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Sample records for air station marine

  1. 33 CFR 334.430 - Neuse River and tributaries at Marine Corps Air Station Cherry Point, North Carolina; restricted...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Marine Corps Air Station Cherry Point, North Carolina; restricted area and danger zone. 334.430 Section... Air Station Cherry Point, North Carolina; restricted area and danger zone. (a) The restricted area... Station, Cherry Point, North Carolina, extending from the mouth of Hancock Creek to a point...

  2. 33 CFR 334.430 - Neuse River and tributaries at Marine Corps Air Station Cherry Point, North Carolina; restricted...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Marine Corps Air Station Cherry Point, North Carolina; restricted area and danger zone. 334.430 Section... Air Station Cherry Point, North Carolina; restricted area and danger zone. (a) The restricted area... Station, Cherry Point, North Carolina, extending from the mouth of Hancock Creek to a point...

  3. 33 CFR 334.430 - Neuse River and tributaries at Marine Corps Air Station Cherry Point, North Carolina; restricted...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Marine Corps Air Station Cherry Point, North Carolina; restricted area and danger zone. 334.430 Section... DEFENSE DANGER ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.430 Neuse River and tributaries at Marine Corps.... That portion of Neuse River within 500 feet of the shore along the reservation of the Marine Corps...

  4. A 20-KW Wind Energy Conversion System (WECS) at the Marine Corps Air Station, Kaneohe, Hawaii.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-01-01

    NATIONAL BURLAU OF STANDARDS I963 A TN NO: N-1655 A 20-KW WIND ENERGY CONVERSION SYSTEM TITLE: (WECS) AT THE MARINE CORPS AI& STATION, KANEOHE, HAWAII...4 TITLE (o, S,,bIII1. S TYPE OF kEPORT II PERIOD COvERED A 20-KW WIND ENERGY CONVERSION SYSTEM Not final;Sep 78- Dec81 (WECS) AT THE MARINE CORPS AIR...from RepO) 18 SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES • -1 19 KEY WORDS eComf-Ur o, ,e . s d. it ,e f , &1d Ide-,fs by bd, umb,) Wind energy conversion systems, wind energy , wind

  5. Final Report Recommended Actions to Reduce Electrical Peak Loads at the Marine Corps Air Station at Camp Pendleton, California

    SciTech Connect

    Hail, John C.; Brown, Daryl R.; McCullough, Jeffrey J.; Underhill, Ronald M.

    2001-05-08

    PNNL conducted a walk-through audit of Marine Corps Air Station at Camp Pendleton. The audit inspected a significant portion of the site and identified a large number of similar energy saving opportunities across all building types.

  6. Targeting Net Zero Energy at Marine Corps Air Station Miramar: Assessment and Recommendations

    SciTech Connect

    Booth, S.; Barnett, J.; Burman, K.; Hambrick, J.; Helwig, M.; Westby, R.

    2010-12-01

    The U.S. Department of Defense (DoD) is the largest energy consumer in the U.S. government. Present energy use impacts DoD global operations by constraining freedom of action and self-sufficiency, demanding enormous economic resources, and putting many lives at risk in logistics support for deployed environments. There are many opportunities for DoD to more effectively meet energy requirements through a combination of human actions, energy efficiency technologies, and renewable energy resources. In 2008, a joint initiative was formed between DoD and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to address military energy use. This initiative created a task force comprised of representatives from each branch of the military, the Office of the Secretary of Defense (OSD), the Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP), and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to examine the potential for ultra high efficiency military installations. This report presents an assessment of Marine Corps Air Station (MCAS) Miramar, selected by the task force as the initial prototype installation based on its strong history of energy advocacy and extensive track record of successful energy projects.

  7. NREL Furthers U.S. Marine Corps Air Station Miramar's Move Toward Net Zero Energy (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2011-02-01

    A 2008 report from the Defense Science Board concluded that critical missions at military bases are facing unacceptable risks from extended power losses. A first step in addressing this concern is to establish military bases that can produce as much energy as they use over the course of a year, a concept known as a "net zero energy installation" (NZEI). The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) has helped the U.S. Marine Corps Air Station (MCAS) Miramar, located north of San Diego, California, as it strives to achieve its NZE goal. In conjunction with the U.S. Department of Energy's Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP), NREL partnered with MCAS Miramar to standardize processes and create an NZEI template for widespread replication across the military.

  8. U.S. EPA Administrator Gina McCarthy to Award - Marine Corps Air Station Miramar for Energy Conservation, Tour state-of-the-art green facilities

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    LOS ANGELES - On Wednesday, May 20th U.S. EPA Administrator Gina McCarthy will join Marine Corps Air Station (MCAS) Miramar officials to present the 2015 EPA Federal Green Challenge award for Energy. The base is being recognized for having the great

  9. Application of geophysical methods to the delineation of paleochannels and missing confining units above the Castle Hayne Aquifer at US Marine Corps Air Station, Cherry Point, North Carolina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Daniel, C. C.; Miller, R.D.; Wrege, B.M.

    1995-01-01

    The U.S. Marine Corps Air Station, Cherry Point, North Carolina, is underlain by four freshwater-bearing aquifers--the surficial, Yorktown, and upper and lower Castle Hayne. The upper and lower Castle Hayne aquifers serve as the principal supply of freshwater for the Air Station. The potential for movement of contaminated water from the surficial aquifer downward to the water-supply aquifer is greatest in areas where clay confining units are missing. Missing confining units may indicate the presence of paleochannels filled with permeable material. Seismic-reflection techniques were successful in delinea- ting paleochannels of Quaternary and Tertiary age within unconsoli- dated sediments less than 180 feet deep at several locations. Continuous single-channel marine seismic-reflection profiling in the Neuse River was effective in delineating a large paleochannel complex consisting of at least two superimposed paleochannels within hydrogeologic units overlying the upper Castle Hayne aquifer. The complex was found immediately north of the Air Station and is thought to continue south beneath the Air Station. Shallow high-resolution land seismic-reflection techniques were used at the Air Station to delineate structures and correlate strati- graphy between the limestone of the upper Castle Hayne aquifer and the Yorktown confining unit. Three different land seismic-reflection techniques proved effective for the horizontal extrapolation of geo- logic features and identification of paleochannels at several locations. The northeastern margin of a large paleochannel was identified beneath the southern part of the Air Station. This feature strikes northwest to southeast and cuts through the Yorktown and upper Castle Hayne aquifer confining units.

  10. Data from stratigraphic test holes drilled at the U.S. Marine Corps Air Station, Cherry Point, North Carolina, 1994-2001, and periodic water levels, 2000-2003

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wrege, Beth M.; Jen, Philip S.

    2004-01-01

    Nine stratigraphic test holes, from 158 to 305 feet deep, were drilled at the U.S. Marine Corps Air Station at Cherry Point, North Carolina, between 1994 and 2001 by the U.S. Geological Survey. These test holes and subsequent wells provide information about the lithology, stratigraphy, and geology at the Marine Corps Air Station. In addition, ground-water-level data were collected at the Air Station through 2003. The U.S. Geological Survey also conducted high-resolution marine and land seismic surveys during this investigation. The ground-water-level data and locations of the seismic survey lines are included in this report. The stratigraphic data combined with the seismic data provide a basis for the delineation of paleochannels beneath the Air Station as well as information for the management of water resources at the Air Station.

  11. Application of continuous seismic-reflection techniques to delineate paleochannels beneath the Neuse River at US Marine Corps Air Station, Cherry Point, North Carolina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cardinell, Alex P.

    1999-01-01

    A continuous seismic-reflection profiling survey was conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey on the Neuse River near the Cherry Point Marine Corps Air Station during July 7-24, 1998. Approximately 52 miles of profiling data were collected during the survey from areas northwest of the Air Station to Flanner Beach and southeast to Cherry Point. Positioning of the seismic lines was done by using an integrated navigational system. Data from the survey were used to define and delineate paleochannel alignments under the Neuse River near the Air Station. These data also were correlated with existing surface and borehole geophysical data, including vertical seismic-profiling velocity data collected in 1995. Sediments believed to be Quaternary in age were identified at varying depths on the seismic sections as undifferentiated reflectors and lack the lateral continuity of underlying reflectors believed to represent older sediments of Tertiary age. The sediments of possible Quaternary age thicken to the southeast. Paleochannels of Quaternary age and varying depths were identified beneath the Neuse River estuary. These paleochannels range in width from 870 feet to about 6,900 feet. Two zones of buried paleochannels were identified in the continuous seismic-reflection profiling data. The eastern paleochannel zone includes two large superimposed channel features identified during this study and in re-interpreted 1995 land seismic-reflection data. The second paleochannel zone, located west of the first paleochannel zone, contains several small paleochannels near the central and south shore of the Neuse River estuary between Slocum Creek and Flanner Beach. This second zone of channel features may be continuous with those mapped by the U.S. Geological Survey in 1995 using land seismic-reflection data on the southern end of the Air Station. Most of the channels were mapped at the Quaternary-Tertiary sediment boundary. These channels appear to have been cut into the older sediments

  12. Hydrogeology and simulation of ground-water flow at US Marine Corps Air Station, Cherry Point, North Carolina, 1987-90

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eimers, J.L.; Daniel, C. C.; Coble, R.W.

    1994-01-01

    Geophysical and lithologic well-log data from 30 wells and chloride data, and water-level data from oil-test wells, supply wells, and observation wells were evaluated to define the hydrogeologic framework at the U.S. Marine Corps Air Station, Cherry Point, North Carolina. Elements of the hydrogeologic framework important to this study include six aquifers and their respective confining units. In descending order, these aquifers are the surficial, Yorktown, Pungo River, upper and lower Castle Hayne, and Beaufort. The upper and lower Castle Hayne and Beaufort aquifers and related confining units are relatively continuous throughout the study area. The surficial, Yorktown, Pungo River, and upper and lower Castle Hayne aquifers contain freshwater. The upper and lower Castle Hayne aquifers serve as the Air Station?s principal supply of freshwater. However, the lower Castle Hayne aquifer contains brackish water near its base and there is potential for upward movement of this water to supply wells completed in this aquifer. The potential for brackish-water encroachment is greatest if wells are screened too deep in the lower Castle Hayne aquifer or if pumping rates are too high. Lateral movement of brackish water into aquifers incised by estuarine streams is also possible if ground-water flow gradients toward these bodies are reversed by pumping. The potential for the reversed movement of water from the surficial aquifer downward to the water-supply aquifer is greatest in areas where clay confining units are missing. These missing clay units could indicate the presence of a paleochannel of the Neuse River. A quasi three-dimensional finite-difference ground-water flow model was constructed and calibrated to simulate conditions at and in the vicinity of the Air Station for the period of 1987-90. Comparisons of 94 observed and computed heads were made, and the average difference between them is -0.2 feet with a root mean square error of 5.7 feet. An analysis was made to

  13. Hydrogeologic setting, water levels, and quality of water from supply wells at the US Marine Corps Air Station, Cherry Point, North Carolina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lloyd, O.B.; Daniel, C. C.

    1988-01-01

    The Marine Corps Air Station is located in the Coastal Plain province of North Carolina. Four freshwater aquifers of sand and limestone underlie the area to a depth of about 500 feet. Saline water occurs below this depth. The aquifers are separated by three confining units that are thin and discontinuous in the southern part. Water supply is obtained from 195- to 330 feet wells in the Castle Hayne aquifer. Many wells are near landfills that have received hazardous wastes. Groundwater withdrawals have reduced hydraulic heads in the Castle Hayne some 20 feet around active production wells, creating potential for downward movement of contaminated water from the surface and for upward movement of saline water that occurs at depth. Chemical analyses of water from the Castle Hayne aquifer indicate median concentrations of iron and manganese are 0.78 and 0.08 milligrams per liter, respectively, and lead and (or) nickel exceed drinking water standards in three wells. Chloride increased from 10 to more than 40 milligrams per liter in the deepest operating well over a 45-year period. Benzene concentrations range from 0.5 to 1.9 milligrams per liter in the southern part of the Air Station but were below the 5 milligrams per liter maximum contaminant level for drinking water. Fatty acids were found in concentrations as much as 28 micrograms per liter in water from wells in an area centered around the intersection of Roosevelt Boulevard and Slocum Road. Resampling is needed to verify all constituents that indicate contamination.

  14. Siting Air Monitoring Stations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ludwig, F. L.

    1978-01-01

    Describes guidelines for consideration in selecting sites for air monitoring systems. Careful selection for spatial scale and specific sources assures that the collected data are accurately representing the situation. (Author/MA)

  15. 33 CFR 334.430 - Neuse River and tributaries at Marine Corps Air Station Cherry Point, North Carolina; restricted...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Station, Cherry Point, North Carolina, extending from the mouth of Hancock Creek to a point approximately 6,800 feet west of the mouth of Slocum Creek, and all waters of Hancock and Slocum Creeks and...

  16. 33 CFR 334.430 - Neuse River and tributaries at Marine Corps Air Station Cherry Point, North Carolina; restricted...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Station, Cherry Point, North Carolina, extending from the mouth of Hancock Creek to a point approximately 6,800 feet west of the mouth of Slocum Creek, and all waters of Hancock and Slocum Creeks and...

  17. 47 CFR 80.107 - Service of private coast stations and marine-utility stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Service of private coast stations and marine... Operating Procedures-Land Stations § 80.107 Service of private coast stations and marine-utility stations. A private coast station or a marine-utility station is authorized to transmit messages necessary for...

  18. 47 CFR 80.107 - Service of private coast stations and marine-utility stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Service of private coast stations and marine... Operating Procedures-Land Stations § 80.107 Service of private coast stations and marine-utility stations. A private coast station or a marine-utility station is authorized to transmit messages necessary for...

  19. Cost-Benefit Analysis of Marine Corps Search and Rescue (SAR): A Study of Alternatives for Marine Corps Air Stations at Cherry Point and Yuma

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-11-21

    later, the CH-53D crashed into a sand bar in shallow water about a mile off shore. The crash killed one Marine and injured three others. The recovery ...distribution is unlimited. Prepared for the Naval Postgraduate School, Monterey , CA 93943. Report Documentation Page Form ApprovedOMB No. 0704-0188...WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) Naval Postgraduate School,Graduate School of Business & Public Policy, Monterey

  20. Hydrogeologic and water-quality data from well clusters near the wastewater-treatment plant, U.S. Marine Corps Air Station, Cherry Point, North Carolina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Murray, L.C.; Daniel, C. C.

    1990-01-01

    Hydrogeologic and ground-water quality data were collected near the wastewater-treatment plant and associated polishing lagoons at the Marine Corps Air Station, Cherry Point, North Carolina, in 1988. Between March and May 1988, two observation wells were installed upgradient and six wells were installed downgradient of the polishing lagoons and sampled for organic and inorganic U.S. Environmental Protection Agency priority pollutants. Placement of the well screens allowed sampling from both the upper and lower parts of the surficial aquifer. Natural gamma-ray geophysical logs were run in the four deepest wells. Lithologic logs were prepared from split-spoon samples collected during the drilling operations. Laboratory hydraulic conductivity tests were conducted on samples of fine-grained material recovered from the two confining units that separate the surficial aquifer and the drinking-water supply aquifer; values ranged from 0.011 to 0.014 foot per day (4x10-6 to 5x10-6 centimeters per second). Static water levels were recorded on April 25, 1988. Relatively low concentrations of purgeable organic compounds (up to 2.2 micrograms per liter for dichlorodifluoromethane), acid and base/neutral extractable compounds (up to 58 micrograms per liter for bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate), or pesticides (up to 0.03 micrograms per liter for diazinon and methyl parathion) were detected in water samples collected from all of the wells. Trace metals were detected in concentrations above minimum detectable limits in all of the wells and were found to be higher in water samples collected from the downgradient wells (up to 320 micrograms per liter for zinc) than in water samples from the upgradient wells.

  1. Assessment of intrinsic bioremediation of gasoline contamination in the shallow aquifer, Laurel Bay Exchange, Marine Corps Air Station Beaufort, South Carolina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Landmeyer, J.E.; Chapelle, Francis; Bradley, P.M.

    1996-01-01

    Laboratory, field, and digital solute-transport- modeling studies demonstrate that microorganisms indigenous to the shallow ground-water system at Laurel Bay Exchange, Marine Corps Air Station Beaufort, South Carolina, can degrade petroleum hydrocarbons in gasoline released at the site. Microorganisms in aquifer sediments incubated in the laboratory under aerobic and anaerobic conditions mineralized radiolabeled carbon 14-toluene to 14C-carbon dioxide with first-order rate constants of Kbio = -0.640 per day and Kbio = -0.003 per day, respectively. Digital solute- transport modeling using the numerical code SUTRA revealed that anaerobic biodegradation of benzene occurs with a first-order rate constant near Kbio = -0.00025 per day. Sandy aquifer material beneath Laurel Bay Exchange is characterized by relatively high hydraulic conductivities (Kaq = 8.9 to 17.3 feet per day), average ground-water flow rate of about 60 feet per year, and a relatively uniform hydraulic gradient of 0.004 feet per foot. The sandy aquifer material also has low adsorptive potentials for toluene and benzene (both about Kad = 2.0 x 10-9 cubic feet per milligram), because of the lack of natural organic matter in the aquifer. The combination of this ground-water-flow rate and absence of significant adsorptive capacity in the aquifer permits toluene and benzene concentrations to be detected downgradient from the source area in monitoring wells, even though biodegradation of these compounds has been demonstrated. Solute-transport simulations, however, indicate that toluene and benzene will not reach the Broad River, the nearest point of contact with wildlife or human populations, about 3,600 feet west of the site boundary. These simulations also show that contamination will not be transported to the nearest Marine Corps property line about 2,400 feet south of the site. This is primarily because the source of contaminants has essentially been removed, and the low adsorptive capacity of the aquifer

  2. Hydrogeologic, water-level, and water-quality data from monitoring wells at the US Marine Corps Air Station, Cherry Point, North Carolina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Murray, L.C.; Keoughan, K.M.

    1990-01-01

    Unlined hazardous-waste disposal sites at the U.S. Marine Corps Air Station, Cherry Point, North Carolina, are located near drinking-water supply wells that tap the Castle Hayne aquifer. Hydrogeologic and water-quality data were collected near 2 of these sites from 12 monitoring wells installed in May through June 1987. Near the northernmost landfill site, differences in hydraulic head between the surficial, intermediate Yorktown, and Castle Hayne aquifers indicate a potential for migration of contaminants downward into the intermediate Yorktown and Castle Hayne aquifers. Movement would be impeded, however, by two confining units of silty sand to sandy clay that separate these aquifers. Geophysical and lithologic data show the upper confining unit to be approximately 26 feet thick near this landfill. Near the southernmost landfill, these confining units are thin and discontinuous in an area that coincides with the location of a buried paleochannel. Static water-level data collected in this area indicate that both the Castle Hayne and Yorktown aquifers discharge into the surficial aquifer, minimizing the potential for downward contaminant movement. Ground water in the surficial aquifer at both landfills moves laterally away from nearby drinking-water supply wells and toward Slocum Creek, a tributary of the Neuse River. Concentrations of organic compounds and trace inorganic constituents included on the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency?s list of priority pollutants were determined for water samples from the surficial and Yorktown aquifers. High concentrations of two purgeable organic compounds, trichloroethylene and 1,2-dichloroethene (4,600 and 4,800 micrograms per liter, respectively), were detected in water samples collected from the surficial aquifer near the southernmost landfill; much smaller concentrations of trichloroethylene and 1,2-dichloroethene were detected in samples from wells in the Yorktown aquifer (up to 16 and 12 micrograms per liter

  3. Cheyenne Mountain Air Force Station NPDES Permit

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Under NPDES permit CO-0034762, the Cheyenne Mountain Air Force Station is authorized to discharge from the interior storm drainage system and air exhaust stacks at the Cheyenne Mountain Complex, in El Paso County, Colorado, to tributaries Fountain Creek.

  4. 75 FR 5290 - Notice of the Record of Decision for the United States Marine Corps Grow the Force at Marine...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-02

    ... Marine Corps Base Camp Lejeune, Marine Corps Air Station New River, and Marine Corps Air Station Cherry... Corps Base (MCB) Camp Lejeune, Marine Corps Air Station (MCAS) New River, and MCAS Cherry Point,...

  5. U.S. Marine Corps Air Facility, Santa Ana, California hangers no. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    U.S. Marine Corps Air Facility, Santa Ana, California hangers no. 1&2-building no. 28 &29. Drawing no. PW-66-044 - Marine Corps Air Station Tustin, Northern Lighter Than Air Ship Hangar, Meffett Avenue & Maxfield Street, Tustin, Orange County, CA

  6. Reevaluation of air surveillance station siting

    SciTech Connect

    Abbott, K.; Jannik, T.

    2016-07-06

    DOE Technical Standard HDBK-1216-2015 (DOE 2015) recommends evaluating air-monitoring station placement using the analytical method developed by Waite. The technique utilizes wind rose and population distribution data in order to determine a weighting factor for each directional sector surrounding a nuclear facility. Based on the available resources (number of stations) and a scaling factor, this weighting factor is used to determine the number of stations recommended to be placed in each sector considered. An assessment utilizing this method was performed in 2003 to evaluate the effectiveness of the existing SRS air-monitoring program. The resulting recommended distribution of air-monitoring stations was then compared to that of the existing site perimeter surveillance program. The assessment demonstrated that the distribution of air-monitoring stations at the time generally agreed with the results obtained using the Waite method; however, at the time new stations were established in Barnwell and in Williston in order to meet requirements of DOE guidance document EH-0173T.

  7. U.S. Marine Corps Air Facility, Santa Ana, California hangers no. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    U.S. Marine Corps Air Facility, Santa Ana, California hangers no. 1&2-building no. 28 &29. Drawing no. PW-66-044 - Marine Corps Air Station Tustin, East of Red Hill Avenue between Edinger Avenue & Barranca Parkway, Tustin, Orange County, CA

  8. Marine Special Operations Companies Need Marine Air

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-02-20

    Reconnaissance S S S P S S Electronic Warfare S S P P S P Anti-Air Warfare S S P S S P Source: LtCol Luis Mercado USMC and Maj Jay Lynn USMC...will most certainly not be MEU air.6 Without MEU air support during deployment the MSOC will labor to effectively achieve combined arms synergy

  9. 44. CAPE COD AIR STATION PAVE PAWS FACILITY BUILDING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    44. CAPE COD AIR STATION PAVE PAWS FACILITY - BUILDING ELEVATION WITH BUILDING METAL SIDING BEING APPLIED ON "B" FACE. - Cape Cod Air Station, Technical Facility-Scanner Building & Power Plant, Massachusetts Military Reservation, Sandwich, Barnstable County, MA

  10. Solar Powered Radioactive Air Monitoring Stations

    SciTech Connect

    Barnett, J. Matthew; Bisping, Lynn E.; Gervais, Todd L.

    2013-10-30

    Environmental monitoring of ambient air for radioactive material is required as stipulated in the PNNL Site radioactive air license. Sampling ambient air at identified preferred locations could not be initially accomplished because utilities were not readily available. Therefore, solar powered environmental monitoring systems were considered as a possible option. PNNL purchased two 24-V DC solar powered environmental monitoring systems which consisted of solar panels, battery banks, and sampling units. During an approximate four month performance evaluation period, the solar stations operated satisfactorily at an on-site test location. They were subsequently relocated to their preferred locations in June 2012 where they continue to function adequately under the conditions found in Richland, Washington.

  11. 1. EXTERIOR OF CENTRAL HEATING STATION, BUILDING 102, LOOKING NORTH. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. EXTERIOR OF CENTRAL HEATING STATION, BUILDING 102, LOOKING NORTH. - Mill Valley Air Force Station, Central Heating Station, East Ridgecrest Boulevard, Mount Tamalpais, Mill Valley, Marin County, CA

  12. Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Launch Complex 39, Solid Rocket ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Launch Complex 39, Solid Rocket Booster Disassembly & Refurbishment Complex, Thrust Vector Control Deservicing Facility, Hangar Road, Cape Canaveral, Brevard County, FL

  13. 47. CAPE COD AIR STATION PAVE PAWS FACILITY AERIAL VIEW ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    47. CAPE COD AIR STATION PAVE PAWS FACILITY AERIAL VIEW OF "A" FACE (LEFT) WITH CLEANING SYSTEM INSTALLED (NOW REMOVED) AND "B" FACE (RIGHT) WITH CONSTRUCTION CRANE IN USE. - Cape Cod Air Station, Technical Facility-Scanner Building & Power Plant, Massachusetts Military Reservation, Sandwich, Barnstable County, MA

  14. 46. CAPE COD AIR STATION PAVE PAWS FACILITY BUILDING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    46. CAPE COD AIR STATION PAVE PAWS FACILITY - BUILDING ELEVATION VIEW WITH ALL METAL SIDING INSTALLED AND WITH EMITTER/ANTENNA ARRAY SYSTEM NEARING OCMPLETION ON "B" FACE (RIGHT). VIEW ALSO SHOWS TRAVELING "CLEANING" SYSTEM ON "B" FACE - NOW REMOVED. - Cape Cod Air Station, Technical Facility-Scanner Building & Power Plant, Massachusetts Military Reservation, Sandwich, Barnstable County, MA

  15. 17. CAPE COD AIR STATION PAVE PAWS FACILITY AERIAL VIEW ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. CAPE COD AIR STATION PAVE PAWS FACILITY AERIAL VIEW WITH PROJECT NEARING COMPLETION. VIEW SHOWS "A" FACE (LEFT) AND "B" FACE OF RADAR ARRAY SYSTEM. NOTE THAT NORTH IS GENERALLY TO RIGHT OF VIEW. - Cape Cod Air Station, Massachusetts Military Reservation, Sandwich, Barnstable County, MA

  16. 42. CAPE COD AIR STATION PAVE PAWS FACILITY SHOWING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    42. CAPE COD AIR STATION PAVE PAWS FACILITY - SHOWING BUILDING "RED IRON" STEEL STRUCTURE AT 46T DAY OF STEEL CONSTRUCTION. "BUILDING TOPPED OFF, 7 JULY, 1974. - Cape Cod Air Station, Technical Facility-Scanner Building & Power Plant, Massachusetts Military Reservation, Sandwich, Barnstable County, MA

  17. 43. CAPE COD AIR STATION PAVE PAWS FACILITY WITH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    43. CAPE COD AIR STATION PAVE PAWS FACILITY - WITH BUILDING METAL SIDING BEING APPLIED ON "C" FACE (RIGHT) AND "B" FACE BEING PREPARED FOR INSTALLATION. - Cape Cod Air Station, Technical Facility-Scanner Building & Power Plant, Massachusetts Military Reservation, Sandwich, Barnstable County, MA

  18. 45. CAPE COD AIR STATION PAVE PAWS FACILITY BUILDING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    45. CAPE COD AIR STATION PAVE PAWS FACILITY - BUILDING ELEVATION VIEW WITH BUILDING METAL SIDING BEING APPLIED ON "A" FACE (LEFT) AND "B" FACE (RIGHT). NOTE THAT NORTH IS GENERALLY TO RIGHT OF VIEW. - Cape Cod Air Station, Technical Facility-Scanner Building & Power Plant, Massachusetts Military Reservation, Sandwich, Barnstable County, MA

  19. 2. AERIAL VIEW TO SOUTHEAST OF COAST GUARD AIR STATION ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. AERIAL VIEW TO SOUTHEAST OF COAST GUARD AIR STATION SAN FRANCISCO, SHOWING ALL MAJOR BUILDINGS. 8X10 black and white silver gelatin print. United States Coast Guard, February 1962. - U.S. Coast Guard Air Station San Francisco, 1020 North Access Road, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  20. 1. AERIAL VIEW TO WEST OF COAST GUARD AIR STATION ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. AERIAL VIEW TO WEST OF COAST GUARD AIR STATION SAN FRANCISCO, SHOWING ALL MAJOR BUILDINGS. 8X10 black and white silver gelatin print. United States Coast Guard, February 1962. - U.S. Coast Guard Air Station San Francisco, 1020 North Access Road, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  1. 23. Station Compressor Room 1 with Air Compressors and Accumulator ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    23. Station Compressor Room 1 with Air Compressors and Accumulator Tanks, view to the south. One of the two large station air compressor units used for depressing the draft tube water level is visible atop a concrete pedestal on the left side of photograph (the second identical compressor is located in an adjacent room). Two of the six station air accumulator tanks are visible in the background. The smaller station service air compressor is visible in right foreground of the photograph was installed in the early 1980s, and replaced the original station service air compressor. - Washington Water Power Clark Fork River Noxon Rapids Hydroelectric Development, Powerhouse, South bank of Clark Fork River at Noxon Rapids, Noxon, Sanders County, MT

  2. A North Adriatic centenarian: The marine research station at Rovinj

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zavodnik, D.

    1995-03-01

    The institute in Rovinj was founded in 1891 as the field station of the Berlin Aquarium. It soon gained in scientific importance. From 1911, it was governed by various scientific bodies, such as the ‘Kaiser-Wilhelm-Gesellschaft zur Förderung der Wissenschaften’, the ‘Reale Comitato Talassografico Italiano’, and the ‘Jugoslavenska Akademija znanosti i umjetnosti’. At present, it is a department of the ‘Ruđer Bo\\vsković’ Institute, called the ‘Center for Marine Research Rovinj’. In the past hundred years, the Rovinj station experienced several ascents and declines in its development: both in the First and Second World Wars the station's scientific equipment, research vessels, library and reference collections were dispersed, and from 1945 1948 the station was closed. But in “happier” periods, rich support by the state and international bodies favoured the increase in research facilities and promoted interest among visiting scientists. The station has always been involved in studies of the Adriatic Sea, especially in its northern part. It contributed much to general knowledge of oceanography, of the physics and chemistry of the sea, but its paramount contribution is to various disciplines of marine biological sciences. Applied research, however, was most oriented to fisheries biology, especially shellfish culture, to resource studies, and, recently, to toxicology, bacteriology, eutrophication and pollution monitoring. The international approach in science and applied research was always favoured. At present, the Center is well equipped for complex coastal and offshore field- and laboratory research, and maintains facilities for graduate and postgraduate teaching. Scientific dissemination is also promoted by the public aquarium and professional meetings.

  3. 1. Overview of site, looking northwest Naval Air Station ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Overview of site, looking northwest - Naval Air Station Chase Field, Building 1001, Independence Street, .45 mile south of intersection of Texas State Highway & Independence Street, Beeville, Bee County, TX

  4. 8. Overview of site, looking northeast Naval Air Station ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. Overview of site, looking northeast - Naval Air Station Chase Field, Building 1001, Independence Street, .45 mile south of intersection of Texas State Highway & Independence Street, Beeville, Bee County, TX

  5. 2. Overview of site, looking southeast Naval Air Station ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Overview of site, looking southeast - Naval Air Station Chase Field, Building 1001, Independence Street, .45 mile south of intersection of Texas State Highway & Independence Street, Beeville, Bee County, TX

  6. 7. Overview of site, looking southwest Naval Air Station ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Overview of site, looking southwest - Naval Air Station Chase Field, Building 1001, Independence Street, .45 mile south of intersection of Texas State Highway & Independence Street, Beeville, Bee County, TX

  7. Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Launch Complex 39, The Solid ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Launch Complex 39, The Solid Rocket Booster Assembly and Refurbishment Facility Manufacturing Building, Southeast corner of Schwartz Road and Contractors Road, Cape Canaveral, Brevard County, FL

  8. 15. Photograph of Architectural Building Plans. Naval Air Station ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. Photograph of Architectural Building Plans. - Naval Air Station Fallon, 100-man Fallout Shelter, 800 Complex, off Carson Road near intersection of Pasture & Berney Roads, Fallon, Churchill County, NV

  9. 16. Photograph of Structural Building Plans. Naval Air Station ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. Photograph of Structural Building Plans. - Naval Air Station Fallon, 100-man Fallout Shelter, 800 Complex, off Carson Road near intersection of Pasture & Berney Roads, Fallon, Churchill County, NV

  10. 27. UPPER STATION, LOWER FLOOR, BULL WHEEL, BRAKE AIR CYLINDER. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    27. UPPER STATION, LOWER FLOOR, BULL WHEEL, BRAKE AIR CYLINDER. - Monongahela Incline Plane, Connecting North side of Grandview Avenue at Wyoming Street with West Carson Street near Smithfield Street, Pittsburgh, Allegheny County, PA

  11. Ballistic Missile Early Warning System Clear Air Force Station, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Ballistic Missile Early Warning System - Clear Air Force Station, Ballistic Missile Early Warning System Site II, One mile west of mile marker 293.5 on Parks Highway, 5 miles southwest of Anderson, Anderson, Denali Borough, AK

  12. 33. Site Plan: Custer Air Force Station, Battle Creek, Michigan, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    33. Site Plan: Custer Air Force Station, Battle Creek, Michigan, FD Radar Facilities-FPS-27, Electrical Plot Plan and Duet Details, USACOE, not date. - Fort Custer Military Reservation, P-67 Radar Station, .25 mile north of Dickman Road, east of Clark Road, Battle Creek, Calhoun County, MI

  13. 34. Site Plan: Fort Custer Air Force Station, Fort Custer, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    34. Site Plan: Fort Custer Air Force Station, Fort Custer, Michigan, Modification of Electrical Distribution, General Site Plan, USACOE, no date. - Fort Custer Military Reservation, P-67 Radar Station, .25 mile north of Dickman Road, east of Clark Road, Battle Creek, Calhoun County, MI

  14. GENERAL SITE PLAN, HAMILTON AIR FORCE BASE, MARIN COUNTY, CALIFORNIA. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    GENERAL SITE PLAN, HAMILTON AIR FORCE BASE, MARIN COUNTY, CALIFORNIA. Pencil on paper, dated December 4, 1952. Also marked "PWC 103474." By J.Y. Long Company, Engineers, Oakland, California - Hamilton Field, East of Nave Drive, Novato, Marin County, CA

  15. 78 FR 17094 - Safety Zone; 2013 Naval Air Station Key West Air Spectacular, Boca Chica Channel; Boca Chica, FL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-20

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; 2013 Naval Air Station Key West Air... in Boca Chica, Florida, during the 2013 Naval Air Station Key West Air Spectacular. The safety zone is necessary to provide for the safety of life on navigable waters during the air show and air...

  16. An Annotated List of Marine Stations Suitable for Field Courses in Carbonate Geology and Tropical Marine Sciences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaplan, Eugene H.

    1980-01-01

    Listed are field stations in the Caribbean and Florida-Bahamas which are suitable for classes in field geology and tropical marine science. Each field station is described by listing the name of the institution, description of accommodations, library facilities, laboratory facilities, boats, classrooms, motor vehicles, study areas, scuba, and…

  17. The Fukushima Nuclear Power Station incident and marine pollution.

    PubMed

    Chang, Yen-Chiang; Zhao, Yue

    2012-05-01

    Based on the facts relating to the radioactive wastewater discharged by the Fukushima Nuclear Power Station in Japan, this paper intends to explore the international legal obligations for Japan from three perspectives, namely, the immediate notification, the prevention of transboundary harm and the prevention of dumping. Furthermore, this article defines and compares two types of international legal liabilities, the traditional state responsibility and the responsibility for transboundary harm. Through comparison, the international legal liability of Japan is discussed. After detailed analysis, the conclusion is that Japan should be responsible for the obligation of immediate notification and since Japan unilaterally discharge the wastes without prior specific permits of other contracting countries, it should also be responsible for the violation of prevention of dumping. Since so far, no material injury has emerged and there would appear to be no culpability as regards the prevention of transboundary harm. Finally, this paper stresses the necessity to develop a worldwide agreement concerning the liability for transboundary harm and to establish an institutional framework for the enforcement of a state's obligations, and also the great significance of international cooperation between nations and organisations in relation to marine environmental protection.

  18. Operational test report for 241-AW tank inlet air control stations

    SciTech Connect

    Minteer, D.J., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-07-03

    This document reports the results of operational testing on tank inlet air control stations in 241-AW tank farm. An air control station was installed on each of the six AW tanks. Operational testing consisted of a simple functional test of each station`s air flow controller, aerosol testing of each station`s HEPA filter, and final ventilation system balancing (i.e., tank airflows and vacuum level) using the air control stations. The test was successful and the units were subsequently placed into operation.

  19. Record low surface air temperature at Vostok station, Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turner, John; Anderson, Phil; Lachlan-Cope, Tom; Colwell, Steve; Phillips, Tony; Kirchgaessner, AméLie; Marshall, Gareth J.; King, John C.; Bracegirdle, Tom; Vaughan, David G.; Lagun, Victor; Orr, Andrew

    2009-12-01

    The lowest recorded air temperature at the surface of the Earth was a measurement of -89.2°C made at Vostok station, Antarctica, at 0245 UT on 21 July 1983. Here we present the first detailed analysis of this event using meteorological reanalysis fields, in situ observations and satellite imagery. Surface temperatures at Vostok station in winter are highly variable on daily to interannual timescales as a result of the great sensitivity to intrusions of maritime air masses as Rossby wave activity changes around the continent. The record low temperature was measured following a near-linear cooling of over 30 K over a 10 day period from close to mean July temperatures. The event occurred because of five specific conditions that arose: (1) the temperature at the core of the midtropospheric vortex was at a near-record low value; (2) the center of the vortex moved close to the station; (3) an almost circular flow regime persisted around the station for a week resulting in very little warm air advection from lower latitudes; (4) surface wind speeds were low for the location; and (5) no cloud or diamond dust was reported above the station for a week, promoting the loss of heat to space via the emission of longwave radiation. We estimate that should a longer period of isolation occur the surface temperature at Vostok could drop to around -96°C. The higher site of Dome Argus is typically 5-6 K colder than Vostok so has the potential to record an even lower temperature.

  20. Cabin Air Quality Dynamics On Board the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perry, J. L.; Peterson, B. V.

    2003-01-01

    Spacecraft cabin air quality is influenced by a variety of factors. Beyond normal equipment offgassing and crew metabolic loads, the vehicle s operational configuration contributes significantly to overall air quality. Leaks from system equipment and payload facilities, operational status of the atmospheric scrubbing systems, and the introduction of new equipment and modules to the vehicle all influence air quality. The dynamics associated with changes in the International Space Station's (ISS) configuration since the launch of the U.S. Segment s laboratory module, Destiny, is summarized. Key classes of trace chemical contaminants that are important to crew health and equipment performance are emphasized. The temporary effects associated with attaching each multi-purpose logistics module (MPLM) to the ISS and influence of in-flight air quality on the post-flight ground processing of the MPLM are explored.

  1. Navajo Generating Station and Air Visibility Regulations: Alternatives and Impacts

    SciTech Connect

    Hurlbut, D. J.; Haase, S.; Brinkman, G.; Funk, K.; Gelman, R.; Lantz, E.; Larney, C.; Peterson, D.; Worley, C.; Liebsch, E.

    2012-01-01

    Pursuant to the Clean Air Act, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) announced in 2009 its intent to issue rules for controlling emissions from Navajo Generating Station that could affect visibility at the Grand Canyon and at several other national parks and wilderness areas. The final rule will conform to what EPA determines is the best available retrofit technology (BART) for the control of haze-causing air pollutants, especially nitrogen oxides. While EPA is ultimately responsible for setting Navajo Generating Station's BART standards in its final rule, it will be the U.S. Department of the Interior's responsibility to manage compliance and the related impacts. This study aims to assist both Interior and EPA by providing an objective assessment of issues relating to the power sector.

  2. Makah Air Force Station Re-Use Plan

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-02-01

    shared garages. All one-story single units with 3 bedrooms. Thermal pane steel windows, asphalt shingles , wood siding. 1100-1200 Approximate average... asphalt shingles . Approximately 2000 s.f., built in 1952. B. Gymnasium & Locker Facility (Bldg. No. 46; drawings available) 8" concrete block wall...MAKAH- AIR FrORCE STATION RE-USE PLAN NEAH- BAY, WASHINGTON uf -;): bwowdN aobu l l02 EXHMIBT 7 COLLEGE CAMPUS o ’ "LEGEND 7- ,𔄁, .. , / i

  3. Locations and monitoring well completion logs of wells surveyed by U.S. Geological Survey at Air Force Plant 4 and Naval Air Station, Joint Reserve Base, Carswell Field, Fort Worth area, Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Williams, M.D.; Kuniansky, E.L.

    1996-01-01

    Completion logs are presented for 16 monitoring wells installed by the U.S. Geological Survey at Air Force Plant 4 and Naval Air Station, Joint Reserve Base, Carswell Field, in the Fort Worth area, Texas. Natural gamma-ray logs are presented for selected monitoring wells. Also included are survey data for eight wells installed by Geo-Marine, Inc.

  4. Aerosol optical depth in clean marine and continental northeast Atlantic air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mulcahy, J. P.; O'Dowd, C. D.; Jennings, S. G.

    2009-10-01

    The aerosol optical depth (AOD) and Ångström exponent for the period 2002-2004 is evaluated for clean marine and continentally influenced air masses over the northeast Atlantic region. Measurements were carried out at the Mace Head atmospheric research station on the west coast of Ireland using a precision filter radiometer which measures the aerosol optical depth at four wavelengths centered at 368, 412, 500, and 862 nm. The clean marine AOD at 500 nm is characterized by a mean value of 0.14 ± 0.06, exhibiting relatively small temporal variability. The Ångström exponent was less than 1 for the majority of cases, having an average value of 0.40 ± 0.29 in clean marine conditions. The latter is consistent with the presence of relatively large supermicron particles, such as sea salt dominating the marine aerosol size distribution. The Ångström exponent shows a distinct seasonal cycle in clean marine air, with maximum values being derived in the summer months and minimum values in the winter. In continental air masses, while the range and standard deviation of the AOD is larger than in clean marine conditions, the overall mean AOD (τ500 = 0.19 ± 0.12) is comparable with the clean marine AOD. The continental Ångström exponent is larger, having a mean value of 1.07 ± 0.32. This is attributed to a dominating accumulation mode in the presence of urban-industrial aerosol particles originating mainly from continental Europe. These results demonstrate how the natural marine AOD can rival polluted AOD over the northeast Atlantic region and highlight the importance of the natural marine aerosol contribution over oceans.

  5. Ice Nuclei in Marine Air: Biogenic Particles or Dust?

    SciTech Connect

    Burrows, Susannah M.; Hoose, C.; Poschl, U.; Lawrence, M.

    2013-01-11

    Ice nuclei impact clouds, but their sources and distribution in the atmosphere are still not well known. Particularly little attention has been paid to IN sources in marine environments, although evidence from field studies suggests that IN populations in remote marine regions may be dominated by primary biogenic particles associated with sea spray. In this exploratory model study, we aim to bring attention to this long-neglected topic and identify promising target regions for future field campaigns. We assess the likely global distribution of marine biogenic ice nuclei using a combination of historical observations, satellite data and model output. By comparing simulated marine biogenic immersion IN distributions and dust immersion IN distributions, we predict strong regional differences in the importance of marine biogenic IN relative to dust IN. Our analysis suggests that marine biogenic IN are most likely to play a dominant role in determining IN concentrations in near-surface-air over the Southern Ocean, so future field campaigns aimed at investigating marine biogenic IN should target that region. Climate related changes in the abundance and emission of biogenic marine IN could affect marine cloud properties, thereby introducing previously unconsidered feedbacks that influence the hydrological cycle and the Earth’s energy balance. Furthermore, marine biogenic IN may be an important aspect to consider in proposals for marine cloud brightening by artificial sea spray production.

  6. Air-breathing adaptation in a marine Devonian lungfish

    PubMed Central

    Clement, Alice M.; Long, John A.

    2010-01-01

    Recent discoveries of tetrapod trackways in 395 Myr old tidal zone deposits of Poland (Niedźwiedzki et al. 2010 Nature 463, 43–48 (doi:10.1038/nature.08623)) indicate that vertebrates had already ventured out of the water and might already have developed some air-breathing capacity by the Middle Devonian. Air-breathing in lungfishes is not considered to be a shared specialization with tetrapods, but evolved independently. Air-breathing in lungfishes has been postulated as starting in Middle Devonian times (ca 385 Ma) in freshwater habitats, based on a set of skeletal characters involved in air-breathing in extant lungfishes. New discoveries described herein of the lungfish Rhinodipterus from marine limestones of Australia identifies the node in dipnoan phylogeny where air-breathing begins, and confirms that lungfishes living in marine habitats had also developed specializations to breathe air by the start of the Late Devonian (ca 375 Ma). While invasion of freshwater habitats from the marine realm was previously suggested to be the prime cause of aerial respiration developing in lungfishes, we believe that global decline in oxygen levels during the Middle Devonian combined with higher metabolic costs is a more likely driver of air-breathing ability, which developed in both marine and freshwater lungfishes and tetrapodomorph fishes such as Gogonasus. PMID:20147310

  7. 3. INTERIOR VIEW OF CENTRAL HEATING STATION, BUILDING 102, SHOWING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. INTERIOR VIEW OF CENTRAL HEATING STATION, BUILDING 102, SHOWING FURNACES, LOOKING SOUTH. - Mill Valley Air Force Station, Central Heating Station, East Ridgecrest Boulevard, Mount Tamalpais, Mill Valley, Marin County, CA

  8. Clear Air Force Station: Air Force Reviewed Costs and Benefits of Several Options before Deciding to Close the Power Plant

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-05-01

    Station with officials from Usibelli Coal Mine , and the grid tie-in project with an official from Golden Valley Electric Association. Further, we...with the selected offeror. Page 41 GAO-14-550 Clear Air Force Station to use the landfill located on the installation that is primarily...let the potential lessee use the landfill . • Available alternatives to Clear Air Force Station plant: Air Force officials said that Golden Valley

  9. Seasonal variation of air temperature at the Mendel Station, James Ross Island in the period of 2006-2009

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laska, Kamil; Prošek, Pavel; Budík, Ladislav

    2010-05-01

    Key words: air temperature, seasonal variation, James Ross Island, Antarctic Peninsula Recently, significant role of the atmospheric and oceanic circulation variation on positive trend of near surface air temperature along the Antarctic Peninsula has been reported by many authors. However, small number of the permanent meteorological stations located on the Peninsula coast embarrasses a detail analysis. It comprises analysis of spatiotemporal variability of climatic conditions and validation of regional atmospheric climate models. However, geographical location of the Czech Johann Gregor Mendel Station (hereafter Mendel Station) newly established on the northern ice-free part of the James Ross Island provides an opportunity to fill the gap. There are recorded important meteorological characteristics which allow to evaluate specific climatic regime of the region and their impact on the ice-shelf disintegration and glacier retreat. Mendel Station (63°48'S, 57°53'W) is located on marine terrace at the altitude of 7 m. In 2006, a monitoring network of several automatic weather stations was installed at different altitudes ranging from the seashore level up to mesas and tops of glaciers (514 m a.s.l.). In this contribution, a seasonal variation of near surface air temperature at the Mendel Station in the period of 2006-2009 is presented. Annual mean air temperature was -7.2 °C. Seasonal mean temperature ranged from +1.4 °C (December-February) to -17.7 °C (June-August). Frequently, the highest temperature occurred in the second half of January. It reached maximum of +8.1 °C. Sudden changes of atmospheric circulation pattern during winter caused a large interdiurnal variability of air temperature with the amplitude of 30 °C.

  10. Air Delivery and Marine Corps Logistics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-03-17

    to ground-based logistics, the evolution of ground-based vehicles to counter the threat, and the lift capacity of air and ground vehicles organic to...UAS------------------------------------------- A4 Figure 11. Bo.eing A160 Hummingbird Vertical Lift UAS------------------------------------------- A4...Vertical Takeoff and Landing Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (VTUAV). VTUAVs like the Boeing A160 Hummingbird , Bell Helicopter Eagle Eye, and the Northrop

  11. 33 CFR 334.865 - Naval Air Station North Island, San Diego, California, restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Naval Air Station North Island... REGULATIONS § 334.865 Naval Air Station North Island, San Diego, California, restricted area. (a) The area... navigable channels, but will serve to control its use in order to protect vital National interests....

  12. 33 CFR 334.865 - Naval Air Station North Island, San Diego, California, restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Naval Air Station North Island, San Diego, California, restricted area. 334.865 Section 334.865 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS... REGULATIONS § 334.865 Naval Air Station North Island, San Diego, California, restricted area. (a) The...

  13. 33 CFR 334.865 - Naval Air Station North Island, San Diego, California, restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Naval Air Station North Island, San Diego, California, restricted area. 334.865 Section 334.865 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS... REGULATIONS § 334.865 Naval Air Station North Island, San Diego, California, restricted area. (a) The...

  14. Geochemical characterization of seaplane lagoon sediments, Alameda Naval Air Station

    SciTech Connect

    Bono, A; Carroll, S; Esser, B; Luther, G W; O'Day, P; Randall, S

    1999-08-16

    Our objective in the characterization of sediments from Seaplane Lagoon at the Alameda Naval Air Station (NAS) was to determine the geochemical interactions that control the partitioning of cadmium, chromium, cobalt, copper, lead, mercury, nickel, and zinc between the sediments and the porewaters. Our approach was to collect several cores at the east outfall location of the Seaplane Lagoon. We determined the porewater chemistry by (1) making in situ micro-electrode measurements, (2) extracting porewaters, and (3) modeling geochemical reactions. We determined the sediment chemistry by measuring (1) elemental abundance, (2) mineralogy, and (3) trace-element speciation. This information should help the US Navy determine the long-term hazard of the sediments if they are left in place and the short-term hazard if they are dredged. We did not fully examine the geochemistry of sediments from the West Beach Landfill Wetlands site, because these sediments were distinct from the Seaplane Lagoon sediments. Our initial motivation for studying the Landfill Wetlands site was to determine the trace-element geochemistry in Seaplane Lagoon sediments that had been dredged and then disposed in the Landfill Wetlands. Unfortunately, the location of these dredged sediments is unknown. The cores we sampled were not from the Seaplane Lagoon.

  15. Finding of No Significant Impact: Forest Harvesting at New Boston Air Force Station, New Hampshire

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-05-20

    FINDING OF NO SIGNIFICANT IMPACT Forest Harvesting at New Boston Air Force Station, New Hampshire The U.S. Air Force (USAF) at New Boston Air...Station (NBAFS), New Hampshire proposes to conduct forest harvesting in three locations (see attachment l) on approximately 15,0-f~O acres over the next...two-three years. Harvesting would occur primarily during fall and winter months (September-March). Forest mana’gement practices would include the

  16. The variability of California summertime marine stratus: impacts on surface air temperatures

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Iacobellis, Sam F.; Cayan, Daniel R.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates the variability of clouds, primarily marine stratus clouds, and how they are associated with surface temperature anomalies over California, especially along the coastal margin. We focus on the summer months of June to September when marine stratus are the dominant cloud type. Data used include satellite cloud reflectivity (cloud albedo) measurements, hourly surface observations of cloud cover and air temperature at coastal airports, and observed values of daily surface temperature at stations throughout California and Nevada. Much of the anomalous variability of summer clouds is organized over regional patterns that affect considerable portions of the coast, often extend hundreds of kilometers to the west and southwest over the North Pacific, and are bounded to the east by coastal mountains. The occurrence of marine stratus is positively correlated with both the strength and height of the thermal inversion that caps the marine boundary layer, with inversion base height being a key factor in determining their inland penetration. Cloud cover is strongly associated with surface temperature variations. In general, increased presence of cloud (higher cloud albedo) produces cooler daytime temperatures and warmer nighttime temperatures. Summer daytime temperature fluctuations associated with cloud cover variations typically exceed 1°C. The inversion-cloud albedo-temperature associations that occur at daily timescales are also found at seasonal timescales.

  17. 33 CFR 334.1020 - San Francisco Bay and Oakland Inner Harbor; restricted areas in vicinity of Naval Air Station...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... bounded by the shore of Naval Air Station, Alameda, and a line beginning at a point on the north side of... the rock wall on the south side of the channel and the easterly boundary of the Naval Air Station....

  18. 9 CFR 3.138 - Primary conveyances (motor vehicle, rail, air, and marine).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ..., rail, air, and marine). 3.138 Section 3.138 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH..., Guinea Pigs, Nonhuman Primates, and Marine Mammals Transportation Standards § 3.138 Primary conveyances (motor vehicle, rail, air, and marine). (a) The animal cargo space of primary conveyances used...

  19. 9 CFR 3.114 - Primary conveyances (motor vehicle, rail, air and marine).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ..., rail, air and marine). 3.114 Section 3.114 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH..., Care, Treatment, and Transportation of Marine Mammals Transportation Standards § 3.114 Primary conveyances (motor vehicle, rail, air and marine). (a) The animal cargo space of primary conveyances used...

  20. Impact of air pollution on vegetation near the Columbia Generating Station - Wisconsin power plant impact study

    SciTech Connect

    Tibbitts, T.W.; Will-Wolf, S.; Karnowsky, D.F.; Olszyk, D.M.

    1982-06-01

    The impact of air pollution from the coal-fired Columbia Generating Station upon vegetation was investigated. Air monitoring of 03 and 02 documented levels that occurred before and with operation of the generating station. Field sampling of alfalfa, lichens, and white pines was undertaken before and after initiation of generating station operations. Controlled environmental exposures were undertaken with separate cultivars of crop species grown in the vicinity of the generating station. Alfalfa, carrots, mint, peas, beans, and trembling aspen were exposed to SO2 and O3 to establish minimum threshold pollutant levels for injury from these pollutants.

  1. AAFES Gas Station at Creech Air Force Base Environmental Assessment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-07-01

    Reservation station. Nor was there any mention of carpooling or busing to relieve the costs of the commute. Should the project be carried forward...Indian Springs, as well as the intermediate station at the Snow Mountain Piute (sic) Reservation station. Nor was there any mention of carpooling or...meet the purpose and need for this action. A sizable percentage already arrives at Creech by bus or carpool . The purpose of this action is not

  2. Optimized arrangement of constant ambient air monitoring stations in the Kanto region of Japan.

    PubMed

    Shirato, Shintaro; Iizuka, Atsushi; Mizukoshi, Atsushi; Noguchi, Miyuki; Yamasaki, Akihiro; Yanagisawa, Yukio

    2015-03-10

    Continuous ambient air monitoring systems have been introduced worldwide. However, such monitoring forces autonomous communities to bear a significant financial burden. Thus, it is important to identify pollutant-monitoring stations that are less efficient, while minimizing loss of data quality and mitigating effects on the determination of spatiotemporal trends of pollutants. This study describes a procedure for optimizing a constant ambient air monitoring system in the Kanto region of Japan. Constant ambient air monitoring stations in the area were topologically classified into four groups by cluster analysis and principle component analysis. Then, air pollution characteristics in each area were reviewed using concentration contour maps and average pollution concentrations. We then introduced three simple criteria to reduce the number of monitoring stations: (1) retain the monitoring station if there were similarities between its data and average data of the group to which it belongs; (2) retain the station if its data showed higher concentrations; and (3) retain the station if the monitored concentration levels had an increasing trend. With this procedure, the total number of air monitoring stations in suburban and urban areas was reduced by 36.5%. The introduction of three new types of monitoring stations is proposed, namely, mobile, for local non-methane hydrocarbon pollution, and Ox-prioritized.

  3. [Air quality monitoring on the International Space Station].

    PubMed

    Pakhomova, A A; Mukhamedieva, L N; Mikos, K N

    2006-01-01

    Chemical contamination of air in space cabins occurs mainly due to permanent offgassing of equipment and materials, and leaks. Methods and means of qualitative and quantitative air monitoring on the ISS are powerful enough as for routine so emergency (e.g. local fire, toxic leak) air control. The ISS air quality has suited to the adopted standards and crew safety requirements. Yet, there is a broad field of action toward improvement of the space cabin air monitoring.

  4. Site 5 air sparging pilot test, Naval Air Station Cecil Field, Jacksonville, Florida.

    PubMed

    Murray, W A; Lunardini, R C; Ullo, F J; Davidson, M E

    2000-02-25

    A 72-h air sparging pilot test was conducted at Site 5 (Operable Unit 2), Naval Air Station Cecil Field, Jacksonville, FL, to determine performance parameters necessary for full-scale design. The sparge well was completed to a depth of 29 ft, several feet below the groundwater plume contaminated with volatile organic compounds (VOCs), primarily benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes (BTEX). Air flow rates supplied to the sparge well were 3 cubic feet/min (cfm) during the first day, 2 cfm during the second day, and 1 cfm during the third day. Water levels in monitoring wells initially rose approximately 2 ft during the first 4-5 h of the test, then receded back to pre-test equilibrium levels over the next 15 h, for a total duration of water mounding of about 20 h. A small (approximately 0.5 ft) water table drop, with subsequent recovery to equilibrium level, occurred each time the air sparging rate was decreased. Although there is considerable variation depending on direction from the sparge well, the average radius of influence varied from approximately 30 ft at 1 cfm to 50 ft at 3 cfm. The air sparge system was capable of increasing the dissolved oxygen from 0 to 6 or 7 mg/l within 12-15 h of air channels reaching a given location. A lag time of approximately 13 h was observed before air channels reached a radius of 30 ft and dissolved oxygen levels began to increase at that radius. CO(2) (stripped out of the groundwater by the sparging) decreased from a pre-test concentration of 150 to 20 mg/l at r=5 ft, and from 150 to 50 mg/l at r=30 ft, within a period of about 24 h. The rate of VOC mass removal during the pilot test was 0.06 lb/day at a sparge rate of 3 cfm, and it appears that air sparging will effect a rapid cleanup of the VOCs in the Site 5 groundwater plume.

  5. Space Heating at the Naval Air Station, Fallon, Nevada - An Economic Analysis of a Geothermal Alternative.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-12-01

    CLAWaICaTO ? I$ P iktfe bA& 8^100ŕ Approved for public release; distribution unlimited Space Heating at the Naval Air Station, Fallon, Nevada-An Economic...Dictionary of Geophysics, p . 981.)-------- 12 2. High temperature geothermal system flow controlled by fractures...Rome,21-31 Aug.1961,Vol.3, Geothermal Energy: 17 11, p .125.- ------------------------------------------------- 1 4. Map of Naval Air Station, Fallon

  6. Observations of marine decoupled boundary layer during the ICOS campaign at the GAW Mace Head station, Ireland.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milroy, Conor; Martucci, Giovanni; O'Dowd, Colin

    2010-05-01

    The planetary boundary layer (PBL) top height detections have been retrieved by two ceilometers (Vaisala CL31 and Jenoptik CHM15K) and a microwave radiometer (RPG-HATPRO) based at the Mace Head Research station, Ireland, from the 8th to the 28th of June 2009 during the ICOS Mace Head campaign. Characteristic of this region, with warm waters, the marine boundary layer is typically 2-layered with a surface mixed layer (SML) and a decoupled residual or convective layer (DRCL), above which is the free troposphere (Kunz et al. 2002). The PBL data have been analyzed using a newly developed Temporal Height-Tracking (THT) algorithm (Martucci et al., 2010) for automatic detection of the independent SML and DRCL tops. Daily and weekly averages of the PBL data have been performed to smooth out the short term variability and assess the dependence of the PBL depth on different air masses advected over the Mace Head station. Moreover, a qualitative comparison between the ceilometer and radiometer PBL top detected values has been done to assess their consistency.

