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Sample records for air station ship

  1. 47 CFR 80.1121 - Receipt and acknowledgement of distress alerts by ship stations and ship earth stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... by ship stations and ship earth stations. 80.1121 Section 80.1121 Telecommunication FEDERAL... § 80.1121 Receipt and acknowledgement of distress alerts by ship stations and ship earth stations. (a) Ship or ship earth stations that receive a distress alert must, as soon as possible, inform the...

  2. 47 CFR 80.1121 - Receipt and acknowledgement of distress alerts by ship stations and ship earth stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... by ship stations and ship earth stations. 80.1121 Section 80.1121 Telecommunication FEDERAL... § 80.1121 Receipt and acknowledgement of distress alerts by ship stations and ship earth stations. (a) Ship or ship earth stations that receive a distress alert must, as soon as possible, inform the...

  3. 47 CFR 80.1121 - Receipt and acknowledgement of distress alerts by ship stations and ship earth stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... by ship stations and ship earth stations. 80.1121 Section 80.1121 Telecommunication FEDERAL... § 80.1121 Receipt and acknowledgement of distress alerts by ship stations and ship earth stations. (a) Ship or ship earth stations that receive a distress alert must, as soon as possible, inform the...

  4. 47 CFR 80.1121 - Receipt and acknowledgement of distress alerts by ship stations and ship earth stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... by ship stations and ship earth stations. 80.1121 Section 80.1121 Telecommunication FEDERAL... § 80.1121 Receipt and acknowledgement of distress alerts by ship stations and ship earth stations. (a) Ship or ship earth stations that receive a distress alert must, as soon as possible, inform the...

  5. 47 CFR 80.1121 - Receipt and acknowledgement of distress alerts by ship stations and ship earth stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... by ship stations and ship earth stations. 80.1121 Section 80.1121 Telecommunication FEDERAL... § 80.1121 Receipt and acknowledgement of distress alerts by ship stations and ship earth stations. (a) Ship or ship earth stations that receive a distress alert must, as soon as possible, inform the...

  6. 47 CFR 80.1189 - Portable ship earth stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Portable ship earth stations. 80.1189 Section....1189 Portable ship earth stations. (a) Portable ship earth stations are authorized to operate on board more than one ship. Portable ship earth stations are also authorized to be operated on board...

  7. 47 CFR 80.1189 - Portable ship earth stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Portable ship earth stations. 80.1189 Section....1189 Portable ship earth stations. (a) Portable ship earth stations are authorized to operate on board more than one ship. Portable ship earth stations are also authorized to be operated on board...

  8. 47 CFR 80.1189 - Portable ship earth stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Portable ship earth stations. 80.1189 Section....1189 Portable ship earth stations. (a) Portable ship earth stations are authorized to operate on board more than one ship. Portable ship earth stations are also authorized to be operated on board...

  9. 47 CFR 80.1189 - Portable ship earth stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Portable ship earth stations. 80.1189 Section....1189 Portable ship earth stations. (a) Portable ship earth stations are authorized to operate on board more than one ship. Portable ship earth stations are also authorized to be operated on board...

  10. 47 CFR 80.1189 - Portable ship earth stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Portable ship earth stations. 80.1189 Section....1189 Portable ship earth stations. (a) Portable ship earth stations are authorized to operate on board more than one ship. Portable ship earth stations are also authorized to be operated on board...

  11. 47 CFR 80.141 - General provisions for ship stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false General provisions for ship stations. 80.141... SERVICES STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Operating Requirements and Procedures Special Procedures-Ship Stations § 80.141 General provisions for ship stations. (a) Points of communication. Ship stations...

  12. 47 CFR 80.141 - General provisions for ship stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false General provisions for ship stations. 80.141... SERVICES STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Operating Requirements and Procedures Special Procedures-Ship Stations § 80.141 General provisions for ship stations. (a) Points of communication. Ship stations...

  13. 47 CFR 80.141 - General provisions for ship stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false General provisions for ship stations. 80.141... SERVICES STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Operating Requirements and Procedures Special Procedures-Ship Stations § 80.141 General provisions for ship stations. (a) Points of communication. Ship stations...

  14. 47 CFR 80.141 - General provisions for ship stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false General provisions for ship stations. 80.141... SERVICES STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Operating Requirements and Procedures Special Procedures-Ship Stations § 80.141 General provisions for ship stations. (a) Points of communication. Ship stations...

  15. 47 CFR 80.141 - General provisions for ship stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false General provisions for ship stations. 80.141... SERVICES STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Operating Requirements and Procedures Special Procedures-Ship Stations § 80.141 General provisions for ship stations. (a) Points of communication. Ship stations...

  16. Global Fleet Station: Station Ship Concept

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-02-01

    The SWBS 200 breakdown is shown below: Table 9 - SWBS 200 Weights Summary Group Description Weight (mt) 210 ENERGY GEN SYS (NUCLEAR) 0 220... ENERGY GENERATING SYSTEM (see SWBS 310) 230 PROPULSION UNITS 226.6 240 TRANSMISSION+PROPULSOR SYSTEMS 0.0 250 SUPPORT SYSTEMS 77.9 260 PROPUL SUP SYS...frequency of the ship roll motions in beam seas. It can be seen from Figure 16 that the peak roll RAO occurs at 0.7 rad./s or an 8.5 second wave period

  17. 47 CFR 80.80 - Operating controls for ship stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Operating controls for ship stations. 80.80... SERVICES STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Operating Requirements and Procedures Station Requirements-Ship Stations § 80.80 Operating controls for ship stations. (a) Each control point must be capable of:...

  18. 47 CFR 80.80 - Operating controls for ship stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Operating controls for ship stations. 80.80... SERVICES STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Operating Requirements and Procedures Station Requirements-Ship Stations § 80.80 Operating controls for ship stations. (a) Each control point must be capable of:...

  19. 47 CFR 80.80 - Operating controls for ship stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Operating controls for ship stations. 80.80... SERVICES STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Operating Requirements and Procedures Station Requirements-Ship Stations § 80.80 Operating controls for ship stations. (a) Each control point must be capable of:...

  20. 47 CFR 80.80 - Operating controls for ship stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Operating controls for ship stations. 80.80... SERVICES STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Operating Requirements and Procedures Station Requirements-Ship Stations § 80.80 Operating controls for ship stations. (a) Each control point must be capable of:...

  1. 47 CFR 80.80 - Operating controls for ship stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Operating controls for ship stations. 80.80... SERVICES STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Operating Requirements and Procedures Station Requirements-Ship Stations § 80.80 Operating controls for ship stations. (a) Each control point must be capable of:...

  2. 47 CFR 80.81 - Antenna requirements for ship stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Antenna requirements for ship stations. 80.81 Section 80.81 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO... Stations § 80.81 Antenna requirements for ship stations. All telephony emissions of a ship station or...

  3. 47 CFR 80.81 - Antenna requirements for ship stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Antenna requirements for ship stations. 80.81 Section 80.81 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO... Stations § 80.81 Antenna requirements for ship stations. All telephony emissions of a ship station or...

  4. 47 CFR 80.81 - Antenna requirements for ship stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Antenna requirements for ship stations. 80.81 Section 80.81 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO... Stations § 80.81 Antenna requirements for ship stations. All telephony emissions of a ship station or...

  5. 47 CFR 80.81 - Antenna requirements for ship stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Antenna requirements for ship stations. 80.81 Section 80.81 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO... Stations § 80.81 Antenna requirements for ship stations. All telephony emissions of a ship station or...

  6. 47 CFR 80.81 - Antenna requirements for ship stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Antenna requirements for ship stations. 80.81 Section 80.81 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO... Stations § 80.81 Antenna requirements for ship stations. All telephony emissions of a ship station or...

  7. 47 CFR 80.377 - Frequencies for ship earth stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Frequencies for ship earth stations. 80.377... SERVICES STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Frequencies Ship Earth Stations § 80.377 Frequencies for ship earth stations. The frequency band 1626.5-1645.5 MHz is assignable for communication,...

  8. 47 CFR 80.51 - Ship earth station licensing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Ship earth station licensing. 80.51 Section 80... STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Applications and Licenses § 80.51 Ship earth station licensing. A ship earth station must display the Commission license....

  9. 47 CFR 80.155 - Ship station operator requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Ship station operator requirements. 80.155... SERVICES STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Operator Requirements Ship Station Operator Requirements § 80.155 Ship station operator requirements. Except as provided in §§ 80.177 and 80.179, operation...

  10. 47 CFR 80.155 - Ship station operator requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Ship station operator requirements. 80.155... SERVICES STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Operator Requirements Ship Station Operator Requirements § 80.155 Ship station operator requirements. Except as provided in §§ 80.177 and 80.179, operation...

  11. 47 CFR 80.155 - Ship station operator requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Ship station operator requirements. 80.155... SERVICES STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Operator Requirements Ship Station Operator Requirements § 80.155 Ship station operator requirements. Except as provided in §§ 80.177 and 80.179, operation...

  12. 47 CFR 80.155 - Ship station operator requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Ship station operator requirements. 80.155... SERVICES STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Operator Requirements Ship Station Operator Requirements § 80.155 Ship station operator requirements. Except as provided in §§ 80.177 and 80.179, operation...

  13. 47 CFR 80.377 - Frequencies for ship earth stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Frequencies for ship earth stations. 80.377... SERVICES STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Frequencies Ship Earth Stations § 80.377 Frequencies for ship earth stations. The frequency band 1626.5-1645.5 MHz is assignable for communication operations...

  14. 47 CFR 80.51 - Ship earth station licensing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Ship earth station licensing. 80.51 Section 80... STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Applications and Licenses § 80.51 Ship earth station licensing. A ship earth station must display the Commission license....

  15. 47 CFR 80.377 - Frequencies for ship earth stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Frequencies for ship earth stations. 80.377... SERVICES STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Frequencies Ship Earth Stations § 80.377 Frequencies for ship earth stations. The frequency band 1626.5-1645.5 MHz is assignable for communication,...

  16. 47 CFR 80.51 - Ship earth station licensing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Ship earth station licensing. 80.51 Section 80... STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Applications and Licenses § 80.51 Ship earth station licensing. A ship earth station must display the Commission license....

  17. 47 CFR 80.51 - Ship earth station licensing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Ship earth station licensing. 80.51 Section 80... STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Applications and Licenses § 80.51 Ship earth station licensing. A ship earth station must display the Commission license....

  18. 47 CFR 80.51 - Ship earth station licensing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Ship earth station licensing. 80.51 Section 80... STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Applications and Licenses § 80.51 Ship earth station licensing. A ship earth station must display the Commission license....

  19. 47 CFR 80.377 - Frequencies for ship earth stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Frequencies for ship earth stations. 80.377... SERVICES STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Frequencies Ship Earth Stations § 80.377 Frequencies for ship earth stations. The frequency band 1626.5-1645.5 MHz is assignable for communication operations...

  20. 47 CFR 80.377 - Frequencies for ship earth stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Frequencies for ship earth stations. 80.377... SERVICES STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Frequencies Ship Earth Stations § 80.377 Frequencies for ship earth stations. The frequency band 1626.5-1645.5 MHz is assignable for communication,...

  1. 47 CFR 80.1123 - Watch requirements for ship stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Watch requirements for ship stations. 80.1123... Procedures for Distress and Safety Communications § 80.1123 Watch requirements for ship stations. (a) While at sea, all ships must maintain a continuous watch: (1) On VHF DSC channel 70, if the ship is...

  2. 47 CFR 80.1123 - Watch requirements for ship stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Watch requirements for ship stations. 80.1123... Procedures for Distress and Safety Communications § 80.1123 Watch requirements for ship stations. (a) While at sea, all ships must maintain a continuous watch: (1) On VHF DSC channel 70, if the ship is...

  3. 47 CFR 80.1123 - Watch requirements for ship stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Watch requirements for ship stations. 80.1123... Procedures for Distress and Safety Communications § 80.1123 Watch requirements for ship stations. (a) While at sea, all ships must maintain a continuous watch: (1) On VHF DSC channel 70, if the ship is...

  4. 47 CFR 80.1123 - Watch requirements for ship stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Watch requirements for ship stations. 80.1123... Procedures for Distress and Safety Communications § 80.1123 Watch requirements for ship stations. (a) While at sea, all ships must maintain a continuous watch: (1) On VHF DSC channel 70, if the ship is...

  5. 47 CFR 80.1123 - Watch requirements for ship stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Watch requirements for ship stations. 80.1123... Procedures for Distress and Safety Communications § 80.1123 Watch requirements for ship stations. (a) While at sea, all ships must maintain a continuous watch: (1) On VHF DSC channel 70, if the ship is...

  6. 47 CFR 97.11 - Stations aboard ships or aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Stations aboard ships or aircraft. 97.11... SERVICES AMATEUR RADIO SERVICE General Provisions § 97.11 Stations aboard ships or aircraft. (a) The installation and operation of an amateur station on a ship or aircraft must be approved by the master of...

  7. 47 CFR 97.11 - Stations aboard ships or aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Stations aboard ships or aircraft. 97.11... SERVICES AMATEUR RADIO SERVICE General Provisions § 97.11 Stations aboard ships or aircraft. (a) The installation and operation of an amateur station on a ship or aircraft must be approved by the master of...

  8. 47 CFR 97.11 - Stations aboard ships or aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Stations aboard ships or aircraft. 97.11... SERVICES AMATEUR RADIO SERVICE General Provisions § 97.11 Stations aboard ships or aircraft. (a) The installation and operation of an amateur station on a ship or aircraft must be approved by the master of...

  9. 47 CFR 97.11 - Stations aboard ships or aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Stations aboard ships or aircraft. 97.11... SERVICES AMATEUR RADIO SERVICE General Provisions § 97.11 Stations aboard ships or aircraft. (a) The installation and operation of an amateur station on a ship or aircraft must be approved by the master of...

  10. 47 CFR 97.11 - Stations aboard ships or aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Stations aboard ships or aircraft. 97.11... SERVICES AMATEUR RADIO SERVICE General Provisions § 97.11 Stations aboard ships or aircraft. (a) The installation and operation of an amateur station on a ship or aircraft must be approved by the master of...

  11. 47 CFR 80.881 - Equipment requirements for ship stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Equipment requirements for ship stations. 80.881 Section 80.881 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL... Subject to Subpart W § 80.881 Equipment requirements for ship stations. Vessels subject to subpart R...

  12. 47 CFR 80.881 - Equipment requirements for ship stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Equipment requirements for ship stations. 80.881 Section 80.881 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL... Subject to Subpart W § 80.881 Equipment requirements for ship stations. Vessels subject to subpart R...

  13. 47 CFR 80.881 - Equipment requirements for ship stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Equipment requirements for ship stations. 80.881 Section 80.881 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL... Subject to Subpart W § 80.881 Equipment requirements for ship stations. Vessels subject to subpart R...

  14. 47 CFR 80.881 - Equipment requirements for ship stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Equipment requirements for ship stations. 80.881 Section 80.881 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL... Subject to Subpart W § 80.881 Equipment requirements for ship stations. Vessels subject to subpart R...

  15. 47 CFR 80.881 - Equipment requirements for ship stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Equipment requirements for ship stations. 80.881 Section 80.881 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL... Subject to Subpart W § 80.881 Equipment requirements for ship stations. Vessels subject to subpart R...

  16. 47 CFR 80.155 - Ship station operator requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... transmitters of any ship station must be performed by a person holding a commercial radio operator license or... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Ship station operator requirements. 80.155 Section 80.155 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL...

  17. Ship and Installation Program: Optimal Stationing of Naval Ships

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-06-01

    calculate their CGE value [ Keenan 2004]. These instructions are subject to interpretation, and therefore could lead to inconsistencies between the...a specific pier space requirement given in CGEs, as indicated in Table 1.3 [ Keenan 2004]. SHIP allows individual ships to be moved between...complex 0.686 12. Relative Pierside Crane Lift Capability 1.671 13. Relative value of specialized security / emergency services capabilities

  18. 47 CFR 80.116 - Radiotelephone operating procedures for ship stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Radiotelephone operating procedures for ship... Procedures-Ship Stations § 80.116 Radiotelephone operating procedures for ship stations. (a) Calling coast stations. (1) Use by ship stations of the frequency 2182 kHz for calling coast stations and for replying...

  19. 47 CFR 80.116 - Radiotelephone operating procedures for ship stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Radiotelephone operating procedures for ship... Procedures-Ship Stations § 80.116 Radiotelephone operating procedures for ship stations. (a) Calling coast stations. (1) Use by ship stations of the frequency 2182 kHz for calling coast stations and for replying...

  20. 47 CFR 80.116 - Radiotelephone operating procedures for ship stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Radiotelephone operating procedures for ship... Procedures-Ship Stations § 80.116 Radiotelephone operating procedures for ship stations. (a) Calling coast stations. (1) Use by ship stations of the frequency 2182 kHz for calling coast stations and for replying...

  1. 47 CFR 80.116 - Radiotelephone operating procedures for ship stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Radiotelephone operating procedures for ship... Procedures-Ship Stations § 80.116 Radiotelephone operating procedures for ship stations. (a) Calling coast stations. (1) Use by ship stations of the frequency 2182 kHz for calling coast stations and for replying...

  2. 47 CFR 80.116 - Radiotelephone operating procedures for ship stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Radiotelephone operating procedures for ship... Procedures-Ship Stations § 80.116 Radiotelephone operating procedures for ship stations. (a) Calling coast stations. (1) Use by ship stations of the frequency 2182 kHz for calling coast stations and for replying...

  3. Air pollution from ships over Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    -Eleni Sotiropoulou, Rafaella; Tagaris, Efthimios

    2016-04-01

    Shipping sector is a large and growing source of emissions. Large quantities of nitrogen oxides (NOX) and sulphur dioxide (SO2) are emitted from ships affecting the chemical composition of the atmosphere in coastal areas. Changes of the world fleet over the past decades suggest a continuously increasing trend of the shipping emissions. Therefore, shipping emissions may partly offset the benefits from the reduction of anthropogenic emissions over land. The objective of this study is to assess the impact of shipping emissions on air quality degradation over Europe for a winter (January 2006) and a summer month (July 2006) using CMAQ modeling system and the TNO anthropogenic emission inventory for 2006. Results suggest that shipping emissions increase NO2 and SO2 mixing ratios more than 90% over the sea and close to the coastline, locally. Ship induced ozone contribution to total surface ozone exceeds 5% over the sea and near the coastline during the summer month. The largest impact is simulated over the Mediterranean Sea. Ship traffic emissions are estimated to increase PM2.5 concentration during winter up to 40% over the Mediterranean Sea while during summer an increase more than 50% is simulated over the sea.

  4. Siting Air Monitoring Stations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ludwig, F. L.

    1978-01-01

    Describes guidelines for consideration in selecting sites for air monitoring systems. Careful selection for spatial scale and specific sources assures that the collected data are accurately representing the situation. (Author/MA)

  5. 47 CFR 80.1201 - Special provisions for cable-repair ship stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Special provisions for cable-repair ship... Radiodetermination § 80.1201 Special provisions for cable-repair ship stations. (a) A ship station may be authorized... equipment attached to the cable-marker buoy associated with the ship station must be described in...

  6. 47 CFR 80.1201 - Special provisions for cable-repair ship stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Special provisions for cable-repair ship... Radiodetermination § 80.1201 Special provisions for cable-repair ship stations. (a) A ship station may be authorized... equipment attached to the cable-marker buoy associated with the ship station must be described in...

  7. 47 CFR 80.1201 - Special provisions for cable-repair ship stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Special provisions for cable-repair ship... Radiodetermination § 80.1201 Special provisions for cable-repair ship stations. (a) A ship station may be authorized... equipment attached to the cable-marker buoy associated with the ship station must be described in...

  8. 47 CFR 80.1201 - Special provisions for cable-repair ship stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Special provisions for cable-repair ship... Radiodetermination § 80.1201 Special provisions for cable-repair ship stations. (a) A ship station may be authorized... equipment attached to the cable-marker buoy associated with the ship station must be described in...

  9. 47 CFR 80.1201 - Special provisions for cable-repair ship stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Special provisions for cable-repair ship... Radiodetermination § 80.1201 Special provisions for cable-repair ship stations. (a) A ship station may be authorized... equipment attached to the cable-marker buoy associated with the ship station must be described in...

  10. STATION BUILDING. United Engineering Company Ltd., Alameda Shipyard, Ship Repair ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    STATION BUILDING. United Engineering Company Ltd., Alameda Shipyard, Ship Repair Facilities. Plan, elevations, sections, details. Austin Willmott Earl, Consulting Engineer, 233 Sansome Street, San Francisco, California. Drawing no. 504. Various scales. January 20, 1945, no revisions. U.S. Navy, Bureau of Yards & Docks, Contract no. bs 76, amendments 4 & 5. blueprint - United Engineering Company Shipyard, Electrical Services & Switching Station, 2900 Main Street, Alameda, Alameda County, CA

  11. 47 CFR 80.867 - Ship station tools, instruction books, circuit diagrams and testing equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Ship station tools, instruction books, circuit... Requirements for Cargo Vessels Not Subject to Subpart W § 80.867 Ship station tools, instruction books, circuit diagrams and testing equipment. (a) Each ship station must be provided with such tools, testing...

  12. 47 CFR 80.1073 - Radio operator requirements for ship stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Radio operator requirements for ship stations... SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Global Maritime Distress and Safety System (GMDSS) General Provisions § 80.1073 Radio operator requirements for ship stations. (a) Ships must carry at...

  13. 47 CFR 80.1073 - Radio operator requirements for ship stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Radio operator requirements for ship stations... SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Global Maritime Distress and Safety System (GMDSS) General Provisions § 80.1073 Radio operator requirements for ship stations. (a) Ships must carry at...

  14. 47 CFR 80.1073 - Radio operator requirements for ship stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Radio operator requirements for ship stations... SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Global Maritime Distress and Safety System (GMDSS) General Provisions § 80.1073 Radio operator requirements for ship stations. (a) Ships must carry at...

  15. 47 CFR 80.1073 - Radio operator requirements for ship stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Radio operator requirements for ship stations... SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Global Maritime Distress and Safety System (GMDSS) General Provisions § 80.1073 Radio operator requirements for ship stations. (a) Ships must carry at...

  16. 47 CFR 80.1073 - Radio operator requirements for ship stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Radio operator requirements for ship stations... SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Global Maritime Distress and Safety System (GMDSS) General Provisions § 80.1073 Radio operator requirements for ship stations. (a) Ships must carry at...

  17. 47 CFR 80.53 - Application for a portable ship station license.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Application for a portable ship station license... a portable ship station license. The Commission may grant a license permitting operation of a portable ship station aboard different vessels of the United States....

  18. 47 CFR 80.53 - Application for a portable ship station license.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Application for a portable ship station license... a portable ship station license. The Commission may grant a license permitting operation of a portable ship station aboard different vessels of the United States....

  19. 47 CFR 80.53 - Application for a portable ship station license.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Application for a portable ship station license... a portable ship station license. The Commission may grant a license permitting operation of a portable ship station aboard different vessels of the United States....

  20. 47 CFR 80.53 - Application for a portable ship station license.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Application for a portable ship station license... a portable ship station license. The Commission may grant a license permitting operation of a portable ship station aboard different vessels of the United States....

  1. 47 CFR 80.53 - Application for a portable ship station license.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Application for a portable ship station license... a portable ship station license. The Commission may grant a license permitting operation of a portable ship station aboard different vessels of the United States....

  2. Extended Edited Synoptic Cloud Reports from Ships and Land Stations Over the Globe, 1952-1996

    SciTech Connect

    Hahn, C.J.; Warren, S.G.

    1999-08-01

    Surface synoptic weather reports for the entire globe, gathered from various available data sets, were processed, edited, and rewritten to provide a single data set of individual observations of clouds, spanning the 44 years 1952-1995 for ship data and the 26 years 1971-1996 for land station data. In addition to the cloud portion of the synoptic report, each edited report also includes the associated pressure, present weather, wind, air temperature, and dew point (and sea surface temperature over oceans).

  3. Cheyenne Mountain Air Force Station NPDES Permit

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Under NPDES permit CO-0034762, the Cheyenne Mountain Air Force Station is authorized to discharge from the interior storm drainage system and air exhaust stacks at the Cheyenne Mountain Complex, in El Paso County, Colorado, to tributaries Fountain Creek.

  4. 47 CFR 80.867 - Ship station tools, instruction books, circuit diagrams and testing equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Ship station tools, instruction books, circuit... Requirements for Cargo Vessels Not Subject to Subpart W § 80.867 Ship station tools, instruction books, circuit..., instruction books and circuit diagrams to enable the radiotelephone installation to be maintained in...

  5. 47 CFR 80.867 - Ship station tools, instruction books, circuit diagrams and testing equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Ship station tools, instruction books, circuit... Requirements for Cargo Vessels Not Subject to Subpart W § 80.867 Ship station tools, instruction books, circuit..., instruction books and circuit diagrams to enable the radiotelephone installation to be maintained in...

  6. 47 CFR 80.867 - Ship station tools, instruction books, circuit diagrams and testing equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Ship station tools, instruction books, circuit... Requirements for Cargo Vessels Not Subject to Subpart W § 80.867 Ship station tools, instruction books, circuit..., instruction books and circuit diagrams to enable the radiotelephone installation to be maintained in...

  7. 47 CFR 80.867 - Ship station tools, instruction books, circuit diagrams and testing equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Ship station tools, instruction books, circuit... Requirements for Cargo Vessels Not Subject to Subpart W § 80.867 Ship station tools, instruction books, circuit..., instruction books and circuit diagrams to enable the radiotelephone installation to be maintained in...

  8. Reevaluation of air surveillance station siting

    SciTech Connect

    Abbott, K.; Jannik, T.

    2016-07-06

    DOE Technical Standard HDBK-1216-2015 (DOE 2015) recommends evaluating air-monitoring station placement using the analytical method developed by Waite. The technique utilizes wind rose and population distribution data in order to determine a weighting factor for each directional sector surrounding a nuclear facility. Based on the available resources (number of stations) and a scaling factor, this weighting factor is used to determine the number of stations recommended to be placed in each sector considered. An assessment utilizing this method was performed in 2003 to evaluate the effectiveness of the existing SRS air-monitoring program. The resulting recommended distribution of air-monitoring stations was then compared to that of the existing site perimeter surveillance program. The assessment demonstrated that the distribution of air-monitoring stations at the time generally agreed with the results obtained using the Waite method; however, at the time new stations were established in Barnwell and in Williston in order to meet requirements of DOE guidance document EH-0173T.

  9. 44. CAPE COD AIR STATION PAVE PAWS FACILITY BUILDING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    44. CAPE COD AIR STATION PAVE PAWS FACILITY - BUILDING ELEVATION WITH BUILDING METAL SIDING BEING APPLIED ON "B" FACE. - Cape Cod Air Station, Technical Facility-Scanner Building & Power Plant, Massachusetts Military Reservation, Sandwich, Barnstable County, MA

  10. LTA - Recent developments. [Lighter Than Air ships

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mayer, N. J.

    1977-01-01

    NASA-sponsored studies of existing and new LTA missions showed that airships looked very promising for some two dozen civil and military applications. These include surveillance of rural and urban areas, in the form of forest and police patrols; transport of very heavy large-volume maritime, industrial, and military payloads; coastal patrol and sea control; seismographic surveys; air pollution monitoring; and moving goods to remote areas; along with a number of less important but still attractive missions. A figure of merit of productivity (payload weight, ton moles per hour) was used to compare airships of various type and size. In each case, this criterion established an index of efficiency for evaluating not only conceptual approaches but also modes of flight. Some, in part unexpected, results of these studies are described.

  11. Impact of a European directive on ship emissions on air quality in Mediterranean harbours

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schembari, Clara; Cavalli, Fabrizia; Cuccia, Eleonora; Hjorth, Jens; Calzolai, Giulia; Pérez, Noemi; Pey, Jorge; Prati, Paolo; Raes, Frank

    2012-12-01

    Ships have been found to be major sources of air pollution in harbours. However, from January 1, 2010, a European Union directive requires that all ships at berth or anchorage in European harbours use fuels with a sulphur content of less than 0.1% by weight while previously, outside of Sulphur Emission Control Areas, up to 4.5% were allowed. The impact of this directive on air quality in some Mediterranean harbours was investigated based on observations made from August to October 2009 and 2010 at a monitoring station placed on a cruise ship, Costa Pacifica, following a fixed weekly route in the Western Mediterranean. The concentrations of SO2 were found to decrease significantly from 2009 to 2010 in three out of the four EU harbours; the average decrease of the daily mean concentrations in the different harbours was 66%. The decrease of SO2 was not statistically significant in the harbour of Barcelona because of large day-to-day variations, however measurements from monitoring stations in the harbour zone of Barcelona as well as downwind of the harbour of Palma de Mallorca confirm a strong decrease in the SO2 concentrations from 2009 to 2010. No decrease was observed in the non-EU harbour of Tunis. Neither NOx nor BC concentrations showed significant changes in any of the harbours.

  12. Solar Powered Radioactive Air Monitoring Stations

    SciTech Connect

    Barnett, J. Matthew; Bisping, Lynn E.; Gervais, Todd L.

    2013-10-30

    Environmental monitoring of ambient air for radioactive material is required as stipulated in the PNNL Site radioactive air license. Sampling ambient air at identified preferred locations could not be initially accomplished because utilities were not readily available. Therefore, solar powered environmental monitoring systems were considered as a possible option. PNNL purchased two 24-V DC solar powered environmental monitoring systems which consisted of solar panels, battery banks, and sampling units. During an approximate four month performance evaluation period, the solar stations operated satisfactorily at an on-site test location. They were subsequently relocated to their preferred locations in June 2012 where they continue to function adequately under the conditions found in Richland, Washington.

  13. Aerial view of construction of both LTA ship hangars (looking ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Aerial view of construction of both LTA ship hangars (looking north) circa 1942. - Marine Corps Air Station Tustin, Northern Lighter Than Air Ship Hangar, Meffett Avenue & Maxfield Street, Tustin, Orange County, CA

  14. Aerial view of reroofing of northern LTA ship hangar, circa ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Aerial view of re-roofing of northern LTA ship hangar, circa 1957. - Marine Corps Air Station Tustin, Northern Lighter Than Air Ship Hangar, Meffett Avenue & Maxfield Street, Tustin, Orange County, CA

  15. Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Launch Complex 39, Solid Rocket ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Launch Complex 39, Solid Rocket Booster Disassembly & Refurbishment Complex, Thrust Vector Control Deservicing Facility, Hangar Road, Cape Canaveral, Brevard County, FL

  16. Air quality monitoring in communities of the Canadian Arctic during the high shipping season with a focus on local and marine pollution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aliabadi, A. A.; Staebler, R. M.; Sharma, S.

    2014-11-01

    The Canadian Arctic has experienced decreasing sea ice extent and increasing shipping activity in the recent decades. While there are economic incentives to develop resources in the North, there are environmental concerns that increasing marine traffic will contribute to declining air quality in Northern communities. In an effort to characterize the relative impact of shipping on air quality in the North, two monitoring stations have been installed in Cape Dorset and Resolute, Nunavut, and have been operational since 1 June 2013. The impact of shipping and other sources of emissions on NOx, O3, SO2, BC, and PM2.5 pollution have been characterized for the 2013 shipping season from 1 June to 1 November. In addition, a high resolution Air Quality Health Index (AQHI) for both sites was computed. Shipping consistently increased O3 mixing ratio and PM2.5 concentration. The 90% confidence interval for mean difference in O3 mixing ratio between ship and no ship-influenced air masses were up to 4.6-4.7 ppb and 2.5-2.7 ppb for Cape Dorset and Resolute, respectively. The same intervals for PM2.5 concentrations were up to 1.8-1.9 μg m-3 and 0.5-0.6 μg m-3. Ship-influenced air masses consistently exhibited degraded air quality by an increase of 0.1 to 0.3 in the high resolution AQHI compared to no ship-influenced air masses. Trajectory cluster analysis in combination with ship traffic tracking provided an estimated range for percent ship contribution to NOx, O3, SO2, and PM2.5 that were 12.9-17.5%, 16.2-18.1%, 16.9-18.3%, and 19.5-31.7% for Cape Dorset and 1.0-7.2%, 2.9-4.8%, 5.5-10.0%, and 6.5-7.2% for Resolute during the 2013 shipping season. Additional measurements in Resolute suggested that percent ship contribution to black carbon was 4.3-9.8% and that black carbon constituted 1.3-9.7% of total PM2.5 mass in ship plumes. Continued air quality monitoring in the above sites for future shipping seasons will improve the statistics in our analysis as well as characterize

  17. 47. CAPE COD AIR STATION PAVE PAWS FACILITY AERIAL VIEW ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    47. CAPE COD AIR STATION PAVE PAWS FACILITY AERIAL VIEW OF "A" FACE (LEFT) WITH CLEANING SYSTEM INSTALLED (NOW REMOVED) AND "B" FACE (RIGHT) WITH CONSTRUCTION CRANE IN USE. - Cape Cod Air Station, Technical Facility-Scanner Building & Power Plant, Massachusetts Military Reservation, Sandwich, Barnstable County, MA

  18. 46. CAPE COD AIR STATION PAVE PAWS FACILITY BUILDING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    46. CAPE COD AIR STATION PAVE PAWS FACILITY - BUILDING ELEVATION VIEW WITH ALL METAL SIDING INSTALLED AND WITH EMITTER/ANTENNA ARRAY SYSTEM NEARING OCMPLETION ON "B" FACE (RIGHT). VIEW ALSO SHOWS TRAVELING "CLEANING" SYSTEM ON "B" FACE - NOW REMOVED. - Cape Cod Air Station, Technical Facility-Scanner Building & Power Plant, Massachusetts Military Reservation, Sandwich, Barnstable County, MA

  19. 17. CAPE COD AIR STATION PAVE PAWS FACILITY AERIAL VIEW ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. CAPE COD AIR STATION PAVE PAWS FACILITY AERIAL VIEW WITH PROJECT NEARING COMPLETION. VIEW SHOWS "A" FACE (LEFT) AND "B" FACE OF RADAR ARRAY SYSTEM. NOTE THAT NORTH IS GENERALLY TO RIGHT OF VIEW. - Cape Cod Air Station, Massachusetts Military Reservation, Sandwich, Barnstable County, MA

  20. 42. CAPE COD AIR STATION PAVE PAWS FACILITY SHOWING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    42. CAPE COD AIR STATION PAVE PAWS FACILITY - SHOWING BUILDING "RED IRON" STEEL STRUCTURE AT 46T DAY OF STEEL CONSTRUCTION. "BUILDING TOPPED OFF, 7 JULY, 1974. - Cape Cod Air Station, Technical Facility-Scanner Building & Power Plant, Massachusetts Military Reservation, Sandwich, Barnstable County, MA

  1. 43. CAPE COD AIR STATION PAVE PAWS FACILITY WITH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    43. CAPE COD AIR STATION PAVE PAWS FACILITY - WITH BUILDING METAL SIDING BEING APPLIED ON "C" FACE (RIGHT) AND "B" FACE BEING PREPARED FOR INSTALLATION. - Cape Cod Air Station, Technical Facility-Scanner Building & Power Plant, Massachusetts Military Reservation, Sandwich, Barnstable County, MA

  2. 45. CAPE COD AIR STATION PAVE PAWS FACILITY BUILDING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    45. CAPE COD AIR STATION PAVE PAWS FACILITY - BUILDING ELEVATION VIEW WITH BUILDING METAL SIDING BEING APPLIED ON "A" FACE (LEFT) AND "B" FACE (RIGHT). NOTE THAT NORTH IS GENERALLY TO RIGHT OF VIEW. - Cape Cod Air Station, Technical Facility-Scanner Building & Power Plant, Massachusetts Military Reservation, Sandwich, Barnstable County, MA

  3. 2. AERIAL VIEW TO SOUTHEAST OF COAST GUARD AIR STATION ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. AERIAL VIEW TO SOUTHEAST OF COAST GUARD AIR STATION SAN FRANCISCO, SHOWING ALL MAJOR BUILDINGS. 8X10 black and white silver gelatin print. United States Coast Guard, February 1962. - U.S. Coast Guard Air Station San Francisco, 1020 North Access Road, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  4. 1. AERIAL VIEW TO WEST OF COAST GUARD AIR STATION ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. AERIAL VIEW TO WEST OF COAST GUARD AIR STATION SAN FRANCISCO, SHOWING ALL MAJOR BUILDINGS. 8X10 black and white silver gelatin print. United States Coast Guard, February 1962. - U.S. Coast Guard Air Station San Francisco, 1020 North Access Road, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  5. Air quality monitoring in communities of the Canadian Arctic during the high shipping season with a focus on local and marine pollution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aliabadi, A. A.; Staebler, R. M.; Sharma, S.

    2015-03-01

    The Canadian Arctic has experienced decreasing sea ice extent and increasing shipping activity in recent decades. While there are economic incentives to develop resources in the north, there are environmental concerns that increasing marine traffic will contribute to declining air quality in northern communities. In an effort to characterize the relative impact of shipping on air quality in the north, two monitoring stations have been installed in Cape Dorset and Resolute, Nunavut, and have been operational since 1 June 2013. The impact of shipping and other sources of emissions on NOx, O3, SO2, BC, and PM2.5 pollution have been characterized for the 2013 shipping season from 1 June to 1 November. In addition, a high-resolution Air Quality Health Index (AQHI) for both sites was computed. Shipping consistently increased O3 mixing ratio and PM2.5 concentration. The 90% confidence interval for mean difference in O3 mixing ratio between ship- and no ship-influenced air masses were up to 4.6-4.7 ppb and 2.5-2.7 ppb for Cape Dorset and Resolute, respectively. The same intervals for PM2.5 concentrations were up to 1.8-1.9 μg m-3 and 0.5-0.6 μg m-3. Ship-influenced air masses consistently exhibited an increase of 0.1 to 0.3 in the high-resolution AQHI compared to no ship-influenced air masses. Trajectory cluster analysis in combination with ship traffic tracking provided an estimated range for percent ship contribution to NOx, O3, SO2, and PM2.5 that were 12.9-17.5 %, 16.2-18.1 %, 16.9-18.3 %, and 19.5-31.7 % for Cape Dorset and 1.0-7.2 %, 2.9-4.8 %, 5.5-10.0 %, and 6.5-7.2 % for Resolute during the 2013 shipping season. Additional measurements in Resolute suggested that percent ship contribution to black carbon was 4.3-9.8 % and that black carbon constituted 1.3-9.7 % of total PM2.5 mass in ship plumes. Continued air quality monitoring in the above sites for future shipping seasons will improve the statistics in our analysis and characterize repeating seasonal patterns

  6. 23. Station Compressor Room 1 with Air Compressors and Accumulator ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    23. Station Compressor Room 1 with Air Compressors and Accumulator Tanks, view to the south. One of the two large station air compressor units used for depressing the draft tube water level is visible atop a concrete pedestal on the left side of photograph (the second identical compressor is located in an adjacent room). Two of the six station air accumulator tanks are visible in the background. The smaller station service air compressor is visible in right foreground of the photograph was installed in the early 1980s, and replaced the original station service air compressor. - Washington Water Power Clark Fork River Noxon Rapids Hydroelectric Development, Powerhouse, South bank of Clark Fork River at Noxon Rapids, Noxon, Sanders County, MT

  7. Modelling the emissions from ships in ports and their impact on air quality in the metropolitan area of Hamburg

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramacher, Martin; Karl, Matthias; Aulinger, Armin; Bieser, Johannes; Matthias, Volker; Quante, Markus

    2016-04-01

    photochemistry. The model was applied to the Hamburg metropolitan area with a setup of 30 x 30 grid cells of 1 km² each and 30 vertical grid levels from 10 to 8,000 m, for a time period of one year. Emission inventories for traffic, industry, households and ships in 2013 were generated. To investigate the dispersion of ship emissions to air pollution two different model runs for 2013 were performed; one model run including land-based emissions and the ship emissions and a model run just including the land-based emissions. The modelling results were evaluated with air quality data from the monitoring station network of Hamburg (luft.hamburg.de). The results are presented in form of spatial distribution maps for the Hamburg metropolitan area highlighting the pollutants (PM and NOX) originating from harbor residential ships.

  8. 1. Overview of site, looking northwest Naval Air Station ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Overview of site, looking northwest - Naval Air Station Chase Field, Building 1001, Independence Street, .45 mile south of intersection of Texas State Highway & Independence Street, Beeville, Bee County, TX

  9. 8. Overview of site, looking northeast Naval Air Station ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. Overview of site, looking northeast - Naval Air Station Chase Field, Building 1001, Independence Street, .45 mile south of intersection of Texas State Highway & Independence Street, Beeville, Bee County, TX

  10. 2. Overview of site, looking southeast Naval Air Station ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Overview of site, looking southeast - Naval Air Station Chase Field, Building 1001, Independence Street, .45 mile south of intersection of Texas State Highway & Independence Street, Beeville, Bee County, TX

  11. 7. Overview of site, looking southwest Naval Air Station ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Overview of site, looking southwest - Naval Air Station Chase Field, Building 1001, Independence Street, .45 mile south of intersection of Texas State Highway & Independence Street, Beeville, Bee County, TX

  12. Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Launch Complex 39, The Solid ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Launch Complex 39, The Solid Rocket Booster Assembly and Refurbishment Facility Manufacturing Building, Southeast corner of Schwartz Road and Contractors Road, Cape Canaveral, Brevard County, FL

  13. 15. Photograph of Architectural Building Plans. Naval Air Station ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. Photograph of Architectural Building Plans. - Naval Air Station Fallon, 100-man Fallout Shelter, 800 Complex, off Carson Road near intersection of Pasture & Berney Roads, Fallon, Churchill County, NV

  14. 16. Photograph of Structural Building Plans. Naval Air Station ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. Photograph of Structural Building Plans. - Naval Air Station Fallon, 100-man Fallout Shelter, 800 Complex, off Carson Road near intersection of Pasture & Berney Roads, Fallon, Churchill County, NV

  15. 27. UPPER STATION, LOWER FLOOR, BULL WHEEL, BRAKE AIR CYLINDER. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    27. UPPER STATION, LOWER FLOOR, BULL WHEEL, BRAKE AIR CYLINDER. - Monongahela Incline Plane, Connecting North side of Grandview Avenue at Wyoming Street with West Carson Street near Smithfield Street, Pittsburgh, Allegheny County, PA

  16. Ballistic Missile Early Warning System Clear Air Force Station, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Ballistic Missile Early Warning System - Clear Air Force Station, Ballistic Missile Early Warning System Site II, One mile west of mile marker 293.5 on Parks Highway, 5 miles southwest of Anderson, Anderson, Denali Borough, AK

  17. 33. Site Plan: Custer Air Force Station, Battle Creek, Michigan, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    33. Site Plan: Custer Air Force Station, Battle Creek, Michigan, FD Radar Facilities-FPS-27, Electrical Plot Plan and Duet Details, USACOE, not date. - Fort Custer Military Reservation, P-67 Radar Station, .25 mile north of Dickman Road, east of Clark Road, Battle Creek, Calhoun County, MI

  18. 34. Site Plan: Fort Custer Air Force Station, Fort Custer, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    34. Site Plan: Fort Custer Air Force Station, Fort Custer, Michigan, Modification of Electrical Distribution, General Site Plan, USACOE, no date. - Fort Custer Military Reservation, P-67 Radar Station, .25 mile north of Dickman Road, east of Clark Road, Battle Creek, Calhoun County, MI

  19. Climate and air quality trade-offs in altering ship fuel sulfur content

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Partanen, A. I.; Laakso, A.; Schmidt, A.; Kokkola, H.; Kuokkanen, T.; Pietikäinen, J.-P.; Kerminen, V.-M.; Lehtinen, K. E. J.; Laakso, L.; Korhonen, H.

    2013-12-01

    Aerosol particles from shipping emissions both cool the climate and cause adverse health effects. The cooling effect is, however, declining because of shipping emission controls aiming to improve air quality. We used an aerosol-climate model ECHAM-HAMMOZ to test whether by altering ship fuel sulfur content, the present-day aerosol-induced cooling effect from shipping could be preserved, while at the same time reducing premature mortality rates related to shipping emissions. We compared the climate and health effects of a present-day shipping emission scenario (ship fuel sulfur content of 2.7%) with (1) a simulation with strict emission controls in the coastal waters (ship fuel sulfur content of 0.1%) and twofold the present-day fuel sulfur content (i.e. 5.4%) elsewhere; and (2) a scenario with global strict shipping emission controls (ship fuel sulfur content of 0.1% in coastal waters and 0.5% elsewhere) roughly corresponding to international agreements to be enforced by the year 2020. Scenario 1 had a slightly stronger aerosol-induced effective radiative forcing (ERF) from shipping than the present-day scenario (-0.43 W m-2 vs. -0.39 W m-2) while reducing premature mortality from shipping by 69% (globally 34 900 deaths avoided per year). Scenario 2 decreased the ERF to -0.06 W m-2 and annual deaths by 96% (globally 48 200 deaths avoided per year) compared to present-day. Our results show that the cooling effect of present-day emissions could be retained with simultaneous notable improvements in air quality, even though the shipping emissions from the open ocean clearly have a significant effect on continental air quality. However, increasing ship fuel sulfur content in the open ocean would violate existing international treaties, could cause detrimental side-effects, and could be classified as geoengineering.

  20. Ships' logbooks and North Atlantic air circulation reconstructions 1685 - 1750

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wheeler, D.; Ward, C.; Wilkinson, C.; Garcia-Herrera, R.

    2010-09-01

    Much attention has been given to the study of documentary records that chronicle climatic events in Europe over the past half-millennium and more. It is inevitable that such sources have focussed on events on land. Hitherto it has often been assumed that correspondingly useful and contemporary material is not available for the oceans. This assumption is incorrect, and recent activities by the authors of this contribution have drawn increasingly wide attention to the vast fund of information available in the logbooks of ships, and particularly those of the Royal Navy. For the pre-instrumental period, which can be taken as before the mid-nineteenth century, some 120,000 logbooks reside in British archives containing over 20,000,000 days of observations of wind force and direction. This presentation takes a sub-sample of this huge collection and confines its attention to the North East Atlantic region, focussing on the seas around the British Isles. A daily record of wind force and direction has been abstracted and worked up into monthly-aggregated values for the period 1685 to 1750. We review the changing nature of air circulations over this critical period, which includes the Maunder Minimum and the years of gradual but by no means consistent warming that marked the first half of the eighteenth century. Conclusions are drawn about the fashion in which the organisation of the air circulations are reflected in, and help to, explain the temperature fluctuations of that period. Conclusions are also drawn concerning the changing patterns of wind strength and

  1. Manipulating ship fuel sulfur content and modeling the effects on air quality and climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Partanen, Antti-Ilari; Laakso, Anton; Schmidt, Anja; Kokkola, Harri; Kuokkanen, Tuomas; Kerminen, Veli-Matti; Lehtinen, Kari E. J.; Laakso, Lauri; Korhonen, Hannele

    2013-04-01

    Aerosol emissions from international shipping are known to cause detrimental health effects on people mainly via increased lung cancer and cardiopulmonary diseases. On the other hand, the aerosol particles from the ship emissions modify the properties of clouds and are believed to have a significant cooling effect on the global climate. In recent years, aerosol emissions from shipping have been more strictly regulated in order to improve air quality and thus decrease the mortality due to ship emissions. Decreasing the aerosol emissions from shipping is projected to decrease their cooling effect, which would intensify the global warming even further. In this study, we use a global aerosol-climate model ECHAM5.5-HAM2 to test if continental air quality can be improved while still retaining the cooling effect from shipping. The model explicitly resolves emissions of aerosols and their pre-cursor gases. The model also calculates the interaction between aerosol particles and clouds, and can thus predict the changes in cloud properties due to aerosol emissions. We design and simulate a scenario where ship fuel sulfur content is strictly limited to 0.1% near all coastal regions, but doubled in the open oceans from the current global mean value of 2.7% (geo-ships). This scenario is compared to three other simulations: 1) No shipping emissions at all (no-ships), 2) present-day shipping emissions (std-ships) and 3) a future scenario where sulfur content is limited to 0.1% in the coastal zones and to 0.5% in the open ocean (future-ships). Global mean radiative flux perturbation (RFP) in std-ships compared to no-ships is calculated to be -0.4 W m-2, which is in the range of previous estimates for present-day shipping emissions. In the geo-ships simulation the corresponding global mean RFP is roughly equal, but RFP is spatially distributed more on the open oceans, as expected. In future-ships the decreased aerosol emissions provide weaker cooling effect of only -0.1 W m-2. In

  2. 78 FR 17094 - Safety Zone; 2013 Naval Air Station Key West Air Spectacular, Boca Chica Channel; Boca Chica, FL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-20

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; 2013 Naval Air Station Key West Air... in Boca Chica, Florida, during the 2013 Naval Air Station Key West Air Spectacular. The safety zone is necessary to provide for the safety of life on navigable waters during the air show and air...

