transportation system for U.S. access to the Station and low-Earth orbit. OSP flight demonstrators will test crew safety features, validate autonomous operations, and mature thermal protection systems. Additional enabling technologies may be identified during the OSP design process as part of an overall risk-management strategy. The OSP Program uses a comprehensive and evolutionary systems acquisition approach, while applying appropriate lessons learned.

  16. The Space Technology-7 Disturbance Reduction Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    ODonnell, James R., Jr.; Hsu, Oscar C.; Hanson, John; Hruby, Vlad

    2004-01-01

    The Space Technology 7 Disturbance Reduction System (DRS) is an in-space technology demonstration designed to validate technologies that are required for future missions such as the Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA) and the Micro-Arcsecond X-ray Imaging Mission (MAXIM). The primary sensors that will be used by DRS are two Gravitational Reference Sensors (GRSs) being developed by Stanford University. DRS will control the spacecraft so that it flies about one of the freely-floating Gravitational Reference Sensor test masses, keeping it centered within its housing. The other GRS serves as a cross-reference for the first as well as being used as a reference for .the spacecraft s attitude control. Colloidal MicroNewton Thrusters being developed by the Busek Co. will be used to control the spacecraft's position and attitude using a six degree-of-freedom Dynamic Control System being developed by Goddard Space Flight Center. A laser interferometer being built by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory will be used to help validate the results of the experiment. The DRS will be launched in 2008 on the European Space Agency (ESA) LISA Pathfinder spacecraft along with a similar ESA experiment, the LISA Test Package.

  17. Model reduction results for flexible space structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Trevor; Mostarshedi, Masoud

    1993-01-01

    This paper describes the novel subsystem balancing technique for obtaining reduced-order models of flexible structures, and investigates its properties fully. This method can be regarded as a combination of the best features of modal truncation (efficiency) and internal balancing (accuracy); it is particularly well suited to the typical practical case of structures which possess clusters of close modes. Numerical results are then presented demonstrating the results obtained by applying subsystem balancing to the Air Force Phillips Laboratory ASTREX testbed, the Jet Propulsion Laboratory antenna facility, and the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center ACES structure.

  18. Model reduction for Space Station Freedom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Trevor

    1992-01-01

    Model reduction is an important practical problem in the control of flexible spacecraft, and a considerable amount of work has been carried out on this topic. Two of the best known methods developed are modal truncation and internal balancing. Modal truncation is simple to implement but can give poor results when the structure possesses clustered natural frequencies, as often occurs in practice. Balancing avoids this problem but has the disadvantages of high computational cost, possible numerical sensitivity problems, and no physical interpretation for the resulting balanced 'modes'. The purpose of this work is to examine the performance of the subsystem balancing technique developed by the investigator when tested on a realistic flexible space structure, in this case a model of the Permanently Manned Configuration (PMC) of Space Station Freedom. This method retains the desirable properties of standard balancing while overcoming the three difficulties listed above. It achieves this by first decomposing the structural model into subsystems of highly correlated modes. Each subsystem is approximately uncorrelated from all others, so balancing them separately and then combining yields comparable results to balancing the entire structure directly. The operation count reduction obtained by the new technique is considerable: a factor of roughly r(exp 2) if the system decomposes into r equal subsystems. Numerical accuracy is also improved significantly, as the matrices being operated on are of reduced dimension, and the modes of the reduced-order model now have a clear physical interpretation; they are, to first order, linear combinations of repeated-frequency modes.

  19. The Crossbow Air Launch Trade Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bonometti, Joseph A.; Sorensen, Kirk F.

    2006-01-01

    Effective air launching of a rocket is approached from a broad systems engineering viewpoint. The elementary reasons for why and how a rocket might be launched from a carrier aircraft are examined. From this, a carefully crafted set of guiding principles is presented. Rules are generated from a fundamental foundation, derived from NASA systems study analyses and from an academic vantage point. The Appendix includes the derivation of a revised Mass Multiplier Equation, useful in understanding the rocket equation as it applies to real vehicles, without the need of complicated weight and sizing programs. The rationale for air launching, being an enormously advantageous Earth-To-Orbit (ETO) methodology, is presented along with the realization that the appropriate air launch solution may lie in a very large class of carrier aircraft; the pod-hauler. Finally, a unique area of the system trade space is defined and branded Crossbow. Crossbow is not a specific hardware design for air launch, but represents a comprehensive vision for commercial, military and space transportation. This document serves as a starting point for future technical papers that evaluate the air launch hypotheses and assertions produced during the past several years of study on the subject.

  20. Athena: Advanced air launched space booster

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Booker, Corey G.; Ziemer, John; Plonka, John; Henderson, Scott; Copioli, Paul; Reese, Charles; Ullman, Christopher; Frank, Jeremy; Breslauer, Alan; Patonis, Hristos

    1994-01-01

    The infrastructure for routine, reliable, and inexpensive access of space is a goal that has been actively pursued over the past 50 years, but has yet not been realized. Current launch systems utilize ground launching facilities which require the booster vehicle to plow up through the dense lower atmosphere before reaching space. An air launched system on the other hand has the advantage of being launched from a carrier aircraft above this dense portion of the atmosphere and hence can be smaller and lighter compared to its ground based counterpart. The goal of last year's Aerospace Engineering Course 483 (AE 483) was to design a 227,272 kg (500,000 lb.) air launched space booster which would beat the customer's launch cost on existing launch vehicles by at least 50 percent. While the cost analysis conducted by the class showed that this goal could be met, the cost and size of the carrier aircraft make it appear dubious that any private company would be willing to invest in such a project. To avoid this potential pitfall, this year's AE 483 class was to design as large an air launched space booster as possible which can be launched from an existing or modification to an existing aircraft. An initial estimate of the weight of the booster is 136,363 kg (300,000 lb.) to 159,091 kg (350,000 lb.).

  1. Space Weather affects on Air Transportation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, J. B. L.; Bentley, R. D.; Dyer, C.; Shaw, A.

    In Europe, legislation requires the airline industry to monitor the occupational exposure of aircrew to cosmic radiation. However, there are other significant impacts of space weather phenomena on the technological systems used for day-to-day operations which need to be considered by the airlines. These were highlighted by the disruption caused to the industry by the period of significant solar activity in late October and early November 2003. Next generation aircraft will utilize increasingly complex avionics as well as expanding the performance envelopes. These and future generation platforms will require the development of a new air-space management infrastructure with improved position accuracy (for route navigation and landing in bad weather) and reduced separation minima in order to cope with the expected growth in air travel. Similarly, greater reliance will be placed upon satellites for command, control, communication and information (C3I) of the operation. However, to maximize effectiveness of this globally interoperable C3I and ensure seamless fusion of all components for a safe operation will require a greater understanding of the space weather affects, their risks with increasing technology, and the inclusion of space weather information into the operation. This paper will review space weather effects on air transport and the increasing risks for future operations cause by them. We will examine how well the effects can be predicted, some of the tools that can be used and the practicalities of using such predictions in an operational scenario. Initial results from the SOARS ESA Space Weather Pilot Project will also be discussed,

  2. International Space Station (ISS) Risk Reduction Activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fodroci, Michael

    2011-01-01

    As the assembly of the ISS nears completion, it is worthwhile to step back and review some of the actions pursued by the Program in recent years to reduce risk and enhance the safety and health of ISS crewmembers, visitors, and space flight participants. While the ISS requirements and initial design were intended to provide the best practicable levels of safety, it is always possible to reduce risk -- given the determination and commitment to do so. The following is a summary of some of the steps taken by the ISS Program Manager, by our International Partners, by hardware and software designers, by operational specialists, and by safety personnel to continuously enhance the safety of the ISS. While decades of work went into developing the ISS requirements, there are many things in a Program like the ISS that can only be learned through actual operational experience. These risk reduction activities can be divided into roughly three categories: (1) Areas that were initially noncompliant which have subsequently been brought into compliance or near compliance (i.e., Micrometeoroid and Orbital Debris [MMOD] protection, acoustics) (2) Areas where initial design requirements were eventually considered inadequate and were subsequently augmented (i.e., Toxicity Level 4 materials, emergency hardware and procedures) (3) Areas where risks were initially underestimated, and have subsequently been addressed through additional mitigation (i.e., Extravehicular Activity [EVA] sharp edges, plasma shock hazards) Due to the hard work and cooperation of many parties working together across the span of nearly a decade, the ISS is now a safer and healthier environment for our crew, in many cases exceeding the risk reduction targets inherent in the intent of the original design. It will provide a safe and stable platform for utilization and discovery.

  3. 75 FR 80833 - Shipboard Air Emission Reduction Technology Report

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-23

    ..., 2008, issue of the Federal Register (73 FR 3316). Background and Purpose The U.S. implemented the Clean... SECURITY Coast Guard Shipboard Air Emission Reduction Technology Report AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION..., in conjunction with the Environmental Protection Agency, on Ship Emission Reduction Technology...

  4. Bioinspired air-retaining nanofur for drag reduction.

    PubMed

    Kavalenka, Maryna N; Vüllers, Felix; Lischker, Simone; Zeiger, Claudia; Hopf, Andreas; Röhrig, Michael; Rapp, Bastian E; Worgull, Matthias; Hölscher, Hendrik

    2015-05-27

    Bioinspired nanofur, covered by a dense layer of randomly distributed high aspect ratio nano- and microhairs, possesses superhydrophobic and air-retaining properties. Nanofur is fabricated using a highly scalable hot pulling method in which softened polymer is elongated with a heated sandblasted plate. Here we investigate the stability of the underwater air layer retained by the irregular nanofur topography by applying hydraulic pressure to the nanofur kept underwater, and evaluate the gradual changes in the air-covered area. Furthermore, the drag reduction resulting from the nanofur air retention is characterized by measuring the pressure drop across channels with and without nanofur. PMID:25945543

  5. RADON REDUCTION IN A CRAWL SPACE HOUSE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Radon, a naturally occurring radioactive gas, is drawn from the soil into a house when low air pressure exists in the house. This is a commonplace environmental hazard in the United States, Canada, and northern Europe. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is developing ...

  6. CITY OF MILWAUKEE VOLUNTARY AIR TOXICS REDUCTION PROJECT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Development and coordination of a broad-based stakeholder workgroup that will meet to discuss, review and recommend strategies to USEPA on practical, cost-effective and voluntary methods for achieving air toxics reductions within a specified neighborhood, locale or region within ...

  7. Turbulent drag reduction over air- and liquid- impregnated surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosenberg, Brian J.; Van Buren, Tyler; Fu, Matthew K.; Smits, Alexander J.

    2016-01-01

    Results on turbulent skin friction reduction over air- and liquid-impregnated surfaces are presented for aqueous Taylor-Couette flow. The surfaces are fabricated by mechanically texturing the inner cylinder and chemically modifying the features to make them either non-wetting with respect to water (air-infused, or superhydrophobic case), or wetting with respect to an oil that is immiscible with water (liquid-infused case). The drag reduction, which remains fairly constant over the Reynolds number range tested (100 ≤ Reτ ≤ 140), is approximately 10% for the superhydrophobic surface and 14% for the best liquid-infused surface. Our results suggest that liquid-infused surfaces may enable robust drag reduction in high Reynolds number turbulent flows without the shortcomings associated with conventional superhydrophobic surfaces, namely, failure under conditions of high hydrodynamic pressure and turbulent flow fluctuations.

  8. Drag reduction of the Space Shuttle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ahmed, Anwar; Javed Khan, Mohammad

    1991-01-01

    Wind-tunnel and water-tunnel experiments are conducted to determine which factors contribute to the base-pressure drag experienced by the Space Shuttle Orbiter. Testing is conducted on a 4.05-percent scale model in the TAMU Water Tunnel and Low Speed Wind Tunnel with passive near-wake flow-modification devices attached in some of the tests. The devices are evaluated on the basis of effectiveness in terms of increasing the base pressure. Base pressures increase when a base cavity is introduced; a smooth cavity increases pressure by 13 percent, and when v-grooves are introduced into the cavity the pressure increases by 19 percent. When the v-groove base cavity is combined with a fairing plate, the total base pressure reaches 25 percent. The experimental results suggest that the base drag of the Space Shuttle Orbiter can be effectively reduced by the use of a base-cavity mechanism.

  9. An Air Quality Data Analysis System for Interrelating Effects, Standards and Needed Source Reductions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larsen, Ralph I.

    1973-01-01

    Makes recommendations for a single air quality data system (using average time) for interrelating air pollution effects, air quality standards, air quality monitoring, diffusion calculations, source-reduction calculations, and emission standards. (JR)

  10. Novel shielding materials for space and air travel.

    PubMed

    Vana, N; Hajek, M; Berger, T; Fugger, M; Hofmann, P

    2006-01-01

    The reduction of dose onboard spacecraft and aircraft by appropriate shielding measures plays an essential role in the future development of space exploration and air travel. The design of novel shielding strategies and materials may involve hydrogenous composites, as it is well known that liquid hydrogen is most effective in attenuating charged particle radiation. As precursor for a later flight experiment, the shielding properties of newly developed hydrogen-rich polymers and rare earth-doped high-density rubber were tested in various ground-based neutron and heavy ion fields and compared with aluminium and polyethylene as reference materials. Absorbed dose, average linear energy transfer and gamma-equivalent neutron absorbed dose were determined by means of LiF:Mg,Ti thermoluminescence dosemeters and CR-39 plastic nuclear track detectors. First results for samples of equal aerial density indicate that selected hydrogen-rich plastics and rare-earth-doped rubber may be more effective in attenuating cosmic rays by up to 10% compared with conventional aluminium shielding. The appropriate adaptation of shielding thicknesses may thus allow reducing the biologically relevant dose. Owing to the lower density of the plastic composites, mass savings shall result in a significant reduction of launch costs. The experiment was flown as part of the European Space Agency's Biopan-5 mission in May 2005. PMID:16717109

  11. Delimitation of air space and outer space - Is such a boundary needed now?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hosenball, S. N.

    1983-01-01

    A discussion is presented of the question of establishing a boundary between air space and outer space. Four theories and approaches for establishing a delimitation between air space and outer space are examined. Spatial approaches include demarcation based on the division of the atmosphere into layers, demarcation based on aerodynamic characteristics of flight instrumentalities (von Karman Line), demarcation according to the lowest perigee of an orbiting satellite, and demarcation based upon the earth's gravitational effects. The functionalist approach is based on the delimitation or definition of the air space/outer space regime by the purpose and activities for which an object is designed in air space or outer space. The arbitrarist approach is supported by those who wish to draw an arbitrary line between air space and outer space. It is proposed that a pragmatist approach will be more useful than the other three approaches. The pragmatist approach advocates not establishing a boundary between air space and outer space at the present time or in the immediate future. It is argued that there are at present no serious problems that can be resolved by the definition/delimitation of air space and outer space.

  12. Hazardous-waste reduction: Naval Air Station Oceana

    SciTech Connect

    Clarkson, E.A.

    1991-06-01

    This is a project to research Naval Air Station (NAS) Oceana's present operations in the area of hazardous waste controls from processing to disposal. The research project was generated in response to NAS Oceana's requirement to meet and implement OPNAVINST 4110.2 (dated 20 June 89). Areas of concern include waste management, regulatory compliance, and waste reduction. Waste reduction is seen as one key way to help NAS Oceana (and other naval bases) improve waste management by reducing liability, operational cost, disposal costs and environmental, health, and safety issues. The Resource Conservation and Recovery Act places strict controls on the storage, treatment and disposal of hazardous waste. Presently, NAS Oceana has a disposal plan that is operational and complies with all associated regulations. This study addresses hazardous waste minimization through hazardous material reduction.

  13. Toxicology of the air in closed spaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wands, R. C.

    1975-01-01

    Sources and identification of contaminants in artificial gas atmospheres are discussed. They include biological sources (microflora and man), materials, processes, aerosols, and malfunctions. Acute or chronic toxicity may result from spacecraft air contamination. Air quality standards are presented in tabular form.

  14. AIRS Maps from Space Processing Software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, Charles K.; Licata, Stephen J.

    2012-01-01

    This software package processes Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) Level 2 swath standard product geophysical parameters, and generates global, colorized, annotated maps. It automatically generates daily and multi-day averaged colorized and annotated maps of various AIRS Level 2 swath geophysical parameters. It also generates AIRS input data sets for Eyes on Earth, Puffer-sphere, and Magic Planet. This program is tailored to AIRS Level 2 data products. It re-projects data into 1/4-degree grids that can be combined and averaged for any number of days. The software scales and colorizes global grids utilizing AIRS-specific color tables, and annotates images with title and color bar. This software can be tailored for use with other swath data products for the purposes of visualization.

  15. Space Shuttle Main Engine Liquid Air Insulation Redesign Lessons Learned

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaddy, Darrell; Carroll, Paul; Head, Kenneth; Fasheh, John; Stuart, Jessica

    2010-01-01

    The Space Shuttle Main Engine Liquid Air Insulation redesign was required to prevent the reoccurance of the STS-111 High Pressure Speed Sensor In-Flight Anomaly. The STS-111 In-Flight Anomaly Failure Investigation Team's initial redesign of the High Pressure Fuel Turbopump Pump End Ball Bearing Liquid Air Insulation failed the certification test by producing Liquid Air. The certification test failure indicated not only the High Pressure Fuel Turbopump Liquid Air Insulation, but all other Space Shuttle Main Engine Liquid Air Insulation. This paper will document the original Space Shuttle Main Engine Liquid Air STS-111 In-Flight Anomaly investigation, the heritage Space Shuttle Main Engine Insulation certification testing faults, the techniques and instrumentation used to accurately test the Liquid Air Insulation systems on the Stennis Space Center SSME test stand, the analysis techniques used to identify the Liquid Air Insulation problem areas and the analytical verification of the redesign before entering certification testing, Trade study down selected to three potential design solutions, the results of the development testing which down selected the final Liquid Air Redesign are also documented within this paper.

  16. Impact of historical air pollution emissions reductions on nitrogen deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loughner, C.; Tzortziou, M.; Duffy, M.; Duncan, B. N.; Hains, J.; Pickering, K. E.; Yoshida, Y.; Follette-Cook, M. B.

    2013-12-01

    There have been significant NOx emissions reductions since 2002 in the eastern and central US through a combination of the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) NOx State Implementation Plan (SIP) call, which required 22 states and the District of Columbia to regulate NOx emissions to mitigate ozone transport, the NOx Budget Trading Program, subsequent EPA rules, court-orders, and state regulations. As reported by the EPA's National Emissions Inventory (NEI), NOx emissions nationwide have been reduced by 37% between 2002 and 2011. The benefit of these emissions reductions on decreasing nitrogen deposition onto terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems will be presented by comparing CMAQ air quality model simulations for July 2011 from a 12 km domain over the eastern US and a 4 km domain over the Mid-Atlantic with anthropogenic emissions appropriate for 2002 and 2011. Previously we showed that the historical emissions reductions from 2002 to 2011 prevented 9 to 13 ozone standard exceedance days throughout much of the Ohio River Valley and 3 to 9 ozone exceedance days throughout the Baltimore-Washington metropolitan area for the month of July 2011. Here, we focus on how the historical emissions reductions decreased nitrogen deposition, subsequently benefiting terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. The base case simulation with emissions appropriate for 2011 everywhere was evaluated with ground-, ship-, aircraft-, and satellite-based observations, which include measurements made during the DISCOVER-AQ (Deriving Information on Surface Conditions from Column and Vertically Resolved Observations Relevant to Air Quality) and GeoCAPE-CBODAQ (Geostationary Coastal and Air Pollution Events-Chesapeake Bay Oceanographic Campaign with DISCOVER-AQ) field campaigns.

  17. Evaluation of indoor air composition time variation in air-tight occupied spaces during night periods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Markov, Detelin

    2012-11-01

    This paper presents an easy-to-understand procedure for prediction of indoor air composition time variation in air-tight occupied spaces during the night periods. The mathematical model is based on the assumptions for homogeneity and perfect mixing of the indoor air, the ideal gas model for non-reacting gas mixtures, mass conservation equations for the entire system and for each species, a model for prediction of basal metabolic rate of humans as well as a model for prediction of O2 consumption rate and both CO2 and H2O generation rates by breathing. Time variation of indoor air composition is predicted at constant indoor air temperature for three scenarios based on the analytical solution of the mathematical model. The results achieved reveal both the most probable scenario for indoor air time variation in air-tight occupied spaces as well as the cause for morning tiredness after having a sleep in a modern energy efficient space.

  18. Air Force space power technology program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barthelemy, R.; Mahefkey, T.; Hebblewaite, T.

    1980-01-01

    The military spacecraft power subsystem design requirements, developments goals, and planned technology efforts are summarized. The mission drivers of performance (weight and volume), hardening (survivability), autonomy, reliability, and miniaturization influence space mission effectiveness are outlined. The anticipated performance versus power level trends for reactor static conversion systems are illustrated. A conceptual design for a space based radar system is also given.

  19. Wind Energy and Air Emission Reduction Benefits: A Primer

    SciTech Connect

    Jacobson, D.; High, C.

    2008-02-01

    This document provides a summary of the impact of wind energy development on various air pollutants for a general audience. The core document addresses the key facts relating to the analysis of emission reductions from wind energy development. It is intended for use by a wide variety of parties with an interest in this issue, ranging from state environmental officials to renewable energy stakeholders. The appendices provide basic background information for the general reader, as well as detailed information for those seeking a more in-depth discussion of various topics.

  20. Reduction of air ion mobility to standard conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tammet, H.

    1998-06-01

    The Langevin rule of the reduction of air ion mobility is adequate in case of zero-size ions. An alternative is the Stokes-Millikan equation that is adequate in the limit of macroscopic charged particles. The temperature variation of air ion mobility predicted by the Stokes-Millikan equation radically contradicts the Langevin rule. The temperature and pressure variation of air ion mobility is examined by using a new semiempirical model that describes the transition from the kinetic theory to the Stokes-Millikan equation. The model is valid in full mobility range. It allows to calculate at first the size of an ion according to the measured mobility and then the standard mobility according to the size. The ascent of the temperature-mobility curve on a logarithmic chart approaches the Langevin value of 1 only at very high mobilities not found in the atmosphere. The value of the ascent is 0.6 in the case of small ions of the mobility of 1.5 cm2 V-1 s-1 which brings about a considerable error when using the Langevin rule. It is recommended to store the natural values of the mobility in databases together with the values of temperature and pressure and to definitely indicate the method when the reduced mobilities are presented in publications.

  1. Final-Approach-Spacing Subsystem For Air Traffic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Thomas J.; Erzberger, Heinz; Bergeron, Hugh

    1992-01-01

    Automation subsystem of computers, computer workstations, communication equipment, and radar helps air-traffic controllers in terminal radar approach-control (TRACON) facility manage sequence and spacing of arriving aircraft for both efficiency and safety. Called FAST (Final Approach Spacing Tool), subsystem enables controllers to choose among various levels of automation.

  2. Joint space-time geostatistical model for air quality surveillance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Russo, A.; Soares, A.; Pereira, M. J.

    2009-04-01

    Air pollution and peoples' generalized concern about air quality are, nowadays, considered to be a global problem. Although the introduction of rigid air pollution regulations has reduced pollution from industry and power stations, the growing number of cars on the road poses a new pollution problem. Considering the characteristics of the atmospheric circulation and also the residence times of certain pollutants in the atmosphere, a generalized and growing interest on air quality issues led to research intensification and publication of several articles with quite different levels of scientific depth. As most natural phenomena, air quality can be seen as a space-time process, where space-time relationships have usually quite different characteristics and levels of uncertainty. As a result, the simultaneous integration of space and time is not an easy task to perform. This problem is overcome by a variety of methodologies. The use of stochastic models and neural networks to characterize space-time dispersion of air quality is becoming a common practice. The main objective of this work is to produce an air quality model which allows forecasting critical concentration episodes of a certain pollutant by means of a hybrid approach, based on the combined use of neural network models and stochastic simulations. A stochastic simulation of the spatial component with a space-time trend model is proposed to characterize critical situations, taking into account data from the past and a space-time trend from the recent past. To identify near future critical episodes, predicted values from neural networks are used at each monitoring station. In this paper, we describe the design of a hybrid forecasting tool for ambient NO2 concentrations in Lisbon, Portugal.

  3. Angled wing air induction for microbubble drag reduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murai, Yuichi; Kumagai, Ichiro; Tasaka, Yuji; Takahashi, Yoshiaki

    2011-11-01

    Interfacial dynamics above an angled wing which is submerged into shallow water is investigated. Our experimental study aims at designing a high-performance bubble generator for microbubble drag reduction in marine vehicles. The performance being parameterized by the size and the amount of bubbles is determined by flow physics which is represented by triple interference among the air layer, the water flow, and the solid wing. The wing gives rapid deformation of the interface as well as disturbance before downstream high-speed wave-breaking and further later bubble fragmentation with help of Kelvin-Helmholtz instability. We have already demonstrated several practical installation of the device onto commercial ships from small to large scale. The presentation deals with the visualization of the wing-above behavior of gas-liquid interface that triggers the generation of fine bubbles in its downstream layer. NEDO and JSPS

  4. Definition of air quality measurements for monitoring space shuttle launches

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thorpe, R. D.

    1978-01-01

    A description of a recommended air quality monitoring network to characterize the impact on ambient air quality in the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) (area) of space shuttle launch operations is given. Analysis of ground cloud processes and prevalent meteorological conditions indicates that transient HCl depositions can be a cause for concern. The system designed to monitor HCl employs an extensive network of inexpensive detectors combined with a central analysis device. An acid rain network is also recommended. A quantitative measure of projected minimal long-term impact involves the limited monitoring of NOx and particulates. All recommended monitoring is confined ti KSC property.

  5. Reduction in air emissions attainable through implementation of district heating and cooling

    SciTech Connect

    Bloomquist, R.G.

    1996-12-31

    District heating and cooling (DHC) can provide multiple opportunities to reduce air emissions associated with space conditioning and electricity generation, which contribute 30% to 50% of all such emissions. When DHC is combined with cogeneration (CHP), maximum reductions in sulfur oxides (SO{sub x}), nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}), carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}), particulates, and ozone-depleting chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) refrigerants can most effectively be achieved. Although significant improvements in air quality have been documented in Europe and Scandinavia due to DHC and CHP implementation, accurately predicting such improvements has been difficult. Without acceptable quantification methods, regulatory bodies are reluctant to grant air emissions credits, and local community leaders are unwilling to invest in DHC and CHP as preferred methods of providing energy or strategies for air quality improvement. The recent development and release of a number of computer models designed specifically to provide quantification of air emissions that can result from DHC and CHP implementation should help provide local, state, and national policymakers with information vital to increasing support and investment in DHC development.

  6. National Air Space (NAS) Data Exchange Environment Through 2060

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roy, Aloke

    2015-01-01

    NASA's NextGen Concepts and Technology Development (CTD) Project focuses on capabilities to improve safety, capacity and efficiency of the National Air Space (NAS). In order to achieve those objectives, NASA sought industry-Government partnerships to research and identify solutions for traffic flow management, dynamic airspace configuration, separation assurance, super density operations, airport surface operations and similar forward-looking air-traffic modernization (ATM) concepts. Data exchanges over NAS being the key enabler for most of these ATM concepts, the Sub-Topic area 3 of the CTD project sought to identify technology candidates that can satisfy air-to-air and air/ground communications needs of the NAS in the year 2060 timeframe. Honeywell, under a two-year contract with NASA, is working on this communications technology research initiative. This report summarizes Honeywell's research conducted during the second year of the study task.

  7. Impacts of potential CO2-reduction policies on air quality in the United States.

    PubMed

    Trail, Marcus A; Tsimpidi, Alexandra P; Liu, Peng; Tsigaridis, Kostas; Hu, Yongtao; Rudokas, Jason R; Miller, Paul J; Nenes, Athanasios; Russell, Armistead G

    2015-04-21

    Impacts of emissions changes from four potential U.S. CO2 emission reduction policies on 2050 air quality are analyzed using the community multiscale air quality model (CMAQ). Future meteorology was downscaled from the Goddard Institute for Space Studies (GISS) ModelE General Circulation Model (GCM) to the regional scale using the Weather Research Forecasting (WRF) model. We use emissions growth factors from the EPAUS9r MARKAL model to project emissions inventories for two climate tax scenarios, a combined transportation and energy scenario, a biomass energy scenario and a reference case. Implementation of a relatively aggressive carbon tax leads to improved PM2.5 air quality compared to the reference case as incentives increase for facilities to install flue-gas desulfurization (FGD) and carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) technologies. However, less capital is available to install NOX reduction technologies, resulting in an O3 increase. A policy aimed at reducing CO2 from the transportation sector and electricity production sectors leads to reduced emissions of mobile source NOX, thus reducing O3. Over most of the U.S., this scenario leads to reduced PM2.5 concentrations. However, increased primary PM2.5 emissions associated with fuel switching in the residential and industrial sectors leads to increased organic matter (OM) and PM2.5 in some cities. PMID:25811418

  8. Air & Space, Volume 2, Number 4, March-April, 1979.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forbush, Julie, Ed.

    This newsletter, produced by the National Air and Space Museum of the Smithsonian Institution, contains an article on the Apollo 11 spaceflight, an article on hypersonic and supersonic flight which compares the Concorde, the X-15, and the Shuttle Orbiter, an article presenting photographs of the construction of the Shuttle Orbiter, and an article…

  9. Feature space discriminant analysis for hyperspectral data feature reduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Imani, Maryam; Ghassemian, Hassan

    2015-04-01

    Hyperspectral images contain a large number of spectral bands that allows us to distinguish different classes with more details. But, the number of available training samples is limited. Thus, feature reduction is an important step before classification of high dimensional data. Supervised feature extraction methods such as LDA, GDA, NWFE, and MMLDA use two criteria for feature reduction: between-class scatter and within-class scatter. We propose a supervised feature extraction method in this paper that uses a new criterion in addition to two mentioned measures. The proposed method, which is called feature space discriminant analysis (FSDA), at first, maximizes the between-spectral scatter matrix to increase the difference between extracted features. In the second step, FSDA, maximizes the between-class scatter matrix and minimizes the within-class scatter matrix simultaneously. The experimental results on five popular hyperspectral images show the better performance of FSDA in comparison with other supervised feature extraction methods in small sample size situation.

  10. AIR Technology: A Step Towards ARINC 653 in Space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rufino, J.; Craveiro, J.; Schoofs, T.; Tatibana, C.; Windsor, J.

    2009-05-01

    The Integrated Modular Avionics and the ARINC 653 specifications are assuming a key role in the provision of a standard operating system interface for safety-critical applications in both the aeronautic and space markets. The AIR Technology, designed within the scope of an ESA initiative to develop a proof of concept, implements the notion of robust temporal and spatial partitioning. A different operating system kernel may be used per partition, furnishing the bare services to build the ARINC 653 application programming interface. This paper describes the advances done during AIR-II, an initiative to evolve the AIR Technology proof of concept towards an industrial product. Current prototype activities are based on RTEMS and on the SPARC V8 LEON3 processor and work is being done on the integration of Linux in the AIR Technology.

  11. Cabin Air Quality Dynamics On Board the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perry, J. L.; Peterson, B. V.

    2003-01-01

    Spacecraft cabin air quality is influenced by a variety of factors. Beyond normal equipment offgassing and crew metabolic loads, the vehicle s operational configuration contributes significantly to overall air quality. Leaks from system equipment and payload facilities, operational status of the atmospheric scrubbing systems, and the introduction of new equipment and modules to the vehicle all influence air quality. The dynamics associated with changes in the International Space Station's (ISS) configuration since the launch of the U.S. Segment s laboratory module, Destiny, is summarized. Key classes of trace chemical contaminants that are important to crew health and equipment performance are emphasized. The temporary effects associated with attaching each multi-purpose logistics module (MPLM) to the ISS and influence of in-flight air quality on the post-flight ground processing of the MPLM are explored.

  12. Noise Reduction Of Air Blower Casing Using Composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolla*, S.; Kumar, Y. Anil; Rajesh, S.

    Sound subjectively, what is heard by the ear; objectively, is a mecha nical disturbance from equilibrium in an elastic medium. The noise produced by a rotating component has two main components, the broadband noise and the discrete frequency noise. The broadband noise from a rotor is due to random loading forces on the blades, which are induced by the absorption of atmospheric turbulence. The discrete frequency noise is due to periodic interaction of incoming air with the blades of the rotor. At present the centrifugal blowers, in Naval defense application which is made of steel is generating a noise of 86dB, which causes mental imbalance to the people working near the blower on ship. Therefore in Naval defense applications the reduction of sound level from a source is very important and critical task. Hence the objective of this paper is to reduce the noise level produced by the metal air blower. The noise radiated by the casing of a centrifugal blower can be effectively reduced by the use of (1) Composite Materials, (2) Visco-Elastic material treatment and (3) Stiffness addition. In this paper it is proposed to carry out a study to evaluate the effectiveness of composites in reducing noise levels of the casing. Composite materials are those containing more than one bonded material, each with different struc tural properties. The advantage of composite materials is the potential for a high ratio of stiffness to weight. In order to evaluate the effectiveness of composites over metals, modal analysis (Eigen value analysis) and Static analysis was performed on both composite and metal blowers using FEA package (ANSYS). Modal analysis is performed on both metals (Alluminium and Composite) blower casing to find out the first ten natural frequencies and static analysis is performed for a pressure of 1570 Pa. This paper also describes the experimental setup of the centrifugal blower, the values of the sound levels for both metal and FRP blowers are taken at a distance of

  13. Numerical Analysis of Thermal Comfort at Open Air Spaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papakonstantinou, K.; Belias, C.; Pantos-Kikkos, S.; Assana, A.

    2008-09-01

    The present paper refers to the numerical simulation of air velocity at open air spaces and the conducting thermal comfort after the evaluation of the examined space using CFD methods, taking into account bioclimatic principles at the architectural design. More specially, the paper draws attention to the physical procedures governing air movement at an open environment area in Athens (urban park), named "Attiko Alsos," trying to form them in such way that will lead to the thermal comfort of the area's visitors. The study presents a mathematical model, implemented in a general computer code that can provide detailed information on velocity, prevailing in three-dimensional spaces of any geometrical complexity. Turbulent flow is simulated and buoyancy effects are taken into account. This modelling procedure is intended to contribute to the effort towards designing open areas, such as parks, squares or outdoor building environments, using thermal comfort criteria at the bioclimatic design. A computer model of this kind will provide the architects or the environmental engineers with powerful and economical means of evaluating alternative spaces' designs.

  14. 78 FR 17185 - U.S. Air Force Space Command Notice of Test

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-20

    ... Department of the Air Force U.S. Air Force Space Command Notice of Test AGENCY: U.S. Air Force Space Command... inform users of an upcoming event related to the GPS satellite constellation. U.S. Air Force Space... process L2C or L5 CNAV. U.S. Air Force Space Command ] expects to conduct one to two CNAV tests per...

  15. Reduction of Sodium in the NASA Space Food System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kloeris, Vickie L.

    2010-01-01

    Excessive sodium content of the average American diet is an issue that is gaining more and more attention due to the implications for chronic disease and thus health care costs. The typical astronaut or cosmonaut dining on the International Space Station (ISS) is consuming even more sodium per day than the average American due to the lack of refrigeration for food and the limited amount of fresh food in the diet. NASA has known for many years that the high sodium in the on orbit diet is an exacerbating factor for the bone loss that occurs in all crew members in microgravity. However, bone loss is reversed upon return to earth normal gravity. After ten years of having US crewmembers on ISS, additional medical issues have emerged in some long duration ISS crewmembers that are not necessarily being reversed upon return to earth. While it is not necessarily thought that the high sodium content of the diet is the cause of these issues, it is thought that reducing sodium intake could potentially help alleviate some of the on orbit symptoms. Thus, there is an urgent focus on sodium reduction in space food. This paper will discuss the strategies and progress of an on-going project at NASA to reformulate the US space food system to reduce the sodium content.

  16. Pure state consciousness and its local reduction to neuronal space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duggins, A. J.

    2013-01-01

    The single neuronal state can be represented as a vector in a complex space, spanned by an orthonormal basis of integer spike counts. In this model a scalar element of experience is associated with the instantaneous firing rate of a single sensory neuron over repeated stimulus presentations. Here the model is extended to composite neural systems that are tensor products of single neuronal vector spaces. Depiction of the mental state as a vector on this tensor product space is intended to capture the unity of consciousness. The density operator is introduced as its local reduction to the single neuron level, from which the firing rate can again be derived as the objective correlate of a subjective element. However, the relational structure of perceptual experience only emerges when the non-local mental state is considered. A metric of phenomenal proximity between neuronal elements of experience is proposed, based on the cross-correlation function of neurophysiology, but constrained by the association of theoretical extremes of correlation/anticorrelation in inseparable 2-neuron states with identical and opponent elements respectively.

  17. Technology Solutions Case Study: Air Leakage and Air Transfer Between Garage and Living Space, Waldorf, Maryland

    SciTech Connect

    2014-11-01

    In this project, Building Science Corporation worked with production homebuilder K. Hovnanian to evaluate air transfer between the garage and living space in a single-family detached home constructed by a production homebuilder in compliance with the 2009 International Residential Code and the 2009 International Energy Conservation Code. The project gathered important information about the performance of whole-building ventilation systems and garage ventilation systems as they relate to minimizing flow of contaminated air from garage to living space. A series of 25 multipoint fan pressurization tests and additional zone pressure diagnostic testing measured the garage and house air leakage, the garage-to-house air leakage, and garage and house pressure relationships to each other and to outdoors using automated fan pressurization and pressure monitoring techniques. While the relative characteristics of this house may not represent the entire population of new construction configurations and air tightness levels (house and garage) throughout the country, the technical approach was conservative and should reasonably extend the usefulness of the results to a large spectrum of house configurations from this set of parametric tests in this one house. Based on the results of this testing, the two-step garage-to-house air leakage test protocol described above is recommended where whole-house exhaust ventilation is employed. For houses employing whole-house supply ventilation (positive pressure) or balanced ventilation (same pressure effect as the baseline condition), adherence to the EPA Indoor airPLUS house-to-garage air sealing requirements should be sufficient to expect little to no garage-to-house air transfer.

  18. Subsonic drag reduction of the Space Shuttle Orbiter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, Mohammad Javed; Ahmed, Anwar; Varela-Rodriguez, Edmundo

    1995-01-01

    Various near-wake flow-modifying devices were experimentally evaluated for their effectiveness in increasing base pressure of the Space Shuttle Orbiter at low subsonic speed. The results confirmed the strong three-dimensional character of the orbiter near wake. A base cavity was found to be the most effective mechanism for increasing base pressure. However, for this mechanism to be effective, the cavity had to be longer than the main engine nozzles. Surface characteristics of the base cavity exposed to freestream had a strong influence on the base pressure. The trapped-vortex mechanism due to a back step was found to be effective in increasing the base pressure only in the region of the orbital-maneuvering-system pods. A combination of base-cavity and trapped-vortex mechanisms increased the base pressure by 25%, and the reduction in total drag was approximately 6%.

  19. Reduction Potato s hydric soil erosion using space technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guyot, E.; Rios, V.; Zelaya, D.; Rios, E.; Lepen, F.; Padilla, P.; Soria, F.

    The potato's crop has an econ omic importance in Tucuman's agricultural PBI (Gross Product Income) because its rank is fourth(4°). Production's potato area is a breakable agro system; its geographic location is in Pedemonte's agro-ecological region so is essential to handle hydric erosion. Therefore, the aim of this work is improve crop's potato irrigation management through satellite information merge with farm's practices. The space technology consented to obtain Digital Model Soil using both unique differential and dual frequency GPS signals and total station. The irrigation practices were carried out due to irrigation management (FAO) and satellite imagine software (ENVI). Preliminary results of this experience allowed to follow the crop's growing through multitemporal study; reprogramming farm's irrigation practices intended for manage reduction hydric erosion and heighten economically its productivity for the next period

  20. Positioning Reduction of Deep Space Probes Based on VLBI Tracking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiao, S. B.

    2011-11-01

    ) Investigate the application of Kalman filter to the positioning reduction of deep space probes and develop related software systems. In summary, the progress in this dissertation is made in the positioning reduction of deep space probes tracked by VLBI concerning the algorithm study, software development, real observation processing and so on, while a further study is still urgent and arduous.

  1. Space program payload costs and their possible reduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vanvleck, E. M.; Deerwester, J. M.; Norman, S. M.; Alton, L. R.

    1973-01-01

    The possible ways by which NASA payload costs might be reduced in the future were studied. The major historical reasons for payload costs being as they were, and if there are technologies (hard and soft), or criteria for technology advances, that could significantly reduce total costs of payloads were examined. Payload costs are placed in historical context. Some historical cost breakdowns for unmanned NASA payloads are presented to suggest where future cost reductions could be most significant. Space programs of NOAA, DoD and COMSAT are then examined to ascertain if payload reductions have been brought about by the operational (as opposed to developmental) nature of such programs, economies of scale, the ability to rely on previously developed technology, or by differing management structures and attitudes. The potential impact was investigated of NASA aircraft-type management on spacecraft program costs, and some examples relating previous costs associated with aircraft costs on the one hand and manned and unmanned costs on the other are included.

  2. Long-Term International Space Station (ISS) Risk Reduction Activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fodroci, M. P.; Gafka, G. K.; Lutomski, M. G.; Maher, J. S.

    2012-01-01

    As the assembly of the ISS nears completion, it is worthwhile to step back and review some of the actions pursued by the Program in recent years to reduce risk and enhance the safety and health of ISS crewmembers, visitors, and space flight participants. While the initial ISS requirements and design were intended to provide the best practicable levels of safety, it is always possible to further reduce risk - given the determination, commitment, and resources to do so. The following is a summary of some of the steps taken by the ISS Program Manager, by our International Partners, by hardware and software designers, by operational specialists, and by safety personnel to continuously enhance the safety of the ISS, and to reduce risk to all crewmembers. While years of work went into the development of ISS requirements, there are many things associated with risk reduction in a Program like the ISS that can only be learned through actual operational experience. These risk reduction activities can be divided into roughly three categories: Areas that were initially noncompliant which have subsequently been brought into compliance or near compliance (i.e., Micrometeoroid and Orbital Debris [MMOD] protection, acoustics) Areas where initial design requirements were eventually considered inadequate and were subsequently augmented (i.e., Toxicity Hazard Level- 4 [THL] materials, emergency procedures, emergency equipment, control of drag-throughs) Areas where risks were initially underestimated, and have subsequently been addressed through additional mitigation (i.e., Extravehicular Activity [EVA] sharp edges, plasma shock hazards) Due to the hard work and cooperation of many parties working together across the span of more than a decade, the ISS is now a safer and healthier environment for our crew, in many cases exceeding the risk reduction targets inherent in the intent of the original design. It will provide a safe and stable platform for utilization and discovery for years

  3. Long-Term International Space Station (ISS) Risk Reduction Activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Forroci, Michael P.; Gafka, George K.; Lutomski, Michael G.; Maher, Jacilyn S.

    2011-01-01

    As the assembly of the ISS nears completion, it is worthwhile to step back and review some of the actions pursued by the Program in recent years to reduce risk and enhance the safety and health of ISS crewmembers, visitors, and space flight participants. While the initial ISS requirements and design were intended to provide the best practicable levels of safety, it is always possible to further reduce risk given the determination, commitment, and resources to do so. The following is a summary of some of the steps taken by the ISS Program Manager, by our International Partners, by hardware and software designers, by operational specialists, and by safety personnel to continuously enhance the safety of the ISS, and to reduce risk to all crewmembers. While years of work went into the development of ISS requirements, there are many things associated with risk reduction in a Program like the ISS that can only be learned through actual operational experience. These risk reduction activities can be divided into roughly three categories: Areas that were initially noncompliant which have subsequently been brought into compliance or near compliance (i.e., Micrometeoroid and Orbital Debris [MMOD] protection, acoustics) Areas where initial design requirements were eventually considered inadequate and were subsequently augmented (i.e., Toxicity hazard level-4 materials, emergency procedures, emergency equipment, control of drag-throughs) Areas where risks were initially underestimated, and have subsequently been addressed through additional mitigation (i.e., Extravehicular Activity [EVA] sharp edges, plasma shock hazards). Due to the hard work and cooperation of many parties working together across the span of more than a decade, the ISS is now a safer and healthier environment for our crew, in many cases exceeding the risk reduction targets inherent in the intent of the original design. It will provide a safe and stable platform for utilization and discovery for years to come.

  4. Space Technology 7 Disturbance Reduction System - precision control flight Validation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carmain, Andrew J.; Dunn, Charles; Folkner, William; Hruby, Vlad; Spence, Doug; O'Donnell, James; Markley, Landis; Maghami, Peiman; Hsu, Oscar; Demmons, N.; Roy, T.; Gasdaska, C.; Young, J.; Connolly, W.; McCormick, R.; Gasdaska, C.

    2005-01-01

    The NASA New Millennium Program Space Technology 7 (ST7) project will validate technology for precision spacecraft control. The Disturbance Reduction System (DRS) will be part of the European Space Agency's LISA Pathfinder project. The DRS will control the position of the spacecraft relative to a reference to an accuracy of one nanometer over time scales of several thousand seconds. To perform the control, the spacecraft will use a new colloid thruster technology. The thrusters will operate over the range of 5 to 30 micro-Newtons with precision of 0.1 micro- Newton. The thrust will be generated by using a high electric field to extract charged droplets of a conducting colloid fluid and accelerating them with a precisely adjustable voltage. The control reference will be provided by the European LISA Technology Package, which will include two nearly freefloating test masses. The test mass positions and orientations will be measured using a capacitance bridge. The test mass position and attitude will be adjustable using electrostatically applied forces and torques. The DRS will control the spacecraft position with respect to one test mass while minimizing disturbances on the second test mass. The dynamic control system will cover eighteen degrees of freedom: six for each of the test masses and six for the spacecraft. After launch in late 2009 to a low Earth orbit, the LISA Pathfinder spacecraft will be maneuvered to a halo orbit about the Earth-Sun L1 Lagrange point for operations.

  5. An air-breathing ballistic space transporter for Europe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kramer, P. A.; Buehler, R. D.

    1985-01-01

    With increasing transport requirements, reusable space transporters again receive serious consideration in Europe as successors to the Ariane family. The paper deals with a hydrogen-ramjet-propelled, 1-1/2-stage reusable ballistic space transporter with vertical take-off and landing and using liquid hydrogen/oxygen rockets. This novel concept was developed in a theoretical study at the University of Stuttgart. The results are compared with recently published studies of several other European space transporter concepts. The data derived for the Istra - concept are: 15.4 Mg payload into low Earth-orbit, 155 Mg gross lift-off mass, 10% payload ratio, which represents a 57% propellant saving, and 44% reduction in dry mass (structure and engines) compared with comparable two-stage pure rocket concepts.

  6. Energy use, emissions and air pollution reduction strategies in Asia

    SciTech Connect

    Foell, W.; Green, C.; Sarkar, A.; Legler, J.

    1995-12-31

    The pace of economic progress and development experienced in many Asian countries has not occurred without costs to the natural environment. In particular, energy policies and technologies are a primary driving force behind air pollution problems arising from air pollution emissions in Asia. Economic growth, energy use, and reliance on fossil fuels are experiencing extremely high growth throughout most of the continent. Electric power expansion plans in many countries of Asia, particularly China and India, call for substantial increases in coal combustion. In the 1990`s, two-thirds of all power related investments in developing countries will be in Asia. In contrast to the situation in Europe and North America, emissions of air pollution species in Asia are increasing rapidly, resulting in both local air pollution problems and higher acidic deposition in many regions. In general, most Asian countries do not have a strong scientific nor public constituency for addressing potentially serious air pollution problems impacting important economic and cultural activities such as forestry, agriculture, and tourism. The complex political ramifications of trans-boundary air pollution in Asia have not yet begun to be addressed.

  7. VAPOR SPACE AND LIQUID/AIR INTERFACECORROSION TESTS

    SciTech Connect

    Zapp, P.; Hoffman, E.

    2009-11-09

    The phenomena of vapor space corrosion and liquid/air interface corrosion of carbon steel in simulated liquid waste environments have been investigated. Initial experiments have explored the hypothesis that vapor space corrosion may be accelerated by the formation of a corrosive electrolyte on the tank wall by a process of evaporation of relatively warmer waste and condensation of the vapor on the relatively cooler tank wall. Results from initial testing do not support the hypothesis of electrolyte transport by evaporation and condensation. The analysis of the condensate collected by a steel specimen suspended over a 40 C simulated waste solution showed no measurable concentrations of the constituents of the simulated solution and a decrease in pH from 14 in the simulant to 5.3 in the condensate. Liquid/air interface corrosion was studied as a galvanic corrosion system, where steel at the interface undergoes accelerated corrosion while steel in contact with bulk waste is protected. The zero-resistance-ammeter technique was used to measure the current flow between steel specimens immersed in solutions simulating (1) the high-pH bulk liquid waste and (2) the expected low-pH meniscus liquid at the liquid/air interface. Open-circuit potential measurements of the steel specimens were not significantly different in the two solutions, with the result that (1) no consistent galvanic current flow occurred and (2) both the meniscus specimen and bulk specimen were subject to pitting corrosion.

  8. Sound reduction of air compressors using a systematic approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moylan, Justin Tharp

    The noise emitted by portable electric air compressors can often be a nuisance or potentially hazardous to the operator or others nearby. Therefore, reducing the noise of these air compressors is desired. This research focuses on compressors with a reciprocating piston design as this is the most common type of pump design for portable compressors. An experimental setup was developed to measure the sound and vibration of the air compressors, including testing inside a semi-anechoic chamber. The design of a quiet air compressor was performed in four stages: 1) Teardown and benchmarking of air compressors, 2) Identification and isolation of noise sources, 3) Development of individual means to quiet noise sources, 4) Selection and testing of integrated solutions. The systematic approach and results for each of these stages will be discussed. Two redesigned solutions were developed and measured to be approximately 65% quieter than the previous unmodified compressor. An additional analysis was performed on the solutions selected by the participants involved in the selection process. This analysis involved determining which of the design criteria each participant considered most important when selecting solutions. The results from each participant were then compared to their educational background and experience and correlations were identified. The correlations discovered suggest that educational background and experience may be key determinants for the preference models developed.

  9. Logistics Reduction and Repurposing Technology for Long Duration Space Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Broyan, James L.; Chu, Andrew; Ewert, Michael K.

    2014-01-01

    One of NASA's Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) projects is the Logistics Reduction and Repurposing (LRR) project, which has the goal of reducing logistics resupply items through direct and indirect means. Various technologies under development in the project will reduce the launch mass of consumables and their packaging, enable reuse and repurposing of items and make logistics tracking more efficient. Repurposing also reduces the trash burden onboard spacecraft and indirectly reduces launch mass by replacing some items on the manifest. Examples include reuse of trash as radiation shielding or propellant. This paper provides the status of the LRR technologies in their third year of development under AES. Advanced clothing systems (ACS) are being developed to enable clothing to be worn longer, directly reducing launch mass. ACS has completed a ground exercise clothing study in preparation for an International Space Station (ISS) technology demonstration in 2014. Development of launch packaging containers and other items that can be repurposed on-orbit as part of habitation outfitting has resulted in a logistics-to-living (L2L) concept. L2L has fabricated and evaluated several multi-purpose cargo transfer bags (MCTBs) for potential reuse on orbit. Autonomous logistics management (ALM) is using radio frequency identification (RFID) to track items and thus reduce crew requirements for logistics functions. An RFID dense reader prototype is under construction and plans for integrated testing are being made. Development of a heat melt compactor (HMC) second generation unit for processing trash into compact and stable tiles is nearing completion. The HMC prototype compaction chamber has been completed and system development testing is underway. Research has been conducted on the conversion of trash-to-gas (TtG) for high levels of volume reduction and for use in propulsion systems. A steam reformation system was selected for further system definition of the TtG technology

  10. Reduction in soybean seed yields by ozone air pollution

    SciTech Connect

    Heggestad, H.E.

    1988-08-01

    The National Crop Loss Assessment Network (NCLAN) determined that soybeans were more sensitive to ozone than other major agricultural crops, including corn, wheat, and cotton. The estimated production losses for soybeans at ambient levels of ozone ranged from 7.9 to 18.6 percent compared to 0.6 to 3.1 percent for corn. The research on soybeans was conducted in Illinois, North Carolina, Maryland, and New York. The loss estimates were obtained from field experiments using open-top chambers with charcoal-filtered (CF) air, nonfiltered (NF) air, and NF air with the addition of two or more increments of ozone. However, New Jersey scientists in two recent reports question the validity of the NCLAN results since the utilization of a different method to assess the impact of exposure of ambient O/sub 3/ on soybeans failed to show significant yield losses.

  11. Radiation Physics for Space and High Altitude Air Travel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cucinotta, F. A.; Wilson, J. W.; Goldhagen, P.; Saganti, P.; Shavers, M. R.; McKay, Gordon A. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Galactic cosmic rays (GCR) are of extra-solar origin consisting of high-energy hydrogen, helium, and heavy ions. The GCR are modified by physical processes as they traverse through the solar system, spacecraft shielding, atmospheres, and tissues producing copious amounts of secondary radiation including fragmentation products, neutrons, mesons, and muons. We discuss physical models and measurements relevant for estimating biological risks in space and high-altitude air travel. Ambient and internal spacecraft computational models for the International Space Station and a Mars mission are discussed. Risk assessment is traditionally based on linear addition of components. We discuss alternative models that include stochastic treatments of columnar damage by heavy ion tracks and multi-cellular damage following nuclear fragmentation in tissue.

  12. Space Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (SNTP) Air Force facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beck, David F.

    1993-01-01

    The Space Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (SNTP) Program is an initiative within the US Air Force to acquire and validate advanced technologies that could be used to sustain superior capabilities in the area or space nuclear propulsion. The SNTP Program has a specific objective of demonstrating the feasibility of the particle bed reactor (PBR) concept. The term PIPET refers to a project within the SNTP Program responsible for the design, development, construction, and operation of a test reactor facility, including all support systems, that is intended to resolve program technology issues and test goals. A nuclear test facility has been designed that meets SNTP Facility requirements. The design approach taken to meet SNTP requirements has resulted in a nuclear test facility that should encompass a wide range of nuclear thermal propulsion (NTP) test requirements that may be generated within other programs. The SNTP PIPET project is actively working with DOE and NASA to assess this possibility.

  13. Fuel Savings and Emission Reductions from Next-Generation Mobile Air Conditioning Technology in India: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Chaney, L.; Thundiyil, K.; Chidambaram, S.; Abbi, Y. P.; Anderson, S.

    2007-05-01

    This paper quantifies the mobile air-conditioning fuel consumption of the typical Indian vehicle, exploring potential fuel savings and emissions reductions these systems for the next generation of vehicles.

  14. Direct Numerical Simulation of Air Layer Drag Reduction over a Backward-facing Step

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Dokyun; Moin, Parviz

    2010-11-01

    Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS) of two-phase flow is performed to investigate the air layer drag reduction (ALDR) phenomenon in turbulent flow over a backward-facing step. In their experimental study, Elbing et al. (JFM, 2008) have observed a stable air layer on an entire flat plate if air is injected beyond the critical air-flow rate. In the present study, air is injected at the step on the wall into turbulent water flow for ALDR. The Reynolds and Weber numbers based on the water properties and step height are 22,800 and 560, respectively. An inlet section length before the step is 3h and the post expansion length is 30h, where h is the step height. The total number of grid points is about 271 million for DNS. The level set method is used to track the phase interface and the structured-mesh finite volume solver is used with an efficient algorithm for two-phase DNS. Two cases with different air-flow rates are performed to investigate the mechanism and stability of air layer. For high air-flow rate, the stable air layer is formed on the plate and more than 90% drag reduction is obtained. In the case of low air-flow rate, the air layer breaks up and ALDR is not achieved. The parameters governing the stability of air layer from the numerical simulations is also consistent with the results of stability analysis.

  15. Experimental investigation of frictional resistance reduction with air layer on the hull bottom of a ship

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jang, Jinho; Choi, Soon Ho; Ahn, Sung-Mok; Kim, Booki; Seo, Jong Soo

    2014-06-01

    In an effort to cope with recent high oil price and global warming, developments of air lubricated ships have been pursued to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and to save fuel costs by reducing the frictional resistance. In this study, reduction in the frictional resistance by air lubrication with air layers generated on the lower surface of a flat plate was investigated experimentally in the large water tunnel of SSMB. The generated air layers were observed, and changes in the local frictional drag were measured at various flow rates of injected air. The results indicated that air lubrication with air layers might be useful in reducing the frictional resistance at specific conditions of air injection. Accordingly, resistance and self-propulsion tests for a 66K DWT bulk carrier were carried out in the towing tank of SSMB to estimate the expected net power savings.

  16. Spray drift and off-target loss reduction with a precision air-assisted sprayer

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Spray drift and off-target losses are inherent problems of conventional air-assisted sprayers. Their low efficiencies cause environmental pollutions resulting in public anxieties. A new drift reduction technology incorporating laser scanning capabilities with a variable-rate air-assisted sprayer w...

  17. Mass Reduction: The Weighty Challenge for Exploration Space Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kloeris, Vickie L.

    2014-01-01

    Meeting nutritional and acceptability requirements is critical for the food system for an exploration class space mission. However, this must be achieved within the constraints of available resources such as water, crew time, stowage volume, launch mass and power availability. ? Due to resource constraints, exploration class missions are not expected to have refrigerators or freezers for food storage, and current per person food mass must be reduced to improve mission feasibility. ? The Packaged Food Mass Reduction Trade Study (Stoklosa, 2009) concluded that the mass of the current space food system can be effectively reduced by decreasing water content of certain foods and offering nutrient dense substitutes, such as meal replacement bars and beverages. Target nutrient ranges were established based on the nutritional content of the current breakfast and lunch meals in the ISS standard menu. A market survey of available commercial products produced no viable options for meal replacement bar or beverage products. New prototypes for both categories were formulated to meet target nutrient ranges. Samples of prototype products were packaged in high barrier packaging currently used for ISS and underwent an accelerated shelf life study at 31 degC and 41 degC (50% RH) for 24 weeks. Samples were assessed at the following time points: Initial, 6 weeks, 12 weeks, and 24 weeks. Testing at each time point included the following: color, texture, water activity, acceptability, and hexanal analysis (for food bars only). Proof of concept prototypes demonstrated that meal replacement food bars and beverages can deliver a comparable macronutrient profile while reducing the overall mass when compared to the ISS Standard Menu. Future work suggestions for meal replacement bars: Reformulation to include ingredients that reduce hardness and reduce browning to increase shelf life. Micronutrient analysis and potential fortification. Sensory evaluation studies including satiety tests and

  18. 77 FR 2677 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Primary Aluminum Reduction Plants...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-19

    ... Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Primary Aluminum Reduction Plants'' is being extended for 12 days. DATES: Comments. The public comment period for the proposed rule published December 6, 2011, (76 FR... Aluminum Reduction Plants; Extension of Comment Period AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency...

  19. Overview of the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency's Hazardous Air Pollutant Early Reduction Program

    SciTech Connect

    Laznow, J. ); Daniel, J. )

    1992-01-01

    Under provision of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 Title III, the EPA has proposed a regulation (Early Reduction Program) to allow a six-year compliance extension from Maximum Achievable Control Technology (MACT) standards for sources that voluntarily reduce emissions of Hazardous Air Pollutants (HAPs) by 90% or more (95% or more for particulates) from a base year of 1987 or later. The emission reduction must be made before the applicable MACT standard is proposed for the source category or be subject to an enforceable commitment to achieve the reduction by January 1, 1994 for sources subject to MACT standards prior to 1994. The primary purpose of this program is to encourage reduction of HAPs emissions sooner than otherwise required. Industry would be allowed additional time in evaluating emission reduction options and developing more cost-effective compliance strategies, although, under strict guidelines to ensure actual, significant and verifiable emission reductions occur.

  20. Means of atmospheric air pollution reduction during drilling wells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shkitsa, L.; Yatsyshyn, T.; Lyakh, M.; Sydorenko, O.

    2016-08-01

    The process of drilling oil and gas wells is the source of air pollution through drilling mud evaporation containing hazardous chemical substances. The constructive solution for cleaning device of downhole tool that contains elements covering tube and clean the surface from the mud in the process of rising from the well is offered. Inside the device is filled with magnetic fluid containing the substance neutralizing hazardous substances. The use of the equipment proposed will make it possible to avoid penetration of harmful substances into the environment and to escape the harmful effects of aggressive substances for staff health and increase rig's fire safety.

  1. Studies on the oxygen reduction catalyst for zinc-air battery electrode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xianyou; Sebastian, P. J.; Smit, Mascha A.; Yang, Hongping; Gamboa, S. A.

    In this paper, perovskite type La 0.6Ca 0.4CoO 3 as a catalyst of oxygen reduction was prepared, and the structure and performance of the catalysts was examined by means of IR, X-ray diffraction (XRD), and thermogravimetric (TG). Mixed catalysts doped, some metal oxides were put also used. The cathodic polarization curves for oxygen reduction on various catalytic electrodes were measured by linear sweep voltammetry (LSV). A Zn-air battery was made with various catalysts for oxygen reduction, and the performance of the battery was measured with a BS-9300SM rechargeable battery charge/discharge device. The results showed that the perovskite type catalyst (La 0.6Ca 0.4CoO 3) doped with metal oxide is an excellent catalyst for the zinc-air battery, and can effectively stimulate the reduction of oxygen and improve the properties of zinc-air batteries, such as discharge capacity, etc.

  2. Primary zinc-air batteries for space power

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bragg, Bobby J.; Bourland, Deborah S.; Merry, Glenn; Putt, Ron

    1992-02-01

    Prismatic HR and LC cells and batteries were built and tested, and they performed well with respect to the program goals of high capacity and high rate capability at specific energies. The HR batteries suffered reduced utilizations owing to dryout at the 2 and 3 A rates for the 50 C tests owing to the requirement for forced convection. The LC batteries suffered reduced utilizations under all conditions owing to the chimney effect at 1 G, although this effect would not occur at 0 G. An empirical model was developed which accurately predicted utilizations and average voltages for single cells, although thermal effects encountered during battery testing caused significant deviations, both positive and negative, from the model. Based on the encouraging results of the test program, we believe that the zinc-air primary battery of a flat, stackable configuration can serve as a high performance and safe power source for a range of space applications.

  3. Primary zinc-air batteries for space power

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bragg, Bobby J.; Bourland, Deborah S.; Merry, Glenn; Putt, Ron

    1992-01-01

    Prismatic HR and LC cells and batteries were built and tested, and they performed well with respect to the program goals of high capacity and high rate capability at specific energies. The HR batteries suffered reduced utilizations owing to dryout at the 2 and 3 A rates for the 50 C tests owing to the requirement for forced convection. The LC batteries suffered reduced utilizations under all conditions owing to the chimney effect at 1 G, although this effect would not occur at 0 G. An empirical model was developed which accurately predicted utilizations and average voltages for single cells, although thermal effects encountered during battery testing caused significant deviations, both positive and negative, from the model. Based on the encouraging results of the test program, we believe that the zinc-air primary battery of a flat, stackable configuration can serve as a high performance and safe power source for a range of space applications.

  4. A Method to Exchange Air Nitrogen Emission Reductions for Watershed Nitrogen Load Reductions

    EPA Science Inventory

    Presentation of the method developed for the Chesapeake Bay Program to estimate changes in nitrogen loading to Chesapeake due to changes in Bay State state-level nitrogen oxide emissions to support air-water trading by the Bay States. Type for SticsUnder AMAD Application QAPP, QA...

  5. Development Of Chemical Reduction And Air Stripping Processes To Remove Mercury From Wastewater

    SciTech Connect

    Jackson, Dennis G.; Looney, Brian B.; Craig, Robert R.; Thompson, Martha C.; Kmetz, Thomas F.

    2013-07-10

    This study evaluates the removal of mercury from wastewater using chemical reduction and air stripping using a full-scale treatment system at the Savannah River Site. The existing water treatment system utilizes air stripping as the unit operation to remove organic compounds from groundwater that also contains mercury (C ~ 250 ng/L). The baseline air stripping process was ineffective in removing mercury and the water exceeded a proposed limit of 51 ng/L. To test an enhancement to the existing treatment modality a continuous dose of reducing agent was injected for 6-hours at the inlet of the air stripper. This action resulted in the chemical reduction of mercury to Hg(0), a species that is removable with the existing unit operation. During the injection period a 94% decrease in concentration was observed and the effluent satisfied proposed limits. The process was optimized over a 2-day period by sequentially evaluating dose rates ranging from 0.64X to 297X stoichiometry. A minimum dose of 16X stoichiometry was necessary to initiate the reduction reaction that facilitated the mercury removal. Competing electron acceptors likely inhibited the reaction at the lower 1 doses, which prevented removal by air stripping. These results indicate that chemical reduction coupled with air stripping can effectively treat large-volumes of water to emerging part per trillion regulatory standards for mercury.

  6. Overview of the Pegasus Air-Launched Space Booster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindberg, Robert E.

    1989-09-01

    The Pegasus Air-Launched Space Booster is an innovative new space launch vehicle now under full-scale development in a privately-funded joint venture by Orbital Sciences Corporation (OSC) and Hercules Aerospace Company. Pegasus is a three-stage, solid-propellant, inertially-guided, all-composite winged vehicle that is launched at an altitude of 40,000 ft from its carrier aircraft. The 41,000 lb vehicle can deliver payloads as massive as 900 lb to low earth orbit. This status report on the Pegasus developemt program first details the advantages of the airborne launch concept, then describes the design and performance of the Pegasus vehicle and conlcludes with a review of the progress of the program from its conception in April 1987 through September 1989. First launch of Pegasus is scheduled for October 31, 1989, under contract to the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA). The second flight under the DARPA contract will be held several months later.

  7. Space Shuttle Projects Overview to Columbia Air Forces War College

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singer, Jody; McCool, Alex (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents, in viewgraph form, a general overview of space shuttle projects. Some of the topics include: 1) Space Shuttle Projects; 2) Marshall Space Flight Center Space Shuttle Projects Office; 3) Space Shuttle Propulsion systems; 4) Space Shuttle Program Major Sites; 5) NASA Office of Space flight (OSF) Center Roles in Space Shuttle Program; 6) Space Shuttle Hardware Flow; and 7) Shuttle Flights To Date.

