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Sample records for air stripping process

  1. Air Stripping Designs and Reactive Water Purification Processes for the Lunar Surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boul, Peter J.; Lange, Kevin; Conger, Bruce; Anderson, Molly

    2010-01-01

    Air stripping designs are considered to reduce the presence of volatile organic compounds in the purified water. Components of the wastewater streams are ranked by Henry's Law Constant and the suitability of air stripping in the purification of wastewater in terms of component removal is evaluated. Distillation processes are modeled in tandem with air stripping to demonstrate the potential effectiveness and utility of these methods in recycling wastewater on the Moon. Scaling factors for distillation and air stripping columns are presented to account for the difference in the lunar gravitation environment. Commercially available distillation and air stripping units which are considered suitable for Exploration Life Support are presented. The advantages to the various designs are summarized with respect to water purity levels, power consumption, and processing rates. An evaluation of reactive distillation and air stripping is presented with regards to the reduction of volatile organic compounds in the contaminated water and air. Among the methods presented, an architecture is presented for the evaluation of the simultaneous oxidation of organics in air and water. These and other designs are presented in light of potential improvements in power consumptions and air and water purities for architectures which include catalytic activity integrated into the water processor. In particular, catalytic oxidation of organics may be useful as a tool to remove contaminants that more traditional distillation and/or air stripping columns may not remove. A review of the current leading edge at the commercial level and at the research frontier in catalytically active materials is presented. Themes and directions from the engineering developments in catalyst design are presented conceptually in light of developments in the nanoscale chemistry of a variety of catalyst materials.

  2. Development Of Chemical Reduction And Air Stripping Processes To Remove Mercury From Wastewater

    SciTech Connect

    Jackson, Dennis G.; Looney, Brian B.; Craig, Robert R.; Thompson, Martha C.; Kmetz, Thomas F.

    2013-07-10

    This study evaluates the removal of mercury from wastewater using chemical reduction and air stripping using a full-scale treatment system at the Savannah River Site. The existing water treatment system utilizes air stripping as the unit operation to remove organic compounds from groundwater that also contains mercury (C ~ 250 ng/L). The baseline air stripping process was ineffective in removing mercury and the water exceeded a proposed limit of 51 ng/L. To test an enhancement to the existing treatment modality a continuous dose of reducing agent was injected for 6-hours at the inlet of the air stripper. This action resulted in the chemical reduction of mercury to Hg(0), a species that is removable with the existing unit operation. During the injection period a 94% decrease in concentration was observed and the effluent satisfied proposed limits. The process was optimized over a 2-day period by sequentially evaluating dose rates ranging from 0.64X to 297X stoichiometry. A minimum dose of 16X stoichiometry was necessary to initiate the reduction reaction that facilitated the mercury removal. Competing electron acceptors likely inhibited the reaction at the lower 1 doses, which prevented removal by air stripping. These results indicate that chemical reduction coupled with air stripping can effectively treat large-volumes of water to emerging part per trillion regulatory standards for mercury.

  3. Membrane air stripping: A process for removal of organics from aqueous solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Mahmud, H.; Kumar, A.; Narbaitz, R.M.; Matsuura, T.

    1998-10-01

    The membrane air-stripping (MAS) process using microporous polypropylene hollow fiber membranes has shown potential for the removal of volatile organics from aqueous streams over conventional treatment processes, particularly in reducing the size of the equipment. This paper reviews the theoretical aspects and experimental investigations on the performance of these membranes in terms of overall mass transfer capabilities in the removal of organics from aqueous solutions. The reported findings of the effect of pH, ozone, chlorine, influence of packing density and possible fouling on the performance of these hollow fibers membranes are presented. The fate of the stripped air is discussed. Other possible applications as well as the future research needs are highlighted, along with critical assessment of the reported work.

  4. Optimization of the integrated citric acid-methane fermentation process by air stripping and glucoamylase addition.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jian; Chen, Yang-Qiu; Zhang, Hong-Jian; Wang, Ke; Tang, Lei; Zhang, Jian-Hua; Chen, Xu-Sheng; Mao, Zhong-Gui

    2015-03-01

    To solve the problem of extraction wastewater in citric acid industry, an integrated citric acid-methane fermentation process was proposed. In the integrated process, extraction wastewater was treated by mesophilic anaerobic digestion and then reused to make mash for the next batch of citric acid fermentation. In this study, an Aspergillus niger mutant strain exhibiting resistance to high metal ions concentration was used to eliminate the inhibition of 200 mg/L Na(+) and 300 mg/L K(+) in anaerobic digestion effluent (ADE) and citric acid production increased by 25.0 %. Air stripping was used to remove ammonium, alkalinity, and part of metal ions in ADE before making mash. In consequence, citric acid production was significantly improved but still lower by 6.1 % than the control. Results indicated that metal ions in ADE synergistically inhibited the activity of glucoamylase, thus reducing citric acid production. When 130 U/g glucoamylase was added before fermentation, citric acid production was 141.5 g/L, which was even higher than the control (140.4 g/L). This process could completely eliminate extraction wastewater discharge and reduce water resource consumption.

  5. Reactive Distillation and Air Stripping Processes for Water Recycling and Trace Contaminant Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boul, Peter J.; Lange, Kevin E.; Conger, Bruce; Anderson, Molly

    2009-01-01

    Reactive distillation designs are considered to reduce the presence of volatile organic compounds in the purified water. Reactive distillation integrates a reactor with a distillation column. A review of the literature in this field has revealed a variety of functional reactive columns in industry. Wastewater may be purified by a combination of a reactor and a distiller (e.g., the EWRS or VPCAR concepts) or, in principle, through a design which integrates the reactor with the distiller. A review of the literature in reactive distillation has identified some different designs in such combinations of reactor and distiller. An evaluation of reactive distillation and reactive air stripping is presented with regards to the reduction of volatile organic compounds in the contaminated water and air. Among the methods presented, an architecture is presented for the evaluation of the simultaneous oxidation of organics in air and water. These and other designs are presented in light of potential improvements in power consumptions and air and water purities for architectures which include catalytic activity integrated into the water processor. In particular, catalytic oxidation of organics may be useful as a tool to remove contaminants that more traditional distillation and/or air stripping columns may not remove. A review of the current leading edge at the commercial level and at the research frontier in catalytically active materials is presented. Themes and directions from the engineering developments in catalyst design are presented conceptually in light of developments in the nanoscale chemistry of a variety of catalyst materials.

  6. Evaluation of pH, alkalinity and temperature during air stripping process for ammonia removal from landfill leachate.

    PubMed

    Campos, Juacyara Carbonelli; Moura, Denise; Costa, Ana Paula; Yokoyama, Lidia; Araujo, Fabiana Valeria da Fonseca; Cammarota, Magali Christe; Cardillo, Luigi

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this research was to evaluate the air stripping technology for the removal of ammonia from landfill leachates. In this process, pH, temperature, airflow rate and operation time were investigated. Furthermore, the relationship between the leachate alkalinity and the ammonia removal efficiency during the process was studied. The leachate used in the tests was generated in the Gramacho Municipal Solid Waste Landfill (Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil). The best results were obtained with a temperature of 60(o)C, and they were independent of the pH value for 7 h of operation (the ammonia nitrogen removal was greater than 95%). A strong influence of the leachate alkalinity on the ammonia nitrogen removal was observed; as the alkalinity decreased, the ammonia concentration also decreased because of prior CO2 removal, which increased the pH and consequently favored the NH3 stripping. The air flow rate, in the values evaluated (73, 96 and 120 L air.h(-1).L(-1) of leachate), did not influence the results.

  7. Characterization of dissolved organic matter in landfill leachate during the combined treatment process of air stripping, Fenton, SBR and coagulation

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, ZhiPing; Wu, WenHui; Shi, Ping; Guo, JinSong; Cheng, Jin

    2015-07-15

    Highlights: • DOM fractions spectra analysis during the whole treatment process. • Efficient method was achieved to remove organic matters in landfill leachate. • Molecular weight distribution and fractions were discussed. - Abstract: A combined treatment process of air stripping + Fenton + sequencing batch reactor (SBR)+ coagulation was performed to remove the pollutants in landfill leachate. Molecular weight (MW) distribution and fractions of dissolved organic matter (DOM) were discussed to study the characteristics. The experiment showed that the removal rate of chemical oxygen demand (COD), five day biological oxygen demand (BOD{sub 5}) and ammonia nitrogen (NH{sub 3}−N) by the combined process were 92.8%, 87.8% and 98.0%, respectively. Humic acid (HA) and fulvic acid (FA) were the main fractions in raw leachate with 81.8% of the total COD concentration, while hydrophilic organic matter (HyI) was the dominant fraction in the final effluent of the combined process with 63.5% of the total COD concentration. After the combined treatment process, the removal rate of DOM and fractions HA, FA, HyI were 91.9%, 97.1%, 95.8% and 71.7%, respectively. Organic matters of MW < 2 k and MW > 100 k were removed with 90.5% and 97.9% COD concentration after the treatment. The ultraviolet–visible spectra (UV–vis), Fourier transform infrared spectra (FTIR) and three-dimensional excitation-emission matrices spectra (EEMs) indicated that benzene materials and phenol compounds were preferentially removed in air stripping. High MW matters, aromatic rings, conjugated moieties and some functional groups were mainly removed by Fenton. While small MW fractions, carboxylic acids, alcohols and protein-like materials were preferentially biodegraded via SBR. Fulvic-like and humic-like materials were mainly destroyed via Fenton oxidation and coagulation.

  8. ENGINEERING BULLETIN: AIR STRIPPING OF AQUEOUS SOLUTIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Air striding is a means to transfer contaminants from aqueous solutions to air. ontaminants are not destroyed by air stripping but are physically separated from the aqueous solutions. ontaminant vapors are transferred into the air stream and, if necessary, can be treated by incin...

  9. Feasibility and energetic evaluation of air stripping for bioethanol production.

    PubMed

    Schläfle, Sandra; Senn, Thomas; Gschwind, Peter; Kohlus, Reinhard

    2017-05-01

    Stripping of mashes with air as stripping gas and low ethanol contents between 3 and 5wt% was investigated in terms of its suitability for continuous bioethanol production. Experiments in a Blenke cascade system were carried out and the results were compared with values obtained from theoretical vapour-liquid-equilibrium calculations. The whole stripping process was energetically evaluated by a simulation in ChemCAD and compared to conventional distillation. Therefore several parameters such as temperature, air volume flow and initial ethanol load of the mash were varied. Air stripping was found to be a suitable separation method for bioethanol from mashes with low concentrations. However, energetic aspects have to be considered, when developing a new process.

  10. Distillation and Air Stripping Designs for the Lunar Surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boul, Peter J.; Lange, Kevin E.; Conger, Bruce; Anderson, Molly

    2009-01-01

    Air stripping and distillation are two different gravity-based methods, which may be applied to the purification of wastewater on the lunar base. These gravity-based solutions to water processing are robust physical separation techniques, which may be advantageous to many other techniques for their simplicity in design and operation. The two techniques can be used in conjunction with each other to obtain high purity water. The components and feed compositions for modeling waste water streams are presented in conjunction with the Aspen property system for traditional stage distillation models and air stripping models. While the individual components for each of the waste streams will vary naturally within certain bounds, an analog model for waste water processing is suggested based on typical concentration ranges for these components. Target purity levels for the for recycled water are determined for each individual component based on NASA s required maximum contaminant levels for potable water Distillation processes are modeled separately and in tandem with air stripping to demonstrate the potential effectiveness and utility of these methods in recycling wastewater on the Moon. Optimum parameters such as reflux ratio, feed stage location, and processing rates are determined with respect to the power consumption of the process. Multistage distillation is evaluated for components in wastewater to determine the minimum number of stages necessary for each of 65 components in humidity condensate and urine wastewater mixed streams. Components of the wastewater streams are ranked by Henry s Law Constant and the suitability of air stripping in the purification of wastewater in terms of component removal is evaluated. Scaling factors for distillation and air stripping columns are presented to account for the difference in the lunar gravitation environment. Commercially available distillation and air stripping units which are considered suitable for Exploration Life Support

  11. Water treatment: Air stripping. (Latest citations from the Selected Water Resources Abstracts database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-07-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the use of air stripping techniques for wastewater, groundwater, and soil decontamination. The advantages and disadvantages of air stripping over other water treatment processes are discussed. The cleanup of organic emissions generated by air stripping is also considered. Other water treatment processes are discussed in separate bibliographies. (Contains a minimum of 212 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  12. Water treatment: Air stripping. (Latest citations from the Selected Water Resources Abstracts database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-11-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the use of air stripping techniques for wastewater, groundwater, and soil decontamination. The advantages and disadvantages of air stripping over other water treatment processes are discussed. The cleanup of organic emissions generated by air stripping is also considered. Other water treatment processes are discussed in separate bibliographies. (Contains a minimum of 225 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  13. Air stripping. January 1980-February 1992 (Citations from the NTIS Data Base). Rept. for Jan 80-Feb 92

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-02-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the application of air stripping techniques to water treatment, including groundwater decontamination and wastewater purification. The advantages and disadvantages of air stripping over other water treatment processes are discussed. Cleanup of the organic emissions generated by air stripping is also considered. The primary applications of air stripping are in groundwater and soil cleanup. (Contains 58 citations with title list and subject index.)

  14. Process development of thin strip steel casting

    SciTech Connect

    Sussman, R.C.; Williams, R.S.

    1990-12-01

    An important new frontier is being opened in steel processing with the emergence of thin strip casting. Casting steel directly to thin strip has enormous benefits in energy savings by potentially eliminating the need for hot reduction in a hot strip mill. This has been the driving force for numerous current research efforts into the direct strip casting of steel. The US Department of Energy initiated a program to evaluate the development of thin strip casting in the steel industry. In earlier phases of this program, planar flow casting on an experimental caster was studied by a team of engineers from Westinghouse Electric corporation and Armco Inc. A subsequent research program was designed as a fundamental and developmental study of both planar and melt overflow casting processes. This study was arranged as several separate and distinct tasks which were often completed by different teams of researchers. An early task was to design and build a water model to study fluid flow through different designs of planar flow casting nozzles. Another important task was mathematically modeling of melt overflow casting process. A mathematical solidification model for the formation of the strip in the melt overflow process was written. A study of the material and conditioning of casting substrates was made on the small wheel caster using the melt overflow casting process. This report discusses work on the development of thin steel casting.

  15. The odour of digested sewage sludge--determination and its abatement by air stripping.

    PubMed

    Winter, P; Jones, N; Asaadi, M; Bowman, L

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes a project to investigate the odour of sewage sludge after anaerobic digestion. The impact of air stripping on the odour of liquid sludge and on the quality of the dewatered product was evaluated at a full-scale sludge treatment installation. A continuous and a batch air-stripping mode were tested. Odour samples were collected during air stripping from the liquid sludge and from the biosolids surface during long term storage. The biosolids were also analysed for hedonic tone and for their potential odour expressed as an odour unit per unit mass. The odour emission profiles for continuous and batch air stripping demonstrated a reduction in the overall (time weighted) emissions during a 24 hr-period compared with emissions from the quiescent liquid storage tank. The averaged specific odour emission rate (Esp) of the biosolids derived from the continuous process was only 13% of the Esp of the biosolids derived from unaerated liquid sludge during the first month of storage. The results of the total potential odour and the hedonic tone of the biosolids underpin the beneficial effects of the air stripping. Odour dispersion modelling showed a noticeable reduction in overall odour impact from the sludge centre when air stripping was applied. The reduction was primarily associated with the reduced odour from stockpiled biosolids. The continuous air-stripping mode appeared to provide the greatest benefits in terms of odour impact from site operations.

  16. Cascade air-stripping system for removal of low and semi-volatile organic contaminants

    SciTech Connect

    Jang, Won.

    1989-01-01

    Many hazardous waste sites have been known to have groundwaters contaminated with low volatile, hazardous compounds such as bromoform 1,1,2,2-tetrachloroethane, 1,2-dibromo-3-chloropropane (DBCP), napthalene, and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). In addition, a large number of public water supplies have been reported to have taste and odor problems in drinking water, which are attributed primarily to naturally occurring compounds, such as 2-methylisoborneol (MIB), geosmin, etc. These classes of compounds have very low Henry's Constant, H{sub c}, in the range of 1 to 50 atm. Air-stripping in countercurrent packed towers is a well accepted treatment process for removing volatile organic chemicals (VOCs) from water. The USEPA has identified packed countercurrent air-stripping as not only the least-cost, but also one of the best available technologies for the removal of VOCs. However, the economic viability of this process is limited to volatile compounds of H{sub c} value greater than SO atm. A novel modification of the conventional countercurrent air-stripping process, introduced as cascade air-stripping was proposed for cost effective removal of these classes of compounds from water and at hazardous waste spill-sites. The main objectives of this study were to demonstrate the concept of cascade air-stripping; to compare cascade air-stripping with conventional air-stripping under identical conditions; and to verify the hypothesis that the cascade system is superior to the conventional system at the pilot and prototype scales. Results of the pilot and prototype study showed that the cascade airstrip ping system was a viable and economical approach to remove low and semi-volatile organic compounds from water. The cascade system consistently showed higher removals than the conventional system for both pilot and prototype scale study.

  17. In-Well Air Stripping/Bioventing Study at Tyndall Air Force Base, Florida

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-08-30

    to determine the feasibility of incorporating in-well air stripping systems into the design of bioventing systems to effectively extend bioventing to...Force. This final report describes the Coupled In-Well Air Stripping/Bioventing Study conducted at Tyndall Air Force Base, Florida; the designs of the...the design of bioventing systems to effectively extend bioventing and simultaneously remediate hydrocarbon contamination in both the vadose and

  18. Water treatment: Air stripping. December 1981-July 1989 (Citations from the Selected Water Resources Abstracts data base). Report for December 1981-July 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-10-01

    This bibliography contains citations concerning the application of air stripping techniques to water treatment, including ground-water decontamination and waste-water purification. The advantages and disadvantages of air stripping over other water-treatment processes are discussed. Cleanup of the organic emissions generated by air stripping is also considered. The primary applications of air stripping are in ground-water and soil cleanup. Other water treatment processes are discussed in separate bibliographies. (Contains 74 citations fully indexed and including a title list.)

  19. Air-rotor stripping and enamel demineralization in vitro.

    PubMed

    Twesme, D A; Firestone, A R; Heaven, T J; Feagin, F F; Jacobson, A

    1994-02-01

    This investigation sought to evaluate the effects of air-rotor stripping on the susceptibility of human enamel to demineralization using an in vitro caries model. Crowns of extracted premolar teeth were abraded (0.5 mm) on one proximal surface by air-rotor stripping. The teeth were placed in a demineralizing gel and removed at various intervals up to 336 hours. Lesion depth and mineral content on the abraded and intact surfaces was measured with contact microradiography and computerized image analysis (double window technique). For each time interval measured, lesion depth was greater (p < 0.05) on the abraded surfaces and mineral density was significantly less (p < 0.05). In a second experiment, the effect of fluoride supplements (dentifrice or topical gel) were examined on abraded and intact enamel surfaces that were exposed to the acid gel for 192 hours. The data showed that fluoride treatments significantly reduced lesion penetration on intact and abraded surfaces compared with a no fluoride group. Lesion depth on the abraded, fluoride treated surfaces was significantly greater (p < 0.05) than on the intact untreated surfaces. No significant differences (p < 0.05) were apparent between the fluoride treatment groups with respect to lesion depth and mineral density within the lesion. These results suggest that air-rotor stripping significantly increases the susceptibility of proximal enamel surfaces to demineralization. As a result, the clinician should use caution in the application of this technique until the long-term effects on caries susceptibility have been determined.

  20. Reductive stripping process for uranium recovery from organic extracts

    DOEpatents

    Hurst, Jr., Fred J.

    1985-01-01

    In the reductive stripping of uranium from an organic extractant in a uranium recovery process, the use of phosphoric acid having a molarity in the range of 8 to 10 increases the efficiency of the reductive stripping and allows the strip step to operate with lower aqueous to organic recycle ratios and shorter retention time in the mixer stages. Under these operating conditions, less solvent is required in the process, and smaller, less expensive process equipment can be utilized. The high strength H.sub.3 PO.sub.4 is available from the evaporator stage of the process.

  1. Reductive stripping process for uranium recovery from organic extracts

    DOEpatents

    Hurst, F.J. Jr.

    1983-06-16

    In the reductive stripping of uranium from an organic extractant in a uranium recovery process, the use of phosphoric acid having a molarity in the range of 8 to 10 increases the efficiency of the reductive stripping and allows the strip step to operate with lower aqueous to organic recycle ratios and shorter retention time in the mixer stages. Under these operating conditions, less solvent is required in the process, and smaller, less expensive process equipment can be utilized. The high strength H/sub 3/PO/sub 4/ is available from the evaporator stage of the process.

  2. Evaporation and air-stripping to assess and reduce ethanolamines toxicity in oily wastewater.

    PubMed

    Libralato, G; Ghirardini, A Volpi; Avezzù, F

    2008-05-30

    Toxicity from industrial oily wastewater remains a problem even after conventional activated sludge treatment process, because of the persistence of some toxicant compounds. This work verified the removal efficiency of organic and inorganic pollutants and the effects of evaporation and air-stripping techniques on oily wastewater toxicity reduction. In a lab-scale plant, a vacuum evaporation procedure at three different temperatures and an air-stripping stage were tested on oily wastewater. Toxicity reduction/removal was observed at each treatment step via Microtox bioassay. A case study monitoring real scale evaporation was also done in a full-size wastewater treatment plant (WWTP). To implement part of a general project of toxicity reduction evaluation, additional investigations took into account the monoethanolamine (MEA), diethanolamine (DEA) and triethanolamine (TEA) role in toxicity definition after the evaporation phase, both as pure substances and mixtures. Only MEA and TEA appeared to contribute towards effluent toxicity.

  3. Efficient ozone, sulfate, and ammonium free resist stripping process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dattilo, Davide; Dietze, Uwe

    2014-07-01

    In recent years, photomask resist strip and cleaning technology development was substantially driven by the industry's need to prevent surface haze formation through the elimination of sulfuric acid and ammonium hydroxide from these processes. As a result, conventional SPM (H2SO4 + H2O2) was replaced with Ozone water (DIO3) for resist stripping and organic removal to eliminate chemical haze formation [1, 2]. However, it has been shown that DIO3 basted strip and clean process causes oxidative degradation of photomask materials [3, 4]. Such material damage can affect optical properties of funcitional mask layers, causeing CD line-width, phase, transmission and reflection changes, adversely affecting image transfer during the Lithography process. To overcome Ozone induced surface damage, SUSS MicroTec successfully developed a highly efficient strip process, where photolysis of DIO3 is leading to highly reactive hydroxyl radical formation, as the main contribution to hydrocarbon removal without surface damage [5]. This technology has been further extended to a final clean process, which is utilizing pure DI water for residual organic material removal during final clean [6]. Recently, SUS MicroTec did also successfully release strip and clean processes which completely remove NH4OH, eliminating any chemicals known today to induce haze [7]. In this paper we show the benefits of these new technologies for highly efficient sulfate and ammonium free stripping and cleaning processes.

  4. Development of a thin steel strip casting process. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, R.S.

    1994-04-01

    This is a comprehensive effort to develop direct strip casting to the point where a pilot scale program for casting carbon steel strip could be initiated. All important aspects of the technology were being investigated, however the program was terminated early due to a change in the business strategy of the primary contractor, Armco Inc. (focus to be directed at specialty steels, not low carbon steel). At termination, the project was on target on all milestones and under budget. Major part was casting of strip at the experiment casting facility. A new caster, capable of producing direct cast strip of up to 12 in. wide in heats of 1000 and 3000 lb, was used. A total of 81 1000-1200 lb heats were cast as well as one test heat of 3000 lb. Most produced strip of from 0.016 to 0.085 in. thick. Process reliability was excellent for short casting times; quality was generally poor from modern hot strip mill standards, but the practices necessary for good surface quality were identified.

  5. Graphic Arts: Process Camera, Stripping, and Platemaking. Third Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crummett, Dan

    This document contains teacher and student materials for a course in graphic arts concentrating on camera work, stripping, and plate making in the printing process. Eight units of instruction cover the following topics: (1) the process camera and darkroom equipment; (2) line photography; (3) halftone photography; (4) other darkroom techniques; (5)…

  6. Graphic Arts: Book Two. Process Camera, Stripping, and Platemaking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farajollahi, Karim; And Others

    The second of a three-volume set of instructional materials for a course in graphic arts, this manual consists of 10 instructional units dealing with the process camera, stripping, and platemaking. Covered in the individual units are the process camera and darkroom photography, line photography, half-tone photography, other darkroom techniques,…

  7. Reductive stripping process for the recovery of uranium from wet-process phosphoric acid

    DOEpatents

    Hurst, Fred J.; Crouse, David J.

    1984-01-01

    A reductive stripping flow sheet for recovery of uranium from wet-process phosphoric acid is described. Uranium is stripped from a uranium-loaded organic phase by a redox reaction converting the uranyl to uranous ion. The uranous ion is reoxidized to the uranyl oxidation state to form an aqueous feed solution highly concentrated in uranium. Processing of this feed through a second solvent extraction cycle requires far less stripping reagent as compared to a flow sheet which does not include the reductive stripping reaction.

  8. Confinement and Tritium Stripping Systems for APT Tritium Processing

    SciTech Connect

    Hsu, R.H.; Heung, L.K.

    1997-10-20

    This report identifies functions and requirements for the tritium process confinement and clean-up system (PCCS) and provides supporting technical information for the selection and design of tritium confinement, clean-up (stripping) and recovery technologies for new tritium processing facilities in the Accelerator for the Production of Tritium (APT). The results of a survey of tritium confinement and clean-up systems for large-scale tritium handling facilities and recommendations for the APT are also presented.

  9. Strip mode processing of spotlight aperture radar data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    di Cenzo, Alan

    1988-05-01

    The author shows how to process deramped (e.g., typical spotlight mode) synthetic-aperture-radar (SAR) data using mode processors, with no restrictions on antenna pointing. The basis of the approach is that although the deramped data does not contain a spatially invariant two-dimensional response to a point target, the range-compressed deramped data does. Range compression of the deramped data is performed simply by Fourier transforming each range line. The method greatly increases the flexibility of current strip mode processors by extending their domain to a previously unsuitable class of data.

  10. Large Aircraft Robotic Paint Stripping (LARPS) system and the high pressure water process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    See, David W.; Hofacker, Scott A.; Stone, M. Anthony; Harbaugh, Darcy

    1993-03-01

    The aircraft maintenance industry is beset by new Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) guidelines on air emissions, Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) standards, dwindling labor markets, Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) safety guidelines, and increased operating costs. In light of these factors, the USAF's Wright Laboratory Manufacturing Technology Directorate and the Aircraft Division of the Oklahoma City Air Logistics Center initiated a MANTECH/REPTECH effort to automate an alternate paint removal method and eliminate the current manual methylene chloride chemical stripping methods. This paper presents some of the background and history of the LARPS program, describes the LARPS system, documents the projected operational flow, quantifies some of the projected system benefits and describes the High Pressure Water Stripping Process. Certification of an alternative paint removal method to replace the current chemical process is being performed in two phases: Process Optimization and Process Validation. This paper also presents the results of the Process Optimization for metal substrates. Data on the coating removal rate, residual stresses, surface roughness, preliminary process envelopes, and technical plans for process Validation Testing will be discussed.

  11. Hydrophilic strips for preventing air bubble formation in a microfluidic chamber.

    PubMed

    Choi, Munseok; Na, Yang; Kim, Sung-Jin

    2015-12-01

    In a microfluidic chamber, unwanted formation of air bubbles is a critical problem. Here, we present a hydrophilic strip array that prevents air bubble formation in a microfluidic chamber. The array is located on the top surface of the chamber, which has a large variation in width, and consists of a repeated arrangement of super- and moderately hydrophilic strips. This repeated arrangement allows a flat meniscus (i.e. liquid front) to form when various solutions consisting of a single stream or two parallel streams with different hydrophilicities move through the chamber. The flat meniscus produced by the array completely prevents the formation of bubbles. Without the array in the chamber, the meniscus shape is highly convex, and bubbles frequently form in the chamber. This hydrophilic strip array will facilitate the use of a microfluidic chamber with a large variation in width for various microfluidic applications.

  12. REMEDIATION OF MTBE FROM DRINKING WATER: AIR STRIPPING FOLLOWED BY OFF-GAS ADSORPTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The widespread use of methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) as an oxygenate in gasoline has resulted in the contamination of a large number of ground and surface water sources. Even though air stripping has been proven to be an effective treatment technology for MTBE removal, off-ga...

  13. APPLICATIONS ANALYSIS REPORT: TOXIC TREATMENTS, IN-SITU STEAM/HOT-AIR STRIPPING TECHNOLOGY

    EPA Science Inventory

    This document is an evaluation of the performance of the Toxic Treatments (USA), Inc., (TTUSA) in situ steam/hot-air stripping technology and its applicability as an on-site treatment technique for hazardous waste site soil cleanup of volatile and semivolatile contaminants. Both ...

  14. DEMONSTRATION BULLETIN: IN-SITU STEAM/HOT AIR SOIL STRIPPING TOXIC TREATMENT (USA) INC.

    EPA Science Inventory

    This technology uses steam and hot air to strip volatile organics from contaminated soil. The treatment equipment is mobile and treats the soil in-situ without need for soil excavation or transportation. The organic contaminants volatilized from the soil are condensed and col...

  15. Processing of data from innovative parabolic strip telescope.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kosejk, Vladislav; Novy, J.; Chadzitaskos, Goce

    2015-12-01

    This paper presents an innovative telescope design based on the usage of a parabolic strip fulfilling the function of an objective. Isaac Newton was the first to solve the problem of chromatic aberration, which is caused by a difference in the refractive index of lenses. This problem was solved by a new kind of telescope with a mirror used as an objective. There are many different kinds of telescopes. The most basic one is the lens telescope. This type of a telescope uses a set of lenses. Another type is the mirror telescope, which employs the concave mirror, spherical parabolic mirror or hyperbolically shaped mirror as its objective. The lens speed depends directly on the surface of a mirror. Both types can be combined to form a telescope composed of at least two mirrors and a set of lenses. The light is reflected from the primary mirror to the secondary one and then to the lens system. This type is smaller-sized, with a respectively reduced lens speed. The telescope design presented in this paper uses a parabolic strip fulfilling the function of an objective. Observed objects are projected as lines in a picture plane. Each of the lines of a size equal to the size of the strip corresponds to the sum of intensities of the light coming perpendicular to the objective from an observed object. A series of pictures taken with a different rotation and processed by a special reconstruction algorithm is needed to get 2D pictures. The telescope can also be used for fast detection of objects. In this mode, the rotation and multiple pictures are not needed, just one picture in the focus of a mirror is required to be taken.

  16. Lab experiments on the innovative rapid thick strip casting process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagy, Richard; Senk, Dieter

    2012-05-01

    Rapid thick strip casting (RTSC) by Anton Hulek, Inventmetall®, is an innovative concept for the production of hot strips with a final as-cast thickness of about 25 mm before rolling. The innovation of the mechanism consists in a vertical mould performing a caterpillar motion. This moving mould has an unconventional parallelogram-shaped cross-section. The conventional rectangular shape is formed in the shaping machine, which is placed straight below the mould. Further elements of the technology are state-of-the-art. For the investigation of this new casting system theoretical calculations were complemented with practical experiments. The investigation focused mainly on two key aspects: the characteristics of the mould and the shaping process. For the practical analysis a static mould with three pairs of elements in laboratory scale was developed and commissioned by the Dept. of Ferrous Metallurgy @ RWTH Aachen University. The shaping experiments were carried out in model scale with two different materials and in variable boundary conditions. The results of these experiments delivered important mechanical as well as thermal informations about the casting system.

  17. Process for recovering uranium using an alkyl pyrophosphoric acid and alkaline stripping solution

    SciTech Connect

    Worthington, R.E.; Magdics, A.

    1987-03-24

    A process is described for stripping uranium from a pregnant organic extractant comprising an alkyl pyrophosphoric acid dissolved in a substantially water-immiscible organic diluent. The organic extractant contains tetravalent uranium and an alcohol or phenol modifier in a quantity sufficient to retain substantially all the unhydrolyzed alkyl pyrophosphoric acid in solution in the diluent during stripping. The process comprises adding an oxidizing agent to the organic extractant to and thereby oxidizing the tetravalent uranium to the +6 state in the organic extractant, and contacting the organic extractant containing the uranium in the +6 state with a stripping solution comprising an aqueous solution of an alkali metal or ammonium carbonate, nonsaturated in uranium. The uranium is stripped from, the organic extractant into the stripping solution, and the resulting barren organic extractant containing substantially all of the unhydrolyzed alkyl pyrophosphoric acid dissolved in the diluent is separated from the stripping solution containing the stripped uranium, the barren extractant being suitable for recycle.

  18. Process for recovering uranium using an alkyl pyrophosphoric acid and alkaline stripping solution

    SciTech Connect

    Worthington, R.E.; Magdics, A.

    1987-03-24

    A process is described for stripping uranium for a pregnant organic extractant comprising an alkyl pyrophosphoric acid dissolved in a substantially water-immiscible organic diluent. The organic extractant contains tetravalent uranium and an alcohol or phenol modifier in a quantity sufficient to retain substantially all the unhydrolyzed alkyl pyrophosphoric acid in solution in the diluent during stripping. The process comprises adding an oxidizing agent to the organic extractant and thereby oxidizing the tetravalent uranium to the +6 state in the organic extractant, and contacting the organic extractant containing the uranium in the +6 state with a stripping solution comprising an aqueous solution of an alkali metal or ammonium carbonate or hydroxide thereby stripping uranium from the organic extractant into the stripping solution. The resulting barren organic extractant containing substantially all of the unhydrolyzed alkyl pyrophosphoric acid dissolved in the diluent is separated from the stripping solution containing the stripped uranium, the barren extractant being suitable for recycle.

  19. Process air quality data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Butler, C. M.; Hogge, J. E.

    1978-01-01

    Air quality sampling was conducted. Data for air quality parameters, recorded on written forms, punched cards or magnetic tape, are available for 1972 through 1975. Computer software was developed to (1) calculate several daily statistical measures of location, (2) plot time histories of data or the calculated daily statistics, (3) calculate simple correlation coefficients, and (4) plot scatter diagrams. Computer software was developed for processing air quality data to include time series analysis and goodness of fit tests. Computer software was developed to (1) calculate a larger number of daily statistical measures of location, and a number of daily monthly and yearly measures of location, dispersion, skewness and kurtosis, (2) decompose the extended time series model and (3) perform some goodness of fit tests. The computer program is described, documented and illustrated by examples. Recommendations are made for continuation of the development of research on processing air quality data.

  20. INTEGRATION OF PHOTOCATALYTIC OXIDATION WITH AIR STRIPPING OF CONTAMINATED AQUIFERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Bench scale laboratory studies and pilot scale studies in a simulated field-test situation were performed to evaluate the integration of gas-solid ultaviolet (UV) photocatalytic oxidation (PCO) downstream if an air stripper unit as a technology for cost-effectively treating water...

  1. Use of a Radon Stripping Algorithm for Retrospective Assessment of Air Filter Samples

    SciTech Connect

    Robert Hayes

    2009-01-23

    An evaluation of a large number of air sample filters was undertaken using a commercial alpha and beta spectroscopy system employing a passive implanted planar silicon (PIPS) detector. Samples were only measured after air flow through the filters had ceased. Use of a commercial radon stripping algorithm was implemented to discriminate anthropogenic alpha and beta activity on the filters from the radon progeny. When uncontaminated air filters were evaluated, the results showed that there was a time-dependent bias in both average estimates and measurement dispersion with the relative bias being small compared to the dispersion. By also measuring environmental air sample filters simultaneously with electroplated alpha and beta sources, use of the radon stripping algorithm demonstrated a number of substantial unexpected deviations. Use of the current algorithm is therefore not recommended for assay applications and so use of the PIPS detector should only be utilized for gross counting without appropriate modifications to the curve fitting algorithm. As a screening method, the radon stripping algorithm might be expected to see elevated alpha and beta activities on air sample filters (not due to radon progeny) around the 200 dpm level.

  2. Preliminary Evaluation of the Control of Microbial Fouling by Laboratory and Pilot-Scale Air-Stripping Columns

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-03-01

    AD-A186 558 TECHNICAL REPORT AD NATICK/TR-87/039 PRELIMINARY EVALUATION OF THE CONTROL OF MICROBIAL FOULING BY LABORATORY AND PILOT-SCALE AIR ...Scale Air -Stripping Columns. 12. PERSONAL AUTHOR(S) Darrell Seekins, Morris Rogers 13a. TYPE OF REPORT 13b. TIME COVERED 114. DATE OF REPORT (Year...TERMS (Continue on reverse if necessary and identify by block number) FIELD GROUP TSUB-GROUP Air -Stripping Microbial Fouling Aeration Biogrowth Control

  3. Cryogenic fractionator gas as stripping gas of fines slurry in a coking and gasification process

    DOEpatents

    DeGeorge, Charles W.

    1981-01-01

    In an integrated coking and gasification process wherein a stream of fluidized solids is passed from a fluidized bed coking zone to a second fluidized bed and wherein entrained solid fines are recovered by a scrubbing process and wherein the resulting solids-liquid slurry is stripped with a stripping gas to remove acidic gases, at least a portion of the stripping gas comprises a gas comprising hydrogen, nitrogen and methane separated from the coker products.

  4. Integration of stripping of fines slurry in a coking and gasification process

    DOEpatents

    DeGeorge, Charles W.

    1980-01-01

    In an integrated fluid coking and gasification process wherein a stream of fluidized solids is passed from a fluidized bed coking zone to a second fluidized bed and wherein entrained solid fines are recovered by a wet scrubbing process and wherein the resulting solids-liquid slurry is stripped to remove acidic gases, the stripped vapors of the stripping zone are sent to the gas cleanup stage of the gasification product gas. The improved stripping integration is particularly useful in the combination coal liquefaction process, fluid coking of bottoms of the coal liquefaction zone and gasification of the product coke.

  5. Air Quality Management Process Cycle

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Air quality management are activities a regulatory authority undertakes to protect human health and the environment from the harmful effects of air pollution. The process of managing air quality can be illustrated as a cycle of inter-related elements.

  6. Bicarbonate of soda paint stripping process validation and material characterization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haas, Michael N.

    1995-01-01

    The Aircraft Production Division at San Antonio Air Logistics Center has conducted extensive investigation into the replacement of hazardous chemicals in aircraft component cleaning, degreasing, and depainting. One of the most viable solutions is process substitution utilizing abrasive techniques. SA-ALC has incorporated the use of Bicarbonate of Soda Blasting as one such substitution. Previous utilization of methylene chloride based chemical strippers and carbon removal agents has been replaced by a walk-in blast booth in which we remove carbon from engine nozzles and various gas turbine engine parts, depaint cowlings, and perform various other functions on a variety of parts. Prior to implementation of this new process, validation of the process was performed, and materials and waste stream characterization studies were conducted. These characterization studies examined the effects of the blasting process on the integrity of the thin-skinned aluminum substrates, the effects of the process on both air emissions and effluent disposal, and the effects on the personnel exposed to the process.

  7. Toxic treatments 'in-situ' steam/hot-air stripping technology. Applications analysis report. Rept. for Jun 89-Jun 90

    SciTech Connect

    Jackson, T.

    1991-03-01

    A SITE Demonstration of the Toxic Treatment (USA) Inc. in-situ steam/hot-air stripping technology (Detoxifier) was conducted beginning in the fall of 1989 at the GATX Annex Terminal site located in San Pedro, CA. The chemical storage and transfer facility was contaminated with various solvents due to spillage and a fire. Contamination extended into the salt water table (1.8 meters). Based on the SITE Demonstration and other data, it was concluded that 85% of the volatile organic compounds and 50% of the semivolatile organic compounds were removed from the soil. Fugitive air emissions are very low, and lateral and downward migration of contaminants due to the treatment were minimal. Finally, it was concluded that this in-situ process is cost competitive.

  8. Nitrogen potential recovery and concentration of ammonia from swine manure using electrodialysis coupled with air stripping.

    PubMed

    Ippersiel, D; Mondor, M; Lamarche, F; Tremblay, F; Dubreuil, J; Masse, L

    2012-03-01

    The practice of intensive animal production in certain areas has resulted in excessive manure production for the available regional land base. Consequently, there is a need to develop treatment technologies to recover the valuable nutrients that manure contains so that the resulting product can be transported and used as fertilizer on agricultural land. The project presented here used electrodialysis in a dilution/concentration configuration to transfer the manure ammonia in the diluate solution by electromigration to an adjacent solution separated by an ion-exchange membrane under the driving force of an electrical potential. Then, air stripping from the electrodialysis-obtained concentrate solution without pH modification was used to isolate the ammonia in an acidic solution. An optimal process operating voltage of 17.5 V was first determined on the basis of current efficiency and total energy consumption. During the process, the swine manure pH varied from 8.5 to 8.2, values favourable for NH(4)(+) electromigration. Total ammonia nitrogen reached 21,352 mg/L in the concentrate solution, representing approximately seven times the concentration in the swine manure. Further increases in concentration were limited by water transfer from the diluate solution due to electroosmosis and osmosis. Applying vacuum to the concentrate reservoir was found to be more efficient than direct concentrate solution aeration for NH(3) recuperation in the acid trap, given that the ammonia recuperated under vacuum represented 14.5% of the theoretical value of the NH(3) present in the concentrate solution as compared to 6.2% for aeration. However, an excessively low concentrate solution pH (8.6-8.3) limited NH(3)volatilization toward the acid trap. These results suggest that the concentrate solution pH needs to be raised to promote the volatile NH(3) form of total ammonia nitrogen.

  9. Thermodynamic Behavior Research Analysis of Twin-roll Casting Lead Alloy Strip Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Chengcan; Rui, Yannian

    2017-03-01

    The thermodynamic behavior of twin-roll casting (TRC) lead alloy strip process directly affects the forming of the lead strip, the quality of the lead strip and the production efficiency. However, there is little research on the thermodynamics of lead alloy strip at home and abroad. The TRC lead process is studied in four parameters: the pouring temperature of molten lead, the depth of molten pool, the roll casting speed, and the rolling thickness of continuous casting. Firstly, the thermodynamic model for TRC lead process is built. Secondly, the thermodynamic behavior of the TRC process is simulated with the use of Fluent. Through the thermodynamics research and analysis, the process parameters of cast rolling lead strip can be obtained: the pouring temperature of molten lead: 360-400 °C, the depth of molten pool: 250-300 mm, the roll casting speed: 2.5-3 m/min, the rolling thickness: 8-9 mm. Based on the above process parameters, the optimal parameters(the pouring temperature of molten lead: 375-390 °C, the depth of molten pool: 285-300 mm, the roll casting speed: 2.75-3 m/min, the rolling thickness: 8.5-9 mm) can be gained with the use of the orthogonal experiment. Finally, the engineering test of TRC lead alloy strip is carried out and the test proves the thermodynamic model is scientific, necessary and correct. In this paper, a detailed study on the thermodynamic behavior of lead alloy strip is carried out and the process parameters of lead strip forming are obtained through the research, which provide an effective theoretical guide for TRC lead alloy strip process.

  10. SEM and profilometric evaluation of enamel surface after air rotor stripping--an in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Mikulewicz, Marcin; Szymkowski, Janusz; Matthews-Brzozowska, Teresa

    2007-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate roughness of the enamel surface after Air Rotor Stripping (ARS). Thirty interproximal surfaces of human premolars were used as the biological material. Research was conducted using a contact profilometer and a scanning electron microscope (SEM). Sets of 3D parameters and topographical maps of enamel surface before and after ARS treatment were used to define roughness of the surfaces. SEM images of stripped surfaces were taken with microscopic magnification of 100x and 1000x. The data revealed a general roughness of enamel arising after ARS procedure. Summarized values of chosen parameters increased after ARS procedure compared to the values of untreated enamel. Topographical maps showed areas of both well polished and badly polished enamel. In conclusion, comparison of the mean values of the measured parameters of ARS treated enamel surfaces indicated that roughness of the enamel arises after ARS, but it must be emphasized that on every evaluated surface well polished areas were also present. Moreover, the well polished areas were smoother than those on the untreated enamel surfaces. Contact fluoridation and improved oral hygiene after ARS appear to be necessary because of the presence of areas of increased roughness on evaluated surfaces.

  11. Regeneration of an aqueous solution from an acid gas absorption process by matrix stripping

    DOEpatents

    Rochelle, Gary T.; Oyenekan, Babatunde A.

    2011-03-08

    Carbon dioxide and other acid gases are removed from gaseous streams using aqueous absorption and stripping processes. By replacing the conventional stripper used to regenerate the aqueous solvent and capture the acid gas with a matrix stripping configuration, less energy is consumed. The matrix stripping configuration uses two or more reboiled strippers at different pressures. The rich feed from the absorption equipment is split among the strippers, and partially regenerated solvent from the highest pressure stripper flows to the middle of sequentially lower pressure strippers in a "matrix" pattern. By selecting certain parameters of the matrix stripping configuration such that the total energy required by the strippers to achieve a desired percentage of acid gas removal from the gaseous stream is minimized, further energy savings can be realized.

  12. Using in-situ hot air/steam stripping (HASS) of hydrocarbons in soils

    SciTech Connect

    La Mori, P.N.

    1994-12-31

    The remediation of soils containing volatile (VOC) and semi-volatile (SVC) hydrocarbons is most desirably accomplished in-situ, i.e., without removal of the contaminated soils from the ground. This approach mitigates the environmental problem, i.e., does not transport it to another location, and when properly applied, does not impact on the local environment during remediation NOVATERRA has demonstrated commercially an in-situ, hot air/steam stripping (HASS) technology to remove VOC and SVC from soils both in the vadose and saturated zones. The technology consists of a drill tower which injects and mixes steam and hot air continuously into the soil below ground and a method to immediately capture all vapors escaping to the surface and remove the vaporized VOC/SVC using condensation and carbon beds. The air can be recompressed and recycled. The condensed liquid containing hydrocarbons is purified by distillation. The recovered hydrocarbons can be destroyed or recycled. The technology has successfully removed various chlorinated aliphatics and aromatics, glycol ethers, phthalates, polyaromatic compounds, ketones, petroleum hydrocarbons and many other compound types from sand to clay soils to risk based standards; e.g. 1 increased cancer risk in 1,000,000 using currently acceptable risk assessment standards.

  13. Use of an air-fluid exchange system to promote graft adhesion during Descemet's stripping automated endothelial keratoplasty.

    PubMed

    Meisler, David M; Dupps, William J; Covert, Douglas J; Koenig, Steven B

    2007-05-01

    Dislocation of the graft is a well-recognized complication of Descemet's stripping automated endothelial keratoplasty (DSAEK). We describe a technique to promote adhesion of the graft during DSAEK using an anterior chamber air-fluid infusion and exchange for direct control of the pressure and medium used to tamponade the graft against the host stroma.

  14. Ammonia removal from raw manure digestate by means of a turbulent mixing stripping process.

    PubMed

    Limoli, Alice; Langone, Michela; Andreottola, Gianni

    2016-07-01

    In this study, ammonia stripping by means of a turbulent mixing process followed by pH neutralization was investigated as a simple and cost-effective ammonia removal technique to treat raw manure digestate. Batch tests conducted using CaO, NaOH and H2O2 to control pH and temperature and combinations thereof showed that sodium hydroxide was the most suitable chemical, as it is easy to handle, minimizes treatment time and costs, does not increase the solid content of the sludge and allows to easily control the stripping process. NaOH dosage mainly depended on buffering capacity rather than on total solid content. The analysis of the ammonia stripping process indicated that ammonia removal was strongly dependent on pH, and ammonia removal rate followed the pseudo-first-order kinetics. Total solid content slightly influenced TAN removal efficiency. When NaOH was applied to treat raw digestate at pH 10 and mean temperature of 23 ± 2 °C, TAN removal efficiency reached 88.7% after 24 h of turbulent mixing stripping, without reaching inhibitory salinity levels. Moreover, pH neutralization with sulfuric acid following the stripping process improved raw digestate dewaterability.

  15. Physical processes involved in strip electrode welding using the method of slatted splicing

    SciTech Connect

    Bushma, V. O.

