Science.gov

Sample records for air staging oeas

  1. Demonstration of oxygen-enriched air staging at Owens-Brockway glass containers. Quarterly technical progress report for the period August 1, 1996--October 31, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Rue, D.; Abbasi, H.

    1997-03-01

    The objective of the program is to demonstrate the use of a previously developed combustion modification technology to reduce NO, emissions from sideport regenerative container glass melters. This technology, known as oxygen-enriched air staging (OEAS), has been demonstrated, and is now being commercialized for endport container glass furnaces. This report focuses on full furnace parametric and long-term testing.

  2. Multi-stage combustion using nitrogen-enriched air

    DOEpatents

    Fischer, Larry E.; Anderson, Brian L.

    2004-09-14

    Multi-stage combustion technology combined with nitrogen-enriched air technology for controlling the combustion temperature and products to extend the maintenance and lifetime cycles of materials in contact with combustion products and to reduce pollutants while maintaining relatively high combustion and thermal cycle efficiencies. The first stage of combustion operates fuel rich where most of the heat of combustion is released by burning it with nitrogen-enriched air. Part of the energy in the combustion gases is used to perform work or to provide heat. The cooled combustion gases are reheated by additional stages of combustion until the last stage is at or near stoichiometric conditions. Additional energy is extracted from each stage to result in relatively high thermal cycle efficiency. The air is enriched with nitrogen using air separation technologies such as diffusion, permeable membrane, absorption, and cryogenics. The combustion method is applicable to many types of combustion equipment, including: boilers, burners, turbines, internal combustion engines, and many types of fuel including hydrogen and carbon-based fuels including methane and coal.

  3. Combined fuel and air staged power generation system

    DOEpatents

    Rabovitser, Iosif K; Pratapas, John M; Boulanov, Dmitri

    2014-05-27

    A method and apparatus for generation of electric power employing fuel and air staging in which a first stage gas turbine and a second stage partial oxidation gas turbine power operated in parallel. A first portion of fuel and oxidant are provided to the first stage gas turbine which generates a first portion of electric power and a hot oxidant. A second portion of fuel and oxidant are provided to the second stage partial oxidation gas turbine which generates a second portion of electric power and a hot syngas. The hot oxidant and the hot syngas are provided to a bottoming cycle employing a fuel-fired boiler by which a third portion of electric power is generated.

  4. Combustion performance evaluation of air staging of palm oil blends.

    PubMed

    Mohd Jaafar, Mohammad Nazri; Eldrainy, Yehia A; Mat Ali, Muhammad Faiser; Wan Omar, W Z; Mohd Hizam, Mohd Faizi Arif

    2012-02-21

    The problems of global warming and the unstable price of petroleum oils have led to a race to develop environmentally friendly biofuels, such as palm oil or ethanol derived from corn and sugar cane. Biofuels are a potential replacement for fossil fuel, since they are renewable and environmentally friendly. This paper evaluates the combustion performance and emission characteristics of Refined, Bleached, and Deodorized Palm Oil (RBDPO)/diesel blends B5, B10, B15, B20, and B25 by volume, using an industrial oil burner with and without secondary air. Wall temperature profiles along the combustion chamber axis were measured using a series of thermocouples fitted axially on the combustion chamber wall, and emissions released were measured using a gas analyzer. The results show that RBDPO blend B25 produced the maximum emission reduction of 56.9% of CO, 74.7% of NOx, 68.5% of SO(2), and 77.5% of UHC compared to petroleum diesel, while air staging (secondary air) in most cases reduces the emissions further. However, increasing concentrations of RBDPO in the blends also reduced the energy released from the combustion. The maximum wall temperature reduction was 62.7% for B25 at the exit of the combustion chamber. PMID:22296110

  5. Second-stage trajectories of air-breathing space planes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Staufenbiel, R. W.

    1990-12-01

    Attention throughout the world has turned to the benefits that can be gained in space transportation by combining the features of aircraft and rockets. In the rocket-driven phase or stage, which follows the nearly horizontal air-breathing flight, a considerable change in the flight trajectory, a pullup maneuver, is necessary shortly before or after igniting the rocket engines. The change puts a burden on the first or the second stage and thereby reduces the payload. In this paper an optimal strategy for the rocket-propelled flight phase is developed that gives the smallest penalties on longitudinal acceleration and, therefore, on burnout mass. The strategy leads to a splitting of lift and thrust component normal to the flight direction. Two other control strategies are compared with the optimal procedure. Using a generic modeling of aerodynamic characteristics, the equations of motion are solved to assess the influence of initial conditions and of trajectory parameters on the burnout mass. Results of the study show the essential influence of the initial values of flight-path angle and Mach number on the rocket-propelled flight phase. Initial flight-path angle should not be lower than 5 deg. If a reasonable amount of payload and propellant for in-orbit operation should be carried, the dry-mass ratio of the second stage must come down to the range of 15 to 20, depending on the separation Mach number (5 to 6.5).

  6. Effect of air-staging on anthracite combustion and NOx formation

    SciTech Connect

    Weidong Fan; Zhengchun Lin; Youyi Li; Jinguo Kuang; Mingchuan Zhang

    2009-01-15

    Experiments were carried out in a multipath air inlet one-dimensional furnace to assess NOx emission characteristics of the staged combustion of anthracite coal. These experiments allowed us to study the impact of pulverized coal fineness and burnout air position on emission under both deep and shallow air-staged combustion conditions. We also studied the impact of char-nitrogen release on both the burning-out process of the pulverized coal and the corresponding carbon content in fly ash. We found that air-staged combustion affects a pronounced reduction in NOx emissions from the combustion of anthracite coal. The more the air is staged, the more NOx emission is reduced. In shallow air-staged combustion (f{sub M} = 0.85), the fineness of the pulverized coal strongly influences emissions, and finer coals result in lower emissions. Meanwhile, the burnout air position has only a weak effect. In the deep air-staged combustion (f{sub M} = 0.6), the effect of coal fineness is smaller, and the burnout air position has a stronger effect. When the primary combustion air is stable, NOx emissions increase with increasing burnout air. This proves that, in the burnout zone, coal char is responsible for the discharge of fuel-nitrogen that is oxidized to NOx. The measurement of secondary air staging in a burnout zone can help inhibit the oxidization of NO caused by nitrogen release. Air-staged combustion has little effect on the burnout of anthracite coal, which proves to be suitable for air-staged combustion. 31 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab.

  7. Combustion and NOx emission characteristics with respect to staged-air damper opening in a 600 MWe down-fired pulverized-coal furnace under deep-air-staging conditions.

    PubMed

    Kuang, Min; Li, Zhengqi; Wang, Zhihua; Jing, Xinjing; Liu, Chunlong; Zhu, Qunyi; Ling, Zhongqian

    2014-01-01

    Deep-air-staging combustion conditions, widely used in tangential-fired and wall-arranged furnaces to significantly reduce NOx emissions, are premature up to now in down-fired furnaces that are designed especially for industry firing low-volatile coals such as anthracite and lean coal. To uncover combustion and NOx emission characteristics under deep-air-staging conditions within a newly operated 600 MWe down-fired furnace and simultaneously understand the staged-air effect on the furnace performance, full-load industrial-size measurements taken of gas temperatures and species concentrations in the furnace, CO and NOx emissions in flue gas, and carbon in fly ash were performed at various staged-air damper openings of 10%, 20%, 30%, and 50%. Increasing the staged-air damper opening, gas temperatures along the flame travel (before the flame penetrating the staged-air zone) increased initially but then decreased, while those in the staged-air zone and the upper part of the hopper continuously decreased and increased, respectively. On opening the staged-air damper to further deepen the air-staging conditions, O2 content initially decreased but then increased in both two near-wall regions affected by secondary air and staged air, respectively, whereas CO content in both two regions initially increased but then decreased. In contrast to the conventional understanding about the effects of deep-air-staging conditions, here increasing the staged-air damper opening to deepen the air-staging conditions essentially decreased the exhaust gas temperature and carbon in fly ash and simultaneously increased both NOx emissions and boiler efficiency. In light of apparently low NOx emissions and high carbon in fly ash (i.e., 696-878 mg/m(3) at 6% O2 and 9.81-13.05%, respectively) developing in the down-fired furnace under the present deep-air-staging conditions, further adjustments such as enlarging the staged-air declination angle to prolong pulverized-coal residence times in the

  8. Empirical study of classification process for two-stage turbo air classifier in series

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Yuan; Liu, Jiaxiang; Li, Gang

    2013-05-01

    The suitable process parameters for a two-stage turbo air classifier are important for obtaining the ultrafine powder that has a narrow particle-size distribution, however little has been published internationally on the classification process for the two-stage turbo air classifier in series. The influence of the process parameters of a two-stage turbo air classifier in series on classification performance is empirically studied by using aluminum oxide powders as the experimental material. The experimental results show the following: 1) When the rotor cage rotary speed of the first-stage classifier is increased from 2 300 r/min to 2 500 r/min with a constant rotor cage rotary speed of the second-stage classifier, classification precision is increased from 0.64 to 0.67. However, in this case, the final ultrafine powder yield is decreased from 79% to 74%, which means the classification precision and the final ultrafine powder yield can be regulated through adjusting the rotor cage rotary speed of the first-stage classifier. 2) When the rotor cage rotary speed of the second-stage classifier is increased from 2 500 r/min to 3 100 r/min with a constant rotor cage rotary speed of the first-stage classifier, the cut size is decreased from 13.16 μm to 8.76 μm, which means the cut size of the ultrafine powder can be regulated through adjusting the rotor cage rotary speed of the second-stage classifier. 3) When the feeding speed is increased from 35 kg/h to 50 kg/h, the "fish-hook" effect is strengthened, which makes the ultrafine powder yield decrease. 4) To weaken the "fish-hook" effect, the equalization of the two-stage wind speeds or the combination of a high first-stage wind speed with a low second-stage wind speed should be selected. This empirical study provides a criterion of process parameter configurations for a two-stage or multi-stage classifier in series, which offers a theoretical basis for practical production.

  9. Pulse generators based on air-insulated linear-transformer-driver stages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kovalchuk, B. M.; Kharlov, A. V.; Kumpyak, E. V.; Zherlitsyn, A. A.

    2013-05-01

    In this paper we present the design and test results of pulse generators based on air-insulated linear-transformer-driver stages that drive a vacuum transmission line. A custom designed unit, referred to as a capacitor block, was developed for use as a main structural element of the transformer stages. It incorporates two capacitors GA 35426 (40 nF, 100 kV) and a multichannel multigap gas switch. Two types of stages were developed: (1) stage LTD-20 with four modules in parallel and five capacitor blocks in each module (in tests of this stage current amplitude up to 850 kA with ˜140ns rise time was obtained on a 0.05Ω load at 100 kV charging voltage); (2) stage LTD-4 with two modules in parallel and two capacitor blocks in each module. Several installations were built on the base of these stages, including a linear transformer, consisting of two identical LTD-20 stages in series, and a high power electron accelerator on the base of LTD-4 stages. The design, tests results, and main problems are presented and discussed in this paper for these installations.

  10. Cold-air investigation of a 3 1/2-stage fan-drive turbine with a stage loading factor of 4 designed for an integral lift engine. 1: Turbine design and performance of first stage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitney, W. J.; Schum, H. J.; Behning, F. P.

    1975-01-01

    The design of the 3 1/2-stage turbine is described, and the cold-air performance of the first stage, modified for axial inlet conditions, is presented. The performance of the modified single-stage turbine and of two comtemporary high-stage-loading-factor turbines is compared with that estimated with a reference prediction method.

  11. Two-Stage Energy Thermalization Mechanism in Nanosecond Pulse Discharges in Air and Hydrogen-Air Mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shkurenkov, Ivan; Lanier, Suzanne; Adamovich, Igor; Lempert, Walter

    2014-10-01

    Time-resolved and spatially resolved rotational temperature measurements in air and H2-air, by purely rotational Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Spectroscopy (CARS), are presented. The experimental results demonstrate high accuracy of pure rotational psec CARS for thermometry measurements at low partial pressures of oxygen in nonequilibrium plasmas. The results are compared with modeling calculations using a state-specific master equation kinetic model of reacting hydrogen-air plasmas, showing good agreement. The results demonstrate that energy thermalization and temperature rise in these plasmas occur in two stages, (i) ``rapid'' heating, occurring on the time scale τrapid ~ 0 . 1 --1 μs .atm, caused by collisional quenching of excited electronic states of N2 molecules by O2, and (ii) ``slow'' heating, on the time scale τslow ~ 10 --100 μs .atm, caused primarily by N2 vibrational relaxation by O atoms (in air) and by chemical energy release during partial oxidation of hydrogen (in H2-air. Both energy thermalization mechanisms have major implications for plasma assisted combustion and plasma flow control.

  12. Regulating low-NOx and high-burnout deep-air-staging combustion under real-furnace conditions in a 600 MWe down-fired supercritical boiler by strengthening the staged-air effect.

    PubMed

    Kuang, Min; Wang, Zhihua; Zhu, Yanqun; Ling, Zhongqian; Li, Zhengqi

    2014-10-21

    A 600 MW(e) down-fired pulverized-coal supercritical boiler, which was equipped with a deep-air-staging combustion system for reducing the particularly high NOx emissions, suffered from the well-accepted contradiction between low NOx emissions and high carbon in fly ash, in addition to excessively high gas temperatures in the hopper that jeopardized the boiler's safe operations. Previous results uncovered that under low-NOx conditions, strengthening the staged-air effect by decreasing the staged-air angle and simultaneously increasing the staged-air damper opening alleviated the aforementioned problems to some extent. To establish low-NOx and high-burnout circumstances and control the aforementioned hopper temperatures, a further staged-air retrofit with horizontally redirecting staged air through an enlarged staged-air slot area was performed to greatly strengthen the staged-air effect. Full-load industrial-size measurements were performed to confirm the availability of this retrofit. The present data were compared with those published results before the retrofit. High NOx emissions, low carbon in fly ah, and high hopper temperatures (i.e., levels of 1036 mg/m(3) at 6% O2, 3.72%, and about 1300 °C, respectively) appeared under the original conditions with the staged-air angle of 45° and without overfire air (OFA) application. Applying OFA and reducing the angle to 20° achieved an apparent NOx reduction and a moderate hopper temperature decrease while a sharp increase in carbon in fly ash (i.e., levels of 878 mg/m(3) at 6% O2, about 1200 °C, and 9.81%, respectively). Fortunately, the present staged-air retrofit was confirmed to be applicable in regulating low-NOx, high-burnout, and low hopper temperature circumstances (i.e., levels of 867 mg/m(3) at 6% O2, 5.40%, and about 1100 °C, respectively).

  13. A two-stage inexact joint-probabilistic programming method for air quality management under uncertainty.

    PubMed

    Lv, Y; Huang, G H; Li, Y P; Yang, Z F; Sun, W

    2011-03-01

    A two-stage inexact joint-probabilistic programming (TIJP) method is developed for planning a regional air quality management system with multiple pollutants and multiple sources. The TIJP method incorporates the techniques of two-stage stochastic programming, joint-probabilistic constraint programming and interval mathematical programming, where uncertainties expressed as probability distributions and interval values can be addressed. Moreover, it can not only examine the risk of violating joint-probability constraints, but also account for economic penalties as corrective measures against any infeasibility. The developed TIJP method is applied to a case study of a regional air pollution control problem, where the air quality index (AQI) is introduced for evaluation of the integrated air quality management system associated with multiple pollutants. The joint-probability exists in the environmental constraints for AQI, such that individual probabilistic constraints for each pollutant can be efficiently incorporated within the TIJP model. The results indicate that useful solutions for air quality management practices have been generated; they can help decision makers to identify desired pollution abatement strategies with minimized system cost and maximized environmental efficiency. PMID:21067860

  14. Measurement error in two-stage analyses, with application to air pollution epidemiology.

    PubMed

    Szpiro, Adam A; Paciorek, Christopher J

    2013-12-01

    Public health researchers often estimate health effects of exposures (e.g., pollution, diet, lifestyle) that cannot be directly measured for study subjects. A common strategy in environmental epidemiology is to use a first-stage (exposure) model to estimate the exposure based on covariates and/or spatio-temporal proximity and to use predictions from the exposure model as the covariate of interest in the second-stage (health) model. This induces a complex form of measurement error. We propose an analytical framework and methodology that is robust to misspecification of the first-stage model and provides valid inference for the second-stage model parameter of interest. We decompose the measurement error into components analogous to classical and Berkson error and characterize properties of the estimator in the second-stage model if the first-stage model predictions are plugged in without correction. Specifically, we derive conditions for compatibility between the first- and second-stage models that guarantee consistency (and have direct and important real-world design implications), and we derive an asymptotic estimate of finite-sample bias when the compatibility conditions are satisfied. We propose a methodology that (1) corrects for finite-sample bias and (2) correctly estimates standard errors. We demonstrate the utility of our methodology in simulations and an example from air pollution epidemiology.

  15. Environmental performance of air staged combustor with flue gas recirculation to burn coal/biomass

    SciTech Connect

    Anuar, S.H.; Keener, H.M.

    1995-12-31

    The environmental and thermal performance of a 1.07 m diameter, 440 kW atmospheric fluidized bed combustor operated at 700{degrees}C-920{degrees}C and burning coal was studied. Flue gas recirculation was incorporated to enhance the thermal performance and air staging was used to control emissions of SO{sub 2}, CO, NO{sub x} and N{sub 2}O. Studies focused on the effect of excess air, firing rate, and use of sorbent on system performance. The recirculation-staging mode with limestone had the highest thermal efficiency (0.67) using the firing equation. Emission data showed that flue gas recirculation (ratio of 0.7) significantly reduced NO{sub x} emissions; and that use of limestone sorbent at a Ca/S ratio of 3 reduced SO{sub 2} emissions by 64% to approximately 0.310 g/MJ.

  16. Two-stage energy thermalization mechanism in nanosecond pulse discharges in air and hydrogen-air mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lanier, Suzanne; Shkurenkov, Ivan; Adamovich, Igor V.; Lempert, Walter R.

    2015-04-01

    Time-resolved and spatially resolved temperature measurements, by pure rotational picosecond broadband coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy (CARS), and kinetic modeling calculations are used to study kinetics of energy thermalization in nanosecond pulse discharges in air and hydrogen-air mixtures. The diffuse filament, nanosecond pulse discharge (pulse duration ˜100 ns) is sustained between two spherical electrodes and is operated at a low pulse repetition rate to enable temperature measurements over a wide range of time scales after the discharge pulse. The experimental results demonstrate high accuracy of pure rotational ps CARS for thermometry measurements in highly transient non-equilibrium plasmas. Rotational-translational temperatures are measured for time delays after the pulse ranging from tens of ns to tens of ms, spanning several orders of magnitude of time scales for energy thermalization in non-equilibrium plasmas. In addition, radial temperature distributions across the plasma filament are measured for several time delays after the discharge pulse. Kinetic modeling calculations using a state-specific master equation kinetic model of reacting hydrogen-air plasmas show good agreement with experimental data. The results demonstrate that energy thermalization and temperature rise in these plasmas occur in two clearly defined stages, (i) ‘rapid’ heating, caused by collisional quenching of excited electronic states of N2 molecules by O2, and (ii) ‘slow’ heating, caused primarily by N2 vibrational relaxation by O atoms (in air) and by chemical energy release during partial oxidation of hydrogen (in H2-air). The results have major implications for plasma assisted combustion and plasma flow control.

  17. Regulating low-NOx and high-burnout deep-air-staging combustion under real-furnace conditions in a 600 MWe down-fired supercritical boiler by strengthening the staged-air effect.

    PubMed

    Kuang, Min; Wang, Zhihua; Zhu, Yanqun; Ling, Zhongqian; Li, Zhengqi

    2014-10-21

    A 600 MW(e) down-fired pulverized-coal supercritical boiler, which was equipped with a deep-air-staging combustion system for reducing the particularly high NOx emissions, suffered from the well-accepted contradiction between low NOx emissions and high carbon in fly ash, in addition to excessively high gas temperatures in the hopper that jeopardized the boiler's safe operations. Previous results uncovered that under low-NOx conditions, strengthening the staged-air effect by decreasing the staged-air angle and simultaneously increasing the staged-air damper opening alleviated the aforementioned problems to some extent. To establish low-NOx and high-burnout circumstances and control the aforementioned hopper temperatures, a further staged-air retrofit with horizontally redirecting staged air through an enlarged staged-air slot area was performed to greatly strengthen the staged-air effect. Full-load industrial-size measurements were performed to confirm the availability of this retrofit. The present data were compared with those published results before the retrofit. High NOx emissions, low carbon in fly ah, and high hopper temperatures (i.e., levels of 1036 mg/m(3) at 6% O2, 3.72%, and about 1300 °C, respectively) appeared under the original conditions with the staged-air angle of 45° and without overfire air (OFA) application. Applying OFA and reducing the angle to 20° achieved an apparent NOx reduction and a moderate hopper temperature decrease while a sharp increase in carbon in fly ash (i.e., levels of 878 mg/m(3) at 6% O2, about 1200 °C, and 9.81%, respectively). Fortunately, the present staged-air retrofit was confirmed to be applicable in regulating low-NOx, high-burnout, and low hopper temperature circumstances (i.e., levels of 867 mg/m(3) at 6% O2, 5.40%, and about 1100 °C, respectively). PMID:25256210

  18. Demonstration of oxygen-enriched air staging at Owens-Brockway glass containers. Final technical report for the period April 1, 1995--February 28, 1997

    SciTech Connect

    Rue, D.; Abbasi, H.

    1997-10-01

    The overall objective of this program was to demonstrate the use of a previously developed combustion modification technology to reduce NO{sub x} emissions from sideport regenerative container glass melters. Specific objectives were to: acquire baseline operating data on the host sideport furnace, evaluate secondary oxidant injection strategies based on earlier endport furnace results and through modeling of a single port pair, retrofit and test one port pair (the test furnace has six port pairs) with a flexible OEAS system, and select the optimal system configuration, use the results from tests with one port pair to design, retrofit, and test OEAS on the entire furnace (six port pairs), and analyze test results, prepare report, and finalize the business plan to commercialize OEAS for sideport furnaces.

  19. Experimental study of wood downdraft gasification for an improved producer gas quality through an innovative two-stage air and premixed air/gas supply approach.

    PubMed

    Jaojaruek, Kitipong; Jarungthammachote, Sompop; Gratuito, Maria Kathrina B; Wongsuwan, Hataitep; Homhual, Suwan

    2011-04-01

    This study conducted experiments on three different downdraft gasification approaches: single stage, conventional two-stage, and an innovative two-stage air and premixed air/gas supply approach. The innovative two-stage approach has two nozzle locations, one for air supply at combustion zone and the other located at the pyrolysis zone for supplying the premixed gas (air and producer gas). The producer gas is partially bypassed to mix with air and supplied to burn at the pyrolysis zone. The result shows that producer gas quality generated by the innovative two-stage approach improved as compared to conventional two-stage. The higher heating value (HHV) increased from 5.4 to 6.5 MJ/Nm(3). Tar content in producer gas reduced to less than 45 mg/Nm(3). With this approach, gas can be fed directly to an internal combustion engine. Furthermore, the gasification thermal efficiency also improved by approximately 14%. The approach gave double benefits on gas qualities and energy savings. PMID:21292477

  20. Experimental study of wood downdraft gasification for an improved producer gas quality through an innovative two-stage air and premixed air/gas supply approach.

    PubMed

    Jaojaruek, Kitipong; Jarungthammachote, Sompop; Gratuito, Maria Kathrina B; Wongsuwan, Hataitep; Homhual, Suwan

    2011-04-01

    This study conducted experiments on three different downdraft gasification approaches: single stage, conventional two-stage, and an innovative two-stage air and premixed air/gas supply approach. The innovative two-stage approach has two nozzle locations, one for air supply at combustion zone and the other located at the pyrolysis zone for supplying the premixed gas (air and producer gas). The producer gas is partially bypassed to mix with air and supplied to burn at the pyrolysis zone. The result shows that producer gas quality generated by the innovative two-stage approach improved as compared to conventional two-stage. The higher heating value (HHV) increased from 5.4 to 6.5 MJ/Nm(3). Tar content in producer gas reduced to less than 45 mg/Nm(3). With this approach, gas can be fed directly to an internal combustion engine. Furthermore, the gasification thermal efficiency also improved by approximately 14%. The approach gave double benefits on gas qualities and energy savings.

  1. Two-stage fuzzy-stochastic robust programming: a hybrid model for regional air quality management.

    PubMed

    Li, Yongping; Huang, Guo H; Veawab, Amornvadee; Nie, Xianghui; Liu, Lei

    2006-08-01

    In this study, a hybrid two-stage fuzzy-stochastic robust programming (TFSRP) model is developed and applied to the planning of an air-quality management system. As an extension of existing fuzzy-robust programming and two-stage stochastic programming methods, the TFSRP can explicitly address complexities and uncertainties of the study system without unrealistic simplifications. Uncertain parameters can be expressed as probability density and/or fuzzy membership functions, such that robustness of the optimization efforts can be enhanced. Moreover, economic penalties as corrective measures against any infeasibilities arising from the uncertainties are taken into account. This method can, thus, provide a linkage to predefined policies determined by authorities that have to be respected when a modeling effort is undertaken. In its solution algorithm, the fuzzy decision space can be delimited through specification of the uncertainties using dimensional enlargement of the original fuzzy constraints. The developed model is applied to a case study of regional air quality management. The results indicate that reasonable solutions have been obtained. The solutions can be used for further generating pollution-mitigation alternatives with minimized system costs and for providing a more solid support for sound environmental decisions. PMID:16933639

  2. Two-stage fuzzy-stochastic robust programming: a hybrid model for regional air quality management

    SciTech Connect

    Yongping Li; Guo H. Huang; Amornvadee Veawab; Xianghui Nie; Lei Liu

    2006-08-15

    In this study, a hybrid two-stage fuzzy-stochastic robust programming (TFSRP) model is developed and applied to the planning of an air-quality management system. As an extension of existing fuzzy-robust programming and two stage stochastic programming methods, the TFSRP can explicitly address complexities and uncertainties of the study system without unrealistic simplifications. Uncertain parameters can be expressed as probability density and/or fuzzy membership functions, such that robustness of the optimization efforts can be enhanced. Moreover, economic penalties as corrective measures against any infeasibilities arising from the uncertainties are taken into account. This method can, thus, provide a linkage to predefined policies determined by authorities that have to be respected when a modeling effort is undertaken. In its solution algorithm, the fuzzy decision space can be delimited through specification of the uncertainties using dimensional enlargement of the original fuzzy constraints. The developed model is applied to a case study of regional air quality management at two coal-fired power plants considered as major sulfur dioxide emission sources. The results indicate that reasonable solutions have been obtained. The solutions can be used for further generating pollution-mitigation alternatives with minimized system costs and for providing a more solid support for sound environmental decisions. 61 refs., 7 figs., 6 tabs.

  3. Two-stage fuzzy-stochastic robust programming: a hybrid model for regional air quality management.

    PubMed

    Li, Yongping; Huang, Guo H; Veawab, Amornvadee; Nie, Xianghui; Liu, Lei

    2006-08-01

    In this study, a hybrid two-stage fuzzy-stochastic robust programming (TFSRP) model is developed and applied to the planning of an air-quality management system. As an extension of existing fuzzy-robust programming and two-stage stochastic programming methods, the TFSRP can explicitly address complexities and uncertainties of the study system without unrealistic simplifications. Uncertain parameters can be expressed as probability density and/or fuzzy membership functions, such that robustness of the optimization efforts can be enhanced. Moreover, economic penalties as corrective measures against any infeasibilities arising from the uncertainties are taken into account. This method can, thus, provide a linkage to predefined policies determined by authorities that have to be respected when a modeling effort is undertaken. In its solution algorithm, the fuzzy decision space can be delimited through specification of the uncertainties using dimensional enlargement of the original fuzzy constraints. The developed model is applied to a case study of regional air quality management. The results indicate that reasonable solutions have been obtained. The solutions can be used for further generating pollution-mitigation alternatives with minimized system costs and for providing a more solid support for sound environmental decisions.

  4. Effect of air-staging on mercury speciation in pulverized fuel co-combustion: part 2

    SciTech Connect

    Shishir P. Sable; Wiebren de Jong; Ruud Meij; Hartmut Spliethoff

    2007-08-15

    The concerns regarding global warming and need for new energy resources brought the concept of biomass and waste as secondary fuels to the power industry. Mercury emissions in cases of cofiring of chicken manure, olive residue, and B-wood with a high volatile bituminous coal blend are studied in the first part of this paper. The use of secondary fuels significantly affects NOx emissions due to different types of nitrogen present in the fuel matrix. Air-staging is a proven in-furnace NOx reduction technology. The present work mainly involves bench scale studies to investigate the effect of air-staging on partitioning of mercury in pulverized fuel co-combustion. The combustion experiments are carried out in an entrained flow reactor at 1300{sup o}C with a 20%th share of secondary fuels. Elemental and total gaseous mercury from the reactor is measured on-line, and ash is analyzed for particulate mercury along with elemental and surface properties. Reducing the air stoichiometry in the primary zone of the combustor increases unburnt carbon which in turn reduces mercury emissions in the gas phase. Ash analysis shows the effect of surface area, particle size, and unburnt carbon on mercury capture. Calcium variation in the ash was observed due to formation of different slag in reducing and oxidizing conditions and might have affected the mercury capture in combination with the above parameters. A low iron concentration of ash does not seem to affect the capture of mercury. The results will help in predicting different forms of mercury emitted from the furnace at desired operating conditions which will eventually form the basis for the design of the control strategies for mercury emissions. 22 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  5. Workload-Matched Adaptive Automation Support of Air Traffic Controller Information Processing Stages

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaber, David B.; Prinzel, Lawrence J., III; Wright, Melanie C.; Clamann, Michael P.

    2002-01-01

    Adaptive automation (AA) has been explored as a solution to the problems associated with human-automation interaction in supervisory control environments. However, research has focused on the performance effects of dynamic control allocations of early stage sensory and information acquisition functions. The present research compares the effects of AA to the entire range of information processing stages of human operators, such as air traffic controllers. The results provide evidence that the effectiveness of AA is dependent on the stage of task performance (human-machine system information processing) that is flexibly automated. The results suggest that humans are better able to adapt to AA when applied to lower-level sensory and psychomotor functions, such as information acquisition and action implementation, as compared to AA applied to cognitive (analysis and decision-making) tasks. The results also provide support for the use of AA, as compared to completely manual control. These results are discussed in terms of implications for AA design for aviation.

  6. Cold-air investigation of a 4 1/2 stage turbine with stage-loading factor of 4.66 and high specific work output. 2: Stage group performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitney, W. J.; Behning, F. P.; Moffitt, T. P.; Hotz, G. M.

    1980-01-01

    The stage group performance of a 4 1/2 stage turbine with an average stage loading factor of 4.66 and high specific work output was determined in cold air at design equivalent speed. The four stage turbine configuration produced design equivalent work output with an efficiency of 0.856; a barely discernible difference from the 0.855 obtained for the complete 4 1/2 stage turbine in a previous investigation. The turbine was designed and the procedure embodied the following design features: (1) controlled vortex flow, (2) tailored radial work distribution, and (3) control of the location of the boundary-layer transition point on the airfoil suction surface. The efficiency forecast for the 4 1/2 stage turbine was 0.886, and the value predicted using a reference method was 0.862. The stage group performance results were used to determine the individual stage efficiencies for the condition at which design 4 1/2 stage work output was obtained. The efficiencies of stages one and four were about 0.020 lower than the predicted value, that of stage two was 0.014 lower, and that of stage three was about equal to the predicted value. Thus all the stages operated reasonably close to their expected performance levels, and the overall (4 1/2 stage) performance was not degraded by any particularly inefficient component.

  7. Two-stage Bayesian model to evaluate the effect of air pollution on chronic respiratory diseases using drug prescriptions.

    PubMed

    Blangiardo, Marta; Finazzi, Francesco; Cameletti, Michela

    2016-08-01

    Exposure to high levels of air pollutant concentration is known to be associated with respiratory problems which can translate into higher morbidity and mortality rates. The link between air pollution and population health has mainly been assessed considering air quality and hospitalisation or mortality data. However, this approach limits the analysis to individuals characterised by severe conditions. In this paper we evaluate the link between air pollution and respiratory diseases using general practice drug prescriptions for chronic respiratory diseases, which allow to draw conclusions based on the general population. We propose a two-stage statistical approach: in the first stage we specify a space-time model to estimate the monthly NO2 concentration integrating several data sources characterised by different spatio-temporal resolution; in the second stage we link the concentration to the β2-agonists prescribed monthly by general practices in England and we model the prescription rates through a small area approach. PMID:27494955

  8. Laser plasma plume structure and dynamics in the ambient air: The early stage of expansion

    SciTech Connect

    Cirisan, M.; Jouvard, J. M.; Lavisse, L.; Hallo, L.; Oltra, R.

    2011-05-15

    Laser ablation plasma plume expanding into the ambient atmosphere may be an efficient way to produce nanoparticles. From that reason it would be interesting to study the properties of these laser induced plasmas formed under conditions that are known to be favorable for nanoparticles production. In general, plume behavior can be described as a two-stage process: a 'violent' plume expansion due to the absorption of the laser beam energy (during the laser pulse) followed by a fast adiabatic expansion in the ambient gas (after the end of the laser pulse). Plasma plume may last a few microseconds and may have densities 10{sup -6} times lower than the solid densities at temperatures close to the ambient temperature. Expansion of the plasma plume induced by the impact of a nanosecond laser beam ({lambda} 1064 nm) on the surface of metallic samples in the open air has been investigated by means of fast photography. Spatio-temporal evolution of the plume at the early stage of its expansion (first 330 ns) has been recorded. Structure and dynamics of the plasma plume have been investigated and compared to numerical simulations obtained with a hydro-code, as well as some scaling laws. In addition, measurements using different sample materials (Al, Fe, and Ti) have been performed in order to analyze the influence of target material on plume expansion.

  9. Photometric solution and frequency analysis of the oEA system EW Boo

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, X. B.; Wang, K.; Luo, Y. P.

    2015-03-01

    We present the first photometric solution and frequency analysis of the neglected oscillating Algol-type (oEA) binary EW Boo. B- and V-band light curves of the star were obtained on 11 nights in 2014. Using the Wilson–Devinney code, the eclipsing light curves were synthesized and the first photometric solution was derived for the binary system. The results reveal that EW Boo could be a semi-detached system with the less-massive secondary component filling its Roche lobe. By subtracting the eclipsing light changes from the data, we obtained the intrinsic pulsating light curves of the hotter, massive primary component. Frequency analysis of residual light shows multi-mode pulsation with the dominant period at 0.01909 days. A preliminary mode identification suggests that the star could be pulsating in non-radial (l = 1) modes. The long-term orbital period variation of the system was also investigated for the first time. An improved orbital period and new ephemerides of the eclipsing binary are given. The O−C analysis indicates a secular period increasing at a rate of dP/dt=2.9×10{sup −7} days yr{sup −1}, which could be interpreted as mass transfer from the cooler secondary to the primary component.

  10. Biphasic Aire expression in early embryos and in medullary thymic epithelial cells before end-stage terminal differentiation.

    PubMed

    Nishikawa, Yumiko; Hirota, Fumiko; Yano, Masashi; Kitajima, Hiroyuki; Miyazaki, Jun-ichi; Kawamoto, Hiroshi; Mouri, Yasuhiro; Matsumoto, Mitsuru

    2010-05-10

    The roles of autoimmune regulator (Aire)-expressing medullary thymic epithelial cells (mTECs) in the organization of the thymic microenvironment for establishing self-tolerance are enigmatic. We sought to monitor the production and maintenance of Aire-expressing mTECs by a fate-mapping strategy in which bacterial artificial chromosome transgenic (Tg) mice expressing Cre recombinase under the control of the Aire regulatory element were crossed with a GFP reporter strain. We found that, in addition to its well recognized expression within mature mTECs, Aire was expressed in the early embryo before emergence of the three germ cell layers. This observation may help to explain the development of ectodermal dystrophy often seen in patients with AIRE deficiency. With the use of one Tg line in which Cre recombinase expression was confined to mTECs, we found that Aire(+)CD80(high) mTECs further progressed to an Aire(-)CD80(intermediate) stage, suggesting that Aire expression is not constitutive from after its induction until cell death but instead is down-regulated at the beginning of terminal differentiation. We also demonstrated that many mTECs of Aire-expressing lineage are in close contact with thymic dendritic cells. This close proximity may contribute to transfer of tissue-restricted self-antigens expressed by mTECs to professional antigen-presenting cells.

  11. Avoiding high relative air humidity during critical stages of leaf ontogeny is decisive for stomatal functioning.

    PubMed

    Fanourakis, Dimitrios; Carvalho, Susana M P; Almeida, Domingos P F; Heuvelink, Ep

    2011-07-01

    Plants of several species, if grown at high relative air humidity (RH ≥85%), develop stomata that fail to close fully in case of low leaf water potential. We studied the effect of a reciprocal change in RH, at different stages of leaf expansion of Rosa hybrida grown at moderate (60%) or high (95%) RH, on the stomatal closing ability. This was assessed by measuring the leaf transpiration rate in response to desiccation once the leaves had fully expanded. For leaves that started expanding at high RH but completed their expansion after transfer to moderate RH, the earlier this switch took place the better the stomatal functioning. Leaves initially expanding at moderate RH and transferred to high RH exhibited poor stomatal functioning, even when this transfer occurred very late during leaf expansion. Applying a daily abscisic acid (ABA) solution to the leaves of plants grown at continuous high RH was effective in inducing stomatal closure at low water potential, if done before full leaf expansion (FLE). After FLE, stomatal functioning was no longer affected either by the RH or ABA level. The results indicate that the degree of stomatal adaptation depends on both the timing and duration of exposure to high RH. It is concluded that stomatal functionality is strongly dependent on the humidity at which the leaf completed its expansion. The data also show that the effect of ambient RH and the alleviating role of ABA are restricted to the period of leaf expansion. PMID:21457269

  12. Design for H type co-planar precision stage based on closed air bearing guideway with vacuum attraction force

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Bin; Shi, Zhaoyao; Lin, Jiachun; Zhang, Hua

    2011-12-01

    The accuracy of traditional two-dimensional precision stage is limited not only by the accuracy of each guideway but also by the configuration of the stage. It is not easy to calculate and compensate the total accuracy of the stage due to the complicated influence caused by the different position of the slides. An air bearing guideways with vacuum attraction forces has been designed with closed slide structure to enhance the stiffness and avoid the deformation caused by the weight of slide and workpieces. An H style two-dimension ultra-precision stage with co-planar structure has been developed based on the air bearing guideways to avoid the multi-influence by the axes. Driven by linear motors, the position of the workpiece is encoded by length scales with resolution of 50nm and thermal expansion of 0.6 μm/m/°C (0 °C to 30 °C). The travel span of the stage is 320x320mm, during which each axis has a positioning accuracy of +/-1μm, a repeatability of +/-0.3μm and a straightness of +/-0.5μm. The stage can be applied in precision manufacturing and measurement.

  13. PCDD/F emissions and distributions in Waelz plant and ambient air during different operating stages.

    PubMed

    Chi, Kai Hsien; Chang, Shu Hao; Chang, Moo Been

    2007-04-01

    Significant formation of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) has been observed in a typical Waelz process plant. In 2005, the Waelz plant investigated was equipped with a dust settling chamber (DSC), a venturi cooling tower, a cyclone (CY), and baghouse filter (BF). In early 2006 activated carbon injection (ACI) was adopted to reduce PCDD/F emissions from the plant investigated. Samplings of flue gases and ash were simultaneously conducted at different sampling points in the Waelz plantto evaluate removal efficiency and partitioning of PCDD/Fs between the gas phase and particulates. As the operating temperature of the dust settling chamber (DSC) is increased from 480 to 580 degrees C, the PCDD/F concentration measured at the DSC outlet decreases from 1220 to 394 ng-l-TEQ/Nm3. By applying ACI, the PCDD/F concentrations of stack gas decrease from 139-194 to 3.38 ng-l-TEQ/ Nm(3) (a reduction of 97.6-98.3%) while the PCDD/F concentration of reacted ash increases dramatically from 0.97 to 29.4 ng-l-TEQ/g, as the activated carbon injection rate is controlled at 40 kg/h. Additionally, ambient air PCDD/F concentrations were measured in the vicinity of this facility during different operating stages (shutdown, and operation with and without ACI). The ambient PCDD/F concentration measured downwind and 2.5 km from the Waelz plant decreases from 568 to 206 fg-I-TEQ/m(3) after ACI has been applied to collect the dioxins. Due to the high PCDD/F removal efficiency achieved with ACI + BF, about 24.3 and 3980 ng-l-TEQ/kg EAF-dust treated are discharged via stack gas and reacted ash, respectively, in this facility. PMID:17438809

  14. In-flight oxygen collection for a two-stage air-launch vehicle: integration of vehicle and separation cycle design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verstraete, D.; Bizzarri, D.; Hendrick, P.

    2009-09-01

    In-flight oxygen collection is a very promising technique to reduce the launch costs and improve the payload capabilities of two-stage-to-orbit semireusable launchers. Using liquid hydrogen the incoming air is deeply cooled and enriched in oxygen during the cruise phase of the first stage. The liquified enriched air is stored in the second stage which is then launched into orbit. This paper gives the result of a conceptual design of a two-stage-to-orbit air launched space vehicle. The mass, aerodynamic, and propulsive characteristics of the first stage are determined and an assessment of the influence of the collection plant performance on the subsonic first stage is made. The results for a centrifugally enhanced destillation unit are given together with the plant cycle arrangement. Integration options for the plant into the first stage are proposed and a short description of the air separation test unit and its test bench is also given.

  15. Air

    MedlinePlus

    ... do to protect yourself from dirty air . Indoor air pollution and outdoor air pollution Air can be polluted indoors and it can ... this chart to see what things cause indoor air pollution and what things cause outdoor air pollution! Indoor ...

  16. Mach 6.5 air induction system design for the Beta 2 two-stage-to-orbit booster vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Midea, Anthony C.

    1991-01-01

    A preliminary, two-dimensional, mixed compression air induction system is designed for the Beta II Two Stage to Orbit booster vehicle to minimize installation losses and efficiently deliver the required airflow. Design concepts, such as an external isentropic compression ramp and a bypass system were developed and evaluated for performance benefits. The design was optimized by maximizing installed propulsion/vehicle system performance. The resulting system design operating characteristics and performance are presented. The air induction system design has significantly lower transonic drag than similar designs and only requires about 1/3 of the bleed extraction. In addition, the design efficiently provides the integrated system required airflow, while maintaining adequate levels of total pressure recovery. The excellent performance of this highly integrated air induction system is essential for the successful completion of the Beta II booster vehicle mission.

  17. Mach 6.5 air induction system design for the Beta II Two-Stage-to-Orbit booster vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Midea, Anthony C.

    1991-01-01

    A preliminary, two-dimensional, mixed compression air induction system is designed for the Beta II Two-Stage-to-Orbit booster vehicle to minimize installation losses and efficiently deliver the required airflow. Design concepts, such as an external isentropic compression ramp and a bypass system, are developed and evaluated for performance benefits. The design is optimized by maximizing installed propulsion/vehicle system performance, and the resulting system design operating characteristics and performance are presented. The air induction system design has significantly lower transonic drag than similar designs, and only requires approximately 1/3 of the bleed extraction. In addition, the design efficiently provides the integrated system required airflow, while maintaining adequate levels of total pressure recovery. The excellent performance of this highly integrated air induction system is essential for the successful completion of the Beta II booster vehicle mission.

  18. 78 FR 79340 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Texas; Stage II Vapor Recovery...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-30

    ... the BPA maintenance plan (78 FR 7672) for 2014 and 2021. For each of the future years 2014, 2017 and... worse. The EPA approved these rules on April 15, 1994 (59 FR 17940). The four areas where Stage II is... Refueling Vapor Recovery and Stage II Waiver, published on July 15, 2011 (76 FR 41731). Each year,...

  19. Planar solid oxide fuel cell with staged indirect-internal air and fuel preheating and reformation

    DOEpatents

    Geisbrecht, Rodney A; Williams, Mark C

    2003-10-21

    A solid oxide fuel cell arrangement and method of use that provides internal preheating of both fuel and air in order to maintain the optimum operating temperature for the production of energy. The internal preheat passes are created by the addition of two plates, one on either side of the bipolar plate, such that these plates create additional passes through the fuel cell. This internal preheat fuel cell configuration and method reduce the requirements for external heat exchanger units and air compressors. Air or fuel may be added to the fuel cell as required to maintain the optimum operating temperature through a cathode control valve or an anode control valve, respectively. A control loop comprises a temperature sensing means within the preheat air and fuel passes, a means to compare the measured temperature to a set point temperature and a determination based on the comparison as to whether the control valves should allow additional air or fuel into the preheat or bypass manifolds of the fuel cell.

  20. Continuous culture of Plasmodium falciparum asexual stages in "normal" air atmosphere.

    PubMed

    Mirovský, P

    1989-01-01

    The growth of six strains of Plasmodium falciparum in 5% CO2, 5% O2, 90% N2 and normal air atmosphere was determined daily by microscopical examination of blood films. All strains were able to grow in flasks without additional gas mixture but significantly lower parasitaemia was observed within the first five days of cultivation. Attempt at cultivating in petri dishes without candle jar technique failed but parasites survived in plasticine sealed dishes. The cultivation in air cannot be recommended for cultures initiated from cryopreserved material or low parasitaemia (0.1-0.3%) cultures. PMID:2504654

  1. Cooling circuit for steam and air-cooled turbine nozzle stage

    DOEpatents

    Itzel, Gary Michael; Yu, Yufeng

    2002-01-01

    The turbine vane segment includes inner and outer walls with a vane extending therebetween. The vane includes leading and trailing edge cavities and intermediate cavities. An impingement plate is spaced from the outer wall to impingement-cool the outer wall. Post-impingement cooling air flows through holes in the outer wall to form a thin air-cooling film along the outer wall. Cooling air is supplied an insert sleeve with openings in the leading edge cavity for impingement-cooling the leading edge. Holes through the leading edge afford thin-film cooling about the leading edge. Cooling air is provided the trailing edge cavity and passes through holes in the side walls of the vane for thin-film cooling of the trailing edge. Steam flows through a pair of intermediate cavities for impingement-cooling of the side walls. Post-impingement steam flows to the inner wall for impingement-cooling of the inner wall and returns the post-impingement cooling steam through inserts in other intermediate cavities for impingement-cooling the side walls of the vane.

  2. An Idea of Staged and Large Velocity Differential Secondary Air for Waterwall Erosion Protection and Oxygen Complementarity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, B. Q.; Zhang, X. H.

    A successful design of circulating fluidized bed (CFB) boiler should have the highest combustion efficiency, economic operation, and optimum availability. There is a coupled phenomenon of an oxygen lean zone existing in the CFB boiler furnace which depresses combustion efficiency and particle (group) falling down faster and faster when it falls along the waterwall, abrading the tube metal effectively. A new secondary air design for the oxygen lean zone and erosion protection is conceived by using staged and large velocity differential secondary air. For example, a part of concentrate supplied secondary air has been divided into two parts: a low velocity part and a high velocity part. The low velocity part is used for rigid gas layer to reduce the particle falling velocity, and the high velocity part is used for oxygen supply. It is believed that 40˜6Om/s projecting air velocity could send new oxygen to at least half furnace depth in a short projecting lift as shown in calculation. In another view point, operational superficial gas velocity has an obvious effect on waterwall metal erosion, with a lower operation velocity having lower erosion.