  7. Between the laboratory and the deep blue sea: space issues in the marine stations of Naples and Wimereux.

    PubMed

    de Bont, Raf

    2009-04-01

    In the 1870s, the life sciences witnessed the rise of a new site for scientific research: the marine station. This new workplace brought the laboratory of the biologist closer to the natural surroundings of the marine organisms that he/she was studying. It was therefore a site where the lab could be 'renaturalized'. In this paper, the extent of this 'renaturalization' is studied with regard to two stations. The first, Anton Dohrn's Stazione zoologica in Naples, was to become an international centre for laboratory research, while the second, Alfred Giard's marine station in Wimereux (France), turned out to be an important hub for field studies. Field-oriented animal life studies could be developed in Wimereux, whereas these were largely outshone by physiological and morphological research in Naples. I argue that differences in the physical and social organization of the two stations - or their 'ecologies' - accounted for the varying practices and types of knowledge found in Naples and Wimereux.

  8. Decision Analysis Methodology to Evaluate Integrated Solid Waste Management Alternatives for a Remote Alaskan Air Station

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    Eareckson Air Station (AS), a remote U.S. Air Force installation, faces the complex decision of selecting a new municipal solid waste (MSW...strategy. The model results suggest that the Eareckson AS MSW strategy should be a Class II municipal solid waste landfill (MSWLF) along with a

  9. Bioventing Field Initiative at Galena and Campion Air Force Stations, Alaska

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    This report describes the activities conducted at Galena Air Force Station (AFS) and Campion AFS, Alaska, as part of the Bioventing Field Initiative...air permeability test, in situ respiration tests, and installation of bioventing systems. The specific objectives of this Bioventing Field Initiative

  10. Influence of large-scale atmospheric circulation on marine air intrusion toward the East Antarctic coast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurita, Naoyuki; Hirasawa, Naohiko; Koga, Seizi; Matsushita, Junji; Steen-Larsen, Hans Christian; Masson-Delmotte, Valérie; Fujiyoshi, Yasushi

    2016-09-01

    Marine air intrusions into Antarctica play a key role in high-precipitation events. Here we use shipboard observations of water vapor isotopologues between Australia and Syowa on the East Antarctic coast to elucidate the mechanism by which large-scale circulation influences marine air intrusions. The temporal isotopic variations at Syowa reflect the meridional movement of a marine air front. They are also associated with atmospheric circulation anomalies that enhance the southward movement of cyclones over the Southern Ocean. The relationship between large-scale circulation and the movement of the front is explained by northerly winds which, in association with cyclones, move toward the Antarctic coast and push marine air with isotopically enriched moisture into the inland covered by glacial air with depleted isotopic values. Future changes in large-scale circulation may have a significant impact on the frequency and intensity of marine air intrusion into Antarctica.

  11. Long term assessment of air quality from a background station on the Malaysian Peninsula.

    PubMed

    Latif, Mohd Talib; Dominick, Doreena; Ahamad, Fatimah; Khan, Md Firoz; Juneng, Liew; Hamzah, Firdaus Mohamad; Nadzir, Mohd Shahrul Mohd

    2014-06-01

    Rural background stations provide insight into seasonal variations in pollutant concentrations and allow for comparisons to be made with stations closer to anthropogenic emissions. In Malaysia, the designated background station is located in Jerantut, Pahang. A fifteen-year data set focusing on ten major air pollutants and four meteorological variables from this station were analysed. Diurnal, monthly and yearly pollutant concentrations were derived from hourly continuous monitoring data. Statistical methods employed included principal component regression (PCR) and sensitivity analysis. Although only one of the yearly concentrations of the pollutants studied exceeded national and World Health Organisation (WHO) guideline standards, namely PM10, seven of the pollutants (NO, NO2, NOx, O3, PM10, THC and CH4) showed a positive upward trend over the 15-year period. High concentrations of PM10 were recorded during severe haze episodes in this region. Whilst, monthly concentrations of most air pollutants, such as: PM10, O3, NOx, NO2, CO and NmHC were recorded at higher concentrations between June and September, during the southwest monsoon. Such results correspond with the mid-range transport of pollutants from more urbanised and industrial areas. Diurnal patterns, rationed between major air pollutants and sensitivity analysis, indicate the influence of local traffic emissions on air quality at the Jerantut background station. Although the pollutant concentrations have not shown a rapid increase, an alternative background station will need to be assigned within the next decade if development projects in the surrounding area are not halted.

  12. 9 CFR 3.138 - Primary conveyances (motor vehicle, rail, air, and marine).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Primary conveyances (motor vehicle, rail, air, and marine). 3.138 Section 3.138 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH... (motor vehicle, rail, air, and marine). (a) The animal cargo space of primary conveyances used...

  13. 9 CFR 3.114 - Primary conveyances (motor vehicle, rail, air and marine).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ..., rail, air and marine). 3.114 Section 3.114 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH... conveyances (motor vehicle, rail, air and marine). (a) The animal cargo space of primary conveyances used in.... (e) The interiors of animal cargo spaces in primary conveyances must be kept clean. (f) Live...

  14. 9 CFR 3.114 - Primary conveyances (motor vehicle, rail, air and marine).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ..., rail, air and marine). 3.114 Section 3.114 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH... conveyances (motor vehicle, rail, air and marine). (a) The animal cargo space of primary conveyances used in.... (e) The interiors of animal cargo spaces in primary conveyances must be kept clean. (f) Live...

  15. 9 CFR 3.88 - Primary conveyances (motor vehicle, rail, air, and marine).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Primary conveyances (motor vehicle, rail, air, and marine). 3.88 Section 3.88 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH... conveyances (motor vehicle, rail, air, and marine). (a) The animal cargo space of primary conveyances used...

  16. 9 CFR 3.88 - Primary conveyances (motor vehicle, rail, air, and marine).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Primary conveyances (motor vehicle, rail, air, and marine). 3.88 Section 3.88 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH... conveyances (motor vehicle, rail, air, and marine). (a) The animal cargo space of primary conveyances used...

  17. 9 CFR 3.88 - Primary conveyances (motor vehicle, rail, air, and marine).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Primary conveyances (motor vehicle, rail, air, and marine). 3.88 Section 3.88 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH... conveyances (motor vehicle, rail, air, and marine). (a) The animal cargo space of primary conveyances used...

  18. 9 CFR 3.114 - Primary conveyances (motor vehicle, rail, air and marine).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ..., rail, air and marine). 3.114 Section 3.114 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH... conveyances (motor vehicle, rail, air and marine). (a) The animal cargo space of primary conveyances used in.... (e) The interiors of animal cargo spaces in primary conveyances must be kept clean. (f) Live...

  19. 9 CFR 3.88 - Primary conveyances (motor vehicle, rail, air, and marine).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Primary conveyances (motor vehicle, rail, air, and marine). 3.88 Section 3.88 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH... conveyances (motor vehicle, rail, air, and marine). (a) The animal cargo space of primary conveyances used...

  20. 9 CFR 3.138 - Primary conveyances (motor vehicle, rail, air, and marine).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Primary conveyances (motor vehicle, rail, air, and marine). 3.138 Section 3.138 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH... (motor vehicle, rail, air, and marine). (a) The animal cargo space of primary conveyances used...

  1. 9 CFR 3.138 - Primary conveyances (motor vehicle, rail, air, and marine).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Primary conveyances (motor vehicle, rail, air, and marine). 3.138 Section 3.138 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH... (motor vehicle, rail, air, and marine). (a) The animal cargo space of primary conveyances used...

  2. 9 CFR 3.138 - Primary conveyances (motor vehicle, rail, air, and marine).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Primary conveyances (motor vehicle, rail, air, and marine). 3.138 Section 3.138 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH... (motor vehicle, rail, air, and marine). (a) The animal cargo space of primary conveyances used...

  3. 9 CFR 3.114 - Primary conveyances (motor vehicle, rail, air and marine).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ..., rail, air and marine). 3.114 Section 3.114 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH... conveyances (motor vehicle, rail, air and marine). (a) The animal cargo space of primary conveyances used in.... (e) The interiors of animal cargo spaces in primary conveyances must be kept clean. (f) Live...

  4. 9 CFR 3.88 - Primary conveyances (motor vehicle, rail, air, and marine).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Primary conveyances (motor vehicle, rail, air, and marine). 3.88 Section 3.88 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH... conveyances (motor vehicle, rail, air, and marine). (a) The animal cargo space of primary conveyances used...

  5. 33 CFR 334.600 - TRIDENT Basin adjacent to Canaveral Harbor at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Brevard County...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Canaveral Harbor at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Brevard County, Fla.; danger zone. 334.600 Section 334... Canaveral Air Force Station, Brevard County, Fla.; danger zone. (a) The danger zone. From the west side of... the Commanding Officer, Naval Ordnance Test Unit, Patrick Air Force Base, Florida, or such agencies...

  6. 33 CFR 334.600 - TRIDENT Basin adjacent to Canaveral Harbor at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Brevard County...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Canaveral Harbor at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Brevard County, Fla.; danger zone. 334.600 Section 334... Canaveral Air Force Station, Brevard County, Fla.; danger zone. (a) The danger zone. From the west side of... the Commanding Officer, Naval Ordnance Test Unit, Patrick Air Force Base, Florida, or such agencies...

  7. 33 CFR 334.600 - TRIDENT Basin adjacent to Canaveral Harbor at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Brevard County...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Canaveral Harbor at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Brevard County, Fla.; danger zone. 334.600 Section 334... Canaveral Air Force Station, Brevard County, Fla.; danger zone. (a) The danger zone. From the west side of... the Commanding Officer, Naval Ordnance Test Unit, Patrick Air Force Base, Florida, or such agencies...

  8. 33 CFR 334.600 - TRIDENT Basin adjacent to Canaveral Harbor at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Brevard County...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Canaveral Harbor at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Brevard County, Fla.; danger zone. 334.600 Section 334... Canaveral Air Force Station, Brevard County, Fla.; danger zone. (a) The danger zone. From the west side of... the Commanding Officer, Naval Ordnance Test Unit, Patrick Air Force Base, Florida, or such agencies...

  9. 33 CFR 334.600 - TRIDENT Basin adjacent to Canaveral Harbor at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Brevard County...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Canaveral Harbor at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Brevard County, Fla.; danger zone. 334.600 Section 334... Canaveral Air Force Station, Brevard County, Fla.; danger zone. (a) The danger zone. From the west side of... the Commanding Officer, Naval Ordnance Test Unit, Patrick Air Force Base, Florida, or such agencies...

  10. 33 CFR 334.1125 - Pacific Ocean Naval Air Weapons Station, Point Mugu, Small Arms Range, Ventura County, California...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Pacific Ocean Naval Air Weapons... AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.1125 Pacific Ocean Naval Air Weapons Station, Point Mugu, Small... enforced by personnel attached to the Naval Air Weapons Station, Point Mugu, California, and by such...

  11. 33 CFR 334.1125 - Pacific Ocean Naval Air Weapons Station, Point Mugu, Small Arms Range, Ventura County, California...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Pacific Ocean Naval Air Weapons... AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.1125 Pacific Ocean Naval Air Weapons Station, Point Mugu, Small... enforced by personnel attached to the Naval Air Weapons Station, Point Mugu, California, and by such...

  12. 33 CFR 334.1125 - Pacific Ocean Naval Air Weapons Station, Point Mugu, Small Arms Range, Ventura County, California...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Pacific Ocean Naval Air Weapons... AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.1125 Pacific Ocean Naval Air Weapons Station, Point Mugu, Small... enforced by personnel attached to the Naval Air Weapons Station, Point Mugu, California, and by such...

  13. 33 CFR 334.1125 - Pacific Ocean Naval Air Weapons Station, Point Mugu, Small Arms Range, Ventura County, California...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Pacific Ocean Naval Air Weapons... AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.1125 Pacific Ocean Naval Air Weapons Station, Point Mugu, Small... enforced by personnel attached to the Naval Air Weapons Station, Point Mugu, California, and by such...

  14. 33 CFR 334.1125 - Pacific Ocean Naval Air Weapons Station, Point Mugu, Small Arms Range, Ventura County, California...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pacific Ocean Naval Air Weapons... AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.1125 Pacific Ocean Naval Air Weapons Station, Point Mugu, Small... enforced by personnel attached to the Naval Air Weapons Station, Point Mugu, California, and by such...

  15. Locating air quality monitoring station using wind impact area diagram.

    PubMed

    George, K V; Verma, P; Devotta, S

    2008-10-01

    In this study a new methodology is suggested to approximate the impact area downwind of an air pollution source, where air quality monitoring can be carried out to capture the maximum pollutant concentration. Hourly wind speed for a given month is grouped in to different wind speed ranges and the distance of pollutant travel is approximated from the average wind speed of that wind speed range. Since change in wind direction causes the impact distance to rotate, its rotation is approximated by the SD of wind direction change. Using this approach, area or region down wind of a source is determined and plotted. The pattern of monthly change of wind is better represented by the new type of diagram as compared to the wind rose diagram.

  16. Six years of surface remote sensing of stratiform warm clouds in marine and continental air over Mace Head, Ireland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Preißler, Jana; Martucci, Giovanni; Saponaro, Giulia; Ovadnevaite, Jurgita; Vaishya, Aditya; Kolmonen, Pekka; Ceburnis, Darius; Sogacheva, Larisa; Leeuw, Gerrit; O'Dowd, Colin

    2016-12-01

    A total of 118 stratiform water clouds were observed by ground-based remote sensing instruments at the Mace Head Atmospheric Research Station on the west coast of Ireland from 2009 to 2015. Microphysical and optical characteristics of these clouds were studied as well as the impact of aerosols on these properties. Microphysical and optical cloud properties were derived using the algorithm SYRSOC (SYnergistic Remote Sensing Of Clouds). Ground-based in situ measurements of aerosol concentrations and the transport path of air masses at cloud level were investigated as well. The cloud properties were studied in dependence of the prevailing air mass at cloud level and season. We found higher cloud droplet number concentrations (CDNC) and smaller effective radii (reff) with greater pollution. Median CDNC ranged from 60 cm-3 in marine air masses to 160 cm-3 in continental air. Median reff ranged from 8 μm in polluted conditions to 10 μm in marine air. Effective droplet size distributions were broader in marine than in continental cases. Cloud optical thickness (COT) and albedo were lower in cleaner air masses and higher in more polluted conditions, with medians ranging from 2.1 to 4.9 and 0.22 to 0.39, respectively. However, calculation of COT and albedo was strongly affected by liquid water path (LWP) and departure from adiabatic conditions. A comparison of SYRSOC results with MODIS (Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) observations showed large differences for LWP and COT but good agreement for reff with a linear fit with slope near 1 and offset of -1 μm.

  17. POLLUTION PREVENTION OPPORTUNITY ASSESSMENT - UNITED STATES NAVAL BASE NORFOLK NAVAL AIR STATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report summarizes work conducted at the U.S. Navy's Naval Base Norfolk, Naval Air Station (NAS) located at Sewells Point in Norfolk, Virginia, under the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Waste Reduction Evaluations at Federal Sites (WREAFS) Program. This project w...

  18. 33 CFR 334.746 - U.S. Coast Guard, Destin Station at Eglin Air Force Base, Fla.; restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false U.S. Coast Guard, Destin Station at Eglin Air Force Base, Fla.; restricted area. 334.746 Section 334.746 Navigation and Navigable... REGULATIONS § 334.746 U.S. Coast Guard, Destin Station at Eglin Air Force Base, Fla.; restricted area. (a)...

  19. Rainfall Prediction using Soil and Air Temperature in a Tropical Station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chacko, Tessy P.; Renuka, G.

    2007-07-01

    An attempt is made to establish a linkage between soil and air temperature and south-west monsoon rainfall at Pillicode (12°12'N,75°10'E) a tropical station in north Kerala. The dependence of monsoon rainfall on pre-monsoon soil temperature decreases as the depth of the soil increases. A regression equation has been developed for the estimation of monsoon rainfall using pre-monsoon soil and air temperature. The results show that sub soil temperature along with air temperature can be used for forecasting the monsoon level.

  20. Biomass burning emissions of trace gases and particles in marine air at Cape Grim, Tasmania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawson, S. J.; Keywood, M. D.; Galbally, I. E.; Gras, J. L.; Cainey, J. M.; Cope, M. E.; Krummel, P. B.; Fraser, P. J.; Steele, L. P.; Bentley, S. T.; Meyer, C. P.; Ristovski, Z.; Goldstein, A. H.

    2015-12-01

    Biomass burning (BB) plumes were measured at the Cape Grim Baseline Air Pollution Station during the 2006 Precursors to Particles campaign, when emissions from a fire on nearby Robbins Island impacted the station. Measurements made included non-methane organic compounds (NMOCs) (PTR-MS), particle number size distribution, condensation nuclei (CN) > 3 nm, black carbon (BC) concentration, cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) number, ozone (O3), methane (CH4), carbon monoxide (CO), hydrogen (H2), carbon dioxide (CO2), nitrous oxide (N2O), halocarbons and meteorology. During the first plume strike event (BB1), a 4 h enhancement of CO (max ~ 2100 ppb), BC (~ 1400 ng m-3) and particles > 3 nm (~ 13 000 cm-3) with dominant particle mode of 120 nm were observed overnight. A wind direction change lead to a dramatic reduction in BB tracers and a drop in the dominant particle mode to 50 nm. The dominant mode increased in size to 80 nm over 5 h in calm sunny conditions, accompanied by an increase in ozone. Due to an enhancement in BC but not CO during particle growth, the presence of BB emissions during this period could not be confirmed. The ability of particles > 80 nm (CN80) to act as CCN at 0.5 % supersaturation was investigated. The ΔCCN / ΔCN80 ratio was lowest during the fresh BB plume (56 ± 8 %), higher during the particle growth period (77 ± 4 %) and higher still (104 ± 3 %) in background marine air. Particle size distributions indicate that changes to particle chemical composition, rather than particle size, are driving these changes. Hourly average CCN during both BB events were between 2000 and 5000 CCN cm-3, which were enhanced above typical background levels by a factor of 6-34, highlighting the dramatic impact BB plumes can have on CCN number in clean marine regions. During the 29 h of the second plume strike event (BB2) CO, BC and a range of NMOCs including acetonitrile and hydrogen cyanide (HCN) were clearly enhanced and some enhancements in O3 were observed

  1. ANITA Air Monitoring on the International Space Station: Results Compared to Other Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Honne, A.; Schumann-Olsen, H.; Kaspersen, K.; Limero, T.; Macatangay, A.; Mosebach, H.; Kampf, D.; Mudgett, P. D.; James, J. T.; Tan, G.; Supper, W.

    2009-01-01

    ANITA (Analysing Interferometer for Ambient Air) is a flight experiment precursor for a permanent continuous air quality monitoring system on the ISS (International Space Station). For the safety of the crew, ANITA can detect and quantify quasi-online and simultaneously 33 gas compounds in the air with ppm or sub-ppm detection limits. The autonomous measurement system is based on FTIR (Fourier Transform Infra-Red spectroscopy). The system represents a versatile air quality monitor, allowing for the first time the detection and monitoring of trace gas dynamics in a spacecraft atmosphere. ANITA operated on the ISS from September 2007 to August 2008. This paper summarizes the results of ANITA s air analyses with emphasis on comparisons to other measurements. The main basis of comparison is NASA s set of grab samples taken onboard the ISS and analysed on ground applying various GC-based (Gas Chromatography) systems.

  2. The role of Environmental Health System air quality monitors in Space Station Contingency Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Limero, Thomas F.; Wilson, Steve; Perlot, Susan; James, John

    1992-01-01

    This paper describes the Space Station Freedom (SSF) Environmental Health System's air-quality monitoring strategy and instrumentation. A two-tier system has been developed, consisting of first-alert instruments that warn the crew of airborne contamination and a volatile organic analyzer that can identify volatile organic contaminants in near-real time. The strategy for air quality monitoring on SSF is designed to provide early detection so that the contamination can be confined to one module and so that crew health and safety can be protected throughout the contingency event. The use of air-quality monitors in fixed and portable modes will be presented as a means of following the progress of decontamination efforts and ensuring acceptable air quality in a module after an incident. The technology of each instrument will be reviewed briefly; the main focus of this paper, however, will be the use of air-quality monitors before, during, and after contingency incidents.

  3. AIRS Observations of DomeC in Antarctica and Comparison with Automated Weather Stations (AWS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aumann, Hartmut H.; Gregorich, Dave; Broberg, Steve

    2006-01-01

    We compare the surface temperatures at Dome Concordia (DomeC) deduced from AIRS data and two Automatic Weather Stations at Concordia Station: AWS8989 , which has been in operation since December 1996, and AWS.it, for which data are available between January and November 2005. The AWS8989 readings are on average 3 K warmer than the AWS.it readings, with a warmer bias in the Antarctic summer than in the winter season. Although AIRS measures the skin brightness temperature, while the AWS reports the temperature of the air at 3 meter above the surface, the AIRS measurements agree well with the AWS.it readings for all data and separately for the summer and winter seasons, if data taken in the presence of strong surface inversions are filtered out. This can be done by deducing the vertical temperature gradient above the surface directly from the AIRS temperature sounding channels or indirectly by noting that extreme vertical gradients near the surface are unlikely if the wind speed is more than a few meters per second. Since the AIRS measurements are very well calibrated, the agreement with AWS.it is very encouraging. The warmer readings of AWS8989 are likely due to thermal contamination of the AWS8989 site by the increasing activity at Concordia Station. Data from an AWS.it quality station could be used for the evaluation of radiometric accuracy and stability of polar orbiting sounders at low temperatures. Unfortunately, data from AWS.it was available only for a limited time. The thermal contamination of the AWS8989 data makes long-term trends deduced from AWS8989 and possibly results about the rapid Antarctic warming deduced from other research stations on Antarctica suspect. AIRS is the first hyperspectral infrared sounder designed in support of weather forecasting and climate research. It was launched in May 2002 on the EOS Aqua spacecraft into a 704 km altitude polar sun-synchronous orbit. The lifetime of AIRS, estimated before launch to be at least 5 years is

  4. Subway platform air quality: Assessing the influences of tunnel ventilation, train piston effect and station design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreno, T.; Pérez, N.; Reche, C.; Martins, V.; de Miguel, E.; Capdevila, M.; Centelles, S.; Minguillón, M. C.; Amato, F.; Alastuey, A.; Querol, X.; Gibbons, W.

    2014-08-01

    A high resolution air quality monitoring campaign (PM, CO2 and CO) was conducted on differently designed station platforms in the Barcelona subway system under: (a) normal forced tunnel ventilation, and (b) with daytime tunnel ventilation systems shut down. PM concentrations are highly variable (6-128 μgPM1 m-3, 16-314 μgPM3 m-3, and 33-332 μgPM10 m-3, 15-min averages) depending on ventilation conditions and station design. Narrow platforms served by single-track tunnels are heavily dependent on forced tunnel ventilation and cannot rely on the train piston effect alone to reduce platform PM concentrations. In contrast PM levels in stations with spacious double-track tunnels are not greatly affected when tunnel ventilation is switched off, offering the possibility of significant energy savings without damaging air quality. Sampling at different positions along the platform reveals considerable lateral variation, with the greatest accumulation of particulates occurring at one end of the platform. Passenger accesses can dilute PM concentrations by introducing cleaner outside air, although lateral down-platform accesses are less effective than those positioned at the train entry point. CO concentrations on the platform are very low (≤1 ppm) and probably controlled by ingress of traffic-contaminated street-level air. CO2 averages range from 371 to 569 ppm, changing during the build-up and exchange of passengers with each passing train.

  5. Chlorinated pesticides and natural brominated anisoles in air at three northern Baltic stations.

    PubMed

    Bidleman, Terry F; Laudon, Hjalmar; Nygren, Olle; Svanberg, Staffan; Tysklind, Mats

    2017-03-20

    Polyurethane foam (PUF) disk passive samplers were deployed at one inland and two island locations in the Bothnian Bay region of the northern Baltic Sea. Uptake was linear over 81-147 d and a temperature range of -2.6 to 14.2 °C for organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and current-use pesticides (CUPs) having log KOA ≥9 at ambient temperatures. Partial saturation of the PUF disks occurred for the more volatile OCPs hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs) and hexachlorobenzene (HCB), and for bromoanisoles (BAs), which are products of bromophenols released by natural and anthropogenic sources. Correction for nonlinear uptake of these was made using experimentally measured PUF-air partition coefficients. Passive-derived air concentrations of pesticides were uniform over the bay and agreed within a factor of 2 or better with levels determined by active (pumped) sampling at one of the island stations. Levels of OCPs were similar to those reported at background sites in the European and Canadian Arctic and at monitoring stations in the central Baltic and southern Scandinavia, indicating long-range transport. The insecticide chlorpyrifos was 10 times lower at bay stations than in the Canadian Arctic. Insight to sources and processes was gained by examining compound profiles. Fractions Falpha = α-HCH/(α-HCH + γ-HCH) and FTC = trans-chlordane/(trans-chlordane + cis-chlordane) at bay stations were higher than in the Norwegian and Finnish Arctic and similar to those at the southern monitoring stations. Volatilization of chlordanes from Baltic seawater may also modify FTC. Higher FTriBA = 2,4,6-TriBA/(2,4,6-TriBA + 2,4-DiBA) distinguished local volatilization from the Baltic Sea versus lower FTriBA found at the inland site and reported in air on the Norwegian coast, suggesting westerly transport from the Atlantic across Norway and Sweden.

  6. Microbial counts and particulate matter levels in roadside air samples under skytrain stations, Bangkok, Thailand.

    PubMed

    Luksamijarulkul, Pipat; Kongtip, Pornpimol

    2010-05-01

    In conditions with heavy traffic and crowds of people on roadside areas under skytrain stations in Bangkok, the natural air ventilation may be insufficient and air quality may be poor. A study of 350 air samples collected from the roadside, under skytrain stations in Bangkok, was carried out to assess microbial counts (210 air samples) and particulate matter (PM10) levels (140 samples). The results reveal the mean +/- standard deviation bacterial counts and fungal counts were 406.8 +/- 302.7 cfu/m3 and 128.9 +/- 89.7 cfu/m3, respectively. The PM10 level was 186.1 +/- 188.1 microg/m3. When compared to recommended levels, 4.8% of air samples (10/210 samples) had bacterial counts more than recommended levels (> 1,000 cfu/ m3) and 27.1% (38/140 samples) had PM10 levels more than recommended levels (> 120 microg/m3). These may affect human health, especially of street venders who spend most of their working time in these areas.

  7. The Contribution of Marine Organics to the Air Quality of the Western United States

    EPA Science Inventory

    The contribution of marine organic emissions to the air quality in coastal areas of the western United States is studied using the latest version of the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) regional-scale Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQv4.7) modeling system. Emissions ...

  8. Open hardware air quality station for monitoring ozone in port area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Massabo, Marco; Lima, Marco; Fedi, Adriano; Ferrari, Daniele; Pintus, Fabio; Bruzzone, Gabriele

    2015-04-01

    Improve the quality of the air is one of the most important challenges we are facing especially in urban area. The open hardware paradigm can promote the positive connection of institution and scientific community with citizen. The goal of this work is to describe how a well-known pollution sensing technology, such as the electrochemical one, may be adopted in an open hardware paradigm in order to realize a ground level ozone sensor station. Our approach is to use this type of sensors to complement and empower traditional measuring networks in order to provide a better support to the models and to the identification of the pollution sources. The calibration methodology is based on the online coupling of new sensor measurements and observations of official network. Several linear calibration and a linear error correction algorithm based on temperature are performed and evaluated. The new air quality station allows to increase the frequency of sampling up to minutes and, due to the low cost, can stimulate the utilization by no-professionals. We test the air quality station in portal area and compare the results with traditional observations.

  9. 78 FR 49729 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; U.S. Air Force Launches, Aircraft and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-15

    ... Specified Activities; U.S. Air Force Launches, Aircraft and Helicopter Operations, and Harbor Activities Related to Launch Vehicles From Vandenberg Air Force Base (VAFB), California AGENCY: National Marine... has received a request from the U.S. Air Force (USAF) for authorization to take marine...

  10. Utö Atmospheric and Marine Research Station - a new Baltic Sea ICOS-site for sea-atmosphere research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laakso, Lauri; Laurila, Tuomas; Mäkelä, Timo; Hatakka, Juha; Purokoski, Tero; Hietala, Riikka; Roine, Tuomo; Jämsen, Pertti; Kielosto, Sami; Asmi, Eija; Lonka, Harry; Alenius, Pekka; Drebs, Achim; Seppälä, Jukka; Ylöstalo, Pasi; Tamminen, Timo

    2015-04-01

    Atmospheric research has developed a concept of focused, multidisciplinary, automated observation platforms with continuous high time resolution observations. This approach containing state-of-the-art equipment has enabled research on physical, chemical and biological processes and seasonal variability and showed up new, previously unknown phenomena. New technical and engineering solutions allowing, such approach is also state-of-the-art in marine research through projects like US Ocean Observatories Initiative (OOI), European Multidisciplinary Seafloor Observatory (EMSO), JERICO-NEXT and Japanese DONET. At the Baltic Sea, on Island of Utö (59° 46'50N, 21° 22'23E), Finnish Meteorological Institute has observed meteorology since 1881, marine parameters since 1900 and a diversity of atmospheric chemical and physical variables since 1980. Recent years the stations has also been upgraded with aerosol observations, and together with Finnish Environment Institute, on marine observations. The current and observations under construction at Utö Atmospheric and Marine Research Station (en.ilmatieteenlaitos.fi/uto. Marine observations: surface waves, ice-cover radar, temperature and salinity and oxygen at different depths, chlorophyll, cyanobacteria, underwater flows, turbidity, pCO2 and nutrients. Atmospheric observations: T, WS, WD, visibility, cloud height, boundary layer wind profiles and turbulence, weather and underwater camera, aerosol particle size distributions, aerosol light scattering and absorption, SO2, NOx, CO, O3, CO2, CH4, sea-atmosphere CO2- and heat fluxes. In our presentation, we present for the first time some 100 years of climate relevant atmospheric and marine observations from Utö.

  11. Environmental Assessment for Buckley Air Force Base Air Traffic Control Tower and Fire Station

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-05-01

    shows the location of the current air traffic control tower and crash house on the northeast side of the runway and the location of the proposed new...Army aviation site) and crash house located on the northeast side of the runway. This action would include demolishing the current air traffic...throughout the year with the wettest months occurring in spring and summer. The average annual precipitation is 16.3 inches. BAFB receives

  12. The Impact of Marine Organic Emissions on Coastal Air Quality of the Western US

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gantt, B.; Meskhidze, N.; Carlton, A. G.

    2009-12-01

    Several studies have shown that organic carbon aerosols (OC) are a major component of aerosols found in the marine boundary layer (MBL). Two distinct sources for these aerosols have been isolated using vertical gradients: 1) water insoluble OC aerosolized through bubble bursting of the organic surface layer, and 2) water soluble OC produced primarily from the oxidation of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOC) to form secondary organic aerosols (SOA). Additionally, these marine-source BVOC can also participate in ozone formation in coastal urban areas with high NOx concentrations. At the present, there has been little work quantifying the impact of marine BVOC emissions on coastal air quality, despite many coastal urban areas having some of the world’s most polluted air. In this work, we examine the impact of marine biogenic emissions to air quality over the Pacific coast of the US. Using the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model Version 4.7, we simulate both marine primary organic aerosols and SOA formed from phytoplankton-emitted isoprene. The CMAQ model simulations are performed for the months of June, July, and August 2005 over a domain including the western US at a horizontal resolution of 12 × 12 km2. A combination of remotely sensed data, laboratory measurements, and model meteorology are used to calculate the marine biogenic emissions, with marine isoprene added offline and primary OC simulated online. Our preliminary results show small increases in the surface concentrations of ozone and particulate matter less than 2.5 µm (PM2.5) near the coast when marine organic emissions are added. For coastal urban areas like Los Angeles and San Francisco, CA, average ozone concentrations increase ~0.1-0.2%, while PM2.5 concentrations increase up to 3% across much of the Pacific coastline. Organic aerosols with a marine source account for up to 50% (0.15 µg m-3) of the simulated average surface OC concentration over the open ocean, and contribute up

  13. FY 1994 ambient air monitoring report for McMurdo Station, Antarctica

    SciTech Connect

    Lugar, R.M.

    1994-12-01

    This report presents the results of ambient air monitoring performed during the 1994 fiscal year (FY 1994) in the vicinity of McMurdo Station, Antarctica. Routine monitoring was performed during the 1993-1994 austral summer at three locations for airborne particulate matter less than 10 micrometers (PM-10) and at two locations for carbon monoxide (CO), sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}), and nitrogen oxides (NO, NO{sub 2}, and NO{sub x}). Selected PM-10 filters were analyzed for arsenic, beryllium, cadmium, chromium, lead, mercury, and nickel. Additional air samples were collected at three McMurdo area locations and at Black Island for determination of the airborne concentration of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs). Sampling site selection, sampling procedures, and quality assurance procedures used were consistent with US Environmental Protection Agency guidance for local ambient air quality networks.

  14. Performance Evaluation of the Operational Air Quality Monitor for Water Testing Aboard the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wallace, William T.; Limero, Thomas F.; Gazda, Daniel B.; Macatangay, Ariel V.; Dwivedi, Prabha; Fernandez, Facundo M.

    2014-01-01

    In the history of manned spaceflight, environmental monitoring has relied heavily on archival sampling. For short missions, this type of sample collection was sufficient; returned samples provided a snapshot of the presence of chemical and biological contaminants in the spacecraft air and water. However, with the construction of the International Space Station (ISS) and the subsequent extension of mission durations, soon to be up to one year, the need for enhanced, real-time environmental monitoring became more pressing. The past several years have seen the implementation of several real-time monitors aboard the ISS, complemented with reduced archival sampling. The station air is currently monitored for volatile organic compounds (VOCs) using gas chromatography-differential mobility spectrometry (Air Quality Monitor [AQM]). The water on ISS is analyzed to measure total organic carbon and biocide concentrations using the Total Organic Carbon Analyzer (TOCA) and the Colorimetric Water Quality Monitoring Kit (CWQMK), respectively. The current air and water monitors provide important data, but the number and size of the different instruments makes them impractical for future exploration missions. It is apparent that there is still a need for improvements in environmental monitoring capabilities. One such improvement could be realized by modifying a single instrument to analyze both air and water. As the AQM currently provides quantitative, compound-specific information for target compounds present in air samples, and many of the compounds are also targets for water quality monitoring, this instrument provides a logical starting point to evaluate the feasibility of this approach. In this presentation, we will discuss our recent studies aimed at determining an appropriate method for introducing VOCs from water samples into the gas phase and our current work, in which an electro-thermal vaporization unit has been interfaced with the AQM to analyze target analytes at the

  15. Open hardware, low cost, air quality stations for monitoring ozone in coastal area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lima, Marco; Donzella, Davide; Pintus, Fabio; Fedi, Adriano; Ferrari, Daniele; Massabò, Marco

    2014-05-01

    Ozone concentrations in urban and coastal area are a great concern for citizens and, consequently regulator. In the last 20 years the Ozone concentration is almost doubled and it has attracted the public attention because of the well know harmful impacts on human health and biosphere in general. Official monitoring networks usually comprise high precision, high accuracy observation stations, usually managed by public administrations and environmental agency; unfortunately due to their high costs of installation and maintenance, the monitoring stations are relatively sparse. This kind of monitoring networks have been recognized to be unsuitable to effectively characterize the high variability of air quality, especially in areas where pollution sources are various and often not static. We present a prototype of a low cost station for air quality monitoring, specifically developed for complementing the official monitoring stations improving the representation of air quality spatial distribution. We focused on a semi-professional product that could guarantee the highest reliability at the lowest possible cost, supported by a consistent infrastructure for data management. We test two type of Ozone sensor electrochemical and metal oxide. This work is integrated in the ACRONET Paradigm ® project: an open-hardware platform strongly oriented on environmental monitoring. All software and hardware sources will be available on the web. Thus, a computer and a small amount of work tools will be sufficient to create new monitoring networks, with the only constraint to share all the data obtained. It will so possible to create a real "sensing community". The prototype is currently able to measure ozone level, temperature and relative humidity, but soon, with the upcoming changes, it will be able also to monitor dust, carbon monoxide and nitrogen dioxide, always through the use of commercial sensors. The sensors are grouped in a compact board that interfaces with a data

  16. Validation of AIRS V6 Surface Temperature over Greenland with GCN and NOAA Stations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Jae N.; Hearty, Thomas; Cullather, Richard; Nowicki, Sophie; Susskind, Joel

    2016-01-01

    This work compares the temporal and spatial characteristics of the AIRSAMSU (Atmospheric Infrared Sounder Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit A) Version 6 and MODIS (Moderate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) Collection 5 derived surface temperatures over Greenland. To estimate uncertainties in space-based surface temperature measurements, we re-projected the MODIS Ice Surface Temperature (IST) to 0.5 by 0.5 degree spatial resolution. We also re-gridded AIRS Skin Temperature (Ts) into the same grid but classified with different cloud conditions and surface types. These co-located data sets make intercomparison between the two instruments relatively straightforward. Using this approach, the spatial comparison between the monthly mean AIRS Ts and MODIS IST is in good agreement with RMS 2K for May 2012. This approach also allows the detection of any long-term calibration drift and the careful examination of calibration consistency in the MODIS and AIRS temperature data record. The temporal correlations between temperature data are also compared with those from in-situ measurements from GC-Net (GCN) and NOAA stations. The coherent time series of surface temperature evident in the correlation between AIRS Ts and GCN temperatures suggest that at monthly time scales both observations capture the same climate signal over Greenland. It is also suggested that AIRS surface air temperature (Ta) can be used to estimate the boundary layer inversion.

  17. Cape Canaveral Air Force Station integrated resource assessment. Volume 2, Baseline detail

    SciTech Connect

    Wahlstrom, R.R.; McMordie, K.L.; Parker, S.A.; King, D.A.; Sandusky, W.F.

    1993-12-01

    The US Air Force (USAF) has tasked the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL), in support of the US Department of Energy (DOE) Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP), to assess energy use at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station (AFS). The information obtained from this assessment will be used in identifying energy resource opportunities to reduce overall energy consumption by the station. The primary focus of this report is to assess the current baseline energy consumption at Cape Canaveral AFS. It is A companion report to Volume 1, the Executive Summary, and Volume 3, the Resource Assessment. This assessment requires that information be obtained and characterized for buildings, utilities, energy sources, energy uses, and load profiles to be used to improve the current energy system on the station. The characteristics of electricity, diesel fuel, No. 2 fuel oil, and motor vehicle gasoline (MOGAS) are analyzed for on-base facilities. The assessment examines basic regional information used to determine energy-use intensity (EUI) values for Cape Canaveral AFS facilities by building, fuel type, and energy end use. It also provides a summary of electricity consumption from Florida Power and Light Company (FPL) metered data for 1985--1991. Load profile information obtained from FPL data is presented for the North, South, and Titan Substations for the four seasons of the year, including weekdays and weekends.

  18. Categorisation of air quality monitoring stations by evaluation of PM(10) variability.

    PubMed

    Barrero, M A; Orza, J A G; Cabello, M; Cantón, L

    2015-08-15

    Air Quality Monitoring Networks (AQMNs) are composed by a number of stations, which are typically classified as urban, suburban or rural, and background, industrial or traffic, depending on the location and the influence of the immediate surroundings. These categories are not necessarily homogeneous and distinct from one another, regarding the levels of the monitored pollutants. A classification providing groups with these features is of interest for air quality management and research purposes, and therefore, other classification criteria should be explored. In this work, the variations of PM10 concentrations in 43 stations in the AQMN of the Basque Country in the period 2005-2012 have been studied to group them according to common characteristics. The characteristic variations in time are synthesised by the autocorrelation function (ACF), with both daily and hourly data, and by the average diurnal evolution pattern of the normalised concentrations on a seasonal basis (Evol-P). A methodology based on k-means clustering of these features is proposed. Each classification gives a different piece of information that has been phenomenologically related with specific dispersion and emission dynamics. The classification based on Evol-Ps is found to be the most influential one when comparing PM10 levels between groups. A combination of these categorisations provides 5 groups with significantly different levels of PM10, improving the discrimination of the conventional classification. Our results indicate that the time series of the pollutant concentrations contain enough information to provide an objective classification of the monitoring stations in an AQMN.

  19. Two major volcanic cooling episodes derived from global marine air temperature, AD 1807-1827

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chenoweth, Michael

    A new data set of global marine air temperature data for the years 1807-1827 is used to show the impact of volcanic eruptions in ˜ 1809 (unlocated) and 1815 (Tambora, Indonesia). Both eruptions produced cooling exceeding that after Krakatoa, Indonesia (1883) and Pinatubo, Philippines (1991). The ˜1809 eruption is dated to March-June 1808 based on a sudden cooling in Malaysian temperature data and maximum cooling of marine air temperature in 1809. Two large-scale calibrated proxy temperature records, one from tree-ring-density data, the other using multi-proxy sources are compared to the marine air temperature data. Correlation is highest with maximum latewood density data and lowest with the multi-proxy data.

  20. Cabin Air Quality On Board Mir and the International Space Station: A Comparison

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macatangay, Ariel; Perry, Jay L.

    2007-01-01

    The maintenance of the cabin atmosphere aboard spacecraft is critical not only to its habitability but also to its function. Ideally, air quality can be maintained by striking a proper balance between the generation and removal of contaminants. Both very dynamic processes, the balance between generation and removal can be difficult to maintain and control because the state of the cabin atmosphere is in constant evolution responding to different perturbations. Typically, maintaining a clean cabin environment on board crewed spacecraft and space habitats is the central function of the environmental control and life support (ECLS) system. While active air quality control equipment is deployed on board every vehicle to remove carbon dioxide, water vapor, and trace chemical components from the cabin atmosphere, perturbations associated with logistics, vehicle construction and maintenance, and ECLS system configuration influence the resulting cabin atmospheric quality. The air-quality data obtained from the International Space Station (ISS) and NASA-Mir programs provides a wealth of information regarding the maintenance of the cabin atmosphere aboard long-lived space habitats. A comparison of the composition of the trace chemical contaminant load is presented. Correlations between ground-based and in-flight operations that influence cabin atmospheric quality are identified and discussed, and observations on cabin atmospheric quality during the NASA-Mir expeditions and the International Space Station are explored.

  1. 47 CFR 80.519 - Station identification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... MARITIME SERVICES Private Coast Stations and Marine Utility Stations § 80.519 Station identification. (a...) Marine utility stations, private coast stations, and associated hand-held radios, when...

  2. OH and HO2 chemistry in clean marine air during SOAPEX-2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sommariva, R.; Haggerstone, A.-L.; Carpenter, L. J.; Carslaw, N.; Creasey, D. J.; Heard, D. E.; Lee, J. D.; Lewis, A. C.; Pilling, M. J.; Zádor, J.

    2004-01-01

    Model-measurement comparisons of HOx in extremely clean air ([NO]<3 ppt) are reported. Measurements were made during the second Southern Ocean Photochemistry Experiment (SOAPEX-2), held in austral summer 1999 at the Cape Grim Baseline Air Pollution Station in north-western Tasmania, Australia. The free-radical chemistry was studied using a zero-dimensional box-model based upon the Master Chemical Mechanism (MCM). Two versions of the model were used, with different levels of chemical complexity, to explore the role of hydrocarbons upon free-radical budgets under very clean conditions. The "detailed" model was constrained to measurements of CO, CH4 and 15 NMHCs, while the "simple" model contained only the CO and CH4 oxidation mechanisms, together with inorganic chemistry. The OH and HO2 (HOx) concentrations predicted by the two models agreed to within 5-10%. The model results were compared with the HOx concentrations measured by the FAGE (Fluorescence Assay by Gas Expansion) technique during four days of clean Southern Ocean marine boundary layer (MBL) air. The models overestimated OH concentrations by about 10% on two days and about 20% on the other two days. HO2 concentrations were measured during two of these days and the models overestimated the measured concentrations by about 40%. Better agreement with measured HO2 was observed by using data from several MBL aerosol measurements to estimate the aerosol surface area and by increasing the HO2 uptake coefficient to unity. This reduced the modelled HO2 overestimate by ~40%, with little effect on OH, because of the poor HO2 to OH conversion at the low ambient NOx concentrations. Local sensitivity analysis and Morris One-At-A-Time analysis were performed on the "simple" model, and showed the importance of reliable measurements of j(O1D) and [HCHO] and of the kinetic parameters that determine the efficiency of O(1D) to OH and HCHO to HO2 conversion. A 2σ standard deviation of 30-40% for OH and 25-30% for HO2 was

  3. EPIDEMIOLOGICAL AND ENTOMOLOGICAL CORRELATION OF MALARIA TRANSMISSION IN AN AIR FORCE STATION.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, A; Nayak, B

    2001-07-01

    An epidemio-entomological study was carried out at an Air Force Station located in a semi-hilly, forested, highly malarious, tribal belt in Central India. Malaria incidence for the period 1995-1998 showed highest incidence among DSC personnel. Entomological studies identified exophilic vectors (A culicifacies), whose bionomics coincided with outdoor nature of occupation of the DSC personnel. Active surveillance among neighbouring villages showed high endemicity particularly in the tribal villages. Heavy rainfall in 1997 had a slight inhibiting effect on transmission. Because of exophilism of the vectors and occupational hazard of malaria faced by the DSC personnel, personal protective measures hold the key to malaria control in this group.

  4. 3. AIR TO GROUND RADAR TYPE GT2122 & GRRR 2324, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. AIR TO GROUND RADAR TYPE GT2122 & GRRR 2324, CIRCA 1978, INTERIOR OF BUILDING 408, LOOKING WEST. - Mill Valley Air Force Station, Operations Building & Annex, East Ridgecrest Boulevard, Mount Tamalpais, Mill Valley, Marin County, CA

  5. 33 CFR 334.746 - U.S. Coast Guard, Destin Station at Eglin Air Force Base, Fla.; restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... at Eglin Air Force Base, Fla.; restricted area. 334.746 Section 334.746 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE DANGER ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.746 U.S. Coast Guard, Destin Station at Eglin Air Force Base, Fla.; restricted area. (a)...

  6. 33 CFR 334.746 - U.S. Coast Guard, Destin Station at Eglin Air Force Base, Fla.; restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... at Eglin Air Force Base, Fla.; restricted area. 334.746 Section 334.746 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE DANGER ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.746 U.S. Coast Guard, Destin Station at Eglin Air Force Base, Fla.; restricted area. (a)...

  7. Spatial and temporal variability of marine-origin matter along a transect from Zhongshan Station to Dome A, Eastern Antarctica.

    PubMed

    Li, Chuanjin; Xiao, Cunde; Shi, Guitao; Ding, Minghu; Qin, Dahe; Ren, Jiawen

    2016-08-01

    The spatiotemporal distribution pattern of marine-origin matter on the Antarctica ice sheet was used to study variations in the source regions, transport mechanisms and post-depositional influences. We present data on sea salt ions, sulfur components and stable isotopes from surface and snow pit samples collected along the transect route from Zhongshan Station to Dome A during the austral summer in 2012-2013. A general decreasing trend in the accumulation, sea salt ions and sulfur components occurred with increasing distance from the coast and increasing elevation. However, different sources of the marine components, transport pathways and post-depositional influences were responsible for their different spatial distribution patterns. The marine ions in the coastal snow pit varied seasonally, with higher sea salt ion concentrations in the winter and lower concentrations in the summer; the opposite pattern was found for the sulfur compounds. The sea ice area surrounding Antarctica was the main source region for the deposited sea salt and the open sea water for the sulfur compounds. No significant trends in the marine-origin components were detected during the past 3 decades. Several periods of elevated deposition of sea salt ions were associated with lower temperatures (based on δD and δ(18)O) or intensified wind fields. In comparison to the sea salt ions, the sulfur concentrations exhibited the opposite distribution patterns and were associated with changes in the surrounding sea ice extent.

  8. Marine Close Air Support in World War II

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    LCA Landing Craft Assault LCVP Landing Craft Vehicle and Personnel LD Line of Departure LST Landing Ship Tank LVT Landing Vehicle Tracked MAG Marine...transported by LVTs due to their limited number, and the remaining waves would be landed by flat bottom craft ( LCAs ). 2Smith, USMC, 500 Additional LVTs...Admiral Hill moved H-hour from 0800 to 0830 and ordered the loading of LVTs be resumed. Meanwhile, the counter battery fire from the US ships obscured

  9. Stationwide environmental baseline survey and related environmental factors, Ontario Air National Guard Station, California

    SciTech Connect

    1996-11-26

    This Environmental Baseline Survey (EBS) has been prepared to document the environmental condition of real property at Ontario Air National Guard Station (ANGS), California, resulting from the storage, release, and disposal of hazardous substances and petroleum products and their derivatives over the installations history. This EBS is also used by the Air Force to meet its obligations under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), 42 United States Code Section 9620(h), as amended by the Community Environmental Response Facilitation Act (CERFA) (Public Law 102-426). Table ES-1 list all uncontaminated property based on information obtained through a records search, interviews, and visual site inspections at Ontario ANGS. Figure ES-1 depicts their respective locations.

  10. The meteorological monitoring system for the Kennedy Space Center/Cape Canaveral Air Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dianic, Allan V.

    1994-01-01

    The Kennedy Space Center (KSC) and Cape Canaveral Air Station (CCAS) are involved in many weather-sensitive operations. Manned and unmanned vehicle launches, which occur several times each year, are obvious example of operations whose success and safety are dependent upon favorable meteorological conditions. Other operations involving NASA, Air Force, and contractor personnel, including daily operations to maintain facilities, refurbish launch structures, prepare vehicles for launch, and handle hazardous materials, are less publicized but are no less weather-sensitive. The Meteorological Monitoring System (MMS) is a computer network which acquires, processes, disseminates, and monitors near real-time and forecast meteorological information to assist operational personnel and weather forecasters with the task of minimizing the risk to personnel, materials, and the surrounding population. CLIPS has been integrated into the MMS to provide quality control analysis and data monitoring. This paper describes aspects of the MMS relevant to CLIPS including requirements, actual implementation details, and results of performance testing.

  11. 76 FR 10564 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; St. George Reef Light Station...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-25

    ... the Station's optical light system. The Station, which is listed in the National Park Service's... glazing); (3) maintenance activities (e.g., bulb replacement and automation of the light system); and (4) human presence, may have the potential to cause any pinnipeds hauled out on NWSR to flush into...

  12. Pollution prevention opportunity assessment United States Naval Base Norfolk Naval Air Station. Project summary

    SciTech Connect

    Bowman, D.; DeWaters, J.

    1995-09-01

    The purposes of the WREAFS Program are to identify new technologies and techniques for reducing wastes from process operations and other activities at Federal sites, and to enhance the implementation of pollution prevention/waste minimization through technology transfer. New techniques and technologies for reducing waste generation are identified through waste minimization opportunity assessments and may be further evaluated through joint research, development, and demonstration projects. A cooling tower is an enclosed device designed for the evaporative cooling of water by direct contact with air. Cooling towers are used in conjunction with air conditioning and industrial process equipment, acting as the heat sink for these systems by providing a continuous source of cool water for process operations. Open-system recirculating cooling towers are typically chosen for operation with air conditioning and refrigeration equipment because they are relatively inexpensive and minimize heat rejection costs while conserving water. All of the cooling towers at the Norfolk Naval Air Station identified in this PPOA are of the recirculating, open-system type. The Navy and EPA are currently evaluating techniques and technologies to reduce wastes generated from cooling tower operations within the Norfolk NAS. Approximately 28 open-system recirculating cooling towers are currently operated at 18 buildings within the NAS. These units range in size from 5 to 300 tons, and are all associated with comfort cooling systems that operate on a seasonal basis (approximately 6 mo/yr).

  13. 9 CFR 3.37 - Primary conveyances (motor vehicle, rail, air, and marine).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... °C) or higher. The ambient temperature within the animal cargo space shall not exceed 85 °F (29.5 °C... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Primary conveyances (motor vehicle, rail, air, and marine). 3.37 Section 3.37 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT...

  14. 9 CFR 3.62 - Primary conveyances (motor vehicle, rail, air, and marine).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... temperature in the animal cargo space is 75 °F (23.9 °C) or higher. The ambient temperature within the animal... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Primary conveyances (motor vehicle, rail, air, and marine). 3.62 Section 3.62 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT...

  15. International Space Station Common Cabin Air Assembly Condensing Heat Exchanger Hydrophilic Coating Failures and Lessons Learned

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Balistreri, Steven F.; Shaw, Laura A.; Laliberte, Yvon

    2010-01-01

    The ability to control the temperature and humidity of an environment or habitat is critical for human survival. These factors are important to maintaining human health and comfort, as well as maintaining mechanical and electrical equipment in good working order to support the human and to accomplish mission objectives. The temperature and humidity of the International Space Station (ISS) United States On-orbit Segment (USOS) cabin air is controlled by the Common Cabin Air Assembly (CCAA). The CCAA consists of a fan, a condensing heat exchanger (CHX), an air/water separator, temperature and liquid sensors, and electrical controlling hardware and software. The CHX is the primary component responsible for control of temperature and humidity. The CCAA CHX contains a chemical coating that was developed to be hydrophilic and thus attract water from the humid influent air. This attraction forms the basis for water removal and therefore cabin humidity control. However, there have been several instances of CHX coatings becoming hydrophobic and repelling water. When this behavior is observed in an operational CHX, the unit s ability to remove moisture from the air is compromised and the result is liquid water carryover into downstream ducting and systems. This water carryover can have detrimental effects on the cabin atmosphere quality and on the health of downstream hardware. If the water carryover is severe and widespread, this behavior can result in an inability to maintain humidity levels in the USOS. This paper will describe the operation of the five CCAAs within in the USOS, the potential causes of the hydrophobic condition, and the impacts of the resulting water carryover to downstream systems. It will describe the history of this behavior and the actual observed impacts to the ISS USOS. Information on mitigation steps to protect the health of future CHX hydrophilic coatings and potential remediation techniques will also be discussed.

  16. International Space Station Common Cabin Air Assembly Water Separator On-Orbit Operation, Failure, and Redesign

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Balistreri, Steven F., Jr.; Shaw, Laura A.; Laliberte, Yvon

    2010-01-01

    The ability to control the temperature and humidity of an environment or habitat is critical for human survival. These factors are important to maintaining human health and comfort, as well as maintaining mechanical and electrical equipment in good working order to support the human and to accomplish mission objectives. The temperature and humidity of the International Space Station (ISS) United States On-orbit Segment (USOS) cabin air is controlled by the Common Cabin Air Assembly (CCAA). The CCAA consists of a fan, a condensing heat exchanger (CHX), an air/water separator, temperature and liquid sensors, and electrical controlling hardware and software. The Water Separator (WS) pulls in air and water from the CHX, and centrifugally separates the mixture, sending the water to the condensate bus and the air back into the CHX outlet airstream. Two distinct early failures of the CCAA Water Separator in the Quest Airlock forced operational changes and brought about the re-design of the Water Separator to improve the useful life via modification kits. The on-orbit operational environment of the Airlock presented challenges that were not foreseen with the original design of the Water Separator. Operational changes were instituted to prolong the life of the third installed WS, while waiting for newly designed Water Separators to be delivered on-orbit. The modification kit design involved several different components of the Water Separator, including the innovative use of a fabrication technique to build the impellers used in Water Separators out of titanium instead of aluminum. The technique allowed for the cost effective production of the low quantity build. This paper will describe the failures of the Water Separators in the Quest Airlock, the operational constraints that were implemented to prolong the life of the installed Water Separators throughout the USOS, and the innovative re-design of the CCAA Water Separator.

  17. Transformation of Air Quality Monitor Data from the International Space Station into Toxicological Effect Groups

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    James, John T.; Zalesak, Selina M.

    2011-01-01

    The primary reason for monitoring air quality aboard the International Space Station (ISS) is to determine whether air pollutants have collectively reached a concentration where the crew could experience adverse health effects. These effects could be near-real-time (e.g. headache, respiratory irritation) or occur late in the mission or even years later (e.g. cancer, liver toxicity). Secondary purposes for monitoring include discovery that a potentially harmful compound has leaked into the atmosphere or that air revitalization system performance has diminished. Typical ISS atmospheric trace pollutants consist of alcohols, aldehydes, aromatic compounds, halo-carbons, siloxanes, and silanols. Rarely, sulfur-containing compounds and alkanes are found at trace levels. Spacecraft Maximum Allowable Concentrations (SMACs) have been set in cooperation with a subcommittee of the National Research Council Committee on Toxicology. For each compound and time of exposure, the limiting adverse effect(s) has been identified. By factoring the analytical data from the Air Quality Monitor (AQM), which is in use as a prototype instrument aboard the ISS, through the array of compounds and SMACs, the risk of 16 specific adverse effects can be estimated. Within each adverse-effect group, we have used an additive model proportioned to each applicable 180-day SMAC to estimate risk. In the recent past this conversion has been performed using archival data, which can be delayed for months after an air sample is taken because it must be returned to earth for analysis. But with the AQM gathering in situ data each week, NASA is in a position to follow toxic-effect groups and correlate these with any reported crew symptoms. The AQM data are supplemented with data from real-time CO2 instruments aboard the ISS and from archival measurements of formaldehyde, which the AQM cannot detect.

  18. Assessing relocation strategies of urban air quality monitoring stations by GA-based compromise programming.

    PubMed

    Tseng, C C; Chang, N B

    2001-06-01

    This paper presents a GA-based compromise programming technique for assessing the relocation strategy of urban air quality monitoring network with respect to the multi-objective and multi-pollutant design criteria. While the impact of conservative, quasi-stable, and reactive pollutants are considered in the design principles via a simulation analysis, cost, effectiveness, and efficiency characteristics are postulated in the optimization process. Therefore, technical coverage for illustrating the needs of siting air quality monitoring stations (AQMS) includes both the air quality simulation and optimization modeling analyses in a two-stage analytical framework simultaneously. It starts from determining the spatial interrelationship among those candidate sites using various types of air quality simulation models as an integrated means. And the outputs drawn from the simulation models can then be used as the required inputs in the compromise programming model in order to screen all those siting alternatives that may satisfy the planning goals subject to the essential constraints throughout the multi-objective optimization process. For the illustrating purposes, a series of technical settings for finding the optimal relocation scenarios of AQMS were examined in the case study for the city of Kaohsiung in South Taiwan where the long-term violations of official standards of ozone and particulates turn out to be critical. It not only expresses the ideas of relocation strategy but also indicates how to utilize those alternatives in the decision-making process for improving the functionality of air quality monitoring in the urban environment. Experience gained in this study clearly indicates that the more the number of pollutants and objectives considered simultaneously, the higher the number of candidate sites to be selected in the relocation strategy.