    2010-12-15

    Physical processes that take place in a strip electrode during welding using the slatted splicing technique are considered. Flowing of the welding current in the electrode is shown to be the key process which determines electrode heating and melting. Technological receipts are proposed that allow obtaining high-quality welds by the method of slatted splicing.

  16. In-well air stripping/bioventing study at Tyndall Air Force Base, Florida. Final technical report, 13 September 1991-30 November 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Alleman, B.C.

    1996-01-03

    This study was conducted to determine the feasibility of incorporating in-well air stripping systems into the design of bioventing systems to effectively extend bioventing to simultaneously remediate hydrocarbon contamination in both the vadose and saturated zones. The field study was conducted for 12 months between June 1994 and June 1995. The data demonstrated that the in-well air stripping systems were able to circulate the groundwater throughout the 25-foot radius of influence. The well systems were shown to be effective at remediating the benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes (BTEX) of the hydrocarbon contamination in the groundwater within the treatment cell. Conclusions made included: (1) the air lift pumping mechanism was capable of circulating groundwater in the aquifer; (2) the volatile compounds were effectively stripped from the groundwater; (3) anoxic groundwater entering the well was sufficiently oxygenated during air lift; (4) the residual oxygen in the off-gas from the in-well air stripping system was sufficient for supporting bioventing in the vadose zone; (5) volatile compounds in the off-gas from the well system were degraded in the vadose zone through bioventing when the mass loading did not exceed the degradative capacity of the microorganisms; and (6) bioventing was very effective for remediating residual hydrocarbon contamination in the vadose zone.

  17. Reengineering the Air Travel Process

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1999-04-01

    Thesis 3. DATES COVERED (FROM - TO) xx-xx-1999 to xx-xx-1999 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Reengineering the Air Travel Process Unclassified 5a. CONTRACT...RELEASE , 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT Every year, Department of Defense (DOD) travelers make thousands of trips that include air transportation

  18. Microstructure evolution of eutectic Al-Cu strips by high-speed twin-roll strip casting process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahoo, Seshadev; Ghosh, Sudipto

    2015-10-01

    In the present investigation, microstructural evolutions of functionally graded eutectic Al-Cu strips prepared by high-speed twin-roll strip caster at different casting speeds and liquid melt superheats were studied. The as-cast sample was subjected to scanning electron microscope to study the evolution of microstructure of the strip at different casting speeds and liquid melt superheats. At different casting speeds, non-equilibrium eutectic structure observed on the Al-Cu eutectic strip consists of lamellar as well as wavy structure with a distinct boundary. The lamellar microstructure consists of alternating layers of well-bonded α-Al phase and θ-Al2Cu phase. The globular flowery structure within the eutectic matrix was observed on the strip at different liquid melt superheats. The microhardness of the as-cast strip was studied by Vickers hardness tester, and it was found that hardness value increases with increasing casting speed and decreases with increasing liquid melt superheat.

  19. Development of geometry of forming tools for extrusion of strip sheet by SPD process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rusz, S.; Salajka, M.; Džugan, J.; Hilšer, O.; Bořuta, J.; Pastrňák, M.; Švec, J.

    2017-02-01

    On VSB -Technical University of Ostrava developed a method that uses the principle of severe plastic deformation to refine the structure and enhance mechanical properties of sheet metal strips. The greatest importance in practice represents an increase in yield strength and ultimate strength of sheet metal strips. The DRECE method (Dual Rolls Equal Channel Extrusion) is a newly developed method. Severe plastic deformation results in a high degree of the material deformation. The method can be used to produce metallic materials with a very fine grain structure. The paper analyses the effects of the values of angles of the newly developed forming tools on the achievement of mechanical properties in selected carbon steels by SPD process. The one type of steels (Ck55) was verified experimentally. Experiments were performed on the sheet metal strip with dimensions 58 (width) × 2 (thickness) × 1000 (length) mm with different inclination angle α.

  20. Graphic Arts: Process Camera, Stripping, and Platemaking. Fourth Edition. Teacher Edition [and] Student Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Multistate Academic and Vocational Curriculum Consortium, Stillwater, OK.

    This publication contains both a teacher edition and a student edition of materials for a course in graphic arts that covers the process camera, stripping, and platemaking. The course introduces basic concepts and skills necessary for entry-level employment in a graphic communication occupation. The contents of the materials are tied to measurable…

  1. Investigation of Mercury Reduction in Gold Stripping Process at Elevated Temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pramudya, Irawan

    Mercury is present in many gold ores. By processing these ores, there is a potential of emitting mercury to the environment. Carbon regeneration kiln stacks have been observed as one of the primary source of mercury emission into the atmosphere. Before it is recycled back into the carbon in leach (CIL) or carbon in columns (CIC), carbon used in the gold extraction process needs to be reactivated thermally. Emission of mercury can be minimized by keeping the mercury left in the carbon low before it goes to the carbon regeneration kiln stacks. The objective of this study is establishing the optimum elution conditions of mercury cyanide from loaded carbon (which includes the eluent, concentration, temperature and elution time) with respect to gold stripping. Several methods such as acid washing (UNR-100, HCl or ethanol/UNR-100) were investigated prior to the stripping process. Furthermore, conventional pressurized Zadra and modified Zadra were also studied with regards to mercury concentration in the solution and vapor state as well as maximizing the gold stripping from industrial loaded carbon. 7% UNR-100 acid washing of loaded carbon at 80°C was able to wash out approximately 90% of mercury while maintaining the gold adsorption on the carbon (selective washing). The addition of alcohol in the UNR-100 acid washing solution was able to enhance mercury washing from 90% to 97%. Furthermore, mercury stripping using conventional pressurized (cyanide-alkaline) Zadra was best performed at 80°C (minimal amount of mercury reduced and volatilized) whereas using the same process only 40% of gold was stripped, which makes this process not viable. When alcohol was added to the stripping solution, at 80°C, 95% of gold was detected in the solution while keeping the reduction and volatilization of mercury low. The outcome of this study provides a better understanding of mercury behavior during the acid washing and stripping processes so that the risk of mercury exposure and

  2. Robotic sensors for aircraft paint stripping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weniger, Richard J.

    1990-10-01

    Aircraft of all types need to have paint routinely removed from their outer surfaces. Any method needs to be controlled to remove all the paint and not damage the surface of the aircraft. Human operators get bored with the monotonous task of stripping paint from an aircraft and thus do not control the process very well. This type of tedious operation tends itself to robotics. A robot that strips paint from aircraft needs to have feedback as to the state of the stripping process, its location in respect to the aircraft, and the availability of stripping material. This paper describes the sensors used on the paint stripping robot being developed for the United States Air Force's Manufacturing Technology Program. Particular attention is given to the paint sensor which is the feedback element for determining the state of the stripping process.

  3. Developing a vacuum thermal stripping - acid absorption process for ammonia recovery from anaerobic digester effluent.

    PubMed

    Ukwuani, Anayo T; Tao, Wendong

    2016-12-01

    To prevent acetoclastic methanogens from ammonia inhibition in anaerobic digestion of protein-rich substrates, ammonia needs to be removed or recovered from digestate. This paper presents an innovative ammonia recovery process that couples vacuum thermal stripping with acid absorption. Ammonia is stripped out of digestate boiling at a temperature below the normal boiling point due to vacuum. Stripped ammonia is absorbed to a sulfuric acid solution, forming ammonium sulfate crystals as a marketable product. Three common types of digestate were found to have boiling point temperature-vacuum curves similar to water. Seven combinations of boiling temperature and vacuum (50 °C 16.6 kPa, 58 °C 20.0 kPa, 65 °C 25.1 kPa, 70 °C 33.6 kPa, 80 °C 54.0 kPa, 90 °C 74.2 kPa, and 100 °C 101.3 kPa) were tested for batch stripping of ammonia in dairy manure digestate. 93.3-99.9% of ammonia was stripped in 3 h. The Lewis-Whitman model fitted ammonia stripping process well. Ammonia mass transfer coefficient was significantly higher at boiling temperature 65-100 °C and vacuum pressure 25.1-101.3 kPa than 50-58 °C and 16.6-20.0 kPa. The low ammonia saturation concentrations (0-24 mg N/L) suggested a large driving force to strip ammonia. The optimum boiling point temperature - vacuum pressure for ammonia recovery in a recirculation line of a mesophilic digester was 65 °C and 25.1 kPa, at which the ammonia mass transfer coefficient was as high as 37.3 mm/h. Installation of a demister and liquid trap could avoid negative effects of higher stripping temperature and stronger vacuum on formation of ammonium sulfate crystals. Pilot tests demonstrated that high-purity ammonium sulfate crystals could be produced by controlling sulfuric acid content and maintaining acid solution saturated with ammonium sulfate. Although volatile organic compounds such as cyclohexene were found in the final acid solutions, no volatile organic compounds were found in the recovered

  4. Liability and the marketing of high-tech law enforcement technologies: the air bag and barrier strip stories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Overlin, Trudy K.

    1999-01-01

    This paper will present information regarding the fate of technologies developed in the national laboratory, which were designed to meet a specific law enforcement user need, but were or were not successful in making it to market. The two examples, one successful and one not completely successful, will be presented in a perspective to provide discussion as too why their individual fates were as such. The two examples, air bag restraint and barriers strip, both law enforcement technologies, were both designed to meet a targeted need, and yet their success was different. One has been licensed to an industry partner and is currently on the shelf for purchase. The other is awaiting a licensee and its future is still undetermined. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the specific paths these technologies have taken to market, and to demonstrate that even when researchers have a good idea, their technology may never make it to the shelf. This paper also addresses some of the pitfalls of what occurs when researchers are too distant from the user community and what that distance can do to a successful or unsuccessful technology. Understanding this process is essential to the user communities that anticipate the market of technologies that they often help assist with or provide insight to. It is also important for users and manufacturers to understand why the research and development process can take years, and why some things do not fully actualize in accepted technologies.

  5. Ammonia removal in food waste anaerobic digestion using a side-stream stripping process.

    PubMed

    Serna-Maza, A; Heaven, S; Banks, C J

    2014-01-01

    Three 35-L anaerobic digesters fed on source segregated food waste were coupled to side-stream ammonia stripping columns and operated semi-continuously over 300 days, with results in terms of performance and stability compared to those of a control digester without stripping. Biogas was used as the stripping medium, and the columns were operated under different conditions of temperature (55, 70, 85 °C), pH (unadjusted and pH 10), and RT (2-5 days). To reduce digester TAN concentrations to a useful level a high temperature (≥70 °C) and a pH of 10 were needed; under these conditions 48% of the TAN was removed over a 138-day period without any detrimental effects on digester performance. Other effects of the stripping process were an overall reduction in digestate organic nitrogen-containing fraction compared to the control and a recovery in the acetoclastic pathway when TAN concentration was 1770±20 mg kg(-1).

  6. A signal processing view of strip-mapping synthetic aperture radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Munson, David C., Jr.; Visentin, Robert L.

    1989-01-01

    The authors derive the fundamental strip-mapping SAR (synthetic aperture radar) imaging equations from first principles. They show that the resolution mechanism relies on the geometry of the imaging situation rather than on the Doppler effect. Both the airborne and spaceborne cases are considered. Range processing is discussed by presenting an analysis of pulse compression and formulating a mathematical model of the radar return signal. This formulation is used to obtain the airborne SAR model. The authors study the resolution mechanism and derive the signal processing relations needed to produce a high-resolution image. They introduce spotlight-mode SAR and briefly indicate how polar-format spotlight processing can be used in strip-mapping SAR. They discuss a number of current and future research directions in SAR imaging.

  7. Numerical Simulation of Filling Process During Twin-Roll Strip Casting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Zhiyu; Wang, Bo; Zhang, Qinghua; Ma, Jie; Zhang, Jieyu

    2014-01-01

    The modeling and controlling of flow and solidification of melt metal in the filling process is important for obtaining the optimal pool level and the formation of the solidified metal layer on the surface of twin-rolls during the twin-roll strip casting. The proper delivery system and processing parameters plays a key role to control flow characteristics in the initial filling stage of the twin-roll strip casting process. In this paper, a commercial CFD software was employed to simulate the transient fluid flow, heat transfer, and solidifications behaviors during the pouring stage of twin-roll strip casting process using different delivery systems. A 3D model was set up to solve the coupled set of governing differential equations for mass, momentum, and energy balance. The transient free-surface problem was treated with the volume of fluid approach, a k-ɛ turbulence model was employed to handle the turbulence effect and an enthalpy method was used to predict phase change during solidification. The predicted results showed that a wedge-shaped delivery system might have a beneficial impact on the distribution of molten steel and solidification. The predicted surface profile agreed well with the measured values in water model.

  8. Acetone-butanol-ethanol from sweet sorghum juice by an immobilized fermentation-gas stripping integration process.

    PubMed

    Cai, Di; Wang, Yong; Chen, Changjing; Qin, Peiyong; Miao, Qi; Zhang, Changwei; Li, Ping; Tan, Tianwei

    2016-07-01

    In this study, sweet sorghum juice (SSJ) was used as the substrate in a simplified ABE fermentation-gas stripping integration process without nutrients supplementation. The sweet sorghum bagasse (SSB) after squeezing the fermentable juice was used as the immobilized carrier. The results indicated that the productivity of ABE fermentation process was improved by gas stripping integration. A total 24g/L of ABE solvents was obtained from 59.6g/L of initial sugar after 80h of fermentation with gas stripping. Then, long-term of fed-batch fermentation with continuous gas stripping was further performed. 112.9g/L of butanol, 44.1g/L of acetone, 9.5g/L of ethanol (total 166.5g/L of ABE) was produced in overall 312h of fermentation. At the same time, concentrated ABE product was obtained in the condensate of gas stripping.

  9. Data-Processing Strategies for Crossed-Strip Gamma-Ray Detectors.

    PubMed

    Durko, Heather L; McDonald, Benjamin S; Shokouhi, Sepideh; Furenlid, Lars R; Barrett, Harrison H; Peterson, Todd E

    2008-10-01

    Crossed-strip gamma-ray detectors are an attractive option for small-animal SPECT imagers due to their high space-bandwidth product. In systems with independent triggering of the two sides of the detector, advanced data-processing techniques are required to accurately determine gamma-ray interaction locations and energy deposition. Optimal detector operation further relies on rigorous detector characterization in order to achieve detector triggering uniformity and best timing resolution and to permit position and energy estimation with maximum-likelihood methods. We describe algorithms and methods developed for calibrating and characterizing a recently fabricated system based on 1024-strips-per-side 1-mm-thick silicon detectors.

  10. Frictional interactions in forming processes: New studies with transparent sapphire strip-drawing dies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rao, R. S.; Lu, C. Y.; Wright, P. K.; Devenpeck, M. L.; Richmond, O.; Appleby, E. J.

    1982-05-01

    This research is concerned with the frictional interactions at the toolwork interfaces in the machining and strip-drawing processes. A novel feature is that transparent sapphire (single crystal Al2O3) is being used as the tool and die material. This allows the tribological features of the interface to be directly observed and recorded on movie-film. These qualitative studies provide information on the role of lubricants. In addition, techniques are being developed to quantify the velocity gradient along the interface. For example, in the drawing work it has been found that tracer markings (e.g. dye-spots), applied to the undrawn strip, remain intact during drawing and can be tracked along the sapphire/strip interface. Such data will be used as input to a finite-element, elasto-plastic-workhardening model of the deformation process. The latter can compute strip deformation characteristics, drawing forces and local coefficients of friction at the interface. Introductory results will be presented in this paper, obtained from drawing tin-plated mild steel with sapphire and cemented carbide dies. Drawing loads and die-separating forces will be presented and movie-films of the action of tracer markings at the interface shown. In order to demonstrate how this data can be used in an analysis of a large strain deformation process with friction, initial results from running the FIPDEF elasto-plastic code will be discussed. From a commercial viewpoint research on strip-drawing is of special interest to the can-making industry. From a physical viewpoint stripdrawing is of particular interest because it is a symmetrical, plane strain deformation and, in comparison with other metal processing operations, it is more readily modeled. However, until now the elasto-plastic codes that have been developed to predictively model drawing have had limitations: the most notable being that of quantifying the friction conditions at the die-work interface. Hence the specification of the

  11. Membrane-assisted vapor stripping: energy efficient hybrid distillation-vapor permeation process for alcohol-water separation

    EPA Science Inventory

    BACKGROUND: Energy efficient alternatives to distillation for alcohol recovery from dilute solution are needed to improve biofuel sustainability. A process integrating steam stripping with a vapor compression step and a vapor permeation membrane separation step is proposed. The...

  12. A scanning electron microscopy comparison of enamel polishing methods after air-rotor stripping.

    PubMed

    Piacentini, C; Sfondrini, G

    1996-01-01

    In the last few years, orthodontic literature has shown particular interest in the interproximal enamel reduction technique described as stripping or slenderizing. Most researchers have shown, by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) studies, the difficulties encountered while attempting to remove coarse abrasions left after stripping with the first instrument. The objective of this SEM study was to compare the different polishing methods proposed in the literature and to assess the efficiency of our own procedure. For this purpose, 48 healthy human teeth (premolars and molars) were used after removal for orthodontic or periodontal reasons. The teeth were divided into eight groups of six teeth each (two molars and four premolars), and mounted on a typodont to simulate a clinical situation. Each group underwent stripping according to one of the following techniques: 16-blade tungsten carbide bur and fine and ultrafine diamond burs; coarse diamond bur and fine and ultrafine diamond burs; coarse diamond disk and Sof-Lex disks (Dental products/3M, St. Paul, Minn.); 16-blade tungsten carbide bur and phosphoric acid on finishing strip; and 8-straight blade tungsten carbide diamond bur and Sof-Lex disks. The SEM investigations demonstrated that it is not possible to eliminate, with normal polishing and cleaning methods, the furrows left on the enamel both by the diamond burs and the diamond disks and the 16-blade tungsten carbide burs. Mechanical and chemical stripping as well did not prove to be effective. By contrast, with the use of a 8-straight blade tungsten carbide bur followed by Sof-Lex disks for polishing the enamel, it is possible to obtain well-polished surfaces that many times appear smoother than the intact or untreated enamel.

  13. Laboratory Investigations of Cascade Crossflow Packed Towers for Air Stripping of Volatile Organics from Groundwater

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-12-01

    end of four 0.635 cm (1/4-inch) stainless steel rods. The bottom ring and two sides of the support were covered with stainless steel welded wire ...packing and liquid flows down by gravity. High pressure drops and low liquid and gas throughputs limit the applicability of this mode of operation...high Henry’s constants such as trichloro- ethylene (TCE), high stripping efficiency can be achieved at relatively low gas rates. In such cases, the

  14. Ion-implanted capacitively coupled silicon strip detectors with integrated polysilicon bias resistors processed on a 100 mm wafer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hietanen, Iiro; Lindgren, Jukka; Orava, Risto; Tuuva, Tuure; Voutilainen, Martti; Brenner, Richard; Andersson, Mikael; Leinonen, Kari; Ronkainen, Hannu

    1991-12-01

    Double-sided silicon strip detectors with integrated coupling capacitors and polysilicon resistors have been processed on a 100 mm wafer. A detector with an active area of 19 × 19 mm 2 was connected to LSI readout electronics and tested. The strip pitch of the detector is 25 μm on the p-side and 50 μm on the n-side. The readout pitch is 50 μm on both sides. The number of readout strips is 774 and the total number of strips is 1161. On the p-side a signal-to-noise of 35 has been measured using a 90Sr β-source. The n-side has been studied using a laser.

  15. Investigation of gas stripping and pervaporation for improved feasibility of two-stage butanol production process.

    PubMed

    Setlhaku, Mpho; Heitmann, Sebastian; Górak, Andrzej; Wichmann, Rolf

    2013-05-01

    Gas stripping and pervaporation are investigated for butanol recovery in a two-stage acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) fermentation process. The first stage is operated in a continuous mode and the second stage as a fed-batch. Gas stripping coupled to the second stage and operated intermittently enabled additional glucose feeding in the second stage and up to 59 g/L butanol and 73 g/L total ABE solvents in the condensate. Concentration of 167 g/L butanol and 269 g/L ABE in the permeate was measured in ex situ pervaporation experiments using a PDMS membrane at temperature of 37 °C and pressure of 10mbars. The "operating window" tool is introduced to evaluate the feasibility of the existing ABE fermentations operated as continuous with cell recycle, as two-stages, with biomass immobilization or with integrated product removal. This tool enables the identification of the most favorable process configuration, which is the combination of cell immobilization and integrated product removal.

  16. 40 CFR Table 9 to Subpart Hhhhhhh... - Procedures for Conducting Sampling of Stripped Resin and Process Wastewater

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Stripped Resin and Process Wastewater 9 Table 9 to Subpart HHHHHHH of Part 63 Protection of Environment... Wastewater For demonstrating . . . For the following emission points and types of processes . . . Collect.... Each process wastewater stream 3. Initial compliance N/A 1 grab sample 1 grab sample. 4....

  17. 40 CFR Table 9 to Subpart Hhhhhhh... - Procedures for Conducting Sampling of Stripped Resin and Process Wastewater

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Stripped Resin and Process Wastewater 9 Table 9 to Subpart HHHHHHH of Part 63 Protection of Environment... Wastewater For demonstrating . . . For the following emission points and types of processes . . . Collect.... Each process wastewater stream 3. Initial compliance N/A 1 grab sample 1 grab sample. 4....

  18. Post-test evaluation of the geology, geochemistry, microbiology, and hydrology of the in situ air stripping demonstration site at the Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect

    Eddy Dilek, C.A.; Looney, B.B.; Hazen, T.C.; Nichols, R.L.; Fliermans, C.B.; Parker, W.H.; Dougherty, J.M.; Kaback, D.S.; Simmons, J.L.

    1993-07-01

    A full-scale demonstration of the use of horizontal wells for in situ air stripping for environment restoration was completed as part of the Savannah River Integrated Demonstration Program. The demonstration of in situ air stripping was the first in a series of demonstrations of innovative remediation technologies for the cleanup of sites contaminated with volatile organic contaminants. The in situ air stripping system consisted of two directionally drilled wells that delivered gases to and extract contamination from the subsurface. The demonstration was designed to remediate soils and sediments in the unsaturated and saturated zones as well as groundwater contaminated with volatile organic compounds. The demonstration successfully removed significant quantities of solvent from the subsurface. The field site and horizontal wells were subsequently used for an in situ bioremediation demonstration during which methane was added to the injected air. The field conditions documented herein represent the baseline status of the site for evaluating the in situ bioremediation as well as the post-test conditions for the in situ air stripping demonstration. Characterization activities focused on documenting the nature and distribution of contamination in the subsurface. The post-test characterization activities discussed herein include results from the analysis of sediment samples, three-dimensional images of the pretest and post-test data, contaminant inventories estimated from pretest and post-test models, a detailed lithologic cross sections of the site, results of aquifer testing, and measurements of geotechnical parameters of undisturbed core sediments.

  19. AIR STRIPPING AND OFF-GAS ADSORPTION FOR THE REMOVAL OF MTBE FROM DRINKING WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Methyl-tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) is a synthetic organic chemical, primarily used for oxgenating fuel. The 1990 Federal Clean Air Act Amendments mandated the use of fuel oxgenates in areas where air quality did not meet national standards, which led to widespread use of MTBE in...

  20. Evolution of microstructure, texture and inhibitor along the processing route for grain-oriented electrical steels using strip casting

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Hai-Tao; Yao, Sheng-Jie; Sun, Yu; Gao, Fei; Song, Hong-Yu; Liu, Guo-Huai; Li, Lei; Geng, Dian-Qiao; Liu, Zhen-Yu; Wang, Guo-Dong

    2015-08-15

    In the present work, a regular grade GO sheet was produced successively by strip casting, hot rolling, normalizing annealing, two-stage cold rolling with intermediate annealing, primary recrystallization annealing, secondary recrystallization annealing and purification. The aim of this paper was to characterize the evolution of microstructure, texture and inhibitor along the new processing route by comprehensive utilization of optical microscopy, X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy. It was found that a fine microstructure with the ferrite grain size range of 7–12 μm could be obtained in the primary recrystallization annealed sheet though a very coarse microstructure was produced in the initial as-cast strip. The main finding was that the “texture memory” effect on Goss texture started on the through-thickness intermediate annealed strip after first cold rolling, which was not similar to the “texture memory” effect on Goss texture starting on the surface layers of the hot rolled strip in the conventional production route. As a result, the origin of Goss nuclei capable of secondary recrystallization lied in the grains already presented in Goss orientation in the intermediate annealed strip after first cold rolling. Another finding was that fine and dispersive inhibitors (mainly AlN) were easy to be produced in the primary recrystallization microstructure due to the initial rapid solidification during strip casting and the subsequent rapid cooling, and the very high temperature reheating usually used before hot rolling in the conventional production route could be avoided. - Highlights: • A regular grade grain-oriented electrical steel was produced. • Evolution of microstructure, texture and inhibitor was characterized. • Origin of Goss nuclei lied in the intermediate annealed strip. • A fine primary recrystallization microstructure could be produced. • Effective inhibitors were easy to be obtained in the new processing route.

  1. Analysis and Evaluation of Novel Al-Mg-Sc-Zr Aerospace Alloy Strip Produced Using the Horizontal Single Belt Casting (HSBC) Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ge, Sa; Celikin, Mert; Isac, Mihaiela; Guthrie, Roderick I. L.

    2015-04-01

    Horizontal single belt casting (HSBC) is a near net shape casting process in which molten metal is directly cast into thin strips, at high cooling rates (order of several 100 °C/s), with the potential for high volume, friction free, continuous production of metal strips. This casting process was used in the present work to produce strips of Al-Mg alloys in the AA5000 series, with additions of Sc and Zr. Such aluminum alloys show exceptional potential as a structural material for transportation/aerospace applications. To demonstrate the suitability of the HSBC process to manufacture competitive strip products of Al-Mg-Sc-Zr, the mechanical properties and microstructures of the strips produced using the HSBC process were compared with conventionally cast products. The effects of annealing on the mechanical properties of the strip-cast Al-Mg-Sc-Zr alloys were also investigated.

  2. The recharge process in alluvial strip aquifers in arid Namibia and implication for artificial recharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarma, Diganta; Xu, Yongxin

    2016-10-01

    Alluvial strip aquifers associated with ephemeral rivers are important groundwater supply sources that sustain numerous settlements and ecological systems in arid Namibia. More than 70 % of the population in the nation's western and southern regions depend on alluvial aquifers associated with ephemeral rivers. Under natural conditions, recharge occurs through infiltration during flood events. Due to the characteristic spatial and temporal variability of rainfall in arid regions, recharge is irregular making the aquifers challenging to manage sustainably and they are often overexploited. This condition is likely to become more acute with increasing water demand and climate change, and artificial recharge has been projected as the apparent means of increasing reliability of supply. The article explores, through a case study and numerical simulation, the processes controlling infiltration, significance of surface water and groundwater losses, and possible artificial recharge options. It is concluded that recharge processes in arid alluvial aquifers differ significantly from those processes in subhumid systems and viability of artificial recharge requires assessment through an understanding of the natural recharge process and losses from the aquifer. It is also established that in arid-region catchments, infiltration through the streambed occurs at rates dependent on factors such as antecedent conditions, flow rate, flow duration, channel morphology, and sediment texture and composition. The study provides an important reference for sustainable management of alluvial aquifer systems in similar regions.

  3. Simultaneous stripping recovery of ammonia-nitrogen and precipitation of manganese from electrolytic manganese residue by air under calcium oxide assist.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hongliang; Liu, Renlong; Shu, Jiancheng; Li, Wensheng

    2015-01-01

    Leaching tests of electrolytic manganese residue (EMR) indicated that high contents of soluble manganese and ammonia-nitrogen posed a high environmental risk. This work reports the results of simultaneous stripping recovery of ammonia-nitrogen and precipitation of manganese by air under calcium oxide assist. The ammonia-nitrogen stripping rate increased with the dosage of CaO, the air flow rate and the temperature of EMR slurry. Stripped ammonia-nitrogen was absorbed by a solution of sulfuric acid and formed soluble (NH4)2SO4 and (NH4)3H(SO4)3. The major parameters that effected soluble manganese precipitation were the dosage of added CaO and the slurry temperature. Considering these two aspects, the efficient operation conditions should be conducted with 8 wt.% added CaO, 60°C, 800 mL min(-1) air flow rate and 60-min reaction time. Under these conditions 99.99% of the soluble manganese was precipitated as Mn3O4, which was confirmed by XRD and SEM-EDS analyses. In addition, the stripping rate of ammonia-nitrogen was 99.73%. Leaching tests showed the leached toxic substances concentrations of the treated EMR met the integrated wastewater discharge standard of China (GB8978-1996).

  4. 40 CFR 63.495 - Back-end process provisions-procedures to determine compliance using stripping technology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...: Group I Polymers and Resins § 63.495 Back-end process provisions—procedures to determine compliance using stripping technology. (a) If an owner or operator complies with the residual organic HAP... residual organic HAP content for each month in which any portion of the back-end of an elastomer...

  5. Impact of Mining Activities on the Air Quality in The Village Nearby a Coal Strip Mine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pokorná, Petra; Hovorka, Jan; Brejcha, Jan

    2016-10-01

    The objective of the presented study was to estimate a share of atmospheric aerosol emitted by coal strip mine on PM10 or PM1-10, mass concentration of aerosol particles < 10μm or 1-10μm in aerodynamic diameter respectively, in the village situated in proximity to the mine. Parallel measurements were conducted in the mine and village situated in the northern part of the Czech Republic from the 15th to 27th November 2012. Three size fractions, consisting PM10, were sampled by a Davis rotating-drum impactor and analysed for 27 elements by Synchrotron-XRF with time resolution 1 hour. Appropriate hourly PM10 were measured by a Beta attenuation monitor in the village and calculated from 5 minute values by a nephelometer in the mine. Also, 24 hour aerosol samples for five size fractions were sampled by a personal cascade impactor sampler and viewed by scanning electron microscopy - SEM. Meteorological parameters were also recorded. Average contribution of coarse aerosol, PM1-10, to PM10 was 70% (119 +59 μgm-3) in the mine and 20% (12 + 10 μgm-3) in the village. The SEM revealed solely soil particles in the mine samples but bioaerosol, ash and aggregates of ultrafine particles in the village samples. Databases of hourly elemental and mass concentrations from the two localities were analysed by EPA PMF 5.0. There were revealed following sources/average contribution to local PM10: wood burning/34%, resuspended dust/30%, coal combustion/22%, industry/11% and gypsum/3% in the village while resuspended dust/43%, coal combustion/37%, gypsum/16% and mining technologies/4% in the mine. Based on factor chemical profiles, the mine was found to contribute to PM1-10 and PM10 in the village by 6% and 20%, respectively.

  6. Process parameters for operating 1-butanol gas stripping in a fermentor.

    PubMed

    Liao, Ying-Chen; Lu, Kuan-Ming; Li, Si-Yu

    2014-11-01

    In this study, effects of the agitation speed, the flow rate, and type of non-polar gases on the performance of gas stripping was systematically investigated. Macroscopically, the stripping rate of butanol is linearly proportional to the concentration of butanol in the feed solution. Nevertheless, a decrease in butanol selectivity was observed with the increasing butanol concentrations up to 0.01 g/cm(3). This can be attributed to the thermodynamics reason that with increasing butanol concentrations in the feed, more stripping gas will dissolve in the feed solution that decrease the activity of butanol for mass transfer from liquids to gas bubbles. This can be supported by the use of highly soluble gas of carbon dioxide as the stripping gas where the Ksa dropped 48% compared to the nitrogen stripping. By the parameter sensitivity analysis, it has been shown that the dominant variable is the flow rate. The best strategy of maximizing the performance of 1-butanol gas stripping at a given flow rate is to bubble the gases at a high superficial velocity, which leads to a less resistance on the liquid side for mass transfer.

  7. Benzene stripping in a flotation unit

    SciTech Connect

    Hillquist, D.; Litchfield, J.; Willet, S.; Whiteford, R.

    1994-12-31

    An induced gas flotation unit is used as a combination stripping/flotation vessel with fuel gas as the stripping/flotation medium. The gas bubbles simultaneously float the oils and solids, and strip out and recover the benzene and other volatile components from wastewater and from the floated oils and solids. The effluent stripping gas is then either used as fuel gas, or recycled to the process for product recovery. The induced gas flotation stripper, IGFS, is self-cleaning and normally experiences no sludge build up or fouling. The unit requires a minimum of operator attention and maintenance. It is sealed to eliminate emissions, has a high stripping efficiency, and has a significantly wider operating range than conventional strippers. The unit does not experience the biological fouling and disposal problems of air strippers, or the fouling and higher capital and operating costs of steam strippers. The IGFS unit was installed at the BF Goodrich ethylene plant in Calvert City in 1991. The unit was designed to treat a combined stream consisting of quench water, neutralized spent caustic, and a number of intermittent smaller oily water streams. The unit is operating effectively in stripping the benzene to levels below the NESHAP requirements. The average benzene removal efficiency is above 97%. Operating data indicate that the benzene removal efficiency can be further enhanced by increasing temperature, increasing stripping flow, reducing oil emulsions in the influent and eliminating dilution from recycled water. This paper presents performance and operating experience of the IGFS unit.

  8. Dynamics of the fully stripped ion-hydrogen atom charge exchange process in dense quantum plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Ling-yu; Wan, Jiang-feng; Zhao, Xiao-ying; Xiao, Guo-qing; Duan, Wen-shan; Qi, Xin; Yang, Lei

    2014-09-15

    The plasma screening effects of dense quantum plasmas on charge exchange processes of a fully stripped ion colliding with a hydrogen atom are studied by the classical trajectory Monte Carlo method. The inter-particle interactions are described by the exponential cosine-screened Coulomb potentials. It is found that in weak screening conditions, cross sections increase with the increase of the ionic charge Z. However, in strong screening conditions, the dependence of cross sections on the ionic charge is related to the incident particle energy. At high energies, cross sections show a linear increase with the increase of Z, whereas at low energies, cross sections for Z≥4 become approximately the same. The He{sup 2+} and C{sup 6+} impacting charge exchange cross sections in dense quantum plasmas are also compared with those in weakly coupled plasmas. The interactions are described by the static screened Coulomb potential. It is found that for both He{sup 2+} and C{sup 6+}, the oscillatory screening effects of dense quantum plasmas are almost negligible in weak screening conditions. However, in strong screening conditions, the oscillatory screening effects enhance the screening effects of dense quantum plasmas, and the enhancement becomes more and more significant with the increase of the screening parameter and the ionic charge.

  9. The pathway of in-situ ammonium removal from aerated municipal solid waste bioreactor: nitrification/denitrification or air stripping?

    PubMed

    Hao, Yong-Jun; Ji, Min; Chen, Ying-Xu; Wu, Wei-Xiang; Hao, Yong-Jun; Zhang, Shu-Guang; Liu, Han-Qiao

    2010-12-01

    In-situ ammonium removal from municipal solid waste (MSW) landfill is an attractive method due to its economic advantages. In this study, two simulated MSW bioreactors with different degrees of initial bio-stabilization were utilized to investigate the effects of intermittent aeration mode and the addition of activated sludge on the removal of ammonium. The results showed that up to 90% of ammonium could be removed and the amount of NO(x)-N produced was less than 1% of NH4 (+)-N removed in both reactors. The pH values increased rapidly and finally arrived at a high level of 8.5-8.8. The efficiency of ammonium removal was improved by increasing the continuous aeration time, but it was not affected by the addition of activated sludge. A portion of liquid escaped from the reactors in the form of vapour, and as high as 195-258 mg L(-1) of NH(4) ( +)-N was detected in the vapour collector. According to calculation, nitrification was inhibited by the high level of free ammonia in the bioreactors. As a result, air stripping was enhanced and became the primary pathway of ammonium removal. Therefore, controlling free ammonia concentration was essential in ammonium removal from the aerated MSW bioreactor.

  10. Static voltage distribution between turns of secondary winding of air-core spiral strip transformer and its application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Hong-bo; Liu, Jin-liang; Cheng, Xin-bing; Zhang, Yu

    2011-09-01

    The static voltage distribution between winding turns has great impact on output characteristics and lifetime of the air-core spiral strip pulse transformer (ACSSPT). In this paper, winding inductance was calculated by electromagnetic theory, so that the static voltage distribution between turns of secondary winding of ACSSPT was analyzed conveniently. According to theoretical analysis, a voltage gradient because of the turn-to-turn capacitance was clearly noticeable across the ground turns. Simulation results of Pspice and CST EM Studio codes showed that the voltage distribution between turns of secondary winding had linear increments from the output turn to the ground turn. In experiment, the difference in increased voltage between the ground turns and the output turns of a 20-turns secondary winding is almost 50%, which is believed to be responsible for premature breakdown of the insulation, particularly between the ground turns. The experimental results demonstrated the theoretical analysis and simulation results, which had important value for stable and long lifetime ACSSPT design. A new ACSSPT with improved structure has been used successfully in intense electron beam accelerators steadily.

  11. Solar-Powered Air Stripping at the Rocky Flats Site, Colorado - 12361

    SciTech Connect

    Boylan, John A.

    2012-07-01

    . Initially, several alternatives such as commercial air strippers and cascade aerators were evaluated; resulting cost estimates exceeded $100,000. After several simpler alternatives were considered and prototype testing was conducted, the existing effluent metering manhole was converted to house a spray-nozzle based, solar-powered air stripper, at a cost of approximately $20,000. About two-thirds of this cost was for the solar power system, which was initially designed to only provide power for 12 hours per day. Performance data are being collected and adjustments made to optimize the design, determine maintenance requirements, and establish power needs for continuous operation. Analytical data confirm the air stripper is sharply reducing concentrations of residual contaminants. (authors)

  12. Processing AIRS Scientific Data Through Level 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Granger, Stephanie; Oliphant, Robert; Manning, Evan

    2010-01-01

    The Atmospheric Infra-Red Sounder (AIRS) Science Processing System (SPS) is a collection of computer programs, known as product generation executives (PGEs). The AIRS SPS PGEs are used for processing measurements received from the AIRS suite of infrared and microwave instruments orbiting the Earth onboard NASA's Aqua spacecraft. Early stages of the AIRS SPS development were described in a prior NASA Tech Briefs article: Initial Processing of Infrared Spectral Data (NPO-35243), Vol. 28, No. 11 (November 2004), page 39. In summary: Starting from Level 0 (representing raw AIRS data), the AIRS SPS PGEs and the data products they produce are identified by alphanumeric labels (1A, 1B, 2, and 3) representing successive stages or levels of processing. The previous NASA Tech Briefs article described processing through Level 2, the output of which comprises geo-located atmospheric data products such as temperature and humidity profiles among others. The AIRS Level 3 PGE samples selected information from the Level 2 standard products to produce a single global gridded product. One Level 3 product is generated for each day s collection of Level 2 data. In addition, daily Level 3 products are aggregated into two multiday products: an eight-day (half the orbital repeat cycle) product and monthly (calendar month) product.

  13. Air separation by the Moltox process

    SciTech Connect

    Erickson, D. C.

    1981-04-01

    The report describes results of a development program on a new and energy saving process for air separation. The Moltox process involves reversibly reacting oxygen in air with a recirculating salt solution, such that oxygen is extracted without depressurizing the remaining nitrogen. Energy savings of approximately 50% are indicated for this process compared to conventional cryogenic air separation. The development program consisted of design, construction, and operation of a 6 liter/minute pilot plant; optimization of the process flowsheet through computer modelling; investigation of engineering aspects of the process including corrosion, safety, and NO/sub x/ generation; and an economic comparison to conventional cryogenic practice. All objectives were satisfactorily achieved except for continuous operation of the pilot plant, and the modifications necessary to achieve that have been identified. Economically the Moltox process shows a substantial advantage over large scale cryogenic plants which are powered by fuel vice electricity.

  14. Preliminary evaluation of the control of microbial fouling by laboratory and pilot-scale air-stripping columns. Final report, March-December 1984

    SciTech Connect

    Seekins, D.; Rogers, M.R.

    1985-03-01

    The U.S. Army Natick Research, Development and Engineering Center (Natick) undertook a study to investigate the buildup of microbial slimes primarily pseudomonas, bacillus and azotobacter in Air Stripping Columns that are used by the military to remove volatile compounds from contaminated groundwater. The air-stripping and carbon-adsorption columns were previously used at the Anniston Army Depot (ANAD) to treat groundwater that had been contaminated with chemical solvents and metal-plating wastes. The major groundwater contaminants were: trichloroethylene (TCE), dichloroethylene (DCE), methylene chloride (MeCl), phenol, and chromium. The results of the study will provide the basis for recommendations on preventative or control measures to be taken in future applications of these water-treatment methods. Measures to prevent buildup of microbial slimes will allow for longer column life and reduction in costs. Treatment of the laboratory-scale column with 3% and 15% hydrogen peroxide reduced total microbial counts but was not successful at disinfecting the column. It was concluded that to prevent microbial fouling of air-stripping columns, the packing material should be disinfected prior to use and should be shock-chlorinated during use if microbial fouling should start to occur. The column should be run continuously if possible to keep the inside temperature as low as possible to retard the growth of microorganisms. If iron fouling should occur, the column should be treated with dilute HCl to clear the packing material of the hydroxide buildup.

  15. Influence of Individual Experience and Flight Strips on Air Traffic Controller Memory/Situational Awareness

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-06-01

    accepted doctrine, despite the fact that evidence has shown otherwise under certain conditions (e.g., Klapp , Marshburn, and Lester, 1983). The ś plus or...549-556. Klapp , S.T., Marshburn, E.A., and Lester, P.T. (1983), Short-term memory does not involve the "working memory" of information processing: The

  16. AIRS Maps from Space Processing Software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, Charles K.; Licata, Stephen J.

    2012-01-01

    This software package processes Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) Level 2 swath standard product geophysical parameters, and generates global, colorized, annotated maps. It automatically generates daily and multi-day averaged colorized and annotated maps of various AIRS Level 2 swath geophysical parameters. It also generates AIRS input data sets for Eyes on Earth, Puffer-sphere, and Magic Planet. This program is tailored to AIRS Level 2 data products. It re-projects data into 1/4-degree grids that can be combined and averaged for any number of days. The software scales and colorizes global grids utilizing AIRS-specific color tables, and annotates images with title and color bar. This software can be tailored for use with other swath data products for the purposes of visualization.

  17. Accustrip - The next generation in nontoxic low impact stripping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Rick C.; Kirschner, Larry

    1989-03-01

    Accustrip: a new 'wet stripping' process that allows depainting in existing chemical stripping facilities utilizes a proprietary blend of sodium bicarbonate as a media along with a mixture of air and water. The media is manufactured and blended as food grade quality. The process has several major benefits. It has very low dust emissions, removes oil and grease, and has ability to remove surface corrosion from metal substrates during stripping without additional steps or materials. The blended sodium bicarbonate is nontoxic to the worker and environment. Economics of the media do not require costly reclaim facilities or dust collecting systems. Disposal costs are minimal.

  18. Practice of Improving Roll Deformation Theory in Strip Rolling Process Based on Boundary Integral Equation Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Zhengwen; Xiao, Hong; Xie, Hongbiao

    2014-02-01

    Precise strip-shape control theory is significant to improve rolled strip quality, and roll flattening theory is a primary part of the strip-shape theory. To improve the accuracy of roll flattening calculation based on semi-infinite body model, a new and more accurate roll flattening model is proposed in this paper, which is derived based on boundary integral equation method. The displacement fields of the finite length semi-infinite body on left and right sides are simulated by using finite element method (FEM) and displacement decay functions on left and right sides are established. Based on the new roll flattening model, a new 4Hi mill deformation model is established and verified by FEM. The new model is compared with Foppl formula and semi-infinite body model in different strip width, roll shifting value and bending force. The results show that the pressure and flattening between rolls calculated by the new model are more precise than other two models, especially near the two roll barrel edges.

  19. Processing AIRS Scientific Data Through Level 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oliphant, Robert; Lee, Sung-Yung; Chahine, Moustafa; Susskind, Joel; arnet, Christopher; McMillin, Larry; Goldberg, Mitchell; Blaisdell, John; Rosenkranz, Philip; Strow, Larrabee

    2007-01-01

    The Atmospheric Infrared Spectrometer (AIRS) Science Processing System (SPS) is a collection of computer programs, denoted product generation executives (PGEs), for processing the readings of the AIRS suite of infrared and microwave instruments orbiting the Earth aboard NASA s Aqua spacecraft. AIRS SPS at an earlier stage of development was described in "Initial Processing of Infrared Spectral Data' (NPO-35243), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 28, No. 11 (November 2004), page 39. To recapitulate: Starting from level 0 (representing raw AIRS data), the PGEs and their data products are denoted by alphanumeric labels (1A, 1B, and 2) that signify the successive stages of processing. The cited prior article described processing through level 1B (the level-2 PGEs were not yet operational). The level-2 PGEs, which are now operational, receive packages of level-1B geolocated radiance data products and produce such geolocated geophysical atmospheric data products such as temperature and humidity profiles. The process of computing these geophysical data products is denoted "retrieval" and is quite complex. The main steps of the process are denoted microwave-only retrieval, cloud detection and cloud clearing, regression, full retrieval, and rapid transmittance algorithm.

  20. CATALYTIC OXIDATION OF GROUNDWATER STRIPPING EMISSIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper reviews the applicability of catalytic oxidation to control ground-water air stripping gaseous effluents, with special attention to system designs and case histories. The variety of contaminants and catalyst poisons encountered in stripping operations are also reviewed....

  1. Hybrid Vapor Stripping-Vapor Permeation Process for Recovery and Dehydration of 1-Butanol and Acetone/Butanol/Ethanol from Dilute Aqueous Solutions. Part 2. Experimental Validation with Simple Mixtures and Actual Fermentation Broth

    EPA Science Inventory

    BACKGROUND: In Part1 of this work, a process integrating vapor stripping, vapor compression, and a vapor permeation membrane separation step, Membrane Assisted Vapor Stripping (MAVS), was predicted to produce energy savings compared to traditional distillation systems for separat...

  2. Tensile properties and interfacial bonding of multi-layered, high-purity titanium strips fabricated by ARB process.

    PubMed

    Ghafari-Gousheh, Soroush; Nedjad, Syamak Hossein; Khalil-Allafi, Jafar

    2015-11-01

    Severe plastic deformation (SPD) processing has shown very effective in promotion of mechanical properties of metals and alloys. In this study, the results of investigating mechanical properties and also inter-layer bond performance of accumulative roll bonded high purity titanium (HP-Ti) strips are presented. High purity titanium plates were severely deformed by use of a combination of cold rolling (CR) to a thickness reduction of approximately 87% and then accumulative roll bonding (ARB) for three cycles (N=3) at ambient temperature. Optical and scanning electron microscopy, tensile testing, and hardness measurements were conducted. The ARB strips exhibited lower tensile strength and ductility in comparison to cold rolled one which can basically be attributed to the poor function of the latest bonds established in the centerlines of the strips. Fractographic examinations revealed the interfacial de-bonding along the centerline between the layers having undergone roll bonding for just one cycle. It was while the interfaces having experienced roll bonding for more cycles showed much higher resistance against delaminating.

  3. Dominant root locus in state estimator design for material flow processes: A case study of hot strip rolling.

    PubMed

    Fišer, Jaromír; Zítek, Pavel; Skopec, Pavel; Knobloch, Jan; Vyhlídal, Tomáš

    2017-02-13

    The purpose of the paper is to achieve a constrained estimation of process state variables using the anisochronic state observer tuned by the dominant root locus technique. The anisochronic state observer is based on the state-space time delay model of the process. Moreover the process model is identified not only as delayed but also as non-linear. This model is developed to describe a material flow process. The root locus technique combined with the magnitude optimum method is utilized to investigate the estimation process. Resulting dominant roots location serves as a measure of estimation process performance. The higher the dominant (natural) frequency in the leftmost position of the complex plane the more enhanced performance with good robustness is achieved. Also the model based observer control methodology for material flow processes is provided by means of the separation principle. For demonstration purposes, the computer-based anisochronic state observer is applied to the strip temperatures estimation in the hot strip finishing mill composed of seven stands. This application was the original motivation to the presented research.

  4. Environmental Analysis of the Air Bending Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kellens, Karel; Dewulf, Wim; Duflou, Joost R.