  3. Stabilized three-stage oxidation of DME/air mixture in a micro flow reactor with a controlled temperature profile

    SciTech Connect

    Oshibe, Hiroshi; Nakamura, Hisashi; Tezuka, Takuya; Hasegawa, Susumu; Maruta, Kaoru

    2010-08-15

    Ignition and combustion characteristics of a stoichiometric dimethyl ether (DME)/air mixture in a micro flow reactor with a controlled temperature profile which was smoothly ramped from room temperature to ignition temperature were investigated. Special attention was paid to the multi-stage oxidation in low temperature condition. Normal stable flames in a mixture flow in the high velocity region, and non-stationary pulsating flames and/or repetitive extinction and ignition (FREI) in the medium velocity region were experimentally confirmed as expected from our previous study on a methane/air mixture. In addition, stable double weak flames were observed in the low velocity region for the present DME/air mixture case. It is the first observation of stable double flames by the present methodology. Gas sampling was conducted to obtain major species distributions in the flow reactor. The results indicated that existence of low-temperature oxidation was conjectured by the production of CH{sub 2}O occured in the upstream side of the experimental first luminous flame, while no chemiluminescence from it was seen. One-dimensional computation with detailed chemistry and transport was conducted. At low mixture velocities, three-stage oxidation was confirmed from profiles of the heat release rate and major chemical species, which was broadly in agreement with the experimental results. Since the present micro flow reactor with a controlled temperature profile successfully presented the multi-stage oxidations as spatially separated flames, it is shown that this flow reactor can be utilized as a methodology to separate sets of reactions, even for other practical fuels, at different temperature. (author)

  4. H2 production by Anabaena variabilis mutant in computer controlled two-stage air-lift tubular photobioreactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jian-Guo; Hall, D. O.; Rao, K. K.; Tsygankov, A. A.; Sveshnikov, D. A.

    2000-06-01

    A 4.34 liter two-stage air-lift photobioreactor incorporating Anabaena variabilis ATCC29413 mutant PK84 was used to study H2 production. Results showed that H2 production increased with increasing light intensity from 47 μE/(m2·s) up to 190 μE/(m2·s), but that further increase of light intensity decreased the H2 production because of the inhibition due to the high pO2. The data also indicated that longer argon gas charge resulted in more H2 produced due to the increase of nitrogenase activities and heterocyst frequency, and that more than 1.3 L net H2 was produced from this computer controlled photobioreactor.

  5. Characterization of Early Stage Marcellus Shale Development Atmospheric Emissions and Regional Air Quality Impacts using Fast Mobile Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goetz, J. D.; Floerchinger, C. R.; Fortner, E.; Wormhoult, J.; Massoli, P.; Herndon, S. C.; Kolb, C. E., Jr.; Knighton, W. B.; Shaw, S. L.; Knipping, E. M.; DeCarlo, P. F.

    2014-12-01

    The Marcellus shale is the largest shale gas resource in the United States and is found in the Appalachian region. Rapid large-scale development, and the scarcity of direct air measurements make the impact of Marcellus shale development on local and regional air quality and the global climate highly uncertain. Air pollutant and greenhouse gas emission sources include transitory emission from well pad development as well as persistent sources including the processing and distribution of natural gas. In 2012, the Aerodyne Inc. Mobile Laboratory was equipped with a suite of real-time (~ 1 Hz) instrumentation to measure source emissions associated with Marcellus shale development and to characterize regional air quality in the Marcellus basin. The Aerodyne Inc. Mobile Laboratory was equipped to measure methane, ethane, N2O (tracer gas), C2H2 (tracer gas), CO2, CO, NOx, aerosols (number, mass, and composition), and VOC including light aromatic compounds and constituents of natural gas. Site-specific emissions from Marcellus shale development were quantified using tracer release ratio methods. Emissions of sub-micron aerosol mass and VOC were generally not observed at any tracer release site, although particle number concentrations were often enhanced. Compressor stations were found to have the largest emission rates of combustion products with NOx emissions ranging from 0.01 to 1.6 tons per day (tpd) and CO emissions ranging from 0.03 to 0.42 tpd. Transient sources, including a well site in the drill phase, were observed to be large emitters of natural gas. The largest methane emissions observed in the study were at a flowback well completion with a value of 7.7 tpd. Production well pads were observed to have the lowest emissions of natural gas and the emission of combustion products was only observed at one of three well pads investigated. Regional background measurements of all measured species were made while driving between tracer release sites and while stationary

  6. Investigation of X24C-2 10-Stage Axial-Flow Compressor. 2; Effect of Inlet-Air Pressure and Temperature of Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Finger, Harold B.; Schum, Harold J.; Buckner, Howard Jr.

    1947-01-01

    Effect of inlet-air pressure and temperature on the performance of the X24-2 10-Stage Axial-Flow Compressor from the X24C-2 turbojet engine was evaluated. Speeds of 80, 89, and 100 percent of equivalent design speed with inlet-air pressures of 6 and 12 inches of mercury absolute and inlet-air temperaures of approximately 538 degrees, 459 degrees,and 419 degrees R ( 79 degrees, 0 degrees, and minus 40 degrees F). Results were compared with prior investigations.

  7. Gastric bypass in morbid obese patients is associated with reduction in adipose tissue inflammation via N-oleoylethanolamide (OEA)-mediated pathways.

    PubMed

    Montecucco, Fabrizio; Lenglet, Sébastien; Quercioli, Alessandra; Burger, Fabienne; Thomas, Aurélien; Lauer, Estelle; da Silva, Analina Raquel; Mach, François; Vuilleumier, Nicolas; Bobbioni-Harsch, Elisabetta; Golay, Alain; Schindler, Thomas H; Pataky, Zoltan

    2015-04-01

    Paradoxically, morbid obesity was suggested to protect from cardiovascular co-morbidities as compared to overweight/obese patients. We hypothesise that this paradox could be inferred to modulation of the "endocannabinoid" system on systemic and subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) inflammation. We designed a translational project including clinical and in vitro studies at Geneva University Hospital. Morbid obese subjects (n=11) were submitted to gastric bypass surgery (GBS) and followed up for one year (post-GBS). Insulin resistance and circulating and SAT levels of endocannabinoids, adipocytokines and CC chemokines were assessed pre- and post-GBS and compared to a control group of normal and overweight subjects (CTL) (n=20). In vitro cultures with 3T3-L1 adipocytes were used to validate findings from clinical results. Morbid obese subjects had baseline lower insulin sensitivity and higher hs-CRP, leptin, CCL5 and anandamide (AEA) levels as compared to CTL. GBS induced a massive weight and fat mass loss, improved insulin sensitivity and lipid profile, decreased C-reactive protein, leptin, and CCL2 levels. In SAT, increased expression of resistin, CCL2, CCL5 and tumour necrosis factor and reduced MGLL were shown in morbid obese patients pre-GBS when compared to CTL. GBS increased all endocannabinoids and reduced adipocytokines and CC chemokines. In morbid obese SAT, inverse correlations independent of body mass index were shown between palmitoylethanolamide (PEA) and N-oleoylethanolamide (OEA) levels and inflammatory molecules. In vitro, OEA inhibited CCL2 secretion from adipocytes via ERK1/2 activation. In conclusion, GBS was associated with relevant clinical, metabolic and inflammatory improvements, increasing endocannabinoid levels in SAT. OEA directly reduced CCL2 secretion via ERK1/2 activation in adipocytes. PMID:25413674

  8. Flow Field in a Single-Stage Model Air Turbine With Seal Rings and Pre-Swirled Purge Flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunn, Dennis M.

    Modern gas turbines operate at high mainstream gas temperatures and pressures, which requires high durability materials. A method of preventing these hot gases from leaking into the turbine cavities is essential for improved reliability and cost reduction. Utilizing bleed-off air from the compressor to cool internal components has been a common solution, but at the cost of decreasing turbine performance. The present work thoroughly describes the complex flow field between the mainstream gas and a single rotor-stator disk cavity, and mechanisms of mainstream gas ingestion. A combined approach of experimental measurement and numerical simulation are performed on the flow in a single-stage model gas turbine. Mainstream gas ingestion into the cavity is further reduced by utilizing two axially overlapping seal rings, one on the rotor disk and the other on the stator wall. Secondary purge air is injected into the rotor-stator cavity pre-swirled through the stator radially inboard of the two seal rings. Flow field predictions from the simulations are compared against experimental measurements of static pressure, velocity, and tracer gas concentration acquired in a nearly identical model configuration. Operational conditions were performed with a main airflow Reynolds number of 7.86e4 and a rotor disk speed of 3000rpm. Additionally the rotational Reynolds number was 8.74 e5 with a purge air nondimensional flow rate cw=4806. The simulation models a 1/14 rotationally periodic sector of the turbine rig, consisting of four rotor blades and four stator vanes. Gambit was used to generate the three-dimensional unstructured grids ranging from 10 to 20 million cells. Effects of turbulence were modeled using the single-equation Spalart-Allmaras as well as the realizable k-epsilon models. Computations were performed using FLUENT for both a simplified steady-state and subsequent time-dependent formulation. Simulation results show larger scale structures across the entire sector angle

  9. Stage-by-Stage and Parallel Flow Path Compressor Modeling for a Variable Cycle Engine, NASA Advanced Air Vehicles Program - Commercial Supersonic Technology Project - AeroServoElasticity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kopasakis, George; Connolly, Joseph W.; Cheng, Larry

    2015-01-01

    This paper covers the development of stage-by-stage and parallel flow path compressor modeling approaches for a Variable Cycle Engine. The stage-by-stage compressor modeling approach is an extension of a technique for lumped volume dynamics and performance characteristic modeling. It was developed to improve the accuracy of axial compressor dynamics over lumped volume dynamics modeling. The stage-by-stage compressor model presented here is formulated into a parallel flow path model that includes both axial and rotational dynamics. This is done to enable the study of compressor and propulsion system dynamic performance under flow distortion conditions. The approaches utilized here are generic and should be applicable for the modeling of any axial flow compressor design accurate time domain simulations. The objective of this work is as follows. Given the parameters describing the conditions of atmospheric disturbances, and utilizing the derived formulations, directly compute the transfer function poles and zeros describing these disturbances for acoustic velocity, temperature, pressure, and density. Time domain simulations of representative atmospheric turbulence can then be developed by utilizing these computed transfer functions together with the disturbance frequencies of interest.

  10. Photometric properties for selected Algol-type binaries. VI. The newly discovered oEA star FR Orionis

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Y.-G.; Wei, J.-Y.; Li, H.-L.

    2014-02-01

    New photometry of the neglected eclipsing binary FR Orionis was obtained in 2012 November and December. Using the updated Wilson-Devinney program, the photometric elements were deduced from two-color light curves. The results indicate that this system is a semi-detached binary, with a mass ratio of 0.325(± 0.002) and a fill-out factor of the primary of f{sub p} = 73.5(± 0.2)%. The oscillating light curves imply that FR Ori may be an oscillating EA (oEA)-type star with a rapidly pulsating, mass-accreting primary component. After we removed the theoretical light curves from the observations, Fourier analysis revealed that the more massive component possibly shows a δ Scuti type pulsation with four detected frequencies. The dominant frequency is f {sub 1} = 38.6c day{sup –1} (i.e., P {sub puls} = 37.3 minutes), and the pulsation constant is Q = 0.014 days. Based on all available eclipsing times, the orbital period is undergoing a secular period increase with a rate of dP/dt = +8.85(±0.66) × 10{sup –8} day yr {sup –1}, which may be interpreted by mass transfer from the secondary to the primary. We expect that the more massive component will fill its Roche lobe due to mass transfer of the secondary. Therefore, the oEA star FR Ori may evolve into a contact configuration.

  11. Cold-air investigation of a 31/2-stage fan-drive turbine with a stage loading factor of 4 designed for an integral lift engine. 2: Performance of 2-, 3- and 3 1/2-stage configurations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitney, W. J.

    1977-01-01

    The stage work distribution among the three stages was very close to the design value. The specific work output-mass flow characteristics of the three stages were closely matched. The efficiency of the 3 1/2 stage turbine at design specific work output and design speed was within 0.008 of the estimated value, and this agreement was felt to demonstrate the adequacy of the prediction method in the high stage loading factor regime.

  12. A two-stage approach to induction and intubation of two infants with Pierre Robin Sequence using a LMA Classic™ and Air-Q®: two cases report.

    PubMed

    Templeton, T Wesley; Bryan, Yvon F

    2016-08-01

    The laryngeal mask airway (LMA) Classic™ and Air-Q® are supralaryngeal devices used for airway management in routine and difficult pediatric airways. We describe a novel two-stage technique of insertion of the LMA Classic™ awake prior to induction of anesthesia, to assure oxygenation and ventilation, and after induction removal and placement of the Air-Q® for intubation using the flexible fiberoptic bronchoscope. The LMA Classic's™ pliable design and relatively small size allow it to be easily placed in awake infants. In contrast, the Air-Q® is an excellent device for intubation because of its larger internal diameter and removable 9 mm adapter. Our goal was to reduce unpredictability and potentially increase the safety of induction of anesthesia and intubation in infants with Pierre Robin sequence. By using these devices in a two-stage approach we created a technique for consistent oxygenation, ventilation, and intubation in these infants.

  13. A two-stage approach to induction and intubation of two infants with Pierre Robin Sequence using a LMA Classic™ and Air-Q®: two cases report

    PubMed Central

    Templeton, T. Wesley

    2016-01-01

    The laryngeal mask airway (LMA) Classic™ and Air-Q® are supralaryngeal devices used for airway management in routine and difficult pediatric airways. We describe a novel two-stage technique of insertion of the LMA Classic™ awake prior to induction of anesthesia, to assure oxygenation and ventilation, and after induction removal and placement of the Air-Q® for intubation using the flexible fiberoptic bronchoscope. The LMA Classic's™ pliable design and relatively small size allow it to be easily placed in awake infants. In contrast, the Air-Q® is an excellent device for intubation because of its larger internal diameter and removable 9 mm adapter. Our goal was to reduce unpredictability and potentially increase the safety of induction of anesthesia and intubation in infants with Pierre Robin sequence. By using these devices in a two-stage approach we created a technique for consistent oxygenation, ventilation, and intubation in these infants. PMID:27482318

  14. Installation-Restoration Program. Phase 2. Confirmation/quantification. Stage 1. Problem confirmation study: Otis Air National Guard Base, Massachusetts, Air National Guard Support Center, Andrews Air Force Base, Maryland. Final technical report, November 1983-July 1985

    SciTech Connect

    Kraybill, R.L.; Smart, G.R.; Bopp, F.

    1985-09-04

    A Problem Confirmation Study was performed at seven sites on Otis Air National Guard Base: the Current and Former Training Areas, the Base Landfill, the Nondestructive Inspection Laboratory, the Fuel Test Dump Site, the Railyard Fuel Pumping Station, and the Petrol Fuel Storage Area. The field investigation was conducted in two stages, in November 1983 through January 1984, and in October through December 1984. Resampling was performed at selected locations in April and July 1985. A total of 11 monitor wells were installed and sampled and test-pit investigations were conducted at six sites. In addition, the contents of a sump tank, and two header pipes for fuel-transmission lines were sampled. Analytes included TOC, TOX, cyanide, phenols, Safe Drinking Water metals, pesticides and herbicides, and in the second round, priority-pollutant volatile organic compounds and a GC fingerprint scan for fuel products. On the basis of the field-work findings, it is concluded that, to date, water-quality impacts on ground water from past activities have been minimal.

  15. Seismic air gun exposure during early-stage embryonic development does not negatively affect spiny lobster Jasus edwardsii larvae (Decapoda:Palinuridae)

    PubMed Central

    Day, Ryan D.; McCauley, Robert D.; Fitzgibbon, Quinn P.; Semmens, Jayson M.

    2016-01-01

    Marine seismic surveys are used to explore for sub-seafloor oil and gas deposits. These surveys are conducted using air guns, which release compressed air to create intense sound impulses, which are repeated around every 8–12 seconds and can travel large distances in the water column. Considering the ubiquitous worldwide distribution of seismic surveys, the potential impact of exposure on marine invertebrates is poorly understood. In this study, egg-bearing female spiny lobsters (Jasus edwardsii) were exposed to signals from three air gun configurations, all of which exceeded sound exposure levels (SEL) of 185 dB re 1 μPa2·s. Lobsters were maintained until their eggs hatched and the larvae were then counted for fecundity, assessed for abnormal morphology using measurements of larval length and width, tested for larval competency using an established activity test and measured for energy content. Overall there were no differences in the quantity or quality of hatched larvae, indicating that the condition and development of spiny lobster embryos were not adversely affected by air gun exposure. These results suggest that embryonic spiny lobster are resilient to air gun signals and highlight the caution necessary in extrapolating results from the laboratory to real world scenarios or across life history stages. PMID:26947006

  16. Seismic air gun exposure during early-stage embryonic development does not negatively affect spiny lobster Jasus edwardsii larvae (Decapoda: Palinuridae).

    PubMed

    Day, Ryan D; McCauley, Robert D; Fitzgibbon, Quinn P; Semmens, Jayson M

    2016-03-07

    Marine seismic surveys are used to explore for sub-seafloor oil and gas deposits. These surveys are conducted using air guns, which release compressed air to create intense sound impulses, which are repeated around every 8-12 seconds and can travel large distances in the water column. Considering the ubiquitous worldwide distribution of seismic surveys, the potential impact of exposure on marine invertebrates is poorly understood. In this study, egg-bearing female spiny lobsters (Jasus edwardsii) were exposed to signals from three air gun configurations, all of which exceeded sound exposure levels (SEL) of 185 dB re 1 μPa(2) · s. Lobsters were maintained until their eggs hatched and the larvae were then counted for fecundity, assessed for abnormal morphology using measurements of larval length and width, tested for larval competency using an established activity test and measured for energy content. Overall there were no differences in the quantity or quality of hatched larvae, indicating that the condition and development of spiny lobster embryos were not adversely affected by air gun exposure. These results suggest that embryonic spiny lobster are resilient to air gun signals and highlight the caution necessary in extrapolating results from the laboratory to real world scenarios or across life history stages.

  17. Seismic air gun exposure during early-stage embryonic development does not negatively affect spiny lobster Jasus edwardsii larvae (Decapoda: Palinuridae).

    PubMed

    Day, Ryan D; McCauley, Robert D; Fitzgibbon, Quinn P; Semmens, Jayson M

    2016-01-01

    Marine seismic surveys are used to explore for sub-seafloor oil and gas deposits. These surveys are conducted using air guns, which release compressed air to create intense sound impulses, which are repeated around every 8-12 seconds and can travel large distances in the water column. Considering the ubiquitous worldwide distribution of seismic surveys, the potential impact of exposure on marine invertebrates is poorly understood. In this study, egg-bearing female spiny lobsters (Jasus edwardsii) were exposed to signals from three air gun configurations, all of which exceeded sound exposure levels (SEL) of 185 dB re 1 μPa(2) · s. Lobsters were maintained until their eggs hatched and the larvae were then counted for fecundity, assessed for abnormal morphology using measurements of larval length and width, tested for larval competency using an established activity test and measured for energy content. Overall there were no differences in the quantity or quality of hatched larvae, indicating that the condition and development of spiny lobster embryos were not adversely affected by air gun exposure. These results suggest that embryonic spiny lobster are resilient to air gun signals and highlight the caution necessary in extrapolating results from the laboratory to real world scenarios or across life history stages. PMID:26947006

  18. The Effect of Air Preheat at Atmospheric Pressure on the Formation of NO(x) in the Quick-Mix Sections of an Axially Staged Combustor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vardakas, M. A.; Leong, M. Y.; Brouwer, J.; Samuelsen, G. S.; Holdeman, J. D.

    1999-01-01

    The Rich-burn/Quick-mix/Lean-burn (RQL) combustor concept has been proposed to minimize the formation of nitrogen oxides (NO(x)) in gas turbine systems. The success of this combustor strategy is dependent upon the efficiency of the mixing section bridging the fuel-rich and fuel-lean stages. Note that although these results were obtained from an experiment designed to study an RQL mixer, the link between mixing and NOx signatures is considerably broader than this application, in that the need to understand this link exists in most advanced combustors. The experiment reported herein was designed to study the effects of inlet air temperature on NO(x) formation in a mixing section. The results indicate that NO(x) emission is increased for all preheated cases compared to non-preheated cases. When comparing the various mixing modules, the affect of jet penetration is important, as this determines where NO(x) concentrations peak, and affects overall NO(x) production. Although jet air comprises 70 percent of the total airflow, the impact that jet air preheat has on overall NO(x) emissions is small compared to preheating both main and jet air flow.

  19. Early Stages of Pulsed-Laser Growth of Silicon Microcolumns and Microcones in Air and SF6

    SciTech Connect

    Lowndes, Douglas H.; Fowlkes, Jason D.; Pedraza, Antonio J.

    1999-07-29

    Dense arrays of high-aspect-ratio silicon microcolumns and microcones are formed by cumulative nanosecond pulsed excimer laser irradiation of single-crystal silicon in oxidizing atmospheres such as air and SF6. Growth of such surface microstructures requires a redeposition model and also involves elements of self-organization. The shape of the microstructures, i.e. straight columns vs steeply sloping cones and connecting walls, is governed by the type and concentration of the oxidizing species, e.g. oxygen vs fluorine. Growth is believed to occur by a "catalyst-free" VLS (vapor-liquid-solid) mechanism that involves repetitive melting of the tips of the columns/cones and deposition there of the ablated flux of Si-containing vapor. Results are presented of a new investigation of how such different final microstructures as microcolumns or microcones joined by walls nucleate and develop. The changes in silicon surface morphology were systematically determined and compared as the number of pulsed KrF (248 nm) laser shots was increased from 25 to several thousand in both air and SF6. The experiments in air and SF6 reveal significant differences in initial surface cracking and pattern formation. Consequently, local protrusions are first produced and column or cone/wall growth is initiated by different processes and at different rates. Differences in the spatial organization of column or cone/wall growth also are apparent.

  20. Installation-restoration program. Phase 2. Confirmation/quantification Stage 1 for Minot Air Force Base, Minot, North Dakota. Volume 1. Final report, September 1985-October 1988

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-10-12

    In accordance with the procedures developed for the Department of Defense (DOD) Installation-Restoration Program (IRP), a Phase II, Stage I site investigation was performed at the Minot Air Force Base (MAFB), Minot, North Dakota. Fred C. Hart Associates (HART) conducted investigations at three areas of concern at the installation, the Sanitary Landfill Area (SLA), the Firefighting Training Area (FTA) and the Explosive Ordnance Disposal Area (EOD). The investigation of the SLA consisted of the installation and sampling of ground-water monitoring wells and of surface water within the SLA. The investigation of the FTA consisted of the installation and sampling of subsurface soil from a test boring drilled in the center of the FTA and the sampling of surface sediment within the drainage ditch leading away from the FTA.

  1. Cold-air performance of compressor-drive turbine of Department of Energy upgraded automobile gas turbine engine. 2: Stage performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roelke, R. J.; Haas, J. E.

    1982-01-01

    The aerodynamic performance of the compressor-drive turbine of the DOE upgraded gas turbine engine was determined in low temperature air. The as-received cast rotor blading had a significantly thicker profile than design and a fairly rough surface finish. Because of these blading imperfections a series of stage tests with modified rotors were made. These included the as-cast rotor, a reduced-roughness rotor, and a rotor with blades thinned to near design. Significant performance changes were measured. Tests were also made to determine the effect of Reynolds number on the turbine performance. Comparisons are made between this turbine and the compressor-drive turbine of the DOE baseline gas turbine engine.

  2. Influence of staged-air on airflow, combustion characteristics and NO(x) emissions of a down-fired pulverized-coal 300 MW(e) utility boiler with direct flow split burners.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhengqi; Kuang, Min; Zhang, Jia; Han, Yunfeng; Zhu, Qunyi; Yang, Lianjie; Kong, Weiguang

    2010-02-01

    Cold airflow experiments were conducted to investigate the aerodynamic field in a small-scale furnace of a down-fired pulverized-coal 300 MW(e) utility boiler arranged with direct flow split burners enriched by cyclones. By increasing the staged-air ratio, a deflected flow field appeared in the lower furnace; larger staged-air ratios produced larger deflections. Industrial-sized experiments on a full-scale boiler were also performed at different staged-air damper openings with measurements taken of gas temperatures in the burner region and near the right-side wall, wall heat fluxes, and gas components (O(2), CO, and NO(x)) in the near-wall region. Combustion was unstable at staged-air damper openings below 30%. For openings of 30% and 40%, late ignition of the pulverized coal developed and large differences arose in gas temperatures and heat fluxes between the regions near the front and rear walls. In conjunction, carbon content in the fly ash was high and boiler efficiency was low with high NO(x) emission above 1200 mg/m(3) (at 6% O(2) dry). For fully open dampers, differences in gas temperatures and heat fluxes, carbon in fly ash and NO(x) emission decreased yielding an increase in boiler efficiency. The optimal setting is fully open staged-air dampers.

  3. Summer air temperature, reconstructions from the last glacial stage based on rodents from the site Taillis-des-Coteaux (Vienne), Western France

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Royer, Aurélien; Lécuyer, Christophe; Montuire, Sophie; Primault, Jérôme; Fourel, François; Jeannet, Marcel

    2014-09-01

    The oxygen isotope composition of phosphate from tooth enamel of rodents (δ18Op) constitutes a valuable proxy to reconstruct past air temperatures in continental environments. This method has been applied to rodent dental remains from three genera, Arvicola sp., Microtus sp. and Dicrostonyx sp., coming from Taillis-des-Coteaux, Vienne, France. This archaeological site contains an exceptionally preserved sedimentary sequence spanning almost the whole Upper Palaeolithic, including seven stratigraphic layers dated from 35 to 17 cal ka BP. The abundant presence of rodent remains offers the opportunity to quantify the climatic fluctuations coeval of the various stages of human occupation of the site. Differences between δ18Op values of Arvicola sp. and Microtus sp. teeth are interpreted as the result of heterochrony in tooth formation as well as differences in ecology. Mean δ18Op values of Microtus sp. are preferentially used to reconstruct summer air temperatures, which range from 16.0 ± 3.7 to 19.1 ± 3.1°C throughout the sedimentary sequence; however, the highest variability is observed during the last glacial maximum.

  4. Staged electrostatic precipitator

    DOEpatents

    Miller, Stanley J.; Almlie, Jay C.; Zhuang, Ye

    2016-03-01

    A device includes a chamber having an air inlet and an air outlet. The device includes a plurality of stages including at least a first stage adjacent a second stage. The plurality of stages are disposed in the chamber and each stage has a plurality of discharge electrodes disposed in an interior region and is bounded by an upstream baffle on an end proximate the air inlet and bounded by a downstream baffle on an end proximate the air outlet. Each stage has at least one sidewall between the upstream baffle and the downstream baffle. The sidewall is configured as a collection electrode and has a plurality of apertures disposed along a length between the upstream baffle and the downstream baffle. The upstream baffle of the first stage is positioned in staggered alignment relative to the upstream baffle of the second stage and the downstream baffle of the first stage are positioned in staggered alignment relative to the downstream baffle of the second stage.

  5. Two stage indirect evaporative cooling system

    DOEpatents

    Bourne, Richard C.; Lee, Brian E.; Callaway, Duncan

    2005-08-23

    A two stage indirect evaporative cooler that moves air from a blower mounted above the unit, vertically downward into dry air passages in an indirect stage and turns the air flow horizontally before leaving the indirect stage. After leaving the dry passages, a major air portion travels into the direct stage and the remainder of the air is induced by a pressure drop in the direct stage to turn 180.degree. and returns horizontally through wet passages in the indirect stage and out of the unit as exhaust air.

  6. Improving Best Air Conditioner Efficiency by 20-30% through a High Efficiency Fan and Diffuser Stage Coupled with an Evaporative Condenser Pre-Cooler

    SciTech Connect

    Parker, Danny S; Sherwin, John R; Raustad, Richard

    2014-04-10

    The Florida Solar Energy Center (FSEC) conducted a research project to improve the best residential air conditioner condenser technology currently available on the market by retrofitting a commercially-available unit with both a high efficiency fan system and an evaporative pre-cooler. The objective was to integrate these two concepts to achieve an ultra-efficient residential air conditioner design. The project produced a working prototype that was 30% more efficient compared to the best currently-available technologies; the peak the energy efficiency ratio (EER) was improved by 41%. Efficiency at the Air-Conditioning and Refrigeration Institute (ARI) standard B-condition which is used to estimate seasonal energy efficiency ratio (SEER), was raised from a nominal 21 Btu/Wh to 32 Btu/Wh.

  7. Scaling and design analyses of a scaled-down, high-temperature test facility for experimental investigation of the initial stages of a VHTR air-ingress accident

    SciTech Connect

    Arcilesi, David J.; Ham, Tae Kyu; Kim, In Hun; Sun, Xiaodong; Christensen, Richard N.; Oh, Chang H.

    2015-07-01

    A critical event in the safety analysis of the very high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (VHTR) is an air-ingress accident. This accident is initiated, in its worst case scenario, by a double-ended guillotine break of the coaxial cross vessel, which leads to a rapid reactor vessel depressurization. In a VHTR, the reactor vessel is located within a reactor cavity that is filled with air during normal operating conditions. Following the vessel depressurization, the dominant mode of ingress of an air–helium mixture into the reactor vessel will either be molecular diffusion or density-driven stratified flow. The mode of ingress is hypothesized to depend largely on the break conditions of the cross vessel. Since the time scales of these two ingress phenomena differ by orders of magnitude, it is imperative to understand under which conditions each of these mechanisms will dominate in the air ingress process. Computer models have been developed to analyze this type of accident scenario. There are, however, limited experimental data available to understand the phenomenology of the air-ingress accident and to validate these models. Therefore, there is a need to design and construct a scaled-down experimental test facility to simulate the air-ingress accident scenarios and to collect experimental data. The current paper focuses on the analyses performed for the design and operation of a 1/8th geometric scale (by height and diameter), high-temperature test facility. A geometric scaling analysis for the VHTR, a time scale analysis of the air-ingress phenomenon, a transient depressurization analysis of the reactor vessel, a hydraulic similarity analysis of the test facility, a heat transfer characterization of the hot plenum, a power scaling analysis for the reactor system, and a design analysis of the containment vessel are discussed.

  8. Staged cascade fluidized bed combustor

    DOEpatents

    Cannon, Joseph N.; De Lucia, David E.; Jackson, William M.; Porter, James H.

    1984-01-01

    A fluid bed combustor comprising a plurality of fluidized bed stages interconnected by downcomers providing controlled solids transfer from stage to stage. Each stage is formed from a number of heat transfer tubes carried by a multiapertured web which passes fluidizing air to upper stages. The combustor cross section is tapered inwardly from the middle towards the top and bottom ends. Sorbent materials, as well as non-volatile solid fuels, are added to the top stages of the combustor, and volatile solid fuels are added at an intermediate stage.

  9. Undesirable dispersal of eggs and early-stage nymphs of the bed bug Hemiptera: cimicidae) by static electricity and air currents

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Movement of whole live insects or other small arthropods attributed to static electricity has been reported only rarely. While viewing bed bugs in plastic or glass Petri dishes using a dissecting microscope, individual eggs and early stage nymphs were occasionally observed to move suddenly and rapid...

  10. Cold-air investigation of a turbine for high temperature-engine application. 5: Two-stage turbine performance as affected by variable stator area

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Behning, F. P.; Schum, H. J.; Szanca, E. M.

    1974-01-01

    The stator areas of the design two-stage turbine were both decreased and increased by nominally 30 percent, and the performances of the two turbines are compared with that of the design stator area turbine. Turbine efficiency decreased with stator area changes. Closing the stator area resulted in the more severe efficiency loss. The decrease in efficiency for both turbines is attributable to rotor incidence, off-design blade-surface velocities, and adverse reaction changes across the blade rows.

  11. Stage design

    DOEpatents

    Shacter, J.

    1975-12-01

    A method is described of cycling gases through a plurality of diffusion stages comprising the steps of admitting the diffused gases from a first diffusion stage into an axial compressor, simultaneously admitting the undiffused gases from a second diffusion stage into an intermediate pressure zone of said compressor corresponding in pressure to the pressure of said undiffused gases, and then admitting the resulting compressed mixture of diffused and undiffused gases into a third diffusion stage.

  12. The effects of compressor seventh-stage bleed air extraction on performance of the F100-PW-220 afterburning turbofan engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Evans, Alison B.

    1991-01-01

    A study was conducted to determine the effects of seventh-stage compressor bleed on the performance of the F100 afterburning turbofan engine. The effects of bleed on thrust, specific fuel consumption, fan turbine inlet temperature, bleed total pressure, and bleed total temperature were obtained from the engine manufacturer's status deck computer simulation. These effects were determined for power settings of intermediate, partial afterburning, and maximum afterburning for Mach numbers between 0.6 and 2.2 and for altitudes of 30,000, 40,000, and 50,000 ft. It was found that thrust loss and specific fuel consumption increase were approximately linear functions of bleed flow and, based on a percent-thrust change basis, were approximately independent of power setting.

  13. Third Stage

    NASA Video Gallery

    Once the third stage finishes its work, Kepler will have sufficient energy to leave the gravitational pull of Earth and go into orbit around the Sun, trailing behind Earth and slowly drifting away ...

  14. Stage I: Development of VOICE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Echternacht, Gary J.; And Others

    The initial stages of test development of the Vocational and Occupational Interest Choice Examination (VOICE), developed for Air Force recruiters, are described. Reviewed are a number of relevant occupational interest inventories from which a pool of 400 items was drawn corresponding to eight career fields: general accounting, administration,…

  15. Air Pollution

    MedlinePlus

    Air pollution is a mixture of solid particles and gases in the air. Car emissions, chemicals from factories, ... Ozone, a gas, is a major part of air pollution in cities. When ozone forms air pollution, it's ...

  16. Air Abrasion

    MedlinePlus

    ... delivered directly to your desktop! more... What Is Air Abrasion? Article Chapters What Is Air Abrasion? What Happens? The Pros and Cons Will I Feel Anything? Is Air Abrasion for Everyone? print full article print this ...

  17. Second Stage Separation

    NASA Video Gallery

    When the second stage burn is complete, the spacecraft and third stage are spun up to 55 rpm to stabilize the third stage during its short firing. The second stage is then jettisoned and the third ...

  18. Staged regenerative sorption heat pump

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Jack A. (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    A regenerative adsorbent heat pump process and system for cooling and heating a space. A sorbent is confined in a plurality of compressors of which at least four are first stage and at least four are second stage. The first stage operates over a first pressure region and the second stage over a second pressure region which is higher than the first. Sorbate from the first stage enters the second stage. The sorbate loop includes a condenser, expansion valve, evaporator and the compressors. A single sorbate loop can be employed for single-temperature-control such as air conditioning and heating. Two sorbate loops can be used for two-temperature-control as in a refrigerator and freezer. The evaporator temperatures control the freezer and refrigerator temperatures. Alternatively the refrigerator temperature can be cooled by the freezer with one sorbate loop. A heat transfer fluid is circulated in a closed loop which includes a radiator and the compressors. Low temperature heat is exhausted by the radiator. High temperature heat is added to the heat transfer fluid entering the compressors which are desorbing vapor. Heat is transferred from compressors which are sorbing vapor to the heat transfer fluid, and from the heat transfer fluid to the compressors which are desorbing vapor. Each compressor is subjected to the following phases, heating to its highest temperature, cooling down from its highest temperature, cooling to its lowest temperature, and warming up from its lowest temperature. The phases are repeated to complete a cycle and regenerate heat.

  19. Desiccant Enhanced Evaporative Air Conditioning: Parametric Analysis and Design; Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Woods, J.; Kozubal, E.

    2012-10-01

    This paper presents a parametric analysis using a numerical model of a new concept in desiccant and evaporative air conditioning. The concept consists of two stages: a liquid desiccant dehumidifier and a dew-point evaporative cooler. Each stage consists of stacked air channel pairs separated by a plastic sheet. In the first stage, a liquid desiccant film removes moisture from the process (supply-side) air through a membrane. An evaporatively-cooled exhaust airstream on the other side of the plastic sheet cools the desiccant. The second-stage indirect evaporative cooler sensibly cools the dried process air. We analyze the tradeoff between device size and energy efficiency. This tradeoff depends strongly on process air channel thicknesses, the ratio of first-stage to second-stage area, and the second-stage exhaust air flow rate. A sensitivity analysis reiterates the importance of the process air boundary layers and suggests a need for increasing airside heat and mass transfer enhancements.

  20. Pancreatic Cancer Stage 3

    MedlinePlus

    ... historical Searches are case-insensitive Pancreatic Cancer Stage 3 Add to My Pictures View /Download : Small: 720x576 ... Large: 3000x2400 View Download Title: Pancreatic Cancer Stage 3 Description: Stage III pancreatic cancer; drawing shows cancer ...

  1. Air resources

    SciTech Connect

    1995-10-01

    This section describes the ambient (surrounding) air quality of the TVA region, discusses TVA emission contributions to ambient air quality, and identifies air quality impacts to human health and welfare. Volume 2 Technical Document 2, Environmental Consequences, describes how changes in TVA emissions could affect regional air quality, human health, environmental resources, and materials. The primary region of the affected environment is broadly defined as the state of Tennessee, as well as southern Kentucky, western Virginia, southern West Virginia, western North Carolina, and northern Georgia, Alabama, and Mississippi. This area represents the watershed of the Tennessee River and the 201 counties of the greater TVA service area. Emissions from outside the Tennessee Valley region contribute to air quality in the Valley. Also, TVA emissions are transported outside the Valley and have some impact on air quality beyond the primary study area. Although the study area experiences a number of air quality problems, overall air quality is good.

  2. Air bearing vacuum seal assembly

    DOEpatents

    Booth, Rex

    1978-01-01

    An air bearing vacuum seal assembly capable of rotating at the speed of several thousand revolutions per minute using an air cushion to prevent the rotating and stationary parts from touching, and a two stage differential pumping arrangement to maintain the pressure gradient between the air cushion and the vacuum so that the leak rate into the vacuum is, for example, less than 1 .times. 10.sup.-4 Pa m.sup.3 /s. The air bearing vacuum seal has particular application for mounting rotating targets to an evacuated accelerator beam tube for bombardment of the targets with high-power charged particle beams in vacuum.

  3. Air Pollution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilpin, Alan

    A summary of one of our most pressing environmental problems, air pollution, is offered in this book by the Director of Air Pollution Control for the Queensland (Australia) State Government. Discussion of the subject is not restricted to Queensland or Australian problems and policies, however, but includes analysis of air pollution the world over.…

  4. In situ investigation of laser-induced ignition and the early stages of methane-air combustion at high pressures using a rapidly tuned diode laser at 2.55 μm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lackner, Maximilian; Forsich, Christian; Winter, Franz; Kopecek, Herbert; Wintner, Ernst

    2003-11-01

    The laser-induced ignition of methane/air-mixtures at elevated pressures was investigated by an absorption spectroscopic technique. A room temperature continuous wave InGaAsSb/AlGaAsSb quantum well ridge diode laser was wavelength tuned around 2.55 μm by periodically modulating the injection current from 0 to 174 mA at a 5 kHz repetition rate. The laser heat sink temperature was fixed at 291 K. The infrared laser beam was sent through the pressurized combustion vessel perpendicularly to the igniting laser beam (Nd:YAG laser, 10 ns pulse duration, 20 mJ) at the position of the ignition spark. Fuel-rich to fuel-lean mixtures of methane/air (air equivalence ratio 0.89, 1.06, 1.42, 2.50) were investigated at initial pressures of up to 3 MPa. The initial temperature was 473 K, the volume of the combustion vessel 0.9×10 -3 m 3. The formation of water vapor in the vicinity of the laser spark was tracked by the diode laser. The time resolution of the measurements was 0.2 ms for a total continuous measurement time of up to 1 s. In this way, the laser-induced ignition and its accompanying effects could be investigated on a time scale spanning four orders of magnitude. Apart from the absorbance of water vapor which could be determined semi-quantitatively (due to the effects of severe pressure broadening at high pressures and the ignorance of the exact temperature distribution after ignition), the emissions from the flame (broadband, 1-10 μm) and a gas inhomogeneity index were recorded. The gas inhomogeneity index was obtained by extracting a frequency variable from the time-dependent fluctuations of the transmitted laser intensities and calculating its derivation. The absorbance of water vapor, the emissions from the flame and the gas inhomogeneity index were found to be a powerful tool to characterize laser-induced ignition. Major implications of in situ species concentration measurements at high pressures for the design and development of high-load combustors are

  5. Lunar Module Ascent Stage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    The Lunar Module 'Spider' ascent stage is photographed from the Command/Service Module on the fifth day of the Apollo 9 earth-orbital mission. The Lunar Module's descent stage had already been jettisoned.

  6. Stages of Adolescence

    MedlinePlus

    ... Español Text Size Email Print Share Stages of Adolescence Page Content Article Body Adolescence, these years from puberty to adulthood, may be roughly divided into three stages: early adolescence, generally ages eleven to fourteen; middle adolescence, ages ...

  7. Breast cancer staging

    MedlinePlus

    Doctors use 7 main stages to describe breast cancer. Stage 0, also called carcinoma in situ. This is cancer that is confined to the lobules or ducts in the breast. It has not spread to surrounding tissue. ...

  8. Air Pollution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox, Donald L.

    1989-01-01

    Materials related to air pollution are reviewed for the period January 1987, to October 1988. The topics are pollution monitoring, air pollution, and environmental chemistry. The organization consists of two major analytical divisions: (1) gaseous methods; and (2) aerosol and particulate methods. (MVL)

  9. Air Pollution.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Air quality is affected by many types of pollutants that are emitted from various sources, including stationary and mobile. These sources release both criteria and hazardous air pollutants, which cause health effects, ecological harm, and material damage. They are generally categ...

  10. Ovarian Cancer Stage IV

    MedlinePlus

    ... hyphen, e.g. -historical Searches are case-insensitive Ovarian Cancer Stage IV Add to My Pictures View /Download : ... 1200x1335 View Download Large: 2400x2670 View Download Title: Ovarian Cancer Stage IV Description: Drawing of stage IV shows ...

  11. Ovarian Cancer Stage IIIC

    MedlinePlus

    ... hyphen, e.g. -historical Searches are case-insensitive Ovarian Cancer Stage IIIC Add to My Pictures View /Download : ... 1530x1350 View Download Large: 3060x2700 View Download Title: Ovarian Cancer Stage IIIC Description: Drawing of stage IIIC shows ...

  12. Ovarian Cancer Stage II

    MedlinePlus

    ... hyphen, e.g. -historical Searches are case-insensitive Ovarian Cancer Stage II Add to My Pictures View /Download : ... 1650x675 View Download Large: 3300x1350 View Download Title: Ovarian Cancer Stage II Description: Three-panel drawing of stage ...

  13. Ovarian Cancer Stage I

    MedlinePlus

    ... hyphen, e.g. -historical Searches are case-insensitive Ovarian Cancer Stage I Add to My Pictures View /Download : ... 1650x675 View Download Large: 3300x1350 View Download Title: Ovarian Cancer Stage I Description: Three-panel drawing of stage ...

  14. Beyond Erikson's Eight Stages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitney, Ruth

    1979-01-01

    Erik Erikson has described eight stages of the healthy personality. This essay offers a revised version of the eight stages. Although most individuals develop through the eight stages, each is personally unique because patterns of fluctuation between safety and growth differ from one individual to another. (Author)

  15. Closed-loop air cooling system for a turbine engine

    DOEpatents

    North, William Edward

    2000-01-01

    Method and apparatus are disclosed for providing a closed-loop air cooling system for a turbine engine. The method and apparatus provide for bleeding pressurized air from a gas turbine engine compressor for use in cooling the turbine components. The compressed air is cascaded through the various stages of the turbine. At each stage a portion of the compressed air is returned to the compressor where useful work is recovered.

  16. Second stage of labor.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Yvonne W; Caughey, Aaron B

    2015-06-01

    Current American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists' definition of prolonged second stage diagnoses 10% to 14% of nulliparous and 3% to 3.5% of multiparous women as having a prolonged second stage. The progression of labor in modern obstetrics may have deviated from the current labor norms established in the 1950s, likely due to differences in obstetric population characteristics and variation in clinical practice. Optimal management of the second stage in women with and without epidural remains debatable. Although prolonged second stage is associated with increased risk of maternal morbidity, conflicting data exist regarding the duration of second stage and associated neonatal morbidity and mortality.

  17. Cetuximab, Cisplatin, and Radiation Therapy in Treating Patients With Stage IB, Stage II, Stage III, or Stage IVA Cervical Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2014-12-29

    Cervical Adenocarcinoma; Cervical Adenosquamous Carcinoma; Cervical Small Cell Carcinoma; Cervical Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IB Cervical Cancer; Stage IIA Cervical Cancer; Stage IIB Cervical Cancer; Stage III Cervical Cancer; Stage IVA Cervical Cancer

  18. Air separation with temperature and pressure swing

    DOEpatents

    Cassano, Anthony A.

    1986-01-01

    A chemical absorbent air separation process is set forth which uses a temperature swing absorption-desorption cycle in combination with a pressure swing wherein the pressure is elevated in the desorption stage of the process.

  19. Two stage catalytic combustor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alvin, Mary Anne (Inventor); Bachovchin, Dennis (Inventor); Smeltzer, Eugene E. (Inventor); Lippert, Thomas E. (Inventor); Bruck, Gerald J. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A catalytic combustor (14) includes a first catalytic stage (30), a second catalytic stage (40), and an oxidation completion stage (49). The first catalytic stage receives an oxidizer (e.g., 20) and a fuel (26) and discharges a partially oxidized fuel/oxidizer mixture (36). The second catalytic stage receives the partially oxidized fuel/oxidizer mixture and further oxidizes the mixture. The second catalytic stage may include a passageway (47) for conducting a bypass portion (46) of the mixture past a catalyst (e.g., 41) disposed therein. The second catalytic stage may have an outlet temperature elevated sufficiently to complete oxidation of the mixture without using a separate ignition source. The oxidation completion stage is disposed downstream of the second catalytic stage and may recombine the bypass portion with a catalyst exposed portion (48) of the mixture and complete oxidation of the mixture. The second catalytic stage may also include a reticulated foam support (50), a honeycomb support, a tube support or a plate support.

  20. Air Pollution

    MedlinePlus

    ... tobacco smoke. How is air pollution linked to climate change? While climate change is a global process, it ... ozone levels are also a concern. Impacts of Climate Change on Human Health in the United States: A ...

  1. Air Apparent.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harbster, David A.

    1988-01-01

    Explains the principle upon which a barometer operates. Describes how to construct two barometric devices for use in the classroom that show air's changing pressure. Cites some conditions for predicting weather. (RT)

  2. Urban air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    Air pollution and the risk of potential health effects are not sufficiently convincing reasons for people to stop driving their cars, according to a study by the Population Reference Bureau (PRB) released on November 18.While sufficient levels of suspended particulate matter, carbon monoxide, and lead can present health concerns, the study found that many people surveyed for the study were not convinced of the clear linkage between air pollution and health.

  3. Upper-Stage Flight Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, W. E.; Boxwell, R.; Crockett, D. V.; Ross, R.; Lewis, T.; McNeal, C.; Verdarame, K.