  3. Climate and air quality trade-offs in altering ship fuel sulfur content

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Partanen, A.-I.; Laakso, A.; Schmidt, A.; Kokkola, H.; Kuokkanen, T.; Pietikäinen, J.-P.; Kerminen, V.-M.; Lehtinen, K. E. J.; Laakso, L.; Korhonen, H.

    2013-08-01

    Aerosol particles from shipping emissions both cool the climate and cause adverse health effects. The cooling effect is, however, declining because of shipping emission controls aiming to improve air quality. We used an aerosol-climate model ECHAM-HAMMOZ to test whether by altering ship fuel sulfur content, the present-day aerosol-induced cooling effect from shipping could be preserved while at the same time reducing premature mortality rates related to shipping emissions. We compared the climate and health effects of a present-day shipping emission scenario with (1) a simulation with strict emission controls in the coastal waters (ship fuel sulfur content of 0.1%) and twofold ship fuel sulfur content compared to current global average of 2.7% elsewhere; and (2) a scenario with global strict shipping emission controls (ship fuel sulfur content of 0.1% in coastal waters and 0.5% elsewhere) roughly corresponding to international agreements to be enforced by the year 2020. Scenario 1 had a slightly stronger aerosol-induced radiative flux perturbation (RFP) from shipping than the present-day scenario (-0.43 W m-2 vs. -0.39 W m-2) while reducing premature mortality from shipping by 69% (globally 34 900 deaths avoided per year). Scenario 2 decreased the RFP to -0.06 W m-2 and annual deaths by 96% (globally 48 200 deaths avoided per year) compared to present-day. A small difference in radiative effect (global mean of 0.04 W m-2) in the coastal regions between Scenario 1 and the present-day scenario imply that shipping emission regulation in the existing emission control areas should not be removed in hope of climate cooling. Our results show that the cooling effect of present-day emissions could be retained with simultaneous notable improvements in air quality, even though the shipping emissions from the open ocean clearly have a significant effect on continental air quality. However, increasing ship fuel sulfur content in the open ocean would violate existing

  4. Contribution of ship emissions to the concentration and deposition of air pollutants in Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aksoyoglu, S.; Prévôt, A. S. H.; Baltensperger, U.

    2015-11-01

    Emissions from the marine transport sector are one of the least regulated anthropogenic emission sources and contribute significantly to air pollution. Although strict limits were introduced recently for the maximum sulfur content in marine fuels in the SECAs (sulfur emission control areas) and in the EU ports, sulfur emissions outside the SECAs and emissions of other components in all European maritime areas have continued to increase in the last two decades. We have used the air quality model CAMx with and without ship emissions for the year 2006 to determine the effects of international shipping on the annual as well as seasonal concentrations of ozone, primary and secondary components of PM2.5 and the dry and wet deposition of nitrogen and sulfur compounds in Europe. Our results suggest that emissions from international shipping affect the air quality in northern and southern Europe differently and their contributions to the air concentrations vary seasonally. The largest changes in pollutant concentrations due to ship emissions were predicted for summer. Increased concentrations of the primary particle mass were found only along the shipping routes whereas concentrations of the secondary pollutants were affected over a larger area. Concentrations of particulate sulfate increased due to ship emissions in the Mediterranean (up to 60 %), in the English Channel and the North Sea (30-35 %) while increases in particulate nitrate levels were found especially in the north, around the Benelux area (20 %) where there were high NH3 land-based emissions. Our model results showed that not only the atmospheric concentrations of pollutants are affected by ship emissions, but also depositions of nitrogen and sulfur compounds increase significantly along the shipping routes. NOx emissions from the ships especially in the English Channel and the North Sea, cause a decrease in the dry deposition of reduced nitrogen at source regions by moving it from the gas-phase to the

  5. System Engineering Analysis of Compressed Air Systems Installed on LHA-1 and LPH-2 Class Ships,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-07-01

    Corrosion ....... .................... 3-10 3.3 Maintenance Requirement Identification . ......... . 3-10 3.3.1 Ship Service Low-Pressure Air Compressor...screening the maintenance history profiles developed in Task 1. Screening of the maintenance history profiles had tw. major objectives: * Identification ...designs of the functionally similar equip- ments installed on the ship classes examined. * Identification of recurring failure modes or problems that are

  6. Operational test report for 241-AW tank inlet air control stations

    SciTech Connect

    Minteer, D.J., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-07-03

    This document reports the results of operational testing on tank inlet air control stations in 241-AW tank farm. An air control station was installed on each of the six AW tanks. Operational testing consisted of a simple functional test of each station`s air flow controller, aerosol testing of each station`s HEPA filter, and final ventilation system balancing (i.e., tank airflows and vacuum level) using the air control stations. The test was successful and the units were subsequently placed into operation.

  7. Record low surface air temperature at Vostok station, Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turner, John; Anderson, Phil; Lachlan-Cope, Tom; Colwell, Steve; Phillips, Tony; Kirchgaessner, AméLie; Marshall, Gareth J.; King, John C.; Bracegirdle, Tom; Vaughan, David G.; Lagun, Victor; Orr, Andrew

    2009-12-01

    The lowest recorded air temperature at the surface of the Earth was a measurement of -89.2°C made at Vostok station, Antarctica, at 0245 UT on 21 July 1983. Here we present the first detailed analysis of this event using meteorological reanalysis fields, in situ observations and satellite imagery. Surface temperatures at Vostok station in winter are highly variable on daily to interannual timescales as a result of the great sensitivity to intrusions of maritime air masses as Rossby wave activity changes around the continent. The record low temperature was measured following a near-linear cooling of over 30 K over a 10 day period from close to mean July temperatures. The event occurred because of five specific conditions that arose: (1) the temperature at the core of the midtropospheric vortex was at a near-record low value; (2) the center of the vortex moved close to the station; (3) an almost circular flow regime persisted around the station for a week resulting in very little warm air advection from lower latitudes; (4) surface wind speeds were low for the location; and (5) no cloud or diamond dust was reported above the station for a week, promoting the loss of heat to space via the emission of longwave radiation. We estimate that should a longer period of isolation occur the surface temperature at Vostok could drop to around -96°C. The higher site of Dome Argus is typically 5-6 K colder than Vostok so has the potential to record an even lower temperature.

  8. Cabin Air Quality Dynamics On Board the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perry, J. L.; Peterson, B. V.

    2003-01-01

    Spacecraft cabin air quality is influenced by a variety of factors. Beyond normal equipment offgassing and crew metabolic loads, the vehicle s operational configuration contributes significantly to overall air quality. Leaks from system equipment and payload facilities, operational status of the atmospheric scrubbing systems, and the introduction of new equipment and modules to the vehicle all influence air quality. The dynamics associated with changes in the International Space Station's (ISS) configuration since the launch of the U.S. Segment s laboratory module, Destiny, is summarized. Key classes of trace chemical contaminants that are important to crew health and equipment performance are emphasized. The temporary effects associated with attaching each multi-purpose logistics module (MPLM) to the ISS and influence of in-flight air quality on the post-flight ground processing of the MPLM are explored.

  9. Navajo Generating Station and Air Visibility Regulations: Alternatives and Impacts

    SciTech Connect

    Hurlbut, D. J.; Haase, S.; Brinkman, G.; Funk, K.; Gelman, R.; Lantz, E.; Larney, C.; Peterson, D.; Worley, C.; Liebsch, E.

    2012-01-01

    Pursuant to the Clean Air Act, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) announced in 2009 its intent to issue rules for controlling emissions from Navajo Generating Station that could affect visibility at the Grand Canyon and at several other national parks and wilderness areas. The final rule will conform to what EPA determines is the best available retrofit technology (BART) for the control of haze-causing air pollutants, especially nitrogen oxides. While EPA is ultimately responsible for setting Navajo Generating Station's BART standards in its final rule, it will be the U.S. Department of the Interior's responsibility to manage compliance and the related impacts. This study aims to assist both Interior and EPA by providing an objective assessment of issues relating to the power sector.

  10. Makah Air Force Station Re-Use Plan

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-02-01

    shared garages. All one-story single units with 3 bedrooms. Thermal pane steel windows, asphalt shingles , wood siding. 1100-1200 Approximate average... asphalt shingles . Approximately 2000 s.f., built in 1952. B. Gymnasium & Locker Facility (Bldg. No. 46; drawings available) 8" concrete block wall...MAKAH- AIR FrORCE STATION RE-USE PLAN NEAH- BAY, WASHINGTON uf -;): bwowdN aobu l l02 EXHMIBT 7 COLLEGE CAMPUS o ’ "LEGEND 7- ,𔄁, .. , / i

  11. Contribution of ship emissions to the concentration and deposition of air pollutants in Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aksoyoglu, Sebnem; Baltensperger, Urs; Prévôt, André S. H.

    2016-02-01

    Emissions from the marine transport sector are one of the least-regulated anthropogenic emission sources and contribute significantly to air pollution. Although strict limits were introduced recently for the maximum sulfur content in marine fuels in the SECAs (sulfur emission control areas) and in EU ports, sulfur emissions outside the SECAs and emissions of other components in all European maritime areas have continued to increase in the last two decades. We have used the air quality model CAMx (Comprehensive Air Quality Model with Extensions) with and without ship emissions for the year 2006 to determine the effects of international shipping on the annual as well as seasonal concentrations of ozone, primary and secondary components of PM2.5, and the dry and wet deposition of nitrogen and sulfur compounds in Europe. The largest changes in pollutant concentrations due to ship emissions were predicted for summer. Concentrations of particulate sulfate increased due to ship emissions in the Mediterranean (up to 60 %), the English Channel and the North Sea (30-35 %), while increases in particulate nitrate levels were found especially in the north, around the Benelux area (20 %), where there were high NH3 land-based emissions. Our model results showed that not only are the atmospheric concentrations of pollutants affected by ship emissions, but also depositions of nitrogen and sulfur compounds increase significantly along the shipping routes. NOx emissions from the ships, especially in the English Channel and the North Sea, cause a decrease in the dry deposition of reduced nitrogen at source regions by moving it from the gas phase to the particle phase which then contributes to an increase in the wet deposition at coastal areas with higher precipitation. In the western Mediterranean region, on the other hand, model results show an increase in the deposition of oxidized nitrogen (mostly HNO3) due to the ship traffic. Dry deposition of SO2 seems to be significant along

  12. High Concentrations of Organic Contaminants in Air from Ship Breaking Activities in Chittagong, Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Nøst, Therese H; Halse, Anne K; Randall, Scott; Borgen, Anders R; Schlabach, Martin; Paul, Alak; Rahman, Atiqur; Breivik, Knut

    2015-10-06

    The beaches on the coast of Chittagong in Bangladesh are one of the most intense ship breaking areas in the world. The aim of the study was to measure the concentrations of organic contaminants in the air in the city of Chittagong, including the surrounding ship breaking areas using passive air samplers (N = 25). The compounds detected in the highest amounts were the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and short-chain chlorinated paraffins (SCCPs), whereas dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes (DDTs), hexachlorobenzene (HCB), and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were several orders of magnitude lower in comparison. PCBs, PAHs, and HCB were highest at sites near the ship breaking activities, whereas DDTs and SCCPs were higher in the urban areas. Ship breaking activities likely act as atmospheric emission sources of PCBs, PAHs, and HCB, thus adding to the international emphasis on responsible recycling of ships. Concentrations of PAHs, PCBs, DDTs, HCB, and SCCPs in ambient air in Chittagong are high in comparison to those found in similar studies performed in other parts of Asia. Estimated toxic equivalent quotients indicate elevated human health risks caused by inhalation of PAHs at most sites.

  13. Edited synoptic cloud reports from ships and land stations over the globe, 1982--1991

    SciTech Connect

    Hahn, C.J.; Warren, S.G.; London, J.

    1996-02-01

    Surface synoptic weather reports for the entire globe for the 10-year period from December 1981 through November 1991 have been processed, edited, and rewritten to provide a data set designed for use in cloud analyses. The information in these reports relating to clouds, including the present weather information, was extracted and put through a series of quality control checks. Correctable inconsistencies within reports were edited for consistency, so that the ``edited cloud report`` can be used for cloud analysis. Cases of ``sky obscured`` were interpreted by reference to the present weather code as to whether they indicated fog, rain or snow and were given appropriate cloud type designations. Nimbostratus clouds were also given a special designation. Changes made to an original report are indicated in the edited report so that the original report can be reconstructed if desired. While low cloud amount is normally given directly in the synoptic report, the edited cloud report also includes the amounts, either directly reported or inferred, of middle and high clouds, both the non-overlapped amounts and the ``actual`` amounts. Since illumination from the moon is important for the adequate detection of clouds at night, both the relative lunar illuminance and the solar altitude are given; well as a parameter that indicates whether our recommended illuminance criterion was satisfied. This data set contains 124 million reports from land stations and 15 million reports from ships. Each report is 56 characters in length. The archive consists of 240 files, one file for each month of data for land and ocean separately. With this data set a user can develop a climatology for any particular cloud type or group of types, for any geographical region and any spatial and temporal resolution desired.

  14. The contribution of ship emissions to air pollution in the North Sea regions.

    PubMed

    Matthias, Volker; Bewersdorff, Ines; Aulinger, Armin; Quante, Markus

    2010-06-01

    As a consequence of the global distribution of manufacturing sites and the increasing international division of labour, ship traffic is steadily increasing and is becoming more and more important as an origin of air pollution. This study investigates the impact of ship emissions in coastal areas of the North Sea under conditions of the year 2000 by means of a regional chemistry transport model which runs on a sufficiently high resolution to study air pollution in coastal regions. It was found that northern Germany and Denmark in summer suffer from more than 50% higher sulphate, nitrate and ammonium aerosol concentrations due to contributions from ships. The implementation of a sulphur emission control area (SECA) in the North Sea, as it was implemented at the end of 2007, directly results in reduced sulphur dioxide and sulphate aerosol concentrations while nitrate aerosol concentrations are slightly increased.

  15. Marine Technician's Handbook, Instructions for Taking Air Samples on Board Ship: Carbon Dioxide Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keeling, Charles D.

    This booklet is one of a series intended to provide explicit instructions for the collection of oceanographic data and samples at sea. The methods and procedures described have been used by the Scripps Institution of Oceanography and found reliable and up-to-date. Instructions are given for taking air samples on board ship to determine the…

  16. Materials from April 2010 Mexico Workshop on Reducing Air Pollution from Ships

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    As part of a U.S.-Mexico Fuel Switching Demonstration, EPA and SEMARNAT jointly sponsored a workshop entitled “Reducing Air Pollution from Ships: Fuel Switching Demonstration in the Gulf of Mexico,” Veracruz, Mexico, April 16, 2010.

  17. Ships, ports and particulate air pollution - an analysis of recent studies

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    The duration of use is usually significantly longer for marine vessels than for roadside vehicles. Therefore, these vessels are often powered by relatively old engines which may propagate air pollution. Also, the quality of fuel used for marine vessels is usually not comparable to the quality of fuels used in the automotive sector and therefore, port areas may exhibit a high degree of air pollution. In contrast to the multitude of studies that addressed outdoor air pollution due to road traffic, only little is known about ship-related air pollution. Therefore the present article aims to summarize recent studies that address air pollution, i.e. particulate matter exposure, due to marine vessels. It can be stated that the data in this area of research is still largely limited. Especially, knowledge on the different air pollutions in different sea areas is needed. PMID:22141925

  18. Clear Air Force Station: Air Force Reviewed Costs and Benefits of Several Options before Deciding to Close the Power Plant

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-05-01

    Station with officials from Usibelli Coal Mine , and the grid tie-in project with an official from Golden Valley Electric Association. Further, we...with the selected offeror. Page 41 GAO-14-550 Clear Air Force Station to use the landfill located on the installation that is primarily...let the potential lessee use the landfill . • Available alternatives to Clear Air Force Station plant: Air Force officials said that Golden Valley

  19. Impact of sulfur content regulations of shipping fuel on coastal air quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seyler, André; Wittrock, Folkard; Kattner, Lisa; Mathieu-Üffing, Barbara; Weigelt, Andreas; Peters, Enno; Richter, Andreas; Schmolke, Stefan; Burrows, John P.

    2016-04-01

    Shipping traffic is a sector that faces an enormous growth rate and contributes substantially to the emissions from the transportation sector, but lacks regulations and controls. Shipping is not enclosed in the Kyoto Protocol. However, the International Maritime Organization (IMO) introduced sufhur limits for marine heavy fuels, nitrogen oxide limits for newly-built ship engines and established Emission Control Areas (ECA) in the North and Baltic Sea as well as around North America with the International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships (MARPOL 73/78 Annex VI). Recently, on the 1st of January 2015, the allowed sulfur content of marine fuels inside Sulfur Emission Control Areas has been significantly decreased from 1.0% to 0.1%. However, measurements of reactive trace gases and the chemical composition of the marine troposphere along shipping routes are sparse and up to now there is no regular monitoring system available. The project MeSmarT (measurements of shipping emissions in the marine troposphere) is a cooperation between the University of Bremen, the German Federal Maritime and Hydrographic Agency (Bundesamt für Seeschifffahrt und Hydrographie, BSH) and the Helmholtz-Zentrum Geesthacht. This study aims to analyse the influence of shipping emissions on the coastal air quality by evaluating ground-based remote sensing measurements using the MAX-DOAS (Multi AXis Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy) technique. Measurements of the atmospheric trace gases nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and sulfur dioxide (SO2) have been carried out in the marine troposphere at the MeSmarT measurement sites in Wedel and on Neuwerk and on-board several ship cruises on the North and Baltic Sea. The capability of two-channel MAX-DOAS systems to do simultaneous measurements in the UV and visible spectral range has been used in the so called "onion-peeling" approach to derive spatial distributions of ship emissions and to analyse the movement of the exhausted

  20. Bionetics Company technician preparing to remove rats from shipping container

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    A Bionetics Company technician in Hanger L at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, is preparing to remove 5 rats from their shipping container. They will fly aboard the shuttle Challenger in the Spacelab module.

  1. Characteristics and ship traffic source identification of air pollutants in China's largest port

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Minjiang; Zhang, Yan; Ma, Weichun; Fu, Qingyan; Yang, Xin; Li, Chunlei; Zhou, Bin; Yu, Qi; Chen, Limin

    2013-01-01

    To characterize the air pollutants in Shanghai Port and identify the contribution from ship traffic emission, field measurements have been conducted in 2011. The trace gases SO2, NO2 and O3 were monitored and aerosol samples of TSP, PM2.5 and size-segregated particles were collected in a working area of Shanghai Port. Elements including V, Ni, Al, Fe, Si, Ca, Na, Mg, Mn, Zn, Co, Cr in aerosol samples and heavy fuel oil samples were analyzed. The results revealed that average hourly SO2 and NO2 concentrations in Shanghai Port were respectively 29.4 and 63.7 μg m-3, average daily concentrations of TSP and PM2.5 were 114.39 and 62.60 μg m-3, comparable with the ones in Shanghai land area. Ni and V were found enriched in fine particles with averaged concentrations of 80.0 and 14.8 ng m-3 in PM2.5 respectively. Also ratio of V/Ni in aerosol under summertime airflow was 3.4, very close to the ratio of averaged V and Ni content in international heavy fuel oils used in Shanghai Port. The backward trajectory analysis further revealed that SO2, NO2, and V under coastal airflows were mainly from ship traffic emission. The mean concentration of V was 15.84 ng m-3 under hybrid coastal airflows, much higher than that of 9.84 ng m-3 under continental airflows. Furthermore, V was found to be highly correlated with ship fluxes, and was selected as an indicator of ship traffic emission in Shanghai. The estimated primary PM2.5 contribution from ship traffic ranged from 0.63 to 3.58 μg m-3, with an average of 1.96 μg m-3. This PM2.5 fraction accounted for 4.23% of the total PM2.5 in an average level, and reached to a maximum of 12.8%. Furthermore, there could be 64% of primary PM2.5 contributed by ships in Shanghai Port transported to inland region. Our results suggest that ship traffic has a non-negligible contribution on ambient levels of fine particles and secondary contribution of SO2 and NO2 emitted by ships need to be estimated on local and regional scale in future.

  2. Optimization of air injection parameters toward optimum fuel saving effect for ships

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Inwon; Park, Seong Hyeon

    2016-11-01

    Air lubrication method is the most promising commercial strategy for the frictional drag reduction of ocean going vessels. Air bubbles are injected through the array of holes or the slots installed onto the flat bottom surface of vessel and a sufficient supply of air is required to ensure the formation of stable air layer by the by the coalescence of the bubbles. The air layer drag reduction becomes economically meaningful when the power gain through the drag reduction exceeds the pumping power consumption. In this study, a model ship of 50k medium range tanker is employed to investigate air lubrication method. The experiments were conducted in the 100m long towing tank facility at the Pusan National University. To create the effective air lubrication with lower air flow rate, various configurations including the layout of injection holes, employment of side fences and static trim have been tested. In the preliminary series of model tests, the maximum 18.13%(at 15kts) of reduction of model resistance was achieved. This research was supported by the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) Grant funded by the Korea government (MEST) through GCRC-SOP (Grant No. 2011-0030013).

  3. Air Quality Benefits of Ship Fuel Regulations in the San Francisco Bay Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tao, L.; Harley, R. A.; Fairley, D.; Martien, P. T.

    2012-12-01

    Ocean-going vessels burning high-sulfur heavy fuel oil are an important emission source of air pollutants such as sulfur dioxide and particulate matter. Beginning July 1, 2009, an emission control area was put into effect at ports and along the California coastline, requiring use of low-sulfur marine fuels in place of heavy fuel oil in main engines of ships. To assess impacts of the fuel changes on air quality at the Port of Oakland and in the surrounding San Francisco Bay area, we analyzed speciated fine particle composition data from 4 urban sites and 2 more remote sites (Point Reyes and Pinnacles) from the IMPROVE network. Measured changes in concentrations of vanadium, a useful and specific tracer for heavy fuel oil combustion, are related to overall changes in primary aerosol emissions from ships. The results indicate a substantial reduction in vanadium concentrations after the fuel change, and a 13 to 38% decrease in SO2 concentration, with the SO2 decrease varying depending on proximity to shipping lanes. We inferred from emission factors documented in the literature that marine vessel contributions to primary fine particulate matter mass in the Bay Area, prior to the fuel change, were on the order of 1 to 5%.

  4. 33 CFR 334.865 - Naval Air Station North Island, San Diego, California, restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Naval Air Station North Island... REGULATIONS § 334.865 Naval Air Station North Island, San Diego, California, restricted area. (a) The area... navigable channels, but will serve to control its use in order to protect vital National interests....

  5. 33 CFR 334.865 - Naval Air Station North Island, San Diego, California, restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Naval Air Station North Island, San Diego, California, restricted area. 334.865 Section 334.865 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS... REGULATIONS § 334.865 Naval Air Station North Island, San Diego, California, restricted area. (a) The...

  6. 33 CFR 334.865 - Naval Air Station North Island, San Diego, California, restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Naval Air Station North Island, San Diego, California, restricted area. 334.865 Section 334.865 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS... REGULATIONS § 334.865 Naval Air Station North Island, San Diego, California, restricted area. (a) The...

  7. Geochemical characterization of seaplane lagoon sediments, Alameda Naval Air Station

    SciTech Connect

    Bono, A; Carroll, S; Esser, B; Luther, G W; O'Day, P; Randall, S

    1999-08-16

    Our objective in the characterization of sediments from Seaplane Lagoon at the Alameda Naval Air Station (NAS) was to determine the geochemical interactions that control the partitioning of cadmium, chromium, cobalt, copper, lead, mercury, nickel, and zinc between the sediments and the porewaters. Our approach was to collect several cores at the east outfall location of the Seaplane Lagoon. We determined the porewater chemistry by (1) making in situ micro-electrode measurements, (2) extracting porewaters, and (3) modeling geochemical reactions. We determined the sediment chemistry by measuring (1) elemental abundance, (2) mineralogy, and (3) trace-element speciation. This information should help the US Navy determine the long-term hazard of the sediments if they are left in place and the short-term hazard if they are dredged. We did not fully examine the geochemistry of sediments from the West Beach Landfill Wetlands site, because these sediments were distinct from the Seaplane Lagoon sediments. Our initial motivation for studying the Landfill Wetlands site was to determine the trace-element geochemistry in Seaplane Lagoon sediments that had been dredged and then disposed in the Landfill Wetlands. Unfortunately, the location of these dredged sediments is unknown. The cores we sampled were not from the Seaplane Lagoon.

  8. Finding of No Significant Impact: Forest Harvesting at New Boston Air Force Station, New Hampshire

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-05-20

    FINDING OF NO SIGNIFICANT IMPACT Forest Harvesting at New Boston Air Force Station, New Hampshire The U.S. Air Force (USAF) at New Boston Air...Station (NBAFS), New Hampshire proposes to conduct forest harvesting in three locations (see attachment l) on approximately 15,0-f~O acres over the next...two-three years. Harvesting would occur primarily during fall and winter months (September-March). Forest mana’gement practices would include the

  9. Influence of Ship Emissions on Urban Air Quality: A Comprehensive Study Using Highly Time-Resolved Online Measurements and Numerical Simulation in Shanghai.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhanmin; Lu, Xiaohui; Feng, Junlan; Fan, Qianzhu; Zhang, Yan; Yang, Xin

    2017-01-03

    Shanghai has become an international shipping center in the world. In this study, the multiyear measurements and the high resolution air quality model with hourly ship emission inventory were combined to determine the influence of ship emissions on urban Shanghai. The aerosol time-of-flight mass spectrometer (ATOFMS) measurements were carried out at an urban site from April 2009 to January 2013. During the entire sampling time, most of the half-hourly averaged number fractions of primary ship emitted particles varied between 1.0-10.0%. However, the number fraction could reach up to 50% during the ship plume cases. Ship-plume-influenced periods usually occurred in spring and summer. The simulation of Weather Research and Forecasting/Community Multiscale Air Quality model (WRF/CMAQ) with hourly ship emission inventory provided the highly time-resolved concentrations of ship-related air pollutants during a ship plume case. It showed ships could contribute 20-30% (2-7 μg/m(3)) of the total PM2.5 within tens of kilometers of coastal and riverside Shanghai during ship-plume-influenced periods. Our results showed that ship emissions have substantial contribution to the air pollution in urban Shanghai. The control measures of ship emission should be taken considering its negative environment and human health effects.

  10. 33 CFR 334.1020 - San Francisco Bay and Oakland Inner Harbor; restricted areas in vicinity of Naval Air Station...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... bounded by the shore of Naval Air Station, Alameda, and a line beginning at a point on the north side of... the rock wall on the south side of the channel and the easterly boundary of the Naval Air Station....

  11. Impact of ship emissions on air pollution and AOD over North Atlantic and European Arctic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaminski, Jacek W.; Struzewska, Joanna; Jefimow, Maciej; Durka, Pawel

    2016-04-01

    The iAREA project is combined of experimental and theoretical research in order to contribute to the new knowledge on the impact of absorbing aerosols on the climate system in the European Arctic (http://www.igf.fuw.edu.pl/iAREA). A tropospheric chemistry model GEM-AQ (Global Environmental Multiscale Air Quality) was used as a computational tool. The core of the model is based on a weather prediction model with environmental processes (chemistry and aerosols) implanted on-line and are interactive (i.e. providing feedback of chemistry on radiation and dynamics). The numerical grid covered the Euro-Atlantic region with the resolution of 50 km. Emissions developed by NILU in the ECLIPSE project was used (Klimont et al., 2013). The model was run for two 1-year scenarios. 2014 was chosen as a base year for simulations and analysis. Scenarios include a base run with most up-to-date emissions and a run without maritime emissions. The analysis will focus on the contribution of maritime emissions on levels of particulate matter and gaseous pollutants over the European Arctic, North Atlantic and coastal areas. The annual variability will be assessed based on monthly mean near-surface concentration fields. Analysis of shipping transport on near-surface air pollution over the Euro-Atlantic region will be assessed for ozone, NO2, SO2, CO, PM10, PM2.5. Also, a contribution of ship emissions to AOD will be analysed.

  12. Impact of air pollution on vegetation near the Columbia Generating Station - Wisconsin power plant impact study

    SciTech Connect

    Tibbitts, T.W.; Will-Wolf, S.; Karnowsky, D.F.; Olszyk, D.M.

    1982-06-01

    The impact of air pollution from the coal-fired Columbia Generating Station upon vegetation was investigated. Air monitoring of 03 and 02 documented levels that occurred before and with operation of the generating station. Field sampling of alfalfa, lichens, and white pines was undertaken before and after initiation of generating station operations. Controlled environmental exposures were undertaken with separate cultivars of crop species grown in the vicinity of the generating station. Alfalfa, carrots, mint, peas, beans, and trembling aspen were exposed to SO2 and O3 to establish minimum threshold pollutant levels for injury from these pollutants.

  13. AAFES Gas Station at Creech Air Force Base Environmental Assessment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-07-01

    Reservation station. Nor was there any mention of carpooling or busing to relieve the costs of the commute. Should the project be carried forward...Indian Springs, as well as the intermediate station at the Snow Mountain Piute (sic) Reservation station. Nor was there any mention of carpooling or...meet the purpose and need for this action. A sizable percentage already arrives at Creech by bus or carpool . The purpose of this action is not

  14. Early ship-based upper-air data and comparison with the Twentieth Century Reanalysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brönnimann, S.; Compo, G. P.; Spadin, R.; Allan, R.; Adam, W.

    2010-11-01

    Extension of 3-D atmospheric data products back into the past is desirable for a wide range of applications. Historical upper-air data are important in this endeavour, particularly in the maritime regions of the tropics and the southern hemisphere, where observations are extremely sparse. Here we present newly digitized and re-evaluated early ship-based upper-air data from two cruises: (1) kite and registering balloon profiles from onboard the ship SMS Planet on a cruise from Europe around South Africa and across the Indian Ocean to the western Pacific in 1906/1907, and (2) ship-based radiosonde data from onboard the MS Schwabenland on a cruise from Europe across the Atlantic to Antarctica and back in 1938/1939. We describe the data and provide estimations of the errors. We compare the data with a recent reanalysis (the Twentieth Century Reanalysis Project, 20CR, Compo et al., 2010) that provides global 3-D data back to the 19th century based on an assimilation of surface pressure data only (plus monthly mean sea-surface temperatures). In cruise (1), the agreement is generally good, but large temperature differences appear during a period with a strong inversion. In cruise (2), after a correction to a subset of data, a good agreement between observations and 20CR is found for geopotential height (GPH) and temperature except for a likely cold bias of 20CR at the tropopause level. Results are considerably worse for relative humidity, which was reportedly inaccurately measured. Note that comparing 20CR, which has limited skill in the tropical regions, with measurements form ships in remote regions made under sometimes difficult conditions can be considered a worst case assessment. In view of that fact, the anomaly correlations for temperature of 0.3-0.6 in the lower troposphere in cruise (1) and of 0.5-0.7 for tropospheric temperature and GPH in cruise (2) are considered as promising results. Moreover, they are consistent with the error estimations. However, more work

  15. Early ship-based upper-air data and comparison with the Twentieth Century Reanalysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brönnimann, S.; Compo, G. P.; Spadin, R.; Allan, R.; Adam, W.

    2011-03-01

    Extension of 3-D atmospheric data products back into the past is desirable for a wide range of applications. Historical upper-air data are important in this endeavour, particularly in the maritime regions of the tropics and the southern hemisphere, where observations are extremely sparse. Here we present newly digitized and re-evaluated early ship-based upper-air data from two cruises: (1) kite and registering balloon profiles from onboard the ship SMS Planet on a cruise from Europe around South Africa and across the Indian Ocean to the western Pacific in 1906/1907, and (2) ship-based radiosonde data from onboard the MS Schwabenland on a cruise from Europe across the Atlantic to Antarctica and back in 1938/1939. We describe the data and provide estimations of the errors. We compare the data with a recent reanalysis (the Twentieth Century Reanalysis Project, 20CR, Compo et al., 2011) that provides global 3-D data back to the 19th century based on an assimilation of surface pressure data only (plus monthly mean sea-surface temperatures). In cruise (1), the agreement is generally good, but large temperature differences appear during a period with a strong inversion. In cruise (2), after a subset of the data are corrected, close agreement between observations and 20CR is found for geopotential height (GPH) and temperature notwithstanding a likely cold bias of 20CR at the tropopause level. Results are considerably worse for relative humidity, which was reportedly inaccurately measured. Note that comparing 20CR, which has limited skill in the tropical regions, with measurements from ships in remote regions made under sometimes difficult conditions can be considered a worst case assessment. In view of that fact, the anomaly correlations for temperature of 0.3-0.6 in the lower troposphere in cruise (1) and of 0.5-0.7 for tropospheric temperature and GPH in cruise (2) are considered as promising results. Moreover, they are consistent with the error estimations. The results

  16. Optimized arrangement of constant ambient air monitoring stations in the Kanto region of Japan.

    PubMed

    Shirato, Shintaro; Iizuka, Atsushi; Mizukoshi, Atsushi; Noguchi, Miyuki; Yamasaki, Akihiro; Yanagisawa, Yukio

    2015-03-10

    Continuous ambient air monitoring systems have been introduced worldwide. However, such monitoring forces autonomous communities to bear a significant financial burden. Thus, it is important to identify pollutant-monitoring stations that are less efficient, while minimizing loss of data quality and mitigating effects on the determination of spatiotemporal trends of pollutants. This study describes a procedure for optimizing a constant ambient air monitoring system in the Kanto region of Japan. Constant ambient air monitoring stations in the area were topologically classified into four groups by cluster analysis and principle component analysis. Then, air pollution characteristics in each area were reviewed using concentration contour maps and average pollution concentrations. We then introduced three simple criteria to reduce the number of monitoring stations: (1) retain the monitoring station if there were similarities between its data and average data of the group to which it belongs; (2) retain the station if its data showed higher concentrations; and (3) retain the station if the monitored concentration levels had an increasing trend. With this procedure, the total number of air monitoring stations in suburban and urban areas was reduced by 36.5%. The introduction of three new types of monitoring stations is proposed, namely, mobile, for local non-methane hydrocarbon pollution, and Ox-prioritized.

  17. An assessment of air emissions from liquefied natural gas ships using different power systems and different fuels.

    PubMed

    Afon, Yinka; Ervin, David

    2008-03-01

    The shipping industry has been an unrecognized source of criteria pollutants: nitrogen oxides (NOx), volatile organic compounds, coarse particulate matter (PM10), fine particulate matter (PM2.5), sulfur dioxide (SO2), and carbon monoxide (CO). Liquefied natural gas (LNG) has traditionally been transported via steam turbine (ST) ships. Recently, LNG shippers have begun using dual-fuel diesel engines (DFDEs) to propel and offload their cargoes. Both the conventional ST boilers and DFDE are capable of burning a range of fuels, from heavy fuel oil to boil-off-gas (BOG) from the LNG load. In this paper a method for estimating the emissions from ST boilers and DFDEs during LNG offloading operations at berth is presented, along with typical emissions from LNG ships during offloading operations under different scenarios ranging from worst-case fuel oil combustion to the use of shore power. The impact on air quality in nonattainment areas where LNG ships call is discussed. Current and future air pollution control regulations for ocean-going vessels (OGVs) such as LNG ships are also discussed. The objective of this study was to estimate and compare emissions of criteria pollutants from conventional ST and DFDE ships using different fuels. The results of this study suggest that newer DFDE ships have lower SO2 and PM2.5/PM10 emissions, conventional ST ships have lower NOx, volatile organic compound, and CO emissions; and DFDE ships utilizing shore power at berth produce no localized emissions because they draw their required power from the local electric grid.

  18. [Air quality monitoring on the International Space Station].

    PubMed

    Pakhomova, A A; Mukhamedieva, L N; Mikos, K N

    2006-01-01

    Chemical contamination of air in space cabins occurs mainly due to permanent offgassing of equipment and materials, and leaks. Methods and means of qualitative and quantitative air monitoring on the ISS are powerful enough as for routine so emergency (e.g. local fire, toxic leak) air control. The ISS air quality has suited to the adopted standards and crew safety requirements. Yet, there is a broad field of action toward improvement of the space cabin air monitoring.

  19. Site 5 air sparging pilot test, Naval Air Station Cecil Field, Jacksonville, Florida.

    PubMed

    Murray, W A; Lunardini, R C; Ullo, F J; Davidson, M E

    2000-02-25

    A 72-h air sparging pilot test was conducted at Site 5 (Operable Unit 2), Naval Air Station Cecil Field, Jacksonville, FL, to determine performance parameters necessary for full-scale design. The sparge well was completed to a depth of 29 ft, several feet below the groundwater plume contaminated with volatile organic compounds (VOCs), primarily benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes (BTEX). Air flow rates supplied to the sparge well were 3 cubic feet/min (cfm) during the first day, 2 cfm during the second day, and 1 cfm during the third day. Water levels in monitoring wells initially rose approximately 2 ft during the first 4-5 h of the test, then receded back to pre-test equilibrium levels over the next 15 h, for a total duration of water mounding of about 20 h. A small (approximately 0.5 ft) water table drop, with subsequent recovery to equilibrium level, occurred each time the air sparging rate was decreased. Although there is considerable variation depending on direction from the sparge well, the average radius of influence varied from approximately 30 ft at 1 cfm to 50 ft at 3 cfm. The air sparge system was capable of increasing the dissolved oxygen from 0 to 6 or 7 mg/l within 12-15 h of air channels reaching a given location. A lag time of approximately 13 h was observed before air channels reached a radius of 30 ft and dissolved oxygen levels began to increase at that radius. CO(2) (stripped out of the groundwater by the sparging) decreased from a pre-test concentration of 150 to 20 mg/l at r=5 ft, and from 150 to 50 mg/l at r=30 ft, within a period of about 24 h. The rate of VOC mass removal during the pilot test was 0.06 lb/day at a sparge rate of 3 cfm, and it appears that air sparging will effect a rapid cleanup of the VOCs in the Site 5 groundwater plume.

  20. Space Heating at the Naval Air Station, Fallon, Nevada - An Economic Analysis of a Geothermal Alternative.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-12-01

    CLAWaICaTO ? I$ P iktfe bA& 8^100ŕ Approved for public release; distribution unlimited Space Heating at the Naval Air Station, Fallon, Nevada-An Economic...Dictionary of Geophysics, p . 981.)-------- 12 2. High temperature geothermal system flow controlled by fractures...Rome,21-31 Aug.1961,Vol.3, Geothermal Energy: 17 11, p .125.- ------------------------------------------------- 1 4. Map of Naval Air Station, Fallon

  1. What can we learn about ship emission inventories from measurements of air pollutants over the Mediterranean Sea?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marmer, E.; Dentener, F.; Aardenne, J. V.; Cavalli, F.; Vignati, E.; Velchev, K.; Hjorth, J.; Boersma, F.; Vinken, G.; Mihalopoulos, N.; Raes, F.

    2009-09-01

    Ship emission estimates diverge widely for all chemical compounds for several reasons: use of different methodologies (bottom-up or top-down), activity data and emission factors can easily result in a difference ranging from a factor of 1.5 to even an order of magnitude. Combining three sets of observational data - ozone and black carbon measurements sampled at three coastal sites and on board of a Mediterranean cruise ship, as well as satellite observations of atmospheric NO2 column concentration over the same area - we assess the accuracy of the three most commonly used ship emission inventories, EDGAR FT (Olivier et al., 2005), emissions described by Eyring et al. (2005) and emissions reported by EMEP (Vestreng et al., 2007). Our tool is a global atmospheric chemistry transport model which simulates the chemical state of the Mediterranean atmosphere applying different ship emission inventories. The simulated contributions of ships to air pollutant levels in the Mediterranean atmosphere are significant but strongly depend on the inventory applied. Close to the major shipping routes relative contributions vary from 10 to 50% for black carbon and from 2 to 12% for ozone in the surface layer, as well as from 5 to 20% for nitrogen dioxide atmospheric column burden. The relative contributions are still significant over the North African coast, but less so over the South European coast because densely populated regions with significant human activity contribute relatively more to air pollution than ships, even if these regions attract a lot of ship traffic. The observations poorly constrain the ship emission inventories in the Eastern Mediterranean where the influence of uncertain land based emissions, the model transport and wet deposition are at least as important as the signal from ships. In the Western Mediterranean, the regional EMEP emission inventory gives the best match with most measurements, followed by Eyring for NO2 and ozone and by EDGAR for black carbon

  2. Decision Analysis Methodology to Evaluate Integrated Solid Waste Management Alternatives for a Remote Alaskan Air Station

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    Eareckson Air Station (AS), a remote U.S. Air Force installation, faces the complex decision of selecting a new municipal solid waste (MSW...strategy. The model results suggest that the Eareckson AS MSW strategy should be a Class II municipal solid waste landfill (MSWLF) along with a

  3. Bioventing Field Initiative at Galena and Campion Air Force Stations, Alaska

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    This report describes the activities conducted at Galena Air Force Station (AFS) and Campion AFS, Alaska, as part of the Bioventing Field Initiative...air permeability test, in situ respiration tests, and installation of bioventing systems. The specific objectives of this Bioventing Field Initiative

  4. Impact of oil spill from ship on air quality around coastal regions of Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shon, Zang-Ho; Song, Sang-Keun

    2010-05-01

    Regional air quality around coastal regions, where regular maritime traffic emissions from cargo, other commercial, fishing and military vessels are significantly active, can be affected by their direct emission of primary air pollutants (NOx, SO2, particulate matter (PM), etc.). For instance, harbor traffic exerted an important impact on NO2, SO2, O3, and PM levels. In addition, regional air quality around coastal regions is also affected by oil spill caused by ship accident in the coast. On 7 Dec., 2007, a barge carrying a crane hit the oil tanker MT Hebei Sprit off the west coast of the Republic of Korea, Yellow Sea (approximately 10 km off the coast), at 0700 local time, causing the spill of total estimated 12,547 tons of Iranian heavy (IH) and Kuwait Export (KE) crude oils. Since then, oil began coming on shore late in the night on 7 Dec. More than 150 km of coastline had been identified as being impacted by 17 Dec. Much of the affected area is part of the Taean-gun National Park and the nearest coastal city to spilled area is Taean. On 8 Dec., the flow of oil from the tanker was stopped when the holes were patched. The accident is the worst oil spill in Korea and the spill area is about one-third of the size of the Exxon Valdez oil spill. The short- and long-term effects of oil spill on marine environment have been numerously studied, not on atmospheric environment. In this study, the air quality impact near spilled area by the evaporation of hydrocarbons from the oil spill is studied in detail. The evaporation rates of the volatile fractions of the crude oils released by oil spill were estimated based on their mole fractions of crude oils and mass transfer coefficients. Based on a molecular diffusion process, the flux of spilled oil component (Fivap, mol m-2 s-1) can be expressed as follows: Fivap = Kivap(Civap - C∞vap) (1) where Civap is concentration (mol m-3) of a component i of crude oil vapor in the air at the oil-air interface; C∞vap is the

  5. 33 CFR 334.430 - Neuse River and tributaries at Marine Corps Air Station Cherry Point, North Carolina; restricted...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Marine Corps Air Station Cherry Point, North Carolina; restricted area and danger zone. 334.430 Section... Air Station Cherry Point, North Carolina; restricted area and danger zone. (a) The restricted area... Station, Cherry Point, North Carolina, extending from the mouth of Hancock Creek to a point...

  6. 33 CFR 334.430 - Neuse River and tributaries at Marine Corps Air Station Cherry Point, North Carolina; restricted...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Marine Corps Air Station Cherry Point, North Carolina; restricted area and danger zone. 334.430 Section... Air Station Cherry Point, North Carolina; restricted area and danger zone. (a) The restricted area... Station, Cherry Point, North Carolina, extending from the mouth of Hancock Creek to a point...

  7. Modeling the Impact of Arctic Shipping Pollution on Air Quality off the Coast of Northern Norway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, J. L.; Law, K.; Marelle, L.; Raut, J.; Jalkanen, J.; Johansson, L.; Roiger, A.; Schlager, H.; Kim, J.; Reiter, A.; Weinzierl, B.; Rose, M.; Fast, J. D.

    2013-12-01

    As the Arctic is undergoing rapid and potentially irreversible changes, such as the shrinking and thinning of sea-ice cover, the levels of atmospheric pollution are expected to rise dramatically due to the emergence of local pollution sources including shipping. Shipping routes through the Arctic (such as Russia's Northern Sea Route) are already used as an alternative to the traditional global transit shipping routes. In summer 2012, the ACCESS (Arctic Climate Change, Economy, and Society) aircraft campaign focused on studying pollution sources off the coast of northern Norway to quantify emissions from shipping and other anthropogenic pollution sources. To complement these measurements, a regional chemical transport model is used to study the impact of shipping pollution on gas and aerosol concentrations in the region. WRF-Chem (The Weather Research and Forecasting Model with Chemistry, which simulates gas and aerosols simultaneously with meteorology) is run with real time shipping emissions from STEAM (Ship Traffic Emission Assessment Model) for July 2012. The STEAM model calculates gas and aerosol emissions of marine traffic based on the ship type and location provided by the Automatic Identification System (AIS). Use of real time position, speed, and ship specific information allows for development of emissions with very high spatial (1x1 km) and temporal (30 min) resolution, which are used in the regional model runs. STEAM emissions have been specifically generated for shipping off the coast of Norway during the entire ACCESS campaign period. Simulated ship plumes from high-resolution model runs are compared to aircraft measurements. The regional impact of current summertime shipping is also examined. At present, relatively light ship traffic off the coast of northern Norway results in only a small impact of shipping pollution on regional atmospheric chemistry. The impact of increased future shipping on regional atmospheric chemistry is also assessed.

  8. What can we learn about ship emission inventories from measurements of air pollutants over the Mediterranean Sea?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marmer, E.; Dentener, F.; Aardenne, J. V.; Cavalli, F.; Vignati, E.; Velchev, K.; Hjorth, J.; Boersma, F.; Vinken, G.; Mihalopoulos, N.; Raes, F.

    2009-03-01

    Ship emission estimates diverge widely for all chemical compounds for several reasons: use of different methodologies (bottom-up or top-down), activity data and emission factors can easily result in a difference from a factor of 1.5 to two orders of magnitude. Despite these large discrepancies in existing ship emission inventories for air pollutants very little has been done to evaluate their consistency with atmospheric measurements at open sea. Combining three sets of observational data - ozone and black carbon measurements sampled at three coastal sites and on board of a Mediterranean cruise ship, as well as satellite observations of atmospheric NO2 column concentration over the same area - we assess the accuracy of the three most commonly used ship emission inventories, EDGAR FT (Olivier et al., 2005), emissions described by Eyring et al. (2005) and emissions reported by EMEP (Vestreng et al., 2007). Our tool is a global atmospheric chemistry transport model which simulates the chemical state of the Mediterranean atmosphere applying different ship emission inventories. The simulated contributions of ships to air pollutant levels in the Mediterranean atmosphere are significant but strongly depend on the inventory applied. Close to the major shipping routes relative contributions vary from 10 to 50% for black carbon and from 2 to 12% for ozone in the surface layer, as well as from 5 to 20% for nitrogen dioxide atmospheric column burden. The relative contributions are still significant over the North African coast, but less so over the South European coast. The observations poorly constrain the ship emission inventories in the Eastern Mediterranean where the influence of uncertain land based emissions, the model transport and wet deposition are at least as important as the signal from ships. In the Western Mediterranean, the regional EMEP emission inventory gives the best match with most measurements, followed by Eyring for NO2 and ozone and by EDGAR for black

  9. Regional Modelling of Air Quality in the Canadian Arctic: Impact of marine shipping and North American wild fire emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, W.; Beagley, S. R.; Zhang, J.; Cousineau, S.; Sassi, M.; Munoz-Alpizar, R.; Racine, J.; Menard, S.; Chen, J.