  19. Remodeling the Marine Air Traffic Control Officer Training Progression

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-01-07

    Skill RFC/TGC, National Airspace, Combat Airspace, FAA/ICAO [WTI MMT Leader’s Crs, Airspace Management Crs] [ MAJIC , ATC Manager’s Crs, Joint Air... MAJIC (Multi-TADIL Joint Interoperability Course) MOS Qualifications & WTI MMT Leaders Course & Airspace Management WTI C3 Course or ATC Facility...Manager’s Crs MAJIC or JTIDS or Terminal Instrument Procedures Crs (TERPS) ATC School Initial MOS Training at MCAS Det Cmdr JAOSC/JATOPC MEU

  20. Microbial Air and Surface Monitoring Results from International Space Station Samples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ott, C. Mark; Bruce, Rebekah J.; Castro, Victoria A.; Novikova, Natalia D.; Pierson, D. L.

    2005-01-01

    Over the course of long-duration spaceflight, spacecraft develop a microbial ecology that directly interacts with the crew of the vehicle. While most microorganisms are harmless or beneficial to the inhabitants of the vehicle, the presence of medically significant organisms appearing in this semi-closed environment could adversely affect crew health and performance. The risk of exposure of the crew to medically significant organisms during a mission is estimated using information gathered during nominal and contingency environmental monitoring. Analysis of the air and surface microbiota in the habitable compartments of the International Space Station (ISS) over the last four years indicate a high presence of Staphylococcus species reflecting the human inhabitants of the vehicle. Generally, air and surface microbial concentrations are below system design specifications, suggesting a lower risk of contact infection or biodegradation. An evaluation of sample frequency indicates a decrease in the identification of new species, suggesting a lower potential for unknown microorganisms to be identified. However, the opportunistic pathogen, Staphylococcus aureus, has been identified in 3 of the last 5 air samples and 5 of the last 9 surface samples. In addition, 47% of the coagulase negative Staphylococcus species that were isolated from the crew, ISS, and its hardware were found to be methicillin resistance. In combination, these observations suggest the potential of methicillin resistant infectious agents over time.

  1. Evaluation of the Air Quality Monitor's Performance on the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Limero, Thomas; Reese, Eric; Ballard, Ken; Durham, Tamara

    2010-01-01

    The Air Quality Monitor (AQM) was flown to the International Space Station (ISS) as an experiment to evaluate its potential to replace the aging Volatile Organic Analyzer (VOA), which ceased operations in August 2009. The AQM (Figure 1) is a small gas chromatography/differential mobility spectrometer (GC/DMS) manufactured by Sionex. Data was presented at last year s ISIMS conference that detailed the preparation of the AQM for flight, including instrument calibration. Furthermore, initial AQM data was compared to VOA results from simultaneous runs of the two instruments. Although comparison with VOA data provided a measure of confidence in the AQM performance, it is the comparison with results from simultaneously acquired air samples (grab sample containers-GSCs) that will define the success (or failure) of the AQM performance. This paper will update the progress in the AQM investigation by comparing AQM data to results from the analyses of GSC samples, returned from ISS. Additionally, a couple of example will illustrate the AQM s ability to detect disruptions in the spacecraft s air quality. Discussion will also focus upon a few unexpected issues that have arisen and how these will be a addressed in the final operational unit now being built.

  2. Mortality of Inshore Marine Mammals in Eastern Australia Is Predicted by Freshwater Discharge and Air Temperature

    PubMed Central

    Meager, Justin J.; Limpus, Colin

    2014-01-01

    Understanding environmental and climatic drivers of natural mortality of marine mammals is critical for managing populations effectively and for predicting responses to climate change. Here we use a 17-year dataset to demonstrate a clear relationship between environmental forcing and natural mortality of inshore marine mammals across a subtropical-tropical coastline spanning a latitudinal gradient of 13° (>2000 km of coastline). Peak mortality of inshore dolphins and dugongs followed sustained periods of elevated freshwater discharge (9 months) and low air temperature (3 months). At a regional scale, these results translated into a strong relationship between annual mortality and an index of El Niño-Southern Oscillation. The number of cyclones crossing the coastline had a comparatively weak effect on inshore marine mammal mortality, and only in the tropics. Natural mortality of offshore/migratory cetaceans was not predicted by freshwater discharge, but was related to lagged air temperature. These results represent the first quantitative link between environmental forcing and marine mammal mortality in the tropics, and form the basis of a predictive tool for managers to prepare responses to periods of elevated marine mammal mortality. PMID:24740149

  3. Mortality of inshore marine mammals in eastern Australia is predicted by freshwater discharge and air temperature.

    PubMed

    Meager, Justin J; Limpus, Colin

    2014-01-01

    Understanding environmental and climatic drivers of natural mortality of marine mammals is critical for managing populations effectively and for predicting responses to climate change. Here we use a 17-year dataset to demonstrate a clear relationship between environmental forcing and natural mortality of inshore marine mammals across a subtropical-tropical coastline spanning a latitudinal gradient of 13° (>2000 km of coastline). Peak mortality of inshore dolphins and dugongs followed sustained periods of elevated freshwater discharge (9 months) and low air temperature (3 months). At a regional scale, these results translated into a strong relationship between annual mortality and an index of El Niño-Southern Oscillation. The number of cyclones crossing the coastline had a comparatively weak effect on inshore marine mammal mortality, and only in the tropics. Natural mortality of offshore/migratory cetaceans was not predicted by freshwater discharge, but was related to lagged air temperature. These results represent the first quantitative link between environmental forcing and marine mammal mortality in the tropics, and form the basis of a predictive tool for managers to prepare responses to periods of elevated marine mammal mortality.

  4. STS 129 Return Samples: Assessment of Air Quality aboard the Shuttle (STS-129) and International Space Station (ULF3)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    James, John T.

    2010-01-01

    Reports on the air quality aboard the Space Shuttle (STS-129), and the International Space station (ULF3). NASA analyzed the grab sample canisters (GSCs) and the formaldehyde badges aboard both locations for carbon monoxide levels. The three surrogates: (sup 13)C-acetone, fluorobenzene, and chlorobenzene registered 109, 101, and 109% in the space shuttle and 81, 87, and 55% in the International Space Station (ISS). From these results the atmosphere in both the Space Shuttle and the International Space Station (ISS) was found to be breathable.

  5. Force Reconnaissance: A Key Enabler in the Marine Air Ground Task Force and Beyond

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-03-13

    Marine Air Ground Task N/A Force & Beyond Sb. GRANT NUMBER N/A Sc. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER N/A 6. AUTHOR( S ) Sd. PROJECT NUMBER Carr, Bradford R...Major, USMC N/A Se. TASK NUMBER N/A Sf. WORK UNIT NUMBER N/A 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME( S ) AND ADDRESS(ES) 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION USMC...Command and Staff College REPORT NUMBER Marine Corps University N/A 2076 South Street Quantico, VA 22134-5068 9. SPONSORING/MONITORING AGENCY NAME( S

  6. Wastewater characterization survey, O'Hare International Airport (IAP), Air Reserve Station, Illinois. Final report, 13-24 April 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Acker, A.M.; Fields, M.K.; Davis, R.P.

    1993-02-01

    A wastewater characterization survey was conducted by members of the Armstrong Laboratory Occupational and Environmental Health Directorate Water Quality Function from 13-24 April 1992 at O'Hare International Airport (IAP)-Air Reserve Station, Illinois. The purpose of this survey was to identify and characterize the wastewater. Results of the sampling showed the use of industrial chemicals is being well controlled. The base should be commended for good shop practices to minimize the disposal of industrial waste through the sanitary sewerage system.... O'Hare International Airport (IAP)-Air Reserve Station, Illinois, Wastewater characterization.

  7. Evaluation of prototype air/fluid separator for Space Station Freedom Health Maintenance Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Billica, Roger; Smith, Maureen; Murphy, Linda; Kizzee, Victor D.

    1991-01-01

    A prototype air/fluid separator suction apparatus proposed as a possible design for use with the Health Maintenance Facility aboard Space Station Freedom (SSF) was evaluated. A KC-135 parabolic flight test was performed for this purpose. The flights followed the standard 40 parabola profile with 20 to 25 seconds of near-zero gravity in each parabola. A protocol was prepared to evaluate the prototype device in several regulator modes (or suction force), using three fluids of varying viscosity, and using either continuous or intermittent suction. It was felt that a matrixed approach would best approximate the range of utilization anticipated for medical suction on SSF. The protocols were performed in one-gravity in a lab setting to familiarize the team with procedures and techniques. Identical steps were performed aboard the KC-135 during parabolic flight.

  8. Determination of On-Orbit Cabin Air Loss from the International Space Station (ISS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, David E.; Leonard, Daniel J.; Smith, Patrick J.

    2004-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) loses cabin atmosphere mass at some rate. Due to oxygen partial pressures fluctuations from metabolic usage, the total pressure is not a good data source for tracking total pressure loss. Using the nitrogen partial pressure is a good data source to determine the total on-orbit cabin atmosphere loss from the ISS, due to no nitrogen addition or losses. There are several important reasons to know the daily average cabin air loss of the ISS including logistics planning for nitrogen and oxygen. The total average daily cabin atmosphere loss was estimated from January 14 to April 9 of 2003. The total average daily cabin atmosphere loss includes structural leakages, Vozdukh losses, Carbon Dioxide Removal Assembly (CDRA) losses, and other component losses. The total average daily cabin atmosphere loss does not include mass lost during Extra-Vehicular Activities (EVAs), Progress dockings, Space Shuttle dockings, calibrations, or other specific one-time events.

  9. Assessment of Fleet Inventory for Naval Air Station Whidbey Island. Task 1

    SciTech Connect

    Schey, Stephen; Francfort, Jim

    2015-06-01

    Task 1includes a survey of the inventory of non-tactical fleet vehicles at Naval Air Station Whidbey Island (NASWI) to characterize the fleet. This information and characterization are used to select vehicles for monitoring that takes place during Task 2. This monitoring involves data logging of vehicle operation in order to identify the vehicle’s mission and travel requirements. Individual observations of these selected vehicles provide the basis for recommendations related to PEV adoption. It also identifies whether a battery electric vehicle or plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (collectively referred to as PEVs) can fulfill the mission requirements and provide observations related to placement of PEV charging infrastructure. This report provides the results of the assessments and observations of the current non-tactical fleet, fulfilling the Task 1 requirements.

  10. The measurement of Peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN) in the regional background marine boundary air, Baengyeong Island, South Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, G.; Choi, H.; Lee, T.; Lee, D.; Park, J.; Jang, S.

    2010-12-01

    Concurrent measurements of Peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN), other photochemically reactive species including O3, CO, NO, NOy, selected species of non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHCs), and aerosol chemical (water soluble ionic species, OC/EC, trace metals) compositions were made in an atmospheric monitoring station in Baengyeong Island from Aug. 2nd to 14th of 2010. This island is located at the far western part of Korea in the middle of Yellow Sea between China and Korea. PAN was determined every 3 minutes by a fast chromatograph with luminol-based chemiluminescence detection. Mixing ratios of PAN ranged from the below the detection limit of 0.005 to 1.04 ppb with an average of 0.09 ppb. Over the same period, hourly averaged O3 ranged from 0 to 63 ppb (average of 32 ppb). Although our measurements were made over the relatively clean marine boundary air, significant and rapid increases of PAN were frequently observed. These increases of PAN were coincided with increases of its precursors and wind pattern changes. After detailed analysis of aerosol compositions using local wind variation, back-trajectory and synoptic analysis of air masses, the degree of influences and chemistry related with PAN from surrounding land areas, China, South Korea and North Korea will be identified. Also, the role of PAN and other reactive nitrogen species to ozone formation and its transport over the Yellow Sea are planned to be addressed.

  11. 75 FR 4774 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; St. George Reef Light Station...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-29

    ... further in this IHA. California (southern) sea otters (Enhydra lutris nereis) usually range in coastal waters within two km of shore. However, sea otters are not present on NWSR (Crescent Coastal Research..., including invertebrates, fish, sea turtles, seabirds, sea otters, and marine mammals and their...

  12. Enhancing the Value and Sustainability of Field Stations and Marine Laboratories in the 21st Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Academies Press, 2014

    2014-01-01

    For over a century, field stations have been important entryways for scientists to study and make important discoveries about the natural world. They are centers of research, conservation, education, and public outreach, often embedded in natural environments that range from remote to densely populated urban locations. Because they lack…

  13. The JPL Electronic Nose: Monitoring Air in the US Lab on the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryan, M. A.; Manatt, K. S.; Gluck, S.; Shevade, A. V.; Kisor, A. K.; Zhou, H.; Lara, L. M.; Homer, M. L.

    2010-01-01

    An electronic nose with a sensor array of 32 conductometric sensors has been developed at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) to monitor breathing air in spacecraft habitat. The Third Generation ENose is designed to operate in the environment of the US Lab on the International Space Station (ISS). It detects a selected group of analytes at target concentrations in the ppm regime at an environmental temperature range of 18 - 30 oC, relative humidity from 25 - 75% and pressure from 530 to 760 torr. The monitoring targets are anomalous events such as leaks and spills of solvents, coolants or other fluids. The JPL ENose operated as a technology demonstration for seven months in the U.S. Laboratory Destiny during 2008-2009. Analysis of ENose monitoring data shows that there was regular, periodic rise and fall of humidity and occasional releases of Freon 218 (perfluoropropane), formaldehyde, methanol and ethanol. There were also several events of unknown origin, half of them from the same source. Each event lasted from 20 to 100 minutes, consistent with the air replacement time in the US Lab.

  14. The Marine Air-Ground Team: Still Not Adequately Training for the Urban Fight/The Marine Air-Ground Team: Still Not Adequately Trained for the Urban Fight

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-02-01

    1 The Marine Air-Ground Team: Still Not Adequately Training for the Urban Fight Subject Area Training EWS 2006...The Marine Air-Ground Team: Still Not Adequately Training for the Urban Fight Submitted by Captain RC Rybka to Majors GC Schreffler and RR...estimated to average 1 hour per response , including the time for reviewing instructions, searching existing data sources, gathering and maintaining the

  15. Effect of stratospheric ozone depletion and enhanced ultraviolet radiation on marine bacteria at Palmer Station, Antarctica in the early austral spring.

    PubMed

    Pakulski, J Dean; Kase, Jason P; Meador, Jarah A; Jeffrey, Wade H

    2008-01-01

    We investigated the interactions between ozone-depleted air masses and subsequent changes in UVB on marine bacterial abundance and production at Palmer Station, Antarctica from September to November 1999. During periods of low total column ozone (TCO), bacterial cell concentrations declined by 57%. Photoinhibition of bacterial [(3)H]-leucine (Leu) and [(3)H]-thymidine (TdR) incorporation due to UVB was greatest during periods of low TCO in September and early October. During diel ( approximately 28 h) exposure experiments, light treatment samples exhibited >75-100% inhibition of TdR incorporation by mid-afternoon. Leu incorporation exhibited maximum inhibition (50-100%) at sunset and early evening hours. Leu and TdR incorporation in light treatment samples did not exhibit recovery during subsequent periods of darkness. Bacterial Leu and TdR incorporation rates were inversely related to Setlow Dose during a period of recovery from low TCO. These data further suggested a threshold exposure below which bacterial Leu and TdR incorporation recovered rapidly. Recovery of bacterial production after acute Setlow Dose exposures lagged recovery of TCO and was linearly related to TCO measured 2 days previously. This lag in recovery may have resulted from the energetically expensive repair of UVR-induced DNA damage acquired during periods of low TCO.

  16. Impact of secondary inorganic aerosol and road traffic at a suburban air quality monitoring station.

    PubMed

    Megido, L; Negral, L; Castrillón, L; Fernández-Nava, Y; Suárez-Peña, B; Marañón, E

    2017-03-15

    thermal power station) and mobile sources in the air quality at the suburban site under study, with important apportionments of particulate matter coming from road traffic and as consequence of releasing precursor gases of secondary particles to the atmosphere.

  17. Environmental Assessment: Construction of Fire/Crash Rescue Station at Niagara Falls Air Reserve Station, New York

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-03-01

    wells. Water is stored and moves mainly in secondary fractures . Minerals in solution are calcite, dolomite , gypsum, and halite, resulting in hard and...fossiliferous" with 400 feet of deposits, including dolomite , limestone, shale, and sandstone, from diverse environments ranging from nonmaritime...system, and telephone system. 15.1.3.4. Low pressure air compressor, air storage tanks, and distribution system in the apparatus bays. 15.1 .3 .5

  18. 78 FR 22529 - Information on Surplus Land at a Military Installation Designated for Disposal: Naval Air Station...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-16

    ... Department of the Navy Information on Surplus Land at a Military Installation Designated for Disposal: Naval...: This notice provides information on withdrawal of surplus property at Naval Air Station Alameda, Alameda, California. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Ms. Laura Duchnak, Director, Naval...

  19. 33 CFR 334.595 - Atlantic Ocean off Cape Canaveral; 45th Space Wing, Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, FL...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Atlantic Ocean off Cape Canaveral; 45th Space Wing, Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, FL; restricted area. 334.595 Section 334.595... AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.595 Atlantic Ocean off Cape Canaveral; 45th Space Wing,...

  20. 33 CFR 334.595 - Atlantic Ocean off Cape Canaveral; 45th Space Wing, Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, FL...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Atlantic Ocean off Cape Canaveral; 45th Space Wing, Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, FL; restricted area. 334.595 Section 334.595... AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.595 Atlantic Ocean off Cape Canaveral; 45th Space Wing,...

  1. 33 CFR 334.595 - Atlantic Ocean off Cape Canaveral; 45th Space Wing, Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, FL...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Atlantic Ocean off Cape Canaveral; 45th Space Wing, Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, FL; restricted area. 334.595 Section 334.595... AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.595 Atlantic Ocean off Cape Canaveral; 45th Space Wing,...

  2. Space Station Freedom seal leakage rate analysis and testing summary: Air leaks in ambient versus vacuum exit conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rodriguez, P. I.; Markovitch, R.

    1992-01-01

    This report is intended to reveal the apparent relationship of air seal leakage rates between 2 atmospheres (atm) to 1 atm and 1 atm to vacuum conditions. Gas dynamics analysis is provided as well as data summarizing the MSFC test report, 'Space Station Freedom (S.S. Freedom) Seal Flaw Study With Delta Pressure Leak Rate Comparison Test Report'.

  3. 78 FR 66904 - Notice of Availability of Record of Decision for Naval Air Station Key West Airfield Operations, FL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-07

    ...The United States Department of the Navy, after carefully weighing the strategic, operational and environmental consequences of the proposed action, announces its decision to support and conduct airfield operations at Naval Air Station (NAS) Key West by accomplishing the proposed action as set out in Alternative 2. Alternative 2 will provide for the transition from legacy aircraft to next......

  4. 33 CFR 334.595 - Atlantic Ocean off Cape Canaveral; 45th Space Wing, Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, FL...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Atlantic Ocean off Cape Canaveral; 45th Space Wing, Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, FL; restricted area. 334.595 Section 334.595... AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.595 Atlantic Ocean off Cape Canaveral; 45th Space Wing,...

  5. 33 CFR 334.595 - Atlantic Ocean off Cape Canaveral; 45th Space Wing, Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, FL...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Atlantic Ocean off Cape Canaveral; 45th Space Wing, Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, FL; restricted area. 334.595 Section 334.595... AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.595 Atlantic Ocean off Cape Canaveral; 45th Space Wing,...

  6. Superfund Record of Decision (EPA Region 4): Naval Air Station Cecil Field, Operable Unit 6, Jacksonville, FL, September 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-09-01

    The site name is the Golf Course Pesticide Disposal Area, Site 11, Operable Unit (OU) 6. The site is located in a wooded area between the 11th fairway and the 17th green at the Naval Air Station (NAS) Cecil Field golf course, Jacksonville, Florida. The purpose of the interim remedial action is to remove buried containers of pesticides and associated contaminated soil.

  7. Elemental composition and radical formation potency of PM10 at an urban background station in Germany in relation to origin of air masses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hellack, Bryan; Quass, Ulrich; Beuck, Henning; Wick, Gabriele; Kuttler, Wilhelm; Schins, Roel P. F.; Kuhlbusch, Thomas A. J.

    2015-03-01

    At an urban background station in Mülheim-Styrum, North Rhine Westphalia, Germany, a set of 75 PM10 samples was collected over a one year period, followed by analyses for mass, chemical composition and hydroxyl radical (OHrad) formation potency. Additionally, the origin of air masses for the sampling days was calculated by 48-h backward trajectories, subdivided into the four cardinal sectors. Significant lower PM10 mass concentrations were observed for summertime air masses from the west compared to the other seasons and cardinal sectors. For the OHrad formation potency higher values were detected if air masses originate from east and south, thus predominantly being of continental origin. From the elevated OHrad formation potencies in fall and winter a seasonal trend with low potencies in summers is assumed. Furthermore, source apportionment was performed by a positive matrix factor analysis, separating seven plausible factors which could be attributed to mineral dust, secondary nitrate, industry, non-exhaust traffic, fossil fuel combustion, marine aerosol and secondary aerosol factors. The intrinsic OHrad formation potency was found to be associated mainly with the fossil fuel combustion factor (45%) and industry factor (22%).

  8. Biomass burning emissions of trace gases and particles in marine air at Cape Grim, Tasmania, 41° S

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawson, S. J.; Keywood, M. D.; Galbally, I. E.; Gras, J. L.; Cainey, J. M.; Cope, M. E.; Krummel, P. B.; Fraser, P. J.; Steele, L. P.; Bentley, S. T.; Meyer, C. P.; Ristovski, Z.; Goldstein, A. H.

    2015-07-01

    Biomass burning (BB) plumes were measured at the Cape Grim Baseline Air Pollution Station during the 2006 Precursors to Particles campaign, when emissions from a fire on nearby Robbins Island impacted the station. Measurements made included non methane organic compounds (NMOCs) (PTR-MS), particle number size distribution, condensation nuclei (CN) > 3 nm, black carbon (BC) concentration, cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) number, ozone (O3), methane (CH4), carbon monixide (CO), hydrogen (H2), carbon dioxide (CO2), nitrous oxide (N2O), halocarbons and meteorology. During the first plume strike event (BB1), a four hour enhancement of CO (max ~ 2100 ppb), BC (~ 1400 ng m-3) and particles > 3 nm (~ 13 000 cm-3) with dominant particle mode of 120 nm were observed overnight. Dilution of the plume resulted in a drop in the dominant particle mode to 50 nm, and then growth to 80 nm over 5 h. This was accompanied by an increase in O3, suggesting that photochemical processing of air and condensation of low volatility oxidation products may be driving particle growth. The ability of particles > 80 nm (CN80) to act as CCN at 0.5 % supersaturation was investigated. The ΔCCN / ΔCN80 ratio was lowest during the fresh BB plume (56 %), higher during the particle growth event (77 %) and higher still (104 %) in background marine air. Particle size distributions indicate that changes to particle chemical composition, rather than particle size, are driving these changes. Hourly average CCN during both BB events were between 2000-5000 CCN cm-3, which were enhanced above typical background levels by a factor of 6-34, highlighting the dramatic impact BB plumes can have on CCN number in clean marine regions. During the 29 h of the second plume strike event (BB2) CO, BC and a range of NMOCs including acetonitrile and hydrogen cyanide (HCN) were clearly enhanced and some enhancements in O3 were observed (ΔO3 / ΔCO 0.001-0.074). A shortlived increase in NMOCs by a factor of 10 corresponded

  9. An Analysis of Manpower Requirements for the United States Marine Corps Tiers II and III Unmanned Aerial Systems Family of Systems Program

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-06-01

    Vehicle squadrons (VMU). VMU-1 is located at Marine Corps Air Ground Combat Center (MCAGCC), 29 Palms , CA and VMU-2 is located at Marine Corps Air...on January 1987, a new unit, 1st RPV Company, was activated at Marine Corps Air-Ground Combat Center (MCAGCC) 29 Palms , California, as part of the...Marine Aircraft Wing.13 VMU-1 is located at the Marine Corps Air-Ground Combat Center (MCAGCC) 29 Palms , CA. VMU-2 is located at Marine Corps Air Station

  10. Magnetic properties of atmospheric particulate matter from automatic air sampler stations in Latium (Italy): Toward a definition of magnetic fingerprints for natural and anthropogenic PM10 sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sagnotti, Leonardo; Macrı, Patrizia; Egli, Ramon; Mondino, Manlio

    2006-12-01

    Environmental problems linked to the concentration of atmospheric particulate matter with dimensions less than 10 μm (PM10) in urban settings have stimulated a variety of scientific researches. This study reports a systematic analysis of the magnetic properties of PM10 samples collected by six automatic stations installed for air quality monitoring through the Latium Region (Italy). We measured the low-field magnetic susceptibility of daily air filters collected during the period July 2004 to July 2005. For each station, we derived an empirical linear correlation linking magnetic susceptibility to the concentration of PM10 produced by local sources (i.e., in absence of significant inputs of exogenous dust). An experimental approach is suggested for estimating the percentage of nonmagnetic PM10 transported from natural far-sided sources (i.e., dust from North Africa and marine aerosols). Moreover, we carried out a variety of additional magnetic measurements to investigate the magnetic mineralogy of selected air filters spanning representative periods. The results indicate that the magnetic fraction of PM10 is composed by a mixture of low-coercivity, magnetite-like, ferrimagnetic particles with a wide spectrum of grain sizes, related to a variety of natural and anthropogenic sources. The natural component of PM10 has a characteristic magnetic signature that is indistinguishable from that of eolian dust. The anthropogenic PM10 fraction is mostly originated from circulating vehicles and is a mixture of prevailing fine superparamagnetic particles and subordinate large multidomain grains; the former are more directly related to exhaust, whereas the latter may be associated to abrasion of metallic parts.

  11. Nanosecond-level time synchronization of autonomous radio detector stations for extensive air showers

    SciTech Connect

    Aab, Alexander

    2016-01-29

    To exploit the full potential of radio measurements of cosmic-ray air showers at MHz frequencies, a detector timing synchronization within 1 ns is needed. Large distributed radio detector arrays such as the Auger Engineering Radio Array (AERA) rely on timing via the Global Positioning System (GPS) for the synchronization of individual detector station clocks. Unfortunately, GPS timing is expected to have an accuracy no better than about 5 ns. In practice, in particular in AERA, the GPS clocks exhibit drifts on the order of tens of ns. We developed a technique to correct for the GPS drifts, and an independent method used for cross-checks that indeed we reach nanosecond-scale timing accuracy by this correction. First, we operate a “beacon transmitter” which emits defined sine waves detected by AERA antennas recorded within the physics data. The relative phasing of these sine waves can be used to correct for GPS clock drifts. In addition to this, we observe radio pulses emitted by commercial airplanes, the position of which we determine in real time from Automatic Dependent Surveillance Broadcasts intercepted with a software-defined radio. From the known source location and the measured arrival times of the pulses we determine relative timing offsets between radio detector stations. We demonstrate with a combined analysis that the two methods give a consistent timing calibration with an accuracy of 2 ns or better. Consequently, the beacon method alone can be used in the future to continuously determine and correct for GPS clock drifts in each individual event measured by AERA.

  12. Nanosecond-level time synchronization of autonomous radio detector stations for extensive air showers

    DOE PAGES

    Aab, Alexander

    2016-01-29

    To exploit the full potential of radio measurements of cosmic-ray air showers at MHz frequencies, a detector timing synchronization within 1 ns is needed. Large distributed radio detector arrays such as the Auger Engineering Radio Array (AERA) rely on timing via the Global Positioning System (GPS) for the synchronization of individual detector station clocks. Unfortunately, GPS timing is expected to have an accuracy no better than about 5 ns. In practice, in particular in AERA, the GPS clocks exhibit drifts on the order of tens of ns. We developed a technique to correct for the GPS drifts, and an independentmore » method used for cross-checks that indeed we reach nanosecond-scale timing accuracy by this correction. First, we operate a “beacon transmitter” which emits defined sine waves detected by AERA antennas recorded within the physics data. The relative phasing of these sine waves can be used to correct for GPS clock drifts. In addition to this, we observe radio pulses emitted by commercial airplanes, the position of which we determine in real time from Automatic Dependent Surveillance Broadcasts intercepted with a software-defined radio. From the known source location and the measured arrival times of the pulses we determine relative timing offsets between radio detector stations. We demonstrate with a combined analysis that the two methods give a consistent timing calibration with an accuracy of 2 ns or better. Consequently, the beacon method alone can be used in the future to continuously determine and correct for GPS clock drifts in each individual event measured by AERA.« less

  13. Nanosecond-level time synchronization of autonomous radio detector stations for extensive air showers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The Pierre Auger Collaboration

    2016-01-01

    To exploit the full potential of radio measurements of cosmic-ray air showers at MHz frequencies, a detector timing synchronization within 1 ns is needed. Large distributed radio detector arrays such as the Auger Engineering Radio Array (AERA) rely on timing via the Global Positioning System (GPS) for the synchronization of individual detector station clocks. Unfortunately, GPS timing is expected to have an accuracy no better than about 5 ns. In practice, in particular in AERA, the GPS clocks exhibit drifts on the order of tens of ns. We developed a technique to correct for the GPS drifts, and an independent method is used to cross-check that indeed we reach a nanosecond-scale timing accuracy by this correction. First, we operate a ``beacon transmitter'' which emits defined sine waves detected by AERA antennas recorded within the physics data. The relative phasing of these sine waves can be used to correct for GPS clock drifts. In addition to this, we observe radio pulses emitted by commercial airplanes, the position of which we determine in real time from Automatic Dependent Surveillance Broadcasts intercepted with a software-defined radio. From the known source location and the measured arrival times of the pulses we determine relative timing offsets between radio detector stations. We demonstrate with a combined analysis that the two methods give a consistent timing calibration with an accuracy of 2 ns or better. Consequently, the beacon method alone can be used in the future to continuously determine and correct for GPS clock drifts in each individual event measured by AERA.

  14. 77 FR 4917 - Taking and Importing Marine Mammals: U.S. Navy Training in 12 Range Complexes and U.S. Air Force...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-01

    ... Marine Mammals: U.S. Navy Training in 12 Range Complexes and U.S. Air Force Space Vehicle and Test Flight... marine mammals incidental to U.S. Air Force (USAF) space vehicle and test flight activities from... marine mammals incidental to USAF space vehicle and test flight activities from VAFB in California....

  15. Impacts of Microbial Growth on the Air Quality of the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macatangay, Ariel V.; Bruce, Rebekah J.

    2010-01-01

    An understanding of the various sources of non-methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOCs) is one facet to ensuring the habitability of crewed spacecraft. Even though the International Space Station (ISS) atmosphere is relatively well characterized in terms of what is in the atmosphere and approximately how much, linking the majority of these trace contaminants detected to their source is virtually impossible. Albeit a few of can be associated to a single source, the majority of these trace contaminants have their origins from multiple sources. On crewed spacecraft such as ISS, trace contaminants are broadly categorized as either coming from equipment, which includes systems and payloads, or from the metabolic processes of the crew members. Such widely encompassing categories clearly illustrate the difficulty in linking air contaminants to their source(s). It is well known that microbial growth in ISS can flourish if left unchecked. Although processes are in place to limit microbial growth, in reality, microbial growth has pervaded the habitable environment of ISS. This is simply a consequence of having crewed spacecraft, as humans are the largest contributor to the bioload. As with crew members, microbes also have metabolic processes which, in many ways, are comparable to human metabolism. As such, it can be expected that microbial growth can lead to the release of volatile organic compounds into the ISS atmosphere. Given a large enough microbial population, the impact to the air quality of ISS can be potentially large. A survey of the microbiology found in ISS will be presented as well as the possible types of volatile organic compounds that can result from such organisms. This will be correlated to the observations provided by ground-based analysis of ISS atmosphere samples

  16. Monitoring of the Atmosphere on the International Space Station with the Air Quality Monitor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wallace William T.; Limero, Thomas F.; Loh, Leslie J.; Mudgett, Paul D.; Gazda, Daniel B.

    2017-01-01

    During the early years of human spaceflight, short duration missions allowed for monitoring of the spacecraft environment to be performed via archival sampling, in which samples were returned to Earth for analysis. With the construction of the International Space Station (ISS) and the accompanying extended mission durations, the need for enhanced, real-time monitors became apparent. The Volatile Organic Analyzer (VOA) operated on ISS for 7 years, where it assessed trace volatile organic compounds in the cabin air. The large and fixed-position VOA was eventually replaced with the smaller Air Quality Monitor (AQM). Since March 2013, the atmosphere of the U.S. Operating Segment (USOS) has been monitored in near real-time by a pair of AQMs. These devices consist of a gas chromatograph (GC) coupled with a differential mobility spectrometer (DMS) and currently target detection list of 22 compounds. These targets are of importance to both crew health and the Environmental Control and Life Support Systems (ECLSS) on ISS. Data is collected autonomously every 73 hours, though the units can be controlled remotely from mission control to collect data more frequently during contingency or troubleshooting operations. Due to a nominal three-year lifetime on-orbit, the initial units were replaced in February 2016. This paper will focus on the preparation and use of the AQMs over the past several years. A description of the technical aspects of the AQM will be followed by lessons learned from the deployment and operation of the first set of AQMs. These lessons were used to improve the already-excellent performance of the instruments prior to deployment of the replacement units. Data trending over the past several years of operation on ISS will also be discussed, including data obtained during a survey of the USOS modules. Finally, a description of AQM use for contingency and investigative studies will be presented.

  17. Impacts of Microbial Growth on the Air Quality of the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macatangay, Ariel V.; Bruce, Rebekah J.

    2009-01-01

    An understanding of the various sources of non-methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOCs) is one facet to ensuring the habitability of crewed spacecraft. Even though the International Space Station (ISS) atmosphere is relatively well characterized in terms of what is in the atmosphere and approximately how much, linking the majority of these trace contaminants detected to their source is virtually impossible. Albeit a few of can be associated to a single source, the majority of these trace contaminants have their origins from multiple sources. On crewed spacecraft such as ISS, trace contaminants are broadly categorized as either coming from equipment, which includes systems and payloads, or from the metabolic processes of the crew members. Such widely encompassing categories clearly illustrate the difficulty in linking air contaminants to their source(s). It is well known that microbial growth in ISS can flourish if left unchecked. Although processes are in place to limit microbial growth, in reality, microbial growth has pervaded the habitable environment of ISS. This is simply a consequence of having crewed spacecraft, as humans are the largest contributor to the bioload. As with crew members, microbes also have metabolic processes which, in many ways, are comparable to human metabolism. As such, it can be expected that microbial growth can lead to the release of volatile organic compounds into the ISS atmosphere. Given a large enough microbial population, the impact to the air quality of ISS can be potentially large. A survey of the microbiology found in ISS will be presented as well as the possible types of volatile organic compounds that can result from such organisms. This will be correlated to the observations provided by ground-based analysis of ISS atmosphere samples.

  18. Field investigation source area ST58 old Quartermaster service station, Eielson Air Force Base, Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Liikala, T.L.; Evans, J.C.

    1995-01-01

    Source area ST58 is the site of the old Quartermaster service station at Eielson Air Force Base, Alaska. The source area is one of several Source Evaluation Report sites being investigated by Pacific Northwest Laboratory for the US Air Force as candidates for no further remedial action, interim removal action, or a remedial investigation/feasibility study under a Federal Facilities Agreement. The purpose of this work was to characterize source area ST58 and excavate the most contaminated soils for use in composting treatability studies. A field investigation was conducted to determine the nature and extent of soil contamination. The field investigation entailed a records search; grid node location, surface geophysical, and soil gas surveys; and test pit soil sampling. Soil excavation followed based on the results of the field investigation. The site was backfilled with clean soil. Results from this work indicate close spatial correlation between screening instruments, used during the field investigation and soil excavation, and laboratory analyses. Gasoline was identified as the main subsurface contaminant based on the soil gas surveys and test pit soil sampling. A center of contamination was located near the northcentral portion of the source area, and a center was located in the northwestern comer. The contamination typically occurred near or below a former soil horizon probably as a result of surface spills and leaks from discontinuities and/or breaks in the underground piping. Piping locations were delineated during the surface geophysical surveys and corresponded very well to unscaled drawings of the site. The high subsurface concentrations of gasoline detected in the northwestern comer of the source area probably reflect ground-water contamination and/or possibly floating product.

  19. Cape Canaveral Air Force Station integrated resource assessment. Volume 3, Resource assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Sandusky, W.F.; Eichman, C.J.; King, D.A.; McMordie, K.L.; Parker, S.A.; Shankle, S.A.; Wahlstrom, R.R.

    1994-03-01

    The U.S. Air Force (USAF) has tasked the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) in support of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP), to identify, evaluate, and assist in acquiring all cost-effective energy projects at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station (AFS). Projects considered can be either in the form of energy management or energy conservation. The overall efforts of this task are based on a model program PNL is designing to support energy-use decisions in the federal sector. This report provides the results of the fossil fuel and electric energy resource opportunity (ERO) assessments performed by PNL at Cape Canaveral AFS, which is located approximately 10 miles north of Cocoa Beach, Florida. It is a companion report to Volume 1: Executive Summary and Volume 2: Baseline Detail. The results of the analyses of EROs are presented in 11 common energy end-use categories (e.g., boilers and furnaces, service hot water, and building lighting). A narrative description of each ERO is provided, including information on the installed cost, energy and dollar savings, impacts on operations and maintenance (O&M), and, when applicable, a discussion of energy supply and demand, energy security, and environmental issues. Descriptions of the evaluation methodologies and technical and cost assumptions are also provided for each ERO. Summary tables present the cost- effectiveness of energy end-use equipment before and after the implementation of each ERO and present the results of the life-cycle cost (LCC) analysis, indicating the net present value (NPV) and savings-to-investment ratio (SIR) of each ERO.

  20. Bird Activity Analysis Using Avian Radar Information in Naval Air Station airport, WA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, J.; Herricks, E.

    2010-12-01

    The number of bird strikes on aircraft has increased sharply over recent years and airport bird hazard management has gained increasing attention in wildlife management and control. Evaluation of bird activity near airport is very critical to analyze the hazard of bird strikes. Traditional methods for bird activity analysis using visual counting provide a direct approach to bird hazard assessment. However this approach is limited to daylight and good visual conditions. Radar has been proven to be a useful and effective tool for bird detection and movement analysis. Radar eliminates observation bias and supports consistent data collection for bird activity analysis and hazard management. In this study bird activity data from the Naval Air Station Whidbey Island was collected by Accipiter Avian Radar System. Radar data was pre-processed by filtering out non-bird noises, including traffic vehicle, aircraft, insects, wind, rainfall, ocean waves and so on. Filtered data is then statistically analyzed using MATLAB programs. The results indicated bird movement dynamics in target areas near the airport, which includes (1) the daily activity varied at dawn and dusk; (2) bird activity varied by target area due to the habitat difference; and (3) both temporal and spatial movement patterns varied by bird species. This bird activity analysis supports bird hazard evaluation and related analysis and modeling to provide very useful information in airport bird hazard management planning.

  1. International Space Station Air Quality Assessed According to Toxicologically-Grouped Compounds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    James, John T.; Limero, Thomas F.; Beck, Steve; Cheng, Patti F.; deVera, Vanessa J.; Hand, Jennifer; Macatangay, Ariel

    2010-01-01

    Scores of compounds are found in the International Space Station (ISS) atmospheric samples that are returned to the Johnson Space Center Toxicology Laboratory for analysis. Spacecraft Maximum Allowable Concentrations (SMACs) are set with the view that each compound is present as if there were no other compounds present. In order to apply SMACs to the interpretation of the analytical data, the toxicologist must employ some method of combining the potential effects of the aggregate of compounds found in the atmospheric samples. The simplest approach is to assume that each quantifiable compound has the potential for some effect in proportion to the applicable SMAC, and then add all the proportions. This simple paradigm disregards the fact that most compounds have potential to adversely affect only a few physiological systems, and their effects would be independent rather than additive. An improved approach to dealing with exposure to mixtures is to add the proportions only for compounds that adversely affect the same physiological system. For example, toxicants that cause respiratory irritation are separated from those that cause neurotoxicity or cardio-toxicity. Herein we analyze ISS air quality data according to toxicological groups with a view that this could be used for understanding any crew symptoms occurring at the time of the sample acquisition. In addition, this approach could be useful in post-flight longitudinal surveys where the flight surgeon may need to identify post-flight, follow-up medical studies because of on-orbit exposures that target specific physiological systems.

  2. Association between air pollution and hospital admission: Case study at three monitoring stations in Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zahari, Marina; Zin@Ibrahim, Wan Zawiah Wan; Ismail, Noriszura; Ni, Tan Hui

    2014-06-01

    The relationships between the exposure of pollutants towards hospitalized admission and mortality have been identified in several studies on Asian cities such as Taipei, Bangkok and Tokyo. In Malaysia, evidence on the health risks associated with exposure to pollutants is limited. In this study, daily time-series data were analysed to estimate risks of cardiovascular and respiratory hospitalized admissions associated with particulate matter ≤ 10 μm (PM10), carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen dioxide, sulphur dioxide, and ozone concentrations in Klang Valley during 2004-2009. Daily counts of hospital admissions for cardiovascular and respiratory outcomes were obtained from eleven hospitals while pollutants data were taken from several air quality monitoring stations located nearest to the hospitals. These data were fitted with Generalised Additive Poisson regression models. Additionally, temperature, humidity, and time data were also included to allow for potential effect of weather and time-varying influences on hospital admissions. CO showed the most significant (P < 0.05) relationship to cardiovascular admissions. An increment of 1 ppm in CO predicted an increase of 4% to 20% in cardiovascular admissions. Respiratory admissions were associated with PM10, which had about 1% increase in risk of admission per 10 ug/m3 increment in PM10. Exposure to CO and PM10 increases the risk of hospitalization for cardiovascular and respiratory illnesses in Klang Valley, Malaysia.

  3. International Space Station Air Quality Assessed According to Toxicologically-Grouped Compounds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    James, John T.; Limero, Tom; DeVera, Vanessa; Cheng, Patti; Hand, Jennifer; Macatangay, Ariel; Beck, Steve

    2009-01-01

    Scores of compounds are found in the International Space Station (ISS) atmospheric samples that are returned to the Johnson Space Center Toxicology Laboratory for analysis. Spacecraft Maximum Allowable Concentrations (SMACs) are set with the view that each compound is present as if there were no other compounds present. In order to apply SMACs to the interpretation of the analytical data, the toxicologist must employ some method of combining the potential effects of the aggregate of compounds found in the atmospheric samples. The simplest approach is to assume that each quantifiable compound has the potential for some effect in proportion to the applicable SMAC, and then add all the proportions. This simple paradigm disregards the fact that most compounds have potential to adversely affect only a few physiological systems, and their effects would be independent rather than additive. An improved approach to dealing with exposure to mixtures is to add the proportions only for compounds that adversely affect the same physiological system. For example, toxicants that cause respiratory irritation are separated from those that cause neurotoxicity or cardio-toxicity. Herein we analyze ISS air quality data according to toxicological groups with a view that this could be used for understanding any crew symptoms occurring at the time of the sample. In addition, this approach could be useful in post-flight longitudinal surveys where the flight surgeon may need to identify post-flight, follow-up medical studies because of on-orbit exposures that target specific physiological systems.

  4. Electric Vehicle Preparedness - Implementation Approach for Electric Vehicles at Naval Air Station Whidbey Island. Task 4

    SciTech Connect

    Schey, Stephen; Francfort, Jim

    2015-06-01

    Several U.S. Department of Defense base studies have been conducted to identify potential U.S. Department of Defense transportation systems that are strong candidates for introduction or expansion of plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs). This study is focused on the Naval Air Station Whidbey Island (NASWI) located in Washington State. Task 1 consisted of a survey of the non-tactical fleet of vehicles at NASWI to begin the review of vehicle mission assignments and types of vehicles in service. In Task 2, daily operational characteristics of vehicles were identified to select vehicles for further monitoring and attachment of data loggers. Task 3 recorded vehicle movements in order to characterize the vehicles’ missions. The results of the data analysis and observations were provided. Individual observations of the selected vehicles provided the basis for recommendations related to PEV adoption, i.e., whether a battery electric vehicle (BEV) or plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) (collectively PEVs) can fulfill the mission requirements. It also provided the basis for recommendations related to placement of PEV charging infrastructure. This report focuses on an implementation plan for the near-term adoption of PEVs into the NASWI fleet.

  5. A Peak Wind Probability Forecast Tool for Kennedy Space Center and Cape Canaveral Air Force Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crawford, Winifred; Roeder, William

    2008-01-01

    This conference abstract describes the development of a peak wind forecast tool to assist forecasters in determining the probability of violating launch commit criteria (LCC) at Kennedy Space Center (KSC) and Cape Canaveral Air Force Station (CCAFS) in east-central Florida. The peak winds are an important forecast element for both the Space Shuttle and Expendable Launch Vehicle (ELV) programs. The LCC define specific peak wind thresholds for each launch operation that cannot be exceeded in order to ensure the safety of the vehicle. The 45th Weather Squadron (45 WS) has found that peak winds are a challenging parameter to forecast, particularly in the cool season months of October through April. Based on the importance of forecasting peak winds, the 45 WS tasked the Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) to develop a short-range peak-wind forecast tool to assist in forecasting LCC violatioas.The tool will include climatologies of the 5-minute mean end peak winds by month, hour, and direction, and probability distributions of the peak winds as a function of the 5-minute mean wind speeds.

  6. Extent and etiology of aeromedical duty restrictions at a U.S. Coast Guard air station.

    PubMed

    Ungs, T J

    1991-10-01

    Aircrew are subject to flight and duty restrictions for various health-related problems. The major classifications of aeromedical limitations in the US Coast Guard are: Fit For Limited Duty (FFLD), fit for Duty Not Involving Flying (DNIF), and Sick In Quarters (SIQ). I studied the etiology and distribution of these restrictions among aircrew at a busy Coast Guard Air Station. Data were collected over a 6-month period from personnel Health Records and various medical reporting systems. A total of 391 health care episodes among 179 (56.6%) flight crew resulted in 1,961 days of flight/duty restriction. There were 1,349 (68.8%) days of DNIF, 439 (22.4%) days of FFLD, and 173 (8.8%) days of SIQ. The annual crude rate of restrictions per flight crew is 12.4 d. The most common causes for flight or duty restriction were infectious diseases of the respiratory and gastrointestinal tract and musculoskeletal problems. In conclusion, aeromedical flight/duty restrictions are substantial and have impact on flight crew availability.

  7. Severe Weather Tool using 1500 UTC Cape Canaveral Air Force Station Soundings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauman, William H., III

    2013-01-01

    People and property at Kennedy Space Center (KSC) and Cape Canaveral Air Force Station (CCAFS) are at risk when severe weather occurs. Strong winds, hail and tornadoes can injure individuals and cause costly damage to structures if not properly protected. NASA's Launch Services Program and Ground Systems Development and Operations Program and other KSC programs use the daily and weekly severe weather forecasts issued by the 45th Weather Squadron (45 WS) to determine if they need to limit an activity such as working on gantries, or protect property such as a vehicle on a pad. The 45 WS requested the Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) develop a warm season (May-September) severe weather tool for use in the Meteorological Interactive Data Display System (MIDDS) based on the late morning, 1500 UTC (1100 local time), CCAFS (XMR) sounding. The 45 WS frequently makes decisions to issue a severe weather watch and other severe weather warning support products to NASA and the 45th Space Wing in the late morning, after the 1500 UTC sounding. The results of this work indicate that certain stability indices based on the late morning XMR soundings can depict differences between days with reported severe weather and days with no reported severe weather. The AMU determined a frequency of reported severe weather for the stability indices and implemented an operational tool in MIDDS.

  8. Response of London's urban heat island to a marine air intrusion in an easterly wind regime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chemel, C.; Sokhi, R. S.

    2010-09-01

    London is long known to develop a pronounced urban heat island (UHI) resulting primarily from the storage of heat in the urban fabric during the day and released during the night, the differences in thermal and radiative properties of the surface between urban and rural areas, and lack of evapotranspiration in urban areas. Under calm, clear, and dry weather conditions, the difference in near-surface air temperature between two representative urban centre and rural locations at a given time typically reaches several degrees (i.e. warming) during the night and can be negative (i.e. cooling) during the day. Like the majority of large cities in the world, London is located in a coastal area. On certain occasions cooler marine air from the North Sea is advected across London by a sea breeze or easterly winds. In our work we examine the effects of a marine air intrusion, in an easterly wind regime, on the structure of London's UHI for a case study on 7 May 2008. For this purpose, numerical simulations with the Weather Research and Forecast (WRF) model are performed for multiple nested domains with the innermost domain covering London and its rural surroundings at the kilometre scale. A sensitivity study is undertaken to assess how the categorisation of the urban land use and the parameterisation of the urban canopy in the model affect its performance characteristics for the near-surface air temperature field. The categorisation of the urban landuse, according to the fractional area that is built-up within each grid cell, is found to be key to capturing the spatial pattern of the temperature field. Using a multilayer rather than single layer urban canopy model improves the representation of the variability of the pattern and the intensity of the UHI. A notable outcome of this work is that the inclusion of building anthropogenic fluxes is comparatively less important as regards model performance for near-surface air temperature. The effects of the marine air intrusion on

  9. Study of surface ozone at Port Blair, India, a remote marine station in the Bay of Bengal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mandal, T. K.; Peshin, S. K.; Sharma, C.; Gupta, Prabhat Kumar; Raj, Rachit; Sharma, S. K.

    2015-07-01

    This paper presents seasonal variation of surface ozone monitored continuously at site of the meteorological observatory at Port Blair, a maritime site of the Bay of Bengal for the period of August, 2005-March, 2007. Present observation depicts the characteristics of surface ozone at the remote marine site and the long range transport of pollutants from three different sides i.e., Indian Subcontinent, South East Asia and Indian Ocean. Very high ozone mixing ratio (~70-80 ppbv) is occasionally observed during March and November at this site. A campaign mode of observation of trace gases (surface ozone, CO, NOx, CO2), aerosol concentration and its size, UV radiation at Port Blair was made to understand the role of transport on pollutants during March 16-26, 2002. During this period of observation, a near zero surface ozone of different time scales (~few hours) has been observed several times during the period of midnight to early morning. Simultaneously NOx (NO+NO2) (~40 ppbv) and carbon monoxide was observed very high (300-600 ppbv) during this period. Source of this high pollutant are not expected at this remote marine sites although wind patterns, 7-days isentropic back Trajectory analysis and MATCH Model output suggest that polluted air mass has come from eastern side of Indian subcontinent.

  10. Data Quality Objectives Supporting Radiological Air Emissions Monitoring for the Marine Sciences Laboratory, Sequim Site

    SciTech Connect

    Barnett, J. Matthew; Meier, Kirsten M.; Snyder, Sandra F.; Antonio, Ernest J.; Fritz, Brad G.; Poston, Theodore M.

    2012-12-27

    This document of Data Quality Objectives (DQOs) was prepared based on the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Guidance on Systematic Planning Using the Data Quality Objectives Process, EPA, QA/G4, 2/2006 (EPA 2006), as well as several other published DQOs. The intent of this report is to determine the necessary steps required to ensure that radioactive emissions to the air from the Marine Sciences Laboratory (MSL) headquartered at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory’s Sequim Marine Research Operations (Sequim Site) on Washington State’s Olympic Peninsula are managed in accordance with regulatory requirements and best practices. The Sequim Site was transitioned in October 2012 from private operation under Battelle Memorial Institute to an exclusive use contract with the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Pacific Northwest Site Office.

  11. Distribution of Clostridium perfringens and fecal sterols in a benthic coastal marine environment influenced by the sewage outfall from McMurdo Station, Antarctica.

    PubMed

    Edwards, D D; McFeters, G A; Venkatesan, M I

    1998-07-01

    The spatial distribution, movement, and impact of the untreated wastewater outfall from McMurdo Station, Antarctica, were investigated under early austral summer conditions. The benthic environment was examined to determine the distribution of Clostridium perfringens in sediment cores and the intestinal contents of native invertebrates and fish along a transect of stations. These stations extended ca. 411 m south of the outfall. The findings revealed that the concentration of C. perfringens decreased with depth in the sediment and distance from the outfall. High percentages of tunicates and sea urchins were colonized with this bacterium along the transect. Coprostanol concentrations were also measured in sediment samples taken from each of the transect stations, and a similar trend was observed. These results are in agreement with the findings of previous studies performed with the water column and collectively provide evidence that the disposal of domestic wastes deserves special consideration in polar marine environments.

  12. 47 CFR 80.519 - Station identification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... MARITIME SERVICES Private Coast Stations and Marine Utility Stations § 80.519 Station identification. (a) Stations must identify transmissions by announcing in the English language the station's assigned call sign...) Marine utility stations, private coast stations, and associated hand-held radios, when...

  13. Investigations of an air starting motor of marine medium-speed diesel engine with numerical analyses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Yeon Won; Choi, Yoon Hwan; Doh, Deog Hee

    2010-04-01

    The marine medium-speed diesel engines are started by two methods; one is the electric motors, and the other air starting motors. Even though air starting motor is dependent of the engine types and sizes, it has been widely used in this area due to its simplicity, convenience and reliability. The purpose of this paper is to give the designing parameters in order to make a proper "Air Starting Motor" using CFD. The aerodynamic approaches were given to understand the internal flow characteristics of the air starting motor. In addition, we have carried out the investigation of effects of tip clearance. In the calculations the tip clearance of air starting motor has been varied between 0, 2.8, 4.3 and 5.7% of blade span. The results of computation are the tip clearance increased to 2.8%, the torque decreased 24%, and there was no more large changes when the clearances increased to 4.3% and 5.7%.

  14. Estimating the effect of air pollution from a coal-fired power station on the development of children's pulmonary function.

    PubMed

    Dubnov, Jonathan; Barchana, Micha; Rishpon, Shmuel; Leventhal, Alex; Segal, Isaac; Carel, Rafael; Portnov, Boris A

    2007-01-01

    Using geographical information systems (GIS) tools, the present study analyzed the association between children's lung function development and their long-term exposure to air pollution. The study covered the cohort of 1492 schoolchildren living in the vicinity of a major coal-fired power station in the Hadera sub-district of Israel. In 1996 and 1999, the children underwent subsequent pulmonary function tests (PFT) (forced vital capacity (FVC) and forced expiratory volume during the first second (FEV(1))), and the children's parents completed a detailed questionnaire on their health status and household characteristics. A negative association was found between changes in the results of PFT and the estimated individual levels of air pollution. A sensitivity test revealed a FEV(1) decline from -4.3% for the average pollution level to -10.2% for the high air pollution level. The results of a sensitivity test for FVC were found to be similar. Association with the reported health status was found to be insignificant. As we conclude, air pollution from a coal-fired power station, although not exceeding local pollution standards, had a negative effect on children's lung function development. As argued, previous studies carried out in the region failed to show the above association because they were based on zone approaches that assign average concentration levels of air pollutants to all individuals in each zone, leading to a misclassification bias of individual exposure.

  15. Study on the stability of waterpower-speed control system for hydropower station with air cushion surge chamber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, W. C.; Yang, J. D.; Chen, J. P.; Teng, Y.

    2014-03-01

    According to the fact that the effects of penstock, unit and governor on stability of water level fluctuation for hydropower station with air cushion surge chamber are neglected in previous researches, in this paper, Thoma assumption is broken through, the complete mathematical model of waterpower-speed control system for hydropower station with air cushion surge chamber is established, and the comprehensive transfer function and linear homogeneous differential equation that characterize the dynamic characteristics of system are derived. The stability domain that characterizes the good or bad of stability quantitatively is drawn by using the stability conditions. The effects of the fluid inertia in water diversion system, the air cushion surge chamber parameters, hydraulic turbine characteristics, generator characteristics, and regulation modes of governor on the stability of waterpower-speed control system are analyzed through stability domain. The main conclusions are as follows: The fluid inertia in water diversion system and hydraulic turbine characteristics have unfavorable effects on the system while generator characteristics have favorable effect. The stability keeps getting better with the increase of chamber height and basal area and the decrease of air pressure and air polytropic exponent. The stability of power regulation mode is obviously better than that of frequency regulation mode.

  16. Final Environmental Assessment Construction of New Recreational Lodging at Bellows Air Force Station O’ahu, Hawai’i

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-10-01

    groundwater resources occurring within the ROI. Surface water includes lakes , streams and drainage ways, and near-shore coastal waters. Groundwater...former runway at Bellows Air Force Station. Based on the distance from the Mr. Ronnie Lanier 2 project site (0.5 miles) to the Oxbow wetland and...Waimanalo Community is geographically isolated from the Enchanted Lakes , Kailua, Lanikai, Hawaii Kai and Manoa communities by mountains. This fact is not

  17. Forecasting Cool Season Daily Peak Winds at Kennedy Space Center and Cape Canaveral Air Force Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barrett, Joe, III; Short, David; Roeder, William

    2008-01-01

    The expected peak wind speed for the day is an important element in the daily 24-Hour and Weekly Planning Forecasts issued by the 45th Weather Squadron (45 WS) for planning operations at Kennedy Space Center (KSC) and Cape Canaveral Air Force Station (CCAFS). The morning outlook for peak speeds also begins the warning decision process for gusts ^ 35 kt, ^ 50 kt, and ^ 60 kt from the surface to 300 ft. The 45 WS forecasters have indicated that peak wind speeds are a challenging parameter to forecast during the cool season (October-April). The 45 WS requested that the Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) develop a tool to help them forecast the speed and timing of the daily peak and average wind, from the surface to 300 ft on KSC/CCAFS during the cool season. The tool must only use data available by 1200 UTC to support the issue time of the Planning Forecasts. Based on observations from the KSC/CCAFS wind tower network, surface observations from the Shuttle Landing Facility (SLF), and CCAFS upper-air soundings from the cool season months of October 2002 to February 2007, the AMU created multiple linear regression equations to predict the timing and speed of the daily peak wind speed, as well as the background average wind speed. Several possible predictors were evaluated, including persistence, the temperature inversion depth, strength, and wind speed at the top of the inversion, wind gust factor (ratio of peak wind speed to average wind speed), synoptic weather pattern, occurrence of precipitation at the SLF, and strongest wind in the lowest 3000 ft, 4000 ft, or 5000 ft. Six synoptic patterns were identified: 1) surface high near or over FL, 2) surface high north or east of FL, 3) surface high south or west of FL, 4) surface front approaching FL, 5) surface front across central FL, and 6) surface front across south FL. The following six predictors were selected: 1) inversion depth, 2) inversion strength, 3) wind gust factor, 4) synoptic weather pattern, 5) occurrence of

  18. Evaluation of geophysical logs, Phase I, at Willow Grove Naval Air Station, Montgomery County, Pennsylvania

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Conger, R.W.