    1999-01-01

    For propulsion applications that require that the propellants are storable for long periods, have a high density impulse, and are environmentally clean and non-toxic, the best choice is a combination of high-concentration hydrogen peroxide (High Test Peroxide, or HTP) and a liquid hydrocarbon (LHC) fuel. The HTP/LHC combination is suitable for low-cost launch vehicles, space taxi and space maneuvering vehicles, and kick stages. Orbital Sciences Corporation is under contract with the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center in cooperation with the Air Force Research Lab to design, develop and demonstrate a new low-cost liquid upper stage based on HTP and JP-8. The Upper Stage Flight Experiment (USFE) focuses on key technologies necessary to demonstrate the operation of an inherently simple propulsion system with an innovative, state-of-the-art structure. Two key low-cost vehicle elements will be demonstrated - a 10,000 lbf thrust engine and an integrated composite tank structure. The suborbital flight test of the USFE is scheduled for 2001. Preceding the flight tests are two major series of ground tests at NASA Stennis Space Center and a subscale tank development program to identify compatible composite materials and to verify their compatibility over long periods of time. The ground tests include a thrust chamber development test series and an integrated stage test. This paper summarizes the results from the first phase of the thrust chamber development tests and the results to date from the tank material compatibility tests. Engine and tank configurations that meet the goals of the program are described.

  4. 76 FR 51847 - Air Cargo Screening

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-18

    ... the air cargo supply chain. TSA Response: The 9/11 Act required the Secretary of Homeland Security to... conduct screening at stages earlier within the cargo supply chain and off-airport. Thus, the CCSP gives... air cargo throughout the supply chain. TSA has established multiple layers of security for cargo as...

  5. Staging Early Esophageal Cancer.

    PubMed

    Old, O J; Isabelle, M; Barr, H

    2016-01-01

    Staging esophageal cancer provides a standardized measure of the extent of disease that can be used to inform decisions about therapy and guide prognosis. For esophageal cancer, the treatment pathways vary greatly depending on stage of disease, and accurate staging is therefore crucial in ensuring the optimal therapy for each patient. For early esophageal cancer (T1 lesions), endoscopic resection can be curative and simultaneously gives accurate staging of depth of invasion. For tumors invading the submucosa or more advanced disease, comprehensive investigation is required to accurately stage the tumor and assess suitability for curative resection. A combined imaging approach of computed tomography (CT), positron emission tomography (PET), and endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) offers complementary diagnostic information and gives the greatest chance of accurate staging. Staging laparoscopy can identify peritoneal disease and small superficial liver lesions that could be missed on CT or PET, and alters management in up to 20 % of patients. Optical diagnostic techniques offer the prospect of further extending the possibilities of endoscopic staging in real time. Optical coherence tomography can image superficial lesions and could provide information on depth of invasion for these lesions. Real-time lymph node analysis using optical diagnostics such as Raman spectroscopy could be used to support immediate endoscopic therapy without waiting for results of cytology or further investigations. PMID:27573772

  6. Airborne rotary air separator study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Acharya, A.; Gottzmann, C. F.; Nowobilski, J. J.

    1990-01-01

    Several air breathing propulsion concepts for future earth-to-orbit transport vehicles utilize air collection and enrichment, and subsequent storage of liquid oxygen for later use in the vehicle emission. Work performed during the 1960's established the feasibility of substantially reducing weight and volume of a distillation type air separator system by operating the distillation elements in high 'g' fields obtained by rotating the separator assembly. This contract studied the capability test and hydraulic behavior of a novel structured or ordered distillation packing in a rotating device using air and water. Pressure drop and flood points were measured for different air and water flow rates in gravitational fields of up to 700 g. Behavior of the packing follows the correlations previously derived from tests at normal gravity. The novel ordered packing can take the place of trays in a rotating air separation column with the promise of substantial reduction in pressure drop, volume, and system weight. The results obtained in the program are used to predict design and performance of rotary separators for air collection and enrichment systems of interest for past and present concepts of air breathing propulsion (single or two-stage to orbit) systems.

  7. Air surveillance

    SciTech Connect

    Patton, G.W.

    1995-06-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the air surveillance and monitoring programs currently in operation at that Hanford Site. Atmospheric releases of pollutants from Hanford to the surrounding region are a potential source of human exposure. For that reason, both radioactive and nonradioactive materials in air are monitored at a number of locations. The influence of Hanford emissions on local radionuclide concentrations was evaluated by comparing concentrations measured at distant locations within the region to concentrations measured at the Site perimeter. This section discusses sample collection, analytical methods, and the results of the Hanford air surveillance program. A complete listing of all analytical results summarized in this section is reported separately by Bisping (1995).

  8. Staged direct injection diesel engine

    DOEpatents

    Baker, Quentin A.

    1985-01-01

    A diesel engine having staged injection for using lower cetane number fuels than No. 2 diesel fuel. The engine includes a main fuel injector and a pilot fuel injector. Pilot and main fuel may be the same fuel. The pilot injector injects from five to fifteen percent of the total fuel at timings from 20.degree. to 180.degree. BTDC depending upon the quantity of pilot fuel injected, the fuel cetane number and speed and load. The pilot fuel injector is directed toward the centerline of the diesel cylinder and at an angle toward the top of the piston, avoiding the walls of the cylinder. Stratification of the early injected pilot fuel is needed to reduce the fuel-air mixing rate, prevent loss of pilot fuel to quench zones, and keep the fuel-air mixture from becoming too fuel lean to become effective. In one embodiment, the pilot fuel injector includes a single hole for injection of the fuel and is directed at approximately 48.degree. below the head of the cylinder.

  9. Staging for vulvar cancer.

    PubMed

    Hacker, Neville F; Barlow, Ellen L

    2015-08-01

    Vulvar cancer has been staged by the International Federation of Gynaecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) since 1969, and the original staging system was based on clinical findings only. This system provided a very good spread of prognostic groupings. Because vulvar cancer is virtually always treated surgically, the status of the lymph nodes is the most important prognostic factor and this can only be determined with certainty by histological examination of resected lymph nodes, FIGO introduced a surgical staging system in 1988. This was modified in 1994 to include a category of microinvasive vulvar cancer (stage IA), because such patients have virtually no risk of lymph node metastases. This system did not give a reasonably even spread of prognostic groupings. In addition, patients with stage III disease were shown to be a heterogeneous group prognostically, and the number of positive nodes and the morphology of those nodes were not taken into account. A new surgical staging system for vulvar cancer was introduced by FIGO in 2009. Initial retrospective analyses have suggested that this new staging system has overcome the major deficiencies in the 1994 system.

  10. Air Pollution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scorer, Richard S.

    The purpose of this book is to describe the basic mechanisms whereby pollution is transported and diffused in the atmosphere. It is designed to give practitioners an understanding of basic mechanics and physics so they may have a correct basis on which to formulate their decisions related to practical air pollution control problems. Since many…

  11. Air Pollution

    PubMed Central

    Clifton, Marjorie

    1964-01-01

    Dr Marjorie Clifton describes the classification of gaseous and nongaseous constituents of air pollution and then outlines the methods of measuring these. The National Survey embraced 150 towns of all sizes throughout England and Wales and provided data on smoke and sulphur dioxide in relation to climate, topography, industrialization, population density, fuel utilization and urban development. Dr W C Turner discusses the relationship between air pollution and mortality from respiratory conditions, and particularly the incidence of chronic bronchitis. He postulates a theory that such respiratory conditions arise as an allergy to the spores of certain moulds, spore formation being encouraged by the air humidity in Greatv Britain and overcrowded and damp living conditions. He describes the results of a twenty-week study undertaken in 1962-3, showing associations between respiratory disease and levels of air pollution. Dr Stuart Carne undertook a survey in general practice to plot the patterns of respiratory illness in London during the winter of 1962-3. There were two peaks of respiratory illnesses coinciding with the fog at the beginning of December and the freeze-up from the end of December until the beginning of March. PMID:14178955

  12. Staging Airliner Service

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hahn, Andrew S.

    2007-01-01

    There is a general consensus building that historically high fuel prices and greater public awareness of the emissions that result from burning fuel are going to be long-term concerns for those who design, build, and operate airliners. The possibility of saving both fuel and reducing emissions has rekindled interest in breaking very long-range airline flights into multiple stages or even adopting in-flight refueling. It is likely that staging will result in lower fuel burn, and recent published reports have suggested that the savings are substantial, particularly if the airliner is designed from the outset for this kind of operation. Given that staging runs against the design and operation historical trend, this result begs for further attention. This paper will examine the staging question, examining both analytic and numeric performance estimation methodologies to quantify the likely amount of fuel savings that can be expected and the resulting design impacts on the airliner.

  13. Understanding cancer staging

    MedlinePlus

    ... the body. The spread of cancer is called metastasis . Cancer staging is used to help describe the ... cancer has spread to nearby lymph nodes (N) Metastasis (M) , or if and how much the cancer ...

  14. Stages of Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... your baby in these three stages. First trimester (week 1-week 12) First trimester See how your baby is ... is each pregnancy. Return to top Second trimester (week 13-week 28) Second trimester See how your ...

  15. Cryogenic Propulsion Stage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, David

    2011-01-01

    The CPS is an in-space cryogenic propulsive stage based largely on state of the practice design for launch vehicle upper stages. However, unlike conventional propulsive stages, it also contains power generation and thermal control systems to limit the loss of liquid hydrogen and oxygen due to boil-off during extended in-space storage. The CPS provides the necessary (Delta)V for rapid transfer of in-space elements to their destinations or staging points (i.e., E-M L1). The CPS is designed around a block upgrade strategy to provide maximum mission/architecture flexibility. Block 1 CPS: Short duration flight times (hours), passive cryo fluid management. Block 2 CPS: Long duration flight times (days/weeks/months), active and passive cryo fluid management.

  16. Stages of Pancreatic Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... cancer) cells form in the tissues of the pancreas. The pancreas is a gland about 6 inches ... spleen , and bile ducts . Tests that examine the pancreas are used to detect (find), diagnose, and stage ...

  17. Radar stage uncertainty

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fulford, J.M.; Davies, W.J.

    2005-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey is investigating the performance of radars used for stage (or water-level) measurement. This paper presents a comparison of estimated uncertainties and data for radar water-level measurements with float, bubbler, and wire weight water-level measurements. The radar sensor was also temperature-tested in a laboratory. The uncertainty estimates indicate that radar measurements are more accurate than uncorrected pressure sensors at higher water stages, but are less accurate than pressure sensors at low stages. Field data at two sites indicate that radar sensors may have a small negative bias. Comparison of field radar measurements with wire weight measurements found that the radar tends to measure slightly lower values as stage increases. Copyright ASCE 2005.

  18. Precision adjustable stage

    DOEpatents

    Cutburth, Ronald W.; Silva, Leonard L.

    1988-01-01

    An improved mounting stage of the type used for the detection of laser beams is disclosed. A stage center block is mounted on each of two opposite sides by a pair of spaced ball bearing tracks which provide stability as well as simplicity. The use of the spaced ball bearing pairs in conjunction with an adjustment screw which also provides support eliminates extraneous stabilization components and permits maximization of the area of the center block laser transmission hole.

  19. Multiple stage railgun

    DOEpatents

    Hawke, Ronald S.; Scudder, Jonathan K.; Aaland, Kristian

    1982-01-01

    A multiple stage magnetic railgun accelerator (10) for accelerating a projectile (15) by movement of a plasma arc (13) along the rails (11,12). The railgun (10) is divided into a plurality of successive rail stages (10a-n) which are sequentially energized by separate energy sources (14a-n) as the projectile (15) moves through the bore (17) of the railgun (10). Propagation of energy from an energized rail stage back towards the breech end (29) of the railgun (10) can be prevented by connection of the energy sources (14a-n) to the rails (11,12) through isolation diodes (34a-n). Propagation of energy from an energized rail stage back towards the breech end of the railgun can also be prevented by dividing the rails (11,12) into electrically isolated rail sections (11a-n, 12a-n). In such case means (55a-n) are used to extinguish the arc at the end of each energized stage and a fuse (31) or laser device (61) is used to initiate a new plasma arc in the next energized rail stage.

  20. Bioimpedance Spectroscopy in Detecting Lower-Extremity Lymphedema in Patients With Stage I, Stage II, Stage III, or Stage IV Vulvar Cancer Undergoing Surgery and Lymphadenectomy

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-02-09

    Lymphedema; Perioperative/Postoperative Complications; Stage IA Vulvar Cancer; Stage IB Vulvar Cancer; Stage II Vulvar Cancer; Stage IIIA Vulvar Cancer; Stage IIIB Vulvar Cancer; Stage IIIC Vulvar Cancer; Stage IVA Vulvar Cancer; Stage IVB Vulvar Cancer

  1. Chemotherapy Toxicity On Quality of Life in Older Patients With Stage I, Stage II, Stage III, or Stage IV Ovarian Epithelial, Primary Peritoneal Cavity, or Fallopian Tube Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-02-09

    Stage I Ovarian Cancer; Stage IA Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IB Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage II Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIA Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIB Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage III Ovarian Cancer; Stage III Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Stage IIIA Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIB Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IV Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IV Ovarian Cancer; Stage IV Primary Peritoneal Cancer

  2. Simultaneous specimen and stage cleaning device for analytical electron microscope

    DOEpatents

    Zaluzec, Nestor J.

    1996-01-01

    An improved method and apparatus are provided for cleaning both a specimen stage, a specimen and an interior of an analytical electron microscope (AEM). The apparatus for cleaning a specimen stage and specimen comprising a plasma chamber for containing a gas plasma and an air lock coupled to the plasma chamber for permitting passage of the specimen stage and specimen into the plasma chamber and maintaining an airtight chamber. The specimen stage and specimen are subjected to a reactive plasma gas that is either DC or RF excited. The apparatus can be mounted on the analytical electron microscope (AEM) for cleaning the interior of the microscope.

  3. ECS with advanced air cycle machine

    SciTech Connect

    Thomson, M.W.; Matulich, D.S.; Emerson, T.P.

    1990-11-06

    This patent describes an environmental control system for conditioning air delivered to an enclosed space operated in conjunction with a multistage turbine engine providing power for the enclosed space. It comprises: bleed air means for extracting an air flow of pressurized high temperature bleed air from the high pressure stage of the multistage turbine engine; first turbine means for directly receiving and converting latent thermal energy of the bleed air flow into rotational power; compressor means for receiving the bleed air flow from the first turbine means and for repressurizing the bleed air. The compressor means rotationally driven by the first turbine means; primary heat exchange means downstream of the compressor means for cooling the pressurized bleed air flow in heat exchange relationship with a flow of ram air; second turbine means for converting energy of the bleed air flow to rotational power and for further conditioning the bleed air flow, the second turbine means located downstream of the heat exchange means and integrally mounted to drive the compressor means; and duct means communicating with the second turbine means and the enclosed space for carrying the air flow to the enclosed space.

  4. Split-flow regeneration in absorptive air separation

    DOEpatents

    Weimer, Robert F.

    1987-01-01

    A chemical absorptive separation of air in multiple stage of absorption and desorption is performed with partial recycle of absorbent between stages of desorption necessary to match equilibrium conditions in the various stages of absorption. This allows reduced absorbent flow, reduced energy demand and reduced capital costs.

  5. Split-flow regeneration in absorptive air separation

    DOEpatents

    Weimer, R.F.

    1987-11-24

    A chemical absorptive separation of air in multiple stage of absorption and desorption is performed with partial recycle of absorbent between stages of desorption necessary to match equilibrium conditions in the various stages of absorption. This allows reduced absorbent flow, reduced energy demand and reduced capital costs. 4 figs.

  6. 2-Stage Classification Modeling

    1994-11-01

    CIRCUIT2.4 is used to design optimum two-stage classification configurations and operating conditions for energy conservation. It permits simulation of five basic grinding-classification circuits, including one single-stage and four two-stage classification arrangements. Hydrocyclones, spiral classifiers, and sieve band screens can be simulated, and the user may choose the combination of devices for the flowsheet simulation. In addition, the user may select from four classification modeling methods to achieve the goals of a simulation project using themore » most familiar concepts. Circuit performance is modeled based on classification parameters or equipment operating conditions. A modular approach was taken in designing the program, which allows future addition of other models with relatively minor changes.« less

  7. 2-Stage Classification Modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Baltich, L. K.

    1994-11-01

    CIRCUIT2.4 is used to design optimum two-stage classification configurations and operating conditions for energy conservation. It permits simulation of five basic grinding-classification circuits, including one single-stage and four two-stage classification arrangements. Hydrocyclones, spiral classifiers, and sieve band screens can be simulated, and the user may choose the combination of devices for the flowsheet simulation. In addition, the user may select from four classification modeling methods to achieve the goals of a simulation project using the most familiar concepts. Circuit performance is modeled based on classification parameters or equipment operating conditions. A modular approach was taken in designing the program, which allows future addition of other models with relatively minor changes.

  8. Urban air quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fenger, Jes

    Since 1950 the world population has more than doubled, and the global number of cars has increased by a factor of 10. In the same period the fraction of people living in urban areas has increased by a factor of 4. In year 2000 this will amount to nearly half of the world population. About 20 urban regions will each have populations above 10 million people. Seen over longer periods, pollution in major cities tends to increase during the built up phase, they pass through a maximum and are then again reduced, as abatement strategies are developed. In the industrialised western world urban air pollution is in some respects in the last stage with effectively reduced levels of sulphur dioxide and soot. In recent decades however, the increasing traffic has switched the attention to nitrogen oxides, organic compounds and small particles. In some cities photochemical air pollution is an important urban problem, but in the northern part of Europe it is a large-scale phenomenon, with ozone levels in urban streets being normally lower than in rural areas. Cities in Eastern Europe have been (and in many cases still are) heavily polluted. After the recent political upheaval, followed by a temporary recession and a subsequent introduction of new technologies, the situation appears to improve. However, the rising number of private cars is an emerging problem. In most developing countries the rapid urbanisation has so far resulted in uncontrolled growth and deteriorating environment. Air pollution levels are here still rising on many fronts. Apart from being sources of local air pollution, urban activities are significant contributors to transboundary pollution and to the rising global concentrations of greenhouse gasses. Attempts to solve urban problems by introducing cleaner, more energy-efficient technologies will generally have a beneficial impact on these large-scale problems. Attempts based on city planning with a spreading of the activities, on the other hand, may generate

  9. Staging of prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Liang; Montironi, Rodolfo; Bostwick, David G; Lopez-Beltran, Antonio; Berney, Daniel M

    2012-01-01

    Prostatic carcinoma (PCa) is a significant cause of cancer morbidity and mortality worldwide. Accurate staging is critical for prognosis assessment and treatment planning for PCa. Despite the large volume of clinical activity and research, the challenge to define the most appropriate and clinically relevant staging system remains. The pathologically complex and uncertain clinical course of prostate cancer further complicates the design of staging classification and a substaging system suitable for individualized care. This review will focus on recent progress and controversial issues related to prostate cancer staging. The 2010 revision of the American Joint Committee on Cancer/Union Internationale Contre le Cancer (AJCC/UICC) tumour, node and metastasis (TNM) system is the most widely used staging system at this time. Despite general acceptance of the system as a whole, there is controversy and uncertainty about its application, particularly for T2 subclassification. The three-tiered T2 classification system for organ-confined prostate cancer is superfluous, considering the biology and anatomy of PCa. A tumour size-based substaging system may be considered in the future TNM subclassification of pT2 cancer. Lymph node status is one of the most important prognostic factors for prostate cancer. Nevertheless, clinical outcomes in patients with positive lymph nodes are variable. Identification of patients at the greatest risk of systemic progression helps in the selection of appropriate therapy. The data suggest that the inherent aggressiveness of metastatic prostate cancer is closely linked to the tumour volume of lymph node metastasis. We recommend that a future TNM staging system should consider subclassification of node-positive cancer on the basis of nodal cancer volume, using the diameter of the largest nodal metastasis and/or the number of positive nodes.

  10. Staging of prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Liang; Montironi, Rodolfo; Bostwick, David G; Lopez-Beltran, Antonio; Berney, Daniel M

    2012-01-01

    Prostatic carcinoma (PCa) is a significant cause of cancer morbidity and mortality worldwide. Accurate staging is critical for prognosis assessment and treatment planning for PCa. Despite the large volume of clinical activity and research, the challenge to define the most appropriate and clinically relevant staging system remains. The pathologically complex and uncertain clinical course of prostate cancer further complicates the design of staging classification and a substaging system suitable for individualized care. This review will focus on recent progress and controversial issues related to prostate cancer staging. The 2010 revision of the American Joint Committee on Cancer/Union Internationale Contre le Cancer (AJCC/UICC) tumour, node and metastasis (TNM) system is the most widely used staging system at this time. Despite general acceptance of the system as a whole, there is controversy and uncertainty about its application, particularly for T2 subclassification. The three-tiered T2 classification system for organ-confined prostate cancer is superfluous, considering the biology and anatomy of PCa. A tumour size-based substaging system may be considered in the future TNM subclassification of pT2 cancer. Lymph node status is one of the most important prognostic factors for prostate cancer. Nevertheless, clinical outcomes in patients with positive lymph nodes are variable. Identification of patients at the greatest risk of systemic progression helps in the selection of appropriate therapy. The data suggest that the inherent aggressiveness of metastatic prostate cancer is closely linked to the tumour volume of lymph node metastasis. We recommend that a future TNM staging system should consider subclassification of node-positive cancer on the basis of nodal cancer volume, using the diameter of the largest nodal metastasis and/or the number of positive nodes. PMID:22212080

  11. Stage cementing apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    Blamford, D.M.; Easter, J.H.

    1988-06-21

    A stage cementing apparatus for selectively passing cement from the interior passage of a casing to the annulus between the exterior of the casing and borehole, the casing having an upper portion and a lower portion, is described comprising: a barrel secured to the upper portion of the casing; a mandrel secured to the lower portion of the casing, and a stage cementing tool having a generally cylindrical configuration adapted for attachment to the lower end of the barrel about a portion of the mandrel.

  12. Staged fluidized bed

    DOEpatents

    Mallon, R.G.

    1983-05-13

    The invention relates to oil shale retorting and more particularly to staged fluidized bed oil shale retorting. Method and apparatus are disclosed for narrowing the distribution of residence times of any size particle and equalizing the residence times of large and small particles in fluidized beds. Particles are moved up one fluidized column and down a second fluidized column with the relative heights selected to equalize residence times of large and small particles. Additional pairs of columns are staged to narrow the distribution of residence times and provide complete processing of the material.

  13. Crescentic ramp turbine stage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Ching-Pang (Inventor); Tam, Anna (Inventor); Kirtley, Kevin Richard (Inventor); Lamson, Scott Henry (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    A turbine stage includes a row of airfoils joined to corresponding platforms to define flow passages therebetween. Each airfoil includes opposite pressure and suction sides and extends in chord between opposite leading and trailing edges. Each platform includes a crescentic ramp increasing in height from the leading and trailing edges toward the midchord of the airfoil along the pressure side thereof.

  14. Pancreatic Cancer Stage 4

    MedlinePlus

    ... lung, liver, and peritoneal cavity. An inset shows cancer cells spreading from the pancreas, through the blood and lymph system, to another ... abdomen that contains the intestines, stomach, and liver). Cancer may also have spread to ... pancreas or to lymph nodes. Stage IV pancreatic cancer. ...

  15. Stage a Water Show

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frasier, Debra

    2008-01-01

    In the author's book titled "The Incredible Water Show," the characters from "Miss Alaineus: A Vocabulary Disaster" used an ocean of information to stage an inventive performance about the water cycle. In this article, the author relates how she turned the story into hands-on science teaching for real-life fifth-grade students. The author also…

  16. STS upper stage operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kitchens, M. D.; Schnyer, A. D.

    1977-01-01

    Several design/development and operational approaches for STS upper stages are being pursued to realize maximum operational and economic benefits upon the introduction of the STS in the 1980s. The paper focuses special attention on safety operations, launch site operations and on-orbit operations.

  17. End-Stage.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moua, Mai Neng

    2001-01-01

    Through her reflections on dealing with dialysis for end-stage renal disease and awaiting a kidney transplant, the author presents insights into how her experience was shaped by the physical, emotional, and multicultural forces she faced. Among the issues discussed are her ambivalent feelings between pursuing a regular lifestyle and receiving…

  18. Air cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okamura, Okiyoshi; Wakasa, Masayuki; Tamanoi, Yoshihito

    1991-04-01

    The present invention relates to an air cell. This air cell provides a compact light-weight power source for model aircraft permitting them to fly for an extended period so that they may be used for such practical purposes as crop dusting, surveying, and photographing. The cell is comprised of a current collector so disposed between a magnesium, zinc, or aluminum alloy cathode and a petroleum graphite anode that it is in contact with the anode. The anode is formed by adding polytetrafluoroethylene dispersion liquid in a mixture of active carbon and graphite powder, pouring the mixture into a mold and heating it to form the anode. It is fabricated by a plurality of anode sections and is formed with at least one hole so that it can provide a cell which is compact in size and light in weight yet is capable of generating a high output. The anode, the cathode, and a separator are wetted by an electrolytic liquid. The electrolyte is continuously supplied through the life of the cell.

  19. MICE Staging and Status

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanlet, Pierrick

    2010-03-01

    Ionization cooling will be a key technique for a high-intensity Neutrino Factory or Muon Collider. The Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment (MICE) is a high-precision, staged accelerator experiment being performed at Rutherford Appleton Laboratory in the UK. Its goal is the first demonstration, with 0.1% resolution, of the feasibility of reducing the transverse emittance of a beam of muons by ionization cooling in low-Z absorbers. MICE is being staged in the following steps: I. Creating and characterizing a beam of muons; II. Measuring their emittance; III. Systematic comparison of successive measurements; IV. Inserting absorber; V. Reaccelerating longitudinally; and VI. Complete "10%-cooling" test. Step I is currently in progress with Step II to commence next year; completion of Step VI is anticipated in ˜2012.

  20. Saturn IB Second Stage (S-IVB Stage)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1968-01-01

    This cutaway drawing shows the S-IVB stage in its Saturn IB configuration. As a part of the Marshall Space Flight Center's (MSFC) 'building block' approach to the Saturn development, the S-IVB stage was utilized in the Saturn IB launch vehicle as a second stage and, later, the Saturn V launch vehicle as a third stage. The stage was powered by a single J-2 engine, initially capable of 200,000 pounds of thrust.

  1. Staged Event Architecture

    SciTech Connect

    Hoschek, Wolfgang; Berket, Karlo

    2005-05-30

    Sea is a framework for a Staged Event Architecture, designed around non-blocking asynchronous communication facilities that are decoupled from the threading model chosen by any given application, Components for P networking and in-memory communication are provided. The Sea Java library encapsulates these concepts. Sea is used to easily build efficient and flexible low-level network clients and servers, and in particular as a basic communication substrate for Peer-to-Peer applications.

  2. Staged depressurization system

    DOEpatents

    Schulz, T.L.

    1993-11-02

    A nuclear reactor having a reactor vessel disposed in a containment shell is depressurized in stages using depressurizer valves coupled in fluid communication with the coolant circuit. At least one sparger submerged in the in-containment refueling water storage tank which can be drained into the containment sump communicates between one or more of the valves and an inside of the containment shell. The depressurizer valves are opened in stages, preferably at progressively lower coolant levels and for opening progressively larger flowpaths to effect depressurization through a number of the valves in parallel. The valves can be associated with a pressurizer tank in the containment shell, coupled to a coolant outlet of the reactor. At least one depressurization valve stage openable at a lowest pressure is coupled directly between the coolant circuit and the containment shell. The reactor is disposed in the open sump in the containment shell, and a further valve couples the open sump to a conduit coupling the refueling water storage tank to the coolant circuit for adding water to the coolant circuit, whereby water in the containment shell can be added to the reactor from the open sump. 4 figures.

  3. Staged depressurization system

    DOEpatents

    Schulz, Terry L.

    1993-01-01

    A nuclear reactor having a reactor vessel disposed in a containment shell is depressurized in stages using depressurizer valves coupled in fluid communication with the coolant circuit. At least one sparger submerged in the in-containment refueling water storage tank which can be drained into the containment sump communicates between one or more of the valves and an inside of the containment shell. The depressurizer valves are opened in stages, preferably at progressively lower coolant levels and for opening progressively larger flowpaths to effect depressurization through a number of the valves in parallel. The valves can be associated with a pressurizer tank in the containment shell, coupled to a coolant outlet of the reactor. At least one depressurization valve stage openable at a lowest pressure is coupled directly between the coolant circuit and the containment shell. The reactor is disposed in the open sump in the containment shell, and a further valve couples the open sump to a conduit coupling the refueling water storage tank to the coolant circuit for adding water to the coolant circuit, whereby water in the containment shell can be added to the reactor from the open sump.

  4. Centaur upper-stage rocket for shuttle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bell, Peter M.

    A popular topic for discussion among those still hoping that the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) space shuttle will be able to launch large scientific space probes from earth orbit is the matter of the so-called US, or upper-stage, rocket vehicle. Programs slated for the middle of the decade that include sending probes deep into space will not be possible without a very powerful upper-stage rocket, and thus there was a surge of optimism among space scientists and NASA officials this past September when Congress voted not to eliminate the big Centaur rocket from space shuttle's portion of the NASA 1983 fiscal year budget.Support for construction of the Centaur followed the Air Force's requirement for greater lifting power because of the shielding required to prevent contamination of certain classified payloads (Science, 1 October 1982). The large rocket will also be needed to place massive communications satellites into geosynchronous earth orbit.

  5. Self-regulating fuel staging port for turbine combustor

    DOEpatents

    Van Nieuwenhuizen, William F.; Fox, Timothy A.; Williams, Steven

    2014-07-08

    A port (60) for axially staging fuel and air into a combustion gas flow path 28 of a turbine combustor (10A). A port enclosure (63) forms an air path through a combustor wall (30). Fuel injectors (64) in the enclosure provide convergent fuel streams (72) that oppose each other, thus converting velocity pressure to static pressure. This forms a flow stagnation zone (74) that acts as a valve on airflow (40, 41) through the port, in which the air outflow (41) is inversely proportion to the fuel flow (25). The fuel flow rate is controlled (65) in proportion to engine load. At high loads, more fuel and less air flow through the port, making more air available to the premixing assemblies (36).

  6. Dual stage check valve

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitten, D. E. (Inventor)

    1973-01-01

    A dual stage seat valve head arrangement is described which consists of a primary sealing point located between a fixed orifice seat and a valve poppet, and a secondary sealing point between an orifice poppet and a valve poppet. Upstream of the valve orifice is a flexible, convoluted metal diaphragm attached to the orifice poppet. Downstream of the valve orifice, a finger spring exerts a force against the valve poppet, tending to keep the valve in a closed position. The series arrangement of a double seat and poppet is able to tolerate small particle contamination while minimizing chatter by controlling throttling or metering across the secondary seat, thus preserving the primary sealing surface.

  7. Nuclear Cryogenic Propulsion Stage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Houts, Michael G.; Borowski, S. K.; George, J. A.; Kim, T.; Emrich, W. J.; Hickman, R. R.; Broadway, J. W.; Gerrish, H. P.; Adams, R. B.

    2012-01-01

    The fundamental capability of Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP) is game changing for space exploration. A first generation Nuclear Cryogenic Propulsion Stage (NCPS) based on NTP could provide high thrust at a specific impulse above 900 s, roughly double that of state of the art chemical engines. Characteristics of fission and NTP indicate that useful first generation systems will provide a foundation for future systems with extremely high performance. The role of the NCPS in the development of advanced nuclear propulsion systems could be analogous to the role of the DC-3 in the development of advanced aviation. Progress made under the NCPS project could help enable both advanced NTP and advanced NEP.

  8. Chimpanzee sleep stages.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freemon, F. R.; Mcnew, J. J.; Adey, W. R.

    1971-01-01

    The electroencephalogram and electro-oculogram of two unrestrained juvenile chimpanzees was monitored for 7 consecutive nights using telemetry methods. Of the sleeping time, 23% was spent in the rapid eye movement of REM type of sleep, whereas 8, 4, 15, and 10% were spent in non-REM stages 1 through 4, respectively. Seven to nine periods of REM sleep occurred per night. The average time from the beginning of one REM period to the beginning of the next was approximately 85 min.

  9. Two stages splicing system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mudaber, Mohammad Hassan; Yusof, Yuhani

    2015-05-01

    The study of the biological process of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) splicing system in a translucent approach was investigated in 2012 by Yusof under the framework of formal language theory. In this work, the concepts of splicing system in two stages as well as splicing languages are mathematically and biologically discussed. Additionally, some theorems based on recognition site factor of initial strings at the existence of two initial strings and two rules are provided via Yusof-Goode (Y-G) approach. Besides, an example is also given in showing the biological meaning of the introduced concept.

  10. Metal-Air Batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Jiguang; Bruce, Peter G.; Zhang, Gregory

    2011-08-01

    Metal-air batteries have much higher specific energies than most currently available primary and rechargeable batteries. Recent advances in electrode materials and electrolytes, as well as new designs on metal-air batteries, have attracted intensive effort in recent years, especially in the development of lithium-air batteries. The general principle in metal-air batteries will be reviewed in this chapter. The materials, preparation methods, and performances of metal-air batteries will be discussed. Two main metal-air batteries, Zn-air and Li-air batteries will be discussed in detail. Other type of metal-air batteries will also be described.

  11. AMBIENT AIR MONITORING STRATEGY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Clean Air Act requires EPA to establish national ambient air quality standards and to regulate as necessary, hazardous air pollutants. EPA uses ambient air monitoring to determine current air quality conditions, and to assess progress toward meeting these standards and relat...

  12. Cold air performance of a 12.766-centimeter-tip-diameter axial-flow cooled turbine. 2: Effect of air ejection on turbine performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haas, J. E.; Kofskey, M. G.

    1977-01-01

    An air cooled version of a single-stage, axial-flow turbine was investigated to determine aerodynamic performance with and without air ejection from the stator and rotor blades surfaces to simulate the effect of cooling air discharge. Air ejection rate was varied from 0 to 10 percent of turbine mass flow for both the stator and the rotor. A primary-to-air ejection temperature ratio of about 1 was maintained.

  13. Changes in Brain Function in Patients With Stage I, Stage II, Stage III, or Stage IV Ovarian, Primary Peritoneal, or Fallopian Tube Cancer Who Are Receiving Chemotherapy

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-10-26

    Cognitive Side Effects of Cancer Therapy; Malignant Ovarian Epithelial Tumor; Ovarian Brenner Tumor; Ovarian Carcinosarcoma; Ovarian Choriocarcinoma; Ovarian Clear Cell Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Dysgerminoma; Ovarian Embryonal Carcinoma; Ovarian Endometrioid Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Mixed Germ Cell Tumor; Ovarian Mucinous Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Polyembryoma; Ovarian Sarcoma; Ovarian Seromucinous Carcinoma; Ovarian Serous Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Teratoma; Ovarian Yolk Sac Tumor; Stage I Ovarian Cancer; Stage IA Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IA Ovarian Cancer; Stage IA Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage IB Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IB Ovarian Cancer; Stage IB Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage IC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IC Ovarian Cancer; Stage IC Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage II Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIA Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIA Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIA Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage IIB Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIB Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIB Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage IIC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIC Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIC Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage IIIA Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIA Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIA Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage IIIA Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Stage IIIB Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIB Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIB Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage IIIB Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Stage IIIC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIC Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIC Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage IIIC Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Stage IV Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IV Ovarian Cancer; Stage IV Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage IV Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Undifferentiated Ovarian Carcinoma

  14. Upper stage technology evaluation studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    Studies to evaluate advanced technology relative to chemical upper stages and orbit-to-orbit stages are reported. The work described includes: development of LH2/LOX stage data, development of data to indicate stage sensitivity to engine tolerance, modified thermal routines to accommodate storable propellants, added stage geometries to computer program for monopropellant configurations, determination of the relative gain obtainable through improvement of stage mass fraction, future propulsion concepts, effect of ultrahigh chamber-pressure increases, and relative gains obtainable through improved mass fraction.

  15. Processing AIRS Scientific Data Through Level 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Granger, Stephanie; Oliphant, Robert; Manning, Evan

    2010-01-01

    The Atmospheric Infra-Red Sounder (AIRS) Science Processing System (SPS) is a collection of computer programs, known as product generation executives (PGEs). The AIRS SPS PGEs are used for processing measurements received from the AIRS suite of infrared and microwave instruments orbiting the Earth onboard NASA's Aqua spacecraft. Early stages of the AIRS SPS development were described in a prior NASA Tech Briefs article: Initial Processing of Infrared Spectral Data (NPO-35243), Vol. 28, No. 11 (November 2004), page 39. In summary: Starting from Level 0 (representing raw AIRS data), the AIRS SPS PGEs and the data products they produce are identified by alphanumeric labels (1A, 1B, 2, and 3) representing successive stages or levels of processing. The previous NASA Tech Briefs article described processing through Level 2, the output of which comprises geo-located atmospheric data products such as temperature and humidity profiles among others. The AIRS Level 3 PGE samples selected information from the Level 2 standard products to produce a single global gridded product. One Level 3 product is generated for each day s collection of Level 2 data. In addition, daily Level 3 products are aggregated into two multiday products: an eight-day (half the orbital repeat cycle) product and monthly (calendar month) product.

  16. Driving a quadrupole mass spectrometer via an isolating stage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chutjian, Ara (Inventor); Aalami, Dean (Inventor); Darrach, Murray (Inventor); Orient, Otto (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    Driving a quadrupole mass spectrometer includes obtaining an air core transformer with a primary and a secondary, matching the secondary to the mass spectrometer, and driving the primary based on first and second voltage levels. Driving of the primary is via an isolating stage that minimizes low level drive signal coupling.

  17. High efficiency air cycle air conditioning system

    SciTech Connect

    Rannenberg, G. C.

    1985-11-19

    An air cycle air conditioning system is provided with regenerative heat exchangers upstream and downstream of an expansion turbine. A closedloop liquid circulatory system serially connects the two regenerative heat exchangers for regeneration without the bulk associated with air-to-air heat exchange. The liquid circulatory system may also provide heat transport to a remote sink heat exchanger and from a remote load as well as heat exchange within the sink heat exchanger and load for enhanced compactness and efficiency.

  18. Needed: Clean Air.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schneider, Gerald

    1979-01-01

    Provides information on air pollution for young readers. Discusses damage to substances and sickness from air pollution, air quality, and what to do in a pollution alert. Includes questions with answers, illustrations, and activities for the learner. (MA)

  19. Healthy Air Outdoors

    MedlinePlus

    ... clean up the air are enforced. Learn more Climate Change Climate change threatens the health of millions of people, with ... What Makes Air Unhealthy Fighting for Healthy Air Climate Change Emergencies & Natural Disasters Tobacco Education and Training Ask ...

  20. HEPA air filter (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... pet dander and other irritating allergens from the air. Along with other methods to reduce allergens, such ... controlling the amount of allergens circulating in the air. HEPA filters can be found in most air ...

  1. Project CAREERS, 1983-1984: OEA Evaluation Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York City Board of Education, Brooklyn. Office of Educational Assessment.

    Project CAREERS is a Title VII bilingual program operating at three Queens, New York high schools (William C. Bryant, John Bourne, and Hillcrest). The program provides intensive instruction in English as a second language (ESL), native language arts, and bilingual instruction in mathematics, science, and social studies to Hispanic, Chinese, and…

  2. Project COPE, 1985-1986. OEA Evaluation Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York City Board of Education, Brooklyn, NY. Office of Educational Evaluation.

    In its final year of funding, Project COPE provided instruction in basic skills and career development to 388 students of limited English proficiency (LEP) in grades 9 through 12 at three sites in Brooklyn and the Bronx: 150 Hispanics at John F. Kennedy High School, 150 Haitians at Prospect Heights High School, and 88 Italians at Christopher…

  3. Project CHAMP, 1985-1986. OEA Evaluation Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York City Board of Education, Brooklyn. Office of Educational Assessment.

    The Chinese Achievement and Mastery program, Project CHAMP, was a bilingual (Chinese/English) project offered at three high schools in Manhattan. The major goals were to enable Chinese students of limited English proficiency (LEP) to learn English and to master content in mathematics, science, global history, computer mathematics, and native…

  4. Project TRAIN, 1984-1985. OEA Evaluation Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York City Board of Education, Brooklyn. Office of Educational Assessment.

    Project TRAIN, in its first year of operation, proposed to offer 210 parents of New York City high school students of limited English proficiency (LEP) an opportunity to improve their own English language skills. The targeted language groups included Spanish, Haitian Creole, Khmer, and Korean. This was to have been achieved through regularly…

  5. Project PROBE, 1985-1986. OEA Evaluation Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York City Board of Education, Brooklyn. Office of Educational Assessment.

    In its second year of operation, Project PROBE (Professions Oriented Bilingual Education) experienced difficulty in meeting some of its instructional objectives. The project had sought to provide instructional and supportive services to 200 Spanish-speaking students from Latin America at Louis D. Brandeis High School (Manhattan, New York) and to…

  6. Project BRIDGES. 1986-1987. OEA Evaluation Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scorza, Margaret H.; And Others

    In its first year under Title VII funding, Project BRIDGES (Bilingual Resource Instruction for the Development of Gainful Employment Skills) provided instructional and support services to 346 limited-English-speaking students in three Brooklyn (New York) high schools (South Shore, Sheepshead Bay, Franklin D. Roosevelt). The project's aim was to…

  7. Project COPE, 1983-1984: OEA Evaluation Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York City Board of Education, Brooklyn. Office of Educational Assessment.

    Project COPE provides supportive services, basic skills, career development, and occupational training to limited English proficient (LEP) students at three New York City high schools. Many COPE students are also limited in their ability to read and write in their native languages. Program participants in 1983-84 included: 173 Spanish-dominant…

  8. Project MASTER, 1985-1986. OEA Evaluation Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York City Board of Education, Brooklyn. Office of Educational Assessment.

    In 1985-86 Project MASTER an innovative Title VII program emphasizing language development through bilingual instruction in mathematics and science, served 640 students of limited English proficiency (LEP) at six elementary schools in the Bronx, New York. Most of the students were born in Puerto Rico, but many were from the Dominican Republic,…

  9. Pancreatic Cancer Stage 2B

    MedlinePlus

    ... 2B Description: Stage IIB pancreatic cancer; drawing shows cancer in the pancreas and in nearby lymph nodes. Also shown are the bile duct, pancreatic duct, and duodenum. Stage IIB pancreatic cancer. Cancer has spread to nearby lymph nodes and ...

  10. Pancreatic Cancer Stage 2A

    MedlinePlus

    ... 2A Description: Stage IIA pancreatic cancer; drawing shows cancer in the pancreas and duodenum. The bile duct and pancreatic duct are also shown. Stage IIA pancreatic cancer. Cancer has spread to nearby tissue and organs ...

  11. Device for staged carbon monoxide oxidation

    DOEpatents

    Vanderborgh, Nicholas E.; Nguyen, Trung V.; Guante, Jr., Joseph

    1993-01-01

    A method and apparatus for selectively oxidizing carbon monoxide in a hydrogen rich feed stream. The method comprises mixing a feed stream consisting essentially of hydrogen, carbon dioxide, water and carbon monoxide with a first predetermined quantity of oxygen (air). The temperature of the mixed feed/oxygen stream is adjusted in a first the heat exchanger assembly (20) to a first temperature. The mixed feed/oxygen stream is sent to reaction chambers (30,32) having an oxidation catalyst contained therein. The carbon monoxide of the feed stream preferentially absorbs on the catalyst at the first temperature to react with the oxygen in the chambers (30,32) with minimal simultaneous reaction of the hydrogen to form an intermediate hydrogen rich process stream having a lower carbon monoxide content than the feed stream. The elevated outlet temperature of the process stream is carefully controlled in a second heat exchanger assembly (42) to a second temperature above the first temperature. The process stream is then mixed with a second predetermined quantity of oxygen (air). The carbon monoxide of the process stream preferentially reacts with the second quantity of oxygen in a second stage reaction chamber (56) with minimal simultaneous reaction of the hydrogen in the process stream. The reaction produces a hydrogen rich product stream having a lower carbon monoxide content than the process stream. The product stream is then cooled in a third heat exchanger assembly (72) to a third predetermined temperature. Three or more stages may be desirable, each with metered oxygen injection.

  12. Two-axis gimbal for air-to-air and air-to-ground laser communications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Talmor, Amnon G.; Harding, Harvard; Chen, Chien-Chung

    2016-03-01

    For bi-directional links between high-altitude-platforms (HAPs) and ground, and air-to-air communication between such platforms, a hemispherical +30°C field-of-regard and low-drag low-mass two-axis gimbal was designed and prototyped. The gimbal comprises two servo controlled non-orthogonal elevation over azimuth axis, and inner fast steering mirrors for fine field-of-regard adjustment. The design encompasses a 7.5cm diameter aperture refractive telescope in its elevation stage, folded between two flat mirrors with an exit lens leading to a two mirrors miniature Coude-path fixed to the azimuth stage. Multiple gimbal configurations were traded prior to finalizing a selection that met the requirements. The selected design was manifested onboard a carbon fiber and magnesium composite structure, motorized by custom-built servo motors, and commutated by optical encoders. The azimuth stage is electrically connected to the stationary base via slip ring while the elevation stage made of passive optics. Both axes are aligned by custom-built ceramic-on-steel angular contact duplex bearings, and controlled by embedded electronics featuring a rigid-flex PCB architecture. FEA analysis showed that the design is mechanically robust over a temperature range of +60°C to -80°C, and with first mode of natural frequencies above 400Hz. The total mass of the prototyped gimbal is 3.5kg, including the inner optical bench, which contains fast steering mirrors (FSMs) and tracking sensors. Future version of this gimbal, in prototyping stage, shall weigh less than 3.0kg.

  13. Primary zone air proportioner

    DOEpatents

    Cleary, Edward N. G.

    1982-10-12

    An air proportioner is provided for a liquid hydrocarbon fueled gas turbine of the type which is convertible to oil gas fuel and to coal gas fuel. The turbine includes a shell for enclosing the turbine, an air duct for venting air in said shell to a gasifier, and a fuel injector for injecting gasified fuel into the turbine. The air proportioner comprises a second air duct for venting air from the air duct for mixing with fuel from the gasifier. The air can be directly injected into the gas combustion basket along with the fuel from the injector or premixed with fuel from the gasifier prior to injection by the fuel injector.

  14. Evaluation of Air Coupled Ultrasound for Composite Aerospace Structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tat, H.; Georgeson, G.; Bossi, R.

    2009-03-01

    Non-contact air coupled ultrasound suffers from the high acoustic impedance mismatch characteristics of air to solid interfaces. Advances in transducer technology, particularly MEMS, have improved the acoustic impedance match at the transmission stage and the signal to noise at the reception stage. Comparisons of through transmission (TTU) scanning of laminate and honeycomb test samples using conventional piezoelectric air coupled transducers, new MEMS air coupled transducers, and standard water coupled inspections have been performed to assess the capability. An additional issue for air coupled UT inspection is the need for a lean implementation for both manufacturing and in-service operations. Concepts and applications utilizing magnetic coupling of transducers have been developed that allows air coupled inspection operations in compact low cost configurations.

  15. Air-leakage control manual

    SciTech Connect

    Maloney, J.