    2015-12-01

    Arctic atmospheric composition is strongly influenced by long-range transport from mid-latitudes as well as processes occurring in the Arctic locally. Using an on-line air quality prediction model GEM-MACH, simulations were carried out for the 2010 northern shipping season (April - October) over a regional Arctic domain. North American wildfire emissions and Arctic shipping emissions were represented, along with other anthropogenic and biogenic emissions. Sensitivity studies were carried out to investigate the principal sources and processes affecting air quality in the Canadian Northern and Arctic regions. In this paper, we present an analysis of sources, transport, and removal processes on the ambient concentrations and atmospheric loading of various pollutants with air quality and climate implications, such as, O3, NOx, SO2, CO, and aerosols (sulfate, black carbon, and organic carbon components). Preliminary results from a model simulation of a recent summertime Arctic field campaign will also be presented.

  10. The impact of shipping emissions on air pollution in the greater North Sea region - Part 1: Current emissions and concentrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aulinger, A.; Matthias, V.; Zeretzke, M.; Bieser, J.; Quante, M.; Backes, A.

    2016-01-01

    The North Sea is one of the areas with the highest ship traffic densities worldwide. At any time, about 3000 ships are sailing its waterways. Previous scientific publications have shown that ships contribute significantly to atmospheric concentrations of NOx, particulate matter and ozone. Especially in the case of particulate matter and ozone, this influence can even be seen in regions far away from the main shipping routes. In order to quantify the effects of North Sea shipping on air quality in its bordering states, it is essential to determine the emissions from shipping as accurately as possible. Within Interreg IVb project Clean North Sea Shipping (CNSS), a bottom-up approach was developed and used to thoroughly compile such an emission inventory for 2011 that served as the base year for the current emission situation. The innovative aspect of this approach was to use load-dependent functions to calculate emissions from the ships' current activities instead of averaged emission factors for the entire range of the engine loads. These functions were applied to ship activities that were derived from hourly records of Automatic Identification System signals together with a database containing the engine characteristics of the vessels that traveled the North Sea in 2011. The emission model yielded ship emissions among others of NOx and SO2 at high temporal and spatial resolution that were subsequently used in a chemistry transport model in order to simulate the impact of the emissions on pollutant concentration levels. The total emissions of nitrogen reached 540 Gg and those of sulfur oxides 123 Gg within the North Sea - including the adjacent western part of the Baltic Sea until 5° W. This was about twice as much of those of a medium-sized industrialized European state like the Netherlands. The relative contribution of ships to, for example, NO2 concentration levels ashore close to the sea can reach up to 25 % in summer and 15 % in winter. Some hundred kilometers

  11. The impact of shipping emissions on air pollution in the Greater North Sea region - Part 1: Current emissions and concentrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aulinger, A.; Matthias, V.; Zeretzke, M.; Bieser, J.; Quante, M.; Backes, A.

    2015-04-01

    The North Sea is one of the areas with the highest ship traffic densities worldwide. At any time, about 3000 ships are sailing its waterways. Previous scientific publications have shown that ships contribute significantly to atmospheric concentrations of NOx, particulate matter and ozone. Especially in the case of particulate matter and ozone this influence can even be seen in regions far away from the main shipping routes. In order to quantify the effects of North Sea shipping on air quality in its bordering states, it is essential to determine the emissions from shipping as accurately as possible. Within the Interreg IVb project Clean North Sea Shipping (CNSS) a bottom-up approach was developed and used to thoroughly compile such an emission inventory for 2011 that served as the base year for the current emission situation. The innovative aspect of this approach was to use load dependent functions to calculate emissions from the ships' current activities instead of averaged emission factors for the entire range of the engine loads. These functions were applied to ship activities that were derived from hourly records of Automatic Identification System signals together with a data base containing the engine characteristics of the vessels that traveled the North Sea in 2011. The emission model yielded ship emissions among others of NOx and SO2 in high temporal and spatial resolution that were subsequently used in a chemistry transport model in order to simulate the impact of the emissions on pollutant concentration levels. The total emissions of nitrogen reached 540 Gg and of sulfur oxides 123 Gg within the North Sea, which was about twice as much of those of a medium-sized industrialized European state like the Netherlands. The relative contribution of ships to, for example, NO2 concentration levels ashore close to the sea can reach up to 25% in summer and 15% in winter. Some hundred kilometers away from the sea the contribution was about 6% in summer and 4% in

  12. Long term assessment of air quality from a background station on the Malaysian Peninsula.

    PubMed

    Latif, Mohd Talib; Dominick, Doreena; Ahamad, Fatimah; Khan, Md Firoz; Juneng, Liew; Hamzah, Firdaus Mohamad; Nadzir, Mohd Shahrul Mohd

    2014-06-01

    Rural background stations provide insight into seasonal variations in pollutant concentrations and allow for comparisons to be made with stations closer to anthropogenic emissions. In Malaysia, the designated background station is located in Jerantut, Pahang. A fifteen-year data set focusing on ten major air pollutants and four meteorological variables from this station were analysed. Diurnal, monthly and yearly pollutant concentrations were derived from hourly continuous monitoring data. Statistical methods employed included principal component regression (PCR) and sensitivity analysis. Although only one of the yearly concentrations of the pollutants studied exceeded national and World Health Organisation (WHO) guideline standards, namely PM10, seven of the pollutants (NO, NO2, NOx, O3, PM10, THC and CH4) showed a positive upward trend over the 15-year period. High concentrations of PM10 were recorded during severe haze episodes in this region. Whilst, monthly concentrations of most air pollutants, such as: PM10, O3, NOx, NO2, CO and NmHC were recorded at higher concentrations between June and September, during the southwest monsoon. Such results correspond with the mid-range transport of pollutants from more urbanised and industrial areas. Diurnal patterns, rationed between major air pollutants and sensitivity analysis, indicate the influence of local traffic emissions on air quality at the Jerantut background station. Although the pollutant concentrations have not shown a rapid increase, an alternative background station will need to be assigned within the next decade if development projects in the surrounding area are not halted.

  13. 33 CFR 334.600 - TRIDENT Basin adjacent to Canaveral Harbor at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Brevard County...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Canaveral Harbor at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Brevard County, Fla.; danger zone. 334.600 Section 334... Canaveral Air Force Station, Brevard County, Fla.; danger zone. (a) The danger zone. From the west side of... the Commanding Officer, Naval Ordnance Test Unit, Patrick Air Force Base, Florida, or such agencies...

  14. 33 CFR 334.600 - TRIDENT Basin adjacent to Canaveral Harbor at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Brevard County...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Canaveral Harbor at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Brevard County, Fla.; danger zone. 334.600 Section 334... Canaveral Air Force Station, Brevard County, Fla.; danger zone. (a) The danger zone. From the west side of... the Commanding Officer, Naval Ordnance Test Unit, Patrick Air Force Base, Florida, or such agencies...

  15. 33 CFR 334.600 - TRIDENT Basin adjacent to Canaveral Harbor at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Brevard County...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Canaveral Harbor at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Brevard County, Fla.; danger zone. 334.600 Section 334... Canaveral Air Force Station, Brevard County, Fla.; danger zone. (a) The danger zone. From the west side of... the Commanding Officer, Naval Ordnance Test Unit, Patrick Air Force Base, Florida, or such agencies...

  16. 33 CFR 334.600 - TRIDENT Basin adjacent to Canaveral Harbor at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Brevard County...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Canaveral Harbor at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Brevard County, Fla.; danger zone. 334.600 Section 334... Canaveral Air Force Station, Brevard County, Fla.; danger zone. (a) The danger zone. From the west side of... the Commanding Officer, Naval Ordnance Test Unit, Patrick Air Force Base, Florida, or such agencies...

  17. 33 CFR 334.600 - TRIDENT Basin adjacent to Canaveral Harbor at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Brevard County...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Canaveral Harbor at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Brevard County, Fla.; danger zone. 334.600 Section 334... Canaveral Air Force Station, Brevard County, Fla.; danger zone. (a) The danger zone. From the west side of... the Commanding Officer, Naval Ordnance Test Unit, Patrick Air Force Base, Florida, or such agencies...

  18. 33 CFR 334.1125 - Pacific Ocean Naval Air Weapons Station, Point Mugu, Small Arms Range, Ventura County, California...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Pacific Ocean Naval Air Weapons... AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.1125 Pacific Ocean Naval Air Weapons Station, Point Mugu, Small... enforced by personnel attached to the Naval Air Weapons Station, Point Mugu, California, and by such...

  19. 33 CFR 334.1125 - Pacific Ocean Naval Air Weapons Station, Point Mugu, Small Arms Range, Ventura County, California...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Pacific Ocean Naval Air Weapons... AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.1125 Pacific Ocean Naval Air Weapons Station, Point Mugu, Small... enforced by personnel attached to the Naval Air Weapons Station, Point Mugu, California, and by such...

  20. 33 CFR 334.1125 - Pacific Ocean Naval Air Weapons Station, Point Mugu, Small Arms Range, Ventura County, California...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Pacific Ocean Naval Air Weapons... AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.1125 Pacific Ocean Naval Air Weapons Station, Point Mugu, Small... enforced by personnel attached to the Naval Air Weapons Station, Point Mugu, California, and by such...

  1. 33 CFR 334.1125 - Pacific Ocean Naval Air Weapons Station, Point Mugu, Small Arms Range, Ventura County, California...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Pacific Ocean Naval Air Weapons... AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.1125 Pacific Ocean Naval Air Weapons Station, Point Mugu, Small... enforced by personnel attached to the Naval Air Weapons Station, Point Mugu, California, and by such...

  2. 33 CFR 334.1125 - Pacific Ocean Naval Air Weapons Station, Point Mugu, Small Arms Range, Ventura County, California...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pacific Ocean Naval Air Weapons... AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.1125 Pacific Ocean Naval Air Weapons Station, Point Mugu, Small... enforced by personnel attached to the Naval Air Weapons Station, Point Mugu, California, and by such...

  3. Motion-correlated flow distortion and wave-induced biases in air-sea flux measurements from ships

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prytherch, J.; Yelland, M. J.; Brooks, I. M.; Tupman, D. J.; Pascal, R. W.; Moat, B. I.; Norris, S. J.

    2015-09-01

    Direct measurements of the turbulent air-sea fluxes of momentum, heat, moisture and gases are often made using sensors mounted on ships. Ship-based turbulent wind measurements are corrected for platform motion using well established techniques, but biases at scales associated with wave and platform motion are often still apparent in the flux measurements. It has been uncertain whether this signal is due to time-varying distortion of the air flow over the platform or to wind-wave interactions impacting the turbulence. Methods for removing such motion-scale biases from scalar measurements have previously been published but their application to momentum flux measurements remains controversial. Here we show that the measured motion-scale bias has a dependence on the horizontal ship velocity and that a correction for it reduces the dependence of the measured momentum flux on the orientation of the ship to the wind. We conclude that the bias is due to experimental error and that time-varying motion-dependent flow distortion is the likely source.

  4. Motion-correlated flow distortion and wave-induced biases in air-sea flux measurements from ships

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prytherch, J.; Yelland, M. J.; Brooks, I. M.; Tupman, D. J.; Pascal, R. W.; Moat, B. I.; Norris, S. J.

    2015-06-01

    Direct measurements of the turbulent air-sea fluxes of momentum, heat, moisture and gases. are often made using sensors mounted on ships. Ship-based turbulent wind measurements are corrected for platform motion using well established techniques, but biases at scales associated with wave and platform motion are often still apparent in the flux measurements. It has been uncertain whether this signal is due to time-varying distortion of the air flow over the platform, or to wind-wave interactions impacting the turbulence. Methods for removing such motion-scale biases from scalar measurements have previously been published but their application to momentum flux measurements remains controversial. Here we show that the measured motion-scale bias has a dependence on the horizontal ship velocity, and that a correction for it reduces the dependence of the measured momentum flux on the orientation of the ship to the wind. We conclude that the bias is due to experimental error, and that time-varying motion-dependent flow distortion is the likely source.

  5. Locating air quality monitoring station using wind impact area diagram.

    PubMed

    George, K V; Verma, P; Devotta, S

    2008-10-01

    In this study a new methodology is suggested to approximate the impact area downwind of an air pollution source, where air quality monitoring can be carried out to capture the maximum pollutant concentration. Hourly wind speed for a given month is grouped in to different wind speed ranges and the distance of pollutant travel is approximated from the average wind speed of that wind speed range. Since change in wind direction causes the impact distance to rotate, its rotation is approximated by the SD of wind direction change. Using this approach, area or region down wind of a source is determined and plotted. The pattern of monthly change of wind is better represented by the new type of diagram as compared to the wind rose diagram.

  6. Comparisons of Naval Air Station, Nowra Oceanographic Analyses with Independently Obtained Ship and Satellite Data.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-09-01

    1615 - 1461__ 24/7-6/1 FEATURE 22/5 ilia .AE. W0EI 1510___ 152𔃻 1501 159 Is__1 Fig. 1. Track of warm -core ri ng Mareo ’ f rom 9 AprilI to 22 Sept. and...coalesced in about late January. The combined ring, called " Mareo ", migrated northwards with its centre describing anticlockwise loops (Cresswell...of results are drawn is slightly different so that some care is needed in comparing them. In the SST patterns the warm south-west edge of ring Mareo

  7. POLLUTION PREVENTION OPPORTUNITY ASSESSMENT - UNITED STATES NAVAL BASE NORFOLK NAVAL AIR STATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report summarizes work conducted at the U.S. Navy's Naval Base Norfolk, Naval Air Station (NAS) located at Sewells Point in Norfolk, Virginia, under the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Waste Reduction Evaluations at Federal Sites (WREAFS) Program. This project w...

  8. The influence of cruise ship emissions on air pollution in Svalbard

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eckhardt, Sabine; Hermansen, Ove; Grythe, Henrik; Fiebig, Markus; Stebel, Kerstin; Cassiani, Massimo; Baecklund, Are; Stohl, Andreas

    2013-04-01

    We have analyzed whether tourist cruise ships have an influence on measured sulfur dioxide (SO2), ozone (O3), Aitken mode particle and equivalent black carbon (EBC) concentrations at Ny Ålesund and Zeppelin Mountain on Svalbard in the Norwegian Arctic, during summer. We separated the measurement data set into periods when ships were present and periods when no ships were present in the Kongsfjord area, according to a long-term record of the number of passengers visiting Ny Ålesund. We show that when ships with more than 50 passengers cruise in the Kongsfjord, measured daytime-mean concentrations of 60-nm particles and EBC in summer show enhancements of 72 and 45% relative to values when no ships are present. Even larger enhancements of 81 and 72% were found for stagnant conditions. In contrast, O3 concentrations were 5% lower on average and 7% lower under stagnant conditions, due to titration of O3 with the emitted nitric oxide (NO). The differences between the two data subsets are largest for the highest measured percentiles while relatively small differences were found for the median concentrations, indicating that ship plumes are sampled relatively infrequently even when ships are generally present but carry high concentrations. We estimate that the ships increased the total summer mean concentrations of SO2, 60-nm particles and EBC by 15, 18 and 11%, respectively. Our findings have two important implications: Firstly, even at such a remote Arctic observatory as Zeppelin, the measurements can be influenced by tourist ship emissions. Careful data screening is recommended before summer-time Zeppelin data is used for data analysis or for comparison with global chemistry transport models. However, Zeppelin remains one of the most valuable Arctic observatories, as most other Arctic observatories face even larger local pollution problems. Secondly, given landing statistics of tourist ships on Svalbard, it is suspected that large parts of the Svalbard archipelago are

  9. Model study of the ship emissions impact on the air quality in the Adriatic/Ionian area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karagiannidis, Athanasios; Poupkou, Anastasia; Liora, Natalia; Dimopoulos, Spiros; Giannaros, Christos; Melas, Dimitrios; Argiriou, Athanassios

    2015-04-01

    The increase of the ship traffic for touristic and commercial purposes is one of the EU Blue Growth targets. The Adriatic/Ionian is one of the sea-basin strategic areas for this target. The purpose of the study is the examination of the impact of the ship emissions on the gaseous and particulate pollutants concentrations in the Adriatic/Ionian area for which the current scientific knowledge is limited. The impact is simulated over a domain covering the Central and Eastern Mediterranean in 10 km resolution during a summer period (July) and a winter period (January) of the year 2012. The modeling system used consists of the photochemical model CAMx off line coupled with the meteorological model WRF. The zero-out modeling method is implemented involving CAMx simulations performed while including and omitting the ship emission data. The simulations are based on the European scale anthropogenic emission inventory of The Netherlands Organisation (TNO) for the reference year 2009. Natural emissions (NMVOCs from the vegetation, sea salt, wind-blown dust), estimated with the use of the Natural Emission MOdel (NEMO) developed by the Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, are accounted for in the photochemical model runs. The spatial distribution of the resulting differences in the gaseous and particulate pollutant concentration fields for both emission scenarios are presented and discussed, providing an estimation of the contribution of ship emissions on the determination of the air quality in the Adriatic/Ionian countries

  10. 33 CFR 334.746 - U.S. Coast Guard, Destin Station at Eglin Air Force Base, Fla.; restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false U.S. Coast Guard, Destin Station at Eglin Air Force Base, Fla.; restricted area. 334.746 Section 334.746 Navigation and Navigable... REGULATIONS § 334.746 U.S. Coast Guard, Destin Station at Eglin Air Force Base, Fla.; restricted area. (a)...

  11. Rainfall Prediction using Soil and Air Temperature in a Tropical Station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chacko, Tessy P.; Renuka, G.

    2007-07-01

    An attempt is made to establish a linkage between soil and air temperature and south-west monsoon rainfall at Pillicode (12°12'N,75°10'E) a tropical station in north Kerala. The dependence of monsoon rainfall on pre-monsoon soil temperature decreases as the depth of the soil increases. A regression equation has been developed for the estimation of monsoon rainfall using pre-monsoon soil and air temperature. The results show that sub soil temperature along with air temperature can be used for forecasting the monsoon level.

  12. ANITA Air Monitoring on the International Space Station: Results Compared to Other Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Honne, A.; Schumann-Olsen, H.; Kaspersen, K.; Limero, T.; Macatangay, A.; Mosebach, H.; Kampf, D.; Mudgett, P. D.; James, J. T.; Tan, G.; Supper, W.

    2009-01-01

    ANITA (Analysing Interferometer for Ambient Air) is a flight experiment precursor for a permanent continuous air quality monitoring system on the ISS (International Space Station). For the safety of the crew, ANITA can detect and quantify quasi-online and simultaneously 33 gas compounds in the air with ppm or sub-ppm detection limits. The autonomous measurement system is based on FTIR (Fourier Transform Infra-Red spectroscopy). The system represents a versatile air quality monitor, allowing for the first time the detection and monitoring of trace gas dynamics in a spacecraft atmosphere. ANITA operated on the ISS from September 2007 to August 2008. This paper summarizes the results of ANITA s air analyses with emphasis on comparisons to other measurements. The main basis of comparison is NASA s set of grab samples taken onboard the ISS and analysed on ground applying various GC-based (Gas Chromatography) systems.

  13. The role of Environmental Health System air quality monitors in Space Station Contingency Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Limero, Thomas F.; Wilson, Steve; Perlot, Susan; James, John

    1992-01-01

    This paper describes the Space Station Freedom (SSF) Environmental Health System's air-quality monitoring strategy and instrumentation. A two-tier system has been developed, consisting of first-alert instruments that warn the crew of airborne contamination and a volatile organic analyzer that can identify volatile organic contaminants in near-real time. The strategy for air quality monitoring on SSF is designed to provide early detection so that the contamination can be confined to one module and so that crew health and safety can be protected throughout the contingency event. The use of air-quality monitors in fixed and portable modes will be presented as a means of following the progress of decontamination efforts and ensuring acceptable air quality in a module after an incident. The technology of each instrument will be reviewed briefly; the main focus of this paper, however, will be the use of air-quality monitors before, during, and after contingency incidents.

  14. AIRS Observations of DomeC in Antarctica and Comparison with Automated Weather Stations (AWS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aumann, Hartmut H.; Gregorich, Dave; Broberg, Steve

    2006-01-01

    We compare the surface temperatures at Dome Concordia (DomeC) deduced from AIRS data and two Automatic Weather Stations at Concordia Station: AWS8989 , which has been in operation since December 1996, and AWS.it, for which data are available between January and November 2005. The AWS8989 readings are on average 3 K warmer than the AWS.it readings, with a warmer bias in the Antarctic summer than in the winter season. Although AIRS measures the skin brightness temperature, while the AWS reports the temperature of the air at 3 meter above the surface, the AIRS measurements agree well with the AWS.it readings for all data and separately for the summer and winter seasons, if data taken in the presence of strong surface inversions are filtered out. This can be done by deducing the vertical temperature gradient above the surface directly from the AIRS temperature sounding channels or indirectly by noting that extreme vertical gradients near the surface are unlikely if the wind speed is more than a few meters per second. Since the AIRS measurements are very well calibrated, the agreement with AWS.it is very encouraging. The warmer readings of AWS8989 are likely due to thermal contamination of the AWS8989 site by the increasing activity at Concordia Station. Data from an AWS.it quality station could be used for the evaluation of radiometric accuracy and stability of polar orbiting sounders at low temperatures. Unfortunately, data from AWS.it was available only for a limited time. The thermal contamination of the AWS8989 data makes long-term trends deduced from AWS8989 and possibly results about the rapid Antarctic warming deduced from other research stations on Antarctica suspect. AIRS is the first hyperspectral infrared sounder designed in support of weather forecasting and climate research. It was launched in May 2002 on the EOS Aqua spacecraft into a 704 km altitude polar sun-synchronous orbit. The lifetime of AIRS, estimated before launch to be at least 5 years is

  15. Subway platform air quality: Assessing the influences of tunnel ventilation, train piston effect and station design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreno, T.; Pérez, N.; Reche, C.; Martins, V.; de Miguel, E.; Capdevila, M.; Centelles, S.; Minguillón, M. C.; Amato, F.; Alastuey, A.; Querol, X.; Gibbons, W.

    2014-08-01

    A high resolution air quality monitoring campaign (PM, CO2 and CO) was conducted on differently designed station platforms in the Barcelona subway system under: (a) normal forced tunnel ventilation, and (b) with daytime tunnel ventilation systems shut down. PM concentrations are highly variable (6-128 μgPM1 m-3, 16-314 μgPM3 m-3, and 33-332 μgPM10 m-3, 15-min averages) depending on ventilation conditions and station design. Narrow platforms served by single-track tunnels are heavily dependent on forced tunnel ventilation and cannot rely on the train piston effect alone to reduce platform PM concentrations. In contrast PM levels in stations with spacious double-track tunnels are not greatly affected when tunnel ventilation is switched off, offering the possibility of significant energy savings without damaging air quality. Sampling at different positions along the platform reveals considerable lateral variation, with the greatest accumulation of particulates occurring at one end of the platform. Passenger accesses can dilute PM concentrations by introducing cleaner outside air, although lateral down-platform accesses are less effective than those positioned at the train entry point. CO concentrations on the platform are very low (≤1 ppm) and probably controlled by ingress of traffic-contaminated street-level air. CO2 averages range from 371 to 569 ppm, changing during the build-up and exchange of passengers with each passing train.

  16. Chlorinated pesticides and natural brominated anisoles in air at three northern Baltic stations.

    PubMed

    Bidleman, Terry F; Laudon, Hjalmar; Nygren, Olle; Svanberg, Staffan; Tysklind, Mats

    2017-03-20

    Polyurethane foam (PUF) disk passive samplers were deployed at one inland and two island locations in the Bothnian Bay region of the northern Baltic Sea. Uptake was linear over 81-147 d and a temperature range of -2.6 to 14.2 °C for organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and current-use pesticides (CUPs) having log KOA ≥9 at ambient temperatures. Partial saturation of the PUF disks occurred for the more volatile OCPs hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs) and hexachlorobenzene (HCB), and for bromoanisoles (BAs), which are products of bromophenols released by natural and anthropogenic sources. Correction for nonlinear uptake of these was made using experimentally measured PUF-air partition coefficients. Passive-derived air concentrations of pesticides were uniform over the bay and agreed within a factor of 2 or better with levels determined by active (pumped) sampling at one of the island stations. Levels of OCPs were similar to those reported at background sites in the European and Canadian Arctic and at monitoring stations in the central Baltic and southern Scandinavia, indicating long-range transport. The insecticide chlorpyrifos was 10 times lower at bay stations than in the Canadian Arctic. Insight to sources and processes was gained by examining compound profiles. Fractions Falpha = α-HCH/(α-HCH + γ-HCH) and FTC = trans-chlordane/(trans-chlordane + cis-chlordane) at bay stations were higher than in the Norwegian and Finnish Arctic and similar to those at the southern monitoring stations. Volatilization of chlordanes from Baltic seawater may also modify FTC. Higher FTriBA = 2,4,6-TriBA/(2,4,6-TriBA + 2,4-DiBA) distinguished local volatilization from the Baltic Sea versus lower FTriBA found at the inland site and reported in air on the Norwegian coast, suggesting westerly transport from the Atlantic across Norway and Sweden.

  17. Microbial counts and particulate matter levels in roadside air samples under skytrain stations, Bangkok, Thailand.

    PubMed

    Luksamijarulkul, Pipat; Kongtip, Pornpimol

    2010-05-01

    In conditions with heavy traffic and crowds of people on roadside areas under skytrain stations in Bangkok, the natural air ventilation may be insufficient and air quality may be poor. A study of 350 air samples collected from the roadside, under skytrain stations in Bangkok, was carried out to assess microbial counts (210 air samples) and particulate matter (PM10) levels (140 samples). The results reveal the mean +/- standard deviation bacterial counts and fungal counts were 406.8 +/- 302.7 cfu/m3 and 128.9 +/- 89.7 cfu/m3, respectively. The PM10 level was 186.1 +/- 188.1 microg/m3. When compared to recommended levels, 4.8% of air samples (10/210 samples) had bacterial counts more than recommended levels (> 1,000 cfu/ m3) and 27.1% (38/140 samples) had PM10 levels more than recommended levels (> 120 microg/m3). These may affect human health, especially of street venders who spend most of their working time in these areas.

  18. Open hardware air quality station for monitoring ozone in port area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Massabo, Marco; Lima, Marco; Fedi, Adriano; Ferrari, Daniele; Pintus, Fabio; Bruzzone, Gabriele

    2015-04-01

    Improve the quality of the air is one of the most important challenges we are facing especially in urban area. The open hardware paradigm can promote the positive connection of institution and scientific community with citizen. The goal of this work is to describe how a well-known pollution sensing technology, such as the electrochemical one, may be adopted in an open hardware paradigm in order to realize a ground level ozone sensor station. Our approach is to use this type of sensors to complement and empower traditional measuring networks in order to provide a better support to the models and to the identification of the pollution sources. The calibration methodology is based on the online coupling of new sensor measurements and observations of official network. Several linear calibration and a linear error correction algorithm based on temperature are performed and evaluated. The new air quality station allows to increase the frequency of sampling up to minutes and, due to the low cost, can stimulate the utilization by no-professionals. We test the air quality station in portal area and compare the results with traditional observations.

  19. Environmental Assessment for Buckley Air Force Base Air Traffic Control Tower and Fire Station

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-05-01

    shows the location of the current air traffic control tower and crash house on the northeast side of the runway and the location of the proposed new...Army aviation site) and crash house located on the northeast side of the runway. This action would include demolishing the current air traffic...throughout the year with the wettest months occurring in spring and summer. The average annual precipitation is 16.3 inches. BAFB receives

  20. Measurement of Ship Air Wake Impact on a Remotely Piloted Vehicle

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-05-09

    warships. Data collected from both at-sea measurements and wind tunnel testing are being compared with CFD models already used to help predict ship...7 1.1.2 Wind Tunnel Measurements...48 L i s t o f S y m b o l s a n d Ab b r e v i a t i o n s CCWT ........................Closed Circuit Wind Tunnel CFD

  1. Final Report Recommended Actions to Reduce Electrical Peak Loads at the Marine Corps Air Station at Camp Pendleton, California

    SciTech Connect

    Hail, John C.; Brown, Daryl R.; McCullough, Jeffrey J.; Underhill, Ronald M.

    2001-05-08

    PNNL conducted a walk-through audit of Marine Corps Air Station at Camp Pendleton. The audit inspected a significant portion of the site and identified a large number of similar energy saving opportunities across all building types.

  2. FY 1994 ambient air monitoring report for McMurdo Station, Antarctica

    SciTech Connect

    Lugar, R.M.

    1994-12-01

    This report presents the results of ambient air monitoring performed during the 1994 fiscal year (FY 1994) in the vicinity of McMurdo Station, Antarctica. Routine monitoring was performed during the 1993-1994 austral summer at three locations for airborne particulate matter less than 10 micrometers (PM-10) and at two locations for carbon monoxide (CO), sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}), and nitrogen oxides (NO, NO{sub 2}, and NO{sub x}). Selected PM-10 filters were analyzed for arsenic, beryllium, cadmium, chromium, lead, mercury, and nickel. Additional air samples were collected at three McMurdo area locations and at Black Island for determination of the airborne concentration of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs). Sampling site selection, sampling procedures, and quality assurance procedures used were consistent with US Environmental Protection Agency guidance for local ambient air quality networks.

  3. Performance Evaluation of the Operational Air Quality Monitor for Water Testing Aboard the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wallace, William T.; Limero, Thomas F.; Gazda, Daniel B.; Macatangay, Ariel V.; Dwivedi, Prabha; Fernandez, Facundo M.

    2014-01-01

    In the history of manned spaceflight, environmental monitoring has relied heavily on archival sampling. For short missions, this type of sample collection was sufficient; returned samples provided a snapshot of the presence of chemical and biological contaminants in the spacecraft air and water. However, with the construction of the International Space Station (ISS) and the subsequent extension of mission durations, soon to be up to one year, the need for enhanced, real-time environmental monitoring became more pressing. The past several years have seen the implementation of several real-time monitors aboard the ISS, complemented with reduced archival sampling. The station air is currently monitored for volatile organic compounds (VOCs) using gas chromatography-differential mobility spectrometry (Air Quality Monitor [AQM]). The water on ISS is analyzed to measure total organic carbon and biocide concentrations using the Total Organic Carbon Analyzer (TOCA) and the Colorimetric Water Quality Monitoring Kit (CWQMK), respectively. The current air and water monitors provide important data, but the number and size of the different instruments makes them impractical for future exploration missions. It is apparent that there is still a need for improvements in environmental monitoring capabilities. One such improvement could be realized by modifying a single instrument to analyze both air and water. As the AQM currently provides quantitative, compound-specific information for target compounds present in air samples, and many of the compounds are also targets for water quality monitoring, this instrument provides a logical starting point to evaluate the feasibility of this approach. In this presentation, we will discuss our recent studies aimed at determining an appropriate method for introducing VOCs from water samples into the gas phase and our current work, in which an electro-thermal vaporization unit has been interfaced with the AQM to analyze target analytes at the

  4. Open hardware, low cost, air quality stations for monitoring ozone in coastal area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lima, Marco; Donzella, Davide; Pintus, Fabio; Fedi, Adriano; Ferrari, Daniele; Massabò, Marco

    2014-05-01

    Ozone concentrations in urban and coastal area are a great concern for citizens and, consequently regulator. In the last 20 years the Ozone concentration is almost doubled and it has attracted the public attention because of the well know harmful impacts on human health and biosphere in general. Official monitoring networks usually comprise high precision, high accuracy observation stations, usually managed by public administrations and environmental agency; unfortunately due to their high costs of installation and maintenance, the monitoring stations are relatively sparse. This kind of monitoring networks have been recognized to be unsuitable to effectively characterize the high variability of air quality, especially in areas where pollution sources are various and often not static. We present a prototype of a low cost station for air quality monitoring, specifically developed for complementing the official monitoring stations improving the representation of air quality spatial distribution. We focused on a semi-professional product that could guarantee the highest reliability at the lowest possible cost, supported by a consistent infrastructure for data management. We test two type of Ozone sensor electrochemical and metal oxide. This work is integrated in the ACRONET Paradigm ® project: an open-hardware platform strongly oriented on environmental monitoring. All software and hardware sources will be available on the web. Thus, a computer and a small amount of work tools will be sufficient to create new monitoring networks, with the only constraint to share all the data obtained. It will so possible to create a real "sensing community". The prototype is currently able to measure ozone level, temperature and relative humidity, but soon, with the upcoming changes, it will be able also to monitor dust, carbon monoxide and nitrogen dioxide, always through the use of commercial sensors. The sensors are grouped in a compact board that interfaces with a data

  5. Validation of AIRS V6 Surface Temperature over Greenland with GCN and NOAA Stations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Jae N.; Hearty, Thomas; Cullather, Richard; Nowicki, Sophie; Susskind, Joel

    2016-01-01

    This work compares the temporal and spatial characteristics of the AIRSAMSU (Atmospheric Infrared Sounder Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit A) Version 6 and MODIS (Moderate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) Collection 5 derived surface temperatures over Greenland. To estimate uncertainties in space-based surface temperature measurements, we re-projected the MODIS Ice Surface Temperature (IST) to 0.5 by 0.5 degree spatial resolution. We also re-gridded AIRS Skin Temperature (Ts) into the same grid but classified with different cloud conditions and surface types. These co-located data sets make intercomparison between the two instruments relatively straightforward. Using this approach, the spatial comparison between the monthly mean AIRS Ts and MODIS IST is in good agreement with RMS 2K for May 2012. This approach also allows the detection of any long-term calibration drift and the careful examination of calibration consistency in the MODIS and AIRS temperature data record. The temporal correlations between temperature data are also compared with those from in-situ measurements from GC-Net (GCN) and NOAA stations. The coherent time series of surface temperature evident in the correlation between AIRS Ts and GCN temperatures suggest that at monthly time scales both observations capture the same climate signal over Greenland. It is also suggested that AIRS surface air temperature (Ta) can be used to estimate the boundary layer inversion.

  6. Cape Canaveral Air Force Station integrated resource assessment. Volume 2, Baseline detail

    SciTech Connect

    Wahlstrom, R.R.; McMordie, K.L.; Parker, S.A.; King, D.A.; Sandusky, W.F.

    1993-12-01

    The US Air Force (USAF) has tasked the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL), in support of the US Department of Energy (DOE) Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP), to assess energy use at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station (AFS). The information obtained from this assessment will be used in identifying energy resource opportunities to reduce overall energy consumption by the station. The primary focus of this report is to assess the current baseline energy consumption at Cape Canaveral AFS. It is A companion report to Volume 1, the Executive Summary, and Volume 3, the Resource Assessment. This assessment requires that information be obtained and characterized for buildings, utilities, energy sources, energy uses, and load profiles to be used to improve the current energy system on the station. The characteristics of electricity, diesel fuel, No. 2 fuel oil, and motor vehicle gasoline (MOGAS) are analyzed for on-base facilities. The assessment examines basic regional information used to determine energy-use intensity (EUI) values for Cape Canaveral AFS facilities by building, fuel type, and energy end use. It also provides a summary of electricity consumption from Florida Power and Light Company (FPL) metered data for 1985--1991. Load profile information obtained from FPL data is presented for the North, South, and Titan Substations for the four seasons of the year, including weekdays and weekends.

  7. Categorisation of air quality monitoring stations by evaluation of PM(10) variability.

    PubMed

    Barrero, M A; Orza, J A G; Cabello, M; Cantón, L

    2015-08-15

    Air Quality Monitoring Networks (AQMNs) are composed by a number of stations, which are typically classified as urban, suburban or rural, and background, industrial or traffic, depending on the location and the influence of the immediate surroundings. These categories are not necessarily homogeneous and distinct from one another, regarding the levels of the monitored pollutants. A classification providing groups with these features is of interest for air quality management and research purposes, and therefore, other classification criteria should be explored. In this work, the variations of PM10 concentrations in 43 stations in the AQMN of the Basque Country in the period 2005-2012 have been studied to group them according to common characteristics. The characteristic variations in time are synthesised by the autocorrelation function (ACF), with both daily and hourly data, and by the average diurnal evolution pattern of the normalised concentrations on a seasonal basis (Evol-P). A methodology based on k-means clustering of these features is proposed. Each classification gives a different piece of information that has been phenomenologically related with specific dispersion and emission dynamics. The classification based on Evol-Ps is found to be the most influential one when comparing PM10 levels between groups. A combination of these categorisations provides 5 groups with significantly different levels of PM10, improving the discrimination of the conventional classification. Our results indicate that the time series of the pollutant concentrations contain enough information to provide an objective classification of the monitoring stations in an AQMN.

  8. Model calculations of the effects of present and future emissions of air pollutants from shipping in the Baltic Sea and the North Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jonson, J. E.; Jalkanen, J. P.; Johansson, L.; Gauss, M.; Denier van der Gon, H. A. C.

    2014-08-01

    Land-based emissions of air pollutants in Europe have steadily decreased over the past two decades, and this decrease is expected to continue. Within the same time span emissions from shipping have increased, although recently sulphur emissions, and subsequently particle emissions, have decreased in EU ports and in the Baltic Sea and the North Sea, defined as SECAs (Sulphur Emission Control Areas). The maximum allowed sulphur content in marine fuels in EU ports is now 0.1%, as required by the European Union sulphur directive. In the SECAs the maximum fuel content of sulphur is currently 1% (the global average is about 2.4%). This will be reduced to 0.1% from 2015, following the new IMO rules (International Maritime Organisation). In order to assess the effects of ship emissions in and around the Baltic Sea and the North Sea, regional model calculations with the EMEP air pollution model have been made on a 1/4° longitude × 1/8° latitude resolution, using ship emissions in the Baltic Sea and the North Sea that are based on accurate ship positioning data. The effects on depositions and air pollution and the resulting number of years of life lost (YOLL) have been calculated by comparing model calculations with and without ship emissions in the two sea areas. The calculations have been made with emissions representative of 2009 and 2011, i.e. before and after the implementation of stricter controls on sulphur emissions from mid 2010. The calculations with present emissions show that per person, an additional 0.1-0.2 years of life lost is estimated in areas close to the major ship tracks with present emission levels. Comparisons of model calculations with emissions before and after the implementation of stricter emission control on sulphur show a general decrease in calculated particle concentration. At the same time, however, an increase in ship activity has resulted in higher emissions and subsequently air concentrations, in particular of NOx, especially in and

  9. Cabin Air Quality On Board Mir and the International Space Station: A Comparison

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macatangay, Ariel; Perry, Jay L.

    2007-01-01

    The maintenance of the cabin atmosphere aboard spacecraft is critical not only to its habitability but also to its function. Ideally, air quality can be maintained by striking a proper balance between the generation and removal of contaminants. Both very dynamic processes, the balance between generation and removal can be difficult to maintain and control because the state of the cabin atmosphere is in constant evolution responding to different perturbations. Typically, maintaining a clean cabin environment on board crewed spacecraft and space habitats is the central function of the environmental control and life support (ECLS) system. While active air quality control equipment is deployed on board every vehicle to remove carbon dioxide, water vapor, and trace chemical components from the cabin atmosphere, perturbations associated with logistics, vehicle construction and maintenance, and ECLS system configuration influence the resulting cabin atmospheric quality. The air-quality data obtained from the International Space Station (ISS) and NASA-Mir programs provides a wealth of information regarding the maintenance of the cabin atmosphere aboard long-lived space habitats. A comparison of the composition of the trace chemical contaminant load is presented. Correlations between ground-based and in-flight operations that influence cabin atmospheric quality are identified and discussed, and observations on cabin atmospheric quality during the NASA-Mir expeditions and the International Space Station are explored.

  10. A 20-KW Wind Energy Conversion System (WECS) at the Marine Corps Air Station, Kaneohe, Hawaii.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-01-01

    NATIONAL BURLAU OF STANDARDS I963 A TN NO: N-1655 A 20-KW WIND ENERGY CONVERSION SYSTEM TITLE: (WECS) AT THE MARINE CORPS AI& STATION, KANEOHE, HAWAII...4 TITLE (o, S,,bIII1. S TYPE OF kEPORT II PERIOD COvERED A 20-KW WIND ENERGY CONVERSION SYSTEM Not final;Sep 78- Dec81 (WECS) AT THE MARINE CORPS AIR...from RepO) 18 SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES • -1 19 KEY WORDS eComf-Ur o, ,e . s d. it ,e f , &1d Ide-,fs by bd, umb,) Wind energy conversion systems, wind energy , wind

  11. EPIDEMIOLOGICAL AND ENTOMOLOGICAL CORRELATION OF MALARIA TRANSMISSION IN AN AIR FORCE STATION.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, A; Nayak, B

    2001-07-01

    An epidemio-entomological study was carried out at an Air Force Station located in a semi-hilly, forested, highly malarious, tribal belt in Central India. Malaria incidence for the period 1995-1998 showed highest incidence among DSC personnel. Entomological studies identified exophilic vectors (A culicifacies), whose bionomics coincided with outdoor nature of occupation of the DSC personnel. Active surveillance among neighbouring villages showed high endemicity particularly in the tribal villages. Heavy rainfall in 1997 had a slight inhibiting effect on transmission. Because of exophilism of the vectors and occupational hazard of malaria faced by the DSC personnel, personal protective measures hold the key to malaria control in this group.

  12. 33 CFR 334.746 - U.S. Coast Guard, Destin Station at Eglin Air Force Base, Fla.; restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... at Eglin Air Force Base, Fla.; restricted area. 334.746 Section 334.746 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE DANGER ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.746 U.S. Coast Guard, Destin Station at Eglin Air Force Base, Fla.; restricted area. (a)...

  13. 33 CFR 334.746 - U.S. Coast Guard, Destin Station at Eglin Air Force Base, Fla.; restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... at Eglin Air Force Base, Fla.; restricted area. 334.746 Section 334.746 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE DANGER ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.746 U.S. Coast Guard, Destin Station at Eglin Air Force Base, Fla.; restricted area. (a)...

  14. Stationwide environmental baseline survey and related environmental factors, Ontario Air National Guard Station, California

    SciTech Connect

    1996-11-26

    This Environmental Baseline Survey (EBS) has been prepared to document the environmental condition of real property at Ontario Air National Guard Station (ANGS), California, resulting from the storage, release, and disposal of hazardous substances and petroleum products and their derivatives over the installations history. This EBS is also used by the Air Force to meet its obligations under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), 42 United States Code Section 9620(h), as amended by the Community Environmental Response Facilitation Act (CERFA) (Public Law 102-426). Table ES-1 list all uncontaminated property based on information obtained through a records search, interviews, and visual site inspections at Ontario ANGS. Figure ES-1 depicts their respective locations.

  15. The meteorological monitoring system for the Kennedy Space Center/Cape Canaveral Air Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dianic, Allan V.

    1994-01-01

    The Kennedy Space Center (KSC) and Cape Canaveral Air Station (CCAS) are involved in many weather-sensitive operations. Manned and unmanned vehicle launches, which occur several times each year, are obvious example of operations whose success and safety are dependent upon favorable meteorological conditions. Other operations involving NASA, Air Force, and contractor personnel, including daily operations to maintain facilities, refurbish launch structures, prepare vehicles for launch, and handle hazardous materials, are less publicized but are no less weather-sensitive. The Meteorological Monitoring System (MMS) is a computer network which acquires, processes, disseminates, and monitors near real-time and forecast meteorological information to assist operational personnel and weather forecasters with the task of minimizing the risk to personnel, materials, and the surrounding population. CLIPS has been integrated into the MMS to provide quality control analysis and data monitoring. This paper describes aspects of the MMS relevant to CLIPS including requirements, actual implementation details, and results of performance testing.

  16. Pollution prevention opportunity assessment United States Naval Base Norfolk Naval Air Station. Project summary

    SciTech Connect

    Bowman, D.; DeWaters, J.

    1995-09-01

    The purposes of the WREAFS Program are to identify new technologies and techniques for reducing wastes from process operations and other activities at Federal sites, and to enhance the implementation of pollution prevention/waste minimization through technology transfer. New techniques and technologies for reducing waste generation are identified through waste minimization opportunity assessments and may be further evaluated through joint research, development, and demonstration projects. A cooling tower is an enclosed device designed for the evaporative cooling of water by direct contact with air. Cooling towers are used in conjunction with air conditioning and industrial process equipment, acting as the heat sink for these systems by providing a continuous source of cool water for process operations. Open-system recirculating cooling towers are typically chosen for operation with air conditioning and refrigeration equipment because they are relatively inexpensive and minimize heat rejection costs while conserving water. All of the cooling towers at the Norfolk Naval Air Station identified in this PPOA are of the recirculating, open-system type. The Navy and EPA are currently evaluating techniques and technologies to reduce wastes generated from cooling tower operations within the Norfolk NAS. Approximately 28 open-system recirculating cooling towers are currently operated at 18 buildings within the NAS. These units range in size from 5 to 300 tons, and are all associated with comfort cooling systems that operate on a seasonal basis (approximately 6 mo/yr).

  17. Monitoring shipping fuel sulfur content regulations with in-situ measurements of shipping emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kattner, Lisa; Mathieu-Ueffing, Barbara; Seyler, André; Aulinger, Armin; Burrows, John; Matthias, Volker; Neumann, Daniel; Richter, Andreas; Schmolke, Stefan; Theobald, Norbert; Wittrock, Folkard

    2015-04-01

    Air pollution from shipping emissions contributes to overall air quality problems and has direct health effects on the population especially in coastal regions and harbor cities. In order to reduce these emissions the International Maritime Organisation (IMO) has tightened the regulations for air pollution from ships. Since January 1st 2015, the allowed amount of sulfur in shipping fuel which is responsible for SO2 emissions, has dropped from 1% to 0,1% in the Emission Control area (ECA) that combines the North Sea and Baltic Sea. This effectively excludes the use of heavy fuel oils by ships in this area. However, until now there is no regular monitoring system available to verify that ships are complying with these new regulations. The project MeSMarT (Measurements of shipping emissions in the marine troposphere) has been established as a cooperation between the University of Bremen and the German Bundesamt für Seeschifffahrt und Hydrographie (Federal Maritime and Hydrographic Agency) with the support of the Helmholtz-Zentrum Geesthacht to estimate the influence of shipping emissions on the chemistry of the atmospheric boundary layer and to establish a monitoring system for main shipping routes. Within the project, several hundred ships have been monitored with focus on their sulfur fuel content, which is estimated by the ratio of SO2 and CO2, both measured with in-situ instruments from measurement stations near the passing ships. It is shown how well ships have been complying to the sulfur content regulation so far and which ships and how many are affected by the new regulations. Three different measurement sites, ranging from measurements near the Elbe River to open sea measurements from a research vessel are compared to show if the distance to the coast has an effect on the fuel quality. First results from very recent measurements of 2015 will be presented to show how the new regulations are implemented and how this will result in reduced SO2 and thus better

  18. International Space Station Common Cabin Air Assembly Condensing Heat Exchanger Hydrophilic Coating Failures and Lessons Learned

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Balistreri, Steven F.; Shaw, Laura A.; Laliberte, Yvon

    2010-01-01

    The ability to control the temperature and humidity of an environment or habitat is critical for human survival. These factors are important to maintaining human health and comfort, as well as maintaining mechanical and electrical equipment in good working order to support the human and to accomplish mission objectives. The temperature and humidity of the International Space Station (ISS) United States On-orbit Segment (USOS) cabin air is controlled by the Common Cabin Air Assembly (CCAA). The CCAA consists of a fan, a condensing heat exchanger (CHX), an air/water separator, temperature and liquid sensors, and electrical controlling hardware and software. The CHX is the primary component responsible for control of temperature and humidity. The CCAA CHX contains a chemical coating that was developed to be hydrophilic and thus attract water from the humid influent air. This attraction forms the basis for water removal and therefore cabin humidity control. However, there have been several instances of CHX coatings becoming hydrophobic and repelling water. When this behavior is observed in an operational CHX, the unit s ability to remove moisture from the air is compromised and the result is liquid water carryover into downstream ducting and systems. This water carryover can have detrimental effects on the cabin atmosphere quality and on the health of downstream hardware. If the water carryover is severe and widespread, this behavior can result in an inability to maintain humidity levels in the USOS. This paper will describe the operation of the five CCAAs within in the USOS, the potential causes of the hydrophobic condition, and the impacts of the resulting water carryover to downstream systems. It will describe the history of this behavior and the actual observed impacts to the ISS USOS. Information on mitigation steps to protect the health of future CHX hydrophilic coatings and potential remediation techniques will also be discussed.