  8. Metal-air batteries: from oxygen reduction electrochemistry to cathode catalysts.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Fangyi; Chen, Jun

    2012-03-21

    Because of the remarkably high theoretical energy output, metal-air batteries represent one class of promising power sources for applications in next-generation electronics, electrified transportation and energy storage of smart grids. The most prominent feature of a metal-air battery is the combination of a metal anode with high energy density and an air electrode with open structure to draw cathode active materials (i.e., oxygen) from air. In this critical review, we present the fundamentals and recent advances related to the fields of metal-air batteries, with a focus on the electrochemistry and materials chemistry of air electrodes. The battery electrochemistry and catalytic mechanism of oxygen reduction reactions are discussed on the basis of aqueous and organic electrolytes. Four groups of extensively studied catalysts for the cathode oxygen reduction/evolution are selectively surveyed from materials chemistry to electrode properties and battery application: Pt and Pt-based alloys (e.g., PtAu nanoparticles), carbonaceous materials (e.g., graphene nanosheets), transition-metal oxides (e.g., Mn-based spinels and perovskites), and inorganic-organic composites (e.g., metal macrocycle derivatives). The design and optimization of air-electrode structure are also outlined. Furthermore, remarks on the challenges and perspectives of research directions are proposed for further development of metal-air batteries (219 references). PMID:22254234

  9. The impact of an air quality advisory program on voluntary mobile source air pollution reduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blanken, Peter D.; Dillon, Jennifer; Wismann, Genevieve

    Air pollution from mobile source emissions is a major cause of air quality degradation in the Denver, Colorado, metropolitan area. The projected increase in both population and vehicle miles driven, coupled with the high altitude, predominantly clear skies, and prevalent wintertime temperature inversions aid in the formation and retention of pollutants. The Colorado Department of Public Health issues an air quality advisory daily during the high pollution season (November 1-March 31) with the objective of improving air quality through voluntary driving restrictions and a mandatory wood burning ban. We hypothesized that the advisory had no effect on commuter behavior due to lack of awareness and understanding, lack of alternative means of travel, or lack of concern. We mailed an anonymous, self-administered survey to 1000 commuters living in the cities of Boulder and Westminster, Colorado. Despite the fact that the vast majority of the respondents were aware of the daily advisory (94%), understood what it meant (93%), and heard the posting at least once a day (71%) in time to choose alternative forms of transportation, the advisory did not alter commuter travel. Commuters traveled mainly as the sole occupant of a car and most (76%) never changed the way they commuted based on the daily advisory. Many claimed schedules or work locations did not allow them to use alternative transportation methods. We suggested a practical way to improve the advisory would be to reduce or eliminate public transit fares on poor air quality days.

  10. Cosmic Ray-Air Shower Measurement from Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Takahashi, Yoshiyuki

    1997-01-01

    A feasibility study has been initiated to observe from space the highest energy cosmic rays above 1021 eV. A satellite observatory concept, the Maximum-energy Auger (Air)-Shower Satellite (MASS), is recently renamed as the Orbital Wide-angle Collector (OWL) by taking its unique feature of using a very wide field-of-view (FOV) optics. A huge array of imaging devices (about 10(exp 6) pixels) is required to detect and record fluorescent light profiles of cosmic ray cascades in the atmosphere. The FOV of MASS could extend to as large as about 60 in. diameter, which views (500 - 1000 km) of earth's surface and more than 300 - 1000 cosmic ray events per year could be observed above 1020 eV. From far above the atmosphere, the MASS/OWL satellite should be capable of observing events at all angles including near horizontal tracks, and would have considerable aperture for high energy photon and neutrino observation. With a large aperture and the spatial and temporal resolution, MASS could determine the energy spectrum, the mass composition, and arrival anisotropy of cosmic rays from 1020 eV to 1022 eV; a region hitherto not explored by ground-based detectors such as the Fly's Eye and air-shower arrays. MASS/OWL's ability to identify cosmic neutrinos and gamma rays may help providing evidence for the theory which attributes the above cut-off cosmic ray flux to the decay of topological defects. Very wide FOV optics system of MASS/OWL with a large array of imaging devices is applicable to observe other atmospheric phenomena including upper atmospheric lightning. The wide FOV MASS optics being developed can also improve ground-based gamma-ray observatories by allowing simultaneous observation of many gamma ray sources located at different constellations.

  11. OBJECTIVE REDUCTION OF THE SPACE-TIME DOMAIN DIMENSIONALITY FOR EVALUATING MODEL PERFORMANCE

    EPA Science Inventory

    In the United States, photochemical air quality models are the principal tools used by governmental agencies to develop emission reduction strategies aimed at achieving National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS). Before they can be applied with confidence in a regulatory sett...

  12. Risk Reduction for Use of Complex Devices in Space Projects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berg, Melanie; Poivey, Christian; Friendlich, Mark; Petrick, Dave; LaBel, Kenneth; Stansberry, Scott

    2007-01-01

    We present guidel!nes to reduce risk to an acceptable level when using complex devices in space applications. Application to Virtex 4 Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) on Express Logistic Carrier (ELC) project is presented.

  13. Multi-Group Reductions of LTE Air Plasma Radiative Transfer in Cylindrical Geometries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scoggins, James; Magin, Thierry Edouard Bertran; Wray, Alan; Mansour, Nagi N.

    2013-01-01

    Air plasma radiation in Local Thermodynamic Equilibrium (LTE) within cylindrical geometries is studied with an application towards modeling the radiative transfer inside arc-constrictors, a central component of constricted-arc arc jets. A detailed database of spectral absorption coefficients for LTE air is formulated using the NEQAIR code developed at NASA Ames Research Center. The database stores calculated absorption coefficients for 1,051,755 wavelengths between 0.04 µm and 200 µm over a wide temperature (500K to 15 000K) and pressure (0.1 atm to 10.0 atm) range. The multi-group method for spectral reduction is studied by generating a range of reductions including pure binning and banding reductions from the detailed absorption coefficient database. The accuracy of each reduction is compared to line-by-line calculations for cylindrical temperature profiles resembling typical profiles found in arc-constrictors. It is found that a reduction of only 1000 groups is sufficient to accurately model the LTE air radiation over a large temperature and pressure range. In addition to the reduction comparison, the cylindrical-slab formulation is compared with the finite-volume method for the numerical integration of the radiative flux inside cylinders with varying length. It is determined that cylindrical-slabs can be used to accurately model most arc-constrictors due to their high length to radius ratios.

  14. Modelling the impacts of ammonia emissions reductions on North American air quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makar, P. A.; Moran, M. D.; Zheng, Q.; Cousineau, S.; Sassi, M.; Duhamel, A.; Besner, M.; Davignon, D.; Crevier, L.-P.; Bouchet, V. S.

    2009-03-01

    A unified regional air-quality modelling system (AURAMS) was used to investigate the effects of reductions in ammonia emissions on regional air quality, with a focus on particulate-matter formation. Three simulations of one-year duration were performed for a North American domain: (1) a base-case simulation using 2002 Canadian and US national emissions inventories augmented by a more detailed Canadian emissions inventory for agricultural ammonia; (2) a 30% North-American-wide reduction in agricultural ammonia emissions; and (3) a 50% reduction in Canadian beef-cattle ammonia emissions. The simulations show that a 30% continent-wide reduction in agricultural ammonia emissions lead to reductions in median hourly ±2.5 mass of <1 μg m-3 on an annual basis. The atmospheric response to these emission reductions displays marked seasonal variations, and on even shorter time scales the impacts of the emissions reductions are highly episodic: 95-percentile hourly ±2.5 mass decreases can be up to a factor of six larger than the median values. A key finding of the modelling work is the linkage between gas and aqueous chemistry and transport; reductions in ammonia emissions affect gaseous ammonia concentrations close to the emissions site, but substantial impacts on particulate matter and atmospheric deposition often occur at considerable distances downwind, with particle nitrate being the main vector of ammonia/um transport. Ammonia emissions reductions therefore have trans-boundary and possibly trans-oceanic consequences downwind. Calculations of critical-load exceedances for sensitive ecosystems in Canada suggest that ammonia emission reductions will have a minimal impact on current ecosystem acidification within Canada, but may have a substantial impact on future ecosystem acidification. The 50% Canadian beef-cattle ammonia emissions reduction scenario was used to examine model sensitivity to uncertainties in the new Canadian agricultural ammonia emissions inventory, and

  15. Improvement of air quality according to Mobile reduction measures to establish Korean Auto-oil program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sunwoo, Y.; Jo, H.; Ma, Y.; Kim, S.; Hong, K.; Lim, Y.; Javascript:Setnextpage('sponsor')

    2011-12-01

    The mobile of NOx and PM10 emission of Korea in 2007 accounted for 42%, 23%, respectively (excluded fugitive dust). Seoul highly affected mobile emission which accounted for 46%, 49%, respectively. Korean government ,therefore, established "Special Act for improvement of air quality in Seoul metropolitan area" including mobile emission reduction measures and organized research forum including reformation of fuel and cars, risk assessment, control of greenhouse gas and assessment of air quality to establish Korean Auto-oil program This study quantitatively analyses improvement of air quality in Seoul according to the reformation of fuel and supply of DPF in Korean Auto-oil program. WRF-SMOKE-CMAQ were emploied for this study. SO2, CO, NOx, PM10 and VOCs emission are based on the INTEX-B emission inventory, NH3 were from the REAS emission inventory. Korea emission is derived by CAPSS (Clean Air Policy Support System) data. The reduction through reformation of fuel and supply of DPF is calculated by reduction ratio of air pollutants with strengthen fuel quality standard and number of car supplied DPF, refer to Metropolitan Air Quality Management Office Republic of Korea (2011) in detail. The effect of air quality is quantifiably comparing modeling results which are applied/not applied on the measures. This study will be provided basic data to establish Korean Auto-oil program through quantifying and predicting to improvement of air quality according to the mobile measures. Acknowledgement This research was supported in part by the "Assessment of risk and health benefits considering exposure characteristics of fuel" project sponsored by the Korea Automobile Environmental Association.

  16. Recycling and source reduction for long duration space habitation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hightower, T. M.

    1992-01-01

    A direct mathematical approach has been established for characterizing the performance of closed-loop life support systems. The understanding that this approach gives clearly illustrates the options available for increasing the performance of a life support system by changing various parameters. New terms are defined and utilized, such as Segregation Factor, Resource Recovery Efficiency, Overall Reclamation Efficiency, Resupply Reduction Factor, and Life Support Extension Factor. The effects of increases in expendable system supplies required due to increases in life support system complexity are shown. Minimizing resupply through increased recycling and source reduction is illustrated. The effects of recycling upon resupply launch cost is also shown. Finally, material balance analyses have been performed based on quantity and composition data for both supplies and wastes, to illustrate the use of this approach by comparing ten different closed-loop life support system cases.

  17. Superhydrophobic surfaces of the water bug Notonecta glauca: a model for friction reduction and air retention.

    PubMed

    Ditsche-Kuru, Petra; Schneider, Erik S; Melskotte, Jan-Erik; Brede, Martin; Leder, Alfred; Barthlott, Wilhelm

    2011-01-01

    Superhydrophobic surfaces of plants and animals are of great interest for biomimetic applications. Whereas the self-cleaning properties of superhydrophobic surfaces have been extensively investigated, their ability to retain an air film while submerged under water has not, in the past, received much attention. Nevertheless, air retaining surfaces are of great economic and ecological interest because an air film can reduce friction of solid bodies sliding through the water. This opens perspectives for biomimetic applications such as low friction fluid transport or friction reduction on ship hulls. For such applications the durability of the air film is most important. While the air film on most superhydrophobic surfaces usually lasts no longer than a few days, a few semi-aquatic plants and insects are able to hold an air film over a longer time period. Currently, we found high air film persistence under hydrostatic conditions for the elytra of the backswimmer Notonecta glauca which we therefore have chosen for further investigations. In this study, we compare the micro- and nanostructure of selected body parts (sternites, upper side of elytra, underside of elytra) in reference to their air retaining properties. Our investigations demonstrate outstanding air film persistence of the upper side of the elytra of Notonecta glauca under hydrostatic and hydrodynamic conditions. This hierarchically structured surface was able to hold a complete air film under hydrostatic conditions for longer than 130 days while on other body parts with simple structures the air film showed gaps (underside of elytra) or even vanished completely after a few days (sternites). Moreover, the upper side of the elytra was able to keep an air film up to flow velocities of 5 m/s. Obviously the complex surface structure with tiny dense microtrichia and two types of larger specially shaped setae is relevant for this outstanding ability. Besides high air film persistence, the observation of a

  18. Bioastronautics Roadmap: A Risk Reduction Strategy for Human Space Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    The Bioastronautics Critical Path Roadmap is the framework used to identify and assess the risks to crews exposed to the hazardous environments of space. It guides the implementation of research strategies to prevent or reduce those risks. Although the BCPR identifies steps that must be taken to reduce the risks to health and performance that are associated with human space flight, the BCPR is not a "critical path" analysis in the strict engineering sense. The BCPR will evolve to accommodate new information and technology development and will enable NASA to conduct a formal critical path analysis in the future. As a management tool, the BCPR provides information for making informed decisions about research priorities and resource allocation. The outcome-driven nature of the BCPR makes it amenable for assessing the focus, progress and success of the Bioastronautics research and technology program. The BCPR is also a tool for communicating program priorities and progress to the research community and NASA management.

  19. Noise reduction by the application of an air-bubble curtain in offshore pile driving

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsouvalas, A.; Metrikine, A. V.

    2016-06-01

    Underwater noise pollution is a by-product of marine industrial operations. In particular, the noise generated when a foundation pile is driven into the soil with an impact hammer is considered to be harmful for the aquatic species. In an attempt to reduce the ecological footprint, several noise mitigation techniques have been investigated. Among the various solutions proposed, the air-bubble curtain is often applied due to its efficacy in noise reduction. In this paper, a model is proposed for the investigation of the sound reduction during marine piling when an air-bubble curtain is placed around the pile. The model consists of the pile, the surrounding water and soil media, and the air-bubble curtain which is positioned at a certain distance from the pile surface. The solution approach is semi-analytical and is based on the dynamic sub-structuring technique and the modal decomposition method. Two main results of the paper can be distinguished. First, a new model is proposed that can be used for predictions of the noise levels in a computationally efficient manner. Second, an analysis is presented of the principal mechanisms that are responsible for the noise reduction due to the application of the air-bubble curtain in marine piling. The understanding of these mechanisms turns to be crucial for the exploitation of the maximum efficiency of the system. It is shown that the principal mechanism of noise reduction depends strongly on the frequency content of the radiated sound and the characteristics of the bubbly medium. For piles of large diameter which radiate most of the acoustic energy at relatively low frequencies, the noise reduction is mainly attributed to the mismatch of the acoustic impedances between the seawater and the bubbly layer. On the contrary, for smaller piles and when the radiated acoustic energy is concentrated at frequencies close to, or higher than, the resonance frequency of the air bubbles, the sound absorption within the bubbly layer

  20. Quantifying the air pollutants emission reduction during the 2008 Olympic games in Beijing.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shuxiao; Zhao, Meng; Xing, Jia; Wu, Ye; Zhou, Yu; Lei, Yu; He, Kebin; Fu, Lixin; Hao, Jiming

    2010-04-01

    Air quality was a vital concern for the Beijing Olympic Games in 2008. To strictly control air pollutant emissions and ensure good air quality for the Games, Beijing municipal government announced an "Air Quality Guarantee Plan for the 29th Olympics in Beijing". In order to evaluate the effectiveness of the guarantee plan, this study analyzed the air pollutant emission reductions during the 29th Olympiad in Beijing. In June 2008, daily emissions of SO(2), NO(X), PM(10), and NMVOC in Beijing were 103.9 t, 428.5 t, 362.7 t, and 890.0 t, respectively. During the Olympic Games, the daily emissions of SO(2), NO(X), PM(10), and NMVOC in Beijing were reduced to 61.6 t, 229.1 t, 164.3 t, and 381.8 t -41%, 47%, 55%, and 57% lower than June 2008 emission levels. Closing facilities producing construction materials reduced the sector's SO(2) emissions by 85%. Emission control measures for mobile sources, including high-emitting vehicle restrictions, government vehicle use controls, and alternate day driving rules for Beijing's 3.3 million private cars, reduced mobile source NO(X) and NMVOC by 46% and 57%, respectively. Prohibitions on building construction reduced the sector's PM(10) emissions by approximately 90% or total PM(10) by 35%. NMVOC reductions came mainly from mobile source and fugitive emission reductions. Based on the emission inventories developed in this study, the CMAQ model was used to simulate Beijing's ambient air quality during the Olympic Games. The model results accurately reflect the environmental monitoring data providing evidence that the emission inventories in this study are reasonably accurate and quantitatively reflect the emission changes attributable to air pollution control measures taken during the 29th Olympic Games in 2008. PMID:20222727

  1. Liquid-Infused Surfaces with Trapped Air (LISTA) for Drag Force Reduction.

    PubMed

    Hemeda, A A; Tafreshi, H Vahedi

    2016-03-29

    Superhydrophobic (SHP) surfaces are known for their drag-reducing attributes thanks to their ability to trap air in their surface pores and thereby reduce the contact between water and the frictional solid area. SHP surfaces are prone to failure under elevated pressures or because of air-layer dissolution into the surrounding water. Slippery liquid-infused porous surfaces (SLIPS) or liquid-infused surfaces (LIS) in which the trapped air is replaced with a lubricant have been proposed in the literature as a way of eliminating the air dissolution problem as well as improving the surface stability under pressure. While an LIS surface has been shown to reduce drag for flow of water-glycerol mixture (ref 18), no significant drag reduction has yet been reported for the flow of water (a lower viscosity fluid) over LIS. In this concern, we have designed a new surface in which a layer of air is trapped underneath the infused lubricant to reduce the frictional forces preventing the LIS to provide drag reduction for water or any fluid with a viscosity less than that of the lubricant. Drag reduction performance of such surfaces, referred to here as liquid-infused surfaces with trapped air (LISTA), is predicted by solving the biharmonic equation for the water-oil-air three-phase system in transverse grooves with enhanced meniscus stability thanks to double-reentry designs. For the arbitrary dimensions considered in our proof-of-concept study, LISTA designs showed 20-37% advantage over their LIS counterparts. PMID:26977775

  2. Starfleet Deferred: Project Orion in the 1962 Air Force Space Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ziarnick, B.

    Project Orion, the Cold War American program (1957-1965) studying nuclear pulse propulsion for space applications, has long interested space enthusiasts for what it was and what it might have been, but it has long been believed that neither the United States government nor the US Air Force took the program very seriously. However, recently declassified US Air Force documents shed more light on the classified history of Project Orion. Far from being ignored by Air Force leadership, through the efforts of the Strategic Air Command, Air Force leaders like General Curtis LeMay were convinced that Project Orion should be funded as a major weapons system. The high water mark of Project Orion was the 1962 Air Force Space Program proposal by the Air Force Chief of Staff to devote almost twenty percent of the Air Force space budget from 1962-1967 to Orion development before the program was cancelled by the civilian Secretary of the Air Force under pressure from the Department of Defense. This paper details the history of Project Orion in the 1962 Air Force Space Program proposal, and concludes with a few lessons learned for use by modern interstellar advocates.

  3. Cool Roofs in Guangzhou, China: Outdoor Air Temperature Reductions during Heat Waves and Typical Summer Conditions.

    PubMed

    Cao, Meichun; Rosado, Pablo; Lin, Zhaohui; Levinson, Ronnen; Millstein, Dev

    2015-12-15

    In this paper, we simulate temperature reductions during heat-wave events and during typical summer conditions from the installation of highly reflective "cool" roofs in the Chinese megacity of Guangzhou. We simulate temperature reductions during six of the strongest historical heat-wave events over the past decade, finding average urban midday temperature reductions of 1.2 °C. In comparison, we simulate 25 typical summer weeks between 2004 and 2008, finding average urban midday temperature reductions of 0.8 °C, indicating that air temperature sensitivity to urban albedo in Guangzhou varies with meteorological conditions. We find that roughly three-fourths of the variance in air temperature reductions across all episodes can be accounted for by a linear regression, including only three basic properties related to the meteorological conditions: mean daytime temperature, humidity, and ventilation to the greater Guangzhou urban area. While these results highlight the potential for cool roofs to mitigate peak temperatures during heat waves, the temperature reductions reported here are based on the upper bound case, which increases albedos of all roofs (but does not modify road albedo or wall albedo). PMID:26523605

  4. Monitoring Air Quality from Space using AURA Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gleason, James F.; Chance, Kelly V.; Fishman, Jack; Torres, Omar; Veefkind, Pepijn

    2003-01-01

    Measurements from the Earth Observing System (EOS) AURA mission will provide a unique perspective on air quality monitoring. Ozone, nitrogen dioxide, formaldehyde and aerosols from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) and carbon monoxide from the Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer (TES) will be simultaneously measured with the spatial resolution and coverage needed for improving our understanding of air quality. AURA data products useful for air quality monitoring will be given.

  5. Air-Induced Drag Reduction at High Reynolds Numbers: Velocity and Void Fraction Profiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elbing, Brian; Mäkiharju, Simo; Wiggins, Andrew; Dowling, David; Perlin, Marc; Ceccio, Steven

    2010-11-01

    The injection of air into a turbulent boundary layer forming over a flat plate can reduce the skin friction. With sufficient volumetric fluxes an air layer can separate the solid surface from the flowing liquid, which can produce drag reduction in excess of 80%. Several large scale experiments have been conducted at the US Navy's Large Cavitation Channel on a 12.9 m long flat plate model investigating bubble drag reduction (BDR), air layer drag reduction (ALDR) and the transition between BDR and ALDR. The most recent experiment acquired phase velocities and void fraction profiles at three downstream locations (3.6, 5.9 and 10.6 m downstream from the model leading edge) for a single flow speed (˜6.4 m/s). The profiles were acquired with a combination of electrode point probes, time-of-flight sensors, Pitot tubes and an LDV system. Additional diagnostics included skin-friction sensors and flow-field image visualization. During this experiment the inlet flow was perturbed with vortex generators immediately upstream of the injection location to assess the robustness of the air layer. From these, and prior measurements, computational models can be refined to help assess the viability of ALDR for full-scale ship applications.

  6. A Hybrid Optimization Framework with POD-based Order Reduction and Design-Space Evolution Scheme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghoman, Satyajit S.

    The main objective of this research is to develop an innovative multi-fidelity multi-disciplinary design, analysis and optimization suite that integrates certain solution generation codes and newly developed innovative tools to improve the overall optimization process. The research performed herein is divided into two parts: (1) the development of an MDAO framework by integration of variable fidelity physics-based computational codes, and (2) enhancements to such a framework by incorporating innovative features extending its robustness. The first part of this dissertation describes the development of a conceptual Multi-Fidelity Multi-Strategy and Multi-Disciplinary Design Optimization Environment (M3 DOE), in context of aircraft wing optimization. M 3 DOE provides the user a capability to optimize configurations with a choice of (i) the level of fidelity desired, (ii) the use of a single-step or multi-step optimization strategy, and (iii) combination of a series of structural and aerodynamic analyses. The modularity of M3 DOE allows it to be a part of other inclusive optimization frameworks. The M 3 DOE is demonstrated within the context of shape and sizing optimization of the wing of a Generic Business Jet aircraft. Two different optimization objectives, viz. dry weight minimization, and cruise range maximization are studied by conducting one low-fidelity and two high-fidelity optimization runs to demonstrate the application scope of M3 DOE. The second part of this dissertation describes the development of an innovative hybrid optimization framework that extends the robustness of M 3 DOE by employing a proper orthogonal decomposition-based design-space order reduction scheme combined with the evolutionary algorithm technique. The POD method of extracting dominant modes from an ensemble of candidate configurations is used for the design-space order reduction. The snapshot of candidate population is updated iteratively using evolutionary algorithm technique of

  7. Updating about reductions of air and blood lead concentrations in Turin, Italy, following reductions in the lead content of gasoline

    SciTech Connect

    Bono, R.; Pignata, C.; Gilli, G.

    1995-07-01

    Considering its well known toxicity and the chronic human exposure to lead, international lawmakers enforced some directives or laws calling for the reduction of lead content in gasoline. All of these legislative acts aimed to reduce health risks for the general population. The aim of this study was to consider the effectiveness of these laws on air lead levels and consequently on blood lead levels in a randomly selected urban Italian population. In particular, these markers were analyzed over the course of several years, corresponding to the periods just before and after enforcements of the reductions of lead in petrol. Data presented point out some considerations: (1) enforcement of legislative measures concerning the reduction of lead in petrol has reduced atmospheric levels of lead. This result demonstrates a major environmental success in primary prevention efforts. (2) This success is clear especially considering that the actual Pb-B levels can be extended to the urbanized populations. Pb-B levels were consistently higher for drinkers, for older adults and for males. The mean of Pb-B level for the present urbanized population is higher than the U.S. overall population (6.4 vs 3 {mu}g/dl). This difference can be also explained considering the different historical period of enforcement of the restriction laws. 10 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  8. Layered perovskite oxide: a reversible air electrode for oxygen evolution/reduction in rechargeable metal-air batteries.

    PubMed

    Takeguchi, Tatsuya; Yamanaka, Toshiro; Takahashi, Hiroki; Watanabe, Hiroshi; Kuroki, Tomohiro; Nakanishi, Haruyuki; Orikasa, Yuki; Uchimoto, Yoshiharu; Takano, Hiroshi; Ohguri, Nobuaki; Matsuda, Motofumi; Murota, Tadatoshi; Uosaki, Kohei; Ueda, Wataru

    2013-07-31

    For the development of a rechargeable metal-air battery, which is expected to become one of the most widely used batteries in the future, slow kinetics of discharging and charging reactions at the air electrode, i.e., oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) and oxygen evolution reaction (OER), respectively, are the most critical problems. Here we report that Ruddlesden-Popper-type layered perovskite, RP-LaSr3Fe3O10 (n = 3), functions as a reversible air electrode catalyst for both ORR and OER at an equilibrium potential of 1.23 V with almost no overpotentials. The function of RP-LaSr3Fe3O10 as an ORR catalyst was confirmed by using an alkaline fuel cell composed of Pd/LaSr3Fe3O10-2x(OH)2x·H2O/RP-LaSr3Fe3O10 as an open circuit voltage (OCV) of 1.23 V was obtained. RP-LaSr3Fe3O10 also catalyzed OER at an equilibrium potential of 1.23 V with almost no overpotentials. Reversible ORR and OER are achieved because of the easily removable oxygen present in RP-LaSr3Fe3O10. Thus, RP-LaSr3Fe3O10 minimizes efficiency losses caused by reactions during charging and discharging at the air electrode and can be considered to be the ORR/OER electrocatalyst for rechargeable metal-air batteries. PMID:23802735

  9. Modelling the impacts of ammonia emissions reductions on North American air quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makar, P. A.; Moran, M. D.; Zheng, Q.; Cousineau, S.; Sassi, M.; Duhamel, A.; Besner, M.; Davignon, D.; Crevier, L.-P.; Bouchet, V. S.

    2009-09-01

    A unified regional air-quality modelling system (AURAMS) was used to investigate the effects of reductions in ammonia emissions on regional air quality, with a focus on particulate-matter formation. Three simulations of one-year duration were performed for a North American domain: (1) a base-case simulation using 2002 Canadian and US national emissions inventories augmented by a more detailed Canadian emissions inventory for agricultural ammonia; (2) a 30% North-American-wide reduction in agricultural ammonia emissions; and (3) a 50% reduction in Canadian beef-cattle ammonia emissions. The simulations show that a 30% continent-wide reduction in agricultural ammonia emissions lead to reductions in median hourly PM2.5 mass of <1 μg m-3 on an annual basis. The atmospheric response to these emission reductions displays marked seasonal variations, and on even shorter time scales, the impacts of the emissions reductions are highly episodic: 95th-percentile hourly PM2.5 mass decreases can be up to a factor of six larger than the median values. A key finding of the modelling work is the linkage between gas and aqueous chemistry and transport; reductions in ammonia emissions affect gaseous ammonia concentrations close to the emissions site, but substantial impacts on particulate matter and atmospheric deposition often occur at considerable distances downwind, with particle nitrate being the main vector of ammonia/um transport. Ammonia emissions reductions therefore have trans-boundary consequences downwind. Calculations of critical-load exceedances for sensitive ecosystems in Canada suggest that ammonia emission reductions will have a minimal impact on current ecosystem acidification within Canada, but may have a substantial impact on future ecosystem acidification. The 50% Canadian beef-cattle ammonia emissions reduction scenario was used to examine model sensitivity to uncertainties in the new Canadian agricultural ammonia emissions inventory, and the simulation results

  10. NASA - Johnson Space Center's New Capabilities for Air Purification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graf, John

    2015-01-01

    NASA has some unique and challenging air purification problems that cannot be adequately met with COTS technology: 1) ammonia removal from air, 2) hydrazine removal from air, 3) CO conversion to CO2 in low temperature, high humidity environments. NASA has sponsored the development of new sorbents and new catalysts. These new sorbents and catalysts work better than COTS technology for our application. If attendees have a need for an effective ammonia sorbent, an effective hydrazine sorbent, or an effective CO conversion catalyst, we should learn to see if NASA sponsored technology development can help.

  11. Straightforward reductive routes to air-stable uranium(III) and neptunium(III) materials.

    PubMed

    Cross, Justin N; Villa, Eric M; Darling, Victoria R; Polinski, Matthew J; Lin, Jian; Tan, Xiaoyan; Kikugawa, Naoki; Shatruk, Michael; Baumbach, Ryan; Albrecht-Schmitt, Thomas E

    2014-07-21

    Studies of trivalent uranium (U(3+)) and neptunium (Np(3+)) are restricted by the tendency of these ions to oxidize in the presence of air and water, requiring manipulations to be carried out in inert conditions to produce trivalent products. While the organometallic and high-temperature reduction chemistry of U(3+) and, to a much smaller extent, Np(3+) has been explored, the study of the oxoanion chemistry of these species has been limited despite their interesting optical and magnetic properties. We report the synthesis of U(3+) and Np(3+) sulfates by utilizing zinc amalgam as an in situ reductant with absolutely no regard to the exclusion of O2 or water. By employing this method we have developed a family of alkali metal U(3+) and Np(3+) sulfates that are air and water stable. The structures, electronic spectra, and magnetic behavior are reported. PMID:24964279

  12. Space chimp Enos returns to Patrick Air Force Base

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1961-01-01

    Enos the chimpanzee that orbited the earth twice in a Mercury spacecraft arrives back at Patrick Air Force Base. Enos landed some 220 nautical miles south of Bermuda and was picked up up by the U.S.S. Stormes.

  13. Modern Air&Space Power and political goals at war

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Özer, Güngör.

    2014-05-01

    Modern AirandSpace Power is increasingly becoming a political tool. In this article, AirandSpacePower as a political tool will be discussed. The primary purpose of this article is to search how AirandSpacePower can provide contributions to security and also determine if it may reach the political goals on its own at war by SWOT Analysis Method and analysing the role of AirandSpace Power in Operation Unified Protector (Libya) as a case study. In conclusion, AirandSpacePower may not be sufficient to win the political goals on its own. However it may reach the political aims partially against the adversary on its own depending upon the situations. Moreover it can alone persuade the adversary to alter its behavior(s) in war.

  14. Air quality and human health improvements from reductions in deforestation-related fire in Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reddington, C. L.; Butt, E. W.; Ridley, D. A.; Artaxo, P.; Morgan, W. T.; Coe, H.; Spracklen, D. V.

    2015-10-01

    Roughly 15% of the Brazilian Amazon was deforested between 1976 and 2010. Fire is the dominant method through which forests and vegetation are cleared. Fires emit large quantities of particulate matter into the atmosphere, which degrades air quality and affects human health. Since 2004, Brazil has achieved substantial reductions in deforestation rates and associated deforestation fires. Here we assess the impact of this reduction on air quality and human health during non-drought years between 2001 and 2012. We analyse aerosol optical depth measurements obtained with satellite and ground-based sensors over southwest Brazil and Bolivia for the dry season, from August to October. We find that observed dry season aerosol optical depths are more than a factor of two lower in years with low deforestation rates in Brazil. We used a global aerosol model to show that reductions in fires associated with deforestation have caused mean surface particulate matter concentrations to decline by ~30% during the dry season in the region. Using particulate matter concentration response functions from the epidemiological literature, we estimate that this reduction in particulate matter may be preventing roughly 400 to 1,700 premature adult deaths annually across South America.

  15. Re-examination of compliant wall experiments in air with water substrates. [for drag reduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hefner, J. N.; Weinstein, L. M.

    1976-01-01

    A possible alternative explanation is proposed for compliant wall drag reductions measured in previous investigations. Standing waves were observed to form on the surfaces of compliant wall models in air with water substrates as the freestream velocity was increased from 15 to 30 m/s. These waves resembled sine waves with half of the wave protruding over the upstream portion of the model and the other half being recessed over the downstream end of the model. These data coupled with results of recent drag reduction experiments suggest that standing waves could have caused a shift in the model center of gravity creating a bending moment that was interpreted as a reduction in the skin friction drag.

  16. Reduction of the air traffic's contribution to climate change: A REACT4C case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grewe, Volker; Champougny, Thierry; Matthes, Sigrun; Frömming, Christine; Brinkop, Sabine; Søvde, Ole Amund; Irvine, Emma A.; Halscheidt, Lucia

    2014-09-01

    Air traffic alters the atmospheric composition and thereby contributes to climate change. Here we investigate the trans-Atlantic air traffic for one specific winter day and analyse, which routing changes were required to achieve a reduction in the air traffic's contribution to climate change. We have applied an atmosphere-chemistry model to calculate so-called five dimensional climate cost functions (CCF), which describe the climate effect of a locally confined emission. The five dimensions result from the emission location (3D), time (1D) and the type of emission (1D; carbon dioxide, water vapour, nitrogen oxides). In other words, carbon dioxide (CO2), water vapour (H2O) and nitrogen oxides (NOx) are emitted in amounts typical for aviation at many confined locations and times and their impacts on climate calculated with the atmosphere-chemistry model. The impact on climate results from direct effects, such as the changes in the concentration of the greenhouse gases CO2 and H2O and indirect effects such as contrail cirrus formation and chemical changes of ozone and methane by emissions of NOx. These climate cost functions are used by a flight planning tool to optimise flight routes with respect to their climate impact and economic costs of these routes. The results for this specific winter day show that large reductions in the air traffic's contribution to climate warming (up to 60%) can be achieved for westbound flights and smaller reductions for eastbound flights (around 25%). Eastbound flights take advantage of the tail winds from the jet stream and hence routings with lower climate impacts have a large fuel penalty, whenever they leave the jet stream. Maximum reduction in climate impact increases the economic costs by 10-15%, due to higher fuel consumption, caused by a longer flight distance and lower flight levels. However, with only small changes to the air traffic routings and flight altitudes, climate reductions up to 25% can be achieved by only small

  17. AIRS pulse tube cooler system-level and in-space performance comparison

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ross, R. G.

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents the derivation of the test and analysis techniques as well as the measured system-level performance of the flight AIRS coolers during instrument-level, spacecraft-level, and in-space operation.

  18. Building America Case Study: Air Leakage and Air Transfer Between Garage and Living Space, Waldorf, Maryland (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2014-11-01

    This research project focused on evaluation of air transfer between the garage and living space in a single-family detached home constructed by a production homebuilder in compliance with the 2009 International Residential Code and the 2009 International Energy Conservation Code. The project gathered important information about the performance of whole-building ventilation systems and garage ventilation systems as they relate to minimizing flow of contaminated air from garage to living space. A series of 25 multi-point fan pressurization tests and additional zone pressure diagnostic testing characterized the garage and house air leakage, the garage-to-house air leakage, and garage and house pressure relationships to each other and to outdoors using automated fan pressurization and pressure monitoring techniques. While the relative characteristics of this house may not represent the entire population of new construction configurations and air tightness levels (house and garage) throughout the country, the technical approach was conservative and should reasonably extend the usefulness of the results to a large spectrum of house configurations from this set of parametric tests in this one house. Based on the results of this testing, the two-step garage-to-house air leakage test protocol described above is recommended where whole-house exhaust ventilation is employed. For houses employing whole-house supply ventilation (positive pressure) or balanced ventilation (same pressure effect as the Baseline condition), adherence to the EPA Indoor airPLUS house-to-garage air sealing requirements should be sufficient to expect little to no garage-to-house air transfer.

  19. Power Reduction of the Air-Breathing Hall-Effect Thruster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Sungrae

    Electric propulsion system is spotlighted as the next generation space propulsion system due to its benefits; one of them is specific impulse. While there are a lot of types in electric propulsion system, Hall-Effect Thruster, one of electric propulsion system, has higher thrust-to-power ratio and requires fewer power supplies for operation in comparison to other electric propulsion systems, which means it is optimal for long space voyage. The usual propellant for Hall-Effect Thruster is Xenon and it is used to be stored in the tank, which may increase the weight of the thruster. Therefore, one theory that uses the ambient air as a propellant has been proposed and it is introduced as Air-Breathing Hall-Effect Thruster. Referring to the analysis on Air-Breathing Hall-Effect Thruster, the goal of this paper is to reduce the power of the thruster so that it can be applied to real mission such as satellite orbit adjustment. To reduce the power of the thruster, two assumptions are considered. First one is changing the altitude for the operation, while another one is assuming the alpha value that is electron density to ambient air density. With assumptions above, the analysis was done and the results are represented. The power could be decreased to 10s˜1000s with the assumptions. However, some parameters that do not satisfy the expectation, which would be the question for future work, and it will be introduced at the end of the thesis.

  20. Fast space-varying convolution using matrix source coding with applications to camera stray light reduction.

    PubMed

    Wei, Jianing; Bouman, Charles A; Allebach, Jan P

    2014-05-01

    Many imaging applications require the implementation of space-varying convolution for accurate restoration and reconstruction of images. Here, we use the term space-varying convolution to refer to linear operators whose impulse response has slow spatial variation. In addition, these space-varying convolution operators are often dense, so direct implementation of the convolution operator is typically computationally impractical. One such example is the problem of stray light reduction in digital cameras, which requires the implementation of a dense space-varying deconvolution operator. However, other inverse problems, such as iterative tomographic reconstruction, can also depend on the implementation of dense space-varying convolution. While space-invariant convolution can be efficiently implemented with the fast Fourier transform, this approach does not work for space-varying operators. So direct convolution is often the only option for implementing space-varying convolution. In this paper, we develop a general approach to the efficient implementation of space-varying convolution, and demonstrate its use in the application of stray light reduction. Our approach, which we call matrix source coding, is based on lossy source coding of the dense space-varying convolution matrix. Importantly, by coding the transformation matrix, we not only reduce the memory required to store it; we also dramatically reduce the computation required to implement matrix-vector products. Our algorithm is able to reduce computation by approximately factoring the dense space-varying convolution operator into a product of sparse transforms. Experimental results show that our method can dramatically reduce the computation required for stray light reduction while maintaining high accuracy. PMID:24710398

  1. Collaborative Emission Reduction Model Based on Multi-Objective Optimization for Greenhouse Gases and Air Pollutants

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yi-min; Wan, Xiao-le; Liu, Yuan-yuan; Wang, Yu-zhi

    2016-01-01

    CO2 emission influences not only global climate change but also international economic and political situations. Thus, reducing the emission of CO2, a major greenhouse gas, has become a major issue in China and around the world as regards preserving the environmental ecology. Energy consumption from coal, oil, and natural gas is primarily responsible for the production of greenhouse gases and air pollutants such as SO2 and NOX, which are the main air pollutants in China. In this study, a mathematical multi-objective optimization method was adopted to analyze the collaborative emission reduction of three kinds of gases on the basis of their common restraints in different ways of energy consumption to develop an economic, clean, and efficient scheme for energy distribution. The first part introduces the background research, the collaborative emission reduction for three kinds of gases, the multi-objective optimization, the main mathematical modeling, and the optimization method. The second part discusses the four mathematical tools utilized in this study, which include the Granger causality test to analyze the causality between air quality and pollutant emission, a function analysis to determine the quantitative relation between energy consumption and pollutant emission, a multi-objective optimization to set up the collaborative optimization model that considers energy consumption, and an optimality condition analysis for the multi-objective optimization model to design the optimal-pole algorithm and obtain an efficient collaborative reduction scheme. In the empirical analysis, the data of pollutant emission and final consumption of energies of Tianjin in 1996–2012 was employed to verify the effectiveness of the model and analyze the efficient solution and the corresponding dominant set. In the last part, several suggestions for collaborative reduction are recommended and the drawn conclusions are stated. PMID:27010658

  2. Collaborative Emission Reduction Model Based on Multi-Objective Optimization for Greenhouse Gases and Air Pollutants.

    PubMed

    Meng, Qing-chun; Rong, Xiao-xia; Zhang, Yi-min; Wan, Xiao-le; Liu, Yuan-yuan; Wang, Yu-zhi

    2016-01-01

    CO2 emission influences not only global climate change but also international economic and political situations. Thus, reducing the emission of CO2, a major greenhouse gas, has become a major issue in China and around the world as regards preserving the environmental ecology. Energy consumption from coal, oil, and natural gas is primarily responsible for the production of greenhouse gases and air pollutants such as SO2 and NOX, which are the main air pollutants in China. In this study, a mathematical multi-objective optimization method was adopted to analyze the collaborative emission reduction of three kinds of gases on the basis of their common restraints in different ways of energy consumption to develop an economic, clean, and efficient scheme for energy distribution. The first part introduces the background research, the collaborative emission reduction for three kinds of gases, the multi-objective optimization, the main mathematical modeling, and the optimization method. The second part discusses the four mathematical tools utilized in this study, which include the Granger causality test to analyze the causality between air quality and pollutant emission, a function analysis to determine the quantitative relation between energy consumption and pollutant emission, a multi-objective optimization to set up the collaborative optimization model that considers energy consumption, and an optimality condition analysis for the multi-objective optimization model to design the optimal-pole algorithm and obtain an efficient collaborative reduction scheme. In the empirical analysis, the data of pollutant emission and final consumption of energies of Tianjin in 1996-2012 was employed to verify the effectiveness of the model and analyze the efficient solution and the corresponding dominant set. In the last part, several suggestions for collaborative reduction are recommended and the drawn conclusions are stated. PMID:27010658

  3. Air quality modelling : effects of emission reductions on concentrations of particulate matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Girault, L.; Roustan, Y.; Seigneur, C.

    2012-04-01

    Atmospheric particulate matter (PM) has adverse effects on human health. PM acts primarily on respiratory and cardiovascular (due to their small size they can penetrate deep into the lungs), but they are also known effects on the skin. In France, the "Particulate Plan" - developed as part of the second National Environmental Health Plan - aims to reduce by 30% fine PM (noted PM2.5because these particles have an aerodynamic diameter of 2.5 micrometers or less) by 2015. A recent study by Airparif (the organization in charge of monitoring air quality in the Paris region, the Île-de-France) and LSCE (Laboratory of climate and the environmental science, France) has allowed, through a large measurement campaign conducted between 2009 and 2011, to quantify the proportion of PM produced in Île-de-France and those transported from the surrounding areas. The study by numerical modelling of air pollution presented here complements these results by investigating future emission scenarios. The CEREA develops and uses an air quality model which simulates the concentrations of pollutants from an emission inventory, meteorological data and boundary conditions of the area studied. After an evaluation of simulation results for the year 2005, the model is used to assess the effects of various scenarios of reductions in NOx and NH3 emissions on the concentrations of PM2.5in Île-de-France. The effects of the controls on the local pollution and the long-range pollution are considered separately. For each emitted species, three scenarios of emission reductions are identified: an emission reduction at the local level (Île-de-France), a reduction at the regional scale (France) and a reduction at the continental scale (across Europe). In each case, a 15% reduction is applied. The comparison of the results allows us to assess the respective contributions of local emissions and long-range transport to PM2.5 concentrations. For instance, the reduction of NOx emissions in Europe leads to a

  4. In vivo microvascular mosaics show air embolism reduction after perfluorocarbon emulsion treatment.

    PubMed

    Torres Filho, Ivo P; Torres, Luciana N; Spiess, Bruce D

    2012-11-01

    Massive arteriolar gas embolism (AGE) has never been evaluated in vivo using intravital microscopy and previous perfluorocarbon (PFC) emulsions were only effective in AGE when administered before AGE. We implemented a new system for quantitative studies of massive AGE using brightfield microscopy and tested a treatment with a third-generation PFC emulsion after massive AGE. We studied bubble dynamics in cremaster muscles from anesthetized rats after AGE was induced by direct air injection into the femoral artery ipsilateral to the studied muscle. Using a motorized microscope stage and a color camera, in vivo microvascular mosaics were produced on-line from over 2000 digital images to evaluate multiple networks in order to investigate the distribution, lodging, breaking, reduction and moving of 105 air bubbles in microvessels. Thirty minutes after PFC treatment, there was a reduction of 80% in bubble volume while untreated and saline-treated rats showed significantly smaller decreases of 33% and 40%, respectively (p<0.05). Air bubbles also dissolved into a larger number of smaller bubbles after PFC treatment. The proposed methodology may prove useful for rapid in vivo data acquisition from large networks. Since large air bubbles broke-up, decreased in length and volume, and moved toward smaller microvessels, the study provides quantitative data to support a mechanism by which PFC may improve tissue blood flow following massive AGE. The findings suggest that this new generation of PFC emulsions administered after severe AGE may reach compromised microvascular networks and provide help to alleviate microvascular obstruction by increasing air bubble reabsorption. PMID:23010091

  5. Differential Absorption Lidar (DIAL) Measurements from Air and Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Browell, E. V.; Ismail, S.; Grant, W. B.

    1998-01-01

    Differential absorption lidar (DIAL) systems have been used for the measurement of ozone, water vapor, and aerosols from aircraft platforms for over 18 years, yielding new insights into atmospheric chemistry, composition, and dynamics in large-scale field experiments conducted all over the world. The successful deployment of the lidar in-space technology experiment (LITE) in September 1994 demonstrated that space-based lidars can also collect valuable information on the global atmosphere. This paper reviews some of the contributions of the NASA Langley Research Center's airborne ozone and water vapor DIAL systems and space-based LITE system to the understanding of the atmosphere and discusses the feasibility and advantages of putting DIAL systems in space for routine atmospheric measurements of ozone and/or water vapor and aerosols and clouds. The technology and applications of the differential absorption lidar (DIAL) technique have progressed significantly since the first DIAL measurements of Schotland, and airborne DIAL measurements of ozone and water vapor are frequently being made in a wide range of field experiments. In addition, plans are underway to develop DIAL systems for use on satellites for continuous global measurements. This paper will highlight the history of airborne lidar and DIAL systems, summarize the major accomplishments of the NASA Langley DIAL program, and discuss specifications and goals for DIAL systems in space.

  6. Assessing the potential visibility benefits of Clean Air Act Title IV emission reductions

    SciTech Connect

    Trexler, E.C. Jr.; Shannon, J.D.

    1995-06-01

    Assessments are made of the benefits of the 1990 Clean Air Act Title IV (COVE), Phase 2, SO2 and NOX reduction provisions, to the visibility in typical eastern and western Class 1 areas. Probable bands of visibility impairment distribution curves are developed for Shenandoah National Park, Smoky Mountain National Park and the Grand Canyon National Park, based on the existing emissions, ``Base Case``, and for the COVE emission reductions, ``CAAA Case``. Emission projections for 2010 are developed with improved versions of the National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program emission projection models. Source-receptor transfer matrices created with the Advanced Statistical Trajectory Regional Air Pollution (ASTRAP) model are used with existing emission inventories and with the emission projections to calculate atmospheric concentrations of sulfate and nitrate at the receptors of interest for existing and projected emission scenarios. The Visibility Assessment Scoping Model (VASM) is then used to develop distributions of visibility impairment. VASM combines statistics of observed concentrations of particulate species and relative humidity with ASTRAP calculations of the relative changes in atmospheric sulfate and nitrate particulate concentrations in a Monte Carlo approach to produce expected distributions of hourly particulate concentrations and RH. Light extinction relationships developed in theoretical and field studies are then used to calculate the resulting distribution of visibility impairment. Successive Monte Carlo studies are carried out to develop sets of visibility impairment distributions with and without the COVE emission reductions to gain insight into the detectability of expected visibility improvements.

  7. The Development of Models for Carbon Dioxide Reduction Technologies for Spacecraft Air Revitalization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swickrath, Michael J.; Anderson, Molly

    2011-01-01

    Through the respiration process, humans consume oxygen (O2) while producing carbon dioxide (CO2) and water (H2O) as byproducts. For long term space exploration, CO2 concentration in the atmosphere must be managed to prevent hypercapnia. Moreover, CO2 can be used as a source of oxygen through chemical reduction serving to minimize the amount of oxygen required at launch. Reduction can be achieved through a number of techniques. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is currently exploring the Sabatier reaction, the Bosch reaction, and co-electrolysis of CO2 and H2O for this process. Proof-of-concept experiments and prototype units for all three processes have proven capable of returning useful commodities for space exploration. While all three techniques have demonstrated the capacity to reduce CO2 in the laboratory, there is interest in understanding how all three techniques would perform at a system-level within a spacecraft. Consequently, there is an impetus to develop predictive models for these processes that can be readily re-scaled and integrated into larger system models. Such analysis tools provide the ability to evaluate each technique on a comparable basis with respect to processing rates. This manuscript describes the current models for the carbon dioxide reduction processes under parallel developmental e orts. Comparison to experimental data is provided were available for veri cation purposes.

  8. A long telephoto lens captured Space Shuttle Endeavour landing at Edwards Air Force Base, California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    A long telephoto lens captured Space Shuttle Endeavour landing at Edwards Air Force Base, California, on May 1, 2001. NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center at Edwards would subsequently service the shuttle and mount it on a 747 for the ferry flight to the Kennedy Space Center in Florida.

  9. The Air Force Academy Small Satellite Program—Using Space Physics to Educate the Next Generation of Space Professionals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McHarg, M. G.; Krause, L. H.; Balthazor, R. L.; Chun, F. K.; Dearborn, M. E.; Bell, D. E.; Knipp, D. J.; Saylor, W. W.; Lawrence, T. J.

    2006-12-01

    The United States Air Force Academy uses Space Physics as the scientific rational for an undergraduate course which has cadets design, build, test and operate small satellites that fly real Academy and third-party space weather payloads. While the course description emphasizes the engineering aspects of small satellite design, this interdisciplinary course has cadets and faculty participating from across the engineering, science, and management majors. We find that grounding the requirements for the spacecraft in space physics, leads to cadets who are motivated to solve a real science problem.

  10. Science Air and Space: Folder Games for the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughes, Leah M.

    A file folder, the drawings contained within this book, and materials such as crayons, glue, and straws are what is needed to make this resource a classroom tool for studying space-related topics with preschoolers. The activities in this book are designed to inspire preschoolers to use their creativity, inventiveness, imagination, and intuition.…

  11. Catalytic activity trends of oxygen reduction reaction for nonaqueous Li-air batteries.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yi-Chun; Gasteiger, Hubert A; Shao-Horn, Yang

    2011-11-30

    We report the intrinsic oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) activity of polycrystalline palladium, platinum, ruthenium, gold, and glassy carbon surfaces in 0.1 M LiClO(4) 1,2-dimethoxyethane via rotating disk electrode measurements. The nonaqueous Li(+)-ORR activity of these surfaces primarily correlates to oxygen adsorption energy, forming a "volcano-type" trend. The activity trend found on the polycrystalline surfaces was in good agreement with the trend in the discharge voltage of Li-O(2) cells catalyzed by nanoparticle catalysts. Our findings provide insights into Li(+)-ORR mechanisms in nonaqueous media and design of efficient air electrodes for Li-air battery applications. PMID:22044022

  12. Application of Air-Coupled Ultrasound in NDE of Composite Space Structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, David K.; Barnard, Daniel J.; Peters, John J.; Polis, Daniel L.

    2004-02-01

    This paper describes the use of air-coupled ultrasound for inspecting flight-like composite components for NASA's next Hubble Space Telescope servicing mission. Air-coupled ultrasonic scan has the advantage of being non-contact and hence non-contaminating. Engineered flaws in solid laminates and honeycomb sandwiches are detected and imaged. Relatively thick inserts made of both composite and metal in the honeycomb panels are inspected using air-coupled through-transmission ultrasonic scans; unbond conditions are detected. In preparation for scanning large components with air-coupled ultrasound, the instrument is taken out of the laboratory and integrated with a gantry system.

  13. The potential for air flow reduction in fume hoods at Hanford

    SciTech Connect

    Enderlin, W.I.

    1988-12-01

    The objective of this task is to investigate the feasibility of reducing air flow at the face of laboratory hoods at Hanford during off shift hours for the purpose of energy conservation. Identifying strategies and systems currently available on the market that would facilitate such a reduction, should it be deemed feasible, is also an objective. This report discusses the methodology employed in performing this investigation and the findings resulting therefrom and sets forth conclusions and recommendations derived from these findings. A bibliography and list of references are included. 9 refs.

  14. Enhanced Air Stability in REPb3 (RE = Rare Earths) by Dimensional Reduction Mediated Valence Transition.

    PubMed

    Subbarao, Udumula; Sarkar, Sumanta; Jana, Rajkumar; Bera, Sourav S; Peter, Sebastian C

    2016-06-01

    We conceptually selected the compounds REPb3 (RE = Eu, Yb), which are unstable in air, and converted them to the stable materials in ambient conditions by the chemical processes of "nanoparticle formation" and "dimensional reduction". The nanoparticles and the bulk counterparts were synthesized by the solvothermal and high-frequency induction furnace heating methods, respectively. The reduction of the particle size led to the valence transition of the rare earth atom, which was monitored through magnetic susceptibility and X-ray absorption near edge spectroscopy (XANES) measurements. The stability was checked by X-ray diffraction and thermogravimetric analysis over a period of seven months in oxygen and argon atmospheres and confirmed by XANES. The nanoparticles showed outstanding stability toward aerial oxidation over a period of seven months compared to the bulk counterpart, as the latter one is more prone to the oxidation within a few days. PMID:27187579

  15. Investigations of oxygen reduction reactions in non-aqueous electrolytes and the lithium-air battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Laoire, Cormac Micheal

    Unlocking the true energy capabilities of the lithium metal negative electrode in a lithium battery has until now been limited by the low capacity intercalation and conversion reactions at the positive electrodes. This is overcome by removing these electrodes and allowing lithium to react directly with oxygen in the atmosphere forming the Li-air battery. Chapter 2 discusses the intimate role of electrolyte, in particular the role of ion conducting salts on the mechanism and kinetics of oxygen reduction in non-aqueous electrolytes designed for such applications and in determining the reversibility of the electrode reactions. Such fundamental understanding of this high energy density battery is crucial to harnessing its full energy potential. The kinetics and mechanisms of O2 reduction in solutions of hexafluorophosphate salts of the general formula X+ PF6-, where, X = tetra butyl ammonium (TBA), K, Na and Li, in acetonitrile have been studied on glassy carbon electrodes using cyclic voltammetry (CV) and rotating disk electrode (RDE) techniques. Our results show that cation choice strongly influences the reduction mechanism of O2. Electrochemical data supports the view that alkali metal oxides formed via electrochemical and chemical reactions passivate the electrode surface inhibiting the kinetics and reversibility of the processes. The O2 reduction mechanisms in the presence of the different cations have been supplemented by kinetic parameters determined from detailed analyses of the CV and RDE data. The organic solvent present in the Li+-conducting electrolyte has a major role on the reversibility of each of the O2 reduction products as found from the work discussed in the next chapter. A fundamental study of the influence of solvents on the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) in a variety of non-aqueous electrolytes was conducted in chapter 4. In this work special attention was paid to elucidate the mechanism of the oxygen electrode processes in the rechargeable Li-air

  16. Advances in the Lightweight Air-Liquid Composite Heat Exchanger Development for Space Exploration Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shin, E. Eugene; Johnston, J. Chris; Haas, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    An advanced, lightweight composite modular Air/Liquid (A/L) Heat Exchanger (HX) Prototype for potential space exploration thermal management applications was successfully designed, manufactured, and tested. This full-scale Prototype consisting of 19 modules, based on recommendations from its predecessor Engineering Development unit (EDU) but with improved thermal characteristics and manufacturability, was 11.2 % lighter than the EDU and achieves potentially a 42.7% weight reduction from the existing state-of-the-art metallic HX demonstrator. However, its higher pressure drop (0.58 psid vs. 0.16 psid of the metal HX) has to be mitigated by foam material optimizations and design modifications including a more systematic air channel design. Scalability of the Prototype design was validated experimentally by comparing manufacturability and performance between the 2-module coupon and the 19-module Prototype. The Prototype utilized the thermally conductive open-cell carbon foam material but with lower density and adopted a novel high-efficiency cooling system with significantly increased heat transfer contact surface areas, improved fabricability and manufacturability compared to the EDU. Even though the Prototype was required to meet both the thermal and the structural specifications, accomplishing the thermal requirement was a higher priority goal for this first version. Overall, the Prototype outperformed both the EDU and the corresponding metal HX, particularly in terms of specific heat transfer, but achieved 93.4% of the target. The next generation Prototype to achieve the specification target, 3,450W would need 24 core modules based on the simple scaling factor. The scale-up Prototype will weigh about 14.7 Kg vs. 21.6 Kg for the metal counterpart. The advancement of this lightweight composite HX development from the original feasibility test coupons to EDU to Prototype is discussed in this paper.

  17. Enhanced Airport Capacity Through Safe, Dynamic Reductions in Aircraft Separation: NASA's Aircraft VOrtex Spacing System (AVOSS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    OConnor, Cornelius J.; Rutishauser, David K.

    2001-01-01

    An aspect of airport terminal operations that holds potential for efficiency improvements is the separation criteria applied to aircraft for wake vortex avoidance. These criteria evolved to represent safe spacing under weather conditions conducive to the longest wake hazards, and are consequently overly conservative during a significant portion of operations. Under many ambient conditions, such as moderate crosswinds or turbulence, wake hazard durations are substantially reduced. To realize this reduction NASA has developed a proof-of-concept Aircraft Vortex Spacing System (AVOSS). Successfully operated in a real-time field demonstration during July 2000 at the Dallas Ft. Worth International Airport, AVOSS is a novel integration of weather sensors, wake sensors, and analytical wake prediction algorithms. Gains in airport throughput using AVOSS spacing as compared to the current criteria averaged 6%, with peak values approaching the theoretical maximum of 16%. The average throughput gain translates to 15-40% reductions in delay when applied to realistic capacity ratios at major airports.

  18. Changes in the temporomandibular joint space after functional treatment of disk displacement with reduction.

    PubMed

    Ma, ZhiGui; Xie, QianYang; Yang, Chi; Zhang, ShanYong; Shen, YuQing; Cai, XieYi

    2015-03-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the changes of temporomandibularjoint (TMJ) space in the treatment of disk displacement with reduction (DDWR) for class II cases. Forty-two adolescent patients with unilateral DDWR, who were successfully treated by functional appliance, were selected in this study. Magnetic resonance imaging scans were used before treatment (T1), at the start of treatment (T2), and after functional treatment (T3). Compared with the normal joint, the change of joint space index was calculated. The anterior, posterior, and superior joint spaces were analyzed on the largest sagittal plane among T1, T2, and T3. Student's t-test was used for statistical analysis. The mean treatment period was 10 months (6-16 mo). Functional appliance was effective in eliminating pain and clicking. During the phase of T1, the value of the joint space index of DDWR was significantly higher than that of the control (P < 0.05). There was a significant decrease in the anterior space and an increase in the postsuperior space at T2 (P < 0.01), and then the contrary changes occurred at T3. However, there was a significant increase in the postsuperior space and no significant decrease in the anterior space when T1 and T3 were compared. This study indicates that the TMJ space is well distributed after disk repositioning with functional treatment of DDWR. It is also suggested that the adaptive remodeling in TMJ occurs via functional treatment. PMID:25759936

  19. Mortality reduction following the air pollution control measures during the 2010 Asian Games

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Hualiang; Zhang, Yonghui; Liu, Tao; Xiao, Jianpeng; Xu, Yanjun; Xu, Xiaojun; Qian, Zhenmin; Tong, Shilu; Luo, Yuan; Zeng, Weilin; Ma, Wenjun

    2014-07-01

    Though increased particulate air pollution has been consistently associated with elevated mortality, evidence regarding whether diminished particulate air pollution would lead to mortality reduction is limited. Citywide air pollution mitigation program during the 2010 Asian Games in Guangzhou, China, provided such an opportunity. Daily mortality from non-accidental, cardiovascular and respiratory diseases was compared for 51 intervention days (November 1-December 21) in 2010 with the same calendar date of baseline years (2006-2009 and 2011). Relative risk (RR) and 95% confidence interval (95% CI) were estimated using a time series Poisson model, adjusting for day of week, public holidays, daily mean temperature and relative humidity. Daily PM10 (particle with aerodynamic diameter less than 10 μm) decreased from 88.64 μg/m3 during the baseline period to 80.61 μg/m3 during the Asian Games period. Other measured air pollutants and weather variables did not differ substantially. Daily mortality from non-accidental, cardiovascular and respiratory diseases decreased from 32, 11 and 6 during the baseline period to 25, 8 and 5 during the Games period, the corresponding RR for the Games period compared with the baseline period was 0.79 (95% CI: 0.73-0.86), 0.77 (95% CI: 0.66-0.89) and 0.68 (95% CI: 0.57-0.80), respectively. No significant decreases were observed in other months of 2010 in Guangzhou and intervention period in two control cities. This finding supports the efforts to reduce air pollution and improve public health through transportation restriction and industrial emission control.

  20. Evaluation of co-benefits from combined climate change and air pollution reduction strategies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leitao, Joana; Van Dingenen, Rita; Dentener, Frank; Rao, Shilpa

    2014-05-01

    The connection of climate change and air pollution is becoming more relevant in the process of policy making and implementation of emission control strategies because of resulting co-benefits and trade-offs. Some sectors, such as fossil fuel combustion, are sources of both pollutants (NOx and PM) as well as greenhouse gas (CO2). Additionally, the use of wood burning as biofuel to reduce climate impact may in fact deteriorate air quality. Furthermore, several air pollutants are important radiative forcers and regulating their emissions impacts on climate. It is evident that both problems need to be undertaken with a common strategy and the existence of cross-policy with co-benefits may encourage their implementation. The LIMITS FP7 project (http://www.feem-project.net/limits/index.html) was designed with the main goal of assessing strategies for reduction of GHG emissions so that the 2°C target can be achieved. The work developed focus on the evaluation of the implementation of strategies analysing several aspects of different scenarios, namely: the feasibility of low carbon scenarios in terms of available technologies and infrastructure, the required financial mechanisms, and also the co-benefits regarding energy security, economic development and air pollution. For the latter, five integrated assessment models (IAMs) provided greenhouse gases and pollutant emission values for several scenarios. These were based on air pollution scenarios defined according to stringency and implementation of future global legislation. They which were also combined with 2 climate policy scenarios (no climate policy and 2.8 W/m2 target). The former are mostly focused on non-climate policies and technical control measures for emissions of air pollutants, such as PM2.5, NOx and SO2, with their emission factors harmonized between the IAMs. With the global air quality source-receptor model TM5-FASST the impact of the resulting emissions was analysed and the co-benefits of combined

  1. The Development of Models for Carbon Dioxide Reduction Technologies for Spacecraft Air Revitalization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swickrath, Michael J.; Anderson, Molly

    2012-01-01

    Through the respiration process, humans consume oxygen (O2) while producing carbon dioxide (CO2) and water (H2O) as byproducts. For long term space exploration, CO2 concentration in the atmosphere must be managed to prevent hypercapnia. Moreover, CO2 can be used as a source of oxygen through chemical reduction serving to minimize the amount of oxygen required at launch. Reduction can be achieved through a number of techniques. NASA is currently exploring the Sabatier reaction, the Bosch reaction, and co- electrolysis of CO2 and H2O for this process. Proof-of-concept experiments and prototype units for all three processes have proven capable of returning useful commodities for space exploration. All three techniques have demonstrated the capacity to reduce CO2 in the laboratory, yet there is interest in understanding how all three techniques would perform at a system level within a spacecraft. Consequently, there is an impetus to develop predictive models for these processes that can be readily rescaled and integrated into larger system models. Such analysis tools provide the ability to evaluate each technique on a comparable basis with respect to processing rates. This manuscript describes the current models for the carbon dioxide reduction processes under parallel developmental efforts. Comparison to experimental data is provided were available for verification purposes.

  2. Min-Max Spaces and Complexity Reduction in Min-Max Expansions

    SciTech Connect

    Gaubert, Stephane; McEneaney, William M.

    2012-06-15

    Idempotent methods have been found to be extremely helpful in the numerical solution of certain classes of nonlinear control problems. In those methods, one uses the fact that the value function lies in the space of semiconvex functions (in the case of maximizing controllers), and approximates this value using a truncated max-plus basis expansion. In some classes, the value function is actually convex, and then one specifically approximates with suprema (i.e., max-plus sums) of affine functions. Note that the space of convex functions is a max-plus linear space, or moduloid. In extending those concepts to game problems, one finds a different function space, and different algebra, to be appropriate. Here we consider functions which may be represented using infima (i.e., min-max sums) of max-plus affine functions. It is natural to refer to the class of functions so represented as the min-max linear space (or moduloid) of max-plus hypo-convex functions. We examine this space, the associated notion of duality and min-max basis expansions. In using these methods for solution of control problems, and now games, a critical step is complexity-reduction. In particular, one needs to find reduced-complexity expansions which approximate the function as well as possible. We obtain a solution to this complexity-reduction problem in the case of min-max expansions.

  3. Precision Positional Data of General Aviation Air Traffic in Terminal Air Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Melson, W. E., Jr.; Parker, L. C.; Northam, A. M.; Singh, R. P.

    1978-01-01

    Three dimensional radar tracks of general aviation air traffic at three uncontrolled airports are considered. Contained are data which describe the position-time histories, other derived parameters, and reference data for the approximately 1200 tracks. All information was correlated such that the date, time, flight number, and runway number match the pattern type, aircraft type, wind, visibility, and cloud conditions.

  4. Control of aerosol contaminants in indoor air: combining the particle concentration reduction with microbial inactivation.