    1997-01-01

    Between April and June 1997, the U.S. Navy contracted Brown and Root Environmental, Inc., to drill 20 monitor wells at the Willow Grove Naval Air Station in Horsham Township, Montgomery County, Pa. The wells were installed to monitor water levels and allow collection of water samples from shallow, intermediate, and deep water-bearing zones. Analysis of the samples will determine the horizontal and vertical distribution of any contaminated ground water migrating from known contaminant sources. Eight wells were drilled near the Fire Training Area (Site 5), five wells near the 9th Street Landfill (Site 3), four wells at the Antenna Field Landfill (Site 2), and three wells near Privet Road Compound (Site 1). Depths range from 73 to 167 feet below land surface. The U.S. Geological Survey conducted borehole-geophysical and borehole-video logging to identify water-bearing zones so that appropriate intervals could be screened in each monitor well. Geophysical logs were run on the 20 monitor wells and 1 existing well. Video logs were run on 16 wells. Caliper and video logs were used to locate fractures, inflections on fluid-temperature and fluid-resistivity logs were used to locate possible water-bearing fractures, and flowmeter measurements verified these locations. Single-point-resistance and natural-gamma logs provided information on stratigraphy. After interpretation of geophysical logs, video logs, and driller's notes, all wells were screened such that water-level fluctuations could be monitored and discrete water samples collected from one or more shallow and intermediate water-bearing zones in each borehole.

  19. Monitoring Direct Effects of Delta, Atlas, and Titan Launches from Cape Canaveral Air Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmalzer, Paul A.; Boyle, Shannon R.; Hall, Patrice; Oddy, Donna M.; Hensley, Melissa A.; Stolen, Eric D.; Duncan, Brean W.

    1998-01-01

    Launches of Delta, Atlas, and Titan rockets from Cape Canaveral Air Station (CCAS) have potential environmental effects that could arise from direct impacts of the launch exhaust (e.g., blast, heat), deposition of exhaust products of the solid rocket motors (hydrogen chloride, aluminum oxide), or other effects such as noise. Here we: 1) review previous reports, environmental assessments, and environmental impact statements for Delta, Atlas, and Titan vehicles and pad areas to clarity the magnitude of potential impacts; 2) summarize observed effects of 15 Delta, 22 Atlas, and 8 Titan launches; and 3) develop a spatial database of the distribution of effects from individual launches and cumulative effects of launches. The review of previous studies indicated that impacts from these launches can occur from the launch exhaust heat, deposition of exhaust products from the solid rocket motors, and noise. The principal effluents from solid rocket motors are hydrogen chloride (HCl), aluminum oxide (Al2O3), water (H2O), hydrogen (H2), carbon monoxide (CO), and carbon dioxide (CO2). The exhaust plume interacts with the launch complex structure and water deluge system to generate a launch cloud. Fall out or rain out of material from this cloud can produce localized effects from acid or particulate deposition. Delta, Atlas, and Titan launch vehicles differ in the number and size of solid rocket boosters and in the amount of deluge water used. All are smaller and use less water than the Space Shuttle. Acid deposition can cause damage to plants and animals exposed to it, acidify surface water and soil, and cause long-term changes to community composition and structure from repeated exposure. The magnitude of these effects depends on the intensity and frequency of acid deposition.

  20. Seismic reflection exploration of geothermal reservoir at Naval Air Station (NAS) Fallon, Nevada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alay G., Gebregiorgis

    The Primary objective of this study is to increase geologic and tectonic understanding of the geothermal resources at the Naval Air Station (NAS) Fallon, Nevada. The seismic reflection method is employed to study faults, fractures and other tectonic structures in the subsurface in order to identify geothermal drill targets. The efficiency of geothermal systems is strongly dependent on water circulation. Discrete faults may be permeable and provide pathways for water flow depending on the fracture density. It is therefore desirable to detect and map faults and fracture zones and characterize their physical properties when evaluating a geothermal prospect. The seismic data for this project were provided by the NAS environmental research program in Ridgecrest, CA. However, the data collection information was not available so the work includes determining the line geometry and mapping shot points to field files in order to process the data. ProMAX 2D(TM) is the software used to determine the geometry and to process the data. Data processing includes eliminating noise, datum and refraction statics, trace muting, bandpass filter, automatic gain control, amplitude recovery, CMP sorting, velocity analysis and NMO correction, stacking and migration. The results of this study indicate the presence of thick basin fill including Tertiary and Quaternary sediments underlain by Tertiary basalts which are interpreted to be capping rocks for the geothermal reservoirs. This seismic reflection study also reveals the presence of strongly fractured pre-Tertiary basement complex with their top at about 1500m on the north and west and about 900 m on the eastern and southern part of the study area.

  1. Marine Sciences Laboratory Radionuclide Air Emissions Report for Calendar Year 2013

    SciTech Connect

    Snyder, Sandra F.; Barnett, J. Matthew; Ballinger, Marcel Y.

    2014-05-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy Office of Science (DOE-SC) Pacific Northwest Site Office (PNSO) has oversight and stewardship duties associated with the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) Marine Sciences Laboratory (MSL) located on Battelle Land – Sequim (Sequim). This report is prepared to document compliance with the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), Title 40, Protection of the Environment, Part 61, National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP), Subpart H, “National Emission Standards for Emissions of Radionuclides Other than Radon from Department of Energy Facilities” and Washington Administrative Code (WAC) Chapter 246-247, “Radiation Protection–Air Emissions.” The EDE to the Sequim MEI due to routine operations in 2013 was 5E-05 mrem (5E-07 mSv). No non-routine emissions occurred in 2013. The MSL is in compliance with the federal and state 10 mrem/yr standard.

  2. Marine Sciences Laboratory Radionuclide Air Emissions Report for Calendar Year 2014

    SciTech Connect

    Snyder, Sandra F.; Barnett, J. Matthew

    2015-05-04

    The U.S. Department of Energy Office of Science (DOE-SC) Pacific Northwest Site Office (PNSO) has oversight and stewardship duties associated with the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) Marine Sciences Laboratory (MSL) located on Battelle Land – Sequim.This report is prepared to document compliance with the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), Title 40, Protection of the Environment, Part 61, National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP), Subpart H, ''National Emission Standards for Emissions of Radionuclides Other than Radon from Department of Energy Facilities” and Washington Administrative Code (WAC) Chapter 246-247, “Radiation Protection–Air Emissions.'' The EDE to the MSL MEI due to routine operations in 2014 was 9E-05 mrem (9E-07 mSv). No non-routine emissions occurred in 2014. The MSL is in compliance with the federal and state 10 mrem/yr standard.

  3. Marine Mammal Protection Act Compliance Report for Activities at Marine Corps Air Station Cherry Point, North Carolina

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-02-01

    Report Documentation Page Form ApprovedOMB No. 0704-0188 Public reporting burden for the collection of information is estimated to average 1 hour...NAME OF RESPONSIBLE PERSON a. REPORT unclassified b. ABSTRACT unclassified c. THIS PAGE unclassified Standard Form 298 (Rev. 8-98) Prescribed... Consolidated Utilization Range Report System dB Decibel Decibels with reference pressure of one microPascal dB re: 1 μPa dB re 1 μPa2-m Decibels

  4. Chemical signatures of aged Pacific marine air: Mixed layer and free troposphere as measured during PEM-West A

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gregory, G. L.; Bachmeier, A. S.; Blake, D. R.; Heikes, B. G.; Thornton, D. C.; Bandy, A. R.; Bradshaw, J. D.; Kondo, Y.

    1996-01-01

    The Pacific Ocean is one of the few remaining regions of the northern hemisphere that is relatively free of direct anthropogenic emissions. However, long-range transport of air pollutants is beginning to have a significant impact on the atmosphere over the Pacific. In September and October 1991, NASA conducted the Pacific Exploratory Mission-West A expedition to study the atmospheric chemistry and background budgets of key atmospheric trace species. Aircraft sampling centered on the northern Pacific, 0° to 40°N and 115° to 180°E. The paper summarizes the chemical signature of relatively well-aged Pacific marine air (residence time ≥10 days over the ocean). The chemical signatures show that marine air is not always devoid of continental influences. Aged marine air which circulates around the semipermanent subtropical anticyclone located off the Asian continent is influenced by infusion of continental air with anthropogenic emissions. The infusion occurs as the result of Asian outflow swept off the continent behind eastward moving cold fronts. When compared to aged marine air with a more southerly pathway, this infusion results in enhancements in the mixing ratio of many anthropogenic/continental species and typically those with lifetimes of weeks in the free troposphere. Less enhancement is seen for the short-lived species with lifetimes of a few days as infused continental emissions are depleted during transport (about a week) around the semipermanent subtropical high.

  5. Cost-efficient methods for marine pollution monitoring at Casey Station, East Antarctica: the choice of sieve mesh-size and taxonomic resolution.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Belinda W; Riddle, Martin J; Stark, Jonathan S

    2003-02-01

    Contaminants from sewage discharge and abandoned waste tips enter the marine environment adjacent to Australia's Casey Station, East Antarctica. To establish cost-efficient methods for benthic pollution monitoring the effects of sieve mesh-size (0.5 and 1.0 mm) and taxonomic aggregation (family, order and class) on the description of infaunal assemblages were determined. The abundance and taxonomy of fauna retained on a 0.5 mm sieve after passing through a 1.0 mm sieve were examined in this study. The 1.0 mm sieve fraction [Human impacts and assemblages in marine soft-sediments at Casey Station, Antarctica, Ph.D. thesis, University of New England, 2001] contained 70% of individuals and 94% of taxa when compared to combined abundances on the 1.0 and 0.5 mm sieves. Furthermore, the addition of 0.5 mm data did not increase sampling precision or the statistical power to detect differences between locations. Differences between locations were detected when species were aggregated to the family level however, further aggregation to order and class levels altered the perceived pattern of differences. Marine pollution monitoring of the soft-bottom benthos at Casey Station is most cost-effective when using a 1.0 mm sieve and identifying fauna to the family level. This is the first reported comparison of sampling techniques using Antarctic benthos.

  6. Results of monitoring for polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans in ambient air at McMurdo station, Antarctica

    SciTech Connect

    Lugar, R.M.; Harles, R.L.

    1996-02-01

    This paper presents the results of ambient air monitoring for polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) performed during the 1992-1993 and 1993-1994 austral summers in the vicinity of McMurdo Station, Antarctica. Twenty-eight air samples were collected from four different locations to determine the identity and concentration of PCDD/PCDF compounds. PCDD/PCDF compounds were not detected at either the predominantly upwind location or a more remote site on Black Island. Trace levels of only a few PCDD/PCDF congeners were detected sporadically at a location approximately 500 m downwind of the station. The most frequent, most varied, and highest levels of PCDDs/PCDFs were measured at a `downtown` location, where concentrations of total PCDDs ranged from 0.12 to 1.80 pg/m{sup 3} and total PCDDs ranged from less than 0.02 to 2.77 pg/m{sup 3}. The data indicate that there are combustion sources at McMurdo other than the solid waste incinerator (power plants, vehicles, heating furnaces, etc.) that contribute PCDD/PCDF compounds to the ambient air. The greatest variety and highest concentration of PCDD/PCDF congeners measured in 1992-1993 during incineration of selected solid wastes implicates the interim incinerator as the likely source of the increased presence of these compounds in air. 18 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  7. Implementation plan for operating alternatives for the Naval Computer and Telecommunications Station cogeneration facility at Naval Air Station North Island, San Diego, California

    SciTech Connect

    Carroll, D.M.; Parker, S.A.; Stucky, D.J.

    1994-04-01

    The goal of the US Department of Energy (DOE) Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) is to facilitate energy efficiency improvements at federal facilities. This is accomplished by a balanced program of technology development, facility assessment, and use of cost-sharing procurement mechanisms. Technology development focuses upon the tools, software, and procedures used to identify and evaluate energy efficiency technologies and improvements. For facility assessment, FEMP provides metering equipment and trained analysts to federal agencies exhibiting a commitment to improve energy use efficiency. To assist in procurement of energy efficiency measures, FEMP helps federal agencies devise and implement performance contracting and utility demand-side management strategies. Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) supports the FEMP mission of energy systems modernization. Under this charter, the Laboratory and its contractors work with federal facility energy managers to assess and implement energy efficiency improvements at federal facilities nationwide. The SouthWestern Division of the Naval Facilities Engineering Command, in cooperation with FEMP, has tasked PNL with developing a plan for implementing recommended modifications to the Naval Computer and Telecommunications Station (NCTS) cogeneration plant at the Naval Air Station North Island (NASNI) in San Diego. That plan is detailed in this report.

  8. Analysis of operating alternatives for the Naval Computer and Telecommunications Station Cogeneration Facility at Naval Air Station North Island, San Diego, California

    SciTech Connect

    Parker, S.A.; Carroll, D.M.; McMordie, K.L.; Brown, D.R.; Daellenbach, K.K.; Shankle, S.A.; Stucky, D.J.

    1993-12-01

    The Naval Facilities Engineering Command Southwestern Division commissioned Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL), in support of the US Department of Energy (DOE) Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP), to determine the most cost-effective approach to the operation of the cogeneration facility in the Naval Computer and Telecommunications Station (NCTS) at the Naval Air Station North Island (NASNI). Nineteen alternative scenarios were analyzed by PNL on a life-cycle cost basis to determine whether to continue operating the cogeneration facility or convert the plant to emergency-generator status. This report provides the results of the analysis performed by PNL for the 19 alternative scenarios. A narrative description of each scenario is provided, including information on the prime mover, electrical generating efficiency, thermal recovery efficiency, operational labor, and backup energy strategy. Descriptions of the energy and energy cost analysis, operations and maintenance (O&M) costs, emissions and related costs, and implementation costs are also provided for each alternative. A summary table presents the operational cost of each scenario and presents the result of the life-cycle cost analysis.

  9. Variability of aerosol, gaseous pollutants and meteorological characteristics associated with continental, urban and marine air masses at the SW Atlantic coast of Iberia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diesch, J.-M.; Drewnick, F.; Zorn, S. R.; von der Weiden-Reinmüller, S.-L.; Martinez, M.; Borrmann, S.

    2011-12-01

    Measurements of the ambient aerosol were performed at the Southern coast of Spain, within the framework of the DOMINO (Diel Oxidant Mechanisms In relation to Nitrogen Oxides) project. The field campaign took place from 20 November until 9 December 2008 at the atmospheric research station "El Arenosillo" (37°5'47.76" N, 6°44'6.94" W). As the monitoring station is located at the interface between a natural park, industrial cities (Huelva, Seville) and the Atlantic Ocean a variety of physical and chemical parameters of aerosols and gas phase could be characterized in dependency on the origin of air masses. Backwards trajectories were examined and compared with local meteorology to classify characteristic air mass types for several source regions. Aerosol number and mass as well as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and black carbon concentrations were measured in PM1 and size distributions were registered covering a size range from 7 nm up to 32 μm. The chemical composition of the non-refractory submicron aerosol was measured by means of an Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (Aerodyne HR-ToF-AMS). Gas phase analyzers monitored various trace gases (O3, SO2, NO, NO2, CO2) and a weather station provided meteorological parameters. Lowest average submicron particle mass and number concentrations were found in air masses arriving from the Atlantic Ocean with values around 2 μg m-3 and 1000 cm-3. These mass concentrations were about two to four times lower than the values recorded in air masses of continental and urban origins. For some species PM1-fractions in marine air were significantly larger than in air masses originating from Huelva, a closely located city with extensive industrial activities. The largest fraction of sulfate (54%) was detected in marine air masses and was to a high degree not neutralized. In addition small concentrations of methanesulfonic acid (MSA), a product of biogenic dimethyl sulfate (DMS) emissions could be identified in the particle phase. In all

  10. Atmospheric phosphorus load to the Baltic Sea - first measurements at the Utö Atmospheric and Marine Research station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruoho-Airola, Tuija; Saarnio, Karri; Hemmilä, Marja; Knuuttila, Seppo; Makkonen, Ulla; Vuorenmaa, Jussi

    2015-04-01

    The HELCOM (Baltic Marine Environment Protection Commission) Baltic Sea Action Plan (BSAP) has the overall objective of reaching the Baltic Sea in a good environmental status by 2021. The HELCOM Contracting Parties have agreed to restrict their nutrient loads to the Baltic Sea according to the BSAP Maximum Allowable Inputs (MAI) of nitrogen and phosphorus (P), which base on the eutrophication targets. Both waterborne and airborne loads should be taken into account in the implementation of the country allocation of nutrient reductions. The waterborne P load is regularly assessed in detail, whereas for the airborne part a very preliminary estimate is available due to insufficient monitoring data. At present a fixed estimate of 5 mg m-2 of atmospheric P deposition per year is used in the BSAP implementation. Measurements of bulk deposition and particulate concentration of P have been performed at the Utö Atmospheric and Marine Research station (59° 46'50N, 21° 22'23E) at the outer edge of the Archipelago Sea. Utö is a small rocky island without any arable land, so the local anthropogenic P emissions are low. Weekly bulk deposition measurements started in February, 2013 and the weekly sampling for the PM2.5 and the daily sampling for PM10 in 2014. Based on the results of the first year of the bulk deposition measurements, the annual wet deposition of total P in precipitation was nearly 5 mg m-2. For soluble PO4-P, the wet deposition in precipitation was about 2 mg m-2. The maximum concentrations were measured in late spring and in summer during the biological growing period. The level of the soluble PO4-P concentration in the PM10 particles was lower during the winter months (median 6 ng m-3) compared to the growing season (median 10 ng m-3). In fine particles (PM2.5), the PO4-P level was lower (1-2 ng m-3) than in the PM10 samples, often under the detection level of the IC method used. Natural biogenic aerosols like pollen, algae and fragments of leaves are

  11. CLIMATE CHANGE FUEL CELL PROGRAM UNITED STATES COAST GUARD AIR STATION CAPE COD BOURNE, MASSACHUSETTS

    SciTech Connect

    John K. Steckel Jr

    2004-06-30

    This report covers the first year of operation of a fuel cell power plant, installed by PPL Spectrum, Inc. (PPL) under contract with the United States Coast Guard (USCG), Research and Development Center (RDC). The fuel cell was installed at Air Station Cape Cod in Bourne, MA. The project had the support of the Massachusetts Technology Collaborative (MTC), the Department of Energy (DOE), and Keyspan Energy. PPL selected FuelCell Energy, Inc. (FCE) and its fuel cell model DFC{reg_sign}300 for the contract. Grant contributions were finalized and a contract between PPL and the USCG for the manufacture, installation, and first year's maintenance of the fuel cell was executed on September 24, 2001. As the prime contractor, PPL was responsible for all facets of the project. All the work was completed by PPL through various subcontracts, including the primary subcontract with FCE for the manufacture, delivery, and installation of the fuel cell. The manufacturing and design phases proceeded in a relatively timely manner for the first half of the project. However, during latter stages of manufacture and fuel cell testing, a variety of issues were encountered that ultimately resulted in several delivery delays, and a number of contract modifications. Final installation and field testing was completed in April and May 2003. Final acceptance of the fuel cell was completed on May 16, 2003. The fuel cell has operated successfully for more than one year. The unit achieved an availability rate of 96%, which exceeded expectations. The capacity factor was limited because the unit was set at 155 kW (versus a nameplate of 250 kW) due to the interconnection with the electric utility. There were 18 shutdowns during the first year and most were brief. The ability of this plant to operate in the island mode improved availability by 3 to 4%. Events that would normally be shutdowns were simply island mode events. The mean time between failure was calculated at 239 hours, or slightly less

  12. Predictions of U.K. regulated power station contributions to regional air pollution and deposition: a model comparison exercise.

    PubMed

    Chemel, Charles; Sokhi, Ranjeet S; Dore, Anthony J; Sutton, Paul; Vincent, Keith J; Griffiths, Stephen J; Hayman, Garry D; Wright, Raymond D; Baggaley, Matthew; Hallsworth, Stephen; Prain, H Douglas; Fisher, Bernard E A

    2011-11-01

    Contributions of the emissions from a U.K. regulated fossil-fuel power station to regional air pollution and deposition are estimated using four air quality modeling systems for the year 2003. The modeling systems vary in complexity and emphasis in the way they treat atmospheric and chemical processes, and include the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) modeling system in its versions 4.6 and 4.7, a nested modeling system that combines long- and short-range impacts (referred to as TRACK-ADMS [Trajectory Model with Atmospheric Chemical Kinetics-Atmospheric Dispersion Modelling System]), and the Fine Resolution Atmospheric Multi-pollutant Exchange (FRAME) model. An evaluation of the baseline calculations against U.K. monitoring network data is performed. The CMAQ modeling system version 4.6 data set is selected as the reference data set for the model footprint comparison. The annual mean air concentration and total deposition footprints are summarized for each modeling system. The footprints of the power station emissions can account for a significant fraction of the local impacts for some species (e.g., more than 50% for SO2 air concentration and non-sea-salt sulfur deposition close to the source) for 2003. The spatial correlation and the coefficient of variation of the root mean square error (CVRMSE) are calculated between each model footprint and that calculated by the CMAQ modeling system version 4.6. The correlation coefficient quantifies model agreement in terms of spatial patterns, and the CVRMSE measures the magnitude of the difference between model footprints. Possible reasons for the differences between model results are discussed. Finally, implications and recommendations for the regulatory assessment of the impact of major industrial sources using regional air quality modeling systems are discussed in the light of results from this case study.

  13. Towards the Extrapolation of Total and Tropospheric Ozone IASI Estimations for Surface Air-Quality Stations Measurements Comparisons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peinado-Galan, Niobe; Lopez-Baeza, Ernesto; Miro, Jose V.

    Ozone plays a central role in the photochemical equilibrium of the atmosphere. Stratospheric ozone is essential to protect the Earth from the harmful ultraviolet solar radiation and tropospheric ozone is a major atmospheric pollutant that harms both human health and the environment due to its strong oxidative capacity. Monitoring ozone at different scales and in the different atmospheric layers is essential and for that, satellite-based instruments are the only system to provide ozone observations for those conditions. However, tropospheric ozone measurements are difficult because the contribution to the measured signal from the stratosphere is typically large. Significant efforts and resources are usually dedicated to analyse and study the atmosphere and its components. Ozonesondes, air quality stations, and sensors onboard Earth Observation satellites allow to carry out these studies at different scales (global, regional or local) and with different viewpoints. IASI (Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer) is a singular and robust instrument and a key payload element of the MetOp series of the European Meteorological Polar-Orbit Satellites. It is developed by CNES in the framework of a co-operation agreement with EUMETSAT. In this work, total and tropospheric ozone estimations from IASI have been firstly compared to measurements obtained from ozonesondes, UV Brewer and Dobson spectrophotometers and from OMI (Ozone Monitoring Instrument), from the stations Madrid-Barajas (Spain), Uccle (Brussels, Belgium), Hohenpeissenberg (Germany), and Summit (Greenland), for the years 2011 - 2013. But the final objective is to obtain ozone estimations at surface level to be compared to the air quality stations network observations. The comparisons between the different instruments have resulted quite reasonable -depending on the station and on the atmospheric layer- and we have been able to estimate surface ozone (0-10 m height) for the Madrid-Barajas station by using

  14. 33 CFR 334.420 - Pamlico Sound and adjacent waters, N.C.; danger zones for Marine Corps operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., N.C.; danger zones for Marine Corps operations. 334.420 Section 334.420 Navigation and Navigable... REGULATIONS § 334.420 Pamlico Sound and adjacent waters, N.C.; danger zones for Marine Corps operations. (a... date. Marine Corps Air Station Cherry Point will have a call-in number for public use to...

  15. Climatology and variability of Southern Hemisphere marine cold-air outbreaks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bracegirdle, Thomas J.; Kolstad, Erik W.

    2010-03-01

    Marine cold air outbreaks (MCAOs) are events where cold air flows over a relatively warm sea surface. Such outbreaks are associated with severe mesoscale weather systems that are not generally resolved in global climate models, such as polar lows and boundary-layer fronts. Here, an analysis of winter climatology and variability of MCAOs in the Southern Hemisphere (SH) is presented. Near the sea ice edge, north-south fluctuations of the Southern Annular Mode (SAM) index are key, while further north, large-scale wave disturbances are needed to move air masses far enough away from the Antarctic continent to instigate MCAOs. Unlike in the Northern Hemisphere (NH), the spatial patterns of mean and extreme values of the MCAO index differ considerably. Near 60°S, both mean and extreme values of the index are similar to those found in the main MCAO regions in the NH. Further north, the mean MCAO index is quite high, but the extreme values are much lower than in the NH. We conclude that MCAOs in the SH are as widespread and can be as strong as in the NH, but severe MCAOs near densely populated regions such as the Tasman Sea are less common than in the Nordic Seas and near Japan.

  16. Sources and sinks of acetone, methanol, and acetaldehyde in North Atlantic marine air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewis, A. C.; Hopkins, J. R.; Carpenter, L. J.; Stanton, J.; Read, K. A.; Pilling, M. J.

    2005-08-01

    Measurements of acetone, methanol, acetaldehyde and a range of non-methane hydrocarbons have been made in North Atlantic marine air at the Mace Head observatory. Under maritime conditions the combination of OVOCs (acetone, methanol and acetaldehyde) contributed up to 85% of the total mass of measured non methane organics in air and up to 80% of the OH radical organic sink, when compared with the sum of all other organic compounds including non-methane hydrocarbons, DMS and OH-reactive halocarbons (trichloromethane and tetrachloroethylene). The observations showed anomalies in the variance and abundance of acetaldehyde and acetone over that expected for species with a remote terrestrial emission source and OH controlled chemical lifetime. A detailed model incorporating an explicit chemical degradation mechanism indicated in situ formation during air mass transport was on timescales longer than the atmospheric lifetime of precursor hydrocarbons or primary emission. The period over which this process was significant was similar to that of airmass motion on intercontinental scales, and formation via this route may reproduce that of a widespread diffuse source. The model indicates that continued short chain OVOC formation occurs many days from the point of emission, via longer lived intermediates of oxidation such as organic peroxides and long chain alcohols.

  17. Dynamic analysis and design of air spring mounting system for marine propulsion system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Lin; Xu, Wei; Bu, Wenjun; Shi, Liang

    2014-09-01

    Marine propulsion unit (MPU) is one of the dominant vibration and noise sources onboard ship. Its vibration can be attenuated effectively by isolating MPU with low-frequency mounting system. But this is difficult to implement due to the stringent requirement of MPU alignment with the propulsion shafting. In this paper a novel air spring mounting system (ASMS) for propulsion system is proposed consisting of air spring subsystem, alignment control subsystem and safety protection subsystem. The load distribution optimization method and dynamic model of ASMS are presented. The factors that affect system stability and natural frequencies are analyzed, as well as the design measures to enhance system performance. A theoretical model is presented to estimate the isolation effect of ASMS. The monitoring model of alignment between MPU and propulsion shafting is established, followed by the alignment control algorithm and converge rule which assures the fast and uniform convergence of both air springs load distribution and alignment control process. Safety protection mechanism is designed to ensure that the MPU can operate safely in case of ASMS failure or other extreme circumstances. A scaled ASMS prototype is manufactured and tested on a special experimental setup. Experimental results validate the effectiveness of theoretical models and show that the performance of ASMS satisfies the operation requirements of MPU.

  18. Variation in bioaccumulation of persistent organic pollutants based on octanol-air partitioning: Influence of respiratory elimination in marine species.

    PubMed

    Moses, Sara K; Harley, John R; Lieske, Camilla L; Muir, Derek C G; Whiting, Alex V; O'Hara, Todd M

    2015-11-15

    Risk assessments of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are often based on octanol-water (KOW) partitioning dynamics and may not adequately reflect bioaccumulation in air-breathing organisms. It has been suggested that compounds with low KOW and high octanol-air partitioning (KOA) coefficients have the potential to bioaccumulate in air-breathing organisms, including marine mammals. Here we evaluate differences in concentrations of POPs for two trophically matched Arctic species, spotted seal (Phoca largha) and sheefish (Stenodus leucichthys). We compared concentrations of 108 POPs in matched tissues (liver and muscle) across three ranges of KOW. We found a significant positive correlation between POP concentration and log KOA in spotted seal tissues for low log KOW compounds (log KOW <5.5, p<0.05). This provides further evidence for empirical models and observed bioaccumulation patterns in air-breathing organisms, and highlights the potential for bioaccumulation of these compounds in Arctic marine mammals.

  19. Variation in bioaccumulation of persistent organic pollutants based on octanol-air partitioning: Influence of respiratory elimination in marine species

    PubMed Central

    Moses, Sara K.; Harley, John R.; Lieske, Camilla L.; Muir, Derek C.G.; Whiting, Alex V.; O'Hara, Todd M.

    2015-01-01

    Risk assessments of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are often based on octanol-water (KOW) partitioning dynamics and may not adequately reflect bioaccumulation in air-breathing organisms. It has been suggested that compounds with low KOW and high octanol-air partitioning (KOA) coefficients have the potential to bioaccumulate in air-breathing organisms, including marine mammals. Here we evaluate differences in concentrations of POPs for two trophically matched Arctic species, spotted seal (Phoca largha) and sheefish (Stenodus leucichthys). We compared concentrations of 108 POPs in matched tissues (liver and muscle) across three ranges of KOW. We found a significant positive correlation between POP concentration and log KOA in spotted seal tissues for low log KOW compounds (log KOW <5.5, p<0.05). This provides further evidence for empirical models and observed bioaccumulation patterns in air-breathing organisms, and highlights the potential for bioaccumulation of these compounds in Arctic marine mammals. PMID:26440545

  20. DELTAMETHRIN IMPREGNATED MOSQUITO NETS : AN EXPERIMENTAL STUDY IN AN AIR FORCE STATION IN CENTRAL INDIA (DELTAMETHRIN TRIAL).

    PubMed

    Banerjee, A; Nayak, B

    2002-01-01

    An experimental study was carried out to determine the efficacy of deltamethrin impregnated mosquito nets in reducing malaria incidence under field conditions in an Air Force Station. Out of the total study population of 748 airmen and DSC personnel, 320 got their mosquito nets impregnated with deltamethrin, while 428 used unimpregnated mosquito nets. During the three months observation period, there was no significant difference in malaria incidence among the two groups (Yates Chi Sq=0.05, p=0.829405, Relative risk = 0.96 with 95% CI between 031 and 2.98). In view of study findings, it was concluded that in the station, use of deltamethrin impregnated mosquito nets will not reduce incidence of malaria appreciably, the stress has to be on outdoor personal protective measures.

  1. 76 FR 70695 - Taking and Importing Marine Mammals: U.S. Navy Training in 12 Range Complexes and U.S. Air Force...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-15

    ... Marine Mammals: U.S. Navy Training in 12 Range Complexes and U.S. Air Force Space Vehicle and Test Flight... requests for the activities at VAFB related to space vehicle and test flight activities; and (2) their... the unintentional taking of marine mammals incidental to U.S. Air Force (USAF) space vehicle and...

  2. Effect of low air velocities on thermal homeostasis and comfort during exercise at space station operational temperature and humidity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beumer, Ronald J.

    1989-01-01

    The effectiveness of different low air velocities in maintaining thermal comfort and homeostasis during exercise at space station operational temperature and humidity was investigated. Five male subjects exercised on a treadmill for successive ten minute periods at 60, 71, and 83 percent of maximum oxygen consumption at each of four air velocities, 30, 50, 80, and 120 ft/min, at 22 C and 62 percent relative humidity. No consistent trends or statistically significant differences between air velocities were found in body weight loss, sweat accumulation, or changes in rectal, skin, and body temperatures. Occurrence of the smallest body weight loss at 120 ft/min, the largest sweat accumulation at 30 ft/min, and the smallest rise in rectal temperature and the greatest drop in skin temperature at 120 ft/min all suggested more efficient evaporative cooling at the highest velocity. Heat storage at all velocities was evidenced by increased rectal and body temperatures; skin temperatures declined or increased only slightly. Body and rectal temperature increases corresponded with increased perception of warmth and slight thermal discomfort as exercise progressed. At all air velocities, mean thermal perception never exceeded warm and mean discomfort, greatest at 30 ft/min, was categorized at worst as uncomfortable; sensation of thermal neutrality and comfort returned rapidly after cessation of exercise. Suggestions for further elucidation of the effects of low air velocities on thermal comfort and homeostasis include larger numbers of subjects, more extensive skin temperature measurements and more rigorous analysis of the data from this study.

  3. Video-Puff of Air Hits Ball of Water in Space Onboard the International Space Station (ISS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    Saturday Morning Science, the science of opportunity series of applied experiments and demonstrations, performed aboard the International Space Station (ISS) by Expedition 6 astronaut Dr. Don Pettit, revealed some remarkable findings. In this video clip, Dr. Pettit demonstrates the phenomenon of a puff of air hitting a ball of water that is free floating in space. Watch the video to see why Dr. Pettit remarks 'I'd hate think that our planet would go through these kinds of gyrations if it got whacked by a big asteroid'.

  4. Forecasting Lightning at Kennedy Space Center/Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Florida

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lambert, Winfred; Wheeler, Mark; Roeder, William

    2005-01-01

    The Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) developed a set of statistical forecast equations that provide a probability of lightning occurrence on Kennedy Space Center (KSC) I Cape Canaveral Air Force Station (CCAFS) for the day during the warm season (May September). The 45th Weather Squadron (45 WS) forecasters at CCAFS in Florida include a probability of lightning occurrence in their daily 24-hour and weekly planning forecasts, which are briefed at 1100 UTC (0700 EDT). This information is used for general scheduling of operations at CCAFS and KSC. Forecasters at the Spaceflight Meteorology Group also make thunderstorm forecasts for the KSC/CCAFS area during Shuttle flight operations. Much of the current lightning probability forecast at both groups is based on a subjective analysis of model and observational data. The objective tool currently available is the Neumann-Pfeffer Thunderstorm Index (NPTI, Neumann 1971), developed specifically for the KSCICCAFS area over 30 years ago. However, recent studies have shown that 1-day persistence provides a better forecast than the NPTI, indicating that the NPTI needed to be upgraded or replaced. Because they require a tool that provides a reliable estimate of the daily thunderstorm probability forecast, the 45 WS forecasters requested that the AMU develop a new lightning probability forecast tool using recent data and more sophisticated techniques now possible through more computing power than that available over 30 years ago. The equation development incorporated results from two research projects that investigated causes of lightning occurrence near KSCICCAFS and over the Florida peninsula. One proved that logistic regression outperformed the linear regression method used in NPTI, even when the same predictors were used. The other study found relationships between large scale flow regimes and spatial lightning distributions over Florida. Lightning, probabilities based on these flow regimes were used as candidate predictors in

  5. 33 CFR 334.540 - Banana River at the Eastern Range, 45th Space Wing, Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, FL...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., 45th Space Wing, Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, FL; restricted area. 334.540 Section 334.540... enforced by the Commander, 45th Space Wing, Patrick Air Force Base, Florida and/or such persons or agencies... AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.540 Banana River at the Eastern Range, 45th Space Wing,...

  6. Performance and evaluation of gas-engine-driven split-system cooling equipment at the Willow Grove Naval Air Station

    SciTech Connect

    Armstrong, P.R.; Schmelzer, J.R.

    1997-01-01

    DOE`s Federal Energy Management Program supports efforts to reduce energy use and associated expenditures within the federal sector; one such effort, the New Technology Demonstration Program (NTDP)(formerly the Test Bed Demonstration program), seeks to evaluate new energy saving US technologies and secure their more timely adoption by the federal government. This report describes the field evaluation conducted to examine the performance of a 15-ton natural-gas-engine- driven, split-system, air-conditioning unit. The unit was installed at a multiple-use building at Willow Grove Naval Air Station, a regular and reserve training facility north of Philadelphia, and its performance was monitored under the NTDP.

  7. Performance Evaluation of a Low-Cost, Real-Time Community Air Monitoring Station

    EPA Science Inventory

    The US EPA’s Village Green Project (VGP) is an example of using innovative technology to enable community-level low-cost real-time air pollution measurements. The VGP is an air monitoring system configured as a park bench located outside of a public library in Durham, NC. It co...

  8. Comparison of MODIS Land Surface Temperature and Air Temperature over the Continental USA Meteorological Stations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhang, Ping; Bounoua, Lahouari; Imhoff, Marc L.; Wolfe, Robert E.; Thome, Kurtis

    2014-01-01

    The National Land Cover Database (NLCD) Impervious Surface Area (ISA) and MODIS Land Surface Temperature (LST) are used in a spatial analysis to assess the surface-temperature-based urban heat island's (UHIS) signature on LST amplitude over the continental USA and to make comparisons to local air temperatures. Air-temperature-based UHIs (UHIA), calculated using the Global Historical Climatology Network (GHCN) daily air temperatures, are compared with UHIS for urban areas in different biomes during different seasons. NLCD ISA is used to define urban and rural temperatures and to stratify the sampling for LST and air temperatures. We find that the MODIS LST agrees well with observed air temperature during the nighttime, but tends to overestimate it during the daytime, especially during summer and in nonforested areas. The minimum air temperature analyses show that UHIs in forests have an average UHIA of 1 C during the summer. The UHIS, calculated from nighttime LST, has similar magnitude of 1-2 C. By contrast, the LSTs show a midday summer UHIS of 3-4 C for cities in forests, whereas the average summer UHIA calculated from maximum air temperature is close to 0 C. In addition, the LSTs and air temperatures difference between 2006 and 2011 are in agreement, albeit with different magnitude.

  9. Army Air Force Exchange Service Service (AAFES) Station Tyndall Air Force Base, Florida Final Tiered Environmental Assessment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-04-20

    Management, No ise, Land Use, Air Quali ty, Earth Resources, Biological Resources, Cultural Resources, Water Resources, Hazardous Materials and Wastes ...Resources, Biological Resources, Cultural Resources, Water Resources, Hazardous Materials and Wastes , Safety, Infrastructure and Util ities, Socioeconomic...No impacts to floodpl ai ns. Storm water permit ----:- ---- would be required. _ ____ _ l lazardous Materia ls and Wastes No negative short- or

  10. Geodatabase of environmental information for Air Force Plant 4 and Naval Air Station-Joint Reserve Base Carswell Field, Fort Worth, Texas, 1990-2004

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shah, Sachin D.; Quigley, Sean M.

    2005-01-01

    Air Force Plant 4 (AFP4) and adjacent Naval Air Station-Joint Reserve Base (NAS-JRB) at Fort Worth, Tex., constitute a government-owned, contractor-operated (GOCO) facility that has been in operation since 1942. Contaminants from the facility, primarily volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and metals, have entered the groundwater-flow system through leakage from waste-disposal sites (landfills and pits) and from manufacturing processes (U.S. Air Force, Aeronautical Systems Center, 1995). The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the U.S. Air Force (USAF), Aeronautical Systems Center, Environmental Management Directorate (ASC/ENVR), developed a comprehensive database (or geodatabase) of temporal and spatial environmental information associated with the geology, hydrology, and water quality at AFP4 and NAS-JRB. The database of this report provides information about the AFP4 and NAS-JRB study area including sample location names, identification numbers, locations, historical dates, and various measured hydrologic data. This database does not include every sample location at the site, but is limited to an aggregation of selected digital and hardcopy data of the USAF, USGS, and various consultants who have previously or are currently working at the site.

  11. A comparison of CO2 dynamics and air-water fluxes in a river-dominated estuary and a mangrove-dominated marine estuary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akhand, Anirban; Chanda, Abhra; Manna, Sudip; Das, Sourav; Hazra, Sugata; Roy, Rajdeep; Choudhury, S. B.; Rao, K. H.; Dadhwal, V. K.; Chakraborty, Kunal; Mostofa, K. M. G.; Tokoro, T.; Kuwae, Tomohiro; Wanninkhof, Rik

    2016-11-01

    The fugacity of CO2 (fCO2 (water)) and air-water CO2 flux were compared between a river-dominated anthropogenically disturbed open estuary, the Hugli, and a comparatively pristine mangrove-dominated semiclosed marine estuary, the Matla, on the east coast of India. Annual mean salinity of the Hugli Estuary (≈7.1) was much less compared to the Matla Estuary (≈20.0). All the stations of the Hugli Estuary were highly supersaturated with CO2 (annual mean 2200 µatm), whereas the Matla was marginally oversaturated (annual mean 530 µatm). During the postmonsoon season, the outer station of the Matla Estuary was under saturated with respect to CO2 and acted as a sink. The annual mean CO2 emission from the Hugli Estuary (32.4 mol C m-2 yr-1) was 14 times higher than the Matla Estuary (2.3 mol C m-2 yr-1). CO2 efflux rate from the Hugli Estuary has increased drastically in the last decade, which is attributed to increased runoff from the river-dominated estuary.

  12. Geology and hydrogeology of Naval Air Station Chase Field and Naval Auxiliary Landing Field Goliad, Bee and Goliad counties, Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Snyder, G.L.

    1995-01-01

    Large vertical hydraulic-head gradients are present between the unconfined Evangeline aquifer and confined Fleming aquifers at Naval Air Station Chase Field and Naval Auxiliary Landing Field Goliad. These gradients, together with the results of the aquifer test at Naval Air Station Chase Field and assumed characteristics of the confining units, indicate that downward flow of ground water probably occurs from the water-table aquifer to the underlying aquifers. The rate of downward flow between the two confined Fleming aquifers (from A-sand to B-sand) can be approximated using an estimate of vertical hydraulic conductivity of the intervening confining unit obtained from assumed storage characteristics and data from the aquifer test. Under the relatively high vertical hydraulic-head gradient induced by the aquifer test, ground-water movement from the A-sand aquifer to the B-sand aquifer could require about 490 years; and about 730 years under the natural gradient. Future increases in ground-water withdrawals from the B-sand aquifer might increase downward flow in the aquifer system of the study area.

  13. Air quality monitoring in communities of the Canadian Arctic during the high shipping season with a focus on local and marine pollution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aliabadi, A. A.; Staebler, R. M.; Sharma, S.

    2014-11-01

    The Canadian Arctic has experienced decreasing sea ice extent and increasing shipping activity in the recent decades. While there are economic incentives to develop resources in the North, there are environmental concerns that increasing marine traffic will contribute to declining air quality in Northern communities. In an effort to characterize the relative impact of shipping on air quality in the North, two monitoring stations have been installed in Cape Dorset and Resolute, Nunavut, and have been operational since 1 June 2013. The impact of shipping and other sources of emissions on NOx, O3, SO2, BC, and PM2.5 pollution have been characterized for the 2013 shipping season from 1 June to 1 November. In addition, a high resolution Air Quality Health Index (AQHI) for both sites was computed. Shipping consistently increased O3 mixing ratio and PM2.5 concentration. The 90% confidence interval for mean difference in O3 mixing ratio between ship and no ship-influenced air masses were up to 4.6-4.7 ppb and 2.5-2.7 ppb for Cape Dorset and Resolute, respectively. The same intervals for PM2.5 concentrations were up to 1.8-1.9 μg m-3 and 0.5-0.6 μg m-3. Ship-influenced air masses consistently exhibited degraded air quality by an increase of 0.1 to 0.3 in the high resolution AQHI compared to no ship-influenced air masses. Trajectory cluster analysis in combination with ship traffic tracking provided an estimated range for percent ship contribution to NOx, O3, SO2, and PM2.5 that were 12.9-17.5%, 16.2-18.1%, 16.9-18.3%, and 19.5-31.7% for Cape Dorset and 1.0-7.2%, 2.9-4.8%, 5.5-10.0%, and 6.5-7.2% for Resolute during the 2013 shipping season. Additional measurements in Resolute suggested that percent ship contribution to black carbon was 4.3-9.8% and that black carbon constituted 1.3-9.7% of total PM2.5 mass in ship plumes. Continued air quality monitoring in the above sites for future shipping seasons will improve the statistics in our analysis as well as characterize

  14. Bioaerosol DNA Extraction Technique from Air Filters Collected from Marine and Freshwater Locations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beckwith, M.; Crandall, S. G.; Barnes, A.; Paytan, A.

    2015-12-01

    Bioaerosols are composed of microorganisms suspended in air. Among these organisms include bacteria, fungi, virus, and protists. Microbes introduced into the atmosphere can drift, primarily by wind, into natural environments different from their point of origin. Although bioaerosols can impact atmospheric dynamics as well as the ecology and biogeochemistry of terrestrial systems, very little is known about the composition of bioaerosols collected from marine and freshwater environments. The first step to determine composition of airborne microbes is to successfully extract environmental DNA from air filters. We asked 1) can DNA be extracted from quartz (SiO2) air filters? and 2) how can we optimize the DNA yield for downstream metagenomic sequencing? Aerosol filters were collected and archived on a weekly basis from aquatic sites (USA, Bermuda, Israel) over the course of 10 years. We successfully extracted DNA from a subsample of ~ 20 filters. We modified a DNA extraction protocol (Qiagen) by adding a beadbeating step to mechanically shear cell walls in order to optimize our DNA product. We quantified our DNA yield using a spectrophotometer (Nanodrop 1000). Results indicate that DNA can indeed be extracted from quartz filters. The additional beadbeating step helped increase our yield - up to twice as much DNA product was obtained compared to when this step was omitted. Moreover, bioaerosol DNA content does vary across time. For instance, the DNA extracted from filters from Lake Tahoe, USA collected near the end of June decreased from 9.9 ng/μL in 2007 to 3.8 ng/μL in 2008. Further next-generation sequencing analysis of our extracted DNA will be performed to determine the composition of these microbes. We will also model the meteorological and chemical factors that are good predictors for microbial composition for our samples over time and space.

  15. Performance Evaluation of a Lower-Cost, Real-Time Community Air Monitoring Station

    EPA Science Inventory

    These slides describe the Village Green Project prototype and how the measurements compare wtih nearby FEMs, including the OAQPS data collected at the AIRS site on the EPA-RTP campus and the NCDENR FEMs in the Triangle area.

  16. Late Quaternary continental and marine sediments of northeastern Buenos Aires province (Argentina): Fossil content and paleoenvironmental interpretation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fucks, Enrique; Aguirre, Marina; Deschamps, Cecilia M.

    2005-10-01

    Abundant invertebrate and vertebrate fossil remains that exhibit excellent preservation and were collected from deposits of both continental and marine origins at Pilar (Buenos Aires, Argentina) add paleoenvironmental data from the northeastern Buenos Aires province area linked to sea-level oscillations and climate variability since approximately 120 ka BP (marine oxygen isotope stage [MOIS] 5e). Two new fossiliferous localities discovered in the Luján River Valley allow for detailed geological studies and new dating of molluscan shells and bones. The studies suggest salinity changes during the Last Interglacial (8 m above m.s.l., min. 14C>40 ka) and the mid-Holocene transgression (5 m above m.s.l., 7-3 14C ka BP) compared with the modern pattern along the adjacent littoral (Río de la Plata). The marine sequences represent the innermost boundary of the sea-level transgression in that area and contain a biogenic record (bivalves, gastropods, forams, ostracods) that indicates marginal marine environments (higher salinity than at present). Vertebrates and molluscs from the continental sequence suggest a freshwater habitat in which remains of marine fish must be allochthonous, probably incorporated by postmortem fluvial transport to the final depositional environment.

  17. Spatial downscaling and mapping of daily precipitation and air temperature using daily station data and monthly mean maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flint, A. L.; Flint, L. E.; Stern, M. A.

    2013-12-01

    Accurate maps of daily weather variables are an essential component of hydrologic and ecologic modeling. Here we present a four-step method that uses daily station data and transient monthly maps of precipitation and air temperature. This method uses the monthly maps to help interpolate between stations for more accurate production of daily maps at any spatial resolution. The first step analyzes the quality of the each station's data using a discrepancy analysis that compares statistics derived from a statistical jack-knifing approach with a time-series evaluation of discrepancies generated for each station. Although several methods could be used for the second step of producing initial maps, such as kriging, splines, etc., we used a gradient plus inverse distance squared method that was developed to produce accurate climate maps for sparse data regions with widely separated and few climate stations, far fewer than would be needed for techniques such as kriging. The gradient plus inverse distance squared method uses local gradients in the climate parameters, easting, northing, and elevation, to adjust the inverse distance squared estimates for local gradients such as lapse rates, inversions, or rain shadows at scales of 10's of meters to kilometers. The third step is to downscale World Wide Web (web) based transient monthly data, such as Precipitation-Elevation Regression on Independent Slope Method (PRISM) for the US (4 km or 800 m maps) or Climate Research Unit (CRU 3.1) data sets (40 km for global applications) to the scale of the daily data's digital elevation model. In the final step the downscaled transient monthly maps are used to adjust the daily time-series mapped data (~30 maps/month) for each month. These adjustments are used to scale daily maps so that summing them for precipitation or averaging them for temperature would more accurately reproduce the variability in selected monthly maps. This method allows for individual days to have maxima or minima

  18. Air Weather Service Master Station Catalog: USAFETAC Climatic Database Users Handbook No. 6

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-03-01

    Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) G = Air Force Global Weather Central (AFGWC) K = Carswell Automated Weather Network (Det 7, AFGWC) 0...Carswell Automated Weather Network (Det 7, AFGWC) M = Located by meteorological analysis B-6 P" 0 0 S 5 0 0 • 0 •, 0 N = Hydrology office...Airways Facilities Sector AMOS - Automated Meteorological Observing System ANG - Air National Guard weather facility AUT - Automated reporting

  19. Distribution and air-sea exchange of mercury (Hg) in polluted marine environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bagnato, E.; Sprovieri, M.; Bitetto, M.; Bonsignore, M.; Calabrese, S.; Di Stefano, V.; Oliveri, E.; Parello, F.; Mazzola, S.

    2012-04-01

    Mercury (Hg) is emitted in the atmosphere by anthropogenic and natural sources, these last accounting for one third of the total emissions. Since the pre-industrial age, the atmospheric deposition of mercury have increased notably, while ocean emissions have doubled owing to the re-emission of anthropogenic mercury. Exchange between the atmosphere and ocean plays an important role in cycling and transport of mercury. We present the preliminary results from a study on the distribution and evasion flux of mercury at the atmosphere/sea interface in the Augusta basin (SE Sicily, southern Italy), a semi-enclosed marine area affected by a high degree of contamination (heavy metals and PHA) due to the oil refineries placed inside its commercial harbor. It seems that the intense industrial activity of the past have lead to an high Hg pollution in the bottom sediments of the basin, whose concentrations are far from the background mercury value found in most of the Sicily Strait sediments. The release of mercury into the harbor seawater and its dispersion by diffusion from sediments to the surface, make the Augusta basin a potential supplier of mercury both to the Mediterranean Sea and the atmosphere. Based on these considerations, mercury concentration and flux at the air-sea interface of the Bay have been estimated using a real-time atomic adsorption spectrometer (LUMEX - RA915+) and an home-made accumulation chamber, respectively. Estimated Total Atmospheric Mercury (TGM) concentrations during the cruise on the bay were in the range of 1-3 ng · m-3, with a mean value of about 1.4 ng · m-3. These data well fit with the background Hgatm concentration values detected on the land (1-2 ng · m-3, this work), and, more in general, with the background atmospheric TGM levels found in the North Hemisphere (1.5-1.7 ng · m-3)a. Besides, our measurements are in the range of those reported for other important polluted marine areas. The mercury evasion flux at the air-sea interface

  20. International Space Station Common Cabin Air Assembly Condensing Heat Exchanger Hydrophilic Coating Operation, Recovery, and Lessons Learned

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Balistreri, Steven F.; Steele, John W.; Caron, Mark E.; Laliberte, Yvon J.; Shaw, Laura A.

    2013-01-01

    The ability to control the temperature and humidity of an environment or habitat is critical for human survival. These factors are important to maintaining human health and comfort, as well as maintaining mechanical and electrical equipment in good working order to support the human and to accomplish mission objectives. The temperature and humidity of the International Space Station (ISS) United States On-orbit Segment (USOS) cabin air is controlled by the Common Cabin Air Assembly (CCAA). The CCAA consists of a fan, a condensing heat exchanger (CHX), an air/water separator, temperature and liquid sensors, and electrical controlling hardware and software. The CHX is the primary component responsible for control of temperature and humidity. The CCAA CHX contains a chemical coating that was developed to be hydrophilic and thus attract water from the humid influent air. This attraction forms the basis for water removal and therefore cabin humidity control. However, there have been several instances of CHX coatings becoming hydrophobic and repelling water. When this behavior is observed in an operational CHX in the ISS segments, the unit s ability to remove moisture from the air is compromised and the result is liquid water carryover into downstream ducting and systems. This water carryover can have detrimental effects on the ISS cabin atmosphere quality and on the health of downstream hardware. If the water carryover is severe and widespread, this behavior can result in an inability to maintain humidity levels in the USOS. This paper will describe the operation of the five CCAAs within the USOS, the potential causes of the hydrophobic condition, and the impacts of the resulting water carryover to downstream systems. It will describe the history of this behavior and the actual observed impacts to the ISS USOS. Information on mitigation steps to protect the health of future CHX hydrophilic coatings as well as remediation and recovery of the full heat exchanger will be

  1. Air quality monitoring in communities of the Canadian Arctic during the high shipping season with a focus on local and marine pollution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aliabadi, A. A.; Staebler, R. M.; Sharma, S.

    2015-03-01

    The Canadian Arctic has experienced decreasing sea ice extent and increasing shipping activity in recent decades. While there are economic incentives to develop resources in the north, there are environmental concerns that increasing marine traffic will contribute to declining air quality in northern communities. In an effort to characterize the relative impact of shipping on air quality in the north, two monitoring stations have been installed in Cape Dorset and Resolute, Nunavut, and have been operational since 1 June 2013. The impact of shipping and other sources of emissions on NOx, O3, SO2, BC, and PM2.5 pollution have been characterized for the 2013 shipping season from 1 June to 1 November. In addition, a high-resolution Air Quality Health Index (AQHI) for both sites was computed. Shipping consistently increased O3 mixing ratio and PM2.5 concentration. The 90% confidence interval for mean difference in O3 mixing ratio between ship- and no ship-influenced air masses were up to 4.6-4.7 ppb and 2.5-2.7 ppb for Cape Dorset and Resolute, respectively. The same intervals for PM2.5 concentrations were up to 1.8-1.9 μg m-3 and 0.5-0.6 μg m-3. Ship-influenced air masses consistently exhibited an increase of 0.1 to 0.3 in the high-resolution AQHI compared to no ship-influenced air masses. Trajectory cluster analysis in combination with ship traffic tracking provided an estimated range for percent ship contribution to NOx, O3, SO2, and PM2.5 that were 12.9-17.5 %, 16.2-18.1 %, 16.9-18.3 %, and 19.5-31.7 % for Cape Dorset and 1.0-7.2 %, 2.9-4.8 %, 5.5-10.0 %, and 6.5-7.2 % for Resolute during the 2013 shipping season. Additional measurements in Resolute suggested that percent ship contribution to black carbon was 4.3-9.8 % and that black carbon constituted 1.3-9.7 % of total PM2.5 mass in ship plumes. Continued air quality monitoring in the above sites for future shipping seasons will improve the statistics in our analysis and characterize repeating seasonal patterns

  2. An Analysis of Air Force Avionic Test Station Utilization Using Q-Gert Modeling and Simulation.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-12-01

    LAPrL tVE. E u beP CE K, AVEPAr.E ’U "Q1E 0 Schr? 115.C? c7t c. 16. 16 6.1501 25 ~APAO .1� . 1. C.5292 2F r. ,- Cc F 6 c. 1. 1 .4979 ’Q ’IWAD .Z201...Evaluation Center, Kirtland Air Force Base, New Mexico , 1979. 10. Drake, William F., III, Rolland R. Fisher, and John R. Younger, "Logistics Composite...Air Force Base, New Mexico , (May 1976). 19. HQ/AFTEC, "F-16 FOT & E Phase II Suitability Test Plan - Annex E," Air Force Test and Evaluation Center

  3. Soyuz 22 Return Samples: Assessment of Air Quality Aboard the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jams, John T.

    2010-01-01

    Three mini-grab sample containers (m-GSCs) were returned aboard Soyuz 22 because of concerns that new air pollutants were present in the air and these were getting into the water recovery system. The Total Organic Carbon Analyzer had been giving increasing readings of total organic carbon (TOC) in the potable water, and it was postulated that an increased load into the system was responsible. The toxicological assessment of 3 m-GSCs from the ISS is shown in Table 1. The recoveries of the 3 standards (as listed above) from the GSCs averaged 103, 95 and 76%, respectively. Recovery from formaldehyde control badges were 90 and 91%.

  4. Initial Field Trials of the Site Characterization and Analysis Penetrometer System (SCAPS). Reconnaissance of Jacksonville Naval Air Station Waste Oil and Solvents Disposal Site

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-12-01

    Engineers Waterways Experiment Station DTIC Initial Field Trials of the Site ELECTF Characterization and Analysis JAN2 5 1994D Penetrometer System...038Prepared f NlFclitie 24En g m Prepared for Naval Facilities Engineering Command The contents of this report are not to be used for advertising. publication...Characterization and Analysis Penetrometer Sysstem (SCAPS) Reconnaissance of Jacksonville Naval Air Station Waste Oil and Solvents Disposal Site by Stafford S

  5. Air Weather Service Master Station Catalog USAFETAC Climatic Database Users Handbook No. 6

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-03-01

    Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) G = Air Force Global Weather Central (AFGWC) K = Carswell Automated Weather Network (Det 7, AFGWC) 0...AFGWC) J = Jepsen (JEPS) K = Carswell Automated Weather Network (Det 7, AFGWC) M = Located by meteorological analysis B-6 N = Hydrology office...Airfield ACC - Area control center AERO - Aerodrome AHP - U.S. Army Heliport AUX - Auxiliary AFS - Airways Facilities Sector AMOS - Automated

  6. [Spatial representativeness of monitoring stations for air quality in Florence (Tuscany Region, Central Italy) according to ARPAT e LaMMA. Critical observations].

    PubMed

    Grechi, Daniele

    2016-01-01

    On March 2015, the Environmental Protection Agency of Tuscany Region (Central Italy) and the Laboratory of monitoring and environmental modelling published a Report on spatial representativeness of monitoring stations for Tuscan air quality, where they supported the decommissioning of modelling stations located in the Florentine Plain. The stations of Signa, Scandicci, and Firenze-Bassi, located in a further South area, were considered representative Believing that air quality of the Plain could be evaluated by these stations is a stretch. In this text the author show the inconsistency of the conclusion of the Report through correlation graphs comparing daily means of PM10 detected in the disposed stations and in the active ones, showing relevant differences between the reported values and the days when the limits are exceeded. The discrepancy is due to the fact that uncertainty of theoretical estimates is greater than the differences recorded by the stations considered as a reference and the areas they may represent. The area of the Plain has a population of 150,000 individuals and it is subject to a heavy environmental pression, which will change for the urban works planned for the coming years. The population's legitimate request for the analytical monitoring of air pollution could be met through the organization of participated monitoring based on the use of low-cost innovative tools.