  19. International Space Station Common Cabin Air Assembly Water Separator On-Orbit Operation, Failure, and Redesign

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Balistreri, Steven F., Jr.; Shaw, Laura A.; Laliberte, Yvon

    2010-01-01

    The ability to control the temperature and humidity of an environment or habitat is critical for human survival. These factors are important to maintaining human health and comfort, as well as maintaining mechanical and electrical equipment in good working order to support the human and to accomplish mission objectives. The temperature and humidity of the International Space Station (ISS) United States On-orbit Segment (USOS) cabin air is controlled by the Common Cabin Air Assembly (CCAA). The CCAA consists of a fan, a condensing heat exchanger (CHX), an air/water separator, temperature and liquid sensors, and electrical controlling hardware and software. The Water Separator (WS) pulls in air and water from the CHX, and centrifugally separates the mixture, sending the water to the condensate bus and the air back into the CHX outlet airstream. Two distinct early failures of the CCAA Water Separator in the Quest Airlock forced operational changes and brought about the re-design of the Water Separator to improve the useful life via modification kits. The on-orbit operational environment of the Airlock presented challenges that were not foreseen with the original design of the Water Separator. Operational changes were instituted to prolong the life of the third installed WS, while waiting for newly designed Water Separators to be delivered on-orbit. The modification kit design involved several different components of the Water Separator, including the innovative use of a fabrication technique to build the impellers used in Water Separators out of titanium instead of aluminum. The technique allowed for the cost effective production of the low quantity build. This paper will describe the failures of the Water Separators in the Quest Airlock, the operational constraints that were implemented to prolong the life of the installed Water Separators throughout the USOS, and the innovative re-design of the CCAA Water Separator.

  20. Transformation of Air Quality Monitor Data from the International Space Station into Toxicological Effect Groups

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    James, John T.; Zalesak, Selina M.

    2011-01-01

    The primary reason for monitoring air quality aboard the International Space Station (ISS) is to determine whether air pollutants have collectively reached a concentration where the crew could experience adverse health effects. These effects could be near-real-time (e.g. headache, respiratory irritation) or occur late in the mission or even years later (e.g. cancer, liver toxicity). Secondary purposes for monitoring include discovery that a potentially harmful compound has leaked into the atmosphere or that air revitalization system performance has diminished. Typical ISS atmospheric trace pollutants consist of alcohols, aldehydes, aromatic compounds, halo-carbons, siloxanes, and silanols. Rarely, sulfur-containing compounds and alkanes are found at trace levels. Spacecraft Maximum Allowable Concentrations (SMACs) have been set in cooperation with a subcommittee of the National Research Council Committee on Toxicology. For each compound and time of exposure, the limiting adverse effect(s) has been identified. By factoring the analytical data from the Air Quality Monitor (AQM), which is in use as a prototype instrument aboard the ISS, through the array of compounds and SMACs, the risk of 16 specific adverse effects can be estimated. Within each adverse-effect group, we have used an additive model proportioned to each applicable 180-day SMAC to estimate risk. In the recent past this conversion has been performed using archival data, which can be delayed for months after an air sample is taken because it must be returned to earth for analysis. But with the AQM gathering in situ data each week, NASA is in a position to follow toxic-effect groups and correlate these with any reported crew symptoms. The AQM data are supplemented with data from real-time CO2 instruments aboard the ISS and from archival measurements of formaldehyde, which the AQM cannot detect.

  1. Assessing relocation strategies of urban air quality monitoring stations by GA-based compromise programming.

    PubMed

    Tseng, C C; Chang, N B

    2001-06-01

    This paper presents a GA-based compromise programming technique for assessing the relocation strategy of urban air quality monitoring network with respect to the multi-objective and multi-pollutant design criteria. While the impact of conservative, quasi-stable, and reactive pollutants are considered in the design principles via a simulation analysis, cost, effectiveness, and efficiency characteristics are postulated in the optimization process. Therefore, technical coverage for illustrating the needs of siting air quality monitoring stations (AQMS) includes both the air quality simulation and optimization modeling analyses in a two-stage analytical framework simultaneously. It starts from determining the spatial interrelationship among those candidate sites using various types of air quality simulation models as an integrated means. And the outputs drawn from the simulation models can then be used as the required inputs in the compromise programming model in order to screen all those siting alternatives that may satisfy the planning goals subject to the essential constraints throughout the multi-objective optimization process. For the illustrating purposes, a series of technical settings for finding the optimal relocation scenarios of AQMS were examined in the case study for the city of Kaohsiung in South Taiwan where the long-term violations of official standards of ozone and particulates turn out to be critical. It not only expresses the ideas of relocation strategy but also indicates how to utilize those alternatives in the decision-making process for improving the functionality of air quality monitoring in the urban environment. Experience gained in this study clearly indicates that the more the number of pollutants and objectives considered simultaneously, the higher the number of candidate sites to be selected in the relocation strategy.

  2. Investigation of antimatter air-breathing propulsion for single-stage-to-orbit ships

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Froning, H. D.

    Because the mutual annihilation of matter and antimatter releases all the energy that is stored within the physical structure of material mass, it provides the most powerful reaction that is possible for propulsive thrust. This paper considers the use of such annihilation energy for single-stage-to-orbit vehicles that would be powered by rocket and air-breathing propulsion and would reach and return from orbit with a single propulsive stage.

  3. Grady Highway Extension (Ship Creek Crossing) Elmendorf Air Force Base and Fort Richardson, Alaska

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-06-01

    otherwise determined to be unfeasible. The EA evaluated the Proposed Action (or “Downstream Route”), an Alternative Action (or “ Footbridge Route”) and the...THE ALTERNATIVE ACTION: The environmental impacts of the Alternative Action ( Footbridge Route, east of the Proposed Action) would be similar to the...construction. The Army and the Air Force considered and evaluated an Alternative Action ( Footbridge Route east of the Proposed Action) which would also

  4. Microbial Air and Surface Monitoring Results from International Space Station Samples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ott, C. Mark; Bruce, Rebekah J.; Castro, Victoria A.; Novikova, Natalia D.; Pierson, D. L.

    2005-01-01

    Over the course of long-duration spaceflight, spacecraft develop a microbial ecology that directly interacts with the crew of the vehicle. While most microorganisms are harmless or beneficial to the inhabitants of the vehicle, the presence of medically significant organisms appearing in this semi-closed environment could adversely affect crew health and performance. The risk of exposure of the crew to medically significant organisms during a mission is estimated using information gathered during nominal and contingency environmental monitoring. Analysis of the air and surface microbiota in the habitable compartments of the International Space Station (ISS) over the last four years indicate a high presence of Staphylococcus species reflecting the human inhabitants of the vehicle. Generally, air and surface microbial concentrations are below system design specifications, suggesting a lower risk of contact infection or biodegradation. An evaluation of sample frequency indicates a decrease in the identification of new species, suggesting a lower potential for unknown microorganisms to be identified. However, the opportunistic pathogen, Staphylococcus aureus, has been identified in 3 of the last 5 air samples and 5 of the last 9 surface samples. In addition, 47% of the coagulase negative Staphylococcus species that were isolated from the crew, ISS, and its hardware were found to be methicillin resistance. In combination, these observations suggest the potential of methicillin resistant infectious agents over time.

  5. Evaluation of the Air Quality Monitor's Performance on the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Limero, Thomas; Reese, Eric; Ballard, Ken; Durham, Tamara

    2010-01-01

    The Air Quality Monitor (AQM) was flown to the International Space Station (ISS) as an experiment to evaluate its potential to replace the aging Volatile Organic Analyzer (VOA), which ceased operations in August 2009. The AQM (Figure 1) is a small gas chromatography/differential mobility spectrometer (GC/DMS) manufactured by Sionex. Data was presented at last year s ISIMS conference that detailed the preparation of the AQM for flight, including instrument calibration. Furthermore, initial AQM data was compared to VOA results from simultaneous runs of the two instruments. Although comparison with VOA data provided a measure of confidence in the AQM performance, it is the comparison with results from simultaneously acquired air samples (grab sample containers-GSCs) that will define the success (or failure) of the AQM performance. This paper will update the progress in the AQM investigation by comparing AQM data to results from the analyses of GSC samples, returned from ISS. Additionally, a couple of example will illustrate the AQM s ability to detect disruptions in the spacecraft s air quality. Discussion will also focus upon a few unexpected issues that have arisen and how these will be a addressed in the final operational unit now being built.

  6. 47 CFR 80.1185 - Supplemental eligibility for mobile-satellite stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... station license for a ship earth station may be issued to: (1) The owner or operator of a ship. (2) A... operator of the ship aboard which the ship earth station is to be installed and operated. (b) A station license for a portable ship earth station may be issued to the owner or operator of portable earth...

  7. 47 CFR 80.1185 - Supplemental eligibility for mobile-satellite stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... station license for a ship earth station may be issued to: (1) The owner or operator of a ship. (2) A... operator of the ship aboard which the ship earth station is to be installed and operated. (b) A station license for a portable ship earth station may be issued to the owner or operator of portable earth...

  8. 47 CFR 80.1185 - Supplemental eligibility for mobile-satellite stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... station license for a ship earth station may be issued to: (1) The owner or operator of a ship. (2) A... operator of the ship aboard which the ship earth station is to be installed and operated. (b) A station license for a portable ship earth station may be issued to the owner or operator of portable earth...

  9. 47 CFR 80.1185 - Supplemental eligibility for mobile-satellite stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... station license for a ship earth station may be issued to: (1) The owner or operator of a ship. (2) A... operator of the ship aboard which the ship earth station is to be installed and operated. (b) A station license for a portable ship earth station may be issued to the owner or operator of portable earth...

  10. Polyfluorinated compounds in ambient air from ship- and land-based measurements in northern Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dreyer, Annekatrin; Ebinghaus, Ralf

    Neutral volatile and semi-volatile polyfluorinated organic compounds (PFC) and ionic perfluorinated compounds were determined in air samples collected at two sites in the vicinity of Hamburg, Germany, and onboard the German research vessel Atair during a cruise in the German Bight, North Sea, in early November 2007. PUF/XAD-2/PUF cartridges and glass fiber filters as sampling media were applied to collect several fluorotelomer alcohols (FTOH), fluorotelomer acrylates (FTA), perfluoroalkyl sulfonamides (FASA), and perfluoroalkyl sulfonamido ethanols (FASE) in the gas- and particle-phase as well as a set of perfluorinated carboxylates (PFCA) and sulfonates (PFSA) in the particle-phase. This study presents the distribution of PFC in ambient air of the German North Sea and in the vicinity of Hamburg for the first time. Average total PFC concentrations in and around Hamburg (180 pg m -3) were higher than those observed in the German Bight (80 pg m -3). In the German Bight, minimum-maximum gas-phase concentrations of 17-82 pg m -3 for ΣFTOH, 2.6-10 pg m -3 for ΣFTA, 10-15 pg m -3 for ΣFASA, and 2-4.4 pg m -3 for ΣFASE were determined. In the vicinity of Hamburg, minimum-maximum gas-phase concentrations of 32-204 pg m -3 for ΣFTOH, 3-26 pg m -3 for ΣFTA, 3-18 pg m -3 for ΣFASA, and 2-15 pg m -3 for ΣFASE were detected. Concentrations of perfluorinated acids were in the range of 1-11 pg m -3. FTOH clearly dominated the substance spectrum; 8:2 FTOH occurred in maximum proportions. Air mass back trajectories, cluster, and correlation analyses revealed that the air mass origin and thus medium to long range atmospheric transport was the governing parameter for the amount of PFC in ambient air. Southwesterly located source regions seemed to be responsible for elevated PFC concentrations, local sources appeared to be of minor importance.

  11. STS 129 Return Samples: Assessment of Air Quality aboard the Shuttle (STS-129) and International Space Station (ULF3)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    James, John T.

    2010-01-01

    Reports on the air quality aboard the Space Shuttle (STS-129), and the International Space station (ULF3). NASA analyzed the grab sample canisters (GSCs) and the formaldehyde badges aboard both locations for carbon monoxide levels. The three surrogates: (sup 13)C-acetone, fluorobenzene, and chlorobenzene registered 109, 101, and 109% in the space shuttle and 81, 87, and 55% in the International Space Station (ISS). From these results the atmosphere in both the Space Shuttle and the International Space Station (ISS) was found to be breathable.

  12. Wastewater characterization survey, O'Hare International Airport (IAP), Air Reserve Station, Illinois. Final report, 13-24 April 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Acker, A.M.; Fields, M.K.; Davis, R.P.

    1993-02-01

    A wastewater characterization survey was conducted by members of the Armstrong Laboratory Occupational and Environmental Health Directorate Water Quality Function from 13-24 April 1992 at O'Hare International Airport (IAP)-Air Reserve Station, Illinois. The purpose of this survey was to identify and characterize the wastewater. Results of the sampling showed the use of industrial chemicals is being well controlled. The base should be commended for good shop practices to minimize the disposal of industrial waste through the sanitary sewerage system.... O'Hare International Airport (IAP)-Air Reserve Station, Illinois, Wastewater characterization.

  13. Evaluation of prototype air/fluid separator for Space Station Freedom Health Maintenance Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Billica, Roger; Smith, Maureen; Murphy, Linda; Kizzee, Victor D.

    1991-01-01

    A prototype air/fluid separator suction apparatus proposed as a possible design for use with the Health Maintenance Facility aboard Space Station Freedom (SSF) was evaluated. A KC-135 parabolic flight test was performed for this purpose. The flights followed the standard 40 parabola profile with 20 to 25 seconds of near-zero gravity in each parabola. A protocol was prepared to evaluate the prototype device in several regulator modes (or suction force), using three fluids of varying viscosity, and using either continuous or intermittent suction. It was felt that a matrixed approach would best approximate the range of utilization anticipated for medical suction on SSF. The protocols were performed in one-gravity in a lab setting to familiarize the team with procedures and techniques. Identical steps were performed aboard the KC-135 during parabolic flight.

  14. Determination of On-Orbit Cabin Air Loss from the International Space Station (ISS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, David E.; Leonard, Daniel J.; Smith, Patrick J.

    2004-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) loses cabin atmosphere mass at some rate. Due to oxygen partial pressures fluctuations from metabolic usage, the total pressure is not a good data source for tracking total pressure loss. Using the nitrogen partial pressure is a good data source to determine the total on-orbit cabin atmosphere loss from the ISS, due to no nitrogen addition or losses. There are several important reasons to know the daily average cabin air loss of the ISS including logistics planning for nitrogen and oxygen. The total average daily cabin atmosphere loss was estimated from January 14 to April 9 of 2003. The total average daily cabin atmosphere loss includes structural leakages, Vozdukh losses, Carbon Dioxide Removal Assembly (CDRA) losses, and other component losses. The total average daily cabin atmosphere loss does not include mass lost during Extra-Vehicular Activities (EVAs), Progress dockings, Space Shuttle dockings, calibrations, or other specific one-time events.

  15. Assessment of Fleet Inventory for Naval Air Station Whidbey Island. Task 1

    SciTech Connect

    Schey, Stephen; Francfort, Jim

    2015-06-01

    Task 1includes a survey of the inventory of non-tactical fleet vehicles at Naval Air Station Whidbey Island (NASWI) to characterize the fleet. This information and characterization are used to select vehicles for monitoring that takes place during Task 2. This monitoring involves data logging of vehicle operation in order to identify the vehicle’s mission and travel requirements. Individual observations of these selected vehicles provide the basis for recommendations related to PEV adoption. It also identifies whether a battery electric vehicle or plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (collectively referred to as PEVs) can fulfill the mission requirements and provide observations related to placement of PEV charging infrastructure. This report provides the results of the assessments and observations of the current non-tactical fleet, fulfilling the Task 1 requirements.

  16. Model calculations of the effects of present and future emissions of air pollutants from shipping in the Baltic Sea and the North Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jonson, J. E.; Jalkanen, J. P.; Johansson, L.; Gauss, M.; Denier van der Gon, H. A. C.

    2015-01-01

    Land-based emissions of air pollutants in Europe have steadily decreased over the past two decades, and this decrease is expected to continue. Within the same time span emissions from shipping have increased in EU ports and in the Baltic Sea and the North Sea, defined as SECAs (sulfur emission control areas), although recently sulfur emissions, and subsequently particle emissions, have decreased. The maximum allowed sulfur content in marine fuels in EU ports is now 0.1%, as required by the European Union sulfur directive. In the SECAs the maximum fuel content of sulfur is currently 1% (the global average is about 2.4%). This will be reduced to 0.1% from 2015, following the new International Maritime Organization (IMO) rules. In order to assess the effects of ship emissions in and around the Baltic Sea and the North Sea, regional model calculations with the EMEP air pollution model have been made on a 1/4° longitude × 1/8° latitude resolution, using ship emissions in the Baltic Sea and the North Sea that are based on accurate ship positioning data. The effects on depositions and air pollution and the resulting number of years of life lost (YOLLs) have been calculated by comparing model calculations with and without ship emissions in the two sea areas. In 2010 stricter regulations for sulfur emissions were implemented in the two sea areas, reducing the maximum sulfur content allowed in marine fuels from 1.5 to 1%. In addition ships were required to use fuels with 0.1 % sulfur in EU harbours. The calculations have been made with emissions representative of 2009 and 2011, i.e. before and after the implementation of the stricter controls on sulfur emissions from 2010. The calculations with present emissions show that per person, an additional 0.1-0.2 years of life lost is estimated in areas close to the major ship tracks with current emission levels. Comparisons of model calculations with emissions before and after the implementation of stricter emission control on

  17. Comparisons of Ship-based Observations of Air-Sea Energy Budgets with Gridded Flux Products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fairall, C. W.; Blomquist, B.

    2015-12-01

    Air-surface interactions are characterized directly by the fluxes of momentum, heat, moisture, trace gases, and particles near the interface. In the last 20 years advances in observation technologies have greatly expanded the database of high-quality direct (covariance) turbulent flux and irradiance observations from research vessels. In this paper, we will summarize observations from the NOAA sea-going flux system from participation in various field programs executed since 1999 and discuss comparisons with several gridded flux products. We will focus on comparisons of turbulent heat fluxes and solar and IR radiative fluxes. The comparisons are done for observing programs in the equatorial Pacific and Indian Oceans and SE subtropical Pacific.

  18. Seasonal variation of air temperature at the Mendel Station, James Ross Island in the period of 2006-2009

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laska, Kamil; Prošek, Pavel; Budík, Ladislav

    2010-05-01

    Key words: air temperature, seasonal variation, James Ross Island, Antarctic Peninsula Recently, significant role of the atmospheric and oceanic circulation variation on positive trend of near surface air temperature along the Antarctic Peninsula has been reported by many authors. However, small number of the permanent meteorological stations located on the Peninsula coast embarrasses a detail analysis. It comprises analysis of spatiotemporal variability of climatic conditions and validation of regional atmospheric climate models. However, geographical location of the Czech Johann Gregor Mendel Station (hereafter Mendel Station) newly established on the northern ice-free part of the James Ross Island provides an opportunity to fill the gap. There are recorded important meteorological characteristics which allow to evaluate specific climatic regime of the region and their impact on the ice-shelf disintegration and glacier retreat. Mendel Station (63°48'S, 57°53'W) is located on marine terrace at the altitude of 7 m. In 2006, a monitoring network of several automatic weather stations was installed at different altitudes ranging from the seashore level up to mesas and tops of glaciers (514 m a.s.l.). In this contribution, a seasonal variation of near surface air temperature at the Mendel Station in the period of 2006-2009 is presented. Annual mean air temperature was -7.2 °C. Seasonal mean temperature ranged from +1.4 °C (December-February) to -17.7 °C (June-August). Frequently, the highest temperature occurred in the second half of January. It reached maximum of +8.1 °C. Sudden changes of atmospheric circulation pattern during winter caused a large interdiurnal variability of air temperature with the amplitude of 30 °C.

  19. Investigating the Impact of Marine Ship Emissions on Regional Air Quality using OMI Satellite NO2 Observations and the CMAQ Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ring, A.; Canty, T. P.; He, H.; Vinciguerra, T.; Lamsal, L. N.; Dickerson, R. R.; Salawitch, R. J.; Cohen, M.; Montgomery, L. N.; Dreessen, J.

    2015-12-01

    Commercial marine vessels (CMVs) emit significant amounts of NOx, an ozone precursor, which may contribute to negative health consequences for people living in areas near shipping lanes. In coastal US states, many metropolitan areas such as Baltimore and New York City are located near ports with CMVs. Many studies estimate that ships account for ~15-30% of the global anthropogenic NOx emissions. EPA developed emissions inventories are widely used by states to construct model scenarios for testing air quality attainment strategies. Currently, CMV emissions are generated by simply applying growth factors to aggregated emissions data from much earlier years. Satellite retrievals from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) have been successfully used to improve the veracity of marine emissions by incorporating observational data from the inventory year. In this study we use OMI NO2 observations and Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model outputs to improve the EPA marine emission estimates for the Mid-Atlantic region. Back trajectories from the NOAA Air Resources Laboratory HYSPLIT model are used to identify days with minimal continental influence on OMI tropospheric column NO2 over shipping lanes. We perform sensitivity analyses to quantify the impact of marine emissions on air quality and suggest strategies to better meet the EPA mandated ozone standard.

  20. Study of the impact of cruise and passenger ships on a Mediterranean port city air quality - Study of future emission mitigation scenarios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liora, Natalia; Poupkou, Anastasia; Kontos, Serafim; Giannaros, Christos; Melas, Dimitrios

    2015-04-01

    An increase of the passenger ships traffic is expected in the Mediterranean Sea as targeted by the EU Blue Growth initiative. This increase is expected to impact the Mediterranean port-cities air quality considering not only the conventional atmospheric pollutants but also the toxic ones that are emitted by the ships (e.g. Nickel). The aim of this study is the estimation of the present and future time pollutant emissions from cruise and passenger maritime transport in the port area of Thessaloniki (Greece) as well as the impact of those emissions on the city air quality. Cruise and passenger ship emissions have been estimated for the year 2013 over a 100m spatial resolution grid which covers the greater port area of Thessaloniki. Emissions have been estimated for the following macro-pollutants; NOx, SO2, NMVOC, CO, CO2 and particulate matter (PM). In addition, the most important micro-pollutants studied in this work are As, Cd, Pb, Ni and Benzo(a)pyrene for which air quality limits have been set by the EU. Emissions have been estimated for three operation modes; cruising, maneuvering and hotelling. For the calculation of the present time maritime emissions, the activity data used were provided by the Thessaloniki Port Authority S.A. Moreover, future pollutant emissions are estimated using the future activity data provided by the Port Authority and the IMO legislation for shipping in the future. In addition, two mitigation emission scenarios are examined; the use of Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) as a fuel used by ships and the implementation of cold ironing which is the electrification of ships during hotelling mode leading to the elimination of the corresponding emissions. The impact of the present and future passenger ship emissions on the air quality of Thessaloniki is examined with the use of the model CALPUFF applied over the 100m spatial resolution grid using the meteorology of WRF. Simulations of the modeling system are performed for four different emission

  1. The JPL Electronic Nose: Monitoring Air in the US Lab on the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryan, M. A.; Manatt, K. S.; Gluck, S.; Shevade, A. V.; Kisor, A. K.; Zhou, H.; Lara, L. M.; Homer, M. L.

    2010-01-01

    An electronic nose with a sensor array of 32 conductometric sensors has been developed at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) to monitor breathing air in spacecraft habitat. The Third Generation ENose is designed to operate in the environment of the US Lab on the International Space Station (ISS). It detects a selected group of analytes at target concentrations in the ppm regime at an environmental temperature range of 18 - 30 oC, relative humidity from 25 - 75% and pressure from 530 to 760 torr. The monitoring targets are anomalous events such as leaks and spills of solvents, coolants or other fluids. The JPL ENose operated as a technology demonstration for seven months in the U.S. Laboratory Destiny during 2008-2009. Analysis of ENose monitoring data shows that there was regular, periodic rise and fall of humidity and occasional releases of Freon 218 (perfluoropropane), formaldehyde, methanol and ethanol. There were also several events of unknown origin, half of them from the same source. Each event lasted from 20 to 100 minutes, consistent with the air replacement time in the US Lab.

  2. Assessment of past, present and future health-cost externalities of air pollution in Europe and the contribution from international ship traffic using the EVA model system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brandt, J.; Silver, J. D.; Christensen, J. H.; Andersen, M. S.; Bønløkke, J. H.; Sigsgaard, T.; Geels, C.; Gross, A.; Hansen, A. B.; Hansen, K. M.; Hedegaard, G. B.; Kaas, E.; Frohn, L. M.

    2013-08-01

    An integrated model system, EVA (Economic Valuation of Air pollution), based on the impact-pathway chain has been developed to assess the health-related economic externalities of air pollution resulting from specific emission sources or sectors. The model system can be used to support policy-making with respect to emission control. In this study, we apply the EVA system to Europe, and perform a more detailed assessment of past, present, and future health-cost externalities of the total air pollution levels in Europe (including both natural and anthropogenic sources), represented by the years 2000, 2007, 2011, and 2020. We also assess the contribution to the health-related external costs from international ship traffic with special attention to the international ship traffic in the Baltic and North seas, since special regulatory actions on sulfur emissions, called SECA (sulfur emission control area), have been introduced in these areas. We conclude that, despite efficient regulatory actions in Europe in recent decades, air pollution still constitutes a serious problem for human health. Hence the related external costs are considerable. The total health-related external costs for the whole of Europe are estimated at 803 bn euros yr-1 for the year 2000, decreasing to 537 bn euros yr-1 in the year 2020. We estimate the total number of premature deaths in Europe in the year 2000 due to air pollution to be around 680 000 yr-1, decreasing to approximately 450 000 in the year 2020. The contribution from international ship traffic in the Northern Hemisphere was estimated to 7% of the total health-related external costs in Europe in the year 2000, increasing to 12% in the year 2020. In contrast, the contribution from international ship traffic in the Baltic Sea and the North Sea decreases 36% due to the regulatory efforts of reducing sulfur emissions from ship traffic in SECA. Introducing this regulatory instrument for all international ship traffic in the Northern

  3. Impact of secondary inorganic aerosol and road traffic at a suburban air quality monitoring station.

    PubMed

    Megido, L; Negral, L; Castrillón, L; Fernández-Nava, Y; Suárez-Peña, B; Marañón, E

    2017-03-15

    thermal power station) and mobile sources in the air quality at the suburban site under study, with important apportionments of particulate matter coming from road traffic and as consequence of releasing precursor gases of secondary particles to the atmosphere.

  4. Environmental Assessment: Construction of Fire/Crash Rescue Station at Niagara Falls Air Reserve Station, New York

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-03-01

    wells. Water is stored and moves mainly in secondary fractures . Minerals in solution are calcite, dolomite , gypsum, and halite, resulting in hard and...fossiliferous" with 400 feet of deposits, including dolomite , limestone, shale, and sandstone, from diverse environments ranging from nonmaritime...system, and telephone system. 15.1.3.4. Low pressure air compressor, air storage tanks, and distribution system in the apparatus bays. 15.1 .3 .5

  5. 78 FR 22529 - Information on Surplus Land at a Military Installation Designated for Disposal: Naval Air Station...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-16

    ... Department of the Navy Information on Surplus Land at a Military Installation Designated for Disposal: Naval...: This notice provides information on withdrawal of surplus property at Naval Air Station Alameda, Alameda, California. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Ms. Laura Duchnak, Director, Naval...

  6. 33 CFR 334.595 - Atlantic Ocean off Cape Canaveral; 45th Space Wing, Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, FL...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Atlantic Ocean off Cape Canaveral; 45th Space Wing, Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, FL; restricted area. 334.595 Section 334.595... AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.595 Atlantic Ocean off Cape Canaveral; 45th Space Wing,...

  7. 33 CFR 334.595 - Atlantic Ocean off Cape Canaveral; 45th Space Wing, Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, FL...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Atlantic Ocean off Cape Canaveral; 45th Space Wing, Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, FL; restricted area. 334.595 Section 334.595... AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.595 Atlantic Ocean off Cape Canaveral; 45th Space Wing,...

  8. 33 CFR 334.595 - Atlantic Ocean off Cape Canaveral; 45th Space Wing, Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, FL...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Atlantic Ocean off Cape Canaveral; 45th Space Wing, Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, FL; restricted area. 334.595 Section 334.595... AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.595 Atlantic Ocean off Cape Canaveral; 45th Space Wing,...

  9. Space Station Freedom seal leakage rate analysis and testing summary: Air leaks in ambient versus vacuum exit conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rodriguez, P. I.; Markovitch, R.

    1992-01-01

    This report is intended to reveal the apparent relationship of air seal leakage rates between 2 atmospheres (atm) to 1 atm and 1 atm to vacuum conditions. Gas dynamics analysis is provided as well as data summarizing the MSFC test report, 'Space Station Freedom (S.S. Freedom) Seal Flaw Study With Delta Pressure Leak Rate Comparison Test Report'.

  10. 78 FR 66904 - Notice of Availability of Record of Decision for Naval Air Station Key West Airfield Operations, FL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-07

    ...The United States Department of the Navy, after carefully weighing the strategic, operational and environmental consequences of the proposed action, announces its decision to support and conduct airfield operations at Naval Air Station (NAS) Key West by accomplishing the proposed action as set out in Alternative 2. Alternative 2 will provide for the transition from legacy aircraft to next......

  11. 33 CFR 334.595 - Atlantic Ocean off Cape Canaveral; 45th Space Wing, Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, FL...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Atlantic Ocean off Cape Canaveral; 45th Space Wing, Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, FL; restricted area. 334.595 Section 334.595... AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.595 Atlantic Ocean off Cape Canaveral; 45th Space Wing,...

  12. 33 CFR 334.595 - Atlantic Ocean off Cape Canaveral; 45th Space Wing, Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, FL...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Atlantic Ocean off Cape Canaveral; 45th Space Wing, Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, FL; restricted area. 334.595 Section 334.595... AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.595 Atlantic Ocean off Cape Canaveral; 45th Space Wing,...

  13. Superfund Record of Decision (EPA Region 4): Naval Air Station Cecil Field, Operable Unit 6, Jacksonville, FL, September 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-09-01

    The site name is the Golf Course Pesticide Disposal Area, Site 11, Operable Unit (OU) 6. The site is located in a wooded area between the 11th fairway and the 17th green at the Naval Air Station (NAS) Cecil Field golf course, Jacksonville, Florida. The purpose of the interim remedial action is to remove buried containers of pesticides and associated contaminated soil.

  14. 33 CFR 334.430 - Neuse River and tributaries at Marine Corps Air Station Cherry Point, North Carolina; restricted...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Marine Corps Air Station Cherry Point, North Carolina; restricted area and danger zone. 334.430 Section... DEFENSE DANGER ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.430 Neuse River and tributaries at Marine Corps.... That portion of Neuse River within 500 feet of the shore along the reservation of the Marine Corps...

  15. Nanosecond-level time synchronization of autonomous radio detector stations for extensive air showers

    SciTech Connect

    Aab, Alexander

    2016-01-29

    To exploit the full potential of radio measurements of cosmic-ray air showers at MHz frequencies, a detector timing synchronization within 1 ns is needed. Large distributed radio detector arrays such as the Auger Engineering Radio Array (AERA) rely on timing via the Global Positioning System (GPS) for the synchronization of individual detector station clocks. Unfortunately, GPS timing is expected to have an accuracy no better than about 5 ns. In practice, in particular in AERA, the GPS clocks exhibit drifts on the order of tens of ns. We developed a technique to correct for the GPS drifts, and an independent method used for cross-checks that indeed we reach nanosecond-scale timing accuracy by this correction. First, we operate a “beacon transmitter” which emits defined sine waves detected by AERA antennas recorded within the physics data. The relative phasing of these sine waves can be used to correct for GPS clock drifts. In addition to this, we observe radio pulses emitted by commercial airplanes, the position of which we determine in real time from Automatic Dependent Surveillance Broadcasts intercepted with a software-defined radio. From the known source location and the measured arrival times of the pulses we determine relative timing offsets between radio detector stations. We demonstrate with a combined analysis that the two methods give a consistent timing calibration with an accuracy of 2 ns or better. Consequently, the beacon method alone can be used in the future to continuously determine and correct for GPS clock drifts in each individual event measured by AERA.

  16. Nanosecond-level time synchronization of autonomous radio detector stations for extensive air showers

    DOE PAGES

    Aab, Alexander

    2016-01-29

    To exploit the full potential of radio measurements of cosmic-ray air showers at MHz frequencies, a detector timing synchronization within 1 ns is needed. Large distributed radio detector arrays such as the Auger Engineering Radio Array (AERA) rely on timing via the Global Positioning System (GPS) for the synchronization of individual detector station clocks. Unfortunately, GPS timing is expected to have an accuracy no better than about 5 ns. In practice, in particular in AERA, the GPS clocks exhibit drifts on the order of tens of ns. We developed a technique to correct for the GPS drifts, and an independentmore » method used for cross-checks that indeed we reach nanosecond-scale timing accuracy by this correction. First, we operate a “beacon transmitter” which emits defined sine waves detected by AERA antennas recorded within the physics data. The relative phasing of these sine waves can be used to correct for GPS clock drifts. In addition to this, we observe radio pulses emitted by commercial airplanes, the position of which we determine in real time from Automatic Dependent Surveillance Broadcasts intercepted with a software-defined radio. From the known source location and the measured arrival times of the pulses we determine relative timing offsets between radio detector stations. We demonstrate with a combined analysis that the two methods give a consistent timing calibration with an accuracy of 2 ns or better. Consequently, the beacon method alone can be used in the future to continuously determine and correct for GPS clock drifts in each individual event measured by AERA.« less

  17. Nanosecond-level time synchronization of autonomous radio detector stations for extensive air showers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The Pierre Auger Collaboration

    2016-01-01

    To exploit the full potential of radio measurements of cosmic-ray air showers at MHz frequencies, a detector timing synchronization within 1 ns is needed. Large distributed radio detector arrays such as the Auger Engineering Radio Array (AERA) rely on timing via the Global Positioning System (GPS) for the synchronization of individual detector station clocks. Unfortunately, GPS timing is expected to have an accuracy no better than about 5 ns. In practice, in particular in AERA, the GPS clocks exhibit drifts on the order of tens of ns. We developed a technique to correct for the GPS drifts, and an independent method is used to cross-check that indeed we reach a nanosecond-scale timing accuracy by this correction. First, we operate a ``beacon transmitter'' which emits defined sine waves detected by AERA antennas recorded within the physics data. The relative phasing of these sine waves can be used to correct for GPS clock drifts. In addition to this, we observe radio pulses emitted by commercial airplanes, the position of which we determine in real time from Automatic Dependent Surveillance Broadcasts intercepted with a software-defined radio. From the known source location and the measured arrival times of the pulses we determine relative timing offsets between radio detector stations. We demonstrate with a combined analysis that the two methods give a consistent timing calibration with an accuracy of 2 ns or better. Consequently, the beacon method alone can be used in the future to continuously determine and correct for GPS clock drifts in each individual event measured by AERA.

  18. Impacts of Microbial Growth on the Air Quality of the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macatangay, Ariel V.; Bruce, Rebekah J.

    2010-01-01

    An understanding of the various sources of non-methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOCs) is one facet to ensuring the habitability of crewed spacecraft. Even though the International Space Station (ISS) atmosphere is relatively well characterized in terms of what is in the atmosphere and approximately how much, linking the majority of these trace contaminants detected to their source is virtually impossible. Albeit a few of can be associated to a single source, the majority of these trace contaminants have their origins from multiple sources. On crewed spacecraft such as ISS, trace contaminants are broadly categorized as either coming from equipment, which includes systems and payloads, or from the metabolic processes of the crew members. Such widely encompassing categories clearly illustrate the difficulty in linking air contaminants to their source(s). It is well known that microbial growth in ISS can flourish if left unchecked. Although processes are in place to limit microbial growth, in reality, microbial growth has pervaded the habitable environment of ISS. This is simply a consequence of having crewed spacecraft, as humans are the largest contributor to the bioload. As with crew members, microbes also have metabolic processes which, in many ways, are comparable to human metabolism. As such, it can be expected that microbial growth can lead to the release of volatile organic compounds into the ISS atmosphere. Given a large enough microbial population, the impact to the air quality of ISS can be potentially large. A survey of the microbiology found in ISS will be presented as well as the possible types of volatile organic compounds that can result from such organisms. This will be correlated to the observations provided by ground-based analysis of ISS atmosphere samples

  19. Monitoring of the Atmosphere on the International Space Station with the Air Quality Monitor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wallace William T.; Limero, Thomas F.; Loh, Leslie J.; Mudgett, Paul D.; Gazda, Daniel B.

    2017-01-01

    During the early years of human spaceflight, short duration missions allowed for monitoring of the spacecraft environment to be performed via archival sampling, in which samples were returned to Earth for analysis. With the construction of the International Space Station (ISS) and the accompanying extended mission durations, the need for enhanced, real-time monitors became apparent. The Volatile Organic Analyzer (VOA) operated on ISS for 7 years, where it assessed trace volatile organic compounds in the cabin air. The large and fixed-position VOA was eventually replaced with the smaller Air Quality Monitor (AQM). Since March 2013, the atmosphere of the U.S. Operating Segment (USOS) has been monitored in near real-time by a pair of AQMs. These devices consist of a gas chromatograph (GC) coupled with a differential mobility spectrometer (DMS) and currently target detection list of 22 compounds. These targets are of importance to both crew health and the Environmental Control and Life Support Systems (ECLSS) on ISS. Data is collected autonomously every 73 hours, though the units can be controlled remotely from mission control to collect data more frequently during contingency or troubleshooting operations. Due to a nominal three-year lifetime on-orbit, the initial units were replaced in February 2016. This paper will focus on the preparation and use of the AQMs over the past several years. A description of the technical aspects of the AQM will be followed by lessons learned from the deployment and operation of the first set of AQMs. These lessons were used to improve the already-excellent performance of the instruments prior to deployment of the replacement units. Data trending over the past several years of operation on ISS will also be discussed, including data obtained during a survey of the USOS modules. Finally, a description of AQM use for contingency and investigative studies will be presented.

  20. Impacts of Microbial Growth on the Air Quality of the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macatangay, Ariel V.; Bruce, Rebekah J.

    2009-01-01

    An understanding of the various sources of non-methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOCs) is one facet to ensuring the habitability of crewed spacecraft. Even though the International Space Station (ISS) atmosphere is relatively well characterized in terms of what is in the atmosphere and approximately how much, linking the majority of these trace contaminants detected to their source is virtually impossible. Albeit a few of can be associated to a single source, the majority of these trace contaminants have their origins from multiple sources. On crewed spacecraft such as ISS, trace contaminants are broadly categorized as either coming from equipment, which includes systems and payloads, or from the metabolic processes of the crew members. Such widely encompassing categories clearly illustrate the difficulty in linking air contaminants to their source(s). It is well known that microbial growth in ISS can flourish if left unchecked. Although processes are in place to limit microbial growth, in reality, microbial growth has pervaded the habitable environment of ISS. This is simply a consequence of having crewed spacecraft, as humans are the largest contributor to the bioload. As with crew members, microbes also have metabolic processes which, in many ways, are comparable to human metabolism. As such, it can be expected that microbial growth can lead to the release of volatile organic compounds into the ISS atmosphere. Given a large enough microbial population, the impact to the air quality of ISS can be potentially large. A survey of the microbiology found in ISS will be presented as well as the possible types of volatile organic compounds that can result from such organisms. This will be correlated to the observations provided by ground-based analysis of ISS atmosphere samples.

  1. Field investigation source area ST58 old Quartermaster service station, Eielson Air Force Base, Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Liikala, T.L.; Evans, J.C.

    1995-01-01

    Source area ST58 is the site of the old Quartermaster service station at Eielson Air Force Base, Alaska. The source area is one of several Source Evaluation Report sites being investigated by Pacific Northwest Laboratory for the US Air Force as candidates for no further remedial action, interim removal action, or a remedial investigation/feasibility study under a Federal Facilities Agreement. The purpose of this work was to characterize source area ST58 and excavate the most contaminated soils for use in composting treatability studies. A field investigation was conducted to determine the nature and extent of soil contamination. The field investigation entailed a records search; grid node location, surface geophysical, and soil gas surveys; and test pit soil sampling. Soil excavation followed based on the results of the field investigation. The site was backfilled with clean soil. Results from this work indicate close spatial correlation between screening instruments, used during the field investigation and soil excavation, and laboratory analyses. Gasoline was identified as the main subsurface contaminant based on the soil gas surveys and test pit soil sampling. A center of contamination was located near the northcentral portion of the source area, and a center was located in the northwestern comer. The contamination typically occurred near or below a former soil horizon probably as a result of surface spills and leaks from discontinuities and/or breaks in the underground piping. Piping locations were delineated during the surface geophysical surveys and corresponded very well to unscaled drawings of the site. The high subsurface concentrations of gasoline detected in the northwestern comer of the source area probably reflect ground-water contamination and/or possibly floating product.

  2. Cape Canaveral Air Force Station integrated resource assessment. Volume 3, Resource assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Sandusky, W.F.; Eichman, C.J.; King, D.A.; McMordie, K.L.; Parker, S.A.; Shankle, S.A.; Wahlstrom, R.R.

    1994-03-01

    The U.S. Air Force (USAF) has tasked the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) in support of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP), to identify, evaluate, and assist in acquiring all cost-effective energy projects at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station (AFS). Projects considered can be either in the form of energy management or energy conservation. The overall efforts of this task are based on a model program PNL is designing to support energy-use decisions in the federal sector. This report provides the results of the fossil fuel and electric energy resource opportunity (ERO) assessments performed by PNL at Cape Canaveral AFS, which is located approximately 10 miles north of Cocoa Beach, Florida. It is a companion report to Volume 1: Executive Summary and Volume 2: Baseline Detail. The results of the analyses of EROs are presented in 11 common energy end-use categories (e.g., boilers and furnaces, service hot water, and building lighting). A narrative description of each ERO is provided, including information on the installed cost, energy and dollar savings, impacts on operations and maintenance (O&M), and, when applicable, a discussion of energy supply and demand, energy security, and environmental issues. Descriptions of the evaluation methodologies and technical and cost assumptions are also provided for each ERO. Summary tables present the cost- effectiveness of energy end-use equipment before and after the implementation of each ERO and present the results of the life-cycle cost (LCC) analysis, indicating the net present value (NPV) and savings-to-investment ratio (SIR) of each ERO.

  3. 46 CFR 108.633 - Fire stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Fire stations. 108.633 Section 108.633 Shipping COAST... Equipment Markings and Instructions § 108.633 Fire stations. Each fire station must be identified by marking: “FIRE STATION NO. __;” next to the station in letters and numbers at least 5 centimeters (2 inches) high....

  4. 46 CFR 108.633 - Fire stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Fire stations. 108.633 Section 108.633 Shipping COAST... Equipment Markings and Instructions § 108.633 Fire stations. Each fire station must be identified by marking: “FIRE STATION NO. __;” next to the station in letters and numbers at least 5 centimeters (2 inches) high....

  5. 46 CFR 108.633 - Fire stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Fire stations. 108.633 Section 108.633 Shipping COAST... Equipment Markings and Instructions § 108.633 Fire stations. Each fire station must be identified by marking: “FIRE STATION NO. __;” next to the station in letters and numbers at least 5 centimeters (2 inches) high....

  6. 46 CFR 108.633 - Fire stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fire stations. 108.633 Section 108.633 Shipping COAST... Equipment Markings and Instructions § 108.633 Fire stations. Each fire station must be identified by marking: “FIRE STATION NO. __;” next to the station in letters and numbers at least 5 centimeters (2 inches) high....

  7. 46 CFR 108.633 - Fire stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Fire stations. 108.633 Section 108.633 Shipping COAST... Equipment Markings and Instructions § 108.633 Fire stations. Each fire station must be identified by marking: “FIRE STATION NO. __;” next to the station in letters and numbers at least 5 centimeters (2 inches) high....

  8. Bird Activity Analysis Using Avian Radar Information in Naval Air Station airport, WA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, J.; Herricks, E.

    2010-12-01

    The number of bird strikes on aircraft has increased sharply over recent years and airport bird hazard management has gained increasing attention in wildlife management and control. Evaluation of bird activity near airport is very critical to analyze the hazard of bird strikes. Traditional methods for bird activity analysis using visual counting provide a direct approach to bird hazard assessment. However this approach is limited to daylight and good visual conditions. Radar has been proven to be a useful and effective tool for bird detection and movement analysis. Radar eliminates observation bias and supports consistent data collection for bird activity analysis and hazard management. In this study bird activity data from the Naval Air Station Whidbey Island was collected by Accipiter Avian Radar System. Radar data was pre-processed by filtering out non-bird noises, including traffic vehicle, aircraft, insects, wind, rainfall, ocean waves and so on. Filtered data is then statistically analyzed using MATLAB programs. The results indicated bird movement dynamics in target areas near the airport, which includes (1) the daily activity varied at dawn and dusk; (2) bird activity varied by target area due to the habitat difference; and (3) both temporal and spatial movement patterns varied by bird species. This bird activity analysis supports bird hazard evaluation and related analysis and modeling to provide very useful information in airport bird hazard management planning.

  9. International Space Station Air Quality Assessed According to Toxicologically-Grouped Compounds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    James, John T.; Limero, Thomas F.; Beck, Steve; Cheng, Patti F.; deVera, Vanessa J.; Hand, Jennifer; Macatangay, Ariel

    2010-01-01

    Scores of compounds are found in the International Space Station (ISS) atmospheric samples that are returned to the Johnson Space Center Toxicology Laboratory for analysis. Spacecraft Maximum Allowable Concentrations (SMACs) are set with the view that each compound is present as if there were no other compounds present. In order to apply SMACs to the interpretation of the analytical data, the toxicologist must employ some method of combining the potential effects of the aggregate of compounds found in the atmospheric samples. The simplest approach is to assume that each quantifiable compound has the potential for some effect in proportion to the applicable SMAC, and then add all the proportions. This simple paradigm disregards the fact that most compounds have potential to adversely affect only a few physiological systems, and their effects would be independent rather than additive. An improved approach to dealing with exposure to mixtures is to add the proportions only for compounds that adversely affect the same physiological system. For example, toxicants that cause respiratory irritation are separated from those that cause neurotoxicity or cardio-toxicity. Herein we analyze ISS air quality data according to toxicological groups with a view that this could be used for understanding any crew symptoms occurring at the time of the sample acquisition. In addition, this approach could be useful in post-flight longitudinal surveys where the flight surgeon may need to identify post-flight, follow-up medical studies because of on-orbit exposures that target specific physiological systems.