    PubMed

    Grinshpun, Sergey A; Adhikari, Atin; Honda, Takeshi; Kim, Ki Youn; Toivola, Mika; Rao, K S Ramchander; Reponen, Tiina

    2007-01-15

    An indoor air purification technique, which combines unipolar ion emission and photocatalytic oxidation (promoted by a specially designed RCI cell), was investigated in two test chambers, 2.75 m3 and 24.3 m3, using nonbiological and biological challenge aerosols. The reduction in particle concentration was measured size selectively in real-time, and the Air Cleaning Factor and the Clean Air Delivery Rate (CADR) were determined. While testing with virions and bacteria, bioaerosol samples were collected and analyzed, and the microorganism survival rate was determined as a function of exposure time. We observed that the aerosol concentration decreased approximately 10 to approximately 100 times more rapidly when the purifier operated as compared to the natural decay. The data suggest that the tested portable unit operating in approximately 25 m3 non-ventilated room is capable to provide CADR-values more than twice as great than the conventional closed-loop HVAC system with a rating 8 filter. The particle removal occurred due to unipolar ion emission, while the inactivation of viable airborne microorganisms was associated with photocatalytic oxidation. Approximately 90% of initially viable MS2 viruses were inactivated resulting from 10 to 60 min exposure to the photocatalytic oxidation. Approximately 75% of viable B. subtilis spores were inactivated in 10 min, and about 90% or greater after 30 min. The biological and chemical mechanisms that led to the inactivation of stress-resistant airborne viruses and bacterial spores were reviewed. PMID:17310729

  5. Observations and Modeling of US Power Plant NOx Emission Reductions and Their Impact on Air Quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frost, G. J.; Kim, S.; McKeen, S.; Hsie, E.; Trainer, M.; Heckel, A.; Richter, A.; Burrows, J.

    2007-12-01

    Nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions resulting from fossil fuel combustion lead to unhealthy levels of near-surface ozone (O3). One of the largest US sources, electric power generation, represented about 25% of US anthropogenic NOx emissions prior to the recent implementation of pollution controls by utility companies. Continuous emission monitoring data demonstrate that overall US power plant NOx emissions decreased about 50% during the summer ozone season since the late 1990's. Space-based instruments observed declining regional NOx levels between 1999 and 2005 in response to these emission reductions. Satellite-retrieved summertime nitrogen dioxide (NO2) columns and bottom-up emission estimates show larger decreases in the Ohio River Valley, where power plants dominate NOx emissions, than in the northeast US urban corridor. Model simulations predict lower O3 across much of the eastern US in response to these emission reductions.

  6. Light pollution from the ground, the air and the space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sánchez de Miguel, A.; Zamorano, J.; Gómez Castaño, J.; Aubé, M.; Bará, S.; Gallego, J.; Kyba, C. C. M.; Lombraña, D.; Nievas, M.; Pascual, S.; Tapia, C.

    2015-05-01

    The sky brightness is one of the things that most harms astronomical observation, near cities and on mountain observatories. Currently there are several initiatives to control light pollution, but the sky brightness measurements are usually local. To exercise adequate control of light pollution is necessary measurements of light pollution sources and their relation to the spatiotemporal variation of the sky brightness. We use various approaches: data taken ashore with photometers SQM and relate emissions and detected with VIIRS and DMSP satellites. We also use multispectral data taken from the International Space Station to distinguish different types of lamps that contribute to light pollution. Finally we used a spectrograph SAND for temporal analysis of the evolution of the contribution of the lights in the sky brightness of a big city like Madrid. Also we have performed a citizen science program to classify the night time images taken from the ISS (Sánchez de Miguel et al. 2014, A&G, 55, 4, 36).

  7. Calculation reduction method for color digital holography and computer-generated hologram using color space conversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimobaba, Tomoyoshi; Nagahama, Yuki; Kakue, Takashi; Takada, Naoki; Okada, Naohisa; Endo, Yutaka; Hirayama, Ryuji; Hiyama, Daisuke; Ito, Tomoyoshi

    2014-02-01

    A calculation reduction method for color digital holography (DH) and computer-generated holograms (CGHs) using color space conversion is reported. Color DH and color CGHs are generally calculated on RGB space. We calculate color DH and CGHs in other color spaces for accelerating the calculation (e.g., YCbCr color space). In YCbCr color space, a RGB image or RGB hologram is converted to the luminance component (Y), blue-difference chroma (Cb), and red-difference chroma (Cr) components. In terms of the human eye, although the negligible difference of the luminance component is well recognized, the difference of the other components is not. In this method, the luminance component is normal sampled and the chroma components are down-sampled. The down-sampling allows us to accelerate the calculation of the color DH and CGHs. We compute diffraction calculations from the components, and then we convert the diffracted results in YCbCr color space to RGB color space. The proposed method, which is possible to accelerate the calculations up to a factor of 3 in theory, accelerates the calculation over two times faster than the ones in RGB color space.

  8. Reaction engineering for materials processing in space: Reduction of ilmenite by hydrogen and carbon monoxide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhao, Y.; Shadman, F.

    1991-01-01

    Oxygen is a consumable material which needs to be produced continuously in most space missions. Its use for propulsion as well as life support makes oxygen one of the largest volume chemicals to be produced in space. Production of oxygen from lunar materials is of particular interest and is very attractive possibility. The kinetics and mechanism of reduction of ilmenite by carbon monoxide and hydrogen at 800 to 1100 C were investigated. The temporal profiles of conversion for carbon monoxide have a sigmoidal shape and indicate the presence of three different stages (induction, acceleration, and deceleration) during the reduction reaction. The apparent activation energy decreases from 18 kcal/mole at 10 percent conversion to 10 kcal/mole at 50 percent conversion. The reaction is first order with respect to carbon monoxide under the experimental conditions studied. Both SEM and EDX analysis show that the diffusion of Fe product away from the reaction front and through the TiO2 phase, followed by the nucleation and growth of a separate Fe phase are important steps affecting the process kinetics. The results from hydrogen reduction show that the mechanism of ilmenite reduction by hydrogen is similar to that by carbon monoxide. However, the titanium dioxide can be further reduced by hydrogen at 800 to 1000 C. The detailed comparison and theoretical modeling of both reduction processes is presented.

  9. Program documentation for the space environment test division post-test data reduction program (GNFLEX)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, L. D.

    1979-01-01

    The Space Environment Test Division Post-Test Data Reduction Program processes data from test history tapes generated on the Flexible Data System in the Space Environment Simulation Laboratory at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration/Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center. The program reads the tape's data base records to retrieve the item directory conversion file, the item capture file and the process link file to determine the active parameters. The desired parameter names are read in by lead cards after which the periodic data records are read to determine parameter data level changes. The data is considered to be compressed rather than full sample rate. Tabulations and/or a tape for generating plots may be output.

  10. Video-Puff of Air Hits Ball of Water in Space Onboard the International Space Station (ISS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    Saturday Morning Science, the science of opportunity series of applied experiments and demonstrations, performed aboard the International Space Station (ISS) by Expedition 6 astronaut Dr. Don Pettit, revealed some remarkable findings. In this video clip, Dr. Pettit demonstrates the phenomenon of a puff of air hitting a ball of water that is free floating in space. Watch the video to see why Dr. Pettit remarks 'I'd hate think that our planet would go through these kinds of gyrations if it got whacked by a big asteroid'.

  11. Reduction of the spermatogonial population in rat testes flown on Space Lab-3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Philpott, D. E.; Stevenson, J.; Corbett, R.; Sapp, W.; Williams, C.

    1985-01-01

    Quantization of the testicular spermatogonial population reduction in six rats is performed 12 hours after their return from seven days aboard Space Lab-3. The observed 7.1 percent organ weight loss, and 7.5 percent stage six spermatogonial cell population reduction in comparison with control rats correlate very well. Accurate dosimetry was not conducted on board, but radiation can not be considered the primary cause of the observed change. The decrease in protein kinase in the heart of these rats indicates that stress from adapting to weightlessness, the final jet flight, or other sources, is an important factor.

  12. Reductions in human benzene exposure in the California South Coast Air Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fruin, Scott A.; Denis, Michael J. St; Winer, Arthur M.; Colome, Steven D.; Lurmann, Frederick W.

    Benzene typically contributes a significant fraction of the human cancer risk associated with exposure to urban air pollutants. In recent years, concentrations of benzene in ambient air have declined in many urban areas due to the use of reformulated gasolines, lower vehicle emissions, and other control measures. In the California South Coast Air Basin (SoCAB) ambient benzene concentrations have been reduced by more than 70% since 1989. To estimate the resulting effect on human exposures, the Regional Human Exposure (REHEX) model was used to calculate benzene exposures in the SoCAB for the years 1989 and 1997. Benzene concentration distributions in 14 microenvironments (e.g. outdoor, home, vehicle, work) were combined with California time-activity patterns and census data to calculate exposure distributions for 11 demographic groups in the SoCAB. For 1997, the calculated average benzene exposure for nonsmoking adults in the SoCAB was 2 ppb, compared to 6 ppb for 1989. For nonsmokers, about half of the 1997 exposure was due to ambient air concentrations (including their contributions to other microenvironments), but only 4% for smokers. Passive tobacco smoke contributed about one-fourth of all exposure for adult nonsmokers. In-transit microenvironments and attached garages contributed approximately 15 and 10%, respectively. From 1989 to 1997, decreases in passive smoke exposure accounted for about one-sixth of the decrease in exposure for nonsmoking adults, with the remainder due to decreases in ambient concentrations. The reductions in exposure during this time period indicate the effectiveness of reformulated fuels, more stringent emission standards, and smoking restrictions in significantly reducing exposure to benzene.

  13. Pegasus Air-Launched Space Booster Flight Test Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elias, Antonio L.; Knutson, Martin A.

    1995-01-01

    Pegasus is a satellite-launching space rocket dropped from a B52 carrier aircraft instead of launching vertically from a ground pad. Its three-year, privately-funded accelerated development was carried out under a demanding design-to-nonrecurring cost methodology, which imposed unique requirements on its flight test program, such as the decision not to drop an inert model from the carrier aircraft; the number and type of captive and free-flight tests; the extent of envelope exploration; and the decision to combine test and operational orbital flights. The authors believe that Pegasus may be the first vehicle where constraints in the number and type of flight tests to be carried out actually influenced the design of the vehicle. During the period November 1989 to February of 1990 a total of three captive flight tests were conducted, starting with a flutter clearing flight and culminating in a complete drop rehearsal. Starting on April 5, 1990, two combination test/operational flights were conducted. A unique aspect of the program was the degree of involvement of flight test personnel in the early design of the vehicle and, conversely, of the design team in flight testing and early flight operations. Various lessons learned as a result of this process are discussed throughout this paper.

  14. Air Quality in Nigeria as Observed from Space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marais, Eloise; Jacob, Daniel; Wecht, Kevin; Vigouroux, Corinne; Lerot, Christophe; Kurosu, Thomas; Chance, Kelly

    2013-04-01

    Elevated levels of formaldehyde (HCHO) in Nigeria, as observed using the Ozone Monitoring Instrument, indicate a large source of anthropogenic volatile organic compounds (VOCs). We isolate an anthropogenic signal of HCHO by removing the biomass burning and biogenic signal. We use space-based observations of gas flare hotspots, carbon monoxide, methane, nitrogen dioxide and glyoxal to identify emission source locations - city centers (Lagos, Abuja, Port Harcourt); Niger Delta petroleum and natural gas extraction; and intense biofuel use in populous rural regions. GEOS-Chem underestimates anthropogenic HCHO in Nigeria and we use aircraft observations of VOCs made over Lagos during the AMMA campaign (Jul-Aug 2006) and SCIAMACHY methane observations over the Niger Delta to address this discrepancy. After updating GEOS-Chem VOC emissions in Nigeria we find that local emissions increase surface ozone north of the Nigerian coastline (persistent onshore winds) and ozone and peroxyacetyl nitrate in the free troposphere stretching from the Gulf of Guinea to the east coast of South America (monsoonal convection and advection along a branch of the African Easterly Jet).

  15. Study of Air Pollution from Space Using TOMS: Challenges and Promises for Future Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhartia, Pawan K.

    2002-01-01

    A series of TOMS instruments built by NASA has flown on US, Russian, and Japanese satellites in the last 24 years. These instruments are well known for producing spectacular maps of the ozone hole that forms over Antarctica each spring. However, it is less well known that these instruments also provided first evidence that space-based measurements in UV of sufficiently high precision and accuracy can provide valuable information to study global air quality. We will use the TOMS experience to highlight the promises and challenges of future space-based missions designed specifically for air quality studies.

  16. Meteorological regimes for the classification of aerospace air quality predictions for NASA-Kennedy Space Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stephens, J. B.; Sloan, J. C.

    1976-01-01

    A method is described for developing a statistical air quality assessment for the launch of an aerospace vehicle from the Kennedy Space Center in terms of existing climatological data sets. The procedure can be refined as developing meteorological conditions are identified for use with the NASA-Marshall Space Flight Center Rocket Exhaust Effluent Diffusion (REED) description. Classical climatological regimes for the long range analysis can be narrowed as the synoptic and mesoscale structure is identified. Only broad synoptic regimes are identified at this stage of analysis. As the statistical data matrix is developed, synoptic regimes will be refined in terms of the resulting eigenvectors as applicable to aerospace air quality predictions.

  17. The role of Environmental Health System air quality monitors in Space Station Contingency Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Limero, Thomas F.; Wilson, Steve; Perlot, Susan; James, John

    1992-01-01

    This paper describes the Space Station Freedom (SSF) Environmental Health System's air-quality monitoring strategy and instrumentation. A two-tier system has been developed, consisting of first-alert instruments that warn the crew of airborne contamination and a volatile organic analyzer that can identify volatile organic contaminants in near-real time. The strategy for air quality monitoring on SSF is designed to provide early detection so that the contamination can be confined to one module and so that crew health and safety can be protected throughout the contingency event. The use of air-quality monitors in fixed and portable modes will be presented as a means of following the progress of decontamination efforts and ensuring acceptable air quality in a module after an incident. The technology of each instrument will be reviewed briefly; the main focus of this paper, however, will be the use of air-quality monitors before, during, and after contingency incidents.

  18. ANITA Air Monitoring on the International Space Station: Results Compared to Other Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Honne, A.; Schumann-Olsen, H.; Kaspersen, K.; Limero, T.; Macatangay, A.; Mosebach, H.; Kampf, D.; Mudgett, P. D.; James, J. T.; Tan, G.; Supper, W.

    2009-01-01

    ANITA (Analysing Interferometer for Ambient Air) is a flight experiment precursor for a permanent continuous air quality monitoring system on the ISS (International Space Station). For the safety of the crew, ANITA can detect and quantify quasi-online and simultaneously 33 gas compounds in the air with ppm or sub-ppm detection limits. The autonomous measurement system is based on FTIR (Fourier Transform Infra-Red spectroscopy). The system represents a versatile air quality monitor, allowing for the first time the detection and monitoring of trace gas dynamics in a spacecraft atmosphere. ANITA operated on the ISS from September 2007 to August 2008. This paper summarizes the results of ANITA s air analyses with emphasis on comparisons to other measurements. The main basis of comparison is NASA s set of grab samples taken onboard the ISS and analysed on ground applying various GC-based (Gas Chromatography) systems.

  19. Baseline meteorological soundings for parametric environmental investigations at Kennedy Space Center and Vandenberg Air Force Base

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Susko, M.; Stephens, J. B.

    1976-01-01

    Meteorological soundings representative of the atmospheric environment at the Kennedy Space Center, Florida and Vandenberg Air Force Base, California, are presented. Synthetic meteorological soundings at Kennedy Space Center, including fall, spring, and a sea breeze, and at Vandenberg Air Force Base (sea breeze with low and high level inversion and stationary upper level troughs) are shown. Soundings of frontal passages are listed. The Titan launch soundings at Kennedy Space Center present a wide range of meteorological conditions, both seasonal and time of day variations. The meteorological data input of altitude, wind speed, wind direction, temperature, and pressure may be used as meteorological inputs for the NASA/MSFC Multilayer Diffusion Model or other models to obtain quantitative estimates of effluent concentrations associated with the potential emission of major combustion products in the lower atmosphere to simulate actual launches of space vehicles. The Titan launch soundings are also of value in terms of rocket effluent measurements for analysis purposes.

  20. Air and Water System (AWS) Design and Technology Selection for the Vision for Space Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Harry; Kliss, Mark

    2005-01-01

    This paper considers technology selection for the crew air and water recycling systems to be used in long duration human space exploration. The specific objectives are to identify the most probable air and water technologies for the vision for space exploration and to identify the alternate technologies that might be developed. The approach is to conduct a preliminary first cut systems engineering analysis, beginning with the Air and Water System (AWS) requirements and the system mass balance, and then define the functional architecture, review the International Space Station (ISS) technologies, and discuss alternate technologies. The life support requirements for air and water are well known. The results of the mass flow and mass balance analysis help define the system architectural concept. The AWS includes five subsystems: Oxygen Supply, Condensate Purification, Urine Purification, Hygiene Water Purification, and Clothes Wash Purification. AWS technologies have been evaluated in the life support design for ISS node 3, and in earlier space station design studies, in proposals for the upgrade or evolution of the space station, and in studies of potential lunar or Mars missions. The leading candidate technologies for the vision for space exploration are those planned for Node 3 of the ISS. The ISS life support was designed to utilize Space Station Freedom (SSF) hardware to the maximum extent possible. The SSF final technology selection process, criteria, and results are discussed. Would it be cost-effective for the vision for space exploration to develop alternate technology? This paper will examine this and other questions associated with AWS design and technology selection.

  1. Space shuttle solid rocket booster main parachute damage reduction team report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watts, G.

    1993-01-01

    This report gives the findings of the space shuttle solid rocket booster main parachute damage reduction team. The purpose of the team was to investigate the causes of main parachute deployment damage and to recommend methods to eliminate or substantially reduce the damage. The team concluded that the two primary causes of significant damage during deployment are vent entanglement and contact of the parachutes with the main parachute support structure. As an inexpensive but effective step towards damage reduction, the team recommends modification of the parachute packing procedure to eliminate vent entanglement. As the most effective design change, the team recommends a pilot chute-deployed soft-pack system. Alternative concepts are also recommended that provide a major reduction in damage at a total cost lower than the pilot chute-deployed soft pack.

  2. A mechanism of basal spacing reduction in sodium smectitic clay materials in contact with DNAPL wastes.

    PubMed

    Ayral-Cinar, Derya; Otero-Diaz, Margarita; Demond, Avery H

    2016-09-01

    There has been concern regarding the possible attack of clays in aquitards, slurry walls and landfill liners by dense nonaqueous phase liquid (DNAPL) wastes, resulting in cracking. Despite the fact that a reduction in basal spacing in sodium smectitic clay materials has been linked to cracking, no plausible mechanism by which this reduction occurs in contact with waste DNAPLs has been formulated. To elucidate a mechanism, screening studies were conducted that showed that the combination of an anionic surfactant (AOT), a nonionic surfactant (TritonX-100) and a chlorinated solvent, tetrachloroethylene (PCE), could replicate the basal spacing reduction and cracking behavior of water-saturated bentonite caused by two waste DNAPLs obtained from the field. FTIR measurements of this system showed a displacement of the HOH bending band of water symptomatic of desiccation. Sorption measurements showed that the uptake of AOT by bentonite increased eight fold in the presence of TritonX-100 and PCE. The evidence presented here supports a mechanism of syneresis, involving the extraction of water from the interlayer space of the clay through the synergistic sorption of a nonionic and anionic surfactant mixture. It is speculated that the solvation of water in reverse micellar aggregates is the process driving the syneresis. PMID:27343864

  3. Effects of spot size and spot spacing on lateral penumbra reduction when using a dynamic collimation system for spot scanning proton therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hyer, Daniel E.; Hill, Patrick M.; Wang, Dongxu; Smith, Blake R.; Flynn, Ryan T.

    2014-11-01

    The purpose of this work was to investigate the reduction in lateral dose penumbra that can be achieved when using a dynamic collimation system (DCS) for spot scanning proton therapy as a function of two beam parameters: spot size and spot spacing. This is an important investigation as both values impact the achievable dose distribution and a wide range of values currently exist depending on delivery hardware. Treatment plans were created both with and without the DCS for in-air spot sizes (σair) of 3, 5, 7, and 9 mm as well as spot spacing intervals of 2, 4, 6 and 8 mm. Compared to un-collimated treatment plans, the plans created with the DCS yielded a reduction in the mean dose to normal tissue surrounding the target of 26.2-40.6% for spot sizes of 3-9 mm, respectively. Increasing the spot spacing resulted in a decrease in the time penalty associated with using the DCS that was approximately proportional to the reduction in the number of rows in the raster delivery pattern. We conclude that dose distributions achievable when using the DCS are comparable to those only attainable with much smaller initial spot sizes, suggesting that the goal of improving high dose conformity may be achieved by either utilizing a DCS or by improving beam line optics.

  4. Effects of spot size and spot spacing on lateral penumbra reduction when using a dynamic collimation system for spot scanning proton therapy.

    PubMed

    Hyer, Daniel E; Hill, Patrick M; Wang, Dongxu; Smith, Blake R; Flynn, Ryan T

    2014-11-21

    The purpose of this work was to investigate the reduction in lateral dose penumbra that can be achieved when using a dynamic collimation system (DCS) for spot scanning proton therapy as a function of two beam parameters: spot size and spot spacing. This is an important investigation as both values impact the achievable dose distribution and a wide range of values currently exist depending on delivery hardware. Treatment plans were created both with and without the DCS for in-air spot sizes (σair) of 3, 5, 7, and 9 mm as well as spot spacing intervals of 2, 4, 6 and 8 mm. Compared to un-collimated treatment plans, the plans created with the DCS yielded a reduction in the mean dose to normal tissue surrounding the target of 26.2-40.6% for spot sizes of 3-9 mm, respectively. Increasing the spot spacing resulted in a decrease in the time penalty associated with using the DCS that was approximately proportional to the reduction in the number of rows in the raster delivery pattern. We conclude that dose distributions achievable when using the DCS are comparable to those only attainable with much smaller initial spot sizes, suggesting that the goal of improving high dose conformity may be achieved by either utilizing a DCS or by improving beam line optics. PMID:25330783

  5. Catalytic Tar Reduction for Assistance in Thermal Conversion of Space Waste for Energy Production

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Caraccio, Anne Joan; Devor, Robert William; Hintze, Paul E.; Muscatello, Anthony C.; Nur, Mononita

    2014-01-01

    The Trash to Gas (TtG) project investigates technologies for converting waste generated during spaceflight into various resources. One of these technologies was gasification, which employed a downdraft reactor designed and manufactured at NASA's Kennedy Space Center (KSC) for the conversion of simulated space trash to carbon dioxide. The carbon dioxide would then be converted to methane for propulsion and water for life support systems. A minor byproduct of gasification includes large hydrocarbons, also known as tars. Tars are unwanted byproducts that add contamination to the product stream, clog the reactor and cause complications in analysis instrumentation. The objective of this research was to perform reduction studies of a mock tar using select catalysts and choose the most effective for primary treatment within the KSC downdraft gasification reactor. Because the KSC reactor is operated at temperatures below typical gasification reactors, this study evaluates catalyst performance below recommended catalytic operating temperatures. The tar reduction experimentation was observed by passing a model tar vapor stream over the catalysts at similar conditions to that of the KSC reactor. Reduction in tar was determined using gas chromatography. Tar reduction efficiency and catalyst performances were evaluated at different temperatures.

  6. Air

    MedlinePlus

    ... do to protect yourself from dirty air . Indoor air pollution and outdoor air pollution Air can be polluted indoors and it can ... this chart to see what things cause indoor air pollution and what things cause outdoor air pollution! Indoor ...

  7. Amplification of Arctic warming by past air pollution reductions in Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Acosta Navarro, J. C.; Varma, V.; Riipinen, I.; Seland, Ø.; Kirkevåg, A.; Struthers, H.; Iversen, T.; Hansson, H.-C.; Ekman, A. M. L.

    2016-04-01

    The Arctic region is warming considerably faster than the rest of the globe, with important consequences for the ecosystems and human exploration of the region. However, the reasons behind this Arctic amplification are not entirely clear. As a result of measures to enhance air quality, anthropogenic emissions of particulate matter and its precursors have drastically decreased in parts of the Northern Hemisphere over the past three decades. Here we present simulations with an Earth system model with comprehensive aerosol physics and chemistry that show that the sulfate aerosol reductions in Europe since 1980 can potentially explain a significant fraction of Arctic warming over that period. Specifically, the Arctic region receives an additional 0.3 W m-2 of energy, and warms by 0.5 °C on annual average in simulations with declining European sulfur emissions in line with historical observations, compared with a model simulation with fixed European emissions at 1980 levels. Arctic warming is amplified mainly in fall and winter, but the warming is initiated in summer by an increase in incoming solar radiation as well as an enhanced poleward oceanic and atmospheric heat transport. The simulated summertime energy surplus reduces sea-ice cover, which leads to a transfer of heat from the Arctic Ocean to the atmosphere. We conclude that air quality regulations in the Northern Hemisphere, the ocean and atmospheric circulation, and Arctic climate are inherently linked.

  8. Toxicological Assessment of ISS Air Quality: SpaceX-2 First Ingress

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyers, Valerie

    2013-01-01

    One mini-grab sample container (M-GSC) was collected by crew members onboard ISS during first ingress into SpaceX-2 on March 3, 2013, three days after late cargo loading and a pre-launch clean air purge. Recoveries of the three surrogate standards from the m-GSC were: 13C-acetone, 97%; fluorobenzene, 95%; and chlorobenzene, 68%.

  9. 46 CFR 154.1710 - Exclusion of air from cargo tank vapor spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Exclusion of air from cargo tank vapor spaces. 154.1710 Section 154.1710 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES SAFETY STANDARDS FOR SELF-PROPELLED VESSELS CARRYING BULK LIQUEFIED GASES Special Design and Operating Requirements § 154.1710...

  10. Creative Capital Financing: Lease Purchase and Leasing Air Space (The Florida Approach).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Franklin L.

    1983-01-01

    Among recent creative financing arrangements for public sector construction in Florida are the Duval County Central Administration Building, constructed with a lease purchase arrangement, and state legislation that provides for the leasing or sale of air space by local school boards or boards of regents. (MLF)

  11. FEASIBILITY OF PRODUCING COMMODITIES AND ELECTRICITY FOR SPACE SHUTTLE OPERATIONS AT VANDENBERG AIR FORCE BASE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of a preliminary screening study of the technical and economic feasibility of the on-site production of commodities (liquid propellant and gases) and electricity to support space shuttle launch activities at Vandenberg Air Force Base (VAFB). Both commerci...

  12. Substantial Humic Acid Adsorption to Activated Carbon Air Cathodes Produces a Small Reduction in Catalytic Activity.

    PubMed

    Yang, Wulin; Watson, Valerie J; Logan, Bruce E

    2016-08-16

    Long-term operation of microbial fuel cells (MFCs) can result in substantial degradation of activated carbon (AC) air-cathode performance. To examine a possible role in fouling from organic matter in water, cathodes were exposed to high concentrations of humic acids (HA). Cathodes treated with 100 mg L(-1) HA exhibited no significant change in performance. Exposure to 1000 mg L(-1) HA decreased the maximum power density by 14% (from 1310 ± 30 mW m(-2) to 1130 ± 30 mW m(-2)). Pore blocking was the main mechanism as the total surface area of the AC decreased by 12%. Minimization of external mass transfer resistances using a rotating disk electrode exhibited only a 5% reduction in current, indicating about half the impact of HA adsorption was associated with external mass transfer resistance and the remainder was due to internal resistances. Rinsing the cathodes with deionized water did not restore cathode performance. These results demonstrated that HA could contribute to cathode fouling, but the extent of power reduction was relatively small in comparison to large mass of humics adsorbed. Other factors, such as biopolymer attachment, or salt precipitation, are therefore likely more important contributors to long-term fouling of MFC cathodes. PMID:27414751

  13. Field-scale demonstration of induced biogeochemical reductive dechlorination at Dover Air Force Base, Dover, Delaware

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kennedy, Lonnie G.; Everett, Jess W.; Becvar, Erica; DeFeo, Donald

    2006-11-01

    Biogeochemical reductive dechlorination (BiRD) is a new remediation approach for chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbons (CAHs). The approach stimulates common sulfate-reducing soil bacteria, facilitating the geochemical conversion of native iron minerals into iron sulfides. Iron sulfides have the ability to chemically reduce many common CAH compounds including PCE, TCE, DCE, similar to zero valent iron (Fe 0). Results of a field test at Dover Air Force Base, Dover, Delaware, are given in this paper. BiRD was stimulated by direct injection of Epson salt (MgSO 4·7H 2O) and sodium (L) lactate (NaC 3H 5O 3) in five injection wells. Sediment was sampled before and 8 months after injection. Significant iron sulfide minerals developed in the sandy aquifer matrix. From ground water analyses, treatment began a few weeks after injection with up to 95% reduction in PCE, TCE, and cDCE in less than 1 year. More complete CAH treatment is likely at a larger scale than this demonstration.

  14. Field-scale demonstration of induced biogeochemical reductive dechlorination at Dover Air Force Base, Dover, Delaware.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, Lonnie G; Everett, Jess W; Becvar, Erica; DeFeo, Donald

    2006-11-20

    Biogeochemical reductive dechlorination (BiRD) is a new remediation approach for chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbons (CAHs). The approach stimulates common sulfate-reducing soil bacteria, facilitating the geochemical conversion of native iron minerals into iron sulfides. Iron sulfides have the ability to chemically reduce many common CAH compounds including PCE, TCE, DCE, similar to zero valent iron (Fe(0)). Results of a field test at Dover Air Force Base, Dover, Delaware, are given in this paper. BiRD was stimulated by direct injection of Epson salt (MgSO(4).7H(2)O) and sodium (L) lactate (NaC(3)H(5)O(3)) in five injection wells. Sediment was sampled before and 8 months after injection. Significant iron sulfide minerals developed in the sandy aquifer matrix. From ground water analyses, treatment began a few weeks after injection with up to 95% reduction in PCE, TCE, and cDCE in less than 1 year. More complete CAH treatment is likely at a larger scale than this demonstration. PMID:16949177

  15. Verifiable emission reductions in European urban areas with air-quality models.

    PubMed

    Skouloudis, A N; Rickerby, D G

    2016-07-18

    The first and second AutoOil programmes were conducted since 1992 as a partnership between the European Commission and the automobile and oil industries. These have introduced emission reductions in Europe based on numerical modelling for a target year. They aimed to identify the most cost-effective way to meet desired future air quality over the whole European Union. In their time, these regulatory efforts were considered an important step towards a new approach for establishing European emission limits. With this work, we review the effectiveness of forecasts carried out with numerical modelling and compare these with the actual measurements at the target year, which was the year 2010. Based on these comparisons and new technological innovations these methodologies can incorporate new sectorial assessments for improving the accuracy of the modelling forecasts and for examining the representativeness of emissions reductions, as well as for the simultaneous assessment of population exposure to cocktails of toxic substances under realistic climatological conditions. We also examined at the ten AutoOil domains the geographical generalisation of the forecasts for CO and NO2 at 1065 European urban areas on the basis of their population and the local population density. PMID:27117117

  16. Downwind hazard calculations for space shuttle launches at Kennedy Space Center and Vandenberg Air Force Base

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Susko, M.; Hill, C. K.; Kaufman, J. W.

    1974-01-01

    The quantitative estimates are presented of pollutant concentrations associated with the emission of the major combustion products (HCl, CO, and Al2O3) to the lower atmosphere during normal launches of the space shuttle. The NASA/MSFC Multilayer Diffusion Model was used to obtain these calculations. Results are presented for nine sets of typical meteorological conditions at Kennedy Space Center, including fall, spring, and a sea-breeze condition, and six sets at Vandenberg AFB. In none of the selected typical meteorological regimes studied was a 10-min limit of 4 ppm exceeded.

  17. Using PHM to measure equipment usable life on the Air Force's next generation reusable space booster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blasdel, A.

    The U.S. Air Force procures many launch vehicles and launch vehicle services to place their satellites at their desired location in space. The equipment on-board these satellite and launch vehicle often suffer from premature failures that result in the total loss of the satellite or a shortened mission life sometimes requiring the purchase of a replacement satellite and launch vehicle. The Air Force uses its EELV to launch its high priority satellites. Due to a rise in the cost of purchasing a launch using the Air Force's EELV from 72M in 1997 to as high as 475M per launch today, the Air Force is working to replace the EELV with a reusable space booster (RSB). The RSB will be similar in design and operations to the recently cancelled NASA reusable space booster known as the Space Shuttle. If the Air Force uses the same process that procures the EELV and other launch vehicles and satellites, the RSB will also suffer from premature equipment failures thus putting the payloads at a similar high risk of mission failure. The RSB is expected to lower each launch cost by 50% compared to the EELV. The development of the RSB offers the Air Force an opportunity to use a new reliability paradigm that includes a prognostic and health management program and a condition-based maintenance program. These both require using intelligent, decision making self-prognostic equipment The prognostic and health management program and its condition-based maintenance program allows increases in RSB equipment usable life, lower logistics and maintenance costs, while increasing safety and mission assurance. The PHM removes many decisions from personnel that, in the past resulted in catastrophic failures and loss of life. Adding intelligent, decision-making self-prognostic equipment to the RSB will further decrease launch costs while decreasing risk and increasing safety and mission assurance.

  18. Multi-Reflex Propulsion Systems for Space and Air Vehicles and Energy Transfer for Long Distance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bolonkin, A.

    The purpose of this article is to call attention to the revolutionary idea of light multi-reflection. This idea allows the design of new engines, space and air propulsion systems, storage (of a beam and solar energy), transmitters of energy (to millions of kilometers), creation of new weapons, etc. This method and the main innovations were offered by the author in 1983 in the former USSR. Now the author shows in a series of articles the immense possibilities of this idea in many fields of engineering - astronautics, aviation, energy, optics, direct converter of light (laser beam) energy to mechanical energy (light engine), to name a few. This article considers the multi-reflex propulsion systems for space and air vehicles and energy transmitter for long distances in space.

  19. Airborne mass spectrometers: four decades of atmospheric and space research at the Air Force research laboratory.

    PubMed

    Viggiano, A A; Hunton, D E

    1999-11-01

    Mass spectrometry is a versatile research tool that has proved to be extremely useful for exploring the fundamental nature of the earth's atmosphere and ionosphere and in helping to solve operational problems facing the Air Force and the Department of Defense. In the past 40 years, our research group at the Air Force Research Laboratory has flown quadrupole mass spectrometers of many designs on nearly 100 sounding rockets, nine satellites, three Space Shuttles and many missions of high-altitude research aircraft and balloons. We have also used our instruments in ground-based investigations of rocket and jet engine exhaust, combustion chemistry and microwave breakdown chemistry. This paper is a review of the instrumentation and techniques needed for space research, a summary of the results from many of the experiments, and an introduction to the broad field of atmospheric and space mass spectrometry in general. PMID:10548806

  20. Comparative study of the effects of air or saline to identify the extradural space.

    PubMed

    Valentine, S J; Jarvis, A P; Shutt, L E

    1991-02-01

    Fifty women in labour were allocated randomly to receive either air or saline to assist in the identification of the extradural space by the loss of resistance technique. A study volume of 4 ml of air or saline was used before 0.5% bupivacaine 8 ml and the spread of analgesia was followed for 30 min. The first segment blocked, time of onset, number of blocked segments and height of block were comparable in the two groups. At 30 min, there were eight patients with an unblocked segment in the air group, compared with two in the saline group (P less than 0.01). All unblocked segments were blocked subsequently by further doses of bupivacaine. We conclude that air is more likely than saline to produce unblocked segments in the initiation of extradural analgesia in labour. PMID:1817625

  1. A lithium-air fuel cell using copper to catalyze oxygen-reduction based on copper-corrosion mechanism.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yonggang; Zhou, Haoshen

    2010-09-14

    The copper-catalyzed O(2) reduction in aqueous electrolyte and the Li-anode in organic electrolyte were united together by a ceramic Li-ions exchange film to form a lithium-air fuel cell. The achieved results demonstrate the cycle between Cu and Cu(2)O can be used to catalyze O(2) electrochemical reduction based on the copper-corrosion mechanism. PMID:20668776

  2. A strategy for residual acceleration data reduction and dissemination. [from orbiting space laboratories

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rogers, Melissa J. B.; Alexander, J. I. D.

    1991-01-01

    A data reduction plan is being developed to efficiently process residual acceleration data from orbiting space laboratories. Implementation of the reduction plan will result in a useful, manageable accelerometer data base which can be readily employed by principal investigators during post-flight analysis of experimental results. The data reduction plan will also assist in the characterization of the acceleration environment of orbiters, which is important for the planning of future experimental missions. Prototype versions of the reduction plan are being tested using accelerometer data recorded during the Spacelab 3 (SL3) mission. Transient disturbances caused by shuttle and experiment operations and crew activities are being cataloged. The magnitudes of such disturbances can be as much as 0.01 g, but are rarely sustained for more than a fraction of a second and tend to vary greatly in orientation. It is found that the recorded frequency components of the SL3 disturbances do not exceed tolerance limits determined from modeling for a selected experiment set.

  3. Importance of interatomic spacing in catalytic reduction of oxygen in phosphoric acid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jalan, V.; Taylor, E. J.

    1983-01-01

    A correlation between the nearest-neighbor distance and the oxygen reduction activity of various platinum alloys is reported. It is proposed that the distance between nearest-neighbor Pt atoms on the surface of a supported catalyst is not ideal for dual site absorption of O2 or 'HO2' and that the introduction of foreign atoms which reduce the Pt nearest-neighbor spacing would result in higher oxygen reduction activity. This may allow the critical 0-0 bond interatomic distance and hence the optimum Pt-Pt separation for bond rupture to be determined from quantum chemical calculations. A composite analysis shows that the data on supported Pt alloys are consistent with Appleby's (1970) data on bulk metals with respect to specific activity, activation energy, preexponential factor, and percent d-band character.

  4. Cortical Air Spaces (Aerenchyma) in Roots of Corn Subjected to Oxygen Stress

    PubMed Central

    Drew, Malcolm C.; Chamel, André; Garrec, Jean-Paul; Fourcy, André

    1980-01-01

    When the seminal root system of 14-day-old corn (Zea mays cv. Dekalb 202) was subjected to O2 stress, nodal roots with well developed cortical air spaces (aerenchyma) grew into the deoxygenated solution. Microscopic examination showed that there was extensive breakdown of cells in the midcortex of these roots, while the stele, endodermis, and inner layer of cortical cells remained complete, as did the outer layers of the cortex and the epidermis. Occasional files of intact cells, and the wall residues of collapsed cells, crossed the space between inner and outer cortex. Experiments with short, intact root segments with and without air spaces showed that in the presence of O2 the ability to absorb and translocate 86Rb+, per unit volume or length of root, was little affected by cortical degeneration. The distribution across root sections of recently supplied strontium and rubidium, determined by electron microprobe analysis, indicated that in roots with air spaces the strands of wall residues bridging the cortex could be involved in maintaining the conduction of ions from the outer cortex up to the endodermis. Images PMID:16661224

  5. Cabin Air Quality On Board Mir and the International Space Station: A Comparison

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macatangay, Ariel; Perry, Jay L.

    2007-01-01

    The maintenance of the cabin atmosphere aboard spacecraft is critical not only to its habitability but also to its function. Ideally, air quality can be maintained by striking a proper balance between the generation and removal of contaminants. Both very dynamic processes, the balance between generation and removal can be difficult to maintain and control because the state of the cabin atmosphere is in constant evolution responding to different perturbations. Typically, maintaining a clean cabin environment on board crewed spacecraft and space habitats is the central function of the environmental control and life support (ECLS) system. While active air quality control equipment is deployed on board every vehicle to remove carbon dioxide, water vapor, and trace chemical components from the cabin atmosphere, perturbations associated with logistics, vehicle construction and maintenance, and ECLS system configuration influence the resulting cabin atmospheric quality. The air-quality data obtained from the International Space Station (ISS) and NASA-Mir programs provides a wealth of information regarding the maintenance of the cabin atmosphere aboard long-lived space habitats. A comparison of the composition of the trace chemical contaminant load is presented. Correlations between ground-based and in-flight operations that influence cabin atmospheric quality are identified and discussed, and observations on cabin atmospheric quality during the NASA-Mir expeditions and the International Space Station are explored.

  6. Cold war historic properties of the 21st Space Wing Air Force Space Command

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffecker, J.F.; Whorton, M.; Buechler, C.R.

    1996-03-01

    A Legacy-funded inventory and evaluation of facilities dating to the Cold War era was conducted for the USAF 21{sup ST} Space Wing (AFSPC). The mission of the Wing includes early warning of missile launches and detection and tracking of space objects. The political and military strategic context for these facilities was developed through an overview of Cold War history, subdivided into four major periods: (1) origins of the conflict, (2) confrontation and crisis, (3) sustained superpower balance based on mutual deterrence, and (4) renewed confrontation and collapse of the Soviet Union. The enormous importance of early warning systems in maintaining the balance of power between the USA and the Soviet Union is discussed in more detail as a subset of the general context of the Cold War history to provide additional background for evaluating the 21{sup ST} Space Wing systems. In addition, a history of each installation was prepared and placed in the context of the broader history of the Cold War. For instance, the effort to develop a credible nuclear threat in the early 1950s is represented by the construction of Thule AB as a forward bomber base in 1951. The growing concern with a Soviet ICBM threat in the late 1950s is reflected in the construction of BMEWS at Thule AB and Clear AS during 1958-1961. Development of an antiballistic missile (ABM) system, subsequently abandoned during the 1970s, is represented by the Safeguard System at Cavalier AS. The U.S. response to the Soviet submarine-launched missile capability during the 1970s is embodied in the deployment of phased-array radar systems to cover the ocean flanks of North America at Cape Cod AS (and later at Eldorado AS). The establishment of AFSPC at Peterson AFB in 1982 reflects the increased strategic importance of space in the later phases of the Cold War. A set of recommendations regarding NRHP eligibility and management of Cold War historic properties was developed as part of the inventory.

  7. The Space Technology-7 Disturbance Reduction System Precision Control Flight Validation Experiment Control System Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    O'Donnell, James R.; Hsu, Oscar C.; Maghami, Peirman G.; Markley, F. Landis

    2006-01-01

    As originally proposed, the Space Technology-7 Disturbance Reduction System (DRS) project, managed out of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, was designed to validate technologies required for future missions such as the Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA). The two technologies to be demonstrated by DRS were Gravitational Reference Sensors (GRSs) and Colloidal MicroNewton Thrusters (CMNTs). Control algorithms being designed by the Dynamic Control System (DCS) team at the Goddard Space Flight Center would control the spacecraft so that it flew about a freely-floating GRS test mass, keeping it centered within its housing. For programmatic reasons, the GRSs were descoped from DRS. The primary goals of the new mission are to validate the performance of the CMNTs and to demonstrate precise spacecraft position control. DRS will fly as a part of the European Space Agency (ESA) LISA Pathfinder (LPF) spacecraft along with a similar ESA experiment, the LISA Technology Package (LTP). With no GRS, the DCS attitude and drag-free control systems make use of the sensor being developed by ESA as a part of the LTP. The control system is designed to maintain the spacecraft s position with respect to the test mass, to within 10 nm/the square root of Hz over the DRS science frequency band of 1 to 30 mHz.

  8. A feasibility study on assessing public health impacts of cumulative air pollution reduction activities in a small geographic area

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background and Objective: The rnain objective ofthis study was to examine the feasibility ofconducting a local (e.g., city level) assessment ofthe public health impacts ofcumulative air pollution reduction activities (a.k.a. accountability) from the federal, state, local and vo...

  9. Reducing Antibiotic Use for Young Children with Intussusception following Successful Air Enema Reduction

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yinghui; Ye, Weimin; Chen, Xingdong; Liu, Qian; Liu, Huandi; Si, Chunfeng; Jia, Hongying

    2015-01-01

    China introduced a new policy regarding the management of antibiotic use. We evaluated the reasonableness of antibiotic use among children suffering from intussusception before and after policy. A retrospective study was conducted involving 234 young children with intussusception who were treated between January 1, 2011 and December 30, 2013. Demographics and detailed antibiotics regimens were collected. χ2 test was used to evaluate differences between the phase I (preintervention, n = 68) and phase II (postintervention, n = 166). We determined that the overall antibiotic use rate following successful air enema reduction was 41% (97/234), which decreased from 99% (67/68) in phase I to 18% (30/166) in phase II. In phase I, prophylactic antibiotic usage reached up to 84% (56/67). The quantity of aztreonam for injection accounted for 63% (45/71), and cefamandole nafate for injection accounted for 25% (18/71). In phases II, prophylactic antibiotic usage were reduced to 13% (4/30). The quantity of aztreonam for injection was decreased to 12% (4/33) and cefamandole nafate for injection was 3% (1/33). Antibiotics' options were more diverse. In conclusion, policy intervention was effective in addressing some aspects of antibacterial drug usage among young children with intussusception. However, excessive drug use remains a public health problem. The guidelines for the antibiotic management of intussusception for children must be established in China. PMID:26569111

  10. A PIV Study of Slotted Air Injection for Jet Noise Reduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henderson, Brenda S.; Wernet, Mark P.

    2012-01-01

    Results from acoustic and Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) measurements are presented for single and dual-stream jets with fluidic injection on the core stream. The fluidic injection nozzles delivered air to the jet through slots on the interior of the nozzle at the nozzle trailing edge. The investigations include subsonic and supersonic jet conditions. Reductions in broadband shock noise and low frequency mixing noise were obtained with the introduction of fluidic injection on single stream jets. Fluidic injection was found to eliminate shock cells, increase jet mixing, and reduce turbulent kinetic energy levels near the end of the potential core. For dual-stream subsonic jets, the introduction of fluidic injection reduced low frequency noise in the peak jet noise direction and enhanced jet mixing. For dual-stream jets with supersonic fan streams and subsonic core streams, the introduction of fluidic injection in the core stream impacted the jet shock cell structure but had little effect on mixing between the core and fan streams.

  11. Oxygen reduction and evolution reactions of air electrodes using a perovskite oxide as an electrocatalyst

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishio, Koji; Molla, Sergio; Okugaki, Tomohiko; Nakanishi, Shinji; Nitta, Iwao; Kotani, Yukinari

    2015-03-01

    The oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) and the oxygen evolution reaction (OER) of air electrodes consisting of La0.5Sr0.5CoO3 and/or carbon in the electrocatalyst layer are studied by using two types of gas diffusion electrodes. Cyclic voltammetry and square wave voltammetry studies reveal very low ORR activity of carbon-free perovskite and remarkably enhanced ORR of perovskite-carbon composites. The ORR current density at -0.5 V vs. Hg/HgO is higher than 200 mA cm-2 in a wide range of perovskite-carbon composition, suggesting good peroxide reducing capability of the perovskite. The ORR mechanisms of perovskite-carbon composites are consistent with the 2+2-electron mechanisms. The ORR and OER properties of perovskite-carbon composite electrodes are significantly influenced by the carbon species. The electrode exhibits a higher ORR current density, but inferior cycling performances when a carbon material with a higher specific surface area is used, and vice versa. Under a current density of 20 mA cm-2 and ORR and OER durations of 30 min, a gas diffusion type electrode consists of La0.5Sr0.5CoO3 and a low surface area carbon are capable of more than 150 cycles.

  12. Design of a final approach spacing tool for TRACON air traffic control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Thomas J.; Erzberger, Heinz; Bergeron, Hugh

    1989-01-01

    This paper describes an automation tool that assists air traffic controllers in the Terminal Radar Approach Control (TRACON) Facilities in providing safe and efficient sequencing and spacing of arrival traffic. The automation tool, referred to as the Final Approach Spacing Tool (FAST), allows the controller to interactively choose various levels of automation and advisory information ranging from predicted time errors to speed and heading advisories for controlling time error. FAST also uses a timeline to display current scheduling and sequencing information for all aircraft in the TRACON airspace. FAST combines accurate predictive algorithms and state-of-the-art mouse and graphical interface technology to present advisory information to the controller. Furthermore, FAST exchanges various types of traffic information and communicates with automation tools being developed for the Air Route Traffic Control Center. Thus it is part of an integrated traffic management system for arrival traffic at major terminal areas.

  13. The microspace launcher: first step to the fully air-breathing space launcher

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Falempin, F.; Bouchez, M.; Calabro, M.

    2009-09-01

    A possible application for the high-speed air-breathing propulsion is the fully or partially reusable space launcher. Indeed, by combining the high-speed air-breathing propulsion with a conventional rocket engine (combined cycle or combined propulsion system), it should be possible to improve the average installed specific impulse along the ascent trajectory and then make possible more performing launchers and, hopefully, a fully reusable one. During the last 15 years, a lot of system studies have been performed in France on that subject within the framework of different and consecutive programs. Nevertheless, these studies never clearly demonstrated that a space launcher could take advantage of using a combined propulsion system. During last years, the interest to air-breathing propulsion for space application has been revisited. During this review and taking into account technologies development activities already in progress in Europe, clear priorities have been identified regarding a minimum complementary research and technology program addressing specific needs of space launcher application. It was also clearly identified that there is the need to restart system studies taking advantage of recent progress made regarding knowledge, tools, and technology and focusing on more innovative airframe/propulsion system concepts enabling better trade-off between structural efficiency and propulsion system performance. In that field, a fully axisymmetric configuration has been considered for a microspace launcher (10 kg payload). The vehicle is based on a main stage powered by air-breathing propulsion, combined or not with liquid rocket mode. A "kick stage," powered by a solid rocket engine provides the final acceleration. A preliminary design has been performed for different variants: one using a separated booster and a purely air-breathing main stage, a second one using a booster and a main stage combining air-breathing and rocket mode, a third one without separated

  14. Feasibility of Assessing Public Health Impacts of Air Pollution Reduction Programs on a Local Scale: New Haven Case Study

    PubMed Central

    Lobdell, Danelle T.; Isakov, Vlad; Baxter, Lisa; Touma, Jawad S.; Smuts, Mary Beth; Özkaynak, Halûk

    2011-01-01

    Background New approaches to link health surveillance data with environmental and population exposure information are needed to examine the health benefits of risk management decisions. Objective We examined the feasibility of conducting a local assessment of the public health impacts of cumulative air pollution reduction activities from federal, state, local, and voluntary actions in the City of New Haven, Connecticut (USA). Methods Using a hybrid modeling approach that combines regional and local-scale air quality data, we estimated ambient concentrations for multiple air pollutants [e.g., PM2.5 (particulate matter ≤ 2.5 μm in aerodynamic diameter), NOx (nitrogen oxides)] for baseline year 2001 and projected emissions for 2010, 2020, and 2030. We assessed the feasibility of detecting health improvements in relation to reductions in air pollution for 26 different pollutant–health outcome linkages using both sample size and exploratory epidemiological simulations to further inform decision-making needs. Results Model projections suggested decreases (~ 10–60%) in pollutant concentrations, mainly attributable to decreases in pollutants from local sources between 2001 and 2010. Models indicated considerable spatial variability in the concentrations of most pollutants. Sample size analyses supported the feasibility of identifying linkages between reductions in NOx and improvements in all-cause mortality, prevalence of asthma in children and adults, and cardiovascular and respiratory hospitalizations. Conclusion Substantial reductions in air pollution (e.g., ~ 60% for NOx) are needed to detect health impacts of environmental actions using traditional epidemiological study designs in small communities like New Haven. In contrast, exploratory epidemiological simulations suggest that it may be possible to demonstrate the health impacts of PM reductions by predicting intraurban pollution gradients within New Haven using coupled models. PMID:21335318

  15. Direct-to-digital holography reduction of reference hologram noise and fourier space smearing

    DOEpatents

    Voelkl, Edgar

    2006-06-27

    Systems and methods are described for reduction of reference hologram noise and reduction of Fourier space smearing, especially in the context of direct-to-digital holography (off-axis interferometry). A method of reducing reference hologram noise includes: recording a plurality of reference holograms; processing the plurality of reference holograms into a corresponding plurality of reference image waves; and transforming the corresponding plurality of reference image waves into a reduced noise reference image wave. A method of reducing smearing in Fourier space includes: recording a plurality of reference holograms; processing the plurality of reference holograms into a corresponding plurality of reference complex image waves; transforming the corresponding plurality of reference image waves into a reduced noise reference complex image wave; recording a hologram of an object; processing the hologram of the object into an object complex image wave; and dividing the complex image wave of the object by the reduced noise reference complex image wave to obtain a reduced smearing object complex image wave.

  16. NASA's Space Launch System Advanced Booster Engineering Demonstration and/or Risk Reduction Efforts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crumbly, Christopher M.; Dumbacher, Daniel L.; May, Todd A.

    2012-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) formally initiated the Space Launch System (SLS) development in September 2011, with the approval of the program s acquisition plan, which engages the current workforce and infrastructure to deliver an initial 70 metric ton (t) SLS capability in 2017, while using planned block upgrades to evolve to a full 130 t capability after 2021. A key component of the acquisition plan is a three-phased approach for the first stage boosters. The first phase is to complete the development of the Ares and Space Shuttle heritage 5-segment solid rocket boosters (SRBs) for initial exploration missions in 2017 and 2021. The second phase in the booster acquisition plan is the Advanced Booster Risk Reduction and/or Engineering Demonstration NASA Research Announcement (NRA), which was recently awarded after a full and open competition. The NRA was released to industry on February 9, 2012, with a stated intent to reduce risks leading to an affordable advanced booster and to enable competition. The third and final phase will be a full and open competition for Design, Development, Test, and Evaluation (DDT&E) of the advanced boosters. There are no existing boosters that can meet the performance requirements for the 130 t class SLS. The expected thrust class of the advanced boosters is potentially double the current 5-segment solid rocket booster capability. These new boosters will enable the flexible path approach to space exploration beyond Earth orbit (BEO), opening up vast opportunities including near-Earth asteroids, Lagrange Points, and Mars. This evolved capability offers large volume for science missions and payloads, will be modular and flexible, and will be right-sized for mission requirements. NASA developed the Advanced Booster Engineering Demonstration and/or Risk Reduction NRA to seek industry participation in reducing risks leading to an affordable advanced booster that meets the SLS performance requirements

  17. NASA's Space Launch System Advanced Booster Engineering Demonstration and Risk Reduction Efforts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crumbly, Christopher M.; May, Todd; Dumbacher, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) formally initiated the Space Launch System (SLS) development in September 2011, with the approval of the program s acquisition plan, which engages the current workforce and infrastructure to deliver an initial 70 metric ton (t) SLS capability in 2017, while using planned block upgrades to evolve to a full 130 t capability after 2021. A key component of the acquisition plan is a three-phased approach for the first stage boosters. The first phase is to complete the development of the Ares and Space Shuttle heritage 5-segment solid rocket boosters for initial exploration missions in 2017 and 2021. The second phase in the booster acquisition plan is the Advanced Booster Risk Reduction and/or Engineering Demonstration NASA Research Announcement (NRA), which was recently awarded after a full and open competition. The NRA was released to industry on February 9, 2012, and its stated intent was to reduce risks leading to an affordable Advanced Booster and to enable competition. The third and final phase will be a full and open competition for Design, Development, Test, and Evaluation (DDT&E) of the Advanced Boosters. There are no existing boosters that can meet the performance requirements for the 130 t class SLS. The expected thrust class of the Advanced Boosters is potentially double the current 5-segment solid rocket booster capability. These new boosters will enable the flexible path approach to space exploration beyond Earth orbit, opening up vast opportunities including near-Earth asteroids, Lagrange Points, and Mars. This evolved capability offers large volume for science missions and payloads, will be modular and flexible, and will be right-sized for mission requirements. NASA developed the Advanced Booster Engineering Demonstration and/or Risk Reduction NRA to seek industry participation in reducing risks leading to an affordable Advanced Booster that meets the SLS performance requirements. Demonstrations and

  18. InP based solar cells for space application: Reduction of external losses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, X.; Coutts, T. J.; Dhere, R. G.; Gessert, T. A.; Dhere, N. G.

    1987-01-01

    Although InP-based solar cells have considerable potential for space applications, it is necessary to improve efficiencies to around the level of GaAs or Si cells before their excellent radiation resistance can be regarded as a dominant advantage. The authors concentrate on indium-tin-oxide/InP cells, presenting data relating to reduction of the contact resistance of the rear surface metallization, reduction of reflectance losses by choosing indium-tin-oxide deposition conditions to give specific optical properties, and reduction of losses associated with the grid. Simultaneous optimization of all of these has led to improved values of Jsc. For devices of approximately 1 cm2 in area, the largest Jsc achieved to date is 28.1 mA/aq cm (AM1.5, SERI/NASA direct normal spectrum, 25 C, total area, 100 mW/sq cm). For this particular cell, the equivalent AM0 value of Jsc was 34.6 mA/sq cm, which appears to be the largest reported for any InP-based cell.

  19. In-Space Propulsion, Logistics Reduction, and Evaluation of Steam Reformer Kinetics: Problems and Prospects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jaworske, D. A.; Palaszewski, B. A.; Kulis, M. J.; Gokoglu, S. A.

    2015-01-01

    Human space missions generate waste materials. A 70-kg crewmember creates a waste stream of 1 kg per day, and a four-person crew on a deep space habitat for a 400+ day mission would create over 1600 kg of waste. Converted into methane, the carbon could be used as a fuel for propulsion or power. The NASA Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) Logistics Reduction and Repurposing (LRR) project is investing in space resource utilization with an emphasis on repurposing logistics materials for useful purposes and has selected steam reforming among many different competitive processes as the preferred method for repurposing organic waste into methane. Already demonstrated at the relevant processing rate of 5.4 kg of waste per day, high temperature oxygenated steam consumes waste and produces carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, and hydrogen which can then be converted into methane catalytically. However, the steam reforming process has not been studied in microgravity. Data are critically needed to understand the mechanisms that allow use of steam reforming in a reduced gravity environment. This paper reviews the relevant literature, identifies gravity-dependent mechanisms within the steam gasification process, and describes an innovative experiment to acquire the crucial kinetic information in a small-scale reactor specifically designed to operate within the requirements of a reduced gravity aircraft flight. The experiment will determine if the steam reformer process is mass-transport limited, and if so, what level of forced convection will be needed to obtain performance comparable to that in 1-g.

  20. Performance of the AIRS Pulse Tube Coolers and Instrument—A First Year in Space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ross, R. G.; Rodriguez, J. I.

    2004-06-01

    Launched on NASA's Aqua platform on May 4, 2002, JPL's Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) instrument has completed a successful first year in space and captured a number of important lessons. AIRS is designed to make precision measurements of air temperature over the surface of the Earth and uses a redundant pair of TRW 55 K pulse tube cryocoolers to cool its sensitive IR focal plane. Soon after the instrument went cold, contamination of cryogenic surfaces led to increased cooler loads and the need for decontamination cycles. In addition, single event transients occurred while passing through the South Atlantic Anomaly (SAA) necessitating corrective actions. In November 2002 the fundamental operating strategy of the AIRS instrument was changed from the original strategy of running a single cooler and having the second cooler as a non-operating backup. Instead, based on a new system-level reliability analysis, both coolers began operation simultaneously. This change resolved the contamination and SAA driven interruptions and has enabled unprecedented levels of continuous science measurements. A review of the AIRS instrument cryogenic performance over the past year is presented including its contamination buildup and interrupt history. The reliability analysis conducted to justify two-cooler operation is also reviewed.

  1. A hybridized membrane-botanical biofilter for improving air quality in occupied spaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Llewellyn, David; Darlington, Alan; van Ras, Niels; Kraakman, Bart; Dixon, Mike

    Botanical biofilters have been shown to be effective in improving indoor air quality through the removal of complex mixtures of gaseous contaminants typically found in human-occupied environments. Traditional, botanical biofilters have been comprised of plants rooted into a thin and highly porous synthetic medium that is hung on vertical surfaces. Water flows from the top of the biofilter and air is drawn horizontally through the rooting medium. These botanical biofilters have been successfully marketed in office and institutional settings. They operate efficiently, with adequate contaminant removal and little maintenance for many years. Depending on climate and outdoor air quality, botanical biofiltration can substantially reduce costs associated with ventilation of stale indoor air. However, there are several limitations that continue to inhibit widespread acceptance: 1. Current designs are architecturally limiting and inefficient at capturing ambient light 2. These biofilters can add significant amounts of humidity to an indoor space. This water loss also leads to a rapid accumulation of dissolved salts; reducing biofilter health and performance 3. There is the perception of potentially actively introducing harmful bioaerosols into the air stream 4. Design and practical limitations inhibit the entrance of this technology into the lucrative residential marketplace This paper describes the hybridization of membrane and botanical biofiltration technologies by incorporating a membrane array into the rootzone of a conventional interior planting. This technology has the potential for addressing all of the above limitations, expanding the range of indoor settings where botanical biofiltration can be applied. This technology was developed as the CSA-funded Canadian component an ESA-MAP project entitled: "Biological airfilter for air quality control of life support systems in manned space craft and other closed environments", A0-99-LSS-019. While the project addressed a

  2. Conditions for the use of infrared camera diagnostics in energy auditing of the objects exposed to open air space at isothermal sky

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kruczek, Tadeusz

    2015-03-01

    Convective and radiation heat transfer take place between various objects placed in open air space and their surroundings. These phenomena bring about heat losses from pipelines, building walls, roofs and other objects. One of the main tasks in energy auditing is the reduction of excessive heat losses. In the case of a low sky temperature, the radiation heat exchange is very intensive and the temperature of the top part of the horizontal pipelines or walls is lower than the temperature of their bottom parts. Quite often this temperature is also lower than the temperature of the surrounding atmospheric air. In the case of overhead heat pipelines placed in open air space, it is the ground and sky that constitute the surroundings. The aforementioned elements of surroundings usually have different values of temperature. Thus, these circumstances bring about difficulties during infrared inspections because only one ambient temperature which represents radiation of all surrounding elements must be known during the thermovision measurements. This work is aimed at the development of a method for determination of an equivalent ambient temperature representing the thermal radiation of the surrounding elements of the object under consideration placed in open air space, which could be applied at a fairly uniform temperature of the sky during the thermovision measurements as well as for the calculation of radiative heat losses.

  3. Estimating the climate and air quality benefits of aviation fuel and emissions reductions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dorbian, Christopher S.; Wolfe, Philip J.; Waitz, Ian A.

    2011-05-01

    associated with CO 2 alone (all else being equal). For a non-CO 2 to CO 2 ratio based on economic damage costs, we find a central value of 1.8 at a 3% discount rate, with a range from 0.6 to 2.5 for the upper and lower bounds of scientific and scenario-based uncertainty. Since estimating the co-benefits in this way is an important requirement for cost-benefit analyses, we also provide estimates of the air quality benefits of aviation fuel burn reduction in a similar format. We find the marginal damage costs of aircraft emissions below 3000 feet to be of similar magnitude to the climate costs on a per unit fuel burn basis, or an order of magnitude smaller on a per flight basis since we take no account of the air quality impacts of emissions above 3000 feet where the majority of fuel is consumed for the fleet.

  4. Fuel Savings and Emission Reductions from Next-Generation Mobile Air Conditioning Technology in India

    SciTech Connect

    Chaney, L.; Thundiyil, K.; Andersen, S.; Chidambaram, S.; Abbi, Y. P.

    2007-01-01

    Up to 19.4% of vehicle fuel consumption in India is devoted to air conditioning (A/C). Indian A/C fuel consumption is almost four times the fuel penalty in the United States and close to six times that in the European Union because India's temperature and humidity are higher and because road congestion forces vehicles to operate inefficiently. Car A/C efficiency in India is an issue worthy of national attention considering the rate of increase of A/C penetration into the new car market, India's hot climatic conditions and high fuel costs. Car A/C systems originally posed an ozone layer depletion concern. Now that industrialized and many developing countries have moved away from ozone-depleting substances per Montreal Protocol obligations, car A/C impact on climate has captured the attention of policy makers and corporate leaders. Car A/C systems have a climate impact from potent global warming potential gas emissions and from fuel used to power the car A/Cs. This paper focuses on car A/C fuel consumption in the context of the rapidly expanding Indian car market and how new technological improvements can result in significant fuel savings and consequently, emission reductions. A 19.4% fuel penalty is associated with A/C use in the typical Indian passenger car. Car A/C fuel use and associated tailpipe emissions are strong functions of vehicle design, vehicle use, and climate conditions. Several techniques: reducing thermal load, improving vehicle design, improving occupants thermal comfort design, improving equipment, educating consumers on impacts of driver behaviour on MAC fuel use, and others - can lead to reduced A/C fuel consumption.

  5. Increased stability toward oxygen reduction products for lithium-air batteries with oligoether-functionalized silane electrolytes.

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Z.; Lu, J.; Assary, R. S.; Du, P.; Wang, H-H.; Sun, Y-K.; Qin, Y.; Lau, K. C.; Greeley, J.; Redfern, P. C.; Iddir, H.; Curtiss, L. A.; Amine, K.

    2011-01-01

    The successful development of Li-air batteries would significantly increase the possibility of extending the range of electric vehicles. There is much evidence that typical organic carbonate based electrolytes used in lithium ion batteries form lithium carbonates from reaction with oxygen reduction products during discharge in lithium-air cells so more stable electrolytes need to be found. This combined experimental and computational study of an electrolyte based on a tri(ethylene glycol)-substituted trimethylsilane (1NM3) provides evidence that the ethers are more stable toward oxygen reduction discharge species. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and FTIR experiments show that only lithium oxides and no carbonates are formed when 1NM3 electrolyte is used. In contrast XPS shows that propylene carbonate (PC) in the same cell configuration decomposes to form lithium carbonates during discharge. Density functional calculations of probable decomposition reaction pathways involving solvated oxygen reduction species confirm that oligoether substituted silanes, as well as other ethers, are more stable to the oxygen reduction products than propylene carbonate. These results indicate that the choice of electrolyte plays a key role in the performance of Li-air batteries.

  6. Increased Stability Toward Oxygen Reduction Products for Lithium-Air Batteries with Oligoether-Functionalized Silane Electrolytes

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Zhengcheng; Lu, Jun; Assary, Rajeev S.; Du, Peng; Wang, Hsien-Hau; Sun, Yang-Kook; Qin, Yan; Lau, Kah Chun; Greeley, Jeffrey P.; Redfern, Paul C.; Iddir, Hakim; Curtiss, Larry A.; Amine, Khalil

    2011-12-29

    The successful development of Li-air batteries would significantly increase the possibility of extending the range of electric vehicles. There is much evidence that typical organic carbonate based electrolytes used in lithium ion batteries form lithium carbonates from reaction with oxygen reduction products during discharge in lithium-air cells so more stable electrolytes need to be found. This combined experimental and computational study of an electrolyte based on a tri(ethylene glycol)-substituted trimethylsilane (1NM3) provides evidence that the ethers are more stable toward oxygen reduction discharge species. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and FTIR experiments show that only lithium oxides and no carbonates are formed when 1NM3 electrolyte is used. In contrast XPS shows that propylene carbonate (PC) in the same cell configuration decomposes to form lithium carbonates during discharge. Density functional calculations of probable decomposition reaction pathways involving solvated oxygen reduction species confirm that oligoether substituted silanes, as well as other ethers, are more stable to the oxygen reduction products than propylene carbonate. These results indicate that the choice of electrolyte plays a key role in the performance of Li-air batteries.