  7. An extensive air shower trigger station for the Muon Portal detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riggi, F.; Blancato, A. A.; La Rocca, P.; Riggi, S.; Santagati, G.

    2014-11-01

    The Muon Portal project ( [1]; Riggi et al., 2013 [2,5,7]; Lo Presti et al., 2012 [3]; La Rocca et al., 2014 [4]; Bandieramonte et al., 2013 [6]; Pugliatti et al., 2014 [8]) aims at the construction of a large area detector to reconstruct cosmic muon tracks above and below a container, to search for hidden high-Z materials inside its volume by the muon tomography technique. Due to its sensitive area (about 18 m2), with four XY detection planes, and its good tracking capabilities, the prototype under construction, which should be operational around mid-2015, also allows different studies in cosmic ray physics, including the detection of muon bundles. For such purpose, a trigger station based on three scintillation detectors operating in coincidence close to the main muon tracker has been built. This paper describes the design and preliminary results of the trigger station, together with the physics capabilities of the overall setup.

  8. Formaldehyde in remote marine air and rain - Flux measurements and estimates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zafiriou, O. C.; Alford, J.; Herrera, M.; Peltzer, E. T.; Gagosian, R. B.; Liu, S. C.

    1980-05-01

    The tropospheric trace constituent formaldehyde, HCHO, was measured in rain and in the gas phase during the wet season at Enewetak Atoll, a remote marine site in the central equatorial Pacific. Rainwater averaged 8 + or - 2 microgram/kg; the gas phase averaged 0.4 + or 0.2 ppbv (0.5 microgram/cu m). These values, especially the rain, are among the lowest reported to date. The formaldehyde flux to the sea by rainout and washout extrapolates to 0.010 g/sq m per year. The gaseous flux into the sea surface is estimated to be 0.05 g/sq m per year by an air-sea exchange calculation that takes into account enhanced uptake by hydroxide-catalyzed formaldehyde hydration. The measured mixing ratio is close to the 0.18 ppbv prediction of a tropospheric chemistry model calculation. The methane oxidation chain probably is the sole formaldehyde source in the Enewetak area. The total formaldehyde flux as carbon into the ocean is approximately 2% of the estimated total organic carbon from rainout and washout. About 2-4% of the calculated column formaldehyde production is removed from the atmosphere by these processes.

  9. Development of remedial process options: Phase II, Feasibility study: Installation Restoration Program, Naval Air Station Fallon, Fallon, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Cronk, T.A.; Smuin, D.R.; Schlosser, R.M.

    1991-11-01

    This technical memorandum develops process options which are appropriate for environmental restoration activities at Naval Air Station Fallon (NAS Fallon), Nevada. Introduction of contaminants to the environment has resulted from deliberate disposal activities (both through dumping and landfilling) and accidental spills and leaks associated with normal activities at NAS Fallon over its lifetime of operation. Environmental sampling results indicate that the vast majority of contaminants of concern are petroleum hydrocarbon related. These contaminants include JP-4, JP-5, leaded and unleaded gasoline, waste oils and lubricants, hydraulic fluids, and numerous solvents and cleaners. The principal exposure pathways of concern associated with NAS Fallon contaminants appear to be the surface flows and shallow drainage systems to which the base contributes. Available data indicate NAS Fallon IR Program sites are not contributing excessive contamination to surface flows emanating from the base. Contaminants appear to be contained in a relatively immobile state in the shallow subsurface with little or no contaminant migration off site.

  10. Update to the Objective Lightning Probability Forecast Tool in Use at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Florida

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lambert, Winifred; Roeder, William

    2008-01-01

    This conference presentation describes the improvement of a set of lightning probability forecast equations that are used by the 45th Weather Squadron forecasters for their daily 1100 UTC (0700 EDT) weather briefing during the warm season months of May-September. This information is used for general scheduling of operations at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station and Kennedy Space Center. Forecasters at the Spaceflight Meteorology Group also make thunderstorm forecasts during Shuttle flight operations. Five modifications were made by the Applied Meteorology Unit: increased the period of record from 15 to 17 years, changed the method of calculating the flow regime of the day, calculated a new optimal layer relative humidity, used a new smoothing technique for the daily climatology, and used a new valid area. The test results indicated that the modified equaitions showed and increase in skill over the current equations, good reliability, and an ability to distinguish between lightning and non-lightning days.

  11. The FUSE satellite is moved to a payload attach fitting in Hangar AE, Cape Canaveral Air Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Workers at Hangar AE, Cape Canaveral Air Station, maneuver an overhead crane toward NASA's Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer (FUSE) satellite standing between vertical workstands. The crane will lift FUSE to move it onto the Payload Attach Fitting (PAF) in front of it. FUSE is undergoing a functional test of its systems, plus installation of flight batteries and solar arrays. Developed by The Johns Hopkins University under contract to Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., FUSE will investigate the origin and evolution of the lightest elements in the universe - hydrogen and deuterium. In addition, the FUSE satellite will examine the forces and process involved in the evolution of the galaxies, stars and planetary systems by investigating light in the far ultraviolet portion of the electromagnetic spectrum. FUSE is scheduled to be launched May 27 aboard a Boeing Delta II rocket at Launch Complex 17.

  12. The FUSE satellite is moved to a payload attach fitting in Hangar AE, Cape Canaveral Air Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Suspended by a crane in Hangar AE, Cape Canaveral Air Station, NASA's Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer (FUSE) satellite is lowered onto a circular Payload Attach Fitting (PAF). FUSE is undergoing a functional test of its systems, plus installation of flight batteries and solar arrays. Developed by The Johns Hopkins University under contract to Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., FUSE will investigate the origin and evolution of the lightest elements in the universe - hydrogen and deuterium. In addition, the FUSE satellite will examine the forces and process involved in the evolution of the galaxies, stars and planetary systems by investigating light in the far ultraviolet portion of the electromagnetic spectrum. FUSE is scheduled to be launched May 27 aboard a Boeing Delta II rocket at Launch Complex 17.

  13. The FUSE satellite is moved to a payload attach fitting in Hangar AE, Cape Canaveral Air Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    While a crane lifts NASA's Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer (FUSE) satellite, workers at Hangar AE, Cape Canaveral Air Station, help guide it toward the circular Payload Attach Fitting (PAF) in front of it. FUSE is undergoing a functional test of its systems, plus installation of flight batteries and solar arrays. Developed by The Johns Hopkins University under contract to Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., FUSE will investigate the origin and evolution of the lightest elements in the universe - hydrogen and deuterium. In addition, the FUSE satellite will examine the forces and process involved in the evolution of the galaxies, stars and planetary systems by investigating light in the far ultraviolet portion of the electromagnetic spectrum. FUSE is scheduled to be launched May 27 aboard a Boeing Delta II rocket at Launch Complex 17.

  14. Update to the Objective Lightning Probability Forecast Tool in use at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Florida

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lambert, Winifred; Roeder, William

    2013-01-01

    This conference poster describes the improvement of a set of lightning probability forecast equations that are used by the 45th Weather Squadron forecasters for their daily 1100 UTC (0700 EDT) weather briefing during the warm season months of May-September. This information is used for general scheduling of operations at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station and Kennedy Space Center. Forecasters at the Spaceflight Meteorology Group also make thunderstorm forecasts during Shuttle flight operations. Five modifications were made by the Applied Meteorology Unit: increased the period of record from 15 to 17 years, changed the method of calculating the flow regime of the day, calculated a new optimal layer relative humidity, used a new smoothing technique for the daily climatology, and used a new valid area. The test results indicated that the modified equations showed and increase in skill over the current equations, good reliability and an ability to distinguish between lightning and non-lightning days.

  15. Modifications to the Objective Lightning Probability Forecast Tool at Kennedy Space Center/Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Florida

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crawford, Winifred; Roeder, William

    2010-01-01

    The 45th Weather Squadron (45 WS) at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station (CCAFS) includes the probability of lightning occurrence in their 24-Hour and Weekly Planning Forecasts, briefed at 0700 EDT for daily operations planning on Kennedy Space Center (KSC) and CCAFS. This forecast is based on subjective analyses of model and observational data and output from an objective tool developed by the Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU). This tool was developed over two phases (Lambert and Wheeler 2005, Lambert 2007). It consists of five equations, one for each warm season month (May-Sep), that calculate the probability of lightning occurrence for the day and a graphical user interface (GUI) to display the output. The Phase I and II equations outperformed previous operational tools by a total of 56%. Based on this success, the 45 WS tasked the AMU with Phase III to improve the tool further.

  16. Update to the Lightning Probability Forecast Equations at Kennedy Space Center/Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Florida

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lambert, Winifred; Roeder, William

    2007-01-01

    This conference presentation describes the improvement of a set of lightning probability forecast equations that are used by the 45th Weather Squadron forecasters for their daily 1100 UTC (0700 EDT) weather briefing during the warm season months of May-September. This information is used for general scheduling of operations at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station and Kennedy Space Center. Forecasters at the Spaceflight Meteorology Group also make thunderstorm forecasts during Shuttle flight operations. Five modifications were made by the Applied Meteorology Unit: increased the period of record from 15 to 17 years, changed the method of calculating the flow regime of the day, calculated a new optimal layer relative humidity, used a new smoothing technique for the daily climatology, and used a new valid area. The test results indicated that the modified equations showed and increase in skill over the current equations, good reliability, and an ability to distinguish between lightning and non-lightning days.

  17. Update to the Lightning Probability Forecast Equations at Kennedy Space Center/Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Florida

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lambert, Winifred; Roeder, William

    2007-01-01

    This conference presentation describes the improvement of a set of lightning probability forecast equations that are used by the 45th Weather Squadron forecasters for their daily 1100 UTC (0700 EDT) weather briefing during the warm season months of May- September. This information is used for general scheduling of operations at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station and Kennedy Space Center. Forecasters at the Spaceflight Meteorology Group also make thunderstorm forecasts during Shuttle flight operations. Five modifications were made by the Applied Meteorology Unit: increased the period of record from 15 to 17 years, changed the method of calculating the flow regime of the day, calculated a new optimal layer relative humidity, used a new smoothing technique for the daily climatology, and used a new valid area. The test results indicated that the modified equations showed and increase in skill over the current equations, good reliability, and an ability to distinguish between lightning and non-lightning days.

  18. Chemical characterization of particulate air pollutants Case studies on indoor air quality, cultural heritage and the marine environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horemans, Benjamin

    When attempting to discuss the effects of airborne particulate matter (PM), it is important to address both physical and chemical aspects of this pollutant. This work reports on the results of three separate case studies, each approaching a specific problem of air pollution by evaluating the chemical composition of PM. 1. In the US and Europe, office workers often complain about work-related health symptoms. These symptoms are collectively referred as the 'sick building syndrome'. This work could be considered as one of the largest data collections on particulate pollutants in Belgian offices. It helps to understand the sources as well as the behavior and fate of PM at our workplace environments. Especially the chemical information on PM makes the results unique, since it enables a better evaluation of the health risks connected to office dust. 2. The Alhambra and Generalife bring every year more than 3 million people to Granada in Southern Spain. Recently, the increasing urbanization of Granada and the immense pressure of mass tourism form a threat for this heritage. Despite the fact that atmospheric pollutants are known to he potentially aggressive for our cultural patrimony. this case study is the first to assess the effects of environmental aerosols on the Alhambra monument. The results of this study could help decision-makers at the Alhambra and the city of Granada with the formulation of preventive conservation measures. They show how local vehicular traffic is the main source for atmospheric pollution in and around the Alhambra monument. Targeted strategies are necessary in order to maximally preserve these monuments and their UNESCO world cultural heritage label. 3. Excessive input of nitrogen-containing atmospheric nutrients via dry and wet deposition can cause entrophication of marine regions, which is also a common, seasonal phenomenon along the coasts of the North Sea. This study is the first to give a complete quantitative description of the

  19. Soyuz 23 Return Samples: Assessment of Air Quality Aboard the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    James, John T.

    2011-01-01

    Six mini-grab sample containers (m-GSCs) were returned aboard Soyuz 23 because of concerns that new air pollutants had been present in the air and these were getting into the water recovery system. The Total Organic Carbon Analyzer had been giving increasing readings of total organic carbon (TOC) in the potable water, and it was postulated that an increased load into the system was responsible. The TOC began to decline in late October, 2010. The toxicological assessment of 6 m-GSCs from the ISS is shown in Table 1. The recoveries of 13C-acetone, fluorobenzene, and chlorobenzene from the GSCs averaged 73, 82, and 59%, respectively. We are working to understand the sub-optimal recovery of chlorobenzene.

  20. New NRO Eastern Processing Facility at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station Florida. Environmental Assessment:

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-08-31

    associated with gopher tortoise burrows, which it occupies when inactive. The reproductive season encompasses copulation (November through April), egg...populations that remain are small, demographically isolated , and likely to decline (U.S. Air Force 2001). Based on the nine years of study of scrub...ridges. The soils have rapid permeability and low available water capacity due to the near-surface water table. This permeability rate allows water to

  1. Environmental Assessment of Proposed Wing Headquarters Facility at Pittsburgh International Airport Air Reserve Station, Pennsylvania

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-03-01

    meter MSC Medium specific concentrations MSW municipal solid waste MS4 municipal separate storm sewer systems NAAQS National Ambient Air Quality...achieve a level of water quality that provides for the protection and propagation of fish, shellfish , and wildlife; and recreation in and on the water...Township Municipal Authority’s sanitary sewer lines and sewage treatment facility. Pittsburgh IAP ARS’ wastewater is carried off base via one 15-inch sewer

  2. Environmental Assessment: Demolish CASS Switch Stations Buildings 644, 645, 646 at Grand Forks Air Force Base

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-06-01

    Winters are long and severe with almost continuous snow cover. The spring and fall seasons are generally short transition periods. The average...during the late fall, winter, and spring , and from the southeast during the summer. Grand Forks County is included in the ND Air Quality Control...approximately 10 miles northeast of Grand Forks AFB, the mean discharge of the Turtle River is 50.3 feet cubed per second (ft3/s). Peak flows result from

  3. Environmental Assessment: Construct Fire Station at Grand Forks Air Force Base

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-03-01

    Base Development CEQ Council on Environmental Quality CES Civil Engineer Squadron CEV Environmental Management Flight CFR Code of Federal...Act RAPCON Radar Approach Control USACE U.S. Army Corps of Engineers USAF U.S. Air Force VII SECTION 1 Purpose of and Need for Action 1.1...SPONSORING/MONITORING AGENCY NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) 319 Civil Engineer Squadron, 525 Tuskegee Airmen Blvd, Grand Forks AFB, ND, 58205-6434 10

  4. Environmental Assessment: Addressing Construction Projects at Niagara Falls Air Reserve Station, New York

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-07-01

    for producing food, feed, forage, fiber, and oilseed crops , and is also available for these uses. The soil qualities, growing season, and moisture...supply are needed for a well-managed soil to produce a sustained high yield of crops in an economic manner. The land could be cropland, pasture...installation remains in compliance with Federal, state, and local regulations pertaining to asbestos. In 1993, the Air National Guard Readiness

  5. Final Environmental Assessment- Air Traffic Control Tower and Fire Station Pope AFB, NC

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-06-01

    as residences, schools , and hospitals. If such facilities are built in these areas soundproofing and insulation is usually required to reduce noise...Combat Control School facilities. These Air Force actions have or will be analyzed in other NEPA documentation, as required. Additional factors that...2. 7 percent, and the rental vacancy rate is 10.1 percent (USCB 2002). Schools Pope AFB has one elementary school (kindergarten through fourth grade

  6. Chronology: From the Cambridge Field Station to the Air Force Geophysics Laboratory, 1945-1985

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-09-06

    numerical model was developed for hurricane prediction. AFCRL issued a descriptive catalogue of dry lake beds in the U.S. as potential sites for Air...Trakowski was named Chief of the Divi- sion, and a new mission plan was drawn up. 15 Mar The Fourth Cliff site near Scituate, Massachusetts, was acquired...It was used as the radar site for Project "Billboard," an experimental long-range, low- frequency radar. 22 Mar Two deputy commanders, a Deputy for

  7. Ten years of mercury measurement at urban and industrial air quality monitoring stations in the UK

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Richard J. C.; Goddard, Sharon L.; Butterfield, David M.; Brown, Andrew S.; Robins, Chris; Mustoe, Chantal L.; McGhee, Elizabeth A.

    2015-05-01

    Concentrations and trends from a decade of measurements of total gaseous mercury and particulate phase mercury at a number of monitoring stations across the UK are presented. Both emissions and ambient concentrations of mercury in the UK have continued to fall slightly during the measurement period despite already being at historically low levels. The median UK concentration of total gaseous mercury recorded in recent years was around 2.0 ng/m3. Small urban increments of about 0.4 ng/m3 above background concentrations were noted, with larger increments above the background only observed close to industrial point sources. The total gaseous mercury to particulate phase mercury ratio was large across the UK - indicating the dominance of the gaseous mercury in the atmosphere - and was observed to be larger at background and urban locations than at industrial sites, as a result of higher relative particulate phase mercury concentrations close to primary emissions point sources.

  8. Measurement of sub-parts-per-billion levels of carbonyl compounds in marine air by a simple cartridge trapping procedure followed by liquid chromatography

    SciTech Connect

    Xianliang, Zhou; Mopper, K. )

    1990-10-01

    Carbonyl compounds in clean marine air were trapped onto 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine- (DNPH-) coated cartridges, and their hydrazone derivatives were separated by HPLC and detected by UV absorbance. More than 20 carbonyl compounds were isolated from marine air with >92% collection efficiency. The technique employs a highly effective reagent purification procedure, which results in much lower blanks compared to previously reported trapping techniques for carbonyl compounds. Blanks were routinely <0.07 ppb for formaldehyde and acetone and <0.02 ppb for the others. Humidity and reactive gases have no detectable effect on collection efficiencies. Carbonyl-DNPH derivatives eluted from the cartridges are stable in acetonitrile for at least 2 weeks, which facilitates field studies. Several previously undetected unknown carbonyl compounds were found in marine air by this technique. Typical results for open ocean and coastal marine air are shown.

  9. High-end exposure relationships of volatile air toxics and carbon monoxide to community-scale air monitoring stations in Atlanta, Chicago, and Houston.

    PubMed

    Fujita, Eric M; Zielinska, Barbara; Campbell, David E; Sagebiel, John C; Ollison, Will

    Evaporative and exhaust mobile source air toxic (MSAT) emissions of total volatile organic compounds, carbon monoxide, BTEX (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes), formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, butadiene, methyl tertiary butyl ether, and ethanol were measured in vehicle-related high-end microenvironments (ME) under worst-case conditions plausibly simulating the >99th percentile of inhalation exposure concentrations in Atlanta (baseline gasoline), Chicago (ethanol-oxygenated gasoline), and Houston (methyl tertiary butyl either-oxygenated gasoline) during winter and summer seasons. High-end MSAT values as ratios of the corresponding measurements at nearby air monitoring stations exceeded the microenvironmental proximity factors used in regulatory exposure models, especially for refueling operations and MEs under reduced ventilation. MSAT concentrations were apportioned between exhaust and evaporative vehicle emissions in Houston where methyl tertiary butyl ether could be used as a vehicle emission tracer. With the exception of vehicle refueling operations, the results indicate that evaporative emissions are a minor component of high-end MSAT exposure concentrations.

  10. Performance Evaluation of the Operational Air Quality Monitor for Water Testing Aboard the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wallace, William T.; Limero, Thomas F.; Gazda, Daniel B.; Minton, John M.; Macatangay, Ariel V.; Dwivedi, Prabha; Fernandez, Facundo M.

    2014-01-01

    Real-time environmental monitoring on ISS is necessary to provide data in a timely fashion and to help ensure astronaut health. Current real-time water TOC monitoring provides high-quality trending information, but compound-specific data is needed. The combination of ETV with the AQM showed that compounds of interest could be liberated from water and analyzed in the same manner as air sampling. Calibration of the AQM using water samples allowed for the quantitative analysis of ISS archival samples. Some calibration issues remain, but the excellent accuracy of DMSD indicates that ETV holds promise for as a sample introduction method for water analysis in spaceflight.

  11. Characterization of Aspergillus fumigatus Isolates from Air and Surfaces of the International Space Station.

    PubMed

    Knox, Benjamin P; Blachowicz, Adriana; Palmer, Jonathan M; Romsdahl, Jillian; Huttenlocher, Anna; Wang, Clay C C; Keller, Nancy P; Venkateswaran, Kasthuri

    2016-01-01

    One mission of the Microbial Observatory Experiments on the International Space Station (ISS) is to examine the traits and diversity of fungal isolates to gain a better understanding of how fungi may adapt to microgravity environments and how this may affect interactions with humans in a closed habitat. Here, we report an initial characterization of two isolates, ISSFT-021 and IF1SW-F4, of Aspergillus fumigatus collected from the ISS and a comparison to the experimentally established clinical isolates Af293 and CEA10. Whole-genome sequencing of ISSFT-021 and IF1SW-F4 showed 54,960 and 52,129 single nucleotide polymorphisms, respectively, compared to Af293, which is consistent with observed genetic heterogeneity among sequenced A. fumigatus isolates from diverse clinical and environmental sources. Assessment of in vitro growth characteristics, secondary metabolite production, and susceptibility to chemical stresses revealed no outstanding differences between ISS and clinical strains that would suggest special adaptation to life aboard the ISS. Virulence assessment in a neutrophil-deficient larval zebrafish model of invasive aspergillosis revealed that both ISSFT-021 and IF1SW-F4 were significantly more lethal than Af293 and CEA10. Taken together, these genomic, in vitro, and in vivo analyses of two A. fumigatus strains isolated from the ISS provide a benchmark for future investigations of these strains and for continuing research on specific microbial isolates from manned space environments. IMPORTANCE As durations of manned space missions increase, it is imperative to understand the long-term consequence of microbial exposure on human health in a closed human habitat. To date, studies aimed at bacterial and fungal contamination of space vessels have highlighted species compositions biased toward hardy, persistent organisms capable of withstanding harsh conditions. In the current study, we assessed traits of two independent Aspergillus fumigatus strains isolated

  12. Characterization of Aspergillus fumigatus Isolates from Air and Surfaces of the International Space Station

    PubMed Central

    Knox, Benjamin P.; Blachowicz, Adriana; Romsdahl, Jillian; Huttenlocher, Anna; Wang, Clay C. C.; Keller, Nancy P.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT One mission of the Microbial Observatory Experiments on the International Space Station (ISS) is to examine the traits and diversity of fungal isolates to gain a better understanding of how fungi may adapt to microgravity environments and how this may affect interactions with humans in a closed habitat. Here, we report an initial characterization of two isolates, ISSFT-021 and IF1SW-F4, of Aspergillus fumigatus collected from the ISS and a comparison to the experimentally established clinical isolates Af293 and CEA10. Whole-genome sequencing of ISSFT-021 and IF1SW-F4 showed 54,960 and 52,129 single nucleotide polymorphisms, respectively, compared to Af293, which is consistent with observed genetic heterogeneity among sequenced A. fumigatus isolates from diverse clinical and environmental sources. Assessment of in vitro growth characteristics, secondary metabolite production, and susceptibility to chemical stresses revealed no outstanding differences between ISS and clinical strains that would suggest special adaptation to life aboard the ISS. Virulence assessment in a neutrophil-deficient larval zebrafish model of invasive aspergillosis revealed that both ISSFT-021 and IF1SW-F4 were significantly more lethal than Af293 and CEA10. Taken together, these genomic, in vitro, and in vivo analyses of two A. fumigatus strains isolated from the ISS provide a benchmark for future investigations of these strains and for continuing research on specific microbial isolates from manned space environments. IMPORTANCE As durations of manned space missions increase, it is imperative to understand the long-term consequence of microbial exposure on human health in a closed human habitat. To date, studies aimed at bacterial and fungal contamination of space vessels have highlighted species compositions biased toward hardy, persistent organisms capable of withstanding harsh conditions. In the current study, we assessed traits of two independent Aspergillus fumigatus strains

  13. Air - Net of Polish Permanent Station Rtk Dgps In Programme Eur Rvsm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fellner, A.

    All aircraft intending to operate in the EUR RVSM Airspace, except State aircraft, shall require an Reduced Vertical Separation Minimum approval issued by the responsible authority. To obtain such an approval, aircraft operators will have to satisfy the requirements set out in Joint Aviation Authorities (JAA) Temporary Guidance Leaflet No6 (TGL6), which require: · that aircraft for which RVSM Approval is sought have the vertical navigation performance capability required for RVSM operations through compliance with the criteria of the RVSM Minimum Aircraft System Performance Specification (MASPS); · that, they have instituted procedures for continued airworthiness (maintenance and repair) practices; · that they have instituted flight crew procedures for operations in the EUR RVSM Airspace. A comprehensive means of monitoring the height ­ keeping performance of aircraft has been developed utilising two types of equipment: · Height Monitoring Units ­ static height monitoring facilities; · GPS Monitoring Units ­ portable monitoring units on board aircraft. Poster present select problems connected of Polish Air - System RTK DGPS in EUR RVSM Programme. Reached results became during air - tests in years 1995 ­ 2001.

  14. A Visual Analytics Approach for Station-Based Air Quality Data.

    PubMed

    Du, Yi; Ma, Cuixia; Wu, Chao; Xu, Xiaowei; Guo, Yike; Zhou, Yuanchun; Li, Jianhui

    2016-12-24

    With the deployment of multi-modality and large-scale sensor networks for monitoring air quality, we are now able to collect large and multi-dimensional spatio-temporal datasets. For these sensed data, we present a comprehensive visual analysis approach for air quality analysis. This approach integrates several visual methods, such as map-based views, calendar views, and trends views, to assist the analysis. Among those visual methods, map-based visual methods are used to display the locations of interest, and the calendar and the trends views are used to discover the linear and periodical patterns. The system also provides various interaction tools to combine the map-based visualization, trends view, calendar view and multi-dimensional view. In addition, we propose a self-adaptive calendar-based controller that can flexibly adapt the changes of data size and granularity in trends view. Such a visual analytics system would facilitate big-data analysis in real applications, especially for decision making support.

  15. A Visual Analytics Approach for Station-Based Air Quality Data

    PubMed Central

    Du, Yi; Ma, Cuixia; Wu, Chao; Xu, Xiaowei; Guo, Yike; Zhou, Yuanchun; Li, Jianhui

    2016-01-01

    With the deployment of multi-modality and large-scale sensor networks for monitoring air quality, we are now able to collect large and multi-dimensional spatio-temporal datasets. For these sensed data, we present a comprehensive visual analysis approach for air quality analysis. This approach integrates several visual methods, such as map-based views, calendar views, and trends views, to assist the analysis. Among those visual methods, map-based visual methods are used to display the locations of interest, and the calendar and the trends views are used to discover the linear and periodical patterns. The system also provides various interaction tools to combine the map-based visualization, trends view, calendar view and multi-dimensional view. In addition, we propose a self-adaptive calendar-based controller that can flexibly adapt the changes of data size and granularity in trends view. Such a visual analytics system would facilitate big-data analysis in real applications, especially for decision making support. PMID:28029117

  16. Ground cloud dispersion measurements during the Titan IV mission number B33 (15 October 1997) at Cape Canaveral Air Station

    SciTech Connect

    1998-06-30

    This report presents plume imagery documenting the development and dispersion of the Titan IV No. B33 launch ground cloud at Cape Canaveral Air Station on 15 October 1997 at 0443 EDT. Also presented are pertinent meteorological data taken from towers, Doppler radars, and rawinsonde balloons. IR cameras were used at four locations around the launch site to track the trajectory and time evolution of the exhaust ground cloud for 1.5-2.5 min following launch. Meteorological data were collected to improve understanding of cloud dispersion and to use as input during model simulations and evaluations. Rawinsonde balloon data, 915 MHz Doppler radar data, and meteorological tower data were collected and archived. These data and similar data from other launches will be used to determine the accuracy of atmospheric dispersion models such as the Rocket Exhaust Effluent Diffusion Model (REEDM) in predicting toxic hazard corridors (THCs) at the USAF Eastern and Western Ranges. Reduction of available imagery data yielded limited information on cloud rise and dispersion. The imagery showed that the bottom edge of the launch cloud rose above the altitude of the bottom of the atmospheric clouds (514 m AGL) within 2.3 min after launch. REEDM 7.08 predicted that the bottom edge of the launch cloud would stabilize at 480 m AGL. The bottom of the actual launch cloud therefore rose at least 7% higher than predicted by REEDM 7.08. Analysis of the imagery also showed that the rising cloud had an air entrainment coefficient (ratio of increase in diameter to increase in altitude) of 0.39. This is significantly smaller than the default air entrainment coefficient of 0.64 that is used in REEDM 7.08.

  17. DEMONSTRATION OF IN SITU DEHALOGENATION OF DNAPL THROUGH INJECTION OF EMULSIFIED ZERO-VALIENT IRON AT LAUNCH COMPLEX 34 IN CAPE CANAVERAL AIR FORCE STATION, FLORIDA

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of this project was to evaluate the technical and cost performance of emulsified zero-valent iron (EZVI) technology when applied to DNAPL contaminants in the saturated zone. This demonstration was conducted at Launch Complex 34, Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, FL, w...

  18. 33 CFR 334.540 - Banana River at the Eastern Range, 45th Space Wing, Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, FL...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., 45th Space Wing, Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, FL; restricted area. 334.540 Section 334.540... Kennedy Space Center NASA Causeway East Roadway at approximately latitude 28°30.74′ N, longitude 80°36.63... AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.540 Banana River at the Eastern Range, 45th Space Wing,...

  19. 33 CFR 334.540 - Banana River at the Eastern Range, 45th Space Wing, Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, FL...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., 45th Space Wing, Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, FL; restricted area. 334.540 Section 334.540... Kennedy Space Center NASA Causeway East Roadway at approximately latitude 28°30.74′ N, longitude 80°36.63... AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.540 Banana River at the Eastern Range, 45th Space Wing,...

  20. 33 CFR 334.540 - Banana River at the Eastern Range, 45th Space Wing, Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, FL...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., 45th Space Wing, Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, FL; restricted area. 334.540 Section 334.540... Kennedy Space Center NASA Causeway East Roadway at approximately latitude 28°30.74′ N, longitude 80°36.63... AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.540 Banana River at the Eastern Range, 45th Space Wing,...

  1. 33 CFR 334.540 - Banana River at the Eastern Range, 45th Space Wing, Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, FL...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., 45th Space Wing, Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, FL; restricted area. 334.540 Section 334.540... Kennedy Space Center NASA Causeway East Roadway at approximately latitude 28°30.74′ N, longitude 80°36.63... AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.540 Banana River at the Eastern Range, 45th Space Wing,...

  2. The effect of instrument exposure on marine air temperatures: an assessment using VOSClim Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berry, David I.; Kent, Elizabeth C.

    2005-06-01

    Observations of marine air temperature (MAT) by Voluntary Observing Ships (VOS) are known to contain significant biases due to solar heating of the sensor environment. MAT and humidity observations are usually made using wet- and dry-bulb thermometers housed in Stevenson screens, or with psychrometers. These instruments are typically mounted in the bridge wings or on the wheel-house top. If not sited carefully then the instruments can be poorly exposed to the undisturbed environmental conditions and have inadequate ventilation, leading to biased observations of both MAT and humidity.In this paper we use observations collected as part of the VOS Climate (VOSClim) project to investigate the relationship between instrument exposure and heating errors. The heating errors are estimated as the difference between the observed MAT and the collocated output of a numerical weather prediction model. The instrument exposures are assessed from photographs of the instruments. Currently, photographs of the instruments and sufficient observations exist for 17 VOSClim ships.Two methods of assessing the instrument exposure using the observations are presented. The first method is based on the skewness of the distribution of estimated heating errors for individual ships. The second method is based on a correction developed to correct the heating errors and uses the ratio of the heating to cooling terms in the correction. When ships are ranked both on the skewness and on the ratio of the heating to cooling terms, there is a statistically significant correspondence between the rankings and the visual assessments of instrument exposure. The skewness of the distribution of estimated errors in MAT is proposed as a simple indicator of instrument exposure.

  3. Increasing Incidence and Severity of Coccidioidomycosis at a Naval Air Station

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Rachel U; Crum-Cianflone, Nancy F

    2009-01-01

    Background Increasing rates of coccidioidomycosis among the general population are being described. Given the large number of military personnel stationed and training in endemic areas, data regarding infection trends among military members would be informative. Methods We performed a retrospective epidemiologic study concerning the incidence and severity of clinical cases of coccidioidomycosis at a Naval base located in an endemic area in California. Results Eighty-two military beneficiaries at the base were diagnosed with coccidioidomycosis from January 2002 to December 2006. Among active duty personnel, the rate of coccidioidomycosis rose 10-fold during the five-year study period: 29.88 to 313.71 cases per 100,000 person-years. The incidence of coccidioidal infections occurring in active duty members was higher than other military beneficiaries at the base. The median age of patients with a coccidioidal infection was 28 years, and 73% were male. Sixty-six had primary pulmonary disease, and 14 had disseminated disease; data were unavailable for two cases. The number of disseminated cases increased significantly over time; by 2006, 30% of the diagnosed cases were disseminated disease. Among cases of dissemination, 43% occurred among white/non-Hispanics. Disseminated disease was associated with high complement fixation titers and a more recent year of diagnosis. Although the sample size was small, we found no differences in rates of disseminated disease by race, likely due to the large number of cases among Caucasians. Conclusions Coccidioidomycosis incidence rates have significantly increased during the last five years among military beneficiaries. Active duty members were more likely to develop coccidioidomycosis than dependents or retirees, perhaps related to the number and intensity of exposures in this group. PMID:18751595

  4. A real-time monitoring and assessment method for calculation of total amounts of indoor air pollutants emitted in subway stations.

    PubMed

    Oh, TaeSeok; Kim, MinJeong; Lim, JungJin; Kang, OnYu; Vidya Shetty, K; SankaraRao, B; Yoo, ChangKyoo; Park, Jae Hyung; Kim, Jeong Tai

    2012-05-01

    Subway systems are considered as main public transportation facility in developed countries. Time spent by people in indoors, such as underground spaces, subway stations, and indoor buildings, has gradually increased in the recent past. Especially, operators or old persons who stay in indoor environments more than 15 hr per day usually influenced a greater extent by indoor air pollutants. Hence, regulations on indoor air pollutants are needed to ensure good health of people. Therefore, in this study, a new cumulative calculation method for the estimation of total amounts of indoor air pollutants emitted inside the subway station is proposed by taking cumulative amounts of indoor air pollutants based on integration concept. Minimum concentration of individual air pollutants which naturally exist in indoor space is referred as base concentration of air pollutants and can be found from the data collected. After subtracting the value of base concentration from data point of each data set of indoor air pollutant, the primary quantity of emitted air pollutant is calculated. After integration is carried out with these values, adding the base concentration to the integration quantity gives the total amount of indoor air pollutant emitted. Moreover, the values of new index for cumulative indoor air quality obtained for 1 day are calculated using the values of cumulative air quality index (CAI). Cumulative comprehensive indoor air quality index (CCIAI) is also proposed to compare the values of cumulative concentrations of indoor air pollutants. From the results, it is clear that the cumulative assessment approach of indoor air quality (IAQ) is useful for monitoring the values of total amounts of indoor air pollutants emitted, in case of exposure to indoor air pollutants for a long time. Also, the values of CCIAI are influenced more by the values of concentration of NO2, which is released due to the use of air conditioners and combustion of the fuel. The results obtained in

  5. A Review of Monitoring Technologies for Trace Air Contaminants in the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    James, John T.; McCoy, J. Torin

    2004-01-01

    NASA issued a Request For Information (RFI) to identify technologies that might be available to monitor a list of air pollutants in the ISS atmosphere. After NASA received responses to the RFI, an expert panel was assembled to hear presentations from 9 technology proponents. The goal of the panel was to identify technologies that might be suitable for replacement of the current Volatile Organics Analyzer (VOA) within several years. The panelists consisted of 8 experts in analytical chemistry without any links to NASA and 7 people with specific expertise because of their roles in NASA programs. Each technology was scored using a tool that enabled rating of many specific aspects of the technology on a 4-point system. The maturity of the technologies ranged from well-tested instrument packages that had been designed for space applications and were nearly ready for flight to technologies that were untested and speculative in nature. All but one technology involved the use of gas chromatography for separation, and there were various detectors proposed including several mass spectrometers and ion mobility spectrometers. In general there was a tradeoff between large systems with considerable capability to address the target list and smaller systems that had much more limited capability.

  6. Volatile Organic Compounds Identified in Post-Flight Air Analysis of the Multipurpose Logistics Module from International Space Station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peterson, B.; Wheeler, R.

    Bioregenerative systems involve storing and processing waste along with atmospheric management. The MPLM, Multipurpose Logistics Module, is a reusable logistics carrier and primary delivery system used to resupply the International Space Station (ISS) and return Station cargo that requires a pressurized environment. The cylindrical module is approximately 6.4 meters long, 4.6 meters in diameter, and weighs almost 4,082kg. The module provides storage and additional workspace for up to two astronauts when docked to the ISS. It can carry up to 9,072 kg of supplies, science experiments, spare parts and other logistical components for ISS. There is concern for a potentially hazardous condition caused by contamination of the atmosphere in the MPLM upon return from orbit. This would be largely due to unforeseen spills or container leakage. This has led to the need for special care in handling the returned module prior to processing the module for its next flight. Prior to opening the MPLM, atmospheric samples are analyzed for trace volatile organic compounds, VOC's. It is noted that our analyses also reflect the atmosphere in the ISS on that day of closure. With the re turn of STS-108, 12th ISS Flight (UF1), the analysis showed 24 PPM of methane. This corresponds to the high levels on space station during a time period when the air filtration system was shut off. Chemical characterization of atmospheres on the ISS and MPLM provide useful information for concerns with plant growth experiments on ISS. Work with closed plant growth chambers show potential for VOC's to accumulate to toxic levels for plants. The ethylene levels for 4 MPLM analyses over the course on one year were measured at, 0.070, 0.017, 0.012 and 0.007 PPM. Phytochemical such as ethylene are detected with natural plant physiological events such as flowering and as a result of plant damage or from decaying food. A build up of VOC's may contribute to phytotoxic effects for the plant growth experiments or

  7. Variations of the glacio-marine air mass front in West Greenland through water vapor isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kopec, B. G.; Lauder, A. M.; Posmentier, E. S.; Feng, X.

    2012-12-01

    While the isotopic distribution of precipitation has been widely used for research in hydrology, paleoclimatology, and ecology for decades, intensive isotopic studies of atmospheric water vapor has only recently been made possible by spectral-based technology. New instrumentation based on this technology opens up many opportunities to investigate short-term atmospheric dynamics involving the water cycle and moisture transport. We deployed a Los Gatos Water Vapor Isotope Analyzer (WVIA) at Kangerlussuaq, Greenland from July 21 to August 15, and measured the water vapor concentration and its isotopic ratios continuously at 10s intervals. A Danish Meteorological Institute site is located about 1 km from the site of the deployment, and meteorological data is collected at 30 min intervals. During the observation period, the vapor concentration of the ambient air ranges from 5608.4 to 11189.4 ppm; dD and d18O range from -254.5 to -177.7 ‰ and -34.2 to -23.2 ‰, respectively. The vapor content (dew point) and the isotopic ratios are both strongly controlled by the wind direction. The easterly winds are associated with dry, isotopically depleted air masses formed over the glacier, while westerly winds are associated with moist and isotopically enriched air masses from the marine/fjord surface. This region typically experiences katabatic winds off of the ice sheet to the east. However, during some afternoons, the wind shifts 180 degrees, blowing off the fjord to the west. This wind switch marks the onset of a sea breeze, and significant isotopic enrichment results. Enrichment in deuterium is up to 60 ‰ with a mean of 15‰, and oxygen-18 is enriched by 3‰ on average and up to 8 ‰. Other afternoons have no change in wind, and only small changes in humidity and vapor isotopic ratios. The humidity and isotopic variations suggest the local atmosphere circulation is dominated by relatively high-pressure systems above the cold glaciers and cool sea surface, and diurnal

  8. Performance Assessment of a Solar powered Air Quality and Weather Station Placed on a School Rooftop in Hong Kong

    EPA Science Inventory

    Summary of compact, roof version of a Village Green Project station installed on a secondary school rooftop in Hong Kong. Preliminary comparison of the station's data against nearby regulatory monitors are summarized.

  9. Verification and implementation of microburst day potential index (MDPI) and wind INDEX (WINDEX) forecasting tools at Cape Canaveral Air Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wheeler, Mark

    1996-01-01

    This report details the research, development, utility, verification and transition on wet microburst forecasting and detection the Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) did in support of ground and launch operations at Kennedy Space Center (KSC) and Cape Canaveral Air Station (CCAS). The unforecasted wind event on 16 August 1994 of 33.5 ms-1 (65 knots) at the Shuttle Landing Facility raised the issue of wet microburst detection and forecasting. The AMU researched and analyzed the downburst wind event and determined it was a wet microburst event. A program was developed for operational use on the Meteorological Interactive Data Display System (MIDDS) weather system to analyze, compute and display Theta(epsilon) profiles, the microburst day potential index (MDPI), and wind index (WINDEX) maximum wind gust value. Key microburst nowcasting signatures using the WSR-88D data were highlighted. Verification of the data sets indicated that the MDPI has good potential in alerting the duty forecaster to the potential of wet microburst and the WINDEX values computed from the hourly surface data do have potential in showing a trend for the maximum gust potential. WINDEX should help in filling in the temporal hole between the MDPI on the last Cape Canaveral rawinsonde and the nowcasting radar data tools.

  10. An Objective Verification of the North American Mesoscale Model for Kennedy Space Center and Cape Canaveral Air Force Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauman, William H., III

    2010-01-01

    The 45th Weather Squadron (45 WS) Launch Weather Officers (LWO's) use the 12-km resolution North American Mesoscale (NAM) model (MesoNAM) text and graphical product forecasts extensively to support launch weather operations. However, the actual performance of the model at Kennedy Space Center (KSC) and Cape Canaveral Air Force Station (CCAFS) has not been measured objectively. In order to have tangible evidence of model performance, the 45 WS tasked the Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU; Bauman et ai, 2004) to conduct a detailed statistical analysis of model output compared to observed values. The model products are provided to the 45 WS by ACTA, Inc. and include hourly forecasts from 0 to 84 hours based on model initialization times of 00, 06, 12 and 18 UTC. The objective analysis compared the MesoNAM forecast winds, temperature (T) and dew pOint (T d), as well as the changes in these parameters over time, to the observed values from the sensors in the KSC/CCAFS wind tower network shown in Table 1. These objective statistics give the forecasters knowledge of the model's strengths and weaknesses, which will result in improved forecasts for operations.

  11. An Objective Verification of the North American Mesoscale Model for Kennedy Space Center and Cape Canaveral Air Force Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauman, William H., III

    2010-01-01

    The 45th Weather Squadron (45 WS) Launch Weather Officers use the 12-km resolution North American Mesoscale (NAM) model (MesoNAM) text and graphical product forecasts extensively to support launch weather operations. However, the actual performance of the model at Kennedy Space Center (KSC) and Cape Canaveral Air Force Station (CCAFS) has not been measured objectively. In order to have tangible evidence of model performance, the 45 WS tasked the Applied Meteorology Unit to conduct a detailed statistical analysis of model output compared to observed values. The model products are provided to the 45 WS by ACTA, Inc. and include hourly forecasts from 0 to 84 hours based on model initialization times of 00, 06, 12 and 18 UTC. The objective analysis compared the MesoNAM forecast winds, temperature and dew point, as well as the changes in these parameters over time, to the observed values from the sensors in the KSC/CCAFS wind tower network. Objective statistics will give the forecasters knowledge of the model's strength and weaknesses, which will result in improved forecasts for operations.

  12. Developing Empirical Lightning Cessation Forecast Guidance for the Cape Canaveral Air Force Station and Kennedy Space Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stano, Geoffrey T.; Fuelberg, Henry E.; Roeder, William P.

    2010-01-01

    This research addresses the 45th Weather Squadron's (45WS) need for improved guidance regarding lightning cessation at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station and Kennedy Space Center (KSC). KSC's Lightning Detection and Ranging (LDAR) network was the primary observational tool to investigate both cloud-to-ground and intracloud lightning. Five statistical and empirical schemes were created from LDAR, sounding, and radar parameters derived from 116 storms. Four of the five schemes were unsuitable for operational use since lightning advisories would be canceled prematurely, leading to safety risks to personnel. These include a correlation and regression tree analysis, three variants of multiple linear regression, event time trending, and the time delay between the greatest height of the maximum dBZ value to the last flash. These schemes failed to adequately forecast the maximum interval, the greatest time between any two flashes in the storm. The majority of storms had a maximum interval less than 10 min, which biased the schemes toward small values. Success was achieved with the percentile method (PM) by separating the maximum interval into percentiles for the 100 dependent storms.

  13. Developing a Peak Wind Probability Forecast Tool for Kennedy Space Center and Cape Canaveral Air Force Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lambert, WInifred; Roeder, William

    2007-01-01

    This conference presentation describes the development of a peak wind forecast tool to assist forecasters in determining the probability of violating launch commit criteria (LCC) at Kennedy Space Center (KSC) and Cape Canaveral Air Force Station (CCAFS) in east-central Florida. The peak winds are an important forecast element for both the Space Shuttle and Expendable Launch Vehicle (ELV) programs. The LCC define specific peak wind thresholds for each launch operation that cannot be exceeded in order to ensure the safety of the vehicle. The 45th Weather Squadron (45 WS) has found that peak winds are a challenging parameter to forecast, particularly in the cool season months of October through April. Based on the importance of forecasting peak winds, the 45 WS tasked the Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) to develop a short-range peak-wind forecast tool to assist in forecasting LCC violations. The tool will include climatologies of the 5-minute mean and peak winds by month, hour, and direction, and probability distributions of the peak winds as a function of the 5-minute mean wind speeds.

  14. Radiocarbon-depleted CO2 evidence for fuel biodegradation at the Naval Air Station North Island (USA) fuel farm site.

    PubMed

    Boyd, Thomas J; Pound, Michael J; Lohr, Daniel; Coffin, Richard B

    2013-05-01

    Dissolved CO(2) radiocarbon and stable carbon isotope ratios were measured in groundwater from a fuel contaminated site at the North Island Naval Air Station in San Diego, CA (USA). A background groundwater sampling well and 16 wells in the underground fuel contamination zone were evaluated. For each sample, a two end-member isotopic mixing model was used to determine the fraction of CO(2) derived from fossil fuel. The CO(2) fraction from fossil sources ranged from 8 to 93% at the fuel contaminated site, while stable carbon isotope values ranged from -14 to +5‰VPDB. Wells associated with highest historical and contemporary fuel contamination showed the highest fraction of CO(2) derived from petroleum (fossil) sources. Stable carbon isotope ratios indicated sub-regions on-site with recycled CO(2) (δ(13)CO(2) as high as +5‰VPDB) - most likely resulting from methanogenesis. Ancillary measurements (pH and cations) were used to determine that no fossil CaCO(3), for instance limestone, biased the analytical conclusions. Radiocarbon analysis is verified as a viable and definitive technique for confirming fossil hydrocarbon conversion to CO(2) (complete oxidation) at hydrocarbon-contaminated groundwater sites. The technique should also be very useful for assessing the efficacy of engineered remediation efforts and by using CO(2) production rates, contaminant mass conversion over time and per unit volume.

  15. 78 FR 20852 - Safety Zones; Marine Week Air Ground Demonstration, Lake Washington; Seattle, WA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-08

    ..., amphibious vehicles, swimmers, combat equipment, and other elements that could create safety concerns for..., swimmers, combat equipment, and other elements. The following proposed safety zone is for the Marine...

  16. Uranium from Seawater Marine Testing Program at the University of Miami’s Broad Key Island Research Station

    SciTech Connect

    Gill, Gary A.; Kuo, Li-Jung; Strivens, Jonathan E.; Wood, Jordana R.; Schlafer, Nicholas J.; D'Alessandro, Evan

    2016-09-30

    Marine testing at Broad Key Island (BKI), Florida was conducted to validate adsorption capacity and adsorption kinetics results obtained for several formulations of the ORNL amidoxime-based polymeric adsorbents in Sequim Bay, Washington in another location with different oceanographic and water quality conditions (e.g. temperature, dissolved organic carbon, salinity and trace element content). Broad Key is a small island off the southeast coast of Florida at the southern end of Biscayne Bay. Flow-through column and recirculating flume experiments were conducted at BKI using ambient filtered seawater and identical exposure systems as were used at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory’s (PNNL) Marine Sciences laboratory (MSL). Testing was conducted in two periods in FY 2015 and FY 2016 with five different amidoxime-based adsorbent materials, four produced by ORNL (AF1, AI8, AF8, and AF1-DMSO) and one by LCW technologies (LCW-10). All exposures were conducted at ambient seawater temperatures, with moderate temperature control on the ambient seawater to mitigate large daily swings in the seawater temperature. The ORNL adsorbents AF1, AI8 and AF1-AO-DMSO all had fairly similar adsorption capacities (6.0 to 6.6 g U/ kg adsorbent) after 56 days of exposure at ambient temperature (26 to 31 °C) and salinity (35.7 to 37.4), but the AF8 adsorbent was considerably lower at 4.4 g U/kg adsorbent. All the adsorbents tested at BKI had higher capacities than was observed at PNNL, with the higher temperatures likely a major factor contributing to this difference. In general, the elemental distribution (expressed as a relative percentage) on all the adsorbents agreed well, including good agreement with the elemental distribution pattern for AF1 adsorbent exposed at PNNL. The most notable exception to a uniform elemental distributional pattern across the various adsorbents occurs with vanadium. The relative mass percentage for vanadium retained by the adsorbents ranged from a

  17. Human impacts in Antartic marine soft-sediment assemblages: correlations between multivariate biological patterns and environmental variables at Casey Station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stark, Jonathan S.; Riddle, Martin J.; Snape, Ian; Scouller, Rebecca C.

    2003-03-01

    Correlations between the spatial distribution of soft-sediment assemblages and environmental variables were evaluated at a number of control and potentially impacted locations (waste dumps, a sewage outfall and a wharf) at Casey Station, East Antarctica. Patterns of assemblage composition were compared with patterns of environmental variables using univariate and multivariate techniques. The utility of these methods, however, is uncertain in areas of significant habitat heterogeneity (at scales <10 m), such as at Casey Station. A number of environmental variables were measured to determine their potential influence on assemblage structure including sediment heavy metal concentrations, total organic carbon (TOC), grain size and depth. Soft-sediment assemblages clustered strongly into two groups and this pattern was found to be most highly correlated with concentrations of heavy metals of anthropogenic origin: cadmium, copper, lead, tin and zinc. The relationship, however, is complex and is likely to be further influenced by variables affecting the bioavailability of metals such as grain size, TOC and sediment anoxia. Impacted locations were characterised by fewer taxa, lower diversity and lower species richness. One of the control locations was found to have naturally high levels of cadmium, nickel and zinc and had assemblages very similar to those at the potentially impacted, polluted locations. One of the potentially impacted locations had coarse sediments and low levels of heavy metals but had assemblages very similar to other impacted locations. Problems of sampling design for human impacts detection in real world situations are discussed in relation to this study. This study provides evidence that these multivariate statistical methods are useful in heterogeneous environments and across pollution gradients where pollutants have the potential to act as a primary cause of spatial variation in assemblage structure.

  18. Hydrogeology of the Piney Point-Nanjemoy, Aquia, and Upper Patapsco Aquifers, Naval Air Station Patuxent River and Webster Outlying Field, St. Marys County, Maryland, 2000-06

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Klohe, Cheryl A.; Kay, Robert T.

    2007-01-01

    Recent and projected population growth in southern Maryland continues to bring ground-water-quality and quantity issues to the forefront. Lithologic, borehole geophysical, water-level, and water-use data were compiled and interpreted to revise understanding of the hydrogeologic framework of the Piney Point-Nanjemoy, Aquia, and Upper Patapsco aquifers in southern Maryland, with emphasis on the Naval Air Station Patuxent River and Webster Outlying Field. Understanding of the hydrogeologic framework for the Upper Patapsco aquifer also has been revised based on the results of aquifer testing and water-quality sampling of two wells. The Piney Point-Nanjemoy aquifer is 50 to 70 feet thick, with a top altitude of 213 to 260 feet below the North American Vertical Datum of 1988 and a hydraulic conductivity of 2 feet per day at Naval Air Station Patuxent River and Webster Outlying Field. Ground-water withdrawals from the Piney Point-Nanjemoy aquifer have been minimal since 1999 and water levels in the aquifer have not changed substantially since the 1950s. An overall decline of about 2.5 feet has been observed since 1997, however. The Aquia aquifer is 100 to 145 feet thick, with a top altitude of approximately 450 feet below the North American Vertical Datum of 1988 and a hydraulic conductivity of 6 to 10 feet per day at Naval Air Station Patuxent River. The Aquia aquifer is approximately 50 feet thick, with a top altitude of 470 feet below sea level and a hydraulic conductivity of 6 to 10 feet per day at Webster Outlying Field. Water levels in the Aquia aquifer declined in response to increased withdrawals from the aquifer from the early 1940s through about 2000 at Naval Air Station Patuxent River and Webster Outlying Field, but have been generally stable from about 1999 through April 2006. The Upper Patapsco aquifer at the Naval Air Station Patuxent River and Webster Outlying Field consists of layers of sand interbedded with layers of clay that total over 200 feet in

  19. Using C-Band Dual-Polarization Radar Signatures to Improve Convective Wind Forecasting at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station and NASA Kennedy Space Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Amiot, Corey G.; Carey, Lawrence D.; Roeder, William P.; McNamara, Todd M.; Blakeslee, Richard J.

    2017-01-01

    The United States Air Force's 45th Weather Squadron (45WS) is the organization responsible for monitoring atmospheric conditions at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station and NASA Kennedy Space Center (CCAFS/KSC) and issuing warnings for hazardous weather conditions when the need arises. One such warning is issued for convective wind events, for which lead times of 30 and 60 minutes are desired for events with peak wind gusts of 35 knots or greater (i.e., Threshold-1) and 50 knots or greater (i.e., Threshold-2), respectively (Roeder et al. 2014).

  20. Assessment and forecasting of lightning potential and its effect on launch operations at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station and John F. Kennedy Space Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weems, J.; Wyse, N.; Madura, J.; Secrist, M.; Pinder, C.

    1991-01-01

    Lightning plays a pivotal role in the operation decision process for space and ballistic launches at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station and Kennedy Space Center. Lightning forecasts are the responsibility of Detachment 11, 4th Weather Wing's Cape Canaveral Forecast Facility. These forecasts are important to daily ground processing as well as launch countdown decisions. The methodology and equipment used to forecast lightning are discussed. Impact on a recent mission is summarized.

  1. Real-Time Kennedy Space Center and Cape Canaveral Air Force Station High-Resolution Model Implementation and Verification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shafer, Jaclyn; Watson, Leela R.

    2015-01-01

    NASA's Launch Services Program, Ground Systems Development and Operations, Space Launch System and other programs at Kennedy Space Center (KSC) and Cape Canaveral Air Force Station (CCAFS) use the daily and weekly weather forecasts issued by the 45th Weather Squadron (45 WS) as decision tools for their day-to-day and launch operations on the Eastern Range (ER). Examples include determining if they need to limit activities such as vehicle transport to the launch pad, protect people, structures or exposed launch vehicles given a threat of severe weather, or reschedule other critical operations. The 45 WS uses numerical weather prediction models as a guide for these weather forecasts, particularly the Air Force Weather Agency (AFWA) 1.67 km Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model. Considering the 45 WS forecasters' and Launch Weather Officers' (LWO) extensive use of the AFWA model, the 45 WS proposed a task at the September 2013 Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) Tasking Meeting requesting the AMU verify this model. Due to the lack of archived model data available from AFWA, verification is not yet possible. Instead, the AMU proposed to implement and verify the performance of an ER version of the high-resolution WRF Environmental Modeling System (EMS) model configured by the AMU (Watson 2013) in real time. Implementing a real-time version of the ER WRF-EMS would generate a larger database of model output than in the previous AMU task for determining model performance, and allows the AMU more control over and access to the model output archive. The tasking group agreed to this proposal; therefore the AMU implemented the WRF-EMS model on the second of two NASA AMU modeling clusters. The AMU also calculated verification statistics to determine model performance compared to observational data. Finally, the AMU made the model output available on the AMU Advanced Weather Interactive Processing System II (AWIPS II) servers, which allows the 45 WS and AMU staff to customize

  2. Air

    MedlinePlus

    ... do to protect yourself from dirty air . Indoor air pollution and outdoor air pollution Air can be polluted indoors and it can ... this chart to see what things cause indoor air pollution and what things cause outdoor air pollution! Indoor ...

  3. Long-term Monitoring Program Optimization for Chlorinated Volatile Organic Compound Plume, Naval Air Station Brunswick, Maine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calderone, G. M.

    2006-12-01

    A long-term monitoring program was initiated in 1995 at 6 sites at NAS Brunswick, including 3 National Priorities List (Superfund) sites. Primary contaminants of concern include chlorinated volatile organic compounds, including tetrachloroethane, trichloroethene, and vinyl chloride, in addition to metals. More than 80 submersible pumping systems were installed to facilitate sample collection utilizing the low-flow sampling technique. Long-term monitoring of the groundwater is conducted to assess the effectiveness of remedial measures, and monitor changes in contaminant concentrations in the Eastern Plume Operable Unit. Long-term monitoring program activities include quarterly groundwater sampling and analysis at more than 90 wells across 6 sites; surface water, sediment, seep, and leachate sampling and analysis at 3 sites; landfill gas monitoring; well maintenance; engineering inspections of landfill covers and other sites or evidence of stressed vegetation; water level gauging; and treatment plant sampling and analysis. Significant cost savings were achieved by optimizing the sampling network and reducing sampling frequency from quarterly to semi- annual or annual sampling. As part of an ongoing optimization effort, a geostatistical assessment of the Eastern Plume was conducted at the Naval Air Station, Brunswick, Maine. The geostatistical assessment used 40 monitoring points and analytical data collected over 3 years. For this geostatistical assessment, EA developed and utilized a database of analytical results generated during 3 years of long-term monitoring which was linked to a Geographic Information System to enhance data visualization capacity. The Geographic Information System included themes for groundwater volatile organic compound concentration, groundwater flow directions, shallow and deep wells, and immediate access to point-specific analytical results. This statistical analysis has been used by the site decision-maker and its conclusions supported a

  4. Evaluation of geophysical logs, Phase II, at Willow Grove Naval Air Station Joint Reserve Base, Montgomery County, Pennsylvania

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Conger, Randall W.