  10. Association between air pollution and hospital admission: Case study at three monitoring stations in Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zahari, Marina; Zin@Ibrahim, Wan Zawiah Wan; Ismail, Noriszura; Ni, Tan Hui

    2014-06-01

    The relationships between the exposure of pollutants towards hospitalized admission and mortality have been identified in several studies on Asian cities such as Taipei, Bangkok and Tokyo. In Malaysia, evidence on the health risks associated with exposure to pollutants is limited. In this study, daily time-series data were analysed to estimate risks of cardiovascular and respiratory hospitalized admissions associated with particulate matter ≤ 10 μm (PM10), carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen dioxide, sulphur dioxide, and ozone concentrations in Klang Valley during 2004-2009. Daily counts of hospital admissions for cardiovascular and respiratory outcomes were obtained from eleven hospitals while pollutants data were taken from several air quality monitoring stations located nearest to the hospitals. These data were fitted with Generalised Additive Poisson regression models. Additionally, temperature, humidity, and time data were also included to allow for potential effect of weather and time-varying influences on hospital admissions. CO showed the most significant (P < 0.05) relationship to cardiovascular admissions. An increment of 1 ppm in CO predicted an increase of 4% to 20% in cardiovascular admissions. Respiratory admissions were associated with PM10, which had about 1% increase in risk of admission per 10 ug/m3 increment in PM10. Exposure to CO and PM10 increases the risk of hospitalization for cardiovascular and respiratory illnesses in Klang Valley, Malaysia.

  11. International Space Station Air Quality Assessed According to Toxicologically-Grouped Compounds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    James, John T.; Limero, Tom; DeVera, Vanessa; Cheng, Patti; Hand, Jennifer; Macatangay, Ariel; Beck, Steve

    2009-01-01

    Scores of compounds are found in the International Space Station (ISS) atmospheric samples that are returned to the Johnson Space Center Toxicology Laboratory for analysis. Spacecraft Maximum Allowable Concentrations (SMACs) are set with the view that each compound is present as if there were no other compounds present. In order to apply SMACs to the interpretation of the analytical data, the toxicologist must employ some method of combining the potential effects of the aggregate of compounds found in the atmospheric samples. The simplest approach is to assume that each quantifiable compound has the potential for some effect in proportion to the applicable SMAC, and then add all the proportions. This simple paradigm disregards the fact that most compounds have potential to adversely affect only a few physiological systems, and their effects would be independent rather than additive. An improved approach to dealing with exposure to mixtures is to add the proportions only for compounds that adversely affect the same physiological system. For example, toxicants that cause respiratory irritation are separated from those that cause neurotoxicity or cardio-toxicity. Herein we analyze ISS air quality data according to toxicological groups with a view that this could be used for understanding any crew symptoms occurring at the time of the sample. In addition, this approach could be useful in post-flight longitudinal surveys where the flight surgeon may need to identify post-flight, follow-up medical studies because of on-orbit exposures that target specific physiological systems.

  12. Electric Vehicle Preparedness - Implementation Approach for Electric Vehicles at Naval Air Station Whidbey Island. Task 4

    SciTech Connect

    Schey, Stephen; Francfort, Jim

    2015-06-01

    Several U.S. Department of Defense base studies have been conducted to identify potential U.S. Department of Defense transportation systems that are strong candidates for introduction or expansion of plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs). This study is focused on the Naval Air Station Whidbey Island (NASWI) located in Washington State. Task 1 consisted of a survey of the non-tactical fleet of vehicles at NASWI to begin the review of vehicle mission assignments and types of vehicles in service. In Task 2, daily operational characteristics of vehicles were identified to select vehicles for further monitoring and attachment of data loggers. Task 3 recorded vehicle movements in order to characterize the vehicles’ missions. The results of the data analysis and observations were provided. Individual observations of the selected vehicles provided the basis for recommendations related to PEV adoption, i.e., whether a battery electric vehicle (BEV) or plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) (collectively PEVs) can fulfill the mission requirements. It also provided the basis for recommendations related to placement of PEV charging infrastructure. This report focuses on an implementation plan for the near-term adoption of PEVs into the NASWI fleet.

  13. A Peak Wind Probability Forecast Tool for Kennedy Space Center and Cape Canaveral Air Force Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crawford, Winifred; Roeder, William

    2008-01-01

    This conference abstract describes the development of a peak wind forecast tool to assist forecasters in determining the probability of violating launch commit criteria (LCC) at Kennedy Space Center (KSC) and Cape Canaveral Air Force Station (CCAFS) in east-central Florida. The peak winds are an important forecast element for both the Space Shuttle and Expendable Launch Vehicle (ELV) programs. The LCC define specific peak wind thresholds for each launch operation that cannot be exceeded in order to ensure the safety of the vehicle. The 45th Weather Squadron (45 WS) has found that peak winds are a challenging parameter to forecast, particularly in the cool season months of October through April. Based on the importance of forecasting peak winds, the 45 WS tasked the Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) to develop a short-range peak-wind forecast tool to assist in forecasting LCC violatioas.The tool will include climatologies of the 5-minute mean end peak winds by month, hour, and direction, and probability distributions of the peak winds as a function of the 5-minute mean wind speeds.

  14. Targeting Net Zero Energy at Marine Corps Air Station Miramar: Assessment and Recommendations

    SciTech Connect

    Booth, S.; Barnett, J.; Burman, K.; Hambrick, J.; Helwig, M.; Westby, R.

    2010-12-01

    The U.S. Department of Defense (DoD) is the largest energy consumer in the U.S. government. Present energy use impacts DoD global operations by constraining freedom of action and self-sufficiency, demanding enormous economic resources, and putting many lives at risk in logistics support for deployed environments. There are many opportunities for DoD to more effectively meet energy requirements through a combination of human actions, energy efficiency technologies, and renewable energy resources. In 2008, a joint initiative was formed between DoD and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to address military energy use. This initiative created a task force comprised of representatives from each branch of the military, the Office of the Secretary of Defense (OSD), the Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP), and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to examine the potential for ultra high efficiency military installations. This report presents an assessment of Marine Corps Air Station (MCAS) Miramar, selected by the task force as the initial prototype installation based on its strong history of energy advocacy and extensive track record of successful energy projects.

  15. Extent and etiology of aeromedical duty restrictions at a U.S. Coast Guard air station.

    PubMed

    Ungs, T J

    1991-10-01

    Aircrew are subject to flight and duty restrictions for various health-related problems. The major classifications of aeromedical limitations in the US Coast Guard are: Fit For Limited Duty (FFLD), fit for Duty Not Involving Flying (DNIF), and Sick In Quarters (SIQ). I studied the etiology and distribution of these restrictions among aircrew at a busy Coast Guard Air Station. Data were collected over a 6-month period from personnel Health Records and various medical reporting systems. A total of 391 health care episodes among 179 (56.6%) flight crew resulted in 1,961 days of flight/duty restriction. There were 1,349 (68.8%) days of DNIF, 439 (22.4%) days of FFLD, and 173 (8.8%) days of SIQ. The annual crude rate of restrictions per flight crew is 12.4 d. The most common causes for flight or duty restriction were infectious diseases of the respiratory and gastrointestinal tract and musculoskeletal problems. In conclusion, aeromedical flight/duty restrictions are substantial and have impact on flight crew availability.

  16. Severe Weather Tool using 1500 UTC Cape Canaveral Air Force Station Soundings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauman, William H., III

    2013-01-01

    People and property at Kennedy Space Center (KSC) and Cape Canaveral Air Force Station (CCAFS) are at risk when severe weather occurs. Strong winds, hail and tornadoes can injure individuals and cause costly damage to structures if not properly protected. NASA's Launch Services Program and Ground Systems Development and Operations Program and other KSC programs use the daily and weekly severe weather forecasts issued by the 45th Weather Squadron (45 WS) to determine if they need to limit an activity such as working on gantries, or protect property such as a vehicle on a pad. The 45 WS requested the Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) develop a warm season (May-September) severe weather tool for use in the Meteorological Interactive Data Display System (MIDDS) based on the late morning, 1500 UTC (1100 local time), CCAFS (XMR) sounding. The 45 WS frequently makes decisions to issue a severe weather watch and other severe weather warning support products to NASA and the 45th Space Wing in the late morning, after the 1500 UTC sounding. The results of this work indicate that certain stability indices based on the late morning XMR soundings can depict differences between days with reported severe weather and days with no reported severe weather. The AMU determined a frequency of reported severe weather for the stability indices and implemented an operational tool in MIDDS.

  17. The influence of cruise ship emissions on air pollution in Svalbard - a harbinger of a more polluted Arctic?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eckhardt, S.; Hermansen, O.; Grythe, H.; Fiebig, M.; Stebel, K.; Cassiani, M.; Baecklund, A.; Stohl, A.

    2013-01-01

    In this study we have analyzed whether tourist cruise ships have an influence on measured sulfur dioxide (SO2), ozone (O3), Aitken mode particle and equivalent black carbon (EBC) concentrations at Ny Ålesund and Zeppelin Mountain on Svalbard in the Norwegian Arctic, during summer. We separated the measurement data set into periods when ships were present and periods when no ships were present in the Kongsfjord area, according to a long-term record of the number of passengers visiting Ny Ålesund. We show that when ships with more than 50 passengers cruise in the Kongsfjord, measured daytime-mean concentrations of 60-nm particles and EBC in summer show enhancements of 72 and 45% relative to values when no ships are present. Even larger enhancements of 81 and 72% were found for stagnant conditions. In contrast, O3 concentrations were 5% lower on average and 7% lower under stagnant conditions, due to titration of O3 with the emitted nitric oxide (NO). The differences between the two data subsets are largest for the highest measured percentiles while relatively small differences were found for the median concentrations, indicating that ship plumes are sampled relatively infrequently even when ships are generally present but carry high concentrations. We estimate that the ships increased the total summer mean concentrations of SO2, 60-nm particles and EBC by 15, 18 and 11%, respectively. Our findings have two important implications: firstly, even at such a remote Arctic observatory as Zeppelin, the measurements can be influenced by tourist ship emissions. Careful data screening is recommended before summer-time Zeppelin data is used for data analysis or for comparison with global chemistry transport models. However, Zeppelin remains one of the most valuable Arctic observatories, as most other Arctic observatories face even larger local pollution problems. Secondly, given landing statistics of tourist ships on Svalbard, it is suspected that large parts of the Svalbard

  18. The influence of cruise ship emissions on air pollution in Svalbard - a harbinger of a more polluted Arctic?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eckhardt, S.; Hermansen, O.; Grythe, H.; Fiebig, M.; Stebel, K.; Cassiani, M.; Baecklund, A.; Stohl, A.

    2013-08-01

    In this study we have analyzed whether tourist cruise ships have an influence on measured sulfur dioxide (SO2), ozone (O3), Aitken mode particle and equivalent black carbon (EBC) concentrations at Ny Ålesund and Zeppelin Mountain on Svalbard in the Norwegian Arctic during summer. We separated the measurement data set into periods when ships were present and periods when ships were not present in the Kongsfjord area, according to a long-term record of the number of passengers visiting Ny Ålesund. We show that when ships with more than 50 passengers cruise in the Kongsfjord, measured daytime mean concentrations of 60 nm particles and EBC in summer show enhancements of 72 and 45%, respectively, relative to values when ships are not present. Even larger enhancements of 81 and 72% were found for stagnant conditions. In contrast, O3 concentrations were 5% lower on average and 7% lower under stagnant conditions, due to titration of O3 with the emitted nitric oxide (NO). The differences between the two data subsets are largest for the highest measured percentiles, while relatively small differences were found for the median concentrations, indicating that ship plumes are sampled relatively infrequently even when ships are present although they carry high pollutant concentrations. We estimate that the ships increased the total summer mean concentrations of SO2, 60 nm particles and EBC by 15, 18 and 11%, respectively. Our findings have two important implications. Firstly, even at such a remote Arctic observatory as Zeppelin, the measurements can be influenced by tourist ship emissions. Careful data screening is recommended before summertime Zeppelin data is used for data analysis or for comparison with global chemistry transport models. However, Zeppelin remains as one of the most valuable Arctic observatories, as most other Arctic observatories face even larger local pollution problems. Secondly, given landing statistics of tourist ships on Svalbard, it is suspected that

  19. An error analysis of the recovery capability of the relative sea-surface profile over the Puerto Rican trench from multi-station and ship tracking of GEOS-2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stanley, H. R.; Martin, C. F.; Roy, N. A.; Vetter, J. R.

    1971-01-01

    Error analyses were performed to examine the height error in a relative sea-surface profile as determined by a combination of land-based multistation C-band radars and optical lasers and one ship-based radar tracking the GEOS 2 satellite. It was shown that two relative profiles can be obtained: one using available south-to-north passes of the satellite and one using available north-to-south type passes. An analysis of multi-station tracking capability determined that only Antigua and Grand Turk radars are required to provide satisfactory orbits for south-to-north type satellite passes, while a combination of Merritt Island, Bermuda, and Wallops radars provide secondary orbits for north-to-south passes. Analysis of ship tracking capabilities shows that high elevation single pass range-only solutions are necessary to give only moderate sensitivity to systematic error effects.

  20. Estimating the effect of air pollution from a coal-fired power station on the development of children's pulmonary function.

    PubMed

    Dubnov, Jonathan; Barchana, Micha; Rishpon, Shmuel; Leventhal, Alex; Segal, Isaac; Carel, Rafael; Portnov, Boris A

    2007-01-01

    Using geographical information systems (GIS) tools, the present study analyzed the association between children's lung function development and their long-term exposure to air pollution. The study covered the cohort of 1492 schoolchildren living in the vicinity of a major coal-fired power station in the Hadera sub-district of Israel. In 1996 and 1999, the children underwent subsequent pulmonary function tests (PFT) (forced vital capacity (FVC) and forced expiratory volume during the first second (FEV(1))), and the children's parents completed a detailed questionnaire on their health status and household characteristics. A negative association was found between changes in the results of PFT and the estimated individual levels of air pollution. A sensitivity test revealed a FEV(1) decline from -4.3% for the average pollution level to -10.2% for the high air pollution level. The results of a sensitivity test for FVC were found to be similar. Association with the reported health status was found to be insignificant. As we conclude, air pollution from a coal-fired power station, although not exceeding local pollution standards, had a negative effect on children's lung function development. As argued, previous studies carried out in the region failed to show the above association because they were based on zone approaches that assign average concentration levels of air pollutants to all individuals in each zone, leading to a misclassification bias of individual exposure.

  1. Study on the stability of waterpower-speed control system for hydropower station with air cushion surge chamber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, W. C.; Yang, J. D.; Chen, J. P.; Teng, Y.

    2014-03-01

    According to the fact that the effects of penstock, unit and governor on stability of water level fluctuation for hydropower station with air cushion surge chamber are neglected in previous researches, in this paper, Thoma assumption is broken through, the complete mathematical model of waterpower-speed control system for hydropower station with air cushion surge chamber is established, and the comprehensive transfer function and linear homogeneous differential equation that characterize the dynamic characteristics of system are derived. The stability domain that characterizes the good or bad of stability quantitatively is drawn by using the stability conditions. The effects of the fluid inertia in water diversion system, the air cushion surge chamber parameters, hydraulic turbine characteristics, generator characteristics, and regulation modes of governor on the stability of waterpower-speed control system are analyzed through stability domain. The main conclusions are as follows: The fluid inertia in water diversion system and hydraulic turbine characteristics have unfavorable effects on the system while generator characteristics have favorable effect. The stability keeps getting better with the increase of chamber height and basal area and the decrease of air pressure and air polytropic exponent. The stability of power regulation mode is obviously better than that of frequency regulation mode.

  2. Final Environmental Assessment Construction of New Recreational Lodging at Bellows Air Force Station O’ahu, Hawai’i

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-10-01

    groundwater resources occurring within the ROI. Surface water includes lakes , streams and drainage ways, and near-shore coastal waters. Groundwater...former runway at Bellows Air Force Station. Based on the distance from the Mr. Ronnie Lanier 2 project site (0.5 miles) to the Oxbow wetland and...Waimanalo Community is geographically isolated from the Enchanted Lakes , Kailua, Lanikai, Hawaii Kai and Manoa communities by mountains. This fact is not

  3. Forecasting Cool Season Daily Peak Winds at Kennedy Space Center and Cape Canaveral Air Force Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barrett, Joe, III; Short, David; Roeder, William

    2008-01-01

    The expected peak wind speed for the day is an important element in the daily 24-Hour and Weekly Planning Forecasts issued by the 45th Weather Squadron (45 WS) for planning operations at Kennedy Space Center (KSC) and Cape Canaveral Air Force Station (CCAFS). The morning outlook for peak speeds also begins the warning decision process for gusts ^ 35 kt, ^ 50 kt, and ^ 60 kt from the surface to 300 ft. The 45 WS forecasters have indicated that peak wind speeds are a challenging parameter to forecast during the cool season (October-April). The 45 WS requested that the Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) develop a tool to help them forecast the speed and timing of the daily peak and average wind, from the surface to 300 ft on KSC/CCAFS during the cool season. The tool must only use data available by 1200 UTC to support the issue time of the Planning Forecasts. Based on observations from the KSC/CCAFS wind tower network, surface observations from the Shuttle Landing Facility (SLF), and CCAFS upper-air soundings from the cool season months of October 2002 to February 2007, the AMU created multiple linear regression equations to predict the timing and speed of the daily peak wind speed, as well as the background average wind speed. Several possible predictors were evaluated, including persistence, the temperature inversion depth, strength, and wind speed at the top of the inversion, wind gust factor (ratio of peak wind speed to average wind speed), synoptic weather pattern, occurrence of precipitation at the SLF, and strongest wind in the lowest 3000 ft, 4000 ft, or 5000 ft. Six synoptic patterns were identified: 1) surface high near or over FL, 2) surface high north or east of FL, 3) surface high south or west of FL, 4) surface front approaching FL, 5) surface front across central FL, and 6) surface front across south FL. The following six predictors were selected: 1) inversion depth, 2) inversion strength, 3) wind gust factor, 4) synoptic weather pattern, 5) occurrence of

  4. Evaluation of geophysical logs, Phase I, at Willow Grove Naval Air Station, Montgomery County, Pennsylvania

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Conger, R.W.

    1997-01-01

    Between April and June 1997, the U.S. Navy contracted Brown and Root Environmental, Inc., to drill 20 monitor wells at the Willow Grove Naval Air Station in Horsham Township, Montgomery County, Pa. The wells were installed to monitor water levels and allow collection of water samples from shallow, intermediate, and deep water-bearing zones. Analysis of the samples will determine the horizontal and vertical distribution of any contaminated ground water migrating from known contaminant sources. Eight wells were drilled near the Fire Training Area (Site 5), five wells near the 9th Street Landfill (Site 3), four wells at the Antenna Field Landfill (Site 2), and three wells near Privet Road Compound (Site 1). Depths range from 73 to 167 feet below land surface. The U.S. Geological Survey conducted borehole-geophysical and borehole-video logging to identify water-bearing zones so that appropriate intervals could be screened in each monitor well. Geophysical logs were run on the 20 monitor wells and 1 existing well. Video logs were run on 16 wells. Caliper and video logs were used to locate fractures, inflections on fluid-temperature and fluid-resistivity logs were used to locate possible water-bearing fractures, and flowmeter measurements verified these locations. Single-point-resistance and natural-gamma logs provided information on stratigraphy. After interpretation of geophysical logs, video logs, and driller's notes, all wells were screened such that water-level fluctuations could be monitored and discrete water samples collected from one or more shallow and intermediate water-bearing zones in each borehole.

  5. Monitoring Direct Effects of Delta, Atlas, and Titan Launches from Cape Canaveral Air Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmalzer, Paul A.; Boyle, Shannon R.; Hall, Patrice; Oddy, Donna M.; Hensley, Melissa A.; Stolen, Eric D.; Duncan, Brean W.

    1998-01-01

    Launches of Delta, Atlas, and Titan rockets from Cape Canaveral Air Station (CCAS) have potential environmental effects that could arise from direct impacts of the launch exhaust (e.g., blast, heat), deposition of exhaust products of the solid rocket motors (hydrogen chloride, aluminum oxide), or other effects such as noise. Here we: 1) review previous reports, environmental assessments, and environmental impact statements for Delta, Atlas, and Titan vehicles and pad areas to clarity the magnitude of potential impacts; 2) summarize observed effects of 15 Delta, 22 Atlas, and 8 Titan launches; and 3) develop a spatial database of the distribution of effects from individual launches and cumulative effects of launches. The review of previous studies indicated that impacts from these launches can occur from the launch exhaust heat, deposition of exhaust products from the solid rocket motors, and noise. The principal effluents from solid rocket motors are hydrogen chloride (HCl), aluminum oxide (Al2O3), water (H2O), hydrogen (H2), carbon monoxide (CO), and carbon dioxide (CO2). The exhaust plume interacts with the launch complex structure and water deluge system to generate a launch cloud. Fall out or rain out of material from this cloud can produce localized effects from acid or particulate deposition. Delta, Atlas, and Titan launch vehicles differ in the number and size of solid rocket boosters and in the amount of deluge water used. All are smaller and use less water than the Space Shuttle. Acid deposition can cause damage to plants and animals exposed to it, acidify surface water and soil, and cause long-term changes to community composition and structure from repeated exposure. The magnitude of these effects depends on the intensity and frequency of acid deposition.

  6. Seismic reflection exploration of geothermal reservoir at Naval Air Station (NAS) Fallon, Nevada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alay G., Gebregiorgis

    The Primary objective of this study is to increase geologic and tectonic understanding of the geothermal resources at the Naval Air Station (NAS) Fallon, Nevada. The seismic reflection method is employed to study faults, fractures and other tectonic structures in the subsurface in order to identify geothermal drill targets. The efficiency of geothermal systems is strongly dependent on water circulation. Discrete faults may be permeable and provide pathways for water flow depending on the fracture density. It is therefore desirable to detect and map faults and fracture zones and characterize their physical properties when evaluating a geothermal prospect. The seismic data for this project were provided by the NAS environmental research program in Ridgecrest, CA. However, the data collection information was not available so the work includes determining the line geometry and mapping shot points to field files in order to process the data. ProMAX 2D(TM) is the software used to determine the geometry and to process the data. Data processing includes eliminating noise, datum and refraction statics, trace muting, bandpass filter, automatic gain control, amplitude recovery, CMP sorting, velocity analysis and NMO correction, stacking and migration. The results of this study indicate the presence of thick basin fill including Tertiary and Quaternary sediments underlain by Tertiary basalts which are interpreted to be capping rocks for the geothermal reservoirs. This seismic reflection study also reveals the presence of strongly fractured pre-Tertiary basement complex with their top at about 1500m on the north and west and about 900 m on the eastern and southern part of the study area.

  7. Air quality impact assessment of at-berth ship emissions: Case-study for the project of a new freight port.

    PubMed

    Lonati, Giovanni; Cernuschi, Stefano; Sidi, Shelina

    2010-12-01

    This work is intended to assess the impact on local air quality due to atmospheric emissions from port area activities for a new port in project in the Mediterranean Sea. The sources of air pollutants in the harbour area are auxiliary engines used by ships at berth during loading/offloading operations. A fleet activity-based methodology is first applied to evaluate annual pollutant emissions (NO(X), SO(X), PM, CO and VOC) based on vessel traffic data, ships tonnage and in-port hotelling time for loading/offloading operations. The 3-dimensional Calpuff transport and dispersion model is then applied for the subsequent assessment of the ground level spatial distribution of atmospheric pollutants for both long-term and short-term averaging times. Compliance with current air quality standards in the port area is finally evaluated and indications for port operation are provided. Some methodological aspects of the impact assessment procedure, namely those concerning the steps of emission scenario definitions and model simulations set-up at the project stage, are specifically addressed, suggesting a pragmatic approach for similar evaluations for small new ports in project.

  8. U.S. Marine Corps Air Facility, Santa Ana, California hangers no. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    U.S. Marine Corps Air Facility, Santa Ana, California hangers no. 1&2-building no. 28 &29. Drawing no. PW-66-044 - Marine Corps Air Station Tustin, Northern Lighter Than Air Ship Hangar, Meffett Avenue & Maxfield Street, Tustin, Orange County, CA

  9. Results of monitoring for polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans in ambient air at McMurdo station, Antarctica

    SciTech Connect

    Lugar, R.M.; Harles, R.L.

    1996-02-01

    This paper presents the results of ambient air monitoring for polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) performed during the 1992-1993 and 1993-1994 austral summers in the vicinity of McMurdo Station, Antarctica. Twenty-eight air samples were collected from four different locations to determine the identity and concentration of PCDD/PCDF compounds. PCDD/PCDF compounds were not detected at either the predominantly upwind location or a more remote site on Black Island. Trace levels of only a few PCDD/PCDF congeners were detected sporadically at a location approximately 500 m downwind of the station. The most frequent, most varied, and highest levels of PCDDs/PCDFs were measured at a `downtown` location, where concentrations of total PCDDs ranged from 0.12 to 1.80 pg/m{sup 3} and total PCDDs ranged from less than 0.02 to 2.77 pg/m{sup 3}. The data indicate that there are combustion sources at McMurdo other than the solid waste incinerator (power plants, vehicles, heating furnaces, etc.) that contribute PCDD/PCDF compounds to the ambient air. The greatest variety and highest concentration of PCDD/PCDF congeners measured in 1992-1993 during incineration of selected solid wastes implicates the interim incinerator as the likely source of the increased presence of these compounds in air. 18 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  10. Implementation plan for operating alternatives for the Naval Computer and Telecommunications Station cogeneration facility at Naval Air Station North Island, San Diego, California

    SciTech Connect

    Carroll, D.M.; Parker, S.A.; Stucky, D.J.

    1994-04-01

    The goal of the US Department of Energy (DOE) Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) is to facilitate energy efficiency improvements at federal facilities. This is accomplished by a balanced program of technology development, facility assessment, and use of cost-sharing procurement mechanisms. Technology development focuses upon the tools, software, and procedures used to identify and evaluate energy efficiency technologies and improvements. For facility assessment, FEMP provides metering equipment and trained analysts to federal agencies exhibiting a commitment to improve energy use efficiency. To assist in procurement of energy efficiency measures, FEMP helps federal agencies devise and implement performance contracting and utility demand-side management strategies. Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) supports the FEMP mission of energy systems modernization. Under this charter, the Laboratory and its contractors work with federal facility energy managers to assess and implement energy efficiency improvements at federal facilities nationwide. The SouthWestern Division of the Naval Facilities Engineering Command, in cooperation with FEMP, has tasked PNL with developing a plan for implementing recommended modifications to the Naval Computer and Telecommunications Station (NCTS) cogeneration plant at the Naval Air Station North Island (NASNI) in San Diego. That plan is detailed in this report.

  11. Analysis of operating alternatives for the Naval Computer and Telecommunications Station Cogeneration Facility at Naval Air Station North Island, San Diego, California

    SciTech Connect

    Parker, S.A.; Carroll, D.M.; McMordie, K.L.; Brown, D.R.; Daellenbach, K.K.; Shankle, S.A.; Stucky, D.J.

    1993-12-01

    The Naval Facilities Engineering Command Southwestern Division commissioned Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL), in support of the US Department of Energy (DOE) Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP), to determine the most cost-effective approach to the operation of the cogeneration facility in the Naval Computer and Telecommunications Station (NCTS) at the Naval Air Station North Island (NASNI). Nineteen alternative scenarios were analyzed by PNL on a life-cycle cost basis to determine whether to continue operating the cogeneration facility or convert the plant to emergency-generator status. This report provides the results of the analysis performed by PNL for the 19 alternative scenarios. A narrative description of each scenario is provided, including information on the prime mover, electrical generating efficiency, thermal recovery efficiency, operational labor, and backup energy strategy. Descriptions of the energy and energy cost analysis, operations and maintenance (O&M) costs, emissions and related costs, and implementation costs are also provided for each alternative. A summary table presents the operational cost of each scenario and presents the result of the life-cycle cost analysis.

  12. Ship Tracks

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-19

    article title:  Ship Tracks in a Stratiform Cloud Layer     ... stratocumulus. These striking linear patterns are known as "ship tracks", and are produced when fine particles (also called aerosols) from ... be used with the red filter placed over your left eye. Ship tracks are important examples of aerosol-cloud interactions. They are ...

  13. CLIMATE CHANGE FUEL CELL PROGRAM UNITED STATES COAST GUARD AIR STATION CAPE COD BOURNE, MASSACHUSETTS

    SciTech Connect

    John K. Steckel Jr

    2004-06-30

    This report covers the first year of operation of a fuel cell power plant, installed by PPL Spectrum, Inc. (PPL) under contract with the United States Coast Guard (USCG), Research and Development Center (RDC). The fuel cell was installed at Air Station Cape Cod in Bourne, MA. The project had the support of the Massachusetts Technology Collaborative (MTC), the Department of Energy (DOE), and Keyspan Energy. PPL selected FuelCell Energy, Inc. (FCE) and its fuel cell model DFC{reg_sign}300 for the contract. Grant contributions were finalized and a contract between PPL and the USCG for the manufacture, installation, and first year's maintenance of the fuel cell was executed on September 24, 2001. As the prime contractor, PPL was responsible for all facets of the project. All the work was completed by PPL through various subcontracts, including the primary subcontract with FCE for the manufacture, delivery, and installation of the fuel cell. The manufacturing and design phases proceeded in a relatively timely manner for the first half of the project. However, during latter stages of manufacture and fuel cell testing, a variety of issues were encountered that ultimately resulted in several delivery delays, and a number of contract modifications. Final installation and field testing was completed in April and May 2003. Final acceptance of the fuel cell was completed on May 16, 2003. The fuel cell has operated successfully for more than one year. The unit achieved an availability rate of 96%, which exceeded expectations. The capacity factor was limited because the unit was set at 155 kW (versus a nameplate of 250 kW) due to the interconnection with the electric utility. There were 18 shutdowns during the first year and most were brief. The ability of this plant to operate in the island mode improved availability by 3 to 4%. Events that would normally be shutdowns were simply island mode events. The mean time between failure was calculated at 239 hours, or slightly less

  14. Predictions of U.K. regulated power station contributions to regional air pollution and deposition: a model comparison exercise.

    PubMed

    Chemel, Charles; Sokhi, Ranjeet S; Dore, Anthony J; Sutton, Paul; Vincent, Keith J; Griffiths, Stephen J; Hayman, Garry D; Wright, Raymond D; Baggaley, Matthew; Hallsworth, Stephen; Prain, H Douglas; Fisher, Bernard E A

    2011-11-01

    Contributions of the emissions from a U.K. regulated fossil-fuel power station to regional air pollution and deposition are estimated using four air quality modeling systems for the year 2003. The modeling systems vary in complexity and emphasis in the way they treat atmospheric and chemical processes, and include the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) modeling system in its versions 4.6 and 4.7, a nested modeling system that combines long- and short-range impacts (referred to as TRACK-ADMS [Trajectory Model with Atmospheric Chemical Kinetics-Atmospheric Dispersion Modelling System]), and the Fine Resolution Atmospheric Multi-pollutant Exchange (FRAME) model. An evaluation of the baseline calculations against U.K. monitoring network data is performed. The CMAQ modeling system version 4.6 data set is selected as the reference data set for the model footprint comparison. The annual mean air concentration and total deposition footprints are summarized for each modeling system. The footprints of the power station emissions can account for a significant fraction of the local impacts for some species (e.g., more than 50% for SO2 air concentration and non-sea-salt sulfur deposition close to the source) for 2003. The spatial correlation and the coefficient of variation of the root mean square error (CVRMSE) are calculated between each model footprint and that calculated by the CMAQ modeling system version 4.6. The correlation coefficient quantifies model agreement in terms of spatial patterns, and the CVRMSE measures the magnitude of the difference between model footprints. Possible reasons for the differences between model results are discussed. Finally, implications and recommendations for the regulatory assessment of the impact of major industrial sources using regional air quality modeling systems are discussed in the light of results from this case study.

  15. Towards the Extrapolation of Total and Tropospheric Ozone IASI Estimations for Surface Air-Quality Stations Measurements Comparisons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peinado-Galan, Niobe; Lopez-Baeza, Ernesto; Miro, Jose V.

    Ozone plays a central role in the photochemical equilibrium of the atmosphere. Stratospheric ozone is essential to protect the Earth from the harmful ultraviolet solar radiation and tropospheric ozone is a major atmospheric pollutant that harms both human health and the environment due to its strong oxidative capacity. Monitoring ozone at different scales and in the different atmospheric layers is essential and for that, satellite-based instruments are the only system to provide ozone observations for those conditions. However, tropospheric ozone measurements are difficult because the contribution to the measured signal from the stratosphere is typically large. Significant efforts and resources are usually dedicated to analyse and study the atmosphere and its components. Ozonesondes, air quality stations, and sensors onboard Earth Observation satellites allow to carry out these studies at different scales (global, regional or local) and with different viewpoints. IASI (Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer) is a singular and robust instrument and a key payload element of the MetOp series of the European Meteorological Polar-Orbit Satellites. It is developed by CNES in the framework of a co-operation agreement with EUMETSAT. In this work, total and tropospheric ozone estimations from IASI have been firstly compared to measurements obtained from ozonesondes, UV Brewer and Dobson spectrophotometers and from OMI (Ozone Monitoring Instrument), from the stations Madrid-Barajas (Spain), Uccle (Brussels, Belgium), Hohenpeissenberg (Germany), and Summit (Greenland), for the years 2011 - 2013. But the final objective is to obtain ozone estimations at surface level to be compared to the air quality stations network observations. The comparisons between the different instruments have resulted quite reasonable -depending on the station and on the atmospheric layer- and we have been able to estimate surface ozone (0-10 m height) for the Madrid-Barajas station by using

  16. Final EIS for the Proposed Homeporting of Additional Surface Ships at Naval Station, Mayport, FL. Volume 1. Final Environmental Impact Statement

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-11-21

    disposal location. Hopper dredges are well suited to dredging compacted heavy materials . They can maintain operations safely , effectively, and...dredged material , maintenance facilities improvements, utilities upgrades, wharf improvements, personnel support improvements, parking facilities and...propulsion plant maintenance facilities • Dredging and disposal of dredged material Final EIS for the Proposed Homeporting of Additional Surface Ships

  17. DELTAMETHRIN IMPREGNATED MOSQUITO NETS : AN EXPERIMENTAL STUDY IN AN AIR FORCE STATION IN CENTRAL INDIA (DELTAMETHRIN TRIAL).

    PubMed

    Banerjee, A; Nayak, B

    2002-01-01

    An experimental study was carried out to determine the efficacy of deltamethrin impregnated mosquito nets in reducing malaria incidence under field conditions in an Air Force Station. Out of the total study population of 748 airmen and DSC personnel, 320 got their mosquito nets impregnated with deltamethrin, while 428 used unimpregnated mosquito nets. During the three months observation period, there was no significant difference in malaria incidence among the two groups (Yates Chi Sq=0.05, p=0.829405, Relative risk = 0.96 with 95% CI between 031 and 2.98). In view of study findings, it was concluded that in the station, use of deltamethrin impregnated mosquito nets will not reduce incidence of malaria appreciably, the stress has to be on outdoor personal protective measures.

  18. Effect of low air velocities on thermal homeostasis and comfort during exercise at space station operational temperature and humidity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beumer, Ronald J.

    1989-01-01

    The effectiveness of different low air velocities in maintaining thermal comfort and homeostasis during exercise at space station operational temperature and humidity was investigated. Five male subjects exercised on a treadmill for successive ten minute periods at 60, 71, and 83 percent of maximum oxygen consumption at each of four air velocities, 30, 50, 80, and 120 ft/min, at 22 C and 62 percent relative humidity. No consistent trends or statistically significant differences between air velocities were found in body weight loss, sweat accumulation, or changes in rectal, skin, and body temperatures. Occurrence of the smallest body weight loss at 120 ft/min, the largest sweat accumulation at 30 ft/min, and the smallest rise in rectal temperature and the greatest drop in skin temperature at 120 ft/min all suggested more efficient evaporative cooling at the highest velocity. Heat storage at all velocities was evidenced by increased rectal and body temperatures; skin temperatures declined or increased only slightly. Body and rectal temperature increases corresponded with increased perception of warmth and slight thermal discomfort as exercise progressed. At all air velocities, mean thermal perception never exceeded warm and mean discomfort, greatest at 30 ft/min, was categorized at worst as uncomfortable; sensation of thermal neutrality and comfort returned rapidly after cessation of exercise. Suggestions for further elucidation of the effects of low air velocities on thermal comfort and homeostasis include larger numbers of subjects, more extensive skin temperature measurements and more rigorous analysis of the data from this study.

  19. 47 CFR 80.142 - Ships using radiotelegraphy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Ships using radiotelegraphy. 80.142 Section 80... STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Operating Requirements and Procedures Special Procedures-Ship Stations § 80.142 Ships using radiotelegraphy. (a) Calling by narrow-band direct-printing. (1) NB-DP...

  20. 47 CFR 80.142 - Ships using radiotelegraphy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Ships using radiotelegraphy. 80.142 Section 80... STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Operating Requirements and Procedures Special Procedures-Ship Stations § 80.142 Ships using radiotelegraphy. (a) Calling by narrow-band direct-printing. (1) NB-DP...

  1. 47 CFR 80.142 - Ships using radiotelegraphy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Ships using radiotelegraphy. 80.142 Section 80... STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Operating Requirements and Procedures Special Procedures-Ship Stations § 80.142 Ships using radiotelegraphy. (a) Calling by narrow-band direct-printing. (1) NB-DP...

  2. 47 CFR 80.142 - Ships using radiotelegraphy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Ships using radiotelegraphy. 80.142 Section 80... STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Operating Requirements and Procedures Special Procedures-Ship Stations § 80.142 Ships using radiotelegraphy. (a) Calling by narrow-band direct-printing. (1) NB-DP...

  3. Video-Puff of Air Hits Ball of Water in Space Onboard the International Space Station (ISS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    Saturday Morning Science, the science of opportunity series of applied experiments and demonstrations, performed aboard the International Space Station (ISS) by Expedition 6 astronaut Dr. Don Pettit, revealed some remarkable findings. In this video clip, Dr. Pettit demonstrates the phenomenon of a puff of air hitting a ball of water that is free floating in space. Watch the video to see why Dr. Pettit remarks 'I'd hate think that our planet would go through these kinds of gyrations if it got whacked by a big asteroid'.

  4. Forecasting Lightning at Kennedy Space Center/Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Florida

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lambert, Winfred; Wheeler, Mark; Roeder, William

    2005-01-01

    The Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) developed a set of statistical forecast equations that provide a probability of lightning occurrence on Kennedy Space Center (KSC) I Cape Canaveral Air Force Station (CCAFS) for the day during the warm season (May September). The 45th Weather Squadron (45 WS) forecasters at CCAFS in Florida include a probability of lightning occurrence in their daily 24-hour and weekly planning forecasts, which are briefed at 1100 UTC (0700 EDT). This information is used for general scheduling of operations at CCAFS and KSC. Forecasters at the Spaceflight Meteorology Group also make thunderstorm forecasts for the KSC/CCAFS area during Shuttle flight operations. Much of the current lightning probability forecast at both groups is based on a subjective analysis of model and observational data. The objective tool currently available is the Neumann-Pfeffer Thunderstorm Index (NPTI, Neumann 1971), developed specifically for the KSCICCAFS area over 30 years ago. However, recent studies have shown that 1-day persistence provides a better forecast than the NPTI, indicating that the NPTI needed to be upgraded or replaced. Because they require a tool that provides a reliable estimate of the daily thunderstorm probability forecast, the 45 WS forecasters requested that the AMU develop a new lightning probability forecast tool using recent data and more sophisticated techniques now possible through more computing power than that available over 30 years ago. The equation development incorporated results from two research projects that investigated causes of lightning occurrence near KSCICCAFS and over the Florida peninsula. One proved that logistic regression outperformed the linear regression method used in NPTI, even when the same predictors were used. The other study found relationships between large scale flow regimes and spatial lightning distributions over Florida. Lightning, probabilities based on these flow regimes were used as candidate predictors in

  5. 33 CFR 334.540 - Banana River at the Eastern Range, 45th Space Wing, Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, FL...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., 45th Space Wing, Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, FL; restricted area. 334.540 Section 334.540... enforced by the Commander, 45th Space Wing, Patrick Air Force Base, Florida and/or such persons or agencies... AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.540 Banana River at the Eastern Range, 45th Space Wing,...

  6. Performance and evaluation of gas-engine-driven split-system cooling equipment at the Willow Grove Naval Air Station

    SciTech Connect

    Armstrong, P.R.; Schmelzer, J.R.

    1997-01-01

    DOE`s Federal Energy Management Program supports efforts to reduce energy use and associated expenditures within the federal sector; one such effort, the New Technology Demonstration Program (NTDP)(formerly the Test Bed Demonstration program), seeks to evaluate new energy saving US technologies and secure their more timely adoption by the federal government. This report describes the field evaluation conducted to examine the performance of a 15-ton natural-gas-engine- driven, split-system, air-conditioning unit. The unit was installed at a multiple-use building at Willow Grove Naval Air Station, a regular and reserve training facility north of Philadelphia, and its performance was monitored under the NTDP.

  7. Performance Evaluation of a Low-Cost, Real-Time Community Air Monitoring Station

    EPA Science Inventory

    The US EPA’s Village Green Project (VGP) is an example of using innovative technology to enable community-level low-cost real-time air pollution measurements. The VGP is an air monitoring system configured as a park bench located outside of a public library in Durham, NC. It co...

  8. Comparison of MODIS Land Surface Temperature and Air Temperature over the Continental USA Meteorological Stations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhang, Ping; Bounoua, Lahouari; Imhoff, Marc L.; Wolfe, Robert E.; Thome, Kurtis

    2014-01-01

    The National Land Cover Database (NLCD) Impervious Surface Area (ISA) and MODIS Land Surface Temperature (LST) are used in a spatial analysis to assess the surface-temperature-based urban heat island's (UHIS) signature on LST amplitude over the continental USA and to make comparisons to local air temperatures. Air-temperature-based UHIs (UHIA), calculated using the Global Historical Climatology Network (GHCN) daily air temperatures, are compared with UHIS for urban areas in different biomes during different seasons. NLCD ISA is used to define urban and rural temperatures and to stratify the sampling for LST and air temperatures. We find that the MODIS LST agrees well with observed air temperature during the nighttime, but tends to overestimate it during the daytime, especially during summer and in nonforested areas. The minimum air temperature analyses show that UHIs in forests have an average UHIA of 1 C during the summer. The UHIS, calculated from nighttime LST, has similar magnitude of 1-2 C. By contrast, the LSTs show a midday summer UHIS of 3-4 C for cities in forests, whereas the average summer UHIA calculated from maximum air temperature is close to 0 C. In addition, the LSTs and air temperatures difference between 2006 and 2011 are in agreement, albeit with different magnitude.

  9. 47 CFR 80.1083 - Ship radio installations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Ship radio installations. 80.1083 Section 80.1083 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES... for Ship Stations § 80.1083 Ship radio installations. (a) Ships must be provided with...

  10. 47 CFR 80.1083 - Ship radio installations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Ship radio installations. 80.1083 Section 80.1083 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES... for Ship Stations § 80.1083 Ship radio installations. (a) Ships must be provided with...

  11. 47 CFR 80.1083 - Ship radio installations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Ship radio installations. 80.1083 Section 80.1083 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES... for Ship Stations § 80.1083 Ship radio installations. (a) Ships must be provided with...

  12. 47 CFR 80.1083 - Ship radio installations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Ship radio installations. 80.1083 Section 80.1083 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES... for Ship Stations § 80.1083 Ship radio installations. (a) Ships must be provided with...

  13. 47 CFR 80.1083 - Ship radio installations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Ship radio installations. 80.1083 Section 80.1083 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES... for Ship Stations § 80.1083 Ship radio installations. (a) Ships must be provided with...

  14. 47 CFR 80.277 - Ship Security Alert System (SSAS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Ship Security Alert System (SSAS). 80.277... SERVICES STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Equipment Authorization for Compulsory Ships § 80.277 Ship Security Alert System (SSAS). (a) Vessels equipped with a Ship Security Alert System pursuant to the...

  15. 47 CFR 80.277 - Ship Security Alert System (SSAS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Ship Security Alert System (SSAS). 80.277... SERVICES STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Equipment Authorization for Compulsory Ships § 80.277 Ship Security Alert System (SSAS). (a) Vessels equipped with a Ship Security Alert System pursuant to the...

  16. 47 CFR 80.277 - Ship Security Alert System (SSAS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Ship Security Alert System (SSAS). 80.277... SERVICES STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Equipment Authorization for Compulsory Ships § 80.277 Ship Security Alert System (SSAS). (a) Vessels equipped with a Ship Security Alert System pursuant to the...

  17. 47 CFR 80.277 - Ship Security Alert System (SSAS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Ship Security Alert System (SSAS). 80.277... SERVICES STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Equipment Authorization for Compulsory Ships § 80.277 Ship Security Alert System (SSAS). (a) Vessels equipped with a Ship Security Alert System pursuant to the...

  18. 47 CFR 80.277 - Ship Security Alert System (SSAS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Ship Security Alert System (SSAS). 80.277... SERVICES STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Equipment Authorization for Compulsory Ships § 80.277 Ship Security Alert System (SSAS). (a) Vessels equipped with a Ship Security Alert System pursuant to the...

  19. Army Air Force Exchange Service Service (AAFES) Station Tyndall Air Force Base, Florida Final Tiered Environmental Assessment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-04-20

    Management, No ise, Land Use, Air Quali ty, Earth Resources, Biological Resources, Cultural Resources, Water Resources, Hazardous Materials and Wastes ...Resources, Biological Resources, Cultural Resources, Water Resources, Hazardous Materials and Wastes , Safety, Infrastructure and Util ities, Socioeconomic...No impacts to floodpl ai ns. Storm water permit ----:- ---- would be required. _ ____ _ l lazardous Materia ls and Wastes No negative short- or

  20. Geodatabase of environmental information for Air Force Plant 4 and Naval Air Station-Joint Reserve Base Carswell Field, Fort Worth, Texas, 1990-2004

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shah, Sachin D.; Quigley, Sean M.

    2005-01-01

    Air Force Plant 4 (AFP4) and adjacent Naval Air Station-Joint Reserve Base (NAS-JRB) at Fort Worth, Tex., constitute a government-owned, contractor-operated (GOCO) facility that has been in operation since 1942. Contaminants from the facility, primarily volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and metals, have entered the groundwater-flow system through leakage from waste-disposal sites (landfills and pits) and from manufacturing processes (U.S. Air Force, Aeronautical Systems Center, 1995). The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the U.S. Air Force (USAF), Aeronautical Systems Center, Environmental Management Directorate (ASC/ENVR), developed a comprehensive database (or geodatabase) of temporal and spatial environmental information associated with the geology, hydrology, and water quality at AFP4 and NAS-JRB. The database of this report provides information about the AFP4 and NAS-JRB study area including sample location names, identification numbers, locations, historical dates, and various measured hydrologic data. This database does not include every sample location at the site, but is limited to an aggregation of selected digital and hardcopy data of the USAF, USGS, and various consultants who have previously or are currently working at the site.

  1. System Engineering Analysis of Air Conditioning, Heating, and Ventilation Systems Installed on LHA-1 and LPH-2 Class Ships,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-07-01

    8/18/80 * LPH-I0, dated 1/9/81 * LPH-l1, dated 10/ 23 /81 0 LPH-12, dated 5 /15/81 * LHA-I, dated FY 78 RAV * LHA-2, dated 6/1 3/83 (COH) * LHA-1, dated...SOC progran ships. The ND8 data bank was compiled by examining all WDS data reported free May 1976 through June 1981 for Bulls LUR-i through 13- 5 ...equipments: the compressors (58 percent), the compressor motors (14 percent), the compressor motor controllers (12 percent), the condensers ( 5 percent

  2. Geology and hydrogeology of Naval Air Station Chase Field and Naval Auxiliary Landing Field Goliad, Bee and Goliad counties, Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Snyder, G.L.