    2011-05-01

    This paper presents the results of a data collection effort, allowing to assess the overall environmental impact of the air bending process using the CO2PE!-Methodology. First the different modes of the air bending process are investigated, including both productive and non-productive modes. In particular consumption of electric power is recorded for the different modes. Subsequently, time studies allow determining the importance of productive and nonproductive modes of the involved process. The study demonstrates that the influence of standby losses can be substantial. In addition to life cycle analysis, in depth process analysis also provides insight in achievable environmental impact reducing measures towards machine tool builders and eco-design recommendations for product developers. The energy consumption of three different machine tool architectures are analysed and compared within this paper.

  5. The Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) Modeling of the Horizontal Single Belt Casting (HSBC) Processing of Al-Mg-Sc-Zr Alloy Strips

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ge, S.; Isac, M.; Guthrie, R. I. L.

    2015-10-01

    Al-Mg-Sc-Zr alloys have shown exceptional potential as structural materials for transportation applications. These alloys have proved to be good candidates to be processed as thin strips via the horizontal single belt casting (HSBC) process. The HSBC process is a near-net-shape casting technology, which involves casting molten metal directly into thin strips, close to the final product thickness, at higher cooling rates than conventional continuous casting and thin-slab casting processes. It offers an efficient, economical, and environmentally friendly approach to the production of metal strips. Fluid mechanics and associated heat transfer are important aspects of any casting process, and the novel HSBC process is no exception. Three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics simulations using ANSYS FLUENT 14.5 were performed, in order to assess the importance and effects of the various operational conditions of the HSBC process. This enabled process parameter optimization. Numerical predictions were validated against experimental casting results.

  6. AISI/DOE Advanced Process Control Program Vol. 3 of 6 Microstructure Engineering in Hot Strip Mills, Part 1 of 2: Integrated Mathematical Model

    SciTech Connect

    J.K. Brimacombe; I.V. Samarasekera; E.B. Hawbolt; T.R. Meadowcroft; M. Militzer; W.J. Pool; D.Q. Jin

    1999-07-31

    This report describes the work of developing an integrated model used to predict the thermal history, deformation, roll forces, microstructural evolution and mechanical properties of steel strip in a hot-strip mill. This achievement results from a joint research effort that is part of the American Iron and Steel Institute's (AIS) Advanced Process Control Program, a collaboration between the U.S. DOE and fifteen North American Steelmakers.

  7. Butanol production from wood pulping hydrolysate in an integrated fermentation-gas stripping process

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, CC; Dong, J; Yang, ST

    2013-09-01

    Wood pulping hydrolysate (WPH) containing mainly xylose and glucose as a potential substrate for acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) fermentation was studied. Due to the inhibitors present in the hydrolysate, several dilution levels and detoxification treatments, including overliming, activated charcoal adsorption, and resin adsorption, were evaluated for their effectiveness in relieving the inhibition on fermentation. Detoxification using resin and evaporation was found to be the most effective method in reducing the toxicity of WPH. ABE production in batch fermentation by Clostridium beijerinckii increased 68%, from 6.73 g/L in the non-treated and non-diluted WPH to 11.35 g/L in the resin treated WPH. With gas stripping for in situ product removal, ABE production from WPH increased to 17.73 g/L, demonstrating that gas stripping was effective in alleviating butanol toxicity by selectively separating butanol from the fermentation broth, which greatly improved solvents production and sugar conversion in the fermentation. (C) 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Alternatives to Nitric Acid Stripping in the Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX) Process for Cesium Removal from Alkaline High-Level Waste

    SciTech Connect

    Delmau, Laetitia Helene; Haverlock, Tamara; Bazelaire, Eve; Bonnesen, Peter V; Ditto, Mary E; Moyer, Bruce A

    2009-01-01

    Effective alternatives to nitric acid stripping in the Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX) solvent have been demonstrated in this work. The CSSX solvent employs calix[4]arene-bis(tert-octylbenzo-18-crown-6) (BOBCalixC6) as the cesium extractant in a modified alkane diluent for decontamination of alkaline high-level wastes. Results reported in this paper support the idea that replacement of the nitrate anion by a much more hydrophilic anion like borate can substantially lower cesium distribution ratios on stripping. Without any other change in the CSSX flowsheet, however, the use of a boric acid stripping solution in place of the 1 mM nitric acid solution used in the CSSX process marginally, though perhaps still usefully, improves stripping. The less-than-expected improvement was explained by the carryover of nitrate from scrubbing into stripping. Accordingly, more effective stripping is obtained after a scrub of the solvent with 0.1 M sodium hydroxide. Functional alternatives to boric acid include sodium bicarbonate or cesium hydroxide as strip solutions. Profound stripping improvement is achieved when trioctylamine, one of the components of the CSSX solvent, is replaced with a commercial guanidine reagent (LIX 79). The more basic guanidine affords greater latitude in selection of aqueous conditions in that it protonates even at mildly alkaline pH values. Under process-relevant conditions, cesium distributions on stripping are decreased on the order of 100-fold compared with current CSSX performance. The extraction properties of the solvent were preserved unchanged over three successive extract-scrub-strip cycles. From the point of view of compatibility with downstream processing, boric acid represents an attractive stripping agent, as it is also a potentially ideal feed for borosilicate vitrification of the separated 137Cs product stream. Possibilities for use of these results toward a dramatically better next-generation CSSX process, possibly one employing the

  9. Characterization of the geology, geochemistry, hydrology and microbiology of the in-situ air stripping demonstration site at the Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect

    Eddy, C.A.; Looney, B.B.; Dougherty, J.M.; Hazen, T.C.; Kaback, D.S.

    1991-05-01

    The Savannah River Site is the location of an Integrated Demonstration Project designed to evaluate innovative remediation technologies for environmental restoration at sites contaminated with volatile organic contaminants. This demonstration utilizes directionally drilled horizontal wells to deliver gases and extract contaminants from the subsurface. Phase I of the Integrated Demonstration focused on the application and development of in-situ air stripping technologies to remediate soils and sediments above and below the water table as well as groundwater contaminated with volatile organic contaminants. The objective of this report is to provide baseline information on the geology, geochemistry, hydrology, and microbiology of the demonstration site prior to the test. The distribution of contaminants in soils and sediments in the saturated zone and groundwater is emphasized. These data will be combined with data collected after the demonstration in order to evaluate the effectiveness of in-situ air stripping. New technologies for environmental characterization that were evaluated include depth discrete groundwater sampling (HydroPunch) and three-dimensional modeling of contaminant data.

  10. Experimental research on micro-pit defects of SUS 430 stainless steel strip in cold rolling process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Changsheng; Li, Miao; Zhu, Tao; Huo, Gang

    2013-05-01

    In order to improve surface glossiness of stainless steel strip in tandem cold rolling, experimental research on micro-pit defects of SUS 430 ferrite stainless steel was investigated in laboratory. The surface morphology of micro-pit defects was observed by SEM. The effects of micro-pit defects on rolling reduction, roll surface roughness and emulsion parameters were analyzed. With the pass number increasing, the quantity and surface of micro-pit defects were reduced, uneven peak was decreased and gently along rolling direction, micro-pit defects had equally distributed tendency along tranverse direction. The micro-pit defects were increased with the roll surface roughness increase. The defects ratio was declined with larger gradient at pass number 1 to 3, but gentle slope at pass number 4 to 5. The effects of temperature 55° and 63°, concentration 3% and 6% of emulsion on micro-pit effects had not obvious difference. Maintain of micro-pit was effected by rolling oil or air in the micro-pit, the quality of oil was much more than the air in the micro-pit in lubrication rolling.

  11. Process for recovering organic vapors from air

    DOEpatents

    Baker, Richard W.

    1985-01-01

    A process for recovering and concentrating organic vapor from a feed stream of air having an organic vapor content of no more than 20,000 ppm by volume. A thin semipermeable membrane is provided which has a feed side and a permeate side, a selectivity for organic vapor over air of at least 50, as measured by the ratio of organic vapor permeability to nitrogen permeability, and a permeability of organic vapor of at least 3.times.10.sup.-7 cm.sup.3 (STP) cm/cm.sup.2 sec.cm Hg. The feed stream is passed across the feed side of the thin semipermeable membrane while providing a pressure on the permeate side which is lower than the feed side by creating a partial vacuum on the permeate side so that organic vapor passes preferentially through the membrane to form an organic vapor depleted air stream on the feed side and an organic vapor enriched stream on the permeate side. The organic vapor which has passed through the membrane is compressed and condensed to recover the vapor as a liquid.

  12. Quantitative analysis of trace chromium in blood samples. Combination of the advanced oxidation process with catalytic adsorptive stripping voltammetry.

    PubMed

    Yong, Li; Armstrong, Kristie C; Dansby-Sparks, Royce N; Carrington, Nathan A; Chambers, James Q; Xue, Zi-Ling

    2006-11-01

    A new method for pretreating blood samples for trace Cr analysis is described. The advanced oxidation process (AOP with H2O2 and 5.5-W UV irradiation for 60 min) is used to remove biological/organic species for subsequent analysis. Prior to the AOP pretreatment, acid (HNO3) is used at pH 3.0 to inhibit the enzyme catalase in the blood samples. Catalytic adsorptive stripping voltammetry at a bismuth film electrode gives a Cr concentration of 6.0 +/- 0.3 ppb in the blood samples. This concentration was confirmed by dry-ashing the blood samples and subsequent analysis by atomic absorption spectroscopy. This current method may be used to monitor chromium, a trace metal in humans, and the efficacy and safety of chromium supplements as adjuvant therapy for diabetes.

  13. Opacification of a hydrophilic acrylic intraocular lens with a hydrophobic surface after air injection in Descemet-stripping automated endothelial keratoplasty in a patient with Fuchs dystrophy.

    PubMed

    Mojzis, Peter; Studeny, Pavel; Werner, Liliana; Piñero, David P

    2016-03-01

    A 71-year-old woman with Fuchs endothelial dystrophy in the right eye had uneventful phacoemulsification cataract surgery with implantation of a single-piece intraocular lens (IOL) (CT47S) in January 2012. Because of corneal problems and vision loss, uneventful Descemet-stripping automated endothelial keratoplasty (DSAEK) was performed in May 2013. Four months later, a new corneal lamella (repeat DSAEK) was implanted with reinjection of an air bubble into the anterior chamber. Six months after the initial DSAEK, the patient complained of blurred vision. On examination, the cornea was transparent but the IOL presented opacification in the central area. The opacified IOL was explanted and analyzed by light microscopy, which showed the presence of thin granular deposits distributed in an overall round pattern that stained positive for calcium. The opacification of hydrophilic acrylic IOLs is a complication that can occur after uneventful endothelial keratoplasty, especially when rebubbling is necessary.

  14. Optimization and scale-down of wafer-based resist strip and rinse processes for photomask production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aggus, Brant L.; Weaver, Gene

    2002-03-01

    Retrofitting of wafer processing equipment is a common scenario in the photomask industry, as most available tools are built to accommodate the high throughput and substrate size of wafers. The acid process tanks in use at most mask shops are built to suit a single rack of 25 8 inch wafers, each coated with roughly two microns of photoresist. Conversely, a typical photomask shop sends one to two masks at a time through the resist strip line, each coated with 4500 angstroms of resist. The amount of unused volume of active chemical within an 8 inch X 8.5 inch X 10 inch acid tank when it is dumped is enough to warrant a hardware change. Experimentation has shown that it is possible to decrease Piranha usage by 43 percent by optimizing tank size for photomasks. The same logic applies to quick dump rinsers (QDRs). Additionally, water is wasted with 'spray down' processes, whereby masks are sprayed via perforated bars or nozzles. Because a < 0.5 μm viscous sublayer can not be practically achieved through spraying the mask, better cleaning performance is obtained with a bottom-filled weiring process. This is demonstrated through experimental results and theoretical mass transfer models.

  15. DESCRIPTION OF ATMOSPHERIC TRANSPORT PROCESSES IN EULERIAN AIR QUALITY MODELS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Key differences among many types of air quality models are the way atmospheric advection and turbulent diffusion processes are treated. Gaussian models use analytical solutions of the advection-diffusion equations. Lagrangian models use a hypothetical air parcel concept effecti...

  16. Clean Air Act Standards and Guidelines for Mineral Processing

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This page contains the stationary sources of air pollution for the mineral processing industries, and their corresponding air pollution regulations. To learn more about the regulations for each industry, just click on the links below.

  17. Development of a Novel Gas Pressurized Stripping Process-Based Technology for CO₂ Capture from Post-Combustion Flue Gases

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Shiaoguo

    2015-09-30

    A novel Gas Pressurized Stripping (GPS) post-combustion carbon capture (PCC) process has been developed by Carbon Capture Scientific, LLC, CONSOL Energy Inc., Nexant Inc., and Western Kentucky University in this bench-scale project. The GPS-based process presents a unique approach that uses a gas pressurized technology for CO₂ stripping at an elevated pressure to overcome the energy use and other disadvantages associated with the benchmark monoethanolamine (MEA) process. The project was aimed at performing laboratory- and bench-scale experiments to prove its technical feasibility and generate process engineering and scale-up data, and conducting a techno-economic analysis (TEA) to demonstrate its energy use and cost competitiveness over the MEA process. To meet project goals and objectives, a combination of experimental work, process simulation, and technical and economic analysis studies were applied. The project conducted individual unit lab-scale tests for major process components, including a first absorption column, a GPS column, a second absorption column, and a flasher. Computer simulations were carried out to study the GPS column behavior under different operating conditions, to optimize the column design and operation, and to optimize the GPS process for an existing and a new power plant. The vapor-liquid equilibrium data under high loading and high temperature for the selected amines were also measured. The thermal and oxidative stability of the selected solvents were also tested experimentally and presented. A bench-scale column-based unit capable of achieving at least 90% CO₂ capture from a nominal 500 SLPM coal-derived flue gas slipstream was designed and built. This integrated, continuous, skid-mounted GPS system was tested using real flue gas from a coal-fired boiler at the National Carbon Capture Center (NCCC). The technical challenges of the GPS technology in stability, corrosion, and foaming of selected solvents, and environmental, health and

  18. REMOVAL OF ORGANIC CCL CONTAMINANTS FROM DRINKING WATERS BY GAC, AIR STRIPPING, AND MEMBRANE PROCESSES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The 1996 amendments to the Safe Drinking Water Act (SWDA) require the US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) to establish a list of unregulated microbiological and chemical contaminants to aid in priority-setting for the Agency's drinking water program. This list, known as t...

  19. Epoxy-paint stripping using TEA CO2 laser: Determination of threshold fluence and the process parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Manoj; Bhargava, P.; Biswas, A. K.; Sahu, Shasikiran; Mandloi, V.; Ittoop, M. O.; Khattak, B. Q.; Tiwari, M. K.; Kukreja, L. M.

    2013-03-01

    It is shown that the threshold fluence for laser paint stripping can be accurately estimated from the heat of gasification and the absorption coefficient of the epoxy-paint. The threshold fluence determined experimentally by stripping of the epoxy-paint on a substrate using a TEA CO2 laser matches closely with the calculated value. The calculated threshold fluence and the measured absorption coefficient of the paint allowed us to determine the epoxy paint thickness that would be removed per pulse at a given laser fluence even without experimental trials. This was used to predict the optimum scan speed required to strip the epoxy-paint of a given thickness using a high average power TEA CO2 laser. Energy Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence (EDXRF) studies were also carried out on laser paint-stripped concrete substrate to show high efficacy of this modality.

  20. RESULTS OF THE EXTRACTION-SCRUB-STRIP TESTING USING AN IMPROVED SOLVENT FORMULATION AND SALT WASTE PROCESSING FACILITY SIMULATED WASTE

    SciTech Connect

    Peters, T.; Washington, A.; Fink, S.

    2012-01-09

    The Office of Waste Processing, within the Office of Technology Innovation and Development, is funding the development of an enhanced solvent - also known as the next generation solvent (NGS) - for deployment at the Savannah River Site to remove cesium from High Level Waste. The technical effort is a collaborative effort between Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL). As part of the program, the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) has performed a number of Extraction-Scrub-Strip (ESS) tests. These batch contact tests serve as first indicators of the cesium mass transfer solvent performance with actual or simulated waste. The test detailed in this report used simulated Tank 49H material, with the addition of extra potassium. The potassium was added at 1677 mg/L, the maximum projected (i.e., a worst case feed scenario) value for the Salt Waste Processing Facility (SWPF). The results of the test gave favorable results given that the potassium concentration was elevated (1677 mg/L compared to the current 513 mg/L). The cesium distribution value, DCs, for extraction was 57.1. As a comparison, a typical D{sub Cs} in an ESS test, using the baseline solvent formulation and the typical waste feed, is {approx}15. The Modular Caustic Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU) uses the Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX) process to remove cesium (Cs) from alkaline waste. This process involves the use of an organic extractant, BoBCalixC6, in an organic matrix to selectively remove cesium from the caustic waste. The organic solvent mixture flows counter-current to the caustic aqueous waste stream within centrifugal contactors. After extracting the cesium, the loaded solvent is stripped of cesium by contact with dilute nitric acid and the cesium concentrate is transferred to the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF), while the organic solvent is cleaned and recycled for further use. The Salt Waste Processing Facility (SWPF), under

  1. Strip and load data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, R. H.

    1984-01-01

    The method of taking batch data files and loading these files into the ADABAS data base management system (DBMS) is examined. This strip and load process allows the user to quickly become productive. Techniques for data fields and files definition are also included.

  2. STRIPPING PROCESS FOR PLUTONIUM

    DOEpatents

    Kolodney, M.

    1959-10-01

    A method for removing silver, nickel, cadmium, zinc, and indium coatings from plutonium objects while simultaneously rendering the plutonium object passive is described. The coated plutonium object is immersed as the anode in an electrolyte in which the plutonium is passive and the coating metal is not passive, using as a cathode a metal which does not dissolve rapidly in the electrolyte. and passing an electrical current through the electrolyte until the coating metal is removed from the plutonium body.

  3. Effects of dry aging of bone-in and boneless strip loins using two aging processes for two aging times.

    PubMed

    Degeer, S L; Hunt, M C; Bratcher, C L; Crozier-Dodson, B A; Johnson, D E; Stika, J F

    2009-12-01

    This experiment investigated the combined effects of two dry-aging methods (unpackaged and in a bag), two loin-cut styles (bone-in shell loins and boneless strip loins), and two aging times (21 and 28days) on the physical, chemical, sensory, and microbial properties of dry-aged beef. Sections from shell and strip loin were assigned randomly to be aged unpackaged or aged packaged in a bag with high moisture permeability. Weight losses increased with aging time. Shell loins lost more (P<0.05) weight during aging compared with strip loins; dry aging in a bag had less (P<0.05) weight loss than unpackaged aging. There were no differences (P>0.05) in any of the sensory traits between shell and strip loins or dry aging using a traditional method or in a bag. Dry aging in a bag creates positive effects on yields, no negative effects on product quality, and adds flexibility and control of the aging environment.

  4. A novel in situ gas stripping-pervaporation process integrated with acetone-butanol-ethanol fermentation for hyper n-butanol production.

    PubMed

    Xue, Chuang; Liu, Fangfang; Xu, Mengmeng; Zhao, Jingbo; Chen, Lijie; Ren, Jiangang; Bai, Fengwu; Yang, Shang-Tian

    2016-01-01

    Butanol is considered as an advanced biofuel, the development of which is restricted by the intensive energy consumption of product recovery. A novel two-stage gas stripping-pervaporation process integrated with acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) fermentation was developed for butanol recovery, with gas stripping as the first-stage and pervaporation as the second-stage using the carbon nanotubes (CNTs) filled polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) mixed matrix membrane (MMM). Compared to batch fermentation without butanol recovery, more ABE (27.5 g/L acetone, 75.5 g/L butanol, 7.0 g/L ethanol vs. 7.9 g/L acetone, 16.2 g/L butanol, 1.4 g/L ethanol) were produced in the fed-batch fermentation, with a higher butanol productivity (0.34 g/L · h vs. 0.30 g/L · h) due to reduced butanol inhibition by butanol recovery. The first-stage gas stripping produced a condensate containing 155.6 g/L butanol (199.9 g/L ABE), which after phase separation formed an organic phase containing 610.8 g/L butanol (656.1 g/L ABE) and an aqueous phase containing 85.6 g/L butanol (129.7 g/L ABE). Fed with the aqueous phase of the condensate from first-stage gas stripping, the second-stage pervaporation using the CNTs-PDMS MMM produced a condensate containing 441.7 g/L butanol (593.2 g/L ABE), which after mixing with the organic phase from gas stripping gave a highly concentrated product containing 521.3 g/L butanol (622.9 g/L ABE). The outstanding performance of CNTs-PDMS MMM can be attributed to the hydrophobic CNTs giving an alternative route for mass transport through the inner tubes or along the smooth surface of CNTs. This gas stripping-pervaporation process with less contaminated risk is thus effective in increasing butanol production and reducing energy consumption.

  5. Pretreatment of anaerobic digestion effluent with ammonia stripping and biogas purification.

    PubMed

    Lei, Xiaohui; Sugiura, Norio; Feng, Chuanping; Maekawa, Takaaki

    2007-07-16

    In this study, ammonia stripping was optimized for pretreating anaerobic digestion effluent from an anaerobic digestion plant, and the possibility of using CO(2) stripping and biogas injection for adjusting the pH of the effluent before and after the ammonia stripping process was also investigated. For ammonia stripping, the results showed that an overdose of calcium hydroxide, i.e., 27.5g/L wastewater, achieved higher ammonia, phosphorus, chemical oxygen demand, suspended solids, and turbidity removal efficiency. An air flow rate of 5L/min for 1L of wastewater was thought as suitable for engineering application. The pH of the anaerobic digestion effluent can be increased from about 7 to about 9 by CO(2) stripping, however which is insufficient for ammonia stripping. For 1L of wastewater treated after ammonia stripping, the pH can be neutralized to about 7 from greater than 11 through biogas injection at 1L/min for less than 30min, and continuous injection does not decrease the pH. It was roughly estimated that 43m(3) of biogas (CH(4):CO(2) approximately 60%:40%) produced daily could be purified to CH(4):CO(2) approximately 74%:26% by neutralizing the pH of the 5m(3) anaerobic digestion effluent pretreated by ammonia stripping.

  6. Air Force research in optical processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neff, J.

    1981-01-01

    Optical and optical electronic hybrid processing especially in the application area of image processing are emphasized. Real time pattern recognition processors for such airborne missions as target recognition, tracking, and terminal guidance are studied.

  7. Demonstration of Thermal Stripping of JP-4 and Other VOCs from Soils at Tinker Air Force Base Oklahoma City, Oklahoma

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-03-01

    field and to ensure uniformity of records. The sampling protocols and record keeping requihements for the techniques are given in the QAPP A-12 for...7.3.11 Afterburner discharge gas com- position 7-8 8 SAMPLING TECHNIQUES AND ANALYTICAL METHODS 8-1 8.1 Sampling techniques 8-1 8.1.1 Feed soil 8-1...Description of the Process Equipment 5 Demonstration Framework 6 Typical Site Activities 7 Test Variables 8 Sampling Techniques and Analytical Methods 9 Data

  8. Air stripping, oxidation, and activated-carbon adsorption studies for removal of taste and odor organics from water

    SciTech Connect

    Lalezary-Craig, S.

    1987-01-01

    A major class of water-consumer complaints are attributed to naturally occurring causatives of tastes and odors, among which a subgroup - the earthy-musty taste and odor compounds, documented to be spread worldwide - provides a special challenge to the scientific community and water utilities. The study was designed and executed to develop a firm basis for an understanding of the problem, as well as for optimization of process parameters for different-treatment techniques. The investigation began with determination of the physicochemical properties of a group of five earthy-musty taste and odor compounds including geosmin, 2-isobutyl-3-methoxy pyrazine (IBMP), 2-isopropyl-3-methoxy pyrazine (IPMP), 2-methylisoborneol (MIB), and 2, 3, 6-trichloroanisole (TCA). The second phase of the study investigated aeration, the application of oxidants such as chlorine, chlorine dioxide, and potassium permanganate, and several absorbents including manganese dioxide, kaolinite, and bentonite, for the mitigation of taste-and-odor problem. Other treatment processes investigated were ozonation and activated carbon adsorption. To investigate the efficiency of powdered activated carbon and closely simulate full-scale treatment operations, pilot-plant studies were conducted at one of the several plants operated by the Metropolitan Water District of Southern California.

  9. Ammonia stripping, activated carbon adsorption and anaerobic biological oxidation as process combination for the treatment of oil shale wastewater.

    PubMed

    Alexandre, Verônica M F; do Nascimento, Felipe V; Cammarota, Magali C

    2016-10-01

    Anaerobic biodegradability of oil shale wastewater was investigated after the following pretreatment sequence: ammonia stripping and activated carbon adsorption. Anaerobic biological treatment of oil shale wastewater is technically feasible after stripping at pH 11 for reducing the N-NH3 concentration, adsorption with 5 g/L of activated carbon in order to reduce recalcitrance and pH adjustment with CO2 so that the sulphate concentration in the medium remains low. After this pretreatment sequence, it was possible to submit the wastewater without dilution to an anaerobic treatment with 62.7% soluble chemical oxygen demand removal and specific methane production of 233.2 mL CH4STP/g CODremoved.

  10. Characterization of process air emissions in automotive production plants.

    PubMed

    D'Arcy, J B; Dasch, J M; Gundrum, A B; Rivera, J L; Johnson, J H; Carlson, D H; Sutherland, J W

    2016-01-01

    During manufacturing, particles produced from industrial processes become airborne. These airborne emissions represent a challenge from an industrial hygiene and environmental standpoint. A study was undertaken to characterize the particles associated with a variety of manufacturing processes found in the auto industry. Air particulates were collected in five automotive plants covering ten manufacturing processes in the areas of casting, machining, heat treatment and assembly. Collection procedures provided information on air concentration, size distribution, and chemical composition of the airborne particulate matter for each process and insight into the physical and chemical processes that created those particles.

  11. Laser processing of polytetrafluoroethylene (Teflon) in air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Z. B.; Hong, Ming Hui; Lu, Yong Feng; Chong, Tow Chong

    2003-02-01

    Teflon, polytetrafluorethylene (PTFE), is an important material in bioscience and medical application due to its special characteristics (non-flammable, anti-adhesive, heat-resistant and bio-compatible). The advantages of ultrashort laser processing of Teflon include a minimal thermal penetration region and low processing temperatures, precision removal of material, and good-quality feature definition. In this paper, laser processing of Teflon by Ti:Sapphire femtosecond laser (780 nm, 110 fs), Nd:YAG laser (532 nm, 7 ns) and CO2 laser (10.6 μm, 10 μs) has been investigated. For femtosecond laser processing, clear ablation takes place and provides high-quality groove on Teflon surface. Both the groove depth and the width increase as the laser fluence increase, and decrease almost linearly as the scanning speed increase for laser fluence below 5.0 J/cm2. For Nd:YAG processing, Teflon surface roughness is improved but no clean ablation is accessible, which makes it difficult to micromachine Teflon by Nd:YAG laser. For CO2 laser processing, laser-induced bumps were formed on Teflon surface with controlled laser parameters. The physics mechanisms for different pulse duration laser processing of Teflon are also discussed.

  12. Air separation by the Moltox process. Interim final report

    SciTech Connect

    Erickson, D.C.

    1981-04-01

    Results are described of a development program on a new and energy-saving process for air separation. The Moltox process involves reversibly reacting oxygen in air with a recirculating salt solution, such that oxygen is extracted without depressurizing the remaining nitrogen. Energy savings of approximately 50% are indicated for this process compared to conventional cryogenic air separation. The development program consisted of design, construction, and operation of a 6 liter/minute pilot plant; optimization of the process flowsheet through computer modelling; investigation of engineering aspects of the process including corrosion, safety, and NO/sub x/ generation; and an economic comparison to conventional cryogenic practice. All objectives were satisfactorily achieved except for continuous operation of the pilot plant, and the modifications necessary to achieve that have been identified. Economically the Moltox process shows a substantial advantage over large scale cryogenic plants which are powered by fuel vice electricity.

  13. Spray Rolling Aluminum Strip

    SciTech Connect

    Lavernia, E.J.; Delplanque, J-P; McHugh, K.M.

    2006-05-10

    Spray forming is a competitive low-cost alternative to ingot metallurgy for manufacturing ferrous and non-ferrous alloy shapes. It produces materials with a reduced number of processing steps, while maintaining materials properties, with the possibility of near-net-shape manufacturing. However, there are several hurdles to large-scale commercial adoption of spray forming: 1) ensuring strip is consistently flat, 2) eliminating porosity, particularly at the deposit/substrate interface, and 3) improving material yield. Through this program, a new strip/sheet casting process, termed spray rolling, has been developed, which is an innovative manufacturing technique to produce aluminum net-shape products. Spray rolling combines the benefits of twin-roll casting and conventional spray forming, showing a promising potential to overcome the above hurdles associated with spray forming. Spray rolling requires less energy and generates less scrap than conventional processes and, consequently, enables the development of materials with lower environmental impacts in both processing and final products. Spray Rolling was developed as a collaborative project between the University of California-Davis, the Colorado School of Mines, the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory, and an industry team. The following objectives of this project were achieved: (1) Demonstration of the feasibility of the spray rolling process at the bench-scale level and evaluation of the materials properties of spray rolled aluminum strip alloys; and (2) Demonstration of 2X scalability of the process and documentation of technical hurdles to further scale up and initiate technology transfer to industry for eventual commercialization of the process.

  14. Thermal degradation of the solvent employed in the next-generation caustic-side solvent extraction process and its effect on the extraction, scrubbing, and stripping of cesium

    SciTech Connect

    Roach, Benjamin D.; Williams, Neil J.; Moyer, Bruce A.

    2015-09-02

    As part of the ongoing development of the Next-Generation Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction (NGS) process, the thermal stability of the process solvent was investigated and shown to be adequate for industrial application. The solvent was thermally treated at 35 C over a period of 13 months whilst in dynamic contact with each of the aqueous phases of the current NGS process, namely SRS 15 (a highly caustic waste simulant), sodium hydroxide scrub solution (0.025 M), and boric acid strip solution (0.01 M). The effect of thermal treatment was evaluated by assessing batch extract/scrub/strip performance as a function of time, by monitoring the sodium extraction capacity of the solvent, and by analysis of the solvent using electrospray mass spectrometry. Current studies indicate that the NGS solvent should be thermally robust for a period of XXX months at the Modular Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU) pilot plant located at Savannah River Site. Furthermore, the guanidine suppressor appears to be the solvent component most significantly impacted by thermal treatment of the solvent, showing significant degradation over time.

  15. Thermal degradation of the solvent employed in the next-generation caustic-side solvent extraction process and its effect on the extraction, scrubbing, and stripping of cesium

    DOE PAGES

    Roach, Benjamin D.; Williams, Neil J.; Moyer, Bruce A.

    2015-09-02

    As part of the ongoing development of the Next-Generation Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction (NGS) process, the thermal stability of the process solvent was investigated and shown to be adequate for industrial application. The solvent was thermally treated at 35 C over a period of 13 months whilst in dynamic contact with each of the aqueous phases of the current NGS process, namely SRS 15 (a highly caustic waste simulant), sodium hydroxide scrub solution (0.025 M), and boric acid strip solution (0.01 M). The effect of thermal treatment was evaluated by assessing batch extract/scrub/strip performance as a function of time, by monitoringmore » the sodium extraction capacity of the solvent, and by analysis of the solvent using electrospray mass spectrometry. Current studies indicate that the NGS solvent should be thermally robust for a period of XXX months at the Modular Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU) pilot plant located at Savannah River Site. Furthermore, the guanidine suppressor appears to be the solvent component most significantly impacted by thermal treatment of the solvent, showing significant degradation over time.« less

  16. Kinetic and equilibrium studies for the adsorption process of cadmium(II) and copper(II) onto Pseudomonas aeruginosa using square wave anodic stripping voltammetry method.

    PubMed

    Kong, Bo; Tang, Biyu; Liu, Xiaoying; Zeng, Xiandong; Duan, Haiyan; Luo, Shenglian; Wei, Wanzhi

    2009-08-15

    A novel method for the simultaneous determination of cadmium(II) and copper(II) during the adsorption process onto Pseudomonas aeruginosa was developed. The concentration of the free metal ions was successfully detected by square wave anodic stripping voltammetry (SWASV) on the mercaptoethane sulfonate (MES) modified gold electrode, while the P. aeruginosa was efficiently avoided approaching to the electrode surface by the MES monolayer. And the anodic stripping peaks of Cd(2+) and Cu(2+) appear at -0.13 and 0.34V respectively, at the concentration range of 5-50 microM, the peak currents of SWASV present linear relationships with the concentrations of cadmium and copper respectively. As the determination of Cd(2+) and Cu(2+) was in real time and without pretreatment, the kinetic characteristics of the adsorption process were studied and all the corresponding regression parameters were obtained by fitting the electrochemical experimental data to the pseudo-second-order kinetic model. Moreover, Langmuir and Freundlich models well described the biosorption isotherms. And there were some differences in the amount of metal ion adsorbed at equilibrium (q(e)) and other kinetics parameters when the two ions coexisted were compared with the unaccompanied condition, which were also discussed in this paper. The proposed electrode system provides excellent platform for the simultaneous determination of trace metals in complex biosorption process.

  17. Bench-Scale Development of a Hot Carbonate Absorption Process with Crystallization-Enabled High-Pressure Stripping for Post-Combustion CO{sub 2} Capture

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, Yongqi; DeVries, Nicholas; Ruhter, David; Manoranjan, Sahu; Ye, Qing; Ye, Xinhuai; Zhang, Shihan; Chen, Scott; Li, Zhiwei; O'Brien, Kevin

    2014-03-31

    A novel Hot Carbonate Absorption Process with Crystallization-Enabled High-Pressure Stripping (Hot-CAP) has been developed by the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign and Carbon Capture Scientific, LLC in this three-year, bench-scale project. The Hot-CAP features a concentrated carbonate solution (e.g., K{sub 2}CO{sub 3}) for CO{sub 2} absorption and a bicarbonate slurry (e.g., KHCO{sub 3}) for high-pressure CO{sub 2} stripping to overcome the energy use and other disadvantages associated with the benchmark monoethanolamine (MEA) process. The project was aimed at performing laboratory- and bench-scale experiments to prove its technical feasibility and generate process engineering and scale-up data, and conducting a techno-economic analysis (TEA) to demonstrate its energy use and cost competitiveness over MEA. To meet project goals and objectives, a combination of experimental, modeling, process simulation, and economic analysis studies were applied. Carefully designed and intensive experiments were conducted to measure thermodynamic and reaction engineering data relevant to four major unit operations in the Hot-CAP (i.e., CO{sub 2} absorption, CO{sub 2} stripping, bicarbonate crystallization, and sulfate reclamation). The rate promoters that could accelerate the CO{sub 2} absorption rate into the potassium carbonate/bicarbonate (PCB) solution to a level greater than that into the 5 M MEA solution were identified, and the superior performance of CO{sub 2} absorption into PCB was demonstrated in a bench-scale packed-bed column. Kinetic data on bicarbonate crystallization were developed and applied for crystallizer design and sizing. Parametric testing of high-pressure CO{sub 2} stripping with concentrated bicarbonate-dominant slurries at high temperatures ({>=}140{degrees}C) in a bench-scale stripping column demonstrated lower heat use than with MEA. The feasibility of a modified process for combining SO{sub 2} removal with CO{sub 2} capture was preliminarily

  18. Nitrogen and water recovery from animal slurries by a new integrated ultrafiltration, reverse osmosis and cold stripping process: a case study.

    PubMed

    Ledda, C; Schievano, A; Salati, S; Adani, F

    2013-10-15

    The correct management of livestock manure represents one of the major challenge for the agricultural sector development, as it may ensure environmental and economic sustainability of livestock farming. In this work, a new treatment process called N-Free(®), was monitored on two plants treating digested cattle manure (DCM) and digested swine manure (DSM). The process is characterized by sequential integration of solid/liquid separations, ultrafiltration, reverse osmosis and cold ammonia stripping. Solid and liquid streams were characterized regarding TS, TKN, N-NH4(+), P and K content allowing to draw a complete mass balance. The main results were a substantial reduction of initial digestate volume (38 and 51% in DCM and DSM respectively) as clean water and a high N-NH4(+) removal percentage (47 and 71% in DCM and DSM respectively), through cold ammonia stripping, allowing the production of up to 1.8 m(3) concentrated ammonium sulfate, every 100 m(3) of treated digestate. The concentrated streams, rich in either organic or mineral N, P and K, can be efficiently used for land application. The N-Free(®) technology demonstrated to be a valuable candidate for the path toward nutrient and water recycle, in a new sustainable agriculture and farming concept.

  19. Dynamic Underground Stripping Project

    SciTech Connect

    Aines, R.; Newmark, R.; McConachie, W.; Udell, K.; Rice, D.; Ramirez, A.; Siegel, W.; Buettner, M.; Daily, W.; Krauter, P.; Folsom, E.; Boegel, A.J.; Bishop, D.; Udell, K.

    1992-01-01

    LLNL is collaborating with the UC Berkeley College of Engineering to develop and demonstrate a system of thermal remediation and underground imaging techniques for use in rapid cleanup of localized underground spills. Called ``Dynamic Stripping`` to reflect the rapid and controllable nature of the process, it will combine steam injection, direct electrical heating, and tomographic geophysical imaging in a cleanup of the LLNL gasoline spill. In the first 8 months of the project, a Clean Site engineering test was conducted to prove the field application of the techniques before moving the contaminated site in FY 92.

  20. Processing of n+/p-/p+ strip detectors with atomic layer deposition (ALD) grown Al2O3 field insulator on magnetic Czochralski silicon (MCz-si) substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Härkönen, J.; Tuovinen, E.; Luukka, P.; Gädda, A.; Mäenpää, T.; Tuominen, E.; Arsenovich, T.; Junkes, A.; Wu, X.; Li, Z.

    2016-08-01

    Detectors manufactured on p-type silicon material are known to have significant advantages in very harsh radiation environment over n-type detectors, traditionally used in High Energy Physics experiments for particle tracking. In p-type (n+ segmentation on p substrate) position-sensitive strip detectors, however, the fixed oxide charge in the silicon dioxide is positive and, thus, causes electron accumulation at the Si/SiO2 interface. As a result, unless appropriate interstrip isolation is applied, the n-type strips are short-circuited. Widely adopted methods to terminate surface electron accumulation are segmented p-stop or p-spray field implantations. A different approach to overcome the near-surface electron accumulation at the interface of silicon dioxide and p-type silicon is to deposit a thin film field insulator with negative oxide charge. We have processed silicon strip detectors on p-type Magnetic Czochralski silicon (MCz-Si) substrates with aluminum oxide (Al2O3) thin film insulator, grown with Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD) method. The electrical characterization by current-voltage and capacitance-voltage measurement shows reliable performance of the aluminum oxide. The final proof of concept was obtained at the test beam with 200 GeV/c muons. For the non-irradiated detector the charge collection efficiency (CCE) was nearly 100% with a signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) of about 40, whereas for the 2×1015 neq/cm2 proton irradiated detector the CCE was 35%, when the sensor was biased at 500 V. These results are comparable with the results from p-type detectors with the p-spray and p-stop interstrip isolation techniques. In addition, interestingly, when the aluminum oxide was irradiated with Co-60 gamma-rays, an accumulation of negative fixed oxide charge in the oxide was observed.

  1. Experimental Air Pressure Tank Systems for Process Control Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Long, Christopher E.; Holland, Charles E.; Gatzke, Edward P.

    2006-01-01

    In process control education, particularly in the field of chemical engineering, there is an inherent need for industrially relevant hands-on apparatuses that enable one to bridge the gap between the theoretical content of coursework and real-world applications. At the University of South Carolina, two experimental air-pressure tank systems have…

  2. Conveyorized Photoresist Stripping Replacement for Flex Circuit Fabrication

    SciTech Connect

    Megan Donahue

    2009-02-24

    A replacement conveyorized photoresist stripping system was characterized to replace the ASI photoresist stripping system. This system uses the qualified ADF-25c chemistry for the fabrication of flex circuits, while the ASI uses the qualified potassium hydroxide chemistry. The stripping process removes photoresist, which is used to protect the copper traces being formed during the etch process.

  3. Combustion Technology for Incinerating Wastes from Air Force Industrial Processes.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-02-01

    Conservation and Recovery Act and are properly disposed at cost to the Air Force. Onsite incineration with heat recovery is being considered as a...the heat released during thermal processing could reduce the costs of waste incineration. 0 * Normally, relatively small amounts of individual wastes...wastes. Task 3: Combustion Analysis. Determine and quantify the essential combustion parameters of industrial process wastes with respect to heat

  4. Stripping of titanium from TBP-decanol phase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mao, X. H.

    2017-01-01

    The stripping of titanium from TBP-decanol phase with hydrochloric acid has been investigated. The results showed that the stripping rate of titanium increased with decreased hydrochloric acid concentration in the aqueous phase, decreased organic and aqueous phase ratio and increased stripping temperature. Extracted titanium was easy to strip and 0.5 mol/L hydrochloric acid was suitable stripping agent. The kinetics of the stripping process was fast, since the equilibrium was reached in 10 minutes. The extraction and stripping isotherms showed that through extraction and stripping titanium (IV) was separated and enriched as about five fold. The simulated extraction and stripping of titanium (IV) in leaching solution of blast furnace slag were proceeded.

  5. Lateral flow strip assay

    SciTech Connect

    Miles, Robin R; Benett, William J; Coleman, Matthew A; Pearson, Francesca S; Nasarabadi, Shanavaz L

    2011-03-08

    A lateral flow strip assay apparatus comprising a housing; a lateral flow strip in the housing, the lateral flow strip having a receiving portion; a sample collection unit; and a reagent reservoir. Saliva and/or buccal cells are collected from an individual using the sample collection unit. The sample collection unit is immersed in the reagent reservoir. The tip of the lateral flow strip is immersed in the reservoir and the reagent/sample mixture wicks up into the lateral flow strip to perform the assay.

  6. Process to manufacture effervescent tablets: air forced oven melt granulation.

    PubMed

    Yanze, F M; Duru, C; Jacob, M

    2000-12-01

    In the present study we apply melt granulation in an air forced oven, called "are forced oven melt granulation" to the single-stage manufacture of effervescent granules consisting of anhydrous citric acid (43.2%) and sodium bicarbonate (56.8%) in order to make tablets. This study established that process parameters such as concentration of PEG 6000, residence time in the air forced oven, fineness of PEG 6000, fineness of the initial effervescent mix and efficiency of two lubricants markedly influenced several granule and tablet characteristics. The granules ready to be compressed into tablets were stable for 7 days at 60% RH/18 degrees C. It is a dry, simple, rapid, effective, economical, reproducible process particularly well suited to the manufacture of effervescent granules which are easily compressed into effervescent tablets. Of all the formulations tested, only formulations B2 and E2 melt granulated for 30 minutes gave tablets which had optimum compression characteristics without processing problems during compression.

  7. Materials, design and processing of air encapsulated MEMS packaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fritz, Nathan T.

    This work uses a three-dimensional air cavity technology to improve the fabrication, and functionality of microelectronics devices, performance of on-board transmission lines, and packaging of micro-electromechanical systems (MEMS). The air cavity process makes use of the decomposition of a patterned sacrificial polymer followed by the diffusion of its by-products through a curing polymer overcoat to obtain the embedded air structure. Applications and research of air cavities have focused on simple designs that concentrate on the size and functionality of the particular device. However, a lack of guidelines for fabrication, materials used, and structural design has led to mechanical stability issues and processing refinements. This work investigates improved air gap cavities for use in MEMS packaging processes, resulting in fewer fabrication flaws and lower cost. The identification of new materials, such as novel photo-definable organic/inorganic hybrid polymers, was studied for increased strength and rigidity due to their glass-like structure. A novel epoxy polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane (POSS) material was investigated and characterized for use as a photodefineable, permanent dielectrics with improved mechanical properties. The POSS material improved the air gap fabrication because it served as a high-selectivity etch mask for patterning sacrificial materials as well as a cavity overcoat material with improved rigidity. An investigation of overcoat thickness and decomposition kinetics provided a fundamental understanding of the properties that impart mechanical stability to cavities of different shape and volume. Metallization of the cavities was investigated so as to provide hermetic sealing and improved cavity strength. The improved air cavity, wafer-level packages were tested using resonator-type devices and chip-level lead frame packaging. The air cavity package was molded under traditional lead frame molding pressures and tested for mechanical

  8. Improvement of the conditions of high-accuracy rolling of soft magnetic strips due to the application of a refined mathematical model of the process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Traino, A. I.; Rusakov, A. D.

    2012-03-01

    The specific features of deformation during cold rolling are studied to develop a refined model for the cold rolling of precision soft magnetic strips. The results of development of the theory of cold rolling are used for highly worked thin strips to calculate and optimize the technological conditions of production of a wide range of precision strips applied in instrument making, electrotechnical industry, and so on.

  9. Process for removing an organic compound from water

    DOEpatents

    Baker, Richard W.; Kaschemekat, Jurgen; Wijmans, Johannes G.; Kamaruddin, Henky D.

    1993-12-28

    A process for removing organic compounds from water is disclosed. The process involves gas stripping followed by membrane separation treatment of the stripping gas. The stripping step can be carried out using one or multiple gas strippers and using air or any other gas as stripping gas. The membrane separation step can be carried out using a single-stage membrane unit or a multistage unit. Apparatus for carrying out the process is also disclosed. The process is particularly suited for treatment of contaminated groundwater or industrial wastewater.

  10. Ignition, Burning, and Extinction of a Strained Fuel Strip

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Selerland, T.; Karagozian, A. R.

    1996-01-01

    Flame structure and ignition and extinction processes associated with a strained fuel strip are explored numerically using detailed transport and complex kinetics for a propane-air reaction. Ignition modes are identified that are similar to those predicted by one-step activation energy asymptotics, i.e., modes in which diffusion flames can ignite as independent or dependent interfaces, and modes in which single premixed or partially premixed flames ignite. These ignition modes are found to be dependent on critical combinations of strain rate, fuel strip thickness, and initial reactant temperatures. Extinction in this configuration is seen to occur due to fuel consumption by adjacent flames, although viscosity is seen to have the effect of delaying extinction by reducing the effective strain rate and velocity field experienced by the flames.

  11. Word Processing: The Air Force Administrators’ Handbook

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-05-01

    LEYEL > WORD PROCESSING ERRORCOP Qis 4 pL THE? ~ AIR FORCE ADMINISTRATOR$.! ’--s..HANDBOOK 400 Zi LUPRED F~ Fiir [rLT The views and opinions...INSTRUCTIONSBEFORE COMPLETING FORM I. REPORT NUMBER .O.Vk Er.;. NO. R CIPIENT’S CATALOG NUMBER 4. TITLE (and Subtitle) S. ’TYPE OF REPORT & PERIOD COVERED WORD ...Accession No. ADB 040882 L 19. KEY WORDS (Continue on reverse aide it necessary and identify by block number) Administration / / Administrative Systems

  12. Anatomy comic strips.

    PubMed

    Park, Jin Seo; Kim, Dae Hyun; Chung, Min Suk

    2011-01-01

    Comics are powerful visual messages that convey immediate visceral meaning in ways that conventional texts often cannot. This article's authors created comic strips to teach anatomy more interestingly and effectively. Four-frame comic strips were conceptualized from a set of anatomy-related humorous stories gathered from the authors' collective imagination. The comics were drawn on paper and then recreated with digital graphics software. More than 500 comic strips have been drawn and labeled in Korean language, and some of them have been translated into English. All comic strips can be viewed on the Department of Anatomy homepage at the Ajou University School of Medicine, Suwon, Republic of Korea. The comic strips were written and drawn by experienced anatomists, and responses from viewers have generally been favorable. These anatomy comic strips, designed to help students learn the complexities of anatomy in a straightforward and humorous way, are expected to be improved further by the authors and other interested anatomists.

  13. Thermal-Balance Strip for Fluted LFC Panels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bono, P.

    1985-01-01

    Waviness of less than 0.004 inch achieved using titanium strips. Process uses titanium balancing strips to keep waviness within 0.004inch limit. Balancing strips reduce thermal bonding stresses on lower fiberglass fluted sections and placed so fiberglass ends up sandwiched between porous titanium skin and titanium balance strip. Method requires less skill and less labor intensive than composite-wrapped-mandrel method.