    1999-01-01

    Between March and April 1998, the U.S. Navy contracted Tetra Tech NUS Inc., to drill two monitor wells in the Stockton Formation at the Willow Grove Naval Air Station Joint Reserve Base, Horsham Township, Montgomery County, Pa. The wells MG-1634 and MG-1635 were installed to monitor water levels and sample contaminants in the shallow, intermediate, and deep water-producing zones of the fractured bedrock. Chemical analyses of the samples will help determine the horizontal and vertical distribution of any contaminated ground water migrating from known contaminant sources. Wells were drilled near the Fire Training Area (Site 5). Depths of all boreholes range from 69 to 149 feet below land surface. The U.S. Geological Survey conducted borehole geophysical logging and video surveys to identify water-producing zones in newly drilled monitor wells MG-1634 and MG-1635 and in wells MG-1675 and MG-1676. The logging was conducted from March 5, 1998, to April 16, 1998. This work is a continuation of the Phase I work. Caliper logs and video surveys were used to locate fractures; inflections on fluid-temperature and fluid-resistivity logs were used to locate possible water-producing fractures. Heatpulse-flowmeter measurements were used to verify the locations of water-producing or water-receiving zones and to measure rates of flow between water-bearing fractures. Single-point-resistance and natural-gamma logs provided information on stratigraphy. After interpretation of geophysical logs, video surveys, and driller's notes, wells MG-1634 and MG-1635 were screened such that water-levels fluctuations could be monitored and discrete water samples collected from one or more water-producing zones in each borehole.

  5. Diffusion sampler testing at Naval Air Station North Island, San Diego County, California, November 1999 to January 2000

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vroblesky, Don A.; Peters, Brian C.

    2000-01-01

    Volatile organic compound concentrations in water from diffusion samplers were compared to concentrations in water obtained by low-flow purging at 15 observation wells at the Naval Air Station North Island, San Diego, California. Multiple diffusion samplers were installed in the wells. In general, comparisons using bladder pumps and diffusion samplers showed similar volatile organic carbon concentrations. In some wells, sharp concentration gradients were observed, such as an increase in cis-1,2-dichloroethene concentration from 100 to 2,600 micrograms per liter over a vertical distance of only 3.4 feet. In areas where such sharp gradients were observed, concentrations in water obtained by low-flow sampling at times reflected an average concentration over the area of influence; however, concentrations obtained by using the diffusion sampler seemed to represent the immediate vicinity of the sampler. When peristaltic pumps were used to collect ground-water samples by low-flow purging, the volatile organic compound concentrations commonly were lower than concentrations obtained by using diffusion samplers. This difference may be due to loss of volatiles by degassing under negative pressures in the sampling lines induced while using the peristaltic pump, mixing in the well screen, or possible short-circuiting of water from an adjacent depth. Diffusion samplers placed in buckets of freephase jet fuel (JP-5) and Stoddard solvent from observation wells did not show evidence of structural integrity loss during the 2 months of equilibration, and volatile organic compounds detected in the free-phase fuel also were detected in the water from the diffusion samplers.

  6. Groundwater quality and occurrence and distribution of selected constituents in the Aquia and Upper Patapsco aquifers, Naval Air Station Patuxent River, St. Mary's County, Maryland, July 2008

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dieter, Cheryl A.; Campo, Kimberly W.; Baker, Anna C.

    2012-01-01

    The Naval Air Station Patuxent River in southern Maryland has continued to expand in the first decade of the 21st century, contributing to rapid population growth in the surrounding area. The increase in population has caused State and County water managers and others to be concerned about the impact of population growth on the quantity and quality of groundwater supplies. The U.S. Geological Survey has been investigating the groundwater resources of the air station since 1998. As part of that ongoing investigation, groundwater was sampled in 2008 in six wells in the Aquia aquifer and two wells in the Upper Patapsco aquifer in the vicinity of Naval Air Station Patuxent River and Webster Outlying Field. Groundwater samples were analyzed for basic chemistry (field parameters, major ions, and nutrients) as well as several water-quality issues of concern including the occurrence of arsenic and tungsten, and saltwater intrusion. The results of the 2008 groundwater-quality sampling indicate that the overall quality of groundwater in the Aquia aquifer has not changed since 1943; data are too limited to determine if groundwater quality has changed in the Upper Patapsco aquifer. At one well in the Aquia aquifer, the arsenic concentration exceeded the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency standard for drinking water. Arsenic was not detected in samples from the Upper Patapsco aquifer. Tungsten concentrations were detected at low concentrations near the laboratory reporting level in all eight samples. There was no evidence of saltwater intrusion in any of the wells.

  7. Evaluations of HRI (Heat Recovery Incinerators) at NS (Naval Station) Mayport and NAS (Naval Air Station) Jacksonville, Florida-Lessons Learned Report.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-07-01

    primary chamber is lined with 2 in. of insulating mineral wool and 4 in. of castable refractory with a service temperature of 2500*F. 5.5.5.4...material. The refractory should be air cooled by circulating combustion air between it and the outer shell. A minimum of 2-in.-high density mineral wool or...passes through the roof. The 50-ft-high and 6-ft-4-in.-O.D. stack is constructed of steel and lined with 4 in. of refractory and 2 in. of mineral

  8. Assessment of Current and Future Air Pollutant Emission Reduction Technologies for Marine Diesel Engines

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-02-01

    33 6.3.1 Biodiesel ...6.3 Alternative Fuels There is some consideration of alternatives to liquid fossil oil fuels for the marine industry. Three of these are biodiesel ...Liquefied Natural Gas and Methanol – Dimethyl Ether. 6.3.1 Biodiesel An extensive review across many transportation sectors of the emissions of

  9. Data Supporting Mobile Application Development for Use within the Marine Air-Ground Task Force

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-09-01

    AND ADDRESS Naval Postgraduate School Monterey, CA 93943-5000 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER 9. SPONSORING /MONITORING AGENCY NAME...66   c.   SAR Application ........................................................... 66   d.   CAS Application...2013) ............ 13   Figure 5.   Priorities of the 35th Commandant of the Marine Corps (from Amos , 2010

  10. The uptake of iron-55 by marine sediment, macroalgae, and biota following discharge from a nuclear power station.

    PubMed

    Warwick, P E; Cundy, A B; Croudace, I W; Bains, M E; Dale, A A

    2001-06-01

    Significant quantities of 55Fe, an activation product of stable iron, have been released into the environment following the atmospheric testing of nuclear weapons (mainly in the 1950s and 1960s) as well as through authorized discharges of radioactivity from nuclear power and reprocessing sites. Although some studies have been performed on the behavior of weapons' fallout-derived 55Fe in the environment and subsequent impact on humans, little has been published on the behavior of 55Fe released as a point source discharge from nuclear sites. This study presents data on the concentration and temporal variation of 55Fe in fucoid seaweeds, shellfish, crab, and lobster collected from Weymouth Bay and adjacent coastal areas, southern England. These areas have received authorized discharges of radionuclides originating from the operation of a now-decommissioned steam-generating, heavy water-type reactor at AEE Winfrith. The highest activities of 55Fe are found associated with marine sediments collected near the discharge pipeline and a rapid decline occurs away from the pipeline. This is consistent with rapid sorption of 55Fe by the sediment, and the data show there is only limited reworking and remobilization. Activities of 55Fe in biota generally decreased over time, due to a reduction in the amount of 55Fe discharged. The variation of 55Fe activity, revealed from the monthly sampling of seaweed, does not reflect the short-term fluctuations seen in the patterns of discharged 55Fe activity. Although discharges of 55Fe from AEE Winfrith exceeded other radionuclides, the radiological impact on local seafood consumers is considerably less than for other key radionuclides such as 60Co and 65Zn but of comparable magnitude to the global average population dose arising from fallout-derived 55Fe.

  11. Continuous atmospheric 222Rn concentration measurements to study surface-air exchange at the station of Gredos and Iruelas, in Central Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grossi, Claudia; Morgui, Josep Anton; Àgueda, Alba; Batet, Oscar; Curcoll, Roger; Arias, Rosa; Arnold, Delia; Ealo, Marina; Nofuentes, Manel; Occhipinti, Paola; Sánchez-Garcíaa, Laura; Vargas, Arturo; Rodó, Xavier

    2013-04-01

    The Gredos and Iruelas station (GIC3) is part of the ClimaDat IC3 network (http://climadat.es/). This station is located in the Gredos Natural Park at a latitude of 40.22° N and a longitude of -5.14° E in the Spanish central plateau. The ClimaDat network is made by 8 stations distributed around Spain and it has been developed with the aim of studying climatic processes and the responses of impacted systems, at different time and space scales. Since November 2012, measurements of CO2, CH4, and of the natural radioactive gas 222Rn are continuously performed at GIC3 station at 20 m agl and at 1100 m asl . Maximum,minimum and average values of meteorological parameters, such as ambient air humidity and temperature, wind speed and direction are also measured at GIC3 station. Particularly, the concentration series of 222Rn measured at GIC3 station are extremely useful to evaluate the exchange of this noble radioactive gas between the soil surface and the lower troposphere in this area, under different weather situations and environmental conditions. The Gredos Natural Park is located in a granitic basement and this type of soil presents a high porosity and permeability. Furthermore, granitic materials have high activity levels of 228U. These factors enable large amount of radon to escape from the deeper soil, giving radon flux values of 90-100 Bq m-2 h-1 . These radon flux values are much higher than the average radon flux over the Earth, which is about 50 Bq m-2 h-1 (Szegvary et al, 2009). On the other hand, this geographical area is frequently affected by snow and rain events which drastically reduce the local radon exhalation. It is also influenced by winds coming from the Atlantic Ocean, which are poor in radon and strong, causing an important mixing. In addition, the cold nights' stability leads to an observed nocturnal radon accumulation. All the aforementioned conditions influence atmospheric radon concentrations measured at the GIC3 station, enlarging the range

  12. Simulation of Ground-Water Flow and Optimization of Withdrawals from Aquifers at the Naval Air Station Patuxent River, St. Mary's County, Maryland

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dieter, Cheryl A.; Fleck, William B.

    2008-01-01

    Potentiometric surfaces in the Piney Point-Nanjemoy, Aquia, and Upper Patapsco aquifers have declined from 1950 through 2000 throughout southern Maryland. In the vicinity of Lexington Park, Maryland, the potentiometric surface in the Aquia aquifer in 2000 was as much as 170 feet below sea level, approximately 150 feet lower than estimated pre-pumping levels before 1940. At the present rate, the water levels will have declined to the regulatory allowable maximum of 80 percent of available drawdown in the Aquia aquifer by about 2050. The effect of the withdrawals from these aquifers by the Naval Air Station Patuxent River and surrounding users on the declining potentiometric surface has raised concern for future availability of ground water. Growth at Naval Air Station Patuxent River may increase withdrawals, resulting in further drawdown. A ground-water-flow model, combined with optimization modeling, was used to develop withdrawal scenarios that minimize the effects (drawdown) of hypothetical future withdrawals. A three-dimensional finite-difference ground-water-flow model was developed to simulate the ground-water-flow system in the Piney Point-Nanjemoy, Aquia, and Upper Patapsco aquifers beneath the Naval Air Station Patuxent River. Transient and steady-state conditions were simulated to give water-resource managers additional tools to manage the ground-water resources. The transient simulation, representing 1900 through 2002, showed that the magnitude of withdrawal has increased over that time, causing ground-water flow to change direction in some areas. The steady-state simulation was linked to an optimization model to determine optimal solutions to hypothetical water-management scenarios. Two optimization scenarios were evaluated. The first scenario was designed to determine the optimal pumping rates for wells screened in the Aquia aquifer within three supply groups to meet a 25-percent increase in withdrawal demands, while minimizing the drawdown at a control

  13. Relationships between ozone photolysis rates and peroxy radical concentrations in clean marine air over the Southern Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Penkett, S. A.; Monks, P. S.; Carpenter, L. J.; Clemitshaw, K. C.; Ayers, G. P.; Gillett, R. W.; Galbally, I. E.; Meyer, C. P.

    1997-06-01

    Measurements of the sum of inorganic and organic peroxy radicals (RO2) and photolysis rate coefficients J(NO2) and J(O1D) have been made at Cape Grim, Tasmania in the course of a comprehensive experiment which studied photochemistry in the unpolluted marine boundary layer. The SOAPEX (Southern Ocean Atmospheric Photochemistry Experiment) campaign included measurements of ozone, peroxides, nitrogen oxides, water vapor, and many other parameters. This first full length paper concerned with the experiment focuses on the types of relationships observed between peroxy radicals and J(NO2), J(O1D) and √[J(O1D)] in different air masses in which ozone is either produced or destroyed by photochemistry. It was found that in baseline air with ozone loss, RO2 was proportional to √[J(O1D)], whereas in more polluted air RO2 was proportional to J(O1D). Simple algorithms were derived to explain these relationships and also to calculate the concentrations of OH radicals in baseline air from the instantaneous RO2 concentrations. The signal to noise ratio of the peroxy radical measurements was up to 10 for 1-min values and much higher than in other previous deployments of the instrument in the northern hemisphere, leading to the confident determination of the relationships between RO2 and J(O1D) in different conditions. The absolute concentration Of RO2 determined in these experiments is in some doubt, but this does not affect our conclusions concerned either with the behavior of peroxy radicals with changing light levels or with the concentrations of OH calculated from RO2. The results provide confidence that the level of understanding of the photochemistry of ozone leading to the production of peroxide via recombination of peroxy radicals in clean air environments is well advanced.

  14. Environmental Conditions and Threatened and Endangered Species Populations near the Titan, Atlas, and Delta Launch Complexes, Cape Canaveral Air Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oddy, Donna M.; Stolen, Eric D.; Schmalzer, Paul A.; Hensley, Melissa A.; Hall, Patrice; Larson, Vickie L.; Turek, Shannon R.

    1999-01-01

    Launches of Delta, Atlas, and Titan rockets from Cape Canaveral Air Station (CCAS) have potential environmental effects. These could occur from direct impacts of launches or indirectly from habitat alterations. This report summarizes a three-year study (1 995-1 998) characterizing the environment, with particular attention to threatened and endangered species, near Delta, Atlas, and Titan launch facilities. Cape Canaveral has been modified by Air Force development and by 50 years of fire suppression. The dominant vegetation type around the Delta and Atlas launch complexes is coastal oak hammock forest. Oak scrub is the predominant upland vegetation type near the Titan launch complexes. Compositionally, these are coastal scrub communities that has been unburned for > 40 years and have developed into closed canopy, low-stature forests. Herbaceous vegetation around active and inactive facilities, coastal strand and dune vegetation near the Atlantic Ocean, and exotic vegetation in disturbed areas are common. Marsh and estuarine vegetation is most common west of the Titan complexes. Launch effects to vegetation include scorch, acid, and particulate deposition. Discernable, cumulative effects are limited to small areas near the launch complexes. Water quality samples were collected at the Titan, Atlas, and Delta launch complexes in September 1995 (wet season) and January 1996 (dry season). Samples were analyzed for heavy metals, chloride, total organic carbon, calcium, iron, magnesium, sodium, total alkalinity, pH, and conductivity. Differences between fresh, brackish, and saline surface waters were evident. The natural buffering capacity of the environment surrounding the CCAS launch complexes is adequate for neutralizing acid deposition in rainfall and launch deposition. Populations of the Florida Scrub-Jay (Aphelocoma coerulescens), a Federally-listed, threatened species, reside near the launch complexes. Thirty-seven to forty-one scrub-jay territories were located at

  15. Environmental Conditions and Threatened and Endangered Species Populations near the Titain, Atlas, and Delta Launch Complexes, Cape Canaveral Air Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oddy, Donna M.; Stolen, Eric D.; Schmalzer, Paul A.; Hensley, Melissa A.; Hall, Patrice; Larson, Vickie L.; Turek, Shannon R.

    1999-01-01

    Launches of Delta, Atlas, and Titan rockets from Cape Canaveral Air Station (CCAS) have potential environmental effects. These could occur from direct impacts of launches or indirectly from habitat alterations. This report summarizes a three-year study (1995-1998) characterizing the environment, with particular attention to threatened and endangered species, near Delta, Atlas, and Titan launch facilities. Cape Canaveral has been modified by Air Force development and by 50 years of fire suppression. The dominant vegetation type around the Delta and Atlas launch complexes is coastal oak hammock forest. Oak scrub is the predominant upland vegetation type near the Titan launch complexes. Compositionally, these are coastal scrub communities that has been unburned for greater than 40 years and have developed into closed canopy, low-stature forests. Herbaceous vegetation around active and inactive facilities, coastal strand and dune vegetation near the Atlantic Ocean, and exotic vegetation in disturbed areas are common. Marsh and estuarine vegetation is most common west of the Titan complexes. Launch effects to vegetation include scorch, acid, and particulate deposition. Discernable, cumulative effects are limited to small areas near the launch complexes. Water quality samples were collected at the Titan, Atlas, and Delta launch complexes in September 1995 (wet season) and January 1996 (dry season). Samples were analyzed for heavy metals, chloride, total organic carbon, calcium, iron, magnesium, sodium, total alkalinity, pH, and conductivity. Differences between fresh, brackish, and saline surface waters were evident. The natural buffering capacity of the environment surrounding the CCAS launch complexes is adequate for neutralizing acid deposition in rainfall and launch deposition. Populations of the Florida Scrub-Jay (Aphelocoma coerulescens), a Federally- listed, threatened species, reside near the launch complexes. Thirty-seven to forty-one scrub-jay territories were

  16. Transitions of cloud-topped marine boundary layers characterized by AIRS, MODIS, and a large eddy simulation model

    SciTech Connect

    Yue, Qing; Kahn, Brian; Xiao, Heng; Schreier, Mathias; Fetzer, E. J.; Teixeira, J.; Suselj, Kay

    2013-08-16

    Cloud top entrainment instability (CTEI) is a hypothesized positive feedback between entrainment mixing and evaporative cooling near the cloud top. Previous theoretical and numerical modeling studies have shown that the persistence or breakup of marine boundary layer (MBL) clouds may be sensitive to the CTEI parameter. Collocated thermodynamic profile and cloud observations obtained from the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) instruments are used to quantify the relationship between the CTEI parameter and the cloud-topped MBL transition from stratocumulus to trade cumulus in the northeastern Pacific Ocean. Results derived from AIRS and MODIS are compared with numerical results from the UCLA large eddy simulation (LES) model for both well-mixed and decoupled MBLs. The satellite and model results both demonstrate a clear correlation between the CTEI parameter and MBL cloud fraction. Despite fundamental differences between LES steady state results and the instantaneous snapshot type of observations from satellites, significant correlations for both the instantaneous pixel-scale observations and the long-term averaged spatial patterns between the CTEI parameter and MBL cloud fraction are found from the satellite observations and are consistent with LES results. This suggests the potential of using AIRS and MODIS to quantify global and temporal characteristics of the cloud-topped MBL transition.

  17. Analysis and Design of a Local Area Network Information Support System for the Marine Corps Air Station, Yuma, Arizona.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-03-01

    March 1988 Author: Samuel rdan pr Approved by: Joh B. Z~se fThesis dir -amesE. Suc S Reader David R. 1F ’ iman, Deparq v Am ’st rative Sciences JAmes M...interaction, cooperation and sharing of facilities. ( Sloman and Kramer 1987:1) Davis says that systems analysis and design is "...a relatively new profession...Machiavelli observed: "There is nothing more difficult to plan, more doubtful of success, nor more dangerous to manage than the creation of a new

  18. Geothermal Potential of Marine Corps Air Station, Yuma, Arizona, and the Western Portion of Luke-Williams Gunnery Range

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-01-01

    pegmatite , aplite, and (now-altered) fine-grained maric rocks. A distinctive porphyritic quartz monzonite, locally gneissic and containing large...that the mesothermal lead-silver veins may also belong to this period. Except for pegmatite veins and similar mineralization in the older metamorphic...Data taken from Reference 16. Location Rock type Date, MYBP 2 pegmatite 1400 ± 45 4 gneiss 1300 ± 40 19 granite 577 ± 17 21 granite 167 ± 4 25 granite

  19. 33 CFR 334.775 - Naval Air Station Pensacola, Pensacola Bay, Pensacola and Gulf Breeze, Fla.; naval restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... operation(s) by proper U.S. Navy authority shall have the rights-of-way. All other vessels and crafts are... and/or exercises; however, mariners shall exercise extreme caution and be on the lookout for...

  20. 33 CFR 334.775 - Naval Air Station Pensacola, Pensacola Bay, Pensacola and Gulf Breeze, Fla.; naval restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... operation(s) by proper U.S. Navy authority shall have the rights-of-way. All other vessels and crafts are... and/or exercises; however, mariners shall exercise extreme caution and be on the lookout for...

  1. 33 CFR 334.775 - Naval Air Station Pensacola, Pensacola Bay, Pensacola and Gulf Breeze, Fla.; naval restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... operation(s) by proper U.S. Navy authority shall have the rights-of-way. All other vessels and crafts are... and/or exercises; however, mariners shall exercise extreme caution and be on the lookout for...

  2. 33 CFR 334.775 - Naval Air Station Pensacola, Pensacola Bay, Pensacola and Gulf Breeze, Fla.; naval restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... operation(s) by proper U.S. Navy authority shall have the rights-of-way. All other vessels and crafts are... and/or exercises; however, mariners shall exercise extreme caution and be on the lookout for...

  3. 33 CFR 334.775 - Naval Air Station Pensacola, Pensacola Bay, Pensacola and Gulf Breeze, Fla.; naval restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... operation(s) by proper U.S. Navy authority shall have the rights-of-way. All other vessels and crafts are... and/or exercises; however, mariners shall exercise extreme caution and be on the lookout for...

  4. 9 CFR 3.62 - Primary conveyances (motor vehicle, rail, air, and marine).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... rabbits shall be mechanically sound and provide fresh air by means of windows, doors, vents, or air... temperature in the animal cargo space is 75 °F (23.9 °C) or higher. The ambient temperature within the animal... temperature in the cargo space may be below 45 °F (7.2 °C) if the rabbits are accompanied by a certificate...

  5. 9 CFR 3.62 - Primary conveyances (motor vehicle, rail, air, and marine).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... rabbits shall be mechanically sound and provide fresh air by means of windows, doors, vents, or air... temperature in the animal cargo space is 75 °F (23.9 °C) or higher. The ambient temperature within the animal... temperature in the cargo space may be below 45 °F (7.2 °C) if the rabbits are accompanied by a certificate...

  6. 9 CFR 3.62 - Primary conveyances (motor vehicle, rail, air, and marine).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... rabbits shall be mechanically sound and provide fresh air by means of windows, doors, vents, or air... temperature in the animal cargo space is 75 °F (23.9 °C) or higher. The ambient temperature within the animal... temperature in the cargo space may be below 45 °F (7.2 °C) if the rabbits are accompanied by a certificate...

  7. 9 CFR 3.62 - Primary conveyances (motor vehicle, rail, air, and marine).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... rabbits shall be mechanically sound and provide fresh air by means of windows, doors, vents, or air... temperature in the animal cargo space is 75 °F (23.9 °C) or higher. The ambient temperature within the animal... temperature in the cargo space may be below 45 °F (7.2 °C) if the rabbits are accompanied by a certificate...

  8. Fate and Transport Modeling of Selected Chlorinated Organic Compounds at Hangar 1000, U.S. Naval Air Station, Jacksonville, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Davis, J. Hal

    2003-01-01

    The Jacksonville Naval Air Station occupies 3,800 acres adjacent to the St. Johns River in Jacksonville, Florida. Two underground storage tanks at Hangar 1000 contained solvents from the late 1960s until they were removed in 1994. Ground-water samples at one of the tank sites had levels of trichloroethene (TCE) and total dichloroethene (DCE) of 8,710 micrograms per liter (mg/L) and 4,280 mg/L, respectively. Vinyl chloride (VC) at the site is the result of the biodegradation of DCE. Ground water beneath Hangar 1000 flows toward a storm sewer. TCE and DCE plumes travel with the ground water and presumably have reached the storm sewer, which discharges to the St. Johns River. Simulation of solute transport indicates that the traveltime from the storage tank site to the storm sewer is 16, 14, and 12 years for TCE, DCE, and VC respectively. TCE has the longest traveltime because it has the highest retardation factor at 2.5, DCE takes less time with a retardation factor of 2.0, and VC has the quickest traveltime because it has the lowest retardation factor of 1.7. Based on modeling results, the release of contaminants in the aquifer occurred more than 16 years ago. Model-derived dispersivity values at Hangar 1000 were: longitudinal 1.5 feet (ft), transverse 0.27 ft, and vertical 0.27 ft. The model-derived first order decay rates for biodegradation of TCE, DCE, and VC were 0.0002 per day (d-1), 0.0002 d-1, and 0.06 d-1, respectively. These rates are equivalent to half-lives of 13.7 years for TCE and DCE and 17 days for VC. Source area reductions in contaminant concentrations of 50 and 100 percent were modeled to simulate remediation. As expected, reducing the source concentration by 50 percent resulted in eventual TCE, DCE, and VC concentrations that were half of the original concentrations. About 16 years were needed for new steady-state TCE concentrations to develop, about 14 years for DCE, and about 12 years for VC. Reducing the source area concentrations by 100

  9. Speciation and Fate of Trace Metals in Estuarine Sediments Under Reduced and Oxidized Conditions, Seaplane Lagoon, Alameda Naval Air Station

    SciTech Connect

    Carroll, S A; Day, P A; Esser, B; Randall, S

    2002-10-18

    We have identified important chemical reactions that control the fate of metal-contaminated estuarine sediments if they are left undisturbed (in situ) or if they are dredged. We combined information on the molecular bonding of metals in solids from X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) with thermodynamic and kinetic driving forces obtained from dissolved metal concentrations to deduce the dominant reactions under reduced and oxidized conditions. We evaluated the in situ geochemistry of metals (cadmium, chromium, iron, lead, manganese and zinc) as a function of sediment depth (to 100 cm) from a 60-year record of contamination at the Alameda Naval Air Station, California. Results from XAS and thermodynamic modeling of porewaters show that cadmium and most of the zinc form stable sulfide phases, and that lead and chromium are associated with stable carbonate, phosphate, phyllosilicate, or oxide minerals. Therefore, there is minimal risk associated with the release of these trace metals from the deeper sediments contaminated prior to the Clean Water Act (1975) as long as reducing conditions are maintained. Increased concentrations of dissolved metals with depth were indicative of the formation of metal HS- complexes. The sediments also contain zinc, chromium, and manganese associated with detrital iron-rich phyllosilicates and/or oxides. These phases are recalcitrant at near-neutral pH and do not undergo reductive dissolution within the 60-year depositional history of sediments at this site. The fate of these metals during dredging was evaluated by comparing in situ geochemistry with that of sediments oxidized by seawater in laboratory experiments. Cadmium and zinc pose the greatest hazard from dredging because their sulfides were highly reactive in seawater. However, their dissolved concentrations under oxic conditions were limited eventually by sorption to or co-precipitation with an iron (oxy)hydroxide. About 50% of the reacted CdS and 80% of the reacted ZnS were

  10. Underwater Facilities Inspections and Assessments: Pier J/K North Island Naval Air Station, San Diego, California.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-08-01

    Services, Inc. Personnel: Thomas Devine, President, Commercial Diver Mark Biddy, Commercial Diver George Benny, Commercial Diver Walter Mynatt , Boat...Tudor Marine Services Personnel: George Benny, Tom Devine, Wait Mynatt The day was hot and sunny, all day. The temperature reached a record Sfor this...Marine Services Personnel. Mark Biddy, John and Randy. Tom Devine made one visit this day. Walt Mynatt . The weather was very hot, a "Santa Ana" condition

  11. Investigating the Impact of Marine Ship Emissions on Regional Air Quality using OMI Satellite NO2 Observations and the CMAQ Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ring, A.; Canty, T. P.; He, H.; Vinciguerra, T.; Lamsal, L. N.; Dickerson, R. R.; Salawitch, R. J.; Cohen, M.; Montgomery, L. N.; Dreessen, J.

    2015-12-01

    Commercial marine vessels (CMVs) emit significant amounts of NOx, an ozone precursor, which may contribute to negative health consequences for people living in areas near shipping lanes. In coastal US states, many metropolitan areas such as Baltimore and New York City are located near ports with CMVs. Many studies estimate that ships account for ~15-30% of the global anthropogenic NOx emissions. EPA developed emissions inventories are widely used by states to construct model scenarios for testing air quality attainment strategies. Currently, CMV emissions are generated by simply applying growth factors to aggregated emissions data from much earlier years. Satellite retrievals from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) have been successfully used to improve the veracity of marine emissions by incorporating observational data from the inventory year. In this study we use OMI NO2 observations and Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model outputs to improve the EPA marine emission estimates for the Mid-Atlantic region. Back trajectories from the NOAA Air Resources Laboratory HYSPLIT model are used to identify days with minimal continental influence on OMI tropospheric column NO2 over shipping lanes. We perform sensitivity analyses to quantify the impact of marine emissions on air quality and suggest strategies to better meet the EPA mandated ozone standard.

  12. The 1998 Guide to the Evaluation of Educational Experiences in the Armed Services. 3: Air Force, Coast Guard, Department of Defense, Marine Corps.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Council on Education, Washington, DC.

    This guide is the standard reference work for recognizing learning acquired by military personnel for conversion to academic credit in degree work at colleges and universities. This volume contains recommendations for formal courses offered by the Air Force, the Coast Guard, the Marine Corps, and the Department of Defense in 1990 and later years.…

  13. 76 FR 60729 - Special Local Regulations for Marine Events, Wrightsville Channel; Wrightsville Beach, NC

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-30

    ..., local notice to mariners, along with sponsor event notifications using commercial radio stations and... community via marine information broadcast, area newspapers, local radio and television stations so...

  14. Are there interactions of iodine and sulfur species in marine air photochemistry?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chatfield, Robert B.; Crutzen, Paul J.

    1990-01-01

    The effects of dimethyl sulfide (DMS) and methyl iodide (MI) emissions are analyzed using a two-dimensional photochemical model of a marine tropical tropospheric synoptic system. The model traces the atmospheric transformation cycles of the emissions to aerosols. The study is focused on remote tropical ocean regions and includes simulations of the spatial and diurnal variations of various iodine and sulfur species, and the species OH, HO2, and H2O2. One line of analysis leads to the conclusion that the reaction IO + DMS yields DMSO + I may play a significant role in destroying DMS if it proceeds at the published fast rate. Alternative lines of analyses are presented.

  15. A global assessment of NASA AIRS v6 and EUMETSAT IASI v6 precipitable water vapor using ground-based GPS SuomiNet stations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roman, Jacola; Knuteson, Robert; August, Thomas; Hultberg, Tim; Ackerman, Steve; Revercomb, Hank

    2016-08-01

    Satellite remote sensing of precipitable water vapor (PWV) is essential for monitoring moisture in real time for weather applications, as well as tracking the long-term changes in PWV for climate change trend detection. This study assesses the accuracies of the current satellite observing system, specifically the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) v6 PWV product and the European Organization for the Exploitation of Meteorological Satellite Studies (EUMETSAT) Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI) v6 PWV product, using ground-based SuomiNet Global Positioning System (GPS) network as truth. Elevation-corrected collocated matchups to each SuomiNet GPS station in North America and around the world were created, and results were broken down by station, ARM region, climate zone, and latitude zone. The greatest difference, exceeding 5%, between IASI and AIRS retrievals occurred in the tropics. Generally, IASI and AIRS fall within a 5% error in the PWV range of 20-40 mm (a mean bias less than 2 mm), with a wet bias for extremely low PWV values (less than 5 mm) and a dry bias for extremely high PWV values (greater than 50 mm). The operational IR satellite products are able to capture the mean PWV but degrade in the extreme dry and wet regimes.

  16. Applicability of Lasers to Close Air Support for the United States Marine Corps

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-04-01

    the capability to measure true north and determine grid north; and, a night vision goggle sighting device for use in acquiring, rang- Ing, and...a graduate of the Air War College, class of 1988. LAccession For NTIS GRA&I 7 " DTIC TAB n DTIC Un..xis u fced - C[ copy just___ IfIa tI4-_ _ _1 NPCE...objectives: FIRE SUPPORT OBJECTIVES -Suppressing direct fires, Indirect fires, and enemy air defenses. -Covering movements and obscuring the vision of enemy

  17. Marine Technician's Handbook, Instructions for Taking Air Samples on Board Ship: Carbon Dioxide Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keeling, Charles D.

    This booklet is one of a series intended to provide explicit instructions for the collection of oceanographic data and samples at sea. The methods and procedures described have been used by the Scripps Institution of Oceanography and found reliable and up-to-date. Instructions are given for taking air samples on board ship to determine the…

  18. 9 CFR 3.37 - Primary conveyances (motor vehicle, rail, air, and marine).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... to transport guinea pigs or hamsters shall be mechanically sound and provide fresh air by means of... containing live guinea pigs or hamsters when the ambient temperature in the animal cargo space is 75 °F (23.9 °C) or higher. The ambient temperature within the animal cargo space shall not exceed 85 °F (29.5...

  19. 9 CFR 3.37 - Primary conveyances (motor vehicle, rail, air, and marine).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... to transport guinea pigs or hamsters shall be mechanically sound and provide fresh air by means of... containing live guinea pigs or hamsters when the ambient temperature in the animal cargo space is 75 °F (23.9 °C) or higher. The ambient temperature within the animal cargo space shall not exceed 85 °F (29.5...

  20. 9 CFR 3.37 - Primary conveyances (motor vehicle, rail, air, and marine).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... to transport guinea pigs or hamsters shall be mechanically sound and provide fresh air by means of... containing live guinea pigs or hamsters when the ambient temperature in the animal cargo space is 75 °F (23.9 °C) or higher. The ambient temperature within the animal cargo space shall not exceed 85 °F (29.5...

  1. 9 CFR 3.37 - Primary conveyances (motor vehicle, rail, air, and marine).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... to transport guinea pigs or hamsters shall be mechanically sound and provide fresh air by means of... containing live guinea pigs or hamsters when the ambient temperature in the animal cargo space is 75 °F (23.9 °C) or higher. The ambient temperature within the animal cargo space shall not exceed 85 °F (29.5...

  2. Distribution of sea snakes in the Great Barrier Reef Marine Park: observations from 10 yrs of baited remote underwater video station (BRUVS) sampling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Udyawer, Vinay; Cappo, Mike; Simpfendorfer, Colin A.; Heupel, Michelle R.; Lukoschek, Vimoksalehi

    2014-09-01

    The distributions of three species of sea snake (olive sea snake: Aipysurus laevis, spine-bellied sea snake: Lapemis curtus, and ornate sea snake: Hydrophis ocellatus) were estimated over 14° of latitude within the Great Barrier Reef Marine Park (GBRMP) using data from baited remote underwater video stations (BRUVS). A total of 2,471 deployments of BRUVS were made in a range of locations, in sites open and closed to trawl fishing. Sightings of sea snakes were analysed alongside six spatial factors [depth, relative distance across (longitude) and along (latitude) the GBRMP, proximity to land, proximity to the nearest reef, and habitat complexity] to determine the factors that most strongly influenced the distribution and abundance of sea snakes. The results showed a strong latitudinal effect on the distribution of all three sea snake species, with the highest densities and diversities occurring in central and southern GBRMP locations, while the northern Great Barrier Reef was relatively depauperate in terms of both occurrence and diversity. Shallow inshore areas were identified as key habitats for A. laevis and L. curtus, whereas deeper offshore habitats were most important for H. ocellatus. No significant difference was found in the mean number of snakes sighted per hour between sites open and closed to trawling. There was a high degree of congruence in the distribution of sea snakes estimated from the BRUVS data and results from previous trawl and underwater visual surveys, demonstrating the utility of BRUVS to estimate distribution and relative abundance in these species of sea snake at broad spatial scales in a non-extractive manner.

  3. Bidirectional air-sea exchange and accumulation of POPs (PAHs, PCBs, OCPs and PBDEs) in the nocturnal marine boundary layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lammel, Gerhard; Meixner, Franz X.; Vrana, Branislav; Efstathiou, Christos I.; Kohoutek, Jiři; Kukučka, Petr; Mulder, Marie D.; Přibylová, Petra; Prokeš, Roman; Rusina, Tatsiana P.; Song, Guo-Zheng; Tsapakis, Manolis

    2016-05-01

    As a consequence of long-range transported pollution, air-sea exchange can become a major source of persistent organic pollutants in remote marine environments. The vertical gradients in the air were quantified for 14 species, i.e. four parent polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), three polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), three organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and two polybrominated diphenylethers (PBDEs) in the gas-phase at a remote coastal site in the southern Aegean Sea in summer. Most vertical gradients were positive (Δc/Δz > 0), indicating downward (net depositional) flux. Significant upward (net volatilisational) fluxes were found for three PAHs, mostly during daytime, and for two OCPs, mostly during night-time, as well as for one PCB and one PBDE during part of the measurements. While phenanthrene was deposited, fluoranthene (FLT) and pyrene (PYR) seem to undergo flux oscillation, hereby not following a day-night cycle. Box modelling confirms that volatilisation from the sea surface has significantly contributed to the night-time maxima of OCPs. Fluxes were quantified based on eddy covariance. Deposition fluxes ranged from -28.5 to +1.8 µg m-2 day-1 for PAHs and -3.4 to +0.9 µg m-2 day-1 for halogenated compounds. Dry particle deposition of FLT and PYR did not contribute significantly to the vertical flux.

  4. Diurnal and seasonal variation of mixing ratio and δ¹³C of air CO₂ observed at an urban station Bangalore, India.

    PubMed

    Guha, Tania; Ghosh, Prosenjit

    2015-02-01

    We present here observations on diurnal and seasonal variation of mixing ratio and δ(13)C of air CO2, from an urban station-Bangalore (BLR), India, monitored between October 2008 and December 2011. On a diurnal scale, higher mixing ratio with depleted δ(13)C of air CO2 was found for the samples collected during early morning compared to the samples collected during late afternoon. On a seasonal scale, mixing ratio was found to be higher for dry summer months (April-May) and lower for southwest monsoon months (June-July). The maximum enrichment in δ(13)C of air CO2 (-8.04 ± 0.02‰) was seen in October, then δ(13)C started depleting and maximum depletion (-9.31 ± 0.07‰) was observed during dry summer months. Immediately after that an increasing trend in δ(13)C was monitored coincidental with the advancement of southwest monsoon months and maximum enrichment was seen again in October. Although a similar pattern in seasonal variation was observed for the three consecutive years, the dry summer months of 2011 captured distinctly lower amplitude in both the mixing ratio and δ(13)C of air CO2 compared to the dry summer months of 2009 and 2010. This was explained with reduced biomass burning and increased productivity associated with prominent La Nina condition. While compared with the observations from the nearest coastal and open ocean stations-Cabo de Rama (CRI) and Seychelles (SEY), BLR being located within an urban region captured higher amplitude of seasonal variation. The average δ(13)C value of the end member source CO2 was identified based on both diurnal and seasonal scale variation. The δ(13)C value of source CO2 (-24.9 ± 3‰) determined based on diurnal variation was found to differ drastically from the source value (-14.6 ± 0.7‰) identified based on seasonal scale variation. The source CO2 identified based on diurnal variation incorporated both early morning and late afternoon sample; whereas, the source CO2 identified based

  5. Use of ERTS imagery in air pollution and marine biology studies, tasks 1 through 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Copeland, G. E.; Ludwick, J. C.; Marshall, H. G. (Principal Investigator); Bandy, A. R.; Fleischer, P.; Hanna, W. J.; Gosink, T. A.; Bowker, D. W.

    1972-01-01

    There are no author-identified significant results in this report. The general suitability of ERTS imagery in detecting ground originated air pollution has proved to be excellent. The quality and resolution exceeded expectations and has permitted in some instances location of point sources to within a thousand feet. Suitable techniques have not yet been developed for determining or measuring area and line sources of air pollution. A major problem has been cloud cover that has persisted over the area of primary interest, the Chesapeake Bay. Work has been completed on mounting the shipboard transmissometer which will be used for investigations to relate the chlorophyll and suspended sediment content in the waters of the Lower Chesapeake Bay to ERTS-1 imagery. Water sampling, plankton analysis, and preparations for sea collection of water truth along the eastern continental shelf of the U.S. have been completed for use in comparisons with ERTS-1 data.

  6. The effects of air mass transport, seasonality, and meteorology on pollutant levels at the Iskrba regional background station (1996-2014)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poberžnik, Matevž; Štrumbelj, Erik

    2016-06-01

    Our main goal was to estimate the effects of long-range air transport on pollutant concentrations measured at the Iskrba regional background station (Slovenia). We cluster back-trajectories into categories and simultaneously model the effects of meteorology, seasonality, trends, and air mass trajectory clusters using a Bayesian statistical approach. This simplifies the interpretation of results and allows us to better identify the effects of individual variables, which is important, because pollutant concentrations, meteorology, and trajectories are seasonal and correlated. Similar to related work from other European sites, we find that slow and faster moving trajectories from eastern Europe and the northern part of the Balkan peninsula are associated with higher pollutant levels, while fast-moving trajectories from the Atlantic are associated with lower pollutant concentration. Overall, pollutant concentrations have decreased in the studied period.

  7. Guide to Inventory and Monitoring of Amphibians on Dare County Bombing Range, Cherry Point Marine Corps Air Station, and Marine Corps Base Camp Lejeune, North Carolina. Supplement

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-08-01

    Pesola ® scales for most frogs and salamanders. Small amphibians (e.g., metamorphs and larvae) are best weighed on a portable Ohaus Scout electronic...second hand or stopwatch x Metric tape measure (50 m) x x x x x Headlamp and extra batteries x x Binoculars x x Pesola  scales...8397 (800-647-5386) (clipboard with cover; thermometers (Celsius); Justrite headlamp - FS 02155; extra bulbs for headlamp; Pesola scales; tape

  8. Performance assessment of a solar-powered air quality and weather station placed on a school rooftop in Hong Kong

    EPA Science Inventory

    Emerging air pollution measurement technologies that require minimal infrastructure to deploy may lead to new insights on air pollution spatial variability in urban areas. Through a collaboration between the USEPA and HKEPD, this study evaluates the performance of a compact, roo...

  9. Real-Time Kennedy Space Center and Cape Canaveral Air Force Station High-Resolution Model Implementation and Verification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shafer, Jaclyn A.; Watson, Leela R.

    2015-01-01

    Customer: NASA's Launch Services Program (LSP), Ground Systems Development and Operations (GSDO), and Space Launch System (SLS) programs. NASA's LSP, GSDO, SLS and other programs at Kennedy Space Center (KSC) and Cape Canaveral Air Force Station (CCAFS) use the daily and weekly weather forecasts issued by the 45th Weather Squadron (45 WS) as decision tools for their day-to-day and launch operations on the Eastern Range (ER). For example, to determine if they need to limit activities such as vehicle transport to the launch pad, protect people, structures or exposed launch vehicles given a threat of severe weather, or reschedule other critical operations. The 45 WS uses numerical weather prediction models as a guide for these weather forecasts, particularly the Air Force Weather Agency (AFWA) 1.67 kilometer Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model. Considering the 45 WS forecasters' and Launch Weather Officers' (LWO) extensive use of the AFWA model, the 45 WS proposed a task at the September 2013 Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) Tasking Meeting requesting the AMU verify this model. Due to the lack of archived model data available from AFWA, verification is not yet possible. Instead, the AMU proposed to implement and verify the performance of an ER version of the AMU high-resolution WRF Environmental Modeling System (EMS) model (Watson 2013) in real-time. The tasking group agreed to this proposal; therefore the AMU implemented the WRF-EMS model on the second of two NASA AMU modeling clusters. The model was set up with a triple-nested grid configuration over KSC/CCAFS based on previous AMU work (Watson 2013). The outer domain (D01) has 12-kilometer grid spacing, the middle domain (D02) has 4-kilometer grid spacing, and the inner domain (D03) has 1.33-kilometer grid spacing. The model runs a 12-hour forecast every hour, D01 and D02 domain outputs are available once an hour and D03 is every 15 minutes during the forecast period. The AMU assessed the WRF-EMS 1

  10. Trends in Concentrations of Atmospheric Gaseous and Particulate Species at the Look Rock, TN NCORE Air Quality Station and Their Relation to Primary Emissions Reductions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanner, R. L.; Mueller, S. F.; Bairai, S. T.

    2013-12-01

    Air quality parameters, measured at Look Rock, TN, since 1980, were expanded by National Park Service (NPS) as an IMPROVE network station and again in 1999-2007 by Tennessee Valley Authority as part of efforts to determine the effects of reductions in EGU emissions of sulfur and nitrogen oxides on air quality at the site. Designated as a non-urban, NCORE-equivalent station in 2010, routine continuous monitoring of aerosol mass, sulfate, and black carbon, and primary and secondary gases at the site as well as additional measurements during a series of intensive research studies at the site have produced an extensive body to air quality data on background levels of species relevant to air quality standards (NAAQS) for ozone and fine particulate matter which is unique comprehensive for a high-altitude site in the southeastern U.S.A. Analysis of the temporal trends in these data (1999-present)is being conducted in conjunction with and support of 2013 Southern Atmosphere Studies at Look Rock and other southeastern U.S. locations. Key findings from analysis of temporal trends at Look Rock include the observation that primary pollutant levels have consistently tracked the emissions reductions from EGUs and other primary sources in the region, but reductions in secondary pollutants such as particulate sulfate and ozone have been less than proportional. Organic carbonaceous material (OM) remains a major contributor to fine particulate mass at the site, and a large portion (65-85%) of OM derives from modern carbon, based on 14C measurements. Important parameters affecting fine mass and ozone levels also include the specific diurnal meteorology at this ridge-top site, its location in a largely mixed-deciduous forest, and the presence of primary sources of precursors at distances of 50-500 km from the site in all directions.

  11. [A promising method of hygienic evaluation of air pollution inside the modules of the international space station by hydrazine derivatives].

    PubMed

    Mikos, K N; Mukhamedieva, L N; Pakhomova, A A; Ul'ianov, A V; Serdiuk, T M; Buriak, A K

    2009-01-01

    The increasing frequency of ISS egress operations resulted in ISS air pollution by an uncharacteristic group of toxic compounds, i. e. propellant residues and products of propellant incomplete burning. High reactivity and toxicity of these compounds necessitated the development of a method of sanitary-chemical evaluation of ISS air safety given penetration of the new pollutants. The method is fulfilled in two stages. First is air sampling and then--sample analysis in ground laboratory by chromatography-mass spectrometry. Air sampling, as well as sample handling and analysis procedures were refined with the use of artificial gas mixtures. The proposed method shows promise as an instrument for the hygienic evaluation of ISS air pollution by hydrazine derivatives.

  12. Health risk assessment of ambient air concentrations of benzene, toluene and xylene (BTX) in service station environments.

    PubMed

    Edokpolo, Benjamin; Yu, Qiming Jimmy; Connell, Des

    2014-06-18

    A comprehensive evaluation of the adverse health effects of human exposures to BTX from service station emissions was carried out using BTX exposure data from the scientific literature. The data was grouped into different scenarios based on activity, location and occupation and plotted as Cumulative Probability Distributions (CPD) plots. Health risk was evaluated for each scenario using the Hazard Quotient (HQ) at 50% (CEXP50) and 95% (CEXP95) exposure levels. HQ50 and HQ95 > 1 were obtained with benzene in the scenario for service station attendants and mechanics repairing petrol dispensing pumps indicating a possible health risk. The risk was minimized for service stations using vapour recovery systems which greatly reduced the benzene exposure levels. HQ50 and HQ95 < 1 were obtained for all other scenarios with benzene suggesting minimal risk for most of the exposed population. However, HQ50 and HQ95 < 1 was also found with toluene and xylene for all scenarios, suggesting minimal health risk. The lifetime excess Cancer Risk (CR) and Overall Risk Probability for cancer on exposure to benzene was calculated for all Scenarios and this was higher amongst service station attendants than any other scenario.

  13. Marine Corps Child Care: User Fee Increases at Parris Island and Beaufort Installations. Report to the Chairman, Subcommittee on Military Personnel and Compensation, Committee on Armed Services, House of Representatives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    General Accounting Office, Washington, DC. Div. of Human Resources.

    This report describes ways in which appropriated and nonappropriated funds were used to support morale, welfare, and recreation (MWR) activities, which include child care, at the Marine Corps Recruit Depot, Parris Island, South Carolina, and the Marine Corps Air Station, Beaufort, South Carolina. In addition, the report provides information on…

  14. 47 CFR 80.17 - Administrative classes of stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... SERVICES STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Applications and Licenses § 80.17 Administrative classes of stations. (a) Stations in the Maritime Mobile Service are licensed according to class of station as follows.... (5) Marine utility stations. (b) Stations on land in the Maritime Radiodetermination Service...

  15. 47 CFR 80.17 - Administrative classes of stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... SERVICES STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Applications and Licenses § 80.17 Administrative classes of stations. (a) Stations in the Maritime Mobile Service are licensed according to class of station as follows.... (5) Marine utility stations. (b) Stations on land in the Maritime Radiodetermination Service...

  16. 47 CFR 80.123 - Service to stations on land.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Service to stations on land. 80.123 Section 80... Stations § 80.123 Service to stations on land. Marine VHF public coast stations, including AMTS coast stations, may provide service to stations on land in accordance with the following: (a) The public...

  17. 47 CFR 80.105 - General obligations of coast stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false General obligations of coast stations. 80.105... Stations § 80.105 General obligations of coast stations. Each coast station or marine-utility station must...) public coast stations may provide fixed or hybrid services on a co-primary basis with mobile operations....

  18. 47 CFR 80.105 - General obligations of coast stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false General obligations of coast stations. 80.105... Stations § 80.105 General obligations of coast stations. Each coast station or marine-utility station must...) public coast stations may provide fixed or hybrid services on a co-primary basis with mobile operations....

  19. 47 CFR 80.105 - General obligations of coast stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false General obligations of coast stations. 80.105... Stations § 80.105 General obligations of coast stations. Each coast station or marine-utility station must...) public coast stations may provide fixed or hybrid services on a co-primary basis with mobile operations....

  20. 47 CFR 80.105 - General obligations of coast stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false General obligations of coast stations. 80.105... Stations § 80.105 General obligations of coast stations. Each coast station or marine-utility station must...) public coast stations may provide fixed or hybrid services on a co-primary basis with mobile operations....

  1. 47 CFR 80.105 - General obligations of coast stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false General obligations of coast stations. 80.105... Stations § 80.105 General obligations of coast stations. Each coast station or marine-utility station must...) public coast stations may provide fixed or hybrid services on a co-primary basis with mobile operations....

  2. Environmental Assessment for Replacement of the Main Gate Facility at New Boston Air Force Station, New Hampshire

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-01-01

    assessment evaluates the potential for impacts to air quality, noise levels, topography, geology, soils, water resources, ecological resources (including...15 3.5 Ecological Resources...25 4.1.4 Ecological Resources

  3. Precipitation and Air Pollution at Mountain and Plain Stations in Northern China: Insights Gained from Observations and Modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Guo, Jianping; Deng, Minjun; Fan, Jiwen; Li, Zhanqing; Chen, Qian; Zhai, Panmao; Dai, Zhijian; Li, Xiaowen

    2014-04-27

    We analyzed 40 year data sets of daily average visibility (a proxy for surface aerosol concentration) and hourly precipitation at seven weather stations, including three stations located on the Taihang Mountains, during the summertime in northern China. There was no significant trend in summertime total precipitation at almost all stations. However, light rain decreased, whereas heavy rain increased as visibility decreased over the period studied. The decrease in light rain was seen in both orographic-forced shallow clouds and mesoscale stratiform clouds. The consistent trends in observed changes in visibility, precipitation, and orographic factor appear to be a testimony to the effects of aerosols. The potential impact of large-scale environmental factors, such as precipitable water, convective available potential energy, and vertical wind shear, on precipitation was investigated. No direct links were found. To validate our observational hypothesis about aerosol effects, Weather Research and Forecasting model simulations with spectral-bin microphysics at the cloud-resolving scale were conducted. Model results confirmed the role of aerosol indirect effects in reducing the light rain amount and frequency in the mountainous area for both orographic-forced shallow clouds and mesoscale stratiform clouds and in eliciting a different response in the neighboring plains. The opposite response of light rain to the increase in pollution when there is no terrain included in the model suggests that orography is likely a significant factor contributing to the opposite trends in light rain seen in mountainous and plain areas.

  4. Tool for Forecasting Cool-Season Peak Winds Across Kennedy Space Center and Cape Canaveral Air Force Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barrett, Joe H., III; Roeder, William P.

    2010-01-01

    The expected peak wind speed for the day is an important element in the daily morning forecast for ground and space launch operations at Kennedy Space Center (KSC) and Cape Canaveral Air Force Station (CCAFS). The 45th Weather Squadron (45 WS) must issue forecast advisories for KSC/CCAFS when they expect peak gusts for >= 25, >= 35, and >= 50 kt thresholds at any level from the surface to 300 ft. In Phase I of this task, the 45 WS tasked the Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) to develop a cool-season (October - April) tool to help forecast the non-convective peak wind from the surface to 300 ft at KSC/CCAFS. During the warm season, these wind speeds are rarely exceeded except during convective winds or under the influence of tropical cyclones, for which other techniques are already in use. The tool used single and multiple linear regression equations to predict the peak wind from the morning sounding. The forecaster manually entered several observed sounding parameters into a Microsoft Excel graphical user interface (GUI), and then the tool displayed the forecast peak wind speed, average wind speed at the time of the peak wind, the timing of the peak wind and the probability the peak wind will meet or exceed 35, 50 and 60 kt. The 45 WS customers later dropped the requirement for >= 60 kt wind warnings. During Phase II of this task, the AMU expanded the period of record (POR) by six years to increase the number of observations used to create the forecast equations. A large number of possible predictors were evaluated from archived soundings, including inversion depth and strength, low-level wind shear, mixing height, temperature lapse rate and winds from the surface to 3000 ft. Each day in the POR was stratified in a number of ways, such as by low-level wind direction, synoptic weather pattern, precipitation and Bulk Richardson number. The most accurate Phase II equations were then selected for an independent verification. The Phase I and II forecast methods were

  5. The contribution of oceanic halocarbons to marine and free tropospheric air over the tropical West Pacific

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuhlbrügge, Steffen; Quack, Birgit; Tegtmeier, Susann; Atlas, Elliot; Hepach, Helmke; Shi, Qiang; Raimund, Stefan; Krüger, Kirstin

    2016-06-01

    Emissions of halogenated very-short-lived substances (VSLSs) from the oceans contribute to the atmospheric halogen budget and affect tropospheric and stratospheric ozone. Here, we investigate the contribution of natural oceanic VSLS emissions to the marine atmospheric boundary layer (MABL) and their transport into the free troposphere (FT) over the tropical West Pacific. The study concentrates on bromoform, dibromomethane and methyl iodide measured on ship and aircraft during the SHIVA (Stratospheric Ozone: Halogen Impacts in a Varying Atmosphere) campaign in the South China and Sulu seas in November 2011. Elevated oceanic concentrations for bromoform, dibromomethane and methyl iodide of on average 19.9, 5.0 and 3.8 pmol L-1, in particular close to Singapore and to the coast of Borneo, with high corresponding oceanic emissions of 1486, 405 and 433 pmol m-2 h-1 respectively, characterise this tropical region as a strong source of these compounds. Atmospheric mixing ratios in the MABL were unexpectedly relatively low with 2.08, 1.17 and 0.39 ppt for bromoform, dibromomethane and methyl iodide. We use meteorological and chemical ship and aircraft observations, FLEXPART trajectory calculations and source-loss estimates to identify the oceanic VSLS contribution to the MABL and to the FT. Our results show that the well-ventilated MABL and intense convection led to the low atmospheric mixing ratios in the MABL despite the high oceanic emissions. Up to 45 % of the accumulated bromoform in the FT above the region originates from the local South China Sea area, while dibromomethane is largely advected from distant source regions and the local ocean only contributes 20 %. The accumulated methyl iodide in the FT is higher than can be explained with local contributions. Possible reasons, uncertainties and consequences of our observations and model estimates are discussed.

  6. U.S. Marine Corps Stand at Forefront of Energy and Water Savings

    SciTech Connect

    2012-12-01

    Located in the heart of South Carolina, the U.S. Marine Corps Air Station (MCAS) Beaufort is among the military’s most important installations. Located on 6,900 acres 70 miles southwest of Charleston, the installation has established an energy- and water-saving culture that explores and implements new strategies and management approaches aimed at surpassing presidential mandates.

  7. 75 FR 65278 - Pamlico Sound and Adjacent Waters, NC; Danger Zones for Marine Corps Operations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-22

    ... interference with existing waterway traffic. This proposed rule will have no significant economic impact on... proposed rule will not have a significant impact to the quality of the human environment and, ] therefore... its regulations to establish one new danger zone in Pamlico Sound near Marine Corps Air Station...

  8. The use of total susceptibility in the analysis of long term PM10 (PM2.5) collected at Hungarian air quality monitoring stations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Márton, Emö; Domján, Ádám; Lautner, Péter; Szentmarjay, Tibor; Uram, János

    2013-04-01

    Air monitoring stations in Hungary are operated by Environmental, Nature Conservancy and Water Pollution Inspectorates, according to the CEN/TC 264 European Union standards. PM10 samples are collected on a 24-hour basis, for two weeks in February, in May, in August and in November. About 720m3 air is pumped through quartz filters daily. Mass measurements and toxic metal analysis (As, Pb, Cd, Ni) are made on each filter (Whatmann DHA-80 PAH, 150 mm diameter) by the inspectorates. We have carried out low field magnetic susceptibility measurements using a KLY-2 instrument on all PM10 samples collected at 9 stations from 2009 on (a total of more than 2000 filters). One station, located far from direct sources, monitors background pollution. Here PM2.5 was also collected in two-week runs, seven times during the period of 2009-2012 and made available for the non-destructive magnetic susceptibility measurements. Due to the rather weak magnetic signal, the susceptibility of each PM-10 sample was computed from 10, that of each PM2.5 sample from 20 measurements. Corrections were made for the susceptibility of the sample holder, for the unpolluted filter (provided with each of the two-week runs), and for the plastic bag containing the samples. The susceptibilities of the PM10 samples were analyzed from different aspects, like the degree of magnetic pollution at different stations, daily and seasonal variations of the total and mass susceptibilities compared to the mass of the pollutants and in relation to the concentrations of the toxic elements. As expected, the lowest total and mass susceptibilities characterize the background station (pollution arrives mostly from distant sources, Vienna, Bratislava or even the Sudeten), while the highest values were measured for an industrial town with heavy traffic. At the background station the mass of the PM10 and PM2.5, respectively for the same period are quite similar, while the magnetic susceptibilities are usually higher in the

  9. 77 FR 39489 - Notice of Public Meetings for the Naval Air Station Key West Airfield Operations Draft...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-03

    ... Community College, 5901 College Road, Key West (Stock Island), Florida. Federal, state, and local agencies... Engineering Command Southeast, NAS Key West Air Operations EIS Project Manager, P.O. Box 30, Building 903, NAS... Manager, P.O. Box 30, Building 903, NAS Jacksonville, FL 32212. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: A Notice...