    1991-05-01

    This manual is for builders and designers who are interested in building energy-efficient homes. The purpose of the manual is to provide the ``how and why`` of controlling air leakage by means of a system called the ``Simple Caulk and Seal`` (SIMPLE{center_dot}CS) system. This manual provides an overview of the purpose and contents of the manual; It discusses the forces that affect air leakage in homes and the benefits of controlling air leakage. Also discussed are two earlier approaches for controlling air leakage and the problems with these approaches. It describes the SIMPLE-{center_dot}CS system. It outlines the standard components of the building envelope that require sealing and provides guidelines for sealing them. It outlines a step-by-step procedure for analyzing and planning the sealing effort. The procedure includes (1) identifying areas to be sealed, (2) determining the most effective and convenient stage of construction in which to do the sealing, and (3) designating the appropriate crew member or trade to be responsible for the sealing.

  16. Air-Leakage Control Manual.

    SciTech Connect

    Maloney, Jim; Washington State Energy Office; United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1991-05-01

    This manual is for builders and designers who are interested in building energy-efficient homes. The purpose of the manual is to provide the how and why'' of controlling air leakage by means of a system called the Simple Caulk and Seal'' (SIMPLE{center dot}CS) system. This manual provides an overview of the purpose and contents of the manual; It discusses the forces that affect air leakage in homes and the benefits of controlling air leakage. Also discussed are two earlier approaches for controlling air leakage and the problems with these approaches. It describes the SIMPLE-{center dot}CS system. It outlines the standard components of the building envelope that require sealing and provides guidelines for sealing them. It outlines a step-by-step procedure for analyzing and planning the sealing effort. The procedure includes (1) identifying areas to be sealed, (2) determining the most effective and convenient stage of construction in which to do the sealing, and (3) designating the appropriate crew member or trade to be responsible for the sealing.

  17. Bevacizumab, Cisplatin, Radiation Therapy, and Fluorouracil in Treating Patients With Stage IIB, Stage III, Stage IVA, or Stage IVB Nasopharyngeal Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2014-04-21

    Stage II Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Nasopharynx; Stage III Lymphoepithelioma of the Nasopharynx; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Nasopharynx; Stage IV Lymphoepithelioma of the Nasopharynx; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Nasopharynx

  18. Oblimersen Sodium and Combination Chemotherapy in Treating Patients With Newly Diagnosed Stage I, Stage II, Stage III, or Stage IV Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2012-10-11

    Contiguous Stage II Adult Diffuse Large Cell Lymphoma; Noncontiguous Stage II Adult Diffuse Large Cell Lymphoma; Stage I Adult Diffuse Large Cell Lymphoma; Stage III Adult Diffuse Large Cell Lymphoma; Stage IV Adult Diffuse Large Cell Lymphoma

  19. The Clean Air Game.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Avalone-King, Deborah

    2000-01-01

    Introduces the Clean Air game which teaches about air quality and its vital importance for life. Introduces students to air pollutants, health of people and environment, and possible actions individuals can take to prevent air pollution. Includes directions for the game. (YDS)

  20. REACH. Air Conditioning Units.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garrison, Joe; And Others

    As a part of the REACH (Refrigeration, Electro-Mechanical, Air-Conditioning, Heating) electromechanical cluster, this student manual contains individualized instructional units in the area of air conditioning. The instructional units focus on air conditioning fundamentals, window air conditioning, system and installation, troubleshooting and…

  1. Air traffic coverage

    SciTech Connect

    George, L.L.

    1988-09-16

    The Federal Aviation Administration plans to consolidate several hundred air traffic control centers and TRACONs into area control facilities while maintaining air traffic coverage. This paper defines air traffic coverage, a performance measure of the air traffic control system. Air traffic coverage measures performance without controversy regarding delay and collision probabilities and costs. Coverage measures help evaluate alternative facility architectures and help schedule consolidation. Coverage measures also help evaluate protocols for handling one facility's air traffic to another facility in case of facility failure. Coverage measures help evaluate radar, communications and other air traffic control systems and procedures. 4 refs., 2 figs.,

  2. Melanoma staging: facts and controversies.

    PubMed

    Forschner, Andrea; Eigentler, Thomas Kurt; Pflugfelder, Annette; Leiter, Ulrike; Weide, Benjamin; Held, Laura; Meier, Friedegund; Garbe, Claus

    2010-01-01

    The value of staging examinations remains controversial for the initial staging in melanoma patients at the time of the primary diagnosis and for surveillance. Issues concerning tumor recurrences and progression must be discussed separately for different risk groups. For low-risk patients (stage IA; tumor thickness less than 1 mm), staging examinations like sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB), blood tests, or imaging can generally be abandoned. Baseline staging with simple techniques is at the discretion of the physician. In intermediate-risk patients (stages IB and IIA), an initial staging examination involving SLNB and computed tomography (CT) scans is recommended. Further follow-up may be restricted to physical examinations, blood tests of tumor marker protein S100beta, and to lymph node ultrasonography. If findings are suspicious, further imaging procedures may be involved. In high-risk patients (stages IIB to III), an initial staging examination with CT is recommended, and regular follow-up every 6 months with whole body imaging by CT or magnetic resonance imaging seems useful. Physical examinations, blood tests of tumor marker protein S100beta, and lymph node ultrasound imaging should be routine. This intense follow-up may enable surgical treatments with complete removal of all recognizable metastases in about 15% to 25% of patients and improve their prognosis. The risk of recurrence or tumor progression is very high in stage IV patients, and their management is individualized. PMID:20541679

  3. Staged membrane oxidation reactor system

    SciTech Connect

    Repasky, John Michael; Carolan, Michael Francis; Stein, VanEric Edward; Chen, Christopher Ming-Poh

    2013-04-16

    Ion transport membrane oxidation system comprising (a) two or more membrane oxidation stages, each stage comprising a reactant zone, an oxidant zone, one or more ion transport membranes separating the reactant zone from the oxidant zone, a reactant gas inlet region, a reactant gas outlet region, an oxidant gas inlet region, and an oxidant gas outlet region; (b) an interstage reactant gas flow path disposed between each pair of membrane oxidation stages and adapted to place the reactant gas outlet region of a first stage of the pair in flow communication with the reactant gas inlet region of a second stage of the pair; and (c) one or more reactant interstage feed gas lines, each line being in flow communication with any interstage reactant gas flow path or with the reactant zone of any membrane oxidation stage receiving interstage reactant gas.

  4. Staged membrane oxidation reactor system

    SciTech Connect

    Repasky, John Michael; Carolan, Michael Francis; Stein, VanEric Edward; Chen, Christopher Ming-Poh

    2014-05-20

    Ion transport membrane oxidation system comprising (a) two or more membrane oxidation stages, each stage comprising a reactant zone, an oxidant zone, one or more ion transport membranes separating the reactant zone from the oxidant zone, a reactant gas inlet region, a reactant gas outlet region, an oxidant gas inlet region, and an oxidant gas outlet region; (b) an interstage reactant gas flow path disposed between each pair of membrane oxidation stages and adapted to place the reactant gas outlet region of a first stage of the pair in flow communication with the reactant gas inlet region of a second stage of the pair; and (c) one or more reactant interstage feed gas lines, each line being in flow communication with any interstage reactant gas flow path or with the reactant zone of any membrane oxidation stage receiving interstage reactant gas.

  5. Staged membrane oxidation reactor system

    DOEpatents

    Repasky, John Michael; Carolan, Michael Francis; Stein, VanEric Edward; Chen, Christopher Ming-Poh

    2012-09-11

    Ion transport membrane oxidation system comprising (a) two or more membrane oxidation stages, each stage comprising a reactant zone, an oxidant zone, one or more ion transport membranes separating the reactant zone from the oxidant zone, a reactant gas inlet region, a reactant gas outlet region, an oxidant gas inlet region, and an oxidant gas outlet region; (b) an interstage reactant gas flow path disposed between each pair of membrane oxidation stages and adapted to place the reactant gas outlet region of a first stage of the pair in flow communication with the reactant gas inlet region of a second stage of the pair; and (c) one or more reactant interstage feed gas lines, each line being in flow communication with any interstage reactant gas flow path or with the reactant zone of any membrane oxidation stage receiving interstage reactant gas.

  6. Staged Repository Development Programmes

    SciTech Connect

    Isaacs, T

    2003-10-01

    Programs to manage and ultimately dispose of high-level radioactive wastes are unique from scientific and technological as well as socio-political aspects. From a scientific and technological perspective, high-level radioactive wastes remain potentially hazardous for geological time periods-many millennia-and scientific and technological programs must be put in place that result in a system that provides high confidence that the wastes will be isolated from the accessible environment for these many thousands of years. Of course, ''proof'' in the classical sense is not possible at the outset, since the performance of the system can only be known with assurance, if ever, after the waste has been emplaced for those geological time periods. Adding to this challenge, many uncertainties exist in both the natural and engineered systems that are intended to isolate the wastes, and some of the uncertainties will remain regardless of the time and expense in attempting to characterize the system and assess its performance. What was perhaps underappreciated in the early days of waste management and repository program development were the unique and intense reactions that the institutional, political, and public bodies would have to repository program development, particularly in programs attempting to identify and then select sites for characterization, design, licensing, and ultimate development. Reactions in most nations were strong, focused, unrelenting, and often successful in hindering, derailing, and even stopping national repository programs. The reasons for such reactions and the measures to successfully respond to them are still evolving and continue to be the focus of many national program and political leaders. Adaptive Staging suggests an approach to repository program development that reflects the unique challenges associated with the disposal of high-level radioactive waste. The step-wise, incremental, learn-as-you-go approach is intended to maximize the

  7. Dynamics of transition from stage-1 to stage-2 evaporation from porous media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shokri, Nima; Shahraeeni, Ebrahim; Shahabdeen, Rumeena; Or, Dani

    2014-05-01

    The early stages of evaporation from porous media are marked by a relatively high and constant evaporation rate (the so-called stage-1 evaporation) sustained by capillary liquid flow from the porous medium interior. Following interruption of hydraulic connections at a certain drying front depth, the vaporization plane migrates below the surface leading to transition to stage-2 evaporation limited by vapour diffusion through the porous medium. The nature of the transition and the wide range of transition dynamics from stage-1 to stage-2 were studied using evaporation experiments from sand-filled Hele-Shaw cells (172x81x4 mm) with three mean particle sizes of 0.27, 0.46, and 0.84 mm. The initially water saturated cells were placed on digital balances (cell top exposed to air) to record evaporation rates. Experiments were conducted in an environmental chamber where the relative humidity and temperature could be varied and controlled accurately. The effects of grains size, ambient temperature and relative humidity (both affecting potential evaporation rates) on transition dynamics were systematically evaluated. The results illustrate the role of potential evaporation rate on transition duration and shape transcending the expected scaling with cumulative mass loss that defines the evaporative characteristic length. The transition becomes more abrupt at higher atmospheric demand perhaps due to enhanced role of viscous effects that accelerate pore disconnection. Pore size did not affect the shape of transition much except for the medium sand with prolonged transition (the exact pore size distribution needs to be examined). Interestingly the evaporation rate at the onset of stage 2 was not affected by atmospheric conditions (Shokri and Or, 2011).

  8. Carboplatin and Paclitaxel With or Without Cisplatin and Radiation Therapy in Treating Patients With Stage I, Stage II, Stage III, or Stage IVA Endometrial Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-02-09

    Endometrial Clear Cell Adenocarcinoma; Endometrial Serous Adenocarcinoma; Stage IA Uterine Corpus Cancer; Stage IB Uterine Corpus Cancer; Stage II Uterine Corpus Cancer; Stage IIIA Uterine Corpus Cancer; Stage IIIB Uterine Corpus Cancer; Stage IIIC Uterine Corpus Cancer; Stage IVA Uterine Corpus Cancer

  9. Isokinetic air sampler

    DOEpatents

    Sehmel, George A.

    1979-01-01

    An isokinetic air sampler includes a filter, a holder for the filter, an air pump for drawing air through the filter at a fixed, predetermined rate, an inlet assembly for the sampler having an inlet opening therein of a size such that isokinetic air sampling is obtained at a particular wind speed, a closure for the inlet opening and means for simultaneously opening the closure and turning on the air pump when the wind speed is such that isokinetic air sampling is obtained. A system incorporating a plurality of such samplers provided with air pumps set to draw air through the filter at the same fixed, predetermined rate and having different inlet opening sizes for use at different wind speeds is included within the ambit of the present invention as is a method of sampling air to measure airborne concentrations of particulate pollutants as a function of wind speed.

  10. Cooling supply system for stage 3 bucket of a gas turbine

    DOEpatents

    Eldrid, Sacheverel Quentin; Burns, James Lee; Palmer, Gene David; Leone, Sal Albert; Drlik, Gary Joseph; Gibler, Edward Eugene

    2002-01-01

    In a land based gas turbine including a compressor, a combustor and turbine section including at least three stages, an improvement comprising an inlet into a third stage nozzle from the compressor for feeding cooling air from the compressor to the third stage nozzle; at least one passageway running substantially radially through each airfoil of the third stage nozzle and an associated diaphragm, into an annular space between the rotor and the diaphragm; and passageways communicating between the annular space and individual buckets of the third stage.

  11. Second stage gasifier in staged gasification and integrated process

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Guohai; Vimalchand, Pannalal; Peng, Wan Wang

    2015-10-06

    A second stage gasification unit in a staged gasification integrated process flow scheme and operating methods are disclosed to gasify a wide range of low reactivity fuels. The inclusion of second stage gasification unit operating at high temperatures closer to ash fusion temperatures in the bed provides sufficient flexibility in unit configurations, operating conditions and methods to achieve an overall carbon conversion of over 95% for low reactivity materials such as bituminous and anthracite coals, petroleum residues and coke. The second stage gasification unit includes a stationary fluidized bed gasifier operating with a sufficiently turbulent bed of predefined inert bed material with lean char carbon content. The second stage gasifier fluidized bed is operated at relatively high temperatures up to 1400.degree. C. Steam and oxidant mixture can be injected to further increase the freeboard region operating temperature in the range of approximately from 50 to 100.degree. C. above the bed temperature.

  12. Multiple stage miniature stepping motor

    DOEpatents

    Niven, William A.; Shikany, S. David; Shira, Michael L.

    1981-01-01

    A stepping motor comprising a plurality of stages which may be selectively activated to effect stepping movement of the motor, and which are mounted along a common rotor shaft to achieve considerable reduction in motor size and minimum diameter, whereby sequential activation of the stages results in successive rotor steps with direction being determined by the particular activating sequence followed.

  13. A Model of Moral Stages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reed, Don Collins

    2008-01-01

    The argument of this paper focuses on the relationship between cognitive structures and structures of interaction. It contends that there is still a place in moral development theory and research for a concept of moral stages. The thesis, in short, is that moral stages are not structures of thought. They are structures of action encoded in…

  14. The Theatre Student: Stage Violence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katz, Albert M.

    Stage violence is a complex art which, when conceived inventively, approached with professional care and respect, and practiced with patience and energy, can be the highlight of a scene or of an entire play. This book is designed for amateurs who have not had the benefit of formal training in stage violence. Chapters discuss falling (the…

  15. Stage fluctuations of Wisconsin lakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    House, Leo B.

    1985-01-01

    This report describes lake-stage fluctuations of 83 gaged lakes in Wisconsin and presents techniques for estimating stage fluctuation at ungaged lakes. Included are stage information at 83 lakes and stage-frequency data for 32 of these lakes that had sufficient record for analysis. Lakes are classified by a hydrologic-topographic lake classification scheme as ground-water flowthrough (GWF) lakes, surface-water drainage (SWD) lakes, and surface-water flow-through (SWF) lakes. Lakes within the same class were found to have similar water-level fluctuations. The lake-stage records indicate that most annual maximums occur during the months of May and June for all three classes. Annual minimum lake levels generally occur in September for surface-water drainage lakes, in March for surface-water flowthrough lakes, and in November for ground-water flow-through lakes. Data for each lake include location, period of water-level record, hydrologic classification, drainage area, surface area, lake volume, maximum depth, long-term mean stage and its standard deviation, maximum and minimum observed lake stage, and the average annual lake-stage fluctuation.

  16. Writing Stages: A Developmental Hierarchy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milner, Joseph O.

    The developmental stages of writing can be related to Jean Piaget's final three stages of development (preoperational, concrete operational, and formal operational) and to the narrative, descriptive, explanative, analytical, and artistic rhetorical modes. As the child enters kindergarten or the first grade, narrative blooms. By this age most young…

  17. Lung Cancer Staging and Prognosis.

    PubMed

    Woodard, Gavitt A; Jones, Kirk D; Jablons, David M

    2016-01-01

    The seventh edition of the non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) TNM staging system was developed by the International Association for the Staging of Lung Cancer (IASLC) Lung Cancer Staging Project by a coordinated international effort to develop data-derived TNM classifications with significant survival differences. Based on these TNM groupings, current 5-year survival estimates in NSLCC range from 73 % in stage IA disease to 13 % in stage IV disease. TNM stage remains the most important prognostic factor in predicting recurrence rates and survival times, followed by tumor histologic grade, and patient sex, age, and performance status. Molecular prognostication in lung cancer is an exploding area of research where interest has moved beyond TNM stage and into individualized genetic tumor analysis with immunohistochemistry, microarray, and mutation profiles. However, despite intense research efforts and countless publications, no molecular prognostic marker has been adopted into clinical use since most fail in subsequent cross-validation with few exceptions. The recent interest in immunotherapy for NSCLC has identified new biomarkers with early evidence that suggests that PD-L1 is a predictive marker of a good response to new immunotherapy drugs but a poor prognostic indicator of overall survival. Future prognostication of outcomes in NSCLC will likely be based on a combination of TNM stage and molecular tumor profiling and yield more precise, individualized survival estimates and treatment algorithms. PMID:27535389

  18. Conceptual design of a two stage to orbit spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Armiger, Scott C.; Kwarta, Jennifer S.; Horsley, Kevin B.; Snow, Glenn A.; Koe, Eric C.; Single, Thomas G.

    1993-01-01

    This project, undertaken through the Advanced Space Design Program, developed a 'Conceptual Design of a Two Stage To Orbit Spacecraft (TSTO).' The design developed utilizes a combination of air breathing and rocket propulsion systems and is fully reusable, with horizontal takeoff and landing capability. The orbiter is carried in an aerodynamically designed bay in the aft section of the booster vehicle to the staging altitude. This TSTO Spacecraft design meets the requirements of replacing the aging Space Shuttle system with a more easily maintained vehicle with more flexible mission capability.

  19. Multi-stage wax hydrocracking

    SciTech Connect

    Lipinski, J.J.; Nye, J.R.; Soudek, M.

    1991-02-19

    This patent describes improvement in a process for the shape selective catalytic dewaxing of a wax containing feed. It consists of at least one of atmospheric gas oil and vacuum gas oil by passing the feed with about 1000 to 5000 standard cubic feet per barrel of hydrogen over a dewaxing catalyst comprising a shape selective zeolite to produce a dewaxed product and wherein the hydrogen is added to retard catalyst aging. The improvement comprises conducting the dewaxing reaction in at least two states, with a first stage containing at least 20 wt. % of the dewaxing catalyst and in at least one second stage containing at least 20 wt. % of the dewaxing catalyst and adding at least a portion of the hydrogen downstream of the first stage reactor wherein the total hydrogen to the second stage is greater than the total hydrogen to the first stage.

  20. Subminiature infrared detector translation stage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bell, Alan D.

    1989-11-01

    This paper describes a precision subminiature three-axis translation stage used in the GOES Sounder to provide positional adjustment of 12 cooled infrared detectors. Four separate translation stages and detectors are packaged into a detector mechanism which has an overall size of 0.850 x 1.230 x 0.600 inches. Each translation stage is capable of + or - 0.015 inch motion in the X and Y axes and +0.050/-0.025 inch motion in the Z axis with a sensitivity of 0.0002 inches. The function of the detector translation stage allows real time detector signal peaking during Sounder alignment. The translation stage operates in a cryogenic environment under a 10 to the -6th torr vacuum.

  1. Subminiature infrared detector translation stage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bell, Alan D.

    1989-01-01

    This paper describes a precision subminiature three-axis translation stage used in the GOES Sounder to provide positional adjustment of 12 cooled infrared detectors. Four separate translation stages and detectors are packaged into a detector mechanism which has an overall size of 0.850 x 1.230 x 0.600 inches. Each translation stage is capable of + or - 0.015 inch motion in the X and Y axes and +0.050/-0.025 inch motion in the Z axis with a sensitivity of 0.0002 inches. The function of the detector translation stage allows real time detector signal peaking during Sounder alignment. The translation stage operates in a cryogenic environment under a 10 to the -6th torr vacuum.

  2. 76 FR 42052 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants From Petroleum Refineries

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-18

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Parts 9 and 63 RIN 2060-AO55 National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants From... portions of the final rule amending the National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants From...) establishes a two-stage regulatory process to address emissions of hazardous air pollutants (HAP)...

  3. Stage measurement at gaging stations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sauer, Vernon B.; Turnipseed, D. Phil

    2010-01-01

    Stream and reservoir stage are critical parameters in the computation of stream discharge and reservoir volume, respectively. In addition, a record of stream stage is useful in the design of structures that may be affected by stream elevation, as well as for the planning for various uses of flood plains. This report describes equipment and methodology for the observation, sensing, and recording of stage in streams and reservoirs. Although the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) still uses the traditional, basic stilling-well float system as a predominant gaging station, modern electronic stage sensors and water-level recorders are now commonly used. Bubble gages coupled with nonsubmersible pressure transducers eliminate the need for stilling wells. Submersible pressure transducers have become common in use for the measurement of stage in both rivers and lakes. Furthermore, noncontact methods, such as radar, acoustic, and laser methods of sensing water levels, are being developed and tested, and in the case of radar, are commonly used for the measurement of stage. This report describes commonly used gaging-station structures, as well as the design and operation of gaging stations. Almost all of the equipment and instruments described in this report will meet the accuracy standard set by the USGS Office of Surface Water (OSW) for the measurement of stage for most applications, which is ?0.01 foot (ft) or 0.2 percent of the effective stage. Several telemetry systems are used to transmit stage data from the gaging station to the office, although satellite telemetry has become the standard. These telemetry systems provide near real-time stage data, as well as other information that alerts the hydrographer to extreme or abnormal events, and instrument malfunctions.

  4. Bad Air Day

    MedlinePlus

    ... children living near busy roadways—surrounded by particulate air pollution—are more likely to develop asthma and other ... found that genes may affect your response to air pollution. At least one gene seems to protect against ...

  5. Indoor Air Pollution

    MedlinePlus

    We usually think of air pollution as being outdoors, but the air in your house or office could also be polluted. Sources of indoor pollution include Mold and pollen Tobacco smoke Household products ...

  6. Air stripping industrial wastewater

    SciTech Connect

    Lamarre, B.; Shearouse, D.

    1994-09-01

    Industrial wastewater can be quickly, efficiently and economically treated using air strippers. Air stripping removes a range of volatile and semi-volatile contaminants from water. And the performance of various types and sizes of tray-type air stripper for treating contaminated water now is highly predictable because of laboratory studies. Air stripping can be a fast, efficient and economical approach to treating industrial wastewater. However, since every industrial wastewater stream is unique, each must be evaluated to determine its constituents, its potentially adverse effects on treatability, and any pretreatment steps necessary to ensure desired results. The general principles of air stripping are simple. In an air stripper, the surfaces area of a film of contaminated water is maximized while air is directed across it. Contaminants at the air/water interface volatilize and are discharged to the atmosphere or to an off-gas treatment system.

  7. Controlling Indoor Air Pollution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nero, Anthony V, Jr.

    1988-01-01

    Discusses the health risks posed by indoor air pollutants, such as airborne combustion products, toxic chemicals, and radioactivity. Questions as to how indoor air might be regulated. Calls for new approaches to environmental protection. (TW)

  8. Hazardous Air Pollutants

    MedlinePlus

    ... menu Learn the Issues Air Chemicals and Toxics Climate Change Emergencies Greener Living Health and Safety Land and Cleanup Pesticides Waste Water Science & Technology Air Climate Change Ecosystems Health Land, Waste and Cleanup Pesticides Substances ...

  9. Nuclear air cleaning

    SciTech Connect

    Bellamy, R.R.

    1994-12-31

    This report briefly describes the history of the use of high- efficiency particulate air filters for air cleaning at nuclear installations in the United States and discusses future uses of such filters.

  10. Transforming air quality management

    SciTech Connect

    Janet McCabe

    2005-04-01

    Earlier this year, the Clean Air Act Advisory Committee submitted to EPA 38 recommendations intended to improve air quality management in the United States. This article summarizes the evaluation process leading up to the Committee's recommendations. 3 refs., 2 figs.

  11. Airing It Out.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitzemeyer, Ted

    2000-01-01

    Discusses how proper maintenance can help schools eliminate sources contributing to poor air quality. Maintaining heating and air conditioning units, investigating bacterial breeding grounds, fixing leaking boilers, and adhering to ventilation codes and standards are discussed. (GR)

  12. Breakdowns in Coordination Between Air Traffic Controllers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bearman, Chris; Orasanu, Judith; Miller, Ronald C.

    2011-01-01

    This talk outlines the complexity of coordination in air traffic control, introduces the NextGen technologies, identifies common causes for coordination breakdowns in air traffic control and examines whether these causes are likely to be reduced with the introduction of NextGen technologies. While some of the common causes of breakdowns will be reduced in a NextGen environment this conclusion should be drawn carefully given the current stage of development of the technologies and the observation that new technologies often shift problems rather than reduce them.

  13. The third stage of Lunar Prospector's Athena is placed atop the second stage at LC 46 at CCAS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    The third stage of the Lockheed Martin Athena launch vehicle is placed atop the vehicle's second stage at Launch Complex 46 at Cape Canaveral Air Station. Athena is scheduled to carry the Lunar Prospector spacecraft for an 18-month mission that will orbit the Earth's moon to collect data from the lunar surface. Scientific experiments to be conducted by the Prospector include locating water ice that may exist near the lunar poles, gathering data to understand the evolution of the lunar highland crust and the lunar magnetic field, finding radon outgassing events, and describing the lunar gravity field by means of Doppler tracking. The launch is now scheduled for early-January 1998.

  14. On the impact of entrapped air in infiltration under ponding conditions. Part a: Preferential air flow path effects on infiltration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mizrahi, Guy; Weisbrod, Noam; Furman, Alex

    2015-04-01

    flat surface topography. No difference of infiltration rate between flat and irregular surface topography was observed when air was free to escape along the infiltration path. It was also found that at the first stage of infiltration, higher hydraulic heads caused higher entrapped air pressures and lower infiltration rates. In contrast, higher hydraulic head results in higher infiltration rate, when air was free to escape. Our results suggest that during ponding conditions: (1) preferential air flow paths develop at high surface zones of irregular topography and increase infiltration rate; and (2) higher ponding depths increase entrapped air pressure and decrease infiltration rate if air cannot escape. Keywords: Ponding condition, Entrapped air, Infiltration, Surface topography, Preferential air flow paths

  15. Air Pollution Training Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Public Health Service (DHEW), Rockville, MD.

    This catalog lists the universities, both supported and not supported by the Division of Air Pollution, which offer graduate programs in the field of air pollution. The catalog briefly describes the programs and their entrance requirements, the requirements, qualifications and terms of special fellowships offered by the Division of Air Pollution.…

  16. Air Sensor Guidebook

    EPA Science Inventory

    This Air Sensor Guidebook has been developed by the U.S. EPA to assist those interested in potentially using lower cost air quality sensor technologies for air quality measurements. Its development was in direct response to a request for such a document following a recent scienti...

  17. Indoor Air Quality Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baldwin Union Free School District, NY.

    This manual identifies ways to improve a school's indoor air quality (IAQ) and discusses practical actions that can be carried out by school staff in managing air quality. The manual includes discussions of the many sources contributing to school indoor air pollution and the preventive planning for each including renovation and repair work,…

  18. Into Thin Air.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Mike

    2001-01-01

    Shows how schools are working to avoid the types of equipment, supplies, and maintenance practices that harm indoor air quality. Simple steps to maintaining a cleaner indoor air environment are highlighted as are steps to reducing the problem air quality and the occurrence of asthma. (GR)

  19. Air Travel Health Tips

    MedlinePlus

    MENU Return to Web version Air Travel Health Tips Air Travel Health Tips How can I improve plane travel? Most people don't have any problems when ... and dosages of all of your medicines. The air in airplanes is dry, so drink nonalcoholic, decaffeinated ...

  20. Multi-stage, isothermal CO preferential oxidation reactor

    DOEpatents

    Skala, Glenn William; Brundage, Mark A.; Borup, Rodney Lynn; Pettit, William Henry; Stukey, Kevin; Hart-Predmore, David James; Fairchok, Joel

    2000-01-01

    A multi-stage, isothermal, carbon monoxide preferential oxidation (PrOx) reactor comprising a plurality of serially arranged, catalyzed heat exchangers, each separated from the next by a mixing chamber for homogenizing the gases exiting one heat exchanger and entering the next. In a preferred embodiment, at least some of the air used in the PrOx reaction is injected directly into the mixing chamber between the catalyzed heat exchangers.

  1. Air Conditioning Does Reduce Air Pollution Indoors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Healy, Bud

    1970-01-01

    Report of the winter meeting of the American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers. Subjects covered are--(1) title subject, (2) predictions for the human habitat in 1994, (3) fans, and (4) fire safety in buildings. (JW)

  2. Air Sparging Decision Tool

    1996-06-10

    The Air Sparging Decision Tool is a computer decision aid to help environmental managers and field practitioners in evaluating the applicability of air sparging to a wide range of sites and for refining the operation of air sparging systems. The program provides tools for the practitioner to develop the conceptual design for an air sparging system suitable for the identified site. The Tool provides a model of the decision making process, not a detailed designmore » of air sparging systems. The Tool will quickly and cost effectively assist the practitioner in screening for applicability of the technology at a proposed site.« less

  3. Naval Air Station Lighter than Air Hangar, wood construction horizontal ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Naval Air Station Lighter than Air Hangar, wood construction horizontal rolling door. Drawing no. 2122 820. - Marine Corps Air Station Tustin, Northern Lighter Than Air Ship Hangar, Meffett Avenue & Maxfield Street, Tustin, Orange County, CA

  4. Shelter and indoor air.

    PubMed Central

    Stolwijk, J A

    1990-01-01

    Improvements in outdoor air quality that were achieved through the implementation of the Clean Air Act accentuate the quality of the indoor air as an important, if not dominant, factor in the determination of the total population exposure to air contaminants. A number of developments are adding important new determinants of indoor air quality. Energy conservation strategies require reductions in infiltration of outdoor air into buildings. New materials introduced in the construction and in the maintenance of buildings are contributing new air contaminants into the building atmosphere. Larger buildings require more and more complex ventilation systems that are less and less under the individual control of the occupants. All of these factors contribute to the current reality that indoor air contains more pollutants, and often at higher concentrations, than outdoor air. Especially in the larger buildings, it will be necessary to assure that an adequate quantity of fresh air of acceptable quality is provided to each individual space, and that no new sources of pollutants are added to a space or a whole building without appropriate adjustments in the supply of fresh air. PMID:2401264

  5. Released air during vapor and air cavitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jablonská, Jana; Kozubková, Milada

    2016-06-01

    Cavitation today is a very important problem that is solved by means of experimental and mathematical methods. The article deals with the generation of cavitation in convergent divergent nozzle of rectangular cross section. Measurement of pressure, flow rate, temperature, amount of dissolved air in the liquid and visualization of cavitation area using high-speed camera was performed for different flow rates. The measurement results were generalized by dimensionless analysis, which allows easy detection of cavitation in the nozzle. For numerical simulation the multiphase mathematical model of cavitation consisting of water and vapor was created. During verification the disagreement with the measurements for higher flow rates was proved, therefore the model was extended to multiphase mathematical model (water, vapor and air), due to release of dissolved air. For the mathematical modeling the multiphase turbulence RNG k-ɛ model for low Reynolds number flow with vapor and air cavitation was used. Subsequently the sizes of the cavitation area were verified. In article the inlet pressure and loss coefficient depending on the amount of air added to the mathematical model are evaluated. On the basis of the approach it may be create a methodology to estimate the amount of released air added at the inlet to the modeled area.

  6. Air Conditioner/Dehumidifier

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    An ordinary air conditioner in a very humid environment must overcool the room air, then reheat it. Mr. Dinh, a former STAC associate, devised a heat pipe based humidifier under a NASA Contract. The system used heat pipes to precool the air; the air conditioner's cooling coil removes heat and humidity, then the heat pipes restore the overcooled air to a comfortable temperature. The heat pipes use no energy, and typical savings are from 15-20%. The Dinh Company also manufactures a "Z" coil, a retrofit cooling coil which may be installed on an existing heater/air conditioner. It will also provide free hot water. The company has also developed a photovoltaic air conditioner and solar powered water pump.

  7. Cognitive Development and Group Stages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saidla, Debie D.

    1990-01-01

    Attempts to integrate Perry's (1970) scheme of the cognitive development of college students with a model of group development adapted by Waldo (1985) based on Tuckman's (1965) formulation of developmental group stages. (Author)

  8. Evaluating the Stage Learning Hypothesis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Hoben

    1980-01-01

    A procedure for evaluating the Genevan stage learning hypothesis is illustrated by analyzing Inhelder, Sinclair, and Bovet's guided learning experiments (in "Learning and the Development of Cognition." Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1974). (Author/MP)

  9. Two stage to orbit design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    A preliminary design of a two-stage to orbit vehicle was conducted with the requirements to carry a 10,000 pound payload into a 300 mile low-earth orbit using an airbreathing first stage, and to take off and land unassisted on a 15,000 foot runway. The goal of the design analysis was to produce the most efficient vehicle in size and weight which could accomplish the mission requirements. Initial parametric analysis indicated that the weight of the orbiter and the transonic performance of the system were the two parameters that had the largest impact on the design. The resulting system uses a turbofan ramjet powered first stage to propel a scramjet and rocket powered orbiter to the stage point of Mach 6 to 6.5 at an altitude of 90,000 ft.

  10. Two stage liquefaction of coal

    DOEpatents

    Neuworth, Martin B.

    1981-01-01

    A two stage coal liquefaction process and apparatus comprising hydrogen donor solvent extracting, solvent deashing, and catalytic hydrocracking. Preferrably, the catalytic hydrocracking is performed in an ebullating bed hydrocracker.

  11. Ramjet propulsion for single-stage-to-orbit vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, J. A.

    1977-01-01

    The concept of single stage earth-to-orbit transportation is studied with respect to existing and projected ramjet technology. Four types of ramjet are analyzed: fan ejector, fan ramjet, supersonic combustion ramjet, and fan ramjet with turbojet boosters. A fan ramjet with a removable fan, with separate rockets for the non-air-breathing flight phase, is considered superior to an ejector ramjet, for both ease of orbit insertion and payload boost capability. Vehicle design is also discussed in terms of trajectory integration and optimization, aerodynamic trim and stability, and complete mass estimation. Graphs are presented showing Mach number for air-breathing and non-air-breathing flight, specific impulse from various ramjet engines, and orbital-insertion parameters.

  12. Differential Metabolic Profiles during the Albescent Stages of 'Anji Baicha' (Camellia sinensis).

    PubMed

    Li, Chun-Fang; Yao, Ming-Zhe; Ma, Chun-Lei; Ma, Jian-Qiang; Jin, Ji-Qiang; Chen, Liang

    2015-01-01

    'Anji Baicha' is an albino tea cultivar with white shoots at low air temperature and green shoots at high air temperature in early spring. The metabolite contents in the shoots dynamically vary with the color changes and with shoot development. To investigate the metabolomic variation during the albescent and re-greening stages, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry combined with multivariate analysis were applied to analyze the metabolite profiles in the different color stages during the development of 'Anji Baicha' leaves. The metabolite profiles of three albescent stages, including the yellow-green stage, the early albescent stage, and the late albescent stage, as well as the re-greening stage were distinguished using principal component analysis, revealing that the distinct developmental stages were likely responsible for the observed metabolic differences. Furthermore, a group classification and pairwise discrimination was revealed among the three albescent stages and re-greening stage by partial least squares discriminant analysis. A total of 65 differential metabolites were identified with a variable influence on projection greater than 1. The main differential metabolic pathways of the albescent stages compared with the re-greening stage included carbon fixation in photosynthetic organisms and the phenylpropanoid and flavonoid biosynthesis pathways. Compared with the re-greening stage, the carbohydrate and amino acid metabolic pathways were disturbed during the albescent stages. During the albescent stages, the sugar (fructofuranose), sugar derivative (glucose-1-phosphate) and epicatechin concentrations decreased, whereas the amino acid (mainly glycine, serine, tryptophan, citrulline, glutamine, proline, and valine) concentrations increased. These results reveal the changes in metabolic profiling that occur during the color changes associated with the development of the albino tea plant leaves.

  13. Differential Metabolic Profiles during the Albescent Stages of ‘Anji Baicha’ (Camellia sinensis)

    PubMed Central

    Li, Chun-Fang; Yao, Ming-Zhe; Ma, Chun-Lei; Ma, Jian-Qiang; Jin, Ji-Qiang; Chen, Liang

    2015-01-01

    ‘Anji Baicha’ is an albino tea cultivar with white shoots at low air temperature and green shoots at high air temperature in early spring. The metabolite contents in the shoots dynamically vary with the color changes and with shoot development. To investigate the metabolomic variation during the albescent and re-greening stages, gas chromatography–mass spectrometry combined with multivariate analysis were applied to analyze the metabolite profiles in the different color stages during the development of 'Anji Baicha' leaves. The metabolite profiles of three albescent stages, including the yellow-green stage, the early albescent stage, and the late albescent stage, as well as the re-greening stage were distinguished using principal component analysis, revealing that the distinct developmental stages were likely responsible for the observed metabolic differences. Furthermore, a group classification and pairwise discrimination was revealed among the three albescent stages and re-greening stage by partial least squares discriminant analysis. A total of 65 differential metabolites were identified with a variable influence on projection greater than 1. The main differential metabolic pathways of the albescent stages compared with the re-greening stage included carbon fixation in photosynthetic organisms and the phenylpropanoid and flavonoid biosynthesis pathways. Compared with the re-greening stage, the carbohydrate and amino acid metabolic pathways were disturbed during the albescent stages. During the albescent stages, the sugar (fructofuranose), sugar derivative (glucose-1-phosphate) and epicatechin concentrations decreased, whereas the amino acid (mainly glycine, serine, tryptophan, citrulline, glutamine, proline, and valine) concentrations increased. These results reveal the changes in metabolic profiling that occur during the color changes associated with the development of the albino tea plant leaves. PMID:26444680

  14. Aire Expression Is Inherent to Most Medullary Thymic Epithelial Cells during Their Differentiation Program.

    PubMed

    Kawano, Hiroshi; Nishijima, Hitoshi; Morimoto, Junko; Hirota, Fumiko; Morita, Ryoko; Mouri, Yasuhiro; Nishioka, Yasuhiko; Matsumoto, Mitsuru

    2015-12-01

    Aire in medullary thymic epithelial cells (mTECs) plays an important role in the establishment of self-tolerance. Because Aire(+) mTECs appear to be a limited subset, they may constitute a unique lineage(s) among mTECs. An alternative possibility is that all mTECs are committed to express Aire in principle, but Aire expression by individual mTECs is conditional. To investigate this issue, we established a novel Aire reporter strain in which endogenous Aire is replaced by the human AIRE-GFP-Flag tag (Aire/hAGF-knockin) fusion gene. The hAGF reporter protein was produced and retained very efficiently within mTECs as authentic Aire nuclear dot protein. Remarkably, snapshot analysis revealed that mTECs expressing hAGF accounted for >95% of mature mTECs, suggesting that Aire expression does not represent a particular mTEC lineage(s). We confirmed this by generating Aire/diphtheria toxin receptor-knockin mice in which long-term ablation of Aire(+) mTECs by diphtheria toxin treatment resulted in the loss of most mature mTECs beyond the proportion of those apparently expressing Aire. These results suggest that Aire expression is inherent to all mTECs but may occur at particular stage(s) and/or cellular states during their differentiation, thus accounting for the broad impact of Aire on the promiscuous gene expression of mTECs.

  15. Crew Launch Vehicle Upper Stage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, D. J.; Cook, J. R.

    2006-01-01

    The Agency s Crew Launch Vehicle (CLV) will be the first human rated space transportation system developed in the United States since the Space Shuttle. The CLV will utilize existing Shuttle heritage hardware and systems combined with a "clean sheet design" for the Upper Stage. The Upper Stage element will be designed and developed by a team of NASA engineers managed by the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) in Huntsville, Alabama. The team will design the Upper Stage based on the Exploration Systems Architecture Study (ESAS) Team s point of departure conceptual design as illustrated in the figure below. This concept is a self-supporting cylindrical structure, approximately 1 15 feet long and 216 inches in diameter. While this "clean-sheet" upper stage design inherently carries more risk than utilizing a modified design, the approach also has many advantages. This paper will discuss the advantages and disadvantages of pursuing a "clean-sheet" design for the new CLV Upper Stage as well as describe in detail the overall design of the Upper Stage and its integration into NASA s CLV.

  16. Capability of air filters to retain airborne bacteria and molds in heating, ventilating and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems.

    PubMed

    Möritz, M; Peters, H; Nipko, B; Rüden, H

    2001-07-01

    The capability of air filters (filterclass: F6, F7) to retain airborne outdoor microorganisms was examined in field experiments in two heating, ventilating and air conditioning (HVAC) systems. At the beginning of the 15-month investigation period, the first filter stages of both HVAC systems were equipped with new unused air filters. The number of airborne bacteria and molds before and behind the filters were determined simultaneously in 14 days-intervals using 6-stage Andersen cascade impactors. Under relatively dry (< 80% R. H.) and warm (> 12 degrees C) outdoor air conditions air filters led to a marked reduction of airborne microorganism concentrations (bacteria by approximately 70% and molds by > 80%). However, during long periods of high relative humidity (> 80% R. H.) a proliferation of bacteria on air filters with subsequent release into the filtered air occurred. These microorganisms were mainly smaller than 1.1 microns therefore being part of the respirable fraction. The results showed furthermore that one possibility to avoid microbial proliferation is to limit the relative humidity in the area of the air filters to 80% R. H. (mean of 3 days), e.g. by using preheaters in front of air filters in HVAC-systems.

  17. Health Effects of Air Pollution

    MedlinePlus

    ... Health effects of air pollution Health effects of air pollution Breathing air that is not clean can hurt ... important to know about the health effects that air pollution can have on you and others. Once you ...

  18. Autoimmune regulator, Aire, is a novel regulator of chondrocyte differentiation.

    PubMed

    Si, Yuan; Inoue, Kazuki; Igarashi, Katsuhide; Kanno, Jun; Imai, Yuuki

    2013-08-01

    Chondrocyte differentiation is controlled by various regulators, such as Sox9 and Runx2, but the process is complex. To further understand the precise underlying molecular mechanisms of chondrocyte differentiation, we aimed to identify a novel regulatory factor of chondrocyte differentiation using gene expression profiles of micromass-cultured chondrocytes at different differentiation stages. From the results of microarray analysis, the autoimmune regulator, Aire, was identified as a novel regulator. Aire stable knockdown cells, and primary cultured chondrocytes obtained from Aire(-/-) mice, showed reduced mRNA expression levels of chondrocyte-related genes. Over-expression of Aire induced the early stages of chondrocyte differentiation by facilitating expression of Bmp2. A ChIP assay revealed that Aire was recruited on an Airebinding site (T box) in the Bmp2 promoter region in the early stages of chondrocyte differentiation and histone methylation was modified. These results suggest that Aire can facilitate early chondrocyte differentiation by expression of Bmp2 through altering the histone modification status of the promoter region of Bmp2. Taken together, Aire might play a role as an active regulator of chondrocyte differentiation, which leads to new insights into the regulatory mechanisms of chondrocyte differentiation.

  19. Conceptual design of two-stage-to-orbit hybrid launch vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    The object of this design class was to design an earth-to orbit vehicle to replace the present NASA space shuttle. The major motivations for designing a new vehicle were to reduce the cost of putting payloads into orbit and to design a vehicle that could better service the space station with a faster turn-around time. Another factor considered in the design was that near-term technology was to be used. Materials, engines and other important technologies were to be realized in the next 10 to 15 years. The first concept put forth by NASA to meet these objectives was the National Aerospace Plane (NASP). The NASP is a single-stage earth-to-orbit air-breathing vehicle. This concept ran into problems with the air-breathing engine providing enough thrust in the upper atmosphere, among other things. The solution of this design class is a two-stage-to-orbit vehicle. The first stage is air-breathing and the second stage is rocket-powered, similar to the space shuttle. The second stage is mounted on the top of the first stage in a piggy-back style. The vehicle takes off horizontally using only air-breathing engines, flies to Mach six at 100,000 feet, and launches the second stage towards its orbital path. The first stage, or booster, will weigh approximately 800,000 pounds and the second stage, or orbiter will weigh approximately 300,000 pounds. The major advantage of this design is the full recoverability of the first stage compared with the present solid rocket booster that are only partially recoverable and used only a few times. This reduces the cost as well as providing a more reliable and more readily available design for servicing the space station. The booster can fly an orbiter up, turn around, land, refuel, and be ready to launch another orbiter in a matter of hours.

  20. Air Force disaster response: Haiti experience.

    PubMed

    Stuart, Joseph J; Johnson, Drew C

    2011-01-01

    After the devastating earthquake in Haiti, the United States Air Force deployed multiple medical units as part of the disaster response. Air Force Special Operations Command medical teams provided initial medical response and assisted in the organization of medical assets. A small portable expeditionary aeromedical rapid response team with the assistance of a mobile aeromedical staging facility team stabilized patients for flight and coordinated air evacuation to the United States. An expeditionary medical support hospital was set up and assisted in patient movement to and from the USNS Comfort hospital ship. These units were able to adapt to the unique circumstances in Haiti and provide great patient care. The lessons learned from these experiences may help the United States better respond to future disasters.

  1. Urban air pollution and solar energy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gammon, R. B.; Huning, J. R.; Reid, M. S.; Smith, J. H.

    1981-01-01

    The design and performance of solar energy systems for many potential applications (industrial/residential heat, electricity generation by solar concentration and photovoltaics) will be critically affected by local insolation conditions. The effects of urban air pollution are considered and reviewed. A study of insolation data for Alhambra, California (9 km south of Pasadena) shows that, during a recent second-stage photochemical smog alert (greater than or equal to 0.35 ppm ozone), the direct-beam insolation at solar noon was reduced by 40%, and the total global by 15%, from clean air values. Similar effects have been observed in Pasadena, and are attributable primarily to air pollution. Effects due to advecting smog have been detected 200 km away, in the Mojave Desert. Preliminary performance and economic simulations of solar thermal and photovoltaic power systems indicate increasing nonlinear sensitivity of life cycle plant cost to reductions in insolation levels due to pollution.

  2. Saturn IB First Stage (S-IB Stage) at MSFC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1965-01-01

    Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) workers lower S-IB-200D, a dynamic test version of the Saturn IB launch vehicle's first stage (S-IB stage), into the Center's Dynamic Test Stand on January 12, 1965. Test Laboratory persornel assembled a complete Saturn IB to test the structural soundness of the launch vehicle. Developed by the MSFC as an interim vehicle in MSFC's 'building block' approach to Saturn rocket development, the Saturn IB utilized Saturn I technology to further develop and refine large boosters and the Apollo spacecraft capabilities required for the manned lunar missions.