  14. Matching plant and animal processes to alter nutrient supply in strip-grazed cattle: timing of herbage and fasting allocation.

    PubMed

    Gregorini, P; Gunter, S A; Beck, P A

    2008-04-01

    This work aimed to assess the impact of timing of herbage allocation and fasting on patterns of ingestive behavior, herbage intake, ruminal fermentation, nutrient flow to the duodenum, and site and extent of digestion. Treatments were daily herbage allocation in the afternoon (1500 h, AHA), morning (0800 h, MHA), AHA after 20 h of fasting (AHAF), and MHA after 20 h of fasting (MHAF). Four ruminally and duodenally fistulated heifers (279 +/- 99 kg of BW) individually strip-grazed wheat pastures in a Latin-square design. Eating, rumination, and idling behavior were recorded every 2 min, and bite and eating step rates were measured hourly while the heifers were grazing (11 h MHA and AHA; 4 h MHAF and AHAF). Ruminal DM pools were measured 4 times daily (0800, 1200, 1500, and 1900 h) to estimate daily herbage DMI and its pattern. Ruminal fluid was sampled at these same times and also at 2300 h. Duodenal digesta was sampled over 2 d to determine the site of herbage digestibility. Treatments did not affect daily herbage DMI (16.5 g/ kg of BW, SE = 0.0025; P > 0.05). However, they altered the eating pattern; the evening grazing bout of AHA and AHAF was greater (P < 0.05) and more intense (P < 0.05 for bite mass and rate, eating step, and intake rates). Ruminal nonglucogenic:glucogenic VFA ratio and pH were lower (P < 0.05) for AHA and AHAF during the evening. The flow of OM, N, microbial protein, and nonmicrobial OM to the duodenum did not vary (P > 0.05) among MHA, MHAF, and AHAF; however, it averaged 970, 40, 300, and 540 g/d, respectively, greater (P < 0.05) for AHA. Total tract digestibility did not differ (P > 0.05) for MHA, AHA, and AHAF, but was lower for MHAF (P < 0.05). Apparent ruminal digestion did not differ (P > 0.05) within fasted and nonfasted treatments; however, it was greater (P < 0.05) for fasted than nonfasted treatments. True OM ruminally digested did not differ (P > 0.05) among MHA, MHAF, and AHAF, but was greater (P < 0.05) for AHA. The results

  15. In situ aeration: Air sparging, bioventing, and related remediation process

    SciTech Connect

    Hinchee, R.E.; Miller, R.N.; Johnson, P.C.

    1995-12-31

    This volume is part of a ten volume set of papers derived from the Third International In Situ and On-Site Bioreclamation Symposium which was held in San Diego, California, in April 1995. The purpose of the conference was to provide a multidisciplinary forum for exchange of state-of-the-art information on bioremediation. This volume focuses on the use of air sparging, bioventing, and other aeration processes to remediate hydrocarbon-contaminated soils and groundwater. Individual papers have been processed separately for inclusion in the appropriate data bases.

  16. Delta XTE Spacecraft Arrives at CCAS Skid Strip

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    Footage shows the U.S Air Force Aircraft "Air Mobility Command" approaching, and landing at the Cape Canaveral Air Station Skid Strip (CCAS). The truck carrying the Delta XTE Spacecraft is also shown as it leaves the Air Mobility Command.

  17. Supporting the Future Air Traffic Control Projection Process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davison, Hayley J.; Hansman, R. John, Jr.

    2002-01-01

    In air traffic control, projecting what the air traffic situation will be over the next 30 seconds to 30 minutes is a key process in identifying conflicts that may arise so that evasive action can be taken upon discovery of these conflicts. A series of field visits in the Boston and New York terminal radar approach control (TRACON) facilities and in the oceanic air traffic control facilities in New York and Reykjavik, Iceland were conducted to investigate the projection process in two different ATC domains. The results from the site visits suggest that two types of projection are currently used in ATC tasks, depending on the type of separation minima and/or traffic restriction and information display used by the controller. As technologies improve and procedures change, care should be taken by designers to support projection through displays, automation, and procedures. It is critical to prevent time/space mismatches between interfaces and restrictions. Existing structure in traffic dynamics could be utilized to provide controllers with useful behavioral models on which to build projections. Subtle structure that the controllers are unable to internalize could be incorporated into an ATC projection aid.

  18. AISI/DOE Advanced Process Control Program Vol. 3 of 6: MICROSTRUCTURAL ENGINEERING IN HOT-STRIP MILLS Part 2 of 2: Constitutive Behavior Modeling of Steels Under Hot-Rolling Conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Yi-Wen Cheng; Patrick Purtscher

    1999-07-30

    This report describes the development of models for predicting (1) constitutive behaviors and (2) mechanical properties of hot-rolled steels as functions of chemical composition, microstructural features, and processing variables. The study includes the following eight steels: A36, DQSK, HSLA-V, HSLA-Nb, HSLA-50/Ti-Nb, and two interstitial-free (IF) grades. These developed models have been integrated into the Hot-Strip Mill Model (HSMM), which simulates the hot strip rolling mills and predicts the mechanical properties of hot-rolled products. The HSMM model has been developed by the University of British Columbia-Canada as a part of project on the microstructural engineering in hot-strip mills.

  19. Generation of low-temperature air plasma for food processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stepanova, Olga; Demidova, Maria; Astafiev, Alexander; Pinchuk, Mikhail; Balkir, Pinar; Turantas, Fulya

    2015-11-01

    The project is aimed at developing a physical and technical foundation of generating plasma with low gas temperature at atmospheric pressure for food industry needs. As known, plasma has an antimicrobial effect on the numerous types of microorganisms, including those that cause food spoilage. In this work an original experimental setup has been developed for the treatment of different foods. It is based on initiating corona or dielectric-barrier discharge in a chamber filled with ambient air in combination with a certain helium admixture. The experimental setup provides various conditions of discharge generation (including discharge gap geometry, supply voltage, velocity of gas flow, content of helium admixture in air and working pressure) and allows for the measurement of the electrical discharge parameters. Some recommendations on choosing optimal conditions of discharge generation for experiments on plasma food processing are developed.

  20. Effects of air flow directions on composting process temperature profile

    SciTech Connect

    Kulcu, Recep; Yaldiz, Osman

    2008-07-01

    In this study, chicken manure mixed with carnation wastes was composted by using three different air flow directions: R1-sucking (downward), R2-blowing (upward) and R3-mixed. The aim was to find out the most appropriate air flow direction type for composting to provide more homogenous temperature distribution in the reactors. The efficiency of each aeration method was evaluated by monitoring the evolution of parameters such as temperature, moisture content, CO{sub 2} and O{sub 2} ratio in the material and dry material losses. Aeration of the reactors was managed by radial fans. The results showed that R3 resulted in a more homogenous temperature distribution and high dry material loss throughout the composting process. The most heterogeneous temperature distribution and the lowest dry material loss were obtained in R2.

  1. Process study and exergy analysis of a novel air separation process cooled by LNG cold energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Wendong; Duan, Jiao; Mao, Wenjun

    2014-02-01

    In order to resolve the problems of the current air separation process such as the complex process, cumbersome operation and high operating costs, a novel air separation process cooled by LNG cold energy is proposed in this paper, which is based on high-efficiency heat exchanger network and chemical packing separation technology. The operating temperature range of LNG cold energy is widened from 133K-203K to 113K-283K by high-efficiency heat exchanger network and air separation pressure is declined from 0.5MPa to about 0.35MPa due to packing separation technology, thereby greatly improve the energy efficiency. Both the traditional and novel air separation processes are simulated with air handling capacity of 20t·h-1. Comparing with the traditional process, the LNG consumption is reduced by 44.2%, power consumption decrease is 211.5 kWh per hour, which means the annual benefit will be up to 1.218 million CNY. And the exergy efficiency is also improved by 42.5%.

  2. Science Comic Strips

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Dae Hyun; Jang, Hae Gwon; Shin, Dong Sun; Kim, Sun-Ja; Yoo, Chang Young; Chung, Min Suk

    2012-01-01

    Science comic strips entitled Dr. Scifun were planned to promote science jobs and studies among professionals (scientists, graduate and undergraduate students) and children. To this end, the authors collected intriguing science stories as the basis of scenarios, and drew four-cut comic strips, first on paper and subsequently as computer files.…

  3. Anatomy Comic Strips

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Jin Seo; Kim, Dae Hyun; Chung, Min Suk

    2011-01-01

    Comics are powerful visual messages that convey immediate visceral meaning in ways that conventional texts often cannot. This article's authors created comic strips to teach anatomy more interestingly and effectively. Four-frame comic strips were conceptualized from a set of anatomy-related humorous stories gathered from the authors' collective…

  4. Ozone Generation in Air during Electron Beam Processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cleland, Marshall R.; Galloway, Richard A.

    Ozone, the triatomic form of oxygen, can be generated by exposing normal diatomic oxygen gas to energetic electrons, X-rays, nuclear gamma rays, short-wavelength ultraviolet radiation (UV) and electrical discharges. Ozone is toxic to all forms of life, and governmental regulations have been established to protect people from excessive exposures to this gas. The human threshold limit values (TLV) vary from 60 to 100 parts per billion (ppb) in air, depending on the agency or country involved. Much higher concentrations can be produced inside industrial electron beam (EB) facilities, so methods for ozone removal must be provided. Equations for calculating the ozone yield vs absorbed energy, the production rate vs absorbed power, and the concentration in the air of an EB facility are presented in this paper. Since the production rate and concentration are proportional to the EB power dissipated in air, they are dependent on the design and application of the irradiation facility. Examples of these calculations are given for a typical EB process to cross-link insulated electrical wire or plastic tubing. The electron energy and beam power are assumed to be 1.5 MeV and 75 kW.

  5. MEMBRANE-MODERATED STRIPPING PROCESS FOR REMOVING VOCS FROM WATER IN A COMPOSITE HOLLOW FIBER MODULE. (R825511C027)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The "stripmeation" process for removing volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from water has been introduced and studied. An aqueous solution of the VOC is passed through the bores of hydrophobic microporous polypropylene hollow fibers having a plasma polymerized silicone ...

  6. Corrosion study in the chemical air separation (MOLTOX trademark ) process

    SciTech Connect

    Kang, Doohee; Wong, Kai P.; Archer, R.A.; Cassano, A.A.

    1988-12-01

    This report presents the results of studies aimed at solving the corrosion problems encountered during operation of the MOLTOX{trademark} pilot plant. These studies concentrated on the screening of commercial and developmental alloys under conditions simulating operation conditions in this high temperature molten salt process. Process economic studies were preformed in parallel with the laboratory testing to ensure that an economically feasible solution would be achieved. In addition to the above DOE co-funded studies, Air Products and Chemicals pursued proprietary studies aimed at developing a less corrosive salt mixture which would potentially allow the use of chemurgically available alloys such as stainless steels throughout the system. These studies will not be reported here; however, the results of corrosion tests in the new less corrosive salt mixtures are reported. Because our own studies on salt chemistry impacts heavily on the overall process and thereby has an influence on the experimental work conducted under this contract, some of the studies discussed here were impacted by our own proprietary data. Therefore, the reasons behind some of the experiments presented herein will not be explained because that information is proprietary to Air Products. 14 refs., 42 figs., 21 tabs.

  7. 40 CFR 265.1032 - Standards: Process vents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... owner or operator of a fa-cil-ity with process vents associated with distillation, fractionation, thin-film evaporation, solvent extraction or -air or steam stripping operations man-aging haz-ard-ous...

  8. 40 CFR 265.1032 - Standards: Process vents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... owner or operator of a fa-cil-ity with process vents associated with distillation, fractionation, thin-film evaporation, solvent extraction or -air or steam stripping operations man-aging haz-ard-ous...

  9. Air

    MedlinePlus

    ... do to protect yourself from dirty air . Indoor air pollution and outdoor air pollution Air can be polluted indoors and it can ... this chart to see what things cause indoor air pollution and what things cause outdoor air pollution! Indoor ...

  10. 32 CFR 806.29 - Administrative processing of Air Force FOIA requests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Administrative processing of Air Force FOIA... FORCE ADMINISTRATION AIR FORCE FREEDOM OF INFORMATION ACT PROGRAM § 806.29 Administrative processing of Air Force FOIA requests. (a) This section is a checklist format of processing steps and...

  11. 32 CFR 806.29 - Administrative processing of Air Force FOIA requests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Administrative processing of Air Force FOIA... FORCE ADMINISTRATION AIR FORCE FREEDOM OF INFORMATION ACT PROGRAM § 806.29 Administrative processing of Air Force FOIA requests. (a) This section is a checklist format of processing steps and...

  12. 32 CFR 806.29 - Administrative processing of Air Force FOIA requests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Administrative processing of Air Force FOIA... FORCE ADMINISTRATION AIR FORCE FREEDOM OF INFORMATION ACT PROGRAM § 806.29 Administrative processing of Air Force FOIA requests. (a) This section is a checklist format of processing steps and...

  13. 32 CFR 806.29 - Administrative processing of Air Force FOIA requests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Administrative processing of Air Force FOIA... FORCE ADMINISTRATION AIR FORCE FREEDOM OF INFORMATION ACT PROGRAM § 806.29 Administrative processing of Air Force FOIA requests. (a) This section is a checklist format of processing steps and...

  14. 32 CFR 806.29 - Administrative processing of Air Force FOIA requests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Administrative processing of Air Force FOIA... FORCE ADMINISTRATION AIR FORCE FREEDOM OF INFORMATION ACT PROGRAM § 806.29 Administrative processing of Air Force FOIA requests. (a) This section is a checklist format of processing steps and...

  15. Investigation of ammonia air-surface exchange processes in a ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Recent assessments of atmospheric deposition in North America note the increasing importance of reduced (NHx = NH3 + NH4+) forms of nitrogen (N) relative to oxidized forms. This shift in in the composition of inorganic nitrogen deposition has both ecological and policy implications. Deposition budgets developed from inferential models applied at the landscape scale, as well as regional and global chemical transport models, indicate that NH3 dry deposition contributes a significant portion of inorganic N deposition in many areas. However, the bidirectional NH3 flux algorithms employed in these models have not been extensively evaluated for North American conditions (e.g, atmospheric chemistry, meteorology, biogeochemistry). Further understanding of the processes controlling NH3 air-surface exchange in natural systems is critically needed. Based on preliminary results from the Southern Appalachian Nitrogen Deposition Study (SANDS), this presentation examines processes of NH3 air-surface exchange in a deciduous montane forest at the Coweeta Hydrologic Laboratory in western North Carolina. A combination of measurements and modeling are used to investigate net fluxes of NH3 above the forest and sources and sinks of NH3 within the canopy and forest floor. Measurements of biogeochemical NH4+ pools are used to characterize emission potential and NH3 compensation points of canopy foliage (i.e., green vegetation), leaf litter, and soil and their relation to NH3 fluxes

  16. Electron stripping processes of H- ion beam in the 80 kV high voltage extraction column and low energy beam transport line at LANSCE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Draganic, I. N.

    2016-02-01

    Basic vacuum calculations were performed for various operating conditions of the Los Alamos National Neutron Science H- Cockcroft-Walton (CW) injector and the Ion Source Test Stand (ISTS). The vacuum pressure was estimated for both the CW and ISTS at five different points: (1) inside the H- ion source, (2) in front of the Pierce electrode, (3) at the extraction electrode, (4) at the column electrode, and (5) at the ground electrode. A static vacuum analysis of residual gases and the working hydrogen gas was completed for the normal ion source working regime. Gas density and partial pressure were estimated for the injected hydrogen gas. The attenuation of H- beam current and generation of electron current in the high voltage acceleration columns and low energy beam transport lines were calculated. The interaction of H- ions on molecular hydrogen (H2) is discussed as a dominant collision process in describing electron stripping rates. These results are used to estimate the observed increase in the ratio of electrons to H- ion beam in the ISTS beam transport line.

  17. Electron stripping processes of H{sup −} ion beam in the 80 kV high voltage extraction column and low energy beam transport line at LANSCE

    SciTech Connect

    Draganic, I. N.

    2016-02-15

    Basic vacuum calculations were performed for various operating conditions of the Los Alamos National Neutron Science H{sup −} Cockcroft-Walton (CW) injector and the Ion Source Test Stand (ISTS). The vacuum pressure was estimated for both the CW and ISTS at five different points: (1) inside the H{sup −} ion source, (2) in front of the Pierce electrode, (3) at the extraction electrode, (4) at the column electrode, and (5) at the ground electrode. A static vacuum analysis of residual gases and the working hydrogen gas was completed for the normal ion source working regime. Gas density and partial pressure were estimated for the injected hydrogen gas. The attenuation of H{sup −} beam current and generation of electron current in the high voltage acceleration columns and low energy beam transport lines were calculated. The interaction of H{sup −} ions on molecular hydrogen (H{sub 2}) is discussed as a dominant collision process in describing electron stripping rates. These results are used to estimate the observed increase in the ratio of electrons to H{sup −} ion beam in the ISTS beam transport line.

  18. 32 CFR 806.27 - Samples of Air Force FOIA processing documents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Samples of Air Force FOIA processing documents. 806.27 Section 806.27 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE ADMINISTRATION AIR FORCE FREEDOM OF INFORMATION ACT PROGRAM § 806.27 Samples of Air Force FOIA...

  19. 32 CFR 806.27 - Samples of Air Force FOIA processing documents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Samples of Air Force FOIA processing documents. 806.27 Section 806.27 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE ADMINISTRATION AIR FORCE FREEDOM OF INFORMATION ACT PROGRAM § 806.27 Samples of Air Force FOIA...

  20. 32 CFR 806.27 - Samples of Air Force FOIA processing documents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Samples of Air Force FOIA processing documents. 806.27 Section 806.27 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE ADMINISTRATION AIR FORCE FREEDOM OF INFORMATION ACT PROGRAM § 806.27 Samples of Air Force FOIA...

  1. Microtube strip heat exchanger

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doty, F. D.

    1991-04-01

    During the last quarter, Doty Scientific, Inc. (DSI) continued to make progress on the microtube strip (MTS) heat exchangers. The team has begun a heat exchanger stress analysis; however, they have been concentrating the bulk of their analytical energies on a computational fluid dynmaics (CFD) model to determine the location and magnitude of shell-side flow maldistribution which decreases heat exchanger effectiveness. DSI received 120 fineblanked tubestrips from Southern Fineblanking (SFB) for manufacturing process development. Both SFB and NIST provided inspection reports of the tubestrips. DSI completed the tooling required to encapsulate a tube array and press tubestrips on the array. Pressing the tubestrips on tube arrays showed design deficiencies both in the tubestrip design and the tooling design. DSI has a number of revisions in process to correct these deficiencies. The research effort has identified a more economical fusible alloy for encapsulating the tube array, and determined the parameters required to successfully encapsulate the tube array with the new alloy. A more compact MTS heat exchanger bank was designed.

  2. Value enhancement of olivine process dust through air classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kleiv, R. A.

    2012-03-01

    As a result of the production of dry olivine sand products at A/S Olivin's production plant at Åheim in western Norway, an annual quantity of some 20000-30000 t of process dust is produced. The bulk of this material is currently being sold as a slag conditioner at a relatively low price; hence, alternative uses of the process dust are now being sought. Information regarding the chemical composition of the material as a function of particle size facilitates product modifications through exclusion or mixing of individual size fractions. This paper demonstrates how such information can be obtained from air classification experiments when these are combined with chemical analysis of the produced size fractions. The classification and subsequent analysis of the olivine process dust revealed that the finer size fractions had high loss on ignition (LOI) values and were relatively low in MgO when compared with the bulk analysis. Removal of the finer fractions resulted in a remaining coarse product of significantly higher quality. The coarse material could be used as a raw material for further processing; it could be recycled or it could constitute a new product in itself.

  3. Treatment of stripping perforations.

    PubMed

    Allam, C R

    1996-12-01

    Strippings are problems that are frequent on thin and concave roots. Treatment and prognosis differ from that of a lateral root perforation because of the size, oval shape, and thin edges of the striping. We propose a two-step technique: an endodontic phase in which the root canal system is sealed with gutta-percha overflowing through the stripping perforation and a surgical second step that will allow elimination of this excess.

  4. Geometrical deuteron stripping revisited

    SciTech Connect

    Neoh, Y. S.; Yap, S. L.

    2014-03-05

    We investigate the reality of the idea of geometrical deuteron stripping originally envisioned by Serber. By taking into account of realistic deuteron wavefunction, nuclear density, and nucleon stopping mean free path, we are able to estimate inclusive deuteron stripping cross section for deuteron energy up to before pion production. Our semiclassical model contains only one global parameter constant for all nuclei which can be approximated by Woods-Saxon or any other spherically symmetric density distribution.

  5. Bench-Scale Development of a Hot Carbonate Absorption Process with Crystallization-Enabled High Pressure Stripping for Post-Combustion CO{sub 2} Capture

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, Yongqi

    2014-02-01

    This report summarizes the methodology and preliminary results of a techno-economic analysis on a hot carbonate absorption process (Hot-CAP) with crystallization-enabled high pressure stripping for post-combustion CO{sub 2} capture (PCC). This analysis was based on the Hot-CAP that is fully integrated with a sub-critical steam cycle, pulverized coal-fired power plant adopted in Case 10 of the DOE/NETL’s Cost and Performance Baseline for Fossil Energy Plants. The techno-economic analysis addressed several important aspects of the Hot-CAP for PCC application, including process design and simulation, equipment sizing, technical risk and mitigation strategy, performance evaluation, and cost analysis. Results show that the net power produced in the subcritical power plant equipped with Hot-CAP is 611 MWe, greater than that with Econoamine (550 MWe). The total capital cost for the Hot-CAP, including CO{sub 2} compression, is $399 million, less than that for the Econoamine PCC ($493 million). O&M costs for the power plant with Hot-CAP is $175 million annually, less than that with Econoamine ($178 million). The 20-year levelized cost of electricity (LCOE) for the power plant with Hot-CAP, including CO2 transportation and storage, is 119.4 mills/kWh, a 59% increase over that for the plant without CO2 capture. The LCOE increase caused by CO{sub 2} capture for the Hot-CAP is 31% lower than that for its Econoamine counterpart.

  6. Fact Sheet - Final Air Toxics Rule for Gold Mine Ore Processing and Production

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Fact sheet summarizing main points of National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for gold ore processing and production facilities, the seventh largest source of mercury air emission in the United States.

  7. Advanced fuel hydrocarbon remediation national test location - in situ air sparging system (revised)

    SciTech Connect

    Health, J.; Lory, E.

    1997-03-01

    Air sparging is the process of injecting clean air directly into an aquifer for remediation of contaminated groundwater. For removing contaminants, air sparging relies on two basic mechanisms working either alone or in tandem: biodegradation and volatilization. The objective of air sparging is to force air through contaminated aquifer materials to provide oxygen for bioremediation and/or to strip contaminants out of the aquifer.

  8. Mobile Air Monitoring Data Processing Strategies and Effects on Spatial Air Pollution Trends

    EPA Science Inventory

    The collection of real-time air quality measurements while in motion (i.e., mobile monitoring) is currently conducted worldwide to evaluate in situ emissions, local air quality trends, and air pollutant exposure. This measurement strategy pushes the limits of traditional data an...

  9. Wintertime air-sea interaction processes across the Gulf Stream

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bane, John M.; Osgood, Kenric E.

    1989-08-01

    Aircraft, buoy and satellite measurements have been used to study the wintertime air-sea interaction processes across the Gulf Stream during January 25-30, 1986. The turbulent flux regime in the marine atmospheric boundary layer exhibited considerable spatial and temporal variability during this 6-day period, which was related to both the evolution of the synoptic scale atmospheric conditions and the sea surface temperature (SST) field. During the pre-storm conditions prior to January 25, the spatial structure of the SST field played an important role in generating a shallow atmospheric frontal zone along the Gulf Stream front by causing differential heating of the marine atmospheric boundary layer over the stream versus over the cooler shelf waters. As this front moved shoreward on January 25, the warm, moist, maritime air flowing northwestward behind the front induced moderate ocean-to-atmosphere heat fluxes (˜300 W m-2 total heat flux measured over the core of the Gulf Stream). The subsequent outbreak of eastward flowing cold, dry, continental air over the ocean on January 27 and 28 generated high total heat fluxes (˜1060 W m-2 over the core of the Stream), as did a second, somewhat weaker outbreak which followed on January 30 (˜680 W2 over the core of the Stream). During each of these outbreaks, with air flowing from land out over the continental shelf, Gulf Stream and Sargasso Sea waters, the SST field again affected the spatial structure of the flux fields. The near-surface fluxes of both sensible and latent heat were found to be relatively low over the cool continental shelf waters, while higher fluxes were seen over the Gulf Stream and Sargasso Sea. Similar spatial structure was seen in the near-surface momentum flux values, but relative changes were typically smaller from one location to another on a particular day. The most noticeable responses of the Gulf Stream to these surface fluxes were the deepening of its mixed layer and a loss of upper layer

  10. Continuous Process Improvement at Tinker Air Logistics Complex

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-03-01

    Abstract The Air Logistics Complexes (ALC) represent the Air Force’s largest Maintenance, Repair, and Overhaul ( MRO ) Operations. The ALCs strive to...this problem is important to the ALCs because it provides a roadmap for how to sustain Maintenance, Repair and Overhaul ( MRO ) actions with less...ALC) represent the Air Force’s largest Maintenance, Repair, and Overhaul ( MRO ) Operations. The ALCs strive to become leaner by reducing Work In

  11. Validation of the Hot Strip Mill Model

    SciTech Connect

    Richard Shulkosky; David Rosberg; Jerrud Chapman

    2005-03-30

    The Hot Strip Mill Model (HSMM) is an off-line, PC based software originally developed by the University of British Columbia (UBC) and the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) under the AISI/DOE Advanced Process Control Program. The HSMM was developed to predict the temperatures, deformations, microstructure evolution and mechanical properties of steel strip or plate rolled in a hot mill. INTEG process group inc. undertook the current task of enhancing and validating the technology. With the support of 5 North American steel producers, INTEG process group tested and validated the model using actual operating data from the steel plants and enhanced the model to improve prediction results.

  12. [Post-stripping telangiectasis].

    PubMed

    Hutinel, B; Maraval, M

    1985-01-01

    These telangiectasia appear between one and six months after the operation, especially in cases of capillary fragility. The most common localizations are the antero-internal and external sides of the thighs and knees. Unnecessary strippings, of continent saphenous veins, are the most frequent cause of these. Their prevention consists of the least possible traumatising stripping, using a fine stripper, a very rigorous post-operative support, and the wearing of light varicose stockings or tights for between one and three months. The treatment using microsclerosis, often delicate, should not be undertaken before six months.

  13. EMISSIONS PROCESSING FOR THE ETA/ CMAQ AIR QUALITY FORECAST SYSTEM

    EPA Science Inventory

    NOAA and EPA have created an Air Quality Forecast (AQF) system. This AQF system links an adaptation of the EPA's Community Multiscale Air Quality Model with the 12 kilometer ETA model running operationally at NOAA's National Center for Environmental Predication (NCEP). One of the...

  14. Mastering Interproximal Stripping: With Innovations in Slenderization

    PubMed Central

    Shrivastav, Sunita S; Hazarey, Pushpa V

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT Crowding and irregularity remain a consistent problem for children. Management of space problems continues to play an important role in a dental practice. It also represents an area of major interaction between the primary provider and the specialists. Proximal stripping is routinely carried out to avoid extraction in borderline cases where space discrepancy is less and in cases where there is a discrepancy between the mesio- distal width of maxillary and mandibular teeth to satisfy Bolton ratio. Proximal stripping is carried out using of metallic abrasive strip, safe sided carborundum disk, or with long thin tapered fissure burs with air rotor. The use of rotary cutting instrument can harm the pulp by exposure of mechanical vibration and heat generation (in some cases). Whereas, the large diameter of the disk obstructs vision of the working area. Also fracturing away a portion is a common problem with disk. Tapered fissure burs cut the tooth structure as the width of bur or overcutting may occur of the tooth structure due to high speed. The use of metallic abrasive strip is the safest procedure amongst the above. The strip can be placed in the anterior region without any difficulty but using it in the posterior region is difficult as, it is difficult to hold it with fingers while stripping the posterior teeth. To avoid this inconvenience here with a simple and economical way of fabricating strip holder from routine lab material is presented. Clinical implications: Proper management of space in the primary and mixed dentitions can prevent unnecessary loss in arch length. Diagnosing and treating space problems requires an understanding of the etiology of crowding and the development of the dentition to render treatment for the mild, moderate and severe crowding cases. Most crowding problems with less than 4.5 mm can be resolved through preservation of the leeway space, regaining space or limited expansion in the late mixed dentition. In cases with 5 to 9 mm

  15. Influence of the gas composition on the efficiency of ammonia stripping of biogas digestate.

    PubMed

    Bousek, J; Scroccaro, D; Sima, Jan; Weissenbacher, Norbert; Fuchs, W

    2016-03-01

    Impact of strip gas composition on side stream ammonia stripping, a technology aiming at the reduction of high ammonia levels in anaerobic reactors, was investigated. Evaluation of the effect of oxygen contact during air stripping showed a distinct, though lower than perceived, inhibition of anaerobic microflora. To circumvent, the feasibility and possible constraints of biogas and flue gas as alternatives in side stream stripping were studied. Experiments, with ammonia bicarbonate model solution and digestate, were conducted. It was demonstrated that the stripping performance is negatively correlated to the CO2 level in the strip gas with a progressive performance loss towards higher concentrations. In contrast to biogas with its high CO2 content, the efficiency reduction observed for flue gas was significantly less pronounced. The later provides the additional benefit that its high thermal energy can be re-utilized in the stripping unit and it is therefore considered a viable alternative for air.

  16. Health in strip cartoons.

    PubMed

    Videlier, P; Piras, P

    1990-01-01

    Strip cartoons are among the most vivid means of communication at our disposal, and they are particularly popular with the young. Medical matters have featured in many stories, though usually in a peripheral role. Could more be done to use this powerful medium, or would deliberate exploitation destroy it?

  17. Retractable barrier strip

    DOEpatents

    Marts, D.J.; Barker, S.G.; McQueen, M.A.

    1996-04-16

    A portable barrier strip is described having retractable tire-puncture means for puncturing a vehicle tire. The tire-puncture means, such as spikes, have an armed position for puncturing a tire and a retracted position for not puncturing a tire. The strip comprises a plurality of barrier blocks having the tire-puncture means removably disposed in a shaft that is rotatably disposed in each barrier block. The shaft removably and pivotally interconnects the plurality of barrier blocks. Actuation cables cause the shaft to rotate the tire-puncture means to the armed position for puncturing a vehicle tire and to the retracted position for not puncturing the tire. Each tire-puncture means is received in a hollow-bed portion of its respective barrier block when in the retracted position. The barrier strip rests in its deployed position and substantially motionless as a tire rolls thereon and over. The strip is rolled up for retrieval, portability, and storage purposes, and extended and unrolled in its deployed position for use. 13 figs.

  18. Retractable barrier strip

    DOEpatents

    Marts, Donna J.; Barker, Stacey G.; Wowczuk, Andrew; Vellenoweth, Thomas E.

    2002-01-01

    A portable barrier strip having retractable tire-puncture spikes for puncturing a vehicle tire. The tire-puncture spikes have an armed position for puncturing a tire and a retracted position for not puncturing a tire. The strip comprises a plurality of barrier blocks having the tire-puncture spikes removably disposed in a shaft that is rotatably disposed in each barrier block. The plurality of barrier blocks hare hingedly interconnected by complementary hinges integrally formed into the side of each barrier block which allow the strip to be rolled for easy storage and retrieval, but which prevent irregular or back bending of the strip. The shafts of adjacent barrier blocks are pivotally interconnected via a double hinged universal joint to accommodate irregularities in a roadway surface and to transmit torsional motion of the shaft from block to block. A single flexshaft cable is connected to the shaft of an end block to allow a user to selectively cause the shafts of a plurality of adjacently connected barrier blocks to rotate the tire-puncture spikes to the armed position for puncturing a vehicle tire, and to the retracted position for not puncturing the tire. The flexshaft is provided with a resiliently biased retracting mechanism, and a release latch for allowing the spikes to be quickly retracted after the intended vehicle tire is punctured.

  19. Retractable barrier strip

    DOEpatents

    Marts, Donna J.; Barker, Stacey G.; McQueen, Miles A.

    1996-01-01

    A portable barrier strip having retractable tire-puncture means for puncturing a vehicle tire. The tire-puncture means, such as spikes, have an armed position for puncturing a tire and a retracted position for not puncturing a tire. The strip comprises a plurality of barrier blocks having the tire-puncture means removably disposed in a shaft that is rotatably disposed in each barrier block. The shaft removably and pivotally interconnects the plurality of barrier blocks. Actuation cables cause the shaft to rotate the tire-puncture means to the armed position for puncturing a vehicle tire and to the retracted position for not puncturing the tire. Each tire-puncture means is received in a hollow-bed portion of its respective barrier block when in the retracted position. The barrier strip rests stable in its deployed position and substantially motionless as a tire rolls thereon and over. The strip is rolled up for retrieval, portability, and storage purposes, and extended and unrolled in its deployed position for use.

  20. Spray Rolling Aluminum Strip for Transportation Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Kevin M. McHugh; Y. Lin; Y. Zhou; E. J. Lavernia; J.-P. Delplanque; S. B. Johnson

    2005-02-01

    Spray rolling is a novel strip casting technology in which molten aluminum alloy is atomized and deposited into the roll gap of mill rolls to produce aluminum strip. A combined experimental/modeling approach has been followed in developing this technology with active participation from industry. The feasibility of this technology has been demonstrated at the laboratory scale and it is currently being scaled-up. This paper provides an overview of the process and compares the microstructure and properties of spray-rolled 2124 aluminum alloy with commercial ingot-processed material

  1. Analysis of the penetration process of drugs and cosmetic products into the skin by tape stripping in combination with spectroscopic measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lademann, Juergen; Weigmann, Hans-Juergen; Sterry, Wolfram; Tuchin, Valery V.; Zimnyakov, Dmitry A.; Mueller, G.; Schaefer, Hans

    2000-04-01

    A new method is described for analyzing the penetration of drugs and cosmetic products into the skin. This method combines the tape stripping procedure with UV/VIS spectroscopic measurements to determine the amount of corneocytes on the tapes removed by their scattering properties. The UV/VIS spectroscopic measurements were made using a Perkin Elmer Lambda 20 double beam spectrophotometer, which had been modified to obtain a rectangular beam diameter of 10 times 10 mm2. The absorbance measured at 430 nm was taken as measure for the mass of the corneocyte aggregates placed on the individual tapes. It was proven by weighing, laser scanning microscopy and spatial-spectral density analysis, that the absorbance in the visible range is better suited than the weight to quantify the amount of corneocyte aggregates removed by a single strip. This novel combination method permits to determine the actual position of sunscreen components in the stratum corneum.

  2. Characterization of air pollutants from an activated sludge process

    SciTech Connect

    Scheff, P.A.; Holden, J.A.; Wadden, R.A.

    1981-02-01

    An eight-month monitoring study was conducted to characterize air pollutants near a large activated sludge plant in a Chicago suburb. Air pollutants detected include aerobic bacteria-containing particles, total suspended particulates, nitrogen dioxide, sulfur dioxide, chloride, hydrogen sulfides, and trace elements. The wastewater treatment plant is concluded to be a significant source of total coliforms and atmospheric bacteria-containing particles. (6 maps, 23 references, 6 tables)

  3. Modeling of continuous strip production by rheocasting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsumiya, T.; Flemings, M. C.

    1981-03-01

    A process was experimentally and mathematically modeled for continuous and direct production of metal strip from its molten state by the use of Rheocasting. The process comprises 1) continuous production of a Rheocast semisolid alloy, and 2) direct shaping of the semisolid into strip. Sn-15 pct Pb was used as the modeling alloy. Crack formation and surface quality of the strip produced depend on fraction solid and deformation force. Continuous, sound strip could be obtained with good surface quality when fraction solid was between 0.50 and 0.70 and deformation force did not exceed a given maximum. Sheet thickness depends on deformation force, fraction solid, rotor rate of Rheocaster and production line speed. At constant deformation force, sheet thickness increases as fraction solid increases, rotor rate decreases and line speed is reduced. Sheet thickness is larger in the center than in the edge, but the difference is reduced by applying edgers. Some segregation of lead toward the edges is observed, and the segregation increases as amount of deformation is increased. A mathematical model for heat flow, solidification and deformation was constructed. The model predicts the point of completion of solidification in the strip and sheet thickness as a function of deformation force and line speed. Calculations are in good agreement with experimental results.

  4. Review of Benzene Stripping Alternatives for the Small Tank Precipitation Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Dworjanyn, L.O.

    2000-11-07

    Packed columns provide a proven technology for stripping benzene from salt solution. With continuous Small Tank Precipitation process the stripping load is reduced by a factor of four vs. former ITP cycling, and process continuity is maintained through to the Saltstone transfer tank. Lower stripping capacity allows new design options, including coarser packing and possibly reduced foaming packing.

  5. Ammonia stripping for enhanced biomethanization of piggery wastewater.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lei; Lee, Yong-Woo; Jahng, Deokjin

    2012-01-15

    In this study, the effects of ammonia removal by air stripping as a pretreatment on the anaerobic digestion of piggery wastewater were investigated. Ammonia stripping results indicated that ammonia removal was strongly dependent on pH and aeration rate, and the ammonia removal rate followed the pseudo-first-order kinetics. A significant enhancement of biomethanization was observed for wastewaters of which ammonia was air-stripped at pH 9.5 and pH 10.0. The methane productivity increased from 0.23 ± 0.08 L CH(4)/Ld of the control (raw piggery wastewater) to 0.75 ± 0.11 L CH(4)/Ld (ammonia-stripped at pH 9.5) and 0.57 ± 0.04 L CH(4)/Ld (ammonia-stripped at pH 10.0). However, the improvement of methane production from the piggery wastewater pretreated at pH 11.0 was negligible compared to the control, which was thought to be due to the high concentration of sodium ions supplied from sodium hydroxide for pH adjustment. From these results, it was concluded that ammonia removal through air stripping at the alkaline pH could be a viable option for preventing the failure of anaerobic digestion of the raw piggery wastewater. Additionally, it was also found that a high concentration of sodium ion originated from sodium hydroxide for pH adjustment inhibited methane production.

  6. 76 FR 54528 - Standard Operating Procedures (SOP) of the Aircraft Certification Service (AIR) Process for the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-01

    ... (AIR) Process for the Sequencing of Certification and Validation Projects AGENCY: Federal Aviation...) standard operating procedure (SOP) describing the process used to sequence certification projects that are... Procedure--Aircraft Certification Service Project Sequencing to: Federal Aviation Administration,...

  7. ERTS-1 data applied to strip mining

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, A. T.; Schubert, J.

    1976-01-01

    Two coal basins within the western region of the Potomac River Basin contain the largest strip-mining operations in western Maryland and West Virginia. The disturbed strip-mine areas were delineated along with the surrounding geological and vegetation features by using ERTS-1 data in both analog and digital form. The two digital systems employed were (1) the ERTS analysis system, a point-by-point digital analysis of spectral signatures based on known spectral values and (2) the LARS automatic data processing system. These two systems aided in efforts to determine the extent and state of strip mining in this region. Aircraft data, ground-verification information, and geological field studies also aided in the application of ERTS-1 imagery to perform an integrated analysis that assessed the adverse effects of strip mining. The results indicated that ERTS can both monitor and map the extent of strip mining to determine immediately the acreage affected and to indicate where future reclamation and revegetation may be necessary.

  8. Gated strip proportional detector

    DOEpatents

    Morris, Christopher L.; Idzorek, George C.; Atencio, Leroy G.

    1987-01-01

    A gated strip proportional detector includes a gas tight chamber which encloses a solid ground plane, a wire anode plane, a wire gating plane, and a multiconductor cathode plane. The anode plane amplifies the amount of charge deposited in the chamber by a factor of up to 10.sup.6. The gating plane allows only charge within a narrow strip to reach the cathode. The cathode plane collects the charge allowed to pass through the gating plane on a set of conductors perpendicular to the open-gated region. By scanning the open-gated region across the chamber and reading out the charge collected on the cathode conductors after a suitable integration time for each location of the gate, a two-dimensional image of the intensity of the ionizing radiation incident on the detector can be made.

  9. Gated strip proportional detector

    DOEpatents

    Morris, C.L.; Idzorek, G.C.; Atencio, L.G.

    1985-02-19

    A gated strip proportional detector includes a gas tight chamber which encloses a solid ground plane, a wire anode plane, a wire gating plane, and a multiconductor cathode plane. The anode plane amplifies the amount of charge deposited in the chamber by a factor of up to 10/sup 6/. The gating plane allows only charge within a narrow strip to reach the cathode. The cathode plane collects the charge allowed to pass through the gating plane on a set of conductors perpendicular to the open-gated region. By scanning the open-gated region across the chamber and reading out the charge collected on the cathode conductors after a suitable integration time for each location of the gate, a two-dimensional image of the intensity of the ionizing radiation incident on the detector can be made.

  10. ATLAS strip tracker stavelets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phillips, P. W.

    2012-02-01

    The engineering challenges related to the supply of electrical power to future large scale detector systems are well documented. Two options remain under active study in our community, namely serial powering and the use of DC-DC converters. Whilst clearly different in detail, both have the potential to increase the efficiency of the powering system. The ATLAS Upgrade Strip Tracker Community has constructed two demonstrator stavelets using the ABCN-25 ASIC, each comprising four silicon strip detector modules. The first stavelet is serially powered, using shunt transistors integrated into the ABCN-25 chip to maintain the required operating voltage given a constant supply current, and the second stavelet uses STV-10 DC-DC converters provided by the CERN group. Although the detailed test programme shall continue at CERN, results from stavelet tests made at RAL are presented here.

  11. Robotic Paint Stripping Cell

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-11-01

    based controls are used for all F-1 a substrate materials, Inc, ding graphite-epoxy composhes. The RPSC is a fully automated plastic media blast paint...based controls are used for all F.16 substrate materials, including graphite-epoxy composites. The RPSC is a fully automated plastic media blast...control the paint stripping rate and prevent overblasting of the substrate . Four halogen lamps provide an infrared-rich light source which is reflected

  12. Transfer Processes at the Air--Sea Interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guymer, T. H.; Businger, J. A.; Katsaros, K. B.; Shaw, W. J.; Taylor, P. K.; Large, W. G.; Payne, R. E.

    1983-02-01

    Near-surface data from ships, buoys, aircraft and a microwave remote-sensing satellite have been used to estimate the fluxes of momentum, heat and water vapour at the sea surface over a 200 km × 200 km area during the Joint Air--Sea Interaction Experiment of 1978. In particular, daily means of the surface heat balance and the wind stress are presented. Generally, the sensible heat flux was found to be less than 25% of the latent heat flux. Over periods of a day the total upward heat flux was about a third of the net radiation, implying that a significant proportion of the available energy went into heating the ocean. The Ekman pumping accounted for most of the divergence in the atmospheric boundary layer but only 10% at most of that in the upper ocean. Some case studies of the horizontal variation of the fluxes in relation to larger scales are also discussed and it is suggested that the fluxes are modulated by mesoscale patterns in sea-surface temperature. Surface turbulent fluxes and SST have been examined on scales from several kilometres to 200 km and for days to weeks by using a combination of ships, buoys, aircraft and microwave remote sensing. The net radiative flux had been obtained at the corners of the 200 km meteorological triangle either by direct measurements of the shortwave and longwave components or by parametrization techniques. This has enabled the surface heat budget to be examined on a daily basis. About 70% of the net flux (typically 100 W m-2 in phase 1 and 70 W m-2 in phase 2) is available for heating the ocean and, of the remainder, over 75% goes into the atmosphere as latent heat. In these near-neutral conditions the mean surface wind speed across the triangle was 77% of the geostrophic wind speed and the cross-isobar flow angle was 11 degrees (down-gradient). Significant variations in the thermodynamic fluxes across the area were found, associated partly with the SST distribution and also with the fact that the coldest and driest air was

  13. Control of Cimex lectularius using heat combined with dichlorvos resin strips.

    PubMed

    Lehnert, M P; Pereira, R M; Koehler, P G; Walker, W; Lehnert, M S

    2011-12-01

    Successful management of the bed bug, Cimex lectularius L. (Hemiptera: Cimicidae), is difficult because of its pesticide resistance, which can allow a reduction in population, but not elimination. We evaluated the effect of heat and/or air circulation on the efficacy of dichlorvos resin strips in the control of bed bugs. Treatments were performed in unoccupied dormitory rooms and consisted of dichlorvos resin strips containing 18.6% active ingredient, the same strips + fan, and strips + fan + heat. The mortality of recently fed bed bugs and weight loss of the dichlorvos strips were evaluated over 7 days. Dichlorvos resin strips killed bed bugs and eggs in just over 7 days. The addition of a fan or a fan + heat decreased time to 100% mortality to 3 days and 36 h, respectively. Eggs located in treated rooms did not hatch. Resin strips in the strips + fan treatment and the strips + fan + heat treatment volatilized 10 and 70 times, respectively, faster than strips in the strips-only treatment. The addition of heat in treatments with dichlorvos resin strips enhances the overall efficacy of the volatile insecticide and reduces the time required to eliminate live bed bugs and eggs.

  14. Modeling of membrane processes for air revitalization and water recovery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lange, Kevin E.; Foerg, Sandra L.; Dall-Bauman, Liese A.

    1992-01-01

    Gas-separation and reverse-osmosis membrane models are being developed in conjunction with membrane testing at NASA JSC. The completed gas-separation membrane model extracts effective component permeabilities from multicomponent test data, and predicts the effects of flow configuration, operating conditions, and membrane dimensions on module performance. Variable feed- and permeate-side pressures are considered. The model has been applied to test data for hollow-fiber membrane modules with simulated cabin-air feeds. Results are presented for a membrane designed for air drying applications. Extracted permeabilities are used to predict the effect of operating conditions on water enrichment in the permeate. A first-order reverse-osmosis model has been applied to test data for spiral wound membrane modules with a simulated hygiene water feed. The model estimates an effective local component rejection coefficient under pseudosteady-state conditions. Results are used to define requirements for a detailed reverse-osmosis model.

  15. Heat-transfer processes in air-cooled engine cylinders

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pinkel, Benjamin

    1938-01-01

    From a consideration of heat-transfer theory, semi-empirical expressions are set up for the transfer of heat from the combustion gases to the cylinder of an air-cooled engine and from the cylinder to the cooling air. Simple equations for the average head and barrel temperatures as functions of the important engine and cooling variables are obtained from these expressions. The expressions involve a few empirical constants, which may be readily determined from engine tests. Numerical values for these constants were obtained from single-cylinder engine tests for cylinders of the Pratt & Whitney 1535 and 1340-h engines. The equations provide a means of calculating the effect of the various engine and cooling variables on the cylinder temperatures and also of correlating the results of engine cooling tests. An example is given of the application of the equations to the correlation of cooling-test data obtained in flight.

  16. Recent advances in improvement of forecast skill and understanding climate processes using AIRS Version-5 products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Susskind, Joel; Molnar, Gyula; Iredell, Lena; Rosenberg, Robert

    2012-10-01

    The NASA Goddard Earth Sciences (GES) Data and Information Services Center (DISC) generates products derived from AIRS/AMSU-A observations, starting from September 2002 when the AIRS instrument became stable, using the AIRS Science Team Version-5 retrieval algorithm. This paper shows results of some of our research using Version-5 products from the points of view of improving forecast skill as well as aiding in the understanding of climate processes.

  17. Strip edge cracking simulation in cold rolling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hubert, C.; Dubar, L.; Dubar, M.; Dubois, A.

    2011-01-01

    This research work focuses on a specific defect which occurs during cold rolling of steel strips: edge-serration. Investigations on the industrial processes have led to the conclusion that this defect is the result of the edge-trimming and cold rolling sequences. The aim of this research work is to analyze the effect of the cutting process and the cold rolling on cracks occurrence, especially on strip edges. This study is performed using an experimental testing stand called Upsetting Rolling Test (URT). It allows to reproduce cold rolling contact parameters such as forward slip, reduction ratio and friction coefficients. Specimens sampled near trimmed industrial strip edges are deformed using the URT stand. Two sets of specimens with different stress states, obtained by annealing, are submitted to two reduction passes with extreme forward slips. Scanning electron microscopy observations added to 3D optical surface profiler topographies show that on one hand, forward slip has a major effect on cracks opening. On the other hand, cracks opening decreases according to high roll strip speed gradient. Concerning the heat-treated specimens, no crack appeared after all reduction passes, showing a large influence of the cutting process and consequently of the local stress state in the vicinity of the burnish and fracture regions.