  7. Quantification of emission reduction potentials of primary air pollutants from residential solid fuel combustion by adopting cleaner fuels in China.

    PubMed

    Shen, Guofeng

    2015-11-01

    Residential low efficient fuel burning is a major source of many air pollutants produced during incomplete combustions, and household air pollution has been identified as one of the top environmental risk factors. Here we compiled literature-reported emission factors of pollutants including carbon monoxide (CO), total suspended particles (TSPs), PM2.5, organic carbon (OC), elemental carbon (EC) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) for different household energy sources, and quantified the potential for emission reduction by clean fuel adoption. The burning of crop straws, firewood and coal chunks in residential stoves had high emissions per unit fuel mass but lower thermal efficiencies, resulting in high levels of pollution emissions per unit of useful energy, whereas pelletized biofuels and coal briquettes had lower pollutant emissions and higher thermal efficiencies. Briquetting coal may lead to 82%-88% CO, 74%-99% TSP, 73%-76% PM2.5, 64%-98% OC, 92%-99% EC and 80%-83% PAH reductions compared to raw chunk coal. Biomass pelletizing technology would achieve 88%-97% CO, 73%-87% TSP, 79%-88% PM2.5, 94%-96% OC, 91%-99% EC and 63%-96% PAH reduction compared to biomass burning. The adoption of gas fuels (i.e., liquid petroleum gas, natural gas) would achieve significant pollutant reduction, nearly 96% for targeted pollutants. The reduction is related not only to fuel change, but also to the usage of high efficiency stoves. PMID:26574082

  8. Design and evaluation of an air traffic control Final Approach Spacing Tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Thomas J.; Erzberger, Heinz; Green, Steven M.; Nedell, William

    1991-01-01

    This paper describes the design and simulator evaluation of an automation tool for assisting terminal radar approach controllers in sequencing and spacing traffic onto the final approach course. The automation tool, referred to as the Final Approach Spacing Tool (FAST), displays speed and heading advisories for arriving aircraft as well as sequencing information on the controller's radar display. The main functional elements of FAST are a scheduler that schedules and sequences the traffic, a four-dimensional trajectory synthesizer that generates the advisories, and a graphical interface that displays the information to the controller. FAST has been implemented on a high-performance workstation. It can be operated as a stand-alone in the terminal radar approach control facility or as an element of a system integrated with automation tools in the air route traffic control center. FAST was evaluated by experienced air traffic controllers in a real-time air traffic control simulation. simulation results summarized in the paper show that the automation tools significantly reduced controller work load and demonstrated a potential for an increase in landing rate.

  9. Modeling and Evaluation of Miles-in-Trail Restrictions in the National Air Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grabbe, Shon; Sridhar, Banavar

    2003-01-01

    Miles-in-trail restrictions impact flights in the national air space on a daily basis and these restrictions routinely propagate between adjacent Air Route Traffic Control Centers. Since overly restrictive or ineffective miles-in-trail restrictions can reduce the overall efficiency of the national air space, decision support capabilities that model miles-in-trail restrictions should prove to be very beneficial. This paper presents both an analytical formulation and a linear programming approach for modeling the effects of miles-in-trail restrictions. A methodology for monitoring the conformance of an existing miles-in-trail restriction is also presented. These capabilities have been implemented in the Future ATM Concepts Evaluation Tool for testing purposes. To allow alternative restrictions to be evaluated in post-operations, a new mode of operation, which is referred to as the hybrid-playback mode, has been implemented in the simulation environment. To demonstrate the capabilities of these new algorithms, the miles-in-trail restrictions, which were in effect on June 27, 2002 in the New York Terminal Radar Approach Control, are examined. Results from the miles-in-trail conformance monitoring functionality are presented for the ELIOT, PARKE and WHITE departure fixes. In addition, the miles-in-trail algorithms are used to assess the impact of alternative restrictions at the PARKE departure fix.

  10. Ozone concentration in leaf intercellular air spaces is close to zero

    SciTech Connect

    Laisk, A.; Moldau, H. ); Kull, O. )

    1989-07-01

    Transpiration and ozone uptake rates were measured simultaneously in sunflower leaves at different stomatal openings and various ozone concentrations. Ozone uptake rates were proportional to the ozone concentration up to 1500 nanoliters per liter. The leaf gas phase diffusion resistance (stomatal plus boundary layer) to water vapor was calculated and converted to the resistance to ozone multiplying it by the theoretical ratio of diffusion coefficients for water vapor and ozone in air (1.67). The ozone concentration in intercellular air spaces calculated from the ozone uptake rate and diffusion resistance to ozone scattered around zero. The ozone concentration in intercellular air spaces was measured directly bu supplying ozone to the leaf from one side and measuring the equilibrium concentration above the other side, and it was found to be zero. The total leaf resistance to ozone was proportional to the gas phase resistance to water vapor with a coefficient of 1.68. It is concluded that ozone enters the leaf by diffusion through the stomata, and is rapidly decomposed in cell walls and plasmalemma.

  11. Charting the known chemical space for non-aqueous lithium-air battery electrolyte solvents.

    PubMed

    Husch, Tamara; Korth, Martin

    2015-09-21

    Li-air batteries are very promising candidates for powering future mobility, but finding a suitable electrolyte solvent for this technology turned out to be a major problem. We present a systematic computational investigation of the known chemical space for possible Li-air electrolyte solvents. It is shown that the problem of finding better Li-air electrolyte solvents is not only - as previously suggested - about maximizing Li(+) and O2(-) solubilities, but also about finding the optimal balance of these solubilities with the viscosity of the solvent. As our results also show that trial-and-error experiments on known chemicals are unlikely to succeed, full chemical sub-spaces for the most promising compound classes are investigated, and suggestions are made for further experiments. The proposed screening approach is transferable and robust and can readily be applied to optimize electrolytes for other electrochemical devices. It goes beyond the current state-of-the-art both in width (considering the number of compounds screened and the way they are selected), as well as depth (considering the number and complexity of properties included). PMID:26256846

  12. Charting the known chemical space for non-aqueous lithium-air battery electrolyte solvents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Husch, Tamara; Korth, Martin

    The Li-Air battery is a very promising candidate for powering future mobility, but finding a suitable electrolyte solvent for this technology turned out to be a major problem. We present a systematic computational investigation of the known chemical space for possible Li-Air electrolyte solvents. It is shown that the problem of finding better Li-Air electrolyte solvents is not only - as previously suggested - about maximizing Li+ and O2- solubilities, but about finding the optimal balance of these solubilities with the viscosity of the solvent. As our results also show that trial-and-error experiments on known chemicals are unlikely to succeed, full chemical sub-spaces for the most promising compound classes are investigated, and suggestions are made for further experiments. The proposed screening approach is transferable and robust and can readily be applied to optimize electrolytes for other electrochemical devices. It goes beyond the current state-of-the-art both in width (considering the number of compounds screened and the way they are selected), as well as depth (considering the number and complexity of properties included).

  13. Performance Evaluation of the Operational Air Quality Monitor for Water Testing Aboard the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wallace, William T.; Limero, Thomas F.; Gazda, Daniel B.; Macatangay, Ariel V.; Dwivedi, Prabha; Fernandez, Facundo M.

    2014-01-01

    In the history of manned spaceflight, environmental monitoring has relied heavily on archival sampling. For short missions, this type of sample collection was sufficient; returned samples provided a snapshot of the presence of chemical and biological contaminants in the spacecraft air and water. However, with the construction of the International Space Station (ISS) and the subsequent extension of mission durations, soon to be up to one year, the need for enhanced, real-time environmental monitoring became more pressing. The past several years have seen the implementation of several real-time monitors aboard the ISS, complemented with reduced archival sampling. The station air is currently monitored for volatile organic compounds (VOCs) using gas chromatography-differential mobility spectrometry (Air Quality Monitor [AQM]). The water on ISS is analyzed to measure total organic carbon and biocide concentrations using the Total Organic Carbon Analyzer (TOCA) and the Colorimetric Water Quality Monitoring Kit (CWQMK), respectively. The current air and water monitors provide important data, but the number and size of the different instruments makes them impractical for future exploration missions. It is apparent that there is still a need for improvements in environmental monitoring capabilities. One such improvement could be realized by modifying a single instrument to analyze both air and water. As the AQM currently provides quantitative, compound-specific information for target compounds present in air samples, and many of the compounds are also targets for water quality monitoring, this instrument provides a logical starting point to evaluate the feasibility of this approach. In this presentation, we will discuss our recent studies aimed at determining an appropriate method for introducing VOCs from water samples into the gas phase and our current work, in which an electro-thermal vaporization unit has been interfaced with the AQM to analyze target analytes at the

  14. Soil-based filtration technology for air purification: potentials for environmental and space life support application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, Mark; Bohn, Hinrich

    Soil biofiltration, also known as Soil bed reactor (SBR), technology was originally developed in Germany to take advantage of the diversity in microbial mechanisms to control gases producing malodor in industrial processes. The approach has since gained wider international acceptance and seen numerous improvements, for example, by the use of high-organic compost beds to maximize microbial processes. This paper reviews the basic mechanisms which underlay soil processes involved in air purification, advantages and limitations of the technology and the cur-rent research status of the approach. Soil biofiltration has lower capital and operating/energetic costs than conventional technologies and is well adapted to handle contaminants in moderate concentrations. The systems can be engineered to optimize efficiency though manipulation of temperature, pH, moisture content, soil organic matter and airflow rates. SBR technology was modified for application in the Biosphere 2 project, which demonstrated in preparatory research with a number of closed system testbeds that soil could also support crop plants while also serving as soil filters with air pumps to push air through the soil. This Biosphere 2 research demonstrated in several closed system testbeds that a number of important trace gases could be kept under control and led to the engineering of the entire agricultural soil of Biosphere 2 to serve as a soil filtration unit for the facility. Soil biofiltration, coupled with food crop produc-tion, as a component of bioregenerative space life support systems has the advantages of lower energy use and avoidance of the consumables required for other air purification approaches. Expanding use of soil biofiltration can aid a number of environmental applications, from the mitigation of indoor air pollution, improvement of industrial air emissions and prevention of accidental release of toxic gases.

  15. Relationship between Eu3+ reduction and glass polymeric structure in Al2O3-modified borate glasses under air atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiao, Qing; Yu, Xue; Xu, Xuhui; Zhou, Dacheng; Qiu, Jianbei

    2013-06-01

    The reduction of Eu3+ to Eu2+ is realized efficiently in Eu2O3-doped borate glasses prepared under air condition by melting-quenching method. Luminescent spectra show an increasing tendency of Eu2+ emission with increasing Al2O3 concentration in B2O3-Na2O glasses. It is interesting that significant enhancement appeared of Eu2+ luminescence in the Al2O3-rich sample comparing to the samples of Al2O3 less than 6 mol%. FTIR and Raman scattering measurements indicated that some new vibration modes assigned to the low-polymerized structure groups decomposed from the slight Al2O3 dopant samples. These results demonstrated that the polymerization of the glass structure decreased with increasing incorporation of Al2O3 into the borate glasses, linking to the efficiency of Eu3+ self-reduction in air at high temperature.

  16. Monitoring and Assessment of Regional Air Quality in China Using Space Observations (MarcoPolo)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der A, Ronald; Ding, Jieying; Mijling, Bas; Bai, Jianhui

    2014-11-01

    In this paper we will present the FP7-project ’MarcoPolo’. The main objective of Marco Polo is to improve air quality monitoring, modelling and forecasting over China using satellite data. Within the preceeding DRAGON project AMFIC it was concluded that modelling of air quality are hampered by the rapidly changing emission data due to economic growth in China. In addition, air quality policies could not directly be related to changes in emissions. Therefore, within the MarcoPolo project, the focus will be placed on emission estimates from space and the refinement of these emission estimates by spatial downscaling and by source sector apportionment. A wide range of satellite data will be used from various satellite instruments to derive emission estimates for NOx, SO2, PM and biogenic sources. By combining these emission data with known information from the ground, a new emission database for MarcoPolo will be constructed. The improved emission inventory will be input to the regional and local air quality models.

  17. New Jersey: A Case Study of the Reduction in Urban and Suburban Air Pollution from the 1950s to 2010

    PubMed Central

    Georgopoulos, Panos G.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Air pollution has been a topic of intense concern and study for hundreds of years. During the second half of the 20th century, the United States implemented regulations and controls to reduce the levels of criteria air pollutants and achieve the National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) for the protection of human health, while concurrently reducing the levels of toxic air pollutants. Objective: In this commentary we trace the changes in air pollution in New Jersey as a case study, demonstrating the impact of local, state, and federal strategies to control emissions of pollutants and pollutant precursors from the 1950s until today. Discussion: The original NAAQS (1970–1995) have been achieved, and significant progress has been made to achieve revised standards for ozone and particulate matter (PM) < 2.5 µm in aerodynamic diameter (PM2.5) in New Jersey, which in the past was considered a highly polluted industrial state. Conclusions: Assuming no reversals on current regulations because of some major event or energy infrastructure disruption, outdoor air pollution reductions will continue to address health risks among specific segments of the general population affected by ozone/PM and pollution caused by neighborhood, local, and regional point and mobile sources. PMID:21622086

  18. The meteorological monitoring system for the Kennedy Space Center/Cape Canaveral Air Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dianic, Allan V.

    1994-01-01

    The Kennedy Space Center (KSC) and Cape Canaveral Air Station (CCAS) are involved in many weather-sensitive operations. Manned and unmanned vehicle launches, which occur several times each year, are obvious example of operations whose success and safety are dependent upon favorable meteorological conditions. Other operations involving NASA, Air Force, and contractor personnel, including daily operations to maintain facilities, refurbish launch structures, prepare vehicles for launch, and handle hazardous materials, are less publicized but are no less weather-sensitive. The Meteorological Monitoring System (MMS) is a computer network which acquires, processes, disseminates, and monitors near real-time and forecast meteorological information to assist operational personnel and weather forecasters with the task of minimizing the risk to personnel, materials, and the surrounding population. CLIPS has been integrated into the MMS to provide quality control analysis and data monitoring. This paper describes aspects of the MMS relevant to CLIPS including requirements, actual implementation details, and results of performance testing.

  19. Space shuttle revitalization system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quattrone, P. D.

    1985-01-01

    The Space Shuttle air revitalization system is discussed. The sequential steps in loop closure are examined and a schematic outline of the regenerative air revitalization system is presented. Carbon dioxide reduction subsystem concepts are compared. Schemes are drawn for: static feedwater electrolysis cell, solid polymer electrolyte water electrolysis cell, air revitalization system, nitrogen generation reactions, nitrogen subsystem staging, vapor compression distillation subsystem, thermoelectric integrated membrane evaporation subsystem, catalytic distillation water reclamation subsystem, and space shuttle solid waste management system.

  20. Climate change air toxic co-reduction in the context of macroeconomic modelling.

    PubMed

    Crawford-Brown, Douglas; Chen, Pi-Cheng; Shi, Hsiu-Ching; Chao, Chia-Wei

    2013-08-15

    This paper examines the health implications of global PM reduction accompanying greenhouse gas emissions reductions in the 180 national economies of the global macroeconomy. A human health effects module based on empirical data on GHG emissions, PM emissions, background PM concentrations, source apportionment and human health risk coefficients is used to estimate reductions in morbidity and mortality from PM exposures globally as co-reduction of GHG reductions. These results are compared against the "fuzzy bright line" that often underlies regulatory decisions for environmental toxics, and demonstrate that the risk reduction through PM reduction would usually be considered justified in traditional risk-based decisions for environmental toxics. It is shown that this risk reduction can be on the order of more than 4 × 10(-3) excess lifetime mortality risk, with global annual cost savings of slightly more than $10B, when uniform GHG reduction measures across all sectors of the economy form the basis for climate policy ($2.2B if only Annex I nations reduce). Consideration of co-reduction of PM-10 within a climate policy framework harmonized with other environmental policies can therefore be an effective driver of climate policy. An error analysis comparing results of the current model against those of significantly more spatially resolved models at city and national scales indicates errors caused by the low spatial resolution of the global model used here may be on the order of a factor of 2. PMID:23629011

  1. STS 129 Return Samples: Assessment of Air Quality aboard the Shuttle (STS-129) and International Space Station (ULF3)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    James, John T.

    2010-01-01

    Reports on the air quality aboard the Space Shuttle (STS-129), and the International Space station (ULF3). NASA analyzed the grab sample canisters (GSCs) and the formaldehyde badges aboard both locations for carbon monoxide levels. The three surrogates: (sup 13)C-acetone, fluorobenzene, and chlorobenzene registered 109, 101, and 109% in the space shuttle and 81, 87, and 55% in the International Space Station (ISS). From these results the atmosphere in both the Space Shuttle and the International Space Station (ISS) was found to be breathable.

  2. China's air pollution reduction efforts may result in an increase in surface ozone levels in highly polluted areas.

    PubMed

    Anger, Annela; Dessens, Olivier; Xi, Fengming; Barker, Terry; Wu, Rui

    2016-03-01

    China, as a fast growing fossil-fuel-based economy, experiences increasing levels of air pollution. To tackle air pollution, China has taken the first steps by setting emission-reduction targets for nitrogen oxides (NO x ) and sulphur dioxide (SO2) in the 11th and 12th Five Year Plans. This paper uses two models-the Energy-Environment-Economy Model at the Global level (E3MG) and the global Chemistry Transport Model pTOMCAT-to test the effects of these policies. If the policy targets are met, then the maximum values of 32 % and 45 % reductions below 'business as usual' in the monthly mean NO x and SO2 concentrations, respectively, will be achieved in 2015. However, a decrease in NO x concentrations in some highly polluted areas of East, North-East and South-East China can lead to up to a 10% increase in the monthly mean concentrations in surface ozone in 2015. Our study demonstrates an urgent need for the more detailed analysis of the impacts and designs of air pollution reduction guidelines for China. PMID:26409886

  3. Current Progresses of Midass: Microbial Detection in Air System for Space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abaibou, Hafid; Lasseur, Christophe; Mabilat, Claude; Storrs-Mabilat, Michele; Guy, Michel; Raffestin, Stephanie; Sole Bosquet, Jaume

    For the long term manned missions, microbial contamination is a major risk for crew members and hardware. This risk has first been documented by Russian scientists then by other organizations as a consequence of the contamination of metabolic consumables (water, air), and also the hardware degradation. Rapid molecular biology techniques offer an attractive alternative to traditional culture-based methods. They allow fast time to results for contamination detection and quick implementation of appropriate corrective action when required. However, to date, there are no such available system due to the technical challenges required to meet the sensitivity and specificity needs of the test and the requirement for full automation, from sampling to results interpretation. In response to this, over the last decade, the European Space Agency (ESA) and bioMérieux initiated a co-development of MIDASS, the world’s first fully automated system for the monitoring of the environmental microbial load in confined spaces, including clean rooms and hospital wards. The system is based on molecular technologies (sample preparation/amplification/detection) and enables rapid and simple determination of the microbiological contamination level in less than 3 hours. It relies on NASBA-amplification for the detection of selected micro-organisms (indicators or pathogens) at determined risk-levels (200 and 1 CFU /m3 air, respectively). Successful progresses were recently made for the space-application workpackage of this project: a lab-on-a-card design for air-testing in a first scope was endorsed by a successful ESA Preliminary Design Review, paving the way to spatialization steps (phases C and D). Data will be presented with regards to system design and biological performances.

  4. Report: landfill alternative daily cover: conserving air space and reducing landfill operating cost.

    PubMed

    Haughey, R D

    2001-02-01

    Title 40, Part 258 of the Code of Federal Regulations, Solid Waste Disposal Facility Criteria, commonly referred to as Subtitle D, became effective on October 9, 1993. It establishes minimum criteria for solid waste disposal facility siting, design, operations, groundwater monitoring and corrective action, and closure and postclosure maintenance, while providing EPA-approved state solid waste regulatory programs flexibility in implementing the criteria. Section 258.21(a) [40 CFR 258.21(a)] requires owners or operators of municipal solid waste landfill (MSWLF) units to cover disposed solid waste with 30cm of earthen material at the end of the operating day, or at more frequent intervals, if necessary, to control disease vectors, fires, odours, blowing litter, and scavenging. This requirement is consistent with already existing solid waste facility regulations in many states. For many MSWLFs, applying daily cover requires the importation of soil which increases landfill operating costs. Daily cover also uses valuable landfill air space, reducing potential operating revenue and the landfill's operating life. 40 CFR 258.21 (b) allows the director of an approved state to approve alternative materials of an alternative thickness if the owner or operator demonstrates that the alternative material and thickness will control disease vectors, fires, odours, blowing litter, and scavenging without presenting a threat to human health and the environment. Many different types of alternative daily cover (ADC) are currently being used, including geosynthetic tarps, foams, garden waste, and auto shredder fluff. These materials use less air space than soil and can reduce operating costs. This paper discusses the variety of ADCs currently being used around the country and their applicability to different climates and operating conditions, highlighting the more unusual types of ADC, the types of demonstrations necessary to obtain approval of ADC, and the impact on landfill air space

  5. Enhanced reactive oxygen species metabolism of air space cells in hypersensitivity pneumonitis

    SciTech Connect

    Calhoun, W.J. )

    1991-06-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are produced by phagocytic cells as part of host defense mechanisms, but these same products released by air space cells have been shown to contribute to pulmonary inflammation in interstitial lung diseases and likely represent a general mechanism of lung injury. However, the possible contribution of these compounds to lung inflammation in hypersensitivity pneumonitis (HP) has yet to be reported. We performed 11 bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) studies in six patients with HP and compared the results with results from studies in 21 healthy normal volunteers. In patients with HP, spontaneous and stimulated measures of ROS metabolism by air space cells were significantly higher than those seen in normal volunteers. When alveolar macrophages were purified by depleting neutrophils and eosinophils on density gradients of Percoll (specific gravity 1.075 gm/ml), ROS metabolism remained elevated when compared with that in cells obtained from healthy controls, confirming that alveolar macrophage ROS metabolism is enhanced in patients with HP. Further, we found significant elevations in BAL total protein, lymphocytes, eosinophils, and neutrophils in patients with HP when they were compared with normal volunteers, with an increased proportion of BAL T lymphocytes expressing CD8 and natural killer surface antigens, consistent with previous work. Lavage samples from patients with HP with clinically active disease had higher proportions of BAL eosinophils and concentrations of total protein, lower forced expiratory volume in 1 second, lower forced vital capacity, and lower arterial oxygen tensions, and higher indices of ROS metabolism than samples from patients with HP with inactive disease. HP is associated with evidence of air space inflammation, to which alveolar macrophage-derived ROS may contribute.

  6. Operational dead air space testing of the chemically protected DEPloyable MEDical Systems (cp DEPMEDS). Final report, Aug-Oct 91

    SciTech Connect

    Seitzinger, A.; Richardson, T.

    1992-07-01

    This report documents the results and findings of dead air space tests on the chemically protected deployable medical systems (DEPMEDS) conducted at Fort Indiantown Gap, PA. The DEPMEDS are composed of various size overpressurized chemically protected shelters connected by viaducts. Designed by the U.S. Army Natick Research, Development and Engineering Center (NATICK), the shelters provide a clean air conditioned atmosphere to treat wounded personnel in a chemical warfare environment. NATICK requested the U.S. Army Chemical Research, Development and Engineering Center's support to identify any dead air spaces, because these spaces would be a potential chemical agent vapor accumulation location, and threaten the collective protection of the shelters. Initially, a smoke generator was utilized to observe the air flow patterns within the DEPMEDS, and suspect dead air space locations were identified. However, subsequent dissemination of sulfur hexafluoride into the ventilation system of the shelter indicated that no dead air spaces were present. This report includes a few suggestions to improve the air circulation of the DEPMEDS, namely elimination of the interior shelter liners and using doors between the viaducts connecting the various shelters. Sulfur, Ventilation kinetics, Shelters, Collective protection, Hexafluoride, Chemical agent simulants.

  7. REDUCTIONS IN HUMAN BENZENE EXPOSURE IN THE CALIFORNIA SOUTH COAST AIR BASIN. (R827352C004)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Benzene typically contributes a significant fraction of the human cancer risk associated with exposure to urban air pollutants. In recent years, concentrations of benzene in ambient air have declined in many urban areas due to the use of reformulated gasolines, lower vehicle e...

  8. 78 FR 32241 - U.S. Air Force Seeks Industry Input for National Security Space Launch Assessment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-29

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Department of the Air Force U.S. Air Force Seeks Industry Input for National Security Space Launch Assessment... stabilization in your respective sectors? Any member of the public wishing to provide input to the United...

  9. System and technology considerations for space-based air traffic surveillance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vaisnys, A.

    1986-01-01

    This paper describes the system trade-offs examined in a recent study of space-based air traffic surveillance. Three system options, each satisfying a set of different constraints, were considered. The main difference in the technology needed to implement the three systems was determined to be the size of the spacecraft antenna aperture. It was found that essentially equivalent position location accuracy could be achieved with apertures from 50 meters down to less than a meter in diameter, depending on the choice of signal structure and on the desired user update rate.

  10. Design of an airborne launch vehicle for an air launched space booster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chao, Chin; Choi, Rich; Cohen, Scott; Dumont, Brian; Gibin, Mauricius; Jorden, Rob; Poth, Stefan

    1993-12-01

    A conceptual design is presented for a carrier vehicle for an air launched space booster. This airplane is capable of carrying a 500,000 pound satellite launch system to an altitude over 40,000 feet for launch. The airplane features a twin fuselage configuration for improved payload and landing gear integration, a high aspect ratio wing for maneuverability at altitude, and is powered by six General Electric GE-90 engines. The analysis methods used and the systems employed in the airplane are discussed. Launch costs are expected to be competitive with existing launch systems.

  11. Design of an airborne launch vehicle for an air launched space booster

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chao, Chin; Choi, Rich; Cohen, Scott; Dumont, Brian; Gibin, Mauricius; Jorden, Rob; Poth, Stefan

    1993-01-01

    A conceptual design is presented for a carrier vehicle for an air launched space booster. This airplane is capable of carrying a 500,000 pound satellite launch system to an altitude over 40,000 feet for launch. The airplane features a twin fuselage configuration for improved payload and landing gear integration, a high aspect ratio wing for maneuverability at altitude, and is powered by six General Electric GE-90 engines. The analysis methods used and the systems employed in the airplane are discussed. Launch costs are expected to be competitive with existing launch systems.

  12. Preliminary investigation of air bubbling and dietary sulfur reduction to mitigate hydrogen sulfide and odor from swine waste.

    PubMed

    Clark, O Grant; Morin, Brent; Zhang, Yongcheng; Sauer, Willem C; Feddes, John J R

    2005-01-01

    When livestock manure slurry is agitated, the sudden release of hydrogen sulfide (H(2)S) can raise concentrations to dangerous levels. Low-level air bubbling and dietary S reduction were evaluated as methods for reducing peak H(2)S emissions from swine (Sus scrofa) manure slurry samples. In a first experiment, 15-L slurry samples were stored in bench-scale digesters and continuously bubbled with air at 0 (control), 5, or 10 mL min(-1) for 28 d. The 5-L headspace of each digester was also continuously ventilated at 40 mL min(-1) and the mean H(2)S concentration in the outlet air was <10 microL L(-1). On Day 28, the slurry was agitated suddenly. The peak H(2)S concentration exceeded instrument range (>120 microL L(-1)) from the control treatment, and was 47 and 3.4 microL L(-1) for the 5 and 10 mL min(-1) treatments, respectively. In a second experiment, individually penned barrows were fed rations with dietary S concentrations of 0.34, 0.24, and 0.15% (w/w). Slurry derived from each diet was bubbled with air in bench-scale digesters, as before, at 10 mL min(-1) for 12 d and the mean H(2)S concentration in the digester outlet air was 11 microL L(-1). On Day 12, the slurry was agitated but the H(2)S emissions did not change significantly. Both low-level bubbling of air through slurry and dietary S reduction appear to be viable methods for reducing peak H(2)S emissions from swine manure slurry at a bench scale, but these approaches must be validated at larger scales. PMID:16221821

  13. Presenting Cosmology and its History at the National Air and Space Museum

    SciTech Connect

    DeVorkin, David

    2005-04-27

    Surveys have shown that most of the millions of visitors to the National Air and Space Museum probably expect to see the Wright Flyer, the Spirit of St. Louis and the Apollo 11 capsule, and they are not disappointed. These surveys have also shown that visitors respond very positively to exhibitions about space exploration and astronomy. Therefore it is not surprising that our present offering 'Explore the Universe,' which opened in September 2001, has proven very popular. In the ten years of planning that went into the gallery, however, we did not presume this popularity. We well knew that an artifact-based exhibition on the history of cosmology in fact presents major challenges to our visitors, and so we sought ways to make the content accessible and exciting. My presentation at Fermilab will highlight the decisions we made, the techniques we applied, and the lessons we learned about what helps to make cosmology fascinating and understandable to the public.

  14. Determination of On-Orbit Cabin Air Loss from the International Space Station (ISS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, David E.; Leonard, Daniel J.; Smith, Patrick J.

    2004-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) loses cabin atmosphere mass at some rate. Due to oxygen partial pressures fluctuations from metabolic usage, the total pressure is not a good data source for tracking total pressure loss. Using the nitrogen partial pressure is a good data source to determine the total on-orbit cabin atmosphere loss from the ISS, due to no nitrogen addition or losses. There are several important reasons to know the daily average cabin air loss of the ISS including logistics planning for nitrogen and oxygen. The total average daily cabin atmosphere loss was estimated from January 14 to April 9 of 2003. The total average daily cabin atmosphere loss includes structural leakages, Vozdukh losses, Carbon Dioxide Removal Assembly (CDRA) losses, and other component losses. The total average daily cabin atmosphere loss does not include mass lost during Extra-Vehicular Activities (EVAs), Progress dockings, Space Shuttle dockings, calibrations, or other specific one-time events.

  15. (?) The Air Force Geophysics Laboratory: Aeronomy, aerospace instrumentation, space physics, meteorology, terrestrial sciences and optical physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGinty, A. B.

    1982-04-01

    Contents: The Air Force Geophysics Laboratory; Aeronomy Division--Upper Atmosphere Composition, Middle Atmosphere Effects, Atmospheric UV Radiation, Satellite Accelerometer Density Measurement, Theoretical Density Studies, Chemical Transport Models, Turbulence and Forcing Functions, Atmospheric Ion Chemistry, Energy Budget Campaign, Kwajalein Reference Atmospheres, 1979, Satellite Studies of the Neutral Atmosphere, Satellite Studies of the Ionosphere, Aerospace Instrumentation Division--Sounding Rocket Program, Satellite Support, Rocket and Satellite Instrumentation; Space Physics Division--Solar Research, Solar Radio Research, Environmental Effects on Space Systems, Solar Proton Event Studies, Defense Meteorological Satellite Program, Ionospheric Effects Research, Spacecraft Charging Technology; Meteorology Division--Cloud Physics, Ground-Based Remote-Sensing Techniques, Mesoscale Observing and Forecasting, Design Climatology, Aircraft Icing Program, Atmospheric Dynamics; Terrestrial Sciences Division--Geodesy and Gravity, Geokinetics; Optical Physics Division--Atmospheric Transmission, Remote Sensing, INfrared Background; and Appendices.

  16. Multi-Agent Diagnosis and Control of an Air Revitalization System for Life Support in Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malin, Jane T.; Kowing, Jeffrey; Nieten, Joseph; Graham, Jeffrey s.; Schreckenghost, Debra; Bonasso, Pete; Fleming, Land D.; MacMahon, Matt; Thronesbery, Carroll

    2000-01-01

    An architecture of interoperating agents has been developed to provide control and fault management for advanced life support systems in space. In this adjustable autonomy architecture, software agents coordinate with human agents and provide support in novel fault management situations. This architecture combines the Livingstone model-based mode identification and reconfiguration (MIR) system with the 3T architecture for autonomous flexible command and control. The MIR software agent performs model-based state identification and diagnosis. MIR identifies novel recovery configurations and the set of commands required for the recovery. The AZT procedural executive and the human operator use the diagnoses and recovery recommendations, and provide command sequencing. User interface extensions have been developed to support human monitoring of both AZT and MIR data and activities. This architecture has been demonstrated performing control and fault management for an oxygen production system for air revitalization in space. The software operates in a dynamic simulation testbed.

  17. Characterization of Binary Ag-Cu Ion Mixtures in Zeolites: Their Reduction Products and Stability to Air Oxidation

    SciTech Connect

    Fiddy, Steven; Petranovskii, Vitalii; Ogden, Steve; Iznaga, Inocente Rodriguez

    2007-02-02

    A series of Ag+-Cu2+ binary mixtures with different Ag/Cu ratios were supported on mordenite with different Si/Al ratios and were subsequently reduced under hydrogen in the temperature range 323K - 473K. Ag and Cu K-edge X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy (XAS) was conducted on these systems in-situ to monitor the reduction species formed and the kinetics of their reduction. In-situ XANES clearly demonstrates that the formation of silver particles is severely impeded by the addition of copper and that the copper is converted from Cu(II) to Cu(I) during reduction and completely reverts back to Cu(II) during cooling. There are no indications at any stage of the formation of bimetallic Ag-Cu clusters. Interestingly, the Ag/Cu ratio appears to have no influence of the reduction kinetics and reduction products formed with only the highest Si/Al ratio (MR = 128) investigated during this study having an influence on the reduction and stability to air oxidation.

  18. Transformation of Air Quality Monitor Data from the International Space Station into Toxicological Effect Groups

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    James, John T.; Zalesak, Selina M.

    2011-01-01

    The primary reason for monitoring air quality aboard the International Space Station (ISS) is to determine whether air pollutants have collectively reached a concentration where the crew could experience adverse health effects. These effects could be near-real-time (e.g. headache, respiratory irritation) or occur late in the mission or even years later (e.g. cancer, liver toxicity). Secondary purposes for monitoring include discovery that a potentially harmful compound has leaked into the atmosphere or that air revitalization system performance has diminished. Typical ISS atmospheric trace pollutants consist of alcohols, aldehydes, aromatic compounds, halo-carbons, siloxanes, and silanols. Rarely, sulfur-containing compounds and alkanes are found at trace levels. Spacecraft Maximum Allowable Concentrations (SMACs) have been set in cooperation with a subcommittee of the National Research Council Committee on Toxicology. For each compound and time of exposure, the limiting adverse effect(s) has been identified. By factoring the analytical data from the Air Quality Monitor (AQM), which is in use as a prototype instrument aboard the ISS, through the array of compounds and SMACs, the risk of 16 specific adverse effects can be estimated. Within each adverse-effect group, we have used an additive model proportioned to each applicable 180-day SMAC to estimate risk. In the recent past this conversion has been performed using archival data, which can be delayed for months after an air sample is taken because it must be returned to earth for analysis. But with the AQM gathering in situ data each week, NASA is in a position to follow toxic-effect groups and correlate these with any reported crew symptoms. The AQM data are supplemented with data from real-time CO2 instruments aboard the ISS and from archival measurements of formaldehyde, which the AQM cannot detect.

  19. International Space Station Common Cabin Air Assembly Water Separator On-Orbit Operation, Failure, and Redesign

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Balistreri, Steven F., Jr.; Shaw, Laura A.; Laliberte, Yvon

    2010-01-01

    The ability to control the temperature and humidity of an environment or habitat is critical for human survival. These factors are important to maintaining human health and comfort, as well as maintaining mechanical and electrical equipment in good working order to support the human and to accomplish mission objectives. The temperature and humidity of the International Space Station (ISS) United States On-orbit Segment (USOS) cabin air is controlled by the Common Cabin Air Assembly (CCAA). The CCAA consists of a fan, a condensing heat exchanger (CHX), an air/water separator, temperature and liquid sensors, and electrical controlling hardware and software. The Water Separator (WS) pulls in air and water from the CHX, and centrifugally separates the mixture, sending the water to the condensate bus and the air back into the CHX outlet airstream. Two distinct early failures of the CCAA Water Separator in the Quest Airlock forced operational changes and brought about the re-design of the Water Separator to improve the useful life via modification kits. The on-orbit operational environment of the Airlock presented challenges that were not foreseen with the original design of the Water Separator. Operational changes were instituted to prolong the life of the third installed WS, while waiting for newly designed Water Separators to be delivered on-orbit. The modification kit design involved several different components of the Water Separator, including the innovative use of a fabrication technique to build the impellers used in Water Separators out of titanium instead of aluminum. The technique allowed for the cost effective production of the low quantity build. This paper will describe the failures of the Water Separators in the Quest Airlock, the operational constraints that were implemented to prolong the life of the installed Water Separators throughout the USOS, and the innovative re-design of the CCAA Water Separator.

  20. International Space Station Common Cabin Air Assembly Condensing Heat Exchanger Hydrophilic Coating Failures and Lessons Learned

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Balistreri, Steven F.; Shaw, Laura A.; Laliberte, Yvon

    2010-01-01

    The ability to control the temperature and humidity of an environment or habitat is critical for human survival. These factors are important to maintaining human health and comfort, as well as maintaining mechanical and electrical equipment in good working order to support the human and to accomplish mission objectives. The temperature and humidity of the International Space Station (ISS) United States On-orbit Segment (USOS) cabin air is controlled by the Common Cabin Air Assembly (CCAA). The CCAA consists of a fan, a condensing heat exchanger (CHX), an air/water separator, temperature and liquid sensors, and electrical controlling hardware and software. The CHX is the primary component responsible for control of temperature and humidity. The CCAA CHX contains a chemical coating that was developed to be hydrophilic and thus attract water from the humid influent air. This attraction forms the basis for water removal and therefore cabin humidity control. However, there have been several instances of CHX coatings becoming hydrophobic and repelling water. When this behavior is observed in an operational CHX, the unit s ability to remove moisture from the air is compromised and the result is liquid water carryover into downstream ducting and systems. This water carryover can have detrimental effects on the cabin atmosphere quality and on the health of downstream hardware. If the water carryover is severe and widespread, this behavior can result in an inability to maintain humidity levels in the USOS. This paper will describe the operation of the five CCAAs within in the USOS, the potential causes of the hydrophobic condition, and the impacts of the resulting water carryover to downstream systems. It will describe the history of this behavior and the actual observed impacts to the ISS USOS. Information on mitigation steps to protect the health of future CHX hydrophilic coatings and potential remediation techniques will also be discussed.

  1. Experimental assessment of spanwise-oscillating dielectric electroactive surfaces for turbulent drag reduction in an air channel flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gatti, Davide; Güttler, Andreas; Frohnapfel, Bettina; Tropea, Cameron

    2015-05-01

    In the present work, wall oscillations for turbulent skin friction drag reduction are realized in an air turbulent duct flow by means of spanwise-oscillating active surfaces based on dielectric electroactive polymers. The actuator system produces spanwise wall velocity oscillations of 820 mm/s semi-amplitude at its resonance frequency of 65 Hz while consuming an active power of a few 100 mW. The actuators achieved a maximum integral drag reduction of 2.4 %. The maximum net power saving, budget of the power benefit and cost of the control, was measured for the first time with wall oscillations. Though negative, the net power saving is order of magnitudes higher than what has been estimated in previous studies. Two new direct numerical simulations of turbulent channel flow show that the finite size of the actuator only partially explains the lower values of integral drag reduction typically achieved in laboratory experiments compared to numerical simulations.

  2. Evaluating methods for estimating space-time paths of individuals in calculating long-term personal exposure to air pollution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmitz, Oliver; Soenario, Ivan; Vaartjes, Ilonca; Strak, Maciek; Hoek, Gerard; Brunekreef, Bert; Dijst, Martin; Karssenberg, Derek

    2016-04-01

    Air pollution is one of the major concerns for human health. Associations between air pollution and health are often calculated using long-term (i.e. years to decades) information on personal exposure for each individual in a cohort. Personal exposure is the air pollution aggregated along the space-time path visited by an individual. As air pollution may vary considerably in space and time, for instance due to motorised traffic, the estimation of the spatio-temporal location of a persons' space-time path is important to identify the personal exposure. However, long term exposure is mostly calculated using the air pollution concentration at the x, y location of someone's home which does not consider that individuals are mobile (commuting, recreation, relocation). This assumption is often made as it is a major challenge to estimate space-time paths for all individuals in large cohorts, mostly because limited information on mobility of individuals is available. We address this issue by evaluating multiple approaches for the calculation of space-time paths, thereby estimating the personal exposure along these space-time paths with hyper resolution air pollution maps at national scale. This allows us to evaluate the effect of the space-time path and resulting personal exposure. Air pollution (e.g. NO2, PM10) was mapped for the entire Netherlands at a resolution of 5×5 m2 using the land use regression models developed in the European Study of Cohorts for Air Pollution Effects (ESCAPE, http://escapeproject.eu/) and the open source software PCRaster (http://www.pcraster.eu). The models use predictor variables like population density, land use, and traffic related data sets, and are able to model spatial variation and within-city variability of annual average concentration values. We approximated space-time paths for all individuals in a cohort using various aggregations, including those representing space-time paths as the outline of a persons' home or associated parcel

  3. Smart LED lighting for major reductions in power and energy use for plant lighting in space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poulet, Lucie

    optimizing conditions with red and blue LED lighting required 12 times less energy than with a traditional high-intensity discharge lighting system. This study paves the way for refinement of the smart lighting system and further, major reductions in ESM for space life-support systems and for ground-based controlled-environment agriculture. Project supported by NASA grant number NNX09AL99G.

  4. Multi scale Disaster Risk Reduction Systems Space and Community based Experiences over HKH Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gurung, D. R.; Shrestha, M.; Shrestha, N.; Debnath, B.; Jishi, G.; Bajracharya, R.; Dhonju, H. K.; Pradhan, S.

    2014-11-01

    An increasing trend in the recurrence of natural disasters and associated impacts due to Floods, Glacier Lake out bursts, landslides and forest fire is reported over Hindu Kush Himalyan (HKH) region. Climate change and anthropogenic coupled factors are identified as primary factors for such increased vulnerability. The large degree of poverty, lack of infrastructure, poor accessibility and uncertainties involved in understanding high altitude land surface and climate dynamics poses serious challenges in reducing disaster vulnerability and mitigating disaster impacts. In this context effective development of Disaster Risk Reduction (DRR) protocols and mechanisms have been realized as an urgent need. The paper presents the adoption and experiences of multi scale DRR systems across different Himalayan member countries ranging from community based indigenous early warning to space based emergency response and decision support systems. The Establishment of a Regional Flood Information System (HKH-HYCOS) over Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna (GBM) and Indus river basins promoted the timely exchange of flood data and information for the reduction of flood vulnerability within and among the participating countries. Satellite based forest fire alert systems evoked significant response among diverse stakeholders to optimize fire incidence and control. Satellite rainfall estimation products, satellite altimetry based flood early warning systems, flood inundation modelling and products, model derived hydrology flow products from different global data-sharing networks constitutes diverse information to support multi scale DRR systems. Community-based Flood Early Warning System (FEWS) enabled by wireless technology established over the Singara and Jiadhal rivers in Assam also stands as one of the promising examples of minimizing flood risk. Disaster database and information system and decision support tools in Nepal serves as potential tool to support diverse stakeholders.

  5. The calibration and flight test performance of the space shuttle orbiter air data system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dean, A. S.; Mena, A. L.

    1983-01-01

    The Space Shuttle air data system (ADS) is used by the guidance, navigation and control system (GN&C) to guide the vehicle to a safe landing. In addition, postflight aerodynamic analysis requires a precise knowledge of flight conditions. Since the orbiter is essentially an unpowered vehicle, the conventional methods of obtaining the ADS calibration were not available; therefore, the calibration was derived using a unique and extensive wind tunnel test program. This test program included subsonic tests with a 0.36-scale orbiter model, transonic and supersonic tests with a smaller 0.2-scale model, and numerous ADS probe-alone tests. The wind tunnel calibration was further refined with subsonic results from the approach and landing test (ALT) program, thus producing the ADS calibration for the orbital flight test (OFT) program. The calibration of the Space Shuttle ADS and its performance during flight are discussed in this paper. A brief description of the system is followed by a discussion of the calibration methodology, and then by a review of the wind tunnel and flight test programs. Finally, the flight results are presented, including an evaluation of the system performance for on-board systems use and a description of the calibration refinements developed to provide the best possible air data for postflight analysis work.

  6. Hydrogen disposal investigation for the Space Shuttle launch complex at Vandenberg Air Force Base

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Breit, Terry J.; Elliott, George

    1987-01-01

    The concern of an overpressure condition on the aft end of the Space Shuttle caused by ignition of unburned hydrogen being trapped in the Space Shuttle Main Engine exhaust duct at the Vandenberg AFB launch complex has been investigated for fifteen months. Approximately twenty-five concepts have been reviewed, with four concepts being thoroughly investigated. The four concepts investigated were hydrogen burnoff ignitors (ignitors located throughout the exhaust duct to continuously ignite any unburned hydrogen), jet mixing (utilizing large volumes of high pressure air to ensure complete combustion of the hydrogen), steam inert (utilizing flashing hot water to inert the duct with steam) and open duct concept (design an open duct or above grade J-deflector to avoid trapping hydrogen gas). Extensive studies, analyses and testing were performed at six test sites with technical support from twenty-two major organizations. In December 1986, the Air Force selected the steam inert concept to be utilized at the Vandenberg launch complex and authorized the design effort.

  7. Thoron ( 220Rn) progeny reduction by an air cleaner of the polarized media filter type

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bigu, J.

    1993-02-01

    The effect of an air cleaner on 220Rn progeny atmospheres has been studied in a Radon/Thoron Test Facility (RTTF) of the walk-in type. The air cleaner consists basically of a fan and a special filter material sandwiched between two metal screens, to which an electric field is applied. The filter is of the polarized media type and uses fibreglass as material. The fan and filter system are housed in a metal case. Air is drawn from the back of the case by means of the fan and forced through the "electrical" filter where removal of the 220Rn progeny occurs. Radon-220 progeny "depleted" air is discharged at the top of the device. Tests were conducted in 220Rn/ 220Rn progeny atmospheres when the air cleaner was operating, and when it was turned off. Very pronounced effects were observed during the operation of the device, namely: a dramatic decrease in the 220Rn progeny concentrations and the total aerosol concentration, as well as a large increase in the 220Rn progeny unattached fractions and the plate-out of these radionuclides on the walls of the RTTF. The air cleaner has potential in industrial applications, which should be explored.

  8. Short-term 222Rn activity concentration changes in underground spaces with limited air exchange with the atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fijałkowska-Lichwa, L.; Przylibski, T. A.

    2011-04-01

    The authors investigated short-time changes in 222Rn activity concentration occurring yearly in two underground tourist facilities with limited air exchange with the atmosphere. One of them is Niedźwiedzia (Bear) Cave in Kletno, Poland - a natural space equipped with locks ensuring isolation from the atmosphere. The other site is Fluorite Adit in Kletno, a section of a disused uranium mine. This adit is equipped with a mechanical ventilation system, operated periodically outside the opening times (at night). Both sites are situated within the same metamorphic rock complex, at similar altitudes, about 2 km apart. The measurements conducted revealed spring and autumn occurrence of convective air movements. In Bear Cave, this process causes a reduction in 222Rn activity concentration in the daytime, i.e. when tourists, guides and other staff are present in the cave. From the point of view of radiation protection, this is the best situation. For the rest of the year, daily concentrations of 222Rn activity in the cave are very stable. In Fluorite Adit, on the other hand, significant variations in daily 222Rn activity concentrations are recorded almost all year round. These changes are determined by the periods of activity and inactivity of mechanical ventilation. Unfortunately this is inactive in the daytime, which results in the highest values of 222Rn activity concentration at the times when tourists and staff are present in the adit. Slightly lower concentrations of radon in Fluorite Adit are recorded in the winter season, when convective air movements carry a substantial amount of radon out into the atmosphere. The incorrect usage of mechanical ventilation in Fluorite Adit results in the most unfavourable conditions in terms of radiation protection. The staff working in that facility are exposed practically throughout the year to the highest 222Rn activity concentrations, both at work (in the adit) and at home (outside their working hours). Therefore, not very well

  9. Microbial Air and Surface Monitoring Results from International Space Station Samples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ott, C. Mark; Bruce, Rebekah J.; Castro, Victoria A.; Novikova, Natalia D.; Pierson, D. L.

    2005-01-01

    Over the course of long-duration spaceflight, spacecraft develop a microbial ecology that directly interacts with the crew of the vehicle. While most microorganisms are harmless or beneficial to the inhabitants of the vehicle, the presence of medically significant organisms appearing in this semi-closed environment could adversely affect crew health and performance. The risk of exposure of the crew to medically significant organisms during a mission is estimated using information gathered during nominal and contingency environmental monitoring. Analysis of the air and surface microbiota in the habitable compartments of the International Space Station (ISS) over the last four years indicate a high presence of Staphylococcus species reflecting the human inhabitants of the vehicle. Generally, air and surface microbial concentrations are below system design specifications, suggesting a lower risk of contact infection or biodegradation. An evaluation of sample frequency indicates a decrease in the identification of new species, suggesting a lower potential for unknown microorganisms to be identified. However, the opportunistic pathogen, Staphylococcus aureus, has been identified in 3 of the last 5 air samples and 5 of the last 9 surface samples. In addition, 47% of the coagulase negative Staphylococcus species that were isolated from the crew, ISS, and its hardware were found to be methicillin resistance. In combination, these observations suggest the potential of methicillin resistant infectious agents over time.

  10. Evaluation of the Air Quality Monitor's Performance on the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Limero, Thomas; Reese, Eric; Ballard, Ken; Durham, Tamara

    2010-01-01

    The Air Quality Monitor (AQM) was flown to the International Space Station (ISS) as an experiment to evaluate its potential to replace the aging Volatile Organic Analyzer (VOA), which ceased operations in August 2009. The AQM (Figure 1) is a small gas chromatography/differential mobility spectrometer (GC/DMS) manufactured by Sionex. Data was presented at last year s ISIMS conference that detailed the preparation of the AQM for flight, including instrument calibration. Furthermore, initial AQM data was compared to VOA results from simultaneous runs of the two instruments. Although comparison with VOA data provided a measure of confidence in the AQM performance, it is the comparison with results from simultaneously acquired air samples (grab sample containers-GSCs) that will define the success (or failure) of the AQM performance. This paper will update the progress in the AQM investigation by comparing AQM data to results from the analyses of GSC samples, returned from ISS. Additionally, a couple of example will illustrate the AQM s ability to detect disruptions in the spacecraft s air quality. Discussion will also focus upon a few unexpected issues that have arisen and how these will be a addressed in the final operational unit now being built.

  11. Microanatomy of the terminal air spaces of Baird's beaked whale (Berardius bairdii) lungs.

    PubMed

    Ninomiya, Hiroyoshi; Inomata, Tomo; Shirouzu, Hiroshi; Katsumata, Etsuko

    2005-05-01

    The terminal airways and microvasculature of five adult Baird's beaked whales (Berardius bairdii) lungs have been examined by means of light and scanning electron microscopy of corrosion casts. The respiratory system of the Baird's beaked whale has various anatomical features which allow them to attain great depths and remain submerged for long periods. The whale lung has components including hyaline cartilage and smooth muscle throughout, reaching as far as the peripheral bronchi, sphincters surrounding the terminal bronchioles, the thick alveolar septa with a connective tissue core and a bi-layer capillary bed, and a distinctive venous plexus of the pulmonary veins. The well-developed venous plexuses of the pulmonary vein are found in the interlobular connective tissue, and around the airways and pulmonary arteries with close apposition. The hyaline cartilage throughout the airways may increase the effective dead air space that accommodates most of the air forced from the collapsed alveoli during a dive. The sphincter might serve as a cock for regulating buoyancy and for trapping air in the alveoli to prevent their complete collapse and a sucking in of alveolar tissue as the dive becomes deeper. The venous plexuses might be for pooling the large volume of blood in the lung to conserve oxygen for deep and prolonged diving. PMID:15942131

  12. Source Resolution and Risk Apportionment of Air Emission Sources in AN Industrial Complex for Risk Reduction Considerations: AN Air Waste Management Methodology.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukerjee, Shaibal

    The purpose of this study was to develop an air waste management methodology for apportioning the health risks associated with air emission source categories that are identified in a given airshed. This was implemented by expanding the receptor model technique to assess the non-carcinogenic and carcinogenic inhalation risks to an exposed population for certain element pollutants determined to be coming from specific emission sources. The concept was demonstrated using air quality data from a mid-sized industrial complex located in a rural/residential area. It was demonstrated that risks from identified, major elemental emission categories can be quantified and that a total, additive risk be determined for main source categories in the airshed. Potential risk reduction measures were targeted at main risk sources without arbitrarily reducing risk for all sources in the airshed thereby making it a cost-effective approach. Dispersion modeling was utilized from previous emission inventory data so that risk estimates for these sources could be modeled at other receptor points in the airshed. The factor analytic procedure for Source Resolution in the initial receptor modeling approach was used to show whether the ambient data fitted a Maximum-Likelihood Factor Analysis or Principal Component Analysis for identifying underlying emission sources. It was also shown how Maximum -Likelihood Factor Analysis can be a stronger source resolution procedure as opposed to Principal Component Analysis since Factor Analysis is metrically invariant. Finally, the use of the ambient air data for total particulates was used to expand the Source Resolution and Risk Apportionment concepts to augment the Bubble Policy currently used in Air Quality Management.

  13. Update on Risk Reduction Activities for a Liquid Advanced Booster for NASA's Space Launch System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crocker, Andrew M.; Doering, Kimberly B; Meadows, Robert G.; Lariviere, Brian W.; Graham, Jerry B.

    2015-01-01

    The stated goals of NASA's Research Announcement for the Space Launch System (SLS) Advanced Booster Engineering Demonstration and/or Risk Reduction (ABEDRR) are to reduce risks leading to an affordable Advanced Booster that meets the evolved capabilities of SLS; and enable competition by mitigating targeted Advanced Booster risks to enhance SLS affordability. Dynetics, Inc. and Aerojet Rocketdyne (AR) formed a team to offer a wide-ranging set of risk reduction activities and full-scale, system-level demonstrations that support NASA's ABEDRR goals. For NASA's SLS ABEDRR procurement, Dynetics and AR formed a team to offer a series of full-scale risk mitigation hardware demonstrations for an affordable booster approach that meets the evolved capabilities of the SLS. To establish a basis for the risk reduction activities, the Dynetics Team developed a booster design that takes advantage of the flight-proven Apollo-Saturn F-1. Using NASA's vehicle assumptions for the SLS Block 2, a two-engine, F-1-based booster design delivers 150 mT (331 klbm) payload to LEO, 20 mT (44 klbm) above NASA's requirements. This enables a low-cost, robust approach to structural design. During the ABEDRR effort, the Dynetics Team has modified proven Apollo-Saturn components and subsystems to improve affordability and reliability (e.g., reduce parts counts, touch labor, or use lower cost manufacturing processes and materials). The team has built hardware to validate production costs and completed tests to demonstrate it can meet performance requirements. State-of-the-art manufacturing and processing techniques have been applied to the heritage F-1, resulting in a low recurring cost engine while retaining the benefits of Apollo-era experience. NASA test facilities have been used to perform low-cost risk-reduction engine testing. In early 2014, NASA and the Dynetics Team agreed to move additional large liquid oxygen/kerosene engine work under Dynetics' ABEDRR contract. Also led by AR, the

  14. A Common Communications, Navigation and Surveillance Infrastructure for Accommodating Space Vehicles in the Next Generation Air Transportation System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    VanSuetendael, RIchard; Hayes, Alan; Birr, Richard

    2008-01-01

    Suborbital space flight and space tourism are new potential markets that could significantly impact the National Airspace System (NAS). Numerous private companies are developing space flight capabilities to capture a piece of an emerging commercial space transportation market. These entrepreneurs share a common vision that sees commercial space flight as a profitable venture. Additionally, U.S. space exploration policy and national defense will impose significant additional demands on the NAS. Air traffic service providers must allow all users fair access to limited airspace, while ensuring that the highest levels of safety, security, and efficiency are maintained. The FAA's Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen) will need to accommodate spacecraft transitioning to and from space through the NAS. To accomplish this, space and air traffic operations will need to be seamlessly integrated under some common communications, navigation and surveillance (CNS) infrastructure. As part of NextGen, the FAA has been developing the Automatic Dependent Surveillance Broadcast (ADS-B) which utilizes the Global Positioning System (GPS) to track and separate aircraft. Another key component of NextGen, System-Wide Information Management/ Network Enabled Operations (SWIM/NEO), is an open architecture network that will provide NAS data to various customers, system tools and applications. NASA and DoD are currently developing a space-based range (SBR) concept that also utilizes GPS, communications satellites and other CNS assets. The future SBR will have very similar utility for space operations as ADS-B and SWIM has for air traffic. Perhaps the FAA, NASA, and DoD should consider developing a common space-based CNS infrastructure to support both aviation and space transportation operations. This paper suggests specific areas of research for developing a CNS infrastructure that can accommodate spacecraft and other new types of vehicles as an integrated part of NextGen.

  15. Seasonal and Diurnal Air Pollution from Residential Cooking and Space Heating in the Eastern Tibetan Plateau.

    PubMed

    Carter, Ellison; Archer-Nicholls, Scott; Ni, Kun; Lai, Alexandra M; Niu, Hongjiang; Secrest, Matthew H; Sauer, Sara M; Schauer, James J; Ezzati, Majid; Wiedinmyer, Christine; Yang, Xudong; Baumgartner, Jill

    2016-08-01

    Residential combustion of solid fuel is a major source of air pollution. In regions where space heating and cooking occur at the same time and using the same stoves and fuels, evaluating air-pollution patterns for household-energy-use scenarios with and without heating is essential to energy intervention design and estimation of its population health impacts as well as the development of residential emission inventories and air-quality models. We measured continuous and 48 h integrated indoor PM2.5 concentrations over 221 and 203 household-days and outdoor PM2.5 concentrations on a subset of those days (in summer and winter, respectively) in 204 households in the eastern Tibetan Plateau that burned biomass in traditional stoves and open fires. Using continuous indoor PM2.5 concentrations, we estimated mean daily hours of combustion activity, which increased from 5.4 h per day (95% CI: 5.0, 5.8) in summer to 8.9 h per day (95% CI: 8.1, 9.7) in winter, and effective air-exchange rates, which decreased from 18 ± 9 h(-1) in summer to 15 ± 7 h(-1) in winter. Indoor geometric-mean 48 h PM2.5 concentrations were over two times higher in winter (252 μg/m(3); 95% CI: 215, 295) than in summer (101 μg/m(3); 95%: 91, 112), whereas outdoor PM2.5 levels had little seasonal variability. PMID:27351357

  16. Energy-Efficiency and Air-Pollutant Emissions-Reduction Opportunities for the Ammonia Industry in China

    SciTech Connect

    Ma, Ding; Hasanbeigi, Ali; Chen, Wenying

    2015-06-01

    As one of the most energy-intensive and polluting industries, ammonia production is responsible for significant carbon dioxide (CO2) and air-pollutant emissions. Although many energy-efficiency measures have been proposed by the Chinese government to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions and improve air quality, lack of understanding of the cost-effectiveness of such improvements has been a barrier to implementing these measures. Assessing the costs, benefits, and cost-effectiveness of different energy-efficiency measures is essential to advancing this understanding. In this study, a bottom-up energy conservation supply curve model is developed to estimate the potential for energy savings and emissions reductions from 26 energy-efficiency measures that could be applied in China’s ammonia industry. Cost-effective implementation of these measures saves a potential 271.5 petajoules/year for fuel and 5,443 gigawatt-hours/year for electricity, equal to 14% of fuel and 14% of electricity consumed in China’s ammonia industry in 2012. These reductions could mitigate 26.7 million tonnes of CO2 emissions. This study also quantifies the co-benefits of reducing air-pollutant emissions and water use that would result from saving energy in China’s ammonia industry. This quantitative analysis advances our understanding of the cost-effectiveness of energy-efficiency measures and can be used to augment efforts to reduce energy use and environmental impacts.

  17. Theoretical and numerical study of air layer drag reduction in two-phase Couette-Poiseuille flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Dokyun; Moin, Parviz

    2008-11-01

    The objective of the present study is to predict and understand the air layer drag reduction (ALDR) phenomenon. Recent experiments (Elbing et al. 2008) have shown net drag reductions if air is injected beyond a critical rate next to the wall. The analysis is performed on a two-phase Couette-Poiseuille flow configuration, which mimics the far downstream region of boundary layer flow on a flat plate. Both theoretical and numerical approaches are employed to investigate the stability and mechanisms of ALDR. The linear stability of air-liquid interface is investigated by solving the Orr-Sommerfeld equations. From the stability analysis, the stability of the interface is reduced as the liquid free-stream velocity, Froude number and velocity gradients at the interface are increased, while the stability is enhanced as the gas flow rate and surface tension are increased. The Critical gas flow rates from stability theory are compared with experimental results, showing good agreement. Direct numerical simulations with a Refiend Level Set Grid technique has been performed to investigate the evolution of the interface, the turbulence interaction and nonlinear mechanisms of ALDR. It is observed that the Weber number has significant impact on the characteristics of the interface development.

  18. An Overview of Latest Model Reduction and Control Methods of Large Flexible Space Structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Santiago, J. M.; Lange, W. J., Jr.; Jamshidi, M.

    1985-01-01

    The latest trends and theoretical developments involved with the modeling and control of Large Flexible Space Structures (LFSS) are described. The paper addresses first the basic problems, characteristics, and difficulties inherent in modeling and control of LFSS. Major sources of difficulties and errors are the stiffness and damping operators of the dynamic model. Extensions of Linear Quadratic Gaussian (LQG) theory as applied to LFSS are presented, including frequency-shaped cost functionals and perturbation methods. The minimum data/maximum entropy approach which uses a stochastic design model to overcome difficulties found in the LQG-based methods is described. Latest trends in system theory including balanced realization and singular-value analysis are used to determine reduced order controllers and models. Ad hoc methods such as component cost analysis and modal cost analysis are discussed in context with the closed-loop reduction problem of controller order versus performance. The minimum data/maximum entropy approach also addresses controller order versus performance. Those areas of control science and large scale systems that appear to have an important role in understanding and solving LFSS modeling and control are also identified.

  19. Assessment of air quality in and around a steel industry with direct reduction iron route.

    PubMed

    Jena, Pradip K; Behera, Dillip K; Mishra, C S K; Mohanty, Saswat K

    2011-10-01

    The coal based Direct Reduced Iron (DRI) route for secondary steel production is now a preferred choice in India. Steel making is invariably associated with emission of air pollutants into the environment. Air quality monitoring was carried out in Winter, Summer and Rainy seasons of 2008 in eight monitoring stations in the work zone and five stations in the residential zone of an Integrated Steel Industry located in Orissa state, India. Four air quality parameters i.e. SPM, RSPM, SO2 and NO2 were monitored. Mean SPM and RSPM values were found to be significantly high (p < 0.01) at stations nearer to source in both work zone and residential zone .The highest average SPM and RSPM values in the work zone recorded were 4869 microg/m3 and 1420 microg/m3 and in the residential zone 294 microg/m3 and 198 microg/m3 respectively. No significant difference in the SO2 and NO2 levels was observed between the work and residential zones. In general, the values of air pollutants were highest in Winter followed by Summer and Rainy season. SPM and RSPM values exceeded the National Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) in both the residential and work zones. PMID:23505821

  20. Enhancement and performance evaluation for heat transfer of air cooling zone for reduction system of sponge titanium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Wenhao; Wu, Fuzhong; Jin, Huixin

    2016-05-01

    Since the magnesiothermic reduction employed in current sponge titanium is a highly exothermic reaction, the TiCl4 feed rate is carried out slowly to keep a suitable temperature in reduction reactor, which accounts for an extremely low level of productivity and energy efficiency. In order to shorten the production cycle and improve the energy efficiency, an enhancing scheme is proposed to enhance the heat transfer of air cooling zone for reduction system. The air cooling zone and enhancing scheme are firstly introduced. And then, the heat transfer characteristics of cooling zone are obtained by theoretical analysis and experimental date without enhancing scheme. Finally, the enhancement is analyzed and evaluated. The results show that the fitting results of heat transfer coefficients can be used to evaluate the heat transfer enhancement of cooling zone. Heat sources temperatures have a limited decreasing, heat transfer rate increases obviously with the enhanced cooling, and the TiCl4 feed rate can be increased significantly by 9.61 %. And the measured and calculated results are good enough to meet the design requirements.

  1. Evidence of increased levels of space heat consumption and air leakage associated with forced air heating systems in houses in the Pacific Northwest

    SciTech Connect

    Parker, D.S. )

    1989-01-01

    This paper examines energy consumption and air-tightness data from 820 electrically heated houses built since 1980 in the Pacific Northwest. Half of the buildings were energy-efficient structures built to the model conservation standards (MCS) developed in the region. The rest of the sample were conventional new houses intended to be representative of current building practices. The houses were monitored for a period of one year with the structures audited to determine insulation levels and occupancy characteristics. In the analysis of the monitored data we found that heating system type plays a large role in determining the relative efficiency of electrically heated houses. Residences with electric forced-air heating systems used an average of 1.40 kWh/ft{sup 2} (15.1 kWh/m{sup 2}) more space heating energy than those without them. We also discovered through the use of fan pressurization and perfluorocarbon tracer gas tests (PFT) that houses with forced-air systems exhibited substantially higher level of air leakage. The tracer gas tests indicated an average of 70% higher levels of air change rate in the control houses with forced-air space heat as opposed to baseboard systems.

  2. Virtual prototype interface for the Air Force Manned SpacePlane project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stytz, Martin R.; Banks, Sheila B.; Lewis, John; Johnson, Troy D.