  3. Saturn IB First Stage (S-IB Stage) at MSFC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1965-01-01

    Workers at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) begin hoisting S-IB-200D, a dynamic test version of the Saturn IB launch vehicle's first stage (S-IB stage), into the Center's Dynamic Test Stand on January 11, 1965. Test Laboratory persornel assembled a complete Saturn IB to test the structural soundness of the launch vehicle. Developed by the MSFC as an interim vehicle in MSFC's 'building block' approach to Saturn rocket development, the Saturn IB utilized Saturn I technology to further develop and refine large boosters and the Apollo spacecraft capabilities required for the manned lunar missions.

  4. Processing AIRS Scientific Data Through Level 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oliphant, Robert; Lee, Sung-Yung; Chahine, Moustafa; Susskind, Joel; arnet, Christopher; McMillin, Larry; Goldberg, Mitchell; Blaisdell, John; Rosenkranz, Philip; Strow, Larrabee

    2007-01-01

    The Atmospheric Infrared Spectrometer (AIRS) Science Processing System (SPS) is a collection of computer programs, denoted product generation executives (PGEs), for processing the readings of the AIRS suite of infrared and microwave instruments orbiting the Earth aboard NASA s Aqua spacecraft. AIRS SPS at an earlier stage of development was described in "Initial Processing of Infrared Spectral Data' (NPO-35243), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 28, No. 11 (November 2004), page 39. To recapitulate: Starting from level 0 (representing raw AIRS data), the PGEs and their data products are denoted by alphanumeric labels (1A, 1B, and 2) that signify the successive stages of processing. The cited prior article described processing through level 1B (the level-2 PGEs were not yet operational). The level-2 PGEs, which are now operational, receive packages of level-1B geolocated radiance data products and produce such geolocated geophysical atmospheric data products such as temperature and humidity profiles. The process of computing these geophysical data products is denoted "retrieval" and is quite complex. The main steps of the process are denoted microwave-only retrieval, cloud detection and cloud clearing, regression, full retrieval, and rapid transmittance algorithm.

  5. [Pollution of room air].

    PubMed

    Schlatter, J

    1986-01-01

    In the last decade the significance of indoor air pollution to human health has increased because of improved thermal insulation of buildings to save energy: air turnover is reduced and air quality is impaired. The most frequent air pollutants are tobacco smoke, radioactive radon gas emanating from the soil, formaldehyde from furniture and insulation material, nitrogen oxides from gas stoves, as well as solvents from cleaning agents. The most important pollutants leading to health hazards are tobacco smoke and air pollutants which are emitted continuously from building materials and furniture. Such pollutants have to be eliminated by reducing the emission rate. A fresh air supply is necessary to reduce the pollutants resulting from the inhabitants and their activities, the amount depending on the number of inhabitants and the usage of the room. The carbon dioxide level should not exceed 1500 ppm.

  6. Two-Stage Centrifugal Fan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Converse, David

    2011-01-01

    Fan designs are often constrained by envelope, rotational speed, weight, and power. Aerodynamic performance and motor electrical performance are heavily influenced by rotational speed. The fan used in this work is at a practical limit for rotational speed due to motor performance characteristics, and there is no more space available in the packaging for a larger fan. The pressure rise requirements keep growing. The way to ordinarily accommodate a higher DP is to spin faster or grow the fan rotor diameter. The invention is to put two radially oriented stages on a single disk. Flow enters the first stage from the center; energy is imparted to the flow in the first stage blades, the flow is redirected some amount opposite to the direction of rotation in the fixed stators, and more energy is imparted to the flow in the second- stage blades. Without increasing either rotational speed or disk diameter, it is believed that as much as 50 percent more DP can be achieved with this design than with an ordinary, single-stage centrifugal design. This invention is useful primarily for fans having relatively low flow rates with relatively high pressure rise requirements.

  7. Three stages of medical dialogue.

    PubMed

    Abramovitch, H; Schwartz, E

    1996-06-01

    The negative consequences of physicians' failure to establish and maintain personal relationships with patients are at the heart of the "humanistic crisis" in medicine. To resolve this crisis, a new model of doctor-patient interaction is proposed, based on the ideas of Martin Buber's philosophy of dialogue. This model shows how the physician may successfully combine the personal (I-Thou) and impersonal (I-It) aspects of medicine in three stages. These "Three Stages of Medical Dialogue" include: 1. An Initial Personal Meeting stage, which initiates the doctor-patient relationship and involves mutual confirmation; 2. An Examination stage, which requires a shift from a personal to an impersonal style of interaction; 3. An Integration Through Dialogue or "Healing Through Meeting" Stage, which involves the integration of the impersonal medical data into the ongoing dialogue between doctor and patient, as a basis for shared decision-making. The use of the model, as well as common failures of doctor-patient dialogue are discussed.

  8. Stage Separation Performance Analysis Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Yen-Sen; Zhang, Sijun; Liu, Jiwen; Wang, Ten-See

    2001-01-01

    Stage separation process is an important phenomenon in multi-stage launch vehicle operation. The transient flowfield coupled with the multi-body systems is a challenging problem in design analysis. The thermodynamics environment with burning propellants during the upper-stage engine start in the separation processes adds to the complexity of the-entire system. Understanding the underlying flow physics and vehicle dynamics during stage separation is required in designing a multi-stage launch vehicle with good flight performance. A computational fluid dynamics model with the capability to coupling transient multi-body dynamics systems will be a useful tool for simulating the effects of transient flowfield, plume/jet heating and vehicle dynamics. A computational model using generalize mesh system will be used as the basis of this development. The multi-body dynamics system will be solved, by integrating a system of six-degree-of-freedom equations of motion with high accuracy. Multi-body mesh system and their interactions will be modeled using parallel computing algorithms. Adaptive mesh refinement method will also be employed to enhance solution accuracy in the transient process.

  9. Maxillary Air Cyst

    PubMed Central

    Doucette-Preville, Stephane; Tamm, Alexander; Khetani, Justin; Wright, Erin; Emery, Derek

    2013-01-01

    Pathologic dilatation of the maxillary sinus by air is a rare condition with unclear etiology. We present a case of a 17 year old male with a maxillary air cyst diagnosed by computed tomography. The CT demonstrated air-filled expansion of the maxillary sinus beyond the normal anatomical limits with associated cortical bone thinning. The case report highlights the pathognomonic computed tomography findings of this rare entity and discusses the perplexing nomenclature, proposed etiologies and various treatment options. PMID:24421932

  10. Olefin metathesis in air.

    PubMed

    Piola, Lorenzo; Nahra, Fady; Nolan, Steven P

    2015-01-01

    Since the discovery and now widespread use of olefin metathesis, the evolution of metathesis catalysts towards air stability has become an area of significant interest. In this fascinating area of study, beginning with early systems making use of high oxidation state early transition metal centers that required strict exclusion of water and air, advances have been made to render catalysts more stable and yet more functional group tolerant. This review summarizes the major developments concerning catalytic systems directed towards water and air tolerance.

  11. Personal continuous air monitor

    DOEpatents

    Morgan, Ronald G.; Salazar, Samuel A.

    2000-01-01

    A personal continuous air monitor capable of giving immediate warning of the presence of radioactivity has a filter/detector head to be worn in the breathing zone of a user, containing a filter mounted adjacent to radiation detectors, and a preamplifier. The filter/detector head is connected to a belt pack to be worn at the waist or on the back of a user. The belt pack contains a signal processor, batteries, a multichannel analyzer, a logic circuit, and an alarm. An air pump also is provided in the belt pack for pulling air through the filter/detector head by way of an air tube.

  12. Applications Using AIRS Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ray, S. E.; Pagano, T. S.; Fetzer, E. J.; Lambrigtsen, B.; Olsen, E. T.; Teixeira, J.; Licata, S. J.; Hall, J. R.; Thompson, C. K.

    2015-12-01

    The Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) on NASA's Aqua spacecraft has been returning daily global observations of Earth's atmospheric constituents and properties since 2002. With a 12-year data record and daily, global observations in near real-time, AIRS data can play a role in applications that fall under many of the NASA Applied Sciences focus areas. For vector-borne disease, research is underway using AIRS near surface retrievals to assess outbreak risk, mosquito incubation periods and epidemic potential for dengue fever, malaria, and West Nile virus. For drought applications, AIRS temperature and humidity data are being used in the development of new drought indicators and improvement in the understanding of drought development. For volcanic hazards, new algorithms using AIRS data are in development to improve the reporting of sulfur dioxide concentration, the burden and height of volcanic ash and dust, all of which pose a safety threat to aircraft. In addition, anomaly maps of many of AIRS standard products are being produced to help highlight "hot spots" and illustrate trends. To distribute it's applications imagery, AIRS is leveraging existing NASA data frameworks and organizations to facilitate archiving, distribution and participation in the BEDI. This poster will communicate the status of the applications effort for the AIRS Project and provide examples of new maps designed to best communicate the AIRS data.

  13. Traffic air quality index.

    PubMed

    Bagieński, Zbigniew

    2015-02-01

    Vehicle emissions are responsible for a considerable share of urban air pollution concentrations. The traffic air quality index (TAQI) is proposed as a useful tool for evaluating air quality near roadways. The TAQI associates air quality with the equivalent emission from traffic sources and with street structure (roadway structure) as anthropogenic factors. The paper presents a method of determining the TAQI and defines the degrees of harmfulness of emitted pollution. It proposes a classification specifying a potential threat to human health based on the TAQI value and shows an example of calculating the TAQI value for real urban streets. It also considers the role that car traffic plays in creating a local UHI.

  14. Fuel injection staged sectoral combustor for burning low-BTU fuel gas

    DOEpatents

    Vogt, Robert L.

    1985-02-12

    A high-temperature combustor for burning low-BTU coal gas in a gas turbine is described. The combustor comprises a plurality of individual combustor chambers. Each combustor chamber has a main burning zone and a pilot burning zone. A pipe for the low-BTU coal gas is connected to the upstream end of the pilot burning zone: this pipe surrounds a liquid fuel source and is in turn surrounded by an air supply pipe: swirling means are provided between the liquid fuel source and the coal gas pipe and between the gas pipe and the air pipe. Additional preheated air is provided by counter-current coolant air in passages formed by a double wall arrangement of the walls of the main burning zone communicating with passages of a double wall arrangement of the pilot burning zone: this preheated air is turned at the upstream end of the pilot burning zone through swirlers to mix with the original gas and air input (and the liquid fuel input when used) to provide more efficient combustion. One or more fuel injection stages (second stages) are provided for direct input of coal gas into the main burning zone. The countercurrent air coolant passages are connected to swirlers surrounding the input from each second stage to provide additional oxidant.

  15. Fuel injection staged sectoral combustor for burning low-BTU fuel gas

    DOEpatents

    Vogt, Robert L.

    1981-01-01

    A high-temperature combustor for burning low-BTU coal gas in a gas turbine is described. The combustor comprises a plurality of individual combustor chambers. Each combustor chamber has a main burning zone and a pilot burning zone. A pipe for the low-BTU coal gas is connected to the upstream end of the pilot burning zone; this pipe surrounds a liquid fuel source and is in turn surrounded by an air supply pipe; swirling means are provided between the liquid fuel source and the coal gas pipe and between the gas pipe and the air pipe. Additional preheated air is provided by counter-current coolant air in passages formed by a double wall arrangement of the walls of the main burning zone communicating with passages of a double wall arrangement of the pilot burning zone; this preheated air is turned at the upstream end of the pilot burning zone through swirlers to mix with the original gas and air input (and the liquid fuel input when used) to provide more efficient combustion. One or more fuel injection stages (second stages) are provided for direct input of coal gas into the main burning zone. The countercurrent air coolant passages are connected to swirlers surrounding the input from each second stage to provide additional oxidant.

  16. Temporal lineage tracing of Aire-expressing cells reveals a requirement for Aire in their maturation program.

    PubMed

    Nishikawa, Yumiko; Nishijima, Hitoshi; Matsumoto, Minoru; Morimoto, Junko; Hirota, Fumiko; Takahashi, Satoru; Luche, Hervé; Fehling, Hans Joerg; Mouri, Yasuhiro; Matsumoto, Mitsuru

    2014-03-15

    Understanding the cellular dynamics of Aire-expressing lineage(s) among medullary thymic epithelial cells (AEL-mTECs) is essential for gaining insight into the roles of Aire in establishment of self-tolerance. In this study, we monitored the maturation program of AEL-mTECs by temporal lineage tracing, in which bacterial artificial chromosome transgenic mice expressing tamoxifen-inducible Cre recombinase under control of the Aire regulatory element were crossed with reporter strains. We estimated that the half-life of AEL-mTECs subsequent to Aire expression was ∼7-8 d, which was much longer than that reported previously, owing to the existence of a post-Aire stage. We found that loss of Aire did not alter the overall lifespan of AEL-mTECs, inconsistent with the previous notion that Aire expression in medullary thymic epithelial cells (mTECs) might result in their apoptosis for efficient cross-presentation of self-antigens expressed by AEL-mTECs. In contrast, Aire was required for the full maturation program of AEL-mTECs, as exemplified by the lack of physiological downregulation of CD80 during the post-Aire stage in Aire-deficient mice, thus accounting for the abnormally increased CD80(high) mTECs seen in such mice. Of interest, increased CD80(high) mTECs in Aire-deficient mice were not mTEC autonomous and were dependent on cross-talk with thymocytes. These results further support the roles of Aire in the differentiation program of AEL-mTECs.

  17. Turbulent Methane-Air Combustion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yaboah, Yaw D.; Njokwe, Anny; James, LaShanda

    1996-01-01

    This study is aimed at enhancing the understanding of turbulent premixed methane-air combustion. Such understanding is essential since: (1) many industries are now pursuing lighter hydrocarbon alternative fuels and the use of premixed flames to reduce pollutant emissions, and (2) the characteristic dimensions and flow rates of most industrial combustors are often large for flows to be turbulent. The specific objectives of the study are: (1) to establish the effects of process variables (e.g., flow rate, fuel/air ratio, chlorinated hydro-carbons, and pressure) on the emissions and flow structure (velocity distribution, streamlines, vorticity and flame shape), and (2) to develop a mechanistic model to explain the observed trends. This includes the acquisition of Dantec FlowMap Particle Image Velocimeter. The design and fabrication of the premixed burner has also been completed. The study is now at the stage of testing of equipment and analytical instruments. The presentation will give details on the tasks completed and on the current and future plans. The project is progressing well and all activities are on schedule. The outlook for the success of the project is bright.

  18. Synthetic fuel aromaticity and staged combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Longanbach, J. R.; Chan, L. K.; Levy, A.

    1982-11-15

    Samples of middle and heavy SRC-II distillates were distilled into 50 C boiling point range fractions. These were characterized by measurements of their molecular weight, elemental analysis and basic nitrogen content and calculation of average molecular structures. The structures typically consisted of 1 to 3 aromatic rings fused to alicyclic rings with short, 1 to 3 carbon aliphatic side chains. The lower boiling fractions contained significant amounts (1 atom/molecule) of oxygen while the heavier fractions contained so few heteroatoms that they were essentially hydrocarbons. Laboratory scale oxidative-pyrolysis experiments were carried out at pyrolysis temperatures of 500 to 1100 C and oxygen concentrations from 0 to 100 percent of stoichiometry. Analysis of liquid products, collected in condensers cooled with liquid nitrogen showed that aromatization is a major reaction in the absence of oxygen. The oxygen-containing materials (phenolics) seem to be more resistant to thermal pyrolysis than unsubstituted aromatics. Nitrogen converts from basic to nonbasic forms at about 500 C. The nonbasic nitrogen is more stable and survives up to 700 C after which it is slowly removed. A recently constructed 50,000 Btu/hr staged combustor was used to study the chemistry of the nitrogen and aromatics. SRC II combustion was studied under fuel-rich, first-stage conditions at air/fuel ratios from 0.6 to 1.0 times stoichiometric. The chemistry of the fuel during combustion calls for further investigation in order to examine the mechanism by which HCN is evolved as a common intermediate for the formation of the nitrogen-containing gaseous combustion products. 25 references, 45 figures, 25 tables.

  19. Drama for Classroom and Stage.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Albert and Bertha

    This book with a three-part format contains information which the would-be thespian needs to know for maximum enjoyment and success in stage activities. The first part, "Heritage," traces the history and development of the theater from primitive ritual through the drama of classical Greece and Rome, the Renaissance, and modern Europe and America,…

  20. Stage 2--Information Seeking Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elsenberg, Michael B.

    2005-01-01

    A brief overview of one Big6 stage by Mike Eisenberg, followed by articles by two exemplary Big6 teachers, Barbara Jansen and Rob Darrow, offering practical uses of the Big6 in elementary and secondary situations is presented. The two-part nature of information seeking strategies that includes brainstorming and choosing is emphasized.

  1. The Beginning Stages of Reading.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkie, Fiona, Comp.

    Noting that in the beginning stages of reading it is helpful for children to be surrounded by the written word and to be read to by adults, this article offers brief encapsulations of and responses to five articles about beginning reading and reading readiness. The five articles are as follows: (1) "Three-Year-Olds in Their Reading Corner" by…

  2. Ares I Stage Separation Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    Under the goals of the Vision for Space Exploration, Ares I is a chief component of the cost-effective space transportation infrastructure being developed by NASA's Constellation Program. This transportation system will safely and reliably carry human explorers back to the moon, and then onward to Mars and other destinations in the solar system. The Ares I effort includes multiple project element teams at NASA centers and contract organizations around the nation, and is managed by the Exploration Launch Projects Office at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MFSC). ATK Launch Systems near Brigham City, Utah, is the prime contractor for the first stage booster. ATK's subcontractor, United Space Alliance of Houston, is designing, developing and testing the parachutes at its facilities at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida. NASA's Johnson Space Center in Houston hosts the Constellation Program and Orion Crew Capsule Project Office and provides test instrumentation and support personnel. Together, these teams are developing vehicle hardware, evolving proven technologies, and testing components and systems. Their work builds on powerful, reliable space shuttle propulsion elements and nearly a half-century of NASA space flight experience and technological advances. Ares I is an inline, two-stage rocket configuration topped by the Crew Exploration Vehicle, its service module, and a launch abort system. In this HD video image, an Ares I x-test involves the upper stage separating from the first stage. This particular test was conducted at the NASA Langley Research Center in July 2007. (Highest resolution available)

  3. Multi-stage flash degaser

    DOEpatents

    Rapier, P.M.

    1980-06-26

    A multi-stage flash degaser is incorporated in an energy conversion system having a direct-contact, binary-fluid heat exchanger to remove essentially all of the noncondensable gases from geothermal brine ahead of the direct-contact binary-fluid heat exchanger in order that the heat exchanger and a turbine and condenser of the system can operate at optimal efficiency.

  4. All the World's a Stage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanistreet, Paul

    2011-01-01

    Open Stages is Britain's biggest amateur theatre project, a hugely ambitious scheme to bring the professional and amateur theatre worlds together. It is a learning project but, as the Royal Shakespeare Company's Ian Wainwright tells this author, it is not only the amateurs who are learning. Wainwright states that the amateur and professional…

  5. Air Pollution Primer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Tuberculosis and Respiratory Disease Association, New York, NY.

    As the dangers of polluted air to the health and welfare of all individuals became increasingly evident and as the complexity of the causes made responsibility for solutions even more difficult to fix, the National Tuberculosis and Respiratory Disease Association felt obligated to give greater emphasis to its clean air program. To this end they…

  6. Discriminatory Air Pollution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCaull, Julian

    1976-01-01

    Described are the patterns of air pollution in certain large urban areas. Persons in poverty, in occupations below the management or professional level, in low-rent districts, and in black population are most heavily exposed to air pollution. Pollution paradoxically is largely produced by high energy consuming middle-and upper-class households.…

  7. Air Pollution, Teachers' Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lavaroni, Charles W.; O'Donnell, Patrick A.

    One of three in a series about pollution, this teacher's guide for a unit on air pollution is designed for use in junior high school grades. It offers suggestions for extending the information and activities contained in the textual material for students. Chapter 1 discusses the problem of air pollution and involves students in processes of…

  8. Air Pollution and Industry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross, R. D., Ed.

    This book is an authoritative reference and practical guide designed to help the plant engineer identify and solve industrial air pollution problems in order to be able to meet current air pollution regulations. Prepared under the editorial supervision of an experienced chemical engineer, with each chapter contributed by an expert in his field,…

  9. Bad Air For Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kane, Dorothy Noyes

    1976-01-01

    Children are especially sensitive to air pollution and consequences to them maybe of longer duration than to adults. The effects of low-level pollution on children are the concern of this article. The need for research on the threat of air pollution to childrens' health is emphasized. (BT)

  10. Air Cargo Marketing Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kersey, J. W.

    1972-01-01

    The factors involved in developing a market for air cargo services are discussed. A comparison is made between the passenger traffic problems and those of cargo traffic. Emphasis is placed on distribution analyses which isolates total distribution cost, including logistical costs such as transportation, inventory, materials handling, packaging, and processing. Specific examples of methods for reducing air cargo costs are presented.

  11. Air-Conditioning Mechanic.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marine Corps Inst., Washington, DC.

    This student guide, one of a series of correspondence training courses designed to improve the job performance of members of the Marine Corps, deals with the skills needed by air conditioning mechanics. Addressed in the four chapters, or lessons, of the manual are the following topics: principles of air conditioning, refrigeration components as…

  12. Linear kinematic air bearing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mayall, S. D.

    1974-01-01

    Bearing provides continuous, smooth movement of the cat's-eye mirror, eliminating wear and deterioration of bearing surface and resulting oscillation effects in servo system. Design features self-aligning configuration; single-point, pivotal pad mounting, having air passage through it; and design of pads that allows for precise control of discharge path of air from pads.

  13. Next Generation Air Monitoring

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract. Air pollution measurement technology is advancing rapidly towards smaller-scale and wireless devices, with a potential to significantly change the landscape of air pollution monitoring. The U.S. EPA Office of Research and Development is evaluating and developing a rang...

  14. AIR RADIOACTIVITY MONITOR

    DOEpatents

    Bradshaw, R.L.; Thomas, J.W.

    1961-04-11

    The monitor is designed to minimize undesirable background buildup. It consists of an elongated column containing peripheral electrodes in a central portion of the column, and conduits directing an axial flow of radioactively contaminated air through the center of the column and pure air through the annular portion of the column about the electrodes. (AEC)

  15. Portable oven air circulator

    DOEpatents

    Jorgensen, Jorgen A.; Nygren, Donald W.

    1983-01-01

    A portable air circulating apparatus for use in cooking ovens which is used to create air currents in the oven which transfer heat to cooking foodstuffs to promote more rapid and more uniform cooking or baking, the apparatus including a motor, fan blade and housing of metallic materials selected from a class of heat resistant materials.

  16. Recirculating electric air filter

    DOEpatents

    Bergman, W.

    1985-01-09

    An electric air filter cartridge has a cylindrical inner high voltage electrode, a layer of filter material, and an outer ground electrode formed of a plurality of segments moveably connected together. The outer electrode can be easily opened to remove or insert filter material. Air flows through the two electrodes and the filter material and is exhausted from the center of the inner electrode.

  17. Recirculating electric air filter

    DOEpatents

    Bergman, Werner

    1986-01-01

    An electric air filter cartridge has a cylindrical inner high voltage eleode, a layer of filter material, and an outer ground electrode formed of a plurality of segments moveably connected together. The outer electrode can be easily opened to remove or insert filter material. Air flows through the two electrodes and the filter material and is exhausted from the center of the inner electrode.

  18. Nuclear air cushion vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, J. L.

    1973-01-01

    The state-of-the-art of the still-conceptual nuclear air cushion vehicle, particularly the nuclear powerplant is identified. Using mission studies and cost estimates, some of the advantages of nuclear power for large air cushion vehicles are described. The technology studies on mobile nuclear powerplants and conceptual ACV systems/missions studies are summarized.

  19. First Stage of a Highly Reliable Reusable Launch System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kloesel, Kurt J.; Pickrel, Jonathan B.; Sayles, Emily L.; Wright, Michael; Marriott, Darin; Holland, Leo; Kuznetsov, Stephen

    2009-01-01

    Electromagnetic launch assist has the potential to provide a highly reliable reusable first stage to a space access system infrastructure at a lower overall cost. This paper explores the benefits of a smaller system that adds the advantages of a high specific impulse air-breathing stage and supersonic launch speeds. The method of virtual specific impulse is introduced as a tool to emphasize the gains afforded by launch assist. Analysis shows launch assist can provide a 278-s virtual specific impulse for a first-stage solid rocket. Additional trajectory analysis demonstrates that a system composed of a launch-assisted first-stage ramjet plus a bipropellant second stage can provide a 48-percent gross lift-off weight reduction versus an all-rocket system. The combination of high-speed linear induction motors and ramjets is identified, as the enabling technologies and benchtop prototypes are investigated. The high-speed response of a standard 60 Hz linear induction motor was tested with a pulse width modulated variable frequency drive to 150 Hz using a 10-lb load, achieving 150 mph. A 300-Hz stator-compensated linear induction motor was constructed and static-tested to 1900 lbf average. A matching ramjet design was developed for use on the 300-Hz linear induction motor.

  20. The design of two-stage-to-orbit vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    Two separate student design groups developed conceptual designs for a two-stage-to-orbit vehicle, with each design group consisting of a carrier team and an orbiter team. A two-stage-to-orbit system is considered in the event that single-stage-to-orbit is deemed not feasible in the foreseeable future; the two-stage system would also be used as a complement to an already existing heavy lift vehicle. The design specifications given are to lift a 10,000-lb payload 27 ft long by 10 ft diameter, to low Earth orbit (300 n.m.) using an air breathing carrier configuration that will take off horizontally within 15,000 ft. The staging Mach number and altitude were to be determined by the design groups. One group designed a delta wing/body carrier with the orbiter nested within the fuselage of the carrier, and the other group produced a blended cranked-delta wing/body carrier with the orbiter in the more conventional piggyback configuration. Each carrier used liquid hydrogen-fueled turbofanramjet engines, with data provided by General Electric Aircraft Engine Group. While one orbiter used a full-scale Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME), the other orbiter employed a half-scale SSME coupled with scramjet engines, with data again provided by General Electric. The two groups conceptual designs, along with the technical trade-offs, difficulties, and details that surfaced during the design process are presented.

  1. CRYOGENIC UPPER STAGE SYSTEM SAFETY

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, R. Kenneth; French, James V.; LaRue, Peter F.; Taylor, James L.; Pollard, Kathy (Technical Monitor)

    2005-01-01

    NASA s Exploration Initiative will require development of many new systems or systems of systems. One specific example is that safe, affordable, and reliable upper stage systems to place cargo and crew in stable low earth orbit are urgently required. In this paper, we examine the failure history of previous upper stages with liquid oxygen (LOX)/liquid hydrogen (LH2) propulsion systems. Launch data from 1964 until midyear 2005 are analyzed and presented. This data analysis covers upper stage systems from the Ariane, Centaur, H-IIA, Saturn, and Atlas in addition to other vehicles. Upper stage propulsion system elements have the highest impact on reliability. This paper discusses failure occurrence in all aspects of the operational phases (Le., initial burn, coast, restarts, and trends in failure rates over time). In an effort to understand the likelihood of future failures in flight, we present timelines of engine system failures relevant to initial flight histories. Some evidence suggests that propulsion system failures as a result of design problems occur shortly after initial development of the propulsion system; whereas failures because of manufacturing or assembly processing errors may occur during any phase of the system builds process, This paper also explores the detectability of historical failures. Observations from this review are used to ascertain the potential for increased upper stage reliability given investments in integrated system health management. Based on a clear understanding of the failure and success history of previous efforts by multiple space hardware development groups, the paper will investigate potential improvements that can be realized through application of system safety principles.

  2. Culture systems: air quality.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Theodore

    2012-01-01

    Poor laboratory air quality is a known hazard to the culture of human gametes and embryos. Embryologists and chemists have employed analytical methods for identifying and measuring bulk and select air pollutants to assess the risk they pose to the embryo culture system. However, contaminant concentrations that result in gamete or embryotoxicity are poorly defined. Combating the ill effects of poor air quality requires an understanding of how toxicants can infiltrate the laboratory, the incubator, and ultimately the culture media. A further understanding of site-specific air quality can then lead to the consideration of laboratory design and management strategies that can minimize the deleterious effects that air contamination may have on early embryonic development in vitro.

  3. AIRE-Linux

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Jianfeng; Xu, Benda; Peng, Chuan; Yang, Yang; Huo, Zhuoxi

    2015-08-01

    AIRE-Linux is a dedicated Linux system for astronomers. Modern astronomy faces two big challenges: massive observed raw data which covers the whole electromagnetic spectrum, and overmuch professional data processing skill which exceeds personal or even a small team's abilities. AIRE-Linux, which is a specially designed Linux and will be distributed to users by Virtual Machine (VM) images in Open Virtualization Format (OVF), is to help astronomers confront the challenges. Most astronomical software packages, such as IRAF, MIDAS, CASA, Heasoft etc., will be integrated into AIRE-Linux. It is easy for astronomers to configure and customize the system and use what they just need. When incorporated into cloud computing platforms, AIRE-Linux will be able to handle data intensive and computing consuming tasks for astronomers. Currently, a Beta version of AIRE-Linux is ready for download and testing.

  4. Air compliance through pollution prevention at Air Force Materiel Command facilities.

    SciTech Connect

    Kolpa, R.; Ryckman, S.J. Jr.; Smith, A.E.

    1999-03-19

    Options for air compliance through pollution prevention (P2) have been identified at 14 facilities of the US Air Force Materiel Command, ranging from depots with significant light industrial activity to laboratories. Previous P2 efforts concentrated on reducing hazardous and solid wastes, with any reduction in air impacts generally being a collateral benefit. This work focused on reducing air emissions and air compliance vulnerabilities. P2 options were identified in three stages. First, potentially applicable P2 options were identified from Internet and published information. Attention was given to identifying the types of sources to which an option could be applied, the option's state of development, and constraints that could limit its application. Traditional P2 options involving technology or equipment changes and material substitution were considered. In addition, newer approaches based on administrative ''controls'' were considered. These included inserting P2 into operating permits in exchange for administrative relief, privatization, derating boilers, and reducing an installation's potential to emit and compliance vulnerability by separating sources not under the Air Force's ''common control.'' Next, criteria and toxic emissions inventories by source category were prepared from inventory data supplied by facilities. The major problems at this stage were differences in the levels of detail provided by facilities and in the categories used by different installations. Emitting categories were matched to P2 option categories to identify candidate options. Candidates were screened to account for local regulations and technical information about sources in the inventories. When possible, emission reductions were estimated to help facility personnel prioritize options. Some options identified are being actively pursued by facilities to determine their site-specific feasibility. Although much work has been done to implement material substitution programs, this

  5. Operation of staged membrane oxidation reactor systems

    DOEpatents

    Repasky, John Michael

    2012-10-16

    A method of operating a multi-stage ion transport membrane oxidation system. The method comprises providing a multi-stage ion transport membrane oxidation system with at least a first membrane oxidation stage and a second membrane oxidation stage, operating the ion transport membrane oxidation system at operating conditions including a characteristic temperature of the first membrane oxidation stage and a characteristic temperature of the second membrane oxidation stage; and controlling the production capacity and/or the product quality by changing the characteristic temperature of the first membrane oxidation stage and/or changing the characteristic temperature of the second membrane oxidation stage.

  6. Runway Operations Planning: A Two-Stage Solution Methodology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anagnostakis, Ioannis; Clarke, John-Paul

    2003-01-01

    The airport runway is a scarce resource that must be shared by different runway operations (arrivals, departures and runway crossings). Given the possible sequences of runway events, careful Runway Operations Planning (ROP) is required if runway utilization is to be maximized. Thus, Runway Operations Planning (ROP) is a critical component of airport operations planning in general and surface operations planning in particular. From the perspective of departures, ROP solutions are aircraft departure schedules developed by optimally allocating runway time for departures given the time required for arrivals and crossings. In addition to the obvious objective of maximizing throughput, other objectives, such as guaranteeing fairness and minimizing environmental impact, may be incorporated into the ROP solution subject to constraints introduced by Air Traffic Control (ATC) procedures. Generating optimal runway operations plans was approached in with a 'one-stage' optimization routine that considered all the desired objectives and constraints, and the characteristics of each aircraft (weight class, destination, Air Traffic Control (ATC) constraints) at the same time. Since, however, at any given point in time, there is less uncertainty in the predicted demand for departure resources in terms of weight class than in terms of specific aircraft, the ROP problem can be parsed into two stages. In the context of the Departure Planner (OP) research project, this paper introduces Runway Operations Planning (ROP) as part of the wider Surface Operations Optimization (SOO) and describes a proposed 'two stage' heuristic algorithm for solving the Runway Operations Planning (ROP) problem. Focus is specifically given on including runway crossings in the planning process of runway operations. In the first stage, sequences of departure class slots and runwy crossings slots are generated and ranked based on departure runway throughput under stochastic conditions. In the second stage, the

  7. Upper Stage Engine Composite Nozzle Extensions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Valentine, Peter G.; Allen, Lee R.; Gradl, Paul R.; Greene, Sandra E.; Sullivan, Brian J.; Weller, Leslie J.; Koenig, John R.; Cuneo, Jacques C.; Thompson, James; Brown, Aaron; Shigley, John K.; Dovey, Henry N.; Roberts, Robert K.

    2015-01-01

    Carbon-carbon (C-C) composite nozzle extensions are of interest for use on a variety of launch vehicle upper stage engines and in-space propulsion systems. The C-C nozzle extension technology and test capabilities being developed are intended to support National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and United States Air Force (USAF) requirements, as well as broader industry needs. Recent and on-going efforts at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) are aimed at both (a) further developing the technology and databases for nozzle extensions fabricated from specific CC materials, and (b) developing and demonstrating low-cost capabilities for testing composite nozzle extensions. At present, materials development work is concentrating on developing a database for lyocell-based C-C that can be used for upper stage engine nozzle extension design, modeling, and analysis efforts. Lyocell-based C-C behaves in a manner similar to rayon-based CC, but does not have the environmental issues associated with the use of rayon. Future work will also further investigate technology and database gaps and needs for more-established polyacrylonitrile- (PAN-) based C-C's. As a low-cost means of being able to rapidly test and screen nozzle extension materials and structures, MSFC has recently established and demonstrated a test rig at MSFC's Test Stand (TS) 115 for testing subscale nozzle extensions with 3.5-inch inside diameters at the attachment plane. Test durations of up to 120 seconds have been demonstrated using oxygen/hydrogen propellants. Other propellant combinations, including the use of hydrocarbon fuels, can be used if desired. Another test capability being developed will allow the testing of larger nozzle extensions (13.5- inch inside diameters at the attachment plane) in environments more similar to those of actual oxygen/hydrogen upper stage engines. Two C-C nozzle extensions (one lyocell-based, one PAN-based) have been fabricated for testing with the larger

  8. Naval Air Station Lighter than Air Hangar, wood construction horizontal ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Naval Air Station Lighter than Air Hangar, wood construction horizontal rolling door. Drawing no. 2122 820. - Marine Corps Air Station Tustin, East of Red Hill Avenue between Edinger Avenue & Barranca Parkway, Tustin, Orange County, CA

  9. Air travel and pneumothorax.

    PubMed

    Hu, Xiaowen; Cowl, Clayton T; Baqir, Misbah; Ryu, Jay H

    2014-04-01

    The number of medical emergencies onboard aircraft is increasing as commercial air traffic increases and the general population ages, becomes more mobile, and includes individuals with serious medical conditions. Travelers with respiratory diseases are at particular risk for in-flight events because exposure to lower atmospheric pressure in a pressurized cabin at cruising altitude may result in not only hypoxemia but also pneumothorax due to gas expansion within enclosed pulmonary parenchymal spaces based on Boyle's law. Risks of pneumothorax during air travel pertain particularly to those patients with cystic lung diseases, recent pneumothorax or thoracic surgery, and chronic pneumothorax. Currently available guidelines are admittedly based on sparse data and include recommendations to delay air travel for 1 to 3 weeks after thoracic surgery or resolution of the pneumothorax. One of these guidelines declares existing pneumothorax to be an absolute contraindication to air travel although there are reports of uneventful air travel for those with chronic stable pneumothorax. In this article, we review the available data regarding pneumothorax and air travel that consist mostly of case reports and retrospective surveys. There is clearly a need for additional data that will inform decisions regarding air travel for patients at risk for pneumothorax, including those with recent thoracic surgery and transthoracic needle biopsy. PMID:24687705

  10. Forced air heater

    SciTech Connect

    Livezey, D.J.

    1980-09-23

    An air heating chamber is supported to project into a stove through an opening provided in the rear wall of the stove by a mounting plate mounted to the exterior of the stove rear wall. The mounting plate which forms the exterior end wall of the heating chamber, includes laterally spaced heating chamber inlet and outlet openings. A blower is detachably mounted to the exterior of the mounting plate in registration with the heating chamber inlet opening to deliver cool forced air into the heating chamber. After circulating therethrough, the air exits the heating chamber through the outlet opening and flows into a hot air manifold, which is also detachably mounted to the exterior of the mounting plate. The manifold includes an upwardly extending inlet chamber with a hot air inlet at its lower end aligned with the heating chamber outlet opening. A horizontal outlet chamber is attached to the top end of the inlet chamber to extend laterally along the back of the stove. Hot air outlets are provided at each end of the manifold outlet chamber to discharge the heated air horizontally over the top and towards the front of the stove.

  11. Air travel and pneumothorax.

    PubMed

    Hu, Xiaowen; Cowl, Clayton T; Baqir, Misbah; Ryu, Jay H

    2014-04-01

    The number of medical emergencies onboard aircraft is increasing as commercial air traffic increases and the general population ages, becomes more mobile, and includes individuals with serious medical conditions. Travelers with respiratory diseases are at particular risk for in-flight events because exposure to lower atmospheric pressure in a pressurized cabin at cruising altitude may result in not only hypoxemia but also pneumothorax due to gas expansion within enclosed pulmonary parenchymal spaces based on Boyle's law. Risks of pneumothorax during air travel pertain particularly to those patients with cystic lung diseases, recent pneumothorax or thoracic surgery, and chronic pneumothorax. Currently available guidelines are admittedly based on sparse data and include recommendations to delay air travel for 1 to 3 weeks after thoracic surgery or resolution of the pneumothorax. One of these guidelines declares existing pneumothorax to be an absolute contraindication to air travel although there are reports of uneventful air travel for those with chronic stable pneumothorax. In this article, we review the available data regarding pneumothorax and air travel that consist mostly of case reports and retrospective surveys. There is clearly a need for additional data that will inform decisions regarding air travel for patients at risk for pneumothorax, including those with recent thoracic surgery and transthoracic needle biopsy.

  12. Air Cleaning Technologies

    PubMed Central

    2005-01-01

    Executive Summary Objective This health technology policy assessment will answer the following questions: When should in-room air cleaners be used? How effective are in-room air cleaners? Are in-room air cleaners that use combined HEPA and UVGI air cleaning technology more effective than those that use HEPA filtration alone? What is the Plasmacluster ion air purifier in the pandemic influenza preparation plan? The experience of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) locally, nationally, and internationally underscored the importance of administrative, environmental, and personal protective infection control measures in health care facilities. In the aftermath of the SARS crisis, there was a need for a clearer understanding of Ontario’s capacity to manage suspected or confirmed cases of airborne infectious diseases. In so doing, the Walker Commission thought that more attention should be paid to the potential use of new technologies such as in-room air cleaning units. It recommended that the Medical Advisory Secretariat of the Ontario Ministry of Health and Long-Term Care evaluate the appropriate use and effectiveness of such new technologies. Accordingly, the Ontario Health Technology Advisory Committee asked the Medical Advisory Secretariat to review the literature on the effectiveness and utility of in-room air cleaners that use high-efficiency particle air (HEPA) filters and ultraviolet germicidal irradiation (UVGI) air cleaning technology. Additionally, the Ontario Health Technology Advisory Committee prioritized a request from the ministry’s Emergency Management Unit to investigate the possible role of the Plasmacluster ion air purifier manufactured by Sharp Electronics Corporation, in the pandemic influenza preparation plan. Clinical Need Airborne transmission of infectious diseases depends in part on the concentration of breathable infectious pathogens (germs) in room air. Infection control is achieved by a combination of administrative, engineering

  13. Air-to-air radar flight testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scott, Randall E.

    1988-06-01

    This volume in the AGARD Flight Test Techniques Series describes flight test techniques, flight test instrumentation, ground simulation, data reduction and analysis methods used to determine the performance characteristics of a modern air-to-air (a/a) radar system. Following a general coverage of specification requirements, test plans, support requirements, development and operational testing, and management information systems, the report goes into more detailed flight test techniques covering a/a radar capabilities of: detection, manual acquisition, automatic acquisition, tracking a single target, and detection and tracking of multiple targets. There follows a section on additional flight test considerations such as electromagnetic compatibility, electronic countermeasures, displays and controls, degraded and backup modes, radome effects, environmental considerations, and use of testbeds. Other sections cover ground simulation, flight test instrumentation, and data reduction and analysis. The final sections deal with reporting and a discussion of considerations for the future and how they may affect radar flight testing.

  14. Criteria air pollutants and toxic air pollutants.

    PubMed Central

    Suh, H H; Bahadori, T; Vallarino, J; Spengler, J D

    2000-01-01

    This review presents a brief overview of the health effects and exposures of two criteria pollutants--ozone and particulate matter--and two toxic air pollutants--benzene and formaldehyde. These pollutants were selected from the six criteria pollutants and from the 189 toxic air pollutants on the basis of their prevalence in the United States, their physicochemical behavior, and the magnitude of their potential health threat. The health effects data included in this review primarily include results from epidemiologic studies; however, some findings from animal studies are also discussed when no other information is available. Health effects findings for each pollutant are related in this review to corresponding information about outdoor, indoor, and personal exposures and pollutant sources. Images Figure 3 Figure 8 Figure 9 PMID:10940240

  15. Multi-stage flash degaser

    DOEpatents

    Rapier, Pascal M.

    1982-01-01

    A multi-stage flash degaser (18) is incorporated in an energy conversion system (10) having a direct-contact, binary-fluid heat exchanger to remove essentially all of the noncondensable gases from geothermal brine ahead of the direct-contact binary-fluid heat exchanger (22) in order that the heat exchanger (22) and a turbine (48) and condenser (32) of the system (10) can operate at optimal efficiency.

  16. Early stage of nanocrystal growth

    SciTech Connect

    2012-01-01

    Berkeley Lab researchers at the Molecular Foundry have elucidated important mechanisms behind oriented attachment, the phenomenon that drives biomineralization and the growth of nanocrystals. This electron microscopy movie shows the early stage of nanocrystal growth. Nanoparticles make transient contact at many points and orientations until their lattices are perfectly matched. The particles then make a sudden jump-to-contact to form attached aggregates. (Movie courtesy of Jim DeYoreo)

  17. Commercializing the transfer orbit stage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, M. W.

    1984-01-01

    Key milestones necessary to establish the transfer orbit stage are examined. The selection of the project concept and synthesis of the company are described followed by an analysis venture capability support and the selection of a major aerospace company as prime contractor. A landmark agreement with NASA sanctioned the commercial TOS concept and provided the critical support necessary to raise the next round of venture capital. Project management and customer commitments are also discussed.

  18. Ares I Upper Stage Update

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Daniel J.

    2010-01-01

    These presentation slides review the progress in the development of the Ares I upper stage. The development includes development of a manufacturing and processing assembly that will reduce the time required over 100 days, development of a weld tool that is a robotic tool that is the largest welder of its kind in the United States, development of avionics and software, and development of logisitics and operations systems.

  19. Let it burn: distinguishing inflammable airs 1766-1790.

    PubMed

    Tomory, Leslie

    2009-11-01

    The issue of the number of species of inflammable air was debated particularly in the period 1777-1786. The work of Henry Cavendish in 1766 and Alessandro Volta in 1777 in characterising two species of inflammable air set the stage for the work of other chemists, particularly in Paris, as they debated this question, mostly concerning heavy inflammable air. Different ways of generating gases were discovered up to 1783, when the synthesis of water and the proposal of carbon as an element created a framework for the question to be answered. In 1785-1786, Claude-Louis Berthollet reported the composition of heavy inflammable air and volatile alkali, while Philippe Gengembre analysed phosphorated hydrogen and hepatic air. In the end, it was the new chemical nomenclature of 1787 that spread their results widely. PMID:20506705

  20. Olefin metathesis in air

    PubMed Central

    Piola, Lorenzo; Nahra, Fady

    2015-01-01

    Summary Since the discovery and now widespread use of olefin metathesis, the evolution of metathesis catalysts towards air stability has become an area of significant interest. In this fascinating area of study, beginning with early systems making use of high oxidation state early transition metal centers that required strict exclusion of water and air, advances have been made to render catalysts more stable and yet more functional group tolerant. This review summarizes the major developments concerning catalytic systems directed towards water and air tolerance. PMID:26664625

  1. Air Pollution Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Balmes, John R.; Collard, Harold R.

    2015-01-01

    Air pollution exposure is a well-established risk factor for several adverse respiratory outcomes, including airways diseases and lung cancer. Few studies have investigated the relationship between air pollution and interstitial lung disease (ILD) despite many forms of ILD arising from environmental exposures. There are potential mechanisms by which air pollution could cause, exacerbate, or accelerate the progression of certain forms of ILD via pulmonary and systemic inflammation as well as oxidative stress. This article will review the current epidemiologic and translational data supporting the plausibility of this relationship and propose a new conceptual framework for characterizing novel environmental risk factors for these forms of lung disease. PMID:25846532

  2. Indoor Air Quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyazaki, Takeji

    The reduction of intake of outdoor air volume in air conditioned buildings, adopted as the strategy for saving energy, has caused sick building syndrome abroad. Such symptoms of sick building as headache, stimuli of eye and nose and lethargy, appears to result from cigarette smoke, folmaldehyde and volatile organic carbons. On the other hand, in airtight residences not only carbon monoxide and nitrogen oxides from domestic burning appliances but also allergens of mite, fungi, pollen and house dust, have become a subject of discussion. Moreover, asbestos and radon of carcinogen now attract a great deal of attention. Those indoor air pollutants are discussed.

  3. Clean air strategies study

    SciTech Connect

    Quartucy, G.C.; Chrisman, L.J.P. ); Nylander, J.H.; Keller, W.B. )

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that San Diego Gas and Electric Company (SDG and E) is evaluating emissions control technologies suitable for retrofit to their utility boilers. This effort is being driven by actions undertaken by the San Diego Air Pollution Control District (SDAPCD) in response to the California Clean Air Act. These actions include the development of two Tactic Evaluations, and the preparation of proposed regulatory limits. Tactic Evaluations are proposed methods to achieve compliance with California ambient air quality standards. Emissions of concern include NO{sub x}, CO, ROG, PM and SO{sub 2}. Of these species, it appears that NO{sub x} is the emission species of primary concern.

  4. Design objectives - Air transportation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beheim, M. A.

    1974-01-01

    The mainline of air transportation is expected to continue to be based on the medium to long haul turbine powered subsonic aircraft. With greater emphasis on energy conservation, there will be considerable interest in making additional progress in propulsion system efficiency. Continued improvement in turbofan engines is expected to occur, but there may be a less conventional approach in the background. Opportunities for expanding short haul air services will certainly materialize. The outlook for supersonic air transport is less clear because of complex political and economic factors.