    1995-01-01

    Large vertical hydraulic-head gradients are present between the unconfined Evangeline aquifer and confined Fleming aquifers at Naval Air Station Chase Field and Naval Auxiliary Landing Field Goliad. These gradients, together with the results of the aquifer test at Naval Air Station Chase Field and assumed characteristics of the confining units, indicate that downward flow of ground water probably occurs from the water-table aquifer to the underlying aquifers. The rate of downward flow between the two confined Fleming aquifers (from A-sand to B-sand) can be approximated using an estimate of vertical hydraulic conductivity of the intervening confining unit obtained from assumed storage characteristics and data from the aquifer test. Under the relatively high vertical hydraulic-head gradient induced by the aquifer test, ground-water movement from the A-sand aquifer to the B-sand aquifer could require about 490 years; and about 730 years under the natural gradient. Future increases in ground-water withdrawals from the B-sand aquifer might increase downward flow in the aquifer system of the study area.

  3. Performance Evaluation of a Lower-Cost, Real-Time Community Air Monitoring Station

    EPA Science Inventory

    These slides describe the Village Green Project prototype and how the measurements compare wtih nearby FEMs, including the OAQPS data collected at the AIRS site on the EPA-RTP campus and the NCDENR FEMs in the Triangle area.

  4. Spatial downscaling and mapping of daily precipitation and air temperature using daily station data and monthly mean maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flint, A. L.; Flint, L. E.; Stern, M. A.

    2013-12-01

    Accurate maps of daily weather variables are an essential component of hydrologic and ecologic modeling. Here we present a four-step method that uses daily station data and transient monthly maps of precipitation and air temperature. This method uses the monthly maps to help interpolate between stations for more accurate production of daily maps at any spatial resolution. The first step analyzes the quality of the each station's data using a discrepancy analysis that compares statistics derived from a statistical jack-knifing approach with a time-series evaluation of discrepancies generated for each station. Although several methods could be used for the second step of producing initial maps, such as kriging, splines, etc., we used a gradient plus inverse distance squared method that was developed to produce accurate climate maps for sparse data regions with widely separated and few climate stations, far fewer than would be needed for techniques such as kriging. The gradient plus inverse distance squared method uses local gradients in the climate parameters, easting, northing, and elevation, to adjust the inverse distance squared estimates for local gradients such as lapse rates, inversions, or rain shadows at scales of 10's of meters to kilometers. The third step is to downscale World Wide Web (web) based transient monthly data, such as Precipitation-Elevation Regression on Independent Slope Method (PRISM) for the US (4 km or 800 m maps) or Climate Research Unit (CRU 3.1) data sets (40 km for global applications) to the scale of the daily data's digital elevation model. In the final step the downscaled transient monthly maps are used to adjust the daily time-series mapped data (~30 maps/month) for each month. These adjustments are used to scale daily maps so that summing them for precipitation or averaging them for temperature would more accurately reproduce the variability in selected monthly maps. This method allows for individual days to have maxima or minima

  5. Air Weather Service Master Station Catalog: USAFETAC Climatic Database Users Handbook No. 6

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-03-01

    Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) G = Air Force Global Weather Central (AFGWC) K = Carswell Automated Weather Network (Det 7, AFGWC) 0...Carswell Automated Weather Network (Det 7, AFGWC) M = Located by meteorological analysis B-6 P" 0 0 S 5 0 0 • 0 •, 0 N = Hydrology office...Airways Facilities Sector AMOS - Automated Meteorological Observing System ANG - Air National Guard weather facility AUT - Automated reporting

  6. Ship Hydrodynamics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lafrance, Pierre

    1978-01-01

    Explores in a non-mathematical treatment some of the hydrodynamical phenomena and forces that affect the operation of ships, especially at high speeds. Discusses the major components of ship resistance such as the different types of drags and ways to reduce them and how to apply those principles for the hovercraft. (GA)

  7. Locations and monitoring well completion logs of wells surveyed by U.S. Geological Survey at Air Force Plant 4 and Naval Air Station, Joint Reserve Base, Carswell Field, Fort Worth area, Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Williams, M.D.; Kuniansky, E.L.

    1996-01-01

    Completion logs are presented for 16 monitoring wells installed by the U.S. Geological Survey at Air Force Plant 4 and Naval Air Station, Joint Reserve Base, Carswell Field, in the Fort Worth area, Texas. Natural gamma-ray logs are presented for selected monitoring wells. Also included are survey data for eight wells installed by Geo-Marine, Inc.

  8. Study on Flow Phenomenon inside a Nozzle in Ship Propulsion Equipment Directly Driven by High Pressure Air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tajiri, Shinsuke; Tsutahara, Michihisa; Ogawa, Kazuhiko; Sakamoto, Masahiko; Tajima, Masakazu; Azuma, Keisuke

    An experimental study was conducted by performing pressure measurements and flow visualization to investigate unsteady flows inside a two-dimensional semi-open-type nozzle in a ship propulsion equipment directly driven by high-pressure gas. We found that the ejected gas phase and water-flow phase are separated clearly, and the interface between these phases behaves like waves. It was clarified by flow visualization with a high-speed motion camera and a circulating water channel that these interfacial waves change their shapes according to the water-flow velocity. The interfacial wavelength increases as a result of increasing water-flow velocity, and the mechanism that produces thrust on the nozzle wall changes. The thrust and flow patterns for intermittent gas ejection according to water-flow velocity were also clarified.

  9. International Space Station Common Cabin Air Assembly Condensing Heat Exchanger Hydrophilic Coating Operation, Recovery, and Lessons Learned

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Balistreri, Steven F.; Steele, John W.; Caron, Mark E.; Laliberte, Yvon J.; Shaw, Laura A.

    2013-01-01

    The ability to control the temperature and humidity of an environment or habitat is critical for human survival. These factors are important to maintaining human health and comfort, as well as maintaining mechanical and electrical equipment in good working order to support the human and to accomplish mission objectives. The temperature and humidity of the International Space Station (ISS) United States On-orbit Segment (USOS) cabin air is controlled by the Common Cabin Air Assembly (CCAA). The CCAA consists of a fan, a condensing heat exchanger (CHX), an air/water separator, temperature and liquid sensors, and electrical controlling hardware and software. The CHX is the primary component responsible for control of temperature and humidity. The CCAA CHX contains a chemical coating that was developed to be hydrophilic and thus attract water from the humid influent air. This attraction forms the basis for water removal and therefore cabin humidity control. However, there have been several instances of CHX coatings becoming hydrophobic and repelling water. When this behavior is observed in an operational CHX in the ISS segments, the unit s ability to remove moisture from the air is compromised and the result is liquid water carryover into downstream ducting and systems. This water carryover can have detrimental effects on the ISS cabin atmosphere quality and on the health of downstream hardware. If the water carryover is severe and widespread, this behavior can result in an inability to maintain humidity levels in the USOS. This paper will describe the operation of the five CCAAs within the USOS, the potential causes of the hydrophobic condition, and the impacts of the resulting water carryover to downstream systems. It will describe the history of this behavior and the actual observed impacts to the ISS USOS. Information on mitigation steps to protect the health of future CHX hydrophilic coatings as well as remediation and recovery of the full heat exchanger will be

  10. An Analysis of Air Force Avionic Test Station Utilization Using Q-Gert Modeling and Simulation.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-12-01

    LAPrL tVE. E u beP CE K, AVEPAr.E ’U "Q1E 0 Schr? 115.C? c7t c. 16. 16 6.1501 25 ~APAO .1� . 1. C.5292 2F r. ,- Cc F 6 c. 1. 1 .4979 ’Q ’IWAD .Z201...Evaluation Center, Kirtland Air Force Base, New Mexico , 1979. 10. Drake, William F., III, Rolland R. Fisher, and John R. Younger, "Logistics Composite...Air Force Base, New Mexico , (May 1976). 19. HQ/AFTEC, "F-16 FOT & E Phase II Suitability Test Plan - Annex E," Air Force Test and Evaluation Center

  11. Soyuz 22 Return Samples: Assessment of Air Quality Aboard the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jams, John T.

    2010-01-01

    Three mini-grab sample containers (m-GSCs) were returned aboard Soyuz 22 because of concerns that new air pollutants were present in the air and these were getting into the water recovery system. The Total Organic Carbon Analyzer had been giving increasing readings of total organic carbon (TOC) in the potable water, and it was postulated that an increased load into the system was responsible. The toxicological assessment of 3 m-GSCs from the ISS is shown in Table 1. The recoveries of the 3 standards (as listed above) from the GSCs averaged 103, 95 and 76%, respectively. Recovery from formaldehyde control badges were 90 and 91%.

  12. Initial Field Trials of the Site Characterization and Analysis Penetrometer System (SCAPS). Reconnaissance of Jacksonville Naval Air Station Waste Oil and Solvents Disposal Site

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-12-01

    Engineers Waterways Experiment Station DTIC Initial Field Trials of the Site ELECTF Characterization and Analysis JAN2 5 1994D Penetrometer System...038Prepared f NlFclitie 24En g m Prepared for Naval Facilities Engineering Command The contents of this report are not to be used for advertising. publication...Characterization and Analysis Penetrometer Sysstem (SCAPS) Reconnaissance of Jacksonville Naval Air Station Waste Oil and Solvents Disposal Site by Stafford S

  13. 46 CFR 199.120 - Launching stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Launching stations. 199.120 Section 199.120 Shipping... LIFESAVING SYSTEMS FOR CERTAIN INSPECTED VESSELS Requirements for All Vessels § 199.120 Launching stations. (a) Each launching station must be positioned to ensure safe launching with clearance from...

  14. 46 CFR 199.120 - Launching stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Launching stations. 199.120 Section 199.120 Shipping... LIFESAVING SYSTEMS FOR CERTAIN INSPECTED VESSELS Requirements for All Vessels § 199.120 Launching stations. (a) Each launching station must be positioned to ensure safe launching with clearance from...

  15. 46 CFR 133.120 - Launching stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Launching stations. 133.120 Section 133.120 Shipping... Requirements for All OSVs § 133.120 Launching stations. (a) Each launching station must be positioned to ensure safe launching with clearance from— (1) The propeller; and (2) The steeply overhanging portions of...

  16. 46 CFR 133.120 - Launching stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Launching stations. 133.120 Section 133.120 Shipping... Requirements for All OSVs § 133.120 Launching stations. (a) Each launching station must be positioned to ensure safe launching with clearance from— (1) The propeller; and (2) The steeply overhanging portions of...

  17. Air Weather Service Master Station Catalog USAFETAC Climatic Database Users Handbook No. 6

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-03-01

    Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) G = Air Force Global Weather Central (AFGWC) K = Carswell Automated Weather Network (Det 7, AFGWC) 0...AFGWC) J = Jepsen (JEPS) K = Carswell Automated Weather Network (Det 7, AFGWC) M = Located by meteorological analysis B-6 N = Hydrology office...Airfield ACC - Area control center AERO - Aerodrome AHP - U.S. Army Heliport AUX - Auxiliary AFS - Airways Facilities Sector AMOS - Automated

  18. [Spatial representativeness of monitoring stations for air quality in Florence (Tuscany Region, Central Italy) according to ARPAT e LaMMA. Critical observations].

    PubMed

    Grechi, Daniele

    2016-01-01

    On March 2015, the Environmental Protection Agency of Tuscany Region (Central Italy) and the Laboratory of monitoring and environmental modelling published a Report on spatial representativeness of monitoring stations for Tuscan air quality, where they supported the decommissioning of modelling stations located in the Florentine Plain. The stations of Signa, Scandicci, and Firenze-Bassi, located in a further South area, were considered representative Believing that air quality of the Plain could be evaluated by these stations is a stretch. In this text the author show the inconsistency of the conclusion of the Report through correlation graphs comparing daily means of PM10 detected in the disposed stations and in the active ones, showing relevant differences between the reported values and the days when the limits are exceeded. The discrepancy is due to the fact that uncertainty of theoretical estimates is greater than the differences recorded by the stations considered as a reference and the areas they may represent. The area of the Plain has a population of 150,000 individuals and it is subject to a heavy environmental pression, which will change for the urban works planned for the coming years. The population's legitimate request for the analytical monitoring of air pollution could be met through the organization of participated monitoring based on the use of low-cost innovative tools.

  19. An extensive air shower trigger station for the Muon Portal detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riggi, F.; Blancato, A. A.; La Rocca, P.; Riggi, S.; Santagati, G.

    2014-11-01

    The Muon Portal project ( [1]; Riggi et al., 2013 [2,5,7]; Lo Presti et al., 2012 [3]; La Rocca et al., 2014 [4]; Bandieramonte et al., 2013 [6]; Pugliatti et al., 2014 [8]) aims at the construction of a large area detector to reconstruct cosmic muon tracks above and below a container, to search for hidden high-Z materials inside its volume by the muon tomography technique. Due to its sensitive area (about 18 m2), with four XY detection planes, and its good tracking capabilities, the prototype under construction, which should be operational around mid-2015, also allows different studies in cosmic ray physics, including the detection of muon bundles. For such purpose, a trigger station based on three scintillation detectors operating in coincidence close to the main muon tracker has been built. This paper describes the design and preliminary results of the trigger station, together with the physics capabilities of the overall setup.

  20. Application of geophysical methods to the delineation of paleochannels and missing confining units above the Castle Hayne Aquifer at US Marine Corps Air Station, Cherry Point, North Carolina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Daniel, C. C.; Miller, R.D.; Wrege, B.M.

    1995-01-01

    The U.S. Marine Corps Air Station, Cherry Point, North Carolina, is underlain by four freshwater-bearing aquifers--the surficial, Yorktown, and upper and lower Castle Hayne. The upper and lower Castle Hayne aquifers serve as the principal supply of freshwater for the Air Station. The potential for movement of contaminated water from the surficial aquifer downward to the water-supply aquifer is greatest in areas where clay confining units are missing. Missing confining units may indicate the presence of paleochannels filled with permeable material. Seismic-reflection techniques were successful in delinea- ting paleochannels of Quaternary and Tertiary age within unconsoli- dated sediments less than 180 feet deep at several locations. Continuous single-channel marine seismic-reflection profiling in the Neuse River was effective in delineating a large paleochannel complex consisting of at least two superimposed paleochannels within hydrogeologic units overlying the upper Castle Hayne aquifer. The complex was found immediately north of the Air Station and is thought to continue south beneath the Air Station. Shallow high-resolution land seismic-reflection techniques were used at the Air Station to delineate structures and correlate strati- graphy between the limestone of the upper Castle Hayne aquifer and the Yorktown confining unit. Three different land seismic-reflection techniques proved effective for the horizontal extrapolation of geo- logic features and identification of paleochannels at several locations. The northeastern margin of a large paleochannel was identified beneath the southern part of the Air Station. This feature strikes northwest to southeast and cuts through the Yorktown and upper Castle Hayne aquifer confining units.

  1. Development of remedial process options: Phase II, Feasibility study: Installation Restoration Program, Naval Air Station Fallon, Fallon, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Cronk, T.A.; Smuin, D.R.; Schlosser, R.M.

    1991-11-01

    This technical memorandum develops process options which are appropriate for environmental restoration activities at Naval Air Station Fallon (NAS Fallon), Nevada. Introduction of contaminants to the environment has resulted from deliberate disposal activities (both through dumping and landfilling) and accidental spills and leaks associated with normal activities at NAS Fallon over its lifetime of operation. Environmental sampling results indicate that the vast majority of contaminants of concern are petroleum hydrocarbon related. These contaminants include JP-4, JP-5, leaded and unleaded gasoline, waste oils and lubricants, hydraulic fluids, and numerous solvents and cleaners. The principal exposure pathways of concern associated with NAS Fallon contaminants appear to be the surface flows and shallow drainage systems to which the base contributes. Available data indicate NAS Fallon IR Program sites are not contributing excessive contamination to surface flows emanating from the base. Contaminants appear to be contained in a relatively immobile state in the shallow subsurface with little or no contaminant migration off site.

  2. Update to the Objective Lightning Probability Forecast Tool in Use at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Florida

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lambert, Winifred; Roeder, William

    2008-01-01

    This conference presentation describes the improvement of a set of lightning probability forecast equations that are used by the 45th Weather Squadron forecasters for their daily 1100 UTC (0700 EDT) weather briefing during the warm season months of May-September. This information is used for general scheduling of operations at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station and Kennedy Space Center. Forecasters at the Spaceflight Meteorology Group also make thunderstorm forecasts during Shuttle flight operations. Five modifications were made by the Applied Meteorology Unit: increased the period of record from 15 to 17 years, changed the method of calculating the flow regime of the day, calculated a new optimal layer relative humidity, used a new smoothing technique for the daily climatology, and used a new valid area. The test results indicated that the modified equaitions showed and increase in skill over the current equations, good reliability, and an ability to distinguish between lightning and non-lightning days.

  3. The FUSE satellite is moved to a payload attach fitting in Hangar AE, Cape Canaveral Air Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Workers at Hangar AE, Cape Canaveral Air Station, maneuver an overhead crane toward NASA's Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer (FUSE) satellite standing between vertical workstands. The crane will lift FUSE to move it onto the Payload Attach Fitting (PAF) in front of it. FUSE is undergoing a functional test of its systems, plus installation of flight batteries and solar arrays. Developed by The Johns Hopkins University under contract to Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., FUSE will investigate the origin and evolution of the lightest elements in the universe - hydrogen and deuterium. In addition, the FUSE satellite will examine the forces and process involved in the evolution of the galaxies, stars and planetary systems by investigating light in the far ultraviolet portion of the electromagnetic spectrum. FUSE is scheduled to be launched May 27 aboard a Boeing Delta II rocket at Launch Complex 17.

  4. The FUSE satellite is moved to a payload attach fitting in Hangar AE, Cape Canaveral Air Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Suspended by a crane in Hangar AE, Cape Canaveral Air Station, NASA's Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer (FUSE) satellite is lowered onto a circular Payload Attach Fitting (PAF). FUSE is undergoing a functional test of its systems, plus installation of flight batteries and solar arrays. Developed by The Johns Hopkins University under contract to Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., FUSE will investigate the origin and evolution of the lightest elements in the universe - hydrogen and deuterium. In addition, the FUSE satellite will examine the forces and process involved in the evolution of the galaxies, stars and planetary systems by investigating light in the far ultraviolet portion of the electromagnetic spectrum. FUSE is scheduled to be launched May 27 aboard a Boeing Delta II rocket at Launch Complex 17.

  5. The FUSE satellite is moved to a payload attach fitting in Hangar AE, Cape Canaveral Air Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    While a crane lifts NASA's Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer (FUSE) satellite, workers at Hangar AE, Cape Canaveral Air Station, help guide it toward the circular Payload Attach Fitting (PAF) in front of it. FUSE is undergoing a functional test of its systems, plus installation of flight batteries and solar arrays. Developed by The Johns Hopkins University under contract to Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., FUSE will investigate the origin and evolution of the lightest elements in the universe - hydrogen and deuterium. In addition, the FUSE satellite will examine the forces and process involved in the evolution of the galaxies, stars and planetary systems by investigating light in the far ultraviolet portion of the electromagnetic spectrum. FUSE is scheduled to be launched May 27 aboard a Boeing Delta II rocket at Launch Complex 17.

  6. NREL Furthers U.S. Marine Corps Air Station Miramar's Move Toward Net Zero Energy (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2011-02-01

    A 2008 report from the Defense Science Board concluded that critical missions at military bases are facing unacceptable risks from extended power losses. A first step in addressing this concern is to establish military bases that can produce as much energy as they use over the course of a year, a concept known as a "net zero energy installation" (NZEI). The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) has helped the U.S. Marine Corps Air Station (MCAS) Miramar, located north of San Diego, California, as it strives to achieve its NZE goal. In conjunction with the U.S. Department of Energy's Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP), NREL partnered with MCAS Miramar to standardize processes and create an NZEI template for widespread replication across the military.

  7. Update to the Objective Lightning Probability Forecast Tool in use at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Florida

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lambert, Winifred; Roeder, William

    2013-01-01

    This conference poster describes the improvement of a set of lightning probability forecast equations that are used by the 45th Weather Squadron forecasters for their daily 1100 UTC (0700 EDT) weather briefing during the warm season months of May-September. This information is used for general scheduling of operations at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station and Kennedy Space Center. Forecasters at the Spaceflight Meteorology Group also make thunderstorm forecasts during Shuttle flight operations. Five modifications were made by the Applied Meteorology Unit: increased the period of record from 15 to 17 years, changed the method of calculating the flow regime of the day, calculated a new optimal layer relative humidity, used a new smoothing technique for the daily climatology, and used a new valid area. The test results indicated that the modified equations showed and increase in skill over the current equations, good reliability and an ability to distinguish between lightning and non-lightning days.

  8. Modifications to the Objective Lightning Probability Forecast Tool at Kennedy Space Center/Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Florida

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crawford, Winifred; Roeder, William

    2010-01-01

    The 45th Weather Squadron (45 WS) at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station (CCAFS) includes the probability of lightning occurrence in their 24-Hour and Weekly Planning Forecasts, briefed at 0700 EDT for daily operations planning on Kennedy Space Center (KSC) and CCAFS. This forecast is based on subjective analyses of model and observational data and output from an objective tool developed by the Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU). This tool was developed over two phases (Lambert and Wheeler 2005, Lambert 2007). It consists of five equations, one for each warm season month (May-Sep), that calculate the probability of lightning occurrence for the day and a graphical user interface (GUI) to display the output. The Phase I and II equations outperformed previous operational tools by a total of 56%. Based on this success, the 45 WS tasked the AMU with Phase III to improve the tool further.

  9. Update to the Lightning Probability Forecast Equations at Kennedy Space Center/Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Florida

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lambert, Winifred; Roeder, William

    2007-01-01

    This conference presentation describes the improvement of a set of lightning probability forecast equations that are used by the 45th Weather Squadron forecasters for their daily 1100 UTC (0700 EDT) weather briefing during the warm season months of May-September. This information is used for general scheduling of operations at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station and Kennedy Space Center. Forecasters at the Spaceflight Meteorology Group also make thunderstorm forecasts during Shuttle flight operations. Five modifications were made by the Applied Meteorology Unit: increased the period of record from 15 to 17 years, changed the method of calculating the flow regime of the day, calculated a new optimal layer relative humidity, used a new smoothing technique for the daily climatology, and used a new valid area. The test results indicated that the modified equations showed and increase in skill over the current equations, good reliability, and an ability to distinguish between lightning and non-lightning days.

  10. Update to the Lightning Probability Forecast Equations at Kennedy Space Center/Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Florida

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lambert, Winifred; Roeder, William

    2007-01-01

    This conference presentation describes the improvement of a set of lightning probability forecast equations that are used by the 45th Weather Squadron forecasters for their daily 1100 UTC (0700 EDT) weather briefing during the warm season months of May- September. This information is used for general scheduling of operations at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station and Kennedy Space Center. Forecasters at the Spaceflight Meteorology Group also make thunderstorm forecasts during Shuttle flight operations. Five modifications were made by the Applied Meteorology Unit: increased the period of record from 15 to 17 years, changed the method of calculating the flow regime of the day, calculated a new optimal layer relative humidity, used a new smoothing technique for the daily climatology, and used a new valid area. The test results indicated that the modified equations showed and increase in skill over the current equations, good reliability, and an ability to distinguish between lightning and non-lightning days.

  11. Soyuz 23 Return Samples: Assessment of Air Quality Aboard the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    James, John T.

    2011-01-01

    Six mini-grab sample containers (m-GSCs) were returned aboard Soyuz 23 because of concerns that new air pollutants had been present in the air and these were getting into the water recovery system. The Total Organic Carbon Analyzer had been giving increasing readings of total organic carbon (TOC) in the potable water, and it was postulated that an increased load into the system was responsible. The TOC began to decline in late October, 2010. The toxicological assessment of 6 m-GSCs from the ISS is shown in Table 1. The recoveries of 13C-acetone, fluorobenzene, and chlorobenzene from the GSCs averaged 73, 82, and 59%, respectively. We are working to understand the sub-optimal recovery of chlorobenzene.

  12. New NRO Eastern Processing Facility at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station Florida. Environmental Assessment:

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-08-31

    associated with gopher tortoise burrows, which it occupies when inactive. The reproductive season encompasses copulation (November through April), egg...populations that remain are small, demographically isolated , and likely to decline (U.S. Air Force 2001). Based on the nine years of study of scrub...ridges. The soils have rapid permeability and low available water capacity due to the near-surface water table. This permeability rate allows water to

  13. Environmental Assessment of Proposed Wing Headquarters Facility at Pittsburgh International Airport Air Reserve Station, Pennsylvania

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-03-01

    meter MSC Medium specific concentrations MSW municipal solid waste MS4 municipal separate storm sewer systems NAAQS National Ambient Air Quality...achieve a level of water quality that provides for the protection and propagation of fish, shellfish , and wildlife; and recreation in and on the water...Township Municipal Authority’s sanitary sewer lines and sewage treatment facility. Pittsburgh IAP ARS’ wastewater is carried off base via one 15-inch sewer

  14. Environmental Assessment: Demolish CASS Switch Stations Buildings 644, 645, 646 at Grand Forks Air Force Base

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-06-01

    Winters are long and severe with almost continuous snow cover. The spring and fall seasons are generally short transition periods. The average...during the late fall, winter, and spring , and from the southeast during the summer. Grand Forks County is included in the ND Air Quality Control...approximately 10 miles northeast of Grand Forks AFB, the mean discharge of the Turtle River is 50.3 feet cubed per second (ft3/s). Peak flows result from

  15. Environmental Assessment: Construct Fire Station at Grand Forks Air Force Base

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-03-01

    Base Development CEQ Council on Environmental Quality CES Civil Engineer Squadron CEV Environmental Management Flight CFR Code of Federal...Act RAPCON Radar Approach Control USACE U.S. Army Corps of Engineers USAF U.S. Air Force VII SECTION 1 Purpose of and Need for Action 1.1...SPONSORING/MONITORING AGENCY NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) 319 Civil Engineer Squadron, 525 Tuskegee Airmen Blvd, Grand Forks AFB, ND, 58205-6434 10

  16. Environmental Assessment: Addressing Construction Projects at Niagara Falls Air Reserve Station, New York

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-07-01

    for producing food, feed, forage, fiber, and oilseed crops , and is also available for these uses. The soil qualities, growing season, and moisture...supply are needed for a well-managed soil to produce a sustained high yield of crops in an economic manner. The land could be cropland, pasture...installation remains in compliance with Federal, state, and local regulations pertaining to asbestos. In 1993, the Air National Guard Readiness

  17. Final Environmental Assessment- Air Traffic Control Tower and Fire Station Pope AFB, NC

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-06-01

    as residences, schools , and hospitals. If such facilities are built in these areas soundproofing and insulation is usually required to reduce noise...Combat Control School facilities. These Air Force actions have or will be analyzed in other NEPA documentation, as required. Additional factors that...2. 7 percent, and the rental vacancy rate is 10.1 percent (USCB 2002). Schools Pope AFB has one elementary school (kindergarten through fourth grade

  18. Chronology: From the Cambridge Field Station to the Air Force Geophysics Laboratory, 1945-1985

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-09-06

    numerical model was developed for hurricane prediction. AFCRL issued a descriptive catalogue of dry lake beds in the U.S. as potential sites for Air...Trakowski was named Chief of the Divi- sion, and a new mission plan was drawn up. 15 Mar The Fourth Cliff site near Scituate, Massachusetts, was acquired...It was used as the radar site for Project "Billboard," an experimental long-range, low- frequency radar. 22 Mar Two deputy commanders, a Deputy for

  19. Ten years of mercury measurement at urban and industrial air quality monitoring stations in the UK

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Richard J. C.; Goddard, Sharon L.; Butterfield, David M.; Brown, Andrew S.; Robins, Chris; Mustoe, Chantal L.; McGhee, Elizabeth A.

    2015-05-01

    Concentrations and trends from a decade of measurements of total gaseous mercury and particulate phase mercury at a number of monitoring stations across the UK are presented. Both emissions and ambient concentrations of mercury in the UK have continued to fall slightly during the measurement period despite already being at historically low levels. The median UK concentration of total gaseous mercury recorded in recent years was around 2.0 ng/m3. Small urban increments of about 0.4 ng/m3 above background concentrations were noted, with larger increments above the background only observed close to industrial point sources. The total gaseous mercury to particulate phase mercury ratio was large across the UK - indicating the dominance of the gaseous mercury in the atmosphere - and was observed to be larger at background and urban locations than at industrial sites, as a result of higher relative particulate phase mercury concentrations close to primary emissions point sources.

  20. Impact of cruise ship emissions in Victoria, BC, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poplawski, Karla; Setton, Eleanor; McEwen, Bryan; Hrebenyk, Dan; Graham, Mark; Keller, Peter

    2011-02-01

    Characterization of the effects of cruise ship emissions on local air quality is scarce. Our objective was to investigate community level concentrations of fine particulate matter (PM 2.5), nitrogen dioxide (NO 2) and sulphur dioxide (SO 2) associated with cruise ships in James Bay, Victoria, British Columbia (BC), Canada. Data obtained over four years (2005-2008) at the nearest air quality network site located 3.5 km from the study area, a CALPUFF modeling exercise (2007), and continuous measurements taken in the James Bay community over a three-month period during the 2009 cruise ship season were examined. Concentrations of PM 2.5 and nitrogen oxide (NO) were elevated on weekends with ships present with winds from the direction of the terminal to the monitoring station. SO 2 displayed the greatest impact from the presence of cruise ships in the area. Network data showed peaks in hourly SO 2 when ships were in port during all years. The CALPUFF modeling analysis found predicted 24-hour SO 2 levels to exceed World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines of 20 μg m -3 for approximately 3% of 24-hour periods, with a maximum 24-hour concentration in the community of 41 μg m -3; however, the CALPUFF model underestimated concentrations when predicted and measured concentrations were compared at the network site. Continuous monitoring at the location in the community predicted to experience highest SO 2 concentrations measured a maximum 24-hour concentration of 122 μg m -3 and 16% of 24-hour periods were above the WHO standard. The 10-minute concentrations of SO 2 reached up to 599 μg m -3 and exceeded the WHO 10-minute SO 2 guideline (500 μg m -3) for 0.03% of 10-minute periods. No exceedences of BC Provincial or Canadian guidelines or standards were observed.

  1. High-end exposure relationships of volatile air toxics and carbon monoxide to community-scale air monitoring stations in Atlanta, Chicago, and Houston.

    PubMed

    Fujita, Eric M; Zielinska, Barbara; Campbell, David E; Sagebiel, John C; Ollison, Will

    Evaporative and exhaust mobile source air toxic (MSAT) emissions of total volatile organic compounds, carbon monoxide, BTEX (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes), formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, butadiene, methyl tertiary butyl ether, and ethanol were measured in vehicle-related high-end microenvironments (ME) under worst-case conditions plausibly simulating the >99th percentile of inhalation exposure concentrations in Atlanta (baseline gasoline), Chicago (ethanol-oxygenated gasoline), and Houston (methyl tertiary butyl either-oxygenated gasoline) during winter and summer seasons. High-end MSAT values as ratios of the corresponding measurements at nearby air monitoring stations exceeded the microenvironmental proximity factors used in regulatory exposure models, especially for refueling operations and MEs under reduced ventilation. MSAT concentrations were apportioned between exhaust and evaporative vehicle emissions in Houston where methyl tertiary butyl ether could be used as a vehicle emission tracer. With the exception of vehicle refueling operations, the results indicate that evaporative emissions are a minor component of high-end MSAT exposure concentrations.

  2. Performance Evaluation of the Operational Air Quality Monitor for Water Testing Aboard the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wallace, William T.; Limero, Thomas F.; Gazda, Daniel B.; Minton, John M.; Macatangay, Ariel V.; Dwivedi, Prabha; Fernandez, Facundo M.

    2014-01-01

    Real-time environmental monitoring on ISS is necessary to provide data in a timely fashion and to help ensure astronaut health. Current real-time water TOC monitoring provides high-quality trending information, but compound-specific data is needed. The combination of ETV with the AQM showed that compounds of interest could be liberated from water and analyzed in the same manner as air sampling. Calibration of the AQM using water samples allowed for the quantitative analysis of ISS archival samples. Some calibration issues remain, but the excellent accuracy of DMSD indicates that ETV holds promise for as a sample introduction method for water analysis in spaceflight.

  3. Characterization of Aspergillus fumigatus Isolates from Air and Surfaces of the International Space Station.

    PubMed

    Knox, Benjamin P; Blachowicz, Adriana; Palmer, Jonathan M; Romsdahl, Jillian; Huttenlocher, Anna; Wang, Clay C C; Keller, Nancy P; Venkateswaran, Kasthuri

    2016-01-01

    One mission of the Microbial Observatory Experiments on the International Space Station (ISS) is to examine the traits and diversity of fungal isolates to gain a better understanding of how fungi may adapt to microgravity environments and how this may affect interactions with humans in a closed habitat. Here, we report an initial characterization of two isolates, ISSFT-021 and IF1SW-F4, of Aspergillus fumigatus collected from the ISS and a comparison to the experimentally established clinical isolates Af293 and CEA10. Whole-genome sequencing of ISSFT-021 and IF1SW-F4 showed 54,960 and 52,129 single nucleotide polymorphisms, respectively, compared to Af293, which is consistent with observed genetic heterogeneity among sequenced A. fumigatus isolates from diverse clinical and environmental sources. Assessment of in vitro growth characteristics, secondary metabolite production, and susceptibility to chemical stresses revealed no outstanding differences between ISS and clinical strains that would suggest special adaptation to life aboard the ISS. Virulence assessment in a neutrophil-deficient larval zebrafish model of invasive aspergillosis revealed that both ISSFT-021 and IF1SW-F4 were significantly more lethal than Af293 and CEA10. Taken together, these genomic, in vitro, and in vivo analyses of two A. fumigatus strains isolated from the ISS provide a benchmark for future investigations of these strains and for continuing research on specific microbial isolates from manned space environments. IMPORTANCE As durations of manned space missions increase, it is imperative to understand the long-term consequence of microbial exposure on human health in a closed human habitat. To date, studies aimed at bacterial and fungal contamination of space vessels have highlighted species compositions biased toward hardy, persistent organisms capable of withstanding harsh conditions. In the current study, we assessed traits of two independent Aspergillus fumigatus strains isolated

  4. Characterization of Aspergillus fumigatus Isolates from Air and Surfaces of the International Space Station

    PubMed Central

    Knox, Benjamin P.; Blachowicz, Adriana; Romsdahl, Jillian; Huttenlocher, Anna; Wang, Clay C. C.; Keller, Nancy P.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT One mission of the Microbial Observatory Experiments on the International Space Station (ISS) is to examine the traits and diversity of fungal isolates to gain a better understanding of how fungi may adapt to microgravity environments and how this may affect interactions with humans in a closed habitat. Here, we report an initial characterization of two isolates, ISSFT-021 and IF1SW-F4, of Aspergillus fumigatus collected from the ISS and a comparison to the experimentally established clinical isolates Af293 and CEA10. Whole-genome sequencing of ISSFT-021 and IF1SW-F4 showed 54,960 and 52,129 single nucleotide polymorphisms, respectively, compared to Af293, which is consistent with observed genetic heterogeneity among sequenced A. fumigatus isolates from diverse clinical and environmental sources. Assessment of in vitro growth characteristics, secondary metabolite production, and susceptibility to chemical stresses revealed no outstanding differences between ISS and clinical strains that would suggest special adaptation to life aboard the ISS. Virulence assessment in a neutrophil-deficient larval zebrafish model of invasive aspergillosis revealed that both ISSFT-021 and IF1SW-F4 were significantly more lethal than Af293 and CEA10. Taken together, these genomic, in vitro, and in vivo analyses of two A. fumigatus strains isolated from the ISS provide a benchmark for future investigations of these strains and for continuing research on specific microbial isolates from manned space environments. IMPORTANCE As durations of manned space missions increase, it is imperative to understand the long-term consequence of microbial exposure on human health in a closed human habitat. To date, studies aimed at bacterial and fungal contamination of space vessels have highlighted species compositions biased toward hardy, persistent organisms capable of withstanding harsh conditions. In the current study, we assessed traits of two independent Aspergillus fumigatus strains

  5. Convective Heat Transfer for Ship Propulsion.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-04-01

    RD-A124 Wi CONVECTIVE HEAT TRANSFER FOR SHIP PROPULSION (U) ARIZONA 112 UNIV TUCSON ENGINEERING EXPERIMENT STATION PARK ET AL. 01 APR 82 1248-9 N814...395 CONVECTIVE HEAT TRANSFER FOR SHIP PROPULSION Prepared for Office of Naval Research Code 431 Arlington, Virginia Prepared by J. S. Park, M. F...FOR SHIP PROPULSION By J. S. Park, M. F. Taylor and D. M. McEligot Aerospace and Mechanical Engineering Department University of Arizona Tucson

  6. Air - Net of Polish Permanent Station Rtk Dgps In Programme Eur Rvsm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fellner, A.

    All aircraft intending to operate in the EUR RVSM Airspace, except State aircraft, shall require an Reduced Vertical Separation Minimum approval issued by the responsible authority. To obtain such an approval, aircraft operators will have to satisfy the requirements set out in Joint Aviation Authorities (JAA) Temporary Guidance Leaflet No6 (TGL6), which require: · that aircraft for which RVSM Approval is sought have the vertical navigation performance capability required for RVSM operations through compliance with the criteria of the RVSM Minimum Aircraft System Performance Specification (MASPS); · that, they have instituted procedures for continued airworthiness (maintenance and repair) practices; · that they have instituted flight crew procedures for operations in the EUR RVSM Airspace. A comprehensive means of monitoring the height ­ keeping performance of aircraft has been developed utilising two types of equipment: · Height Monitoring Units ­ static height monitoring facilities; · GPS Monitoring Units ­ portable monitoring units on board aircraft. Poster present select problems connected of Polish Air - System RTK DGPS in EUR RVSM Programme. Reached results became during air - tests in years 1995 ­ 2001.

  7. A Visual Analytics Approach for Station-Based Air Quality Data.

    PubMed

    Du, Yi; Ma, Cuixia; Wu, Chao; Xu, Xiaowei; Guo, Yike; Zhou, Yuanchun; Li, Jianhui

    2016-12-24

    With the deployment of multi-modality and large-scale sensor networks for monitoring air quality, we are now able to collect large and multi-dimensional spatio-temporal datasets. For these sensed data, we present a comprehensive visual analysis approach for air quality analysis. This approach integrates several visual methods, such as map-based views, calendar views, and trends views, to assist the analysis. Among those visual methods, map-based visual methods are used to display the locations of interest, and the calendar and the trends views are used to discover the linear and periodical patterns. The system also provides various interaction tools to combine the map-based visualization, trends view, calendar view and multi-dimensional view. In addition, we propose a self-adaptive calendar-based controller that can flexibly adapt the changes of data size and granularity in trends view. Such a visual analytics system would facilitate big-data analysis in real applications, especially for decision making support.

  8. A Visual Analytics Approach for Station-Based Air Quality Data

    PubMed Central

    Du, Yi; Ma, Cuixia; Wu, Chao; Xu, Xiaowei; Guo, Yike; Zhou, Yuanchun; Li, Jianhui

    2016-01-01

    With the deployment of multi-modality and large-scale sensor networks for monitoring air quality, we are now able to collect large and multi-dimensional spatio-temporal datasets. For these sensed data, we present a comprehensive visual analysis approach for air quality analysis. This approach integrates several visual methods, such as map-based views, calendar views, and trends views, to assist the analysis. Among those visual methods, map-based visual methods are used to display the locations of interest, and the calendar and the trends views are used to discover the linear and periodical patterns. The system also provides various interaction tools to combine the map-based visualization, trends view, calendar view and multi-dimensional view. In addition, we propose a self-adaptive calendar-based controller that can flexibly adapt the changes of data size and granularity in trends view. Such a visual analytics system would facilitate big-data analysis in real applications, especially for decision making support. PMID:28029117

  9. Ground cloud dispersion measurements during the Titan IV mission number B33 (15 October 1997) at Cape Canaveral Air Station

    SciTech Connect

    1998-06-30

    This report presents plume imagery documenting the development and dispersion of the Titan IV No. B33 launch ground cloud at Cape Canaveral Air Station on 15 October 1997 at 0443 EDT. Also presented are pertinent meteorological data taken from towers, Doppler radars, and rawinsonde balloons. IR cameras were used at four locations around the launch site to track the trajectory and time evolution of the exhaust ground cloud for 1.5-2.5 min following launch. Meteorological data were collected to improve understanding of cloud dispersion and to use as input during model simulations and evaluations. Rawinsonde balloon data, 915 MHz Doppler radar data, and meteorological tower data were collected and archived. These data and similar data from other launches will be used to determine the accuracy of atmospheric dispersion models such as the Rocket Exhaust Effluent Diffusion Model (REEDM) in predicting toxic hazard corridors (THCs) at the USAF Eastern and Western Ranges. Reduction of available imagery data yielded limited information on cloud rise and dispersion. The imagery showed that the bottom edge of the launch cloud rose above the altitude of the bottom of the atmospheric clouds (514 m AGL) within 2.3 min after launch. REEDM 7.08 predicted that the bottom edge of the launch cloud would stabilize at 480 m AGL. The bottom of the actual launch cloud therefore rose at least 7% higher than predicted by REEDM 7.08. Analysis of the imagery also showed that the rising cloud had an air entrainment coefficient (ratio of increase in diameter to increase in altitude) of 0.39. This is significantly smaller than the default air entrainment coefficient of 0.64 that is used in REEDM 7.08.

  10. DEMONSTRATION OF IN SITU DEHALOGENATION OF DNAPL THROUGH INJECTION OF EMULSIFIED ZERO-VALIENT IRON AT LAUNCH COMPLEX 34 IN CAPE CANAVERAL AIR FORCE STATION, FLORIDA

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of this project was to evaluate the technical and cost performance of emulsified zero-valent iron (EZVI) technology when applied to DNAPL contaminants in the saturated zone. This demonstration was conducted at Launch Complex 34, Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, FL, w...

  11. 33 CFR 334.540 - Banana River at the Eastern Range, 45th Space Wing, Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, FL...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., 45th Space Wing, Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, FL; restricted area. 334.540 Section 334.540... Kennedy Space Center NASA Causeway East Roadway at approximately latitude 28°30.74′ N, longitude 80°36.63... AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.540 Banana River at the Eastern Range, 45th Space Wing,...

  12. 33 CFR 334.540 - Banana River at the Eastern Range, 45th Space Wing, Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, FL...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., 45th Space Wing, Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, FL; restricted area. 334.540 Section 334.540... Kennedy Space Center NASA Causeway East Roadway at approximately latitude 28°30.74′ N, longitude 80°36.63... AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.540 Banana River at the Eastern Range, 45th Space Wing,...

  13. 33 CFR 334.540 - Banana River at the Eastern Range, 45th Space Wing, Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, FL...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., 45th Space Wing, Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, FL; restricted area. 334.540 Section 334.540... Kennedy Space Center NASA Causeway East Roadway at approximately latitude 28°30.74′ N, longitude 80°36.63... AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.540 Banana River at the Eastern Range, 45th Space Wing,...

  14. 33 CFR 334.540 - Banana River at the Eastern Range, 45th Space Wing, Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, FL...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., 45th Space Wing, Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, FL; restricted area. 334.540 Section 334.540... Kennedy Space Center NASA Causeway East Roadway at approximately latitude 28°30.74′ N, longitude 80°36.63... AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.540 Banana River at the Eastern Range, 45th Space Wing,...

  15. U.S. EPA Administrator Gina McCarthy to Award - Marine Corps Air Station Miramar for Energy Conservation, Tour state-of-the-art green facilities

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    LOS ANGELES - On Wednesday, May 20th U.S. EPA Administrator Gina McCarthy will join Marine Corps Air Station (MCAS) Miramar officials to present the 2015 EPA Federal Green Challenge award for Energy. The base is being recognized for having the great

  16. Increasing Incidence and Severity of Coccidioidomycosis at a Naval Air Station

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Rachel U; Crum-Cianflone, Nancy F

    2009-01-01

    Background Increasing rates of coccidioidomycosis among the general population are being described. Given the large number of military personnel stationed and training in endemic areas, data regarding infection trends among military members would be informative. Methods We performed a retrospective epidemiologic study concerning the incidence and severity of clinical cases of coccidioidomycosis at a Naval base located in an endemic area in California. Results Eighty-two military beneficiaries at the base were diagnosed with coccidioidomycosis from January 2002 to December 2006. Among active duty personnel, the rate of coccidioidomycosis rose 10-fold during the five-year study period: 29.88 to 313.71 cases per 100,000 person-years. The incidence of coccidioidal infections occurring in active duty members was higher than other military beneficiaries at the base. The median age of patients with a coccidioidal infection was 28 years, and 73% were male. Sixty-six had primary pulmonary disease, and 14 had disseminated disease; data were unavailable for two cases. The number of disseminated cases increased significantly over time; by 2006, 30% of the diagnosed cases were disseminated disease. Among cases of dissemination, 43% occurred among white/non-Hispanics. Disseminated disease was associated with high complement fixation titers and a more recent year of diagnosis. Although the sample size was small, we found no differences in rates of disseminated disease by race, likely due to the large number of cases among Caucasians. Conclusions Coccidioidomycosis incidence rates have significantly increased during the last five years among military beneficiaries. Active duty members were more likely to develop coccidioidomycosis than dependents or retirees, perhaps related to the number and intensity of exposures in this group. PMID:18751595

  17. 46 CFR 154.320 - Cargo control stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Cargo control stations. 154.320 Section 154.320 Shipping... Arrangements § 154.320 Cargo control stations. (a) Cargo control stations must be above the weather deck. (b) If a cargo control station is in accommodation, service, or control spaces or has access to such...

  18. A real-time monitoring and assessment method for calculation of total amounts of indoor air pollutants emitted in subway stations.

    PubMed

    Oh, TaeSeok; Kim, MinJeong; Lim, JungJin; Kang, OnYu; Vidya Shetty, K; SankaraRao, B; Yoo, ChangKyoo; Park, Jae Hyung; Kim, Jeong Tai

    2012-05-01

    Subway systems are considered as main public transportation facility in developed countries. Time spent by people in indoors, such as underground spaces, subway stations, and indoor buildings, has gradually increased in the recent past. Especially, operators or old persons who stay in indoor environments more than 15 hr per day usually influenced a greater extent by indoor air pollutants. Hence, regulations on indoor air pollutants are needed to ensure good health of people. Therefore, in this study, a new cumulative calculation method for the estimation of total amounts of indoor air pollutants emitted inside the subway station is proposed by taking cumulative amounts of indoor air pollutants based on integration concept. Minimum concentration of individual air pollutants which naturally exist in indoor space is referred as base concentration of air pollutants and can be found from the data collected. After subtracting the value of base concentration from data point of each data set of indoor air pollutant, the primary quantity of emitted air pollutant is calculated. After integration is carried out with these values, adding the base concentration to the integration quantity gives the total amount of indoor air pollutant emitted. Moreover, the values of new index for cumulative indoor air quality obtained for 1 day are calculated using the values of cumulative air quality index (CAI). Cumulative comprehensive indoor air quality index (CCIAI) is also proposed to compare the values of cumulative concentrations of indoor air pollutants. From the results, it is clear that the cumulative assessment approach of indoor air quality (IAQ) is useful for monitoring the values of total amounts of indoor air pollutants emitted, in case of exposure to indoor air pollutants for a long time. Also, the values of CCIAI are influenced more by the values of concentration of NO2, which is released due to the use of air conditioners and combustion of the fuel. The results obtained in

  19. A Review of Monitoring Technologies for Trace Air Contaminants in the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    James, John T.; McCoy, J. Torin

    2004-01-01

    NASA issued a Request For Information (RFI) to identify technologies that might be available to monitor a list of air pollutants in the ISS atmosphere. After NASA received responses to the RFI, an expert panel was assembled to hear presentations from 9 technology proponents. The goal of the panel was to identify technologies that might be suitable for replacement of the current Volatile Organics Analyzer (VOA) within several years. The panelists consisted of 8 experts in analytical chemistry without any links to NASA and 7 people with specific expertise because of their roles in NASA programs. Each technology was scored using a tool that enabled rating of many specific aspects of the technology on a 4-point system. The maturity of the technologies ranged from well-tested instrument packages that had been designed for space applications and were nearly ready for flight to technologies that were untested and speculative in nature. All but one technology involved the use of gas chromatography for separation, and there were various detectors proposed including several mass spectrometers and ion mobility spectrometers. In general there was a tradeoff between large systems with considerable capability to address the target list and smaller systems that had much more limited capability.