  18. Strip edge cracking simulation in cold rolling

    SciTech Connect

    Hubert, C.; Dubar, L.; Dubar, M.; Dubois, A.

    2011-01-17

    This research work focuses on a specific defect which occurs during cold rolling of steel strips: edge-serration. Investigations on the industrial processes have led to the conclusion that this defect is the result of the edge-trimming and cold rolling sequences. The aim of this research work is to analyze the effect of the cutting process and the cold rolling on cracks occurrence, especially on strip edges.This study is performed using an experimental testing stand called Upsetting Rolling Test (URT). It allows to reproduce cold rolling contact parameters such as forward slip, reduction ratio and friction coefficients. Specimens sampled near trimmed industrial strip edges are deformed using the URT stand. Two sets of specimens with different stress states, obtained by annealing, are submitted to two reduction passes with extreme forward slips.Scanning electron microscopy observations added to 3D optical surface profiler topographies show that on one hand, forward slip has a major effect on cracks opening. On the other hand, cracks opening decreases according to high roll strip speed gradient. Concerning the heat-treated specimens, no crack appeared after all reduction passes, showing a large influence of the cutting process and consequently of the local stress state in the vicinity of the burnish and fracture regions.

  19. Preliminary Design and Evaluation of Portable Electronic Flight Progress Strips

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doble, Nathan A.; Hansman, R. John

    2002-01-01

    There has been growing interest in using electronic alternatives to the paper Flight Progress Strip (FPS) for air traffic control. However, most research has been centered on radar-based control environments, and has not considered the unique operational needs of the airport air traffic control tower. Based on an analysis of the human factors issues for control tower Decision Support Tool (DST) interfaces, a requirement has been identified for an interaction mechanism which replicates the advantages of the paper FPS (e.g., head-up operation, portability) but also enables input and output with DSTs. An approach has been developed which uses a Portable Electronic FPS that has attributes of both a paper strip and an electronic strip. The prototype flight strip system uses Personal Digital Assistants (PDAs) to replace individual paper strips in addition to a central management interface which is displayed on a desktop computer. Each PDA is connected to the management interface via a wireless local area network. The Portable Electronic FPSs replicate the core functionality of paper flight strips and have additional features which provide a heads-up interface to a DST. A departure DST is used as a motivating example. The central management interface is used for aircraft scheduling and sequencing and provides an overview of airport departure operations. This paper will present the design of the Portable Electronic FPS system as well as preliminary evaluation results.

  20. Spray forming lead strip. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    McHugh, K.

    1996-04-10

    A cooperative research project was conducted between the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) and Johnson Controls, Inc. (JCI) to adapt the INEL spray forming process to produce near-net-shape lead alloy strip. The emphasis of the work was to spray form lead strip samples at INEL, using a variety of spray conditions, for characterization at JCI. An existing glove box apparatus was modified at INEL to spray form lead. The main spray forming components were housed inside the glove box. They included a spray nozzle, tundish (crucible), substrate assembly, gas heater and furnaces to heat the nozzle and tundish. To spray form metal strip, liquid metal was pressure-fed at a controlled rate through a series of circular orifices that span the width of the nozzle. There the metal contacted high velocity, high temperature inert gas (nitrogen) which atomized the molten material into fine droplets, entrained the droplets in a directed flow, and deposited them onto glass plates that were swept through the spray plume to form strip samples. In-flight convection cooling of the droplets followed by conduction and convection cooling at the substrate resulted in rapid solidification of the deposit. During operation, the inside of the glove box was purged with an inert gas to limit the effects of in-flight oxidation of the particles and spray-formed strips, as well as to protect personnel from exposure to airborne lead particulate. Remote controls were used to start/stop the spray and control the speed and position of the substrate. In addition, substrate samples were loaded into the substrate translator manually using the gloved side ports of the box. In this way, the glove box remained closed during a series of spray trials, and was opened only when loading the crucible with a lead charge or when removing lead strip samples for shipment to JCI.

  1. Air plasma processing of poly(methyl methacrylate) micro-beads: Surface characterisations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Chaozong; Cui, Nai-Yi; Osbeck, Susan; Liang, He

    2012-10-01

    This paper reports the surface processing of poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) micro-beads by using a rotary air plasma reactor, and its effects on surface properties. The surface properties, including surface wettability, surface chemistry and textures of the PMMA beads, were characterised. It was observed that the air plasma processing can improve the surface wettability of the PMMA microbeads significantly. A 15 min plasma processing can reduce the surface water contact angle of PMMA beads to about 50° from its original value of 80.3°. This was accompanied by about 8% increase in surface oxygen concentration as confirmed by XPS analysis. The optical profilometry examination revealed the air plasma processing resulted in a rougher surface that has a “delicate” surface texture. It is concluded that the surface chemistry and texture, induced by air plasma processing, co-contributed to the surface wettability improvement of PMMA micro-beads.

  2. Air Vehicle Technology Integration Program (AVTIP). Delivery Order 0004: Advanced Sol-Gel Adhesion Processes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-04-01

    AFRL-ML-WP-TR-2003-4173 AIR VEHICLE TECHNOLOGY INTEGRATION PROGRAM (AVTIP) Delivery Order 0004: Advanced Sol-Gel Adhesion Processes Kay Y...2001 – 03/31/2002 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER F33615-00-D-3052 5b. GRANT NUMBER 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE AIR VEHICLE TECHNOLOGY INTEGRATION PROGRAM

  3. Building Sustainability into the Air Force Remediation Process

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-06-16

    Technology  GSR Through Optimization  In-depth Case Study : Travis AFB  Necessary  Optimization  GSR Treatment Train  In situ Bioreactor...y - S e r v i c e - E x c e l l e n c e Case Study : Travis AFB 12 Goals  Out of necessity  Reduce energy consumption, air emissions, material... Phytoremediation Biobarrier  Wrap-up  Future Direction 2 I n t e g r i t y - S e r v i c e - E x c e l l e n c e AF Environmental Restoration

  4. Paresev on Taxi Strip

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1962-01-01

    Test pilot Milton Thompson sitting in NASA Flight Research Center-built Paresev 1 (Paraglider Research Vehicle) on the taxi strip in front of the NASA Flight Research Center in 1962. In this photo the control stick can be seen coming from overhead and hanging in front of the pilot. The control system was a direct link with the wing membrane made of doped Irish linen. By maintaining simplicity during construction, it was possible to make control and configuration changes overnight and, in many instances, in minutes.

  5. About NICADD extruded scintillating strips

    SciTech Connect

    Dyshkant, A.; Beznosko, D.; Blazey, G.; Chakraborty, D.; Francis, K.; Kubik, D.; Lima, J.G.; Rykalin, V.; Zutshi, v.; Baldina, E.; Bross, A.; Deering, P.; Nebel, T.; Pla-Dalmau, A.; Schellpfeffer, J.; Serritella, C.; Zimmerman, J.; /Fermilab

    2005-04-01

    The results of control measurements of extruded scintillating strip responses to a radioactive source Sr-90 are provided, and details of strip choice, preparation, and method of measurement are included. About four hundred one meter long extruded scintillating strips were measured at four different points. These results were essential for prototyping a tail catcher and muon tracker for a future international electron positron linear collider detector.

  6. Strip casting apparatus and method

    DOEpatents

    Williams, Robert S.; Baker, Donald F.

    1988-01-01

    Strip casting apparatus including a molten-metal-holding container and a nozzle to deposit molten metal onto a moving chill drum to directly cast continuous metallic strip. The nozzle body includes a slot bounded between a back and a front lip. The slot width exceeds about 20 times the gap distance between the nozzle and the chill drum surface. Preferably, the slot width exceeds 0.5 inch. This method of strip casting minimizes pressure drop, insuring better metal-to-chill-drum contact which promotes heat transfer and results in a better quality metallic strip.

  7. Spiral Galaxies Stripped Bare

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2010-10-01

    Six spectacular spiral galaxies are seen in a clear new light in images from ESO's Very Large Telescope (VLT) at the Paranal Observatory in Chile. The pictures were taken in infrared light, using the impressive power of the HAWK-I camera, and will help astronomers understand how the remarkable spiral patterns in galaxies form and evolve. HAWK-I [1] is one of the newest and most powerful cameras on ESO's Very Large Telescope (VLT). It is sensitive to infrared light, which means that much of the obscuring dust in the galaxies' spiral arms becomes transparent to its detectors. Compared to the earlier, and still much-used, VLT infrared camera ISAAC, HAWK-I has sixteen times as many pixels to cover a much larger area of sky in one shot and, by using newer technology than ISAAC, it has a greater sensitivity to faint infrared radiation [2]. Because HAWK-I can study galaxies stripped bare of the confusing effects of dust and glowing gas it is ideal for studying the vast numbers of stars that make up spiral arms. The six galaxies are part of a study of spiral structure led by Preben Grosbøl at ESO. These data were acquired to help understand the complex and subtle ways in which the stars in these systems form into such perfect spiral patterns. The first image shows NGC 5247, a spiral galaxy dominated by two huge arms, located 60-70 million light-years away. The galaxy lies face-on towards Earth, thus providing an excellent view of its pinwheel structure. It lies in the zodiacal constellation of Virgo (the Maiden). The galaxy in the second image is Messier 100, also known as NGC 4321, which was discovered in the 18th century. It is a fine example of a "grand design" spiral galaxy - a class of galaxies with very prominent and well-defined spiral arms. About 55 million light-years from Earth, Messier 100 is part of the Virgo Cluster of galaxies and lies in the constellation of Coma Berenices (Berenice's Hair, named after the ancient Egyptian queen Berenice II). The third

  8. Evaluating Membrane Processes for Air Conditioning; Highlights in Research and Development, NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    SciTech Connect

    2015-06-01

    This NREL Highlight discusses a recent state-of-the-art review of membrane processes for air conditioning that identifies future research opportunities. This highlight is being developed for the June 2015 S&T Alliance Board meeting.

  9. Cleaner production in a remanufacturing process of air compressors.

    PubMed

    Esquer, Javier; Arvayo, Jose Angel; Alvarez-Chavez, Clara Rosalia; Munguia-Vega, Nora Elba; Velazquez, Luis

    2017-03-01

    This article provides relevant results of a cleaner production program conducted in a company dedicated to remanufacturing air compressors in the city of Hermosillo, Sonora, Mexico. The overall study design was based on an integration of acknowledged cleaner production and pollution prevention programs. Although this kind of program also involves environmental issues, this study focused on occupational health and safety by addressing different aspects of the work environment: ergonomic, physical (noise and lighting), and chemical. Particularly, ergonomic aspects were evaluated through the Modular Arrangement of Predetermined Time Standards (MODAPTS) method. For physical aspects, noise and lighting were addressed through Standard No. NOM-011-STPS-2001 and Standard No. NOM-025-STPS-2008 respectively. In addition, chemical aspects were analyzed through material safety data sheets and different search tools. Root causes of each risk were identified, and options to prevent, eliminate, and/or reduce each risk have been provided.

  10. Controls Over the Air Force Contract Augmentation Program Payment Process Need Improvement

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-01-28

    No. DODIG-2015-075 J A N U A R Y 2 8 , 2 0 1 5 Controls Over the Air Force Contract Augmentation Program Payment Process Need Improvement Report...2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2015 to 00-00-2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Controls Over the Air Force Contract Augmentation Program...Controls Over the Air Force Contract Augmentation Program Payment Process Need Improvement Visit us at www.dodig.mil Objective To determine whether DoD was

  11. Air processed organic photovoltaic devices incorporating a MoOx anode buffer layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bovill, Edward S. R.; Griffin, Jonathan; Wang, Tao; Kingsley, James W.; Yi, Hunan; Iraqi, Ahmed; Buckley, Alastair R.; Lidzey, David G.

    2013-05-01

    Molybdenum oxide (MoOx) has been shown to act as an efficient hole extraction layer in organic photovoltaic (OPV) devices. However, exposing MoOx films to air is problematic as it is hygroscopic; the uptake of moisture having a negative impact on its electronic properties. Here, we use spectroscopic ellipsometry to characterise the uptake of water, and fabricate PCDTBT:PC70BM based OPVs to determine its effects on device performance. We then show that thermally annealing MoOx reduces its hygroscopicity, permitting it to be processed in air. Using this process, we create air-processsed OPVs having PCEs (power conversion efficiencies) of up to 5.36%.

  12. Moisture content, processing yield, and surface color of broiler carcasses chilled by water, air, or evaporative air.

    PubMed

    Jeong, J Y; Janardhanan, K K; Booren, A M; Karcher, D M; Kang, I

    2011-03-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effects of water chilling (WC), air chilling (AC), and evaporative air chilling (EAC) on the moisture content, processing yield, surface color, and visual appearance of broiler carcasses. For the WC treatment, 1 group of birds was hard scalded and submersed into ice slush, whereas for AC, 1 group of birds was soft scalded and exposed to blowing air (1.0 m/s at 0°C) and for EAC, or 1 group of birds was soft scalded and exposed to blowing air and a cold water spray (every 5 min). During chilling, carcass temperature was reduced most effectively by WC (55 min), followed by EAC (120 min) and AC (155 min). After chilling, both WC and EAC carcasses picked up moisture at 4.6 and 1.0% of their weights, respectively, whereas AC carcasses lost 1.5% of their weight. On cutting at 5 h postmortem, WC carcasses showed the highest (2.5%), EAC showed the second highest (0.4%), and AC showed the least (0.3%) moisture loss. After 24 h of storage, almost 83% of the absorbed water in the WC carcass parts was released as purge, whereas EAC and AC carcasses maintained weights close to the prechilled weights. In an instrumental color evaluation and a visual evaluation by panelists, AC carcasses showed a darker appearance, a more yellow color, and more surface discoloration compared with WC or EAC carcasses.

  13. Development of a Novel Gas Pressurized Process-Based Technology for CO2 Capture from Post-Combustion Flue Gases Preliminary Year 1 Techno-Economic Study Results and Methodology for Gas Pressurized Stripping Process

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Shiaoguo

    2013-03-01

    Under the DOE’s Innovations for Existing Plants (IEP) Program, Carbon Capture Scientific, LLC (CCS) is developing a novel gas pressurized stripping (GPS) process to enable efficient post-combustion carbon capture (PCC) from coal-fired power plants. A technology and economic feasibility study is required as a deliverable in the project Statement of Project Objectives. This study analyzes a fully integrated pulverized coal power plant equipped with GPS technology for PCC, and is carried out, to the maximum extent possible, in accordance to the methodology and data provided in ATTACHMENT 3 – Basis for Technology Feasibility Study of DOE Funding Opportunity Number: DE-FOA-0000403. The DOE/NETL report on “Cost and Performance Baseline for Fossil Energy Plants, Volume 1: Bituminous Coal and Natural Gas to Electricity (Original Issue Date, May 2007), NETL Report No. DOE/NETL-2007/1281, Revision 1, August 2007” was used as the main source of reference to be followed, as per the guidelines of ATTACHMENT 3 of DE-FOA-0000403. The DOE/NETL-2007/1281 study compared the feasibility of various combinations of power plant/CO2 capture process arrangements. The report contained a comprehensive set of design basis and economic evaluation assumptions and criteria, which are used as the main reference points for the purpose of this study. Specifically, Nexant adopted the design and economic evaluation basis from Case 12 of the above-mentioned DOE/NETL report. This case corresponds to a nominal 550 MWe (net), supercritical greenfield PC plant that utilizes an advanced MEAbased absorption system for CO2 capture and compression. For this techno-economic study, CCS’ GPS process replaces the MEA-based CO2 absorption system used in the original case. The objective of this study is to assess the performance of a full-scale GPS-based PCC design that is integrated with a supercritical PC plant similar to Case 12 of the DOE/NETL report, such that it corresponds to a nominal 550 MWe

  14. Bismuth-based electrochemical stripping analysis

    DOEpatents

    Wang, Joseph

    2004-01-27

    Method and apparatus for trace metal detection and analysis using bismuth-coated electrodes and electrochemical stripping analysis. Both anodic stripping voltammetry and adsorptive stripping analysis may be employed.

  15. Microscopic analysis and simulation of check-mark stain on the galvanized steel strip

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    So, Hongyun; Yoon, Hyun Gi; Chung, Myung Kyoon

    2010-11-01

    When galvanized steel strip is produced through a continuous hot-dip galvanizing process, the thickness of adhered zinc film is controlled by plane impinging air gas jet referred to as "air-knife system". In such a gas-jet wiping process, stain of check-mark or sag line shape frequently appears. The check-mark defect is caused by non-uniform zinc coating and the oblique patterns such as "W", "V" or "X" on the coated surface. The present paper presents a cause and analysis of the check-mark formation and a numerical simulation of sag lines by using the numerical data produced by Large Eddy Simulation (LES) of the three-dimensional compressible turbulent flow field around the air-knife system. It was found that there is alternating plane-wise vortices near the impinging stagnation region and such alternating vortices move almost periodically to the right and to the left sides on the stagnation line due to the jet flow instability. Meanwhile, in order to simulate the check-mark formation, a novel perturbation model has been developed to predict the variation of coating thickness along the transverse direction. Finally, the three-dimensional zinc coating surface was obtained by the present perturbation model. It was found that the sag line formation is determined by the combination of the instantaneous coating thickness distribution along the transverse direction near the stagnation line and the feed speed of the steel strip.

  16. Analyzing the Air Operations Center (AOC) Air Tasking Order (ATO) Process Using Theory of Constraints (TOC)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-06-13

    Theory of Constraints (TOC), as espoused by Israeli physicist Dr. Eliyahu Goldratt , defines a process in which throughput-limiting constraints can...the “longest chain of dependent events where the dependency is either task or resource related [17].” In The Goal and Its Not Luck, Dr. Goldratt ...intensive process such as ATO development. It is not possible to use physical evidence such as raw materials or subassemblies, so Goldratt suggests

  17. NASA/Air Force/Environmental Protection Agency Interagency Depainting Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark-Ingram, Marceia

    1998-01-01

    Many popular and widely used paint stripping products have traditionally contained methylene chloride as their main active ingredient. However, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has critically curved the allowable use of methylene chloride under the National Emission Standard for Hazardous Air Pollutants regulating Aerospace Manufacturing and Rework Facilities . Compliance with this rule was mandatory by September 1998 for affected facilities. An effort is underway to identify and evaluate alternative depainting technologies emphasizing those believed both effective and environmentally benign. On behalf of the EPA and in cooperation with the United States Air Force, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration is conducting a technical assessment of several alternative technologies ( i.e. : chemical stripping, two CO2 blasting processes, CO2 xenon lamp coating removal, CO2 Laser stripping, plastic media blasting, sodium bicarbonate wet stripping, high pressure water stripping, and wheat starch blasting). These depainting processes represent five removal method categories, namely abrasive, impact, cryogenic, thermal, and/or molecular bonding dissociation. This paper discusses the test plan and parameters for this interagency study. Several thicknesses of clad and non-clad aluminum substrates were used to prepare test specimens. Each depainting process has been assigned a specimen lot, all of which have completed three to five stripping cycles. Numerous metallurgical evaluations are underway to assess the impact of these alternative depainting processes upon the structural integrity of the substrate.

  18. Autoionization of He atoms by partially stripped ion impact

    SciTech Connect

    Otranto, S.; Olson, R.E.

    2005-08-15

    A study of the autoionization process induced by partially stripped ion impact is performed. Electron spectra in momentum space are predicted within a classical model for partially stripped ions. The results are compared with those obtained for pure Coulomb-like projectiles. A quantum-mechanical extension of the Barrachina-Macek model is proposed for partially stripped projectiles. Structure on the electron angular distribution arising in quantum and classical treatments is identified and compared. The presence of rainbow scattering interference is observed in the binary ring profile of the outgoing autoionized electrons for positive-ion impact.

  19. The role of sea spray in cleansing air pollution over ocean via cloud processes.

    PubMed

    Rosenfeld, Daniel; Lahav, Ronen; Khain, Alexander; Pinsky, Mark

    2002-09-06

    Particulate air pollution has been shown to strongly suppress precipitation from convective clouds over land. New observations show that precipitation from similar polluted clouds over oceans is much less affected, because large sea salt nuclei override the precipitation suppression effect of the large number of small pollution nuclei. Raindrops initiated by the sea salt grow by collecting small cloud droplets that form on the pollution particles, thereby cleansing the air. Therefore, sea salt helps cleanse the atmosphere of the air pollution via cloud processes. This implies that over oceans, the climatic aerosol indirect effects are significantly smaller than current estimates.

  20. Land Surface Process and Air Quality Research and Applications at MSFC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quattrochi, Dale; Khan, Maudood

    2007-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation provides an overview of land surface process and air quality research at MSFC including atmospheric modeling and ongoing research whose objective is to undertake a comprehensive spatiotemporal analysis of the effects of accurate land surface characterization on atmospheric modeling results, and public health applications. Land use maps as well as 10 meter air temperature, surface wind, PBL mean difference heights, NOx, ozone, and O3+NO2 plots as well as spatial growth model outputs are included. Emissions and general air quality modeling are also discussed.

  1. Process for removal of hazardous air pollutants from coal

    DOEpatents

    Akers, David J.; Ekechukwu, Kenneth N.; Aluko, Mobolaji E.; Lebowitz, Howard E.

    2000-01-01

    An improved process for removing mercury and other trace elements from coal containing pyrite by forming a slurry of finely divided coal in a liquid solvent capable of forming ions or radicals having a tendency to react with constituents of pyrite or to attack the bond between pyrite and coal and/or to react with mercury to form mercury vapors, and heating the slurry in a closed container to a temperature of at least about 50.degree. C. to produce vapors of the solvent and withdrawing vapors including solvent and mercury-containing vapors from the closed container, then separating mercury from the vapors withdrawn.

  2. ERTS-1 investigation of ecological effects of strip mining in eastern Ohio

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chase, P. E.; Pettyjohn, W. A.

    1973-01-01

    Evidence is presented of ERTS capability to detect, map and monitor the effects of strip mining. Both enlarge ERTS imagery and statistically processed outline maps and imagery of stripped earth and standing water are compared to aerial photos of a strip mine near Coshocton, Ohio. The outline maps and decision imagery are at present limited to forming a disruption map of recently mined and unreclaimed earth and the resultant standing water within the mined area. It is planned to prepare a map of the reclaimed areas (reclamation map) within the stripped area and to detect and identify ecological effects such as vegetation kills and stream sedimentation external to the stripped areas.

  3. Analysis of processes in DC arc plasma torches for spraying that use air as plasma forming gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frolov, V.; Ivanov, D.; Toropchin, A.

    2014-11-01

    Developed in Saint Petersburg State Polytechnical University technological processes of air-plasma spraying of wear-resistant, regenerating, hardening and decorative coatings used in number of industrial areas are described. The article contains examples of applications of air plasma spraying of coatings as well as results of mathematical modelling of processes in air plasma torches for spraying.

  4. Range gated strip proximity sensor

    DOEpatents

    McEwan, T.E.

    1996-12-03

    A range gated strip proximity sensor uses one set of sensor electronics and a distributed antenna or strip which extends along the perimeter to be sensed. A micro-power RF transmitter is coupled to the first end of the strip and transmits a sequence of RF pulses on the strip to produce a sensor field along the strip. A receiver is coupled to the second end of the strip, and generates a field reference signal in response to the sequence of pulse on the line combined with received electromagnetic energy from reflections in the field. The sensor signals comprise pulses of radio frequency signals having a duration of less than 10 nanoseconds, and a pulse repetition rate on the order of 1 to 10 MegaHertz or less. The duration of the radio frequency pulses is adjusted to control the range of the sensor. An RF detector feeds a filter capacitor in response to received pulses on the strip line to produce a field reference signal representing the average amplitude of the received pulses. When a received pulse is mixed with a received echo, the mixing causes a fluctuation in the amplitude of the field reference signal, providing a range-limited Doppler type signature of a field disturbance. 6 figs.

  5. Range gated strip proximity sensor

    DOEpatents

    McEwan, Thomas E.

    1996-01-01

    A range gated strip proximity sensor uses one set of sensor electronics and a distributed antenna or strip which extends along the perimeter to be sensed. A micro-power RF transmitter is coupled to the first end of the strip and transmits a sequence of RF pulses on the strip to produce a sensor field along the strip. A receiver is coupled to the second end of the strip, and generates a field reference signal in response to the sequence of pulse on the line combined with received electromagnetic energy from reflections in the field. The sensor signals comprise pulses of radio frequency signals having a duration of less than 10 nanoseconds, and a pulse repetition rate on the order of 1 to 10 MegaHertz or less. The duration of the radio frequency pulses is adjusted to control the range of the sensor. An RF detector feeds a filter capacitor in response to received pulses on the strip line to produce a field reference signal representing the average amplitude of the received pulses. When a received pulse is mixed with a received echo, the mixing causes a fluctuation in the amplitude of the field reference signal, providing a range-limited Doppler type signature of a field disturbance.

  6. MEASUREMENT OF INDOOR AIR EMISSIONS FROM DRY-PROCESS PHOTOCOPY MACHINES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The article provides background information on indoor air emissions from office equipment, with emphasis on dry-process photocopy machines. The test method is described in detail along with results of a study to evaluate the test method using four dry-process photocopy machines. ...

  7. Analysis/design of strip reinforced random composites (strip hybrids)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamis, C. C.; Sinclair, J. H.

    1978-01-01

    Advanced analysis methods and composite mechanics were applied to a strip-reinforced random composite square panel with fixed ends to illustrate the use of these methods for the a priori assessment of the composite panel when subjected to complex loading conditions. The panel was assumed to be of E-glass random composite. The strips were assumed to be of three advanced unidirectional composites to cover a range of low, intermediate, and high modulus stiffness. The panels were assumed to be subjected to complex loadings to assess their adequacy as load-carrying members in auto body, aircraft engine nacelle and windmill blade applications. The results show that strip hybrid panels can be several times more structurally efficient than the random composite base materials. Some of the results are presented in graphical form and procedures are described for use of these graphs as guides for preliminary design of strip hybrids.

  8. Analysis/design of strip reinforced random composites /strip hybrids/

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamis, C. C.; Sinclair, J. H.

    1978-01-01

    Results are described which were obtained by applying advanced analysis methods and composite mechanics to a strip-reinforced random composite square panel with fixed ends. This was done in order to illustrate the use of these methods for the apriori assessment of the composite panel when subjected to complex loading conditions. The panel was assumed to be of E-Glass/Random Composite. The strips were assumed to be of three advanced unidirectional composites to cover a range of low, intermediate, and high modulus stiffness. The panels were assumed to be subjected to complex loadings to assess their adequacy as load-carrying members in auto body, aircraft engine nacelle, and windmill blade applications. The results show that strip hybrid panels can be several times more structurally efficient than the random composite base materials. Some of the results are presented in graphical form and procedures are described for use of these graphs as guides for preliminary design of strip hybrids.

  9. Martian Air Separation for In-Situ Resource Utilization Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacArthur, J. R.; Way, J. D.; Baldwin, R. M.; Mason, L. W.

    2002-01-01

    We will introduce the concept of using synthetic organic and inorganic membranes for the separation and purification of carbon dioxide (CO2) from mixtures of gases, such as those found in the Martian atmosphere. The class of applications targeted in this project are known as In Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU). ISRU involves the use of resources present on Mars, such as atmospheric gases, a concept that will dramatically reduce the amount of material that must be transferred from Earth to support a mission. ISRU technologies will provide many of the consumables required for a manned mission, such as rocket propellant, water, oxygen and buffer gases. The Martian atmosphere is primarily CO2, and also contains a few percent nitrogen and argon. Martian CO2 is a principal component of several ISRU processes that may be used in a manned Mars mission. For example, the Sabatier/Electrolysis (SE) process reacts atmospheric CO2 with hydrogen to produce methane (fuel), water, and oxygen. Pure gas and mixed gas permeation tests with CO2, Ar, N2, and O2 were performed over the temperature range 243 K to 295 K with a several candidate membrane materials including rubbery polymers (silicone rubber and PEBAX) and supported faujasite zeolite membranes. In experiments with commercially available silicone rubber membranes, the pure gas CO2 permeance (flux/driving force) increases from 460 GPUs to 655 GPUs as the temperature decreases from 295 K to 243 K. A GPU is a commonly used unit of permeance and is defined as 10-6 cm3(STP)/cm2-s-cm Hg. The ideal carbon dioxide/nitrogen separation factor (ratio of pure gas permeances) increases from 7.5 to 17.5 over the same temperature range. However, in mixed gas experiments, the CO2/N2 separation factor was much lower, increasing from 4.5 to 6 as the temperature decreased from 295 K to 243 K. This difference was attributed to plasticization of the rubbery polymer membrane by CO2.

  10. Sustainable in-well vapor stripping: A design, analytical model, and pilot study for groundwater remediation.

    PubMed

    Sutton, Patrick T; Ginn, Timothy R

    2014-12-15

    A sustainable in-well vapor stripping system is designed as a cost-effective alternative for remediation of shallow chlorinated solvent groundwater plumes. A solar-powered air compressor is used to inject air bubbles into a monitoring well to strip volatile organic compounds from a liquid to vapor phase while simultaneously inducing groundwater circulation around the well screen. An analytical model of the remediation process is developed to estimate contaminant mass flow and removal rates. The model was calibrated based on a one-day pilot study conducted in an existing monitoring well at a former dry cleaning site. According to the model, induced groundwater circulation at the study site increased the contaminant mass flow rate into the well by approximately two orders of magnitude relative to ambient conditions. Modeled estimates for 5h of pulsed air injection per day at the pilot study site indicated that the average effluent concentrations of dissolved tetrachloroethylene and trichloroethylene can be reduced by over 90% relative to the ambient concentrations. The results indicate that the system could be used cost-effectively as either a single- or multi-well point technology to substantially reduce the mass of dissolved chlorinated solvents in groundwater.

  11. Sustainable in-well vapor stripping: A design, analytical model, and pilot study for groundwater remediation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sutton, Patrick T.; Ginn, Timothy R.

    2014-12-01

    A sustainable in-well vapor stripping system is designed as a cost-effective alternative for remediation of shallow chlorinated solvent groundwater plumes. A solar-powered air compressor is used to inject air bubbles into a monitoring well to strip volatile organic compounds from a liquid to vapor phase while simultaneously inducing groundwater circulation around the well screen. An analytical model of the remediation process is developed to estimate contaminant mass flow and removal rates. The model was calibrated based on a one-day pilot study conducted in an existing monitoring well at a former dry cleaning site. According to the model, induced groundwater circulation at the study site increased the contaminant mass flow rate into the well by approximately two orders of magnitude relative to ambient conditions. Modeled estimates for 5 h of pulsed air injection per day at the pilot study site indicated that the average effluent concentrations of dissolved tetrachloroethylene and trichloroethylene can be reduced by over 90% relative to the ambient concentrations. The results indicate that the system could be used cost-effectively as either a single- or multi-well point technology to substantially reduce the mass of dissolved chlorinated solvents in groundwater.

  12. Recent Advances in Improvement of Forecast Skill and Understanding Climate Processes Using AIRS Version-5 Products

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Susskind, Joel; Molnar, Gyula; Iredell, Lena; Rosenberg, Robert

    2012-01-01

    AIRS/AMSU is the state of the art infrared and microwave atmospheric sounding system flying aboard EOS Aqua. These observations, covering the period September 2002 until the present, have been analyzed using the AIRS Science Team Version-5 retrieval algorithm. AIRS is a high spectral resolution infrared grating spectrometer with spect,ral coverage from 650 per centimeter extending to 2660 per centimeter, with low noise and a spectral resolving power of 2400. A brief overview of the AIRS Version-5 retrieval procedure will be presented, including the AIRS channels used in different steps in the retrieval process. Many researchers have used these products to make significant advances in both climate and weather applications. Recent significant results of these experiments will be presented, including results showing that 1) assimilation of AIRS Quality Controlled temperature profiles into a General Circulation Model (GCM) significantly improves the ability to predict storm tracks of intense precipitation events; and 2) anomaly time-series of Outgoing Longwave Radiation (OLR) computed using AIRS sounding products closely match those determined from the CERES instrument, and furthermore explain that the phenomenon that global and especially tropical mean OLR have been decreasing since September 2002 is a result of El Nino/La Nina oscillations during this period.

  13. In-well vapor stripping drilling and characterization work plan

    SciTech Connect

    Koegler, K.J.

    1994-03-13

    This work plan provides the information necessary for drilling, sampling, and hydrologic testing of wells to be completed in support of a demonstration of the in-well vapor stripping system. The in-well vapor stripping system is a remediation technology designed to preferentially extract volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from contaminated groundwater by converting them to a vapor phase. Air-lift pumping is used to lift and aerate groundwater within the well. The volatiles escaping the aerated water are drawn off by a slight vacuum and treated at the surface while the water is allowed to infiltrate the vadose zone back to the watertable.

  14. Simulation of a Novel Single-column Cryogenic Air Separation Process Using LNG Cold Energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jieyu, Zheng; Yanzhong, Li; Guangpeng, Li; Biao, Si

    In this paper, a novel single-column air separation process is proposed with the implementation of heat pump technique and introduction of LNG coldenergy. The proposed process is verifiedand optimized through simulation on the Aspen Hysys® platform. Simulation results reveal that thepower consumption per unit mass of liquid productis around 0.218 kWh/kg, and the total exergy efficiency of the systemis 0.575. According to the latest literatures, an energy saving of 39.1% is achieved compared with those using conventional double-column air separation units.The introduction of LNG cold energy is an effective way to increase the system efficiency.

  15. The Dark Side of the Moebius Strip.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwarz, Gideon E.

    1990-01-01

    Discussed are various models proposed for the Moebius strip. Included are a discussion of a smooth flat model and two smooth flat algebraic models, some results concerning the shortest Moebius strip, the Moebius strip of least elastic energy, and some observations on real-world Moebius strips. (KR)

  16. Performance Characteristics of Thick Silicon Double-sided Strip Detectors.

    PubMed

    Shokouhi, Sepideh; McDonald, Benjamin S; Durko, Heather L; Fritz, Mark A; Furenlid, Lars R; Peterson, Todd E

    2007-01-01

    This work presents characterization studies of thick silicon double-sided strip detectors for a high-resolution small-animal SPECT. The dimension of these detectors is 60 mm × 60 mm × 1 mm. There are 1024 strips on each side that give the coordinates of the photon interaction, with each strip processed by a separate ASIC channel. Our measurement shows that intrinsic spatial resolution equivalent to the 59 µm strip pitch is attainable. Good flood uniformity can be achieved by proper setting of a 4-bit DAC in each ASIC channel to remove trigger threshold variations. This is particularly important for triggering at low energies. The thick silicon DSSD shows high potential for small-animal SPECT imaging.

  17. Performance Characteristics of Thick Silicon Double-sided Strip Detectors

    PubMed Central

    Shokouhi, Sepideh; McDonald, Benjamin S.; Durko, Heather L.; Fritz, Mark A.; Furenlid, Lars R.; Peterson, Todd E.

    2015-01-01

    This work presents characterization studies of thick silicon double-sided strip detectors for a high-resolution small-animal SPECT. The dimension of these detectors is 60 mm × 60 mm × 1 mm. There are 1024 strips on each side that give the coordinates of the photon interaction, with each strip processed by a separate ASIC channel. Our measurement shows that intrinsic spatial resolution equivalent to the 59 µm strip pitch is attainable. Good flood uniformity can be achieved by proper setting of a 4-bit DAC in each ASIC channel to remove trigger threshold variations. This is particularly important for triggering at low energies. The thick silicon DSSD shows high potential for small-animal SPECT imaging. PMID:26778911

  18. Grassed buffer strips as nitrate diffuse pollution remediation tools: management impact on the denitrification enzyme activity.

    PubMed

    Cors, M; Tychon, B

    2007-01-01

    The management of grassed buffer strips proved to be an efficient remediation technique in controlling nitrogen losses to surface water. In south Belgium, agri-environmental policies have encouraged farmers to seed buffer strips along rivers, in zones where the soil was previously devoted to agricultural production. We wanted to assess how important denitrification is in a buffer strip in comparison with a cropped field. The study investigated the denitrifiying enzyme activity (DEA) of two contiguous buffer strips with different management stories. The eastern part of the buffer strip was seeded in 1999. The western part of the buffer strip is a piece of crop field abandoned by the farmer 20 years ago and not managed for the last 10 years. This experimental study demonstrates that the denitrification enzyme activity in a riparian buffer strip is significantly higher than in the adjacent cropped field (3.67 and 2.12 mgNkg(-1)d(-1) respectively). The DEA was significantly different between the two buffer strips under comparison, assessing that the management of the buffer strips has a dominant effect on DEA. The old unmown buffer strip is potentially more efficient in the nitrate removal process than the 6-year-old seeded buffer strip.

  19. Strip casting with fluxing agent applied to casting roll

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, Robert S.; O'Malley, Ronald J.; Sussman, Richard C.

    1997-01-01

    A strip caster (10) for producing a continuous strip (24) includes a tundish (12) for containing a melt (14), a pair of horizontally disposed water cooled casting rolls (22) and devices (29) for electrostatically coating the outer peripheral chill surfaces (44) of the casting rolls with a powder flux material (56). The casting rolls are juxtaposed relative to one another for forming a pouting basin (18) for receiving the melt through a teeming tube (16) thereby establishing a meniscus (20) between the rolls for forming the strip. The melt is protected from the outside air by a non-oxidizing gas passed through a supply line (28) to a sealing chamber (26). A preferred flux is boron oxide having a melting point of about 550.degree. C. The flux coating enhances wetting of the steel melt to the casting roll and dissolves any metal oxide formed on the roll.

  20. Strip casting with fluxing agent applied to casting roll

    DOEpatents

    Williams, R.S.; O`Malley, R.J.; Sussman, R.C.

    1997-07-29

    A strip caster for producing a continuous strip includes a tundish for containing a melt, a pair of horizontally disposed water cooled casting rolls and devices for electrostatically coating the outer peripheral chill surfaces of the casting rolls with a powder flux material. The casting rolls are juxtaposed relative to one another for forming a pouting basin for receiving the melt through a teeming tube thereby establishing a meniscus between the rolls for forming the strip. The melt is protected from the outside air by a non-oxidizing gas passed through a supply line to a sealing chamber. A preferred flux is boron oxide having a melting point of about 550 C. The flux coating enhances wetting of the steel melt to the casting roll and dissolves any metal oxide formed on the roll. 3 figs.

  1. 75 FR 30742 - Modification of the Process for Requesting a Waiver of the Mandatory Separation Age of 56 for Air...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-02

    ... Waiver of the Mandatory Separation Age of 56 for Air Traffic Control Specialists AGENCY: Federal Aviation... mandatory separation age for Air Traffic Control Specialists in flight service stations, enroute or terminal... process for an Air Traffic Control Specialist (ATCS) to request a waiver from the mandatory separation...

  2. 76 FR 9 - Modification of the Process for Requesting a Waiver of the Mandatory Separation Age of 56 for Air...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-03

    ... Waiver of the Mandatory Separation Age of 56 for Air Traffic Control Specialists AGENCY: Federal Aviation... requesting a waiver of the mandatory separation age of 56 for Air Traffic Control Specialists in flight... process for an Air Traffic Control Specialist (ATCS) to request a waiver from the mandatory separation...

  3. Development, prototyping and characterization of double sided silicon strip detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Topkar, Anita; Singh, Arvind; Aggarwal, Bharti; Kumar, Amit; Kumar, Arvind; Murali Krishna, L. V.; Das, D.

    2016-10-01

    Double sided DC-coupled silicon strip detectors with geometry of 65 mm×65 mm have been developed in India for nuclear physics experiments. The detectors have 64 P+ strips on the front side and 64 N+ strips on the backside with a pitch of 0.9 mm. These detectors were fabricated using a twelve mask layer process involving double sided wafer processing technology. Semiconductor process and device simulations were carried out in order to theoretically estimate the impact of important design and process parameters on the breakdown voltage of detectors. The performance of the first lot of prototype detectors has been studied using static characterization tests and using an alpha source. The characterization results demonstrate that the detectors have low leakage currents and good uniformity over the detector area of about 40 cm2. Overview of the detector design, fabrication process, simulation results and initial characterization results of the detectors are presented in this paper.

  4. EVALUATION OF A TEST METHOD FOR MEASURING INDOOR AIR EMISSIONS FROM DRY-PROCESS PHOTOCOPIERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A large chamber test method for measuring indoor air emissions from office equipment was developed, evaluated, and revised based on the initial testing of four dry-process photocopiers. Because all chambers may not necessarily produce similar results (e.g., due to differences in ...

  5. Effects of air injection during sap processing on maple syrup color, chemical composition and flavor volatiles.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Air injection (AI) is a maple sap processing technology reported to increase the efficiency of maple syrup production by increasing production of more economically valuable light-colored maple syrup, and reducing development of loose scale mineral precipitates in syrup, and scale deposits on evapora...

  6. Novel water-air circulation quenching process for AISI 4140 steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Liyun; Zheng, Dawei; Zhao, Lixin; Wang, Lihui; Zhang, Kai

    2013-11-01

    AISI 4140 steel is usually used after quenching and tempering. During the heat treatment process in industry production, there are some problems, such as quenching cracks, related to water-cooling and low hardness due to oil quenching. A water-air circulation quenching process can solve the problems of quenching cracks with water and the high cost quenching with oil, which is flammable, unsafe and not enough to obtain the required hardness. The control of the water-cooling and air-cooling time is a key factor in the process. This paper focuses on the quenching temperature, water-air cycle time and cycle index to prevent cracking for AISI 4140 steel. The optimum heat treatment parameters to achieve a good match of the strength and toughness of AISI 4140 steel were obtained by repeated adjustment of the water-air circulation quenching process parameters. The tensile strength, Charpy impact energy at -10 °C and hardness of the heat treated AISI 4140 steel after quenching and tempering were approximately 1098 MPa, 67.5 J and 316 HB, respectively.

  7. Electromechanical responses of Cu strips

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Guangfeng; Liu, Ming; An, Zhinan; Ren, Yang; Liaw, Peter K.; Yang, Fuqian

    2013-05-01

    Electrical-thermal-mechanical behavior of materials plays an important role in controlling the structural integrity of electromechanical structures of small volumes. The electromechanical response of Cu strips was studied by passing an electric current through the strips with electric current densities in the range of 12.34 to 29.60 kA/cm2. The passage of the electric current of high current densities introduced electrical-thermal-mechanical interactions, which caused grain growth and grain rotation in both the melted region and heat-affected zone. The electrothermal interactions led to the elastoplastic buckling of the Cu strips with the maximum deflection of the Cu strips increasing with the increase of the electric current density. The total strain is a quadratic function of the electric current density. There was a quasi-steady state in which the electric resistance of the Cu strips linearly increased with time before the occurrence of electric fusing. A power-law relation was used to describe the dependence of the time-to-failure (electric fusing) on the electric current density. For the region of relatively low current densities, the current exponent ranged from 17.9 to 44.6, and for the region of high current densities, the current exponent ranged from 2.5 to 5.2. The current exponent for relatively low current densities decreased with increasing the length of Cu strips, showing size-dependence. Finite element analyses were performed to analyze the current-induced deflection of a Cu strip. The simulation results showed that the maximum deflection for the electric current density larger than or equal to 5 kA/cm2 is a linear function of the current density in agreement with the experimental observation.

  8. Ambient air temperature effects on the temperature of sewage sludge composting process.

    PubMed

    Huang, Qi-fei; Chen, Tong-bin; Gao, Ding; Huang, Ze-chun

    2005-01-01

    Using data obtained with a full-scale sewage sludge composting facility, this paper studied the effects of ambient air temperature on the composting temperature with varying volume ratios of sewage sludge and recycled compost to bulking agent. Two volume ratios were examined experimentally, 1: 0: 1 and 3: 1: 2. The results show that composting temperature was influenced by ambient air temperature and the influence was more significant when composting was in the temperature rising process: composting temperature changed 2.4-6.5 degrees C when ambient air temperature changed 13 degrees C. On the other hand, the influence was not significant when composting was in the high-temperature and/or temperature falling process: composting temperature changed 0.75-1.3 degrees C when ambient air temperature changed 8-15 degrees C. Hysteresis effect was observed in composting temperature's responses to ambient air temperature. When the ventilation capability of pile was excellent (at a volume ratio of 1:0:1), the hysteresis time was short and ranging 1.1-1.2 h. On the contrary, when the proportion of added bulking agent was low, therefore less porosity in the substrate (at a volume ratio of 3:1:2), the hysteresis time was long and ranging 1.9-3.1 h.

  9. Final Rule to Reduce Toxic Air Emissions from Asphalt Processing and Asphalt Roofing Manufacturing Facilities Fact Sheet

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This page contains a February 2003 fact sheet with information regarding the National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP) for Asphalt Processing and Asphalt Roofing Manufacturing.

  10. Spray-formed tooling and aluminum strip

    SciTech Connect

    McHugh, K.M.

    1995-11-01

    Spray forming is an advanced materials processing technology that converts a bulk liquid metal to a near-net-shape solid by depositing atomized droplets onto a suitably shaped substrate. By combining rapid solidification processing with product shape control, spray forming can reduce manufacturing costs while improving product quality. De Laval nozzles offer an alternative method to the more conventional spray nozzle designs. Two applications are described: high-volume production of aluminum alloy strip, and the production of specialized tooling, such as injection molds and dies, for rapid prototyping.

  11. Galaxies in Clusters : Gas Stripping and Accretion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Dea, Chris; Balsara, Dinshaw; Livio, Mario

    1994-05-01

    We study the process of a galaxy moving through the intercluster gas in a cluster of galaxies, using a high quality hydrocode run at high resolutions. We find that ram pressure stripping occurs in the form of individual events that are separated by about ten million years. In addition we find that the galaxy accretes gas from the downstream side into the core. This accretion process exhibits a radial "pumping" mode, similar to the one found previously in simulations of wind accretion onto compact objects. Some implications of our results for the understanding of a few recent observations are discussed.

  12. [Revision process and thinking of emission standard of air pollutants for cement industry].

    PubMed

    Jiang, Mei; Li, Xiao-Qian; Ji, Liang; Zou, Lan; Wei, Yu-Xia; Zhao, Guo-Hua; Che, Fei; Li, Gang; Zhang, Guo-Ning

    2014-12-01

    The new National Emission Standard of Air Pollutants for Cement Industry (GB 4915-2013) was released recently, which is the third revision since the first release in 1985. This paper reviewed the revision process for the emission standard of air pollutants in cement industry, analyzed the impact of environmental protection situation and management policies changes on the content and form of the standard. The standard formulating principles and several key issues together constitute the base of emission standard, which are not only important to complete the theories and methods of emission standard development, but also important to improve the environmental management and pollution control level.

  13. Control of ammonia air pollution through the management of thermal processes in cowsheds.

    PubMed

    Bleizgys, Rolandas; Bagdoniene, Indre

    2016-10-15

    Experimental researches performed in manufacturing cowsheds have demonstrated a variation of ammonia concentration and the factors influencing this most during different periods of the year. The process of ammonia evaporation from manure is influenced by many varying and interrelated factors with temperature and the intensity of air ventilation being the most critical ones. The influence of these factors on the process of ammonia evaporation was established by laboratory researches. An increase in temperature results in an exponential increase in ammonia emission, whereas the dependence of the emission on the air velocity is best expressed by a second degree polynomial. The results obtained may be used as a forecast of the ammonia emissions from cowsheds during different periods of the year. Intensive ventilation is required for the removal of excess moisture from the housing, and this limits the possibilities to reduce ammonia emissions by controlling the intensity of ventilation. A reduction in the amount of ventilation is only recommended if the air quality indices meet the requirements applied to the housing. Better opportunities to reduce ammonia emissions are provided through management of the thermal processes in a cowshed. If the average annual air temperature (11.3°C) is reduced by one degree in a cubicle housing cowshed, the ammonia emissions will decrease by 10%.