    1998-08-01

    The advent of requirements for worldwide deployment of space assets in support of Air Force operational missions has resulted in the need for a Manned SpacePlane (MSP) that can perform these missions with minimal preflight preparation and little, if any, in-orbit support from a mission control center. Because successful mission accomplishment will depend almost completely upon the MSP crew and the on-board capabilities of the spaceplane, the MSP user interface is a crucial component of successful mission accomplishment. In recognition of this fact, the USAF Phillips Laboratory in conjunction with USAF Space Command initiated the Virtual SpacePlane (VSP) project. To function effectively as an MSP interface development platform, the VSP must demonstrate the capability to simulate anticipated MSP missions and portray the MSP in operation throughout its entire flight regime, from takeoff through space operations and on to recovery via a horizontal landing at an airfield. Therefore, we architected, designed, and implemented a complete VSP that can be used to simulate anticipated Manned SpacePlane missions. The primary objective of the VSP is to be a virtual prototype for user interface design and development, the VSP software architecture and design facilities uncovering, refining and validating MSP user interface requirements. The Virtual SpacePlane reuses software components developed for the Virtual Cockpit and Solar System Modeler (SM) distributed virtual environment (DVE) applications, the Common Object Database (CODB) architecture, and Information Pod (Pod) interface tools developed in our labs. The Virtual Cockpit and Solar System Modeler supplied baseline interface components and tools, 3D graphical models, vehicle motion dynamics models, and DVE communication capabilities. Because we knew that the VSP's requirements would expand and evolve over the life of the project, we use the CODB architecture to facilitate our use of Rapid Evolutionary and Exploratory

  3. I(sup STAR), NASA's Next Step in Air-Breathing Propulsion for Space Access

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hutt, John J.; McArthur, Craig; Cook, Stephen (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The United States' National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has established a strategic plan for future activities in space. A primary goal of this plan is to make drastic improvements in the cost and safety of earth to low-earth-orbit transportation. One approach to achieving this goal is through the development of highly reusable, highly reliable space transportation systems analogous to the commercial airline system. In the year 2000, NASA selected the Rocket Based Combined Cycle (RBCC) engine as the next logical step towards this goal. NASA will develop a complete flight-weight, pump-fed engine system under the Integrated System Test of an Airbreathing Rocket (I(sup STAR)) Project. The objective of this project is develop a reusable engine capable of self-powering a vehicle through the air-augmented rocket, ramjet and scramjet modes required in all RBCC based operational vehicle concepts. The project is currently approved and funded to develop the engine through ground test demonstration. Plans are in place to proceed with flight demonstration pending funding approval. The project is in formulation phase and the Preliminary Requirements Review has been completed. The engine system and vehicle have been selected at the conceptual level. The I(sup STAR) engine concept is based on an air-breathing flowpath downselected from three configurations evaluated in NASA's Advanced Reusable Technology contract. The selected flowpath features rocket thrust chambers integrated into struts separating modular flowpath ducts, a variable geometry inlet, and a thermally choked throat. The engine will be approximately 220 inches long and 79 inches wide and fueled with a hydrocarbon fuel using liquid oxygen as the primary oxidizer candidate. The primary concept for the pump turbine drive is pressure-fed catalyzed hydrogen peroxide. In order to control costs, the flight demonstration vehicle will be launched from a B-52 aircraft. The vehicle concept is based on the Air

  4. Using Microsoft Excel as a pre-processor for CODE V optimization of air spaces when building camera lenses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stephenson, Dave

    2013-09-01

    When building high-performance camera lenses, it is often preferable to tailor element-to-element air spaces instead of tightening the fabrication tolerances sufficiently so that random assembly is possible. A tailored air space solution is usually unique for each serial number camera lens and results in nearly nominal performance. When these air spaces are computed based on measured radii, thickness, and refractive indices, this can put a strain on the design engineering department to deal with all the data in a timely fashion. Excel† may be used by the assembly technician as a preprocessor tool to facilitate data entry and organization, and to perform the optimization using CODE V‡ (or equivalent) without any training or experience in using lens design software. This makes it unnecessary to involve design engineering for each lens serial number, sometimes waiting in their work queue. In addition, Excel can be programmed to run CODE V in such a way that discrete shim thicknesses result. This makes it possible for each tailored air space solution to be achieved using a finite number of shims that differ in thickness by a reasonable amount. It is generally not necessary to tailor the air spaces in each lens to the micron level to achieve nearly nominal performance.

  5. CO-DEPENDENCIES OF REACTIVE AIR TOXIC AND CRITERIA POLLUTANTS ON EMISSION REDUCTIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    It is important to understand the effect of emission controls on the concentrations of ozone, PM2.5, and hazardous air pollutants simultaneously, in order to evaluate the full range of both health related and economic effects. Until recently, the capability of simultan...

  6. Sonic booms of space shuttles approaching Edwards Air Force Base, 1988-1993.

    PubMed

    Young, Robert W

    2002-01-01

    From 1988 to 1993 13 sonic booms of space shuttles approaching Edwards Air Force Base were measured at a site 10 miles west of EAFB, with one to seven different sound level meters for each measurement. Results from five of these measurements are here presented. Maximum differences in measured levels between instruments for the same flight varied from 0 to 6 dB depending on the measurement descriptor and model of sound level meter. The average difference between predicted and measured values was 0.7+/-1.5 dB. For sound level meters with adequate bandwidth the waveforms measured varied from a near perfect N-wave to a more distorted form reflecting the influence of the varying condition of the atmosphere during propagation to the ground. PMID:11837962

  7. Evaluation of prototype air/fluid separator for Space Station Freedom Health Maintenance Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Billica, Roger; Smith, Maureen; Murphy, Linda; Kizzee, Victor D.

    1991-01-01

    A prototype air/fluid separator suction apparatus proposed as a possible design for use with the Health Maintenance Facility aboard Space Station Freedom (SSF) was evaluated. A KC-135 parabolic flight test was performed for this purpose. The flights followed the standard 40 parabola profile with 20 to 25 seconds of near-zero gravity in each parabola. A protocol was prepared to evaluate the prototype device in several regulator modes (or suction force), using three fluids of varying viscosity, and using either continuous or intermittent suction. It was felt that a matrixed approach would best approximate the range of utilization anticipated for medical suction on SSF. The protocols were performed in one-gravity in a lab setting to familiarize the team with procedures and techniques. Identical steps were performed aboard the KC-135 during parabolic flight.

  8. Space Shuttle Solid Rocket Booster decelerator subsystem - Air drop test vehicle/B-52 design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Runkle, R. E.; Drobnik, R. F.

    1979-01-01

    The air drop development test program for the Space Shuttle Solid Rocket Booster Recovery System required the design of a large drop test vehicle that would meet all the stringent requirements placed on it by structural loads, safety considerations, flight recovery system interfaces, and sequence. The drop test vehicle had to have the capability to test the drogue and the three main parachutes both separately and in the total flight deployment sequence and still be low-cost to fit in a low-budget development program. The design to test large ribbon parachutes to loads of 300,000 pounds required the detailed investigation and integration of several parameters such as carrier aircraft mechanical interface, drop test vehicle ground transportability, impact point ground penetration, salvageability, drop test vehicle intelligence, flight design hardware interfaces, and packaging fidelity.

  9. Human health benefits of ambient sulfate aerosol reductions under Title IV of the 1990 Clean Air Act amendments

    SciTech Connect

    Chestnut, L.G.; Watkins, A.M.

    1997-12-31

    The Acid Rain Provisions (Title IV) of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 call for about a 10 million ton reduction in annual SO{sub 2} emissions in the United States by the year 2010. Although the provisions apply nationwide, most of the reduction will take place in the eastern half of the United States, where use of high sulfur coal for electricity generation is most common. One potentially large benefit of Title IV is the expected reduction in adverse human health effects associated with exposure to ambient sulfate aerosols, a secondary pollutant formed in the atmosphere when SO{sub 2} is present. Sulfate aerosols are a significant constituent of fine particulate (PM{sub 2.5}). This paper combines available epidemiologic evidence of health effects associated with sulfate aerosols and economic estimates of willingness to pay for reductions in risks or incidence of health effects with available estimates of the difference between expected ambient sulfate concentrations in the eastern United States and southeastern Canada with and without Title IV to estimate the expected health benefits of Title IV. The results suggest a mean annual benefit in the eastern United States of $10.6 billion (in 1994 dollars) in 1997 and $40.0 billion in 2010, with an additional $1 billion benefit each year in Ontario and Quebec provinces.

  10. Economical crisis detected from space: Trends in air quality of Athens in Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vrekoussis, Mihalis; Richter, Andreas; Hilboll, Andreas; Burrows, John P.; Zerefos, Christos; Gerasopoulos, Evangelos; Lelieveld, Jos; Barrie, Leonard; Mihalopoulos, Nikos

    2013-04-01

    Data from three satellite spectrometers (SCIAMACHY, GOME2 and OMI) have been analyzed together with a number of economic metrics to investigate the impact of the economic crisis (from 2008 onward) on air quality over Greece, and Athens in particular. Athens is a heavily polluted city due to the extensive number of registered vehicles, the presence of industrial regions close to the city, the complex topography of the area favouring pollutant accumulation, the intense photochemical processes favoured by high temperature and insolation and the reception of transboundary pollution. The multiannual analysis shows a significant 30-40% reduction of primary gaseous pollutants in the form of NO2 tropospheric columnar densities observed over Athens, during the economic recession period, indicating large reductions in pollutant emissions. This decline is further supported by surface measurements of atmospheric NO2 mixing ratios. Additionally, the declining local concentrations of NO, CO, SO2 are associated with an increase in ozone due to reduced titration by NO. In particular, regression analysis revealed that the reduction of NO2 (0.3±0.2 ppbv y-1) and SO2 (0.2±0.1ppbv y-1) during the period 2000-2007, significantly accelerated during the economic crisis period (from 2008 onward), reaching 2.3±0.2 ppbv y-1 and 0.7±0.1 ppbv y-1, respectively. The strong correlations between pollutant concentrations and economic indicators show that economic recession has resulted in proportionally lower levels of pollutants not only in Athens but also in large parts of Greece.

  11. Comparison of Space Shuttle Hot Gas Manifold analysis to air flow data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcconnaughey, P. K.

    1988-01-01

    This paper summarizes several recent analyses of the Space Shuttle Main Engine Hot Gas Manifold and compares predicted flow environments to air flow data. Codes used in these analyses include INS3D, PAGE, PHOENICS, and VAST. Both laminar (Re = 250, M = 0.30) and turbulent (Re = 1.9 million, M = 0.30) results are discussed, with the latter being compared to data for system losses, outer wall static pressures, and manifold exit Mach number profiles. Comparison of predicted results for the turbulent case to air flow data shows that the analysis using INS3D predicted system losses within 1 percent error, while the PHOENICS, PAGE, and VAST codes erred by 31, 35, and 47 percent, respectively. The INS3D, PHOENICS, and PAGE codes did a reasonable job of predicting outer wall static pressure, while the PHOENICS code predicted exit Mach number profiles with acceptable accuracy. INS3D was approximately an order of magnitude more efficient than the other codes in terms of code speed and memory requirements. In general, it is seen that complex internal flows in manifold-like geometries can be predicted with a limited degree of confidence, and further development is necessary to improve both efficiency and accuracy of codes if they are to be used as design tools for complex three-dimensional geometries.

  12. The JPL Electronic Nose: Monitoring Air in the US Lab on the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryan, M. A.; Manatt, K. S.; Gluck, S.; Shevade, A. V.; Kisor, A. K.; Zhou, H.; Lara, L. M.; Homer, M. L.

    2010-01-01

    An electronic nose with a sensor array of 32 conductometric sensors has been developed at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) to monitor breathing air in spacecraft habitat. The Third Generation ENose is designed to operate in the environment of the US Lab on the International Space Station (ISS). It detects a selected group of analytes at target concentrations in the ppm regime at an environmental temperature range of 18 - 30 oC, relative humidity from 25 - 75% and pressure from 530 to 760 torr. The monitoring targets are anomalous events such as leaks and spills of solvents, coolants or other fluids. The JPL ENose operated as a technology demonstration for seven months in the U.S. Laboratory Destiny during 2008-2009. Analysis of ENose monitoring data shows that there was regular, periodic rise and fall of humidity and occasional releases of Freon 218 (perfluoropropane), formaldehyde, methanol and ethanol. There were also several events of unknown origin, half of them from the same source. Each event lasted from 20 to 100 minutes, consistent with the air replacement time in the US Lab.

  13. Prediction of free air space in initial composting mixtures by a statistical design approach.

    PubMed

    Soares, Micaela A R; Quina, Margarida J; Quinta-Ferreira, Rosa

    2013-10-15

    Free air space (FAS) is a physical parameter that can play an important role in composting processes to maintain favourable aerobic conditions. Aiming to predict the FAS of initial composting mixtures, specific materials proportions ranged from 0 to 1 were tested for a case study comprising industrial potato peel, which is characterized by low air void volume, thus requiring additional components for its composting. The characterization and prediction of FAS for initial mixtures involving potato peel, grass clippings and rice husks (set A) or sawdust (set B) was accomplished by means of an augmented simplex-centroid mixture design approach. The experimental data were fitted to second order Scheffé polynomials. Synergistic or antagonistic effects of mixture proportions in the FAS response were identified from the surface and response trace plots in the FAS response. Moreover, a good agreement was achieved between the model predictions and supplementary experimental data. Moreover, theoretical and empirical approaches for estimating FAS available in literature were compared with the predictions generated by the mixture design approach. This study demonstrated that the mixture design methodology can be a valuable tool to predict the initial FAS of composting mixtures, specifically in making adjustments to improve composting processes containing primarily potato peel. PMID:23722176

  14. Space-borne clear air lidar measurements in the presence of broken cloud

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Astin, I.; Kiemle, C.

    2003-03-01

    A number of proposed lidar systems, such as ESA’s AEOLUS (formerly ADM) and DIAL missions (e.g. WALES) are to make use of lidar returns in clear air. However, on average, two-thirds of the globe is covered in cloud. Hence, there is a strong likelihood that data from these instruments may be contaminated by cloud. Similarly, optically thick cloud may not be penetrated by a lidar pulse, resulting in unobservable regions that are overshadowed by the cloud. To address this, it is suggested, for example, in AEOLUS, that a number of consecutive short sections of lidar data (between 1 and 3.5 km in length) be tested for cloud contamination or for overshadowing and only those that are unaffected by cloud be used to derive atmospheric profiles. The prob-ability of obtaining profiles to near ground level using this technique is investigated both analytically and using UV air-borne lidar data recorded during the CLARE’98 campaign. These data were measured in the presence of broken cloud on a number of flights over southern England over a four-day period and were chosen because the lidar used has the same wavelength, footprint and could match the along-track spacing of the proposed AEOLUS lidar.

  15. Reduction of space charge breakdown in e-beam irradiated nano/polymethyl methacrylate composites

    SciTech Connect

    Zheng Feihu; Zhang Yewen; An Zhenlian; Dong Jianxing; Lei Qingquan

    2013-01-07

    Fast discharge of numerous space charges in dielectric materials can cause space charge breakdown. This letter reports the role of nanoparticles in affecting space charge breakdown of nano/polymethyl methacrylate composites. Space charge distributions in the composites, implanted by electron beam irradiation, were measured by pressure wave propagation method. The results show that the nanoparticles have significant effects on the isothermal charge decay and space charge breakdown in the nanocomposites. The resistance to space charge breakdown in the nanocomposites is attributed to the combined action of the introduction of deep trapping states and the scattering effect by the added nanoparticles.

  16. Computation of H2/air reacting flowfields in drag-reduction external combustion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lai, H. T.

    1992-01-01

    Numerical simulation and analysis of the solution are presented for a laminar reacting flowfield of air and hydrogen in the case of external combustion employed to reduce base drag in hypersonic vehicles operating at transonic speeds. The flowfield consists of a transonic air stream at a Mach number of 1.26 and a sonic transverse hydrogen injection along a row of 26 orifices. Self-sustained combustion is computed over an expansion ramp downstream of the injection and a flameholder, using the recently developed RPLUS code. Measured data is available only for surface pressure distributions and is used for validation of the code in practical 3D reacting flowfields. Pressure comparison shows generally good agreements, and the main effects of combustion are also qualitatively consistent with experiment.

  17. MODELING ASSESSMENT OF THE IMPACT OF NITROGEN OXIDES EMISSION REDUCTIONS ON OZONE AIR QUALITY IN THE EASTERN UNITED STATES: OFFSETTING INCREASES IN ENERGY USE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The objective of this study is to examine changes in ambient ozone concentrations estimated by a photochemical air quality model in response to the NOx emission reductions imposed on the utility sector. To accomplish this task, CMAQ air quality model simulations were performe...

  18. Innovative Building Material - Reduction of Air Pollution through TioCem®

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bolte, G.

    In many European cities air quality is a massive problem. Besides the particulate matter, nitrogen oxides (NOX) and volatile organic compounds (VOC) are mainly responsible for the heavy pollution. Motivation to “do something” to protect the environment and climate is increasing constantly. Pollutants such as nitrogen oxides can be oxidized by means of photolysis. With the help of photocatalytic active particles this effect can be accelerated extensively. Photocatalytic active particles dispersed in the concrete turn it into an air pollutant reducing surface. Pollutants getting in contact with the concrete surface are decomposed or oxidized and therewith rendered harmless. This brand new technique is introduced into building industry with a new label “TX Active®“. A premium brand cement for the production of photo catalytically active concrete products - TX Active® products - is now available in the form of TioCem®. This cement can effectively contribute to air purification by using in numerous concrete components such as pavement, roof tiles, facade plates, concrete road surfaces, mortars etc.

  19. International Space Station Air Quality Assessed According to Toxicologically-Grouped Compounds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    James, John T.; Limero, Thomas F.; Beck, Steve; Cheng, Patti F.; deVera, Vanessa J.; Hand, Jennifer; Macatangay, Ariel

    2010-01-01

    Scores of compounds are found in the International Space Station (ISS) atmospheric samples that are returned to the Johnson Space Center Toxicology Laboratory for analysis. Spacecraft Maximum Allowable Concentrations (SMACs) are set with the view that each compound is present as if there were no other compounds present. In order to apply SMACs to the interpretation of the analytical data, the toxicologist must employ some method of combining the potential effects of the aggregate of compounds found in the atmospheric samples. The simplest approach is to assume that each quantifiable compound has the potential for some effect in proportion to the applicable SMAC, and then add all the proportions. This simple paradigm disregards the fact that most compounds have potential to adversely affect only a few physiological systems, and their effects would be independent rather than additive. An improved approach to dealing with exposure to mixtures is to add the proportions only for compounds that adversely affect the same physiological system. For example, toxicants that cause respiratory irritation are separated from those that cause neurotoxicity or cardio-toxicity. Herein we analyze ISS air quality data according to toxicological groups with a view that this could be used for understanding any crew symptoms occurring at the time of the sample acquisition. In addition, this approach could be useful in post-flight longitudinal surveys where the flight surgeon may need to identify post-flight, follow-up medical studies because of on-orbit exposures that target specific physiological systems.

  20. Monitoring biological impacts of space shuttle launches from Vandenberg Air Force Base: Establishment of baseline conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmaizer, Paul A.; Hinkle, C. Ross

    1987-01-01

    Space shuttle launches produce environmental impacts resulting from the formation of an exhaust cloud containing hydrogen chloride aerosols and aluminum oxide particulates. Studies have shown that most impacts occur near-field (within 1.5 km) of the launch site while deposition from launches occurs far-field (as distant as 22 km). In order to establish baseline conditions of vegetation and soils in the areas likely to be impacted by shuttle launches from Vandenberg Air Force Base (VAFB), vegetation and soils in the vicinity of Space Launch Complex-6 (SLC-6) were sampled and a vegetation map prepared. The areas likely to be impacted by launches were determined considering the structure of the launch complex, the prevailing winds, the terrain, and predictions of the Rocket Exhaust Effluent Diffusion Model (REEDM). Fifty vegetation transects were established and sampled in March 1986 and resampled in September 1986. A vegetation map was prepared for six Master Planning maps surrounding SLC-6 using LANDSAT Thematic Mapper imagery as well as color and color infrared aerial photography. Soil samples were collected form the 0 to 7.5 cm layer at all transects in the wet season and at a subsample of the transects in the dry season and analyzed for pH, organic matter, conductivity, cation exchange capacity, exchangeable Ca, Mg, Na, K, and Al, available NH3-N, PO4-P, Cu, Fe, Mn, Zn, and TKN.

  1. International Space Station Air Quality Assessed According to Toxicologically-Grouped Compounds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    James, John T.; Limero, Tom; DeVera, Vanessa; Cheng, Patti; Hand, Jennifer; Macatangay, Ariel; Beck, Steve

    2009-01-01

    Scores of compounds are found in the International Space Station (ISS) atmospheric samples that are returned to the Johnson Space Center Toxicology Laboratory for analysis. Spacecraft Maximum Allowable Concentrations (SMACs) are set with the view that each compound is present as if there were no other compounds present. In order to apply SMACs to the interpretation of the analytical data, the toxicologist must employ some method of combining the potential effects of the aggregate of compounds found in the atmospheric samples. The simplest approach is to assume that each quantifiable compound has the potential for some effect in proportion to the applicable SMAC, and then add all the proportions. This simple paradigm disregards the fact that most compounds have potential to adversely affect only a few physiological systems, and their effects would be independent rather than additive. An improved approach to dealing with exposure to mixtures is to add the proportions only for compounds that adversely affect the same physiological system. For example, toxicants that cause respiratory irritation are separated from those that cause neurotoxicity or cardio-toxicity. Herein we analyze ISS air quality data according to toxicological groups with a view that this could be used for understanding any crew symptoms occurring at the time of the sample. In addition, this approach could be useful in post-flight longitudinal surveys where the flight surgeon may need to identify post-flight, follow-up medical studies because of on-orbit exposures that target specific physiological systems.

  2. A Peak Wind Probability Forecast Tool for Kennedy Space Center and Cape Canaveral Air Force Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crawford, Winifred; Roeder, William

    2008-01-01

    This conference abstract describes the development of a peak wind forecast tool to assist forecasters in determining the probability of violating launch commit criteria (LCC) at Kennedy Space Center (KSC) and Cape Canaveral Air Force Station (CCAFS) in east-central Florida. The peak winds are an important forecast element for both the Space Shuttle and Expendable Launch Vehicle (ELV) programs. The LCC define specific peak wind thresholds for each launch operation that cannot be exceeded in order to ensure the safety of the vehicle. The 45th Weather Squadron (45 WS) has found that peak winds are a challenging parameter to forecast, particularly in the cool season months of October through April. Based on the importance of forecasting peak winds, the 45 WS tasked the Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) to develop a short-range peak-wind forecast tool to assist in forecasting LCC violatioas.The tool will include climatologies of the 5-minute mean end peak winds by month, hour, and direction, and probability distributions of the peak winds as a function of the 5-minute mean wind speeds.

  3. Design and manufacturing considerations for high-performance gimbals used for land, sea, air, and space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sweeney, Mike; Redd, Lafe; Vettese, Tom; Myatt, Ray; Uchida, David; Sellers, Del

    2015-09-01

    High performance stabilized EO/IR surveillance and targeting systems are in demand for a wide variety of military, law enforcement, and commercial assets for land, sea, air, and space. Operating ranges, wavelengths, and angular resolution capabilities define the requirements for EO/IR optics and sensors, and line of sight stabilization. Many materials and design configurations are available for EO/IR pointing gimbals depending on trade-offs of size, weight, power (SWaP), performance, and cost. Space and high performance military aircraft applications are often driven toward expensive but exceptionally performing beryllium and aluminum beryllium components. Commercial applications often rely on aluminum and composite materials. Gimbal design considerations include achieving minimized mass and inertia simultaneous with demanding structural, thermal, optical, and scene stabilization requirements when operating in dynamic operational environments. Manufacturing considerations include precision lapping and honing of ball bearing interfaces, brazing, welding, and casting of complex aluminum and beryllium alloy structures, and molding of composite structures. Several notional and previously developed EO/IR gimbal platforms are profiled that exemplify applicable design and manufacturing technologies.

  4. Effect of Clouds on Apertures of Space-based Air Fluorescence Detectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sokolsky, P.; Krizmanic, J.

    2003-01-01

    Space-based ultra-high-energy cosmic ray detectors observe fluorescence light from extensive air showers produced by these particles in the troposphere. Clouds can scatter and absorb this light and produce systematic errors in energy determination and spectrum normalization. We study the possibility of using IR remote sensing data from MODIS and GOES satellites to delimit clear areas of the atmosphere. The efficiency for detecting ultra-high-energy cosmic rays whose showers do not intersect clouds is determined for real, night-time cloud scenes. We use the MODIS SST cloud mask product to define clear pixels for cloud scenes along the equator and use the OWL Monte Carlo to generate showers in the cloud scenes. We find the efficiency for cloud-free showers with closest approach of three pixels to a cloudy pixel is 6.5% exclusive of other factors. We conclude that defining a totally cloud-free aperture reduces the sensitivity of space-based fluorescence detectors to unacceptably small levels.

  5. The Influence of Contact Space on Arc Commutation Process in Air Circuit Breaker

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niu, Chunping; Ding, Juwen; Yang, Fei; Dong, Delong; Rong, Mingzhe; Xu, Dan

    2016-05-01

    In this paper, a 3D magneto-hydrodynamic (MHD) arc simulation model is applied to analyze the arc motion during current interruption in a certain air circuit breaker (ACB). The distributions of pressure, temperature, gas flow and current density of the arc plasma in the arc region are calculated, and the factors influencing the commutation process are analyzed according to the calculated results. Based on the airflow in the arc chamber, the causes of arc commutation asynchrony and the back commutation are investigated. It indicates that a reasonable contact space design is crucial to a successful arc commutation process. To verify the simulation results, the influence of contact space on arc voltage and arc commutation is tested. This research can provide methods and references to the optimization of ACB design. supported by National Key Basic Research Program of China (973 Program) (Nos. 2015CB251002, 6132620303) and National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 51221005, 51377128, 51577144), and Science and Technology Project Through Grid State Corporation (No. SGSNKYOOKJJS1501564)

  6. Space-Time Analysis of the Air Quality Model Evaluation International Initiative (AQMEII) Phase 1 Air Quality Simulations

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study presents an evaluation of summertime daily maximum ozone concentrations over North America (NA) and Europe (EU) using the database generated during Phase 1 of the Air Quality Model Evaluation International Initiative (AQMEII). The analysis focuses on identifying tempor...

  7. Using oily wastewater emulsified fuel in boiler: energy saving and reduction of air pollutant emissions.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chun-Chi; Lee, Wen-Jhy

    2008-01-01

    The limited data for using emulsified oil have demonstrated its effectiveness in reducing flue gas pollutant emissions. The presence of a high concentration of toxic organic compounds in industrial wastewaters always presents significant problems. Therefore, this study was undertaken by using wastewater with COD of 9600 mg/L and total petroleum hydrocarbons-gasoline 440 mg/L for making an emulsified oil (wastewater content 20% with 0.1% surfactant) to evaluate the extent of reductions in both criteria pollutants and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. For comparison, two other systems (heavy oil fuel and water-emulsified oil) were also conducted. The wastewater-emulsified oil fuel results in significant reductions in particulate matter (PM), NO(x), SO2, and CO as compared to heavy oil fuel and similar to those from water/oil emulsified fuel; for PM, it is better in wastewater-emulsified oil. The reductions of total PAH flue gas emissions are 38 and 30% for wastewater- and water-emulsified fuel, respectively; they are 63 and 44% for total BaP(eq), respectively. In addition to reducing flue gas pollutant emissions, the results also demonstrate that the use of wastewater-emulsified fuel in boiler operation provides several advantages: (1) safe disposal of industrial wastewater; and (2) energy savings of about 13%. Thus, wastewater/oil-emulsified fuel is highly suitable for use in boilers. PMID:18350907

  8. Assessment of Technology Readiness Level of a Carbon Dioxide Reduction Assembly (CRA) for use on International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murdoch, Karen; Smith, Fred; Perry, Jay; Green, Steve

    2004-01-01

    When technologies are traded for incorporation into vehicle systems to support a specific mission scenario, they are often assessed in terms of Technology Readiness Level (TRL). TRL is based on three major categories of Core Technology Components, Ancillary Hardware and System Maturity, and Control and Control Integration. This paper describes the Technology Readiness Level assessment of the Carbon Dioxide Reduction Assembly (CRA) for use on the International Space Station. A team comprising of the NASA Johnson Space Center, Marshall Space Flight Center, Southwest Research Institute and Hamilton Sundstrand Space Systems International have been working on various aspects of the CRA to bring its TRL from 4/5 up to 6. This paper describes the work currently being done in the three major categories. Specific details are given on technology development of the Core Technology Components including the reactor, phase separator and CO2 compressor.

  9. A comprehensive study over the recent important reduction in SO2 and NO2 emissions from the power plants located in S-E Europe using space observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bocǎnealǎ, Corina; Constantin, Daniel-Eduard; Theys, Nicolas; Merlaud, Alexis; Van Roozendael, Michel

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the recent important reduction of atmospheric SO2 and NO2 emissions from several power plants located in S-E Europe during 2005-2014 using space observations. The study is focused over three large power plants which are located in Romania and Bulgaria: Turceni (44.66°N, 23.38°E), Rovinari (44.9°N, 23.15°E) and Stara Zagora (42.43°N, 25.65°E). The space observations used in this work are based on OMI (Ozone Monitoring Instrument) and GOME-2 (Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment Measurements) measurements. The results obtained using data from satellites are compared with in-situ observations and calculated emissions. The OMI and GOME-2 observed SO2 and NO2 content is well correlated with the in-situ data and calculated SO2 and NOx emissions. This study investigates the potential of using satellite observations as an instrument to check quality air as a standard procedure by governmental and non-governmental institutions. To this aim, we compared the emissions calculated from ground and space with the European Directive 2001/80/EC which refers to the limitation of emissions of certain pollutants by large combustion plants.

  10. Impacts of reductions in emissions of multipollutants over 2005-2030 on regional air quality and climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liao, H.; Yang, Y.; Chang, W.; Shindell, D. T.; Faluvegi, G.

    2011-12-01

    Many societal activities lead to emissions to the atmosphere that affect both air quality and climate. We examine how particular policies may be able to provide benefits in both these areas using three coupled global chemistry-climate models (CACTUS, GISS-PUCCINI, and NCAR-CESM). The anthropogenic emissions for years 2005 and 2030 are taken from the datasets generated by the International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA) GAINS (Greenhouse gas-Air pollution Interactions and Synergies) model. The 2030 emissions scenarios include (1) a reference scenario, (2) a low GWP scenario, and (3) the lowest emissions scenario. The reference scenario assumes that all agreed air pollution policies are being implemented, and the other two scenarios have additional reductions in emissions based on a selected set of measures. We firstly evaluate the model predictions for 2005, and then investigate the simulated year 2030 concentrations of ozone, sulfate, black carbon, and organic carbon, aerosol optical depth, as well as year 2030 radiative forcing relative to 2005. Both direct and indirect radiative forcings of aerosols are considered. Our model results suggest that taking measures to reduce emissions in China can reduce year 2030 PM2.5 concentrations in China by 20-60% and help to mitigate near-term regional climate change.

  11. A lone desert Joshua tree greeted the arrival of Space Shuttle Endeavour at Edwards Air Force Base,

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    A lone desert Joshua tree greeted the arrival of Space Shuttle Endeavour at Edwards Air Force Base, California, May 1, 2001. A large drag chute helped slow Endeavour on the runway. After mounting the shuttle on a converted 747 airliner at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Endeavour will be carried back to the Kennedy Space Center for its next mission. Weather in Florida necessitated landing in California.

  12. Turbulent Drag Reduction with Surfactant Additives — Basic Research and Application to an Air Conditioning System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawaguchi, Y.; Li, F. C.; Yu, B.; Wei, J. J.

    It is well known that a small amount of chemicals such as water-soluble polymers or surfactants dramatically suppresses turbulence when they are added to liquid flow at large Reynolds number. In the last two decades, the application of surfactants to heat transportation systems such as district heating and cooling systems has attracted much interest among researchers. It has been revealed that 70% of the pumping power used to drive hot water in primary pipelines or district heating systems was saved by adding only a few hundred ppm of surfactant into the circulating water. The technological achievement requires a new design strategy for pipeline networks and heat exchangers to handle the drag reducing liquid flow. In the case of a Newtonian fluid such as water or air, the knowledge for designing fluid systems has been accumulated and the accuracy of numerical prediction is sufficient. On the other hand, the design system for surfactant solutions is not mature because drag-reducing flow phenomena are much more complicated than for Newtonian flow, for example, the friction factor for a surfactant solution depends not only on Reynolds number but also pipe diameter. In order to provide a design strategy for heat transportation systems using surfactant additives, we are now carrying out both experimental and numerical studies for surfactant solutions. In this lecture, experimental and numerical studies on the turbulence structure in drag reducing flow will be introduced. The result of an application study relating to the air conditioning system will be also shown.

  13. Space to ground talking through small different areas in the top part of the air where the space-house flies.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heine, T.

    2015-12-01

    If you look between the middle and the top of the ball of rock on which we all live, the very excited part of the top air (as high as where the space-house flies) doesn't change much on a normal day. In fact, it is very much the same in every direction. However, sometimes when there is sudden, heavy wind from the sun, the excited top air can be different and changing, becoming more or less filled up, in many directions---especially if you look at toward the top and the right of the ball of rock on which we all live. Some of the excited top air becomes suddenly filled up in one big area. Near there, there are also parts of the the excited top air that start changing in many very small places. These small changing areas sometimes make it hard to talk between space and the ground. We studied this happening on days on and around day 17 of third month of 2015 when the wind from the sun hit the ball of rock on which we all live very hard. We used things that talk from space to the ground in an area around school up to several hundred 5280 feet away. We made pictures of the changing excited top air, especially the small changing places, and looked for when they did and didn't make for good talking from space to the ground. We studied these pictures to learn when and why this sometimes happens and sometimes it doesn't. We are excited to share what we learned with you.

  14. State-space reduction and equivalence class sampling for a molecular self-assembly model.

    PubMed

    Packwood, Daniel M; Han, Patrick; Hitosugi, Taro

    2016-07-01

    Direct simulation of a model with a large state space will generate enormous volumes of data, much of which is not relevant to the questions under study. In this paper, we consider a molecular self-assembly model as a typical example of a large state-space model, and present a method for selectively retrieving 'target information' from this model. This method partitions the state space into equivalence classes, as identified by an appropriate equivalence relation. The set of equivalence classes H, which serves as a reduced state space, contains none of the superfluous information of the original model. After construction and characterization of a Markov chain with state space H, the target information is efficiently retrieved via Markov chain Monte Carlo sampling. This approach represents a new breed of simulation techniques which are highly optimized for studying molecular self-assembly and, moreover, serves as a valuable guideline for analysis of other large state-space models. PMID:27493765

  15. State-space reduction and equivalence class sampling for a molecular self-assembly model

    PubMed Central

    Han, Patrick; Hitosugi, Taro

    2016-01-01

    Direct simulation of a model with a large state space will generate enormous volumes of data, much of which is not relevant to the questions under study. In this paper, we consider a molecular self-assembly model as a typical example of a large state-space model, and present a method for selectively retrieving ‘target information’ from this model. This method partitions the state space into equivalence classes, as identified by an appropriate equivalence relation. The set of equivalence classes H, which serves as a reduced state space, contains none of the superfluous information of the original model. After construction and characterization of a Markov chain with state space H, the target information is efficiently retrieved via Markov chain Monte Carlo sampling. This approach represents a new breed of simulation techniques which are highly optimized for studying molecular self-assembly and, moreover, serves as a valuable guideline for analysis of other large state-space models. PMID:27493765

  16. Comparison of European national legislation efficiency on the reduction of air pollutant emissions.

    PubMed

    Coutinho, Miguel; Rodrigues, Ricardo; Ferreira, Joana; Lopes, Myriam; Borrego, Carlos

    2006-03-01

    Since 1995, the Institute for Environment and Development in Portugal has obtained >300 stack samples from various point sources of Portuguese industries. A coherent database was made with the collected results. The limit values fixed by several European legal documents consulted, Portuguese, Spanish, French, Italian, and Dutch emission legislation, were applied to the Institute for Environment and Development stack sampling inventory (from 1995 to 2000) to evaluate the efficiency of these standards in promoting the control and reduction of atmospheric pollutants emissions, especially regarding nitrogen oxides, sulfur dioxide, and particulate matter. The conclusion was that the original Portuguese legislation was not restrictive enough and not very efficient regarding emissions reduction. In contrast, the Dutch and Italian legislations are quite restrictive but very efficient concerning emission control for the three pollutants analyzed. One of the outcomes of this study was the publication of a new law in Portugal regulating the emissions of atmospheric pollutants. The strategy of this emissions control law follows the conclusions found in this study including the concept of a mass flow threshold and different approaches depending on source dimension. PMID:16573194

  17. Air plasma gasification of RDF as a prospective method for reduction of carbon dioxide emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bratsev, A. N.; Kumkova, I. I.; Kuznetsov, V. A.; Popov, V. E.; Shtengel', S. V.; Ufimtsev, A. A.

    2011-03-01

    Waste disposal dumps are one of sources of carbonic gas penetration in the atmosphere. The waste is treated into RDF (refuse-derived fuel) and used in boilers for electric power or heat generation for decrease in carbonic gas emissions in the atmosphere. In industry power stations on the basis of the combined cycle have the highest efficiency of burning. The paper deals with the application of an air-plasma gasifier using the down draft scheme of RDF transformation into synthesis gas, which afterwards can be used in the combined cycle. Results of calculations of the process characteristics for various RDF compositions are presented. The advantage of the plasma method in comparison with autothermal one is shown. Experimental data are shown.

  18. Impacts of Microbial Growth on the Air Quality of the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macatangay, Ariel V.; Bruce, Rebekah J.

    2010-01-01

    An understanding of the various sources of non-methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOCs) is one facet to ensuring the habitability of crewed spacecraft. Even though the International Space Station (ISS) atmosphere is relatively well characterized in terms of what is in the atmosphere and approximately how much, linking the majority of these trace contaminants detected to their source is virtually impossible. Albeit a few of can be associated to a single source, the majority of these trace contaminants have their origins from multiple sources. On crewed spacecraft such as ISS, trace contaminants are broadly categorized as either coming from equipment, which includes systems and payloads, or from the metabolic processes of the crew members. Such widely encompassing categories clearly illustrate the difficulty in linking air contaminants to their source(s). It is well known that microbial growth in ISS can flourish if left unchecked. Although processes are in place to limit microbial growth, in reality, microbial growth has pervaded the habitable environment of ISS. This is simply a consequence of having crewed spacecraft, as humans are the largest contributor to the bioload. As with crew members, microbes also have metabolic processes which, in many ways, are comparable to human metabolism. As such, it can be expected that microbial growth can lead to the release of volatile organic compounds into the ISS atmosphere. Given a large enough microbial population, the impact to the air quality of ISS can be potentially large. A survey of the microbiology found in ISS will be presented as well as the possible types of volatile organic compounds that can result from such organisms. This will be correlated to the observations provided by ground-based analysis of ISS atmosphere samples

  19. Impacts of Microbial Growth on the Air Quality of the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macatangay, Ariel V.; Bruce, Rebekah J.

    2009-01-01

    An understanding of the various sources of non-methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOCs) is one facet to ensuring the habitability of crewed spacecraft. Even though the International Space Station (ISS) atmosphere is relatively well characterized in terms of what is in the atmosphere and approximately how much, linking the majority of these trace contaminants detected to their source is virtually impossible. Albeit a few of can be associated to a single source, the majority of these trace contaminants have their origins from multiple sources. On crewed spacecraft such as ISS, trace contaminants are broadly categorized as either coming from equipment, which includes systems and payloads, or from the metabolic processes of the crew members. Such widely encompassing categories clearly illustrate the difficulty in linking air contaminants to their source(s). It is well known that microbial growth in ISS can flourish if left unchecked. Although processes are in place to limit microbial growth, in reality, microbial growth has pervaded the habitable environment of ISS. This is simply a consequence of having crewed spacecraft, as humans are the largest contributor to the bioload. As with crew members, microbes also have metabolic processes which, in many ways, are comparable to human metabolism. As such, it can be expected that microbial growth can lead to the release of volatile organic compounds into the ISS atmosphere. Given a large enough microbial population, the impact to the air quality of ISS can be potentially large. A survey of the microbiology found in ISS will be presented as well as the possible types of volatile organic compounds that can result from such organisms. This will be correlated to the observations provided by ground-based analysis of ISS atmosphere samples.

  20. Methods for bias reduction in time-series studies of particulate matter air pollution and mortality.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Steven; Martin, Michael A

    2007-04-15

    In many cities of the United States, measurements of ambient particulate matter air pollution (PM) are available only every sixth day. Time-series studies conducted in these cities that investigate the relationship between mortality and PM are restricted to using a single day's PM as the measure of PM exposure, rather than using measurements taken over several consecutive days. Studies showed that using a single-day PM as the measure of PM exposure can result in estimates that have a negative bias, sometimes in the order of over half of the value being estimated. In this article two methods are introduced that can be used to obtain estimates that can in some situations reduce the bias to negligible proportions when only every-sixth-day PM concentrations are available. Using one of these methods, the national average PM mortality effect estimates obtained for total mortality and cardiovascular and respiratory mortality, respectively, correspond to 0.27% and 0.39% increases in mortality per 10-microg/m3 increment in PM. The corresponding effect estimates obtained using the single-day lag-1 PM concentration are 0.18% and 0.23%. The estimates obtained using the lag-1 PM concentration were the most widely reported results from the recent multicity National Morbidity, Mortality, and Air Pollution Study (NMMAPS) analyses. The more accurate estimates obtained from the methods introduced in this article will enable more accurate quantification of the increased incidence in mortality due to elevation in PM levels and the benefit of current or more stringent regulatory standards. PMID:17365620

  1. Impact of an elastic sphere with an elastic half space revisited: Numerical analysis based on the method of dimensionality reduction

    PubMed Central

    Lyashenko, I. A.; Popov, V. L.

    2015-01-01

    An impact of an elastic sphere with an elastic half space under no-slip conditions (infinitely large coefficient of friction) is studied numerically using the method of dimensionality reduction. It is shown that the rebound velocity and angular velocity, written as proper dimensionless variables, are determined by a function of only the ratio of tangential and normal stiffness ("Mindlin-ratio"). The obtained numerical results can be approximated by a simple analytical expression. PMID:25684339

  2. Space Launch System NASA Research Announcement Advanced Booster Engineering Demonstration and/or Risk Reduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crumbly, Christopher M.; Craig, Kellie D.

    2011-01-01

    The intent of the Advanced Booster Engineering Demonstration and/or Risk Reduction (ABEDRR) effort is to: (1) Reduce risks leading to an affordable Advanced Booster that meets the evolved capabilities of SLS (2) Enable competition by mitigating targeted Advanced Booster risks to enhance SLS affordability. Key Concepts (1) Offerors must propose an Advanced Booster concept that meets SLS Program requirements (2) Engineering Demonstration and/or Risk Reduction must relate to the Offeror s Advanced Booster concept (3) NASA Research Announcement (NRA) will not be prescriptive in defining Engineering Demonstration and/or Risk Reduction

  3. Economic crisis detected from space: Air quality observations over Athens/Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vrekoussis, M.; Richter, A.; Hilboll, A.; Burrows, J. P.; Gerasopoulos, E.; Lelieveld, J.; Barrie, L.; Zerefos, C.; Mihalopoulos, N.

    2013-01-01

    Using both satellite observations of tropospheric NO2 columns and a number of economic metrics, we investigate the impact of the economic crisis (from 2008 onward) on air quality over Greece, and Athens in particular. The multiannual analysis shows that NO2 columns over Athens have been significantly reduced in the range 30-40%. This decline is further supported by surface measurements of atmospheric NO2 mixing ratios. Additionally, the declining local concentrations of NO, CO, and SO2 are associated with an increase in ozone due to reduced titration by NO. In particular, regression analysis revealed that the reduction of NO2 (0.3 ± 0.2 ppbv y-1) and SO2 (0.2 ± 0.1 ppbv y-1) during the period 2000-2007, significantly accelerated during the economic crisis period (from 2008 onward), reaching 2.3 ± 0.2 ppbv y-1 and 0.7 ± 0.1 ppbv y-1, respectively. The strong correlations between pollutant concentrations and economic indicators show that the economic recession has resulted in proportionally lower levels of pollutants in large parts of Greece.

  4. Geothermal energy development in the eastern United States geothermal space heating - Naval Air Rework Facility, Norfolk, Virginia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hill, F. K.; Henderson, R. W.

    1980-06-01

    The technical and economic feasibility of using geothermal energy for space heating the Naval Air Rework Facility (NARF) electronic integration hangar was evaluated. The warm water output from a single well was used in several modes: to heat via a floor radiation system or via heat pumps, with and without a ground water reservoir to store heat in off hours.

  5. Space Station Freedom seal leakage rate analysis and testing summary: Air leaks in ambient versus vacuum exit conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rodriguez, P. I.; Markovitch, R.

    1992-01-01

    This report is intended to reveal the apparent relationship of air seal leakage rates between 2 atmospheres (atm) to 1 atm and 1 atm to vacuum conditions. Gas dynamics analysis is provided as well as data summarizing the MSFC test report, 'Space Station Freedom (S.S. Freedom) Seal Flaw Study With Delta Pressure Leak Rate Comparison Test Report'.

  6. The 2006 Cape Canaveral Air Force Station Range Reference Atmosphere Model Validation Study and Sensitivity Analysis to the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Space Shuttle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Decker, Ryan K.; Burns, Lee; Merry, Carl; Harrington, Brian

    2008-01-01

    Atmospheric parameters are essential in assessing the flight performance of aerospace vehicles. The effects of the Earth's atmosphere on aerospace vehicles influence various aspects of the vehicle during ascent ranging from its flight trajectory to the structural dynamics and aerodynamic heatmg on the vehicle. Atmospheric databases charactenzing the wind and thermodynamic environments, known as Range Reference Atmospheres (RRA), have been developed at space launch ranges by a governmental interagency working group for use by aerospace vehicle programs. The National Aeronantics and Space Administration's (NASA) Space Shuttle Program (SSP), which launches from Kennedy Space Center, utilizes atmosphenc statistics derived from the Cape Canaveral Air Force Station Range Reference Atmosphere (CCAFS RRA) database to evaluate environmental constraints on various aspects of the vehlcle during ascent.

  7. The 2006 Cape Canaveral Air Force Station Range Reference Atmosphere Model Validation Study and Sensitivity Analysis to the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Space Shuttle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burns, Lee; Merry, Carl; Decker, Ryan; Harrington, Brian

    2008-01-01

    The 2006 Cape Canaveral Air Force Station (CCAFS) Range Reference Atmosphere (RRA) is a statistical model summarizing the wind and thermodynamic atmospheric variability from surface to 70 kin. Launches of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) Space Shuttle from Kennedy Space Center utilize CCAFS RRA data to evaluate environmental constraints on various aspects of the vehicle during ascent. An update to the CCAFS RRA was recently completed. As part of the update, a validation study on the 2006 version was conducted as well as a comparison analysis of the 2006 version to the existing CCAFS RRA database version 1983. Assessments to the Space Shuttle vehicle ascent profile characteristics were performed to determine impacts of the updated model to the vehicle performance. Details on the model updates and the vehicle sensitivity analyses with the update model are presented.

  8. Reduction of space-time by a constraint for C(0) metrics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hortaçsu, M.; Özdemir, N.

    1994-01-01

    It is shown how a constraint imposed by the physical relevance of the solutions reduces the dimension of space-time. The C(0) metric given by Nutku is used to describe gravitational shock waves and the trivial case is looked at. It is found that imposing triviality on the solutions reduces the dimension of space-time by one.

  9. Guidelines for contingency planning NASA (National Aeronautics and Space Administration) ADP security risk reduction decision studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tompkins, F. G.

    1984-01-01

    Guidance is presented to NASA Computer Security Officials for determining the acceptability or unacceptability of ADP security risks based on the technical, operational and economic feasibility of potential safeguards. The risk management process is reviewed as a specialized application of the systems approach to problem solving and information systems analysis and design. Reporting the results of the risk reduction analysis to management is considered. Report formats for the risk reduction study are provided.

  10. Reduction of CO 2 concentration in a zinc/air battery by absorption in a rotating packed bed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Hsu-Hsiang; Tan, Chung-Sung

    The reduction of CO 2 concentration in a gas stream containing 500 ppm of CO 2 by a technique combining chemical absorption with Higee (high gravity) was investigated in this study. Using a 2.0 L aqueous amine-based solution to treat the feed gas with a flow rate which varied from 12.9 to 20.6 L min -1, piperazine (PZ) was found to be more effective than 2-(2-aminoethylamino) ethanol (AEEA) and monoethanolamine (MEA) for reducing the CO 2 concentration to a level below 20 ppm. The effects of temperature, rotating speed, amine solution flow rate, and gas flow rate on the removal efficiency of CO 2 were systematically examined. The results indicated that the proposed compact device could effectively reduce CO 2 to a level below 20 ppm, as required by a zinc/air battery, for a long period of time using PZ and its mixture with AEEA and MEA as the absorbents.

  11. Air flow measurement techniques applied to noise reduction of a centrifugal blower

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laage, John W.; Armstrong, Ashli J.; Eilers, Daniel J.; Olsen, Michael G.; Mann, J. Adin

    2005-09-01

    The air flow in a centrifugal blower was studied using a variety of flow and sound measurement techniques. The flow measurement techniques employed included Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV), pitot tubes, and a five hole spherical probe. PIV was used to measure instantaneous and ensemble-averaged velocity fields over large area of the outlet duct as a function of fan position, allowing for the visualization of the flow as it leave the fan blades and progressed downstream. The results from the flow measurements were reviewed along side the results of the sound measurements with the goal of identifying sources of noise and inefficiencies in flow performance. The radiated sound power was divided into broadband and tone noise and measures of the flow. The changes in the tone and broadband sound were compared to changes in flow quantities such as the turbulent kinetic energy and Reynolds stress. Results for each method will be presented to demonstrate the strengths of each flow measurement technique as well as their limitations. Finally, the role that each played in identifying noise sources is described.

  12. Voltage breakdown between closely spaced electrodes over polymeric insulator surfaces in air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gray, Eoin W.; Harrington, Daniel J.

    1982-01-01

    Voltage breakdowns of some narrow gap electrodes [2-10 mil (0.05-0.25 mm)] on polymeric insulator surfaces (epoxy-glass and triazine) have been examined over the pressure range from atmospheric pressure to 127 Torr and are shown to be an air breakdown modified by the presence of the insulator. Breakdown values as a function of the number of the breakdown and discharge energy level were also examined. In the worst case the breakdown voltage was observed to decrease by approximately 1300 V after about five successive breakdowns. The breakdown voltage between narrowly spaced metallic contacts on dielectric surfaces has been assumed to exhibit a Gaussian distribution. Non-Gaussian, bimodal distributions have been observed in the present work. These bimodal distributions, found on fine line epoxy-glass and triazine printed wiring boards, and attempts for explanation in terms of the flashover discharge initiating mechanisms, including the effects of ultraviolet radiation and a negative-ion flux on breakdown, are described. Negative ions appear to reduce the standard deviation but do not reduce the breakdown voltage. Ultraviolet radiation reduces both the standard deviation and the breakdown voltage. Increasing the conductor overlap distance (line length) reduced the breakdown voltage.

  13. Air Force Space Command satellite orbit predictor using parallel virtual machines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brewer, Susan K.

    1993-12-01

    Parallel computing is the wave of the future. As the need for computational power increases, one processor is no longer sufficient to achieve the speed necessary to solve today's complex problems. The Air Force Space Command (AFSPACEOM) tracks approximately 8000 satellites daily; the model used by the AFSPACECOM, SGP4, (Simplified General Perturbation Model Four), has been the operational model since 1976. This thesis contains a detailed discussion of the mathematical theory of the SGP4 model. The tracking of a satellite requires extensive calculations. The satellite can be tracked more efficiently with parallel processing techniques. The principles developed are applicable to a Naval ship tracking multiple incoming threats; the increase in the speed of processing incoming data would result in personnel being informed faster and thus allow more time for better decisions during combat. Three parallel algorithms applied to SGP4 for implementations on a Parallel Virtual Machine (PVM) are developed. PVM is a small software package that allows a network of computer workstations to appear as a single large distributed-memory parallel computer. This thesis contains a description of several algorithms for the implementation on PVM to track satellites, the optimal number of workstations, and methods of distributing data.

  14. Air CHP, a new concept in small-scale space heating

    SciTech Connect

    Mullins, P.

    1996-10-01

    A new type of combined heat and power (CHP) system claimed to be capable of providing electrical and thermal power with efficiencies in the region of 95% is being marketed by Aircogen Ltd, a company launched by turbine and compressor manufacturer Peter Brotherhood. Power generation capabilities range from 50 to 1500 kW. VarityPerkins has played a large part in supplying spark-ignited gas engines for the first installations of this new system from the group`s plants in Stafford and Shrewsbury, U.K. Aircogen has developed a system in which the air for heating the building is heated direct from the gen-set. This provides a further source of extracted heat and contributes to the extremely high thermal efficiencies. The system lends itself particularly to swimming pools, supermarkets, leisure centers, or any building where large spaces need to be heated for prolonged periods and where normally low-pressure hot water heating would be used. This paper describes briefly the design, specifications and typical applications.

  15. A Review of Monitoring Technologies for Trace Air Contaminants in the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    James, John T.; McCoy, J. Torin

    2004-01-01

    NASA issued a Request For Information (RFI) to identify technologies that might be available to monitor a list of air pollutants in the ISS atmosphere. After NASA received responses to the RFI, an expert panel was assembled to hear presentations from 9 technology proponents. The goal of the panel was to identify technologies that might be suitable for replacement of the current Volatile Organics Analyzer (VOA) within several years. The panelists consisted of 8 experts in analytical chemistry without any links to NASA and 7 people with specific expertise because of their roles in NASA programs. Each technology was scored using a tool that enabled rating of many specific aspects of the technology on a 4-point system. The maturity of the technologies ranged from well-tested instrument packages that had been designed for space applications and were nearly ready for flight to technologies that were untested and speculative in nature. All but one technology involved the use of gas chromatography for separation, and there were various detectors proposed including several mass spectrometers and ion mobility spectrometers. In general there was a tradeoff between large systems with considerable capability to address the target list and smaller systems that had much more limited capability.

  16. Implementation of a canopy air space scheme into the Community Land Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, M.; Hoffman, F. M.

    2015-12-01

    A single-layer Canopy Air Space Scheme (CASS) is implemented into the Community Land Surface Model version 4.5 (CLM4.5) in this study. It considers the canopy storages for heat, water, and trace gases that are generally neglected in the CLM4.5 surface flux calculation algorithm. Moreover, the CASS introduces prognostic equations for the surface variables and eliminates the CLM4.5 Crank-Nicolson iterative solution for computing surface skin temperature, which usually brings residual errors into the model and causes numerical instability. Two off-line simulations (one with the CASS and the other with the origin CLM4.5 scheme) were conducted and their results were compared with the FLUXNET observations. Preliminary results show that compared with the origin CLM4.5 scheme, the CASS has similar or better skills in representing land surface exchanges for heat, water and carbon under several biome types. The implementation of the CASS into the CLM4.5 not only improves the land model skills, but also provides a modeling framework to incorporate more complex canopy processes into the land surface model, such as bi-directional emission schemes for various trace gases and multi-layer canopy energy balance models.

  17. Astronomy Education Programs at the Smithsonian National Air and Space Museum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagy, Katie; de Messieres, G.; Edson, S.

    2014-01-01

    Astronomy educators present the range of astronomy education programming available at the National Air and Space Museum, including the following. In the Phoebe Waterman Haas Public Observatory, visitors use telescopes and other scientific equipment to observe and discuss the Sun, Venus, and other celestial sights in an unstructured, inquiry-based environment. At Discovery Stations throughout the Museum, staff and volunteers engage visitors in hands-on exploration of a wide range of artifacts and teaching materials. Astronomy-related Discovery Stations include Cosmic Survey, an exploration of gravitational lensing using a rubber sheet, spectroscopy using discharge tubes, and several others. Astronomy lectures in the planetarium or IMAX theater, featuring researchers as the speakers, include a full evening of activities: a custom pre-lecture Discovery Station, a handout to help visitors explore the topic in more depth, and evening stargazing at the Public Observatory. Astronomy educators present planetarium shows, including star tours and explorations of recent science news. During Astronomy Chat, an astronomy researcher engages visitors in an informal conversation about science. The goal is to make the public feel welcome in the environment of professional research and to give busy scientists a convenient outreach opportunity. Astronomy educators also recruit, train, and coordinate a corps of volunteers who contribute their efforts to the programming above. The volunteer program has grown significantly since the Public Observatory was built in 2009.

  18. Differences in Birth Weight Associated with the 2008 Beijing Olympics Air Pollution Reduction: Results from a Natural Experiment

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Kaibo; Zhang, Jinliang; Thurston, Sally W.; Stevens, Timothy P.; Pan, Ying; Kane, Cathleen; Weinberger, Barry; Ohman-Strickland, Pamela; Woodruff, Tracey J.; Duan, Xiaoli; Assibey-Mensah, Vanessa; Zhang, Junfeng

    2015-01-01

    , Thurston SW, Stevens TP, Pan Y, Kane C, Weinberger B, Ohman-Strickland P, Woodruff TJ, Duan X, Assibey-Mensah V, Zhang J. 2015. Differences in birth weight associated with the 2008 Beijing Olympics air pollution reduction: results from a natural experiment. Environ Health Perspect 123:880–887; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1408795 PMID:25919693

  19. Novel atmospheric pressure plasma device releasing atomic hydrogen: reduction of microbial-contaminants and OH radicals in the air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nojima, Hideo; Park, Rae-Eun; Kwon, Jun-Hyoun; Suh, Inseon; Jeon, Junsang; Ha, Eunju; On, Hyeon-Ki; Kim, Hye-Ryung; Choi, Kyoung Hui; Lee, Kwang-Hee; Seong, Baik-Lin; Jung, Hoon; Kang, Shin Jung; Namba, Shinichi; Takiyama, Ken

    2007-01-01

    A novel atmospheric pressure plasma device releasing atomic hydrogen has been developed. This device has specific properties such as (1) deactivation of airborne microbial-contaminants, (2) neutralization of indoor OH radicals and (3) being harmless to the human body. It consists of a ceramic plate as a positive ion generation electrode and a needle-shaped electrode as an electron emission electrode. Release of atomic hydrogen from the device has been investigated by the spectroscopic method. Optical emission of atomic hydrogen probably due to recombination of positive ions, H+(H2O)n, generated from the ceramic plate electrode and electrons emitted from the needle-shaped electrode have been clearly observed in the He gas (including water vapour) environment. The efficacy of the device to reduce airborne concentrations of influenza virus, bacteria, mould fungi and allergens has been evaluated. 99.6% of airborne influenza virus has been deactivated with the operation of the device compared with the control test in a 1 m3 chamber after 60 min. The neutralization of the OH radical has been investigated by spectroscopic and biological methods. A remarkable reduction of the OH radical in the air by operation of the device has been observed by laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy. The cell protection effects of the device against OH radicals in the air have been observed. Furthermore, the side effects have been checked by animal experiments. The harmlessness of the device has been confirmed.

  20. Greenhouse Gas and Criteria Air Pollutant Emission Reductions from Forest Fuel Treatment Projects in Placer County, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saah, D. S.; Moritz, M.; Ganz, D. J.; Stine, P. A.; Moody, T.

    2010-12-01

    Years of successful fire suppression activities have left forests unnaturally dense, overstocked, and with high hazardous fuel loads. Wildfires, particularly those of high severity, may dramatically reduce carbon stocks and convert forested lands from carbon sinks to decades-long carbon sources . Forest resource managers are currently pursuing fuels reduction and mitigation strategies to reduce wildfire risk and maintain carbon stocks. These projects include selective thinning and removal of trees and brush to return forest ecosystems to more natural stocking levels, resulting in a more fire-resilient forest that in theory would retain higher carry capacity for standing above ground carbon. Resource managers are exploring the possibility of supporting these local forest management projects by offering greenhouse gas (GHG) offsets to project developers that require GHG emissions mitigation. Using robust field data, this research project modeled three types of carbon benefits that could be realized from forest management: 1. Fuels treatments in the study area were shown to reduce the GHG and Criteria Air Pollutant emissions from wildfires by decreasing the probability, extent, and severity of fires and the corresponding loss in forest carbon stocks; 2. Biomass utilization from fuel treatment was shown to reduce GHG and Criteria Air Pollutant emissions over the duration of the fuels treatment project compared to fossil fuel energy. 3. Management and thinning of forests in order to stimulate growth, resulting in more rapid uptake of atmospheric carbon and approaching a carbon carrying capacity stored in a forest ecosystem under prevailing environmental conditions and natural disturbance regimes.

  1. Assessment of the impact of emissions reductions on air quality over North China Plain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Xiao; Zhang, Meigen

    2016-04-01

    The production rate of secondary pollutants was highly non-linear with the emission intensity of their precursors. In this study, the air quality modeling system RAMS-CMAQ with zero-out sensitivity test was applied to conduct source sensitivity approaches of PM2.5 for four source categories (industry, power plants, transport, and residential) over the North China Plain (NCP) in January and July of 2013. The results show that the residential and industry emission sector were the greatest contributors to domain-wide PM2.5 in January and July, respectively. The largest variation could exceed 200 μg m-3 attributed to the residential sector in January when a heavy pollution period appeared, and could reach 40-60 μg m-3 attributed to the industry sector in July in the heavy pollution area, respectively. The nonlinear relationship between the secondary pollutant formation and its precursors was reflected by this source sensitivity approaches, as the summation of the secondary pollutant variations attributed to the four sources was obviously different from the simulated baseline concentration and the mass burden of nitrate would increase upon removal of the power plants or transport emission sector in the heavy pollution regions in January. Further analysis indicated that the improvement of atmospheric oxidation capacity due to emission sector removal coupled with the sufficient precursor nitrogen oxide under severe pollution background should be the main reason of the negative variation of nitrate appeared in the sensitivity test. This feature indicates that the atmospheric oxidation capacity is an important impact factor in determining the production rate of nitrate formation, and could further influence the variation feature of PM2.5 mass burden during the pollution episode. Thus, it is suggested that the comprehensive pollution control strategies should be implemented based on the specific pollution condition. Additionally, the nonlinearity of secondary pollutants

  2. NASA's New Laser Risk Reduction Program For Future Space Lidar Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kavaya, Michael J.; Singh, Upendra N.; Heaps, William S.; Cazeau, Tony

    2002-01-01

    NASA has been performing ground, airborne, and space-based scientific measurements since it was formed in 1958. Initial ground and airborne measurements were made with in situ instruments. By necessity, initial earth observation space-based missions were accomplished with passive remote sensing. Active microwave radar was added to the sensor repertoire in the late 1970s. A few key measurements important to NASA remain unaccomplished, however, despite the passive and radar successes. These critical measurements include space-based altimetry; and high spatial resolution profiling of aerosol properties, wind velocity, clouds, and molecular concentrations. Fortunately, a new technology, active optical radar or laser radar or lidar, has matured to the point that the last decade has seen a growing consideration of lidar for space missions. Part of the surge in consideration of lidar has been the tremendous progress in solid-state lasers fueled by advances in crystal growth quality and pump laser diode technology.

  3. Use of nose cap and fuselage pressure orifices for determination of air data for space shuttle orbiter below supersonic speeds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Larson, T. J.; Siemers, P. M., III

    1980-01-01

    Wind tunnel pressure measurements were acquired from orifices on a 0.1 scale forebody model of the space shuttle orbiter that were arranged in a preliminary configuration of the shuttle entry air data system (SEADS). Pressures from those and auxiliary orifices were evaluated for their ability to provide air data at subsonic and transonic speeds. The orifices were on the vehicle's nose cap and on the sides of the forebody forward of the cabin. The investigation covered a Mach number range of 0.25 to 1.40 and an angle of attack range from 4 deg. to 18 deg. An air data system consisting of nose cap and forebody fuselage orifices constitutes a complete and accurate air data system at subsonic and transonic speeds. For Mach numbers less than 0.80 orifices confined to the nose cap can be used as a complete and accurate air data system. Air data systems that use only flush pressure orifices can be used to determine basic air data on other aircraft at subsonic and transonic speeds.

  4. Forecasting Cool Season Daily Peak Winds at Kennedy Space Center and Cape Canaveral Air Force Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barrett, Joe, III; Short, David; Roeder, William

    2008-01-01

    The expected peak wind speed for the day is an important element in the daily 24-Hour and Weekly Planning Forecasts issued by the 45th Weather Squadron (45 WS) for planning operations at Kennedy Space Center (KSC) and Cape Canaveral Air Force Station (CCAFS). The morning outlook for peak speeds also begins the warning decision process for gusts ^ 35 kt, ^ 50 kt, and ^ 60 kt from the surface to 300 ft. The 45 WS forecasters have indicated that peak wind speeds are a challenging parameter to forecast during the cool season (October-April). The 45 WS requested that the Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) develop a tool to help them forecast the speed and timing of the daily peak and average wind, from the surface to 300 ft on KSC/CCAFS during the cool season. The tool must only use data available by 1200 UTC to support the issue time of the Planning Forecasts. Based on observations from the KSC/CCAFS wind tower network, surface observations from the Shuttle Landing Facility (SLF), and CCAFS upper-air soundings from the cool season months of October 2002 to February 2007, the AMU created multiple linear regression equations to predict the timing and speed of the daily peak wind speed, as well as the background average wind speed. Several possible predictors were evaluated, including persistence, the temperature inversion depth, strength, and wind speed at the top of the inversion, wind gust factor (ratio of peak wind speed to average wind speed), synoptic weather pattern, occurrence of precipitation at the SLF, and strongest wind in the lowest 3000 ft, 4000 ft, or 5000 ft. Six synoptic patterns were identified: 1) surface high near or over FL, 2) surface high north or east of FL, 3) surface high south or west of FL, 4) surface front approaching FL, 5) surface front across central FL, and 6) surface front across south FL. The following six predictors were selected: 1) inversion depth, 2) inversion strength, 3) wind gust factor, 4) synoptic weather pattern, 5) occurrence of

  5. Laboratory evaluation of welder's exposure and efficiency of air duct ventilation for welding work in a confined space.