  5. Air Shower Simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Alania, Marco; Gomez, Adolfo V. Chamorro; Araya, Ignacio J.; Huerta, Humberto Martinez; Flores, Alejandra Parra; Knapp, Johannes

    2009-04-30

    Air shower simulations are a vital part of the design of air shower experiments and the analysis of their data. We describe the basic features of air showers and explain why numerical simulations are the appropriate approach to model the shower simulation. The CORSIKA program, the standard simulation program in this field, is introduced and its features, performance and limitations are discussed. The basic principles of hadronic interaction models and some gerneral simulation techniques are explained. Also a brief introduction to the installation and use of CORSIKA is given.

  6. Ventilating Air-Conditioner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dinh, Khanh

    1994-01-01

    Air-conditioner provides ventilation designed to be used alone or incorporated into cooling or heating system operates efficiently only by recirculating stale air within building. Energy needed to operate overall ventilating cooling or heating system slightly greater than operating nonventilating cooling or heating system. Helps to preserve energy efficiency while satisfying need for increased forced ventilation to prevent accumulation of undesired gases like radon and formaldehyde. Provides fresh treated air to variety of confined spaces: hospital surgeries, laboratories, clean rooms, and printing shops and other places where solvents used. In mobile homes and portable classrooms, eliminates irritant chemicals exuded by carpets, panels, and other materials, ensuring healthy indoor environment for occupants.

  7. Air heating system

    DOEpatents

    Primeau, John J.

    1983-03-01

    A self-starting, fuel-fired, air heating system including a vapor generator, a turbine, and a condenser connected in a closed circuit such that the vapor output from the vapor generator is conducted to the turbine and then to the condenser where it is condensed for return to the vapor generator. The turbine drives an air blower which passes air over the condenser for cooling the condenser. Also, a condensate pump is driven by the turbine. The disclosure is particularly concerned with the provision of heat exchanger and circuitry for cooling the condensed fluid output from the pump prior to its return to the vapor generator.

  8. Air/Water Purification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    After 18 years of research into air/water pollution at Stennis Space Center, Dr. B. C. Wolverton formed his own company, Wolverton Environmental Services, Inc., to provide technology and consultation in air and water treatment. Common houseplants are used to absorb potentially harmful materials from bathrooms and kitchens. The plants are fertilized, air is purified, and wastewater is converted to clean water. More than 100 U.S. communities have adopted Wolverton's earlier water hyacinth and artificial marsh applications. Catfish farmers are currently evaluating the artificial marsh technology as a purification system.

  9. Air conditioned suit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carl, G. R. (Inventor)

    1973-01-01

    An environmentally controlled suit is described consisting of an airtight outergarment attached by an airtight bellows to the wall of a sterile chamber, an undergarment providing for circulation of air near the skin of the wearer, and a circulation system comprised of air supply and distribution to the extremities of the undegarment and central collection and exhaust of air from the midsection of the undergarment. A workman wearing the undergarment and attached circulation system enters the outer garment through a tunnel in the chamber wall and the attached bellows to work in the chamber without any danger of spreading bacteria.

  10. Olefin metathesis in air.

    PubMed

    Piola, Lorenzo; Nahra, Fady; Nolan, Steven P

    2015-01-01

    Since the discovery and now widespread use of olefin metathesis, the evolution of metathesis catalysts towards air stability has become an area of significant interest. In this fascinating area of study, beginning with early systems making use of high oxidation state early transition metal centers that required strict exclusion of water and air, advances have been made to render catalysts more stable and yet more functional group tolerant. This review summarizes the major developments concerning catalytic systems directed towards water and air tolerance. PMID:26664625

  11. Air ejector augmented compressed air energy storage system

    DOEpatents

    Ahrens, Frederick W.; Kartsounes, George T.

    1980-01-01

    Energy is stored in slack demand periods by charging a plurality of underground reservoirs with air to the same peak storage pressure, during peak demand periods throttling the air from one storage reservoir into a gas turbine system at a constant inlet pressure until the air pressure in the reservoir falls to said constant inlet pressure, thereupon permitting air in a second reservoir to flow into said gas turbine system while drawing air from the first reservoir through a variable geometry air ejector and adjusting said variable geometry air ejector, said air flow being essentially at the constant inlet pressure of the gas turbine system.

  12. Air ejector augmented compressed air energy storage system

    DOEpatents

    Ahrens, F.W.; Kartsounes, G.T.

    Energy is stored in slack demand periods by charging a plurality of underground reservoirs with air to the same peak storage pressure, during peak demand periods throttling the air from one storage reservoir into a gas turbine system at a constant inlet pressure until the air presure in the reservoir falls to said constant inlet pressure, thereupon permitting air in a second reservoir to flow into said gas turbine system while drawing air from the first reservoir through a variable geometry air ejector and adjusting said variable geometry air ejector, said air flow being essentially at the constant inlet pressure of the gas turbine system.

  13. Particulate Air Pollution: The Particulars

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, James E.

    1973-01-01

    Describes some of the causes and consequences of particulate air pollution. Outlines the experimental procedures for measuring the amount of particulate materials that settles from the air and for observing the nature of particulate air pollution. (JR)

  14. Reflexive Learning: Stages towards Wisdom with Dreyfus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McPherson, Ian

    2005-01-01

    The Dreyfus (2001) account of seven stages of learning is considered in the context of the Dreyfus (1980s) account of five stages of skill development. The two new stages, Mastery and Practical Wisdom, make more explicit certain themes implicit in the five-stage account. In this way Dreyfus (2001) encourages a more reflexive approach. The themes…

  15. Transcriptomic Analysis of Compromise Between Air-Breathing and Nutrient Uptake of Posterior Intestine in Loach (Misgurnus anguillicaudatus), an Air-Breathing Fish.

    PubMed

    Huang, Songqian; Cao, Xiaojuan; Tian, Xianchang

    2016-08-01

    Dojo loach (Misgurnus anguillicaudatus) is an air-breathing fish species by using its posterior intestine to breathe on water surface. So far, the molecular mechanism about accessory air-breathing in fish is seldom addressed. Five cDNA libraries were constructed here for loach posterior intestines form T01 (the initial stage group), T02 (mid-stage of normal group), T03 (end stage of normal group), T04 (mid-stage of air-breathing inhibited group), and T05 (the end stage of air-breathing inhibited group) and subjected to perform RNA-seq to compare their transcriptomic profilings. A total of 92,962 unigenes were assembled, while 37,905 (40.77 %) unigenes were successfully annotated. 2298, 1091, and 3275 differentially expressed genes (fn1, ACE, EGFR, Pxdn, SDF, HIF, VEGF, SLC2A1, SLC5A8 etc.) were observed in T04/T02, T05/T03, and T05/T04, respectively. Expression levels of many genes associated with air-breathing and nutrient uptake varied significantly between normal and intestinal air-breathing inhibited group. Intraepithelial capillaries in posterior intestines of loaches from T05 were broken, while red blood cells were enriched at the surface of intestinal epithelial lining with 241 ± 39 cells per millimeter. There were periodic acid-schiff (PAS)-positive epithelial mucous cells in posterior intestines from both normal and air-breathing inhibited groups. Results obtained here suggested an overlap of air-breathing and nutrient uptake function of posterior intestine in loach. Intestinal air-breathing inhibition in loach would influence the posterior intestine's nutrient uptake ability and endothelial capillary structure stability. This study will contribute to our understanding on the molecular regulatory mechanisms of intestinal air-breathing in loach. PMID:27457889

  16. Saturn IB First Stage (S-IB Stage) at MSFC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1965-01-01

    S-IB-200D, a dynamic test version of the Saturn IB launch vehicle's first stage (S-IB), makes its way to the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) East Test Area on January 4, 1965. Test Laboratory persornel assembled a complete Saturn IB to test the structural soundness of the launch vehicle in the Dynamic Test Stand. Developed by the MSFC as an interim vehicle in MSFC's 'building block' approach to the Saturn rocket development, the Saturn IB utilized Saturn I technology to further develop and refine the larger boosters and the Apollo spacecraft capabilities required for the manned lunar missions.

  17. On the impact of entrapped air in infiltration under ponding conditions: Part a: Preferential air flow path effects on infiltration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weisbord, N.; Mizrahi, G.; Furman, A.

    2015-12-01

    Entrapped air effects on infiltration under ponding conditions could be important for massive infiltration of managed aquifer recharge or soil aquifer treatment. Earlier studies found that under ponding conditions air could reduce infiltration by 70-90%. Most studies have dealt with entrapped air effects when soil surface topography is flat. The objective of this study is to investigate the effects of: (1) irregular surface topography on preferential air flow path development; (2) preferential air flow path on infiltration; and (3) hydraulic head on infiltration when air is trapped. Column experiments were used to investigate these particular effects. A 140 cm deep and 30 cm wide column packed with silica sand was used under two boundary conditions: in the first, air can only escape vertically upward through the soil surface; in the second, air is free to escape. The surface was flooded with 13 liters of water, with ponding depth decreasing with time. Two soil surface conditions were tested: flat surface and irregular. It was found that in irregular surfaces, stable air flow through preferential paths was developed in the high altitude zones. Flat surface topography caused unstable air flow through random paths. Comparison between irregular and flat surface topography showed that the entrapped air pressure was lower and the infiltration rate was about 40% higher in the irregular surface topography than in the flat surface topography. No difference of infiltration rate between flat and irregular surface topography was observed when air was free to escape along the infiltration path. It was also found that at the first stage of infiltration, higher hydraulic heads caused higher entrapped air pressures and lower infiltration rates. In contrast, higher hydraulic head results in higher infiltration rate, when air was free to escape. Our results suggest that during ponding conditions: (1) preferential air flow paths develop at high surface zones of irregular topography

  18. The Air Blast Wave from a Nuclear Explosion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reines, Frederick

    The sudden, large scale release of energy in the explosion of a nuclear bomb in air gives rise, in addition to nuclear emanations such as neutrons and gamma rays, to an extremely hot, rapidly expanding mass of air.** The rapidly expanding air mass has an initial temperature in the vicinity of a few hundred thousand degrees and for this reason it glows in its early stages with an intensity of many suns. It is important that the energy density in this initial "ball of fire" is of the order of 3 × 103 times that found in a detonating piece of TNT and hence that the initial stages of the large scale air motion produced by a nuclear explosion has no counterpart in an ordinary. H. E. explosion. Further, the relatively low temperatures ˜2,000°C associated with the initial stages of an H. E. detonation implies that the thermal radiation which it emits is a relatively insignificant fraction of the total energy involves. This point is made more striking when it is remembered that the thermal energy emitted by a hot object varies directly with the temperature in the Rayleigh Jeans region appropriate to the present discussion. The expansion of the air mass heated by the nuclear reaction produces, in qualitatively the same manner as in an H.E. explosion or the bursting of a high pressure balloon, an intense sharp pressure pulse, a shock wave, in the atmosphere. As the pressure pulse spreads outward it weakens due to the combined effects of divergence and the thermodynamically irreversible nature of the shock wave. The air comprising such a pressure pulse or blast wave moves first radially outward and then back towards the center as the blast wave passes. Since a permanent outward displacement of an infinite mass of air would require unlimited energy, the net outward displacement of the air distant from an explosion must approach zero with increasing distance. As the distance from the explosion is diminished the net outward displacement due to irreversible shock heating of

  19. Air flow visualization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    Smoke Flow Visualization shows the flow of air around a model airfoil at 100 feet per second. Photograph and caption published in Winds of Change, 75th Anniversary NASA publication (page xi), by James Schultz.

  20. Investigating Air Pollution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Edward J.

    1977-01-01

    Describes an experiment using live plants and cigarette smoke to demonstrate the effects of air pollution on a living organism. Procedures include growth of the test plants in glass bottles, and construction and operation of smoking machine. (CS)

  1. Natural Air Purifier

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    NASA environmental research has led to a plant-based air filtering system. Dr. B.C. Wolverton, a former NASA engineer who developed a biological filtering system for space life support, served as a consultant to Terra Firma Environmental. The company is marketing the BioFilter, a natural air purifier that combines activated carbon and other filter media with living plants and microorganisms. The filter material traps and holds indoor pollutants; plant roots and microorganisms then convert the pollutants into food for the plant. Most non-flowering house plants will work. After pollutants have been removed, the cleansed air is returned to the room through slits in the planter. Terra Firma is currently developing a filter that will also disinfect the air.

  2. Air transportation energy efficiency

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, L. J.

    1977-01-01

    The energy efficiency of air transportation, results of the recently completed RECAT studies on improvement alternatives, and the NASA Aircraft Energy Efficiency Research Program to develop the technology for significant improvements in future aircraft were reviewed.

  3. Process air quality data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Butler, C. M.; Hogge, J. E.

    1978-01-01

    Air quality sampling was conducted. Data for air quality parameters, recorded on written forms, punched cards or magnetic tape, are available for 1972 through 1975. Computer software was developed to (1) calculate several daily statistical measures of location, (2) plot time histories of data or the calculated daily statistics, (3) calculate simple correlation coefficients, and (4) plot scatter diagrams. Computer software was developed for processing air quality data to include time series analysis and goodness of fit tests. Computer software was developed to (1) calculate a larger number of daily statistical measures of location, and a number of daily monthly and yearly measures of location, dispersion, skewness and kurtosis, (2) decompose the extended time series model and (3) perform some goodness of fit tests. The computer program is described, documented and illustrated by examples. Recommendations are made for continuation of the development of research on processing air quality data.

  4. State Air Quality Standards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pollution Engineering, 1978

    1978-01-01

    This article presents in tabular form the air quality standards for sulfur dioxide, carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide, photochemicals, non-methane hydrocarbons and particulates for each of the 50 states and the District of Columbia. (CS)

  5. Breathing zone air sampler

    DOEpatents

    Tobin, John

    1989-01-01

    A sampling apparatus is provided which comprises a sampler for sampling air in the breathing zone of a wearer of the apparatus and a support for the sampler preferably in the form of a pair of eyeglasses. The sampler comprises a sampling assembly supported on the frame of the eyeglasses and including a pair of sample transport tubes which are suspended, in use, centrally of the frame so as to be disposed on opposite sides of the nose of the wearer and which each include an inlet therein that, in use, is disposed adjacent to a respective nostril of the nose of the wearer. A filter holder connected to sample transport tubes supports a removable filter for filtering out particulate material in the air sampled by the apparatus. The sample apparatus is connected to a pump for drawing air into the apparatus through the tube inlets so that the air passes through the filter.

  6. Air conditioning system

    DOEpatents

    Lowenstein, Andrew; Miller, Jeffrey; Gruendeman, Peter; DaSilva, Michael

    2005-02-01

    An air conditioner comprises a plurality of plates arranged in a successively stacked configuration with portions thereof having a spaced apart arrangement, and defining between successive adjacent pairs of plates at the spaced apart portions a first and second series of discrete alternating passages wherein a first air stream is passed through the first series of passages and a second air stream is passed through the second series of passages; and said stacked configuration of plates forming integrally therewith a liquid delivery means for delivering from a source a sufficient quantity of a liquid to the inside surfaces of the first series of fluid passages in a manner which provides a continuous flow of the liquid from a first end to a second end of the plurality of plates while in contact with the first air stream.

  7. Air Ground Integration Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lozito, Sandy; Mackintosh, Margaret-Anne; DiMeo, Karen; Kopardekar, Parimal

    2002-01-01

    A simulation was conducted to examine the effect of shared air/ground authority when each is equipped with enhanced traffic- and conflict-alerting systems. The potential benefits of an advanced air traffic management (ATM) concept referred to as "free flight" include improved safety through enhanced conflict detection and resolution capabilities, increased flight-operations management, and better decision-making tools for air traffic controllers and flight crews. One element of the free-flight concept suggests shifting aircraft separation responsibility from air traffic controllers to flight crews, thereby creating an environment with "shared-separation" authority. During FY00. NASA, the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), and the Volpe National Transportation Systems Center completed the first integrated, high-fidelity, real-time, human-in-the-loop simulation.

  8. Air bag restraint device

    DOEpatents

    Marts, Donna J.; Richardson, John G.

    1995-01-01

    A rear-seat air bag restraint device is disclosed that prevents an individual, or individuals, from continuing violent actions while being transported in a patrol vehicle's rear seat without requiring immediate physical contact by the law enforcement officer. The air bag is activated by a control switch in the front seat and inflates to independently restrict the amount of physical activity occurring in the rear seat of the vehicle while allowing the officer to safely stop the vehicle. The air bag can also provide the officer additional time to get backup personnel to aid him if the situation warrants it. The bag is inflated and maintains a constant pressure by an air pump.

  9. Air bag restraint device

    DOEpatents

    Marts, D.J.; Richardson, J.G.

    1995-10-17

    A rear-seat air bag restraint device is disclosed that prevents an individual, or individuals, from continuing violent actions while being transported in a patrol vehicle`s rear seat without requiring immediate physical contact by the law enforcement officer. The air bag is activated by a control switch in the front seat and inflates to independently restrict the amount of physical activity occurring in the rear seat of the vehicle while allowing the officer to safely stop the vehicle. The air bag can also provide the officer additional time to get backup personnel to aid him if the situation warrants it. The bag is inflated and maintains a constant pressure by an air pump. 8 figs.

  10. AIR POLLUTION CONTROL TECHNOLOGIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    This is a chapter for John Wiley & Son's Mechanical Engineers' Handbook, and covers issues involving air pollution control. Various technologies for controlling sulfur oxides is considered including fuel desulfurization. It also considers control of nitrogen oxides including post...

  11. Traffic air quality index.

    PubMed

    Bagieński, Zbigniew

    2015-02-01

    Vehicle emissions are responsible for a considerable share of urban air pollution concentrations. The traffic air quality index (TAQI) is proposed as a useful tool for evaluating air quality near roadways. The TAQI associates air quality with the equivalent emission from traffic sources and with street structure (roadway structure) as anthropogenic factors. The paper presents a method of determining the TAQI and defines the degrees of harmfulness of emitted pollution. It proposes a classification specifying a potential threat to human health based on the TAQI value and shows an example of calculating the TAQI value for real urban streets. It also considers the role that car traffic plays in creating a local UHI. PMID:25461063

  12. Indoor Air Quality

    MedlinePlus

    ... is critical. Learn how to recognize and eliminate pollution sources in and around your home, on the ... especially vulnerable to the harmful effects of air pollution. Cleaning up pollution in their schools will help ...

  13. Air Entraining Flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prosperetti, Andrea

    2001-11-01

    Air entraining flows are frequently encountered in Nature (e.g. breaking waves, waterfalls, rain over water bodies) and in technological applications (gas-liquid chemical reactors, water treatment, aquaculture, and others). Superficially, one may distinguish between transient events, such as a breaking wave, and steady situations, e.g. a falling jet. However, when viscosity is not important, the process of air entrainment turns out to be the consequence of local transient events even in steady flows. For example, surface disturbances convected by a nominally steady jet impact the receiving liquid, create a deep depression, which collapses entraining an air pocket. (In practice this basic mechanism is complicated by the presence of waves, vortical flows, and other factors.) This talk will describe several examples of air-entraining flows illustrating the fluid mechanic principles involved with high-speed movies and numerical computations.

  14. Air pollution from aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heywood, J. B.; Fay, J. A.; Chigier, N. A.

    1979-01-01

    A series of fundamental problems related to jet engine air pollution and combustion were examined. These include soot formation and oxidation, nitric oxide and carbon monoxide emissions mechanisms, pollutant dispension, flow and combustion characteristics of the NASA swirl can combustor, fuel atomization and fuel-air mixing processes, fuel spray drop velocity and size measurement, ignition and blowout. A summary of this work, and a bibliography of 41 theses and publications which describe this work, with abstracts, is included.

  15. Nuclear air cushion vehicles.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, J. L.

    1973-01-01

    This paper serves several functions. It identifies the 'state-of-the-art' of the still-conceptual nuclear air cushion vehicle, particularly the nuclear powerplant. Using mission studies and cost estimates, the report describes some of the advantages of nuclear power for large air cushion vehicles. The paper also summarizes the technology studies on mobile nuclear powerplants and conceptual ACV systems/missions studies that have been performed at NASA Lewis Research Center.

  16. Overall evaluation of combustion and NO(x) emissions for a down-fired 600 MW(e) supercritical boiler with multiple injection and multiple staging.

    PubMed

    Kuang, Min; Li, Zhengqi; Liu, Chunlong; Zhu, Qunyi

    2013-05-01

    To achieve significant reductions in NOx emissions and to eliminate strongly asymmetric combustion found in down-fired boilers, a deep-air-staging combustion technology was trialed in a down-fired 600 MWe supercritical utility boiler. By performing industrial-sized measurements taken of gas temperatures and species concentrations in the near wing-wall region, carbon in fly ash and NOx emissions at various settings, effects of overfire air (OFA) and staged-air damper openings on combustion characteristics, and NOx emissions within the furnace were experimentally determined. With increasing the OFA damper opening, both fluctuations in NOx emissions and carbon in fly ash were initially slightly over OFA damper openings of 0-40% but then lengthened dramatically in openings of 40-70% (i.e., NOx emissions reduced sharply accompanied by an apparent increase in carbon in fly ash). Decreasing the staged-air declination angle clearly increased the combustible loss but slightly influenced NOx emissions. In comparison with OFA, the staged-air influence on combustion and NOx emissions was clearly weaker. Only at a high OFA damper opening of 50%, the staged-air effect was relatively clear, i.e., enlarging the staged-air damper opening decreased carbon in fly ash and slightly raised NOx emissions. By sharply opening the OFA damper to deepen the air-staging conditions, although NOx emissions could finally reduce to 503 mg/m(3) at 6% O2 (i.e., an ultralow NOx level for down-fired furnaces), carbon in fly ash jumped sharply to 15.10%. For economical and environment-friendly boiler operations, an optimal damper opening combination (i.e., 60%, 50%, and 50% for secondary air, staged-air, and OFA damper openings, respectively) was recommended for the furnace, at which carbon in fly ash and NOx emissions attained levels of about 10% and 850 mg/m(3) at 6% O2, respectively.

  17. Stage 3 bucket shank bypass holes and related method

    DOEpatents

    Leone, Sal Albert; Eldrid, Sacheverel Quentin; Lupe, Douglas Arthur

    2002-01-01

    In a multi-stage turbine wherein at least one turbine wheel supports a row of buckets for rotation, and wherein the turbine wheel is located axially between first and second annular fixed arrays of nozzles, a cooling air circuit for purging a wheelspace between the turbine wheel and the second fixed annular array of nozzles comprising a flowpath through a shank portion of one or more buckets connecting a wheelspace between the turbine wheel and the first fixed annular array of nozzles with the wheelspace between the turbine wheel and the second fixed annular array of nozzles.

  18. Method of operating a two-stage coal gasifier

    DOEpatents

    Tanca, Michael C.

    1982-01-01

    A method of operating an entrained flow coal gasifier (10) via a two-stage gasification process. A portion of the coal (18) to be gasified is combusted in a combustion zone (30) with near stoichiometric air to generate combustion products. The combustion products are conveyed from the combustion zone into a reduction zone (32) wherein additional coal is injected into the combustion products to react with the combustion products to form a combustible gas. The additional coal is injected into the reduction zone as a mixture (60) consisting of coal and steam, preferably with a coal-to-steam weight ratio of approximately ten to one.

  19. Laboratory Testing of Aerosol for Enclosure Air Sealing

    SciTech Connect

    Harrington, Curtis; Modera, Mark

    2012-05-01

    This report presents a process for improving the air tightness of a building envelope by sealing shell leaks with an aerosol sealing technology. Both retrofit and new construction applications are possible through applying this process either in attics and crawlspaces or during rough-in stage.

  20. The Pneumatic Common: Learning in, with and from the Air

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ford, Derek R.

    2015-01-01

    Air is an immersive substance that envelopes us and binds us together, yet it has dominantly been taken for granted and left out of educational and other theorizations. This article develops a conceptualization of the "pneumatic common" in order to address this gap. The specific intervention staged is within recent educational literature…

  1. Ares I Upper Stage Fabrication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    Under the goals of the Vision for Space Exploration, Ares I is a chief component of the cost-effective space transportation infrastructure being developed by NASA's Constellation Program. This transportation system will safely and reliably carry human explorers back to the moon, and then onward to Mars and other destinations in the solar system. The Ares I effort includes multiple project element teams at NASA centers and contract organizations around the nation, and is managed by the Exploration Launch Projects Office at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MFSC). ATK Launch Systems near Brigham City, Utah, is the prime contractor for the first stage booster. ATK's subcontractor, United Space Alliance of Houston, is designing, developing and testing the parachutes at its facilities at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida. NASA's Johnson Space Center in Houston hosts the Constellation Program and Orion Crew Capsule Project Office and provides test instrumentation and support personnel. Together, these teams are developing vehicle hardware, evolving proven technologies, and testing components and systems. Their work builds on powerful, reliable space shuttle propulsion elements and nearly a half-century of NASA space flight experience and technological advances. Ares I is an inline, two-stage rocket configuration topped by the Crew Exploration Vehicle, its service module, and a launch abort system. This HD video image depicts a manufactured aluminum panel, that will fabricate the Ares I upper stage barrel, undergoing a confidence panel test. In this test, bent aluminum is stressed to breaking point and thoroughly examined. The panels are manufactured by AMRO Manufacturing located in El Monte, California. (Highest resolution available)

  2. Ares I Upper Stage Fabrication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    Under the goals of the Vision for Space Exploration, Ares I is a chief component of the cost-effective space transportation infrastructure being developed by NASA's Constellation Program. This transportation system will safely and reliably carry human explorers back to the moon, and then onward to Mars and other destinations in the solar system. The Ares I effort includes multiple project element teams at NASA centers and contract organizations around the nation, and is managed by the Exploration Launch Projects Office at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MFSC). ATK Launch Systems near Brigham City, Utah, is the prime contractor for the first stage booster. ATK's subcontractor, United Space Alliance of Houston, is designing, developing and testing the parachutes at its facilities at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida. NASA's Johnson Space Center in Houston hosts the Constellation Program and Orion Crew Capsule Project Office and provides test instrumentation and support personnel. Together, these teams are developing vehicle hardware, evolving proven technologies, and testing components and systems. Their work builds on powerful, reliable space shuttle propulsion elements and nearly a half-century of NASA space flight experience and technological advances. Ares I is an inline, two-stage rocket configuration topped by the Crew Exploration Vehicle, its service module, and a launch abort system. This HD video image, depicts a manufactured aluminum panel, that will be used to fabricate the Ares I upper stage barrel, undergoing a confidence panel test. In this test, the bent aluminum is stressed to breaking point and thoroughly examined. The panels are manufactured by AMRO Manufacturing located in El Monte, California. (Highest resolution available)

  3. Ares I Upper Stage Fabrication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    Under the goals of the Vision for Space Exploration, Ares I is a chief component of the cost-effective space transportation infrastructure being developed by NASA's Constellation Program. This transportation system will safely and reliably carry human explorers back to the moon, and then onward to Mars and other destinations in the solar system. The Ares I effort includes multiple project element teams at NASA centers and contract organizations around the nation, and is managed by the Exploration Launch Projects Office at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MFSC). ATK Launch Systems near Brigham City, Utah, is the prime contractor for the first stage booster. ATK's subcontractor, United Space Alliance of Houston, is designing, developing and testing the parachutes at its facilities at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida. NASA's Johnson Space Center in Houston hosts the Constellation Program and Orion Crew Capsule Project Office and provides test instrumentation and support personnel. Together, these teams are developing vehicle hardware, evolving proven technologies, and testing components and systems. Their work builds on powerful, reliable space shuttle propulsion elements and nearly a half-century of NASA space flight experience and technological advances. Ares I is an inline, two-stage rocket configuration topped by the Crew Exploration Vehicle, its service module, and a launch abort system. This HD video image depicts a manufactured aluminum panel that will be used to fabricate the Ares I upper stage barrel, undergoing a confidence panel test. In this test, the bent aluminum is stressed to breaking point and thoroughly examined. The panels are manufactured by AMRO Manufacturing located in El Monte, California.

  4. Ares I Upper Stage Fabrication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    Under the goals of the Vision for Space Exploration, Ares I is a chief component of the cost-effective space transportation infrastructure being developed by NASA's Constellation Program. This transportation system will safely and reliably carry human explorers back to the moon, and then onward to Mars and other destinations in the solar system. The Ares I effort includes multiple project element teams at NASA centers and contract organizations around the nation, and is managed by the Exploration Launch Projects Office at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MFSC). ATK Launch Systems near Brigham City, Utah, is the prime contractor for the first stage booster. ATK's subcontractor, United Space Alliance of Houston, is designing, developing and testing the parachutes at its facilities at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida. NASA's Johnson Space Center in Houston hosts the Constellation Program and Orion Crew Capsule Project Office and provides test instrumentation and support personnel. Together, these teams are developing vehicle hardware, evolving proven technologies, and testing components and systems. Their work builds on powerful, reliable space shuttle propulsion elements and nearly a half-century of NASA space flight experience and technological advances. Ares I is an inline, two-stage rocket configuration topped by the Crew Exploration Vehicle, its service module, and a launch abort system. In this HD video image, processes for upper stage barrel fabrication are talking place. The aluminum panels are manufacturing process demonstration articles that will undergo testing until perfected. The panels are built by AMRO Manufacturing located in El Monte, California. (Highest resolution available)

  5. Ares I Upper Stage Fabrication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    Under the goals of the Vision for Space Exploration, Ares I is a chief component of the cost-effective space transportation infrastructure being developed by NASA's Constellation Program. This transportation system will safely and reliably carry human explorers back to the moon, and then onward to Mars and other destinations in the solar system. The Ares I effort includes multiple project element teams at NASA centers and contract organizations around the nation, and is managed by the Exploration Launch Projects Office at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MFSC). ATK Launch Systems near Brigham City, Utah, is the prime contractor for the first stage booster. ATK's subcontractor, United Space Alliance of Houston, is designing, developing and testing the parachutes at its facilities at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida. NASA's Johnson Space Center in Houston hosts the Constellation Program and Orion Crew Capsule Project Office and provides test instrumentation and support personnel. Together, these teams are developing vehicle hardware, evolving proven technologies, and testing components and systems. Their work builds on powerful, reliable space shuttle propulsion elements and nearly a half-century of NASA space flight experience and technological advances. Ares I is an inline, two-stage rocket configuration topped by the Crew Exploration Vehicle, its service module, and a launch abort system. This HD video image depicts a manufactured aluminum panel that will be used to fabricate the Ares I upper stage barrel, undergoing a confidence panel test. In this test, the bent aluminum is stressed to breaking point and thoroughly examined. The panels are manufactured by AMRO Manufacturing located in El Monte, California. (Highest resolution available)

  6. Ares I Upper Stage Fabrication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    Under the goals of the Vision for Space Exploration, Ares I is a chief component of the cost-effective space transportation infrastructure being developed by NASA's Constellation Program. This transportation system will safely and reliably carry human explorers back to the moon, and then onward to Mars and other destinations in the solar system. The Ares I effort includes multiple project element teams at NASA centers and contract organizations around the nation, and is managed by the Exploration Launch Projects Office at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MFSC). ATK Launch Systems near Brigham City, Utah, is the prime contractor for the first stage booster. ATK's subcontractor, United Space Alliance of Houston, is designing, developing and testing the parachutes at its facilities at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida. NASA's Johnson Space Center in Houston hosts the Constellation Program and Orion Crew Capsule Project Office and provides test instrumentation and support personnel. Together, these teams are developing vehicle hardware, evolving proven technologies, and testing components and systems. Their work builds on powerful, reliable space shuttle propulsion elements and nearly a half-century of NASA space flight experience and technological advances. Ares I is an inline, two-stage rocket configuration topped by the Crew Exploration Vehicle, its service module, and a launch abort system. In this HD video image, processes for upper stage barrel fabrication are talking place. The aluminum panels are manufacturing process demonstration articles that will undergo testing until perfected. The panels are built by AMRO Manufacturing located in El Monte, California. (Highest resolution Available)

  7. Ares I Upper Stage Fabrication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    Under the goals of the Vision for Space Exploration, Ares I is a chief component of the cost-effective space transportation infrastructure being developed by NASA's Constellation Program. This transportation system will safely and reliably carry human explorers back to the moon, and then onward to Mars and other destinations in the solar system. The Ares I effort includes multiple project element teams at NASA centers and contract organizations around the nation, and is managed by the Exploration Launch Projects Office at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MFSC). ATK Launch Systems near Brigham City, Utah, is the prime contractor for the first stage booster. ATK's subcontractor, United Space Alliance of Houston, is designing, developing and testing the parachutes at its facilities at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida. NASA's Johnson Space Center in Houston hosts the Constellation Program and Orion Crew Capsule Project Office and provides test instrumentation and support personnel. Together, these teams are developing vehicle hardware, evolving proven technologies, and testing components and systems. Their work builds on powerful, reliable space shuttle propulsion elements and nearly a half-century of NASA space flight experience and technological advances. Ares I is an inline, two-stage rocket configuration topped by the Crew Exploration Vehicle, its service module, and a launch abort system. This HD video image depicts confidence testing of a manufactured aluminum panel that will fabricate the Ares I upper stage barrel. In this test, bent aluminum is stressed to breaking point and thoroughly examined. The panels are manufactured by AMRO Manufacturing located in El Monte, California. (Highest resolution available)

  8. ARES I Upper Stage Fabrication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    Under the goals of the Vision for Space Exploration, Ares I is a chief component of the cost-effective space transportation infrastructure being developed by NASA's Constellation Program. This transportation system will safely and reliably carry human explorers back to the moon, and then onward to Mars and other destinations in the solar system. The Ares I effort includes multiple project element teams at NASA centers and contract organizations around the nation, and is managed by the Exploration Launch Projects Office at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MFSC). ATK Launch Systems near Brigham City, Utah, is the prime contractor for the first stage booster. ATK's subcontractor, United Space Alliance of Houston, is designing, developing and testing the parachutes at its facilities at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida. NASA's Johnson Space Center in Houston hosts the Constellation Program and Orion Crew Capsule Project Office and provides test instrumentation and support personnel. Together, these teams are developing vehicle hardware, evolving proven technologies, and testing components and systems. Their work builds on powerful, reliable space shuttle propulsion elements and nearly a half-century of NASA space flight experience and technological advances. Ares I is an inline, two-stage rocket configuration topped by the Crew Exploration Vehicle, its service module, and a launch abort system. In this HD video image, processes for upper stage barrel fabrication are talking place. Aluminum panels are manufacturing process demonstration articles that will undergo testing until perfected. The panels are built by AMRO Manufacturing located in El Monte, California. (Largest resolution available)

  9. Ares I Upper Stage Fabrication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    Under the goals of the Vision for Space Exploration, Ares I is a chief component of the cost-effective space transportation infrastructure being developed by NASA's Constellation Program. This transportation system will safely and reliably carry human explorers back to the moon, and then onward to Mars and other destinations in the solar system. The Ares I effort includes multiple project element teams at NASA centers and contract organizations around the nation, and is managed by the Exploration Launch Projects Office at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MFSC). ATK Launch Systems near Brigham City, Utah, is the prime contractor for the first stage booster. ATK's subcontractor, United Space Alliance of Houston, is designing, developing and testing the parachutes at its facilities at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida. NASA's Johnson Space Center in Houston hosts the Constellation Program and Orion Crew Capsule Project Office and provides test instrumentation and support personnel. Together, these teams are developing vehicle hardware, evolving proven technologies, and testing components and systems. Their work builds on powerful, reliable space shuttle propulsion elements and nearly a half-century of NASA space flight experience and technological advances. Ares I is an inline, two-stage rocket configuration topped by the Crew Exploration Vehicle, its service module, and a launch abort system. This HD video image depicts a manufactured panel that will be used for the Ares I upper stage barrel fabrication. The aluminum panels are manufacturing process demonstration articles that will undergo testing until perfected. The panels are built by AMRO Manufacturing located in El Monte, California. (Highest resolution available)

  10. Ares I Upper Stage Fabrication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    Under the goals of the Vision for Space Exploration, Ares I is a chief component of the cost-effective space transportation infrastructure being developed by NASA's Constellation Program. This transportation system will safely and reliably carry human explorers back to the moon, and then onward to Mars and other destinations in the solar system. The Ares I effort includes multiple project element teams at NASA centers and contract organizations around the nation, and is managed by the Exploration Launch Projects Office at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MFSC). ATK Launch Systems near Brigham City, Utah, is the prime contractor for the first stage booster. ATK's subcontractor, United Space Alliance of Houston, is designing, developing and testing the parachutes at its facilities at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida. NASA's Johnson Space Center in Houston hosts the Constellation Program and Orion Crew Capsule Project Office and provides test instrumentation and support personnel. Together, these teams are developing vehicle hardware, evolving proven technologies, and testing components and systems. Their work builds on powerful, reliable space shuttle propulsion elements and nearly a half-century of NASA space flight experience and technological advances. Ares I is an inline, two-stage rocket configuration topped by the Crew Exploration Vehicle, its service module, and a launch abort system. This HD video image depicts a manufactured aluminum panel, that will fabricate the Ares I upper stage barrel, undergoing a confidence panel test. In this test, the bent aluminum is stressed to breaking point and thoroughly examined. The panels are manufactured by AMRO Manufacturing located in El Monte, California. (Highest resolution available)

  11. Runway Operations Planning: A Two-Stage Heuristic Algorithm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anagnostakis, Ioannis; Clarke, John-Paul

    2003-01-01

    The airport runway is a scarce resource that must be shared by different runway operations (arrivals, departures and runway crossings). Given the possible sequences of runway events, careful Runway Operations Planning (ROP) is required if runway utilization is to be maximized. From the perspective of departures, ROP solutions are aircraft departure schedules developed by optimally allocating runway time for departures given the time required for arrivals and crossings. In addition to the obvious objective of maximizing throughput, other objectives, such as guaranteeing fairness and minimizing environmental impact, can also be incorporated into the ROP solution subject to constraints introduced by Air Traffic Control (ATC) procedures. This paper introduces a two stage heuristic algorithm for solving the Runway Operations Planning (ROP) problem. In the first stage, sequences of departure class slots and runway crossings slots are generated and ranked based on departure runway throughput under stochastic conditions. In the second stage, the departure class slots are populated with specific flights from the pool of available aircraft, by solving an integer program with a Branch & Bound algorithm implementation. Preliminary results from this implementation of the two-stage algorithm on real-world traffic data are presented.

  12. Two-stage coal gasification and desulfurization apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Bissett, Larry A.; Strickland, Larry D.

    1991-01-01

    The present invention is directed to a system which effectively integrates a two-stage, fixed-bed coal gasification arrangement with hot fuel gas desulfurization of a first stream of fuel gas from a lower stage of the two-stage gasifier and the removal of sulfur from the sulfur sorbent regeneration gas utilized in the fuel-gas desulfurization process by burning a second stream of fuel gas from the upper stage of the gasifier in a combustion device in the presence of calcium-containing material. The second stream of fuel gas is taken from above the fixed bed in the coal gasifier and is laden with ammonia, tar and sulfur values. This second stream of fuel gas is burned in the presence of excess air to provide heat energy sufficient to effect a calcium-sulfur compound forming reaction between the calcium-containing material and sulfur values carried by the regeneration gas and the second stream of fuel gas. Any ammonia values present in the fuel gas are decomposed during the combustion of the fuel gas in the combustion chamber. The substantially sulfur-free products of combustion may then be combined with the desulfurized fuel gas for providing a combustible fluid utilized for driving a prime mover.

  13. Stages of change or changes of stage? Predicting transitions in transtheoretical model stages in relation to healthy food choice.

    PubMed

    Armitage, Christopher J; Sheeran, Paschal; Conner, Mark; Arden, Madelynne A

    2004-06-01

    Relatively little research has examined factors that account for transitions between transtheoretical model (TTM) stages of change. The present study (N = 787) used sociodemographic, TTM, and theory of planned behavior (TPB) variables, as well as theory-driven interventions to predict changes in stage. Longitudinal analyses revealed that sociodemographic, TPB, and 1 of the interventions predicted transitions between most stages of change. In fact, only progression from the preparation stage was not predictable. However, given that this change of stage marks the transition between cognition and actual behavior, the identification of variables that bridge this gap is crucial for the development of interventions to promote stage transitions. PMID:15279532

  14. Morphogenesis of early stage melanoma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chatelain, Clément; Amar, Martine Ben

    2015-08-01

    Melanoma early detection is possible by simple skin examination and can insure a high survival probability when successful. However it requires efficient methods for identifying malignant lesions from common moles. This paper provides an overview first of the biological and physical mechanisms controlling melanoma early evolution, and then of the clinical tools available today for detecting melanoma in vivo at an early stage. It highlights the lack of diagnosis methods rationally linking macroscopic observables to the microscopic properties of the tissue, which define the malignancy of the tumor. The possible inputs of multiscale models for improving these methods are shortly discussed.

  15. Single-stage Mars mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    President Bush established a three phase Space Exploration Initiative for the future of space exploration. The first phase is the design and construction of Space Station Freedom. The second phase is permanent lunar base. The last phase of the Initiative is the construction of a Mars outpost. The design presented is the concept of a single-stage Mars mission developed by the University of Minnesota Aerospace Design Course. The mission will last approximately 500 days including a 30-60 day stay on Mars.

  16. [Initial stages of steel biocorrosion].

    PubMed

    Zhigletsova, S K; Rodin, V B; Kobelev, V S; Aleksandrova, N V; Rasulova, G E; Kholodenko, V P

    2000-01-01

    Initial stages of corrosion of mild steel induced by Klebsiela rhinoscleromatis BO2 were studied in various media. The effect of the microorganism was detected 8-10 h after inoculation. The number of viable cells were virtually unchanged within one month in all media, but the corrosive activity of the strain decreased. The corrosive activity of microorganisms can be determined by spectrophotometry even only after incubation for 24 h. At a low level of organic substrate, even strong colonization with microorganisms does not inevitably result in a significant damage to metals.

  17. Automatic air flow control in air conditioning ducts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Obler, H. D.

    1972-01-01

    Device is designed which automatically selects air flow coming from either of two directions and which can be adjusted to desired air volume on either side. Device uses one movable and two fixed scoops which control air flow and air volume.

  18. 77 FR 1513 - Air Show and Air Races; Public Hearing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-10

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NATIONAL TRANSPORTATION SAFETY BOARD Air Show and Air Races; Public Hearing TIME AND DATE: 9 a.m., Tuesday, January 10, 2012... hearing is to examine current regulations and oversight practices for air shows and air races,...

  19. 78 FR 34966 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Wisconsin; Removal of Gasoline...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-11

    ..., including sulfur dioxide and nitrogen dioxide. EPA has no reason to believe that the removal of the Stage II... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Wisconsin; Removal... section 110(l) of the Clean Air Act (CAA) that addresses emissions impacts associated with the removal...

  20. Air diverter for supercharger

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, K.A.

    1986-10-28

    An engine supercharger is described which consists of a turbine housing, a main turbine wheel of the radial-inflow type located within the turbine housing, a compressor housing having an air entrance passageway, and a compressor wheel of the centrifugal type located within the compressor housing. It also includes a main shaft of annular construction interconnecting the turbine wheel and the compressor wheel whereby the two wheels rotate as a unit, an auxiliary turbine wheel of the axial flow type located downstream from the main turbine wheel, and a fan of the axial flow type located upstream from the compressor wheel. An auxiliary shaft extends within the main shaft between the auxiliary turbine and fan whereby the auxiliary turbine and fan rotate as a unit. An annular air collector chamber means is located immediately downstream from the fan in surrounding relation to the aforementioned entrance passageway for diverting some of the fan air from the compressor wheel. The fan comprises a hub and blades radiating outwardly therefrom. The air collector chamber is defined in part by an annular wall having a free edge located within the fan blade axial profile whereby the annular wall intercepts air discharged from outer tip areas of the fan blades to divert same away from the compressor wheel into the collector chamber.

  1. System and method for air temperature control in an oxygen transport membrane based reactor

    DOEpatents

    Kelly, Sean M

    2016-09-27

    A system and method for air temperature control in an oxygen transport membrane based reactor is provided. The system and method involves introducing a specific quantity of cooling air or trim air in between stages in a multistage oxygen transport membrane based reactor or furnace to maintain generally consistent surface temperatures of the oxygen transport membrane elements and associated reactors. The associated reactors may include reforming reactors, boilers or process gas heaters.

  2. Fireplace having outside air supply

    SciTech Connect

    Hempel, R.A.

    1981-07-28

    An outside air system and combustion chamber closure assembly for use with a fireplace which provides means for supplying sufficient amounts of cooling air between the burning fuel and the closure assembly is disclosed. The closure assembly includes a frame surrounding the combustion chamber opening and at least one door operably mounted thereto. A grille is formed in the bottom rail of the frame for introduction of air into the combustion chamber. The outside air system includes an outside air duct which is coupled to a chamber defining an air plenum formed below the hearth of the fireplace and air cap assembly. The air cap assembly is positioned against the bottom rail of the frame and extends across the combustion chamber opening. The assembly includes a duct which communicates with the chamber defining the air plenum formed below the hearth and an air discharge housing positioned adjacent the bottom rail. A damper means is operably mounted in the air discharge housing and is adjustable between an outside air mode or a room air mode so that when said at least one door is closed, only outside air or room air will pass into the combustion chamber at hearth level in sufficient volume for fuel combustion as well as providing an excess of air to prevent overheating of the fireplace assembly and said at least one door.

  3. Infants Can Study Air Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ward, Alan

    1983-01-01

    Provided are activities and demonstrations which can be used to teach infants about the nature of air, uses of air, and objects that fly in the air. The latter include airships, hot-air balloons, kites, parachutes, airplanes, and Hovercraft. (JN)

  4. Thermal design of two-stage evaporative cooler based on thermal comfort criterion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilani, Neda; Poshtiri, Amin Haghighi

    2016-09-01

    Performance of two-stage evaporative coolers at various outdoor air conditions was numerically studied, and its geometric and physical characteristics were obtained based on thermal comfort criteria. For this purpose, a mathematical model was developed based on conservation equations of mass, momentum and energy to determine heat and mass transfer characteristics of the system. The results showed that two-stage indirect/direct cooler can provide the thermal comfort condition when outdoor air temperature and relative humidity are located in the range of 34-54 °C and 10-60 %, respectively. Moreover, as relative humidity of the ambient air rises, two-stage evaporative cooler with the smaller direct and larger indirect cooler will be needed. In building with high cooling demand, thermal comfort may be achieved at a greater air change per hour number, and thus an expensive two-stage evaporative cooler with a higher electricity consumption would be required. Finally, a design guideline was proposed to determine the size of required plate heat exchangers at various operating conditions.

  5. [Function of Aire in central and peripheral immune tolerance].

    PubMed

    Hanafusa, Takaaki

    2014-01-01

    Negative selection induces central tolerance in which self-reactive T cells are deleted by medullary thymic epithelial cells (mTECs) to prevent autoimmunity. The transcriptional factor, autoimmune regulator (Aire), controls the expression of tissue-specific antigens (TSAs) by mTECs for negative selection. The mechanisms by which Aire targets loci which encode TSAs are unknown in detail; recently, however, the ATF7ip-MBD1 complex was identified as an Aire-interacting transcriptional protein complex required for its targeting the loci. Lineage tracing of Aire(+) mTECs identified that mTECs have a post-Aire stage during the development, where they lost maturation markers but maintained intermediate TSA expression, and Aire is required for the terminal differentiation of mTEC's. Extrathymic Aire-expressing cells (eTACs) are identified in murine and human secondary lymphoid organs. eTACs express major histocompatibility complex class II(hi), CD80(lo), CD86(lo), epithelial cell adhesion molecule(hi), CD45(lo) bone marrow-derived peripheral antigen-presenting cell population, which is distinct from mTECs and dendritic cells. They can induce activation-induced cell death of self-reactive CD8(+) T cells and unresponsiveness of self-reactive CD4(+) T cells through a mechanism that does not require regulatory T cells, suggesting that peripheral Aire plays a complementary role for central tolerance.