  10. Finding of No Significant Impact: Integrated Natural Resources Management Plan at New Boston Air Force Station, New Hampshire

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-06-07

    of INRMP implementation on air quality, noise, topography, geology, soils, water resources, ecological resources, cultural resources, land use...short-term adverse impacts to ecological resources (vegetation destruction wildlife disturbance), but overall net long-term benefit, resulting from...handling, and radiotelemetry of animals.  Overall benefit to ecological resources resulting from data gathering and development of management plans

  11. The 2006 Cape Canaveral Air Force Station Range Reference Atmosphere Model Validation Study and Sensitivity Analysis to the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Space Shuttle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burns, Lee; Merry, Carl; Decker, Ryan; Harrington, Brian

    2008-01-01

    The 2006 Cape Canaveral Air Force Station (CCAFS) Range Reference Atmosphere (RRA) is a statistical model summarizing the wind and thermodynamic atmospheric variability from surface to 70 kin. Launches of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) Space Shuttle from Kennedy Space Center utilize CCAFS RRA data to evaluate environmental constraints on various aspects of the vehicle during ascent. An update to the CCAFS RRA was recently completed. As part of the update, a validation study on the 2006 version was conducted as well as a comparison analysis of the 2006 version to the existing CCAFS RRA database version 1983. Assessments to the Space Shuttle vehicle ascent profile characteristics were performed to determine impacts of the updated model to the vehicle performance. Details on the model updates and the vehicle sensitivity analyses with the update model are presented.

  12. Evaluation of pore-water samplers at a drainage ditch, Installation Restoration Site 4, Naval Air Station Corpus Christi, Corpus Christi, Texas, 2005–06

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vroblesky, Don A.; Casey, Clifton C.

    2007-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Naval Facilities Engineering Command Southeast, used innovative sampling methods to investigate ground-water contamination by chlorobenzenes beneath a drainage ditch on the southwestern side of Installation Restoration Site 4, Naval Air Station Corpus Christi, Corpus Christi, Texas, during 2005-06. The drainage ditch, which is a potential receptor for ground-water contaminants from Installation Restoration Site 4, intermittently discharges water to Corpus Christi Bay. This report evaluates a new type of pore-water sampler developed for this investigation to examine the subsurface contamination beneath the drainage ditch. The new type of pore-water sampler appears to be an effective approach for long-term monitoring of ground water in the sand and organic-rich mud beneath the drainage ditch.

  13. The 2006 Cape Canaveral Air Force Station Range Reference Atmosphere Model Validation Study and Sensitivity Analysis to the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Space Shuttle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Decker, Ryan K.; Burns, Lee; Merry, Carl; Harrington, Brian

    2008-01-01

    Atmospheric parameters are essential in assessing the flight performance of aerospace vehicles. The effects of the Earth's atmosphere on aerospace vehicles influence various aspects of the vehicle during ascent ranging from its flight trajectory to the structural dynamics and aerodynamic heatmg on the vehicle. Atmospheric databases charactenzing the wind and thermodynamic environments, known as Range Reference Atmospheres (RRA), have been developed at space launch ranges by a governmental interagency working group for use by aerospace vehicle programs. The National Aeronantics and Space Administration's (NASA) Space Shuttle Program (SSP), which launches from Kennedy Space Center, utilizes atmosphenc statistics derived from the Cape Canaveral Air Force Station Range Reference Atmosphere (CCAFS RRA) database to evaluate environmental constraints on various aspects of the vehlcle during ascent.

  14. Initial field trials of the site characterization and analysis penetrometer system (SCAPS). Reconnaissance of Jacksonville Naval Air Station waste oil and solvents disposal site. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Cooper, S.S.; Douglas, D.H.; Sharp, M.K.; Olsen, R.A.; Comes, G.D.

    1993-12-01

    At the request of the Naval Facilities Engineering Command (NAVFAC), Southern Division, Charleston, SC, the U.S. Army Engineer Waterways Experiment Station (WES) conducted the initial field trial of the Site Characterization and Analysis Penetrometer System (SCAPS) at Jacksonville Naval Air Station (NAS), Jacksonville FL. This work was carried out by a field crew consisting of personnel from WES and the Naval Ocean Systems Center during the period of 16 July 1990 to 14 August 1990. The SCAPS investigation at the Jacksonville NAS has two primary objectives: (a) to provide data that could be useful in formulating remediation plans for the facility and (b) to provide for the initial field trial of the SCAPS currently under development by WES for the U.S. Army Toxic and Hazardous Materials Agency (USATHAMA), now the U.S. Army Environmental Center. The original concepts for the SCAPS was to develop an integrated site screening characterization system whose capabilities would include (a) surface mapping, (b) geophysical surveys using magnetic, induced electromagnetic, and radar instruments, (c) measurements of soil strength, soil electrical resistivity, and laser-induced soil fluorometry Cone penetrometer, Site Characterization and Analysis Laser Induced Fluorescence(LIF), Penetrometer System(SCAPS) POL Contamination, using screening instrumentation mounted in a soil penetrometer, (d) soil and fluid samplers, and (e) computerized data acquisition, interpretation, and visualization. The goal of the SCAPS program is to provide detailed, rapid, and cost-effective surface and subsurface data for input to site assessment/remediation efforts.

  15. New York State Electric and Gas Corporation`s Milliken Station clean coal technology demonstration project and its impacts on the local ambient air quality

    SciTech Connect

    Gendron, L.J.; Rahimi, M.; Savichky, W.

    1998-12-31

    New York State Electric and Gas Corporation (NYSEG) has recently completed a program which upgraded the boiler combustion system and installed a high-efficiency flue gas desulfurization (FGD) system to demonstrate innovative emissions control technology and comply with the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990. The demonstration project was conducted at NYSEG`s Milliken Station, in the Town of Lansing, New York. The primary objective of this clean coal technology demonstration (CCTD) project was to demonstrate a retrofit of energy-efficient SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} control systems with minimal impact on overall plant efficiency. A four-year ambient monitoring program was conducted to evaluate the effects of the FGD system and combustion modifications on the local ambient air quality, the results of which are summarized in this paper. As part of NYSEG`s Milliken Station Clean Coal Technology Demonstration project, a flue gas desulfurization system was added as well as modifications to the combustion system and electrostatic precipitators. The demonstration project added a forced oxidation, formic acid-enhanced wet limestone FGD system, which was expected to reduce SO{sub 2} emissions by at least 90 percent. The project scope also consisted of combustion modifications and selective non-catalytic reduction (SNCR) technology to reduce NOx emissions. The burners were replaced with Low NOx Concentric Firing System Level 3 (LNCFS-3) burners to reduce NOx emissions while maintaining high combustion efficiency and acceptable fly ash loss on ignition (LOI). The electrostatic precipitators (ESP) on the two 160 MWe boilers were also upgraded to accommodate the wet flue gas desulfurization system. Upgrades of the ESP on each unit consisted of replacement of the internals and retirement of part of the original ESP.

  16. An aerial radiological survey of the Kennedy Space Center and Cape Canaveral Air Force Station and surrounding area, Titusville, Florida: Date of survey: October 1985

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-01-01

    An aerial radiological survey of the entire Kennedy Space Center (KSC) and Cape Canaveral Air Force Station (CCAFS) was performed during the period 9 through 23 October 1985. This survey was conducted in three parts. First, a low resolution, low sensitivity background survey was performed that encompassed the entire KSC and CCAFS area. Next, two smaller, high resolution, high sensitivity surveys were conducted: the first focused on Launch Complexes 39A and 39B, and the second on the Shuttle Landing Facility. The areas encompassed by the surveys were 200, 5.5, and 8.5 square miles (500, 14, and 22 sq km), respectively. The purpose of these surveys was to provide information useful for an emergency response to a radiological accident. Results of the background survey are presented as isoradiation contour maps of both total exposure rate and man-made gross count superimposed on a mosaic of recent aerial photographs. Results of the two small, detailed surveys are also presented as an isoradiation contour map of exposure rate on the aerial photograph base. These data were evaluated to establish sensitivity limits for mapping the presence of plutonium-238. Natural background exposure rates at the Kennedy Space Center and Cape Canaveral Air Force Station are very low, generally ranging from 4 to 6.5 microroentgens per hour (..mu..R/h) and less than 4 ..mu..R/h in wet areas. However, exposure rates in developed areas were observed to be higher due to the importation of construction materials not characteristic of the area. 8 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs.

  17. Environmental Assessment for Clear AFS Grid Tie-in and Heat Plant, Clear Air Force Station, Alaska

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-07-01

    Alaska Administrative Code AAAQS Alaska ambient air quality standards ACM asbestos -containing material ADEC Alaska Department of Environmental...maintenance activities. While asbestos or lead based paint may be encountered during the expansion of the existing mechanical rooms and within the...AFS July 2013 13 products. All work would be done in compliance with Federal and State regulations as well as the OSHA Asbestos Standard (29 CFR

  18. Environmental Assessment for Conversion of the 926th Fighter Group at Naval Air Station New Orleans, Louisiana

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-07-01

    Characteristics of Aircraft Involved Manufactured by the General Dynamics Corporation , the F-16 is a compact, multirole, fighter aircraft designed... Corporation B.S., 1979, Civil Engineering, University of California, Davis Years of Experience: 12 Derence Fivehouse, Major, Staff Judge Advocate, U.S. Air...Technology Corporation B.A., 1988, Environmental Studies, California State University, San Bernardino Years of Experience: 4 Danita Hardy, Environmental

  19. Environmental Assessment: Construction and Operation of Fire Training Tower and Car Wash at Niagara Falls Air Reserve Station, New York

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-02-01

    VA 22202-4302. Respondents should be aware that notwithstanding any other provision of law , no person shall be subject to a penalty for failing to...7-1 APPENDICES · A Applicable Laws , Regulations, Policies, and Planning Criteria B...the U.S. Air Force (USAF) will comply with applicable Federal, state, and local environmental laws and regulations, including NEPA. The USAF’ s

  20. Aerosol optical properties at the Lulin Atmospheric Background Station in Taiwan and the influences of long-range transport of air pollutants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsiao, Ta-Chih; Chen, Wei-Nai; Ye, Wei-Cheng; Lin, Neng-Huei; Tsay, Si-Chee; Lin, Tang-Huang; Lee, Chung-Te; Chuang, Ming-Tung; Pantina, Peter; Wang, Sheng-Hsiang

    2017-02-01

    The Lulin Atmospheric Background Station (LABS, 23.47°N 120.87°E, 2862 m ASL) in Central Taiwan was constructed in 2006 and is the only high-altitude background station in the western Pacific region for studying the influence of continental outflow. In this study, extensive optical properties of aerosols, including the aerosol light scattering coefficient (σs) and light absorption coefficient (σa), were collected from 2013 to 2014. The intensive optical properties, including mass scattering efficiency (αs), mass absorption efficiency (αa), single scattering albedo (ω), scattering Ångstrӧm exponent (Å), and backscattering fraction (b), were determined and investigated, and the distinct seasonal cycle was observed. The value of αs began to increase in January and reached a maximum in April; the mean in spring was 5.89 m2 g-1 with a standard deviation (SD) of 4.54 m2 g-1 and a 4.48 m2 g-1 interquartile range (IQR: 2.95-7.43 m2 g-1). The trend was similar in αa, with a maximum in March and a monthly mean of 0.84 m2 g-1. The peak values of ω (Mean = 0.92, SD = 0.03, IQR: 0.90-0.93) and Å (Mean = 2.22, SD = 0.61, IQR: 2.12-2.47) occurred in autumn. These annual patterns of optical properties were associated with different long-range transport patterns of air pollutants such as biomass burning (BB) aerosol in spring and potential anthropogenic emissions in autumn. The optical measurements performed at LABS during spring in 2013 were compared with those simultaneously performed at the Doi Ang Kang Meteorology Station, Chiang Mai Province, Thailand (DAK, 19.93°N, 99.05°E, 1536 m a.s.l.), which is located in the Southeast Asia BB source region. Furthermore, the relationships among αs, αa, and b were used to characterize the potential aerosol types transported to LABS during different seasons, and the data were inspected according to the HYSPLIT 5-day backward trajectories, which differentiate between different regions of air mass origin.

  1. 6S Return Samples: Assessment of Air Quality in the International Space Station (ISS) Based on Solid Sorbent Air Sampler (SSAS) and Formaldehyde Monitoring Kit (FMK) Analyses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    James, John T.

    2004-01-01

    The toxicological assessments of SSAS and FMK analytical results are reported. Analytical methods have not changed from earlier reports. Surrogate standard recoveries from the SSAS tubes were 66-76% for 13C-acetone, 85-96% for fluorobenzene, and 73-89% for chlorobenzene. Post-flight flows were far below pre-flight flows and an investigation of the problem revealed that the reduced flow was caused by a leak at the interface of the pump inlet tube and the pump head. This resulted in degradation of pump efficiency. Further investigation showed that the problem occurred before the SSAS was operated on orbit and that use of the post-flight flows yielded consistent and useful results. Recoveries from formaldehyde control badges were 86 to 104%. The two general criteria used to assess air quality are the total-non-methane-volatile organic hydrocarbons (NMVOCs) and the total T-value (minus the CO2 and formaldehyde contributions). The T values will not be reported for these data due to the flow anomaly. Control of atmospheric alcohols is important to the water recovery system engineers, hence total alcohols (including acetone) are also shown for each sample. Octafluoropropane (OFP) is not efficiently trapped by the sorbents used in the SSAS. Because formaldehyde is quantified from sorbent badges, its concentration is also listed separately. These five indices of air quality are summarized.

  2. First retrieval of hourly atmospheric radionuclides just after the Fukushima accident by analyzing filter-tapes of operational air pollution monitoring stations

    PubMed Central

    Tsuruta, Haruo; Oura, Yasuji; Ebihara, Mitsuru; Ohara, Toshimasa; Nakajima, Teruyuki

    2014-01-01

    No observed data have been found in the Fukushima Prefecture (FP) for the time-series of atmospheric radionuclides concentrations just after the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FD1NPP) accident. Accordingly, current estimates of internal radiation doses from inhalation, and atmospheric radionuclide concentrations by atmospheric transport models are highly uncertain. Here, we present a new method for retrieving the hourly atmospheric 137Cs concentrations by measuring the radioactivity of suspended particulate matter (SPM) collected on filter tapes in SPM monitors which were operated even after the accident. This new dataset focused on the period of March 12–23, 2011 just after the accident, when massive radioactive materials were released from the FD1NPP to the atmosphere. Overall, 40 sites of the more than 400 sites in the air quality monitoring stations in eastern Japan were studied. For the first time, we show the spatio-temporal variation of atmospheric 137Cs concentrations in the FP and the Tokyo Metropolitan Area (TMA) located more than 170 km southwest of the FD1NPP. The comprehensive dataset revealed how the polluted air masses were transported to the FP and TMA, and can be used to re-evaluate internal exposure, time-series radionuclides release rates, and atmospheric transport models. PMID:25335435

  3. First retrieval of hourly atmospheric radionuclides just after the Fukushima accident by analyzing filter-tapes of operational air pollution monitoring stations.

    PubMed

    Tsuruta, Haruo; Oura, Yasuji; Ebihara, Mitsuru; Ohara, Toshimasa; Nakajima, Teruyuki

    2014-10-22

    No observed data have been found in the Fukushima Prefecture (FP) for the time-series of atmospheric radionuclides concentrations just after the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FD1NPP) accident. Accordingly, current estimates of internal radiation doses from inhalation, and atmospheric radionuclide concentrations by atmospheric transport models are highly uncertain. Here, we present a new method for retrieving the hourly atmospheric (137)Cs concentrations by measuring the radioactivity of suspended particulate matter (SPM) collected on filter tapes in SPM monitors which were operated even after the accident. This new dataset focused on the period of March 12-23, 2011 just after the accident, when massive radioactive materials were released from the FD1NPP to the atmosphere. Overall, 40 sites of the more than 400 sites in the air quality monitoring stations in eastern Japan were studied. For the first time, we show the spatio-temporal variation of atmospheric (137)Cs concentrations in the FP and the Tokyo Metropolitan Area (TMA) located more than 170 km southwest of the FD1NPP. The comprehensive dataset revealed how the polluted air masses were transported to the FP and TMA, and can be used to re-evaluate internal exposure, time-series radionuclides release rates, and atmospheric transport models.

  4. Spatiotemporal variations in the difference between satellite-observed daily maximum land surface temperature and station-based daily maximum near-surface air temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lian, Xu; Zeng, Zhenzhong; Yao, Yitong; Peng, Shushi; Wang, Kaicun; Piao, Shilong

    2017-02-01

    There is an increasing demand to integrate land surface temperature (LST) into climate research due to its global coverage, which requires a comprehensive knowledge of its distinctive characteristics compared to near-surface air temperature (Tair). Using satellite observations and in situ station-based data sets, we conducted a global-scale assessment of the spatial and seasonal variations in the difference between daily maximum LST and daily maximum Tair (δT, LST - Tair) during 2003-2014. Spatially, LST is generally higher than Tair over arid and sparsely vegetated regions in the middle-low latitudes, but LST is lower than Tair in tropical rainforests due to strong evaporative cooling, and in the high-latitude regions due to snow-induced radiative cooling. Seasonally, δT is negative in tropical regions throughout the year, while it displays a pronounced seasonality in both the midlatitudes and boreal regions. The seasonality in the midlatitudes is a result of the asynchronous responses of LST and Tair to the seasonal cycle of radiation and vegetation abundance, whereas in the boreal regions, seasonality is mainly caused by the change in snow cover. Our study identified substantial spatial heterogeneity and seasonality in δT, as well as its determinant environmental drivers, and thus provides a useful reference for monitoring near-surface air temperature changes using remote sensing, particularly in remote regions.

  5. The 2006 Cape Canaveral Air Force Station Range Reference Atmosphere Model Validation Study and Sensitivity Analysis to the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Space Shuttle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Decker, Ryan; Burns, Lee; Merry, Carl; Harrington, Brian

    2008-01-01

    NASA's Space Shuttle utilizes atmospheric thermodynamic properties to evaluate structural dynamics and vehicle flight performance impacts by the atmosphere during ascent. Statistical characteristics of atmospheric thermodynamic properties at Kennedy Space Center (KSC) used in Space. Shuttle Vehicle assessments are contained in the Cape Canaveral Air Force Station (CCAFS) Range Reference Atmosphere (RRA) Database. Database contains tabulations for monthly and annual means (mu), standard deviations (sigma) and skewness of wind and thermodynamic variables. Wind, Thermodynamic, Humidity and Hydrostatic parameters 1 km resolution interval from 0-30 km 2 km resolution interval 30-70 km Multiple revisions of the CCAFS RRA database have been developed since initial RRA published in 1963. 1971, 1983, 2006 Space Shuttle program utilized 1983 version for use in deriving "hot" and "cold" atmospheres, atmospheric density dispersions for use in vehicle certification analyses and selection of atmospheric thermodynamic profiles for use in vehicle ascent design and certification analyses. During STS-114 launch preparations in July 2005 atmospheric density observations between 50-80 kft exceeded density limits used for aerodynamic ascent heating constraints in vehicle certification analyses. Mission specific analyses were conducted and concluded that the density bias resulted in small changes to heating rates and integrated heat loading on the vehicle. In 2001, the Air Force Combat Climatology Center began developing an updated RRA for CCAFS.

  6. Evaluation test on a landfill gas-fired turbine at the Los Angeles County Sanitation District's Puente Hill Landfill Electric Generation Station. Air pollution test report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-07-01

    A cooperative test program was conducted from February 25 through February 27, 1986 by Air Resources Board (ARB) and South Coast Air Quality Management District (SCAQMD) staff to evaluate the gaseous constituents from untreated landfill gas used to fuel a turbine and the emissions from that turbine located at the Los Angeles County Sanitation District's Puente Hills Electric Generating Station. The turbine was fueled with gases generated by the anaerobic decomposition of buried refuse at the Los Angeles County Sanitation District's Puente Hills Landfill. Emissions of criteria pollutant as determined from ARB test data are reported. Mass flow rates and destruction and removal efficiencies (DRE) of non-criteria pollutant compounds determined at the stack from SCQAMD bag-sample test data and mass-flow rates and DRE's for chlorinated and aromatic compounds determined from data from ARB resin samples are presented. Destruction and removal efficiencies based on mass-flow rates for chlorinated compounds ranged from 17 to 99+ percent and for aromatic compounds ranged from negative to 99+ percent. The possible formation of the compounds - chlorinated dioxins, furans, and polychlorinated biphenyls - was considered and samples were taken for analyses for these compounds. Dioxins, furans, and polychlorinated biphenyls were not detected in the inlet nor the outlet gas stream samples.

  7. Analyses and estimates of hydraulic conductivity from slug tests in alluvial aquifer underlying Air Force Plant 4 and Naval Air Station-Joint Reserve Base Carswell Field, Fort Worth, Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Houston, Natalie A.; Braun, Christopher L.

    2004-01-01

    This report describes the collection, analyses, and distribution of hydraulic-conductivity data obtained from slug tests completed in the alluvial aquifer underlying Air Force Plant 4 and Naval Air Station-Joint Reserve Base Carswell Field, Fort Worth, Texas, during October 2002 and August 2003 and summarizes previously available hydraulic-conductivity data. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Air Force, completed 30 slug tests in October 2002 and August 2003 to obtain estimates of horizontal hydraulic conductivity to use as initial values in a ground-water-flow model for the site. The tests were done by placing a polyvinyl-chloride slug of known volume beneath the water level in selected wells, removing the slug, and measuring the resulting water-level recovery over time. The water levels were measured with a pressure transducer and recorded with a data logger. Hydraulic-conductivity values were estimated from an analytical relation between the instantaneous displacement of water in a well bore and the resulting rate of head change. Although nearly two-thirds of the tested wells recovered 90 percent of their slug-induced head change in less than 2 minutes, 90-percent recovery times ranged from 3 seconds to 35 minutes. The estimates of hydraulic conductivity range from 0.2 to 200 feet per day. Eighty-three percent of the estimates are between 1 and 100 feet per day.

  8. Overview--Development of a geodatabase and conceptual model of the hydrogeologic units beneath Air Force Plant 4 and Naval Air Station-Joint Reserve Base Carswell Field, Fort Worth, Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shah, Sachin D.

    2004-01-01

    Air Force Plant 4 (AFP4) and adjacent Naval Air Station-Joint Reserve Base Carswell Field (NAS–JRB) at Fort Worth, Tex., constitute a contractor-owned, government-operated facility that has been in operation since 1942. Contaminants from the 3,600-acre facility, primarily volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and metals, have entered the ground-water-flow system through leakage from waste-disposal sites and from manufacturing processes. Environmental data collected at AFP4 and NAS–JRB during 1993–2002 created the need for consolidation of the data into a comprehensive temporal and spatial geodatabase. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the U.S. Air Force Aeronautical Systems Center Environmental Management Directorate, developed a comprehensive geodatabase of temporal and spatial environmental data associated with the hydrogeologic units beneath the facility. A three-dimensional conceptual model of the hydrogeologic units integrally linked to the geodatabase was designed concurrently. Three hydrogeologic units—from land surface downward, the alluvial aquifer, the GoodlandWalnut confining unit, and the Paluxy aquifer—compose the subsurface of interest at AFP4 and NAS–JRB. The alluvial aquifer consists primarily of clay and silt with sand and gravel channel deposits that might be interconnected or interfingered. The Goodland-Walnut confining unit directly underlies the alluvial aquifer and consists of limestone, marl, shale, and clay. The Paluxy aquifer is composed of dense mudstone and fine- to coarse-grained sandstone

  9. STS 134, 135 and 26S Return Samples: Air Quality aboard Shuttle (STS-134) and International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    James, John T.

    2011-01-01

    This is a very limited set of samples on which to perform an air quality assessment. However, based on these samples, we have no reason to believe that nominal ISS air is unsafe to breathe. We must continue to be vigilant when dealing with nominal atmospheres in ISS. New, unmanned modules require special attention when the crew first enters. Carbon Monoxide Accumulation aboard ISS: Beginning in late 2008 the nominal concentrations of CO began increasing gradually (Figure 1). The results from samples returned on this flight indicate that the CO concentrations, after dropping in late 2009, have cycled upward and then settled back to concentrations near 2 mg/m3. In any case, these changes are well below the 180-day SMAC for CO, which is17 mg/m3. There is no threat to crew health. Carbon Dioxide: This anthropogenic compound has drawn much attention recently because of the possibility that it could contribute to the effects of intracranial hypertension experienced because of spaceflight-induced fluid shifts. From now on we will maintain a plot (Figure 2) of carbon dioxide concentrations ( SD) by averaging the values found in the 3-5 mini-GSC samples taken each month in diverse locations of the ISS. This will enable us to estimate the average exposure of crewmembers to carbon dioxide during their stay aboard the ISS. In general, concentrations are being maintained below 3.5 mmHg. Figure 1

  10. Microplasma Ionization of Volatile Organics for Improving Air/Water Monitoring Systems On-Board the International Space Station.

    PubMed

    Bernier, Matthew C; Alberici, Rosana M; Keelor, Joel D; Dwivedi, Prabha; Zambrzycki, Stephen C; Wallace, William T; Gazda, Daniel B; Limero, Thomas F; Symonds, Josh M; Orlando, Thomas M; Macatangay, Ariel; Fernández, Facundo M

    2016-07-01

    Low molecular weight polar organics are commonly observed in spacecraft environments. Increasing concentrations of one or more of these contaminants can negatively impact Environmental Control and Life Support (ECLS) systems and/or the health of crew members, posing potential risks to the success of manned space missions. Ambient plasma ionization mass spectrometry (MS) is finding effective use as part of the analytical methodologies being tested for next-generation space module environmental analysis. However, ambient ionization methods employing atmospheric plasmas typically require relatively high operation voltages and power, thus limiting their applicability in combination with fieldable mass spectrometers. In this work, we investigate the use of a low power microplasma device in the microhollow cathode discharge (MHCD) configuration for the analysis of polar organics encountered in space missions. A metal-insulator-metal (MIM) structure with molybdenum foil disc electrodes and a mica insulator was used to form a 300 μm diameter plasma discharge cavity. We demonstrate the application of these MIM microplasmas as part of a versatile miniature ion source for the analysis of typical volatile contaminants found in the International Space Station (ISS) environment, highlighting their advantages as low cost and simple analytical devices. Graphical Abstract ᅟ.

  11. Inversion Approach to Validate Mercury Emissions Based on Background Air Monitoring at the High Altitude Research Station Jungfraujoch (3580 m).

    PubMed

    Denzler, Basil; Bogdal, Christian; Henne, Stephan; Obrist, Daniel; Steinbacher, Martin; Hungerbühler, Konrad

    2017-03-07

    The reduction of emissions of mercury is a declared aim of the Minamata Convention, a UN treaty designed to protect human health and the environment from adverse effects of mercury. To assess the effectiveness of the convention in the future, better constraints about the current mercury emissions is a premise. In our study, we applied a top-down approach to quantify mercury emissions on the basis of atmospheric mercury measurements conducted at the remote high altitude monitoring station Jungfraujoch, Switzerland. We established the source-receptor relationships and by the means of atmospheric inversion we were able to quantify spatially resolved European emissions of 89 ± 14 t/a for elemental mercury. Our European emission estimate is 17% higher than the bottom-up emission inventory, which is within stated uncertainties. However, some regions with unexpectedly high emissions were identified. Stationary combustion, in particular in coal-fired power plants, is found to be the main responsible sector for increased emission estimates. Our top-down approach, based on measurements, provides an independent constraint on mercury emissions, helps to improve and refine reported emission inventories, and can serve for continued assessment of future changes in emissions independent from bottom-up inventories.

  12. Microplasma Ionization of Volatile Organics for Improving Air/Water Monitoring Systems On-Board the International Space Station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernier, Matthew C.; Alberici, Rosana M.; Keelor, Joel D.; Dwivedi, Prabha; Zambrzycki, Stephen C.; Wallace, William T.; Gazda, Daniel B.; Limero, Thomas F.; Symonds, Josh M.; Orlando, Thomas M.; Macatangay, Ariel; Fernández, Facundo M.

    2016-07-01

    Low molecular weight polar organics are commonly observed in spacecraft environments. Increasing concentrations of one or more of these contaminants can negatively impact Environmental Control and Life Support (ECLS) systems and/or the health of crew members, posing potential risks to the success of manned space missions. Ambient plasma ionization mass spectrometry (MS) is finding effective use as part of the analytical methodologies being tested for next-generation space module environmental analysis. However, ambient ionization methods employing atmospheric plasmas typically require relatively high operation voltages and power, thus limiting their applicability in combination with fieldable mass spectrometers. In this work, we investigate the use of a low power microplasma device in the microhollow cathode discharge (MHCD) configuration for the analysis of polar organics encountered in space missions. A metal-insulator-metal (MIM) structure with molybdenum foil disc electrodes and a mica insulator was used to form a 300 μm diameter plasma discharge cavity. We demonstrate the application of these MIM microplasmas as part of a versatile miniature ion source for the analysis of typical volatile contaminants found in the International Space Station (ISS) environment, highlighting their advantages as low cost and simple analytical devices.

  13. 77 FR 38595 - Taking and Importing Marine Mammals; Precision Strike Weapon and Air-to-Surface Gunnery Training...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-28

    ...; Precision Strike Weapon and Air-to-Surface Gunnery Training and Testing Operations at Eglin Air Force Base... with Precision Strike Weapon (PSW) and Air-to-Surface (AS) gunnery missions, both of which are military... two weapons: (1) The Joint Air-to-Surface Stand-off Missile (JASSM) AGM-158 A and B; and (2) the...

  14. Measurement of atmospheric air-earth current density from a tropical station using improvised Wilson's plate antenna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anil Kumar, C. P.; Panneerselvam, C.; Nair, K. U.; Jeeva, K.; Selvaraj, C.; Johnson Jeyakumar, H.; Gurubaran, S.

    2009-07-01

    We have developed an experimental set-up to measure the atmospheric air-earth current (conduction current). Data obtained with the continuous measurements of Wilson's plate are used to study of air-earth current density, with the aim of gaining an understanding of the experimental set-up's response to different meteorological conditions, including fair-weather days. This paper is a part of the on-going Global Electric Circuit (GEC) studies from Tirunelveli (8.7°N, 77.8°E), a measurement site in the tropical and southern tip of the Indian peninsula. Attempts have been made in past few years to obtain the global signature in this region with this sensor, but on most of the occasions it has been impossible to obtain the global signature during fair-weather days. The data used for February-April, 2007 have the well-defined nature of this global signature, which is in agreement with the well-established classical Carnegie curve of GEC. This paper also deals with very important observations made at sunrise and during those hours when fog existed. It is noted that the resistivity of the atmosphere increased significantly with the onset of fog and later decreased as the fog disappeared, based on the measured value of conduction current density when compared with the electric field measured by horizontal passive wire antenna. Also, during fair-weather conditions, conduction current and electric field variations are similar because the conductivity during this period is more or less constant at this site. Observations made during different meteorological conditions, such as different wind speeds, humidities, and temperatures, are also discussed.

  15. 33 CFR 72.01-25 - Marine broadcast notice to mariners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Marine broadcast notice to... SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION MARINE INFORMATION Notices to Mariners § 72.01-25 Marine broadcast notice to... mines. Radio stations broadcasting marine information are listed in “Radio Navigational Aids”...

  16. 33 CFR 72.01-25 - Marine broadcast notice to mariners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Marine broadcast notice to... SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION MARINE INFORMATION Notices to Mariners § 72.01-25 Marine broadcast notice to... mines. Radio stations broadcasting marine information are listed in “Radio Navigational Aids”...

  17. 33 CFR 72.01-25 - Marine broadcast notice to mariners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Marine broadcast notice to... SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION MARINE INFORMATION Notices to Mariners § 72.01-25 Marine broadcast notice to... mines. Radio stations broadcasting marine information are listed in “Radio Navigational Aids”...

  18. 33 CFR 72.01-25 - Marine broadcast notice to mariners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Marine broadcast notice to... SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION MARINE INFORMATION Notices to Mariners § 72.01-25 Marine broadcast notice to... mines. Radio stations broadcasting marine information are listed in “Radio Navigational Aids”...

  19. UV photochemistry of carboxylic acids at the air-sea boundary: A relevant source of glyoxal and other oxygenated VOC in the marine atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiu, R.; Tinel, L.; Gonzalez, L.; Ciuraru, R.; Bernard, F.; George, C.; Volkamer, R.

    2017-01-01

    Photochemistry plays an important role in marine dissolved organic carbon (DOC) degradation, but the mechanisms that convert DOC into volatile organic compounds (VOCs) remain poorly understood. We irradiated carboxylic acids (C7-C9) on a simulated ocean surface with UV light (<320 nm) in a photochemical flow reactor and transferred the VOC products into a dark ozone reactor. Glyoxal was detected as a secondary product from heptanoic, octanoic, and nonanoic acid (NA) films, but not from octanol. Primary glyoxal emissions were not observed, nor was glyoxal formed in the absence of ozone. Addition of a photosensitizer had no noticeable effect. The concurrent detection of heptanal in the NA system suggests that the ozonolysis of 2-nonenal is the primary chemical mechanism that produces glyoxal. This source can potentially sustain tens of parts per trillion by volume (pptv) glyoxal over oceans, and helps to explain why glyoxal fluxes in marine air are directed from the atmosphere into the ocean.

  20. Developing a robust tephrochronological framework for Late Quaternary marine records in the Southern Adriatic Sea: new data from core station SA03-11

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matthews, I. P.; Trincardi, F.; Lowe, J. J.; Bourne, A. J.; MacLeod, A.; Abbott, P. M.; Andersen, N.; Asioli, A.; Blockley, S. P. E.; Lane, C. S.; Oh, Y. A.; Satow, C. S.; Staff, R. A.; Wulf, S.

    2015-06-01

    Tephra layers are assuming an increasingly important role in the dating and correlation of Late Quaternary marine sequences. Here we demonstrate their potential by reporting a new study of the sediment sequence of marine core SA03-11, recovered from the Southern Adriatic Sea, which spans the last c. 39 ka. A total of 28 discrete tephra layers are reported from this sequence, 10 of which are visible in the core and a further 18 are non-visible cryptotephra layers. These have been analysed using more than 1400 WDS-EPMA measurements of glass chemistry and results have been compared with published chemical measurements obtained from relevant proximal and distal sites which preserve eruptive material dating to within the same time interval. The data show that a high proportion of the layers originate from the Campi Flegrei volcanic field but more distinctive layers are sourced from Vesuvius, the Aeolian Islands and Vulcano, and these provide key marker horizons. The results show that the sequence extends in time to the Campanian Ignimbrite at the base, that a number of the layers have robust age estimates that permit a better constrained age-depth model to be constructed for the sequence, and that the potential exists for importing terrestrially-based age estimates into marine contexts, thereby circumventing problems of incorporating reservoir uncertainties associated with marine radiocarbon dates. The WDS-EPMA dataset generated here also provides important new data that constrain key Late Quaternary tephra layers in the central Mediterranean region.

  1. The effects of power station entrainment passage on three species of marine planktonic crustacean, Acartia tonsa (Copepoda), Crangon crangon (Decapoda) and Homarus gammarus (Decapoda).

    PubMed

    Bamber, Roger N; Seaby, Richard M H

    2004-05-01

    Experiments have been undertaken exposing larval common shrimp (Crangon crangon) and lobster (Homarus gammarus) and adult copepods (Acartia tonsa) to the key stresses of entrainment within power-station cooling-water systems. The apparatus has enabled the testing of mechanical, thermal, chlorine and realistic pressure effects both alone and in combination, the range of stressors spanning the standard conditions found within a temperate coastal direct-cooled power station. Mechanical stresses affected only lobster larvae, pressure changes affected only the Acartia adults. Residual chlorine caused significant mortality of Acartia and shrimp larvae, but had no effect on lobster larvae even at 1 ppm. The temperature increment significantly affected all three species, with a synergistic effect on chlorine sensitivity in the shrimp larvae, but only temperatures higher than would be experienced in a normally-operating power station affected the copepods. The majority of individuals of each species would survive passage through a power-station system under normal conditions. It is notable that, within the species tested, generalizations from the responses of one species to those of another are not valid.

  2. Application of 50 MHz doppler radar wind profiler to launch operations at Kennedy Space Center and Cape Canaveral Air Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schumann, Robin S.; Taylor, Gregory E.; Smith, Steve A.; Wilfong, Timothy L.

    1994-01-01

    This paper presents a case study where a significant wind shift, not detected by jimspheres, was detected by the 50 MHz DRWP (Doppler Radar Wind Profiler) and evaluated to be acceptable prior to the launch of a Shuttle. This case study illustrates the importance of frequent upper air wind measurements for detecting significant rapidly changing features as well as for providing confidence that the features really exist and are not due to instrumentation error. Had the release of the jimsphere been timed such that it would have detected the entire wind shift, there would not have been sufficient time to release another jimsphere to confirm the existence of the feature prior to the scheduled launch. We found that using a temporal median filter on the one minute spectral estimates coupled with a constraining window about a first guess velocity effectively removes nearly all spurious signals from the velocity profile generated by NASA's 50 MHz DRWP while boosting the temporal resolution to as high as one profile every 3 minutes. The higher temporal resolution of the 50 MHz DRWP using the signal processing algorithm described in this paper ensures the detection of rapidly changing features as well as provides the confidence that the features are genuine. Further benefit is gained when the profiles generated by the DRWP are examined in relation to the profiles measured by jimspheres and/or rawinsondes. The redundancy offered by using two independent measurements can dispel or confirm any suspicion regarding instrumentation error or malfunction and wind profiles can be examined in light of their respective instruments' strengths and weaknesses.

  3. Nonmethane hydrocarbons in Southern Ocean boundary layer air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewis, Alastair C.; Carpenter, Lucy J.; Pilling, Michael J.

    2001-03-01

    Measurements at the remote marine boundary layer station of Cape Grim, Northwest Tasmania, allow study of the unperturbed background atmosphere. Here we present a continuous data series of nonmethane hydrocarbons (NMHCs), measured in situ and with high sensitivity during the Second Southern Ocean Photochemistry Experiment (SOAPEX 2) during austral summer 1999. Air masses arriving at Cape Grim originate from the Australian continent, Tasmania, and Southern Ocean and Antarctic regions. In Southern Ocean marine boundary layer (MBL) air, C2 and C3 alkanes show a highly uniform abundance (ethane 142±11.9 parts per trillion by volume (pptv), propane 8.9±1.7 pptv) at around 4 times lower concentrations than encountered in unpolluted Northern Hemisphere MBL air. The presence of shorter-lived NMHCs in marine air indicates sources of both C4-C6 alkanes and several alkenes in the Southern Ocean. The alkane isomer distributions and abundances are in broad agreement with literature sea-air flux rates. In dynamically stable maritime air, midday maxima in ethene, propene, and isoprene concentrations of a few pptv indicate photochemically driven sources very near to the sea surface. Despite their high reactivity, the impact of these oceanic alkenes on local OH concentrations in remote MBL air is not significant. However, the abundance of isoprene in marine air may significantly elevate formaldehyde above that generated by methane oxidation.

  4. Use of indigenous small mammal populations to assess a National Priority List site: A case study at Naval Air Station, Whidbey Island

    SciTech Connect

    Hummell, R.A.

    1994-12-31

    Prior disposal activities at Naval Air Station, Whidbey Island resulted in the release of heavy metals and organic chemicals into the environment resulting in the site being placed on the National Priorities List (NPL) in 1990. This presentation reports an ecotoxicological study of indigenous populations of voles on the NPL site. The study attempted to provide three endpoints: (1) exposure, (2) individual effects, (3) population effects. Exposure was quantified during the study by comparing chemical concentrations in the tissues of voles live captured on site to tissue concentrations of mammals captured at site specific reference locations. Live trapped voles were also aged according to eye lens weights. Effects exerted on individuals were evaluated based on physiological measurements of the liver, kidney, and whole body as they correlated with age and chemical concentrations. Capture-recapture techniques and age structure analyses were used to develop survivorship curves and evaluate population stability and fitness. The study provides data that can be used to support ecological risk assessments required for CIRCLE investigations.

  5. Objective Lightning Forecasting at Kennedy Space Center and Cape Canaveral Air Force Station using Cloud-to-Ground Lightning Surveillance System Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lambert, Winfred; Wheeler, Mark; Roeder, William

    2005-01-01

    The 45th Weather Squadron (45 WS) at Cape Canaveral Air-Force Station (CCAFS)ln Florida issues a probability of lightning occurrence in their daily 24-hour and weekly planning forecasts. This information is used for general planning of operations at CCAFS and Kennedy Space Center (KSC). These facilities are located in east-central Florida at the east end of a corridor known as 'Lightning Alley', an indication that lightning has a large impact on space-lift operations. Much of the current lightning probability forecast is based on a subjective analysis of model and observational data and an objective forecast tool developed over 30 years ago. The 45 WS requested that a new lightning probability forecast tool based on statistical analysis of more recent historical warm season (May-September) data be developed in order to increase the objectivity of the daily thunderstorm probability forecast. The resulting tool is a set of statistical lightning forecast equations, one for each month of the warm season, that provide a lightning occurrence probability for the day by 1100 UTC (0700 EDT) during the warm season.

  6. Comparison of passive diffusion bag samplers and submersible pump sampling methods for monitoring volatile organic compounds in ground water at Area 6, Naval Air Station, Whidbey Island, Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Huffman, Raegan L.

    2002-01-01

    Ground-water samples were collected in April 1999 at Naval Air Station Whidbey Island, Washington, with passive diffusion samplers and a submersible pump to compare concentrations of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in water samples collected using the two sampling methods. Single diffusion samplers were installed in wells with 10-foot screened intervals, and multiple diffusion samplers were installed in wells with 20- to 40-foot screened intervals. The diffusion samplers were recovered after 20 days and the wells were then sampled using a submersible pump. VOC concentrations in the 10-foot screened wells in water samples collected with diffusion samplers closely matched concentrations in samples collected with the submersible pump. Analysis of VOC concentrations in samples collected from the 20- to 40-foot screened wells with multiple diffusion samplers indicated vertical concentration variation within the screened interval, whereas the analysis of VOC concentrations in samples collected with the submersible pump indicated mixing during pumping. The results obtained using the two sampling methods indicate that the samples collected with the diffusion samplers were comparable with and can be considerably less expensive than samples collected using a submersible pump.

  7. A Sounding-based Severe Weather Tool to Support Daily Operations at Kennedy Space Center and Cape Canaveral Air Force Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauman, William H.; Roeder, William P.

    2014-01-01

    People and property at Kennedy Space Center (KSC) and Cape Canaveral Air Force Station (CCAFS) are at risk when severe weather occurs. Strong winds, hail and tornadoes can injure individuals and cause costly damage to structures if not properly protected. NASA's Launch Services Program and Ground Systems Development and Operations Program and other KSC programs use the daily and weekly severe weather forecasts issued by the 45th Weather Squadron (45 WS) to determine if they need to limit an activity such as working on gantries, or protect property such as a vehicle on a pad. The 45 WS requested the Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) develop a warm season (May-September) severe weather tool for use in the Meteorological Interactive Data Display System (MIDDS) based on the late morning, 1500 UTC (1100 local time), CCAFS (XMR) sounding. The 45 WS frequently makes decisions to issue a severe weather watch and other severe weather warning support products to NASA and the 45th Space Wing in the late morning, after the 1500 UTC sounding. The results of this work indicate that certain stability indices based on the late morning XMR soundings can depict differences between days with reported severe weather and days with no reported severe weather. The AMU determined a frequency of reported severe weather for the stability indices and implemented an operational tool in MIDDS.

  8. Statistical Short-Range Guidance for Peak Wind Forecasts on Kennedy Space Center/Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Phase III

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crawford, Winifred

    2010-01-01

    This final report describes the development of a peak wind forecast tool to assist forecasters in determining the probability of violating launch commit criteria (LCC) at Kennedy Space Center (KSC) and Cape Canaveral Air Force Station (CCAFS). The peak winds are an important forecast element for both the Space Shuttle and Expendable Launch Vehicle (ELV) programs. The LCC define specific peak wind thresholds for each launch operation that cannot be exceeded in order to ensure the safety of the vehicle. The 45th Weather Squadron (45 WS) has found that peak winds are a challenging parameter to forecast, particularly in the cool season months of October through April. Based on the importance of forecasting peak winds, the 45 WS tasked the Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) to develop a short-range peak-wind forecast tool to assist in forecasting LCC violations.The tool includes climatologies of the 5-minute mean and peak winds by month, hour, and direction, and probability distributions of the peak winds as a function of the 5-minute mean wind speeds.

  9. Peak Wind Forecasts for the Launch-Critical Wind Towers on Kennedy Space Center/Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Phase IV

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crawford, Winifred

    2011-01-01

    This final report describes the development of a peak wind forecast tool to assist forecasters in determining the probability of violating launch commit criteria (LCC) at Kennedy Space Center (KSC) and Cape Canaveral Air Force Station (CCAFS). The peak winds arc an important forecast clement for both the Space Shuttle and Expendable Launch Vehicle (ELV) programs. The LCC define specific peak wind thresholds for each launch operation that cannot be exceeded in order to ensure the safety of the vehicle. The 45th Weather Squadron (45 WS) has found that peak winds are a challenging parameter to forecast, particularly in the cool season months of October through April. Based on the importance of forecasting peak winds, the 45 WS tasked the Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) to update the statistics in the current peak-wind forecast tool to assist in forecasting LCC violations. The tool includes onshore and offshore flow climatologies of the 5-minute mean and peak winds and probability distributions of the peak winds as a function of the 5-minute mean wind speeds.

  10. Preliminary site characterization summary and engineering evaluation/cost analysis for Site 2, New Fuel Farm, Naval Air Station Fallon, Fallon, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Cronk, T.A.; Smuin, D.R. ); Schlosser, R.M. )

    1991-09-01

    This report addresses subsurface contamination associated with Site 2, the New Fuel Farm at Naval Air Station Fallon (NAS Fallon), Nevada and is an integral part of Phase 2 of the Installation Restoration Program (IR Program) currently underway at the facility. This report: (1) reviews and assesses environmental information characterizing Site 2; (2) determine if site-characterization information is sufficient to design and evaluate removal actions; and, (3) investigates, develops, and describes any removal actions deemed feasible. Previous environmental investigations at Site 2 indicate the presence of floating product (primarily JP-5, jet fuel) on the water table underlying the facility. While the extent of floating-produce plumes has been characterized, the degree of associated soil and groundwater contamination remains uncertain. A comprehensive characterization of soil and groundwater contamination will be completed as the Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study progresses. Corrective actions are recommended at this time to remove free-phase floating product. Implementing these removal actions will also provide additional information which will be used to direct further investigations of the extent, mobility, and potential environmental threat from soil and groundwater contaminants at this side.

  11. Investigation of ground-water contamination at a drainage ditch, Installation Restoration Site 4, Naval Air Station Corpus Christi, Corpus Christi, Texas, 2005–06

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vroblesky, Don A.; Casey, Clifton C.

    2007-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Naval Facilities Engineering Command Southeast, used newly developed sampling methods to investigate ground-water contamination by chlorobenzenes beneath a drainage ditch on the southwestern side of Installation Restoration Site 4, Naval Air Station Corpus Christi, Corpus Christi, Texas, during 2005-06. The drainage ditch, which is a potential receptor for ground-water contaminants from Installation Restoration Site 4, intermittently discharges water to Corpus Christi Bay. This report uses data from a new type of pore-water sampler developed for this investigation and other methods to examine the subsurface contamination beneath the drainage ditch. Analysis of ground water from the samplers indicated that chlorobenzenes (maximum detected concentration of 160 micrograms per liter) are present in the ground water beneath the ditch. The concentrations of dissolved oxygen in the samples (less than 0.05-0.4 milligram per liter) showed that the ground water beneath and near the ditch is anaerobic, indicating that substantial chlorobenzene biodegradation in the aquifer beneath the ditch is unlikely. Probable alternative mechanisms of chlorobenzene removal in the ground water beneath the drainage ditch include sorption onto the organic-rich sediment and contaminant depletion by cattails through uptake, sorption, and localized soil aeration.

  12. Technique for monitoring ozone precursor hydrocarbons in air at photochemical assessment monitoring stations: Sorbent preconcentration, closed-cycle cooler cryofocusing, and GC-FID analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliver, Karen D.; Adams, Jeffrey R.; Hunter Daughtrey, E.; McClenny, William A.; Yoong, Matthias J.; Pardee, Michael A.

    An automated gas chromatograph (autoGC) system that may be used to collect and analyze both polar and nonpolar volatile organic compounds in ambient air has been evaluated. This system combines the use of dual multiadsorbent traps for sampling 57 min h -1 at ambient temperature, a dry helium purge to remove residual water from the sorbents, thermal desorption of analytes onto a Stirling-cooled trap for refocusing, and GC-flame ionization detection (FID). Method detection limits (MDLs), linearity, cleanliness, precision, and accuracy of the autoGC were determined for a set of 57 ozone precursor hydrocarbons. For most of the compounds tested, MDLs were less than 0.40 ppbv, the FID response was linear over the 5-40-ppbv range, and the trap-to-trap precision was ± 10%. This autoGC was found to be a reliable system that would be suitable for use in field sites such as the Photochemical Assessment Monitoring Stations network, which is being implemented in the United States of America.

  13. Demonstration-site development and phytoremediation processes associated with trichloroethene (TCE) in ground water, Naval Air Station-Joint Reserve Base Carswell Field, Fort Worth, Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shah, Sachin D.; Braun, Christopher L.

    2004-01-01

    A field-scale phytoremediation demonstration study was initiated in 1996 by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the U.S. Air Force, at a site on Naval Air StationJoint Reserve Base Carswell Field (NAS–JRB) adjacent to Air Force Plant 4 (AFP4) in Fort Worth, Tex. (fig. 1). Trichloroethene (TCE) has been used at AFP4 in aircraft manufacturing processes for decades; spills and leaks from tanks in the manufacturing building have resulted in shallow ground-water contamination on-site and downgradient from the facility (Eberts and others, 2003). The objective of the study was to determine the effectiveness of eastern cottonwoods (Populus deltoides) in decreasing the mass of dissolved TCE in ground water through phytoremediation. Phytoremediation is a process by which plants decrease the mass of a contaminant through a variety of chemical, physical, and biological means. Before development of the phytoremediation demonstration site, natural attenuation of TCE at the site occurred by sorption, dispersion, dilution, and possibly volatilization (Eberts and others, 2003).Long-term, field-scale monitoring and evaluation of this site contribute to the understanding of the processes associated with phytoremediation and provide practical information about field-scale applications of the method. This fact sheet briefly summarizes the development of the phytoremediation demonstration site at NAS–JRB and describes some of the physical and chemical processes associated with phytoremediation. The phytoremediation demonstration site is on the southern edge of the central lobe of a TCE plume in the surficial (alluvial) aquifer. The plume originates at AFP4 about 0.9 mile upgradient from the site (fig. 1). The 9.5-acre site is in the northwestern corner of the golf course on NAS–JRB. The saturated thickness of the alluvial aquifer, which is composed of clay, silt, sand, and gravel, ranges from about 1.5 to 5 feet at the site. The total thickness of the alluvial

  14. Installation Restoration Program. Preliminary Assessment: 112th Tactical Control Squadron and 114th Air Traffic Control Flight, State College Air National Guard Station, Pennsylvania Air National Guard, State College, Pennsylvania

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-02-01

    and the Upper Cambrian age Gatesburg formation crop out (Figure 111.3). Specifically, the Station location is shown to be underlain by the Stonehenge ...the Larke formation is generally absent in this part of Centre County, and a hiatus exists between the Stonehenge formation and the underlying Gatesburg...formation. Therefore, the Stonehenge formation exists unconformably in contact with the Mines member of the Gatesburg formation. In addition, the

  15. 35. SITE BUILDING 004 ELECTRIC POWER STATION CONTROL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    35. SITE BUILDING 004 - ELECTRIC POWER STATION - CONTROL ROOM OF ELECTRIC POWER STATION WITH DIESEL ENGINE POWERED ELECTRIC GENERATION EQUIPMENT IN BACKGROUND. - Cape Cod Air Station, Technical Facility-Scanner Building & Power Plant, Massachusetts Military Reservation, Sandwich, Barnstable County, MA

  16. Naval Computer & Telecommunications Area Master Station, Eastern Pacific, Radio ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Naval Computer & Telecommunications Area Master Station, Eastern Pacific, Radio Transmitter Facility Lualualei, Marine Barracks, Intersection of Tower Drive & Morse Street, Makaha, Honolulu County, HI

  17. Suitability Screening Test for Marine Corps Air Traffic Controllers Phase 3: Non-cognitive Test Validation and Cognitive Test Prototype

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-06-01

    Operating Forces revocation to further emphasize the utility of considering non-cognitive traits in conjunction with ASVAB standards when selecting...ATC MOS designation. Taken together, the two tests are predicted to reduce attrition/ revocation and increase the quality of Marines selected for...performance, less attrition/ revocation costs, and increased diversity through fair, valid screening improvements. viii Contents Introduction

  18. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in soil and surface marine sediment near Jubany Station (Antarctica). Role of permafrost as a low-permeability barrier.

    PubMed

    Curtosi, Antonio; Pelletier, Emilien; Vodopivez, Cristian L; Mac Cormack, Walter P

    2007-09-20

    Although Antarctica is still considered as one of the most pristine areas of the world, the growing tourist and fisheries activities as well as scientific operations and their related logistic support are responsible for an increasing level of pollutants in this fragile environment. Soils and coastal sediments are significantly affected near scientific stations particularly by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). In this work sediment and soil were sampled in two consecutive summer Antarctic expeditions at Potter Cove and peninsula, in the vicinity of Jubany Station (South Shetland Islands). Two- and 3-ring PAHs (methylnaphthalene, fluorene, phenanthrene and anthracene) were the main compounds found in most sites, although total PAH concentrations showed relatively low levels compared with other human-impacted areas in Antarctica. Pattern distribution of PAHs observed in samples suggested that low-temperature combustion processes such as diesel motor combustion and open-field garbage burning are the main sources of these compounds. An increase in PAH concentrations was observed from surface to depth into the active soil layer except for a unique sampling site where a fuel spill had been recently reported and where an inverted PAH concentration gradient was observed. The highest level was detected in the upper layer of permafrost followed by a sharp decrease in depth, showing this layer is acting as a barrier for downward PAH migration. When PAH levels in soil from both sampling programs were compared a significant decrease (p<0.01) was observed in summer 2005 (range at 75-cm depth: 12+/-1-153+/-22 ng/g) compared to summer 2004 (range at 75-cm depth: 162+/-15-1182+/-113 ng/g) whereas concentrations in surface sediment collected nearby the station PAHs increased drastically in 2005 (range: 36+/-3-1908+/-114 ng/g) compared to 2004 (range: 28+/-3-312+/-24 ng/g). Precipitation regime and water run off suggest that an important wash out of soil-PAHs occurred during

  19. A controlling role for the air-sea interface in the chemical processing of reactive nitrogen in the coastal marine boundary layer.

    PubMed

    Kim, Michelle J; Farmer, Delphine K; Bertram, Timothy H

    2014-03-18

    The lifetime of reactive nitrogen and the production rate of reactive halogens in the marine boundary layer are strongly impacted by reactions occurring at aqueous interfaces. Despite the potential importance of the air-sea interface in serving as a reactive surface, few direct field observations are available to assess its impact on reactive nitrogen deposition and halogen activation. Here, we present direct measurements of the vertical fluxes of the reactant-product pair N2O5 and ClNO2 to assess the role of the ocean surface in the exchange of reactive nitrogen and halogens. We measure nocturnal N2O5 exchange velocities (Vex = -1.66 ± 0.60 cm s(-1)) that are limited by atmospheric transport of N2O5 to the air-sea interface. Surprisingly, vertical fluxes of ClNO2, the product of N2O5 reactive uptake to concentrated chloride containing surfaces, display net deposition, suggesting that elevated ClNO2 mixing ratios found in the marine boundary layer are sustained primarily by N2O5 reactions with aerosol particles. Comparison of measured deposition rates and in situ observations of N2O5 reactive uptake to aerosol particles indicates that N2O5 deposition to the ocean surface accounts for between 26% and 42% of the total loss rate. The combination of large Vex, N2O5 and net deposition of ClNO2 acts to limit NOx recycling rates and the production of Cl atoms by shortening the nocturnal lifetime of N2O5. These results indicate that air-sea exchange processes account for as much as 15% of nocturnal NOx removal in polluted coastal regions and can serve to reduce ClNO2 concentrations at sunrise by over 20%.

  20. Successful Demolition of Historic Cape Canaveral Air Force Station Launch Facilities: Managing the Process to Maximize Recycle Value to Fund Demolition

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, A.; Hambro, L.; Hooper, K.