  14. Applying RANSAC Algorithm for Fitting Scanning Strips from Airborne Laser Scanning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Błaszczak-Bąk, Wioleta; Janicka, Joanna; Sobieraj-Żłobińska, Anna

    2016-12-01

    During the development of the data acquired by airborne laser scanning the important issue is the fitting and georeferencing of ALS point clouds by means of the tie surfaces and the reference planes. The process of scanning strips adjustment is based on mutual integration of point clouds (scanning strips) and their adaptation to the reference planes. In simultaneous adjustment all strips are combined into one geometrically coherent block, to which the coordinates are given. In the process of determining discrepancies between scanning strips it is important to determine the correct size of the shifts (offsets). Authors propose to do this by using RANSAC algorithm.

  15. Physico-chemical Modification of the Fibrous Filter Nozzles for Purification Processes of Water and Air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bordunov, S. V.; Galtseva, O. V.; Natalinova, N. M.; Rogachev, A. A.; Zhang, Ruizhi

    2017-01-01

    A set of experiments to study physical and chemical modification of the surface of fibers is conducted to expand the area of their application for purification of water, gas and air (including that in conditions of space). The possibility of modification of filter nozzles in the process of fiber formation by particles of coal of BAU type, copper sulfide and silver chloride is experimentally shown. The fraction of the copper sulfide powder less than 50 microns in size was crushed in a spherical mill; it was deposited on fiber at air temperature of 50° C and powder consumption of 0.5 g/l of air. The resulting material contained 6–18 CuS particles per 1 cm of the fiber length. An effective bactericidal fibrous material can be produced using rather cheap material – CuS and relatively cheap natural compounds of sulphides and oxides of heavy metals.

  16. Design of Sensor Data Processing Steps in an Air Pollution Monitoring System

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Young Jin; Lee, Yang Koo; Lee, Dong Gyu; Lee, Yongmi; Nittel, Silvia; Beard, Kate; Nam, Kwang Woo; Ryu, Keun Ho

    2011-01-01

    Environmental monitoring is required to understand the effects of various kinds of phenomena such as a flood, a typhoon, or a forest fire. To detect the environmental conditions in remote places, monitoring applications employ the sensor networks to detect conditions, context models to understand phenomena, and computing technology to process the large volumes of data. In this paper, we present an air pollution monitoring system to provide alarm messages about potentially dangerous areas with sensor data analysis. We design the data analysis steps to understand the detected air pollution regions and levels. The analyzed data is used to track the pollution and to give an alarm. This implemented monitoring system is used to mitigate the damages caused by air pollution. PMID:22247663

  17. An Introduction to Intelligent Processing Programs Developed by the Air Force Manufacturing Technology Directorate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sampson, Paul G.; Sny, Linda C.

    1992-01-01

    The Air Force has numerous on-going manufacturing and integration development programs (machine tools, composites, metals, assembly, and electronics) which are instrumental in improving productivity in the aerospace industry, but more importantly, have identified strategies and technologies required for the integration of advanced processing equipment. An introduction to four current Air Force Manufacturing Technology Directorate (ManTech) manufacturing areas is provided. Research is being carried out in the following areas: (1) machining initiatives for aerospace subcontractors which provide for advanced technology and innovative manufacturing strategies to increase the capabilities of small shops; (2) innovative approaches to advance machine tool products and manufacturing processes; (3) innovative approaches to advance sensors for process control in machine tools; and (4) efforts currently underway to develop, with the support of industry, the Next Generation Workstation/Machine Controller (Low-End Controller Task).

  18. Restitution of enamel after interdental stripping.

    PubMed

    Lundgren, T; Milleding, P; Mohlin, B; Nannmark, U

    1993-01-01

    This paper studies the effect of interdental stripping on the enamel surface and evaluates methods to restitute the treated surface. Extracted teeth mounted in a semielastic material were subjected to stripping by different kinds of steel strips. The treated enamel surfaces were then polished in several different ways. The effects were studied by SEM and profilometry. It was concluded that the coarsest strips produced irregularities of such a magnitude that polishing had very limited effect. Polishing starting with coarse polishing strips followed by gradually finer gave the best result. An increase in number of strokes and use of all grades of polishing strips slightly improved the result.

  19. Piloted simulation of an air-ground profile negotiation process in a time-based Air Traffic Control environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, David H.; Green, Steven M.

    1993-01-01

    Historically, development of airborne flight management systems (FMS) and ground-based air traffic control (ATC) systems has tended to focus on different objectives with little consideration for operational integration. A joint program, between NASA's Ames Research Center (Ames) and Langley Research Center (Langley), is underway to investigate the issues of, and develop systems for, the integration of ATC and airborne automation systems. A simulation study was conducted to evaluate a profile negotiation process (PNP) between the Center/TRACON Automation System (CTAS) and an aircraft equipped with a four-dimensional flight management system (4D FMS). Prototype procedures were developed to support the functional implementation of this process. The PNP was designed to provide an arrival trajectory solution which satisfies the separation requirements of ATC while remaining as close as possible to the aircraft's preferred trajectory. Results from the experiment indicate the potential for successful incorporation of aircraft-preferred arrival trajectories in the CTAS automation environment. Fuel savings on the order of 2 percent to 8 percent, compared to fuel required for the baseline CTAS arrival speed strategy, were achieved in the test scenarios. The data link procedures and clearances developed for this experiment, while providing the necessary functionality, were found to be operationally unacceptable to the pilots. In particular, additional pilot control and understanding of the proposed aircraft-preferred trajectory, and a simplified clearance procedure were cited as necessary for operational implementation of the concept.

  20. PUMA - a new mathematical model for the rapid calculation of steady-state concentration profiles in mixer-settler extraction, partitioning, and stripping contactors using the Purex process

    SciTech Connect

    Geldard, J.F.

    1986-11-01

    The mathematical basis for a computer code PUMA (Plutonium-Uranium-Matrix-Algorithm) is described. The code simulates steady-state concentration profiles of solvent extraction contactors used in the Purex process, directly without first generating the transient behavior. The computational times are reduced, with no loss of accuracy, by about tenfold over those required by codes that generate the steady-state profiles via transient state conditions. Previously developed codes that simulate the steady-state conditions directly are not applicable to partitioning contactors, whereas PUMA is applicable to all contactors in the Purex process. Since most difficulties are encountered with partitioning contactors when simulating steady-state profiles via transient state conditions, it is with these contactors that the greatest saving in computer times is achieved.

  1. COASP and CHASP Processors for Strip-map and Moving Target Adaptive Processing of EC CV-580 Synthetic Aperture Radar Data: Algorithms and Software Description

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-05-01

    synthetic aperture radar ( SAR ) since the late 1990’s in support of target detection and classification studies. Until recently, processing of data from...this SAR system has been carried out in-house using the Polarimetrc Generalized Airborne SAR Processor (PolGASP) that was developed at the Canada...COASP (Configurable Airborne SAR Processor) and CHASP (Chip Adaptive SAR Processor) processors have been developed to replace and augment PolGASP and

  2. Redefining Combat Mission Reporting in Contemporary Operations: Focusing the Air Component’s Process in Support of the Joint Warfighter

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-06-11

    REDEFINING COMBAT MISSION REPORTING IN CONTEMPORARY OPERATIONS: FOCUSING THE AIR COMPONENT’S PROCESS IN SUPPORT OF THE JOINT WARFIGHTER...Focusing the Air Component’s Process in Support of the Joint Warfighter 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6

  3. A New High-Resolution Direction Finding Architecture Using Photonics and Neural Network Signal Processing for Miniature Air Vehicle Applications

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-09-01

    RESOLUTION DIRECTION FINDING ARCHITECTURE USING PHOTONICS AND NEURAL NETWORK SIGNAL PROCESSING FOR MINIATURE AIR VEHICLE APPLICATIONS by Robert...RESOLUTION DIRECTION FINDING ARCHITECTURE USING PHOTONICS AND NEURAL NETWORK SIGNAL PROCESSING FOR MINIATURE AIR VEHICLE APPLICATIONS 5. FUNDING...unlimited 12b. DISTRIBUTION CODE 13. ABSTRACT (maximum 200 words) This paper investigates the design of an interferometric direction finding receiver

  4. Modification of pure oxygen absorption equipment for concurrent stripping of carbon dioxide

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Watten, B.J.; Sibrell, P.L.; Montgomery, G.A.; Tsukuda, S.M.

    2004-01-01

    The high solubility of carbon dioxide precludes significant desorption within commercial oxygen absorption equipment. This operating characteristic of the equipment limits its application in recirculating water culture systems despite its ability to significantly increase allowable fish loading rates (kg/(L min)). Carbon dioxide (DC) is typically removed by air stripping. This process requires a significant energy input for forced air movement, air heating in cold climates and water pumping. We developed a modification for a spray tower that provides for carbon dioxide desorption as well as oxygen absorption. Elimination of the air-stripping step reduces pumping costs while allowing dissolved nitrogen to drop below saturation concentrations. This latter response provides for an improvement in oxygen absorption efficiency within the spray tower. DC desorption is achieved by directing head-space gases from the spray tower (O2, N2, CO2) through a sealed packed tower scrubber receiving a 2 N NaOH solution. Carbon dioxide is selectively removed from the gas stream, by chemical reaction, forming the product Na 2CO3. Scrubber off-gas, lean with regard to carbon dioxide but still rich with oxygen, is redirected through the spray tower for further stripping of DC and absorption of oxygen. Make-up NaOH is metered into the scrubbing solution sump on an as needed basis as directed by a feedback control loop programmed to maintain a scrubbing solution pH of 11.4-11.8. The spent NaOH solution is collected, then regenerated for reuse, in a batch process that requires relatively inexpensive hydrated lime (Ca(OH)2). A by-product of the regeneration step is an alkaline filter cake, which may have use in bio-solids stabilization. Given the enhanced gas transfer rates possible with chemical reaction, the required NaOH solution flow rate through the scrubber represents a fraction of the spray tower water flow rate. Further, isolation of the water being treated from the atmosphere (1

  5. High pressure water jet cutting and stripping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoppe, David T.; Babai, Majid K.

    1991-01-01

    High pressure water cutting techniques have a wide range of applications to the American space effort. Hydroblasting techniques are commonly used during the refurbishment of the reusable solid rocket motors. The process can be controlled to strip a thermal protective ablator without incurring any damage to the painted surface underneath by using a variation of possible parameters. Hydroblasting is a technique which is easily automated. Automation removes personnel from the hostile environment of the high pressure water. Computer controlled robots can perform the same task in a fraction of the time that would be required by manual operation.

  6. An Analysis of the Cost Estimating Process in Air Force Research and Development Laboratories.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-09-01

    4. TITLE (and Subtitle) S. TYPE Of REPORT & PERIOO COvEREO AN ANALYSIS OF THE COST ESTIMATING PROCESS IN AIR FORCE RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT Master’s...final typed thesis. Her efficiency and professionalism was unexcelled. Finally, very special thanks go to my children, Chris and Brian, and especially my...42 3-6 Computer Costs - Estimating Methods. . 44 3-7 Type of Work Unit Versus Estimating Methods Used ... ............. .47 3-8 Cost Variance Between

  7. Bimaterial Thermal Strip With Increased Flexing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrison, Andrew D.

    1994-01-01

    In proposed bimaterial thermal strip, one layer has negative coefficient of thermal expansion, thereby increasing difference between coefficients of thermal expansion of two outer layers and consequently increasing flexing caused by change in temperature. Proposed bimaterial strips used in thermostats.

  8. DC corona electric discharges for air pollution control. Part 1. Efficiency and products of hydrocarbon processing.

    PubMed

    Marotta, Ester; Callea, Alessandro; Rea, Massimo; Paradisi, Cristina

    2007-08-15

    A large (ca 0.7 L) wire-cylinder benchtop reactor was developed and tested for DC corona processing of VOC (volatile organic compound)-contaminated air at room temperature and pressure. The aim of our research is the identification and rationalization of the chemical reactions responsible for VOC removal. Model hydrocarbons, n-hexane and 2,2,4-trimethylpentane (i-octane), were used to characterize the process and compare the effects of DC corona polarity and of humidity on its energy efficiency and products. n-Hexane and i-octane behave very similarly. For both, the energy efficiency is significantly better with negative than with positive DC corona, especially in humid air. The effect of humidity is most interesting. Thus, while with -DC corona the process efficiency is significantly better in humid air, a slight inhibition is observed with +DC corona. Differences between +DC and -DC corona are also found in the amounts of volatile products formed, which include CO2, CO, and minor quantities of organic byproducts (aldehydes, ketones, alcohols, and lower hydrocarbons). A significant fraction of the carbon originally present as VOC is, however, unaccounted for by the analysis of gaseous and volatile organic products and must, therefore, end up as nonvolatile materials and aerosols.

  9. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers in indoor air during waste TV recycling process.

    PubMed

    Guo, Jie; Lin, Kuangfei; Deng, Jingjing; Fu, Xiaoxu; Xu, Zhenming

    2015-01-01

    Recycling process for waste TV sets mainly consists of dismantling, printed wiring board (PWB) heating, PWB recycling, and plastic crushing in formal recycling plant. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) contained in waste TV sets are released to indoor air. Air samples at 4 different workshops were collected to measure the PBDEs concentrations in both gaseous and particulate phases. The mean concentrations of ∑PBDEs in indoor air were in the range of 6780-2,280,000 pg/m(3). The highest concentration in gaseous phase (291,000 pg/m(3)) was detected in the PWB heating workshop. The ∑12PBDEs concentrations in PM2.5 and PM10 at the 4 workshops ranged in 6.8-6670 μg/g and 32.6-6790 μg/g, respectively. The gas-particle partitioning of PBDEs was disrupted as PBDEs were continuously released during the recycling processes. Occupational exposure assessment showed that only the exposure concentration of BDE-47 (0.118 μg/kg/day) through inhalation in the PWB heating workshop for workers without facemask exceeded the reference dose (0.1 μg/kg/day), posing a health hazard to workers. All the results demonstrated that recycling of TV sets was an important source of PBDEs emission, and PBDEs emission pollution was related to the composition of TV sets, interior dust, and recycling process.

  10. Intraply Hybrid Composites Would Contain Control Strips

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamis, Christos C.; Shiao, Chi-Yu

    1996-01-01

    "Smart" structural components with sensors and/or actuators distributed throughout their volumes made of intraply hybrid composite materials, according to proposal. Strips of hybrid control material interspersed with strips of ordinary (passive) composite material in some layers, providing distributed control capability. For example, near and far edges of plate bent upward by commanding bottom control strips to expand and simultaneously commanding upper control strips to contract.

  11. Optimization of leachate treatment using persulfate/H2O2 based advanced oxidation process: case study: Deir El-Balah Landfill Site, Gaza Strip, Palestine.

    PubMed

    Hilles, Ahmed H; Abu Amr, Salem S; Hussein, Rim A; Arafa, Anwar I; El-Sebaie, Olfat D

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the performance of employing H2O2 reagent in persulfate activation to treat stabilized landfill leachate. A central composite design (CCD) with response surface methodology (RSM) was applied to evaluate the relationships between operating variables, such as persulfate and H2O2 dosages, pH, and reaction time, to identify the optimum operating conditions. Quadratic models for the following two responses proved to be significant with very low probabilities (<0.0001): chemical oxygen demand (COD) and NH3-N removal. The obtained optimum conditions included a reaction time of 116 min, 4.97 g S2O8(2-), 7.29 g H2O2 dosage and pH 11. The experimental results were corresponding well with predicted models (COD and NH3-N removal rates of 81% and 83%, respectively). The results obtained in the stabilized leachate treatment were compared with those from other treatment processes, such as persulfate only and H2O2 only, to evaluate its effectiveness. The combined method (i.e., /S2O8(2-)/H2O2) achieved higher removal efficiencies for COD and NH3-N compared with other studied applications.

  12. Using Comic Strips in Language Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Csabay, Noémi

    2006-01-01

    The author believes that using comic strips in language-learning classes has three main benefits. First, comic strips motivate younger learners. Second, they provide a context and logically connected sentences to help language learning. Third, their visual information is helpful for comprehension. The author argues that comic strips can be used in…

  13. Los Alamos Controlled Air Incinerator for radioactive waste. Volume I. Rationale, process, equipment, performance, and recommendations

    SciTech Connect

    Neuls, A.S.; Draper, W.E.; Koenig, R.A.; Newmyer, J.M.; Warner, C.L.

    1982-08-01

    This two-volume report is a detailed design and operating documentation of the Los Alamos National Laboratory Controlled Air Incinerator (CAI) and is an aid to technology transfer to other Department of Energy contractor sites and the commercial sector. Volume I describes the CAI process, equipment, and performance, and it recommends modifications based on Los Alamos experience. It provides the necessary information for conceptual design and feasibility studies. Volume II provides descriptive engineering information such as drawing, specifications, calculations, and costs. It aids duplication of the process at other facilities.

  14. Optimizing the air flotation water treatment process. Final report, May 1997

    SciTech Connect

    Barnett, B.

    1998-09-01

    The injection water for the Nelson Project is a combination of produced and make-up water, typical of many Eastern Kansas operations. The make-up water is a low-salinity salt water from the Arbuckle Formation and contains dissolved minerals and sulfides. The produced water contains suspended oil, suspended clay and silt particles, along with a combination of other dissolved minerals. The combination of the two waters causes several undesirable reactions. The suspended solids load contained in the combined waters would plug a 75-micron plant bag filter within one day. Wellhead filters of 75-micron size were also being used on the injection wells. The poor water quality resulted in severe loss of injectivity and frequent wellbore cleaning of the injection wells. Various mechanical and graded-bed filtration methods were considered for cleaning the water. These methods were rejected due to the lack of field equipment and service availability. A number of vendors did not even respond to the author`s request. The air flotation process was selected as offering the best hope for a long-term solution. The objective of this work is to: increase the cost effectiveness of the process through optimizing process design factors and operational parameters. A vastly modified air flotation system is the principal tool for accomplishing the project objective. The air flotation unit, as received from manufacturer Separation Specialist, was primarily designed to remove oil from produced water. The additional requirement for solids removal necessitated major physical changes in the unit. Problems encountered with the air flotation unit and specific modifications are detailed in the body of the report.

  15. Synthesizing 3D Surfaces from Parameterized Strip Charts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robinson, Peter I.; Gomez, Julian; Morehouse, Michael; Gawdiak, Yuri

    2004-01-01

    We believe 3D information visualization has the power to unlock new levels of productivity in the monitoring and control of complex processes. Our goal is to provide visual methods to allow for rapid human insight into systems consisting of thousands to millions of parameters. We explore this hypothesis in two complex domains: NASA program management and NASA International Space Station (ISS) spacecraft computer operations. We seek to extend a common form of visualization called the strip chart from 2D to 3D. A strip chart can display the time series progression of a parameter and allows for trends and events to be identified. Strip charts can be overlayed when multiple parameters need to visualized in order to correlate their events. When many parameters are involved, the direct overlaying of strip charts can become confusing and may not fully utilize the graphing area to convey the relationships between the parameters. We provide a solution to this problem by generating 3D surfaces from parameterized strip charts. The 3D surface utilizes significantly more screen area to illustrate the differences in the parameters and the overlayed strip charts, and it can rapidly be scanned by humans to gain insight. The selection of the third dimension must be a parallel or parameterized homogenous resource in the target domain, defined using a finite, ordered, enumerated type, and not a heterogeneous type. We demonstrate our concepts with examples from the NASA program management domain (assessing the state of many plans) and the computers of the ISS (assessing the state of many computers). We identify 2D strip charts in each domain and show how to construct the corresponding 3D surfaces. The user can navigate the surface, zooming in on regions of interest, setting a mark and drilling down to source documents from which the data points have been derived. We close by discussing design issues, related work, and implementation challenges.

  16. Process for removal of ammonia and acid gases from contaminated waters

    DOEpatents

    King, C. Judson; MacKenzie, Patricia D.

    1985-01-01

    Contaminating basic gases, i.e., ammonia, and acid gases, e.g., carbon dioxide, are removed from process waters or waste waters in a combined extraction and stripping process. Ammonia in the form of ammonium ion is extracted by an immiscible organic phase comprising a liquid cation exchange component, especially an organic phosphoric acid derivative, and preferably di-2-ethyl hexyl phosphoric acid, dissolved in an alkyl hydrocarbon, aryl hydrocarbon, higher alcohol, oxygenated hydrocarbon, halogenated hydrocarbon, and mixtures thereof. Concurrently, the acidic gaseous contaminants are stripped from the process or waste waters by stripping with steam, air, nitrogen, or the like. The liquid cation exchange component has the ammonia stripped therefrom by heating, and the component may be recycled to extract additional amounts of ammonia.

  17. Process for removal of ammonia and acid gases from contaminated waters

    DOEpatents

    King, C.J.; Mackenzie, P.D.

    1982-09-03

    Contaminating basic gases, i.e., ammonia and acid gases, e.g., carbon dioxide, are removed from process waters or waste waters in a combined extraction and stripping process. Ammonia in the form of ammonium ion is extracted by an immiscible organic phase comprising a liquid cation exchange component, especially an organic phosphoric acid derivative, and preferably di-2-ethyl hexyl phosphoric acid, dissolved in an alkyl hydrocarbon, aryl hydrocarbon, higher alcohol, oxygenated hydrocarbon, halogenated hydrocarbon, and mixtures thereof. Concurrently, the acidic gaseous contaminants are stripped from the process or waste waters by stripping with stream, air, nitrogen, or the like. The liquid cation exchange component has the ammonia stripped therefrom by heating, and the component may be recycled to extract additional amounts of ammonia.

  18. Study on lycopene and antioxidant contents variations in tomatoes under air-drying process.

    PubMed

    Chang, C-H; Liu, Y-C

    2007-11-01

    Effects of factors such as tomato cultivars, drying temperatures (40, 80, and 120 degrees C), and drying time (0 to 240 min) on tomato lycopene and the major antioxidant contents (MACs, herein as the sum of total phenolics and total flavonoids) during an air-drying process were investigated. The results showed that lycopene contents increased under all the drying temperatures during the first 60 min. However, the red tomato cultivars, that is, HR, SN, and TTL, exhibited a significant decrease in lycopene contents under 120 degrees C after drying for 75 min. According to the experimental data, an MAC threshold value of 500 mg/100 g dry matter of tomato is proposed. When the MAC is lower than this value during air-drying, lycopene contents in all tomato cultivars would drop rapidly. In addition, the tomatoes in yellow color group, containing more MACs initially and retaining more MACs under air-drying at 40 to 80 degrees C, are proposed to be the proper tomato cultivars for thermal processing.

  19. Measure Guideline: Wall Air Sealing and Insulation Methods in Existing Homes; An Overview of Opportunity and Process

    SciTech Connect

    Roberts, S.; Stephenson, R.

    2012-09-01

    This guide provides renovators and retrofit contractors an overview of considerations when including wall air sealing and insulation in an energy retrofit project. It also outlines the potential project risks, various materials for insulating, possible field inspections needed, installation procedures, as well as the benefits and drawbacks. The purpose of this document is to provide the outline of the overview and process of insulating and air sealing walls so that home retrofit professionals can identify approaches to air sealing and insulation measures.

  20. Investigation of Ignition and Combustion Processes of Diesel Engines Operating with Turbulence and Air-storage Chambers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Petersen, Hans

    1938-01-01

    The flame photographs obtained with combustion-chamber models of engines operating respectively, with turbulence chamber and air-storage chambers or cells, provide an insight into the air and fuel movements that take place before and during combustion in the combustion chamber. The relation between air velocity, start of injection, and time of combustion was determined for the combustion process employing a turbulence chamber.

  1. TECHNOLOGY ASSESSMENT OF SOIL VAPOR EXTRACTION AND AIR SPARGING

    EPA Science Inventory

    Air sparging, also called "in situ air stripping and in situ volatilization" injects air into the saturated zone to strip away volatile organic compounds (VOCs) dissolved in groundwater and adsorbed to soil. hese volatile contaminants transfer in a vapor phase to the unsaturated ...

  2. Air Vehicle Technology Integration Program (AVTIP). Delivery Order 0033: Advanced Sol-Gel Adhesion Processes - Transition Support

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-07-01

    or without an additional acid desmut. The use of an open air plasma process may improve the surface cleanliness, but the results were not conclusive...from PlasmaTreat -North America was used to clean and activate the surface of the aluminum alloy. This process blasts the surface of an object on the...conditioner with or without an additional acid desmut. The use of an open air plasma process may improve the surface cleanliness, but the results

  3. A Process Model for Deployment Planning of Ground-based Air Defense System Against Asymmetric Homeland Threat

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-01-01

    A Process Model for Deployment Planning of Ground-based Air Defense System Against Asymmetric Homeland Threat Ronald L. Cypert Scientific...units, along with coordination at the state and federal agency level, a dynamic process modeling capability was chosen to chart the myriad...COVERED 00-00-2009 to 00-00-2009 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE A Process Model for Deployment Planning of Ground-based Air Defense System Against

  4. Development and evaluation of a profile negotiation process for integrating aircraft and air traffic control automation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, Steven M.; Denbraven, Wim; Williams, David H.

    1993-01-01

    The development and evaluation of the profile negotiation process (PNP), an interactive process between an aircraft and air traffic control (ATC) that integrates airborne and ground-based automation capabilities to determine conflict-free trajectories that are as close to an aircraft's preference as possible, are described. The PNP was evaluated in a real-time simulation experiment conducted jointly by NASA's Ames and Langley Research Centers. The Ames Center/TRACON Automation System (CTAS) was used to support the ATC environment, and the Langley Transport Systems Research Vehicle (TSRV) piloted cab was used to simulate a 4D Flight Management System (FMS) capable aircraft. Both systems were connected in real time by way of voice and data lines; digital datalink communications capability was developed and evaluated as a means of supporting the air/ground exchange of trajectory data. The controllers were able to consistently and effectively negotiate nominally conflict-free vertical profiles with the 4D-equipped aircraft. The actual profiles flown were substantially closer to the aircraft's preference than would have been possible without the PNP. However, there was a strong consensus among the pilots and controllers that the level of automation of the PNP should be increased to make the process more transparent. The experiment demonstrated the importance of an aircraft's ability to accurately execute a negotiated profile as well as the need for digital datalink to support advanced air/ground data communications. The concept of trajectory space is proposed as a comprehensive approach for coupling the processes of trajectory planning and tracking to allow maximum pilot discretion in meeting ATC constraints.

  5. Antenna structure with distributed strip

    DOEpatents

    Rodenbeck, Christopher T.

    2008-10-21

    An antenna comprises electrical conductors arranged to form a radiating element including a folded line configuration and a distributed strip configuration, where the radiating element is in proximity to a ground conductor. The folded line and the distributed strip can be electrically interconnected and substantially coplanar. The ground conductor can be spaced from, and coplanar to, the radiating element, or can alternatively lie in a plane set at an angle to the radiating element. Embodiments of the antenna include conductor patterns formed on a printed wiring board, having a ground plane, spacedly adjacent to and coplanar with the radiating element. Other embodiments of the antenna comprise a ground plane and radiating element on opposed sides of a printed wiring board. Other embodiments of the antenna comprise conductors that can be arranged as free standing "foils". Other embodiments include antennas that are encapsulated into a package containing the antenna.

  6. Antenna structure with distributed strip

    DOEpatents

    Rodenbeck, Christopher T.

    2008-03-18

    An antenna comprises electrical conductors arranged to form a radiating element including a folded line configuration and a distributed strip configuration, where the radiating element is in proximity to a ground conductor. The folded line and the distributed strip can be electrically interconnected and substantially coplanar. The ground conductor can be spaced from, and coplanar to, the radiating element, or can alternatively lie in a plane set at an angle to the radiating element. Embodiments of the antenna include conductor patterns formed on a printed wiring board, having a ground plane, spacedly adjacent to and coplanar with the radiating element. Other embodiments of the antenna comprise a ground plane and radiating element on opposed sides of a printed wiring board. Other embodiments of the antenna comprise conductors that can be arranged as free standing "foils". Other embodiments include antennas that are encapsulated into a package containing the antenna.

  7. Roll Casting of Aluminum Alloy Clad Strip

    SciTech Connect

    Nakamura, R.; Tsuge, H.; Haga, T.; Watari, H.; Kumai, S.

    2011-01-17

    Casting of aluminum alloy three layers of clad strip was tried using the two sets of twin roll casters, and effects of the casting parameters on the cladding conditions were investigated. One twin roll caster was mounted on the other twin roll caster. Base strip was 8079 aluminum alloy and overlay strips were 6022 aluminum alloy. Effects of roll-load of upper and lower casters and melt temperature of the lower caster were investigated. When the roll-load of the upper and lower caster was large enough, the overlay strip could be solidified and be connected. The overlay strip could be connected when the melt of the overlay strip cast by the lower caster was low enough. Sound three layers of clad strip could be cast by proper conditions.

  8. Chloroform stripping from waste waters

    SciTech Connect

    Kolev, N.; Darakchiev, R.; Semkov, K.

    1997-01-01

    The problem treated in this paper is the purification of waste industrial waters from chloroform. An industrial installation with a stripping column is designed, and the results of its study and industrial tests are presented. It is shown that, in a column with 6400 mm total height of the used packing (Holpack), the chloroform concentration in the waste water decreases 150,000 times, approaching that of drinking water.

  9. Explosive Nucleosynthesis of Ultra-Stripped Type Ic Supernovae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshida, Takashi; Suwa, Yudai; Umeda, Hideyuki; Shibata, Masaru; Takahashi, Koh

    We investigate the explosive nucleosynthesis of ultra-stripped Type Ic supernovae (SNe) evolved from 1.45 and 1.5 M ȯ CO stars. We calculate the SN explosions using two-dimensional neutrino-radiation hydrodynamics code. The explosion energy of these SNe is about 1050 erg and the ejecta mass is about 0.1 M ȯ . The 56Ni yield is (6-10) × 10-3 M ȯ . Light curve of ultra-stripped SNe would be fast-fading and subluminous like SN 2005ek. Neutrino-driven winds contain neutron-rich materials and the first-peak r-process elements are produced. Ultra-stripped SNe and sub-energetic SNe evolved from single stars having a small CO core could be sources of light r-elements.

  10. Microtube strip heat exchanger

    SciTech Connect

    Doty, F.D.

    1992-07-09

    The purpose of this contract has been to explore the limits of miniaturization of heat exchangers with the goals of (1) improving the theoretical understanding of laminar heat exchangers, (2) evaluating various manufacturing difficulties, and (3) identifying major applications for the technology. A low-cost, ultra-compact heat exchanger could have an enormous impact on industry in the areas of cryocoolers and energy conversion. Compact cryocoolers based on the reverse Brayton cycle (RBC) would become practical with the availability of compact heat exchangers. Many experts believe that hardware advances in personal computer technology will rapidly slow down in four to six years unless lowcost, portable cryocoolers suitable for the desktop supercomputer can be developed. Compact refrigeration systems would permit dramatic advances in high-performance computer work stations with conventional'' microprocessors operating at 150 K, and especially with low-cost cryocoolers below 77 K. NASA has also expressed strong interest in our MTS exchanger for space-based RBC cryocoolers for sensor cooling. We have demonstrated feasibility of higher specific conductance by a factor of five than any other work in high-temperature gas-to-gas exchangers. These laminar-flow, microtube exchangers exhibit extremely low pressure drop compared to alternative compact designs under similar conditions because of their much shorter flow length and larger total flow area for lower flow velocities. The design appears to be amenable to mass production techniques, but considerable process development remains. The reduction in materials usage and the improved heat exchanger performance promise to be of enormous significance in advanced engine designs and in cryogenics.

  11. Unit for combustion of process exhaust gas and production of hot air

    SciTech Connect

    Andersson, J.O.; Eriksson, T.L.; Nystrom, O.

    1982-12-07

    Unit for thermal incineration of non-explosive gases with minor amounts of organic pollutants and for production of hot air, and which can be adapted to various types of supplementary fuel. There is a combustion chamber which consists of a flame pipe inside an outer jacket. Through the space therebetween, incoming process gas is led as coolant. At its front end, the combustion chamber has a burner for supplementary fuel and a mixing-in zone for process gas. The process gas rapidly mixes with the hot combustion gases in the flame, the gas reaching its reaction temperature directly. Powerful turbulence in the mixing-in zone gas, film-layer cooling, convective cooling and even flow give highly efficient and pure combustion while keeping the flame pipe temperature low enough to prevent corrosion.

  12. [Analysis of an Air Pollution Process Using LiDAR in Nanjing, Spring of 2014].

    PubMed

    Bao, Qing; He, Jun-liang; Zha, Yong; Cheng, Feng; Li, Qian-nan

    2015-04-01

    Based on environmental monitoring data, meteorological data and the results of numerical simulation, a typical air pollution process in Nanjing, from 26th May to 1st June, 2014 was deeply analyzed combining aerosol extinction coefficient derived from LiDAR system. Experimental results showed that the entire pollution process was affected by both local pollution and exogenous inputs including dust and smoke. Meteorological factors played a significant role in the generation and elimination of pollutants. Low pressure and temperature inversion also hindered the diffusion of pollutants, while strong rainfall terminated the pollution process. During the pollution, the height of atmospheric boundary layer was lower than normal situation and changed little during the pollution period, which provided a poor diffusion condition for pollutants. LiDAR could accurately detect aerosol vertical structure which was able to capture the temporal and spatial variation of pollutant distributions. Therefore, LiDAR can be of great significance for the atmospheric pollution monitoring.

  13. Woven graphite epoxy composite test specimens with glass buffer strips

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bonnar, G. R.; Palmer, R. J.

    1982-01-01

    Woven unidirectional graphite cloth with bands of fiberglass replacing the graphite in discrete lengthwise locations was impregnated with epoxy resin and used to fabricate a series of composite tensile and shear specimens. The finished panels, with the fiberglass buffer strips, were tested. Details of the fabrication process are reported.

  14. Thermodynamic and kinetic study of phenol degradation by a non-catalytic wet air oxidation process.

    PubMed

    Lefèvre, Sébastien; Boutin, Olivier; Ferrasse, Jean-Henry; Malleret, Laure; Faucherand, Rémy; Viand, Alain

    2011-08-01

    This work is dedicated to an accurate evaluation of thermodynamic and kinetics aspects of phenol degradation using wet air oxidation process. Phenol is a well known polluting molecule and therefore it is important having data of its behaviour during this process. A view cell is used for the experimental study, with an internal volume of 150 mL, able to reach pressures up to 30 MPa and temperatures up to 350°C. Concerning the thermodynamic phase equilibria, experimental and modelling results are obtained for different binary systems (water/nitrogen, water/air) and ternary system (water/nitrogen/phenol). The best model is the Predictive Soave Redlich Kwong one. This information is necessary to predict the composition of the gas phase during the process. It is also important for an implementation in a process simulation. The second part is dedicated to kinetics evaluation of the degradation of phenol. Different compounds have been detected using GC coupled with a MS. A kinetic scheme is deduced, taking into account the evolution of phenol, hydroquinones, catechol, resorcinol and acetic acid. The kinetic parameters are calculated for this scheme. These data are important to evaluate the evolution of the concentration of the different polluting molecules during the process. A simplified kinetic scheme, which can be easily implemented in a process simulation, is also determined for the direct degradation of phenol into H(2)O and CO(2). The Arrhenius law data obtained for the phenol disappearance are the following: k=1.8×10(6)±3.9×10(5)M(-1)s(-1) (pre-exponential factor) and E(a)=77±8 kJ mol(-1) (activation energy).

  15. Design and performance of the Civil Air Patrol ARCHER hyperspectral processing system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stevenson, Brian; O'Connor, Rory; Kendall, William; Stocker, Alan; Schaff, William; Alexa, Drew; Salvador, John; Eismann, Michael; Barnard, Kenneth; Kershenstein, John

    2005-06-01

    The Civil Air Patrol (CAP) is procuring Airborne Real-time Cueing Hyperspectral Enhanced Reconnaissance (ARCHER) systems to increase their search-and-rescue mission capability. These systems are being installed on a fleet of Gippsland GA-8 aircraft, and will position CAP to gain realworld mission experience with the application of hyperspectral sensor and processing technology to search and rescue. The ARCHER system design, data processing, and operational concept leverage several years of investment in hyperspectral technology research and airborne system demonstration programs by the Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) and Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL). Each ARCHER system consists of a NovaSol-designed, pushbroom, visible/near-infrared (VNIR) hyperspectral imaging (HSI) sensor, a co-boresighted visible panchromatic high-resolution imaging (HRI) sensor, and a CMIGITS-III GPS/INS unit in an integrated sensor assembly mounted inside the GA-8 cabin. ARCHER incorporates an on-board data processing system developed by Space Computer Corporation (SCC) to perform numerous real-time processing functions including data acquisition and recording, raw data correction, target detection, cueing and chipping, precision image geo-registration, and display and dissemination of image products and target cue information. A ground processing station is provided for post-flight data playback and analysis. This paper describes the requirements and architecture of the ARCHER system, with emphasis on data processor design, components, software, interfaces, and displays. Key sensor performance characteristics and real-time data processing features are discussed. The use of the system for detecting and geo-locating ground targets in real-time is demonstrated using test data collected in Southern California in the fall of 2004.

  16. Air-processable silane-coupled polymers to modify a dielectric for solution-processed organic semiconductors.

    PubMed

    Jang, Mi; Yu, Young Chang; Jeon, Hyeonyeol; Youk, Ji Ho; Yang, Hoichang

    2015-03-11

    Poly(styrene-r-3-methacryloxypropyltrimethoxysilane) (PSMPTS) copolymers were synthesized by the free radical polymerization of styrene and 3-methacryloxypropyltrimethoxysilane (MPTS) for use as surface modifiers. PSMPTS copolymers were spun-cast onto a hydrophilic SiO2 layer and were then annealed at 150 °C in ambient air. The polystyrene (PS)-based copolymer, with a molecular weight of 32 700 g mol(-1) and approximately 30 MPTS coupling sites, was easily grafted onto the SiO2 surface after annealing periods longer than 1 min, yielding a physicochemically stable layer. On the untreated and polymer-treated dielectrics, spin-casting of an ultrasonicated poly(3-hexyl thiophene) (P3HT) solution yielded highly interconnected crystal nanofibrils of P3HT. The resulting organic field-effect transistors (OFETs) showed similar mobility values of 0.01-0.012 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1) for all surfaces. However, the threshold voltage (Vth) drastically decreased from +13 (for bare SiO2) to 0 V by grafting the PSMPTS copolymers to the SiO2 surface. In particular, the interfacial charge traps that affect Vth were minimized by grafting the 11 mol % MPTS-loaded copolymer to the polar dielectric surface. We believe that this ambient-air-processable silane-coupled copolymer can be used as a solution-based surface modifier for continuous, large-scale OFET fabrication.

  17. Paraho environmental data. Part I. Process characterization. Par II. Air quality. Part III. Water quality

    SciTech Connect

    Heistand, R.N.; Atwood, R.A.; Richardson, K.L.

    1980-06-01

    From 1973 to 1978, Development Engineering, Inc. (DEI), a subsidiary of Paraho Development Corporation, demostrated the Paraho technology for surface oil shale retorting at Anvil Points, Colorado. A considerable amount of environmentally-related research was also conducted. This body of data represents the most comprehensive environmental data base relating to surface retorting that is currently available. In order to make this information available, the DOE Office of Environment has undertaken to compile, assemble, and publish this environmental data. The compilation has been prepared by DEI. This report includes the process characterization, air quality, and water quality categories.

  18. Finite element modelling of high air pressure forming processes for polymer sheets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, W.-G.; Warby, M. K.; Whiteman, J. R.; Abbott, S.; Shorter, W.; Warwick, P.; Wright, T.; Munro, A.; Munro, B.

    In this paper we describe the mathematical modelling and computational simulation of the high air pressure (HAP) thermoforming process which is used in the creation of thin walled polymeric structures. This involves, using data from material tests, an elastic-plastic constitutive equation valid for large deformations and a constrained deformation in which there is frictional contact between the polymeric sheet and a constraining surface (the mould surface). Despite a number of simplifying assumptions and some uncertainities in the mathematical model the finite element computations presented predict quite well the actual shape and thickness distribution which are found on sample products.

  19. Factors Affecting the Corporate Decision-Making Process of Air Transport Manufacturers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ollila, R. G.; Hill, J. D.; Noton, B. R.; Duffy, M. A.; Epstein, M. M.

    1976-01-01

    Fuel economy is a pivotal question influencing the future sale and utilization of commercial aircraft. The NASA Aircraft Energy Efficiency (ACEE) Program Office has a program intended to accelerate the readiness of advanced technologies for energy efficient aircraft. Because the decision to develop a new airframe or engine is a major financial hazard for manufacturers, it is important to know what factors influence the decision making process. A method is described for identifying and ranking individuals and organizations involved at each stage of commercial air transport development, and the barriers that must be overcome in adopting new technologies.

  20. Therapeutic surfactant-stripped frozen micelles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yumiao; Song, Wentao; Geng, Jumin; Chitgupi, Upendra; Unsal, Hande; Federizon, Jasmin; Rzayev, Javid; Sukumaran, Dinesh K.; Alexandridis, Paschalis; Lovell, Jonathan F.

    2016-05-01

    Injectable hydrophobic drugs are typically dissolved in surfactants and non-aqueous solvents which can induce negative side-effects. Alternatives like `top-down' fine milling of excipient-free injectable drug suspensions are not yet clinically viable and `bottom-up' self-assembled delivery systems usually substitute one solubilizing excipient for another, bringing new issues to consider. Here, we show that Pluronic (Poloxamer) block copolymers are amenable to low-temperature processing to strip away all free and loosely bound surfactant, leaving behind concentrated, kinetically frozen drug micelles containing minimal solubilizing excipient. This approach was validated for phylloquinone, cyclosporine, testosterone undecanoate, cabazitaxel and seven other bioactive molecules, achieving sizes between 45 and 160 nm and drug to solubilizer molar ratios 2-3 orders of magnitude higher than current formulations. Hypertonic saline or co-loaded cargo was found to prevent aggregation in some cases. Use of surfactant-stripped micelles avoided potential risks associated with other injectable formulations. Mechanistic insights are elucidated and therapeutic dose responses are demonstrated.

  1. CLOSED-LOOP STRIPPING ANALYSIS (CLSA) OF ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Synthetic musk compounds are used as inexpensive fragrance materials for the production of perfumes and as additives to soap, detergent, and shampoo. They have been found in surface water, fish tissues, and human breast milk. The ubiquity of this class of compounds in the environment is attributable to high use and release into the environment. Current techniques for separating these compounds from fish tissues require tedious sample clean-up procedures. To obtain fat-free extracts, gel permeation chromatography (GPC), column chromatography using alumina, and silica gel, and thin layer chromatography (TLC clean-up procedures are frequently employed. Despite the considerable effort and resources devoted to these processes, a fraction of the lipids and lipid-like compounds frequently remains in the extracts. These low-level lipids foul injection liners, contaminate columns, and yield elevated baselines during gas chromatographic analysis of synthetic musk compounds. In this study, a simple method for the determination of synthetic musk compounds in fish tissues has been developed. Closed-loop stripping of saponified fish tissues in a I -L Wheaton purge- and-trap vessel, is used to strip compounds with high vapor pressures such as synthetic musks from the matrix onto a solid sorbent (Abselut Nexus). This technique is useful for screening biological tissues that contain lipids for musk compounds. Analytes are desorbed from the sorbent trap sequentially with polar an

  2. Therapeutic surfactant-stripped frozen micelles

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yumiao; Song, Wentao; Geng, Jumin; Chitgupi, Upendra; Unsal, Hande; Federizon, Jasmin; Rzayev, Javid; Sukumaran, Dinesh K.; Alexandridis, Paschalis; Lovell, Jonathan F.

    2016-01-01

    Injectable hydrophobic drugs are typically dissolved in surfactants and non-aqueous solvents which can induce negative side-effects. Alternatives like ‘top-down' fine milling of excipient-free injectable drug suspensions are not yet clinically viable and ‘bottom-up' self-assembled delivery systems usually substitute one solubilizing excipient for another, bringing new issues to consider. Here, we show that Pluronic (Poloxamer) block copolymers are amenable to low-temperature processing to strip away all free and loosely bound surfactant, leaving behind concentrated, kinetically frozen drug micelles containing minimal solubilizing excipient. This approach was validated for phylloquinone, cyclosporine, testosterone undecanoate, cabazitaxel and seven other bioactive molecules, achieving sizes between 45 and 160 nm and drug to solubilizer molar ratios 2–3 orders of magnitude higher than current formulations. Hypertonic saline or co-loaded cargo was found to prevent aggregation in some cases. Use of surfactant-stripped micelles avoided potential risks associated with other injectable formulations. Mechanistic insights are elucidated and therapeutic dose responses are demonstrated. PMID:27193558

  3. Buffing, burnishing, and stripping of vinyl asbestos floor tile

    SciTech Connect

    Hollett, B.A.; Edwards, A.; Clark, P.J.

    1995-10-01

    Studies were conducted to evaluate airborne asbestos concentrations during the three principal types of preventative maintenance (low-speed spray-buffing, ultra high-speed burnishing, and wet-stripping) used on asbestos-containing floor tiles. These were done under pre-existing and prepared levels of floor care maintenance. Airborne asbestos concentrations were measured before and during each floor care procedure to determine the magnitude of the increase in airborne asbestos levels during each procedure. Airborne total fiber concentrations were also measured for comparison with the Occupational Safety and Health Administration`s (OSHA) Permissible Exposure Limit (PEL) of 0.1 f/cm{sup 3}. Low-speed spray-buffing and wet-stripping were evaluated on pre-existing floor conditions and three levels of prepared floor care conditions (poor, medium, and good). Ultra high-speed burnishing and wet-stripping were evaluated on two levels of prepared floor care conditions (poor and good). Floor care conditions were defined in consultation with the Chemical Specialty Manufacturers Association and other representatives of floor-care chemical manufacturers. Controlled studies were conducted in an unoccupied building at the decommissioned Chanute Air Force Base in Rantoul, Illinois, with the cooperation of the U.S. Air Force. The building offered approximately 8600 ft{sup 2} of open floor space tiled with 9-inch by 9-inch resilient floor tile containing approximately 5% chrysotile asbestos.

  4. Final Air Toxics Standards for Clay Ceramics Manufacturing, Glass Manufacturing, and Secondary Nonferrous Metals Processing Area Sources Fact Sheet

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This page contains a December 2007 fact sheet with information regarding the National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP) for Clay Ceramics Manufacturing, Glass Manufacturing, and Secondary Nonferrous Metals Processing Area Sources

  5. Fact Sheet - Final Air Toxics Rule for Steel Pickling and HCI Process Facilities and Hydrochloric Acid Regeneration Plants

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Fact Sheet summarizing the main points of the national emssions standard for hazaradous air pollutants (NESHAP) for Steel Pickling— HCl Process Facilities and Hydrochloric Acid Regeneration Plants as promulgated on June 22, 1999.

  6. Galaxies in clusters: Gas stripping and accretion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balsara, Dinshaw; Livio, Mario; O'Dea, Christopher P.

    1994-12-01

    We study the process of a galaxy moving through the intracluster gas in a cluster of galaxies, using two-dimensional hydrodynamic simulations at high resolution. We find that ram pressure stripping occurs in the form of individual events which are separated by a few times 107 yr. In addition, we find that the galaxy accretes gas from the downstream side into the core. This accretion process exhibits a radial 'pumping' mode, similar to the one found previously in simulations of wind accretion onto compact objects. The flow is found to exhibit a complex shock structure around the core. Some implications of our results for the understanding of a few recent observations are discussed.

  7. Application of a statistical post-processing technique to a gridded, operational, air quality forecast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neal, L. S.; Agnew, P.; Moseley, S.; Ordóñez, C.; Savage, N. H.; Tilbee, M.

    2014-12-01

    An automated air quality forecast bias correction scheme based on the short-term persistence of model bias with respect to recent observations is described. The scheme has been implemented in the operational Met Office five day regional air quality forecast for the UK. It has been evaluated against routine hourly pollution observations for a year-long hindcast. The results demonstrate the value of the scheme in improving performance. For the first day of the forecast the post-processing reduces the bias from 7.02 to 0.53 μg m-3 for O3, from -4.70 to -0.63 μg m-3 for NO2, from -4.00 to -0.13 μg m-3 for PM2.5 and from -7.70 to -0.25 μg m-3 for PM10. Other metrics also improve for all species. An analysis of the variation of forecast skill with lead-time is presented and demonstrates that the post-processing increases forecast skill out to five days ahead.