  20. Volatile Organic Compounds Identified in Post-Flight Air Analysis of the Multipurpose Logistics Module from International Space Station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peterson, B.; Wheeler, R.

    Bioregenerative systems involve storing and processing waste along with atmospheric management. The MPLM, Multipurpose Logistics Module, is a reusable logistics carrier and primary delivery system used to resupply the International Space Station (ISS) and return Station cargo that requires a pressurized environment. The cylindrical module is approximately 6.4 meters long, 4.6 meters in diameter, and weighs almost 4,082kg. The module provides storage and additional workspace for up to two astronauts when docked to the ISS. It can carry up to 9,072 kg of supplies, science experiments, spare parts and other logistical components for ISS. There is concern for a potentially hazardous condition caused by contamination of the atmosphere in the MPLM upon return from orbit. This would be largely due to unforeseen spills or container leakage. This has led to the need for special care in handling the returned module prior to processing the module for its next flight. Prior to opening the MPLM, atmospheric samples are analyzed for trace volatile organic compounds, VOC's. It is noted that our analyses also reflect the atmosphere in the ISS on that day of closure. With the re turn of STS-108, 12th ISS Flight (UF1), the analysis showed 24 PPM of methane. This corresponds to the high levels on space station during a time period when the air filtration system was shut off. Chemical characterization of atmospheres on the ISS and MPLM provide useful information for concerns with plant growth experiments on ISS. Work with closed plant growth chambers show potential for VOC's to accumulate to toxic levels for plants. The ethylene levels for 4 MPLM analyses over the course on one year were measured at, 0.070, 0.017, 0.012 and 0.007 PPM. Phytochemical such as ethylene are detected with natural plant physiological events such as flowering and as a result of plant damage or from decaying food. A build up of VOC's may contribute to phytotoxic effects for the plant growth experiments or

  1. Data from stratigraphic test holes drilled at the U.S. Marine Corps Air Station, Cherry Point, North Carolina, 1994-2001, and periodic water levels, 2000-2003

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wrege, Beth M.; Jen, Philip S.

    2004-01-01

    Nine stratigraphic test holes, from 158 to 305 feet deep, were drilled at the U.S. Marine Corps Air Station at Cherry Point, North Carolina, between 1994 and 2001 by the U.S. Geological Survey. These test holes and subsequent wells provide information about the lithology, stratigraphy, and geology at the Marine Corps Air Station. In addition, ground-water-level data were collected at the Air Station through 2003. The U.S. Geological Survey also conducted high-resolution marine and land seismic surveys during this investigation. The ground-water-level data and locations of the seismic survey lines are included in this report. The stratigraphic data combined with the seismic data provide a basis for the delineation of paleochannels beneath the Air Station as well as information for the management of water resources at the Air Station.

  2. Performance Assessment of a Solar powered Air Quality and Weather Station Placed on a School Rooftop in Hong Kong

    EPA Science Inventory

    Summary of compact, roof version of a Village Green Project station installed on a secondary school rooftop in Hong Kong. Preliminary comparison of the station's data against nearby regulatory monitors are summarized.

  3. Updated emissions from ocean shipping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corbett, James J.; Koehler, Horst W.

    2003-10-01

    Marine vessel inventories demonstrate that ship emissions cannot be neglected in assessing environmental impacts of air pollution, although significant uncertainty in these inventories remains. We address this uncertainty by employing a bottom-up estimate of fuel consumption and vessel activity for internationally registered fleets, including cargo vessels, other commercial vessels, and military vessels. We identify model bias in previous work, which assumed internationally registered ships primarily consume international marine fuels. Updated results suggest fuel consumption is ˜289 million metric tons per year, more than twice the quantity reported as international fuel. According to our analysis, fuel used by internationally registered fleets is apparently allocated to both international and domestic fuel statistics; this implies either that ships operate along domestic routes much of the time or that marine fuel sales to these ships may be misassigned. If the former is true, then allocation of emissions to international shipping routes may underestimate near-coastal emissions from ships. Our updated inventories increases previous ship emissions inventories for all pollutants; for example, global NOx emissions (˜6.87 Tg N) are more than doubled. This work also produces detailed sensitivity analyses of inputs to these estimates, identifying uncertainty in vessel duty-cycle as critical to overall emissions estimates. We discuss implications for assessing ship emissions impacts.

  4. Assessment of Past, Present and Future Health-Cost Ex-ternalities of Air Pollution in Europe and the contribution from International Ship Traffic using the EVA Model System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brandt, Jørgen; Silver, Jeremy D.; Christensen, Jesper H.; Andersen, Mikael S.; Bønløkke, Jakob H.; Sigsgaard, Torben; Geels, Camilla; Gross, Allan; Hansen, Ayoe B.; Hansen, Kaj M.; Hedegaard, Gitte B.; Kaas, Eigil; Frohn, Lise M.

    2013-04-01

    An integrated model system, EVA (Economic Valuation of Air pollution), based on the impact-pathway chain has been developed, to assess the health-related economic externalities of air pollution resulting from specific emission sources or sectors. The model system can be used to support policy-making with respect to emission control. In this study, we apply the EVA system to Europe, and perform a more detailed assessment of past, present, and future health-cost externalities of the total air pollution levels in Europe (including both natural and anthropogenic sources), represented by the years 2000, 2007, 2011, and 2020. We also assess the contribution to the health-related external costs from international ship traffic with special attention to the international ship traffic in the Baltic and North Seas, since special regulatory actions on sulphur emissions, called SECA (sulphur emission control area), have been intro-duced in these areas,. We conclude that despite efficient regulatory actions in Europe in recent decades, air pollution still constitutes a serious problem to human health, hence the related external costs are considerable. The total health-related external costs for the whole of Europe is estimated at 803 bn Euro/year for the year 2000, decreasing to 537 bn Euro/year in the year 2020. We estimate the total number of premature deaths in Europe in the year 2000 due to air pollution to be around 680,000/year, decreasing to approximately 450,000 in the year 2020. The contribution from international ship traffic in the Northern Hemisphere was estimated to 7% of the total health-related external costs in Europe in the year 2000, increasing to 12% in the year 2020. In contrast, the contribution from international ship traffic in the Baltic Sea and the North Sea decreases 36% due to the regulatory efforts of reducing sulphur emissions from ship traffic in SECA. Introducing this regulatory instrument for all international ship traffic in the Northern

  5. 47 CFR 80.1099 - Ship sources of energy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Ship sources of energy. 80.1099 Section 80.1099... Stations § 80.1099 Ship sources of energy. (a) There must be available at all times, while the ship is at sea, a supply of electrical energy sufficient to operate the radio installations and to charge...

  6. 47 CFR 80.1099 - Ship sources of energy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Ship sources of energy. 80.1099 Section 80.1099... Stations § 80.1099 Ship sources of energy. (a) There must be available at all times, while the ship is at sea, a supply of electrical energy sufficient to operate the radio installations and to charge...

  7. 47 CFR 80.1085 - Ship radio equipment-General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Ship radio equipment-General. 80.1085 Section 80.1085 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO... Requirements for Ship Stations § 80.1085 Ship radio equipment—General. This section contains the...

  8. 47 CFR 80.1085 - Ship radio equipment-General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Ship radio equipment-General. 80.1085 Section 80.1085 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO... Requirements for Ship Stations § 80.1085 Ship radio equipment—General. This section contains the...

  9. 47 CFR 80.1085 - Ship radio equipment-General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Ship radio equipment-General. 80.1085 Section 80.1085 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO... Requirements for Ship Stations § 80.1085 Ship radio equipment—General. This section contains the...

  10. 47 CFR 80.1085 - Ship radio equipment-General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Ship radio equipment-General. 80.1085 Section 80.1085 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO... Requirements for Ship Stations § 80.1085 Ship radio equipment—General. This section contains the...

  11. 47 CFR 80.1085 - Ship radio equipment-General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Ship radio equipment-General. 80.1085 Section 80.1085 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO... Requirements for Ship Stations § 80.1085 Ship radio equipment—General. This section contains the...

  12. 47 CFR 80.1099 - Ship sources of energy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Ship sources of energy. 80.1099 Section 80.1099... Stations § 80.1099 Ship sources of energy. (a) There must be available at all times, while the ship is at sea, a supply of electrical energy sufficient to operate the radio installations and to charge...

  13. 47 CFR 80.1099 - Ship sources of energy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Ship sources of energy. 80.1099 Section 80.1099... Stations § 80.1099 Ship sources of energy. (a) There must be available at all times, while the ship is at sea, a supply of electrical energy sufficient to operate the radio installations and to charge...

  14. 47 CFR 80.1099 - Ship sources of energy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Ship sources of energy. 80.1099 Section 80.1099... Stations § 80.1099 Ship sources of energy. (a) There must be available at all times, while the ship is at sea, a supply of electrical energy sufficient to operate the radio installations and to charge...

  15. 47 CFR 80.59 - Compulsory ship inspections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Compulsory ship inspections. 80.59 Section 80... STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Applications and Licenses § 80.59 Compulsory ship inspections. (a) Inspection of ships subject to the Communications Act or the Safety Convention. (1) The FCC will not...

  16. 47 CFR 80.59 - Compulsory ship inspections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Compulsory ship inspections. 80.59 Section 80... STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Applications and Licenses § 80.59 Compulsory ship inspections. (a) Inspection of ships subject to the Communications Act or the Safety Convention. (1) The FCC will not...

  17. 47 CFR 80.217 - Suppression of interference aboard ships.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Suppression of interference aboard ships. 80.217 Section 80.217 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL... interference aboard ships. (a) A voluntarily equipped ship station receiver must not cause harmful...

  18. 47 CFR 80.59 - Compulsory ship inspections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Compulsory ship inspections. 80.59 Section 80... STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Applications and Licenses § 80.59 Compulsory ship inspections. (a) Inspection of ships subject to the Communications Act or the Safety Convention. (1) The FCC will not...

  19. 47 CFR 80.59 - Compulsory ship inspections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Compulsory ship inspections. 80.59 Section 80... STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Applications and Licenses § 80.59 Compulsory ship inspections. (a) Inspection of ships subject to the Communications Act or the Safety Convention. (1) The FCC will not...

  20. 47 CFR 80.217 - Suppression of interference aboard ships.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Suppression of interference aboard ships. 80.217 Section 80.217 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL... interference aboard ships. (a) A voluntarily equipped ship station receiver must not cause harmful...

  1. 47 CFR 80.217 - Suppression of interference aboard ships.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Suppression of interference aboard ships. 80.217 Section 80.217 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL... interference aboard ships. (a) A voluntarily equipped ship station receiver must not cause harmful...

  2. 47 CFR 80.217 - Suppression of interference aboard ships.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Suppression of interference aboard ships. 80.217 Section 80.217 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL... interference aboard ships. (a) A voluntarily equipped ship station receiver must not cause harmful...

  3. 47 CFR 80.217 - Suppression of interference aboard ships.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Suppression of interference aboard ships. 80.217 Section 80.217 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL... interference aboard ships. (a) A voluntarily equipped ship station receiver must not cause harmful...

  4. Verification and implementation of microburst day potential index (MDPI) and wind INDEX (WINDEX) forecasting tools at Cape Canaveral Air Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wheeler, Mark

    1996-01-01

    This report details the research, development, utility, verification and transition on wet microburst forecasting and detection the Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) did in support of ground and launch operations at Kennedy Space Center (KSC) and Cape Canaveral Air Station (CCAS). The unforecasted wind event on 16 August 1994 of 33.5 ms-1 (65 knots) at the Shuttle Landing Facility raised the issue of wet microburst detection and forecasting. The AMU researched and analyzed the downburst wind event and determined it was a wet microburst event. A program was developed for operational use on the Meteorological Interactive Data Display System (MIDDS) weather system to analyze, compute and display Theta(epsilon) profiles, the microburst day potential index (MDPI), and wind index (WINDEX) maximum wind gust value. Key microburst nowcasting signatures using the WSR-88D data were highlighted. Verification of the data sets indicated that the MDPI has good potential in alerting the duty forecaster to the potential of wet microburst and the WINDEX values computed from the hourly surface data do have potential in showing a trend for the maximum gust potential. WINDEX should help in filling in the temporal hole between the MDPI on the last Cape Canaveral rawinsonde and the nowcasting radar data tools.

  5. An Objective Verification of the North American Mesoscale Model for Kennedy Space Center and Cape Canaveral Air Force Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauman, William H., III

    2010-01-01

    The 45th Weather Squadron (45 WS) Launch Weather Officers (LWO's) use the 12-km resolution North American Mesoscale (NAM) model (MesoNAM) text and graphical product forecasts extensively to support launch weather operations. However, the actual performance of the model at Kennedy Space Center (KSC) and Cape Canaveral Air Force Station (CCAFS) has not been measured objectively. In order to have tangible evidence of model performance, the 45 WS tasked the Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU; Bauman et ai, 2004) to conduct a detailed statistical analysis of model output compared to observed values. The model products are provided to the 45 WS by ACTA, Inc. and include hourly forecasts from 0 to 84 hours based on model initialization times of 00, 06, 12 and 18 UTC. The objective analysis compared the MesoNAM forecast winds, temperature (T) and dew pOint (T d), as well as the changes in these parameters over time, to the observed values from the sensors in the KSC/CCAFS wind tower network shown in Table 1. These objective statistics give the forecasters knowledge of the model's strengths and weaknesses, which will result in improved forecasts for operations.

  6. An Objective Verification of the North American Mesoscale Model for Kennedy Space Center and Cape Canaveral Air Force Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauman, William H., III

    2010-01-01

    The 45th Weather Squadron (45 WS) Launch Weather Officers use the 12-km resolution North American Mesoscale (NAM) model (MesoNAM) text and graphical product forecasts extensively to support launch weather operations. However, the actual performance of the model at Kennedy Space Center (KSC) and Cape Canaveral Air Force Station (CCAFS) has not been measured objectively. In order to have tangible evidence of model performance, the 45 WS tasked the Applied Meteorology Unit to conduct a detailed statistical analysis of model output compared to observed values. The model products are provided to the 45 WS by ACTA, Inc. and include hourly forecasts from 0 to 84 hours based on model initialization times of 00, 06, 12 and 18 UTC. The objective analysis compared the MesoNAM forecast winds, temperature and dew point, as well as the changes in these parameters over time, to the observed values from the sensors in the KSC/CCAFS wind tower network. Objective statistics will give the forecasters knowledge of the model's strength and weaknesses, which will result in improved forecasts for operations.

  7. Developing Empirical Lightning Cessation Forecast Guidance for the Cape Canaveral Air Force Station and Kennedy Space Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stano, Geoffrey T.; Fuelberg, Henry E.; Roeder, William P.

    2010-01-01

    This research addresses the 45th Weather Squadron's (45WS) need for improved guidance regarding lightning cessation at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station and Kennedy Space Center (KSC). KSC's Lightning Detection and Ranging (LDAR) network was the primary observational tool to investigate both cloud-to-ground and intracloud lightning. Five statistical and empirical schemes were created from LDAR, sounding, and radar parameters derived from 116 storms. Four of the five schemes were unsuitable for operational use since lightning advisories would be canceled prematurely, leading to safety risks to personnel. These include a correlation and regression tree analysis, three variants of multiple linear regression, event time trending, and the time delay between the greatest height of the maximum dBZ value to the last flash. These schemes failed to adequately forecast the maximum interval, the greatest time between any two flashes in the storm. The majority of storms had a maximum interval less than 10 min, which biased the schemes toward small values. Success was achieved with the percentile method (PM) by separating the maximum interval into percentiles for the 100 dependent storms.

  8. Developing a Peak Wind Probability Forecast Tool for Kennedy Space Center and Cape Canaveral Air Force Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lambert, WInifred; Roeder, William

    2007-01-01

    This conference presentation describes the development of a peak wind forecast tool to assist forecasters in determining the probability of violating launch commit criteria (LCC) at Kennedy Space Center (KSC) and Cape Canaveral Air Force Station (CCAFS) in east-central Florida. The peak winds are an important forecast element for both the Space Shuttle and Expendable Launch Vehicle (ELV) programs. The LCC define specific peak wind thresholds for each launch operation that cannot be exceeded in order to ensure the safety of the vehicle. The 45th Weather Squadron (45 WS) has found that peak winds are a challenging parameter to forecast, particularly in the cool season months of October through April. Based on the importance of forecasting peak winds, the 45 WS tasked the Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) to develop a short-range peak-wind forecast tool to assist in forecasting LCC violations. The tool will include climatologies of the 5-minute mean and peak winds by month, hour, and direction, and probability distributions of the peak winds as a function of the 5-minute mean wind speeds.

  9. Radiocarbon-depleted CO2 evidence for fuel biodegradation at the Naval Air Station North Island (USA) fuel farm site.

    PubMed

    Boyd, Thomas J; Pound, Michael J; Lohr, Daniel; Coffin, Richard B

    2013-05-01

    Dissolved CO(2) radiocarbon and stable carbon isotope ratios were measured in groundwater from a fuel contaminated site at the North Island Naval Air Station in San Diego, CA (USA). A background groundwater sampling well and 16 wells in the underground fuel contamination zone were evaluated. For each sample, a two end-member isotopic mixing model was used to determine the fraction of CO(2) derived from fossil fuel. The CO(2) fraction from fossil sources ranged from 8 to 93% at the fuel contaminated site, while stable carbon isotope values ranged from -14 to +5‰VPDB. Wells associated with highest historical and contemporary fuel contamination showed the highest fraction of CO(2) derived from petroleum (fossil) sources. Stable carbon isotope ratios indicated sub-regions on-site with recycled CO(2) (δ(13)CO(2) as high as +5‰VPDB) - most likely resulting from methanogenesis. Ancillary measurements (pH and cations) were used to determine that no fossil CaCO(3), for instance limestone, biased the analytical conclusions. Radiocarbon analysis is verified as a viable and definitive technique for confirming fossil hydrocarbon conversion to CO(2) (complete oxidation) at hydrocarbon-contaminated groundwater sites. The technique should also be very useful for assessing the efficacy of engineered remediation efforts and by using CO(2) production rates, contaminant mass conversion over time and per unit volume.

  10. Dynamics of air-sea CO2 fluxes in the North-West European Shelf based on Voluntary Observing Ship (VOS) and satellite observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marrec, P.; Cariou, T.; Macé, E.; Morin, P.; Salt, L. A.; Vernet, M.; Taylor, B.; Paxman, K.; Bozec, Y.

    2015-04-01

    From January 2011 to December 2013, we constructed a comprehensive pCO2 dataset based on voluntary observing ship (VOS) measurements in the Western English Channel (WEC). We subsequently estimated surface pCO2 and air-sea CO2 fluxes in north-west European continental shelf waters using multiple linear regressions (MLRs) from remotely sensed sea surface temperature (SST), chlorophyll a concentration (Chl a), the gas transfer velocity coefficient (K), photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) and modeled mixed layer depth (MLD). We developed specific MLRs for the seasonally stratified northern WEC (nWEC) and the permanently well-mixed southern WEC (sWEC) and calculated surface pCO2 with relative uncertainties of 17 and 16 μatm, respectively. We extrapolated the relationships obtained for the WEC based on the 2011-2013 dataset (1) temporally over a decade and (2) spatially in the adjacent Celtic and Irish Seas (CS and IS), two regions which exhibit hydrographical and biogeochemical characteristics similar to those of WEC waters. We validated these extrapolations with pCO2 data from the SOCAT database and obtained relatively robust results with an average precision of 4 ± 22 μatm in the seasonally stratified nWEC and the southern and northern CS (sCS and nCS), but less promising results in the permanently well-mixed sWEC, IS and Cap Lizard (CL) waters. On an annual scale, seasonally stratified systems acted as a sink of CO2 from the atmosphere of -0.4, -0.9 and -0.4 mol C m-2 year-1 in the nCS, sCS and nWEC, respectively, whereas, permanently well-mixed systems acted as source of CO2 to the atmosphere of 0.2, 0.4 and 0.4 mol C m-2 year-1 in the sWEC, CL and IS, respectively. Air-sea CO2 fluxes showed important inter-annual variability resulting in significant differences in the intensity and/or direction of annual fluxes. We scaled the mean annual fluxes over six provinces for the last decade and obtained the first annual average uptake of -0.95 Tg C year-1 for this

  11. Monitoring Shipping Emissions with In-situ Measurements of Trace Gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kattner, Lisa; Mathieu-Üffing, Barbara; Aulinger, Armin; Burrows, John; Chirkov, Maksym; Matthias, Volker; Neumann, Daniel; Richter, Andreas; Schmolke, Stefan; Seyler, André; Theobald, Norbert; Wittrock, Folkard

    2014-05-01

    The importance of discussions about ship emissions has grown due to the increase of commercial shipping as well as the publication of studies showing their serious effects on human health and on our environment. Especially in coastal areas and harbor cities the impact of ship emissions becomes more and more relevant. The establishment of a Sulfur Emission Controlled Area (SECA) for North Sea and Baltic Sea based on the MARPOL Annex VI protocol by the International Maritime Organization (IMO) has been a first step to control and reduce sulfur dioxide (SO2) emissions by consecutively regulating the sulfur content of fuels. To reduce nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions from shipping, the emission of newly built engines is limited according to the year the engine is built (Tier I - III regulations). The project MeSMarT (Measurements of shipping emissions in the marine troposphere) has been established as a cooperation between the University of Bremen, the German Bundesamt für Seeschifffahrt und Hydrographie (Federal Maritime and Hydrographic Agency) and the Helmholtz-Zentrum Geesthacht to estimate the influence of ship emissions on the chemistry of the atmospheric boundary layer and to establish a monitoring system for main shipping routes. Pollution relevant trace gases SO2, NO2, NO, CO2 and O3 are measured with in-situ techniques. Within the project different measurement sites have been set up. In Wedel near Hamburg measurements have been performed in close distance to the Elbe River where ships entering the Hamburg harbor are passing by. It is shown that ship emission peaks can be associated with individual ships and how this information can possibly help to monitor the compliance of ships with SECA regulations. On the island Neuwerk the measurement station is located about 6 km south of the main shipping route through the German Bight. An outlook is given on how the method of identifying ship plumes can be transferred to the Neuwerk data and how the ship emissions

  12. Ship Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Guided missile cruiser equipped with advanced Aegis fleet defense system which automatically tracks hundreds of attacking aircraft or missiles, then fires and guides the ship's own weapons in response. Designed by Ingalls Shipbuilding for the US Navy, the U.S.S. Ticonderoga is the first of four CG-47 cruisers to be constructed. NASTRAN program was used previously in another Navy/Ingalls project involving design and construction of four DDG-993 Kidd Class guided missile destroyers.

  13. Hydrogeology of the Piney Point-Nanjemoy, Aquia, and Upper Patapsco Aquifers, Naval Air Station Patuxent River and Webster Outlying Field, St. Marys County, Maryland, 2000-06

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Klohe, Cheryl A.; Kay, Robert T.

    2007-01-01

    Recent and projected population growth in southern Maryland continues to bring ground-water-quality and quantity issues to the forefront. Lithologic, borehole geophysical, water-level, and water-use data were compiled and interpreted to revise understanding of the hydrogeologic framework of the Piney Point-Nanjemoy, Aquia, and Upper Patapsco aquifers in southern Maryland, with emphasis on the Naval Air Station Patuxent River and Webster Outlying Field. Understanding of the hydrogeologic framework for the Upper Patapsco aquifer also has been revised based on the results of aquifer testing and water-quality sampling of two wells. The Piney Point-Nanjemoy aquifer is 50 to 70 feet thick, with a top altitude of 213 to 260 feet below the North American Vertical Datum of 1988 and a hydraulic conductivity of 2 feet per day at Naval Air Station Patuxent River and Webster Outlying Field. Ground-water withdrawals from the Piney Point-Nanjemoy aquifer have been minimal since 1999 and water levels in the aquifer have not changed substantially since the 1950s. An overall decline of about 2.5 feet has been observed since 1997, however. The Aquia aquifer is 100 to 145 feet thick, with a top altitude of approximately 450 feet below the North American Vertical Datum of 1988 and a hydraulic conductivity of 6 to 10 feet per day at Naval Air Station Patuxent River. The Aquia aquifer is approximately 50 feet thick, with a top altitude of 470 feet below sea level and a hydraulic conductivity of 6 to 10 feet per day at Webster Outlying Field. Water levels in the Aquia aquifer declined in response to increased withdrawals from the aquifer from the early 1940s through about 2000 at Naval Air Station Patuxent River and Webster Outlying Field, but have been generally stable from about 1999 through April 2006. The Upper Patapsco aquifer at the Naval Air Station Patuxent River and Webster Outlying Field consists of layers of sand interbedded with layers of clay that total over 200 feet in

  14. Using C-Band Dual-Polarization Radar Signatures to Improve Convective Wind Forecasting at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station and NASA Kennedy Space Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Amiot, Corey G.; Carey, Lawrence D.; Roeder, William P.; McNamara, Todd M.; Blakeslee, Richard J.

    2017-01-01

    The United States Air Force's 45th Weather Squadron (45WS) is the organization responsible for monitoring atmospheric conditions at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station and NASA Kennedy Space Center (CCAFS/KSC) and issuing warnings for hazardous weather conditions when the need arises. One such warning is issued for convective wind events, for which lead times of 30 and 60 minutes are desired for events with peak wind gusts of 35 knots or greater (i.e., Threshold-1) and 50 knots or greater (i.e., Threshold-2), respectively (Roeder et al. 2014).

  15. Assessment and forecasting of lightning potential and its effect on launch operations at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station and John F. Kennedy Space Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weems, J.; Wyse, N.; Madura, J.; Secrist, M.; Pinder, C.

    1991-01-01

    Lightning plays a pivotal role in the operation decision process for space and ballistic launches at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station and Kennedy Space Center. Lightning forecasts are the responsibility of Detachment 11, 4th Weather Wing's Cape Canaveral Forecast Facility. These forecasts are important to daily ground processing as well as launch countdown decisions. The methodology and equipment used to forecast lightning are discussed. Impact on a recent mission is summarized.

  16. Real-Time Kennedy Space Center and Cape Canaveral Air Force Station High-Resolution Model Implementation and Verification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shafer, Jaclyn; Watson, Leela R.

    2015-01-01

    NASA's Launch Services Program, Ground Systems Development and Operations, Space Launch System and other programs at Kennedy Space Center (KSC) and Cape Canaveral Air Force Station (CCAFS) use the daily and weekly weather forecasts issued by the 45th Weather Squadron (45 WS) as decision tools for their day-to-day and launch operations on the Eastern Range (ER). Examples include determining if they need to limit activities such as vehicle transport to the launch pad, protect people, structures or exposed launch vehicles given a threat of severe weather, or reschedule other critical operations. The 45 WS uses numerical weather prediction models as a guide for these weather forecasts, particularly the Air Force Weather Agency (AFWA) 1.67 km Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model. Considering the 45 WS forecasters' and Launch Weather Officers' (LWO) extensive use of the AFWA model, the 45 WS proposed a task at the September 2013 Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) Tasking Meeting requesting the AMU verify this model. Due to the lack of archived model data available from AFWA, verification is not yet possible. Instead, the AMU proposed to implement and verify the performance of an ER version of the high-resolution WRF Environmental Modeling System (EMS) model configured by the AMU (Watson 2013) in real time. Implementing a real-time version of the ER WRF-EMS would generate a larger database of model output than in the previous AMU task for determining model performance, and allows the AMU more control over and access to the model output archive. The tasking group agreed to this proposal; therefore the AMU implemented the WRF-EMS model on the second of two NASA AMU modeling clusters. The AMU also calculated verification statistics to determine model performance compared to observational data. Finally, the AMU made the model output available on the AMU Advanced Weather Interactive Processing System II (AWIPS II) servers, which allows the 45 WS and AMU staff to customize

  17. Air

    MedlinePlus

    ... do to protect yourself from dirty air . Indoor air pollution and outdoor air pollution Air can be polluted indoors and it can ... this chart to see what things cause indoor air pollution and what things cause outdoor air pollution! Indoor ...

  18. 47 CFR 80.1089 - Ship radio equipment-Sea areas A1 and A2.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Ship radio equipment-Sea areas A1 and A2. 80... RADIO SERVICES STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Global Maritime Distress and Safety System (GMDSS) Equipment Requirements for Ship Stations § 80.1089 Ship radio equipment—Sea areas A1 and A2. This...

  19. 47 CFR 80.1089 - Ship radio equipment-Sea areas A1 and A2.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Ship radio equipment-Sea areas A1 and A2. 80... RADIO SERVICES STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Global Maritime Distress and Safety System (GMDSS) Equipment Requirements for Ship Stations § 80.1089 Ship radio equipment—Sea areas A1 and A2. This...

  20. 47 CFR 80.1089 - Ship radio equipment-Sea areas A1 and A2.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Ship radio equipment-Sea areas A1 and A2. 80... RADIO SERVICES STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Global Maritime Distress and Safety System (GMDSS) Equipment Requirements for Ship Stations § 80.1089 Ship radio equipment—Sea areas A1 and A2. This...

  1. 47 CFR 80.1089 - Ship radio equipment-Sea areas A1 and A2.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Ship radio equipment-Sea areas A1 and A2. 80... RADIO SERVICES STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Global Maritime Distress and Safety System (GMDSS) Equipment Requirements for Ship Stations § 80.1089 Ship radio equipment—Sea areas A1 and A2. This...

  2. 47 CFR 80.1089 - Ship radio equipment-Sea areas A1 and A2.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Ship radio equipment-Sea areas A1 and A2. 80... RADIO SERVICES STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Global Maritime Distress and Safety System (GMDSS) Equipment Requirements for Ship Stations § 80.1089 Ship radio equipment—Sea areas A1 and A2. This...

  3. Long-term Monitoring Program Optimization for Chlorinated Volatile Organic Compound Plume, Naval Air Station Brunswick, Maine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calderone, G. M.

    2006-12-01

    A long-term monitoring program was initiated in 1995 at 6 sites at NAS Brunswick, including 3 National Priorities List (Superfund) sites. Primary contaminants of concern include chlorinated volatile organic compounds, including tetrachloroethane, trichloroethene, and vinyl chloride, in addition to metals. More than 80 submersible pumping systems were installed to facilitate sample collection utilizing the low-flow sampling technique. Long-term monitoring of the groundwater is conducted to assess the effectiveness of remedial measures, and monitor changes in contaminant concentrations in the Eastern Plume Operable Unit. Long-term monitoring program activities include quarterly groundwater sampling and analysis at more than 90 wells across 6 sites; surface water, sediment, seep, and leachate sampling and analysis at 3 sites; landfill gas monitoring; well maintenance; engineering inspections of landfill covers and other sites or evidence of stressed vegetation; water level gauging; and treatment plant sampling and analysis. Significant cost savings were achieved by optimizing the sampling network and reducing sampling frequency from quarterly to semi- annual or annual sampling. As part of an ongoing optimization effort, a geostatistical assessment of the Eastern Plume was conducted at the Naval Air Station, Brunswick, Maine. The geostatistical assessment used 40 monitoring points and analytical data collected over 3 years. For this geostatistical assessment, EA developed and utilized a database of analytical results generated during 3 years of long-term monitoring which was linked to a Geographic Information System to enhance data visualization capacity. The Geographic Information System included themes for groundwater volatile organic compound concentration, groundwater flow directions, shallow and deep wells, and immediate access to point-specific analytical results. This statistical analysis has been used by the site decision-maker and its conclusions supported a

  4. Evaluation of geophysical logs, Phase II, at Willow Grove Naval Air Station Joint Reserve Base, Montgomery County, Pennsylvania

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Conger, Randall W.

    1999-01-01

    Between March and April 1998, the U.S. Navy contracted Tetra Tech NUS Inc., to drill two monitor wells in the Stockton Formation at the Willow Grove Naval Air Station Joint Reserve Base, Horsham Township, Montgomery County, Pa. The wells MG-1634 and MG-1635 were installed to monitor water levels and sample contaminants in the shallow, intermediate, and deep water-producing zones of the fractured bedrock. Chemical analyses of the samples will help determine the horizontal and vertical distribution of any contaminated ground water migrating from known contaminant sources. Wells were drilled near the Fire Training Area (Site 5). Depths of all boreholes range from 69 to 149 feet below land surface. The U.S. Geological Survey conducted borehole geophysical logging and video surveys to identify water-producing zones in newly drilled monitor wells MG-1634 and MG-1635 and in wells MG-1675 and MG-1676. The logging was conducted from March 5, 1998, to April 16, 1998. This work is a continuation of the Phase I work. Caliper logs and video surveys were used to locate fractures; inflections on fluid-temperature and fluid-resistivity logs were used to locate possible water-producing fractures. Heatpulse-flowmeter measurements were used to verify the locations of water-producing or water-receiving zones and to measure rates of flow between water-bearing fractures. Single-point-resistance and natural-gamma logs provided information on stratigraphy. After interpretation of geophysical logs, video surveys, and driller's notes, wells MG-1634 and MG-1635 were screened such that water-levels fluctuations could be monitored and discrete water samples collected from one or more water-producing zones in each borehole.

  5. Diffusion sampler testing at Naval Air Station North Island, San Diego County, California, November 1999 to January 2000

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vroblesky, Don A.; Peters, Brian C.

    2000-01-01

    Volatile organic compound concentrations in water from diffusion samplers were compared to concentrations in water obtained by low-flow purging at 15 observation wells at the Naval Air Station North Island, San Diego, California. Multiple diffusion samplers were installed in the wells. In general, comparisons using bladder pumps and diffusion samplers showed similar volatile organic carbon concentrations. In some wells, sharp concentration gradients were observed, such as an increase in cis-1,2-dichloroethene concentration from 100 to 2,600 micrograms per liter over a vertical distance of only 3.4 feet. In areas where such sharp gradients were observed, concentrations in water obtained by low-flow sampling at times reflected an average concentration over the area of influence; however, concentrations obtained by using the diffusion sampler seemed to represent the immediate vicinity of the sampler. When peristaltic pumps were used to collect ground-water samples by low-flow purging, the volatile organic compound concentrations commonly were lower than concentrations obtained by using diffusion samplers. This difference may be due to loss of volatiles by degassing under negative pressures in the sampling lines induced while using the peristaltic pump, mixing in the well screen, or possible short-circuiting of water from an adjacent depth. Diffusion samplers placed in buckets of freephase jet fuel (JP-5) and Stoddard solvent from observation wells did not show evidence of structural integrity loss during the 2 months of equilibration, and volatile organic compounds detected in the free-phase fuel also were detected in the water from the diffusion samplers.

  6. Groundwater quality and occurrence and distribution of selected constituents in the Aquia and Upper Patapsco aquifers, Naval Air Station Patuxent River, St. Mary's County, Maryland, July 2008

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dieter, Cheryl A.; Campo, Kimberly W.; Baker, Anna C.

    2012-01-01

    The Naval Air Station Patuxent River in southern Maryland has continued to expand in the first decade of the 21st century, contributing to rapid population growth in the surrounding area. The increase in population has caused State and County water managers and others to be concerned about the impact of population growth on the quantity and quality of groundwater supplies. The U.S. Geological Survey has been investigating the groundwater resources of the air station since 1998. As part of that ongoing investigation, groundwater was sampled in 2008 in six wells in the Aquia aquifer and two wells in the Upper Patapsco aquifer in the vicinity of Naval Air Station Patuxent River and Webster Outlying Field. Groundwater samples were analyzed for basic chemistry (field parameters, major ions, and nutrients) as well as several water-quality issues of concern including the occurrence of arsenic and tungsten, and saltwater intrusion. The results of the 2008 groundwater-quality sampling indicate that the overall quality of groundwater in the Aquia aquifer has not changed since 1943; data are too limited to determine if groundwater quality has changed in the Upper Patapsco aquifer. At one well in the Aquia aquifer, the arsenic concentration exceeded the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency standard for drinking water. Arsenic was not detected in samples from the Upper Patapsco aquifer. Tungsten concentrations were detected at low concentrations near the laboratory reporting level in all eight samples. There was no evidence of saltwater intrusion in any of the wells.

  7. Evaluations of HRI (Heat Recovery Incinerators) at NS (Naval Station) Mayport and NAS (Naval Air Station) Jacksonville, Florida-Lessons Learned Report.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-07-01

    primary chamber is lined with 2 in. of insulating mineral wool and 4 in. of castable refractory with a service temperature of 2500*F. 5.5.5.4...material. The refractory should be air cooled by circulating combustion air between it and the outer shell. A minimum of 2-in.-high density mineral wool or...passes through the roof. The 50-ft-high and 6-ft-4-in.-O.D. stack is constructed of steel and lined with 4 in. of refractory and 2 in. of mineral

  8. Emissions of NOx, SO2, CO, and HCHO from commercial marine shipping during Texas Air Quality Study (TexAQS) 2006

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, E. J.; Lerner, B. M.; Murphy, P. C.; Herndon, S. C.; Zahniser, M. S.

    2009-11-01

    We report measurements of NOx, SO2, CO, and HCHO mass-based emission factors from more than 200 commercial vessel encounters in the Gulf of Mexico and the Houston-Galveston region of Texas during August and September, 2006. For underway ships, bulk freight carriers have the highest average NOx emissions at ˜87 g NOx (kg fuel)-1, followed by tanker ships at ˜79 g NOx (kg fuel)-1, while container carriers, passenger ships, and tugs all emit an average of about ˜60 g NOx (kg fuel)-1. Emission of NOx from stationary vessels was lower, except for container ships and tugs, and likely reflects use of medium-speed diesel engines. Overall, our mean NOx emission factors are 10-15% lower than published data. Average emission of SO2 was lower for passenger ships and tugs and tows (6-7 g SO2 (kg fuel)-1) than for larger cargo vessels (20-30 g SO2 (kg fuel)-1). Our data for large cargo ships in this region indicate an average residual fuel sulfur content of ˜1.4% which is a factor of two lower than the global average of 2.7%. Emission of CO was low for all categories (7-16 g CO (kg fuel)-1), although our mean overall CO emission factor is about 10% higher than published data. Emission of HCHO was less than 5% that of CO. Despite considerable variability, no functional relationships, such as emissions changes with engine speed or load, could be discerned. Comparison of emission factors from ships to those from other sources suggests ship emissions in this region cannot be ignored.

  9. 32 CFR 700.873 - Inspection incident to commissioning of ships.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Inspection incident to commissioning of ships... The Commanding Officer Special Circumstances/ships in Naval Stations and Shipyards § 700.873 Inspection incident to commissioning of ships. When a ship is to be commissioned, the authority designated...

  10. 32 CFR 700.873 - Inspection incident to commissioning of ships.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Inspection incident to commissioning of ships... The Commanding Officer Special Circumstances/ships in Naval Stations and Shipyards § 700.873 Inspection incident to commissioning of ships. When a ship is to be commissioned, the authority designated...

  11. 32 CFR 700.873 - Inspection incident to commissioning of ships.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Inspection incident to commissioning of ships... The Commanding Officer Special Circumstances/ships in Naval Stations and Shipyards § 700.873 Inspection incident to commissioning of ships. When a ship is to be commissioned, the authority designated...

  12. 32 CFR 700.873 - Inspection incident to commissioning of ships.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Inspection incident to commissioning of ships... The Commanding Officer Special Circumstances/ships in Naval Stations and Shipyards § 700.873 Inspection incident to commissioning of ships. When a ship is to be commissioned, the authority designated...

  13. 32 CFR 700.873 - Inspection incident to commissioning of ships.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Inspection incident to commissioning of ships... The Commanding Officer Special Circumstances/ships in Naval Stations and Shipyards § 700.873 Inspection incident to commissioning of ships. When a ship is to be commissioned, the authority designated...

  14. Continuous atmospheric 222Rn concentration measurements to study surface-air exchange at the station of Gredos and Iruelas, in Central Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grossi, Claudia; Morgui, Josep Anton; Àgueda, Alba; Batet, Oscar; Curcoll, Roger; Arias, Rosa; Arnold, Delia; Ealo, Marina; Nofuentes, Manel; Occhipinti, Paola; Sánchez-Garcíaa, Laura; Vargas, Arturo; Rodó, Xavier

    2013-04-01

    The Gredos and Iruelas station (GIC3) is part of the ClimaDat IC3 network (http://climadat.es/). This station is located in the Gredos Natural Park at a latitude of 40.22° N and a longitude of -5.14° E in the Spanish central plateau. The ClimaDat network is made by 8 stations distributed around Spain and it has been developed with the aim of studying climatic processes and the responses of impacted systems, at different time and space scales. Since November 2012, measurements of CO2, CH4, and of the natural radioactive gas 222Rn are continuously performed at GIC3 station at 20 m agl and at 1100 m asl . Maximum,minimum and average values of meteorological parameters, such as ambient air humidity and temperature, wind speed and direction are also measured at GIC3 station. Particularly, the concentration series of 222Rn measured at GIC3 station are extremely useful to evaluate the exchange of this noble radioactive gas between the soil surface and the lower troposphere in this area, under different weather situations and environmental conditions. The Gredos Natural Park is located in a granitic basement and this type of soil presents a high porosity and permeability. Furthermore, granitic materials have high activity levels of 228U. These factors enable large amount of radon to escape from the deeper soil, giving radon flux values of 90-100 Bq m-2 h-1 . These radon flux values are much higher than the average radon flux over the Earth, which is about 50 Bq m-2 h-1 (Szegvary et al, 2009). On the other hand, this geographical area is frequently affected by snow and rain events which drastically reduce the local radon exhalation. It is also influenced by winds coming from the Atlantic Ocean, which are poor in radon and strong, causing an important mixing. In addition, the cold nights' stability leads to an observed nocturnal radon accumulation. All the aforementioned conditions influence atmospheric radon concentrations measured at the GIC3 station, enlarging the range

  15. Simulation of Ground-Water Flow and Optimization of Withdrawals from Aquifers at the Naval Air Station Patuxent River, St. Mary's County, Maryland

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dieter, Cheryl A.; Fleck, William B.

    2008-01-01

    Potentiometric surfaces in the Piney Point-Nanjemoy, Aquia, and Upper Patapsco aquifers have declined from 1950 through 2000 throughout southern Maryland. In the vicinity of Lexington Park, Maryland, the potentiometric surface in the Aquia aquifer in 2000 was as much as 170 feet below sea level, approximately 150 feet lower than estimated pre-pumping levels before 1940. At the present rate, the water levels will have declined to the regulatory allowable maximum of 80 percent of available drawdown in the Aquia aquifer by about 2050. The effect of the withdrawals from these aquifers by the Naval Air Station Patuxent River and surrounding users on the declining potentiometric surface has raised concern for future availability of ground water. Growth at Naval Air Station Patuxent River may increase withdrawals, resulting in further drawdown. A ground-water-flow model, combined with optimization modeling, was used to develop withdrawal scenarios that minimize the effects (drawdown) of hypothetical future withdrawals. A three-dimensional finite-difference ground-water-flow model was developed to simulate the ground-water-flow system in the Piney Point-Nanjemoy, Aquia, and Upper Patapsco aquifers beneath the Naval Air Station Patuxent River. Transient and steady-state conditions were simulated to give water-resource managers additional tools to manage the ground-water resources. The transient simulation, representing 1900 through 2002, showed that the magnitude of withdrawal has increased over that time, causing ground-water flow to change direction in some areas. The steady-state simulation was linked to an optimization model to determine optimal solutions to hypothetical water-management scenarios. Two optimization scenarios were evaluated. The first scenario was designed to determine the optimal pumping rates for wells screened in the Aquia aquifer within three supply groups to meet a 25-percent increase in withdrawal demands, while minimizing the drawdown at a control

  16. Application of continuous seismic-reflection techniques to delineate paleochannels beneath the Neuse River at US Marine Corps Air Station, Cherry Point, North Carolina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cardinell, Alex P.

    1999-01-01

    A continuous seismic-reflection profiling survey was conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey on the Neuse River near the Cherry Point Marine Corps Air Station during July 7-24, 1998. Approximately 52 miles of profiling data were collected during the survey from areas northwest of the Air Station to Flanner Beach and southeast to Cherry Point. Positioning of the seismic lines was done by using an integrated navigational system. Data from the survey were used to define and delineate paleochannel alignments under the Neuse River near the Air Station. These data also were correlated with existing surface and borehole geophysical data, including vertical seismic-profiling velocity data collected in 1995. Sediments believed to be Quaternary in age were identified at varying depths on the seismic sections as undifferentiated reflectors and lack the lateral continuity of underlying reflectors believed to represent older sediments of Tertiary age. The sediments of possible Quaternary age thicken to the southeast. Paleochannels of Quaternary age and varying depths were identified beneath the Neuse River estuary. These paleochannels range in width from 870 feet to about 6,900 feet. Two zones of buried paleochannels were identified in the continuous seismic-reflection profiling data. The eastern paleochannel zone includes two large superimposed channel features identified during this study and in re-interpreted 1995 land seismic-reflection data. The second paleochannel zone, located west of the first paleochannel zone, contains several small paleochannels near the central and south shore of the Neuse River estuary between Slocum Creek and Flanner Beach. This second zone of channel features may be continuous with those mapped by the U.S. Geological Survey in 1995 using land seismic-reflection data on the southern end of the Air Station. Most of the channels were mapped at the Quaternary-Tertiary sediment boundary. These channels appear to have been cut into the older sediments

  17. European Cargo Ship Launches to Station

    NASA Video Gallery

    The European Space Agency's third Automated Transfer Vehicle (ATV-3) launched atop an Ariane 5 rocket from the European space port in Kourou, French Guiana, at 12:34 a.m. EDT Friday, beginning a si...

  18. European Cargo Ship Launches to Station

    NASA Video Gallery

    The European Space Agency's (ESA) fourth Automated Transfer Vehicle cargo craft (ATV-4) launched atop an Ariane 5 rocket from Kourou, French Guiana at 5:52 p.m. EDT on Wednesday to begin a 10-day t...

  19. 46 CFR 169.735 - Fire hose stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Fire hose stations. 169.735 Section 169.735 Shipping... Control, Miscellaneous Systems, and Equipment Markings § 169.735 Fire hose stations. Each fire hydrant must be identified in red letters and figures at least two inches high “FIRE STATION NO. 1,” “2,”...

  20. 1. EXTERIOR OF CENTRAL HEATING STATION, BUILDING 102, LOOKING NORTH. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. EXTERIOR OF CENTRAL HEATING STATION, BUILDING 102, LOOKING NORTH. - Mill Valley Air Force Station, Central Heating Station, East Ridgecrest Boulevard, Mount Tamalpais, Mill Valley, Marin County, CA

  1. Inspiration of the functional localization of a US naval hospital ship on a Chinese hospital ship.

    PubMed

    Li, Da-Wei; Zhang, Zhi-Cheng; Zhu, Wen-Ya; Sun, Tao

    2016-01-01

    Through the experience of being stationed on the USS Mercy hospital ship (T-AH19) and a preliminary comprehension of the personnel and material arrangements, processing and functional formats, and the multi-platform contributions of US Navy hospital ships, we briefly introduce the characteristics of US hospital ships regarding medical support, emergency rescue exercises, communications and training, international humanitarian aid, etc. We discuss the function and responsibility of Chinese hospital ships, focusing on the investigation of the construction mode and positioning in the navy.

  2. Environmental Conditions and Threatened and Endangered Species Populations near the Titan, Atlas, and Delta Launch Complexes, Cape Canaveral Air Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oddy, Donna M.; Stolen, Eric D.; Schmalzer, Paul A.; Hensley, Melissa A.; Hall, Patrice; Larson, Vickie L.; Turek, Shannon R.