    2008-07-01

    This paper will present the history of the Atlas 36 and Titan 40 Space Launch Complexes (SLC), the facility assessment process, demolition planning, recycle methodology, and actual facility demolition that resulted in a 40% reduction in baseline cost. These two SLC launched hundreds of payloads into space from Cape Canaveral Air Force Station (AFS), Florida. The Atlas-Centaur family of rockets could lift small- to medium-size satellites designed for communications, weather, or military use, placing them with near pinpoint accuracy into their intended orbits. The larger Titan family was relied upon for heavier lifting needs, including launching military satellites as well as interplanetary probes. But despite their efficiency and cost-effectiveness, the Titan rockets, as well as earlier generation Atlas models, were retired in 2005. Concerns about potential environmental health hazards from PCBs and lead-based paint chipping off the facilities also contributed to the Air Force's decision in 2005 to dismantle and demolish the Atlas and Titan missile-launching systems. Lockheed Martin secured the complex following the final launch, removed equipment and turned over the site to the Air Force for decommissioning and demolition (D and D). AMEC was retained by the Air Force to perform demolition planning and facility D and D in 2004. AMEC began with a review of historical information, interviews with past operations personnel, and 100% facility assessment of over 100 structures. There where numerous support buildings that due to their age contained asbestos containing material (ACM), PCB-impacted material, and universal material that had to be identified and removed prior to demolition. Environmental testing had revealed that the 36B mobile support tower (MST) exceeded the TSCA standard for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) paint (<50 ppm), as did the high bay sections of the Titan Vertical Integration Building (VIB). Thus, while most of the steel structures could be

  1. Simulation of ground-water flow and potential contaminant transport at Area 6 Landfill, Naval Air Station Whidbey Island, Island County, Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Simonds, F. William

    2002-01-01

    A three-dimensional finite-difference steady-state ground-water flow model was developed to simulate hydraulic conditions at the Area 6 Landfill, Naval Air Station Whidbey Island, near Oak Harbor, Washington. Remediation efforts were started in 1995 in an attempt to contain trichloroethene and other contaminants in the ground water. The model was developed as a tool to test the effectiveness of the pump-and-treat remediation efforts as well as alternative remediation strategies. The model utilized stratigraphic data from approximately 76 Navy and 19 private wells to define the geometry of the shallow, intermediate, and deep aquifers and the intervening confining layers. Initial aquifer parameters and recharge estimates from aquifer tests and published remedial investigation reports were used in the model and then adjusted until simulated water levels closely matched observed water-level data collected prior to the onset of remediation in 1995. The calibrated model was then modified to depict the remedial pump-and-treat system, in which contaminated ground water is extracted, treated, and returned to the ground surface for infiltration. The water levels simulated by the modified model were compared with observed water levels for the 1998 calendar year, during which time the pump-and-treat system was in nearly continuous operation and the ground-water system had equilibrated to steady-state conditions. Although artificial boundaries were used in the model, the choice of model boundary conditions was simulation in the area of primary concern surrounding the western contaminant plume and extraction wells. Particle tracking results indicate that the model can effectively simulate the advective transport of contaminants from the source area to the pumping wells and thus be used to test alternative remedial pumping strategies.

  2. Microbial monitoring and performance evaluation for H2S biological air emissions control at a wastewater lift station in South Texas, USA.

    PubMed

    Jones, Kim D; Yadavalli, Naga; Karre, Anand K; Paca, Jan

    2012-01-01

    A pilot-scale biological sequential treatment system consisting of a biotrickling filter and two biofilters was installed at Waste Water Lift Station # 64 in Brownsville, Texas, USA to evaluate the performance of the system being loaded with variable concentrations of wastewater hydrogen sulfide (H(2)S) emissions. In this study, the effectiveness of sulfur oxidizing bacteria along with the distribution of various sulfur species and their correlation with the performance of the biofilters was evaluated. The biofilters were packed with engineered media consisting of plastic cylinders with compacted organic material which was supplied by Met-Pro Environmental Air Solutions (formerly Bio·Reaction Industries). The overall performance of the pilot-scale biological sequential treatment system with an Empty Bed Residence Time (EBRT) of 60s and the overall performance of the biofilter unit with an EBRT of 35s developed a removal efficiency of > 99% at H(2)S levels up to 500 ppm. A decrease in performance over time was observed in the first and second sections of the first biofilter unit with the third section of the biofilter unit ultimately becoming the most robust unit removing most of the pollutant. The second biofilter unit was not needed and subsequently removed from the system. The number of CFUs in sulfur oxidizing T.thioparus selective media grew significantly in all four sections of the biofilter over the two months of pilot operation of the biological unit. The sulfur oxidizer growth rates appeared to be highest at low total sulfur content and at slightly acidic pH levels. This study has implications for improving the understanding of the distribution of sulfur oxidizing bacteria throughout the length of the biofilter columns, which can be used to further optimize performance and estimate breakthrough at these very high H(2)S input loadings.

  3. Workstation-Based Real-Time Mesoscale Modeling Designed for Weather Support to Operations at the Kennedy Space Center and Cape Canaveral Air Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manobianco, John; Zack, John W.; Taylor, Gregory E.

    1996-01-01

    This paper describes the capabilities and operational utility of a version of the Mesoscale Atmospheric Simulation System (MASS) that has been developed to support operational weather forecasting at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) and Cape Canaveral Air Station (CCAS). The implementation of local, mesoscale modeling systems at KSC/CCAS is designed to provide detailed short-range (less than 24 h) forecasts of winds, clouds, and hazardous weather such as thunderstorms. Short-range forecasting is a challenge for daily operations, and manned and unmanned launches since KSC/CCAS is located in central Florida where the weather during the warm season is dominated by mesoscale circulations like the sea breeze. For this application, MASS has been modified to run on a Stardent 3000 workstation. Workstation-based, real-time numerical modeling requires a compromise between the requirement to run the system fast enough so that the output can be used before expiration balanced against the desire to improve the simulations by increasing resolution and using more detailed physical parameterizations. It is now feasible to run high-resolution mesoscale models such as MASS on local workstations to provide timely forecasts at a fraction of the cost required to run these models on mainframe supercomputers. MASS has been running in the Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) at KSC/CCAS since January 1994 for the purpose of system evaluation. In March 1995, the AMU began sending real-time MASS output to the forecasters and meteorologists at CCAS, Spaceflight Meteorology Group (Johnson Space Center, Houston, Texas), and the National Weather Service (Melbourne, Florida). However, MASS is not yet an operational system. The final decision whether to transition MASS for operational use will depend on a combination of forecaster feedback, the AMU's final evaluation results, and the life-cycle costs of the operational system.

  4. Two-dimensional resistivity investigation along West Fork Trinity River, Naval Air Station-Joint Reserve Base, Carswell Field, Fort Worth, Texas, October 2004

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shah, Sachin D.; Stanton, Gregory P.

    2006-01-01

    Naval Air Station-Joint Reserve Base Carswell Field (NAS-JRB) at Fort Worth, Tex., constitutes a government-owned, contractor-operated facility that has been in operation since 1942. Contaminants, primarily volatile organic compounds and metals, have entered the ground-water-flow system through leakage from waste-disposal sites and manufacturing processes. Ground water flows from west to east toward the West Fork Trinity River. During October 2004, the U.S. Geological Survey conducted a two-dimensional (2D) resistivity investigation at a site along the West Fork Trinity River at the eastern boundary of NAS-JRB to characterize the distribution of subsurface resistivity. Five 2D resistivity profiles were collected, which ranged from 500 to 750 feet long and extended to a depth of 25 feet. The Goodland Limestone and the underlying Walnut Formation form a confining unit that underlies the alluvial aquifer. The top of this confining unit is the top of bedrock at NAS-JRB. The bedrock confining unit is the zone of interest because of the potential for contaminated ground water to enter the West Fork Trinity River through saturated bedrock. The study involved a capacitively-coupled resistivity survey and inverse modeling to obtain true or actual resistivity from apparent resistivity. The apparent resistivity was processed using an inverse modeling software program. The results of this program were used to generate distributions (images) of actual resistivity referred to as inverted sections or profiles. The images along the five profiles show a wide range of resistivity values. The two profiles nearest the West Fork Trinity River generally showed less resistivity than the three other profiles.

  5. Ground-water hydrology and simulation of ground-water flow at Operable Unit 3 and surrounding region, U.S. Naval Air Station, Jacksonville, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Davis, J.H.

    1998-01-01

    The Naval Air Station, Jacksonville (herein referred to as the Station), occupies 3,800 acres adjacent to the St. Johns River in Duval County, Florida. Operable Unit 3 (OU3) occupies 134 acres on the eastern side of the Station and has been used for industrial and commercial purposes since World War II. Ground water contaminated by chlorinated organic compounds has been detected in the surficial aquifer at OU3. The U.S. Navy and U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) conducted a cooperative hydrologic study to evaluate the potential for ground water discharge to the neighboring St. Johns River. A ground-water flow model, previously developed for the area, was recalibrated for use in this study. At the Station, the surficial aquifer is exposed at land surface and forms the uppermost permeable unit. The aquifer ranges in thickness from 30 to 100 feet and consists of unconsolidated silty sands interbedded with local beds of clay. The low-permeability clays of the Hawthorn Group form the base of the aquifer. The USGS previously conducted a ground-water investigation at the Station that included the development and calibration of a 1-layer regional ground-water flow model. For this investigation, the regional model was recalibrated using additional data collected after the original calibration. The recalibrated model was then used to establish the boundaries for a smaller subregional model roughly centered on OU3. Within the subregional model, the surficial aquifer is composed of distinct upper and intermediate layers. The upper layer extends from land surface to a depth of approximately 15 feet below sea level; the intermediate layer extends from the upper layer down to the top of the Hawthorn Group. In the northern and central parts of OU3, the upper and intermediate layers are separated by a low-permeability clay layer. Horizontal hydraulic conductivities in the upper layer, determined from aquifer tests, range from 0.19 to 3.8 feet per day. The horizontal hydraulic

  6. Space station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stewart, Donald F.; Hayes, Judith

    1989-01-01

    The history of American space flight indicates that a space station is the next logical step in the scientific pursuit of greater knowledge of the universe. The Space Station and its complement of space vehicles, developed by NASA, will add new dimensions to an already extensive space program in the United States. The Space Station offers extraordinary benefits for a comparatively modest investment (currently estimated at one-ninth the cost of the Apollo Program). The station will provide a permanent multipurpose facility in orbit necessary for the expansion of space science and technology. It will enable significant advancements in life sciences research, satellite communications, astronomy, and materials processing. Eventually, the station will function in support of the commercialization and industrialization of space. Also, as a prerequisite to manned interplanetary exploration, the long-duration space flights typical of Space Station missions will provide the essential life sciences research to allow progressively longer human staytime in space.

  7. Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderton, D. A.

    1985-01-01

    The official start of a bold new space program, essential to maintain the United States' leadership in space was signaled by a Presidential directive to move aggressively again into space by proceeding with the development of a space station. Development concepts for a permanently manned space station are discussed. Reasons for establishing an inhabited space station are given. Cost estimates and timetables are also cited.

  8. First assessment of effects of air-gun seismic shooting on marine resources in the central Adriatic sea

    SciTech Connect

    La Bella, G.; Cannata, S.; Froglia, C.

    1996-11-01

    A series of investigations were carried out to test the effects of air-gun seismic shooting on main fishery resources of the Adriatic Sea during summer 1995. The energy source used for the trial was formed by one air-gun array made up by two sub-arrays consisting in 8 air-guns each developing a total volume of c.a. 2500 i{sup 3} at 2000 psi with an amplitude of 60 bar/m. The interval between two was of 25 s. The intensity was of 210 dB re 1 mPa-m/Hz. Acoustical and spectral analysis were performed simultaneously in the surveyed areas to correlate fishery and behavior observations with sound pattern of the energization. Main results were: (1) Analysis of trawl catch data evidenced no significant changes before and after the air-gun seismic profiling. (2) Echosurvey relative estimate of pelagic biomass, performed simultaneously to trawling operations, failed to evidence any significant change in the pelagic biomass subsequent to the seismic shooting. (3) Small differences were observed in the trammel net catch composition, but one single set of pre-post fishing operations could be done in the study period. (4) Similar density estimate were obtained from dredge surveys performed by an hydraulic dredger before and after air-gun seismic profiling over a clam bed in 14 in depth. (5) Video recording of captive fish, kept into cages moored on the sea bottom at 12 in depth, evidenced a Behavioral response to the approach of the sound source; but no lethal event was recorded on captive sea-bass immediately after the seismic shooting. (6) Biochemical and histological analysis were performed to verify if it is to be related to the captive condition or is somewhat consequent to the air-gun energization. These results confirm that no relevant effects are induced on fishery resources by seismic air-gun shooting.

  9. Regional variability in diving physiology and behavior in a widely distributed air-breathing marine predator, the South American sea lion (Otaria byronia).

    PubMed

    Hückstädt, Luis A; Tift, Michael S; Riet-Sapriza, Federico; Franco-Trecu, Valentina; Baylis, Alastair M M; Orben, Rachael A; Arnould, John P Y; Sepulveda, Maritza; Santos-Carvallo, Macarena; Burns, Jennifer M; Costa, Daniel P

    2016-08-01

    Our understanding of how air-breathing marine predators cope with environmental variability is limited by our inadequate knowledge of their ecological and physiological parameters. Because of their wide distribution along both coasts of the sub-continent, South American sea lions (Otaria byronia) provide a valuable opportunity to study the behavioral and physiological plasticity of a marine predator in different environments. We measured the oxygen stores and diving behavior of South American sea lions throughout most of its range, allowing us to demonstrate that diving ability and behavior vary across its range. We found no significant differences in mass-specific blood volumes of sea lions among field sites and a negative relationship between mass-specific oxygen storage and size, which suggests that exposure to different habitats and geographical locations better explains oxygen storage capacities and diving capability in South American sea lions than body size alone. The largest animals in our study (individuals from Uruguay) were the shallowest and shortest duration divers, and had the lowest mass-specific total body oxygen stores, while the deepest and longest duration divers (individuals from southern Chile) had significantly larger mass-specific oxygen stores, despite being much smaller animals. Our study suggests that the physiology of air-breathing diving predators is not fixed, but that it can be adjusted, to a certain extent, depending on the ecological setting and or habitat. These adjustments can be thought of as a 'training effect': as the animal continues to push its physiological capacity through greater hypoxic exposure, its breath-holding capacity increases.

  10. Fate and Transport Modeling of Selected Chlorinated Organic Compounds at Operable Unit 1, U.S. Naval Air Station, Jacksonville, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Davis, J. Hal

    2007-01-01

    The U.S. Naval Air Station occupies 3,800 acres adjacent to the St. Johns River in Jacksonville, Florida. The Station was placed on the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's National Priorities List in December 1989 and is participating in the U.S. Department of Defense Installation Restoration Program, which serves to identify and remediate environmental contamination. One contaminated site, the old landfill, was designated as Operable Unit 1 (OU1) in 1989. The major source of ground-water contamination was from the disposal of waste oil and solvents into open pits, which began in the 1940s. Several remedial measures were implemented at this site to prevent the spread of contamination. Recovery trenches were installed in 1995 to collect free product. In 1998, some of the contamination was consolidated to the center of the old landfill and covered by an impermeable cap. Currently, Operable Unit 1 is being reevaluated as part of a 5-year review process to determine if the remedial actions were effective. Solute transport modeling indicated that the concentration of contaminants would have reached its maximum extent by the 1970s, after which the concentration levels would have generally declined because the pits would have ceased releasing high levels of contaminants. In the southern part of the site, monitoring well MW-19, which had some of the highest levels of contamination, showed decreases for measured and simulated concentrations of trichloroethene (TCE) and dichloroethene (DCE) from 1992 to present. Two upgradient disposal pits were simulated to have ceased releasing high levels of contamination in 1979, which consequently caused a drop in simulated concentrations. Monitoring well MW-100 had the highest levels of contamination of any well directly adjacent to a creek. Solute transport modeling substantially overestimated the concentrations of TCE, DCE, and vinyl chloride (VC) in this well. The reason for this overestimation is not clear, however, it indicates

  11. Regional Modelling of Air Quality in the Canadian Arctic: Impact of marine shipping and North American wild fire emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, W.; Beagley, S. R.; Zhang, J.; Cousineau, S.; Sassi, M.; Munoz-Alpizar, R.; Racine, J.; Menard, S.; Chen, J.

    2015-12-01

    Arctic atmospheric composition is strongly influenced by long-range transport from mid-latitudes as well as processes occurring in the Arctic locally. Using an on-line air quality prediction model GEM-MACH, simulations were carried out for the 2010 northern shipping season (April - October) over a regional Arctic domain. North American wildfire emissions and Arctic shipping emissions were represented, along with other anthropogenic and biogenic emissions. Sensitivity studies were carried out to investigate the principal sources and processes affecting air quality in the Canadian Northern and Arctic regions. In this paper, we present an analysis of sources, transport, and removal processes on the ambient concentrations and atmospheric loading of various pollutants with air quality and climate implications, such as, O3, NOx, SO2, CO, and aerosols (sulfate, black carbon, and organic carbon components). Preliminary results from a model simulation of a recent summertime Arctic field campaign will also be presented.

  12. Solar power station

    SciTech Connect

    Wenzel, J.

    1982-11-30

    Solar power station with semiconductor solar cells for generating electric power is described, wherein the semiconductor solar cells are provided on a member such as a balloon or a kite which carries the solar cells into the air. The function of the balloon or kite can also be fulfilled by a glider or airship. The solar power station can be operated by allowing the system to ascend at sunrise and descend at sunset or when the wind is going to be too strong in order to avoid any demage.

  13. Ground-water flow in the surficial aquifer system and potential movement of contaminants from selected waste-disposal sites at Cecil Field Naval Air Station, Jacksonville, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Halford, K.J.

    1998-01-01

    As part of the Installation Restoration Program, Cecil Field Naval Air Station, Jacksonville, Florida, is considering remedialaction alternatives to control the possible movement of contaminants from sites that may discharge to the surface. This requires a quantifiable understanding of ground-water flow through the surficial aquifer system and how the system will respond to any future stresses. The geologic units of interest in the study area consist of sediments of Holocene to Miocene age that extend from land surface to the base of the Hawthorn Group. The hydrogeology within the study area was determined from gamma-ray and geologists? logs. Ground-water flow through the surficial aquifer system was simulated with a seven-layer, finite-difference model that extended vertically from the water table to the top of the Upper Floridan aquifer. Results from the calibrated model were based on a long-term recharge rate of 6 inches per year, which fell in the range of 4 to 10 inches per year, estimated using stream hydrograph separation methods. More than 80 percent of ground-water flow circulates within the surficial-sand aquifer, which indicates that most contaminant movement also can be expected to move through the surficial-sand aquifer alone. The surficial-sand aquifer is the uppermost unit of the surficial aquifer system. Particle-tracking results showed that the distances of most flow paths were 1,500 feet or less from a given site to its discharge point. For an assumed effective porosity of 20 percent, typical traveltimes are 40 years or less. At all of the sites investigated, particles released 10 feet below the water table had shorter traveltimes than those released 40 feet below the water table. Traveltimes from contaminated sites to their point of discharge ranged from 2 to 300 years. The contributing areas of the domestic supply wells are not very extensive. The shortest traveltimes for particles to reach the domestic supply wells from their respective

  14. Speciation and fate of trace metals in estuarine sediments under reduced and oxidized conditions, Seaplane Lagoon, Alameda Naval Air Station (USA)

    PubMed Central

    Carroll, Susan; O'Day, Peggy A; Esser, Brad; Randall, Simon

    2002-01-01

    We have identified important chemical reactions that control the fate of metal-contaminated estuarine sediments if they are left undisturbed (in situ) or if they are dredged. We combined information on the molecular bonding of metals in solids from X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) with thermodynamic and kinetic driving forces obtained from dissolved metal concentrations to deduce the dominant reactions under reduced and oxidized conditions. We evaluated the in situ geochemistry of metals (cadmium, chromium, iron, lead, manganese and zinc) as a function of sediment depth (to 100 cm) from a 60 year record of contamination at the Alameda Naval Air Station, California. Results from XAS and thermodynamic modeling of porewaters show that cadmium and most of the zinc form stable sulfide phases, and that lead and chromium are associated with stable carbonate, phosphate, phyllosilicate, or oxide minerals. Therefore, there is minimal risk associated with the release of these trace metals from the deeper sediments contaminated prior to the Clean Water Act (1975) as long as reducing conditions are maintained. Increased concentrations of dissolved metals with depth were indicative of the formation of metal HS- complexes. The sediments also contain zinc, chromium, and manganese associated with detrital iron-rich phyllosilicates and/or oxides. These phases are recalcitrant at near-neutral pH and do not undergo reductive dissolution within the 60 year depositional history of sediments at this site. The fate of these metals during dredging was evaluated by comparing in situ geochemistry with that of sediments oxidized by seawater in laboratory experiments. Cadmium and zinc pose the greatest hazard from dredging because their sulfides were highly reactive in seawater. However, their dissolved concentrations under oxic conditions were limited eventually by sorption to or co-precipitation with an iron (oxy)hydroxide. About 50% of the reacted CdS and 80% of the reacted ZnS were

  15. Fate and transport modeling of selected chlorinated organic compounds at Operable Unit 3, U.S. Naval Air Station, Jacksonville, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Davis, J. Hal

    2000-01-01

    Ground water contaminated by the chlorinated organic compounds trichloroethene (TCE), cis-dichloroethene (DCE), and vinyl chloride (VC) has been found in the surficial aquifer beneath the Naval Aviation Depot at the U.S. Naval Air Station, Jacksonville, Florida. The affected area is designated Operable Unit 3 (OU3) and covers 134 acres adjacent to the St. Johns River. Site-specific ground-water flow modeling was conducted at OU3 using MODFLOW, and solute-transport modeling was conducted using MT3DMS. Simulations using a low dispersivity value, which resulted in the highest concentration discharging to the St. Johns River, gave the following results. At 60 years traveltime, the highest concentration of TCE associated with the Area C plume had discharged to St. Johns River at a level that exceeded 1x103 micrograms per liter (ug/L). At 100 years traveltime, the highest concentration of TCE associated with the Area D plume had discharged to the river at a level exceeding 3x103 ug/L. At 200 years traveltime, the Area B plume had not begun discharging to the river. Simulations using a first-order decay rate half-life of 13.5 years (the slowest documented) at Area G caused the TCE to degrade before reaching the St. Johns River. If the ratio of the concentrations of TCE to cis-DCE and VC remained relatively constant, these breakdown products would not reach the river. However, the actual breakdown rates of cis-DCE and VC are unknown. Simulations were repeated using average dispersivity values with the following results. At 60 years traveltime, the highest concentration of TCE associated with the Area C plume had discharged to St. Johns River at a level exceeding 4x102 ug/L. At 100 years traveltime, the highest concentration of TCE associated with the Area D plume had discharged to the river at a level exceeding 1x103 ug/L. At 200 years traveltime, the Area B plume had not begun discharging to the river. 'Pump and treat' was simulated as a remedial alternative. The

  16. Objective Lightning Forecasting at Kennedy Space Center/Cape Canaveral Air Force Station using Cloud-to-Ground Lightning Surveillance System Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lambert, Winifred; Wheeler, Mark

    2004-01-01

    The 45th Weather Squadron (45 WS) forecasters at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station (CCAFS) in Florida include a probability of thunderstorm occurrence in their daily morning briefings. This information is used by personnel involved in determining the possibility of violating Launch Commit Criteria, evaluating Flight Rules for the Space Shuttle, and daily planning for ground operation activities on Kennedy Space Center (KSC)/CCAFS. Much of the current lightning probability forecast is based on a subjective analysis of model and observational data. The forecasters requested that a lightning probability forecast tool based on statistical analysis of historical warm-season (May - September) data be developed in order to increase the objectivity of the daily thunderstorm probability forecast. The tool is a set of statistical lightning forecast equations that provide a lightning occurrence probability for the day by 1100 UTC (0700 EDT) during the warm season. This study used 15 years (1989-2003) of warm season data to develop the objective forecast equations. The local CCAFS 1000 UTC sounding was used to calculate stability parameters for equation predictors. The Cloud-to-Ground Lightning Surveillance System (CGLSS) data were used to determine lightning occurrence for each day. The CGLSS data have been found to be more reliable indicators of lightning in the area than surface observations through local informal analyses. This work was based on the results from two earlier research projects. Everitt (1999) used surface observations and rawinsonde data to develop logistic regression equations that forecast the daily thunderstorm probability at CCAFS. The Everitt (1999) equations showed an improvement in skill over the Neumann-Pfeffer thunderstorm index (Neumann 1971), which uses multiple linear regression, and also persistence and climatology forecasts. Lericos et al. (2002) developed lightning distributions over the Florida peninsula based on specific flow regimes. The

  17. Development of a geodatabase and conceptual model of the hydrogeologic units beneath air force plant 4 and Naval Air Station-Joint Reserve Base Carswell Field, Fort Worth, Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shah, Sachin D.

    2004-01-01

    Air Force Plant 4 and adjacent Naval Air Station-Joint Reserve Base Carswell Field at Fort Worth, Texas, constitute a government-owned, contractor-operated facility that has been in operation since 1942. Contaminants from AFP4, primarily volatile organic compounds and metals, have entered the ground-water-flow system through leakage from waste-disposal sites and from manufacturing processes. The U.S. Geological Survey developed a comprehensive geodatabase of temporal and spatial environmental information associated with the hydrogeologic units (alluvial aquifer, Goodland-Walnut confining unit, and Paluxy aquifer) beneath the facility and a three-dimensional conceptual model of the hydrogeologic units integrally linked to the geodatabase. The geodatabase design uses a thematic layer approach to create layers of feature data using a geographic information system. The various features are separated into relational tables in the geodatabase on the basis of how they interact and correspond to one another. Using the geodatabase, geographic data at the site are manipulated to produce maps, allow interactive queries, and perform spatial analyses. The conceptual model for the study area comprises computer-generated, three-dimensional block diagrams of the hydrogeologic units. The conceptual model provides a platform for visualization of hydrogeologic-unit sections and surfaces and for subsurface environmental analyses. The conceptual model is based on three structural surfaces and two thickness configurations of the study area. The three structural surfaces depict the altitudes of the tops of the three hydrogeologic units. The two thickness configurations are those of the alluvial aquifer and the Goodland-Walnut confining unit. The surface of the alluvial aquifer was created using a U.S. Geological Survey 10-meter digital elevation model. The 2,130 point altitudes of the top of the Goodland-Walnut unit were compiled from lithologic logs from existing wells, available soil

  18. Marine bacterioplankton can increase evaporation and gas transfer bymetabolizing insoluble surfactants from the air-seawater interface.

    PubMed

    Salter, Ian; Zubkov, Mikhail V; Warwick, Phil E; Burkill, Peter H

    2009-05-01

    Hydrophobic surfactants at the air-sea interface can retard evaporative and gaseous exchange between the atmosphere and the ocean.While numerous studies have examined the metabolic role of bacterioneuston at the air-sea interface, the interactions between hydrophobic surfactants and bacterioplankton are not well constrained. A novel experimental design was developed, using Vibrio natriegens and (3)H-labelled hexadecanoic acid tracer, to determine how the bacterial metabolism of fatty acids affects evaporative fluxes. In abiotic systems, >92% of the added hexadecanoic acid remained at the air-water interface. In contrast, the presence of V. natriegens cells draws down insoluble hexadecanoic acid from the air-water interface as an exponential function of time. The exponents characterizing the removal of hexadecanoic acid from the interface co-vary with the concentration of V. natriegens cells in the underlying water, with the largest exponent corresponding to the highest cell abundance. Radiochemical budgets show that evaporative fluxes from the system are linearly proportional to the quantity of hexadecanoic acid at the interface. Thus, bacterioplankton could influence the rate of evaporation and gas transfer in the ocean through the metabolism of otherwise insoluble surfactants.

  19. 47 CFR 87.107 - Station identification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... of stations are exempted from the use of a call sign: Airborne weather radar, radio altimeter, air... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Station identification. 87.107 Section 87.107... Operating Requirements and Procedures Operating Procedures § 87.107 Station identification. (a)...

  20. 47 CFR 87.107 - Station identification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... of stations are exempted from the use of a call sign: Airborne weather radar, radio altimeter, air... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Station identification. 87.107 Section 87.107... Operating Requirements and Procedures Operating Procedures § 87.107 Station identification. (a)...

  1. Sensitivity of air-sea CO2-exchange and calcite saturation depth to the remineralization depth of marine particulate organic and inorganic carbon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, B.; Bopp, L.; Gehlen, M.

    2009-04-01

    The present study addresses the question of what would happen to air-sea CO2 exchange and the depth of the calcite saturation horizon (CSH) if the remineralization depth of particulate organic and inorganic carbon (POC, PIC) was changing. Therefore, a biogeochemical ocean circulation model (PISCES) was run with four different parameterizations for vertical particle fluxes, starting from the same initial conditions. Particle fluxes undergo strong changes induced by a combination of the respective mechanistic formulation of the vertical particle flux and the resulting ecosystem response. Reorganizations in dissolved properties are caused by (i) changed fluxes of POC and PIC; (ii) advection; (iii) air-sea CO2 exchange (DIC). The results show that the more (less) efficient the vertical transport of POC (PIC) from the surface toward depth, the lower the surface ocean pCO2, the higher the air-sea CO2 flux, and the stronger the increase in the oceanic inventory of DIC, and vice versa. Consequently, in one experiment the ocean is turning into a CO2 source to the atmosphere, in two cases it becomes a weak sink and in one simulation it turns into a strong sink. Surprisingly, results for changes in the CSH are more similar among the simulations at larger scale with a general deepening in the North Pacific and a shoaling elsewhere. In most areas the readjustment of the CSH is controlled by DIC and alkalinity acting both towards the simulated CSH shifts, however, in some cases DIC (alkalinity) is overcompensating for an effect that would occur due to changes in alkalinity (DIC), alone. In detail, the differences found between the experiments can be well explained by the respective particle flux responses. The current study shows that reorganizations in the vertical flux of particulate matter in the ocean may have immediate and longer-term effects on the marine carbon cycle which could potentially feedback on the climate system.

  2. The sea-air exchange of mercury (Hg) in the marine boundary layer of the Augusta basin (southern Italy): concentrations and evasion flux.

    PubMed

    Bagnato, E; Sproveri, M; Barra, M; Bitetto, M; Bonsignore, M; Calabrese, S; Di Stefano, V; Oliveri, E; Parello, F; Mazzola, S

    2013-11-01

    The first attempt to systematically investigate the atmospheric mercury (Hg) in the MBL of the Augusta basin (SE Sicily, Italy) has been undertaken. In the past the basin was the receptor for Hg from an intense industrial activity which contaminated the bottom sediments of the Bay, making this area a potential source of pollution for the surrounding Mediterranean. Three oceanographic cruises have been thus performed in the basin during the winter and summer 2011/2012, where we estimated averaged Hgatm concentrations of about 1.5±0.4 (range 0.9-3.1) and 2.1±0.98 (range 1.1-3.1) ng m(-3) for the two seasons, respectively. These data are somewhat higher than the background Hg atm value measured over the land (range 1.1±0.3 ng m(-3)) at downtown Augusta, while are similar to those detected in other polluted regions elsewhere. Hg evasion fluxes estimated at the sea/air interface over the Bay range from 3.6±0.3 (unpolluted site) to 72±0.1 (polluted site of the basin) ng m(-2) h(-1). By extending these measurements to the entire area of the Augusta basin (~23.5 km(2)), we calculated a total sea-air Hg evasion flux of about 9.7±0.1 g d(-1) (~0.004 tyr(-1)), accounting for ~0.0002% of the global Hg oceanic evasion (2000 tyr(-1)). The new proposed data set offers a unique and original study on the potential outflow of Hg from the sea-air interface at the basin, and it represents an important step for a better comprehension of the processes occurring in the marine biogeochemical cycle of this element.

  3. Peroxyacetyl Nitrate (PAN) as an indicator of long range transport of air pollutants over the marine environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, M.; Han, J.; Lee, G.; Choi, H.

    2011-12-01

    Peroxyacetyl Nitrate (PAN) was measured at Gosan ABC Superstation, Korea during 19 October ~ 6 November 2010. PAN and NO2 were separated onto a GC column and then quantified by luminol chemiluminescence at 425 nm every 2 minutes. PAN concentrations ranged from 0.2 ppbv to 2.4 ppbv with an average of 0.6 ppbv. The highest PAN concentrations were observed during the two haze events, when stagnant condition developed over the Yellow Sea. Particularly, PAN was surprisingly well correlated with PM10 for the whole experiment period (r = 0.88) (Fig. 1). The PM10 concentration was raised up to 216 μg/m3 during the second event. In addition, PAN concentrations were noticeably enhanced when air masses passed over the populated or industrialized areas in China or Korea and aged over the Sea, which were identified by backward air mass trajectories. In this study, PAN was suggested to be a good indicator of the long range transport of air pollutants.

  4. Jobs in Marine Science. Job Family Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Science Research Associates, Inc., Chicago, IL.

    The instructional booklet explores various occupations in the job family of marine science. Following a brief introduction to the concept of occupational clusters, the student is given an overall orientation to the general area of oceanography and marine-related careers. A shore research station and the activities of a marine biologist are…

  5. Stations Outdoors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madison, John P.; And Others

    1976-01-01

    Described is a program of outdoor education utilizing activity-oriented learning stations. Described are 13 activities including: a pond study, orienteering, nature crafts, outdoor mathematics, linear distance measurement, and area measurement. (SL)

  6. Record of Decision and General Conformity Determination for Realignment of E-2 Squadrons from Marine Corps Air Station (MCAS) Miramar, California

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    Division staff have identified only one existing permit (for abrasive blasting, cleaning, and coating operations) that may require modification to...Residential Wood Combustion: Asphalt Paving: Non-Agricultural Pesticide Use: Paved Road Entrained Dust Industrial Process Fuel Combustion: Industrial...monoxide (average of summer and winter rates) SOx - sulfur oxides PM10 - inhalable partlculate matter (exhaust, tire wear , road dust) Total VMT

  7. 47 CFR 80.514 - Marine VHF frequency coordinating committee(s).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Marine VHF frequency coordinating committee(s... SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Private Coast Stations and Marine Utility Stations § 80.514 Marine VHF frequency coordinating committee(s). This section contains the names...

  8. 47 CFR 80.514 - Marine VHF frequency coordinating committee(s).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Marine VHF frequency coordinating committee(s... SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Private Coast Stations and Marine Utility Stations § 80.514 Marine VHF frequency coordinating committee(s). This section contains the names...

  9. Statistical Analysis of Model Data for Operational Space Launch Weather Support at Kennedy Space Center and Cape Canaveral Air Force Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauman, William H., III

    2010-01-01

    The 12-km resolution North American Mesoscale (NAM) model (MesoNAM) is used by the 45th Weather Squadron (45 WS) Launch Weather Officers at Kennedy Space Center (KSC) and Cape Canaveral Air Force Station (CCAFS) to support space launch weather operations. The 45 WS tasked the Applied Meteorology Unit to conduct an objective statistics-based analysis of MesoNAM output compared to wind tower mesonet observations and then develop a an operational tool to display the results. The National Centers for Environmental Prediction began running the current version of the MesoNAM in mid-August 2006. The period of record for the dataset was 1 September 2006 - 31 January 2010. The AMU evaluated MesoNAM hourly forecasts from 0 to 84 hours based on model initialization times of 00, 06, 12 and 18 UTC. The MesoNAM forecast winds, temperature and dew point were compared to the observed values of these parameters from the sensors in the KSC/CCAFS wind tower network. The data sets were stratified by model initialization time, month and onshore/offshore flow for each wind tower. Statistics computed included bias (mean difference), standard deviation of the bias, root mean square error (RMSE) and a hypothesis test for bias = O. Twelve wind towers located in close proximity to key launch complexes were used for the statistical analysis with the sensors on the towers positioned at varying heights to include 6 ft, 30 ft, 54 ft, 60 ft, 90 ft, 162 ft, 204 ft and 230 ft depending on the launch vehicle and associated weather launch commit criteria being evaluated. These twelve wind towers support activities for the Space Shuttle (launch and landing), Delta IV, Atlas V and Falcon 9 launch vehicles. For all twelve towers, the results indicate a diurnal signal in the bias of temperature (T) and weaker but discernable diurnal signal in the bias of dewpoint temperature (T(sub d)) in the MesoNAM forecasts. Also, the standard deviation of the bias and RMSE of T, T(sub d), wind speed and wind

  10. A portable air-quality station based on thick film gas sensors for real time detection of traces of atmospheric pollutants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fioravanti, A.; Bonanno, A.; Gherardi, S.; Carotta, M. C.; Skouloudis, A. N.

    2016-03-01

    Different functional materials, single or mixed nano-crystalline semiconductor oxides, were synthesized via appropriated wet-chemistry routes. The powders were used to fabricate metal oxide (MOX) thick film gas sensors. Portable monitoring stations based on the aforementioned sensors were prepared, including electronics for acquisition, processing and wireless transmission of the data. Results of long term trials in field, carried out locating few units closely to as many conventional fixed-site monitoring stations, have been reported. The comparison was performed between the temporal evolution of the conductivity changes of the sensors with the pollutants’ concentrations, as measured by the analytical instruments.

  11. Effects of switching to lower sulfur marine fuel oil on air quality in the San Francisco Bay area.

    PubMed

    Tao, Ling; Fairley, David; Kleeman, Michael J; Harley, Robert A

    2013-09-17

    Ocean-going vessels burning high-sulfur heavy fuel oil are an important source of air pollutants, such as sulfur dioxide and particulate matter. Beginning in July 2009, an emission control area was put into effect at ports and along the California coastline, requiring use of lower sulfur fuels in place of heavy fuel oil in main engines of ships. To assess impacts of the fuel changes on air quality at the Port of Oakland and in the surrounding San Francisco Bay area, we analyzed speciated fine particle concentration data from four urban sites and two more remote sites. Measured changes in concentrations of vanadium, a specific marker for heavy fuel oil combustion, are related to overall changes in aerosol emissions from ships. We found a substantial reduction in vanadium concentrations after the fuel change and a 28-72% decrease in SO2 concentrations, with the SO2 decrease varying depending on proximity to shipping lanes. We estimate that the changes in ship fuel reduced ambient PM2.5 mass concentrations at urban sites in the Bay area by about 3.1 ± 0.6% or 0.28 ± 0.05 μg/m(3). The largest contributing factor to lower PM mass concentrations was reductions in particulate sulfate. Absolute sulfate reductions were fairly consistent across sites, whereas trace metal reductions were largest at a monitoring site in West Oakland near the port.

  12. A COMPARISON OF GROUND-LEVEL AIR QUALITY DATA WITH NEW YORK STATE DEPARTMENT OF ENVIRONMENTAL CONSERVATION MONITORING STATIONS DATA IN SOUTH BRONX, NY. (R827351)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The South Bronx is a low-income, minority community in New York City. It has one of the highest asthma rates in the country, which community residents feel is related to poor air quality. Community residents also feel that the air quality data provided by the New York State D...

  13. Port Operational Marine Observing System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palazov, A.; Stefanov, A.; Slabakova, V.; Marinova, V.

    2009-04-01

    The Port Operational Marine Observing System (POMOS) is a network of distributed sensors and centralized data collecting, processing and distributing unit. The system is designed to allow for the real-time assessment of weather and marine conditions throughout the major Bulgarian ports: Varna, Burgas and Balchik, supporting thereby Maritime administration to secure safety navigation in bays, canals and ports. Real-time information within harbors is obtained using various sensors placed at thirteen strategic locations to monitor the current state of the environment. The most important for navigation weather and sea-state parameters are measured: wind speed and direction, air temperature, relative humidity, atmospheric pressure, visibility, solar radiation, water temperature and salinity, sea level, currents speed and direction, mean wave's parameters. The system consist of: 11 weather stations (3 with extra solar radiation and 4 with extra visibility measurement), 9 water temperature and salinity sensors, 9 sea-level stations, two sea currents and waves stations and two canal currents stations. All sensors are connected to communication system which provides direct intranet access to the instruments. Every 15 minutes measured data is transmitted in real-time to the central collecting system, where data is collected, processed and stored in database. Database is triple secured to prevent data losses. Data collection system is double secured. Measuring system is secured against short power failure and instability. Special software is designed to collect, store, process and present environmental data and information on different user-friendly screens. Access to data and information is through internet/intranet with the help of browsers. Actual data from all measurements or from separate measuring place can be displayed on the computer screens as well as data for the last 24 hours. Historical data are available using report server for extracting data for selectable

  14. OBLIQUE VIEW OF FRONT ELEVATION OF MARINE BARRACKS, LOOKING NORTH. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    OBLIQUE VIEW OF FRONT ELEVATION OF MARINE BARRACKS, LOOKING NORTH. - Naval Computer & Telecommunications Area Master Station, Eastern Pacific, Radio Transmitter Facility Lualualei, Marine Barracks, Intersection of Tower Drive & Morse Street, Makaha, Honolulu County, HI

  15. OBLIQUE VIEW OF REAR ELEVATION OF MARINE BARRACKS, LOOKING WEST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    OBLIQUE VIEW OF REAR ELEVATION OF MARINE BARRACKS, LOOKING WEST NORTHWEST. - Naval Computer & Telecommunications Area Master Station, Eastern Pacific, Radio Transmitter Facility Lualualei, Marine Barracks, Intersection of Tower Drive & Morse Street, Makaha, Honolulu County, HI

  16. VIEW OF PARTIAL FRONT ELEVATION OF MARINE BARRACKS, LOOKING NORTHEAST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF PARTIAL FRONT ELEVATION OF MARINE BARRACKS, LOOKING NORTHEAST (with scale stick) - Naval Computer & Telecommunications Area Master Station, Eastern Pacific, Radio Transmitter Facility Lualualei, Marine Barracks, Intersection of Tower Drive & Morse Street, Makaha, Honolulu County, HI

  17. VIEW OF NORTH ELEVATION OF MARINE BARRACKS, LOOKING SOUTHEAST. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF NORTH ELEVATION OF MARINE BARRACKS, LOOKING SOUTHEAST. - Naval Computer & Telecommunications Area Master Station, Eastern Pacific, Radio Transmitter Facility Lualualei, Marine Barracks, Intersection of Tower Drive & Morse Street, Makaha, Honolulu County, HI

  18. VIEW OF SOUTH ELEVATION OF MARINE BARRACKS, LOOKING NORTH NORTHWEST. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF SOUTH ELEVATION OF MARINE BARRACKS, LOOKING NORTH NORTHWEST. - Naval Computer & Telecommunications Area Master Station, Eastern Pacific, Radio Transmitter Facility Lualualei, Marine Barracks, Intersection of Tower Drive & Morse Street, Makaha, Honolulu County, HI

  19. VIEW OF PARTIAL FRONT ELEVATION OF MARINE BARRACKS, LOOKING NORTHEAST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF PARTIAL FRONT ELEVATION OF MARINE BARRACKS, LOOKING NORTHEAST (without scale stick). - Naval Computer & Telecommunications Area Master Station, Eastern Pacific, Radio Transmitter Facility Lualualei, Marine Barracks, Intersection of Tower Drive & Morse Street, Makaha, Honolulu County, HI

  20. Senstitivity analysis of horizontal heat and vapor transfer coefficients for a cloud-topped marine boundary layer during cold-air outbreaks. M.S. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chang, Y. V.

    1986-01-01

    The effects of external parameters on the surface heat and vapor fluxes into the marine atmospheric boundary layer (MABL) during cold-air outbreaks are investigated using the numerical model of Stage and Businger (1981a). These fluxes are nondimensionalized using the horizontal heat (g1) and vapor (g2) transfer coefficient method first suggested by Chou and Atlas (1982) and further formulated by Stage (1983a). In order to simplify the problem, the boundary layer is assumed to be well mixed and horizontally homogeneous, and to have linear shoreline soundings of equivalent potential temperature and mixing ratio. Modifications of initial surface flux estimates, time step limitation, and termination conditions are made to the MABL model to obtain accurate computations. The dependence of g1 and g2 in the cloud topped boundary layer on the external parameters (wind speed, divergence, sea surface temperature, radiative sky temperature, cloud top radiation cooling, and initial shoreline soundings of temperature, and mixing ratio) is studied by a sensitivity analysis, which shows that the uncertainties of horizontal transfer coefficients caused by changes in the parameters are reasonably small.

  1. Drilling and thermal gradient measurements at US Marine Corps Air Ground Combat Center, Twentynine Palms, California. Final report, October 1, 1983-March 31, 1984

    SciTech Connect

    Trexler, D.T.; Flynn, T.; Ghusn, G. Jr.

    1984-01-01

    Seven temperature gradient holes were drilled at the Marine Corps Air Ground Combat Center, Twentynine Palms, California, as part of a cooperative research and development program, jointly funded by the Navy and Department of Energy. The purpose of this program was to assess geothermal resources at selected Department of Defense installations. Drill site selection was based on geophysical anomalies delineated by combined gravity, ground magnetic and aeromagnetic surveys. Temperature gradients ranged from 1.3/sup 0/C/100 m (1/sup 0/F/100 ft.) in hole No. 1 to 15.3/sup 0/C/100 m (8.3/sup 0/F/100 ft.) in temperature gradient hole No. 6. Large, positive geothermal gradients in temperature gradient holes 5 and 6, combined with respective bottom hole temperatures of 51.6/sup 0/C (125/sup 0/F) and 67/sup 0/C (153/sup 0/F), indicate that an extensive, moderate-temperature geothermal resource is located on the MCAGCC. The geothermal reservoir appears to be situated in old, unconsolidated alluvial material and is structurally bounded on the east by the Mesquite Lake fault and on the west by the Surprise Spring fault. If measured temperature gradients continue to increase at the observed rate, temperatures in excess of 80/sup 0/C (178/sup 0/F) can be expected at a depth of 2000 feet.

  2. Assessment of Air Quality in the Shuttle and International Space Station (ISS) Based on Samples Returned by STS-104 at the Conclusion of 7A

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    James, John T.

    2001-01-01

    The toxicological assessment of air samples returned at the end of the STS-l04 (7 A) flight to the ISS is reported. ISS air samples were taken in June and July 2001 from the Service Module, FGB, and U.S. Laboratory using grab sample canisters (GSCs) and/or formaldehyde badges. Preflight and end-of-mission samples were obtained from Atlantis using GSCs. Solid sorbent air sampler (SSAS) samples were obtained from the ISS in April, June, and July. Analytical methods have not changed from earlier reports, and all quality control measures were met.

  3. Subsurface occurrence and potential source areas of chlorinated ethenes identified using concentrations and concentration ratios, Air Force Plant 4 and Naval Air Station-Joint Reserve Base Carswell Field, Fort Worth, Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Garcia, C. Amanda

    2005-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Air Force Aeronautical Systems Center, Environmental Management Directorate, conducted a study during 2003-05 to characterize the subsurface occurrence and identify potential source areas of the volatile organic compounds classified as chlorinated ethenes at U.S. Air Force Plant 4 (AFP4) and adjacent Naval Air Station-Joint Reserve Base Carswell Field (NAS-JRB) at Fort Worth, Texas. The solubilized chlorinated ethenes detected in the alluvial aquifer originated as either released solvents (tetrachloroethene [PCE], trichloroethene [TCE], and trans-1,2-dichloroethene [trans-DCE]) or degradation products of the released solvents (TCE, cis-1,2-dichloroethene [cis-DCE], and trans-DCE). The combined influences of topographic- and bedrock-surface configurations result in a water table that generally slopes away from a ground-water divide approximately coincident with bedrock highs and the 1-mile-long aircraft assembly building at AFP4. Highest TCE concentrations (10,000 to 920,000 micrograms per liter) occur near Building 181, west of Building 12, and at landfill 3. Highest PCE concentrations (500 to 920 micrograms per liter) occur near Buildings 4 and 5. Highest cis-DCE concentrations (5,000 to 710,000 micrograms per liter) occur at landfill 3. Highest trans-DCE concentrations (1,000 to 1,700 micrograms per liter) occur just south of Building 181 and at landfill 3. Ratios of parent-compound to daughter-product concentrations that increase in relatively short distances (tens to 100s of feet) along downgradient ground-water flow paths can indicate a contributing source in the vicinity of the increase. Largest increases in ratio of PCE to TCE concentrations are three orders of magnitude from 0.01 to 2.7 and 7.1 between nearby wells in the northeastern part of NAS-JRB. In the northern part of NAS-JRB, the largest increases in TCE to total DCE concentration ratios relative to ratios at upgradient wells are from 17 to

  4. Evaluation of an Army Aviator’s Ability to Conduct Ingress and Egress of the RAH-66 Comanche Crew Station While Wearing the Air Warrior Ensemble

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-12-01

    lightweight composite airframe struc- tures; protected anti-torque systems; low-vibration, high -reliability rotor systems; reduced radar cross section (RCS...conduct an ingress-egress evaluation using a mock-up that approximates the modified crew stations with a high degree of fidelity. It is important to...testing will address the most extreme operational conditions, which is likely a combination of both cold weather and nuclear-biological- chemical (NBC

  5. Mercury in the marine boundary layer and seawater of the South China Sea: Concentrations, sea/air flux, and implication for land outflow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Xuewu; Feng, Xinbin; Zhang, Gan; Xu, Weihai; Li, Xiangdong; Yao, Hen; Liang, Peng; Li, Jun; Sommar, Jonas; Yin, Runsheng; Liu, Na

    2010-03-01

    Using R/V Shiyan 3 as a sampling platform, measurements of gaseous elemental mercury (GEM), surface seawater total mercury (THg), methyl mercury (MeHg), and dissolved gaseous mercury (DGM) were carried out above and in the South China Sea (SCS). Measurements were collected for 2 weeks (10 to 28 August 2007) during an oceanographic expedition, which circumnavigated the northern SCS from Guangzhou (Canton), Hainan Inland, the Philippines, and back to Guangzhou. GEM concentrations over the northern SCS ranged from 1.04 to 6.75 ng m-3 (mean: 2.62 ng m-3, median: 2.24 ng m-3). The spatial distribution of GEM was characterized by elevated concentrations near the coastal sites adjacent to mainland China and lower concentrations at stations in the open sea. Trajectory analysis revealed that high concentrations of GEM were generally related to air masses from south China and the Indochina peninsula, while lower concentrations of GEM were related to air masses from the open sea area, reflecting great Hg emissions from south China and Indochina peninsula. The mean concentrations of THg, MeHg, and DGM in surface seawater were 1.2 ± 0.3 ng L-1, 0.12 ± 0.05 ng L-1, and 36.5 ± 14.9 pg L-1, respectively. In general, THg and MeHg levels in the northern SCS were higher compared to results reported from most other oceans/seas. Elevated THg levels in the study area were likely attributed to significant Hg delivery from surrounding areas of the SCS primarily via atmospheric deposition and riverine input, whereas other sources like in situ production by various biotic and abiotic processes may be important for MeHg. Average sea/air flux of Hg in the study area was estimated using a gas exchange method (4.5 ± 3.4 ng m-2 h-1). This value was comparable to those from other coastal areas and generally higher than those from open sea environments, which may be attributed to the reemission of Hg previously transported to this area.

  6. Space Station Water Quality

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Willis, Charles E. (Editor)

    1987-01-01

    The manned Space Station will exist as an isolated system for periods of up to 90 days. During this period, safe drinking water and breathable air must be provided for an eight member crew. Because of the large mass involved, it is not practical to consider supplying the Space Station with water from Earth. Therefore, it is necessary to depend upon recycled water to meet both the human and nonhuman water needs on the station. Sources of water that will be recycled include hygiene water, urine, and cabin humidity condensate. A certain amount of fresh water can be produced by CO2 reduction process. Additional fresh water will be introduced into the total pool by way of food, because of the free water contained in food and the water liberated by metabolic oxidation of the food. A panel of scientists and engineers with extensive experience in the various aspects of wastewater reuse was assembled for a 2 day workshop at NASA-Johnson. The panel included individuals with expertise in toxicology, chemistry, microbiology, and sanitary engineering. A review of Space Station water reclamation systems was provided.

  7. University Marine Biological Station Millport Annual Report

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-07-31

    Mr. D. Chevis and Professor J.A. Allen completed their studies on techniques of open-sea culture of mussels and presented their report to the Highland...initiated a series of activities as the first steps in this process. Over the past year we have had regular visits from Miss Ruth Charity and Mr. Mark Murray...287-302. BONEY, A.D. 1986. Seasonal studies on the phytoplankton and prirary production in the inner Firth of Clyde. Proc _ . d 9OB 203- 222. CHEVIS , D

  8. Instruction at the Hopkins Marine Station

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-07-29

    foI homtadcodnaio.. caronavirus nucleocapsid protein. wheat germ bial ~ ~ %~H2A (5), mussel sperm nuclear protein 03 [6), and man chromofsome...wvpi,~Tninev PM"p Johne HiWA~aa Unuw~rsaty &Dio of Medicine, Balw,,.vv, Manh land 21205 The two germ -line- specific Sp histione classes Treatment of...composit conical morphology of the male pronucleus- Mal, pro- serine-proline adjacent to two basic amino acids (lyo hucl*I inhibite’d with I nsMGDMAP

  9. 14. SITE BUILDING 004 ELECTRIC POWER STATION VIEW ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. SITE BUILDING 004 - ELECTRIC POWER STATION - VIEW IS LOOKING NORTH 70 EAST AT SW CORNER OF BUILDING. - Cape Cod Air Station, Technical Facility-Scanner Building & Power Plant, Massachusetts Military Reservation, Sandwich, Barnstable County, MA

  10. 36. SITE BUILDING 004 ELECTRIC POWER STATION CLOSE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    36. SITE BUILDING 004 - ELECTRIC POWER STATION - CLOSE UP VIEW OF 1200 HORSEPOWER STANDBY POWER DIESEL ENGINE/GENERATOR SETS. - Cape Cod Air Station, Technical Facility-Scanner Building & Power Plant, Massachusetts Military Reservation, Sandwich, Barnstable County, MA

  11. 38. SITE BUILDING 004 ELECTRIC POWER STATION AT INTERIOR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    38. SITE BUILDING 004 - ELECTRIC POWER STATION AT INTERIOR - OBLIQUE VIEW AT FLOOR LEVEL SHOWING DIESEL ENGINE/GENERATOR SET NUMBER 5. - Cape Cod Air Station, Technical Facility-Scanner Building & Power Plant, Massachusetts Military Reservation, Sandwich, Barnstable County, MA

  12. 37. SITE BUILDING 004 ELECTRIC POWER STATION ELEVATED ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    37. SITE BUILDING 004 - ELECTRIC POWER STATION - ELEVATED VIEW OF FIVE (5) 1200 HORSEPOWER STANDBY - POWER DIESEL ENGINE/GENERATOR SETS. - Cape Cod Air Station, Technical Facility-Scanner Building & Power Plant, Massachusetts Military Reservation, Sandwich, Barnstable County, MA

  13. 40. VIEW INTO MST CUPOLA FROM STATION 124. DUCT HEATER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    40. VIEW INTO MST CUPOLA FROM STATION 124. DUCT HEATER FOR STATION 135 AT TOP LEFT OF PHOTOGRAPH. - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Pad 3 East, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  14. Credit BG. Interior of Deluge Water Booster Station displaying highcapacity ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Credit BG. Interior of Deluge Water Booster Station displaying high-capacity electrically driven water pumps for fire fighting service - Edwards Air Force Base, North Base, Deluge Water Booster Station, Northeast of A Street, Boron, Kern County, CA

  15. 78 FR 11632 - Record of Decision for Land Acquisition and Airspace Establishment To Support Large-Scale Marine...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-19

    ...-Scale Marine Air Ground Task Force Live- Fire and Maneuver Training at the Marine Corps Air Ground... decision to establish a large-scale Marine Air Ground Task Force (MAGTF) training facility at the Marine... Marine Expeditionary Brigade (MEB)-sized MAGTF, including full-scale MEB Exercises and associated...

  16. 12. VIEW OF OPERATING ROOMRCA COMMUNICATION REC STATION (THIS ROOM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. VIEW OF OPERATING ROOM-RCA COMMUNICATION REC STATION (THIS ROOM WAS ORIGINALLY A MOTOR GENERATOR FACILITY AND SUPPLIED DC POWER TO AN EARLIER GENERATION OF POINT-TO-POINT RECEIVERS ON SECOND FLOOR). VIEW SHOWS TRANSMITTER CONTROL STATION AND AUDIO CONTROL STATION (LEFT, WATKINS-JOHNSON WJ-8718-23. HP RECEIVERS AND KENWOOD R-5000 COMMUNICATIONS RECEIVERS (220 DEGREES). - Marconi Radio Sites, Receiving, Point Reyes Station, Marin County, CA

  17. A lunar space station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trinh, LU; Merrow, Mark; Coons, Russ; Iezzi, Gabrielle; Palarz, Howard M.; Nguyen, Marc H.; Spitzer, Mike; Cubbage, Sam

    1989-01-01

    A concept for a space station to be placed in low lunar orbit in support of the eventual establishment of a permanent moon base is proposed. This space station would have several functions: (1) a complete support facility for the maintenance of the permanent moon base and its population; (2) an orbital docking area to facilitate the ferrying of materials and personnel to and from Earth; (3) a zero gravity factory using lunar raw materials to grow superior GaAs crystals for use in semiconductors and mass produce inexpensive fiber glass; and (4) a space garden for the benefit of the air food cycles. The mission scenario, design requirements, and technology needs and developments are included as part of the proposal.

  18. A lunar space station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trinh, Lu; Merrow, Mark; Coons, Russ; Iezzi, Gabrielle; Palarz, Howard M.; Nguyen, Marc H.; Spitzer, Mike; Cubbage, Sam

    A concept for a space station to be placed in low lunar orbit in support of the eventual establishment of a permanent moon base is proposed. This space station would have several functions: (1) a complete support facility for the maintenance of the permanent moon base and its population; (2) an orbital docking area to facilitate the ferrying of materials and personnel to and from Earth; (3) a zero gravity factory using lunar raw materials to grow superior GaAs crystals for use in semiconductors and mass produce inexpensive fiber glass; and (4) a space garden for the benefit of the air food cycles. The mission scenario, design requirements, and technology needs and developments are included as part of the proposal.

  19. Assessment of Air Quality in the Shuttle and International Space Station (ISS) Based on Samples Returned by STS-102 at the Conclusion of 5A.1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    James, John T.

    2001-01-01

    The toxicological assessment of air samples returned at the end of the STS-102 (5A.1) flight to the ISS is reported. ISS air samples were taken in late February 2001 from the Service Module, FGB, and U.S. Laboratory using grab sample canisters (GSCs) and/or formaldehyde badges . A "first-entry" sample of the multipurpose logistics module (MPLM) atmosphere was taken with a GSC, and preflight and end-of-mission samples were obtained from Discovery using GSCs. Analytical methods have not changed from earlier reports, and all quality control measures were met for the data presented herein. The two general criteria used to assess air quality are the total-non-methane-volatile organic hydrocarbons (NMVOCs) and the total T-value (minus the CO2 contribution). Control of atmospheric alcohols is important to the water recovery system engineers, hence total alcohols were also assessed in each sample. Formaldehyde is quantified separately.

  20. Assessment of Air Quality in the Shuttle and International Space Station (ISS) Based on Samples Returned by STS-105 at the Conclusion of 7A.1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    James, John T.

    2001-01-01

    The toxicological assessment of air samples returned at the end of the STS-105 (7 A.1) flight to the ISS is reported. ISS air samples were taken in August 2001 from the Service Module, FGB, and U.S. Laboratory using grab sample canisters (GSCs) and/or formaldehyde badges. Preflight and end-of-mission samples were obtained from Discovery using GSCs. Analytical methods have not changed from earlier reports, and surrogate standard recoveries were 64-115%. Pressure tracking indicated no leaks in the canisters.