  8. Development of a hazardous air pollutants monitoring program using the Data Quality Objectives process.

    PubMed

    McFarland, Michael J; Nelson, Tim M; Palmer, Glenn R

    2004-05-01

    To effectively reduce the environmental compliance costs associated with meeting hazardous air pollutant emission requirements, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Data Quality Objective (DQO) process has been proposed as a suitable framework for establishing a defensible monitoring program. Through the use of a hazardous materials pilot study, the variability in the composite vapor pressure for regulated handwipe cleaning solvents was established. These results served as inputs to the DQO process, which identified that for facility decision-makers to claim with a 99% confidence level that the facility is in compliance with the National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP), a minimum of 12 handwipe cleaning solvent compliance samples (taken at random every 6 months) must have a composite vapor pressure equal to or below the regulatory limit of 45 mmHg at 20 degrees C. Implementation of the DQO-based compliance-sampling plan eliminates the need for an affected facility to sample all regulated handwipe cleaning solvents while still maintaining a reasonably high level of confidence in the compliance status of its regulated sources. The approach described for designing a defensible compliance sampling plan can be extended to other aspects of the aerospace NESHAP rule, including compliance sampling for surface coating, chemical depainting, and hazardous waste disposal.

  9. Bubble Stripping as a Tool To Reduce High Dissolved CO2 in Coastal Marine Ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Koweek, David A; Mucciarone, David A; Dunbar, Robert B

    2016-04-05

    High dissolved CO2 concentrations in coastal ecosystems are a common occurrence due to a combination of large ecosystem metabolism, shallow water, and long residence times. Many important coastal species may have adapted to this natural variability over time, but eutrophication and ocean acidification may be perturbing the water chemistry beyond the bounds of tolerance for these organisms. We are currently limited in our ability to deal with the geochemical changes unfolding in our coastal ocean. This study helps to address this deficit of solutions by introducing bubble stripping as a novel geochemical engineering approach to reducing high CO2 in coastal marine ecosystems. We use a process-based model to find that air/sea gas exchange rates within a bubbled system are 1-2 orders of magnitude higher than within a nonbubbled system. By coupling bubbling-enhanced ventilation to a coastal ecosystem metabolism model, we demonstrate that strategically timed bubble plumes can mitigate exposure to high CO2 under present-day conditions and that exposure mitigation is enhanced in the more acidic conditions predicted by the end of the century. We argue that shallow water CO2 bubble stripping should be considered among the growing list of engineering approaches intended to increase coastal resilience in a changing ocean.

  10. Review of Air Vitiation Effects on Scramjet Ignition and Flameholding Combustion Processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pellett, G. L.; Bruno, Claudio; Chinitz, W.

    2002-01-01

    This paper offers a detailed review and analysis of more than 100 papers on the physics and chemistry of scramjet ignition and flameholding combustion processes, and the known effects of air vitiation on these processes. The paper attempts to explain vitiation effects in terms of known chemical kinetics and flame propagation phenomena. Scaling methodology is also examined, and a highly simplified Damkoehler scaling technique based on OH radical production/destruction is developed to extrapolate ground test results, affected by vitiation, to flight testing conditions. The long term goal of this effort is to help provide effective means for extrapolating ground test data to flight, and thus to reduce the time and expense of both ground and flight testing.

  11. Impact of Operating Context on the Use of Structure in Air Traffic Controller Cognitive Processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davison, Hayley J.; Histon, Jonathan M.; Ragnarsdottir, Margret Dora; Major, Laura M.; Hansman, R. John

    2004-01-01

    This paper investigates the influence of structure on air traffic controllers cognitive processes in the TRACON, En Route, and Oceanic environments. Radar data and voice command analyses were conducted to support hypotheses generated through observations and interviews conducted at the various facilities. Three general types of structure-based abstractions (standard flows, groupings, and critical points) have been identified as being used in each context, though the details of their application varied in accordance with the constraints of the particular operational environment. Projection emerged as a key cognitive process aided by the structure-based abstractions, and there appears to be a significant difference between how time-based versus spatial-based projection is performed by controllers. It is recommended that consideration be given to the value provided by the structure-based abstractions to the controller as well as to maintain consistency between the type (time or spatial) of information support provided to the controller.

  12. Buffer strips in composites at elevated temperature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bigelow, C. A.

    1983-01-01

    The composite material 'buffer strip' concept is presently investigated at elevated temperatures for the case of graphite/polyimide buffer strip panels using a (45/0/45/90)2S layup, where the buffer strip material was 0-deg S-glass/polyimide. Each panel was loaded in tension until it failed, and radiographs and crack opening displacements were recorded during the tests to determine fracture onset, fracture arrest, and the extent of damage in the buffer strip after crack arrest. At 177 + or - 3 C, the buffer strips increased the panel strength by at least 40 percent in comparison with panels without buffer strips. Compared to similar panels tested at room temperature, those tested at elevated temperature had lower residual strengths, but higher failure strains.

  13. Method for maintaining precise suction strip porosities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gallimore, Frank H. (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    This invention relates to a masking method generally and, more particularly to a method of masking perforated titanium sheets having laminar control suction strips. As illustrated in the drawings, a nonaerodynamic surface of a perforated sheet has alternating suction strip areas and bonding land areas. Suction strip tapes overlie the bonding land areas during application of a masking material to an upper surface of the suction strip tapes. Prior to bonding the perforated sheet to a composite structure, the bonding land tapes are removed. The entire opposite aerodynamic surface is masked with tape before bonding. This invention provides a precise control of suction strip porosities by ensuring that no chemicals penetrate the suction strip areas during bonding.

  14. Striptease on glass: validation of an improved stripping procedure for in situ microarrays.

    PubMed

    Hahnke, Karin; Jacobsen, Marc; Gruetzkau, Andreas; Gruen, Joachim R; Koch, Markus; Emoto, Masashi; Meyer, Thomas F; Walduck, Anna; Kaufmann, Stefan H E; Mollenkopf, Hans-Joachim

    2007-01-30

    Microarrays have rapidly become an indispensable tool for gene analysis. Microarray experiments can be cost prohibitive, however, largely due to the price of the arrays themselves. Whilst different methods for stripping filter arrays on membranes have been established, only very few protocols are published for thermal and chemical stripping of microarrays on glass. Most of these protocols for stripping microarrays on glass were developed in combination with specific surface chemistry and different coatings for covalently immobilizing presynthesized DNA in a deposition process. We have developed a method for stripping commercial in situ microarrays using a multi-step procedure. We present a method that uses mild chemical degradation complemented by enzymatic treatment. We took advantage of the differences in biochemical properties of covalently linked DNA oligonucleotides on in situ synthesized microarrays and the antisense cRNA hybridization probes. The success of stripping protocols for microarrays on glass was critically dependent on the type of arrays, the nature of sample used for hybridization, as well as hybridization and washing conditions. The protocol employs alkali hydrolysis of the cRNA, several enzymatic degradation steps using RNAses and Proteinase K, combined with appropriate washing steps. Stripped arrays were rehybridized using the same protocols as for new microarrays. The stripping method was validated with microarrays from different suppliers and rehybridization of stripped in situ arrays yielded comparable results to hybridizations done on unused, new arrays with no significant loss in precision or accuracy. We show that stripping of commercial in situ arrays is feasible and that reuse of stripped arrays gave similar results compared to unused ones. This was true even for biological samples that show only slight differences in their expression profiles. Our analyses indicate that the stripping procedure does not significantly influence data

  15. Empirical study of classification process for two-stage turbo air classifier in series

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Yuan; Liu, Jiaxiang; Li, Gang

    2013-05-01

    The suitable process parameters for a two-stage turbo air classifier are important for obtaining the ultrafine powder that has a narrow particle-size distribution, however little has been published internationally on the classification process for the two-stage turbo air classifier in series. The influence of the process parameters of a two-stage turbo air classifier in series on classification performance is empirically studied by using aluminum oxide powders as the experimental material. The experimental results show the following: 1) When the rotor cage rotary speed of the first-stage classifier is increased from 2 300 r/min to 2 500 r/min with a constant rotor cage rotary speed of the second-stage classifier, classification precision is increased from 0.64 to 0.67. However, in this case, the final ultrafine powder yield is decreased from 79% to 74%, which means the classification precision and the final ultrafine powder yield can be regulated through adjusting the rotor cage rotary speed of the first-stage classifier. 2) When the rotor cage rotary speed of the second-stage classifier is increased from 2 500 r/min to 3 100 r/min with a constant rotor cage rotary speed of the first-stage classifier, the cut size is decreased from 13.16 μm to 8.76 μm, which means the cut size of the ultrafine powder can be regulated through adjusting the rotor cage rotary speed of the second-stage classifier. 3) When the feeding speed is increased from 35 kg/h to 50 kg/h, the "fish-hook" effect is strengthened, which makes the ultrafine powder yield decrease. 4) To weaken the "fish-hook" effect, the equalization of the two-stage wind speeds or the combination of a high first-stage wind speed with a low second-stage wind speed should be selected. This empirical study provides a criterion of process parameter configurations for a two-stage or multi-stage classifier in series, which offers a theoretical basis for practical production.

  16. Materials, processes, and characterization of extended air-gaps for the intra-level interconnection of integrated circuits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Seongho

    The integration of an air-gap as an ultra low dielectric constant material in an infra-metal dielectric region of interconnect structure in integrated circuits was investigated in terms of material properties of a thermally decomposable sacrificial polymer, fabrication processes and electrical performance. Extension of the air-gap into the inter-layer dielectric region reduces the interconnect capacitance. In order to enhance the hardness of a polymer for the better process reliabilities, a conventional norbornene-based sacrificial polymer was electron-beam irradiated. Although the hardness of the polymer increased, the thermal properties degraded. A new high modulus tetracyclododecene-based sacrificial polymer was characterized and compared to the norbornene-based polymer in terms of hardness, process reliability and thermal properties. The tetracyclododecene-based polymer was harder and showed better process reliability than the norbomene-based sacrificial polymer. Using the tetracyclododecene-based sacrificial polymer, a single layer Cu/air-gap and extended Culair-gap structures were fabricated. The effective dielectric constant of the air-gap and extended air-gap structures were 2.42 and 2.17, respectively. This meets the requirements for the 32 nm node. Moisture uptake of the extended Cu/air-gap structure increased the effective dielectric constant. The exposure of the structure to hexamethyldisilazane vapor removed the absorbed moisture and changed the structure hydrophobic, improving the integration reliability. The integration processes of the air-gap and the extended air-gap into a dual damascene Cu metallization process has been proposed and compared to state-of-the-art integration approaches.

  17. Quantifiable Lateral Flow Assay Test Strips

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    As easy to read as a home pregnancy test, three Quantifiable Lateral Flow Assay (QLFA) strips used to test water for E. coli show different results. The brightly glowing control line on the far right of each strip indicates that all three tests ran successfully. But the glowing test line on the middle left and bottom strips reveal their samples were contaminated with E. coli bacteria at two different concentrations. The color intensity correlates with concentration of contamination.

  18. Method of stripping metals from organic solvents

    DOEpatents

    Todd, Terry A.; Law, Jack D.; Herbst, R. Scott; Romanovskiy, Valeriy N.; Smirnov, Igor V.; Babain, Vasily A.; Esimantovski, Vyatcheslav M.

    2009-02-24

    A new method to strip metals from organic solvents in a manner that allows for the recycle of the stripping agent. The method utilizes carbonate solutions of organic amines with complexants, in low concentrations, to strip metals from organic solvents. The method allows for the distillation and reuse of organic amines. The concentrated metal/complexant fraction from distillation is more amenable to immobilization than solutions resulting from current practice.

  19. Studies of NICADD Extruded Scintillator Strips

    SciTech Connect

    Dychkant, Alexandre; et al.

    2005-03-01

    About four hundred one meter long, 10 cm wide and 5 mm thick extruded scintillating strips were measured at four different points. The results of measurements strip responses to a radioactive source {sup 90}Sr are provided, and details of strip choice, preparation, and method of measurement are included. This work was essential for prototyping a tail catcher and muon tracker for a future international electron positron linear collider detector.

  20. Simulation Based Low-Cost Composite Process Development at the US Air Force Research Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rice, Brian P.; Lee, C. William; Curliss, David B.

    2003-01-01

    Low-cost composite research in the US Air Force Research Laboratory, Materials and Manufacturing Directorate, Organic Matrix Composites Branch has focused on the theme of affordable performance. Practically, this means that we use a very broad view when considering the affordability of composites. Factors such as material costs, labor costs, recurring and nonrecurring manufacturing costs are balanced against performance to arrive at the relative affordability vs. performance measure of merit. The research efforts discussed here are two projects focused on affordable processing of composites. The first topic is the use of a neural network scheme to model cure reaction kinetics, then utilize the kinetics coupled with simple heat transport models to predict, in real-time, future exotherms and control them. The neural network scheme is demonstrated to be very robust and a much more efficient method that mechanistic cure modeling approach. This enables very practical low-cost processing of thick composite parts. The second project is liquid composite molding (LCM) process simulation. LCM processing of large 3D integrated composite parts has been demonstrated to be a very cost effective way to produce large integrated aerospace components specific examples of LCM processes are resin transfer molding (RTM), vacuum assisted resin transfer molding (VARTM), and other similar approaches. LCM process simulation is a critical part of developing an LCM process approach. Flow simulation enables the development of the most robust approach to introducing resin into complex preforms. Furthermore, LCM simulation can be used in conjunction with flow front sensors to control the LCM process in real-time to account for preform or resin variability.

  1. Studies on the stripping of cerium from the loaded tbp-kerosene solution

    SciTech Connect

    Rizk, S.E.; Abdel Rahman, N.; Daoud, J.A.; Aly, H.F.

    2008-07-01

    The reductive stripping of Ce(IV) from the loaded organic phase (30% TBP in kerosene) was investigated, using two stripping agents, EDTA and H{sub 2}O{sub 2}, in nitric acid. The results are compared to determine the optimum conditions for the reduction of Ce(IV) in the organic phase to Ce(III) in the aqueous phase. For each of the two stripping agents, the effect of different parameters affecting the reduction process was investigated: stripping-agent concentration, nitric acid concentration, phase ratio, shaking time, and temperature. The results are compared and discussed in terms of the conditions required for maximum reductive stripping of Ce(IV). (authors)

  2. Thick Silicon Double-Sided Strip Detectors for Low-Energy Small-Animal SPECT

    PubMed Central

    Shokouhi, Sepideh; McDonald, Benjamin S.; Durko, Heather L.; Fritz, Mark A.; Furenlid, Lars R.; Peterson, Todd E.

    2010-01-01

    This work presents characterization studies of thick silicon double-sided strip detectors for a high-resolution small-animal SPECT. The dimension of these detectors is 60.4 mm × 60.4 mm × 1 mm. There are 1024 strips on each side that give the coordinates of the photon interaction, with each strip processed by a separate ASIC channel. Our measurement shows that intrinsic spatial resolution equivalent to the 59 μm strip pitch is attainable. Good trigger uniformity can be achieved by proper setting of a 4-bit DAC in each ASIC channel to remove trigger threshold variations. This is particularly important for triggering at low energies. The thick silicon DSSD (Double-sided strip detector) shows high potential for small-animal SPECT. PMID:20686626

  3. The study of leachate treatment by using three advanced oxidation process based wet air oxidation.

    PubMed

    Karimi, Behroz; Ehrampoush, Mohammad Hassan; Ebrahimi, Asghar; Mokhtari, Mehdi

    2013-01-02

    Wet air oxidation is regarded as appropriate options for wastewater treatment with average organic compounds. The general purpose of this research is to determine the efficiency of three wet air oxidation methods, wet oxidation with hydrogen peroxide and absorption with activated carbon in removing organic matter and nitrogenous compounds from Isfahan's urban leachate. A leachate sample with the volume of 1.5 liters entered into a steel reactor with the volume of three liters and was put under a 10-bar pressure, at temperatures of 100, 200, and 300° as well as three retention times of 30, 60, and 90 minutes. The sample was placed at 18 stages of leachate storage ponds in Isfahan Compost Plant with the volume of 20 liters, using three WPO, WAO methods and a combination of WAO/GAC for leachate pre-treatment. Thirty percent of pure oxygen and hydrogen peroxide were applied as oxidation agents. The COD removal efficiency in WAO method is 7.8-33.3%, in BOD is 14.7-50.6%, the maximum removal percentage (efficiency) for NH4-N is 53.3% and for NO3-N is 56.4-73.9%. The removal efficiency of COD and BOD5 is 4.6%-34 and 24%-50 respectively in WPO method. Adding GAC to the reactor, the removal efficiency of all parameters was improved. The maximum removal efficiency was increased 48% for COD, 31%-43.6 for BOD5 by a combinational method, and the ratio of BOD5/COD was also increased to 90%. In this paper, WAO and WPO process was used for Leachate pre-treatment and WAO/GAC combinational process was applied for improving the organic matter removal and leachate treatment; it was also determined that the recent process is much more efficient in removing resistant organic matter.

  4. The study of leachate treatment by using three advanced oxidation process based wet air oxidation

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Wet air oxidation is regarded as appropriate options for wastewater treatment with average organic compounds. The general purpose of this research is to determine the efficiency of three wet air oxidation methods, wet oxidation with hydrogen peroxide and absorption with activated carbon in removing organic matter and nitrogenous compounds from Isfahan's urban leachate. A leachate sample with the volume of 1.5 liters entered into a steel reactor with the volume of three liters and was put under a 10-bar pressure, at temperatures of 100, 200, and 300° as well as three retention times of 30, 60, and 90 minutes. The sample was placed at 18 stages of leachate storage ponds in Isfahan Compost Plant with the volume of 20 liters, using three WPO, WAO methods and a combination of WAO/GAC for leachate pre-treatment. Thirty percent of pure oxygen and hydrogen peroxide were applied as oxidation agents. The COD removal efficiency in WAO method is 7.8-33.3%, in BOD is 14.7-50.6%, the maximum removal percentage (efficiency) for NH4-N is 53.3% and for NO3-N is 56.4-73.9%. The removal efficiency of COD and BOD5 is 4.6%-34 and 24%-50 respectively in WPO method. Adding GAC to the reactor, the removal efficiency of all parameters was improved. The maximum removal efficiency was increased 48% for COD, 31%-43.6 for BOD5 by a combinational method, and the ratio of BOD5/COD was also increased to 90%. In this paper, WAO and WPO process was used for Leachate pre-treatment and WAO/GAC combinational process was applied for improving the organic matter removal and leachate treatment; it was also determined that the recent process is much more efficient in removing resistant organic matter. PMID:23369258

  5. Robotic dry stripping of airframes - Phase II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pauli, Robert A.; Wittenberg, Art M.

    1989-03-01

    This paper describes a program for the development of a dust-free closed-cycle robotic system for dry stripping of airframes, designed to insure dust-free work environment and reduce plastic-media loss, the contamination risk, and the media inventory requirement. Phase I of the program involved building a prototype of the proposed robotic arm and its dust enclosure to prove basic automation concepts, showing reasonable paint removal rate from a curved surface, and establishing that the process is dust-free and recovers plastic media in a closed-cycle fashion. This paper contains calculations on the effect of different blasting parameters in order to determine optimum values required for the completion of Phase I. Also presented is the progress achieved by the Phase II of the program, which is to prove the total concept by building the complete system and demonstrating its capability.

  6. Ultrafast formation of air-processable and high-quality polymer films on an aqueous substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noh, Jonghyeon; Jeong, Seonju; Lee, Jung-Yong

    2016-08-01

    Polymer solar cells are attracting attention as next-generation energy sources. Scalable deposition techniques of high-quality organic films should be guaranteed to realize highly efficient polymer solar cells in large areas for commercial viability. Herein, we introduce an ultrafast, scalable, and versatile process for forming high-quality organic films on an aqueous substrate by utilizing the spontaneous spreading phenomenon. This approach provides easy control over the thickness of the films by tuning the spreading conditions, and the films can be transferred to a variety of secondary substrates. Moreover, the controlled Marangoni flow and ultrafast removal of solvent during the process cause the films to have a uniform, high-quality nanomorphology with finely separated phase domains. Polymer solar cells were fabricated from a mixture of polymer and fullerene derivatives on an aqueous substrate by using the proposed technique, and the device exhibited an excellent power conversion efficiency of 8.44 %. Furthermore, a roll-to-roll production system was proposed as an air-processable and scalable commercial process for fabricating organic devices.

  7. Ultrafast formation of air-processable and high-quality polymer films on an aqueous substrate

    PubMed Central

    Noh, Jonghyeon; Jeong, Seonju; Lee, Jung-Yong

    2016-01-01

    Polymer solar cells are attracting attention as next-generation energy sources. Scalable deposition techniques of high-quality organic films should be guaranteed to realize highly efficient polymer solar cells in large areas for commercial viability. Herein, we introduce an ultrafast, scalable, and versatile process for forming high-quality organic films on an aqueous substrate by utilizing the spontaneous spreading phenomenon. This approach provides easy control over the thickness of the films by tuning the spreading conditions, and the films can be transferred to a variety of secondary substrates. Moreover, the controlled Marangoni flow and ultrafast removal of solvent during the process cause the films to have a uniform, high-quality nanomorphology with finely separated phase domains. Polymer solar cells were fabricated from a mixture of polymer and fullerene derivatives on an aqueous substrate by using the proposed technique, and the device exhibited an excellent power conversion efficiency of 8.44 %. Furthermore, a roll-to-roll production system was proposed as an air-processable and scalable commercial process for fabricating organic devices. PMID:27507624

  8. Processes of Ammonia Air-Surface Exchange in a Fertilized Corn Canopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, J. T.; Bash, J. O.; Jones, M.; Nemitz, E.; Robarge, W. P.

    2009-12-01

    Processes of ammonia (NH3) air-surface exchange in fertilized crops include bi-directional flux (emission or deposition) from the soil, surface litter, leaf stomatal cavity, and leaf cuticle. These component fluxes establish the net exchange between the canopy and atmosphere. We conducted an experiment in the summer of 2007 in eastern North Carolina to quantify the net flux of NH3 from a fertilized corn canopy over the course of the growing season. A primary objective was to examine the relative importance of soil vs. foliage exchange pathways with respect to net canopy-scale fluxes. Continuous wet rotating denuder and photoacoustic spectroscopic NH3 measurement methods were configured in a gradient mode to measure canopy-scale fluxes using the modified Bowen-ratio technique. In-canopy source-sink relationships were examined by inverse modeling of NH3 concentration, temperature, and turbulence profiles. Additionally, measurements of NH4+ and H+ in the soil solution, leaf apoplast, and leaf surface water were used in combination with resistance modeling to examine the relationships between net canopy-scale fluxes and soil, stomatal, and cuticular exchange pathways. Measurement and modeling results are presented and the relevance of this work to national NH3 emission inventories and regional air quality modeling is discussed.

  9. Spray-forming monolithic aluminum alloy and metal matrix composite strip

    SciTech Connect

    McHugh, K.M.

    1995-10-01

    Spray forming with de Laval nozzles is an advanced materials processing technology that converts a bulk liquid metal to a near-net-shape solid by depositing atomized droplets onto a suitably shaped substrate. Using this approach, aluminum alloys have been spray formed as strip, with technoeconomic advantages over conventional hot mill processing and continuous casting. The spray-formed strip had a flat profile, minimal porosity, high yield, and refined microstructure. In an adaptation to the technique, 6061 Al/SiC particulate-reinforced metal matrix composite strip was produced by codeposition of the phases.

  10. Thermal Insulation Strips Conserve Energy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2009-01-01

    Launching the space shuttle involves an interesting paradox: While the temperatures inside the shuttle s main engines climb higher than 6,000 F hot enough to boil iron for fuel, the engines use liquid hydrogen, the second coldest liquid on Earth after liquid helium. Maintained below 20 K (-423 F), the liquid hydrogen is contained in the shuttle s rust-colored external tank. The external tank also contains liquid oxygen (kept below a somewhat less chilly 90 K or -297 F) that combines with the hydrogen to create an explosive mixture that along with the shuttle s two, powdered aluminum-fueled solid rocket boosters allows the shuttle to escape Earth s gravity. The cryogenic temperatures of the main engines liquid fuel can cause ice, frost, or liquefied air to build up on the external tank and other parts of the numerous launch fueling systems, posing a possible debris risk when the ice breaks off during launch and causing difficulties in the transfer and control of these cryogenic liquid propellants. Keeping the fuel at the necessary ultra-cold temperatures while minimizing ice buildup and other safety hazards, as well as reducing the operational maintenance costs, has required NASA to explore innovative ways for providing superior thermal insulation systems. To address the challenge, the Agency turned to an insulating technology so effective that, even though it is mostly air, a thin sheet can prevent a blowtorch from igniting a match. Aerogels were invented in 1931 and demonstrate properties that make them the most extraordinary insulating materials known; a 1-inch-thick piece of aerogel provides the same insulation as layering 15 panes of glass with air pockets in between. Derived from silica, aluminum oxide, or carbon gels using a supercritical drying process - resulting in a composition of almost 99-percent air - aerogels are the world s lightest solid (among 15 other titles they hold in the Guinness World Records), can float indefinitely on water if treated to be

  11. Cyclic membrane separation process

    DOEpatents

    Bowser, John

    2004-04-13

    A cyclic process for controlling environmental emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOC) from vapor recovery in storage and dispensing operations of liquids maintains a vacuum in the storage tank ullage. In one of a two-part cyclic process ullage vapor is discharged through a vapor recovery system in which VOC are stripped from vented gas with a selectively gas permeable membrane. In the other part, the membrane is inoperative while gas pressure rises in the ullage. Ambient air is charged to the membrane separation unit during the latter part of the cycle.

  12. Clear air turbulence as a response to meso- and synoptic-scale dynamic processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keller, John L.

    1990-01-01

    The paper presents both the Roach equation for the rate of energy dissipation due to clear air turbulence and Richardson number tendencies in isentropic coordinates and examines the implications of these formulations to determine whether there is a dynamic interdependence between Ri and the nonturbulent deformation processes. The equation representing the ln(Ri) tendency is applied diagnostically to grids from an isentropic analysis of archived soundings. The evolution of the Richardson number fields over 12-hour time periods is examined using a mechanistic model. It is suggested that the application of the Roach equation for the turbulent dissipation rate should have a more restricted use. Analyses of the meso-alpha scale Richardson number and of the Richardson number tendency fields reveal a phase relationship consistent with the theoretical predictions.

  13. Integrating Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Measures in the Air Quality Planning Process

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This guidance provides state and local air quality officials with valuable information on how to incorporate energy efficiency and renewable energy (EE/RE) measures into their air quality plan, also known as the State Implementation Plan (SIP).

  14. Meteorological Processes Affecting Air Quality – Research and Model Development Needs

    EPA Science Inventory

    Meteorology modeling is an important component of air quality modeling systems that defines the physical and dynamical environment for atmospheric chemistry. The meteorology models used for air quality applications are based on numerical weather prediction models that were devel...

  15. Application of an adsorptive-thermocatalytic process for BTX removal from polluted air flow

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Zero valent iron and copper oxide nanoparticles (30-60 nm) were coated on a bed of natural zeolite (Clinoptilolite) with 1-2 mm grains and arranged as a dual filter in a stainless steel cylindrical reactor (I.D 4.5 cm and L = 30 cm) to investigating the coated bed removal efficiency for BTX. The experiments were conducted in three steps. First, with an air flow of 1.5 L/min and temperature range of 38 (ambient temperature) to 600°C the BTX removal and mineralization was surveyed. Then, in an optimized temperature the effect of flow rate and pollution loading rate were surveyed on BTX removal. Results The BTX removal at 300 and 400°C were respectively up to 87.47% and 94.03%. Also in these temperatures respectively 37.21% and 90.42% of BTX mineralization were achieved. In the retention times of 14.1 s and 7.05 s, respectively 96.18% and 78.42% of BTX was removed. Conclusions According to the results, this adsorptive-thermocatalytic process with using Clinoptilolite as an adsorbent bed and combined Fe0 and Cu2O nanoparticles as catalysts can be an efficient and competitive process in the condition of high flow rate and high pollution loading rate with an adequate process temperature of 350°C. PMID:24955244

  16. DEMONSTRATION BULLETIN: ADSORPTION-INTEGRATED-REACTION (AIR2000) PROCESS, KSE, INC.

    EPA Science Inventory

    This Bulletin is a brief description of the AIR2000 technology developed by KSE, Inc., of Amherst, MA. The AIR2000 unit treats air streams containing volatile organic compounds (VOCs). The demonstration occurred at the Stamina Mills superfund site in North Smithfield, RI from Aug...

  17. 7 CFR 29.6041 - Strips.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Strips. 29.6041 Section 29.6041 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... INSPECTION Standards Definitions § 29.6041 Strips. The sides of a tobacco leaf from which the stem has...

  18. 33 CFR 157.128 - Stripping system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... times the rate at which all the COW machines that are designed to simultaneously wash the bottom of the... of the following devices for stripping oil from each cargo tank: (1) A positive displacement pump. (2... positive displacement pump or a self-priming centrifugal pump, the stripping system must have the...

  19. 33 CFR 157.128 - Stripping system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... times the rate at which all the COW machines that are designed to simultaneously wash the bottom of the... of the following devices for stripping oil from each cargo tank: (1) A positive displacement pump. (2... positive displacement pump or a self-priming centrifugal pump, the stripping system must have the...

  20. 33 CFR 157.128 - Stripping system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... times the rate at which all the COW machines that are designed to simultaneously wash the bottom of the... of the following devices for stripping oil from each cargo tank: (1) A positive displacement pump. (2... positive displacement pump or a self-priming centrifugal pump, the stripping system must have the...

  1. 33 CFR 157.128 - Stripping system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... times the rate at which all the COW machines that are designed to simultaneously wash the bottom of the... of the following devices for stripping oil from each cargo tank: (1) A positive displacement pump. (2... positive displacement pump or a self-priming centrifugal pump, the stripping system must have the...

  2. In-situ conditioning of a strip casting roll

    DOEpatents

    Williams, Robert S.; Campbell, Steven L.

    1997-01-01

    A strip caster (10) for producing a continuous strip (24) has a tundish (12) for containing a melt (14) and a pair of horizontally disposed water cooled casting rolls (22). The casting rolls are juxtaposed relative to one another for forming a pouring basin (18) for receiving the melt through a teeming tube (16) thereby establishing a meniscus (20) between the rolls for forming a strip (24). The melt is protected from the outside air by a non-oxidizing gas passed through a supply line (28) to a sealing chamber (26). Devices (29) for conditioning the outer peripheral chill surfaces of the casting rolls includes grit blasting nozzles (30A, 30B, 30C, 30D), a collection trough (32) for gathering the grit, a line (34) for recycling the grit to a bag house (36), a feeder (38) and a pressurized distributor (40) for delivering the grit to the nozzles. The conditioning nozzles remove dirt, metal oxides and surface imperfections providing a clean surface readily wetted by the melt.

  3. In-situ conditioning of a strip casting roll

    DOEpatents

    Williams, R.S.; Campbell, S.L.

    1997-07-29

    A strip caster (10) for producing a continuous strip (24) has a tundish (12) for containing a melt (14) and a pair of horizontally disposed water cooled casting rolls (22). The casting rolls are juxtaposed relative to one another for forming a pouring basin (18) for receiving the melt through a teeming tube (16) thereby establishing a meniscus (20) between the rolls for forming a strip (24). The melt is protected from the outside air by a non-oxidizing gas passed through a supply line (28) to a sealing chamber (26). Devices (29) for conditioning the outer peripheral chill surfaces of the casting rolls includes grit blasting nozzles (30A, 30B, 30C, 30D), a collection trough (32) for gathering the grit, a line (34) for recycling the grit to a bag house (36), a feeder (38) and a pressurized distributor (40) for delivering the grit to the nozzles. The conditioning nozzles remove dirt, metal oxides and surface imperfections providing a clean surface readily wetted by the melt.

  4. Ultrasonic examination of JBK-75 strip material

    SciTech Connect

    Cook, K.V.; Cunningham, R.A. Jr.; Lewis, J.C.; McClung, R.W.

    1982-12-01

    An ultrasonic inspection system was assembled to inspect the JBK-75 stainless steel sheath material (for the Large Coil Project) for the Westinghouse-Airco superconducting magnet program. The mechanical system provided for handling the 180-kg (400-lb) coils of strip material (1.6 mm thick by 78 mm wide by 90 to 120 m long (0.064 by 3.07 in. by 300 to 400 ft)), feeding the strip through the ultrasonic inspection and cleaning stations, and respooling the coils. We inspected 54 coils of strip for both longitudinal and laminar flaws. Simulated flaws were used to calibrate both inspections. Saw-cut notches (0.28 mm deep (0.011 in., about 17% of the strip thickness)) were used to calibrate the longitudinal flaw inspections; 1.59-mm-diam (0.063-in.) flat-bottom holes drilled halfway through a calibration strip were used to calibrate the laminar flaw tests.

  5. Functional importance of stripping in NFκB signaling revealed by a stripping-impaired IκBα mutant.

    PubMed

    Dembinski, Holly E; Wismer, Kevin; Vargas, Jesse D; Suryawanshi, Gajendra W; Kern, Nadja; Kroon, Gerard; Dyson, H Jane; Hoffmann, Alexander; Komives, Elizabeth A

    2017-02-21

    Stress-response transcription factors such as NFκB turn on hundreds of genes and must have a mechanism for rapid cessation of transcriptional activation. We recently showed that the inhibitor of NFκB signaling, IκBα, dramatically accelerates the dissociation of NFκB from transcription sites, a process we have called "stripping." To test the role of the IκBα C-terminal PEST (rich in proline, glutamic acid, serine, and threonine residues) sequence in NFκB stripping, a mutant IκBα was generated in which five acidic PEST residues were mutated to their neutral analogs. This IκBα(5xPEST) mutant was impaired in stripping NFκB from DNA and formed a more stable intermediate ternary complex than that formed from IκBα(WT) because DNA dissociated more slowly. NMR and amide hydrogen-deuterium exchange mass spectrometry showed that the IκBα(5xPEST) appears to be "caught in the act of stripping" because it is not yet completely in the folded and NFκB-bound state. When the mutant was introduced into cells, the rate of postinduction IκBα-mediated export of NFκB from the nucleus decreased markedly.

  6. Experiences with area specific spectrum stripping of NaI(Tl) gamma spectra.

    PubMed

    Aage, H K; Korsbech, U; Bargholz, K; Bystöm, S; Wedmark, M; Thorshaug, S

    2006-01-01

    Processing of airborne and carborne gamma-ray spectra (AGS and CGS) often includes the stripping (elimination) of the signals from natural radioactivity. Hereby the net result becomes the signals from man-made radioactivity or other radiation anomalies. The parameters needed for spectrum stripping are dependent on detector size and quality as well as on the energy windows. In addition they depend on the environmental geometry including the vehicle carrying the detector. For AGS the altitude also influences the parameters. In general the stripping parameters are determined from tedious laboratory or field measurements with known sources of natural radioactivity. Stripping parameters may, however, often be calculated from the actual survey data or from data from a similar area. Both post-processing and real-time processing are possible. The technique is useful for gamma source search, for detection of radiation anomalies and for mapping of contamination levels. The use of the technique is illustrated with field exercise data.

  7. FE Analysis on Shear Deformation for Asymmetrically Hot-Rolled High-Manganese Steel Strip

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sui, Feng-Li; Wang, Xin; Li, Chang-Sheng; Zhao, Jun

    2016-11-01

    Shear deformation along the longitudinal cross section of the high-manganese steel strip has been analyzed in hot asymmetrical rolling process using rigid-plastic finite element model. The friction coefficient between the rolls and the strip surfaces, the diameter of the work rolls, the speed ratio for the lower/upper rolls, the reduction rate and the initial temperature of the billet were all taken into account. Influence of these process parameters on the shear stress, the shear strain and the related shear strain energy in the center layer of the hot-rolled strip was analyzed. It is indicated that increasing the speed ratio, the reduction rate and the work roll diameter is an effective way to accumulate more shear strain energy in the strip center. A mathematical model reflecting the relationship between the shear strain energy and the process parameters has been established.

  8. Assessment of practicality of remote sensing techniques for a study of the effects of strip mining in Alabama

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hughes, T. H.; Dillion, A. C., III; White, J. R., Jr.; Drummond, S. E., Jr.; Hooks, W. G.

    1975-01-01

    Because of the volume of coal produced by strip mining, the proximity of mining operations, and the diversity of mining methods (e.g. contour stripping, area stripping, multiple seam stripping, and augering, as well as underground mining), the Warrior Coal Basin seemed best suited for initial studies on the physical impact of strip mining in Alabama. Two test sites, (Cordova and Searles) representative of the various strip mining techniques and environmental problems, were chosen for intensive studies of the correlation between remote sensing and ground truth data. Efforts were eventually concentrated in the Searles Area, since it is more accessible and offers a better opportunity for study of erosional and depositional processes than the Cordova Area.

  9. Workload-Matched Adaptive Automation Support of Air Traffic Controller Information Processing Stages

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaber, David B.; Prinzel, Lawrence J., III; Wright, Melanie C.; Clamann, Michael P.

    2002-01-01

    Adaptive automation (AA) has been explored as a solution to the problems associated with human-automation interaction in supervisory control environments. However, research has focused on the performance effects of dynamic control allocations of early stage sensory and information acquisition functions. The present research compares the effects of AA to the entire range of information processing stages of human operators, such as air traffic controllers. The results provide evidence that the effectiveness of AA is dependent on the stage of task performance (human-machine system information processing) that is flexibly automated. The results suggest that humans are better able to adapt to AA when applied to lower-level sensory and psychomotor functions, such as information acquisition and action implementation, as compared to AA applied to cognitive (analysis and decision-making) tasks. The results also provide support for the use of AA, as compared to completely manual control. These results are discussed in terms of implications for AA design for aviation.

  10. Recommended direct simulation Monte Carlo collision model parameters for modeling ionized air transport processes

    SciTech Connect

    Swaminathan-Gopalan, Krishnan; Stephani, Kelly A.

    2016-02-15

    A systematic approach for calibrating the direct simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) collision model parameters to achieve consistency in the transport processes is presented. The DSMC collision cross section model parameters are calibrated for high temperature atmospheric conditions by matching the collision integrals from DSMC against ab initio based collision integrals that are currently employed in the Langley Aerothermodynamic Upwind Relaxation Algorithm (LAURA) and Data Parallel Line Relaxation (DPLR) high temperature computational fluid dynamics solvers. The DSMC parameter values are computed for the widely used Variable Hard Sphere (VHS) and the Variable Soft Sphere (VSS) models using the collision-specific pairing approach. The recommended best-fit VHS/VSS parameter values are provided over a temperature range of 1000-20 000 K for a thirteen-species ionized air mixture. Use of the VSS model is necessary to achieve consistency in transport processes of ionized gases. The agreement of the VSS model transport properties with the transport properties as determined by the ab initio collision integral fits was found to be within 6% in the entire temperature range, regardless of the composition of the mixture. The recommended model parameter values can be readily applied to any gas mixture involving binary collisional interactions between the chemical species presented for the specified temperature range.

  11. The Influence of Contact Space on Arc Commutation Process in Air Circuit Breaker

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niu, Chunping; Ding, Juwen; Yang, Fei; Dong, Delong; Rong, Mingzhe; Xu, Dan

    2016-05-01

    In this paper, a 3D magneto-hydrodynamic (MHD) arc simulation model is applied to analyze the arc motion during current interruption in a certain air circuit breaker (ACB). The distributions of pressure, temperature, gas flow and current density of the arc plasma in the arc region are calculated, and the factors influencing the commutation process are analyzed according to the calculated results. Based on the airflow in the arc chamber, the causes of arc commutation asynchrony and the back commutation are investigated. It indicates that a reasonable contact space design is crucial to a successful arc commutation process. To verify the simulation results, the influence of contact space on arc voltage and arc commutation is tested. This research can provide methods and references to the optimization of ACB design. supported by National Key Basic Research Program of China (973 Program) (Nos. 2015CB251002, 6132620303) and National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 51221005, 51377128, 51577144), and Science and Technology Project Through Grid State Corporation (No. SGSNKYOOKJJS1501564)

  12. Radon gas distribution in natural gas processing facilities and workplace air environment.

    PubMed

    Al-Masri, M S; Shwiekani, R

    2008-04-01

    Evaluation was made of the distribution of radon gas and radiation exposure rates in the four main natural gas treatment facilities in Syria. The results showed that radiation exposure rates at contact of all equipment were within the natural levels (0.09-0.1 microSvh(-1)) except for the reflex pumps where a dose rate value of 3 microSvh(-1) was recorded. Radon concentrations in Syrian natural gas varied between 15.4 Bq m(-3) and 1141 Bq m(-3); natural gas associated with oil production was found to contain higher concentrations than the non-associated natural gas. In addition, radon concentrations were higher in the central processing facilities than the wellheads; these high levels are due to pressurizing and concentrating processes that enhance radon gas and its decay products. Moreover, the lowest 222Rn concentration was in the natural gas fraction used for producing sulfur; a value of 80 Bq m(-3) was observed. On the other hand, maximum radon gas and its decay product concentrations in workplace air environments were found to be relatively high in the gas analysis laboratories; a value of 458 Bq m(-3) was observed. However, all reported levels in the workplaces in the four main stations were below the action level set by IAEA for chronic exposure situations involving radon, which is 1000 Bq m(-3).

  13. Dissolved air flotation as a potential treatment process to remove Giardia cysts from anaerobically treated sewage.

    PubMed

    Santos, Priscila Ribeiro Dos; Daniel, Luiz Antonio

    2016-11-30

    Controlling Giardia cysts in sewage is an essential barrier for public health protection, reducing possible routes of protozoa transmission. The aim of this study was to evaluate the capability of dissolved air flotation (DAF), on a bench scale, to remove Giardia cysts from anaerobic effluent. Moreover, removals of indicator microorganisms and physical variables were also investigated. Flocculation conditions were studied, associating different flocculation times with different mean velocity gradients. DAF treatment achieved mean log removals in the range of 2.52-2.62 for Giardia cysts, depending on the flocculation condition. No statistical differences were observed among the flocculation conditions in terms of cyst removal. Low levels of turbidity and apparent color obtained from the treated effluent may indicate good treatment conditions for the DAF process in cyst removal. Indicator microorganisms were not able to predict the parasitological quality of the wastewater treated by flotation in terms of cyst concentrations. The DAF process provided an effective barrier to control cysts from sewage, which is an important parasite source.

  14. Reference quality upper-air measurements: GRUAN data processing for the Vaisala RS92 radiosonde

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dirksen, R. J.; Sommer, M.; Immler, F. J.; Hurst, D. F.; Kivi, R.; Vömel, H.

    2014-12-01

    The GCOS (Global Climate Observing System) Reference Upper-Air Network (GRUAN) data processing for the Vaisala RS92 radiosonde was developed to meet the criteria for reference measurements. These criteria stipulate the collection of metadata, the use of well-documented correction algorithms, and estimates of the measurement uncertainty. An important and novel aspect of the GRUAN processing is that the uncertainty estimates are vertically resolved. This paper describes the algorithms that are applied in version 2 of the GRUAN processing to correct for systematic errors in radiosonde measurements of pressure, temperature, humidity, and wind, as well as how the uncertainties related to these error sources are derived. Currently, the RS92 is launched on a regular basis at 13 out of 15 GRUAN sites. An additional GRUAN requirement for performing reference measurements with the RS92 is that the manufacturer-prescribed procedure for the radiosonde's preparation, i.e. heated reconditioning of the sensors and recalibration during ground check, is followed. In the GRUAN processing however, the recalibration of the humidity sensors that is applied during ground check is removed. For the dominant error source, solar radiation, laboratory experiments were performed to investigate and model its effect on the RS92's temperature and humidity measurements. GRUAN uncertainty estimates are 0.15 K for night-time temperature measurements and approximately 0.6 K at 25 km during daytime. The other uncertainty estimates are up to 6% relative humidity for humidity, 10-50 m for geopotential height, 0.6 hPa for pressure, 0.4-1 m s-1 for wind speed, and 1° for wind direction. Daytime temperature profiles for GRUAN and Vaisala processing are comparable and consistent within the estimated uncertainty. GRUAN daytime humidity profiles are up to 15% moister than Vaisala processed profiles, of which two-thirds is due to the radiation dry bias correction and one-third is due to an additional

  15. 46 CFR 153.1600 - Equipment required for conducting the stripping quantity test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Equipment required for conducting the stripping quantity test. 153.1600 Section 153.1600 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED... container: (1) A wet vacuum. (2) A positive displacement pump. (3) An eductor with an air/water separator...

  16. 46 CFR 153.1600 - Equipment required for conducting the stripping quantity test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Equipment required for conducting the stripping quantity test. 153.1600 Section 153.1600 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED... container: (1) A wet vacuum. (2) A positive displacement pump. (3) An eductor with an air/water separator...

  17. Chemical Cleaning of Ship Tanks - Laboratory Investigation of Stripping Agents for Epoxy Coatings.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-07-01

    metal water pollution problems. For removal of alkyd paints with STABCHAPS, alkaline stripping agents could be used. For removal of epoxy coatings or...can also be sprayed by hand lance at 2,000 psi. The STABCHAPS was developed as an alternate to sandblasting and its attendant air pollution and heavy

  18. Apparatus and method for low temperature thermal stripping of volatile organic compounds from soil

    SciTech Connect

    Noland, J.W.

    1991-12-24

    This patent describes a method of removing volatile and semi-volatile hazardous organic contaminants from natural soil containing moisture and such contaminants. It comprises removing the soil from the earth and placing it in a soil container; sealing the soil against substantial contact with air and conveying the soil in sealed condition to a stripping conveyor with heated flights, vapor stripping the hazardous organic contaminants from the soil in the conveyor at a temperature below the boiling temperatures of the contaminants by driving the moisture out of the soil by volatilization of the moisture; separately by combustion of fuel firing a heater for heating the stripping conveyor (and thereby generating non-oxidizing combustion gases); sweeping (the combustion) non-oxidizing sweep gases countercurrently over the soil subjected to vapor stripping in the stripping conveyor; and controlling the temperature and flow rate of the countercurrent sweep to maintain moisture continuously present at the surface of the soil as and after the soil enters the stripping conveyor.

  19. Energy-Efficient Bioalcohol Recovery by Gel Stripping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Godbole, Rutvik; Ma, Lan; Hedden, Ronald

    2014-03-01

    Design of energy-efficient processes for recovering butanol and ethanol from dilute fermentations is a key challenge facing the biofuels industry due to the high energy consumption of traditional multi-stage distillation processes. Gel stripping is an alternative purification process by which a dilute alcohol is stripped from the fermentation product by passing it through a packed bed containing particles of a selectively absorbent polymeric gel material. The gel must be selective for the alcohol, while swelling to a reasonable degree in dilute alcohol-water mixtures. To accelerate materials optimization, a combinatorial approach is taken to screen a matrix of copolymer gels having orthogonal gradients in crosslinker concentration and hydrophilicity. Using a combination of swelling in pure solvents, the selectivity and distribution coefficients of alcohols in the gels can be predicted based upon multi-component extensions of Flory-Rehner theory. Predictions can be validated by measuring swelling in water/alcohol mixtures and conducting h HPLC analysis of the external liquid. 95% + removal of butanol from dilute aqueous solutions has been demonstrated, and a mathematical model of the unsteady-state gel stripping process has been developed. NSF CMMI Award 1335082.

  20. Processes of ammonia air-surface exchange in a fertilized Zea mays canopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, J. T.; Jones, M. R.; Bash, J. O.; Myles, L.; Meyers, T.; Schwede, D.; Herrick, J.; Nemitz, E.; Robarge, W.