    PubMed

    Ojima, J; Shibata, N; Iwasaki, T

    2000-01-01

    CO2 arc welding in a confined space was simulated in a laboratory by manipulating a welding robot which worked in a small chamber to experimentally evaluate the welder's exposure to welding fumes, ozone and carbon monoxide (CO). The effects of the welding arc on the air temperature rise and oxygen (O2) concentration in the chamber were also investigated. The measuring points for these items were located in the presumed breathing zone of a welder in a confined space. The time averaged concentrations of welding fumes, ozone and CO during the arcing time were 83.55 mg/m3, 0.203 ppm and 0.006%, respectively, at a welding current of 120A-200A. These results suggest serious exposure of a welder who operates in a confined space. Air temperature in the chamber rose remarkably due to the arc heat and the increase in the welding current. No clear decrease in the O2 concentration in the chamber was recognized during this welding operation. A model of air duct ventilation was constructed in the small chamber to investigate the strategy of effective ventilation for hazardous welding contaminants in a confined space. With this model we examined ventilation efficiency with a flow rate of 1.08-1.80 m3/min (ventilation rate for 0.40-0.67 air exchanges per minute) in the chamber, and proved that the exposure level was not drastically reduced during arcing time by this air duct ventilation, but the residual contaminants were rapidly exhausted after the welding operation. PMID:10680307

  6. The 2006 Cape Canaveral Air Force Station Range Reference Atmosphere Model Validation Study and Sensitivity Analysis to the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Space Shuttle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Decker, Ryan; Burns, Lee; Merry, Carl; Harrington, Brian

    2008-01-01

    NASA's Space Shuttle utilizes atmospheric thermodynamic properties to evaluate structural dynamics and vehicle flight performance impacts by the atmosphere during ascent. Statistical characteristics of atmospheric thermodynamic properties at Kennedy Space Center (KSC) used in Space. Shuttle Vehicle assessments are contained in the Cape Canaveral Air Force Station (CCAFS) Range Reference Atmosphere (RRA) Database. Database contains tabulations for monthly and annual means (mu), standard deviations (sigma) and skewness of wind and thermodynamic variables. Wind, Thermodynamic, Humidity and Hydrostatic parameters 1 km resolution interval from 0-30 km 2 km resolution interval 30-70 km Multiple revisions of the CCAFS RRA database have been developed since initial RRA published in 1963. 1971, 1983, 2006 Space Shuttle program utilized 1983 version for use in deriving "hot" and "cold" atmospheres, atmospheric density dispersions for use in vehicle certification analyses and selection of atmospheric thermodynamic profiles for use in vehicle ascent design and certification analyses. During STS-114 launch preparations in July 2005 atmospheric density observations between 50-80 kft exceeded density limits used for aerodynamic ascent heating constraints in vehicle certification analyses. Mission specific analyses were conducted and concluded that the density bias resulted in small changes to heating rates and integrated heat loading on the vehicle. In 2001, the Air Force Combat Climatology Center began developing an updated RRA for CCAFS.

  7. Air Force space power technology development at the Phillips research site

    SciTech Connect

    Reinhardt, K.; Radzykewycz, D.; James, W.R.; Donet, C.; Mayberry, C.

    1998-07-01

    Technology development in the areas of high efficiency, light-weight, compact, reliable and cost-effective space power components are needed to support the development of next-generation military and commercial satellites. In order to meet the demand for increased satellite payload mass and power, and reduce launch vehicle size and cost, an increasing amount of attention is being given to the satellite electric power system (EPS) performance in terms of specific power (W/kg), size, stowed volume, and cost. The EPS is responsible for providing uninterrupted, fault-tolerant electrical power to satellite payload and housekeeping equipment throughout the lifetime of the mission. Today's smallsats and conventional largesats vary in power level and mass from about 1000 watts and 225 kg or less, up to as much as 15 kW and >5,000 kg, respectively. In the case of smallsats, recent trends in shrinking space budgets have pushed mission planners towards the use of cheaper smallsat designs capable of launch on smaller, cheaper, and more easily deployed vehicles. The US intelligence community recently evaluated requirements for future surveillance missions and acknowledged the advantages of lower cost smallsats to address tomorrow's warfighter needs, which include increased flexibility, improved performance, and the ability to launch them easily when needed. In contrast to smallsat applications, mission planners have also acknowledged the need for significantly larger 30-100 kW monstersats to enable next-generation communications, radar, and weapons platform functions. In order to meet projected smallsat and monstersat design requirements, revolutionary advancements in EPS component technology are required over today's conventional technologies. The goal is to increase total EPS specific power through advancements in component technology to reduce EPS mass from 20-30% of total satellite mass to approximately 10%. A complement of on-going EPS technology development programs at

  8. Pre-Launch Risk Reduction Activities Conducted at KSC for the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kirkpatrick, Paul

    2011-01-01

    In the development of any large scale space-based multi-piece assembly effort, planning must include provisions for testing and verification; not only of the individual pieces but also of the pieces together. Without such testing on the ground, the risk to cost, schedule and technical performance increases substantially. This paper will review the efforts undertaken by the International Space Station (ISS), including the International Partners, during the pre-launch phase, primarily at KSC, to reduce the risks associated with the on-orbit assembly and operation of the ISS.

  9. Satellite-observed US power plant NOx emission reductions and their impact on air quality - article no. L22812

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, S.W.; Heckel, A.; McKeen, S.A.; Frost, G.J.; Hsie, E.Y.; Trainer, M.K.; Richter, A.; Burrows, J.P.; Peckham, S.E.; Grell, G.A.

    2006-11-29

    Nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions resulting from fossil fuel combustion lead to unhealthy levels of near-surface ozone (O{sub 3}). One of the largest U.S. sources, electric power generation, represented about 25% of the U.S. anthropogenic NOx emissions in 1999. Here we show that space-based instruments observed declining regional NOx levels between 1999 and 2005 in response to the recent implementation of pollution controls by utility companies in the eastern U.S. Satellite-retrieved summertime nitrogen dioxide (NO{sub 2}) columns and bottom-up emission estimates show larger decreases in the Ohio River Valley, where power plants dominate NOx emissions, than in the northeast U.S. urban corridor. Model simulations predict lower O{sub 3} across much of the eastern U.S. in response to these emission reductions.

  10. On Study of Air/Space-borne Dual-Wavelength Radar for Estimates of Rain Profiles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liao, Liang; Meneghini, Robert

    2004-01-01

    In this study, a framework is discussed to apply air/space-borne dual-wavelength radar for the estimation of characteristic parameters of hydrometeors. The focus of our study is on the Global Precipitation Measurements (GPM) precipitation radar, a dual-wavelength radar that operates at Ku (13.8 GHz) and Ka (35 GHz) bands. As the droplet size distributions (DSD) of rain are expressed as the Gamma function, a procedure is described to derive the median volume diameter (D(sub 0)) and particle number concentration (N(sub T)) of rain. The correspondences of an important quantity of dual-wavelength radar, defined as deferential frequency ratio (DFR), to the D(sub 0) in the melting region are given as a function of the distance from the 0 C isotherm. A self-consistent iterative algorithm that shows a promising to account for rain attenuation of radar and infer the DSD without use of surface reference technique (SRT) is examined by applying it to the apparent radar reflectivity profiles simulated from the DSD model and then comparing the estimates with the model (true) results. For light to moderate rain the self-consistent rain profiling approach converges to unique and correct solutions only if the same shape factors of Gamma functions are used both to generate and retrieve the rain profiles, but does not converges to the true solutions if the DSD form is not chosen correctly. To further examine the dual-wavelength techniques, the self-consistent algorithm, along with forward and backward rain profiling algorithms, is then applied to the measurements taken from the 2nd generation Precipitation Radar (PR-2) built by Jet Propulsion Laboratory. It is found that rain profiles estimated from the forward and backward approaches are not sensitive to shape factor of DSD Gamma distribution, but the self-consistent method is.

  11. Effects of lung volume on clearance of solutes from the air spaces of lungs

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, B.T.; James, H.L.; McLarty, J.W.

    1988-03-01

    Several investigators have shown that the clearance rate of aerosolized 99mTc-labeled diethylenetriamine pentaacetate (DTPA, mol wt = 492, radius = 0.6 nm) from the air spaces of the lungs of humans and experimental animals increases with lung volume. To further investigate this phenomenon we performed a compartmental analysis of the 2-h clearance of DTPA from the lungs of anesthetized sheep using a new method to more accurately correct for the effects of DTPA recirculation. This analysis showed that the DTPA clearance in eight sheep ventilated with zero end-expired pressure was best described by a one-compartment model with a clearance rate of 0.42 +/- 0.15%/min. Ventilating eight sheep with an end-expired pressure of 10 cmH/sub 2/O throughout the study increased the end-expired volume 0.4 +/- 0.1 liter BTPS and created a clearance curve that was best described by a two-compartment model. In these sheep 56 +/- 16% of the DTPA cleared from the lungs at a rate of 7.9 +/- 2.9%/min. The remainder cleared at a rate similar to that measured in the sheep ventilated with zero end-expired pressure (0.35 +/- 0.18%/min). Additional control and lung inflation experiments were performed using /sup 99m/Tc-labeled human serum albumin (mol wt = 66,000, radius = 3.6 nm). In six control sheep ventilated with zero end-expired pressure the albumin clearance was best described by a one-compartment model with a clearance rate of 0.06 +/- 0.02%/min. The clearance rate in six sheep with increased lung volume was slightly larger (0.09 +/- 0.02, P less than 0.05) but was well described by a one-compartment model.

  12. NASA Langley Teacher Resource Center at the Virginia Air and Space Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maher, Kim L.

    1999-01-01

    Nation's education goals through expanding and enhancing the scientific an technological competence of students and educators. To help disseminate NASA instructional materials and educational information, NASA's Education Division has established the Educator Resource Center Network. Through this network (ERCN), educators are provided the opportunity to receive free instructional information, materials, consultation, and training workshops on NASA educational products. The Office of Education at NASA Langley Research Center offers an extension of its Precollege Education program by supporting the NASA LARC Educator Resource Center at the Virginia Air & Space Center, the official visitor center for NASA LARC. This facility is the principal distribution point for educators in the five state service region that includes Virginia, West Virginia, Kentucky, North Carolina and South Carolina. The primary goal, to provide expertise and facilities to help educators access and utilize science, mathematics, and technology instructional products aligned with national standards and appropriate state frameworks and based on NASA's unique mission and results, has been accomplished. This ERC had 15,200 contacts and disseminated over 190,000 instructional items during the period of performance. In addition the manager attended 35 conferences, workshops, and educational meetings as an GR, presenter, or participant. The objective to demonstrate and facilitate the use of educational technologies has been accomplished through the following: The ERC's web page has been developed as a cyber-gateway to a multitude of NASA and other educational resources as well as to Our own database of current resource materials. NASA CORE CD-ROM technology is regularly demonstrated and promoted using the center's computers. NASA TV is available, demonstrated to educators, and used to facilitate the downlinking of NASA educational programming.

  13. An abrupt reduction in end-tidal carbon-dioxide during neurosurgery is not always due to venous air embolism: a capnograph artefact.

    PubMed

    Vinay, Byrappa; Sriganesh, Kamath; Gopala Krishna, Kadarapura Nanjundaiah

    2014-04-01

    Venous air embolism (VAE) is a well recognized complication during neurosurgery. Pre-cordial doppler and trans-esophageal echocardiography are sensitive monitors for the detection of VAE. A sudden, abrupt reduction in the end-tidal carbondioxide (ETCO2) pressure with associated hypotension during neurosurgery might suggest VAE, when more sensitive monitors are not available. We describe an unusual cause for sudden reduction in ETCO2 during neurosurgery and discuss the mechanism for such presentation. PMID:23996497

  14. INDOOR RADON REDUCTION IN CRAWL-SPACE HOUSES: A REVIEW OF ALTERNATIVE APPROACHES

    EPA Science Inventory

    An analysis has been completed of the performance, mechanisms, and costs of alternative technologies for preventing radon entry into the living areas of houses having crawl-space foundations. Sub-membrane depressurization (SMD) is consistently the most effective technique, often ...

  15. Rebound indentation problem for a viscoelastic half-space and axisymmetric indenter - Solution by the method of dimensionality reduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Argatov, Ivan I.; Popov, Valentin L.

    2016-08-01

    The method of dimensionality reduction (MDR) is extended for the axisymmetric frictionless unilateral Hertz-type contact problem for a viscoelastic half-space and an arbitrary axisymmetric rigid indenter under the assumption that an arbitrarily evolving in time circular contact area remains singly connected during the whole process of indentation. In particular, the MDR is applied to study in detail the so-called rebound indentation problem, where the contact radius has a single maximum. It is shown that the obtained closed-form analytical solution for the rebound indentation displacement (recorded in the recovery phase, when the contact force vanishes) does not depend on the indenter shape.

  16. Topography Analysis and Visualization Software Supports a Guided Comparative Planetology Education Exhibit at the Smithsonian's Air and Space Museum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roark, J. H.; Masuoka, C. M.; Frey, H. V.; Keller, J.; Williams, S.

    2005-01-01

    The Planetary Geodynamics Laboratory (http://geodynamics.gsfc.nasa.gov) of NASA s Goddard Space Flight Center designed, produced and recently delivered a "museum-friendly" version of GRIDVIEW, a grid visualization and analysis application, to the Smithsonian's National Air and Space Museum where it will be used in a guided comparative planetology education exhibit. The software was designed to enable museum visitors to interact with the same Earth and Mars topographic data and tools typically used by planetary scientists, and experience the thrill of discovery while learning about the geologic differences between Earth and Mars.

  17. Reduction of spermatogonia and testosterone in rat testes flown on Space Lab-3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Philpott, Delbert E.; Stevenson, J.; Black, S.; Sapp, W.; Williams, C.

    1986-01-01

    The effects of space flight on rat testes were investigated. The weight, spermatogonial cell count, and testosterone levels in six rats flown on Space Lab-3 were measured. It is observed that compared to ground control rats the average weight loss was 7.1 percent and the spermatogonial cell count decreased by 7.5 percent. The data reveal that the testosterone level for large control rats was 9.13 ng/ml and 0.31 ng/ml for flight rats; and 2.54 ng/ml and 0.233 ng/ml for smaller control and flight rats, respectively. It is noted that spermatogenesis and testosterone production are reduced during spaceflight.

  18. Crosstalk reduction in free space optical interconnects systems using microlenses with Gaussian transmittance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Ababneh, Nedal

    2014-05-01

    A novel method to reduce the diffraction crosstalk for micro-lens based free space optical interconnects is presented. Instead of using microlenses with uniform transmittance apertures, the use of microlenses with non-uniform transmittance apertures is proposed. It is shown that the diffraction crosstalk which exists in the free space interconnects systems that use microlenses with uniform transmittance apertures can be substantially reduced by using microlenses with Gaussian transmittance. The optical field at the detectors array using both the uniform and Gaussian apertures have been derived and used to calculate the crosstalk. Numerical results have been introduced to show the improvement of the signal-to-crosstalk ratio when using the Gaussian transmittance for the microlens.

  19. Reflected Sunlight Reduction and Characterization for a Deep-Space Optical Receiver Antenna (DSORA)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clymer, B. D.

    1990-01-01

    A baffle system for the elimination of first-order specular and diffuse reflection of sunlight from the sunshade of a deep-space optical receiver telescope is presented. This baffle system consists of rings of 0.5cm blades spaced 2.5 cm apart on the walls of GO hexagonal sunshade tubes that combine to form the telescope sunshade. The shadow cast by the blades, walls, and rims of the tubes prevent all first-order reflections of direct sunlight from reaching the primary mirror of the telescope. A reflection model of the sunshade without baffles is also presented for comparison. Since manufacturers of absorbing surfaces do not measure data near grazing incidence, the reflection properties at anticipated angles of incidence must be characterized. A description of reflection from matte surfaces in term of bidirectional reflection distribution function (BRDF) is presented along with a discussion of measuring BRDF near grazing incidence.

  20. Space Radiation Quality Factors and the Delta Ray Dose and Dose-Rate Reduction Effectiveness Factor.

    PubMed

    Cucinotta, Francis A; Cacao, Eliedonna; Alp, Murat

    2016-03-01

    In this paper, the authors recommend that the dose and dose-rate effectiveness factor used for space radiation risk assessments should be based on a comparison of the biological effects of energetic electrons produced along a cosmic ray particles path in low fluence exposures to high dose-rate gamma-ray exposures of doses of about 1 Gy. Methods to implement this approach are described. PMID:26808878

  1. Sensitivity of Surface Air Quality and Global Mortality to Global, Regional, and Sectoral Black Carbon Emission Reductions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anenberg, S.; Talgo, K.; Dolwick, P.; Jang, C.; Arunachalam, S.; West, J.

    2010-12-01

    Black carbon (BC), a component of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) released during incomplete combustion, is associated with atmospheric warming and deleterious health impacts, including premature cardiopulmonary and lung cancer mortality. A growing body of literature suggests that controlling emissions may therefore have dual benefits for climate and health. Several studies have focused on quantifying the potential impacts of reducing BC emissions from various world regions and economic sectors on radiative forcing. However, the impacts of these reductions on human health have been less well studied. Here, we use a global chemical transport model (MOZART-4) and a health impact function to quantify the surface air quality and human health benefits of controlling BC emissions. We simulate a base case and several emission control scenarios, where anthropogenic BC emissions are reduced by half globally, individually in each of eight world regions, and individually from the residential, industrial, and transportation sectors. We also simulate a global 50% reduction of both BC and organic carbon (OC) together, since they are co-emitted and both are likely to be impacted by actual control measures. Meteorology and biomass burning emissions are for the year 2002 with anthropogenic BC and OC emissions for 2000 from the IPCC AR5 inventory. Model performance is evaluated by comparing to global surface measurements of PM2.5 components. Avoided premature mortalities are calculated using the change in PM2.5 concentration between the base case and emission control scenarios and a concentration-response factor for chronic mortality from the epidemiology literature.

  2. Development of a Wake Vortex Spacing System for Airport Capacity Enhancement and Delay Reduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hinton, David A.; OConnor, Cornelius J.

    2000-01-01

    The Terminal Area Productivity project has developed the technologies required (weather measurement, wake prediction, and wake measurement) to determine the aircraft spacing needed to prevent wake vortex encounters in various weather conditions. The system performs weather measurements, predicts bounds on wake vortex behavior in those conditions, derives safe wake spacing criteria, and validates the wake predictions with wake vortex measurements. System performance to date indicates that the potential runway arrival rate increase with Aircraft VOrtex Spacing System (AVOSS), considering common path effects and ATC delivery variance, is 5% to 12% depending on the ratio of large and heavy aircraft. The concept demonstration system, using early generation algorithms and minimal optimization, is performing the wake predictions with adequate robustness such that only 4 hard exceedances have been observed in 1235 wake validation cases. This performance demonstrates the feasibility of predicting wake behavior bounds with multiple uncertainties present, including the unknown aircraft weight and speed, weather persistence between the wake prediction and the observations, and the location of the weather sensors several kilometers from the approach location. A concept for the use of the AVOSS system for parallel runway operations has been suggested, and an initial study at the JFK International Airport suggests that a simplified AVOSS system can be successfully operated using only a single lidar as both the weather sensor and the wake validation instrument. Such a selfcontained AVOSS would be suitable for wake separation close to the airport, as is required for parallel approach concepts such as SOIA.

  3. Large space structure model reduction and control system design based upon actuator and sensor influence functions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yam, Y.; Lang, J. H.; Johnson, T. L.; Shih, S.; Staelin, D. H.

    1983-01-01

    A model reduction procedure based on aggregation with respect to sensor and actuator influences rather than modes is presented for large systems of coupled second-order differential equations. Perturbation expressions which can predict the effects of spillover on both the aggregated and residual states are derived. These expressions lead to the development of control system design constraints which are sufficient to guarantee, to within the validity of the perturbations, that the residual states are not destabilized by control systems designed from the reduced model. A numerical example is provided to illustrate the application of the aggregation and control system design method.

  4. Space-Time Fusion Under Error in Computer Model Output: An Application to Modeling Air Quality

    EPA Science Inventory

    In the last two decades a considerable amount of research effort has been devoted to modeling air quality with public health objectives. These objectives include regulatory activities such as setting standards along with assessing the relationship between exposure to air pollutan...

  5. Catalytic Destruction of a Surrogate Organic Hazardous Air Pollutant as a Potential Co-benefit for Coal-fired Selective Catalyst Reduction Systems

    EPA Science Inventory

    Catalytic destruction of benzene (C6H6), a surrogate for organic hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) produced from coal combustion, was investigated using a commercial selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalyst for evaluating the potential co-benefit of the SCR technology for reduc...

  6. Real-air data reduction procedures based on flow parameters measured in the test section of supersonic and hypersonic facilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, C. G., III; Wilder, S. E.

    1972-01-01

    Data-reduction procedures for determining free stream and post-normal shock kinetic and thermodynamic quantities are derived. These procedures are applicable to imperfect real air flows in thermochemical equilibrium for temperatures to 15 000 K and a range of pressures from 0.25 N/sq m to 1 GN/sq m. Although derived primarily to meet the immediate needs of the 6-inch expansion tube, these procedures are applicable to any supersonic or hypersonic test facility where combinations of three of the following flow parameters are measured in the test section: (1) Stagnation pressure behind normal shock; (2) freestream static pressure; (3) stagnation point heat transfer rate; (4) free stream velocity; (5) stagnation density behind normal shock; and (6) free stream density. Limitations of the nine procedures and uncertainties in calculated flow quantities corresponding to uncertainties in measured input data are discussed. A listing of the computer program is presented, along with a description of the inputs required and a sample of the data printout.

  7. Heavy-duty diesel engine NO{sub x} reduction with nitrogen-enriched combustion air. Final CRADA report.

    SciTech Connect

    McConnell, S.; Energy Systems

    2010-07-28

    The concept of engine emissions control by modifying intake combustion gas composition from that of ambient air using gas separation membranes has been developed during several programs undertaken at Argonne. These have led to the current program which is targeted at heavy-duty diesel truck engines. The specific objective is reduction of NO{sub x} emissions by the target engine to meet anticipated 2007 standards while extracting a maximum of 5 percent power loss and allowing implementation within commercial constraints of size, weight, and cost. This report includes a brief review of related past programs, describes work completed to date during the current program, and presents interim conclusions. Following a work schedule adjustment in August 2002 to accommodate problems in module procurement and data analysis, activities are now on schedule and planned work is expected to be completed in September, 2004. Currently, we believe that the stated program requirements for the target engine can be met, based upon extrapolation of the work completed. Planned project work is designed to experimentally confirm these projections and result in a specification for a module package that will meet program objectives.

  8. 14 CFR 398.11 - Funding reductions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Funding reductions. 398.11 Section 398.11 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) POLICY STATEMENTS GUIDELINES FOR INDIVIDUAL DETERMINATIONS OF BASIC ESSENTIAL AIR SERVICE § 398.11...

  9. 14 CFR 398.11 - Funding reductions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Funding reductions. 398.11 Section 398.11 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) POLICY STATEMENTS GUIDELINES FOR INDIVIDUAL DETERMINATIONS OF BASIC ESSENTIAL AIR SERVICE § 398.11...

  10. 14 CFR 398.11 - Funding reductions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Funding reductions. 398.11 Section 398.11 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) POLICY STATEMENTS GUIDELINES FOR INDIVIDUAL DETERMINATIONS OF BASIC ESSENTIAL AIR SERVICE § 398.11...

  11. 14 CFR 398.11 - Funding reductions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Funding reductions. 398.11 Section 398.11 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) POLICY STATEMENTS GUIDELINES FOR INDIVIDUAL DETERMINATIONS OF BASIC ESSENTIAL AIR SERVICE § 398.11...

  12. 14 CFR 398.11 - Funding reductions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Funding reductions. 398.11 Section 398.11 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) POLICY STATEMENTS GUIDELINES FOR INDIVIDUAL DETERMINATIONS OF BASIC ESSENTIAL AIR SERVICE § 398.11...

  13. Study of wind change for the development of loads reduction techniques for the space shuttle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adelfang, S. I.

    1987-01-01

    Wind change statistics are analyzed for Vandenberg AFB, California (VAFB) and Kennedy Space Center, Florida (KSC). Means and standard deviations of wind component change and vector wind change modulus within 3-9 and 9-16 km altitude bands are tabulated. The contribution to 3.5 hr wind component change by wind perturbations in various wavelength bands is evaluated. Probability distributions of maximum 3.5 hr wind change in an altitude band are presented and a model for wind change at a specified altitude is tested with data derived from six data bases from VAFB and Santa Monica, California.

  14. Effect of low air velocities on thermal homeostasis and comfort during exercise at space station operational temperature and humidity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beumer, Ronald J.

    1989-01-01

    The effectiveness of different low air velocities in maintaining thermal comfort and homeostasis during exercise at space station operational temperature and humidity was investigated. Five male subjects exercised on a treadmill for successive ten minute periods at 60, 71, and 83 percent of maximum oxygen consumption at each of four air velocities, 30, 50, 80, and 120 ft/min, at 22 C and 62 percent relative humidity. No consistent trends or statistically significant differences between air velocities were found in body weight loss, sweat accumulation, or changes in rectal, skin, and body temperatures. Occurrence of the smallest body weight loss at 120 ft/min, the largest sweat accumulation at 30 ft/min, and the smallest rise in rectal temperature and the greatest drop in skin temperature at 120 ft/min all suggested more efficient evaporative cooling at the highest velocity. Heat storage at all velocities was evidenced by increased rectal and body temperatures; skin temperatures declined or increased only slightly. Body and rectal temperature increases corresponded with increased perception of warmth and slight thermal discomfort as exercise progressed. At all air velocities, mean thermal perception never exceeded warm and mean discomfort, greatest at 30 ft/min, was categorized at worst as uncomfortable; sensation of thermal neutrality and comfort returned rapidly after cessation of exercise. Suggestions for further elucidation of the effects of low air velocities on thermal comfort and homeostasis include larger numbers of subjects, more extensive skin temperature measurements and more rigorous analysis of the data from this study.

  15. International Pacific Air and Space Technology Conference and Aircraft Symposium, 29th, Gifu, Japan, Oct. 7-11, 1991, Proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    Various papers on air and space technology are presented. Individual topics addressed include: media selection analysis: implications for training design, high-speed challenge for rotary wing aircraft, high-speed VSTOL answer to congestion, next generation in computational aerodynamics, acrobatic airship 'Acrostat', ducted fan VTOL for working platform, Arianespace launch of Lightsats, small particle acceleration by minirailgun, free-wake analyses of a hovering rotor using panel method, update of the X-29 high-angle-of-attack program, economic approach to accurate wing design, flow field around thick delta wing with rounded leading edge, aerostructural integrated design of forward-swept wing, static characteristics of a two-phase fluid drop system, simplfied-model approach to group combustion of fuel spray, avionics flight systems for the 21st century. Also discussed are: Aircraft Command in Emergency Situations, spectrogram diagnosis of aircraft disasters, shock interaction induced by two hemisphere-cylinders, impact response of composite UHB propeller blades, high-altitude lighter-than-air powered platform, integrated wiring system, auxiliary power units for current and future aircraft, Space Shuttle Orbiter Auxiliary Power Unit status, numerical analysis of RCS jet in hypersonic flights, energy requirements for the space frontier, electrical system options for space exploration, aerospace plane hydrogen scramjet boosting, manual control of vehicles with time-varying dynamics, design of strongly stabilizing controller, development of the Liquid Apogee Propulsion System for ETS-VI.

  16. Space Radiation Cancer Risk Projections for Exploration Missions: Uncertainty Reduction and Mitigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cucinotta, Francis; Badhwar, Gautam; Saganti, Premkumar; Schimmerling, Walter; Wilson, John; Peterson, Leif; Dicello, John

    2002-01-01

    In this paper we discuss expected lifetime excess cancer risks for astronauts returning from exploration class missions. For the first time we make a quantitative assessment of uncertainties in cancer risk projections for space radiation exposures. Late effects from the high charge and energy (HZE) ions present in the galactic cosmic rays including cancer and the poorly understood risks to the central nervous system constitute the major risks. Methods used to project risk in low Earth orbit are seen as highly uncertain for projecting risks on exploration missions because of the limited radiobiology data available for estimating HZE ion risks. Cancer risk projections are described as a product of many biological and physical factors, each of which has a differential range of uncertainty due to lack of data and knowledge. Monte-Carlo sampling from subjective error distributions represents the lack of knowledge in each factor to quantify risk projection overall uncertainty. Cancer risk analysis is applied to several exploration mission scenarios. At solar minimum, the number of days in space where career risk of less than the limiting 3% excess cancer mortality can be assured at a 95% confidence level is found to be only of the order of 100 days.

  17. Fatigue-induced glenohumeral and scapulothoracic kinematic variability: Implications for subacromial space reduction.

    PubMed

    Chopp-Hurley, Jaclyn N; O'Neill, John M; McDonald, Alison C; Maciukiewicz, Jacquelyn M; Dickerson, Clark R

    2016-08-01

    Superior humeral head translation and scapula reorientation can reduce the subacromial space. While these kinematic abnormalities exist in injured populations, the effect of muscle fatigue is unclear. Additionally, these mechanisms were typically studied independently, thereby neglecting potential covariance. This research evaluated the influence of upper extremity muscle fatigue on glenohumeral and scapulothoracic kinematics and defined their relationship. Radiography and motion tracking systems captured these kinematic relationships, during scapula plane elevation, both before and after fatigue. Fatigue-induced changes in humeral head position, scapular orientation and the minimum subacromial space width were measured. High inter-subject variability existed for each measure which precluded identification of mean differences at the population level. However, significant scapular upward rotation occurred following fatigue (p=0.0002). Despite similar population mean results, between 39% and 57% of participants exhibited fatigue-related changes in disadvantageous orientations. Additionally, correlations between measures were generally fair (0.21-0.40) and highly dependent on elevation, likely attributed to the variable fatigue responses. Overall, the data confirms that fatigue-induced changes in kinematics poses highly variable risk of subacromial impingement syndrome across individuals. Thus, solely considering the "average" or mean population response likely underestimates potentially injurious fatigue consequences. PMID:26320811

  18. Autonomous image data reduction by analysis and interpretation. [for space missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eberlein, Susan; Yates, Gigi; Ritter, Niles

    1988-01-01

    Image data is a critical component of the scientific information acquired by space missions. Compression of image data is required due to the limited bandwidth of the data transmission channel and limited memory space on the acquisition vehicle. This need becomes more pressing when dealing with multispectral data where each pixel may comprise 300 or more bytes. An autonomous, real time, on-board image analysis system for an exploratory vehicle such as a Mars Rover is developed. The completed system will be capable of interpreting image data to produce reduced representations of the image, and of making decisions regarding the importance of data based on current scientific goals. Data from multiple sources, including stereo images, color images, and multispectral data, are fused into single image representations. Analysis techniques emphasize artificial neural networks. Clusters are described by their outlines and class values. These analysis and compression techniques are coupled with decision-making capacity for determining importance of each image region. Areas determined to be noise or uninteresting can be discarded in favor of more important areas. Thus limited resources for data storage and transmission are allocated to the most significant images.

  19. Reduction of scattering to an invariant finite displacement in an ambient space-time

    PubMed Central

    Segal, I. E.

    1984-01-01

    The scattering transformation S for a wave equation in Minkowski space M0 is reducible (rigorously in the classical case, necessarily partially heuristically in the nonlinear quantum case) to the action of a distinguished finite transformation ζ in the ambient universal cosmos M. M0 is invariantly imbedded in M, relative to any given point of observation, and the space-like surfaces x0 = s in M0 converge as s → ±∞ to finite light cones C± in M. The generator ζ of the infinite cyclic center of the connected group of all casuality-preserving transformations in M (isomorphic to SU(2,2)/Z2) carries C- into C+ and acts on solutions of relativistic wave equations as S, in an invariant bundle formulation. The establishment of S is simplified, the symmetry and regularity properties of S are enhanced, the scope of the scattering concept is extended to important equations such as those of Yang-Mills (lacking an invariant separation into free and interaction components), and the treatment of bound and scattering states is more unified. PMID:16593531

  20. Efficient and robust reforming catalyst in severe reaction conditions by nanoprecursor reduction in confined space.

    PubMed

    Dacquin, Jean-Philippe; Sellam, Djamila; Batiot-Dupeyrat, Catherine; Tougerti, Asma; Duprez, Daniel; Royer, Sébastien

    2014-02-01

    The in situ autocombustion synthesis route is shown to be an easy and efficient way to produce nanoscaled nickel oxide containing lanthanum-doped mesoporous silica composite. Through this approach, ~3 nm NiO particles homogeneously dispersed in the pores of silica are obtained, while lanthanum is observed to cover the surface of the silica pore wall. Subsequent reduction of such composite precursors under hydrogen generates Ni(0) nanoparticles of a comparable size. Control over the size and size distribution of metallic nanoparticles clearly improved catalytic activity in the methane dry reforming reaction. In addition, these composite materials exhibit excellent stability under severe reaction conditions. This was achieved through the presence of LaOx species, which reduced active-site carbon poisoning, and the confinement effect of the mesoporous support, which reduced metallic particle sintering. PMID:24323543

  1. Fuel Efficient Strategies for Reducing Contrail Formations in United States Air Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sridhar, Banavar; Chen, Neil Y.; Ng, Hok K.

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes a class of strategies for reducing persistent contrail formation in the United States airspace. The primary objective is to minimize potential contrail formation regions by altering the aircraft's cruising altitude in a fuel-efficient way. The results show that the contrail formations can be reduced significantly without extra fuel consumption and without adversely affecting congestion in the airspace. The contrail formations can be further reduced by using extra fuel. For the day tested, the maximal reduction strategy has a 53% contrail reduction rate. The most fuel-efficient strategy has an 8% reduction rate with 2.86% less fuel-burnt compared to the maximal reduction strategy. Using a cost function which penalizes extra fuel consumed while maximizing the amount of contrail reduction provides a flexible way to trade off between contrail reduction and fuel consumption. It can achieve a 35% contrail reduction rate with only 0.23% extra fuel consumption. The proposed fuel-efficient contrail reduction strategy provides a solution to reduce aviation-induced environmental impact on a daily basis.

  2. On the use of a risk ladder: Linking public perception of risks associated with indoor air with cognitive elements and attitudes toward risk reduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moschandreas, D. J.; Chang, P. E.

    In recent years a number of building managers have invested small amounts of money to measure indoor air quality in offices and other non-industrial buildings. Their objective is to reduce the number of occupant complaints, and not necessarily to reduce the risk associated with such complaints. Clearly, reduction of the risk would require greater investment of funds and effort. This paper focuses on individuals and the amount of money they are willing to invest in order to reduce risks associated with indoor air pollution in their home. Psychologists assert that lay judgement of risks are influenced by cognitive biases and attitudes. This study investigates the possibility that cognitive elements and general attitudes influence not only the perceived risk associated with exposures to indoor air pollutants, but also the willingness of individuals to invest in order to reduce the risk. A three-stage study was performed to determine some of the factors that influence public decisions to control the quality of the air inside their home. The study is focused on the design of a risk ladder, and the survey of 400 randomly selected individuals in the Chicago metropolitan area. The survey was designed to determine if demographics, smoking, education, or income influence the desire of individuals to invest in order to reduce indoor air pollution. The following conclusions were reached: (i) public awareness of indoor air pollution is high; (ii) media campaigns on indoor air pollution affect the determination of the specific pollutant the public perceives as important, but do not influence the public's desire to invest larger amounts of money to reduce risks from exposures to air pollutants in the residential environment; (iii) the public is not willing to spend large amounts of money to reduce indoor residential air pollution; (iv) education does not affect the level of awareness regarding indoor air pollution, but it increases the willingness to invest in an effort to reduce

  3. Solid Lubrication by Multiwalled Carbon Nanotubes in Air and in Vacuum for Space and Aeronautics Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miyoshi, Kazuhisa; Street, Kenneth W., Jr.; Andraws, Rodney; Jacques, David; VanderWal, Randy L.; Sayir, Ali

    2005-01-01

    To evaluate recently developed aligned multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) and dispersed MWNTs for solid lubrication applications, unidirectional sliding friction experiments were conducted with 440 C stainless steel balls and hemispherical alumina-yttria stabilized zirconia pins in sliding contact with the MWNTs deposited on quartz disks in air and in vacuum. The results indicate that MWNTs have superior solid lubrication friction properties and endurance lives in air and vacuum under dry conditions. The coefficient of friction of the dispersed MWNTs is close to 0.05 and 0.009 in air and in vacuum, respectively, showing good dry lubricating ability. The wear life of MWNTs exceeds 1 million passes in both air and vacuum showing good durability. In general, the low coefficient of friction can be attributed to the combination of the transferred, agglomerated patches of MWNTs on the counterpart ball or pin surfaces and the presence of tubular MWNTs at interfaces.

  4. Reduction of spillover effects on independent modal space control through optimal placement of sensors and actuators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cinquemani, S.; Ferrari, D.; Bayati, I.

    2015-08-01

    The independent modal space control (IMSC) technique can be profitably used to suppress vibration in flexible structures by increasing the damping of the modes involved, without changing the corresponding natural frequencies and modal shapes. Reducing vibration means reducing the associated noise and enhancing the performance of the system and its fatigue durability. The main limitations of this approach are related to spillover effects due to the dynamics of unmodeled modes. This work investigates analytically how spillover effects in IMSC are closely related to the number and the position of thesensors and actuators involved, in addition to the reduced model adopted to synthesize the control itself. The performance of the IMSC technique is optimized by means of genetic algorithms to reduce spillover effects, finding the best placements for sensors and actuators. Theoretical aspects are supported by numerical simulations.

  5. Strategy for the reduction of total integrated fluid logistics to the Space Station Freedom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gould, Marston J.; Shannon, David T., Jr.

    1993-01-01

    The use of an integrated environmental control and life support system (ECLSS) and secondary propulsion system (SRS) on the Space Station Freedom (SSF) has many potential advantages. Through the metabolism of food, the crew on-board the station will produce carbon dioxide as a waste gas and an excess of water in the form of urine and condensate. The processing of these waste fluids by the ECLSS could produce quantities of oxygen that would eliminate the need for cryogenic oxygen resupply and hydrogen, carbon dioxide, and/or methane that could be used with the addition of a resistojet system to provide a constant low thrust for station. This additional thrust would represent significant savings in required hydrazine resupply.

  6. Reduction of potatos due to hydric soil erosion using space technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guyot, E. C.; Ríos, V. H.; Zelaya, D. K.; Soria, F.; Ríos, E.; Padilla, P.

    The potato's crop is in the fourth ranking of economic importance in the agricultural Gross Income of Tucuman. The geographical location of its production area makes essential the handling of the hydric soil erosion problems. The purpose of this work is to improve potato crop irrigation management using space information combined with farm practice. The field measurements were carried out using Wide Area Differential Global Position Systems FUGRO OMNISTAR, total station, and double frequency Global Position Systems. The crop irrigation was pursued through scheduling irrigation's software whose input comes from satellites of the Matutinal Constellation (LandSat 7, SACC and TERRA). The preliminary results allowed reprograming the irrigation practices for the new crop's campaign in order to decrease hydric soil erosion.

  7. Conformational Space and Stability of ETD Charge Reduction Products of Ubiquitin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lermyte, Frederik; Łącki, Mateusz Krzysztof; Valkenborg, Dirk; Gambin, Anna; Sobott, Frank

    2016-08-01

    Owing to its versatility, electron transfer dissociation (ETD) has become one of the most commonly utilized fragmentation techniques in both native and non-native top-down mass spectrometry. However, several competing reactions—primarily different forms of charge reduction—occur under ETD conditions, as evidenced by the distorted isotope patterns usually observed. In this work, we analyze these isotope patterns to compare the stability of nondissociative electron transfer (ETnoD) products, specifically noncovalent c/z fragment complexes, across a range of ubiquitin conformational states. Using ion mobility, we find that more extended states are more prone to fragment release. We obtain evidence that for a given charge state, populations of ubiquitin ions formed either directly by electrospray ionization or through collapse of more extended states upon charge reduction, span a similar range of collision cross-sections. Products of gas-phase collapse are, however, less stabilized towards unfolding than the native conformation, indicating that the ions retain a memory of previous conformational states. Furthermore, this collapse of charge-reduced ions is promoted if the ions are `preheated' using collisional activation, with possible implications for the kinetics of gas-phase compaction.

  8. The Reduction and Treatment of Serious Mental Illness during Long Duration Space Mission.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mardon, Austin; Nichol, Kenneth; Mardon, Catherine; Mardon, Austin

    It is well known in the history of terrestrial naval expeditions that members of long expeditions could and did suffered from serious mental illnesses. Depression and even psychosis could inflict crew members, and in serious cases this sometimes resulted in violence directed towards others or themselves. There was little that the medical practitioners of the time could do to alleviate these illnesses. Modern psychiatry operates within a paradigm of the normalcy of the modern western standard of living. When we place humans outside these normal experiences, we place them in vulnerable positions. For the foreseeable future, spaceflight will continue to result in extremely physically, mentally and spiritually arduous expeditions. As we start our journey towards Mars and beyond, the time humans will be in the isolation of space, and subjected to these extraordinary stresses, will increase. The recent incident where an American astronaut had a mental collapse and was criminally charged is indicative of this real possibility. One solution could be to have more pre-screening but this only goes so far, especially when the rigorous training and the actual mission might cause psychological problems that were never present before hand. Eastern and Western philosophies and religious systems can provide a framework to draw upon to strengthen the mental and spiritual psyche of the astronauts on a long duration expedition. Meditative techniques and prayer techniques, if within the belief system of the astronaut, might serve to prevent or ameliorate the severity of a mental collapse should it occur during a space mission. Many of the American astronauts that went to the Moon reported having intense emotional and spiritual reactions based on the intensity of their experiences. For several of these men, the courses of their lives were changed. What astronauts will face by going back to the Moon and further a field to Mars, will be dangerous and extremely mentally taxing. At the

  9. Data space reduction, quality assessment and searching of seismograms: autoencoder networks for waveform data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valentine, Andrew P.; Trampert, Jeannot

    2012-05-01

    What makes a seismogram look like a seismogram? Seismic data sets generally contain waveforms sharing some set of visual characteristics and features - indeed, seismologists routinely exploit this when performing quality control 'by hand'. Understanding and harnessing these characteristics offers the prospect of a deeper understanding of seismic waveforms, and opens up many potential new techniques for processing and working with data. In addition, the fact that certain features are shared between waveforms suggests that it may be possible to transform the data away from the time domain, and represent the same information using fewer parameters. If so, this would be a significant step towards making fully non-linear tomographic inversions computationally tractable. Hinton & Salakhutdinov showed that a particular class of neural network, termed 'autoencoder networks', may be used to find lower-dimensional encodings of complex binary data sets. Here, we adapt their work to the continuous case to allow the use of autoencoders for seismic waveforms, and offer a demonstration in which we compress 512-point waveforms to 32-element encodings. We also demonstrate that the mapping from data to encoding space, and its inverse, are well behaved, as required for many applications. Finally, we sketch a number of potential applications of the technique, which we hope will be of practical interest across all seismological disciplines, and beyond.

  10. Forecasting Lightning at Kennedy Space Center/Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Florida

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lambert, Winfred; Wheeler, Mark; Roeder, William

    2005-01-01

    The Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) developed a set of statistical forecast equations that provide a probability of lightning occurrence on Kennedy Space Center (KSC) I Cape Canaveral Air Force Station (CCAFS) for the day during the warm season (May September). The 45th Weather Squadron (45 WS) forecasters at CCAFS in Florida include a probability of lightning occurrence in their daily 24-hour and weekly planning forecasts, which are briefed at 1100 UTC (0700 EDT). This information is used for general scheduling of operations at CCAFS and KSC. Forecasters at the Spaceflight Meteorology Group also make thunderstorm forecasts for the KSC/CCAFS area during Shuttle flight operations. Much of the current lightning probability forecast at both groups is based on a subjective analysis of model and observational data. The objective tool currently available is the Neumann-Pfeffer Thunderstorm Index (NPTI, Neumann 1971), developed specifically for the KSCICCAFS area over 30 years ago. However, recent studies have shown that 1-day persistence provides a better forecast than the NPTI, indicating that the NPTI needed to be upgraded or replaced. Because they require a tool that provides a reliable estimate of the daily thunderstorm probability forecast, the 45 WS forecasters requested that the AMU develop a new lightning probability forecast tool using recent data and more sophisticated techniques now possible through more computing power than that available over 30 years ago. The equation development incorporated results from two research projects that investigated causes of lightning occurrence near KSCICCAFS and over the Florida peninsula. One proved that logistic regression outperformed the linear regression method used in NPTI, even when the same predictors were used. The other study found relationships between large scale flow regimes and spatial lightning distributions over Florida. Lightning, probabilities based on these flow regimes were used as candidate predictors in

  11. STS-76 Landing - Space Shuttle Atlantis Lands at Edwards Air Force Base

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    The space shuttle Atlantis prepares to touch down on the runway at Edwards, California, at approximately 5:29 a.m. Pacific Standard Time after completing the highly successful STS-76 mission to deliver Astronaut Shannon Lucid to the Russian Space Station Mir. Lucid was the first American woman to serve as a Mir station researcher. Atlantis was originally scheduled to land at Kennedy Space Center, Florida, but bad weather there both 30 March and 31 March necessitated a landing at the backup site at Edwards on the latter date. Mission commander for STS-76 was Kevin P. Chilton, and Richard A. Searfoss was the pilot. Ronald M. Sega was the payload commander and mission specialist-1. Other mission specialists were Richard Clifford, Linda Godwin, and Shannon Lucid. The mission also featured a spacewalk while Atlantis was docked to Mir and experiments aboard the SPACEHAB module. Space Shuttles are the main element of America's Space Transportation System and are used for space research and other space applications. The shuttles are the first vehicles capable of being launched into space and returning to Earth on a routine basis. Space Shuttles are used as orbiting laboratories in which scientists and mission specialists conduct a wide variety of scientific experiments. Crews aboard shuttles place satellites in orbit, rendezvous with satellites to carry out repair missions and return them to space, and retrieve satellites and return them to Earth for refurbishment and reuse. Space Shuttles are true aerospace vehicles. They leave Earth and its atmosphere under rocket power provided by three liquid-propellant main engines with two solid-propellant boosters attached plus an external liquid-fuel tank. After their orbital missions, they streak back through the atmosphere and land like airplanes. The returning shuttles, however, land like gliders, without power and on runways. Other rockets can place heavy payloads into orbit, but, they can only be used once. Space Shuttles are

  12. STS-76 Landing - Space Shuttle Atlantis Lands at Edwards Air Force Base

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    The space shuttle Atlantis touches down on the runway at Edwards, California, at approximately 5:29 a.m. Pacific Standard Time on 31 March 1996 after completing the highly successful STS-76 mission to deliver Astronaut Shannon Lucid to the Russian Space Station Mir. She was the first American woman to serve as a Mir station researcher. Atlantis was originally scheduled to land at Kennedy Space Center, Florida, but bad weather there both March 30 and March 31 necessitated a landing at the backup site at Edwards AFB. Mission commander for STS-76 was Kevin P. Chilton. Richard A. Searfoss was the pilot. Serving as payload commander and mission specialist-1 was Ronald M. Sega. Mission specialist-2 was Richard Clifford. Linda Godwin served as mission specialist-3, and Shannon Lucid was mission specialist-4. The mission also featured a spacewalk while Atlantis was docked to Mir and experiments aboard the SPACEHAB module. Space Shuttles are the main element of America's Space Transportation System and are used for space research and other space applications. The shuttles are the first vehicles capable of being launched into space and returning to Earth on a routine basis. Space Shuttles are used as orbiting laboratories in which scientists and mission specialists conduct a wide variety of scientific experiments. Crews aboard shuttles place satellites in orbit, rendezvous with satellites to carry out repair missions and return them to space, and retrieve satellites and return them to Earth for refurbishment and reuse. Space Shuttles are true aerospace vehicles. They leave Earth and its atmosphere under rocket power provided by three liquid-propellant main engines with two solid-propellant boosters attached plus an external liquid-fuel tank. After their orbital missions, they streak back through the atmosphere and land like airplanes. The returning shuttles, however, land like gliders, without power and on runways. Other rockets can place heavy payloads into orbit, but, they

  13. STS-76 Landing - Space Shuttle Atlantis Lands at Edwards Air Force Base, Drag Chute Deploy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    The space shuttle Atlantis touches down on the runway at Edwards, California, at approximately 5:29 a.m. Pacific Standard Time after completing the highly successful STS-76 mission to deliver Astronaut Shannon Lucid to the Russian Space Station Mir. She was the first American woman to serve as a Mir station researcher. Atlantis was originally scheduled to land at Kennedy Space Center, Florida, but bad weather there both 30 and 31 March necessitated a landing at the backup site at Edwards. This photo shows the drag chute deployed to help the shuttle roll to a stop. Mission commander for STS-76 was Kevin P. Chilton, and Richard A. Searfoss was the pilot. Ronald M. Sega was payload commander and mission specialist-1. Mission specialists were Richard Clifford, Linda Godwin and Shannon Lucid. The mission also featured a spacewalk while Atlantis was docked to Mir and experiments aboard the SPACEHAB module. Space Shuttles are the main element of America's Space Transportation System and are used for space research and other space applications. The shuttles are the first vehicles capable of being launched into space and returning to Earth on a routine basis. Space Shuttles are used as orbiting laboratories in which scientists and mission specialists conduct a wide variety of scientific experiments. Crews aboard shuttles place satellites in orbit, rendezvous with satellites to carry out repair missions and return them to space, and retrieve satellites and return them to Earth for refurbishment and reuse. Space Shuttles are true aerospace vehicles. They leave Earth and its atmosphere under rocket power provided by three liquid-propellant main engines with two solid-propellant boosters attached plus an external liquid-fuel tank. After their orbital missions, they streak back through the atmosphere and land like airplanes. The returning shuttles, however, land like gliders, without power and on runways. Other rockets can place heavy payloads into orbit, but, they can only be

  14. Time-space modeling of journey-time exposure to traffic-related air pollution using GIS.

    PubMed

    Gulliver, John; Briggs, David J

    2005-01-01

    Journey-time exposures represent an important, though as yet little-studied, component of human exposure to traffic-related air pollution, potentially with important health effects. Methods for assessing journey-time exposures, either as part of epidemiological studies or for policy assessment, are, however, poorly developed. This paper describes the development and testing of a GIS-based system for modeling human journey-time exposures to traffic-related air pollution: STEMS (Space-Time Exposure Modeling System). The model integrates data on source activity, pollutant dispersion, and travel behavior to derive individual- or group-level exposure measures to atmospheric pollution. The model, which is designed to simulate exposures of people as they move through a changing air pollution field, was developed, validated, and trialed in Northampton, UK. The system currently uses ArcInfo to couple four separate submodels: a source activity/emission model (SATURN), a proprietary atmospheric dispersion model (ADMS-Urban), an empirically derived background air pollution model, and a purposely designed time-activity-based exposure model (TOTEM). This paper describes the structure of the modeling system; presents results of field calibration, validation, and sensitivity analysis; and illustrates the use of the model to analyze journey-time exposures of schoolchildren. PMID:15476729

  15. Significant speedup of database searches with HMMs by search space reduction with PSSM family models

    PubMed Central

    Beckstette, Michael; Homann, Robert; Giegerich, Robert; Kurtz, Stefan

    2009-01-01

    Motivation: Profile hidden Markov models (pHMMs) are currently the most popular modeling concept for protein families. They provide sensitive family descriptors, and sequence database searching with pHMMs has become a standard task in today's genome annotation pipelines. On the downside, searching with pHMMs is computationally expensive. Results: We propose a new method for efficient protein family classification and for speeding up database searches with pHMMs as is necessary for large-scale analysis scenarios. We employ simpler models of protein families called position-specific scoring matrices family models (PSSM-FMs). For fast database search, we combine full-text indexing, efficient exact p-value computation of PSSM match scores and fast fragment chaining. The resulting method is well suited to prefilter the set of sequences to be searched for subsequent database searches with pHMMs. We achieved a classification performance only marginally inferior to hmmsearch, yet, results could be obtained in a fraction of runtime with a speedup of >64-fold. In experiments addressing the method's ability to prefilter the sequence space for subsequent database searches with pHMMs, our method reduces the number of sequences to be searched with hmmsearch to only 0.80% of all sequences. The filter is very fast and leads to a total speedup of factor 43 over the unfiltered search, while retaining >99.5% of the original results. In a lossless filter setup for hmmsearch on UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, we observed a speedup of factor 92. Availability: The presented algorithms are implemented in the program PoSSuMsearch2, available for download at http://bibiserv.techfak.uni-bielefeld.de/possumsearch2/. Contact: beckstette@zbh.uni-hamburg.de Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. PMID:19828575

  16. Groundwater Monitoring Network Design Using a Space-Filling/ Bias-Reduction Heuristic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, T.; Singh, A.; Kelley, V.; Deeds, N.

    2012-12-01

    Groundwater monitoring network design is one of the primary goals of groundwater management. In this study, a heuristic method for selecting wells to monitor groundwater flow is developed. The approach selects wells to a) maximize spread within the monitoring area (space-filling objective), b) reduce bias in estimate of groundwater level (drawdown objective) by selecting pairs of well proximal and distant from pumping areas. By selecting pairs of monitoring wells, this method is able to capture the largest and smallest drawdown in the study area while ensuring the newly added monitoring wells are at the greatest distance from existing monitoring wells. One of the advantages of this method is that it does not require water level information, obtained either from field measurements or groundwater model runs, which might be unavailable at the time of the monitoring network design; instead, this method utilizes pumping rates and locations thus can take future planning into consideration. If water level data is available then that may be included by considering it in the drawdown objective. A FORTRAN code is developed to implement this method. By changing the weighting factors, users have the flexibility on deciding the importance of pumping and spatial information to their network designs. The method has been successfully applied to monitoring network design in Upper Trinity County Groundwater Conservation District in Texas. Monitoring wells were selected from thousands of existing wells and added to the current monitoring network. The results support the decision maker on the number and distribution of a new groundwater network using existing wells. The study can be extended to improve the application of desired future condition (DFC) for Groundwater Conservation Districts in Texas.

  17. Monitoring space shuttle air quality using the Jet Propulsion Laboratory electronic nose

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryan, Margaret Amy; Zhou, Hanying; Buehler, Martin G.; Manatt, Kenneth S.; Mowrey, Victoria S.; Jackson, Shannon P.; Kisor, Adam K.; Shevade, Abhijit V.; Homer, Margie L.

    2004-01-01

    A miniature electronic nose (ENose) has been designed and built at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), Pasadena, CA, and was designed to detect, identify, and quantify ten common contaminants and relative humidity changes. The sensing array includes 32 sensing films made from polymer carbon-black composites. Event identification and quantification were done using the Levenberg-Marquart nonlinear least squares method. After successful ground training, this ENose was used in a demonstration experiment aboard STS-95 (October-November, 1998), in which the ENose was operated continuously for six days and recorded the sensors' response to the air in the mid-deck. Air samples were collected daily and analyzed independently after the flight. Changes in shuttle-cabin humidity were detected and quantified by the JPL ENose; neither the ENose nor the air samples detected any of the contaminants on the target list. The device is microgravity insensitive.

  18. STS-76 Landing - Space Shuttle Atlantis Lands at Edwards Air Force Base

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    The space shuttle Atlantis prepares to touch down on the runway at Edwards, California, at approximately 5:29 a.m. Pacific Standard Time after completing the highly successful STS-76 mission to deliver Astronaut Shannon Lucid to the Russian Space Station Mir. Lucid was the first American woman to serve as a Mir station researcher. Atlantis was originally scheduled to land at Kennedy Space Center, Florida, but bad weather there both 30 March and 31 March necessitated a landing at the backup site at Edwards on the latter date. Mission commander for STS-76 was Kevin P. Chilton, and Richard A. Searfoss was the pilot. Ronald M. Sega was the payload commander and mission specialist-1. Other mission specialists were Richard Clifford, Linda Godwin, and Shannon Lucid. The mission also featured a spacewalk while Atlantis was docked to Mir and experiments aboard the SPACEHAB module. Space Shuttles are the main element of America's Space Transportation System and are used for space research and other space applications. The shuttles are the first vehicles capable of being launched into space and returning to Earth on a routine basis. Space Shuttles are used as orbiting laboratories in which scientists and mission specialists conduct a wide variety of scientific experiments. Crews aboard shuttles place satellites in orbit, rendezvous with satellites to carry out repair missions and return them to space, and retrieve satellites and return them to Earth for refurbishment and reuse. Space Shuttles are true aerospace vehicles. They leave Earth and its atmosphere under rocket power provided by three liquid-propellant main engines with two solid-propellant boosters attached plus an external liquid-fuel tank. After their orbital missions, they streak back through the atmosphere and land like airplanes. The returning shuttles, however, land like gliders, without power and on runways. Other rockets can place heavy payloads into orbit, but, they can only be used once. Space Shuttles are

  19. Soyuz 22 Return Samples: Assessment of Air Quality Aboard the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jams, John T.

    2010-01-01

    Three mini-grab sample containers (m-GSCs) were returned aboard Soyuz 22 because of concerns that new air pollutants were present in the air and these were getting into the water recovery system. The Total Organic Carbon Analyzer had been giving increasing readings of total organic carbon (TOC) in the potable water, and it was postulated that an increased load into the system was responsible. The toxicological assessment of 3 m-GSCs from the ISS is shown in Table 1. The recoveries of the 3 standards (as listed above) from the GSCs averaged 103, 95 and 76%, respectively. Recovery from formaldehyde control badges were 90 and 91%.

  20. Measure Guideline. Combination Forced-Air Space and Tankless Domestic Hot Water Heating Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Rudd, Armin

    2012-08-01

    This document describes design and application guidance for combination space and tankless domestic hot water heating systems (combination systems) used in residential buildings, based on field evaluation, testing, and industry meetings conducted by Building Science Corporation. As residential building enclosure improvements continue to drive heating loads down, using the same water heating equipment for both space heating and domestic water heating becomes attractive from an initial cost and space-saving perspective. This topic is applicable to single- and multi-family residential buildings, both new and retrofitted.

  1. Measure Guideline: Combination Forced-Air Space and Tankless Domestic Hot Water Heating Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Rudd, A.

    2012-08-01

    This document describes design and application guidance for combination space and tankless domestic hot water heating systems (combination systems) used in residential buildings, based on field evaluation, testing, and industry meetings conducted by Building Science Corporation. As residential building enclosure improvements continue to drive heating loads down, using the same water heating equipment for both space heating and domestic water heating becomes attractive from an initial cost and space-saving perspective. This topic is applicable to single- and multi-family residential buildings, both new and retrofitted.

  2. STS-76 Landing - Space Shuttle Atlantis Lands at Edwards Air Force Base, Drag Chute Deploy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    The space shuttle Atlantis touches down on the runway at Edwards, California, at approximately 5:29 a.m. Pacific Standard Time after completing the highly successful STS-76 mission to deliver Astronaut Shannon Lucid to the Russian Space Station Mir. She was the first American woman to serve as a Mir station researcher. Atlantis was originally scheduled to land at Kennedy Space Center, Florida, but bad weather there both 30 and 31 March necessitated a landing at the backup site at Edwards. This photo shows the drag chute deployed to help the shuttle roll to a stop. Mission commander for STS-76 was Kevin P. Chilton, and Richard A. Searfoss was the pilot. Ronald M. Sega was payload commander and mission specialist-1. Mission specialists were Richard Clifford, Linda Godwin and Shannon Lucid. The mission also featured a spacewalk while Atlantis was docked to Mir and experiments aboard the SPACEHAB module. Space Shuttles are the main element of America's Space Transportation System and are used for space research and other space applications. The shuttles are the first vehicles capable of being launched into space and returning to Earth on a routine basis. Space Shuttles are used as orbiting laboratories in which scientists and mission specialists conduct a wide variety of scientific experiments. Crews aboard shuttles place satellites in orbit, rendezvous with satellites to carry out repair missions and return them to space, and retrieve satellites and return them to Earth for refurbishment and reuse. Space Shuttles are true aerospace vehicles. They leave Earth and its atmosphere under rocket power provided by three liquid-propellant main engines with two solid-propellant boosters attached plus an external liquid-fuel tank. After their orbital missions, they streak back through the atmosphere and land like airplanes. The returning shuttles, however, land like gliders, without power and on runways. Other rockets can place heavy payloads into orbit, but, they can only be

  3. STS-76 Landing - Space Shuttle Atlantis Lands at Edwards Air Force Base

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    The space shuttle Atlantis touches down on the runway at Edwards, California, at approximately 5:29 a.m. Pacific Standard Time on 31 March 1996 after completing the highly successful STS-76 mission to deliver Astronaut Shannon Lucid to the Russian Space Station Mir. She was the first American woman to serve as a Mir station researcher. Atlantis was originally scheduled to land at Kennedy Space Center, Florida, but bad weather there both March 30 and March 31 necessitated a landing at the backup site at Edwards AFB. Mission commander for STS-76 was Kevin P. Chilton. Richard A. Searfoss was the pilot. Serving as payload commander and mission specialist-1 was Ronald M. Sega. Mission specialist-2 was Richard Clifford. Linda Godwin served as mission specialist-3, and Shannon Lucid was mission specialist-4. The mission also featured a spacewalk while Atlantis was docked to Mir and experiments aboard the SPACEHAB module. Space Shuttles are the main element of America's Space Transportation System and are used for space research and other space applications. The shuttles are the first vehicles capable of being launched into space and returning to Earth on a routine basis. Space Shuttles are used as orbiting laboratories in which scientists and mission specialists conduct a wide variety of scientific experiments. Crews aboard shuttles place satellites in orbit, rendezvous with satellites to carry out repair missions and return them to space, and retrieve satellites and return them to Earth for refurbishment and reuse. Space Shuttles are true aerospace vehicles. They leave Earth and its atmosphere under rocket power provided by three liquid-propellant main engines with two solid-propellant boosters attached plus an external liquid-fuel tank. After their orbital missions, they streak back through the atmosphere and land like airplanes. The returning shuttles, however, land like gliders, without power and on runways. Other rockets can place heavy payloads into orbit, but, they

  4. [Life support of the Mars exploration crew. Control of a zeolite system for carbon dioxide removal from space cabin air within a closed air regeneration cycle].

    PubMed

    Chekov, Iu F

    2009-01-01

    The author describes a zeolite system for carbon dioxide removal integrated into a closed air regeneration cycle aboard spacecraft. The continuous operation of a double-adsorbent regeneration system with pCO2-dependable productivity is maintained through programmable setting of adsorption (desorption) semicycle time. The optimal system regulation curve is presented within the space of statistical performance family obtained in quasi-steady operating modes with controlled parameters of the recurrent adsorption-desorption cycle. The automatically changing system productivity ensures continuous intake of concentrated CO2. Control of the adsorption-desorption process is based on calculation of the differential adsorption (desorption) heat from gradient of adsorbent and test inert substance temperatures. The adaptive algorithm of digital control is implemented through the standard spacecraft interface with the board computer system and programmable microprocessor-based controllers. PMID:19621802

  5. Advanced air revitalization system testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heppner, D. B.; Hallick, T. M.; Schubert, F. H.

    1983-01-01

    A previously developed experimental air revitalization system was tested cyclically and parametrically. One-button startup without manual interventions; extension by 1350 hours of tests with the system; capability for varying process air carbon dioxide partial pressure and humidity and coolant source for simulation of realistic space vehicle interfaces; dynamic system performance response on the interaction of the electrochemical depolarized carbon dioxide concentrator, the Sabatier carbon dioxide reduction subsystem, and the static feed water electrolysis oxygen generation subsystem, the carbon dioxide concentrator module with unitized core technology for the liquid cooled cell; and a preliminary design for a regenerative air revitalization system for the space station are discussed.

  6. Italian Air Force Radar and Optical Sensor Experiments for the Detection of Space Objects in LEO Orbit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Del Genio, G.; Villadei, W.; Reali, M.; Del Grande, E.; Paoli, J.; Gemma, F.; Dolce, F.

    Italian Ministry of Defence is developing a sensor architecture for a national Space Surveillance & Tracking (SST) capability in order to protect its own space and satellite assets and infrastructure against the damage or destruction from collision with other space debris in LEO orbit. This national capability has recently joined the European Union SST Consortium, that is now facing the huge challenge of gradually becoming self-sufficient and independent in producing an integrated international space surveillance network. The national architecture will be composed of both radars and optical sensors since they have different capability and provide complementary type of information regarding targeted object. Collected data from networked sensors will be sent to an integration centre in order analyze it and make the orbit determination of the detected space debris using specific software tools. In this paper we briefly describe the potential capabilities of such architecture and the results of a preliminary radar-optical sensor data fusion experiment carried out with a monostatic long range radar and a telescope managed by Italian Air Force for the detection of a subset of space objects in LEO orbit. In particular, the optical sensor is a telescope properly designed for SST and is able to observe the portion of space above it with a coverage of 360°x90° in azimuth and elevation. The telescope is equipped with two CCD sensors: one with a wide field of view used for surveillance tasks and the second with a narrow field dedicated for tracking specific objects. The sensor is managed by an operating software system that allows user to remotely plan and schedule its daily activity and to make orbit determination and collision risk assessment in a completely automated way.

  7. Oxidation and reduction under cover: Chemistry at the confined space between ultra-thin nanoporous silicates and Ru(0001)

    DOE PAGESBeta

    J. Anibal Boscoboinik; Zhong, Jian -Qiang; Kestell, John; Waluyo, Iradwikanari; Wilkins, Stuart; Mazzoli, Claudio; Barbour, Andi; Kaznatcheev, Konstantine; Shete, Meere; Tsapatsis, Michael

    2016-03-23

    The oxidation and reduction of Ru(0001) surfaces at the confined space between two-dimensional nanoporous silica frameworks and Ru(0001) have been investigated using synchrotron-based ambient pressure X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (AP-XPS). The porous nature of the frameworks and the weak interaction between the silica and the ruthenium substrate allow oxygen and hydrogen molecules to go through the nanopores and react with the metal at the interface between the silica framework and the metal surface. In this work, three types of two-dimensional silica frameworks have been used to study their influence in the oxidation and reduction of the ruthenium surface at elevated pressuresmore » and temperatures. These frameworks are bilayer silica (0.5 nm thick), bilayer aluminosilicate (0.5 nm thick), and zeolite MFI nanosheets (3 nm thick). It is found that the silica frameworks stay essentially intact under these conditions, but they strongly affect the oxidation of ruthenium, with the 0.5 nm thick aluminosilicate bilayer completely inhibiting the oxidation. Furthermore, the latter is believed to be related to the lower chemisorbed oxygen content arising from electrostatic interactions between the negatively charged aluminosilicate framework and the Ru(0001) substrate.« less

  8. Comparative study of two image space noise reduction methods for computed tomography: bilateral filter and nonlocal means.