    1999-01-01

    Launches of Delta, Atlas, and Titan rockets from Cape Canaveral Air Station (CCAS) have potential environmental effects. These could occur from direct impacts of launches or indirectly from habitat alterations. This report summarizes a three-year study (1 995-1 998) characterizing the environment, with particular attention to threatened and endangered species, near Delta, Atlas, and Titan launch facilities. Cape Canaveral has been modified by Air Force development and by 50 years of fire suppression. The dominant vegetation type around the Delta and Atlas launch complexes is coastal oak hammock forest. Oak scrub is the predominant upland vegetation type near the Titan launch complexes. Compositionally, these are coastal scrub communities that has been unburned for > 40 years and have developed into closed canopy, low-stature forests. Herbaceous vegetation around active and inactive facilities, coastal strand and dune vegetation near the Atlantic Ocean, and exotic vegetation in disturbed areas are common. Marsh and estuarine vegetation is most common west of the Titan complexes. Launch effects to vegetation include scorch, acid, and particulate deposition. Discernable, cumulative effects are limited to small areas near the launch complexes. Water quality samples were collected at the Titan, Atlas, and Delta launch complexes in September 1995 (wet season) and January 1996 (dry season). Samples were analyzed for heavy metals, chloride, total organic carbon, calcium, iron, magnesium, sodium, total alkalinity, pH, and conductivity. Differences between fresh, brackish, and saline surface waters were evident. The natural buffering capacity of the environment surrounding the CCAS launch complexes is adequate for neutralizing acid deposition in rainfall and launch deposition. Populations of the Florida Scrub-Jay (Aphelocoma coerulescens), a Federally-listed, threatened species, reside near the launch complexes. Thirty-seven to forty-one scrub-jay territories were located at

  3. Environmental Conditions and Threatened and Endangered Species Populations near the Titain, Atlas, and Delta Launch Complexes, Cape Canaveral Air Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oddy, Donna M.; Stolen, Eric D.; Schmalzer, Paul A.; Hensley, Melissa A.; Hall, Patrice; Larson, Vickie L.; Turek, Shannon R.

    1999-01-01

    Launches of Delta, Atlas, and Titan rockets from Cape Canaveral Air Station (CCAS) have potential environmental effects. These could occur from direct impacts of launches or indirectly from habitat alterations. This report summarizes a three-year study (1995-1998) characterizing the environment, with particular attention to threatened and endangered species, near Delta, Atlas, and Titan launch facilities. Cape Canaveral has been modified by Air Force development and by 50 years of fire suppression. The dominant vegetation type around the Delta and Atlas launch complexes is coastal oak hammock forest. Oak scrub is the predominant upland vegetation type near the Titan launch complexes. Compositionally, these are coastal scrub communities that has been unburned for greater than 40 years and have developed into closed canopy, low-stature forests. Herbaceous vegetation around active and inactive facilities, coastal strand and dune vegetation near the Atlantic Ocean, and exotic vegetation in disturbed areas are common. Marsh and estuarine vegetation is most common west of the Titan complexes. Launch effects to vegetation include scorch, acid, and particulate deposition. Discernable, cumulative effects are limited to small areas near the launch complexes. Water quality samples were collected at the Titan, Atlas, and Delta launch complexes in September 1995 (wet season) and January 1996 (dry season). Samples were analyzed for heavy metals, chloride, total organic carbon, calcium, iron, magnesium, sodium, total alkalinity, pH, and conductivity. Differences between fresh, brackish, and saline surface waters were evident. The natural buffering capacity of the environment surrounding the CCAS launch complexes is adequate for neutralizing acid deposition in rainfall and launch deposition. Populations of the Florida Scrub-Jay (Aphelocoma coerulescens), a Federally- listed, threatened species, reside near the launch complexes. Thirty-seven to forty-one scrub-jay territories were

  4. Research Opportunities on board Virgin Galactic's SpaceShipTwo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Attenborough, S.; Pomerantz, W.; Stephens, K.

    2013-09-01

    Virgin Galactic is building the world's first commercial spaceline. Our suborbital spaceflight system, pictured in Figure 1, consists of two vehicles: WhiteKnightTwo (WK2) and SpaceShipTwo (SS2). WhiteKnightTwo is a four-engine, dual-fuselage jet aircraft capable of high-altitude heavy lift missions, including, but not limited to fulfilling its role as a mothership for SpaceShipTwo, an air-launched, suborbital spaceplane capable of routinely reaching an apogee up to 110 kilometers. In conjunction, these two vehicles allow access to space and to regions of the atmosphere ranging from the troposphere to the thermosphere; additionally, they provide extended periods of microgravity in a reliable and affordable way. SpaceShipTwo, with a payload capacity of up to 1,300 lbs. (~600 kg), features payload mounting interfaces that are compatible with standard architectures such as NASA Space Shuttle Middeck Lockers, Cargo Transfer Bags, and server racks, in addition to custom structures. With the standard interface, payloads are allowed access to the large 17 inch diameter cabin windows for external observations. Each dedicated research flight will be accompanied by a Virgin Galactic Flight Test Engineer, providing an opportunity for limited in-flight interaction. In addition, tended payloads - a flight that includes the researcher and his or her payload - are also an option. At a price point that is highly competitive with parabolic aircraft and sounding rockets and significantly cheaper than orbital flights, SpaceShipTwo is a unique platform that can provide frequent and repeatable research opportunities. Suborbital flights on SpaceShipTwo offer researchers several minutes of microgravity time and views of the external environment in the upper atmosphere and in outer space. In addition to serving as an important research platform in and of itself, SpaceShipTwo also offers researchers a means to test, iterate, and calibrate experiments designed for orbital platforms

  5. Fate and Transport Modeling of Selected Chlorinated Organic Compounds at Hangar 1000, U.S. Naval Air Station, Jacksonville, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Davis, J. Hal

    2003-01-01

    The Jacksonville Naval Air Station occupies 3,800 acres adjacent to the St. Johns River in Jacksonville, Florida. Two underground storage tanks at Hangar 1000 contained solvents from the late 1960s until they were removed in 1994. Ground-water samples at one of the tank sites had levels of trichloroethene (TCE) and total dichloroethene (DCE) of 8,710 micrograms per liter (mg/L) and 4,280 mg/L, respectively. Vinyl chloride (VC) at the site is the result of the biodegradation of DCE. Ground water beneath Hangar 1000 flows toward a storm sewer. TCE and DCE plumes travel with the ground water and presumably have reached the storm sewer, which discharges to the St. Johns River. Simulation of solute transport indicates that the traveltime from the storage tank site to the storm sewer is 16, 14, and 12 years for TCE, DCE, and VC respectively. TCE has the longest traveltime because it has the highest retardation factor at 2.5, DCE takes less time with a retardation factor of 2.0, and VC has the quickest traveltime because it has the lowest retardation factor of 1.7. Based on modeling results, the release of contaminants in the aquifer occurred more than 16 years ago. Model-derived dispersivity values at Hangar 1000 were: longitudinal 1.5 feet (ft), transverse 0.27 ft, and vertical 0.27 ft. The model-derived first order decay rates for biodegradation of TCE, DCE, and VC were 0.0002 per day (d-1), 0.0002 d-1, and 0.06 d-1, respectively. These rates are equivalent to half-lives of 13.7 years for TCE and DCE and 17 days for VC. Source area reductions in contaminant concentrations of 50 and 100 percent were modeled to simulate remediation. As expected, reducing the source concentration by 50 percent resulted in eventual TCE, DCE, and VC concentrations that were half of the original concentrations. About 16 years were needed for new steady-state TCE concentrations to develop, about 14 years for DCE, and about 12 years for VC. Reducing the source area concentrations by 100

  6. Speciation and Fate of Trace Metals in Estuarine Sediments Under Reduced and Oxidized Conditions, Seaplane Lagoon, Alameda Naval Air Station

    SciTech Connect

    Carroll, S A; Day, P A; Esser, B; Randall, S

    2002-10-18

    We have identified important chemical reactions that control the fate of metal-contaminated estuarine sediments if they are left undisturbed (in situ) or if they are dredged. We combined information on the molecular bonding of metals in solids from X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) with thermodynamic and kinetic driving forces obtained from dissolved metal concentrations to deduce the dominant reactions under reduced and oxidized conditions. We evaluated the in situ geochemistry of metals (cadmium, chromium, iron, lead, manganese and zinc) as a function of sediment depth (to 100 cm) from a 60-year record of contamination at the Alameda Naval Air Station, California. Results from XAS and thermodynamic modeling of porewaters show that cadmium and most of the zinc form stable sulfide phases, and that lead and chromium are associated with stable carbonate, phosphate, phyllosilicate, or oxide minerals. Therefore, there is minimal risk associated with the release of these trace metals from the deeper sediments contaminated prior to the Clean Water Act (1975) as long as reducing conditions are maintained. Increased concentrations of dissolved metals with depth were indicative of the formation of metal HS- complexes. The sediments also contain zinc, chromium, and manganese associated with detrital iron-rich phyllosilicates and/or oxides. These phases are recalcitrant at near-neutral pH and do not undergo reductive dissolution within the 60-year depositional history of sediments at this site. The fate of these metals during dredging was evaluated by comparing in situ geochemistry with that of sediments oxidized by seawater in laboratory experiments. Cadmium and zinc pose the greatest hazard from dredging because their sulfides were highly reactive in seawater. However, their dissolved concentrations under oxic conditions were limited eventually by sorption to or co-precipitation with an iron (oxy)hydroxide. About 50% of the reacted CdS and 80% of the reacted ZnS were

  7. Hydrogeology and simulation of ground-water flow at US Marine Corps Air Station, Cherry Point, North Carolina, 1987-90

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eimers, J.L.; Daniel, C. C.; Coble, R.W.

    1994-01-01

    Geophysical and lithologic well-log data from 30 wells and chloride data, and water-level data from oil-test wells, supply wells, and observation wells were evaluated to define the hydrogeologic framework at the U.S. Marine Corps Air Station, Cherry Point, North Carolina. Elements of the hydrogeologic framework important to this study include six aquifers and their respective confining units. In descending order, these aquifers are the surficial, Yorktown, Pungo River, upper and lower Castle Hayne, and Beaufort. The upper and lower Castle Hayne and Beaufort aquifers and related confining units are relatively continuous throughout the study area. The surficial, Yorktown, Pungo River, and upper and lower Castle Hayne aquifers contain freshwater. The upper and lower Castle Hayne aquifers serve as the Air Station?s principal supply of freshwater. However, the lower Castle Hayne aquifer contains brackish water near its base and there is potential for upward movement of this water to supply wells completed in this aquifer. The potential for brackish-water encroachment is greatest if wells are screened too deep in the lower Castle Hayne aquifer or if pumping rates are too high. Lateral movement of brackish water into aquifers incised by estuarine streams is also possible if ground-water flow gradients toward these bodies are reversed by pumping. The potential for the reversed movement of water from the surficial aquifer downward to the water-supply aquifer is greatest in areas where clay confining units are missing. These missing clay units could indicate the presence of a paleochannel of the Neuse River. A quasi three-dimensional finite-difference ground-water flow model was constructed and calibrated to simulate conditions at and in the vicinity of the Air Station for the period of 1987-90. Comparisons of 94 observed and computed heads were made, and the average difference between them is -0.2 feet with a root mean square error of 5.7 feet. An analysis was made to

  8. 33 CFR 334.430 - Neuse River and tributaries at Marine Corps Air Station Cherry Point, North Carolina; restricted...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Station, Cherry Point, North Carolina, extending from the mouth of Hancock Creek to a point approximately 6,800 feet west of the mouth of Slocum Creek, and all waters of Hancock and Slocum Creeks and...

  9. 33 CFR 334.430 - Neuse River and tributaries at Marine Corps Air Station Cherry Point, North Carolina; restricted...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Station, Cherry Point, North Carolina, extending from the mouth of Hancock Creek to a point approximately 6,800 feet west of the mouth of Slocum Creek, and all waters of Hancock and Slocum Creeks and...

  10. 78 FR 14400 - Shipping Coordinating Committee; Notice of Committee Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-05

    ... facilities; --Reports of sub-committees; --Work of other bodies; --Harmful anti-fouling systems for ships... the following: --Harmful aquatic organisms in ballast water; --Recycling of ships; --Air pollution and energy efficiency; --Reduction of GHG emissions from ships; --Consideration and adoption of amendments...

  11. 75 FR 8176 - Shipping Coordinating Committee; Notice of Committee Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-23

    ... facilities --Reports of sub-committees --Work of other bodies --Status of conventions --Harmful anti-fouling systems for ships --Promotion of implementation and enforcement of MARPOL and related instruments... ballast water --Recycling of ships --Prevention of air pollution from ships --Consideration and...

  12. 77 FR 54648 - Shipping Coordinating Committee; Notice of Committee Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-05

    ...-committees; --Work of other bodies; --Status of conventions; --Harmful anti-fouling systems for ships... organisms in ballast water; --Recycling of ships; --Air pollution and energy efficiency; --Reduction of GHG emissions from ships; --Consideration and adoption of amendments to mandatory instruments;...

  13. A global assessment of NASA AIRS v6 and EUMETSAT IASI v6 precipitable water vapor using ground-based GPS SuomiNet stations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roman, Jacola; Knuteson, Robert; August, Thomas; Hultberg, Tim; Ackerman, Steve; Revercomb, Hank

    2016-08-01

    Satellite remote sensing of precipitable water vapor (PWV) is essential for monitoring moisture in real time for weather applications, as well as tracking the long-term changes in PWV for climate change trend detection. This study assesses the accuracies of the current satellite observing system, specifically the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) v6 PWV product and the European Organization for the Exploitation of Meteorological Satellite Studies (EUMETSAT) Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI) v6 PWV product, using ground-based SuomiNet Global Positioning System (GPS) network as truth. Elevation-corrected collocated matchups to each SuomiNet GPS station in North America and around the world were created, and results were broken down by station, ARM region, climate zone, and latitude zone. The greatest difference, exceeding 5%, between IASI and AIRS retrievals occurred in the tropics. Generally, IASI and AIRS fall within a 5% error in the PWV range of 20-40 mm (a mean bias less than 2 mm), with a wet bias for extremely low PWV values (less than 5 mm) and a dry bias for extremely high PWV values (greater than 50 mm). The operational IR satellite products are able to capture the mean PWV but degrade in the extreme dry and wet regimes.

  14. Convective Heat Transfer for Ship Propulsion.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-11-29

    frpiac i aU cd i INds-- butl .<. Contract No. N00014-75-C-0694; NR-097-395 ! _; "’ ~CONVECTIVE HEAT TRANSFER FOR SHIP PROPULSION -’- Aerospace and...Claaification, CONVECTIVEHET7 TRNSE FOR SHIP PROPULSION (U) ______ 1.PRSONAL AUTHOR(S) McEligot, Donald M., P. 0. Box 4282, Middletown, Rhode Island...cooled -"ireactors using N2 04 compared with atomic2 4- I.- electric stations using sodium. The potential benefits for ship propulsion are obvious

  15. Diurnal and seasonal variation of mixing ratio and δ¹³C of air CO₂ observed at an urban station Bangalore, India.

    PubMed

    Guha, Tania; Ghosh, Prosenjit

    2015-02-01

    We present here observations on diurnal and seasonal variation of mixing ratio and δ(13)C of air CO2, from an urban station-Bangalore (BLR), India, monitored between October 2008 and December 2011. On a diurnal scale, higher mixing ratio with depleted δ(13)C of air CO2 was found for the samples collected during early morning compared to the samples collected during late afternoon. On a seasonal scale, mixing ratio was found to be higher for dry summer months (April-May) and lower for southwest monsoon months (June-July). The maximum enrichment in δ(13)C of air CO2 (-8.04 ± 0.02‰) was seen in October, then δ(13)C started depleting and maximum depletion (-9.31 ± 0.07‰) was observed during dry summer months. Immediately after that an increasing trend in δ(13)C was monitored coincidental with the advancement of southwest monsoon months and maximum enrichment was seen again in October. Although a similar pattern in seasonal variation was observed for the three consecutive years, the dry summer months of 2011 captured distinctly lower amplitude in both the mixing ratio and δ(13)C of air CO2 compared to the dry summer months of 2009 and 2010. This was explained with reduced biomass burning and increased productivity associated with prominent La Nina condition. While compared with the observations from the nearest coastal and open ocean stations-Cabo de Rama (CRI) and Seychelles (SEY), BLR being located within an urban region captured higher amplitude of seasonal variation. The average δ(13)C value of the end member source CO2 was identified based on both diurnal and seasonal scale variation. The δ(13)C value of source CO2 (-24.9 ± 3‰) determined based on diurnal variation was found to differ drastically from the source value (-14.6 ± 0.7‰) identified based on seasonal scale variation. The source CO2 identified based on diurnal variation incorporated both early morning and late afternoon sample; whereas, the source CO2 identified based

  16. The effects of air mass transport, seasonality, and meteorology on pollutant levels at the Iskrba regional background station (1996-2014)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poberžnik, Matevž; Štrumbelj, Erik

    2016-06-01

    Our main goal was to estimate the effects of long-range air transport on pollutant concentrations measured at the Iskrba regional background station (Slovenia). We cluster back-trajectories into categories and simultaneously model the effects of meteorology, seasonality, trends, and air mass trajectory clusters using a Bayesian statistical approach. This simplifies the interpretation of results and allows us to better identify the effects of individual variables, which is important, because pollutant concentrations, meteorology, and trajectories are seasonal and correlated. Similar to related work from other European sites, we find that slow and faster moving trajectories from eastern Europe and the northern part of the Balkan peninsula are associated with higher pollutant levels, while fast-moving trajectories from the Atlantic are associated with lower pollutant concentration. Overall, pollutant concentrations have decreased in the studied period.

  17. Performance assessment of a solar-powered air quality and weather station placed on a school rooftop in Hong Kong

    EPA Science Inventory

    Emerging air pollution measurement technologies that require minimal infrastructure to deploy may lead to new insights on air pollution spatial variability in urban areas. Through a collaboration between the USEPA and HKEPD, this study evaluates the performance of a compact, roo...

  18. Real-Time Kennedy Space Center and Cape Canaveral Air Force Station High-Resolution Model Implementation and Verification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shafer, Jaclyn A.; Watson, Leela R.

    2015-01-01

    Customer: NASA's Launch Services Program (LSP), Ground Systems Development and Operations (GSDO), and Space Launch System (SLS) programs. NASA's LSP, GSDO, SLS and other programs at Kennedy Space Center (KSC) and Cape Canaveral Air Force Station (CCAFS) use the daily and weekly weather forecasts issued by the 45th Weather Squadron (45 WS) as decision tools for their day-to-day and launch operations on the Eastern Range (ER). For example, to determine if they need to limit activities such as vehicle transport to the launch pad, protect people, structures or exposed launch vehicles given a threat of severe weather, or reschedule other critical operations. The 45 WS uses numerical weather prediction models as a guide for these weather forecasts, particularly the Air Force Weather Agency (AFWA) 1.67 kilometer Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model. Considering the 45 WS forecasters' and Launch Weather Officers' (LWO) extensive use of the AFWA model, the 45 WS proposed a task at the September 2013 Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) Tasking Meeting requesting the AMU verify this model. Due to the lack of archived model data available from AFWA, verification is not yet possible. Instead, the AMU proposed to implement and verify the performance of an ER version of the AMU high-resolution WRF Environmental Modeling System (EMS) model (Watson 2013) in real-time. The tasking group agreed to this proposal; therefore the AMU implemented the WRF-EMS model on the second of two NASA AMU modeling clusters. The model was set up with a triple-nested grid configuration over KSC/CCAFS based on previous AMU work (Watson 2013). The outer domain (D01) has 12-kilometer grid spacing, the middle domain (D02) has 4-kilometer grid spacing, and the inner domain (D03) has 1.33-kilometer grid spacing. The model runs a 12-hour forecast every hour, D01 and D02 domain outputs are available once an hour and D03 is every 15 minutes during the forecast period. The AMU assessed the WRF-EMS 1

  19. Trends in Concentrations of Atmospheric Gaseous and Particulate Species at the Look Rock, TN NCORE Air Quality Station and Their Relation to Primary Emissions Reductions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanner, R. L.; Mueller, S. F.; Bairai, S. T.

    2013-12-01

    Air quality parameters, measured at Look Rock, TN, since 1980, were expanded by National Park Service (NPS) as an IMPROVE network station and again in 1999-2007 by Tennessee Valley Authority as part of efforts to determine the effects of reductions in EGU emissions of sulfur and nitrogen oxides on air quality at the site. Designated as a non-urban, NCORE-equivalent station in 2010, routine continuous monitoring of aerosol mass, sulfate, and black carbon, and primary and secondary gases at the site as well as additional measurements during a series of intensive research studies at the site have produced an extensive body to air quality data on background levels of species relevant to air quality standards (NAAQS) for ozone and fine particulate matter which is unique comprehensive for a high-altitude site in the southeastern U.S.A. Analysis of the temporal trends in these data (1999-present)is being conducted in conjunction with and support of 2013 Southern Atmosphere Studies at Look Rock and other southeastern U.S. locations. Key findings from analysis of temporal trends at Look Rock include the observation that primary pollutant levels have consistently tracked the emissions reductions from EGUs and other primary sources in the region, but reductions in secondary pollutants such as particulate sulfate and ozone have been less than proportional. Organic carbonaceous material (OM) remains a major contributor to fine particulate mass at the site, and a large portion (65-85%) of OM derives from modern carbon, based on 14C measurements. Important parameters affecting fine mass and ozone levels also include the specific diurnal meteorology at this ridge-top site, its location in a largely mixed-deciduous forest, and the presence of primary sources of precursors at distances of 50-500 km from the site in all directions.

  20. [A promising method of hygienic evaluation of air pollution inside the modules of the international space station by hydrazine derivatives].

    PubMed

    Mikos, K N; Mukhamedieva, L N; Pakhomova, A A; Ul'ianov, A V; Serdiuk, T M; Buriak, A K

    2009-01-01

    The increasing frequency of ISS egress operations resulted in ISS air pollution by an uncharacteristic group of toxic compounds, i. e. propellant residues and products of propellant incomplete burning. High reactivity and toxicity of these compounds necessitated the development of a method of sanitary-chemical evaluation of ISS air safety given penetration of the new pollutants. The method is fulfilled in two stages. First is air sampling and then--sample analysis in ground laboratory by chromatography-mass spectrometry. Air sampling, as well as sample handling and analysis procedures were refined with the use of artificial gas mixtures. The proposed method shows promise as an instrument for the hygienic evaluation of ISS air pollution by hydrazine derivatives.

  1. Health risk assessment of ambient air concentrations of benzene, toluene and xylene (BTX) in service station environments.

    PubMed

    Edokpolo, Benjamin; Yu, Qiming Jimmy; Connell, Des

    2014-06-18

    A comprehensive evaluation of the adverse health effects of human exposures to BTX from service station emissions was carried out using BTX exposure data from the scientific literature. The data was grouped into different scenarios based on activity, location and occupation and plotted as Cumulative Probability Distributions (CPD) plots. Health risk was evaluated for each scenario using the Hazard Quotient (HQ) at 50% (CEXP50) and 95% (CEXP95) exposure levels. HQ50 and HQ95 > 1 were obtained with benzene in the scenario for service station attendants and mechanics repairing petrol dispensing pumps indicating a possible health risk. The risk was minimized for service stations using vapour recovery systems which greatly reduced the benzene exposure levels. HQ50 and HQ95 < 1 were obtained for all other scenarios with benzene suggesting minimal risk for most of the exposed population. However, HQ50 and HQ95 < 1 was also found with toluene and xylene for all scenarios, suggesting minimal health risk. The lifetime excess Cancer Risk (CR) and Overall Risk Probability for cancer on exposure to benzene was calculated for all Scenarios and this was higher amongst service station attendants than any other scenario.

  2. 47 CFR 80.1093 - Ship radio equipment-Sea areas A1, A2, A3, and A4.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Ship radio equipment-Sea areas A1, A2, A3, and... AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Global Maritime Distress and Safety System (GMDSS) Equipment Requirements for Ship Stations § 80.1093 Ship radio equipment—Sea areas A1,...

  3. 47 CFR 80.1091 - Ship radio equipment-Sea areas A1, A2, and A3.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Ship radio equipment-Sea areas A1, A2, and A3... SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Global Maritime Distress and Safety System (GMDSS) Equipment Requirements for Ship Stations § 80.1091 Ship radio equipment—Sea areas A1, A2, and A3....

  4. 47 CFR 80.1091 - Ship radio equipment-Sea areas A1, A2, and A3.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Ship radio equipment-Sea areas A1, A2, and A3... SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Global Maritime Distress and Safety System (GMDSS) Equipment Requirements for Ship Stations § 80.1091 Ship radio equipment—Sea areas A1, A2, and A3....

  5. 47 CFR 80.1093 - Ship radio equipment-Sea areas A1, A2, A3, and A4.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Ship radio equipment-Sea areas A1, A2, A3, and... AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Global Maritime Distress and Safety System (GMDSS) Equipment Requirements for Ship Stations § 80.1093 Ship radio equipment—Sea areas A1,...

  6. 47 CFR 80.1093 - Ship radio equipment-Sea areas A1, A2, A3, and A4.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Ship radio equipment-Sea areas A1, A2, A3, and... AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Global Maritime Distress and Safety System (GMDSS) Equipment Requirements for Ship Stations § 80.1093 Ship radio equipment—Sea areas A1,...

  7. 47 CFR 80.1093 - Ship radio equipment-Sea areas A1, A2, A3, and A4.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Ship radio equipment-Sea areas A1, A2, A3, and... AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Global Maritime Distress and Safety System (GMDSS) Equipment Requirements for Ship Stations § 80.1093 Ship radio equipment—Sea areas A1,...

  8. 47 CFR 80.1091 - Ship radio equipment-Sea areas A1, A2, and A3.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Ship radio equipment-Sea areas A1, A2, and A3... SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Global Maritime Distress and Safety System (GMDSS) Equipment Requirements for Ship Stations § 80.1091 Ship radio equipment—Sea areas A1, A2, and A3....

  9. 47 CFR 80.1091 - Ship radio equipment-Sea areas A1, A2, and A3.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Ship radio equipment-Sea areas A1, A2, and A3... SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Global Maritime Distress and Safety System (GMDSS) Equipment Requirements for Ship Stations § 80.1091 Ship radio equipment—Sea areas A1, A2, and A3....

  10. 47 CFR 80.1091 - Ship radio equipment-Sea areas A1, A2, and A3.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Ship radio equipment-Sea areas A1, A2, and A3... SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Global Maritime Distress and Safety System (GMDSS) Equipment Requirements for Ship Stations § 80.1091 Ship radio equipment—Sea areas A1, A2, and A3....

  11. 47 CFR 80.1093 - Ship radio equipment-Sea areas A1, A2, A3, and A4.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Ship radio equipment-Sea areas A1, A2, A3, and... AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Global Maritime Distress and Safety System (GMDSS) Equipment Requirements for Ship Stations § 80.1093 Ship radio equipment—Sea areas A1,...

  12. Hydrogeologic setting, water levels, and quality of water from supply wells at the US Marine Corps Air Station, Cherry Point, North Carolina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lloyd, O.B.; Daniel, C. C.

    1988-01-01

    The Marine Corps Air Station is located in the Coastal Plain province of North Carolina. Four freshwater aquifers of sand and limestone underlie the area to a depth of about 500 feet. Saline water occurs below this depth. The aquifers are separated by three confining units that are thin and discontinuous in the southern part. Water supply is obtained from 195- to 330 feet wells in the Castle Hayne aquifer. Many wells are near landfills that have received hazardous wastes. Groundwater withdrawals have reduced hydraulic heads in the Castle Hayne some 20 feet around active production wells, creating potential for downward movement of contaminated water from the surface and for upward movement of saline water that occurs at depth. Chemical analyses of water from the Castle Hayne aquifer indicate median concentrations of iron and manganese are 0.78 and 0.08 milligrams per liter, respectively, and lead and (or) nickel exceed drinking water standards in three wells. Chloride increased from 10 to more than 40 milligrams per liter in the deepest operating well over a 45-year period. Benzene concentrations range from 0.5 to 1.9 milligrams per liter in the southern part of the Air Station but were below the 5 milligrams per liter maximum contaminant level for drinking water. Fatty acids were found in concentrations as much as 28 micrograms per liter in water from wells in an area centered around the intersection of Roosevelt Boulevard and Slocum Road. Resampling is needed to verify all constituents that indicate contamination.

  13. Ship Creek bioassessment investigations

    SciTech Connect

    Cushing, C.E.; Mueller, R.P.; Murphy, M.T.

    1995-06-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) was asked by Elmendorf Air Force Base (EAFB) personnel to conduct a series of collections of macroinvertebrates and sediments from Ship Creek to (1) establish baseline data on these populations for reference in evaluating possible impacts from Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) activities at two operable units, (2) compare current population indices with those found by previous investigations in Ship Creek, and (3) determine baseline levels of concentrations of any contaminants in the sediments associated with the macroinvertebrates. A specific suite of indices established by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) was requested for the macroinvertebrate analyses; these follow the Rapid Bioassessment Protocol developed by Plafkin et al. (1989) and will be described. Sediment sample analyses included a Microtox bioassay and chemical analysis for contaminants of concern. These analyses included, volatile organic compounds, total gasoline and diesel hydrocarbons (EPA method 8015, CA modified), total organic carbon, and an inductive-coupled plasma/mass spectrometry (ICP/MS) metals scan. Appendix A reports on the sediment analyses. The Work Plan is attached as Appendix B.

  14. Environmental Assessment for Replacement of the Main Gate Facility at New Boston Air Force Station, New Hampshire

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-01-01

    assessment evaluates the potential for impacts to air quality, noise levels, topography, geology, soils, water resources, ecological resources (including...15 3.5 Ecological Resources...25 4.1.4 Ecological Resources

  15. 15 CFR 806.9 - Airlines and ship operators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Airlines and ship operators. 806.9...) BUREAU OF ECONOMIC ANALYSIS, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE DIRECT INVESTMENT SURVEYS § 806.9 Airlines and ship operators. Foreign stations, ticket offices, and terminal and port facilities of U.S. airlines and...

  16. 15 CFR 806.9 - Airlines and ship operators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Airlines and ship operators. 806.9...) BUREAU OF ECONOMIC ANALYSIS, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE DIRECT INVESTMENT SURVEYS § 806.9 Airlines and ship operators. Foreign stations, ticket offices, and terminal and port facilities of U.S. airlines and...

  17. 15 CFR 806.9 - Airlines and ship operators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Airlines and ship operators. 806.9...) BUREAU OF ECONOMIC ANALYSIS, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE DIRECT INVESTMENT SURVEYS § 806.9 Airlines and ship operators. Foreign stations, ticket offices, and terminal and port facilities of U.S. airlines and...

  18. 18. Photocopy, "Light house for ship shoals, details of the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. Photocopy, "Light house for ship shoals, details of the apparatus for inserting the piles into the shoal, sheet no. 53", National Archives (8" x 10" print from 4" x 5" negative) - Ship Shoal Light Station, Gulf of Mexico, Theriot, Terrebonne Parish, LA

  19. Precipitation and Air Pollution at Mountain and Plain Stations in Northern China: Insights Gained from Observations and Modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Guo, Jianping; Deng, Minjun; Fan, Jiwen; Li, Zhanqing; Chen, Qian; Zhai, Panmao; Dai, Zhijian; Li, Xiaowen

    2014-04-27

    We analyzed 40 year data sets of daily average visibility (a proxy for surface aerosol concentration) and hourly precipitation at seven weather stations, including three stations located on the Taihang Mountains, during the summertime in northern China. There was no significant trend in summertime total precipitation at almost all stations. However, light rain decreased, whereas heavy rain increased as visibility decreased over the period studied. The decrease in light rain was seen in both orographic-forced shallow clouds and mesoscale stratiform clouds. The consistent trends in observed changes in visibility, precipitation, and orographic factor appear to be a testimony to the effects of aerosols. The potential impact of large-scale environmental factors, such as precipitable water, convective available potential energy, and vertical wind shear, on precipitation was investigated. No direct links were found. To validate our observational hypothesis about aerosol effects, Weather Research and Forecasting model simulations with spectral-bin microphysics at the cloud-resolving scale were conducted. Model results confirmed the role of aerosol indirect effects in reducing the light rain amount and frequency in the mountainous area for both orographic-forced shallow clouds and mesoscale stratiform clouds and in eliciting a different response in the neighboring plains. The opposite response of light rain to the increase in pollution when there is no terrain included in the model suggests that orography is likely a significant factor contributing to the opposite trends in light rain seen in mountainous and plain areas.

  20. Tool for Forecasting Cool-Season Peak Winds Across Kennedy Space Center and Cape Canaveral Air Force Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barrett, Joe H., III; Roeder, William P.

    2010-01-01

    The expected peak wind speed for the day is an important element in the daily morning forecast for ground and space launch operations at Kennedy Space Center (KSC) and Cape Canaveral Air Force Station (CCAFS). The 45th Weather Squadron (45 WS) must issue forecast advisories for KSC/CCAFS when they expect peak gusts for >= 25, >= 35, and >= 50 kt thresholds at any level from the surface to 300 ft. In Phase I of this task, the 45 WS tasked the Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) to develop a cool-season (October - April) tool to help forecast the non-convective peak wind from the surface to 300 ft at KSC/CCAFS. During the warm season, these wind speeds are rarely exceeded except during convective winds or under the influence of tropical cyclones, for which other techniques are already in use. The tool used single and multiple linear regression equations to predict the peak wind from the morning sounding. The forecaster manually entered several observed sounding parameters into a Microsoft Excel graphical user interface (GUI), and then the tool displayed the forecast peak wind speed, average wind speed at the time of the peak wind, the timing of the peak wind and the probability the peak wind will meet or exceed 35, 50 and 60 kt. The 45 WS customers later dropped the requirement for >= 60 kt wind warnings. During Phase II of this task, the AMU expanded the period of record (POR) by six years to increase the number of observations used to create the forecast equations. A large number of possible predictors were evaluated from archived soundings, including inversion depth and strength, low-level wind shear, mixing height, temperature lapse rate and winds from the surface to 3000 ft. Each day in the POR was stratified in a number of ways, such as by low-level wind direction, synoptic weather pattern, precipitation and Bulk Richardson number. The most accurate Phase II equations were then selected for an independent verification. The Phase I and II forecast methods were

  1. Magnetic properties of atmospheric particulate matter from automatic air sampler stations in Latium (Italy): Toward a definition of magnetic fingerprints for natural and anthropogenic PM10 sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sagnotti, Leonardo; Macrı, Patrizia; Egli, Ramon; Mondino, Manlio

    2006-12-01

    Environmental problems linked to the concentration of atmospheric particulate matter with dimensions less than 10 μm (PM10) in urban settings have stimulated a variety of scientific researches. This study reports a systematic analysis of the magnetic properties of PM10 samples collected by six automatic stations installed for air quality monitoring through the Latium Region (Italy). We measured the low-field magnetic susceptibility of daily air filters collected during the period July 2004 to July 2005. For each station, we derived an empirical linear correlation linking magnetic susceptibility to the concentration of PM10 produced by local sources (i.e., in absence of significant inputs of exogenous dust). An experimental approach is suggested for estimating the percentage of nonmagnetic PM10 transported from natural far-sided sources (i.e., dust from North Africa and marine aerosols). Moreover, we carried out a variety of additional magnetic measurements to investigate the magnetic mineralogy of selected air filters spanning representative periods. The results indicate that the magnetic fraction of PM10 is composed by a mixture of low-coercivity, magnetite-like, ferrimagnetic particles with a wide spectrum of grain sizes, related to a variety of natural and anthropogenic sources. The natural component of PM10 has a characteristic magnetic signature that is indistinguishable from that of eolian dust. The anthropogenic PM10 fraction is mostly originated from circulating vehicles and is a mixture of prevailing fine superparamagnetic particles and subordinate large multidomain grains; the former are more directly related to exhaust, whereas the latter may be associated to abrasion of metallic parts.

  2. The use of total susceptibility in the analysis of long term PM10 (PM2.5) collected at Hungarian air quality monitoring stations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Márton, Emö; Domján, Ádám; Lautner, Péter; Szentmarjay, Tibor; Uram, János

    2013-04-01

    Air monitoring stations in Hungary are operated by Environmental, Nature Conservancy and Water Pollution Inspectorates, according to the CEN/TC 264 European Union standards. PM10 samples are collected on a 24-hour basis, for two weeks in February, in May, in August and in November. About 720m3 air is pumped through quartz filters daily. Mass measurements and toxic metal analysis (As, Pb, Cd, Ni) are made on each filter (Whatmann DHA-80 PAH, 150 mm diameter) by the inspectorates. We have carried out low field magnetic susceptibility measurements using a KLY-2 instrument on all PM10 samples collected at 9 stations from 2009 on (a total of more than 2000 filters). One station, located far from direct sources, monitors background pollution. Here PM2.5 was also collected in two-week runs, seven times during the period of 2009-2012 and made available for the non-destructive magnetic susceptibility measurements. Due to the rather weak magnetic signal, the susceptibility of each PM-10 sample was computed from 10, that of each PM2.5 sample from 20 measurements. Corrections were made for the susceptibility of the sample holder, for the unpolluted filter (provided with each of the two-week runs), and for the plastic bag containing the samples. The susceptibilities of the PM10 samples were analyzed from different aspects, like the degree of magnetic pollution at different stations, daily and seasonal variations of the total and mass susceptibilities compared to the mass of the pollutants and in relation to the concentrations of the toxic elements. As expected, the lowest total and mass susceptibilities characterize the background station (pollution arrives mostly from distant sources, Vienna, Bratislava or even the Sudeten), while the highest values were measured for an industrial town with heavy traffic. At the background station the mass of the PM10 and PM2.5, respectively for the same period are quite similar, while the magnetic susceptibilities are usually higher in the

  3. Asteroids as Propulsion Systems of Space Ships

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bolonkin, Alexander

    2003-01-01

    Currently, rockets are used to change the trajectory of space ships and probes. This method is very expensive and requires a lot of fuel, which limits the feasibility of space stations, interplanetary space ships, and probes. Sometimes space probes use the gravity field of a planet However, there am only nine planets in the Solar System, all separated by great distances. There are tons of millions of asteroids in outer space. This paper offers a revolutionary method for changing the trajectory of space probes. The method uses the kinetic or rotary energy of asteroids, comet nuclei, meteorites or other space bodies (small planets, natural planetary satellites, space debris, etc.) to increase (to decrease) ship (probe) speed up to 1000 m/sec (or more) and to achieve any new direction in outer space. The flight possibilities of space ships and probes are increased by a factor of millions.

  4. Asteroids as Propulsion Systems of Space Ships

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bolonkin, A.

    Currently, rockets are used to change the trajectory of space ships and probes. This method is very expensive and requires a lot of fuel, which limits the feasibility of space stations, interplanetary space ships, and probes. Sometimes space probes use the gravity field of a planet. However, there are only nine planets in the Solar System, all separated by great distances. There are tens of millions of asteroids in outer space. This paper offers a revolutionary method for changing the trajectory of space probes. The method uses the kinetic or rotary energy of asteroids, comet nuclei, meteorites or other space bodies (small planets, natural planetary satellites, space debris, etc.) to increase (to decrease) ship (probe) speed up to 1000 m/sec (or more) and to achieve any new direction in outer space. The flight possibilities of space ships and probes are increased by a factor of millions.

  5. Elemental composition and radical formation potency of PM10 at an urban background station in Germany in relation to origin of air masses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hellack, Bryan; Quass, Ulrich; Beuck, Henning; Wick, Gabriele; Kuttler, Wilhelm; Schins, Roel P. F.; Kuhlbusch, Thomas A. J.

    2015-03-01

    At an urban background station in Mülheim-Styrum, North Rhine Westphalia, Germany, a set of 75 PM10 samples was collected over a one year period, followed by analyses for mass, chemical composition and hydroxyl radical (OHrad) formation potency. Additionally, the origin of air masses for the sampling days was calculated by 48-h backward trajectories, subdivided into the four cardinal sectors. Significant lower PM10 mass concentrations were observed for summertime air masses from the west compared to the other seasons and cardinal sectors. For the OHrad formation potency higher values were detected if air masses originate from east and south, thus predominantly being of continental origin. From the elevated OHrad formation potencies in fall and winter a seasonal trend with low potencies in summers is assumed. Furthermore, source apportionment was performed by a positive matrix factor analysis, separating seven plausible factors which could be attributed to mineral dust, secondary nitrate, industry, non-exhaust traffic, fossil fuel combustion, marine aerosol and secondary aerosol factors. The intrinsic OHrad formation potency was found to be associated mainly with the fossil fuel combustion factor (45%) and industry factor (22%).

  6. Ship-Track Clouds, Aerosol, and Ship Dynamic Effects; A Climate Perspective from Ship-Based Measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Porch, W.M.

    1998-10-13

    Ship-track clouds are marine boundary layer clouds that form behind ocean ships and are observed from satellites in the visible and near infrared. Ship-track clouds provide a rare opportunity to connect aerosol cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) emissions and observable changes in marine stratiform clouds. A very small change in the reflectivity of these eastern Pacific and Atlantic clouds (about 4%) provides a climate feedback of similar magnitude to doubling CO{sub 2} (increasing cloud reflectivity corresponds to global cooling). The Department of Energy sponsored research from 1991 to 1995 to study ship-track clouds including two ocean-based experiments in the summers of 1991 and 1994. These experiments showed that ship-track cloud properties were often more complex those related to a reduction of droplet size with an increase in number associated with increasing CCN from the ship's plume. The clouds showed evidence of morphological changes more likely to be associated with cloud dynamic effects either initiated by the increased CCN or directly by the ship's heat output or turbulent air wake. The fact that marine stratiform clouds, that are susceptible to ship track formation, are starved for both CCN and convective turbulence complicates the separation of the two effects.

  7. Superconducting Electric Machines for Ship Propulsion.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1977-02-14

    ship propulsion applications. These concepts evolved from previous work at MIT on superconducting AC machines. The superconducting machines considered were: (1) multipole, low-speed motors, (2) torque compensated motors, (3) high-speed generator, (4) rotating air-gap armature induction motor, (5) thyristor switched AC motors. The first four machine types were studied theoretically while experimental models were constructed of the last two. Preliminary designs were completed...of the five mahcines for an appropriate ship ... propulsion application. In

  8. 77 FR 39489 - Notice of Public Meetings for the Naval Air Station Key West Airfield Operations Draft...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-03

    ... Community College, 5901 College Road, Key West (Stock Island), Florida. Federal, state, and local agencies... Engineering Command Southeast, NAS Key West Air Operations EIS Project Manager, P.O. Box 30, Building 903, NAS... Manager, P.O. Box 30, Building 903, NAS Jacksonville, FL 32212. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: A Notice...

  9. Finding of No Significant Impact: Integrated Natural Resources Management Plan at New Boston Air Force Station, New Hampshire

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-06-07

    of INRMP implementation on air quality, noise, topography, geology, soils, water resources, ecological resources, cultural resources, land use...short-term adverse impacts to ecological resources (vegetation destruction wildlife disturbance), but overall net long-term benefit, resulting from...handling, and radiotelemetry of animals.  Overall benefit to ecological resources resulting from data gathering and development of management plans

  10. 46 CFR 78.47-20 - Fire hose stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fire hose stations. 78.47-20 Section 78.47-20 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PASSENGER VESSELS OPERATIONS Markings for Fire and Emergency Equipment, Etc. § 78.47-20 Fire hose stations. (a) Each fire hydrant shall be...

  11. 46 CFR 111.103-7 - Ventilation stop stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Ventilation stop stations. 111.103-7 Section 111.103-7 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Remote Stopping Systems § 111.103-7 Ventilation stop stations. Each ventilation...

  12. 46 CFR 196.37-15 - Firehose stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Firehose stations. 196.37-15 Section 196.37-15 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OCEANOGRAPHIC RESEARCH VESSELS OPERATIONS Markings for Fire and Emergency Equipment, etc. § 196.37-15 Firehose stations. (a) Each fire hydrant...

  13. 47 CFR 80.1087 - Ship radio equipment-Sea area A1.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Ship radio equipment-Sea area A1. 80.1087 Section 80.1087 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO... Requirements for Ship Stations § 80.1087 Ship radio equipment—Sea area A1. This section contains the...

  14. 47 CFR 80.1087 - Ship radio equipment-Sea area A1.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Ship radio equipment-Sea area A1. 80.1087 Section 80.1087 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO... Requirements for Ship Stations § 80.1087 Ship radio equipment—Sea area A1. This section contains the...

  15. 47 CFR 80.1087 - Ship radio equipment-Sea area A1.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Ship radio equipment-Sea area A1. 80.1087 Section 80.1087 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO... Requirements for Ship Stations § 80.1087 Ship radio equipment—Sea area A1. This section contains the...

  16. 47 CFR 80.1087 - Ship radio equipment-Sea area A1.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Ship radio equipment-Sea area A1. 80.1087 Section 80.1087 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO... Requirements for Ship Stations § 80.1087 Ship radio equipment—Sea area A1. This section contains the...

  17. 47 CFR 80.1087 - Ship radio equipment-Sea area A1.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Ship radio equipment-Sea area A1. 80.1087 Section 80.1087 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO... Requirements for Ship Stations § 80.1087 Ship radio equipment—Sea area A1. This section contains the...

  18. The 2006 Cape Canaveral Air Force Station Range Reference Atmosphere Model Validation Study and Sensitivity Analysis to the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Space Shuttle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burns, Lee; Merry, Carl; Decker, Ryan; Harrington, Brian

    2008-01-01

    The 2006 Cape Canaveral Air Force Station (CCAFS) Range Reference Atmosphere (RRA) is a statistical model summarizing the wind and thermodynamic atmospheric variability from surface to 70 kin. Launches of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) Space Shuttle from Kennedy Space Center utilize CCAFS RRA data to evaluate environmental constraints on various aspects of the vehicle during ascent. An update to the CCAFS RRA was recently completed. As part of the update, a validation study on the 2006 version was conducted as well as a comparison analysis of the 2006 version to the existing CCAFS RRA database version 1983. Assessments to the Space Shuttle vehicle ascent profile characteristics were performed to determine impacts of the updated model to the vehicle performance. Details on the model updates and the vehicle sensitivity analyses with the update model are presented.

  19. Evaluation of pore-water samplers at a drainage ditch, Installation Restoration Site 4, Naval Air Station Corpus Christi, Corpus Christi, Texas, 2005–06

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vroblesky, Don A.; Casey, Clifton C.

    2007-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Naval Facilities Engineering Command Southeast, used innovative sampling methods to investigate ground-water contamination by chlorobenzenes beneath a drainage ditch on the southwestern side of Installation Restoration Site 4, Naval Air Station Corpus Christi, Corpus Christi, Texas, during 2005-06. The drainage ditch, which is a potential receptor for ground-water contaminants from Installation Restoration Site 4, intermittently discharges water to Corpus Christi Bay. This report evaluates a new type of pore-water sampler developed for this investigation to examine the subsurface contamination beneath the drainage ditch. The new type of pore-water sampler appears to be an effective approach for long-term monitoring of ground water in the sand and organic-rich mud beneath the drainage ditch.

  20. The 2006 Cape Canaveral Air Force Station Range Reference Atmosphere Model Validation Study and Sensitivity Analysis to the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Space Shuttle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Decker, Ryan K.; Burns, Lee; Merry, Carl; Harrington, Brian

    2008-01-01

    Atmospheric parameters are essential in assessing the flight performance of aerospace vehicles. The effects of the Earth's atmosphere on aerospace vehicles influence various aspects of the vehicle during ascent ranging from its flight trajectory to the structural dynamics and aerodynamic heatmg on the vehicle. Atmospheric databases charactenzing the wind and thermodynamic environments, known as Range Reference Atmospheres (RRA), have been developed at space launch ranges by a governmental interagency working group for use by aerospace vehicle programs. The National Aeronantics and Space Administration's (NASA) Space Shuttle Program (SSP), which launches from Kennedy Space Center, utilizes atmosphenc statistics derived from the Cape Canaveral Air Force Station Range Reference Atmosphere (CCAFS RRA) database to evaluate environmental constraints on various aspects of the vehlcle during ascent.