  6. Myxovirus Dissemination by Air

    PubMed Central

    McLean, D. M.; Bannatyne, R. M.; Givan, Kathleen F.

    1967-01-01

    Myxoviruses including 150 strains of parainfluenza 1, 15 of parainfluenza 3 and five of influenza B virus were isolated from nasopharyngeal secretions obtained from 300 children less than 3 years of age who developed acute laryngotracheobronchitis during the preceding 48 hours. The patients were examined between October 1966 and January 1967, the peak monthly rate of virus isolation (67%) occurring during January. Parainfluenza 1 virus was isolated from air obtained in the vicinity of one of 30 children whose nasopharyngeal secretions yielded this agent. Samples comprising 150 litres of air were collected for virus assay by placing an Andersen sampler about 60 cm. from the child's face inside an oxygen tent which surrounded the patient. These findings confirm previous observations that parainfluenza 1 virus is the dominant agent associated with acute laryngotracheobronchitis in children in Toronto, and they show that this virus is disseminated in the air. PMID:4290621

  7. Air Force seal activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayhew, Ellen R.

    1994-07-01

    Seal technology development is an important part of the Air Force's participation in the Integrated High Performance Turbine Engine Technology (IHPTET) initiative, the joint DOD, NASA, ARPA, and industry endeavor to double turbine engine capabilities by the turn of the century. Significant performance and efficiency improvements can be obtained through reducing internal flow system leakage, but seal environment requirements continue to become more extreme as the engine thermodynamic cycles advance towards these IHPTET goals. Brush seal technology continues to be pursued by the Air Force to reduce leakage at the required conditions. Likewise, challenges in engine mainshaft air/oil seals are also being addressed. Counter-rotating intershaft applications within the IHPTET initiative involve very high rubbing velocities. This viewgraph presentation briefly describes past and current seal research and development programs and gives a summary of seal applications in demonstrator and developmental engine testing.

  8. AIR COOLED NEUTRONIC REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Fermi, E.; Szilard, L.

    1958-05-27

    A nuclear reactor of the air-cooled, graphite moderated type is described. The active core consists of a cubicle mass of graphite, approximately 25 feet in each dimension, having horizontal channels of square cross section extending between two of the opposite faces, a plurality of cylindrical uranium slugs disposed in end to end abutting relationship within said channels providing a space in the channels through which air may be circulated, and a cadmium control rod extending within a channel provided in the moderator. Suitable shielding is provlded around the core, as are also provided a fuel element loading and discharge means, and a means to circulate air through the coolant channels through the fuel charels to cool the reactor.

  9. Air encapsulation during infiltration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Constantz, J.; Herkelrath, W.N.; Murphy, F.

    1988-01-01

    A series of field and laboratory experiments were performed to measure the effects of air encapsulation within the soil's transmission zone upon several infiltration properties. In the field, infiltration rates were measured using a double-cap infiltrometer and soil-water contents were measured using time-domain reflectometry (TDR). In the laboratory, infiltration experiments were peformed using repacked soil columns using TDR and CO 2 flooding. Results suggest that a significant portion of the total encapsulated air resided in interconnected pores within the soil's transmission zone. For the time scale considered, this residual air caused the effective hydraulic conductivity of the transmission zone to remain at a level no greater than 20% of the saturated hydraulic conductivity of the soil. -from Authors

  10. Automated air-void system characterization of hardened concrete: Helping computers to count air-voids like people count air-voids---Methods for flatbed scanner calibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peterson, Karl

    Since the discovery in the late 1930s that air entrainment can improve the durability of concrete, it has been important for people to know the quantity, spacial distribution, and size distribution of the air-voids in their concrete mixes in order to ensure a durable final product. The task of air-void system characterization has fallen on the microscopist, who, according to a standard test method laid forth by the American Society of Testing and Materials, must meticulously count or measure about a thousand air-voids per sample as exposed on a cut and polished cross-section of concrete. The equipment used to perform this task has traditionally included a stereomicroscope, a mechanical stage, and a tally counter. Over the past 30 years, with the availability of computers and digital imaging, automated methods have been introduced to perform the same task, but using the same basic equipment. The method described here replaces the microscope and mechanical stage with an ordinary flatbed desktop scanner, and replaces the microscopist and tally counter with a personal computer; two pieces of equipment much more readily available than a microscope with a mechanical stage, and certainly easier to find than a person willing to sit for extended periods of time counting air-voids. Most laboratories that perform air-void system characterization typically have cabinets full of prepared samples with corresponding results from manual operators. Proponents of automated methods often take advantage of this fact by analyzing the same samples and comparing the results. A similar iterative approach is described here where scanned images collected from a significant number of samples are analyzed, the results compared to those of the manual operator, and the settings optimized to best approximate the results of the manual operator. The results of this calibration procedure are compared to an alternative calibration procedure based on the more rigorous digital image accuracy

  11. Compressed air energy storage system

    DOEpatents

    Ahrens, Frederick W.; Kartsounes, George T.

    1981-01-01

    An internal combustion reciprocating engine is operable as a compressor during slack demand periods utilizing excess power from a power grid to charge air into an air storage reservoir and as an expander during peak demand periods to feed power into the power grid utilizing air obtained from the air storage reservoir together with combustible fuel. Preferably the internal combustion reciprocating engine is operated at high pressure and a low pressure turbine and compressor are also employed for air compression and power generation.

  12. Compressed air energy storage system

    DOEpatents

    Ahrens, F.W.; Kartsounes, G.T.

    An internal combustion reciprocating engine is operable as a compressor during slack demand periods utilizing excess power from a power grid to charge air into an air storage reservoir and as an expander during peak demand periods to feed power into the power grid utilizing air obtained from the air storage reservoir together with combustion reciprocating engine is operated at high pressure and a low pressure turbine and compressor are also employed for air compression and power generation.

  13. Second Stage Turbine Bucket Airfoil.

    DOEpatents

    Xu, Liming; Ahmadi, Majid; Humanchuk, David John; Moretto, Nicholas; Delehanty, Richard Edward

    2003-05-06

    The second-stage buckets have airfoil profiles substantially in accordance with Cartesian coordinate values of X, Y and Z set forth in inches in Table I wherein Z is a perpendicular distance from a plane normal to a radius of the turbine centerline and containing the X and Y values with the Z value commencing at zero in the X, Y plane at the radially innermost aerodynamic section of the airfoil and X and Y are coordinate values defining the airfoil profile at each distance Z. The X, Y and Z values may be scaled as a function of the same constant or number to provide a scaled-up or scaled-down airfoil section for the bucket.

  14. Early stages of Ostwald ripening

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shneidman, Vitaly A.

    2013-07-01

    The Becker-Döring (BD) nucleation equation is known to predict a narrow double-exponential front (DEF) in the distribution of growing particles over sizes, which is due to early transient effects. When mass conservation is included, nucleation is eventually exhausted while independent growth is replaced by ripening. Despite the enormous difference in the associated time scales, and the resulting demand on numerics, within the generalized BD model the early DEF is shown to be crucial for the selection of the unique self-similar Lifshitz-Slyozov-Wagner asymptotic regime. Being preserved till the latest stages of growth, the DEF provides a universal part of the initial conditions for the ripening problem, regardless of the mass exchange mechanism between the nucleus and the matrix.

  15. Stages in the research process.

    PubMed

    Gelling, Leslie

    2015-03-01

    Research should be conducted in a systematic manner, allowing the researcher to progress from a general idea or clinical problem to scientifically rigorous research findings that enable new developments to improve clinical practice. Using a research process helps guide this process. This article is the first in a 26-part series on nursing research. It examines the process that is common to all research, and provides insights into ten different stages of this process: developing the research question, searching and evaluating the literature, selecting the research approach, selecting research methods, gaining access to the research site and data, pilot study, sampling and recruitment, data collection, data analysis, and dissemination of results and implementation of findings.

  16. The Nuclear Cryogenic Propulsion Stage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Houts, Michael G.; Kim, Tony; Emrich, William J.; Hickman, Robert R.; Broadway, Jeramie W.; Gerrish, Harold P.; Doughty, Glen; Belvin, Anthony; Borowski, Stanley K.; Scott, John

    2014-01-01

    The fundamental capability of Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP) is game changing for space exploration. A first generation Nuclear Cryogenic Propulsion Stage (NCPS) based on NTP could provide high thrust at a specific impulse above 900 s, roughly double that of state of the art chemical engines. Characteristics of fission and NTP indicate that useful first generation systems will provide a foundation for future systems with extremely high performance. The role of the NCPS in the development of advanced nuclear propulsion systems could be analogous to the role of the DC-3 in the development of advanced aviation. Progress made under the NCPS project could help enable both advanced NTP and advanced Nuclear Electric Propulsion (NEP). Nuclear propulsion can be affordable and viable compared to other propulsion systems and must overcome a biased public fear due to hyper-environmentalism and a false perception of radiation and explosion risk.

  17. The Nuclear Cryogenic Propulsion Stage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Houts, Michael G.; Kim, Tony; Emrich, William J.; Hickman, Robert R.; Broadway, Jeramie W.; Gerrish, Harold P.; Doughty, Glen; Belvin, Anthony; Borowski, Stanley K.; Scott, John

    2014-01-01

    The fundamental capability of Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP) is game changing for space exploration. A first generation Nuclear Cryogenic Propulsion Stage (NCPS) based on NTP could provide high thrust at a specific impulse above 900 s, roughly double that of state of the art chemical engines. Characteristics of fission and NTP indicate that useful first generation systems will provide a foundation for future systems with extremely high performance. The role of the NCPS in the development of advanced nuclear propulsion systems could be analogous to the role of the DC-3 in the development of advanced aviation. Progres made under the NCPS project could help enable both advanced NTP and advanced Nuclear Electric Propulsion (NEP).

  18. AIR Model Preflight Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tai, H.; Wilson, J. W.; Maiden, D. L.

    2003-01-01

    The atmospheric ionizing radiation (AIR) ER-2 preflight analysis, one of the first attempts to obtain a relatively complete measurement set of the high-altitude radiation level environment, is described in this paper. The primary thrust is to characterize the atmospheric radiation and to define dose levels at high-altitude flight. A secondary thrust is to develop and validate dosimetric techniques and monitoring devices for protecting aircrews. With a few chosen routes, we can measure the experimental results and validate the AIR model predictions. Eventually, as more measurements are made, we gain more understanding about the hazardous radiation environment and acquire more confidence in the prediction models.

  19. MSFC hot air collectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anthony, K.

    1978-01-01

    A description of the hot air collector is given that includes a history of development, a history of the materials development, and a program summary. The major portion of the solar energy system cost is the collector. Since the collector is the heart of the system and the most costly subsystem, reducing the cost of producing collectors in large quantities is a major goal. This solar collector is designed to heat air and/or water cheaply and efficiently through the use of solar energy.

  20. Liquid air cycle engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosevear, Jerry

    1992-01-01

    Given here is a definition of Liquid Air Cycle Engines (LACE) and existing relevant technologies. Heat exchanger design and fabrication techniques, the handling of liquid hydrogen to achieve the greatest heat sink capabilities, and air decontamination to prevent heat exchanger fouling are discussed. It was concluded that technology needs to be extended in the areas of design and fabrication of heat exchangers to improve reliability along with weight and volume reductions. Catalysts need to be improved so that conversion can be achieved with lower quantities and lower volumes. Packaging studies need to be investigated both analytically and experimentally. Recycling with slush hydrogen needs further evaluation with experimental testing.

  1. Space Derived Air Monitor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    COPAMS, Commonwealth of Pennsylvania Air Monitoring System, derives from technology involved in building unmanned spacecraft. The Nimbus spacecraft carried experimental sensors to measure temperature, pressure, ozone, and water vapor, and instruments for studying solar radiation and telemetry. The process which relayed these findings to Earth formed the basis for COPAMS. The COPAMS system consists of data acquisition units which measure and record pollution level, and sense wind speed and direction, etc. The findings are relayed to a central station where the information is computerized. The system is automatic and supplemented by PAQSS, PA Air Quality Surveillance System.

  2. Ares I Upper Stage Fabrication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    Under the goals of the Vision for Space Exploration, Ares I is a chief component of the cost-effective space transportation infrastructure being developed by NASA's Constellation Program. This transportation system will safely and reliably carry human explorers back to the moon, and then onward to Mars and other destinations in the solar system. The Ares I effort includes multiple project element teams at NASA centers and contract organizations around the nation, and is managed by the Exploration Launch Projects Office at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MFSC). ATK Launch Systems near Brigham City, Utah, is the prime contractor for the first stage booster. ATK's subcontractor, United Space Alliance of Houston, is designing, developing and testing the parachutes at its facilities at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida. NASA's Johnson Space Center in Houston hosts the Constellation Program and Orion Crew Capsule Project Office and provides test instrumentation and support personnel. Together, these teams are developing vehicle hardware, evolving proven technologies, and testing components and systems. Their work builds on powerful, reliable space shuttle propulsion elements and nearly a half-century of NASA space flight experience and technological advances. Ares I is an inline, two-stage rocket configuration topped by the Crew Exploration Vehicle, its service module, and a launch abort system. This HD video image depicts the manufacturing of aluminum panels that will be used to form the Ares I barrel. The panels are manufacturing process demonstration articles that will undergo testing until perfected. The panels are built by AMRO Manufacturing located in El Monte, California. (Highest resolution available)

  3. Tumor Stage Mycosis Fungoides in a Child.

    PubMed

    Dulmage, Brittany O'Neill; Villaseñor-Park, Jennifer; Ho, Jonhan; Geskin, Larisa J; Grandinetti, Lisa M

    2015-01-01

    Mycosis fungoides is uncommon in children and most often presents as stage IA/IB. We present a case of stage IIB mycosis fungoides in a 13-year-old boy and discuss diagnostic examination and treatment considerations.

  4. 33 CFR 334.1280 - Bristol Bay, Alaska; air-to-air weapon range, Alaskan Air Command, U.S. Air Force.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Bristol Bay, Alaska; air-to-air weapon range, Alaskan Air Command, U.S. Air Force. 334.1280 Section 334.1280 Navigation and Navigable... REGULATIONS § 334.1280 Bristol Bay, Alaska; air-to-air weapon range, Alaskan Air Command, U.S. Air Force....

  5. 33 CFR 334.1280 - Bristol Bay, Alaska; air-to-air weapon range, Alaskan Air Command, U.S. Air Force.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Bristol Bay, Alaska; air-to-air weapon range, Alaskan Air Command, U.S. Air Force. 334.1280 Section 334.1280 Navigation and Navigable... REGULATIONS § 334.1280 Bristol Bay, Alaska; air-to-air weapon range, Alaskan Air Command, U.S. Air Force....

  6. 33 CFR 334.1280 - Bristol Bay, Alaska; air-to-air weapon range, Alaskan Air Command, U.S. Air Force.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Bristol Bay, Alaska; air-to-air weapon range, Alaskan Air Command, U.S. Air Force. 334.1280 Section 334.1280 Navigation and Navigable... REGULATIONS § 334.1280 Bristol Bay, Alaska; air-to-air weapon range, Alaskan Air Command, U.S. Air Force....

  7. 33 CFR 334.1280 - Bristol Bay, Alaska; air-to-air weapon range, Alaskan Air Command, U.S. Air Force.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Bristol Bay, Alaska; air-to-air weapon range, Alaskan Air Command, U.S. Air Force. 334.1280 Section 334.1280 Navigation and Navigable... REGULATIONS § 334.1280 Bristol Bay, Alaska; air-to-air weapon range, Alaskan Air Command, U.S. Air Force....

  8. 33 CFR 334.1280 - Bristol Bay, Alaska; air-to-air weapon range, Alaskan Air Command, U.S. Air Force.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Bristol Bay, Alaska; air-to-air weapon range, Alaskan Air Command, U.S. Air Force. 334.1280 Section 334.1280 Navigation and Navigable... REGULATIONS § 334.1280 Bristol Bay, Alaska; air-to-air weapon range, Alaskan Air Command, U.S. Air Force....

  9. Cisplatin and Paclitaxel in Treating Patients With Stage IIB, Stage IIC, Stage III, or Stage IV Ovarian Epithelial Cancer, Fallopian Tube Cancer, or Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2014-12-29

    Chemotherapeutic Agent Toxicity; Endometrial Adenocarcinoma; Fallopian Tube Carcinoma; Gastrointestinal Complication; Malignant Ovarian Mixed Epithelial Tumor; Neurotoxicity Syndrome; Ovarian Brenner Tumor; Ovarian Clear Cell Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Mucinous Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Serous Cystadenocarcinoma; Primary Peritoneal Carcinoma; Stage II Ovarian Cancer; Stage III Ovarian Cancer; Stage IV Ovarian Cancer; Undifferentiated Ovarian Carcinoma

  10. Paclitaxel and Carboplatin With or Without Bevacizumab in Treating Patients With Stage II, Stage III, or Stage IV Ovarian Epithelial Cancer, Primary Peritoneal Cancer, or Fallopian Tube Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-12-21

    Fallopian Tube Endometrioid Adenocarcinoma; Fallopian Tube Mucinous Adenocarcinoma; Fallopian Tube Transitional Cell Carcinoma; Malignant Ovarian Mixed Epithelial Tumor; Ovarian Brenner Tumor; Ovarian Clear Cell Adenocarcinofibroma; Ovarian Endometrioid Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Mucinous Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Serous Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Transitional Cell Carcinoma; Primary Peritoneal Serous Adenocarcinoma; Stage IIA Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIA Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIB Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIB Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIC Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIA Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIA Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIA Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Stage IIIB Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIB Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIB Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Stage IIIC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIC Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIC Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Stage IV Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IV Ovarian Cancer; Stage IV Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Undifferentiated Ovarian Carcinoma

  11. Operationally efficient propulsion system study (OEPSS) data book. Volume 10; Air Augmented Rocket Afterburning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farhangi, Shahram; Trent, Donnie (Editor)

    1992-01-01

    A study was directed towards assessing viability and effectiveness of an air augmented ejector/rocket. Successful thrust augmentation could potentially reduce a multi-stage vehicle to a single stage-to-orbit vehicle (SSTO) and, thereby, eliminate the associated ground support facility infrastructure and ground processing required by the eliminated stage. The results of this preliminary study indicate that an air augmented ejector/rocket propulsion system is viable. However, uncertainties resulting from simplified approach and assumptions must be resolved by further investigations.

  12. Terminal Air Flow Planning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Denery, Dallas G.; Erzberger, Heinz; Edwards, Thomas A. (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    The Center TRACON Automation System (CTAS) will be the basis for air traffic planning and control in the terminal area. The system accepts arriving traffic within an extended terminal area and optimizes the flow based on current traffic and airport conditions. The operational use of CTAS will be presented together with results from current operations.

  13. Walking On Air

    NASA Video Gallery

    This video features a series of time lapse sequences photographed by the Expedition 30 crew aboard the International Space Station. Set to the song “Walking in the Air,” by Howard Blake, the v...

  14. The Air up There

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Jeffrey

    2010-01-01

    To engage students in a real-world issue (Bransford, Brown, and Cocking 2000) that affects their communities, the author designed an entire unit to investigate air pollution in their home state, Connecticut. The unit's goal is to understand how the use of resources, such as fossil fuels, might affect their quality of life. Through this unit,…

  15. Testing for Air Pollution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunbar, Artice

    Three experiments are presented in this Science Study Aid to provide the teacher with some fundamental air pollution activities. The first experiment involved particulates, the second deals with microorganisms, and the third looks at gases in the atmosphere. Each activity outlines introductory information, objectives, materials required, procedure…

  16. Vascular air embolism

    PubMed Central

    Gordy, Stephanie; Rowell, Susan

    2013-01-01

    Vascular air embolism is a rare but potentially fatal event. It may occur in a variety of procedures and surgeries but is most often associated as an iatrogenic complication of central line catheter insertion. This article reviews the incidence, pathophysiology, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of this phenomenon. PMID:23724390

  17. Clean Air by Design.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crawford, Gary N.

    1995-01-01

    Planning new construction is an opportunity to recognize indoor environmental quality (IEQ) issues. Provides an overview of some common IEQ issues associated with construction projects. A building's heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) system is by far the single most common cause of IEQ problems and complaints. (MLF)

  18. An Air of Concern.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gembala, Walter W.

    1999-01-01

    Examines the signs of school indoor air quality (IAQ) problems, why the problems exist, and control methods to use. Human physical symptoms to look for when an IAQ problem is present are highlighted and IAQ management planning techniques are discussed. (GR)

  19. An Air of Concern.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singer, Terry E.; Shonkwiler, Tonja; Birr, David

    1998-01-01

    Examines how indoor air quality (IAQ) problems can create difficulties for a school both administratively, and legally. Discusses how to identify the IAQ symptoms and the Occupational Safety and Health Administration's industry standards for IAQ, as well as tips for reducing liability risk. (GR)

  20. Tribal Air Quality Monitoring.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wall, Dennis

    2001-01-01

    The Institute for Tribal Environmental Professionals (ITEP) (Flagstaff, Arizona) provides training and support for tribal professionals in the technical job skills needed for air quality monitoring and other environmental management tasks. ITEP also arranges internships, job placements, and hands-on training opportunities and supports an…

  1. Regulation of air traffic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DEVALUEZ

    1922-01-01

    The ways in which the international and internal French air traffic accords interact with each other is outlined in this report. The principal questions covered by the present legislation are as follows: 1) Conditions of safety which must be fulfilled by aircraft; 2) Licenses for members of the crew; 3) Traffic rules to be observed by French and foreign aircraft.

  2. AIR POLLUTION AND HUMMINGBIRDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A multidisciplinary team of EPA-RTP ORD pulmonary toxicologists, engineers, ecologists, and statisticians have designed a study of how ground-level ozone and other air pollutants may influence feeding activity of the ruby-throated hummingbird (Archilochus colubris). Be...

  3. Air Proportional Counter

    DOEpatents

    Simpson, Jr, J A

    1950-12-05

    A multiple wire counter utilizing air at atmospheric pressure as the ionizing medium and having a window of a nylon sheet of less than 0.5 mil thickness coated with graphite. The window is permeable to alpha particles so that the counter is well adapted to surveying sources of alpha radiation.

  4. Images in the Air

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riveros, H. G.; Rosenberger, Franz

    2012-01-01

    This article discusses two "magic tricks" in terms of underlying optical principles. The first trick is new and produces a "ghost" in the air, and the second is the classical real image produced with two parabolic mirrors. (Contains 2 figure and 6 photos.)

  5. Ames Air Revitalization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huang, Roger Z.

    2015-01-01

    This is an informal presentation presented to the University of Colorado, Boulder Bioastronautics group seminar. It highlights the key focal areas of the Air Revitalization Group research over the past year, including progress on the CO2 Removal and Compression System, testing of CDRA drying bed configurations, and adsorption research.

  6. International Air Transport Policy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Butler, C.

    1972-01-01

    The actions of the Civil Aviation Board in providing assistance and advice to the State Department regarding international air transport policy are discussed. The policies and guidelines of the Civil Aviation Board are defined. The relationship with the policies of the Executive Branch of the Government and the interpretations of the Department of Transportation are reported.

  7. Air Pollution Surveillance Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, George B.; And Others

    1970-01-01

    Describes atmospheric data monitoring as part of total airpollution control effort. Summarizes types of gaseous, liquid and solid pollutants and their sources; contrast between urban and rural environmental air quality; instrumentation to identify pollutants; and anticipated new non-wet chemical physical and physiochemical techniques tor cetection…

  8. Air on the Move.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    NatureScope, 1985

    1985-01-01

    Provides (1) background information on global winds, air masses, fronts, and pressure systems; (2) five activities on this topic; and (3) a ready-to-copy coloring page and worksheet. Each activity includes an objective, list of materials needed, recommended age level(s), subject area(s), and instructional strategies. (JN)

  9. Air-cleaning apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    Howard, A.G.

    1981-08-18

    An air-cleaning, heat-exchange apparatus includes a main housing portion connected by means of an air inlet fan to the kitchen exhaust stack of a restaurant. The apparatus includes a plurality of heat exchangers through which a heat-absorptive fluid is circulated, simultaneously, by means of a suitable fluid pump. These heat exchangers absorb heat from the hot exhaust gas, out of the exhaust stack of the restaurant, which flows over and through these heat exchangers and transfers this heat to the circulating fluid which communicates with remote heat exchangers. These remote heat exchangers further transfer this heat to a stream of air, such as that from a cold-air return duct for supplementing the conventional heating system of the restaurant. Due to the fact that such hot exhaust gas is heavily grease laden , grease will be deposited on virtually all internal surfaces of the apparatus which this exhaust gas contacts. Consequently, means are provided for spraying these contacted internal surfaces , as well as the hot exhaust gas itself, with a detergent solution in which the grease is soluble, thereby removing grease buildup from these internal surfaces.

  10. The air afterglow revisited

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaufman, F.

    1972-01-01

    The air afterglow, 0 + NO2 chemiluminescence, is discussed in terms of fluorescence, photodissociation, and quantum theoretical calculations of NO2. The experimental results presented include pressure dependence, M-dependence, spectral dependence of P and M, temperature dependence, and infrared measurements. The NO2 energy transfer model is also discussed.

  11. Understanding Our Environment: Air.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DiSpezio, Michael

    Part of the Understanding Our Environment project that is designed to engage students in investigating specific environmental problems through concrete activities and direct experience, this unit uses the contemporary dilemma of acid rain as a vehicle for teaching weather and the characteristics of air and atmosphere. The project involves a…

  12. Air Structures: Inflatable Alternatives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valerio, Joseph M.; And Others

    1973-01-01

    Describes and evaluates several avant garde'' examples of air structures. Included are a soft'' child's playpen, a pneudome that employs a water ballast for anchoring, a one-acre enclosed campus, an instant city'' constructed for an industrial design conference, and the Fuji Pavilion, at Expo '70 in Osaka, Japan, that was large enough to cover…

  13. AIRS Level 2 Status

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Sung-Yung; Manning, Evan; Olsen, Edward

    2003-01-01

    The Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) is a facility instrument onboard EOS Aqua. Major level 2 products are highlighted including temperature profile; water vapor profile; surface skin temperature and other surface parameters; and, cloud friction and top cloud pressure. Level 2 files and data availability are discussed.

  14. Air weapon fatalities.

    PubMed Central

    Milroy, C M; Clark, J C; Carter, N; Rutty, G; Rooney, N

    1998-01-01

    AIMS: To describe characteristics of a series of people accidentally and deliberately killed by air powered weapons. METHODS: Five cases of fatal airgun injury were identified by forensic pathologists and histopathologists. The circumstances surrounding the case, radiological examination, and pathological findings are described. The weapon characteristics are also reported. RESULTS: Three of the victims were adult men, one was a 16 year old boy, and one an eight year old child. Four of the airguns were .22 air rifles, the other a .177 air rifle. Two committed suicide, one person shooting himself in the head, the other in the chest. In both cases the guns were fired at contact range. Three of the cases were classified as accidents: in two the pellet penetrated into the head and in one the chest. CONCLUSIONS: One person each year dies from an air powered weapon injury in the United Kingdom. In addition there is considerable morbidity from airgun injuries. Fatalities and injuries are most commonly accidents, but deliberately inflicted injuries occur. Airguns are dangerous weapons when inappropriately handled and should not be considered as toys. Children should not play with airguns unsupervised. Images PMID:9797730

  15. The Nuclear Cryogenic Propulsion Stage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Houts, Michael G.; Kim, Tony; Emrich, William J.; Hickman, Robert R.; Broadway, Jeramie W.; Gerrish, Harold P.; Belvin, Anthony D.; Borowski, Stanley K.; Scott, John H.

    2014-01-01

    Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP) development efforts in the United States have demonstrated the technical viability and performance potential of NTP systems. For example, Project Rover (1955 - 1973) completed 22 high power rocket reactor tests. Peak performances included operating at an average hydrogen exhaust temperature of 2550 K and a peak fuel power density of 5200 MW/m3 (Pewee test), operating at a thrust of 930 kN (Phoebus-2A test), and operating for 62.7 minutes in a single burn (NRX-A6 test). Results from Project Rover indicated that an NTP system with a high thrust-to-weight ratio and a specific impulse greater than 900 s would be feasible. Excellent results were also obtained by the former Soviet Union. Although historical programs had promising results, many factors would affect the development of a 21st century nuclear thermal rocket (NTR). Test facilities built in the US during Project Rover no longer exist. However, advances in analytical techniques, the ability to utilize or adapt existing facilities and infrastructure, and the ability to develop a limited number of new test facilities may enable affordable development, qualification, and utilization of a Nuclear Cryogenic Propulsion Stage (NCPS). Bead-loaded graphite fuel was utilized throughout the Rover/NERVA program, and coated graphite composite fuel (tested in the Nuclear Furnace) and cermet fuel both show potential for even higher performance than that demonstrated in the Rover/NERVA engine tests.. NASA's NCPS project was initiated in October, 2011, with the goal of assessing the affordability and viability of an NCPS. FY 2014 activities are focused on fabrication and test (non-nuclear) of both coated graphite composite fuel elements and cermet fuel elements. Additional activities include developing a pre-conceptual design of the NCPS stage and evaluating affordable strategies for NCPS development, qualification, and utilization. NCPS stage designs are focused on supporting human Mars

  16. Air-Coupled Vibrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Döring, D.; Solodov, I.; Busse, G.

    Sound and ultrasound in air are the products of a multitude of different processes and thus can be favorable or undesirable phenomena. Development of experimental tools for non-invasive measurements and imaging of airborne sound fields is of importance for linear and nonlinear nondestructive material testing as well as noise control in industrial or civil engineering applications. One possible solution is based on acousto-optic interaction, like light diffraction imaging. The diffraction approach usually requires a sophisticated setup with fine optical alignment barely applicable in industrial environment. This paper focuses on the application of the robust experimental tool of scanning laser vibrometry, which utilizes commercial off-the-shelf equipment. The imaging technique of air-coupled vibrometry (ACV) is based on the modulation of the optical path length by the acoustic pressure of the sound wave. The theoretical considerations focus on the analysis of acousto-optical phase modulation. The sensitivity of the ACV in detecting vibration velocity was estimated as ~1 mm/s. The ACV applications to imaging of linear airborne fields are demonstrated for leaky wave propagation and measurements of ultrasonic air-coupled transducers. For higher-intensity ultrasound, the classical nonlinear effect of the second harmonic generation was measured in air. Another nonlinear application includes a direct observation of the nonlinear air-coupled emission (NACE) from the damaged areas in solid materials. The source of the NACE is shown to be strongly localized around the damage and proposed as a nonlinear "tag" to discern and image the defects.

  17. Three stage semelparous Leslie models.

    PubMed

    Cushing, J M

    2009-07-01

    oscillations (not necessarily periodic) with separated life-cycle stages, while weak interactions promote stable equilibration with overlapping life-cycle stages. Methods used include the theory of planar monotone maps, average Lyapunov functions, and bifurcation theory techniques.

  18. Three stage semelparous Leslie models.

    PubMed

    Cushing, J M

    2009-07-01

    oscillations (not necessarily periodic) with separated life-cycle stages, while weak interactions promote stable equilibration with overlapping life-cycle stages. Methods used include the theory of planar monotone maps, average Lyapunov functions, and bifurcation theory techniques. PMID:18777023

  19. CaO interaction in the staged combustion of coal

    SciTech Connect

    Levy, A.; Merryman, E.L.; Rising, B.W.

    1983-12-19

    The LIMB (limestone injection multi-stage burner) process offers special potential for reducing NO/sub x/ and SO/sub x/ by at least 50 percent in coal combustion. This is to be accomplished by adding limestone with fuel and/or air in a low NO/sub x/ burner. This program has been directed to defining the chemistry and kinetics necessary to optimize sulfur capture in LIMB combustion. More specifically, this program has attempted to clarify the role of calcium sulfide in LIMB chemistry. When limestone is added in a staged burner, there is a strong possibility that under certain circumstances CaS is produced in the reducing (fuel-rich) zone of the burner. Since CaS is more stable than CaSO/sub 4/, this affords the opportunity to (1) operate the burner at a higher temperature, 2200 to 2500 F, (2) pass the CaS rapidly through the high temperature zone (before dissociation), and (3) complete the combustion in a lean (air-rich) region where the sulfur is finally retained in CaSO/sub 4/. For these reasons this program has concentrated on the high temperature chemistry and kinetics of CaS. To achieve the program objective, the program was divided into three tasks. These involved (1) a study of CaS formation, (2) a brief examination of CaS oxidation, and (3) a laboratory examination of the combustion of coal in the presence of CaO under first stage, fuel-rich conditions. In the most general sense, the study has shown that the formation of CaS in the reducing zones of the burner may be restricted by competing kinetics and thermodynamics. The addition of lime in LIMB will require special care to optimize the ability to capture sulfur. 36 references, 44 figures, 10 tables.

  20. Saturn V S-IVB (Third Stage)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1967-01-01

    This cutaway drawing shows the S-IVB (third stage) of the Saturn V launch vehicle. As a part of the Marshall Space Flight Center's (MSFC) 'building block' approach to the Saturn development, the S-IVB stage was utilized in the Saturn IB launch vehicle as a second stage and, later, the Saturn V launch vehicle as a third stage. The 59 foot long and 22 feet diameter stage was powered by a single J-2 engine, initially capable of 200,000 pounds of thrust.

  1. Lenalidomide and Rituximab in Treating Patients With Previously Untreated Stage II, Stage III, or Stage IV Follicular Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-07-28

    Stage II Grade 1 Contiguous Follicular Lymphoma; Stage II Grade 1 Non-Contiguous Follicular Lymphoma; Stage II Grade 2 Contiguous Follicular Lymphoma; Stage II Grade 2 Non-Contiguous Follicular Lymphoma; Stage II Grade 3 Contiguous Follicular Lymphoma; Stage II Grade 3 Non-Contiguous Follicular Lymphoma; Stage III Grade 1 Follicular Lymphoma; Stage III Grade 2 Follicular Lymphoma; Stage III Grade 3 Follicular Lymphoma; Stage IV Grade 1 Follicular Lymphoma; Stage IV Grade 2 Follicular Lymphoma; Stage IV Grade 3 Follicular Lymphoma

  2. Evaluation of portable air samplers for monitoring airborne culturable bacteria

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mehta, S. K.; Bell-Robinson, D. M.; Groves, T. O.; Stetzenbach, L. D.; Pierson, D. L.

    2000-01-01

    Airborne culturable bacteria were monitored at five locations (three in an office/laboratory building and two in a private residence) in a series of experiments designed to compare the efficiency of four air samplers: the Andersen two-stage, Burkard portable, RCS Plus, and SAS Super 90 samplers. A total of 280 samples was collected. The four samplers were operated simultaneously, each sampling 100 L of air with collection on trypticase soy agar. The data were corrected by applying positive hole conversion factors for the Burkard portable, Andersen two-stage, and SAS Super 90 air samplers, and were expressed as log10 values prior to statistical analysis by analysis of variance. The Burkard portable air sampler retrieved the highest number of airborne culturable bacteria at four of the five sampling sites, followed by the SAS Super 90 and the Andersen two-stage impactor. The number of bacteria retrieved by the RCS Plus was significantly less than those retrieved by the other samplers. Among the predominant bacterial genera retrieved by all samplers were Staphylococcus, Bacillus, Corynebacterium, Micrococcus, and Streptococcus.

  3. The Final Stages of Life

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winget, D.

    2014-04-01

    The overwhelming majority of all stars end their lives as white dwarf stars. These stars and their environs have a deep personal significance for humanity: this is the expected fate of our own sun. Once a star becomes a white dwarf, its remaining evolution is best described as an exponential cooling. In the final throws of post-main sequence mass-loss the former stellar core becomes a white dwarf, emerging phoenix-like from amongst the ashes. Some planets may survive and others may form as a sort of second generation from the cast-off material. Life may survive or may be reborn on any planets that remain; life may also arise on newly formed planets. The prospects will depend in a significant way on the timescales of the central white dwarf star's cooling evolution and how its radiation shapes the environment. We will discuss white dwarf evolutionary timescales with an eye towards the potential habitability of planets, both new and old. We will consider the uncertainties in these timescales from both an empirical and a theoretical perspective. We will critique the existing evidence for planets and summarize what we have learned so far through direct imaging and stellar pulsations. We will close with the very bright prospects for the future of planets and life in the final stages.

  4. Neutron interferometry with cold stage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mineeva, Taisiya; Arif, M.; Huber, M. G.; Shahi, C. B.; Clark, C. W.; Cory, D. G.; Nsofini, J.; Sarenac, D.; Pushin, D. A.

    Neutron interferometry (NI) is amongst the most precise methods for characterizing neutron interactions by measuring the relative difference between two neutron paths, one of which contains a sample-of-interest. Because neutrons carry magnetic moment and are deeply penetrating, they are excellent probes to investigate properties of magnetic materials. The advantage of NI is its unique sensitivity which allows to directly measure magnetic and structural transitions in materials. Up to now NI has been sparingly used in material research due to its sensitivity to environmental noise. However, recent successes in implementing Quantum Error Correction principles lead to an improved NI design making it robust against mechanical vibrations. Following these advances, a new user facility at the National Institute for Standards and Technology was built to study condensed matter applications, biology and quantum physics. Incorporating cold sample stage inside NI is the first of its kind experiment which can be carried out on large range of temperatures down to 4K. Upon successful realization, it will open new frontiers to characterize magnetic domains, phase transitions and spin properties in a variety of materials such as, for example, iron-based superconductors and spintronic materials. Supported in part by CERC, CIFAR, NSERC and CREATE.

  5. Advanced two-stage incinerator

    SciTech Connect

    Rehmat, A.; Khinkis, M.

    1991-01-01

    The Institute of Gas Technology (IGT) is developing an advanced incinerator that combines the fluidized-bed agglomeration/incineration and cyclonic combustion/incineration technologies that have been developed separately at IGT over many years. This combination results in a unique and extremely flexible incinerator for solid, sludge, liquid, and gaseous wastes. This system can operate over a wide range of conditions in the first stage, from low temperature (desorption) to high temperature (agglomeration), including gasification of high-Btu wastes. In the combined system, solid, liquid, and gaseous organic wastes would be easily and efficiently destroyed (>99.99% destruction and removal efficiency (DRE)), whereas solid inorganic contaminants would be contained within a glassy matrix, rendering them benign and suitable for disposal in an ordinary landfill. This technology is different from other existing technologies because of its agglomeration and encapsulation capability and its flexibility with respect to the types wastes it can handle. Both the fluidized-bed as well as the cyclonic incineration technologies have been fully developed and tested separately at pilot scales. 12 refs., 4 figs., 4 tabs.

  6. Comparing toxic air pollutant programs

    SciTech Connect

    Hawkins, S.C.

    1997-05-01

    This article compares state and federal toxic air pollutant programs. The Clean Air Act Ammendments created a program for the control of Hazardous Air Pollutants based on the establishment of control technology standards. State toxic programs can be classified into two categories: control technology-based and ambient concentration-based. Many states have opened to implement the MACT standards while enforcing their own state air toxics programs. Specific topics discussed include the following: the Federal air toxics program; existing state regulations; New Jersey Air Toxic Program; New York Toxics program.

  7. Air quality management in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Bremauntz, Adrián

    2008-01-01

    Several significant program and policy measures have been implemented in Mexico over the past 15 yr to improve air quality. This article provides an overview of air quality management strategies in Mexico, including (1) policy initiatives such as vehicle use restrictions, air quality standards, vehicle emissions, and fuel quality standards, and (2) supporting programs including establishment of a national emission inventory, an air pollution episodes program, and the implementation of exposure and health effects studies. Trends in air pollution episodes and ambient air pollutant concentrations are described.

  8. Air permeability and trapped-air content in two soils

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stonestrom, D.A.; Rubin, J.

    1989-01-01

    To improve understanding of hysteretic air permeability relations, a need exists for data on the water content dependence of air permeability, matric pressure, and air trapping (especially for wetting-drying cycles). To obtain these data, a special instrument was designed. The instrument is a combination of a gas permeameter (for air permeability determination), a suction plate apparatus (for retentivity curve determination), and an air pycnometer (for trapped-air-volume determination). This design allowed values of air permeability, matric pressure, and air trapping to be codetermined, i.e., determined at the same values of water content using the same sample and the same inflow-outflow boundaries. Such data were obtained for two nonswelling soils. -from Authors

  9. Apparatus and method for two-stage oxidation of wastes

    DOEpatents

    Fleischman, Scott D.

    1995-01-01

    An apparatus and method for oxidizing wastes in a two-stage process. The apparatus includes an oxidation device, a gas-liquid contacting column and an electrocell. In the first stage of the process, wastes are heated in the presence of air to partially oxidize the wastes. The heated wastes produce an off-gas stream containing oxidizable materials. In the second stage, the off-gas stream is cooled and flowed through the contacting column, where the off-gas stream is contacted with an aqueous acid stream containing an oxidizing agent having at least two positive valence states. At least a portion of the oxidizable materials are transferred to the acid stream and destroyed by the oxidizing agent. During oxidation, the valence of the oxidizing agent is decreased from its higher state to its lower state. The acid stream is flowed to the electrocell, where an electric current is applied to the stream to restore the oxidizing agent to its higher valence state. The regenerated acid stream is recycled to the contacting column.

  10. Apparatus and method for two-stage oxidation of wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Fleischman, S.D.

    1993-09-28

    An apparatus and method for oxidizing wastes in a two-stage process. The apparatus includes an oxidation device, a gas-liquid contacting column and an electrocell. In the first stage of the process, wastes are heated in the presence of air to partially oxidize the wastes. The heated wastes produce an off-gas stream containing oxidizable materials. In the second stage, the off-gas stream is cooled and flowed through the contacting column, where the off-gas stream is contacted with an aqueous acid stream containing an oxidizing agent having at least two positive valence states. At least a portion of the oxidizable materials are transferred to the acid stream and destroyed by the oxidizing agent. During oxidation, the valence of the oxidizing agent is decreased from its higher state to its lower state. The acid stream is flowed to the electrocell, where an electric current is applied to the stream to restore the oxidizing agent to its higher valence state. The regenerated acid stream is recycled to the contacting column.

  11. Experimental Stage Separation Tool Development in NASA Langley's Aerothermodynamics Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murphy, Kelly J.; Scallion, William I.

    2005-01-01

    As part of the research effort at NASA in support of the stage separation and ascent aerothermodynamics research program, proximity testing of a generic bimese wing-body configuration was conducted in NASA Langley's Aerothermodynamics Laboratory in the 20-Inch Mach 6 Air Tunnel. The objective of this work is the development of experimental tools and testing methodologies to apply to hypersonic stage separation problems for future multi-stage launch vehicle systems. Aerodynamic force and moment proximity data were generated at a nominal Mach number of 6 over a small range of angles of attack. The generic bimese configuration was tested in a belly-to-belly and back-to-belly orientation at 86 relative proximity locations. Over 800 aerodynamic proximity data points were taken to serve as a database for code validation. Longitudinal aerodynamic data generated in this test program show very good agreement with viscous computational predictions. Thus a framework has been established to study separation problems in the hypersonic regime using coordinated experimental and computational tools.

  12. 26. "AIR INSTALLATIONS; EDWARDS AIR FORCE BASE, CALIFORNIA; HIGH SPEED ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    26. "AIR INSTALLATIONS; EDWARDS AIR FORCE BASE, CALIFORNIA; HIGH SPEED TEST TRACK." Drawing No. 10-259. One inch to 400 feet plan of original 10,000-foot sled track. No date. No D.O. series number. No headings as above. - Edwards Air Force Base, South Base Sled Track, Edwards Air Force Base, North of Avenue B, between 100th & 140th Streets East, Lancaster, Los Angeles County, CA

  13. 17. VIEW OF AIR LOCK ENTRY DOOR. BANKS OF AIR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. VIEW OF AIR LOCK ENTRY DOOR. BANKS OF AIR FILTERS ARE VISIBLE TO THE SIDES OF THE DOORS. THE BUILDING WAS DIVIDED INTO ZONES BY AIRLOCK DOORS AND AIR FILTERS. AIR PRESSURE DIFFERENTIALS WERE MAINTAINED IN THE ZONES, SUCH THAT AIRFLOW WAS PROGRESSIVELY TOWARD AREAS WITH THE HIGHEST POTENTIAL FOR CONTAMINATION. (9/24/91) - Rocky Flats Plant, Plutonium Manufacturing Facility, North-central section of Plant, just south of Building 776/777, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

  14. The compatibility of energy conservation and indoor air quality

    SciTech Connect

    Grimsrud, D.T.; Turk, B.H.; Prill, R.J.; Revzan, K.L.

    1988-10-01

    Two studies of indoor air quality in residences are described. In the first air quality measurements are reported in 111 unweatherized houses followed by careful observation of changes in ventilation rates and air quality in a subset of forty of the houses that received staged weatherization. A large fraction of the houses sampled in the eastern portion of the state of Washington contained high concentrations of radon gas. The major change in air quality seen in the sample as the result of weatherization was a substantial decrease in radon concentration in houses having crawlspaces. A second study reported compares ventilation and air quality in 62 new residences. Half were built using Model Conservation Standards to promote energy efficiency; the other half were built using conventional techniques for the region. Little difference was seen in ventilation rates in spite of significant design differences. Larger variations in air quality were seen between houses in different regions than between the Control and test houses in the same region. We conclude that changes in housing design and construction to promote energy efficiency are not incompatible with good indoor air quality. 20 refs., 13 figs.

  15. Ambient and household air pollution: complex triggers of disease

    PubMed Central

    Farmer, Stephen A.; Nelin, Timothy D.; Falvo, Michael J.