    PubMed

    Giraldo, Juan C Ramirez; Kelm, Zachary S; Guimaraes, Luis S; Yu, Lifeng; Fletcher, Joel G; Erickson, Bradley J; McCollough, Cynthia H

    2009-01-01

    Optimal noise control is important for improving image quality and reducing radiation dose in computed tomography. Here we investigated two image space based nonlinear filters for noise reduction: the bilateral filter (BF) and the nonlocal means (NLM) algorithm. Images from both methods were compared against those from a commercially available weighted filtered backprojection (WFBP) method. A standard phantom for quality assurance testing was used to quantitatively compare noise and spatial resolution, as well as low contrast detectability (LCD). Additionally, an image dataset from a patient's abdominal CT exam was used to assess the effectiveness of the filters on full dose and simulated half dose acquisitions. We found that both the BF and NLM methods improve the tradeoff between noise and high contrast spatial resolution with no significant difference in LCD. Results from the patient dataset demonstrated the potential of dose reduction with the denoising methods. Care must be taken when choosing the NLM parameters in order to minimize the generation of artifacts that could possibly compromise diagnostic value. PMID:19964998

  9. Engineering report. Part 1: NASA wheel air seal development for space shuttle type environmental requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    The sealing techniques are studied for existing aircraft wheel-tire designs to meet the hard vacuum .00001 torr and cold temperature -65 F requirements of space travel. The investigation covers the use of existing wheel seal designs.

  10. Electrocatalysis for dioxygen reduction by a μ-oxo decavanadium complex in alkaline medium and its application to a cathode catalyst in air batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dewi, Eniya Listiani; Oyaizu, Kenichi; Nishide, Hiroyuki; Tsuchida, Eishun

    The redox behavior of a decavanadium complex [(VO) 10(μ 2-O) 9(μ 3-O) 3(C 5H 7O 2) 6] ( 1) was studied using cyclic voltammetry under acidic and basic conditions. The reduction potential of V(V) was found at less positive potentials for higher pH electrolyte solutions. The oxygen reduction at complex 1 immobilized on a modified electrode was examined using cyclic voltammetry and rotating ring-disk electrode techniques in the 1 M KOH solutions. On the basis of measurements using a rotating disk electrode (RDE), the complex 1 was found to be highly active for the direct four-electron reduction of dioxygen at -0.2 V versus saturated calomel electrode (SCE). The complex 1 as a reduction catalyst of O 2 with a high selectivity was demonstrated using rotating ring-disk voltammograms in alkaline solutions. The application of complex 1 as an oxygen reduction catalyst at the cathode of zinc-air cell was also examined. The zinc-air cell with the modified electrode showed a stable discharge potential at approximately 1 V with discharge capacity of 80 mAh g -1 which was about five times larger than that obtained with the commonly used manganese dioxide catalyst.

  11. Frontiers of Remote Sensing of the Oceans and Troposphere from Air and Space Platforms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    Several areas of remote sensing are addressed including: future satellite systems; air-sea interaction/wind; ocean waves and spectra/S.A.R.; atmospheric measurements (particulates and water vapor); synoptic and weather forecasting; topography; bathymetry; sea ice; and impact of remote sensing on synoptic analysis/forecasting.

  12. 46 CFR 154.1710 - Exclusion of air from cargo tank vapor spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... is loaded by maintaining a positive pressure of at least 13.8 kPa gauge (2 psig) by: (1) Introducing a gas that: (i) Is not reactive; (ii) Is not flammable; and (iii) Does not contain more than 0.2... acetaldehyde, butadiene, ethylene oxide, or vinyl chloride, the master shall ensure that air is: (a)...

  13. Ground-based infrared solar spectroscopic measurements of carbon monoxide during 1994 Measurement of Air Pollution From Space flights

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pougatchev, N. S.; Sen, B.; Steele, L. P.; Toon, G. C.; Yurganov, L. N.; Zander, R.; Zhao, Y.

    1998-08-01

    Results of the comparison of carbon monoxide ground-based infrared solar spectroscopic measurements with data obtained during 1994 Measurement of Air Pollution From Space (MAPS) flights are presented. Spectroscopic measurements were performed correlatively with April and October MAPS flights by nine research groups from Belgium, Canada, Germany, Japan, New Zealand, Russia, and the United States. Characterization of the techniques and error analysis were performed. The role of the CO a priori profile used in the retrieval was estimated. In most cases an agreement between spectroscopic and MAPS data is within estimated MAPS accuracy of +/-10%.

  14. Hubble Space Telescope Proper Motion (HSTPROMO) Catalogs of Galactic Globular Clusters. I. Sample Selection, Data Reduction, and NGC 7078 Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bellini, A.; Anderson, J.; van der Marel, R. P.; Watkins, L. L.; King, I. R.; Bianchini, P.; Chanamé, J.; Chandar, R.; Cool, A. M.; Ferraro, F. R.; Ford, H.; Massari, D.

    2014-12-01

    We present the first study of high-precision internal proper motions (PMs) in a large sample of globular clusters, based on Hubble Space Telescope (HST) data obtained over the past decade with the ACS/WFC, ACS/HRC, and WFC3/UVIS instruments. We determine PMs for over 1.3 million stars in the central regions of 22 clusters, with a median number of ~60,000 stars per cluster. These PMs have the potential to significantly advance our understanding of the internal kinematics of globular clusters by extending past line-of-sight (LOS) velocity measurements to two- or three-dimensional velocities, lower stellar masses, and larger sample sizes. We describe the reduction pipeline that we developed to derive homogeneous PMs from the very heterogeneous archival data. We demonstrate the quality of the measurements through extensive Monte Carlo simulations. We also discuss the PM errors introduced by various systematic effects and the techniques that we have developed to correct or remove them to the extent possible. We provide in electronic form the catalog for NGC 7078 (M 15), which consists of 77,837 stars in the central 2.'4. We validate the catalog by comparison with existing PM measurements and LOS velocities and use it to study the dependence of the velocity dispersion on radius, stellar magnitude (or mass) along the main sequence, and direction in the plane of the sky (radial or tangential). Subsequent papers in this series will explore a range of applications in globular-cluster science and will also present the PM catalogs for the other sample clusters. Based on proprietary and archival observations with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by AURA, Inc., under NASA contract NAS 5-26555.

  15. International Space Station Common Cabin Air Assembly Condensing Heat Exchanger Hydrophilic Coating Operation, Recovery, and Lessons Learned

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Balistreri, Steven F.; Steele, John W.; Caron, Mark E.; Laliberte, Yvon J.; Shaw, Laura A.

    2013-01-01

    The ability to control the temperature and humidity of an environment or habitat is critical for human survival. These factors are important to maintaining human health and comfort, as well as maintaining mechanical and electrical equipment in good working order to support the human and to accomplish mission objectives. The temperature and humidity of the International Space Station (ISS) United States On-orbit Segment (USOS) cabin air is controlled by the Common Cabin Air Assembly (CCAA). The CCAA consists of a fan, a condensing heat exchanger (CHX), an air/water separator, temperature and liquid sensors, and electrical controlling hardware and software. The CHX is the primary component responsible for control of temperature and humidity. The CCAA CHX contains a chemical coating that was developed to be hydrophilic and thus attract water from the humid influent air. This attraction forms the basis for water removal and therefore cabin humidity control. However, there have been several instances of CHX coatings becoming hydrophobic and repelling water. When this behavior is observed in an operational CHX in the ISS segments, the unit s ability to remove moisture from the air is compromised and the result is liquid water carryover into downstream ducting and systems. This water carryover can have detrimental effects on the ISS cabin atmosphere quality and on the health of downstream hardware. If the water carryover is severe and widespread, this behavior can result in an inability to maintain humidity levels in the USOS. This paper will describe the operation of the five CCAAs within the USOS, the potential causes of the hydrophobic condition, and the impacts of the resulting water carryover to downstream systems. It will describe the history of this behavior and the actual observed impacts to the ISS USOS. Information on mitigation steps to protect the health of future CHX hydrophilic coatings as well as remediation and recovery of the full heat exchanger will be

  16. US Air Force Space Weather Products Rapid Prototyping Efforts - Solar Radio Background/Burst Effects and Meteor Effects Products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quigley, S.; Scro, K.

    2001-12-01

    The Space Vehicles Directorate of the Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL/VSB) has joined efforts with the Technology Applications Division of the Space and Missile Systems Center (SMC Det 11/CIT) to rapidly transition space weather research into prototype, operational, system-impact products. These Rapid Prototyping Center (RPC) products are used to analyze, specify, and forecast the effects of the near-earth space environment on Department of Defense systems and communications. A summary of RPC activity is provided. Emphasis will be placed on current products under development, to include Solar Radio Background/Burst Effects (SoRBE) and Meteor Effects (ME) products. These will be added to real-time operations in the near future. SoRBE specifies the detrimental interference effects of background and event-level solar radio output on radar observations and satellite communications. ME will provide general meteor shower "nowcast" and forecast information, along with more specific meteor and meteor shower impact, radar clutter, and bolide (exploding meteor) effects. A brief overview of recently delivered products: Radar Auroral Clutter, Satellite Scintillation, HF Illumination, and GPS Single-Frequency Error Maps will also be provided.

  17. Soyuz 23 Return Samples: Assessment of Air Quality Aboard the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    James, John T.

    2011-01-01

    Six mini-grab sample containers (m-GSCs) were returned aboard Soyuz 23 because of concerns that new air pollutants had been present in the air and these were getting into the water recovery system. The Total Organic Carbon Analyzer had been giving increasing readings of total organic carbon (TOC) in the potable water, and it was postulated that an increased load into the system was responsible. The TOC began to decline in late October, 2010. The toxicological assessment of 6 m-GSCs from the ISS is shown in Table 1. The recoveries of 13C-acetone, fluorobenzene, and chlorobenzene from the GSCs averaged 73, 82, and 59%, respectively. We are working to understand the sub-optimal recovery of chlorobenzene.

  18. Impact of East Asian Summer Monsoon on the Air Quality over China: View from space

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, Chun; Wang, Yuhang; Yang, Qing; Fu, Rong; Cunnold, Derek; Choi, Yunsoo

    2010-05-04

    Tropospheric O3 columns retrieved from OMI and MLS measurements, CO columns from MOPITT, and tropospheric O3 and CO concentrations from TES from May to August in 2006 are analyzed using the Regional chEmical and trAnsport Model (REAM) to investigate the impact of the East Asian summer monsoon on the air quality over China. The observed and simulated migrations of O3 and CO are in good agreement, demonstrating that the summer monsoon significantly affects the air quality over southeastern China and this influence extends to central East China from June to July. Enhancements of CO and O3 over southeastern China disappear after the onset of the summer monsoon and re-emerge in August after the monsoon wanes. The pre-monsoon high O3 concentrations over southern China are due to photochemical production from pollutant emissions and the O3 transport from the stratosphere. In the summer monsoon season, the O3 concentrations are relatively low over monsoon-affected regions because of the transport of marine air masses and weak photochemical activity. We find that the monsoon system strongly modulates the pollution problem over a large portion of East China in summer, depending on its strength and tempo-spatial extension. Model results also suggest that transport from the stratosphere and long-range transport from East China and South/Central Asia all make significant contributions to O3 enhancements over West China. Satellite observations provide valuable information for investigating the monsoon impact on air quality, particularly for the regions with limited in situ measurements.

  19. Development of an air-bearing fan for space extravehicular activity (EVA) suit ventilation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fukumoto, Paul; Allen, Norman; Stonesifer, Greg

    1992-01-01

    A high-speed/variable flow fan has been developed for EVA suit ventilation which combines air bearings with a two-pole, toothless permanent-magnet motor. The fan has demonstrated quiet and vibration-free operation and a 2:1 range in flow rate variation. System weight is 0.9 kg, and input powers range from 12.4 to 42 W.

  20. Space Charge Transient Kinetic Characteristics in DC Air Corona Discharge at Atmospheric Pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xinghua; Xian, Richang; Sun, Xuefeng; Wang, Tao; Lv, Xuebin; Chen, Suhong; Yang, Fan

    2014-08-01

    Investigating the corona mechanism plays a key role in enhancing the performance of electrical insulation systems. Numerical simulation offers a better understanding of the physical characteristics of air corona discharges. Using a two-dimensional axisymmetrical kinetics model, into which the photoionization effect is incorporated, the DC air corona discharge at atmosphere pressure is studied. The plasma model is based on a self-consistent, multi-component, and continuum description of the air discharge, which is comprised of 12 species and 22 reactions. The discharge voltage-current characteristic predicted by the model is found to be in quite good agreement with experimental measurements. The behavior of the electronic avalanche progress is also described. O2+ and N2+ are the dominant positive ions, and the values of O- and O2- densities are much smaller than that of the electron. The electron and positive ion have a low-density thin layer near the anode, which is a result of the surface reaction and absorption effect of the electrode. As time progresses, the electric field increases and extends along the cathode surface, whereas the cathode fall shrinks after the corona discharge hits the cathode; thus, in the cathode sheath, the electron temperature increases and the position of its peak approaches to the cathode. The present computational model contributes to the understanding of this physical mechanism, and suggests ways to improve the electrical insulation system.

  1. Air quality data analysis system for interrelating effects, standards, and needed source reductions: Part 12. Effects on man, animals, and plants as a function of air pollutant impact

    SciTech Connect

    Larsen, R.I.; McDonnell, W.F.; Coffin, D.L.; Heck, W.W.

    1993-12-01

    The impact-effect mathematical model was developed previously to predict biological response as a function of air pollutant impact (exposure duration multiplied by pollutant concentration raised on an exponent). The purpose of this paper is plot and regress example effects on man, animals, and plants (a wide range of life forms) as a function of air pollutant impact to determine how well the plotted data fit this model and to determine, especially, how well both acute and chronic exposure data fit the model. The three examples of air pollutant effects plotted and regressed are: for man, lung function decrease after exposure to ozone (O3); for animals, mice mortality after exposure to nitrogen dioxide (NO2); and for plants, leaf injury after exposure to O3. The resultant impact-effect equations explain 95 percent of the variance for the lung function data, 92 percent for leaf injury, and 73 percent for mice mortality.

  2. Meeting 2006, outdoor noise directive (OND) noise levels for a diesel engine driven air compressor: A case study in noise reduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rowe, David F.

    2005-09-01

    In January 2006, the noise limits for many products in the European Union will drop by 2-3 dBA, as directed by 2000/14/EC ``Noise Emission in the Environment by Equipment Used Outdoors,'' commonly called the ``Outdoor Noise Directive,'' or ``OND.'' Air compressors are among the products addressed by this directive. At Ingersoll-Rand, significant effort has been directed at meeting the challenge of reducing noise on a variety of diesel engine driven air compressor platforms, ranging from 15 to 350 kW diesel engine power ratings. This paper presents a case study of the noise reduction on a 750 cfm (21 m3/min) air compressor operating at 300 psig (21 bar), to meet the 2006 OND noise limit of 100 LwA.

  3. 33 CFR 334.540 - Banana River at the Eastern Range, 45th Space Wing, Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, FL...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., 45th Space Wing, Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, FL; restricted area. 334.540 Section 334.540... navigable waters of the United States, as defined at 33 CFR part 329, within the Banana River contiguous to... AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.540 Banana River at the Eastern Range, 45th Space Wing,...

  4. Dynamic Evaluation of Regional Air Quality Model's Response to Emission Reductions in the Presence of Uncertain Emission Inventories

    EPA Science Inventory

    A method is presented and applied for evaluating an air quality model’s changes in pollutant concentrations stemming from changes in emissions while explicitly accounting for the uncertainties in the base emission inventory. Specifically, the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMA...

  5. Aerothermal test results from the first flight of the Pegasus air-launched space booster

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noffz, Gregory K.; Curry, Robert E.; Haering, Edward A., Jr.; Kolodziej, Paul

    1991-01-01

    A survey of temperature measurements at speeds through Mach 8.0 on the first flight of the Pegasus air-launched booster system is discussed. In addition, heating rates were derived from the temperature data obtained on the fuselage in the vicinity of the wing shock interaction. Sensors were distributed on the wing surfaces, leading edge, and on the wing-body fairing or fillet. Side-by-side evaluations were obtained for a variety of sensor installations. Details of the trajectory reconstruction through first-stage separation are provided. Given here are indepth descriptions of the sensor installations, temperature measurements, and derived heating rates along with interpretations of the results.

  6. Performance Evaluation of the Operational Air Quality Monitor for Water Testing Aboard the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wallace, William T.; Limero, Thomas F.; Gazda, Daniel B.; Minton, John M.; Macatangay, Ariel V.; Dwivedi, Prabha; Fernandez, Facundo M.

    2014-01-01

    Real-time environmental monitoring on ISS is necessary to provide data in a timely fashion and to help ensure astronaut health. Current real-time water TOC monitoring provides high-quality trending information, but compound-specific data is needed. The combination of ETV with the AQM showed that compounds of interest could be liberated from water and analyzed in the same manner as air sampling. Calibration of the AQM using water samples allowed for the quantitative analysis of ISS archival samples. Some calibration issues remain, but the excellent accuracy of DMSD indicates that ETV holds promise for as a sample introduction method for water analysis in spaceflight.

  7. Connection space reduction mechanism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Milam, Malcolm Bruce (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    A connector assembly comprised of two halves, each respectively including a shell type connector subassembly, one being an active half and the other being a passive half is described. The active half includes an alignment cusp that causes a coupling motion in response to coming in contact with the outer portion of the other half, which causes the respective connectors within the two subassemblies to move toward each other into coupling relationship at twice the rate at which the two subassemblies come together. Both halves are adapted to rotate about and translate along respective mutually orthogonal axes to facilitate an interconnection.

  8. Air Force space power and thermal management technology - Requirements for the early 21st century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herrera, Ernest D.; Kuck, Inara

    Typical projections for military space power and thermal management technologies have posited requirements for high powered and highly survivable systems. Recent changes in defense needs, however, will require spacecraft that are smaller, lower powered, less survivable, and highly proliferated. Technologies will be developed to provide low cost, ultra-light, high power density, 'smart' conventional power systems. Compact nuclear power systems will also be developed to meet higher power needs.

  9. Combined Ground and Space-Based Measurements of Air Quality during the London Olympic Games 2012

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graves, R. R.; Leigh, R. J.; Singh Anand, J.; McNally, M.; Lawrence, J.; Remedios, J.; Monks, P. S.

    2012-12-01

    During July and August 2012 the Summer Olympic Games were held in London. During this period, unusually high levels of traffic and visitors to the city were expected, it is important to understand the effect this had on the air quality in London during this period. To this end three novel CityScan instruments were installed in London from the 20th July though to the end of September; affording the unique opportunity to monitor the spatial and vertical structure of nitrogen dioxide within the boundary layer in unprecedented detail. The deployment was included as part of the large NERC funded ClearfLo project (Clean Air for London) involving many other institutions and complementary measurement techniques. CityScan is a Hemispherical Scanning Imaging Differential Optical Absorption Spectrometer (HSI-DOAS) which is has been optimised to measure concentrations of nitrogen dioxide. CityScan has a 95° field of view (FOV) between the zenith and 5° below the horizon. Across this FOV there are 128 resolved elements which are measured concurrently, the spectrometer is rotated azimuthally 1° per second providing full hemispherical coverage every 6 minutes. CityScan measures concentrations of nitrogen dioxide over specific lines of sight and due to the extensive field of view of the instrument this produces measurements which are representative over city-wide scales. Nitrogen dioxide is an important air pollutant which is produced in all combustion processes and can reduce lung function; especially in sensitised individuals. These instruments aim to bridge the gap in spatial scales between point source measurements of air quality and satellite measurements of air quality offering additional information on emissions, transport and the chemistry of nitrogen dioxide. More information regarding the CityScan technique can be found at http://www.leos.le.ac.uk/aq/index.html. The first of the three CityScan instruments was located in North Kensington, the second in Soho and third

  10. Trends in Concentrations of Atmospheric Gaseous and Particulate Species at the Look Rock, TN NCORE Air Quality Station and Their Relation to Primary Emissions Reductions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanner, R. L.; Mueller, S. F.; Bairai, S. T.

    2013-12-01

    Air quality parameters, measured at Look Rock, TN, since 1980, were expanded by National Park Service (NPS) as an IMPROVE network station and again in 1999-2007 by Tennessee Valley Authority as part of efforts to determine the effects of reductions in EGU emissions of sulfur and nitrogen oxides on air quality at the site. Designated as a non-urban, NCORE-equivalent station in 2010, routine continuous monitoring of aerosol mass, sulfate, and black carbon, and primary and secondary gases at the site as well as additional measurements during a series of intensive research studies at the site have produced an extensive body to air quality data on background levels of species relevant to air quality standards (NAAQS) for ozone and fine particulate matter which is unique comprehensive for a high-altitude site in the southeastern U.S.A. Analysis of the temporal trends in these data (1999-present)is being conducted in conjunction with and support of 2013 Southern Atmosphere Studies at Look Rock and other southeastern U.S. locations. Key findings from analysis of temporal trends at Look Rock include the observation that primary pollutant levels have consistently tracked the emissions reductions from EGUs and other primary sources in the region, but reductions in secondary pollutants such as particulate sulfate and ozone have been less than proportional. Organic carbonaceous material (OM) remains a major contributor to fine particulate mass at the site, and a large portion (65-85%) of OM derives from modern carbon, based on 14C measurements. Important parameters affecting fine mass and ozone levels also include the specific diurnal meteorology at this ridge-top site, its location in a largely mixed-deciduous forest, and the presence of primary sources of precursors at distances of 50-500 km from the site in all directions.

  11. Impact of fuel quality regulation and speed reductions on shipping emissions: implications for climate and air quality.

    PubMed

    Lack, Daniel A; Cappa, Christopher D; Langridge, Justin; Bahreini, Roya; Buffaloe, Gina; Brock, Charles; Cerully, Kate; Coffman, Derek; Hayden, Katherine; Holloway, John; Lerner, Brian; Massoli, Paola; Li, Shao-Meng; McLaren, Robert; Middlebrook, Ann M; Moore, Richard; Nenes, Athanasios; Nuaaman, Ibraheem; Onasch, Timothy B; Peischl, Jeff; Perring, Anne; Quinn, Patricia K; Ryerson, Tom; Schwartz, Joshua P; Spackman, Ryan; Wofsy, Steven C; Worsnop, Doug; Xiang, Bin; Williams, Eric

    2011-10-15

    Atmospheric emissions of gas and particulate matter from a large ocean-going container vessel were sampled as it slowed and switched from high-sulfur to low-sulfur fuel as it transited into regulated coastal waters of California. Reduction in emission factors (EFs) of sulfur dioxide (SO₂), particulate matter, particulate sulfate and cloud condensation nuclei were substantial (≥ 90%). EFs for particulate organic matter decreased by 70%. Black carbon (BC) EFs were reduced by 41%. When the measured emission reductions, brought about by compliance with the California fuel quality regulation and participation in the vessel speed reduction (VSR) program, are placed in a broader context, warming from reductions in the indirect effect of SO₄ would dominate any radiative changes due to the emissions changes. Within regulated waters absolute emission reductions exceed 88% for almost all measured gas and particle phase species. The analysis presented provides direct estimations of the emissions reductions that can be realized by California fuel quality regulation and VSR program, in addition to providing new information relevant to potential health and climate impact of reduced fuel sulfur content, fuel quality and vessel speed reductions. PMID:21910443

  12. Testing of Large Diameter Fresnel Optics for Space Based Observations of Extensive Air Showers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, James H.; Christl, Mark J.; Young, Roy M.

    2011-01-01

    The JEM-EUSO mission will detect extensive air showers produced by extreme energy cosmic rays. It operates from the ISS looking down on Earth's night time atmosphere to detect the nitrogen fluorescence and Cherenkov produce by the charged particles in the EAS. The JEM-EUSO science objectives require a large field of view, sensitivity to energies below 50 EeV, and must fit within available ISS resources. The JEM-EUSO optic module uses three large diameter, thin plastic lenses with Fresnel surfaces to meet the instrument requirements. A bread-board model of the optic has been manufactured and has undergone preliminary tests. We report the results of optical performance tests and evaluate the present capability to manufacture these optical elements.

  13. Clearing the Air: New Approaches to Life Support in Outer Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knox, J.; Howard, D.

    2008-01-01

    This article reports on research into atmospheric revitalization systems for long-term space travel and the use ofCOMSOL Multiphysics to understand how structured sorbents can be used to improve the performance of adsorption processes via thermal management. We are developing the next generation of atmosphere revitalization systems, which will reach for new levels of resource conservation via a high percentage of loop closure. For example, a high percentage of carbon dioxide, exhaled by crew, can be converted via reaction to drinking water, closing the loop from human metabolic waste to supply. Adsorption processes play a lead role in these new/closed loop systems.

  14. Study on Reduction of Time Lag for Laser-Induced Electrical Discharge in Atmospheric Air with Non-Uniform Electric Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okano, Daisuke

    1998-11-01

    Study on Reduction of Time Lag for Laser-Induced Electrical Discharge in Atmospheric Air with Non-Uniform Electric Field* , Daisuke Okano, Kyushu Tokai University, 9-1-1 Toroku, Kumamoto, Japan. -----As an electrical discharge can be inductively occurred [1] by a pulsed laser-produced plasma (PLPP) in a rod-to-plate air gap stressed by a DC high voltage(Va), the starting point of laser-induced electrical discharge (LIED) is almost delayed more than few microseconds from focusing the laser beam. It is expected that the LIED by a PLPP is effectively occurred by reducing the time lag. The aim of our research focuses on the reduction for the time lag of LIED using CO2- and YAG pulsed lasers. The typical results are summarized as follows.The time lag of LIED in an atmospheric air gap (30mm) stressed at Va=30 kV is strongly reduced to 33 using CO2- and YAG pulsed lasers. The mechanism for the time lag of LIED is due to the electron attachment and detachment. [1] M.Inoue, T.Takashima, D.Okano et.al., Bull. of Inst. of Industrial Sci. & technical res.in Kyushu Tokai University, No.11 (1995)165 in Japanese. . *This work was supported by Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (C)-no.10650295 of The Ministry of education, Science Sports and Culture in japan.

  15. Ten Years of OMI Observations: A Unique Contribution to Air Quality, Ozone Layer and Climate Research from Space.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levelt, P.; Veefkind, J. P.; Bhartia, P. K.; Joiner, J.; Tamminen, J.

    2014-12-01

    volcanic plume warning systems for aviation, UV forecasts and air quality forecasts. In this presentation an overview will be given of the unique contribution of the OMI instrument to atmospheric composition research from space

  16. Modifications to the Objective Lightning Probability Forecast Tool at Kennedy Space Center/Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Florida

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crawford, Winifred; Roeder, William

    2010-01-01

    The 45th Weather Squadron (45 WS) at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station (CCAFS) includes the probability of lightning occurrence in their 24-Hour and Weekly Planning Forecasts, briefed at 0700 EDT for daily operations planning on Kennedy Space Center (KSC) and CCAFS. This forecast is based on subjective analyses of model and observational data and output from an objective tool developed by the Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU). This tool was developed over two phases (Lambert and Wheeler 2005, Lambert 2007). It consists of five equations, one for each warm season month (May-Sep), that calculate the probability of lightning occurrence for the day and a graphical user interface (GUI) to display the output. The Phase I and II equations outperformed previous operational tools by a total of 56%. Based on this success, the 45 WS tasked the AMU with Phase III to improve the tool further.

  17. TESTING VAPOR SPACE AND LIQUID-AIR INTERFACE CORROSION IN SIMULATED ENVIRONMENTS OF HANFORD DOUBLE-SHELLED TANKS

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffman, E.

    2013-05-30

    Electrochemical coupon testing were performed on 6 Hanford tank solution simulants and corresponding condensate simulants to evaluate the susceptibility of vapor space and liquid/air interface corrosion. Additionally, partial-immersion coupon testing were performed on the 6 tank solution simulants to compliment the accelerated electrochemical testing. Overall, the testing suggests that the SY-102 high nitrate solution is the most aggressive of the six solution simulants evaluated. Alternatively, the most passive solution, based on both electrochemical testing and coupon testing, was AY-102 solution. The presence of ammonium nitrate in the simulants at the lowest concentration tested (0.001 M) had no significant effect. At higher concentrations (0.5 M), ammonium nitrate appears to deter localized corrosion, suggesting a beneficial effect of the presence of the ammonium ion. The results of this research suggest that there is a threshold concentration of ammonium ions leading to inhibition of corrosion, thereby suggesting the need for further experimentation to identify the threshold.

  18. In-house experiments in large space structures at the Air Force Wright Aeronautical Laboratories Flight Dynamics Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gordon, Robert W.; Ozguner, Umit; Yurkovich, Steven

    1989-01-01

    The Flight Dynamics Laboratory is committed to an in-house, experimental investigation of several technical areas critical to the dynamic performance of future Air Force large space structures. The advanced beam experiment was successfully completed and provided much experience in the implementation of active control approaches on real hardware. A series of experiments is under way in evaluating ground test methods on the 12 meter trusses with significant passive damping. Ground simulated zero-g response data from the undamped truss will be compared directly with true zero-g flight test data. The performance of several leading active control approaches will be measured and compared on one of the trusses in the presence of significant passive damping. In the future, the PACOSS dynamic test article will be set up as a test bed for the evaluation of system identification and control techniques on a complex, representative structure with high modal density and significant passive damping.

  19. Update to the Lightning Probability Forecast Equations at Kennedy Space Center/Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Florida

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lambert, Winifred; Roeder, William

    2007-01-01

    This conference presentation describes the improvement of a set of lightning probability forecast equations that are used by the 45th Weather Squadron forecasters for their daily 1100 UTC (0700 EDT) weather briefing during the warm season months of May- September. This information is used for general scheduling of operations at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station and Kennedy Space Center. Forecasters at the Spaceflight Meteorology Group also make thunderstorm forecasts during Shuttle flight operations. Five modifications were made by the Applied Meteorology Unit: increased the period of record from 15 to 17 years, changed the method of calculating the flow regime of the day, calculated a new optimal layer relative humidity, used a new smoothing technique for the daily climatology, and used a new valid area. The test results indicated that the modified equations showed and increase in skill over the current equations, good reliability, and an ability to distinguish between lightning and non-lightning days.

  20. Update to the Lightning Probability Forecast Equations at Kennedy Space Center/Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Florida

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lambert, Winifred; Roeder, William

    2007-01-01

    This conference presentation describes the improvement of a set of lightning probability forecast equations that are used by the 45th Weather Squadron forecasters for their daily 1100 UTC (0700 EDT) weather briefing during the warm season months of May-September. This information is used for general scheduling of operations at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station and Kennedy Space Center. Forecasters at the Spaceflight Meteorology Group also make thunderstorm forecasts during Shuttle flight operations. Five modifications were made by the Applied Meteorology Unit: increased the period of record from 15 to 17 years, changed the method of calculating the flow regime of the day, calculated a new optimal layer relative humidity, used a new smoothing technique for the daily climatology, and used a new valid area. The test results indicated that the modified equations showed and increase in skill over the current equations, good reliability, and an ability to distinguish between lightning and non-lightning days.

  1. Ground-based demonstration of imaging SWIR-FTS for space-based detection of air pollution and greenhouse gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Imai, Tadashi; Murooka, Jumpei; Kuze, Akihiko; Suto, Hiroshi; Sato, Ryota

    2013-10-01

    Fourier transform spectrometer (FTS) has many advantages, especially for greenhouse gases and air pollution detection in the atmosphere, because a single instrument can provide wide spectral coverage and high spectral resolution with highly stabilized instrumental line function for all wavenumbers. Several channels are usually required to derive the column amount or vertical profile of a target species. Near infrared (NIR) and shortwave infrared (SWIR) spectral regions are very attractive for remote sensing applications. The GHG and CO of precursors of air pollution have absorption lines in the SWIR region, and the sensitivity against change in the amounts in the boundary layer is high enough to measure mole fractions near the Earth surface. One disadvantage of conventional space-based FTS is the spatial density of effective observation. To improve the effective numbers of observations, an imaging FTS coupled with a two-dimensional (2D)-camera was considered. At first, a mercury cadmium telluride (MCT)-based imaging FTS was considered. However, an MCT-based system requires a calibration source (black body and deep-space view) and a highly accurate and super-low temperature control system for the MCT detector. As a result, size, weight, and power consumption are increased and the cost of the instrument becomes too high. To reduce the size, weight, power consumption, and cost, a commercial 2D indium gallium arsenide (InGaAs) camera can be used to detect SWIR light. To demonstrate a small imaging SWIR-FTS (IS-FTS), an imaging FTS coupled with a commercial 2D InGaAs camera was developed. In the demonstration, the CH4 gas cell was equipped with an IS-FTS for the absorber to make the spectra in the SWIR region. The spectra of CH4 of the IS-FTS demonstration model were then compared with those of traditional FTS. The spectral agreement between the traditional and IS-FTS instruments was very good.

  2. [Food environment and space accessibility evaluation to perform physical activity in 3 socially contrasting neighbourhoods of Buenos Aires city].

    PubMed

    Garipe, Leila Yasmin; Gónzalez, Verónica; Biasizzo, Antonella; Soriano, Jennifer Laila; Perman, Gaston; Giunta, Diego

    2014-01-01

    Due to the environmental influences on health, the goal of this study was to describe and compare the built environment in 3 socially contrasting neighbourhoods of Buenos Aires city.In 2011 a cross-sectional study was conducted in 3 socially contrasting neighbourhoods of Buenos Aires city: Recoleta (upper class), Almagro (middle class) and Constitución (lower class). Grocery stores and food stands were surveyed as well as all suitable spaces to perform physical activity. An analysis was conducted to assess the density of every food outlet per Km2 of each neighbourhood's area and per 10000 inhabitants. 2778 food stores and 149 outdoor physical activity facilities were surveyed. A higher density was observed in Constitución for fast food restaurants (Recoleta 3.6; Almagro 2.4; Constitución 6.7) and food stands (Recoleta 4.2; Almagro 1.2; Constitución 25.7) and a lower density for outdoor physical activity facilities. Population density and area density proved to be analogous. Statistically relevant differences were observed regarding the dimension of each food outlet: grocery stores, fruit stands, pubs, restaurants and food stands, as well as in the number of food stores and outdoor physical activity facilities. The information gathered in this study could be highly useful for public health policies on healthy lifestyles, and could eventually redefine the built environment in order to improve the city's equality regarding outdoor physical activity facilities and food stores. PMID:25647550

  3. Fresh New Air in Space? `MoMa' on the A.S.I. Launch Pad

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ambesi Impiombato, Francesco Saverio; Curcio, Francesco; Meli, Antonella; Zambito, Anna Maria

    2006-12-01

    The present project has been developed because of the desire to unify the research lines in the A.S.I. ‘Medicine & Biotechnology’ area into one research line that could satisfy the interests of all of the collaborative groups and at the same time could pursue a relevant social goal. A 6 month feasibility study (SF) called MoMa was carried out in the ASI framework. During the SF the know-how and the tools already available in the national scientific community have been assessed, selected and evaluated even with the important contribution of Small and Medium-size Enterprises (SME) and of Italian industries already involved in Space Research. As result of the SF MoMa, all of the participants decided to combine all the efforts together and define, with all the know-how and the available technologies, one strategic topic, the “Aging” with a special attention to the Quality of Life (QoL). The space environment is a unique laboratory to study the reaction of living organisms (especially humans) to microgravity and cosmic radiation. The study of the effects of these two variables at the molecular and cellular levels will shed light on the response of cells and living organisms to adverse stimulations that are always present even on Earth and will help us able to develop the best strategies to protect the organisms from the progressive structural and functional decline related to Aging. Relevant spin-offs on Earth and also relevant industrial applications are the expected outputs of this project.

  4. Seasonal Prediction of North American Surface Air Temperatures Using Space-Time Principal Components.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vautard, Robert; Plaut, Guy; Wang, Risheng; Brunet, Gilbert

    1999-02-01

    The statistical model proposed by Vautard et al. is applied to the seasonal prediction of surface air temperatures over North America (Canada and the United States). This model is based on sea surface temperature predictors filtered by multichannel singular spectrum analysis (MSSA), which is equivalent here to a nonseasonal version of extended EOF analysis. Several versions of the MSSA model are proposed. The most successful one is based on a two-step procedure consisting in a prior prediction of filtered sea surface temperatures followed by a predictand specification stage.The MSSA model is compared with the recent prediction technique based on canonical correlation analysis (CCA). The former model turns out, in this application, to be more skillful in most seasons than the latter. The differences are, however, marginal. The authors argue that these differences are due to the nonseasonal nature of the MSSA model and to overfitting problems inherent to CCA. Another advantage of the MSSA model relative to CCA is the possibility of easily transforming deterministic continuous forecasts into probabilistic categorical forecasts.The geographical distribution of prediction skill across North America is studied. Canada turns out to be the country where skill is most significant. During winter, high skill values are also found over the southeastern United States.

  5. Wind estimation using air data probe measurements to evaluate meteorological measurements made during Space Shuttle entries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kelly, G. M.; Findlay, J. T.; Compton, H. R.

    1982-01-01

    Deterministic and weighted least squares methods for obtaining estimates of the horizontal winds encountered during the Shuttle entry phase are described. The estimates are based on in situ Air Data System (ADS) measurements of angle-of-attack, side-slip angle and true airspeed, in conjunction with inertial trajectory parameters obtained from the post flight trajectory reconstruction. Accuracies in the wind estimates obtained from each method are assessed using both theoretical arguments and flight results. Comparisons of derived winds with meteorological measurements taken during the first three Shuttle entries have demonstrated: (1) the usefulness of the wind estimators for evaluating meteorological measurements below 50 kft, and (2) the potential for adequate wind determinations in the absence of independent wind measurements. Comparisons of STS-3 flight-derived L/D versus predicted values from the LaRC aerodynamic data base are presented from 50 kft to touchdown. These results exemplify the importance of such determinations to enhance the ongoing Shuttle aerodynamic and aerothermodynamic research.

  6. Space-Based Detection of Missing Sulfur Dioxide Sources of Global Air Pollution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McLinden, Chris A.; Fioletov, Vitali; Shephard, Mark W.; Krotkov, Nick; Li, Can; Martin, Randall V.; Moran, Michael D.; Joiner, Joanna

    2016-01-01

    Sulfur dioxide is designated a criteria air contaminant (or equivalent) by virtually all developed nations. When released into the atmosphere, sulfur dioxide forms sulfuric acid and fine particulate matter, secondary pollutants that have significant adverse effects on human health, the environment and the economy. The conventional, bottom-up emissions inventories used to assess impacts, however, are often incomplete or outdated, particularly for developing nations that lack comprehensive emission reporting requirements and infrastructure. Here we present a satellite-based, global emission inventory for SO2 that is derived through a simultaneous detection, mapping and emission-quantifying procedure, and thereby independent of conventional information sources. We find that of the 500 or so large sources in our inventory, nearly 40 are not captured in leading conventional inventories. These missing sources are scattered throughout the developing world-over a third are clustered around the Persian Gulf-and add up to 7 to 14 Tg of SO2 yr(exp -1), or roughly 6-12% of the global anthropogenic source. Our estimates of national total emissions are generally in line with conventional numbers, but for some regions, and for SO2 emissions from volcanoes, discrepancies can be as large as a factor of three or more. We anticipate that our inventory will help eliminate gaps in bottom-up inventories, independent of geopolitical borders and source types.

  7. Space-based detection of missing sulfur dioxide sources of global air pollution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McLinden, Chris A.; Fioletov, Vitali; Shephard, Mark W.; Krotkov, Nick; Li, Can; Martin, Randall V.; Moran, Michael D.; Joiner, Joanna

    2016-07-01

    Sulfur dioxide is designated a criteria air contaminant (or equivalent) by virtually all developed nations. When released into the atmosphere, sulfur dioxide forms sulfuric acid and fine particulate matter, secondary pollutants that have significant adverse effects on human health, the environment and the economy. The conventional, bottom-up emissions inventories used to assess impacts, however, are often incomplete or outdated, particularly for developing nations that lack comprehensive emission reporting requirements and infrastructure. Here we present a satellite-based, global emission inventory for SO2 that is derived through a simultaneous detection, mapping and emission-quantifying procedure, and thereby independent of conventional information sources. We find that of the 500 or so large sources in our inventory, nearly 40 are not captured in leading conventional inventories. These missing sources are scattered throughout the developing world--over a third are clustered around the Persian Gulf--and add up to 7 to 14 Tg of SO2 yr-1, or roughly 6-12% of the global anthropogenic source. Our estimates of national total emissions are generally in line with conventional numbers, but for some regions, and for SO2 emissions from volcanoes, discrepancies can be as large as a factor of three or more. We anticipate that our inventory will help eliminate gaps in bottom-up inventories, independent of geopolitical borders and source types.

  8. Measuring Air Leaks into the Vacuum Space of Large Liquid Hydrogen Tanks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Youngquist, Robert; Starr, Stanley; Nurge, Mark

    2012-01-01

    Large cryogenic liquid hydrogen tanks are composed of inner and outer shells. The outer shell is exposed to the ambient environment while the inner shell holds the liquid hydrogen. The region between these two shells is evacuated and typically filled with a powderlike insulation to minimize radiative coupling between the two shells. A technique was developed for detecting the presence of an air leak from the outside environment into this evacuated region. These tanks are roughly 70 ft (approx. equal 21 m) in diameter (outer shell) and the inner shell is roughly 62 ft (approx. equal 19 m) in diameter, so the evacuated region is about 4 ft (approx. equal 1 m) wide. A small leak's primary effect is to increase the boil-off of the tank. It was preferable to install a more accurate fill level sensor than to implement a boil-off meter. The fill level sensor would be composed of an accurate pair of pressure transducers that would essentially weigh the remaining liquid hydrogen. This upgrade, allowing boil-off data to be obtained weekly instead of over several months, is ongoing, and will then provide a relatively rapid indication of the presence of a leak.

  9. Low-Cost Radon Reduction Pilot Study

    SciTech Connect

    Rose, William B.; Francisco, Paul W.; Merrin, Zachary

    2015-09-01

    The aim of the research was to conduct a primary scoping study on the impact of air sealing between the foundation and the living space on radon transport reduction across the foundation-living space floor assembly. Fifteen homes in the Champaign, Illinois area participated in the study. These homes were instrumented for hourly continuous radon measurements and simultaneous temperature and humidity the foundation was improved. However, this improved isolation did not lead to significant reductions in radon concentration in the living space. Other factors such as outdoor temperature were shown to have an impact on radon concentration.

  10. Graphene oxide electrocatalyst on MnO2 air cathode as an efficient electron pump for enhanced oxygen reduction in alkaline solution

    PubMed Central

    Basirun, Wan Jeffrey; Sookhakian, Mehran; Baradaran, Saeid; Endut, Zulkarnain; Mahmoudian, Mohammad Reza; Ebadi, Mehdi; Yousefi, Ramin; Ghadimi, Hanieh; Ahmed, Sohail

    2015-01-01

    Graphene oxide (GO) was deposited on the surface of a MnO2 air cathode by thermal evaporation at 50°C from a GO colloidal suspension. Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy and field emission scanning electron microscopy confirmed the presence of GO on the MnO2 air cathode (GO-MnO2). Voltammetry and chrono-amperometry showed increased currents for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) in 6 M KOH solution for GO-MnO2 compared to the MnO2 cathode. The GO-MnO2 was used as an air cathode in an alkaline tin-air cell and produced a maximum power density of 13 mW cm−2, in contrast to MnO2, which produced a maximum power density of 9.2 mW cm−2. The electrochemical impedance spectroscopy results suggest that the chemical step for the ORR is the rate determining step, as proposed earlier by different researchers. It is suggested that the presence of GO and electrochemically reduced graphene oxide (ERGO) on the MnO2 surface are responsible for the increased rate of this step, whereby GO and ERGO accelerate the process of electron donation to the MnO2 and to adsorbed oxygen atoms. PMID:25765731

  11. Analysis of a long-term measurement of air pollutants (2007-2011) in North China Plain (NCP); Impact of emission reduction during the Beijing Olympic Games.

    PubMed

    Xu, Ruiguang; Tang, Guiqian; Wang, Yuesi; Tie, Xuexi

    2016-09-01

    Five years measurements were used to evaluate the effect of emission controls on the changes of air pollutants in Beijing and its surroundings in the NCP during 2008 Olympic Games (2008OG). The major challenge of this study was to filter out the effect of variability of meteorological conditions, when compared the air pollutants during the game to non-game period. We used four-year (2007, 2009-2011) average as the Non-2008OG to smooth the temporal variability caused by meteorological parameters. To study the spatial variability and regional transport, 6 sites (urban, rural, a mega city, a heavy industrial city, and a remote site) were selected. The result showed that the annually meteorological variability was significantly reduced. Such as, in BJ the differences between 2008OG and 5-years averaged values were 2.7% for relative humidity and 0.6% for wind speed. As a result, the anomaly of air pollutants between 2008OG and Non-2008OG can largely attribute to the emission control. The comparison showed that the major pollutants (PM10, PM2.5, NO, NOx) at the 6 sites in 2008OG were consistently lowered. For example, PM2.5 in BJ decreased from 75 to 45 μg/m(3) (40% reduction). However, the emission controls had minor effect on O3 concentrations (1% reduction). In contrast, the O3 precursor (NOx) reduced from 19.7 to 13.2 ppb (33% reduction). The in-sensitivity between NOx and O3 suggested that the O3 formation was under VOCs control condition in NCP, showing that strong VOC emission control is needed in order to significantly reduce O3 concentration in the region. PMID:27355197

  12. ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT OF A CRUDE-OIL HEATER USING STAGED AIR LANCES FOR NOX REDUCTION. VOLUME 1. TECHNICAL RESULTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This volume of the report gives emission results from field tests of a crude-oil process heater burning a combination of oil and refinery gas. The heater had been modified by adding a system for injecting secondary air to reduce NOx emissions. One test was conducted with the stag...

  13. Reduction of gas phase air toxics from combustion and incineration sources using the GE-Mitsui-BG activated coke process

    SciTech Connect

    Olson, D.G.; Tsuji, K.; Shiraishi, I.

    1998-04-01

    The dry desulfurization, denitification and air toxics removal process using activated coke (AC) was originally researched and developed during the 1960`s by Bergbau Forschung (BF), now called Deutsche Montan Technologies. Mitsui Mining Company (MMC) signed a licensing agreement with BF in 1982 to investigate, test and adapt the system to facilities in Japan. Japanese regulations are stricter than in the United States toward SOx/NOx pollutants, as well as flyash emissions from the utility industry, oil refineries and other industries. This process is installed on four coal-fired boilers and Fluidized Catalytic Cracker (FCC) units. These plants were constructed by MMC in Japan and Uhde GmbH in Germany. General Electric Environmental Services, Inc. (GEESI) signed a license agreement in 1992 with MMC and Mitsui and Company, Ltd. of Tokyo. Under this agreement, GEESI will market, design, fabricate and install the Mitsui-BF process for flue gas cleaning applications in North America. MMC also developed a technology to produce AC used in the dry DeSOx/DeNOx/Air Toxics removal process based on their own metallurgical coke manufacturing technology. This paper provides information on the details of MMC`s AC used in the dry DeSOx/DeNOx/Air Toxics removal process and of the DeSOx/DeNOx/Air Toxics removal process itself.

  14. High-Reynolds-number turbulent-boundary-layer wall pressure fluctuations with skin-friction reduction by air injection.

    PubMed

    Winkel, Eric S; Elbing, Brian R; Ceccio, Steven L; Perlin, Marc; Dowling, David R

    2008-05-01

    The hydrodynamic pressure fluctuations that occur on the solid surface beneath a turbulent boundary layer are a common source of flow noise. This paper reports multipoint surface pressure fluctuation measurements in water beneath a high-Reynolds-number turbulent boundary layer with wall injection of air to reduce skin-friction drag. The experiments were conducted in the U.S. Navy's Large Cavitation Channel on a 12.9-m-long, 3.05-m-wide hydrodynamically smooth flat plate at freestream speeds up to 20 ms and downstream-distance-based Reynolds numbers exceeding 200 x 10(6). Air was injected from one of two spanwise slots through flush-mounted porous stainless steel frits (approximately 40 microm mean pore diameter) at volume flow rates from 17.8 to 142.5 l/s per meter span. The two injectors were located 1.32 and 9.78 m from the model's leading edge and spanned the center 87% of the test model. Surface pressure measurements were made with 16 flush-mounted transducers in an "L-shaped" array located 10.7 m from the plate's leading edge. When compared to no-injection conditions, the observed wall-pressure variance was reduced by as much as 87% with air injection. In addition, air injection altered the inferred convection speed of pressure fluctuation sources and the streamwise coherence of pressure fluctuations. PMID:18529171

  15. On Modeling Air/Space-Borne Radar Returns in the Melting Layer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liao, Liang; Meneghini, Robert

    2005-01-01

    The bright band is the enhanced radar echo associated with the melting of hydrometeors in stratiform rain where the melting process usually occurs below 0 C isotherm over a distance of about 500m. To simulate this radar signature, a scattering model of melting snow is proposed in which the fractional water content is prescribed as a function of the radius of a spherical mixed- phase particle consisting of air, ice and water. The model is based on the observation that melting starts at the surface of the particle and then gradually develops towards the center. To compute the scattering parameters of a non-uniform melting particle, the particle is modeled as a sphere represented by a collection of 64(exp 3) cubic cells of identical size where the probability of water at any cell is prescribed as a function of the radius. The internal field of the particle, used for deriving the effective dielectric constant, is computed by the Conjugate Gradient and Fast Fourier Transform (CGFFT) numerical methods. To make computations of the scattering parameters more efficient, a multi-layer stratified-sphere scattering model is introduced after demonstrating that the scattering parameters of the non-uniformly melting particle can be accurately reproduced by the stratified sphere. In conjunction with a melting layer model that describes the melting fractions and fall velocities of hydrometeors as a function of the distance from the 0 C isotherm, the stratified-sphere model is used to simulate the radar bright band profiles. These simulated profiles are shown to compare well with measurements from the Precipitation Radar (PR) aboard the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) satellite and a dual-wavelength airborne radar. The results suggest that the proposed model of a melting snow particle may be useful in studying the characteristics of the bright-band in particular and mixed- phase hydrometeors in general.

  16. HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE PROPER MOTION (HSTPROMO) CATALOGS OF GALACTIC GLOBULAR CLUSTERS. I. SAMPLE SELECTION, DATA REDUCTION, AND NGC 7078 RESULTS

    SciTech Connect

    Bellini, A.; Anderson, J.; Van der Marel, R. P.; Watkins, L. L.; King, I. R.; Bianchini, P.; Chanamé, J.; Chandar, R.; Cool, A. M.; Ferraro, F. R.; Massari, D.; Ford, H.

    2014-12-20

    We present the first study of high-precision internal proper motions (PMs) in a large sample of globular clusters, based on Hubble Space Telescope (HST) data obtained over the past decade with the ACS/WFC, ACS/HRC, and WFC3/UVIS instruments. We determine PMs for over 1.3 million stars in the central regions of 22 clusters, with a median number of ∼60,000 stars per cluster. These PMs have the potential to significantly advance our understanding of the internal kinematics of globular clusters by extending past line-of-sight (LOS) velocity measurements to two- or three-dimensional velocities, lower stellar masses, and larger sample sizes. We describe the reduction pipeline that we developed to derive homogeneous PMs from the very heterogeneous archival data. We demonstrate the quality of the measurements through extensive Monte Carlo simulations. We also discuss the PM errors introduced by various systematic effects and the techniques that we have developed to correct or remove them to the extent possible. We provide in electronic form the catalog for NGC 7078 (M 15), which consists of 77,837 stars in the central 2.'4. We validate the catalog by comparison with existing PM measurements and LOS velocities and use it to study the dependence of the velocity dispersion on radius, stellar magnitude (or mass) along the main sequence, and direction in the plane of the sky (radial or tangential). Subsequent papers in this series will explore a range of applications in globular-cluster science and will also present the PM catalogs for the other sample clusters.

  17. Developing a Peak Wind Probability Forecast Tool for Kennedy Space Center and Cape Canaveral Air Force Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lambert, WInifred; Roeder, William

    2007-01-01

    This conference presentation describes the development of a peak wind forecast tool to assist forecasters in determining the probability of violating launch commit criteria (LCC) at Kennedy Space Center (KSC) and Cape Canaveral Air Force Station (CCAFS) in east-central Florida. The peak winds are an important forecast element for both the Space Shuttle and Expendable Launch Vehicle (ELV) programs. The LCC define specific peak wind thresholds for each launch operation that cannot be exceeded in order to ensure the safety of the vehicle. The 45th Weather Squadron (45 WS) has found that peak winds are a challenging parameter to forecast, particularly in the cool season months of October through April. Based on the importance of forecasting peak winds, the 45 WS tasked the Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) to develop a short-range peak-wind forecast tool to assist in forecasting LCC violations. The tool will include climatologies of the 5-minute mean and peak winds by month, hour, and direction, and probability distributions of the peak winds as a function of the 5-minute mean wind speeds.

  18. Integrated Orbiter/International Space Station Air Quality Analysis for Post-Mission 2A.1 Risk Mitigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dunaway, Brian; Tsai, Ching-Fen; Turner, Edward; Edeen, Marybeth

    2000-01-01

    Even under the assumption that all Orbiter and ISS elements would be operating as designed, condensation control and crewmember comfort were paramount issues preceding each of the ISS Missions 2A and 2A.1. However, crewmember discomfort during Mission 2A.1, in addition to evidence provided by flight data and observations, suggested that countermeasures would be necessary for future flights where the Orbiter provides primary control. A review of Space Shuttle Program (SSP) and International Space Station Program (ISSP) assumptions and analytical methods that describe ECLS transport phenomena was accomplished in order to ensure the veracity of future analyses. Subsequently, various analyses and interpretations of Mission 2A.1 flight data provided the necessary information to help understand the probable causes of the flight environment. With cooperation between the SSP and ISSP, countermeasures were devised for Mission 2A.2 that would likely improve the delivery of conditioned air by the Orbiter to the ISS as well as within the ISS elements.

  19. Stratospheric ozone isotopes observed by air-borne and space-borne submillimeter-wave heterodyne radiometry: A sensitivity study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasai, Y.; Urban, J.; Takahashi, C.; Smiles Mission Team

    2003-04-01

    The variation of the isotopic composition of a species in the Earth atmosphere provides us the information on the history of the air masses, because the isotope enrichment or depletion reflects the chemical and physical processes. Since the discovery of the heavy isotope enrichment of ozone in the stratosphere in 1981 considerable progress has been made in understanding the processes that control the isotope enrichment based on atmospheric observations, laboratory experiments, and so on. However, the exact mechanism for the effect remains uncertain and accurate sequentially observations of ozone isotopomer at global scale are still very sparse. Further improvements of measurement precision can be obtained by making use of the new technological development of high-precision submillimeter-wave heterodyne radiometry based on sensitive SIS detector technology. The airborne ASUR instrument (Airborne SUb-millimeter SIS Radiometer) observed lines of asymmetric-18 ozone in the frequency region of 645 GHz with this technology since ~1994. The JEM/SMILES instrument (Japaneses Experiment Module / Superconducting sub-MIllimeter Limb Emission Sounder), to be installed on the International Space Station in 2007, will measure several ozone isotopomer in the stratosphere at global scale from space using very similar frequency bands. An error analysis including the most typical systematic errors is performed.

  20. Evaluation of the impact of low emission zone and heavy traffic ban in Munich (Germany) on the reduction of PM₁₀ in ambient air.

    PubMed

    Fensterer, Veronika; Küchenhoff, Helmut; Maier, Verena; Wichmann, Heinz-Erich; Breitner, Susanne; Peters, Annette; Gu, Jianwei; Cyrys, Josef

    2014-05-01

    Concentrations of ambient fine particles (PM10: particles with an aerodynamic diameter ≤ 10 µm) are still exceeding current air quality standards in many European cities. In Munich (Germany), low emission zone and transit bans for heavy-duty vehicles were introduced in 2008 aiming at reduction of traffic emissions contribution to PM10. The effects of those measures on PM10 mass concentrations in Munich were investigated with a semiparametric regression model for modeling PM10 levels adjusted for time, background pollution, public holidays and wind direction. The reduction of PM10 concentration after the introduction of the measures was larger at a traffic monitoring site (13.0 %, 19.6 % in summer, and 6.8 % in winter) and smaller in urban background (4.5 %, 5.7 % in summer, and 3.2 % in winter). The effect was most pronounced on Fridays and on the weekends in summer. PMID:24828081

  1. Evaluation of the Impact of Low Emission Zone and Heavy Traffic Ban in Munich (Germany) on the Reduction of PM10 in Ambient Air

    PubMed Central

    Fensterer, Veronika; Küchenhoff, Helmut; Maier, Verena; Wichmann, Heinz-Erich; Breitner, Susanne; Peters, Annette; Gu, Jianwei; Cyrys, Josef

    2014-01-01

    Concentrations of ambient fine particles (PM10: particles with an aerodynamic diameter ≤ 10 µm) are still exceeding current air quality standards in many European cities. In Munich (Germany), low emission zone and transit bans for heavy-duty vehicles were introduced in 2008 aiming at reduction of traffic emissions contribution to PM10. The effects of those measures on PM10 mass concentrations in Munich were investigated with a semiparametric regression model for modeling PM10 levels adjusted for time, background pollution, public holidays and wind direction. The reduction of PM10 concentration after the introduction of the measures was larger at a traffic monitoring site (13.0 %, 19.6 % in summer, and 6.8 % in winter) and smaller in urban background (4.5 %, 5.7 % in summer, and 3.2 % in winter). The effect was most pronounced on Fridays and on the weekends in summer. PMID:24828081

  2. Near-Roadway Air Pollution and Coronary Heart Disease: Burden of Disease and Potential Impact of a Greenhouse Gas Reduction Strategy in Southern California

    PubMed Central

    Ghosh, Rakesh; Lurmann, Frederick; Perez, Laura; Penfold, Bryan; Brandt, Sylvia; Wilson, John; Milet, Meredith; Künzli, Nino; McConnell, Rob

    2015-01-01

    Background Several studies have estimated the burden of coronary heart disease (CHD) mortality from ambient regional particulate matter ≤ 2.5 μm (PM2.5). The burden of near-roadway air pollution (NRAP) generally has not been examined, despite evidence of a causal link with CHD. Objective We investigated the CHD burden from NRAP and compared it with the PM2.5 burden in the California South Coast Air Basin for 2008 and under a compact urban growth greenhouse gas reduction scenario for 2035. Methods We estimated the population attributable fraction and number of CHD events attributable to residential traffic density, proximity to a major road, elemental carbon (EC), and PM2.5 compared with the expected disease burden if the population were exposed to background levels of air pollution. Results In 2008, an estimated 1,300 CHD deaths (6.8% of the total) were attributable to traffic density, 430 deaths (2.4%) to residential proximity to a major road, and 690 (3.7%) to EC. There were 1,900 deaths (10.4%) attributable to PM2.5. Although reduced exposures in 2035 should result in smaller fractions of CHD attributable to traffic density, EC, and PM2.5, the numbers of estimated deaths attributable to each of these exposures are anticipated to increase to 2,500, 900, and 2,900, respectively, due to population aging. A similar pattern of increasing NRAP-attributable CHD hospitalizations was estimated to occur between 2008 and 2035. Conclusion These results suggest that a large burden of preventable CHD mortality is attributable to NRAP and is likely to increase even with decreasing exposure by 2035 due to vulnerability of an aging population. Greenhouse gas reduction strategies developed to mitigate climate change offer unexploited opportunities for air pollution health co-benefits. Citation Ghosh R, Lurmann F, Perez L, Penfold B, Brandt S, Wilson J, Milet M, Künzli N, McConnell R. 2016. Near-roadway air pollution and coronary heart disease: burden of disease and potential

  3. High Efficiency Integrated Space Conditioning, Water Heating and Air Distribution System for HUD-Code Manufactured Housing

    SciTech Connect

    Henry DeLima; Joe Akin; Joseph Pietsch

    2008-09-14

    Recognizing the need for new space conditioning and water heating systems for manufactured housing, DeLima Associates assembled a team to develop a space conditioning system that would enhance comfort conditions while also reducing energy usage at the systems level. The product, Comboflair® was defined as a result of a needs analysis of project sponsors and industry stakeholders. An integrated system would be developed that would combine a packaged airconditioning system with a small-duct, high-velocity air distribution system. In its basic configuration, the source for space heating would be a gas water heater. The complete system would be installed at the manufactured home factory and would require no site installation work at the homesite as is now required with conventional split-system air conditioners. Several prototypes were fabricated and tested before a field test unit was completed in October 2005. The Comboflair® system, complete with ductwork, was installed in a 1,984 square feet, double-wide manufactured home built by Palm Harbor Homes in Austin, TX. After the home was transported and installed at a Palm Harbor dealer lot in Austin, TX, a data acquisition system was installed for remote data collection. Over 60 parameters were continuously monitored and measurements were transmitted to a remote site every 15 minutes for performance analysis. The Comboflair® system was field tested from February 2006 until April 2007. The cooling system performed in accordance with the design specifications. The heating system initially could not provide the needed capacity at peak heating conditions until the water heater was replaced with a higher capacity standard water heater. All system comfort goals were then met. As a result of field testing, we have identified improvements to be made to specific components for incorporation into production models. The Comboflair® system will be manufactured by Unico, Inc. at their new production facility in St. Louis

  4. Relationship between Eu{sup 3+} reduction and glass polymeric structure in Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-modified borate glasses under air atmosphere

    SciTech Connect

    Jiao, Qing; Yu, Xue; Xu, Xuhui; Zhou, Dacheng; Qiu, Jianbei

    2013-06-15

    The reduction of Eu{sup 3+} to Eu{sup 2+} is realized efficiently in Eu{sub 2}O{sub 3}-doped borate glasses prepared under air condition by melting-quenching method. Luminescent spectra show an increasing tendency of Eu{sup 2+} emission with increasing Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} concentration in B{sub 2}O{sub 3}–Na{sub 2}O glasses. It is interesting that significant enhancement appeared of Eu{sup 2+} luminescence in the Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-rich sample comparing to the samples of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} less than 6 mol%. FTIR and Raman scattering measurements indicated that some new vibration modes assigned to the low-polymerized structure groups decomposed from the slight Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} dopant samples. These results demonstrated that the polymerization of the glass structure decreased with increasing incorporation of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} into the borate glasses, linking to the efficiency of Eu{sup 3+} self-reduction in air at high temperature. - graphical abstract: A novel europium valence reduction phenomenon occurred in Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} modified borate glasses, FTIR and Raman measurements revealed that high polymeric groups were destroyed to low polymery structures with Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} addition. - Highlights: • The efficient reduction of Eu{sup 3+} to Eu{sup 2+} is observed in the B{sub 2}O{sub 3}–Na{sub 2}O glasses. • Eu{sup 2+} luminescence is significant enhanced in the Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-rich glasses. • The introduction of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} changed the network structure of the borate glasses. • High polymeric borate groups in the glass matrix may be destroyed to the lower ones.

  5. Evaluation of primary air vitiation for nitric oxide reduction in a rotary cement kiln. Volume 1. Technical report. Final report, June 1983-September 1985

    SciTech Connect

    Benson, R.C.; Hunter, S.C.

    1986-10-01

    The report gives results of tests to evaluate combustion modifications for nitric oxide (NO) reduction and cement-product quality in a pilot-scale long-dry-process cement kiln firing pulverized coal. The kiln is rated at 11.35 kg/s (1080 tons/day) of cement with a thermal input rate of 70.3 MW (240 million Btu/hr). Of the combustion modifications evaluated in previous studies, vitiation of the primary air with inert gas (nitrogen) was considered the best alternative for NO reduction on a pilot-scale kiln. The percent reduction was established from a reference baseline of 1050 ppm (corrected to 3% O/sub 2/) and a kiln exit oxygen of 1.82%. The NO volumetric emissions were lowered to 880 ppm (corrected to 3% O/sub 2/) with a kiln exit oxygen of 0.7%. NOx reductions during the short-term nitrogen injection tests were about 25-30% with no adverse effects on product quality. Because of the interacting feed chemistry/kiln operations, it was not possible to clearly isolate the effect of nitrogen injection.

  6. Evaluation of primary air vitiation for nitric oxide reduction in a rotary cement kiln. Volume 2. Data supplement A. Final report, June 1983-September 1985

    SciTech Connect

    Benson, R.C.; Frohoff, R.A.; Parker, N.R.

    1986-10-01

    The report gives results of tests to evaluate combustion modifications for nitric oxide (NO) reduction and cement-product quality in a pilot-scale long-dry-process cement kiln firing pulverized coal. The kiln is rated at 11.35 kg/s (1080 tons/day) of cement with a thermal input rate of 70.3 MW (240 million Btu/hr). Of the combustion modifications evaluated in previous studies, vitiation of the primary air with inert gas (nitrogen) was considered the best alternative for NO reduction on a pilot-scale kiln. The percent reduction was established from a reference baseline of 1050 ppm (corrected to 3% O/sub 2/) and a kiln exit oxygen of 1.82%. The NO volumetric emissions were lowered to 880 ppm (corrected to 3% O/sub 2/) with a kiln exit oxygen of 0.7%. NOx reductions during the short-term nitrogen injection tests were about 25-30% with no adverse effects on product quality. Because of the interacting feed chemistry/kiln operations, it was not possible to clearly isolate the effect of nitrogen injection.

  7. Regional Air Quality Model Application of the Aqueous-Phase Photo Reduction of Atmospheric Oxidized Mercury by Dicarboxylic Acids

    EPA Science Inventory

    In most ecosystems, atmospheric deposition is the primary input of mercury. The total wet deposition of mercury in atmospheric chemistry models is sensitive to parameterization of the aqueous-phase reduction of divalent oxidized mercury (Hg2+). However, most atmospheric chemistry...

  8. EMISSION REDUCTIONS AIMED AT IMPROVING AIR QUALITY: UNINTENDED CLIMATIC CONSEQUENCES AND THE EFFECT OF CLIMATE CHANGE ON THEIR SUCCESS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This work will provide improved understanding of the role of climate change, both in the recent past and future, on the success of pollutant control strategies, allowing for better planning and accountability of emission reductions. This work will also provide a quantitative a...

  9. Assessment and forecasting of lightning potential and its effect on launch operations at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station and John F. Kennedy Space Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weems, J.; Wyse, N.; Madura, J.; Secrist, M.; Pinder, C.

    1991-01-01

    Lightning plays a pivotal role in the operation decision process for space and ballistic launches at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station and Kennedy Space Center. Lightning forecasts are the responsibility of Detachment 11, 4th Weather Wing's Cape Canaveral Forecast Facility. These forecasts are important to daily ground processing as well as launch countdown decisions. The methodology and equipment used to forecast lightning are discussed. Impact on a recent mission is summarized.

  10. Loss reduction in few-mode photonic crystal fiber by reducing inner surface imperfections in air holes.

    PubMed

    Ma, Lin; Hanzawa, Nobutomo; Tsujikawa, Kyozo; Aozasa, Shinichi; Yamamoto, Fumihiko

    2015-05-18

    We studied both theoretically and experimentally the additional loss in photonic crystal fiber (PCF) that results from inner surface imperfections such as contamination and the surface roughness of air holes. We estimated the modal loss dependence of these imperfections using a model with a "defective layer" for the first time. The theoretical studies suggest that higher order modes have a larger loss due to imperfections in the air holes. By minimizing the inner surface imperfections of the six innermost air holes, we can theoretically expect any additional loss to be reduced to a negligible level. Moreover, we examined our theoretical prediction experimentally. We fabricated few-mode PCFs by employing a suitable inner surface treatment for just the six innermost holes. As expected theoretically, the transmission loss was greatly reduced by employing these processes. The lowest transmission losses in the 1550 nm band were 0.31 dB/km for the LP01 mode and 0.43 dB/km for the LP11 mode. Our theoretical model will be useful with a view to realizing few-mode PCF with a loss comparable to that of conventional fibers. PMID:26074611

  11. Environmental Assessment for the Commercial Demonstration of the Low NOx Burner/Separated Over-Fire Air (LNB/SOFA) Integration System Emission Reduction Technology, Finney County, Kansas

    SciTech Connect

    n /a

    2003-03-11

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) proposes to provide partial funding to the Sunflower Electric Power Corporation (Sunflower), to demonstrate the commercial application of Low-NO{sub x} Burner/Separated Over-Fire Air (LNB/SOFA) integration system to achieve NO{sub x} emission reduction to the level of 0.15 to 0.22 pounds per million British thermal units (lb/MM Btu). The proposed project station is Sunflower's 360 MW coal-fired generation station, Holcomb Unit No. 1 (Holcomb Station). The station, fueled by coal from Wyoming's Powder River Basin, is located near Garden City, in Finney County, Kansas. The period of performance is expected to last approximately 2 years. The Holcomb Station, Sunflower LNB/SOFA integrated system would be modified in three distinct phases to demonstrate the synergistic effect of layering NO{sub x} control technologies. Once modified, the station would demonstrate that a unit equipped with an existing low-NO{sub x} burner system can be retrofitted with a new separated over-fire air (SOFA) system, coal flow measurement and control, and enhanced combustion monitoring to achieve about 45 percent reduction in nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}) emissions. The proposed project would demonstrate a technology alternative to Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) systems. While SCR does generally achieve high reductions in NO{sub x} emissions (from about 0.8 lb/MM to 0.12 lb/MM Btu), it does so at higher capital and operating cost, requires the extensive use of critical construction labor, requires longer periods of unit outage for deployment, and generally requires longer periods of time to complete shakedown and full-scale operation. Cost of the proposed project technology would be on the order of 15-25 percent of that for SCR, with consequential benefits derived from reductions in construction manpower requirements and periods of power outages. This proposed technology demonstration would generally be applicable to boilers using opposed-wall burners

  12. Reduction of noise generated by air conditioning and ventilation plants and transmitted to inhabited areas. [application of silencers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harastaseanu, E.; Cristescu, G.; Mercea, F.

    1974-01-01

    The fans with which the conditioning and ventilation plants of weaving and spinning mills are equipped and the conditioning devices used in certain confection and knit wear departments of the textile industry generate loud noise. Solutions are presented for reducing the noise generated by the fans of ventilation and conditioning plants and transmitted to inhabited regions down to the admissible level, as well as the results obtained by experimental application of some noise reduction solutions in the conditioning plants of a spinning mill.

  13. Space.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Web Feet K-8, 2001

    2001-01-01

    This annotated subject guide to Web sites and additional resources focuses on space and astronomy. Specifies age levels for resources that include Web sites, CD-ROMS and software, videos, books, audios, and magazines; offers professional resources; and presents a relevant class activity. (LRW)

  14. Real-Time Kennedy Space Center and Cape Canaveral Air Force Station High-Resolution Model Implementation and Verification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shafer, Jaclyn; Watson, Leela R.

    2015-01-01

    NASA's Launch Services Program, Ground Systems Development and Operations, Space Launch System and other programs at Kennedy Space Center (KSC) and Cape Canaveral Air Force Station (CCAFS) use the daily and weekly weather forecasts issued by the 45th Weather Squadron (45 WS) as decision tools for their day-to-day and launch operations on the Eastern Range (ER). Examples include determining if they need to limit activities such as vehicle transport to the launch pad, protect people, structures or exposed launch vehicles given a threat of severe weather, or reschedule other critical operations. The 45 WS uses numerical weather prediction models as a guide for these weather forecasts, particularly the Air Force Weather Agency (AFWA) 1.67 km Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model. Considering the 45 WS forecasters' and Launch Weather Officers' (LWO) extensive use of the AFWA model, the 45 WS proposed a task at the September 2013 Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) Tasking Meeting requesting the AMU verify this model. Due to the lack of archived model data available from AFWA, verification is not yet possible. Instead, the AMU proposed to implement and verify the performance of an ER version of the high-resolution WRF Environmental Modeling System (EMS) model configured by the AMU (Watson 2013) in real time. Implementing a real-time version of the ER WRF-EMS would generate a larger database of model output than in the previous AMU task for determining model performance, and allows the AMU more control over and access to the model output archive. The tasking group agreed to this proposal; therefore the AMU implemented the WRF-EMS model on the second of two NASA AMU modeling clusters. The AMU also calculated verification statistics to determine model performance compared to observational data. Finally, the AMU made the model output available on the AMU Advanced Weather Interactive Processing System II (AWIPS II) servers, which allows the 45 WS and AMU staff to customize

  15. Cobaltite oxide nanosheets anchored graphene nanocomposite as an efficient oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) catalyst for the application of lithium-air batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gnana kumar, G.; Christy, Maria; Jang, Hosaeng; Nahm, Kee Suk

    2015-08-01

    The graphene/cubic cobaltite oxide nanosheets (rGO/Co3O4) with a face centered cubic crystalline structure are synthesized and are exploited as effective cathode catalysts in high performance Lithium-air batteries. The morphological images enunciate that 220 nm average diameter of Co3O4 nanosheets are effectively anchored over the graphene sheets and the diameter of individual nanoparticles that construct the cubic nanosheets is 5 nm. The growth and composite formation mechanisms of prepared nanostructures are identified from Raman and FT-IR spectroscopic techniques. rGO/Co3O4 composite exhibits a lower voltage, high discharge capacity of 4150 mAh g-1 and displays superior cyclability without any capacity losses, signifying the excellent rechargeability of the fabricated electrodes. The post mortem analysis of electrodes specify the existence of lithium peroxide (Li2O2), lithium oxide (Li2O) and lithium carbonate (Li2CO3) discharge products, revealing the involved electrochemical reaction of Lithium-air batteries. The excellent electrochemical properties of rGO/Co3O4 composite is due to the combination of rapid electrokinetics of electron transport and high electrocatalytic activity toward oxygen reduction reaction given via the synergetic effects of rGO and cubic Co3O4 nanosheets. These findings provide fundamental knowledge on understanding the influence of morphological and structural properties of graphene based nanostructures toward Lithium-air battery performances.

  16. Potential application of VIIRS Day/Night Band for monitoring nighttime surface PM2.5 air quality from space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jun; Aegerter, Clint; Xu, Xiaoguang; Szykman, James J.

    2016-01-01

    A pilot study is conducted to illustrate the potential of using radiance data collected by the Day/Night Band (DNB) of the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) aboard the Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (S-NPP) satellite for particulate matter (PM) air quality monitoring at night. The study focuses on the moonless and cloudless nights in Atlanta, Georgia during August-October 2012. We show with radiative transfer calculations that DNB at night is sensitive to the change of aerosols and much less sensitive to the change of water vapor in the atmosphere illuminated by common outdoor light bulbs at the surface. We further show both qualitatively that the contrast of DNB images can indicate the change of air quality at the urban scale, and quantitatively that change of light intensity during the night (as characterized by VIIRS DNB) reflects the change of surface PM2.5. Compared to four meteorological variables (u and v components of surface wind speed, surface pressure, and columnar water vapor amount) that can be obtained from surface measurements, the DNB light intensity is the only variable that shows either the largest or second largest correlation with surface PM2.5 measured at 5 different sites. A simple multivariate regression model with consideration of the change of DNB light intensity can yield improved estimate of surface PM2.5 as compared to the model with consideration of meteorological variables only. Cross validation of this DNB-based regression model shows that the estimated surface PM2.5 concentration has nearly no bias and a linear correlation coefficient (R) of 0.67 with respect to the corresponding hourly observed surface PM2.5 concentration. Furthermore, ground-based observations support that surface PM2.5 concentration at the VIIRS night overpass (˜1:00 am local) time is representative of daily-mean PM2.5 air quality (R = 0.82 and mean bias of -0.1 μg m-3). While the potential appears promising, mapping surface PM2.5 from

  17. Use of Oriented Spray Nozzles to Set the Vapor-Air Flow in Rotary Motion in the Superspray Space of the Evaporative Chimney-Type Tower

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dobrego, K. V.; Davydenko, V. F.; Koznacheev, I. A.

    2016-01-01

    The present paper considers the problem of upgrading the thermal efficiency of chimney-type evaporative cooling towers due to the rotary motion of the vapor-air flow in the superspray space. To set the vapor-air flow in rotary motion, we propose to use the momentum of the sprayed water. It has been shown that the existing parameters of spray nozzles permit setting up to 30% of the water flow momentum in translatory motion, which is enough for changing considerably the aerodynamics of the vapor-air flow in the superspray space and improving the operation of the cooling tower. The optimal angle of axial inclination of the spray cone has been estimated. Recommendations are given and problems have been posed for engineering realization of the proposed technologies in a chimney-type cooling tower.

  18. Nonlinear dimensionality reduction of CT histogram based feature space for predicting recurrence-free survival in non-small-cell lung cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawata, Y.; Niki, N.; Ohmatsu, H.; Aokage, K.; Kusumoto, M.; Tsuchida, T.; Eguchi, K.; Kaneko, M.

    2015-03-01

    Advantages of CT scanners with high resolution have allowed the improved detection of lung cancers. In the recent release of positive results from the National Lung Screening Trial (NLST) in the US showing that CT screening does in fact have a positive impact on the reduction of lung cancer related mortality. While this study does show the efficacy of CT based screening, physicians often face the problems of deciding appropriate management strategies for maximizing patient survival and for preserving lung function. Several key manifold-learning approaches efficiently reveal intrinsic low-dimensional structures latent in high-dimensional data spaces. This study was performed to investigate whether the dimensionality reduction can identify embedded structures from the CT histogram feature of non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) space to improve the performance in predicting the likelihood of RFS for patients with NSCLC.

  19. Use of Temperature Sensors to Determine Exclusivity of Improved Stove Use and Associated Household Air Pollution Reductions in Kenya.

    PubMed

    Lozier, Matthew J; Sircar, Kanta; Christensen, Bryan; Pillarisetti, Ajay; Pennise, David; Bruce, Nigel; Stanistreet, Debbi; Naeher, Luke; Pilishvili, Tamara; Farrar, Jennifer Loo; Sage, Michael; Nyagol, Ronald; Muoki, Justus; Wofchuck, Todd; Yip, Fuyuen

    2016-04-19

    Household air pollution (HAP) contributes to 3.5-4 million annual deaths globally. Recent interventions using improved cookstoves (ICS) to reduce HAP have incorporated temperature sensors as stove use monitors (SUMs) to assess stove use. We deployed SUMs in an effectiveness study of 6 ICSs in 45 Kenyan rural homes. Stove were installed sequentially for 2 weeks and kitchen air monitoring was conducted for 48 h during each 2-week period. We placed SUMs on the ICSs and traditional cookstoves (TCS), and the continuous temperature data were analyzed using an algorithm to examine the number of cooking events, days of exclusive use of ICS, and how stove use patterns affect HAP. Stacking, defined as using both a TCS and an ICS in the same day, occurred on 40% of the study days, and exclusive use of the ICS occurred on 25% of study days. When researchers were not present, ICS use declined, which can have implications for long-term stove adoption in these communities. Continued use of TCSs was also associated with higher HAP levels. SUMs are a valuable tool for characterizing stove use and provide additional information to interpret HAP levels measured during ICS intervention studies. PMID:26953674

  20. Greenhouse gas and air pollutant emission reduction potentials of renewable energy--case studies on photovoltaic and wind power introduction considering interactions among technologies in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Kuo, Yu-Ming; Fukushima, Yasuhiro

    2009-03-01

    To achieve higher energy security and lower emission of greenhouse gases (GHGs) and pollutants, the development of renewable energy has attracted much attention in Taiwan. In addition to its contribution to the enhancement of reliable indigenous resources, the introduction of renewable energy such as photovoltaic (PV) and wind power systems reduces the emission of GHGs and air pollutants by substituting a part of the carbon- and pollutant-intensive power with power generated by methods that are cleaner and less carbon-intensive. To evaluate the reduction potentials, consequential changes in the operation of different types of existing power plants have to be taken into account. In this study, a linear mathematical programming model is constructed to simulate a power mix for a given power demand in a power market sharing a cost-minimization objective. By applying the model, the emission reduction potentials of capacity extension case studies, including the enhancement of PV and wind power introduction at different scales, were assessed. In particular, the consequences of power mix changes in carbon dioxide, nitrogen oxides, sulfur oxides, and particulates were discussed. Seasonally varying power demand levels, solar irradiation, and wind strength were taken into account. In this study, we have found that the synergetic reduction of carbon dioxide emission induced by PV and wind power introduction occurs under a certain level of additional installed capacity. Investigation of a greater variety of case studies on scenario development with emerging power sources becomes possible by applying the model developed in this study. PMID:19320274

  1. Statistical Analysis of Model Data for Operational Space Launch Weather Support at Kennedy Space Center and Cape Canaveral Air Force Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauman, William H., III

    2010-01-01

    The 12-km resolution North American Mesoscale (NAM) model (MesoNAM) is used by the 45th Weather Squadron (45 WS) Launch Weather Officers at Kennedy Space Center (KSC) and Cape Canaveral Air Force Station (CCAFS) to support space launch weather operations. The 45 WS tasked the Applied Meteorology Unit to conduct an objective statistics-based analysis of MesoNAM output compared to wind tower mesonet observations and then develop a an operational tool to display the results. The National Centers for Environmental Prediction began running the current version of the MesoNAM in mid-August 2006. The period of record for the dataset was 1 September 2006 - 31 January 2010. The AMU evaluated MesoNAM hourly forecasts from 0 to 84 hours based on model initialization times of 00, 06, 12 and 18 UTC. The MesoNAM forecast winds, temperature and dew point were compared to the observed values of these parameters from the sensors in the KSC/CCAFS wind tower network. The data sets were stratified by model initialization time, month and onshore/offshore flow for each wind tower. Statistics computed included bias (mean difference), standard deviation of the bias, root mean square error (RMSE) and a hypothesis test for bias = O. Twelve wind towers located in close proximity to key launch complexes were used for the statistical analysis with the sensors on the towers positioned at varying heights to include 6 ft, 30 ft, 54 ft, 60 ft, 90 ft, 162 ft, 204 ft and 230 ft depending on the launch vehicle and associated weather launch commit criteria being evaluated. These twelve wind towers support activities for the Space Shuttle (launch and landing), Delta IV, Atlas V and Falcon 9 launch vehicles. For all twelve towers, the results indicate a diurnal signal in the bias of temperature (T) and weaker but discernable diurnal signal in the bias of dewpoint temperature (T(sub d)) in the MesoNAM forecasts. Also, the standard deviation of the bias and RMSE of T, T(sub d), wind speed and wind

  2. An Objective Verification of the North American Mesoscale Model for Kennedy Space Center and Cape Canaveral Air Force Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauman, William H., III

    2010-01-01

    The 45th Weather Squadron (45 WS) Launch Weather Officers (LWO's) use the 12-km resolution North American Mesoscale (NAM) model (MesoNAM) text and graphical product forecasts extensively to support launch weather operations. However, the actual performance of the model at Kennedy Space Center (KSC) and Cape Canaveral Air Force Station (CCAFS) has not been measured objectively. In order to have tangible evidence of model performance, the 45 WS tasked the Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU; Bauman et ai, 2004) to conduct a detailed statistical analysis of model output compared to observed values. The model products are provided to the 45 WS by ACTA, Inc. and include hourly forecasts from 0 to 84 hours based on model initialization times of 00, 06, 12 and 18 UTC. The objective analysis compared the MesoNAM forecast winds, temperature (T) and dew pOint (T d), as well as the changes in these parameters over time, to the observed values from the sensors in the KSC/CCAFS wind tower network shown in Table 1. These objective statistics give the forecasters knowledge of the model's strengths and weaknesses, which will result in improved forecasts for operations.

  3. Effect of gas and kerosene space heaters on indoor air quality: a study in homes of Santiago, Chile.

    PubMed

    Ruiz, Pablo A; Toro, Claudia; Cáceres, Jorge; López, Gianni; Oyola, Pedro; Koutrakis, Petros

    2010-01-01

    The impact of outdoor and indoor pollution sources on indoor air quality in Santiago, Chile was investigated. Toward this end, 16 homes were sampled in four sessions. Each session included an outdoor site and four homes using different unvented space heaters (electric or central heating, compressed natural gas, liquefied petroleum gas, and kerosene). Average outdoor fine particulate matter (PM2.5) concentrations were very high (55.9 microg x m(-3)), and a large fraction of these particles penetrated indoors. PM2.5 and several PM2.5 components (including sulfate, elemental carbon, organic carbon, metals, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons) were elevated in homes using kerosene heaters. Nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and ultrafine particles (UFPs) were higher in homes with combustion heaters as compared with those with electric heaters or central heating. A regression model was used to assess the effect of heater use on continuous indoor PM2.5 concentrations when windows were closed. The model found an impact only for kerosene heaters (45.8 microg m(-3)). PMID:20102039

  4. An Objective Verification of the North American Mesoscale Model for Kennedy Space Center and Cape Canaveral Air Force Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauman, William H., III

    2010-01-01

    The 45th Weather Squadron (45 WS) Launch Weather Officers use the 12-km resolution North American Mesoscale (NAM) model (MesoNAM) text and graphical product forecasts extensively to support launch weather operations. However, the actual performance of the model at Kennedy Space Center (KSC) and Cape Canaveral Air Force Station (CCAFS) has not been measured objectively. In order to have tangible evidence of model performance, the 45 WS tasked the Applied Meteorology Unit to conduct a detailed statistical analysis of model output compared to observed values. The model products are provided to the 45 WS by ACTA, Inc. and include hourly forecasts from 0 to 84 hours based on model initialization times of 00, 06, 12 and 18 UTC. The objective analysis compared the MesoNAM forecast winds, temperature and dew point, as well as the changes in these parameters over time, to the observed values from the sensors in the KSC/CCAFS wind tower network. Objective statistics will give the forecasters knowledge of the model's strength and weaknesses, which will result in improved forecasts for operations.

  5. Developing Empirical Lightning Cessation Forecast Guidance for the Cape Canaveral Air Force Station and Kennedy Space Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stano, Geoffrey T.; Fuelberg, Henry E.; Roeder, William P.

    2010-01-01

    This research addresses the 45th Weather Squadron's (45WS) need for improved guidance regarding lightning cessation at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station and Kennedy Space Center (KSC). KSC's Lightning Detection and Ranging (LDAR) network was the primary observational tool to investigate both cloud-to-ground and intracloud lightning. Five statistical and empirical schemes were created from LDAR, sounding, and radar parameters derived from 116 storms. Four of the five schemes were unsuitable for operational use since lightning advisories would be canceled prematurely, leading to safety risks to personnel. These include a correlation and regression tree analysis, three variants of multiple linear regression, event time trending, and the time delay between the greatest height of the maximum dBZ value to the last flash. These schemes failed to adequately forecast the maximum interval, the greatest time between any two flashes in the storm. The majority of storms had a maximum interval less than 10 min, which biased the schemes toward small values. Success was achieved with the percentile method (PM) by separating the maximum interval into percentiles for the 100 dependent storms.

  6. Effects of the six engine air breathing propulsion system on space shuttle orbiter subsonic stability and control characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mennell, R. C.; Soard, T.

    1974-01-01

    Experimental aerodynamic investigations were conducted on a 0.0405 scale representation of the -89B space shuttle orbiter in the 7.75 x 11.00 foot low speed wind tunnel during the time period September 4 - 14, 1973. The primary test objective was to optimize the air breathing propulsion system nacelle cowl-inlet design and to determine the aerodynamic effects of this design on the orbiter stability and control characteristics. Nacelle cowl-inlet optimization was determined from total pressure - static pressure measurements obtained from pressure rakes located in the left hand nacelle pod at the engine face station. After the optimum cow-inlet design, consisting of a 7 deg cowl lip angle, short cowl, 7 deg short diverter, and a nacelle toe-in angle of 5 deg was selected, the aerodynamic effects of various locations of this design were investigated. The 3 pod - 6 Nacelle configuration was tested both underwing and overwing in three different longitudinal locations. Orbiter control effectiveness, both with and without Nacelles, was investigated at elevon deflections of 0 deg, -10 deg and +15 deg and at aileron deflections of 0 deg and +10 deg about 0 deg elevon.

  7. Evaluating the sustainability of space life support systems: case study on air revitalisation systems ARES and BIORAT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suomalainen, Emilia; Erkman, Suren

    Space life support systems can be taken as kinds of miniature models of industrial systems found on Earth. The term "industrial" is employed here in a generic sense, referring to all human technological activities. The time scale as well as the physical scope of space life support systems is reduced compared to most terrestrial systems and so is consequently their complexity. These systems can thus be used as a kind of a "laboratory of sustainability" to examine concerns related to the environmental sustainability of industrial systems and in particular to their resource use. Two air revitalisation systems, ARES and BIORAT, were chosen as the test cases of our study. They represent respectively a physico-chemical and a biological life support system. In order to analyse the sustainability of these systems, we began by constructing a generic system representation applicable to both these systems (and to others). The metabolism of the systems was analysed by performing Material Flow Analyses—MFA is a tool frequently employed on terrestrial systems in the field of industrial ecology. Afterwards, static simulation models were developed for both ARES and BIORAT, focusing, firstly, on the oxygen balances of the systems and, secondly, on the total mass balances. It was also necessary to define sustainability indicators adapted to space life support systems in order to evaluate and to compare the performances of ARES and BIORAT. The defined indicators were partly inspired from concepts used in Material Flow Accounting and they were divided into four broad categories: 1. recycling and material use efficiency, 2. autarky and coverage time, 3. resource use and waste creation, and 4. system mass and energy consumption. The preliminary results of our analyses show that the performance of BIORAT is superior compared to ARES in terms of the defined resource use indicators. BIORAT seems especially effective in reprocessing carbon dioxide created by human metabolism. The

  8. Improving the Air Force Infrared Stellar Calibration Network with High Spectral Resolution Data from the Infrared Space Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kraemer, K. E.; Engelke, C. W.; Price, S. D.

    2004-12-01

    We present preliminary results of a project to improve the spectral resolution of the Air Force Infrared Stellar Calibration Network by incorporating data from the Infrared Space Observatory (ISO). This network and its deriviatives were created by Cohen and colleagues to support infrared calibration for government and civilian ground- and space-based observatories, such as the Infrared Telescope Facility, Gemini, and the Maui Optical Site. The reduced 2.4 to 45 μ m spectra from the ISO Short Wavelength Spectrometer (SWS) are up to 100 times higher spectral resolution than the current network data. Appropriately substituting these spectra for the standard stars will improve the accuracy of the calibration network, particularly in spectral regions where the atmosphere limits ground-based data, and permit more accurate calibration of very narrow spectral bandpasses. The initial effort has photometrically calibrated the SWS spectra for the 9 stellar or secondary standards with composites. The model atmosphere spectrum for α Cen has been replaced by SWS data; the model spectra for α CMa and α Lyr have been retained in order to preserve the common calibration pedigree with the original Cohen et al. network (although see Price et al. 2004, AJ, 128, 889). Where available, high quality photometry from the Midcourse Space Experiment (MSX) are used, supplemented by photometry from the Diffuse Infrared Background Experment (DIRBE) and the photometry used by Cohen et al. used to create the original composite. The next steps are to 1) replace the 10-15 tertiary standard stars with template spectra with measured spectra for the cases in which the SWS observations have sufficiently high signal-to-noise ratios (this will double the number of secondary standards); 2) develop a set of high spectral resolution infrared templates based on the SWS observations for each MK spectral class of the secondary standards with which to upgrade the entire network; 3) create new templates for

  9. An investigation of drag reduction for tractor trailer vehicles with air deflector and boattail. [wind tunnel tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Muirhead, V. U.

    1981-01-01

    A wind tunnel investigation was conducted to determine the influence of several physical variables on the aerodynamic drag of a trailer model. The physical variables included: a cab mounted wind deflector, boattail on trailer, flow vanes on trailer front, forced transition on trailer, and decreased gap between tractor and trailer. Tests were conducted at yaw angles (relative wind angles) of 0, 5, 10, 20, and 30 degrees and Reynolds numbers of 3.58 x 10 to the 5th power 6.12 x 10 to the 5th power based upon the equivalent diameter of the vehicles. The wind deflector on top of the cab produced a calculated reduction in fuel consumption of about 5 percent of the aerodynamic portion of the fuel budget for a wind speed of 15.3 km/hr (9.5 mph) over a wind angle range of 0 deg to 180 deg and for a vehicle speed of 88.5 km/hr (55 mph). The boattail produced a calculated 7 percent to 8 percent reduction in fuel consumption under the same conditions. The decrease in gap reduced the calculated fuel consumption by about 5 percent of the aerodynamic portion of the fuel budget.

  10. Shuttle Entry Air Data System concepts applied to Space Shuttle Orbiter flight pressure data to determine air data - STS 1-4

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Siemers, P. M., III; Wolf, H.; Flanagan, P. F.

    1983-01-01

    The Shuttle Entry Air Data System (SEADS) is the implementation of a new concept in air data systems, with application to entry vehicles. This concept incorporates an array of flush orifices in the nose and forward fuselage of the vehicle and a new flowfield modeling concept for the analysis of flight data and the determination of the required air data parameters. Although the SEADS has not been fully demonstrated, a developmental analysis capability has been assembled and demonstrated. This analytical capability has been used to analyze selected Development Flight Instrumentation (DFI) pressure data from STS-1 through STS-4 and determine angle of attack and freestream dynamic pressure. The results of this study verify the potential of the SEADS as a highly fault tolerant operational air data system. In addition, the transition of SEADS from its present status as an experimental system to an operational system is shown to be readily achievable.

  11. Using Hydrated Salt Phase Change Materials for Residential Air Conditioning Peak Demand Reduction and Energy Conservation in Coastal and Transitional Climates in the State of California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Kyoung Ok

    The recent rapid economic and population growth in the State of California have led to a significant increase in air conditioning use, especially in areas of the State with coastal and transitional climates. This fact makes that the electric peak demand be dominated by air conditioning use of residential buildings in the summer time. This extra peak demand caused by the use of air conditioning equipment lasts only a few days out of the year. As a result, unavoidable power outages have occurred when electric supply could not keep up with such electric demand. This thesis proposed a possible solution to this problem by using building thermal mass via phase change materials to reduce peak air conditioning demand loads. This proposed solution was tested via a new wall called Phase Change Frame Wall (PCFW). The PCFW is a typical residential frame wall in which Phase Change Materials (PCMs) were integrated to add thermal mass. The thermal performance of the PCFWs was first evaluated, experimentally, in two test houses, built for this purpose, located in Lawrence, KS and then via computer simulations of residential buildings located in coastal and transitional climates in California. In this thesis, a hydrated salt PCM was used, which was added in concentrations of 10% and 20% by weight of the interior sheathing of the walls. Based on the experimental results, under Lawrence, KS weather, the PCFWs at 10% and 20% of PCM concentrations reduced the peak heat transfer rates by 27.0% and 27.3%, on average, of all four walls, respectively. Simulated results using California climate data indicated that PCFWs would reduce peak heat transfer rates by 8% and 19% at 10% PCM concentration and 12.2% and 27% at 20% PCM concentration for the coastal and transitional climates, respectively. Furthermore, the PCFWs, at 10% PCM concentration, would reduce the space cooling load and the annual energy consumption by 10.4% and 7.2%, on average in both climates, respectively.

  12. Reduction of aircraft noise in civil air transport by optimization of flight tracks and takeoff and approach procedures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rottmann, Uwe

    1988-08-01

    Noise optimized design of operational flight procedures for effective noise pollution reduction is analyzed. Power cutback during certain stages of approach and takeoff, extension of distance between sound source and sound receiver, as well as diminution of sound impact time are optimized for specific flight procedures and routings. Five takeoff and three landing procedures are analyzed in acoustic effects. Sound immission is computed by NOISIMSIS (NOISe IMpact SImulation System), a simulation system especially created for this task, under consideration of aircraft type specified sound emission characteristics and performance data as well as different meteorological conditions. The investigations for the example of Frankfurt airport result in formulating a planning guideline with notes and impulses for activities in operational noise abatement.

  13. The enhancement of ammonium removal from ethanolamine wastewater using air-cathode microbial fuel cells coupled to ferric reduction.

    PubMed

    Shin, Ja-Won; Seo, Seok-Ju; Maitlo, Hubdar Ali; Park, Joo-Yang

    2015-08-01

    A microbial fuel cell (MFC) with biological Fe(III) reduction was implemented for simultaneous ethanolamine (ETA) degradation and electrical energy generation. In the feasibility experiment using acetate as a substrate in a single-chamber MFC with goethite and ammonium at a ratio of 3.0(mol/mol), up to 96.1% of the ammonium was removed through the novel process related to Fe(III). In addition, the highest voltage output (0.53V) and maximum power density (0.49Wm(-2)) were obtained. However, the ammonium removal and electrical performance decreased as acetate was replaced with ETA. In the long-term experiment, the electrical performance markedly decreased where the voltage loss increased due to Fe deposition on the membranes. PMID:25804534

  14. Porous nitrogen-doped carbon nanosheet on graphene as metal-free catalyst for oxygen reduction reaction in air-cathode microbial fuel cells.

    PubMed

    Wen, Qing; Wang, Shaoyun; Yan, Jun; Cong, Lijie; Chen, Ye; Xi, Hongyuan

    2014-02-01

    Porous nitrogen-doped carbon nanosheet on graphene (PNCN) was used as an alternative cathode catalyst for oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) in air-cathode microbial fuel cells (MFCs). Here we report a novel, low-cost, scalable, synthetic method for preparation of PNCN via the carbonization of graphite oxide-polyaniline hybrid (GO-PANI), subsequently followed by KOH activation treatment. Due to its high concentration of nitrogen and high specific surface area, PNCN exhibited an excellent catalytic activity for ORR. As a result, the maximum power density of 1159.34mWm(-2) obtained with PNCN catalyst was higher than that of Pt/C catalyst (858.49mWm(-2)) in a MFC. Therefore, porous nitrogen-doped carbon nanosheet could be a good alternative to Pt catalyst in MFCs. PMID:24239870

  15. Analysis of a waste-minimization program for nonhazardous solid wastes utilizing source-reduction and recycling techniques and its application to Air Force installations. Master's thesis

    SciTech Connect

    McDermott, B.G.

    1991-09-01

    This nation has fallen victim to its own excessive behavior and has created an overabundance of trash, referred to in this thesis as Nonhazardous Solid Waste (NSW). This situation has created environmental and health problems that can no longer be ignored. All types of communities are affected including Air Force installations. Unfortunately, the AF does not currently have a long term waste management policy or program regarding NHSW minimization. This research concentrates on the application of a NHSW minimization program for AF installations using the two most preferred methods, source reduction and recycling. The development of a comprehensive waste minimization program using the techniques described is the most effective and efficient way to decrease the solid waste burden. The construction and implementation of these programs is not easy, especially for an organization as complex and diverse as the AF. However, the payoffs from a well planned and executed program far outweigh any costs.

  16. Estimation of exposure to atmospheric pollutants during pregnancy integrating space-time activity and indoor air levels: Does it make a difference?

    PubMed

    Ouidir, Marion; Giorgis-Allemand, Lise; Lyon-Caen, Sarah; Morelli, Xavier; Cracowski, Claire; Pontet, Sabrina; Pin, Isabelle; Lepeule, Johanna; Siroux, Valérie; Slama, Rémy

    2015-11-01

    Studies of air pollution effects during pregnancy generally only consider exposure in the outdoor air at the home address. We aimed to compare exposure models differing in their ability to account for the spatial resolution of pollutants, space-time activity and indoor air pollution levels. We recruited 40 pregnant women in the Grenoble urban area, France, who carried a Global Positioning System (GPS) during up to 3 weeks; in a subgroup, indoor measurements of fine particles (PM2.5) were conducted at home (n=9) and personal exposure to nitrogen dioxide (NO2) was assessed using passive air samplers (n=10). Outdoor concentrations of NO2, and PM2.5 were estimated from a dispersion model with a fine spatial resolution. Women spent on average 16 h per day at home. Considering only outdoor levels, for estimates at the home address, the correlation between the estimate using the nearest background air monitoring station and the estimate from the dispersion model was high (r=0.93) for PM2.5 and moderate (r=0.67) for NO2. The model incorporating clean GPS data was less correlated with the estimate relying on raw GPS data (r=0.77) than the model ignoring space-time activity (r=0.93). PM2.5 outdoor levels were not to moderately correlated with estimates from the model incorporating indoor measurements and space-time activity (r=-0.10 to 0.47), while NO2 personal levels were not correlated with outdoor levels (r=-0.42 to 0.03). In this urban area, accounting for space-time activity little influenced exposure estimates; in a subgroup of subjects (n=9), incorporating indoor pollution levels seemed to strongly modify them. PMID:26300245

  17. Estimation of exposure to atmospheric pollutants during pregnancy integrating space-time activity and indoor air levels: does it make a difference?

    PubMed Central

    Marion, OUIDIR; Lise, GIORGIS-ALLEMAND; Sarah, LYON-CAEN; Xavier, MORELLI; Claire, CRACOWSKI; Sabrina, PONTET; Isabelle, PIN; Johanna, LEPEULE; Valérie, SIROUX; Rémy, SLAMA

    2016-01-01

    Studies of air pollution effects during pregnancy generally only consider exposure in the outdoor air at the home address. We aimed to compare exposure models differing in their ability to account for the spatial resolution of pollutants, space-time activity and indoor air pollution levels. We recruited 40 pregnant women in the Grenoble urban area, France, who carried a Global Positioning System (GPS) during up to 3 weeks; in a subgroup, indoor measurements of fine particles (PM2.5) were conducted at home (n=9) and personal exposure to nitrogen dioxide (NO2) was assessed using passive air samplers (n=10). Outdoor concentrations of NO2, and PM2.5 were estimated from a dispersion model with a fine spatial resolution. Women spent on average 16 h per day at home. Considering only outdoor levels, for estimates at the home address, the correlation between the estimate using the nearest background air monitoring station and the estimate from the dispersion model was high (r=0.93) for PM2.5 and moderate (r=0.67) for NO2. The model incorporating clean GPS data was less correlated with the estimate relying on raw GPS data (r=0.77) than the model ignoring space-time activity (r=0.93). PM2.5 outdoor levels were not to moderately correlated with estimates from the model incorporating indoor measurements and space-time activity (r=−0.10 to 0.47), while NO2 personal levels were not correlated with outdoor levels (r=−0.42 to 0.03). In this urban area, accounting for space-time activity little influenced exposure estimates; in a subgroup of subjects (n=9), incorporating indoor pollution levels seemed to strongly modify them. PMID:26300245

  18. Real-Time Kennedy Space Center and Cape Canaveral Air Force Station High-Resolution Model Implementation and Verification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shafer, Jaclyn A.; Watson, Leela R.

    2015-01-01

    Customer: NASA's Launch Services Program (LSP), Ground Systems Development and Operations (GSDO), and Space Launch System (SLS) programs. NASA's LSP, GSDO, SLS and other programs at Kennedy Space Center (KSC) and Cape Canaveral Air Force Station (CCAFS) use the daily and weekly weather forecasts issued by the 45th Weather Squadron (45 WS) as decision tools for their day-to-day and launch operations on the Eastern Range (ER). For example, to determine if they need to limit activities such as vehicle transport to the launch pad, protect people, structures or exposed launch vehicles given a threat of severe weather, or reschedule other critical operations. The 45 WS uses numerical weather prediction models as a guide for these weather forecasts, particularly the Air Force Weather Agency (AFWA) 1.67 kilometer Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model. Considering the 45 WS forecasters' and Launch Weather Officers' (LWO) extensive use of the AFWA model, the 45 WS proposed a task at the September 2013 Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) Tasking Meeting requesting the AMU verify this model. Due to the lack of archived model data available from AFWA, verification is not yet possible. Instead, the AMU proposed to implement and verify the performance of an ER version of the AMU high-resolution WRF Environmental Modeling System (EMS) model (Watson 2013) in real-time. The tasking group agreed to this proposal; therefore the AMU implemented the WRF-EMS model on the second of two NASA AMU modeling clusters. The model was set up with a triple-nested grid configuration over KSC/CCAFS based on previous AMU work (Watson 2013). The outer domain (D01) has 12-kilometer grid spacing, the middle domain (D02) has 4-kilometer grid spacing, and the inner domain (D03) has 1.33-kilometer grid spacing. The model runs a 12-hour forecast every hour, D01 and D02 domain outputs are available once an hour and D03 is every 15 minutes during the forecast period. The AMU assessed the WRF-EMS 1

  19. A Brief Study of the Speed Reduction of Overtaking Airplanes by Means of Air Brakes, Special Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pearson, H. A.; Amderspm. R. F.

    1942-01-01

    As an aid to airplane designers interested in providing pursuit airplanes with decelerating devices intended to increase the firing time when overtaking another airplane, formulas are given relating the pertinent distances and speeds in horizontal flight to the drag increase required. Charts are given for a representative parasite-drag coefficient from which the drag increase, the time gained, and the closing distance may be found. The charts are made up for three values of the ratio of the final speed of the pursuing airplane to the speed of the pursued airplane and for several values of the ratio of the speed of the pursued airplane to the initial speed of the pursuing airplane. Charts are also given indicating the drag increases obtainable with double split flaps and with conventional propellers. The use of the charts is illustrated by an example in which it is indicated that either double split flaps or, under certain ideal conditions, reversible propellers should provide the speed reductions required.

  20. Volatile Organic Compounds Identified in Post-Flight Air Analysis of the Multipurpose Logistics Module from International Space Station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peterson, B.; Wheeler, R.

    Bioregenerative systems involve storing and processing waste along with atmospheric management. The MPLM, Multipurpose Logistics Module, is a reusable logistics carrier and primary delivery system used to resupply the International Space Station (ISS) and return Station cargo that requires a pressurized environment. The cylindrical module is approximately 6.4 meters long, 4.6 meters in diameter, and weighs almost 4,082kg. The module provides storage and additional workspace for up to two astronauts when docked to the ISS. It can carry up to 9,072 kg of supplies, science experiments, spare parts and other logistical components for ISS. There is concern for a potentially hazardous condition caused by contamination of the atmosphere in the MPLM upon return from orbit. This would be largely due to unforeseen spills or container leakage. This has led to the need for special care in handling the returned module prior to processing the module for its next flight. Prior to opening the MPLM, atmospheric samples are analyzed for trace volatile organic compounds, VOC's. It is noted that our analyses also reflect the atmosphere in the ISS on that day of closure. With the re turn of STS-108, 12th ISS Flight (UF1), the analysis showed 24 PPM of methane. This corresponds to the high levels on space station during a time period when the air filtration system was shut off. Chemical characterization of atmospheres on the ISS and MPLM provide useful information for concerns with plant growth experiments on ISS. Work with closed plant growth chambers show potential for VOC's to accumulate to toxic levels for plants. The ethylene levels for 4 MPLM analyses over the course on one year were measured at, 0.070, 0.017, 0.012 and 0.007 PPM. Phytochemical such as ethylene are detected with natural plant physiological events such as flowering and as a result of plant damage or from decaying food. A build up of VOC's may contribute to phytotoxic effects for the plant growth experiments or

  1. Evaluation of exposure reduction to indoor air pollution in stove intervention projects in Peru by urinary biomonitoring of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon metabolites.

    PubMed

    Li, Zheng; Sjödin, Andreas; Romanoff, Lovisa C; Horton, Kevin; Fitzgerald, Christopher L; Eppler, Adam; Aguilar-Villalobos, Manuel; Naeher, Luke P

    2011-10-01

    Burning biomass fuels such as wood on indoor open-pit stoves is common in developing regions. In such settings, exposure to harmful combustion products such as fine particulate matter (PM(2.5)), carbon monoxide (CO) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) is of concern. We aimed to investigate if the replacement of open pit stoves by improved stoves equipped with a chimney would significantly reduce exposure to PAHs, PM(2.5) and CO. Two stove projects were evaluated in Peru. Program A was part of the Juntos National Program in which households built their own stoves using materials provided. In Program B, Barrick Gold Corporation hired a company to produce and install the stoves locally. A total of 30 and 27 homes participated in Program A and B, respectively. We collected personal and kitchen air samples, as well as morning urine samples from women tasked with cooking in the households before and after the installation of the improved stoves. Median levels of PM(2.5) and CO were significantly reduced in kitchen and personal air samples by 47-74% after the installation of the new stoves, while the median reduction of 10 urinary hydroxylate PAH metabolites (OH-PAHs) was 19%-52%. The observed OH-PAH concentration in this study was comparable or higher than the 95th percentile of the general U.S. population, even after the stove intervention, indicating a high overall exposure in this population. PMID:21524795

  2. Demonstration of cost-effective NO{sub x} reduction on a regenerative sideport glass furnace using oxygen-enriched air staging

    SciTech Connect

    Mohr, P.; Neff, D.; Rue, D.

    1996-12-31

    The Gas Research Institute (GRI), the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), and the Southern California Gas Company (SoCal) have joined with the development team of the Institute of Gas Technology (IGT), Combustion Tec, Inc. (CTI), and Air Products and Chemicals, Inc. (APCI) and provided support for extension of the oxygen-enriched air staging (OEAS) NO{sub x} control technology to natural gas-fired sideport regenerative glass melters. In previous demonstrations, the OEAS technology has successfully reduced NO{sub x} emissions by more than 50% on natural gas-fired endport regenerative glass melters without any adverse impacts on furnace performance or glass quality. In the current program, Owens-Brockway (OB) provided operations expertise and a 6 port pair, sideport furnace for field evaluation tests of OEAS. Background and initial test results for a single port pair and the complete furnace are presented along with CFD modeling results for OEAS on a single port pair of the sideport furnace. Modeling results confirm the capacity of OEAS to provide significant NO{sub x} reduction and CO burnout while maintaining or increasing thermal efficiency and furnace production rate.

  3. A scoping study on the costs of indoor air quality illnesses:an insurance loss reduction perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Allan; Vine, Edward L.

    1998-08-31

    The incidence of commercial buildings with poor indoor air quality (IAQ), and the frequency of litigation over the effects of poor IAQ is increasing. If so, these increases have ramifications for insurance carriers, which pay for many of the costs of health care and general commercial liability. However, little is known about the actual costs to insurance companies from poor IAQ in buildings. This paper reports on the results of a literature search of buildings-related, business and legal databases, and interviews with insurance and risk management representatives aimed at finding information on the direct costs to the insurance industry of poor building IAQ, as well as the costs of litigation. The literature search and discussions with insurance and risk management professionals reported in this paper turned up little specific information about the costs of IAQ-related problems to insurance companies. However, those discussions and certain articles in the insurance industry press indicate that there is a strong awareness and growing concern over the "silent crisis" of IAQ and its potential to cause large industry losses, and that a few companies are taking steps to address this issue. The source of these losses include both direct costs to insurers from paying health insurance and professional liability claims, as weIl as the cost of litigation. In spite of the lack of data on how IAQ-related health problems affect their business, the insurance industry has taken the anecdotal evidence about their reality seriously enough to alter their policies in ways that have lessened their exposure. We conclude by briefly discussing four activities that need to be addressed in the near future: (1) quantifying IAQ-related insurance costs by sector, (2) educating the insurance industry about the importance of IAQ issues, (3) examining IAQ impacts on the insurance industry in the residential sector, and (4) evaluating the relationship between IAQ improvements and their impact on

  4. Developing empirical lightning cessation forecast guidance for the Cape Canaveral Air Force Station and Kennedy Space Center

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stano, Geoffrey T.; Fuelberg, Henry E.; Roeder, William P.

    2010-05-01

    This research addresses the 45th Weather Squadron's (45WS) need for improved guidance regarding lightning cessation at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station and Kennedy Space Center (KSC). KSC's Lightning Detection and Ranging (LDAR) network was the primary observational tool to investigate both cloud-to-ground and intracloud lightning. Five statistical and empirical schemes were created from LDAR, sounding, and radar parameters derived from 116 storms. Four of the five schemes were unsuitable for operational use since lightning advisories would be canceled prematurely, leading to safety risks to personnel. These include a correlation and regression tree analysis, three variants of multiple linear regression, event time trending, and the time delay between the greatest height of the maximum dBZ value to the last flash. These schemes failed to adequately forecast the maximum interval, the greatest time between any two flashes in the storm. The majority of storms had a maximum interval less than 10 min, which biased the schemes toward small values. Success was achieved with the percentile method (PM) by separating the maximum interval into percentiles for the 100 dependent storms. PM provides additional confidence to the 45WS forecasters, and a modified version was incorporated into their forecast procedures starting in the summer of 2008. This inclusion has resulted in ˜5-10 min time savings. Last, an experimental regression variant scheme using non-real-time predictors produced precise results but prematurely ended advisories. This precision suggests that obtaining these parameters in real time may provide useful added information to the PM scheme.

  5. Greenhouse gas and air pollutant emission reduction potentials of renewable energy - case studies on photovoltaic and wind power introduction considering interactions among technologies in Taiwan

    SciTech Connect

    Yu-Ming Kuo; Yasuhiro Fukushima

    2009-03-15

    To achieve higher energy security and lower emission of greenhouse gases (GHGs) and pollutants, the development of renewable energy has attracted much attention in Taiwan. In addition to its contribution to the enhancement of reliable indigenous resources, the introduction of renewable energy such as photovoltaic (PV) and wind power systems reduces the emission of GHGs and air pollutants by substituting a part of the carbon- and pollutant-intensive power with power generated by methods that are cleaner and less carbon-intensive. To evaluate the reduction potentials, consequential changes in the operation of different types of existing power plants have to be taken into account. In this study, a linear mathematical programming model is constructed to simulate a power mix for a given power demand in a power market sharing a cost-minimization objective. By applying the model, the emission reduction potentials of capacity extension case studies, including the enhancement of PV and wind power introduction at different scales, were assessed. In particular, the consequences of power mix changes in carbon dioxide, nitrogen oxides, sulfur oxides, and particulates were discussed. Seasonally varying power demand levels, solar irradiation, and wind strength were taken into account. In this study, we have found that the synergetic reduction of carbon dioxide emission induced by PV and wind power introduction occurs under a certain level of additional installed capacity. Investigation of a greater variety of case studies on scenario development with emerging power sources becomes possible by applying the model developed in this study. 15 refs., 8 figs., 11 tabs.

  6. Integrating low-NO{sub x} burners, overfire air, and selective non-catalytic reduction on a utility coal-fired boiler

    SciTech Connect

    Hunt, T.; Muzio, L.; Smith, R.

    1995-05-01

    Public Service Company of Colorado (PSCo), in cooperation with the US Department of Energy (DOE) and the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), is testing the Integrated Dry NO{sub x}/SO{sub 2} Emissions Control system. This system combines low-NO{sub x} burners, overfire air, selective non-catalytic reduction (SNCR), and dry sorbent injection with humidification to reduce by up to 70% both NO{sub x} and SO{sub 2} emissions from a 100 MW coal-fired utility boiler. The project is being conducted at PSCo`s Arapahoe Unit 4 located in Denver, Colorado as part of the DOE`s Clean Coal Technology Round 3 program. The urea-based SNCR system, supplied by Noell, Inc., was installed in late 1991 and was tested with the unmodified boiler in 1992. At full load, it reduced NO{sub x} emissions by about 35% with an associated ammonia slip limit of 10 ppm. Babcock & Wilcox XLS{reg_sign} burners and a dual-zone overfire air system were retrofit to the top-fired boiler in mid-1992 and demonstrated a NO{sub x} reduction of nearly 70% across the load range. Integrated testing of the combustion modifications and the SNCR system were conducted in 1993 and showed that the SNCR system could reduce NO{sub x} emissions by an additional 45% while maintaining 10 ppm of ammonia slip limit at full load. Lower than expect4ed flue-gas temperatures caused low-load operation to be less effective than at high loads. NO{sub x} reduction decreased to as low as 11% at 60 MWe at an ammonia slip limit of 10 ppm. An ammonia conversion system was installed to improve performance at low loads. Other improvements to increase NO{sub x} removal at low-loads are planned. The combined system of combustion modifications and SNCR reduced NO{sub x} emissions by over 80% from the original full-load baseline. 11 figs.

  7. State-space representation of Li-ion battery porous electrode impedance model with balanced model reduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jun, Myungsoo; Smith, Kandler; Graf, Peter

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents an approximate time-domain solution for physics-based electrochemical lithium-ion cell battery models. The time-domain solution is represented in state-space form and can be easily used for the design of a state estimator or controller. It uses an interconnection-of-system approach to derive a state-space representation of a battery impedance model and provides a reduced order model based via the balanced truncation method. Simulation results are also provided to show the performance of the proposed model in the frequency domain.

  8. Air filtering device

    SciTech Connect

    Backus, A.L.

    1992-07-28

    This patent describes a room air cleaning device. It comprises: a box housing having an air inlet and an air outlet provided therein; a vertical baffle coupled to the box housing opposite the air outlet and spaced form the box housing such that an air egress outlet is formed between the vertical baffle and the box housing; air cleansing means substantially disposed within the box housing and cleansing air passing into the inlet and out of the air egress outlet; a fan disposed within the box housing, the fan providing air movement through the air inlet and the air egress outlet; wherein air exits the room air cleaning device through the air egress outlet as a vertical plane of moving air; and wherein formation of the vertical plane of moving air contributes to the formation of a low pressure area drawing impure air toward the air inlet.

  9. Rectilinear-motion space inversion-based detection approach for infrared dim air targets with variable velocities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Tianlei; Shi, Zelin; Yin, Jian; Liu, Yunpeng; Xu, Baoshu; Zhang, Chengshuo

    2016-03-01

    Dim targets are extremely difficult to detect using methods based on single-frame detection. Radiation accumulation is one of the effective methods to improve signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). A detection approach based on radiation accumulation is proposed. First, a location space and a motion space are established. Radiation accumulation operation, controlled by vectors from the motion space, is applied to the original image space. Then, a new image space is acquired where some images have an improved SNR. Second, quasitargets in the new image space are obtained by constant false-alarm ratio judging, and location vectors and motion vectors of quasitargets are also acquired simultaneously. Third, the location vectors and motion vectors are mapped into the two spaces, respectively. Volume density function is defined in the motion space. Location extremum of the location space and volume density extremum of motion space will confirm the true target. Finally, actual location of the true target in the original image space is obtained by space inversion. The approach is also applicable to detect multiple dim targets. Experimental results show the effectiveness of the proposed approach and demonstrate the approach is superior to compared approaches on detection probability and false alarm probability.

  10. Magnitude and value of electric vehicle emissions reductions for six driving cycles in four US cities with varying air quality problems

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Q.; Santini, D.L.

    1992-12-31

    The emissions of logically competing mid-1990 gasoline vehicles (GVs) and electric vehicles (EVs) are estimated as if the vehicles were driven in the same pattern of driving. Six different driving cycles are evaluated, ranging in speed from 7 to 49 miles per hour (mph). These steps are repeated using specifics of fuel composition, electric power mix, and environmental conditions applicable to Chicago, Denver, Los Angeles, and New York in the month of July. The year 2000 emissions differences for each of four regulated pollutants - HC, CO, NO{sub x,} SO{sub x} - are estimated. CO{sub 2} emissions are also estimated. With use of EVs, HC and CO emissions are consistently lowered by 98% or more. CO{sub 2} emissions reductions are uniformly large at low speed, but variable at high speed. It is found that initially introduced EVs could achieve 100% emission reductions in Chicago by using off-peak power from nuclear power plants for EV electricity generation. Emissions reductions occur for all combinations in Los Angeles, and for most combinations in New York, excepting SO{sub x}. NO{sub x} emissions are reduced in all four cities. An ``avoided cost`` value for each regulated pollutant is estimated for each of the cities. The values for each city depend on severity of air quality violations. It is estimated that the emissions reduction value of EVs driven an average of one and one half hours per day in Los Angeles ranges from $1050 to $3,900; $590 to $2100 in New York; $270 to $1200 in Chicago, and $330 to $1250 in Denver (1989$). Assuming a range of about 100 miles in congested conditions with speeds of 10 mph or less, the estimates range from $3600 to $13300 for Los Angeles; $2004 to $7200 for New York; $930 to $2930 for Chicago; and $1120 to $4290 for Denver. Low estimates are obtained using EPA`s draft Mobile5 model for GV emissions, high values by using California`s EMFAC7EP-SCF1 model. The dollar value benefit estimates include no economic value.

  11. Magnitude and value of electric vehicle emissions reductions for six driving cycles in four US cities with varying air quality problems

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Q. ); Santini, D.L. )

    1992-01-01

    The emissions of logically competing mid-1990 gasoline vehicles (GVs) and electric vehicles (EVs) are estimated as if the vehicles were driven in the same pattern of driving. Six different driving cycles are evaluated, ranging in speed from 7 to 49 miles per hour (mph). These steps are repeated using specifics of fuel composition, electric power mix, and environmental conditions applicable to Chicago, Denver, Los Angeles, and New York in the month of July. The year 2000 emissions differences for each of four regulated pollutants - HC, CO, NO[sub x,] SO[sub x] - are estimated. CO[sub 2] emissions are also estimated. With use of EVs, HC and CO emissions are consistently lowered by 98% or more. CO[sub 2] emissions reductions are uniformly large at low speed, but variable at high speed. It is found that initially introduced EVs could achieve 100% emission reductions in Chicago by using off-peak power from nuclear power plants for EV electricity generation. Emissions reductions occur for all combinations in Los Angeles, and for most combinations in New York, excepting SO[sub x]. NO[sub x] emissions are reduced in all four cities. An avoided cost'' value for each regulated pollutant is estimated for each of the cities. The values for each city depend on severity of air quality violations. It is estimated that the emissions reduction value of EVs driven an average of one and one half hours per day in Los Angeles ranges from $1050 to $3,900; $590 to $2100 in New York; $270 to $1200 in Chicago, and $330 to $1250 in Denver (1989$). Assuming a range of about 100 miles in congested conditions with speeds of 10 mph or less, the estimates range from $3600 to $13300 for Los Angeles; $2004 to $7200 for New York; $930 to $2930 for Chicago; and $1120 to $4290 for Denver. Low estimates are obtained using EPA's draft Mobile5 model for GV emissions, high values by using California's EMFAC7EP-SCF1 model. The dollar value benefit estimates include no economic value.

  12. Exposure of unsuspecting workers to deadly atmospheres in below-ground confined spaces and investigation of related whole-air sample composition using adsorption gas chromatography.

    PubMed

    Smith, Philip A; Lockhart, Bonnie; Besser, Brett W; Michalski, Michael A R

    2014-01-01

    Hazardous atmospheres in confined spaces may be obvious when a source of air contamination or oxygen (O2) deficiency is recognized. Such is often the case in general industry settings, especially with work processes which create hazardous atmospheres that may be anticipated. Hazards present in active sewers are also well recognized; but the possibility that O2 deficiency or high airborne contaminant concentrations may exist in new construction sewers or storm drains has been repeatedly ignored with deadly results. Low O2 and high carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations may exist in new construction manholes that have not yet been connected to an active sewer or drain system, and these concentrations have been shown to vary over time. A recent incident is described where workers repeatedly entered such a confined space without incident, but subsequent entry resulted in a fatality and a near-miss for a co-worker rescuer. Additional cases are discussed, with an emphasis placed on elevated CO2 concentrations as a causative factor. A description is provided for the adsorptive gas chromatography whole-air analysis methodology used to quantitatively determine atmospheric conditions present at this type of fatality site or others after an incident, and for the gas chromatography-mass spectrometry method used to provide confirmation of analyte identity with high certainty. Many types of confined spaces may be encountered in addition to the underground varieties discussed, and many possible atmospheric hazards are possible. The definitive whole-air analysis approach described here may be of use and should be considered to investigate many confined space fatality and near-miss cases, and to better understand the causes of dangerous atmosphere conditions that may arise in confined spaces. PMID:24856640

  13. Reduction of noxious substance emissions at the pulverized fuel combustion in the combustor of the BKZ-160 boiler of the Almaty heat electropower station using the "Overfire Air" technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Askarova, A. S.; Messerle, V. E.; Ustimenko, A. B.; Bolegenova, S. A.; Bolegenova, S. A.; Maximov, V. Yu.; Yergalieva, A. B.

    2016-01-01

    The computational experiments using the "Overfire Air" (OFA) technology at the coal dust torch combustion in the combustor of the BKZ-160 boiler of the heat power plant No. 2 in Almaty have been conducted. The results show a possibility of reaching a reduction of the emission of noxious nitrogen oxides NO x and minimizing the energy losses. The results of numerical experiments on the influence of the additional air supply on the main characteristics of heat and mass transfer are presented. A comparison with the base regime of the solid fuel combustion when there is no supply of the additional air (OFA = 0 %) has been made.

  14. Enabling and Enhancing Space Mission Success and Reduction of Risk through the Application of an Integrated Data Architecture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brummett, Robert C.

    2008-01-01

    The engineering phases of design, development, test, and evaluation (DDT and E) and subsequent planning, preparation, and operation (Ops) of space vehicles in a complex and distributed environment requires massive and continuous flows of information across the enterprise and across temporal stages of the vehicle lifecycle. The resulting capabilities at each subsequent stage depend in part on the capture, preparation, storage, and subsequent provision of information from prior stages. The United States National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is currently designing a fleet of new vehicles that will replace the Space Shuttle and expand space operations and exploration capabilities. This includes the 2 stage human rated lift vehicle Ares 1 and its associated crew vehicle the Orion, and a service module; the heavy lift cargo vehicle, Ares 5, and an associated cargo stage known as the Earth Departure Stage; and a Lunar Lander vehicle that contains a descent stage, and ascent stage, and a habitation module. A variety of concurrent assorted ground operations infrastructure including software and facilities are also being developed, assorted technology and assembly designs and development for equipment such as EVA suits, life support systems, command and control technologies are also in the pipeline. The development is occurring in a distributed manner, with project deliverables being contributed by a large and diverse assortment of vendors and most space faring nations. Critical information about all of the components, software, and procedures must be shared during the DDT and E phases and then made readily available to the mission operations staff for access during the planning, preparation, and operations phases, and also need to be readily available for system to system interactions. The Constellation Data Systems Project (CxDS) is identifying the needs, and designing and deploying systems and processes to support these needs. This paper details the steps

  15. Assessment of the Impact of The East Asian Summer Monsoon on the Air Quality Over China from space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hao, N.; Ding, A.; Valks, P.; Safieddine, S.; Clerbaux, C.; Trautmann, T.

    2013-12-01

    Air pollution is one of the most important environmental problems in developing Asian countries like China. Due to huge consumption of fossil fuels and rapid increase of traffic emissions in the past decades, many regions in China have been experiencing heavy air pollution. In China, studies showed that the East Asian monsoon plays a significant role in characterizing the temporal variation and spatial patterns of air pollution, since monsoon is a major atmospheric system affecting air mass transport, convection, and precipitation. Publicly available in situ observations cannot provide sufficient spatial coverage and high consistence in data quality for a long-term period. Therefore, knowledge gaps still exist in the understanding of Asian monsoon impact on the air quality in China under the background of global climate change. Satellite retrievals with high spatial coverage and high consistence for a long period can well document the change of air pollution with monsoon. We apply multi-platform satellite observations by the GOME, SCIAMACHY, GOME-2, IASI, GOMOS, MIPAS and MOPITT instruments to analyze tropospheric ozone and CO, precursors of ozone (NOx, HCHO and CH4) and other related trace gases over China. The potential of using the current generation of satellite instruments to monitor air quality changes caused by the East Asian monsoon circulation will be presented. Preliminary comparison results between satellite measurement and limited but valuable ground-based and aircraft measurements will also be showed.

  16. Air Quality Applications Based on Space Observations: The Role of the 11 Years OMI Data Record and the Potentials for TROPOMI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levelt, P.; Veefkind, J. P.; Kleipool, Q.; Eskes, H.; A, R. V. D.; Mijling, B.; Tamminen, J.; Joiner, J.; Bhartia, P. K.

    2015-12-01

    In the last three decades the capabilities of measuring the atmospheric composition from space did grow tremendously with ESA's ENVISAT and NASA's Eos-Aura satellite programmes. The potential to operationally monitor the atmospheric composition, like the meteorological community is doing for the physical parameters, is now within reach. At the same time, the importance for society of operational environmental monitoring, related to the ozone layer, air quality and climate change, became apparent. The Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI), launched on board of NASA's EOS-Aura spacecraft in on July 15, 2004, provides unique contributions to air quality monitoring from Space. The combination of urban scale resolution (13 x 24 km2 in nadir) and daily global coverage proved to be key features for the air quality community. The OMI data is currently used for improving the air quality forecasts, for inverting high-resolution emission maps, for UV forecast and for volcanic plume warning systems for aviation. Due to its 11 year continuous operation OMI now provides the longest NO2 record from space, which is essential to understand the changes in emissions globally. In 2016 Tropospheric Monitoring Instrument (TROPOMI), will be launched on board ESA's Sentinel 5 Precursor satellite. TROPOMI will have a spatial resolution of 7x7 km2 in nadir; a more than 6 times improvement over OMI. The high spatial resolution serves two goals: (1) emissions sources can be detected with even better accuracy and (2) the number of cloud-free ground pixels will increase substantially. TROPOMI also adds additional spectral bands that allow for better cloud corrections, as well as the retrieval of carbon monoxide and methane. TROPOMI will be an important satellite mission for the Copernicus atmosphere service. TROPOMI will play a key role in the Air Quality Constellation, being the polar instruments that can link the 3 GEO UVN instruments, Sentinel 4, TEMPO and GEMS. Thus, TROPOMI can serve as a

  17. Key issues for the strategic-offensive-force reduction portion of the nuclear and space talks in Geneva. Interim report

    SciTech Connect

    Warner, E.L.; Kent, G.A.; DeValk, R.J.

    1985-12-01

    This note discusses approaches for the limitation and reduction of U.S. and Soviet strategic attack forces. It identifies three national security objectives that the United States and, arguably, the Soviet Union seek to obtain through a combination of strategic nuclear force deployments, arms control, and diplomacy: credible deterrence, strategic, crisis stability, and essential equivalence. It defines three measures that can be controlled to constrain the destructive capacity of intercontinental strategic attack forces: the amount of ballistic missile throwweight, the number of ballistic missile RVs, and the amount of bomber gross takeoff weight. It then considers an alternative approach, a weighted composite measure that yields a smaller initial difference between U.S. and Soviet ballistic missile forces than the pure throwweight approach, thus providing better prospects for successful compromise in negotiation. It concludes that the United States cannot reasonably expect to gain any treaty significant reductions in Soviet ballistic missile capabilities without being prepared to accept considerable constraints on the growth of the U.S. bomber force weapon-carrying potential.

  18. Estimation of Reduction in Airspace Capacity Due to Convective Weather

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sheth, Kapil; Sridhar, Banavar; Namjoshi, Leena

    2006-01-01

    Severe convective weather routinely disrupts normal flow of air traffic in the United States' National Airspace System (NAS). Over the last decade, severe weather has been the most significant cause, accounting for over 70% of air traffic delays in the NAS. Flights incur modification in their nominal routes due to the presence of severe weather, and hence, suffer increased delays. These delays contribute to increased burden on airlines due to extra fuel costs and missed schedules for connecting flights. In this paper, the reduction in air space capacity and the associated air traffic delays due to severe convective weather will be investigated.

  19. 6S Return Samples: Assessment of Air Quality in the International Space Station (ISS) Based on Solid Sorbent Air Sampler (SSAS) and Formaldehyde Monitoring Kit (FMK) Analyses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    James, John T.

    2004-01-01

    The toxicological assessments of SSAS and FMK analytical results are reported. Analytical methods have not changed from earlier reports. Surrogate standard recoveries from the SSAS tubes were 66-76% for 13C-acetone, 85-96% for fluorobenzene, and 73-89% for chlorobenzene. Post-flight flows were far below pre-flight flows and an investigation of the problem revealed that the reduced flow was caused by a leak at the interface of the pump inlet tube and the pump head. This resulted in degradation of pump efficiency. Further investigation showed that the problem occurred before the SSAS was operated on orbit and that use of the post-flight flows yielded consistent and useful results. Recoveries from formaldehyde control badges were 86 to 104%. The two general criteria used to assess air quality are the total-non-methane-volatile organic hydrocarbons (NMVOCs) and the total T-value (minus the CO2 and formaldehyde contributions). The T values will not be reported for these data due to the flow anomaly. Control of atmospheric alcohols is important to the water recovery system engineers, hence total alcohols (including acetone) are also shown for each sample. Octafluoropropane (OFP) is not efficiently trapped by the sorbents used in the SSAS. Because formaldehyde is quantified from sorbent badges, its concentration is also listed separately. These five indices of air quality are summarized.

  20. CO2 Compressor Requirements for Integration of Space Station Carbon Dioxide Removal and Carbon Dioxide Reduction Assemblies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jeng, Frank F.; Lewis, John F.; Graf, John; LaFuse, Sharon; Nicholson, Leonard S. (Technical Monitor)

    1999-01-01

    This paper describes the analysis on integration requirements, CO2 compressor in particular, for integration of Carbon Dioxide Removal Assembly (CDRA) and CO2 Reduction Assembly (CRA) as a part of the Node 3 project previously conducted at JSC/NASA. A system analysis on the volume and operation pressure range of the CO2 accumulator was conducted. The hardware and operational configurations of the CO2 compressor were developed. The performance and interface requirements of the compressor were specified. An existing Four-Bed Molecular Sieve CO2 removal computer model was modified into a CDRA model and used in analyzing the requirements of the CDRA CO2 compressor. This CDRA model was also used in analyzing CDRA operation parameters that dictate CO2 pump sizing. Strategy for the pump activation was also analyzed.