    2014-01-01

    Concentrations of outdoor air pollution are on the rise, particularly due to rapid urbanization worldwide. Alternatively, poor ventilation, cigarette smoke, and other toxic chemicals contribute to rising concentrations of indoor air pollution. The World Health Organization recently reported that deaths attributable to indoor and outdoor air pollutant exposure are more than double what was originally documented. Epidemiological, clinical, and animal data have demonstrated a clear connection between rising concentrations of air pollution (both indoor and outdoor) and a host of adverse health effects. During the past five years, animal, clinical, and epidemiological studies have explored the adverse health effects associated with exposure to both indoor and outdoor air pollutants throughout the various stages of life. This review provides a summary of the detrimental effects of air pollution through examination of current animal, clinical, and epidemiological studies and exposure during three different periods: maternal (in utero), early life, and adulthood. Additionally, we recommend future lines of research while suggesting conceivable strategies to curb exposure to indoor and outdoor air pollutants. PMID:24929855

  16. Ambient and household air pollution: complex triggers of disease.

    PubMed

    Farmer, Stephen A; Nelin, Timothy D; Falvo, Michael J; Wold, Loren E

    2014-08-15

    Concentrations of outdoor air pollution are on the rise, particularly due to rapid urbanization worldwide. Alternatively, poor ventilation, cigarette smoke, and other toxic chemicals contribute to rising concentrations of indoor air pollution. The World Health Organization recently reported that deaths attributable to indoor and outdoor air pollutant exposure are more than double what was originally documented. Epidemiological, clinical, and animal data have demonstrated a clear connection between rising concentrations of air pollution (both indoor and outdoor) and a host of adverse health effects. During the past five years, animal, clinical, and epidemiological studies have explored the adverse health effects associated with exposure to both indoor and outdoor air pollutants throughout the various stages of life. This review provides a summary of the detrimental effects of air pollution through examination of current animal, clinical, and epidemiological studies and exposure during three different periods: maternal (in utero), early life, and adulthood. Additionally, we recommend future lines of research while suggesting conceivable strategies to curb exposure to indoor and outdoor air pollutants. PMID:24929855

  17. Ambient and household air pollution: complex triggers of disease.

    PubMed

    Farmer, Stephen A; Nelin, Timothy D; Falvo, Michael J; Wold, Loren E

    2014-08-15

    Concentrations of outdoor air pollution are on the rise, particularly due to rapid urbanization worldwide. Alternatively, poor ventilation, cigarette smoke, and other toxic chemicals contribute to rising concentrations of indoor air pollution. The World Health Organization recently reported that deaths attributable to indoor and outdoor air pollutant exposure are more than double what was originally documented. Epidemiological, clinical, and animal data have demonstrated a clear connection between rising concentrations of air pollution (both indoor and outdoor) and a host of adverse health effects. During the past five years, animal, clinical, and epidemiological studies have explored the adverse health effects associated with exposure to both indoor and outdoor air pollutants throughout the various stages of life. This review provides a summary of the detrimental effects of air pollution through examination of current animal, clinical, and epidemiological studies and exposure during three different periods: maternal (in utero), early life, and adulthood. Additionally, we recommend future lines of research while suggesting conceivable strategies to curb exposure to indoor and outdoor air pollutants.

  18. Air-cooled, hydrogen-air fuel cell

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shelekhin, Alexander B. (Inventor); Bushnell, Calvin L. (Inventor); Pien, Michael S. (Inventor)

    1999-01-01

    An air-cooled, hydrogen-air solid polymer electrolyte (SPE) fuel cell with a membrane electrode assembly operatively associated with a fluid flow plate having at least one plate cooling channel extending through the plate and at least one air distribution hole extending from a surface of the cathode flow field into the plate cooling channel.

  19. A Breath of Fresh Air: Addressing Indoor Air Quality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palliser, Janna

    2011-01-01

    Indoor air pollution refers to "chemical, biological, and physical contamination of indoor air," which may result in adverse health effects (OECD 2003). The causes, sources, and types of indoor air pollutants will be addressed in this article, as well as health effects and how to reduce exposure. Learning more about potential pollutants in home…

  20. Something in the Air: Air Pollution in Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Villaire, Ted

    2002-01-01

    Discusses the danger of unhealthy air in the school environment, describing common problems and how parents and schools can respond. The article focuses on the dangers of mold, pesticides, diesel exhaust, and radon. The three sidebars describe how to promote indoor air quality at school, note how to determine whether the school's air is making…

  1. Properties of air and combustion products of fuel with air

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poferl, D. J.; Svehla, R. A.

    1975-01-01

    Thermodynamic and transport properties have been calculated for air, the combustion products of natural gas and air, and combustion products of ASTM-A-1 jet fuel and air. Properties calculated include: ratio of specific heats, molecular weight, viscosity, specific heat, thermal conductivity, Prandtl number, and enthalpy.

  2. Indoor Air Quality in Schools: Clean Air Is Good Business.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guarneiri, Michele A.

    2003-01-01

    Describes the effect of poor indoor air quality (IAQ) on student health, the cost of safeguarding good IAQ, the cause of poor IAQ in schools, how to tell whether a school has an IAQ problem, and how the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency can help schools improve indoor air quality though the use of their free "Indoor Air Quality Tools for…

  3. 14 CFR 91.859 - Modification to meet Stage 3 or Stage 4 noise levels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... noise levels. 91.859 Section 91.859 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Noise Limits § 91.859 Modification to meet Stage 3 or Stage 4 noise levels. For an airplane subject to... Stage 3 or Stage 4 noise levels....

  4. 14 CFR 91.859 - Modification to meet Stage 3 or Stage 4 noise levels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... noise levels. 91.859 Section 91.859 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Noise Limits § 91.859 Modification to meet Stage 3 or Stage 4 noise levels. For an airplane subject to... Stage 3 or Stage 4 noise levels....

  5. Distillation and Air Stripping Designs for the Lunar Surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boul, Peter J.; Lange, Kevin E.; Conger, Bruce; Anderson, Molly

    2009-01-01

    Air stripping and distillation are two different gravity-based methods, which may be applied to the purification of wastewater on the lunar base. These gravity-based solutions to water processing are robust physical separation techniques, which may be advantageous to many other techniques for their simplicity in design and operation. The two techniques can be used in conjunction with each other to obtain high purity water. The components and feed compositions for modeling waste water streams are presented in conjunction with the Aspen property system for traditional stage distillation models and air stripping models. While the individual components for each of the waste streams will vary naturally within certain bounds, an analog model for waste water processing is suggested based on typical concentration ranges for these components. Target purity levels for the for recycled water are determined for each individual component based on NASA s required maximum contaminant levels for potable water Distillation processes are modeled separately and in tandem with air stripping to demonstrate the potential effectiveness and utility of these methods in recycling wastewater on the Moon. Optimum parameters such as reflux ratio, feed stage location, and processing rates are determined with respect to the power consumption of the process. Multistage distillation is evaluated for components in wastewater to determine the minimum number of stages necessary for each of 65 components in humidity condensate and urine wastewater mixed streams. Components of the wastewater streams are ranked by Henry s Law Constant and the suitability of air stripping in the purification of wastewater in terms of component removal is evaluated. Scaling factors for distillation and air stripping columns are presented to account for the difference in the lunar gravitation environment. Commercially available distillation and air stripping units which are considered suitable for Exploration Life Support

  6. Air sampling to recover variola virus in the environment of a smallpox hospital.

    PubMed

    MEIKLEJOHN, G; KEMPE, C H; DOWNIE, A W; BERGE, T O; ST VINCENT, L; RAO, A R

    1961-01-01

    The view is widely held that variola is highly infectious, and it was therefore thought of interest to obtain precise information on the amount of virus disseminated in the air by smallpox patients at various stages of their illness. To this end, measured samples of air in and around the smallpox wards of the Infectious Diseases Hospital, Madras, were tested for the presence of variola virus. Surprisingly, virus was recovered on one occasion only by the air sampling device used. All other tests were negative although large volumes of air were sampled in close proximity to patients at various stages of the disease. The authors consider that further observations should be made with more sensitive air sampling methods.

  7. Acting Antarctica: science on stage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciceri, Piera; Tizzoni, Paola; Pierro, Luigia

    2016-04-01

    Key-words: Polar science, Earth science, Theatre, Hands on activities The legendary Antarctic Expedition of sir E. Shackleton and his crew of 27 aboard the Endurance (1914/16) trapped in the Antarctic ice has become the starting point to learn about Polar Science and Climate Change. While the students were involved into this incredible adventure by the astonishing images of the Australian photographer Frank Hurley (who joined the crew), they discovered the world in which this story happened. Students were then involved in hands-on activities and role plays and have become the writers of the play "Uomini a scienza ai confini del mondo". They act the story of Shackelton's expedition and they tell at the same time to the audience about ice pack, ice cores and their role in understanding the past of the climate, physical and geographical characteristic of polar regions, thermal phenomena related to adaptations of polar animals, solar radiation at different latitude, day/night duration. The theater was the place to "stage" some scientific experiments and to explain the current research carried out in polar regions and their importance in climate change studies and to stress some similarities between Antarctica and space. The project was carried out from teachers of science, letters and geography and was born in collaboration with the "Piccolo Teatro di Milano" and the association "Science Under 18" with the support of a professional actor and director and was played for other schools at "EXPO 2015" in Milano (Italy). In our opinion drama activities improve reading comprehension, and both verbal and non-verbal communication skills. To be able to write and to act, students need a deep understanding of contents. Arts, including theatre, are a good key to involve emotionally students. To have an audience different from their own teachers and classmates offers a real task and the opportunity to play and let grow real skills.

  8. Air pollution from aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heywood, J. B.; Fay, J. A.; Chigier, N. A.

    1979-01-01

    Forty-one annotated abstracts of reports generated at MIT and the University of Sheffield are presented along with summaries of the technical projects undertaken. Work completed includes: (1) an analysis of the soot formation and oxidation rates in gas turbine combustors, (2) modelling the nitric oxide formation process in gas turbine combustors, (3) a study of the mechanisms causing high carbon monoxide emissions from gas turbines at low power, (4) an analysis of the dispersion of pollutants from aircraft both around large airports and from the wakes of subsonic and supersonic aircraft, (5) a study of the combustion and flow characteristics of the swirl can modular combustor and the development and verification of NO sub x and CO emissions models, (6) an analysis of the influence of fuel atomizer characteristics on the fuel-air mixing process in liquid fuel spray flames, and (7) the development of models which predict the stability limits of fully and partially premixed fuel-air mixtures.

  9. Aeromicrobiology/air quality

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Andersen, Gary L.; Frisch, A.S.; Kellogg, Christina A.; Levetin, E.; Lighthart, Bruce; Paterno, D.

    2009-01-01

    The most prevalent microorganisms, viruses, bacteria, and fungi, are introduced into the atmosphere from many anthropogenic sources such as agricultural, industrial and urban activities, termed microbial air pollution (MAP), and natural sources. These include soil, vegetation, and ocean surfaces that have been disturbed by atmospheric turbulence. The airborne concentrations range from nil to great numbers and change as functions of time of day, season, location, and upwind sources. While airborne, they may settle out immediately or be transported great distances. Further, most viable airborne cells can be rendered nonviable due to temperature effects, dehydration or rehydration, UV radiation, and/or air pollution effects. Mathematical microbial survival models that simulate these effects have been developed.

  10. Air cathode structure manufacture

    DOEpatents

    Momyer, William R.; Littauer, Ernest L.

    1985-01-01

    An improved air cathode structure for use in primary batteries and the like. The cathode structure includes a matrix active layer, a current collector grid on one face of the matrix active layer, and a porous, nonelectrically conductive separator on the opposite face of the matrix active layer, the collector grid and separator being permanently bonded to the matrix active layer. The separator has a preselected porosity providing low IR losses and high resistance to air flow through the matrix active layer to maintain high bubble pressure during operation of the battery. In the illustrated embodiment, the separator was formed of porous polypropylene. A thin hydrophobic film is provided, in the preferred embodiment, on the current collecting metal grid.

  11. FLUIDIC: Metal Air Recharged

    ScienceCinema

    Friesen, Cody

    2016-07-12

    Fluidic, with the help of ARPA-E funding, has developed and deployed the world's first proven high cycle life metal air battery. Metal air technology, often used in smaller scale devices like hearing aids, has the lowest cost per electron of any rechargeable battery storage in existence. Deploying these batteries for grid reliability is competitive with pumped hydro installations while having the advantages of a small footprint. Fluidic's battery technology allows utilities and other end users to store intermittent energy generated from solar and wind, as well as maintain reliable electrical delivery during power outages. The batteries are manufactured in the US and currently deployed to customers in emerging markets for cell tower reliability. As they continue to add customers, they've gained experience and real world data that will soon be leveraged for US grid reliability.

  12. Energy and air quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orgill, M. M.; Thorp, J. M.

    Many coal, oil shale, and geothermal energy sources are located in areas where atmospheric transport and dispersion processes are dominated by the complexity of the terrain. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), responsible for developing new energy technologies that meet air-quality regulations, developed a program aimed specifically at Atmospheric Studies in Complex Terrain (ASCOT) in 1978. The program uses theoretical atmospheric physics research, mathematical models, field experiments, and physical models. The goal is to develop a modeling and measurement methodology to (1) improve fundamental knowledge of transport and dispersion processes in complex terrain and (2) build on this improvement to provide a methodology for performing air quality assessments. The ASCOT team, managed by Marvin Dickerson and Paul Gudiksen of Lawrence Livermore Laboratory, Livermore, Calif., is composed of scientists from DOE supported research laboratories and university programs.

  13. FLUIDIC: Metal Air Recharged

    SciTech Connect

    Friesen, Cody

    2014-03-07

    Fluidic, with the help of ARPA-E funding, has developed and deployed the world's first proven high cycle life metal air battery. Metal air technology, often used in smaller scale devices like hearing aids, has the lowest cost per electron of any rechargeable battery storage in existence. Deploying these batteries for grid reliability is competitive with pumped hydro installations while having the advantages of a small footprint. Fluidic's battery technology allows utilities and other end users to store intermittent energy generated from solar and wind, as well as maintain reliable electrical delivery during power outages. The batteries are manufactured in the US and currently deployed to customers in emerging markets for cell tower reliability. As they continue to add customers, they've gained experience and real world data that will soon be leveraged for US grid reliability.

  14. [Provision of medical care to the wounded with craniocerebral injuries at stages of medical evacuation in mountains and desert areas].

    PubMed

    Orlov, V P

    2015-01-01

    The author shows that surgery with craniocerebral injuries should be fully performed at the stage of specialized medical care. Wounded have to be evacuated not earlier than 5-7 days after surgery with the mandatory use of a special air transport ("Scalpel" or "Spasatel"), accompanied by Anaesthetist. In the absence of the possibility of surgery in 5-7 days at this stage the wounded have to be evacuated by air to the center hospitals. On the stage there are only patients requiring specialized care because of health reasons. Wounded with gunshot wounds of the soft tissues of the head, and those with mild forms of brain damage during the explosive and combat injury (concussion, mild brain contusion) can be evacuated by air transport accompanied by a doctor or paramedic at any period of time after the injury (trauma).

  15. Effect of Axially Staged Fuel Introduction on Performance of One-quarter Sector of Annular Turbojet Combustor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zettle, Eugene V; Mark, Herman

    1953-01-01

    The design principle of injecting liquid fuel at more than one axial station in an annual turbojet combustor was investigated. Fuel was injected into the combustor as much as 5 inches downstream of the primary fuel injectors. Many fuel-injection configurations were examined and the performance results are presented for 11 configurations that best demonstrate the trends in performance obtained. The performance investigations were made at a constant combustor-inlet pressure of 15 inches of mercury absolute and at air flows up to 70 percent higher than values typical of current design practice. At these higher air flows, staging the fuel introduction improved the combustion efficiency considerably over that obtained in the combustor when no fuel staging was employed. At air flows currently encountered in turbojet engines, fuel staging was of minor value. Radial temperature distribution seemed relatively unaffected by the location of fuel-injection stations.

  16. Air Pollution over the States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Science and Technology, 1972

    1972-01-01

    State plans for implementing air quality standards are evaluated together with problems in modeling procedures and enforcement. Monitoring networks, standards, air quality regions, and industrial problems are also discussed. (BL)

  17. Introduction to Indoor Air Quality

    MedlinePlus

    ... as conditions caused by outdoor impacts (such as climate change). Many reports and studies indicate that the following ... Air Duct Cleaning Asthma Health, Energy Efficiency and Climate Change Flood Cleanup Home Remodel Indoor airPLUS Mold Radon ...

  18. Ozone - Current Air Quality Index

    MedlinePlus

    ... reducing exposure to extremely high levels of particle pollution is available here . Fires: Current Conditions Click to ... Air Quality Basics Air Quality Index | Ozone | Particle Pollution | Smoke from fires | What You Can Do Health ...

  19. Biomass waste gasification - Can be the two stage process suitable for tar reduction and power generation?

    SciTech Connect

    Sulc, Jindrich; Stojdl, Jiri; Richter, Miroslav; Popelka, Jan; Svoboda, Karel; Smetana, Jiri; Vacek, Jiri; Skoblja, Siarhei; Buryan, Petr

    2012-04-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Comparison of one stage (co-current) and two stage gasification of wood pellets. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Original arrangement with grate-less reactor and upward moving bed of the pellets. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Two stage gasification leads to drastic reduction of tar content in gas. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer One stage gasification produces gas with higher LHV at lower overall ER. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Content of ammonia in gas is lower in two stage moving bed gasification. - Abstract: A pilot scale gasification unit with novel co-current, updraft arrangement in the first stage and counter-current downdraft in the second stage was developed and exploited for studying effects of two stage gasification in comparison with one stage gasification of biomass (wood pellets) on fuel gas composition and attainable gas purity. Significant producer gas parameters (gas composition, heating value, content of tar compounds, content of inorganic gas impurities) were compared for the two stage and the one stage method of the gasification arrangement with only the upward moving bed (co-current updraft). The main novel features of the gasifier conception include grate-less reactor, upward moving bed of biomass particles (e.g. pellets) by means of a screw elevator with changeable rotational speed and gradual expanding diameter of the cylindrical reactor in the part above the upper end of the screw. The gasifier concept and arrangement are considered convenient for thermal power range 100-350 kW{sub th}. The second stage of the gasifier served mainly for tar compounds destruction/reforming by increased temperature (around 950 Degree-Sign C) and for gasification reaction of the fuel gas with char. The second stage used additional combustion of the fuel gas by preheated secondary air for attaining higher temperature and faster gasification of the remaining char from the first stage. The measurements of gas composition and tar

  20. GRYPHON: Air launched space booster

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    The project chosen for the winter semester Aero 483 class was the design of a next generation Air Launched Space Booster. Based on Orbital Sciences Corporation's Pegasus concept, the goal of Aero 483 was to design a 500,000 pound air launched space booster capable of delivering 17,000 pounds of payload to Low Earth Orbit and 8,000 pounds of payload to Geosynchronous Earth Orbit. The resulting launch vehicle was named the Gryphon. The class of forty senior aerospace engineering students was broken down into eight interdependent groups. Each group was assigned a subsystem or responsibility which then became their field of specialization. Spacecraft Integration was responsible for ensuring compatibility between subsystems. This group kept up to date on subsystem redesigns and informed those parties affected by the changes, monitored the vehicle's overall weight and dimensions, and calculated the mass properties of the booster. This group also performed the cost/profitability analysis of the Gryphon and obtained cost data for competing launch systems. The Mission Analysis Group was assigned the task of determining proper orbits, calculating the vehicle's flight trajectory for those orbits, and determining the aerodynamic characteristics of the vehicle. The Propulsion Group chose the engines that were best suited to the mission. This group also set the staging configurations for those engines and designed the tanks and fuel feed system. The commercial satellite market, dimensions and weights of typical satellites, and method of deploying satellites was determined by the Payloads Group. In addition, Payloads identified possible resupply packages for Space Station Freedom and identified those packages that were compatible with the Gryphon. The guidance, navigation, and control subsystems were designed by the Mission Control Group. This group identified required tracking hardware, communications hardware telemetry systems, and ground sites for the location of the Gryphon

  1. GRYPHON: Air launched space booster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1993-06-01

    The project chosen for the winter semester Aero 483 class was the design of a next generation Air Launched Space Booster. Based on Orbital Sciences Corporation's Pegasus concept, the goal of Aero 483 was to design a 500,000 pound air launched space booster capable of delivering 17,000 pounds of payload to Low Earth Orbit and 8,000 pounds of payload to Geosynchronous Earth Orbit. The resulting launch vehicle was named the Gryphon. The class of forty senior aerospace engineering students was broken down into eight interdependent groups. Each group was assigned a subsystem or responsibility which then became their field of specialization. Spacecraft Integration was responsible for ensuring compatibility between subsystems. This group kept up to date on subsystem redesigns and informed those parties affected by the changes, monitored the vehicle's overall weight and dimensions, and calculated the mass properties of the booster. This group also performed the cost/profitability analysis of the Gryphon and obtained cost data for competing launch systems. The Mission Analysis Group was assigned the task of determining proper orbits, calculating the vehicle's flight trajectory for those orbits, and determining the aerodynamic characteristics of the vehicle. The Propulsion Group chose the engines that were best suited to the mission. This group also set the staging configurations for those engines and designed the tanks and fuel feed system. The commercial satellite market, dimensions and weights of typical satellites, and method of deploying satellites was determined by the Payloads Group. In addition, Payloads identified possible resupply packages for Space Station Freedom and identified those packages that were compatible with the Gryphon. The guidance, navigation, and control subsystems were designed by the Mission Control Group. This group identified required tracking hardware, communications hardware telemetry systems, and ground sites for the location of the Gryphon

  2. Computed Tomography Staging of Middle Ear Cholesteatoma

    PubMed Central

    Razek, Ahmed Abdel Khalek Abdel; Ghonim, Mohamed Rashad; Ashraf, Bassem

    2015-01-01

    Summary Background To establish computed tomography (CT) staging of middle ear cholesteatoma and assess its impact on the selection of the surgical procedure. Material/Methods Prospective study was conducted on 61 consecutive patients (mean age 26.8 years) with middle ear cholesteatoma. CT scan of the temporal bone and surgery were performed in all patients. CT staging classified cholesteatoma according to its location in the tympanic cavity (T); extension into the mastoid (M); and associated complications (C). Cholesteatoma was staged as stage I (T1, T2), stage II (T3, M1, M2, C1), and stage III (C2). Results The overall sensitivity of CT staging of cholesteatoma compared to surgery was 88% with excellent agreement and correlation between CT findings and intra-operative findings (K=0.863, r=0.86, P=0.001). There was excellent agreement and correlation of CT staging with surgical findings for T location (K=0.811, r=0.89, P=0.001), good for M extension (K=0.734, r=0.88, P=0.001), and excellent for associated C complications (K=1.00, r=1.0, P=0.001). Atticotympanotomy was carried out in stage I (n=14), intact canal wall surgery was performed in stage II (n=38), and canal wall down surgery was done in stage III (n=5) and stage II (n=4). Conclusions We established CT staging of middle ear cholesteatoma that helps surgeons to select an appropriate surgery. PMID:26171086

  3. TNM Staging of Pancreatic Neuroendocrine Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Min; Zeng, Lin; Zhang, Yi; Wang, Wei-guo; Wang, Li; Ke, Neng-wen; Liu, Xu-bao; Tian, Bo-le

    2015-01-01

    Abstract We aimed to analyze the clinical characteristics and compare the surgical outcome of pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (p-NETs) using the 2 tumor-node-metastasis (TNM) systems by both the American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) Staging Manual (seventh edition) and the European Neuroendocrine Tumor Society (ENETS). Moreover, we sought to validate the prognostic value of the new AJCC criterion. Data of 145 consecutive patients who were all surgically treated and histologically diagnosed as p-NETs from January 2002 to June 2013 in our single institution were retrospectively collected and analyzed. The 5-year overall survival (OS) rates for AJCC classifications of stages I, II, III, and IV were 79.5%, 63.1%, 15.0%, and NA, respectively, (P < 0.005). As for the ENETS system, the OS rates at 5 years for stages I, II, III, and IV were 75.5%, 72.7%, 29.0%, and NA, respectively, (P < 0.005). Both criteria present no statistically notable difference between stage I and stage II (P > 0.05) but between stage I and stages III and IV (P < 0.05), as well as those between stage II and stages III and IV (P < 0.05). Difference between stage III and IV by ENETS was significant (P = 0.031), whereas that by the AJCC was not (P = 0.144). What's more, the AJCC Staging Manual (seventh edition) was statistically significant in both uni- and multivariate analyses by Cox regression (P < 0.005 and P = 0.025, respectively). Our study indicated that the ENETS TNM staging system might be superior to the AJCC Staging Manual (seventh edition) for the clinical practice of p-NETs. Together with tumor grade and radical resection, the new AJCC system was also validated to be an independent predictor for p-NETs. PMID:25816036

  4. Air-gap heterostructures

    SciTech Connect

    Heyn, Ch.; Schmidt, M.; Schwaiger, S.; Stemmann, A.; Mendach, S.; Hansen, W.

    2011-01-17

    We demonstrate the fabrication of thin GaAs layers which quasi hover above the underlying GaAs substrate. The hovering layers have a perfect epitaxial relationship to the substrate crystal lattice and are connected to the substrate surface only by lattice matched nanopillars of low density. These air-gap heterostructures are created by combining in situ molecular beam epitaxy compatible self-assembled droplet-etching and ex situ selective wet-chemical etching.

  5. Deployable Engine Air Brake

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2014-01-01

    On approach, next-generation aircraft are likely to have airframe noise levels that are comparable to or in excess of engine noise. ATA Engineering, Inc. (ATA) is developing a novel quiet engine air brake (EAB), a device that generates "equivalent drag" within the engine through stream thrust reduction by creating a swirling outflow in the turbofan exhaust nozzle. Two Phase II projects were conducted to mature this technology: (1) a concept development program (CDP) and (2) a system development program (SDP).

  6. The AIRES Optical Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haas, Michael R.; DeVincenzi, Donald L. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    AIRES (Airborne InfraRed Echelle Spectrometer) is the facility spectrometer for SOFIA (Stratospheric Observatory For Infrared Astronomy). AIRES is a long-slit (approximately 160 in) spectrometer designed to cover the 17 to 210-micron range with good sensitivity using three spectroscopic arrays. Initially, only the 30-130 micron, mid-wavelength array will be available. The instrument has a cryogenic K-mirror to perform field rotation and a slit-viewing camera (lambda < 28 microns, FOV = 160 in diameter) to image source morphology and verify telescope pointing. AIRES employs a large echelle grating to achieve a spectral resolving power (lambda/delta lambda) of approximately 1.0 x 10(exp 6)/lambda (sub mu), where lambda (sub mu) is the wavelength in microns. Hyperfine, Inc. has ruled and tested the AIRES' echelle; its wave-front error is 0.028 waves RMS (root mean square) at 10.6 microns. The instrument is housed in a liquid-helium cryostat which is constrained in diameter (approximately 1 m) and length (approximately 2 m) by the observatory. Hence, the length of the echelle (approximately 1.1 m) and the focal length of its collimator (approximately 5.2 m) severely drive the optical design and packaging. The final design uses diamond-turned aluminum optics and has up to 19 reflections inside the cryostat, depending on the optical path. This design was generated, optimized, and toleranced using Code V. The predicted performance is nearly diffraction-limited at 17 microns; the error budget is dominated by design residuals. Light loss due to slit rotation and slit curvature has been minimized. A thorough diffraction analysis with GLAD (G-Level Analysis Drawer) was used to size the mirrors and baffles; the internal light loss is shown to be a strong function of slit width.

  7. Clearing the air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlowicz, Michael

    Thanks to the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) acid rain control program and serious efforts by industry, Americans breathed a little easier last year. Sulfur dioxide emissions from the 445 largest and dirtiest electric boilers in the United States (making up about 60% of all utility emissions) have been reduced by more than 50% below 1980 levels, EPA estimates. The reduction is 40% beyond that called for in the Clean Air Act.

  8. Air Conditioning Overflow Sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    The Technology Transfer Office at Stennis Space Center helped a local inventor develop a prototype of an attachment for central air conditioners and heat pumps that helps monitor water levels to prevent condensation overflow. The sensor will indicate a need for drain line maintenance and prevent possible damage caused by drain pan water spillover. An engineer in the Stennis Space Center prototype Development Laboratory used SSC sensor technology in the development of the sensor.

  9. Vorinostat, Rituximab, and Combination Chemotherapy in Treating Patients With Newly Diagnosed Stage II, Stage III, or Stage IV Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-09-08

    Stage II Contiguous Adult Diffuse Large Cell Lymphoma; Stage II Non-Contiguous Adult Diffuse Large Cell Lymphoma; Stage III Adult Diffuse Large Cell Lymphoma; Stage IV Adult Diffuse Large Cell Lymphoma

  10. Air System Information Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Filman, Robert E.

    2004-01-01

    I flew to Washington last week, a trip rich in distributed information management. Buying tickets, at the gate, in flight, landing and at the baggage claim, myriad messages about my reservation, the weather, our flight plans, gates, bags and so forth flew among a variety of travel agency, airline and Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) computers and personnel. By and large, each kind of information ran on a particular application, often specialized to own data formats and communications network. I went to Washington to attend an FAA meeting on System-Wide Information Management (SWIM) for the National Airspace System (NAS) (http://www.nasarchitecture.faa.gov/Tutorials/NAS101.cfm). NAS (and its information infrastructure, SWIM) is an attempt to bring greater regularity, efficiency and uniformity to the collection of stovepipe applications now used to manage air traffic. Current systems hold information about flight plans, flight trajectories, weather, air turbulence, current and forecast weather, radar summaries, hazardous condition warnings, airport and airspace capacity constraints, temporary flight restrictions, and so forth. Information moving among these stovepipe systems is usually mediated by people (for example, air traffic controllers) or single-purpose applications. People, whose intelligence is critical for difficult tasks and unusual circumstances, are not as efficient as computers for tasks that can be automated. Better information sharing can lead to higher system capacity, more efficient utilization and safer operations. Better information sharing through greater automation is possible though not necessarily easy.

  11. Air transparent soundproof window

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Sang-Hoon; Lee, Seong-Hyun

    2014-11-15

    A soundproof window or wall which is transparent to airflow is presented. The design is based on two wave theories: the theory of diffraction and the theory of acoustic metamaterials. It consists of a three-dimensional array of strong diffraction-type resonators with many holes centered on each individual resonator. The negative effective bulk modulus of the resonators produces evanescent wave, and at the same time the air holes with subwavelength diameter existed on the surfaces of the window for macroscopic air ventilation. The acoustic performance levels of two soundproof windows with air holes of 20mm and 50mm diameters were measured. The sound level was reduced by about 30 - 35dB in the frequency range of 400 - 5,000Hz with the 20mm window, and by about 20 - 35dB in the frequency range of 700 - 2,200Hz with the 50mm window. Multi stop-band was created by the multi-layers of the window. The attenuation length or the thickness of the window was limited by background noise. The effectiveness of the soundproof window with airflow was demonstrated by a real installation.

  12. Wind driven air pump

    SciTech Connect

    Beisel, V.A.

    1983-05-31

    An improved pump for lifting water from an underground source utilizes a wind motor for driving an oil-less air compressor eliminating oil contamination of ground water which is forced to the surface. The wind motor is movable to face the wind by means of a novel swivel assembly which also eliminates the formation and freezing of condensate within the airline from the compressor. The propeller blades of the wind motor and the tail section are formed from a pair of opposed convex air foil shaped surfaces which provide the propeller blades and the tail section with fast sensitivity to slight changes in wind direction and speed. A novel well tower for supporting the wind motor and compressor and for lifting the water from the underground source is an optional modification which requires no welding and eliminates the problem of condensate freezing in the airline going to the well. The wind driven air pump disclosed is lightweight, can be easily installed, is relatively inexpensive to produce and is virtually maintenance-free and capable of operating in winds exceeding 100 miles per hour.

  13. Analysis of flight equipment purchasing practices of representative air carriers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    The process through which representative air carriers decide whether or not to purchase flight equipment was investigated as well as their practices and policies in retiring surplus aircraft. An analysis of the flight equipment investment decision process in ten airlines shows that for the airline industry as a whole, the flight equipment investment decision is in a state of transition from a wholly informal process in earliest years to a much more organized and structured process in the future. Individual air carriers are in different stages with respect to the formality and sophistication associated with the flight equipment investment decision.

  14. 88. Overhead view of clear air station site at early ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    88. Overhead view of clear air station site at early stage of construction. View is from south 30 degrees west showing DR 3 in foreground with DR 2 in middle and DR 1 out of view. Official photograph BMEWS Project by unknown photographer, 5 October, 1959, Photographic Services, Riverton, NJ, BMEWS, clear as negative no. A-27. - Clear Air Force Station, Ballistic Missile Early Warning System Site II, One mile west of mile marker 293.5 on Parks Highway, 5 miles southwest of Anderson, Anderson, Denali Borough, AK

  15. Iron-Air Rechargeable Battery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Narayan, Sri R. (Inventor); Prakash, G.K. Surya (Inventor); Kindler, Andrew (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    Embodiments include an iron-air rechargeable battery having a composite electrode including an iron electrode and a hydrogen electrode integrated therewith. An air electrode is spaced from the iron electrode and an electrolyte is provided in contact with the air electrode and the iron electrodes. Various additives and catalysts are disclosed with respect to the iron electrode, air electrode, and electrolyte for increasing battery efficiency and cycle life.

  16. Metal-air battery assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Sen, R.K.; Van Voorhees, S.L.; Ferrel, T.

    1988-05-01

    The objective of this report is to evaluate the present technical status of the zinc-air, aluminum/air and iron/air batteries and assess their potential for use in an electric vehicle. In addition, this report will outline proposed research and development priorities for the successful development of metal-air batteries for electric vehicle application. 39 refs., 25 figs., 11 tabs.

  17. Adsorption air cleaning from ozone.

    PubMed

    Baltrenas, Pranas; Paliulis, Dainius; Vasarevicius, Saulius; Simaitis, Ramutis

    2003-01-01

    Not much has been written about air cleaning from ozone. The aim of this paper was to demonstrate the possibility of adsorption air cleaning from ozone. The second aim was to investigate the dependence of the efficiency of ozone removal from the air on the height of the adsorber layer and on concentrations of ozone, and to obtain empirical formulas for calculating the efficiency of ozone treatment. Equipment for air cleaning from ozone and nitrogen and sulphur dioxides is suggested.

  18. Impact of air conditioning system operation on increasing gases emissions from automobile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burciu, S. M.; Coman, G.

    2016-08-01

    The paper presents a study concerning the influence of air conditioning system operation on the increase of gases emissions from cars. The study focuses on urban operating regimes of the automobile, regimes when the engines have low loads or are operating at idling. Are presented graphically the variations of pollution emissions (CO, CO2, HC) depending of engine speed and the load on air conditioning system. Additionally are presented, injection duration, throttle position, the mechanical power required by the compressor of air conditioning system and the refrigerant pressure variation on the discharge path, according to the stage of charging of the air conditioning system.

  19. Air Pollution Primer. Revised Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corman, Rena

    This revised and updated book is written to inform the citizens on the nature, causes, and effects of air pollution. It is written in terms familiar to the layman with the purpose of providing knowledge and motivation to spur community action on clean air policies. Numerous charts and drawings are provided to support discussion of air pollution…

  20. Pupils' Understanding of Air Pollution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dimitriou, Anastasia; Christidou, Vasilia

    2007-01-01

    This paper reports on a study of pupils' knowledge and understanding of atmospheric pollution. Specifically, the study is aimed at identifying: 1) the extent to which pupils conceptualise the term "air pollution" in a scientifically appropriate way; 2) pupils' knowledge of air pollution sources and air pollutants; and 3) pupils' knowledge of air…

  1. Air Pollution, Causes and Cures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manufacturing Chemists Association, Washington, DC.

    This commentary on sources of air pollution and air purification treatments is accompanied by graphic illustrations. Sources of carbon monoxide, sulfur oxides, nitrogen oxides, and hydrocarbons found in the air are discussed. Methods of removing these pollutants at their source are presented with cut-away diagrams of the facilities and technical…

  2. Shock-swallowing air sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nugent, J.; Sakamoto, G. M.; Webb, L. D.; Couch, L. M.

    1979-01-01

    An air-data probe allows air to flow through it so that supersonic and hypersonic shock waves form behind pressure measuring orifices and tube instead of directly on them. Measured pressures are close to those in free-flowing air and are used to determine mach numbers of flying aircraft.

  3. Indoor Air Quality in Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torres, Vincent M.

    Asserting that the air quality inside schools is often worse than outdoor pollution, leading to various health complaints and loss of productivity, this paper details factors contributing to schools' indoor air quality. These include the design, operation, and maintenance of heating, ventilating, and air conditioning (HVAC) systems; building…

  4. Next-generation air monitoring

    EPA Science Inventory

    Air pollution measurement technology is advancing rapidly towards smaller-scale and wireless devices, with a potential to significantly change the landscape of air pollution monitoring. EPA is evaluating and developing a range of next-generation air monitoring (NGAM) technologie...

  5. Transpired Air Collectors - Ventilation Preheating

    SciTech Connect

    Christensen, C.

    2006-06-22

    Many commercial and industrial buildings have high ventilation rates. Although all that fresh air is great for indoor air quality, heating it can be very expensive. This short (2-page) fact sheet describes a technology available to use solar energy to preheat ventilation air and dramatically reduce utility bills.

  6. Overview of Emerging Air Sensors

    EPA Science Inventory

    These slides will be presented at the 2014 National Ambient Air Monitoring Conference in Atlanta, GA during August 11-15, 2014. The goal is to provide an overview of air sensor technology and the audience will be primarily state air monitoring agencies and EPA Regions.

  7. Improving IAQ Via Air Filtration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monk, Brian

    1999-01-01

    Provides tips on using air filtration to control indoor air quality in educational facilities, including dedicated spaces with unique air quality conditions such as in libraries, museums and archival storage areas, kitchens and dining areas, and laboratories. The control of particulate contaminants, gaseous contaminants, and moisture buildup are…

  8. AIR STRUCTURES FOR SCHOOL SPORTS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ROBERTSON, NAN

    AIR STRUCTURES ARE FABRIC BUILDINGS BLOWN UP AND HELD UP BY AIR PRESSURE. EXPERIMENTS WITH SUCH STRUCTURES WERE CONDUCTED AS EARLY AS 1917. IN 1948 THE UNITED STATES AIR FORCE SOUGHT A NEW WAY OF HOUSING LARGE RADAR ANTENNAE PLANNED FOR THE ARCTIC. AS AN OUTCOME OF THEIR SEARCH, BIRDAIR STRUCTURES, INC., WHICH IS NOW ONE OF SEVERAL COMPANIES…

  9. Air Structures for School Sports.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robertson, Nan

    Air structures are fabric buildings blown up and held up by air pressure. Experiments with such structures were conducted as early as 1917. In 1948 the United States Air Force sought a new way of housing large radar antennae planned for the arctic. As an outcome of their search, Birdair Structures, Inc., which is now one of several companies…

  10. Four stage, fluidized bed gasification process minimizes NO{sub x}

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, F.M.; Haug, R.T.

    1999-07-01

    In 1981, after a long and thorough study of alternative methods of sewage sludge (biosolids) disposal, the City of Los Angeles (CLA) embarked on a pilot test program to incinerate dried sewage sludge from its Hyperion Wastewater Treatment Plant. This dried sludge is typically 47% ash, 53% combustible, and has an average higher heating value (HHV), moisture, ash-free (MAF) of 10,675 Btu/Lbm. The dried sludge is called sludge derived fuel (SDF). Approximately 8% of the MAF fraction of SDF is fuel-bound nitrogen. When SDF, with its extremely high fuel-bound nitrogen, was combusted in conventional multiple hearth and fluidized bed pilot plant furnaces, NO{sub x} emissions were extremely high ({gt}1,000 ppm). Faced with this dilemma, the CLA initiated an R and D program to reduce NO{sub x}. The pilot tests with a sub-stoichiometric fluid bed and an excess air afterburner (two-stages) reduced NO{sub x} to 400--600 ppm. With one intermediate stage added (three-stage), NO{sub x} was reduced to 130--150 ppm. However, when the following four-stage process was developed and tested, NO{sub x} was reduced to 50--75 ppm. Stage 1: Sub-stoichiometric fluidized bed operating at a nominal 30% stoichiometric air (SA). Stage 2:Sub-stoichiometric zone operating at a nominal 80% SA. Stage 3: Stoichiometric zone operating at a nominal 100% SA. Stage 4: Excess air zone (Afterburner) operating at a nominal 135% SA (35% excess air). After pilot testing was complete and design parameters established, three full-size, fluid bed gasifiers (two operational--one standby) were designed, constructed and operated until 1996. This paper describes the design, operation, and emission testing of these four-stage fluid bed gasifiers with special emphasis on the problems of (a) pneumatic feeding of SDF powder into the pressurized bed and (b) baghouse fabrics (expanded PTEE membrane on PTFE scrim). Final emission test results for NO{sub x} and other criteria pollutants are also presented.

  11. Enhancing indoor air quality –The air filter advantage

    PubMed Central

    Vijayan, Vannan Kandi; Paramesh, Haralappa; Salvi, Sundeep Santosh; Dalal, Alpa Anil Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Air pollution has become the world's single biggest environmental health risk, linked to around 7 million deaths in 2012 according to a recent World Health Organisation (WHO) report. The new data further reveals a stronger link between, indoor and outdoor air pollution exposure and cardiovascular diseases, such as strokes and ischemic heart disease, as well as between air pollution and cancer. The role of air pollution in the development of respiratory diseases, including acute respiratory infections and chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases, is well known. While both indoor and outdoor pollution affect health, recent statistics on the impact of household indoor pollutants (HAP) is alarming. The WHO factsheet on HAP and health states that 3.8 million premature deaths annually - including stroke, ischemic heart disease, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and lung cancer are attributed to exposure to household air pollution. Use of air cleaners and filters are one of the suggested strategies to improve indoor air quality. This review discusses the impact of air pollutants with special focus on indoor air pollutants and the benefits of air filters in improving indoor air quality. PMID:26628762

  12. Enhancing indoor air quality -The air filter advantage.

    PubMed

    Vijayan, Vannan Kandi; Paramesh, Haralappa; Salvi, Sundeep Santosh; Dalal, Alpa Anil Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Air pollution has become the world's single biggest environmental health risk, linked to around 7 million deaths in 2012 according to a recent World Health Organisation (WHO) report. The new data further reveals a stronger link between, indoor and outdoor air pollution exposure and cardiovascular diseases, such as strokes and ischemic heart disease, as well as between air pollution and cancer. The role of air pollution in the development of respiratory diseases, including acute respiratory infections and chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases, is well known. While both indoor and outdoor pollution affect health, recent statistics on the impact of household indoor pollutants (HAP) is alarming. The WHO factsheet on HAP and health states that 3.8 million premature deaths annually - including stroke, ischemic heart disease, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and lung cancer are attributed to exposure to household air pollution. Use of air cleaners and filters are one of the suggested strategies to improve indoor air quality. This review discusses the impact of air pollutants with special focus on indoor air pollutants and the benefits of air filters in improving indoor air quality. PMID:26628762

  13. Staging of laser-plasma accelerators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steinke, S.; van Tilborg, J.; Benedetti, C.; Geddes, C. G. R.; Daniels, J.; Swanson, K. K.; Gonsalves, A. J.; Nakamura, K.; Shaw, B. H.; Schroeder, C. B.; Esarey, E.; Leemans, W. P.

    2016-05-01

    We present results of an experiment where two laser-plasma-accelerator stages are coupled at a short distance by a plasma mirror. Stable electron beams from the first stage were used to longitudinally probe the dark-current-free, quasi-linear wakefield excited by the laser of the second stage. Changing the arrival time of the electron beam with respect to the second stage laser pulse allowed reconstruction of the temporal wakefield structure, determination of the plasma density, and inference of the length of the electron beam. The first stage electron beam could be focused by an active plasma lens to a spot size smaller than the transverse wake size at the entrance of the second stage. This permitted electron beam trapping, verified by a 100 MeV energy gain.

  14. Compact 6-DOF Stage for Optical Adjustments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shafaat, Syed; Chang, Daniel

    2008-01-01

    The figure depicts selected aspects of a six-degree-of-freedom (6-DOF) stage for mechanical adjustment of an optical component. The six degrees of freedom are translations along the Cartesian axes (x, y, and z) and rotations about these axes (theta x, theta y, and theta z, respectively). Relative to prior such stages, this stage offers advantages of compactness, stability, and robustness, plus other advantages as described below. The stage was designed specifically as part of a laser velocimeter and altimeter in which light reflected by a distant object is collected by a Cassegrainian telescope and focused into a single-mode, polarization-maintaining optical fiber. The stage is used to position and orient the input end of the optical fiber with respect to the focal point of the telescope. Stages like this one can also be adapted for use in positioning and orienting other optical components, including lenses, prisms, apertures, and photodetectors.

  15. Pantex staging study near-term alternatives

    SciTech Connect

    Madden, M.S.; Adickes, M.D.; Hostick, C.J.; Nealey, S.M.; Smith, B.W.

    1992-12-01

    As the result of bilateral treaties to reduce the number of weapons in the nuclear stockpile, the US Department of Energy must now address the requirements for additional storage of the plutonium components (pits) from the retired weapons at Pantex until the components` final disposition. Because of the critical need to take action, Pantex has initiated two related efforts: Project Stage Right and this Staging Study. While support of Project Stage Right is a key objective of this study, the scope covers a broader range of activities and aspects of the pit staging problem. This study provides estimates of worker radiation exposures under the current scenario as well as estimated radiation exposure for workers under four alternative staging scenarios. An important objective of this study also identifies and recommends for future study other activities related to staging where radiation safety and overall efficiency can be improved.

  16. Pantex staging study near-term alternatives

    SciTech Connect

    Madden, M.S.; Adickes, M.D.; Hostick, C.J.; Nealey, S.M.; Smith, B.W.

    1992-12-01

    As the result of bilateral treaties to reduce the number of weapons in the nuclear stockpile, the US Department of Energy must now address the requirements for additional storage of the plutonium components (pits) from the retired weapons at Pantex until the components' final disposition. Because of the critical need to take action, Pantex has initiated two related efforts: Project Stage Right and this Staging Study. While support of Project Stage Right is a key objective of this study, the scope covers a broader range of activities and aspects of the pit staging problem. This study provides estimates of worker radiation exposures under the current scenario as well as estimated radiation exposure for workers under four alternative staging scenarios. An important objective of this study also identifies and recommends for future study other activities related to staging where radiation safety and overall efficiency can be improved.

  17. Simulated dynamic response of a multi-stage compressor with variable molecular weight flow medium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Babcock, Dale A.

    1995-01-01

    A mathematical model of a multi-stage compressor with variable molecular weight flow medium is derived. The modeled system consists of a five stage, six cylinder, double acting, piston type compressor. Each stage is followed by a water cooled heat exchanger which serves to transfer the heat of compression from the gas. A high molecular weight gas (CFC-12) mixed with air in varying proportions is introduced to the suction of the compressor. Condensation of the heavy gas may occur in the upper stage heat exchangers. The state equations for the system are integrated using the Advanced Continuous Simulation Language (ACSL) for determining the system's dynamic and steady state characteristics under varying operating conditions.

  18. Saturn IBC S-IVB Stage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1967-01-01

    Workmen secure a J-2 engine onto the S-IVB (second) stage thrust structure. As part of Marshall Space Center's 'building block' approach to the Saturn development, the S-IVB was utilized in the Saturn IBC launch vehicle as a second stage and the Saturn V launch vehicle as a third stage. The booster, built for NASA by McDornell Douglas Corporation, was powered by a single J-2 engine, initially capable of 200,000 pounds of thrust.

  19. Protein Folding Stages and Universal Exponents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Kerson

    We propose three stages in protein folding, based on physical arguements involving the interplay between the hydrophobic effect and hydrogen bonding, and computer simulations using the CSAW (conditioned self-avoiding walk) model. These stages are characterized by universal exponents ν = 3/5, 3/7, 2/5 in the power law R ~ Nν, where R is the radius of gyration and N is the number of residues. They correspond to the experimentally observed stages: unfolded, preglobule, molten globule.

  20. Protein Folding Stages and Universal Exponents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Kerson

    2011-11-01

    We propose three stages in protein folding, based on physical arguements involving the interplay between the hydrophobic effect and hydrogen bonding, and computer simulations using the CSAW (conditioned self-avoiding walk) model. These stages are characterized by universal exponents ν = 3/5, 3/7, 2/5 in the power law R ˜ Nν, where R is the radius of gyration and N is the number of residues. They correspond to the experimentally observed stages: unfolded, preglobule, molten globule.