    2013-02-01

    Recent incorporation of coupled soil biogeochemical and bi-directional NH3 air-surface exchange algorithms into regional air quality models holds promise for further reducing uncertainty in estimates of NH3 emissions from fertilized soils. While this represents a significant advancement over previous approaches, the evaluation and improvement of such modeling systems for fertilized crops requires process-level field measurements over extended periods of time that capture the range of soil, vegetation, and atmospheric conditions that drive short-term (i.e., post-fertilization) and total growing season NH3 fluxes. This study examines the processes of NH3 air-surface exchange in a fertilized corn (Zea mays) canopy over the majority of a growing season to characterize soil emissions after fertilization and investigate soil-canopy interactions. Micrometeorological flux measurements above the canopy, measurements of soil, leaf apoplast and dew/guttation chemistry, and a combination of in-canopy measurements, inverse source/sink, and resistance modeling were employed. Over a period of approximately 10 weeks following fertilization, daily mean and median net canopy-scale fluxes yielded cumulative total N losses of 8.4% and 6.1%, respectively, of the 134 kg N ha-1 surface applied to the soil as urea ammonium nitrate (UAN). During the first month after fertilization, daily mean emission fluxes were positively correlated with soil temperature and soil volumetric water. Diurnally, maximum hourly average fluxes of ≈ 700 ng N m-2 s-1 occurred near mid-day, coincident with the daily maximum in friction velocity. Net emission was still observed 5 to 10 weeks after fertilization, although mid-day peak fluxes had declined to ≈ 125 ng N m-2 s-1. A key finding of the surface chemistry measurements was the observation of high pH (7.0-8.5) in leaf dew/guttation, which reduced the ability of the canopy to recapture soil emissions during wet periods. In-canopy measurements near peak

  1. Processes of ammonia air-surface exchange in a fertilized Zea mays canopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, J. T.; Jones, M. R.; Bash, J. O.; Myles, L.; Meyers, T.; Schwede, D.; Herrick, J.; Nemitz, E.; Robarge, W.

    2012-06-01

    Recent incorporation of coupled soil biogeochemical and bi-directional NH3 air-surface exchange algorithms into regional air quality models holds promise for further reducing uncertainty in estimates of NH3 emissions from fertilized soils. While this represents a significant advancement over previous approaches, the evaluation and improvement of such modeling systems for fertilized crops requires process level field measurements over extended periods of time that capture the range of soil, vegetation, and atmospheric conditions that drive short term (i.e., post fertilization) and total growing seasonNH3 fluxes. This study examines the processes of NH3 air-surface exchange in a fertilized corn (Zea mays) canopy over the majority of a growing season to characterize soil emissions after fertilization and investigate soil-canopy interactions. Micrometeorological flux measurements above the canopy, measurements of soil, leaf apoplast and dew/guttation chemistry, and a combination of in-canopy measurements, inverse source/sink, and resistance modeling were employed. Over a period of approximately 10 weeks following fertilization, daily mean and median net canopy-scale fluxes yielded cumulative total N losses of 8.4% and 6.1%, respectively, of the 134 kg N ha-1 surface applied to the soil as urea ammonium nitrate (UAN). During the first month after fertilization, daily mean emission fluxes were positively correlated with soil temperature and soil volumetric water. Diurnally, maximum hourly average fluxes of ≈700 ng N m-2 s-1 occurred near mid-day, coincident with the daily maximum in friction velocity. Net emission was still observed 5 to 10 weeks after fertilization, although mid-day peak fluxes had declined to ≈125 ng N m-2 s-1 A key finding of the surface chemistry measurements was the observation of high pH (7.0 - 8.5) in leaf dew/guttation, which reduced the ability of the canopy to recapture soil emissions during wet periods. In-canopy measurements near peak LAI

  2. Analysis of soft and hard strip-loaded horns using a circular cylindrical model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lier, Erik

    1990-06-01

    Strip-loaded horns with transverse (soft) and longitudinal (hard) strips are analyzed theoretically. The method is based on a circular cylindrical and uniform waveguide model with a periodic strip structure. The field is represented by an infinite series of space harmonics (Floquet modes) in the air-filled central region and in the dielectrically filled wall region. The tangential field is forced to be continuous across the air-dielectric boundary. The propagation constant and the total field (including the hybrid factor) can be determined by solving the resulting matrix equations. The convergence of the solution has been accelerated by calculating the higher-order terms analytically. It is shown that the soft-strip-loaded horn in principle exhibits the same electrical behavior as a corrugated horn. The horn represents an interesting alternative to the corrugated horn in wide-band or dual-band applications, in particular for millimeter waves and for lightweight applications onboard satellites. The hard-strip-loaded horn has potentially high gain and low cross polarization over a certain frequency range, dependent on the horn dimensions, thickness of the dielectric wall and on how strongly the stripline modes are being excited.

  3. Effects of floc and bubble size on the efficiency of the dissolved air flotation (DAF) process.

    PubMed

    Han, Mooyoung; Kim, Tschung-il; Kim, Jinho

    2007-01-01

    Dissolved air flotation (DAF) is a method for removing particles from water using micro bubbles instead of settlement. The process has proved to be successful and, since the 1960s, accepted as an alternative to the conventional sedimentation process for water and wastewater treatment. However, limited research into the process, especially the fundamental characteristics of bubbles and particles, has been carried out. The single collector collision model is not capable of determining the effects of particular characteristics, such as the size and surface charge of bubbles and particles. Han has published a set of modeling results after calculating the collision efficiency between bubbles and particles by trajectory analysis. His major conclusion was that collision efficiency is maximum when the bubbles and particles are nearly the same size but have opposite charge. However, experimental verification of this conclusion has not been carried out yet. This paper describes a new method for measuring the size of particles and bubbles developed using computational image analysis. DAF efficiency is influenced by the effect of the recycle ratio on various average floc sizes. The larger the recycle ratio, the higher the DAF efficiency at the same pressure and particle size. The treatment efficiency is also affected by the saturation pressure, because the bubble size and bubble volume concentration are controlled by the pressure. The highest efficiency is obtained when the floc size is larger than the bubble size. These results, namely that the highest collision efficiency occurs when the particles and bubbles are about the same size, are more in accordance with the trajectory model than with the white water collector model, which implies that the larger the particles, the higher is the collision efficiency.

  4. Writing in the Air: Contributions of Finger Movement to Cognitive Processing.

    PubMed

    Itaguchi, Yoshihiro; Yamada, Chiharu; Fukuzawa, Kazuyoshi

    2015-01-01

    The present study investigated the interactions between motor action and cognitive processing with particular reference to kanji-culture individuals. Kanji-culture individuals often move their finger as if they are writing when they are solving cognitive tasks, for example, when they try to recall the spelling of English words. This behavior is called kusho, meaning air-writing in Japanese. However, its functional role is still unknown. To reveal the role of kusho behavior in cognitive processing, we conducted a series of experiments, employing two different cognitive tasks, a construction task and a stroke count task. To distinguish the effects of the kinetic aspects of kusho behavior, we set three hand conditions in the tasks; participants were instructed to use either kusho, unrelated finger movements or do nothing during the response time. To isolate possible visual effects, two visual conditions in which participants saw their hand and the other in which they did not, were introduced. We used the number of correct responses and response time as measures of the task performance. The results showed that kusho behavior has different functional roles in the two types of cognitive tasks. In the construction task, the visual feedback from finger movement facilitated identifying a character, whereas the kinetic feedback or motor commands for the behavior did not help to solve the task. In the stroke count task, by contrast, the kinetic aspects of the finger movements influenced counting performance depending on the type of the finger movement. Regardless of the visual condition, kusho behavior improved task performance and unrelated finger movements degraded it. These results indicated that motor behavior contributes to cognitive processes. We discussed possible mechanisms of the modality dependent contribution. These findings might lead to better understanding of the complex interaction between action and cognition in daily life.

  5. Writing in the Air: Contributions of Finger Movement to Cognitive Processing

    PubMed Central

    Itaguchi, Yoshihiro; Yamada, Chiharu; Fukuzawa, Kazuyoshi

    2015-01-01

    The present study investigated the interactions between motor action and cognitive processing with particular reference to kanji-culture individuals. Kanji-culture individuals often move their finger as if they are writing when they are solving cognitive tasks, for example, when they try to recall the spelling of English words. This behavior is called kusho, meaning air-writing in Japanese. However, its functional role is still unknown. To reveal the role of kusho behavior in cognitive processing, we conducted a series of experiments, employing two different cognitive tasks, a construction task and a stroke count task. To distinguish the effects of the kinetic aspects of kusho behavior, we set three hand conditions in the tasks; participants were instructed to use either kusho, unrelated finger movements or do nothing during the response time. To isolate possible visual effects, two visual conditions in which participants saw their hand and the other in which they did not, were introduced. We used the number of correct responses and response time as measures of the task performance. The results showed that kusho behavior has different functional roles in the two types of cognitive tasks. In the construction task, the visual feedback from finger movement facilitated identifying a character, whereas the kinetic feedback or motor commands for the behavior did not help to solve the task. In the stroke count task, by contrast, the kinetic aspects of the finger movements influenced counting performance depending on the type of the finger movement. Regardless of the visual condition, kusho behavior improved task performance and unrelated finger movements degraded it. These results indicated that motor behavior contributes to cognitive processes. We discussed possible mechanisms of the modality dependent contribution. These findings might lead to better understanding of the complex interaction between action and cognition in daily life. PMID:26061273

  6. Environmental Impact Analysis Process, Environmental Assessment U.S. Air Force Wideband Gapfiller Satellite Program

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    and Safety • Geology and Soils • Water Resources • Air Quality (lower atmosphere) • Air Quality (upper atmosphere) • Noise • Orbital Debris • Biological...the existing environment for CCAS are provided in the EELV Final EIS (U.S. Air Force, 1998). 3.3.3 DEORBITING DEBRIS Orbital debris refers to earth...orbiting objects except active satellites. Orbital debris can be classified as either natural or man-made. A 1996 Executive Branch policy directive

  7. Physicochemical processes in the indirect interaction between surface air plasma and deionized water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Z. C.; Liu, D. X.; Chen, C.; Li, D.; Yang, A. J.; Rong, M. Z.; Chen, H. L.; Kong, M. G.

    2015-12-01

    One of the most central scientific questions for plasma applications in healthcare and environmental remediation is the chemical identity and the dose profile of plasma-induced reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (ROS/RNS) that can act on an object inside a liquid. A logical focus is on aqueous physicochemical processes near a sample with a direct link to their upstream gaseous processes in the plasma region and a separation gap from the liquid bulk. Here, a system-level modeling framework is developed for indirect interactions of surface air plasma and a deionized water bulk and its predictions are found to be in good agreement with the measurement of gas-phase ozone and aqueous long-living ROS/RNS concentrations. The plasma region is described with a global model, whereas the air gap and the liquid region are simulated with a 1D fluid model. All three regions are treated as one integrated entity and computed simultaneously. With experimental validation, the system-level modeling shows that the dominant aqueous ROS/RNS are long-living species (e.g. H2O2 aq, O3 aq, nitrite/nitrate, H+ aq). While most short-living gaseous species could hardly survive their passage to the liquid, aqueous short-living ROS/RNS are generated in situ through reactions among long-living plasma species and with water molecules. This plasma-mediated remote production of aqueous ROS/RNS is important for the abundance of aqueous HO2 aq, HO3 aq, OHaq and \\text{O}2- aq as well as NO2 aq and NO3 aq. Aqueous plasma chemistry offers a novel and significant pathway to activate a given biological outcome, as exemplified here for bacterial deactivation in plasma-activated water. Additional factors that may synergistically broaden the usefulness of aqueous plasma chemistry include an electric field by aqueous ions and liquid acidification. The system-modeling framework will be useful in assisting designs and analyses of future investigations of plasma-liquid and plasma-cell interactions.

  8. A Strip Cell in Pyroelectric Devices

    PubMed Central

    Siao, An-Shen; Chao, Ching-Kong; Hsiao, Chun-Ching

    2016-01-01

    The pyroelectric effect affords the opportunity to convert temporal temperature fluctuations into usable electrical energy in order to develop abundantly available waste heat. A strip pyroelectric cell, used to enhance temperature variation rates by lateral temperature gradients and to reduce cell capacitance to further promote the induced voltage, is described as a means of improving pyroelectric energy transformation. A precision dicing saw was successfully applied in fabricating the pyroelectric cell with a strip form. The strip pyroelectric cell with a high-narrow cross section is able to greatly absorb thermal energy via the side walls of the strips, thereby inducing lateral temperature gradients and increasing temperature variation rates in a thicker pyroelectric cell. Both simulation and experimentation show that the strip pyroelectric cell improves the electrical outputs of pyroelectric cells and enhances the efficiency of pyroelectric harvesters. The strip-type pyroelectric cell has a larger temperature variation when compared to the trenched electrode and the original type, by about 1.9 and 2.4 times, respectively. The measured electrical output of the strip type demonstrates a conspicuous increase in stored energy as compared to the trenched electrode and the original type, by of about 15.6 and 19.8 times, respectively. PMID:26999134

  9. Transfusion and blood donation in comic strips.

    PubMed

    Lefrère, Jean-Jacques; Danic, Bruno

    2013-07-01

    The representation of blood transfusion and donation of blood in the comic strip has never been studied. The comic strip, which is a relatively recent art, emerged in the 19th century before becoming a mass medium during the 20th century. We have sought, by calling on collectors and using the resources of Internet, comic strips devoted, wholly or in part, to the themes of transfusion and blood donation. We present some of them here in chronologic order, indicating the title, country of origin, year of publication, and names of authors. The theme of the superhero using transfusion to transmit his virtues or his powers is repeated throughout the 20th century in North American comic strips. More recently, comic strips have been conceived from the outset with a promotional aim. They perpetuate positive images and are directed toward a young readership, wielding humor to reduce the fear of venipuncture. Few comic strips denounce the abuse of the commercialization of products derived from the human body. The image of transfusion and blood donation given by the comic strips is not to be underestimated because their readership is primarily children, some of whom will become blood donors. Furthermore, if some readers are transfused during their lives, the impact of a memory more or less conscious of these childhood readings may resurface, both in hopes and in fears.

  10. Charge collection in silicon strip detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Kraner, H.W.; Beuttenmuller, R.; Ludlam, T.; Hanson, A.L.; Jones, K.W.; Radeka, V.; Heijne, E.H.M.

    1982-11-01

    The use of position sensitive silicon detectors as very high resolution tracking devices in high energy physics experiments has been a subject of intense development over the past few years. Typical applications call for the detection of minimum ionizing particles with position measurement accuracy of 10 ..mu..m in each detector plane. The most straightforward detector geometry is that in which one of the collecting electrodes is subdivided into closely spaced strips, giving a high degree of segmentation in one coordinate. Each strip may be read out as a separate detection element, or, alternatively, resistive and/or capacitive coupling between adjacent strips may be exploited to interpolate the position via charge division measrurements. With readout techniques that couple several strips, the numer of readout channels can, in principle, be reduced by large factors without sacrificing the intrinsic position accuracy. The testing of individual strip properties and charge division between strips has been carried out with minimum ionizing particles or beams for the most part except in one case which used alphs particless scans. This paper describes the use of a highly collimated MeV proton beam for studies of the position sensing properties of representative one dimensional strip detectors.

  11. [Effect of air humidity on traditional Chinese medicine extract of spray drying process and prediction of its powder stability].

    PubMed

    He, Yan; Xie, Yin; Zheng, Long-jin; Liu, Wei; Rao, Xiao-yong; Luo, Xiao-jian

    2015-02-01

    In order to solve the adhesion and the softening problems of traditional Chinese medicine extract during spray drying, a new method of adding dehumidified air into spray drying process was proposed, and the storage stability conditions of extract powder could be predicted. Kouyanqing extract was taken as model drug to investigate on the wet air (RH = 70%) and dry air conditions of spray drying. Under the dry air condition, the influence of the spray drying result with different air compression ratio and the spray-dried powder properties (extract powder recovery rate, adhesion percentage, water content, angle of repose, compression ratio, particle size and distribution) with 100, 110, 120, 130, 140 °C inlet temperature were studied. The hygroscopic investigation and Tg value with different moisture content of ideal powder were determined. The water activity-equilibrium moisture content (aw-EMC) and the equilibrium moisture content-Tg (EMC-Tg) relationships were fitted by GAB equation and Gordon-Taylor model respectively, and the state diagram of kouyanqing powder was obtained to guide the rational storage conditions. The study found that in the condition of dry air, the extract powder water content decreased with the increase of air compression ratio and the spray drying effect with air compression ratio of 100% was the best performance; in the condition of wet air, the extract powder with high water content and low yield, and the value were 4.26% and 16.73 °C, while, in the dry air condition the values were 2.43% and 24.86 °C with the same other instru- ment parameters. From the analysis of kouyanqing powder state diagram, in order to keep the stability, the critical water content of 3.42% and the critical water content of 0.188. As the water decreased Tg value of extract powder is the major problem of causing adhesion and softening during spray drying, it is meaningful to aid dehumidified air during the process.

  12. Intercomparison of the community multiscale air quality model and CALGRID using process analysis.

    PubMed

    O'Neill, Susan M; Lamb, Brian K

    2005-08-01

    This study was designed to examine the similarities and differences between two advanced photochemical air quality modeling systems: EPA Models-3/CMAQ and CALGRID/CALMET. Both modeling systems were applied to an ozone episode that occurred along the I-5 urban corridor in western Washington and Oregon during July 11-14, 1996. Both models employed the same modeling domain and used the same detailed gridded emission inventory. The CMAQ model was run using both the CB-IV and RADM2 chemical mechanisms, while CALGRID was used with the SAPRC-97 chemical mechanism. Outputfrom the Mesoscale Meteorological Model (MM5) employed with observational nudging was used in both models. The two modeling systems, representing three chemical mechanisms and two sets of meteorological inputs, were evaluated in terms of statistical performance measures for both 1- and 8-h average observed ozone concentrations. The results showed that the different versions of the systems were more similar than different, and all versions performed well in the Portland region and downwind of Seattle but performed poorly in the more rural region north of Seattle. Improving the meteorological input into the CALGRID/CALMET system with planetary boundary layer (PBL) parameters from the Models-3/CMAQ meteorology preprocessor (MCIP) improved the performance of the CALGRID/CALMET system. The 8-h ensemble case was often the best performer of all the cases indicating that the models perform better over longer analysis periods. The 1-h ensemble case, derived from all runs, was not necessarily an improvement over the five individual cases, but the standard deviation about the mean provided a measure of overall modeling uncertainty. Process analysis was applied to examine the contribution of the individual processes to the species conservation equation. The process analysis results indicated that the two modeling systems arrive at similar solutions by very different means. Transport rates are faster and exhibit

  13. DRAMATIC IMPROVEMENTS IN CAUSTIC-SIDE SOLVENT EXTRACTION OF CESIUM THROUGH MORE EFFICIENT STRIPPING

    SciTech Connect

    Delmau, Laetitia Helene; Bazelaire, Eve; Bonnesen, Peter V; Engle, Nancy L; Gorbunova, Maryna; Haverlock, Tamara; Moyer, Bruce A; Ensor, Dale; Meadors, Viola M; Harmon, Ben; Bartsch, Richard A.; Surowiec, Malgorzata A.; Zhou, Hui

    2008-01-01

    Dramatic potential improvements to the chemistry of the Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX) process are presented as related to enhancement of cesium stripping. The current process for removing cesium from the alkaline high-level waste (HLW) at the USDOE Savannah River Site employs acidic scrub and strip stages and shows remarkable extraction and selectivity properties for cesium. It was determined that cesium stripping can be greatly improved with caustic or near-neutral stages using sodium hydroxide and boric acid as scrub and strip solutions, respectively. Improvements can also be achieved by appending pH-sensitive functional groups to the calix[4]arene-crown-6 extractant. Addition of a proton-ionizable group to the calixarene frame leads to a dramatic "pH swing" of up to 6 orders of magnitude change in cesium distribution ratio.

  14. Investigation of thermomechanical behavior of a work roll and of roll life in hot strip rolling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, C. G.; Hwang, S. M.; Yun, C. S.; Chung, J. S.

    1998-09-01

    An integrated finite element-based model is presented for the prediction of the steady-state thermomechanical behavior of the roll-strip system and of roll life in hot strip rolling. The model is comprised of basic finite-element models, which are incorporated into an iterative-solution procedure to deal with the interdependence between the thermomechanical behavior of the strip and that of the work roll, which arises from roll-strip contact, as well as with the interdependence between the thermal and mechanical behavior. Comparison is made between the predictions and the measurements to assess solution accuracy. Then, the effect of various process parameters on the detailed aspects of thermomechanical behavior of the work roll and on roll life is investigated via a series of process simulations.

  15. Strip and microstrip line periodic heterogeneities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lerer, A. M.; Lerer, B. M.; Ryazanov, V. D.; Sledkov, V. A.

    1985-04-01

    A quasistatic method is described for analyzing periodic heterogeneities in single and coupled strip lines and microstrip lines. An ALGOL program on a BESM-6 computer calculated the running inductance and capacitance, wave impedances and delay coefficients for single and coupled strip lines and microstrip lines with periodic heterogeneities of arbitrary form. The analyzed quantities are investigated as a function of distance (from side shield to the strip), number of terms in the series and number of approximated functions. The method demonstrates good convergence and requires little machine time and results were verified experimentally.

  16. Instabilities and Solitons in Minimal Strips.

    PubMed

    Machon, Thomas; Alexander, Gareth P; Goldstein, Raymond E; Pesci, Adriana I

    2016-07-01

    We show that highly twisted minimal strips can undergo a nonsingular transition, unlike the singular transitions seen in the Möbius strip and the catenoid. If the strip is nonorientable, this transition is topologically frustrated, and the resulting surface contains a helicoidal defect. Through a controlled analytic approximation, the system can be mapped onto a scalar ϕ^{4} theory on a nonorientable line bundle over the circle, where the defect becomes a topologically protected kink soliton or domain wall, thus establishing their existence in minimal surfaces. Demonstrations with soap films confirm these results and show how the position of the defect can be controlled through boundary deformation.

  17. Saving Energy Through Advanced Power Strips (Poster)

    SciTech Connect

    Christensen, D.

    2013-10-01

    Advanced Power Strips (APS) look just like ordinary power strips, except that they have built-in features that are designed to reduce the amount of energy used by many consumer electronics. There are several different types of APSs on the market, but they all operate on the same basic principle of shutting off the supply power to devices that are not in use. By replacing your standard power strip with an APS, you can signifcantly cut the amount of electricity used by your home office and entertainment center devices, and save money on your electric bill. This illustration summarizes the different options.

  18. Instabilities and Solitons in Minimal Strips

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Machon, Thomas; Alexander, Gareth P.; Goldstein, Raymond E.; Pesci, Adriana I.

    2016-07-01

    We show that highly twisted minimal strips can undergo a nonsingular transition, unlike the singular transitions seen in the Möbius strip and the catenoid. If the strip is nonorientable, this transition is topologically frustrated, and the resulting surface contains a helicoidal defect. Through a controlled analytic approximation, the system can be mapped onto a scalar ϕ4 theory on a nonorientable line bundle over the circle, where the defect becomes a topologically protected kink soliton or domain wall, thus establishing their existence in minimal surfaces. Demonstrations with soap films confirm these results and show how the position of the defect can be controlled through boundary deformation.

  19. High energy H- ion transport and stripping

    SciTech Connect

    Chou, W.; /Fermilab

    2005-05-01

    During the Proton Driver design study based on an 8 GeV superconducting RF H{sup -} linac, a major concern is the feasibility of transport and injection of high energy H{sup -} ions because the energy of H{sup -} beam would be an order of magnitude higher than the existing ones. This paper will focus on two key technical issues: (1) stripping losses during transport (including stripping by blackbody radiation, magnetic field and residual gases); (2) stripping efficiency of carbon foil during injection.

  20. Characterization of radiolytically generated degradation products in the strip section of a TRUEX flowsheet

    SciTech Connect

    Dean R. Peterman; Lonnie G. Olson; Gary S. Groenewold; Rocklan G. McDowell; Richard D. Tillotson; Jack D. Law

    2013-08-01

    This report presents a summary of the work performed to meet the FCRD level 2 milestone M3FT-13IN0302053, “Identification of TRUEX Strip Degradation.” The INL radiolysis test loop has been used to identify radiolytically generated degradation products in the strip section of the TRUEX flowsheet. These data were used to evaluate impact of the formation of radiolytic degradation products in the strip section upon the efficacy of the TRUEX flowsheet for the recovery of trivalent actinides and lanthanides from acidic solution. The nominal composition of the TRUEX solvent used in this study is 0.2 M CMPO and 1.4 M TBP dissolved in n-dodecane and the nominal composition of the TRUEX strip solution is 1.5 M lactic acid and 0.050 M diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid. Gamma irradiation of a mixture of TRUEX process solvent and stripping solution in the test loop does not adversely impact flowsheet performance as measured by stripping americium ratios. The observed increase in americium stripping distribution ratios with increasing absorbed dose indicates the radiolytic production of organic soluble degradation compounds.

  1. Wet air oxidation of table olive processing wastewater: determination of key operating parameters by factorial design.

    PubMed

    Katsoni, Athanasia; Frontistis, Zaharias; Xekoukoulotakis, Nikolaos P; Diamadopoulos, Evan; Mantzavinos, Dionissios

    2008-08-01

    The wet air oxidation of an effluent from edible olive processing was investigated. Semibatch experiments were conducted with 0.3L of effluent loaded into an autoclave and pure oxygen fed continuously to maintain an oxygen partial pressure of 2.5MPa. The effect of operating conditions, such as initial organic loading (from 1240 to 5150mg/L COD), reaction time (from 30 to 120min), temperature (from 140 to 180 degrees C), initial pH (from 3 to 7) and the use of 500mg/L H(2)O(2) as an additional oxidant, on treatment efficiency was assessed implementing a factorial experimental design. All five parameters had a statistically considerable effect on COD removal, alongside second order interactions of COD with reaction temperature, contact time and effluent pH. In most cases, high levels of phenols degradation (up to 100%) and decolorization (up to 90%) were achieved followed by low to moderate mineralization (up to 70%). The oxidation of phenols was affected to a considerable level by the initial COD, reaction temperature and contact time, as well as the second order interaction between COD and temperature, while all other effects were insignificant.

  2. Shipboard Investigation of Air-sea Interaction and Cloud Processes in the VOCALS Stratocumulus Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fairall, C.; Kollias, P.; Zuidema, P.

    2005-12-01

    NOAA ETL, University of Miami, and Brookhaven National Laboratory have cooperated with the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution (WHOI) for two research cruises to the stratocumulus region of Peru/Chile as part of NOAA's PACS/EPIC program. Ship-based measurements have taken in October of 2001, November 2003, and December 2004 at the WHOI ocean reference buoy at 20 S 85 W during the annual cruise to service the buoy. The goal of this work is to improve understanding of coupled air-sea processes in subtropical stratocumulus regions and to gather statistics on flux, boundary layer, and cloud properties to promote the evaluation of models and satellite data products. Specific scientific objectives involve improved bulk cloud-radiative parameterizations, methods for retrieving cloud microphysical properties, and investigation of the relative roles of cloud-top entrainment and drizzle production on the dynamics of stratocumulus. The measurements provide a more detailed context for measurements made on the WHOI buoy over the annual cycle. This will be achieved through: *Comprehensive characterization of clouds, surface fluxes, and PBL profiles using a variety of in situ and remote sensing systems *Evaluation of various bulk models of stratocumulus cloud radiative transfer properties using resulting cloud microphysics (integrated liquid water, drop size and number concentration) determined with ship-board remote sensors In this paper we will present the results from the three cruises emphasizing then diurnal cycle of cloud properties and comparing the seasonal differences.

  3. Treatment of biomass gasification wastewater using a combined wet air oxidation/activated sludge process

    SciTech Connect

    English, C.J.; Petty, S.E.; Sklarew, D.S.

    1983-02-01

    A lab-scale treatability study for using thermal and biological oxidation to treat a biomass gasification wastewater (BGW) having a chemical oxygen demand (COD) of 46,000 mg/l is described. Wet air oxidation (WA0) at 300/sup 0/C and 13.8 MPa (2000 psi) was used to initially treat the BGW and resulted in a COD reduction of 74%. This was followed by conventional activated sludge treatment using operating conditions typical of municipal sewage treatment plants. This resulted in an additional 95% COD removal. Overall COD reduction for the combined process was 99%. A detailed chemical analysis of the raw BGW and thermal and biological effluents was performed using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). These results showed a 97% decrease in total extractable organics with WA0 and a 99.6% decrease for combined WA0 and activated sludge treatment. Components of the treated waters tended to be fewer in number and more highly oxidized. An experiment was conducted to determine the amount of COD reduction caused by volatilization during biological treatment. Unfortunately, this did not yield conclusive results. Treatment of BGW using WA0 followed by activated sludge appears to be very effective and investigations at a larger scale are recommended.

  4. Qualitative gas temperature distribution in positive DC glow corona using spectral image processing in atmospheric air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsumoto, Takao; Inada, Yoichi; Shimizu, Daisuke; Izawa, Yasuji; Nishijima, Kiyoto

    2015-01-01

    An experimental method of determining a qualitative two-dimensional image of the gas temperature in stationary atmospheric nonthermal plasma by spectral image processing was presented. In the experiment, a steady-state glow corona discharge was generated by applying a positive DC voltage to a rod-plane electrode in synthetic air. The changes in the gas temperature distribution due to the amplitude of applied voltage and the ambient gas pressure were investigated. Spectral images of a positive DC glow corona were taken using a gated ICCD camera with ultranarrow band-pass filters, corresponding to the head and tail of a N2 second positive system band (0-2). The qualitative gas temperature was obtained from the emission intensity ratio between the head and tail of the N2 second positive system band (0-2). From the results, we confirmed that the gas temperature and its distribution of a positive DC glow corona increased with increasing applied voltage. In particular, just before the sparkover voltage, a distinctly high temperature region was formed in the positive DC glow at the tip of the rod electrode. In addition, the gas temperature decreased and its distribution spread diffusely with decreasing ambient gas pressure.

  5. 32 CFR 806.27 - Samples of Air Force FOIA processing documents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... documents. (a) This section includes suggested language in paragraph format that tracks Air Force and DoD FOIA guidance. The rest of the body of letters and memorandums should comply with Air Force... section, language in parentheses is for explanatory purposes only. Do not include any of the...

  6. Processes of Ammonia Air-Surface Exchange in a Fertilized Zea Mays Canopy

    EPA Science Inventory

    Recent incorporation of coupled soil biogeochemical and bi-directional NH3 air-surface exchange algorithms into regional air quality models holds promise for further reducing uncertainty in estimates of NH3 emissions from fertilized soils. While this advancement represents a sig...

  7. THE EMISSION PROCESSING SYSTEM FOR THE ETA/CMAQ AIR QUALITY FORECAST SYSTEM

    EPA Science Inventory

    NOAA and EPA have created an Air Quality Forecast (AQF) system. This AQF system links an adaptation of the EPA's Community Multiscale Air Quality Model with the 12 kilometer ETA model running operationally at NOAA's National Center for Environmental Predication (NCEP). One of th...

  8. The Brazilian Air Force Uniform Distribution Process: Using Lean Thinking, Statistical Process Control and Theory of Constraints to Address Improvement Opportunities

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-03-26

    serviceability – how easy is it to repair the product? (5) aesthetics – what does the product look like? ( 6 ) features – what does the product do? (7...is the definition of value, which is deemed by Kang and Apte (2007) as the heart of the lean thinking . They also define value as “form, feature or...THE BRAZILIAN AIR FORCE UNIFORM DISTRIBUTION PROCESS: USING LEAN THINKING , STATISTICAL PROCESS

  9. Sensitivity of rainfall-runoff processes in the Hydrological Open Air Laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Széles, Borbála; Parajka, Juraj; Blöschl, Günter; Oismüller, Markus; Hajnal, Géza

    2016-04-01

    The objective of the present study was to simulate the rainfall response and analyse the sensitivity of rainfall-runoff processes of the Hydrological Open Air Laboratory (HOAL) in Petzenkirchen, a small experimental watershed (66 ha) located in the western part of Lower Austria and dominated by agricultural land use. Due to the extensive monitoring network in the HOAL, the spatial and temporal heterogeneity of hydro-meteorological elements are exceptionally well represented on the catchment scale. The study aimed to exploit the facilities of the available database collected by innovative sensing techniques to advance the understanding of various rainfall-runoff processes. The TUWmodel, a lumped, conceptual hydrological model, following the structure of the HBV model was implemented on the catchment. In addition to the surface runoff at the catchment outlet, several different runoff generation mechanisms (tile drainage flow, saturation excess runoff from wetlands and groundwater discharge from springs) were also simulated, which gave an opportunity to describe the spatial distribution of model parameters in the study area. This helped to proceed from the original lumped model concept towards a spatially distributed one. The other focus of this work was to distinguish the dominant model parameters from the less sensitive ones for each tributary with different runoff type by applying two different sensitivity analysis methods, the simple local perturbation and the global Latin-Hypercube-One-Factor-At-a-Time (LH-OAT) tools. Moreover, the impacts of modifying the initial parameters of the LH-OAT method and the applied objective functions were also taken into consideration. The results and findings of the model and sensitivity analyses were summarized and future development perspectives were outlined. Key words: spatial heterogeneity of rainfall-runoff mechanisms, sensitivity analysis, lumped conceptual hydrological model

  10. Emission inventory of primary air pollutants in 2010 from industrial processes in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Alyuz, Ummugulsum; Alp, Kadir

    2014-08-01

    The broad objective of this study was to develop CO2, PM, SOx, CO, NOx, VOC, NH3 and N2O emission inventory of organic and inorganic chemicals, mineral products, metallurgical, petroleum refining, wood products, food industries of Turkey for 2010 for both co]ntrolled and uncontrolled conditions. In this study, industries were investigated in 7 main categories and 53 sub-sectors and a representative number of pollutants per sub-sector were considered. Each industry was evaluated in terms of emitted emissions only from industrial processes, and fuel combustion activities were excluded (except cement industry). The study employed an approach designed in four stages; identification of key categories; activity data & emission factor search; emission factor analyzing; calculation of emissions. Emission factor analyzing required aggregate and firm analysis of sectors and sub-sectors and deeper insights into underlying specific production methods used in the industry to decide on the most representative emission factor. Industry specific abatement technologies were considered by using open-source documents and industry specific reports. Regarding results of this study, mineral industry and iron & steel industry were determined as important contributors of industrial emissions in Turkey in 2010. Respectively, organic chemicals, petroleum refining, and pulp & paper industries had serious contributions to Turkey's air pollutant emission inventory from industrial processes. The results showed that calculated CO2 emissions for year 2010 was 55,124,263 t, also other emissions were 48,853 t PM, 24,533 t SOx, 79,943 t NOx, 31,908 t VOC, 454 t NH3 and 2264 t N2O under controlled conditions.

  11. Microstructure Engineering in Hot Strip Mills, Part 1 of 2: Integrated mathematical Model

    SciTech Connect

    J.K. Brimacombe; I.V. Samaraseker; E.B. Hawbolt; T.R. Meadowcroft; M. Militzer; W.J. Pool; D.Q. Jin

    1998-09-30

    This report describes the work of developing an integrated model used to predict the thermal history, deformation, roll forces, microstructural evaluation and mechanical properties of steel strip in a hot-strip mill. This achievement results from a join research effort that is part of the American Iron and Steel Institute's (AISI) Advanced Process Control Program, a collaboration between the U.S. DOE and fifteen North American steel makers.

  12. The Anodic Stripping Voltammetric Analysis of Chromium Using the Hanging Mercury Drop Electrode.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-04-23

    Voltammetry Trace Analysis of Chromium Hanging Mercury Drop Electrode 20. AST’R ACT (COrtofus an reverse .a fIt ac--ast,, .d Idetill. by block number...1 B. The Electrochemical Approach to Trace Analysis 2 II. THEORETICAL ASPECTS OF ANODIC STRIPPING VOLTAMMETRY A. Electrochemical Processes...Surface, X, for the Reaction Ox + ne - Red in the Steady State 8 3. Current-Voltage Curve for Anodic Stripping of Thallium, using Voltammetry with

  13. A video strip chart program

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, N.L.

    1994-12-31

    A strip chart recorder has been utilized for trend analysis of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory EN tandem since 1987. At the EN, the author could not afford the nice eight channel thermal pen recorder that was used at the 25 URC. He had to suffice with two channel fiber tip or capillary pen type recorders retrieved from salvage and maintained with parts from other salvaged recorders. After cycling through several machines that eventually became completely unserviceable, a search for a new thermal recorder was begun. As much as he hates to write computer code, he decided to try his hand at getting an old data acquisition unit, that had been retrieved several years ago from salvage, to meet his needs. A BASIC language compiler was used because time was not available to learn a more advanced language. While attempting to increase acquisition and scroll speed on the 6 MHz 80286 that the code was first developed on, it became apparent that scrolling only the first small portion of the screen at high speed and then averaging that region and histogramming the average provided both the speed necessary for capturing fairly short duration events, and a trend record without use of back scrolling and disk storage routines. This turned out to be quite sufficient.

  14. Influence of surface emission processes on a fast-pulsed dielectric barrier discharge in air at atmospheric pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pechereau, François; Bonaventura, Zdeněk; Bourdon, Anne

    2016-08-01

    This paper presents simulations of an atmospheric pressure air discharge in a point-to-plane geometry with a dielectric layer parallel to the cathode plane. Experimentally, a discharge reignition in the air gap below the dielectrics has been observed. With a 2D fluid model, it is shown that due to the fast rise of the high voltage applied and the sharp point used, a first positive spherical discharge forms around the point. Then this discharge propagates axially and impacts the dielectrics. As the first discharge starts spreading on the upper dielectric surface, in the second air gap with a low preionization density of {{10}4}~\\text{c}{{\\text{m}}-3} , the 2D fluid model predicts a rapid reignition of a positive discharge. As in experiments, the discharge reignition is much slower, a discussion on physical processes to be considered in the model to increase the reignition delay is presented. The limit case with no initial seed charges in the second air gap has been studied. First, we have calculated the time to release an electron from the cathode surface by thermionic and field emission processes for a work function φ \\in ≤ft[3,4\\right] eV and an amplification factor β \\in ≤ft[100,220\\right] . Then a 3D Monte Carlo model has been used to follow the dynamics of formation of an avalanche starting from a single electron emitted at the cathode. Due to the high electric field in the second air gap, we have shown that in a few nanoseconds, a Gaussian cloud of seed charges is formed at a small distance from the cathode plane. This Gaussian cloud has been used as the initial condition of the 2D fluid model in the second air gap. In this case, the propagation of a double headed discharge in the second air gap has been observed and the reignition delay is in rather good agreement with experiments.

  15. Extinction cross section of a dielectric strip

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dowerah, Subratananda; Chakrabarti, Aloknath

    1988-05-01

    The problem of scattering of a plane electromagnetic wave by a dielectric strip is formulated in terms of an uncoupled system of three-part Wiener-Hopf equations by using a set of approximate boundary conditions derived and utilized recently. The resulting Wiener-Hopf problems are solved approximately for sufficiently large values of the width of the strip by using Jones' method (1964). An analytical formula is derived for the excitation cross section of the strip under consideration from which numerical values are obtained in specific situations and the results are presented graphically. The radar cross section of the strip is also computed for several special circumstances and these are presented separately.

  16. Plaque accumulations caused by interdental stripping.

    PubMed

    Radlanski, R J; Jäger, A; Schwestka, R; Bertzbach, F

    1988-11-01

    Human enamel surfaces were stripped with orthodontic grinding and finishing materials, and evaluated with the scanning electron microscope (SEM). Even under in vitro conditions with the finest finishing strips, it was not possible to produce an enamel surface free of the furrows that result from the initial abrasion caused by the coarse strip. Enamel surfaces stripped gradually from coarse to superfine were left in the mouths of patients for 12 weeks and evaluated with the SEM. The edges of the furrows were found to be smoother but the furrows remained wide and deep enough to facilitate more plaque accumulations than those on untreated surfaces. The use of dental floss did not result in prevention of plaque accumulations along the bottom of the furrows.

  17. Experimental study of the heat transfer process of air around atmospheric arc plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salimi Meidanshahi, F.; Madanipour, Kh.; Shokri, Babak

    2011-05-01

    The experimental investigation of thermodynamic properties such heat and mass transfer of plasmas has many applications in different industries. Laboratory atmospheric arc plasma is studied in this work. The refractive index of the air around the plasma is changed because of convection phenomena. When the convection creates the air flowing around the plasma, the density and consequently, the refractive index of air are distributed symmetrically. Moiré deflectometry is a technique of wave front analysis which in both Talbot effect and moiré technique is applied for measuring phase objects. Deflection of light beam passing through the inhomogeneous medium is utilized to obtain the refractive index distribution. In experimental set-up, an expanded collimated He-Ne laser propagate through the arc plasma and the around air. The temperature distribution is obtained by use of thermo-optic coefficient of air. To calculate the thermo- optic coefficient and the refractive index of air for a given wavelength of light and given atmospheric conditions (air temperature, pressure, and humidity), the Edlén equation is used. The convective heat transfer coefficient is obtained by calculating the temperature gradient on the plasma border. This method is not expensive, complicated and sensitive to environmental vibrations.

  18. Method and apparatus for planar drag strip casting

    DOEpatents

    Powell, John C.; Campbell, Steven L.

    1991-01-01

    The present invention is directed to an improved process and apparatus for strip casting. The combination of a planar flow casting nozzle positioned back from the top dead center position with an attached nozzle extension, provides an increased level of casting control and quality. The nozzle extension provides a means of containing the molten pool above the rotating substrate to increase the control of molten metal at the edges of the strip and increase the range of coating thicknesses which may be produced. The level of molten metal in the containment means is regulated to be above the level of melt supplying the casting nozzle which produces a condition of planar drag flow with the casting substrate prior to solidification.

  19. Method and apparatus for planar drag strip casting

    DOEpatents

    Powell, J.C.; Campbell, S.L.

    1991-11-12

    The present invention is directed to an improved process and apparatus for strip casting. The combination of a planar flow casting nozzle positioned back from the top dead center position with an attached nozzle extension, provides an increased level of casting control and quality. The nozzle extension provides a means of containing the molten pool above the rotating substrate to increase the control of molten metal at the edges of the strip and increase the range of coating thicknesses which may be produced. The level of molten metal in the containment means is regulated to be above the level of melt supplying the casting nozzle which produces a condition of planar drag flow with the casting substrate prior to solidification. 5 figures.

  20. Fixture for multiple-FCC chemical stripping and plating

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Angele, W.; Norton, W. E.

    1971-01-01

    For chemical stripping, lead tape applied near ends to be stripped protects insulation. Taped ends are submerged half way in stripping solution. For electroplating, both ends of FCC are stripped - top ends for electric contact, others for submersion in electroplating solution.

  1. 25 CFR 170.445 - What is a strip map?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What is a strip map? 170.445 Section 170.445 Indians... What is a strip map? A strip map is a graphic representation of a section of road or other transportation facility being added to or modified in the IRR Inventory. Each strip map submitted with an...

  2. 25 CFR 170.445 - What is a strip map?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false What is a strip map? 170.445 Section 170.445 Indians... What is a strip map? A strip map is a graphic representation of a section of road or other transportation facility being added to or modified in the IRR Inventory. Each strip map submitted with an...

  3. 25 CFR 170.445 - What is a strip map?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true What is a strip map? 170.445 Section 170.445 Indians... What is a strip map? A strip map is a graphic representation of a section of road or other transportation facility being added to or modified in the IRR Inventory. Each strip map submitted with an...

  4. 25 CFR 170.445 - What is a strip map?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false What is a strip map? 170.445 Section 170.445 Indians... What is a strip map? A strip map is a graphic representation of a section of road or other transportation facility being added to or modified in the IRR Inventory. Each strip map submitted with an...

  5. 25 CFR 170.445 - What is a strip map?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false What is a strip map? 170.445 Section 170.445 Indians... What is a strip map? A strip map is a graphic representation of a section of road or other transportation facility being added to or modified in the IRR Inventory. Each strip map submitted with an...

  6. Air Processes Resulting in a Surface Layer Pollution in Industrial Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lesin, Yu V.; Leshukov, T. V.

    2016-08-01

    The article describes the air quality research in Western Siberia (Kemerovo region). The problem of air quality preservation in the conditions of mining industry intensive development is caused by the weather conditions which lead either to the concentration of pollutants in the surface layer, or to their migration to other geosphere, or to dissipation as a result of convective mixing or advection of air masses. Zoning of the territory in view of the research results provides insight into areas where the greatest risk to human health and life is formed.

  7. A technique of purification process of single-walled carbon nanotubes with air.

    PubMed

    Song, Xin; Fang, Yan

    2007-07-01

    A technique of purifying SWCNTs has been developed by means of oxidizing carbonaceous particles with air using fluidized-bed. Air was introduced into the fluidized-bed by pump with controllable flux. The powders were "boiling" at a temperature of 550 degrees C for 50 min. With this technique, the flux can be controlled simply. The fluidized-bed was applied as the heating apparatus instead of rotated quartz tubes. The air and the powders can be mixed with each other more sufficiently. Characteristics of the raw and purified powder were presented using Raman spectroscopy and transmission electronic microscopy (TEM), revealing that the purified powder is free from carbonaceous particles.

  8. AFSO 21: Identifying Potential Failure Points in Sustaining Continuous Process Improvement Across the Air Force

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-04-01

    6 SYSTEMS THINKING APPROACH...8 What is Systems Thinking ? ........................................................................................................ 8...way to analyze these products and the survivability of AFSO 21? The next chapter utilizes the systems thinking approach for conceptualizing the Air

  9. The Logistics Planning Process of the Far East Air Material Command during the Korean War

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-09-01

    Figures . . ........... ........ vii Abstract ........... ........................ viii I. Introduction to the Research ............. 1 Overview ...31 Particular Method . . . ........... 32 II. The National Defense Planning Structure. . . ... 34 Overview ...Air Materiel Command’s Logistics Plans and Policy Making Response to Korean Tasking . . . . ........ 83 Overview

  10. United States Air Force Aircraft Modification Process: A System Dynamics Analysis.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-09-01

    only for his guidance in this research, but also for his leadership and exemplary officership. Lt Col David Zorich , on the Air Staff, and Lt Col Larry...51. Zorich , Lt Col David R., Analyst, Modification Programs, Modification and Operations and Maintenance Programs Division, Directorate of...52. Zorich , Lt Col David R. and Donald R. Taylor, "Class V Mad Improvement Plan." Briefing given to the Air Force Council. HO USAF, Washington DC, 22

  11. Efficient content-based low-altitude images correlated network and strips reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Haiqing; You, Qi; Chen, Xiaoyong

    2017-01-01

    The manual intervention method is widely used to reconstruct strips for further aerial triangulation in low-altitude photogrammetry. Clearly the method for fully automatic photogrammetric data processing is not an expected way. In this paper, we explore a content-based approach without manual intervention or external information for strips reconstruction. Feature descriptors in the local spatial patterns are extracted by SIFT to construct vocabulary tree, in which these features are encoded in terms of TF-IDF numerical statistical algorithm to generate new representation for each low-altitude image. Then images correlated network is reconstructed by similarity measure, image matching and geometric graph theory. Finally, strips are reconstructed automatically by tracing straight lines and growing adjacent images gradually. Experimental results show that the proposed approach is highly effective in automatically rearranging strips of lowaltitude images and can provide rough relative orientation for further aerial triangulation.

  12. Fabrication and properties of strip casting 4.5 wt% Si steel thin sheet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zu, Guoqing; Zhang, Xiaoming; Zhao, Jingwei; Wang, Yuqian; Yan, Yi; Li, Chengang; Cao, Guangming; Jiang, Zhengyi

    2017-02-01

    Three 4.5 wt% Si steel thin sheets with different thicknesses were efficiently fabricated by twin-roll strip casting, warm rolling and cold rolling followed by final annealing. A comprehensive investigation from the workability of the as-cast strip to the magnetic property of the produces was performed to illustrate the superiority of the new materials. The results show that the as-cast strip, which has a much lower Vickers hardness than that of the 6.5 wt% Si steel, is suitable for rolling processing. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) studies confirm that no ordering phase exists in the as-cast strip. The cold-rolled thin sheets exhibit good surface quality without edge cracks. Furthermore, all the three 4.5 wt% Si steel thin sheets possess relative strong <100>//ND texture and present high magnetic inductions and low iron losses after finial annealing.

  13. Air impacts of increased natural gas acquisition, processing, and use: a critical review.

    PubMed

    Moore, Christopher W; Zielinska, Barbara; Pétron, Gabrielle; Jackson, Robert B

    2014-01-01

    During the past decade, technological advancements in the United States and Canada have led to rapid and intensive development of many unconventional natural gas plays (e.g., shale gas, tight sand gas, coal-bed methane), raising concerns about environmental impacts. Here, we summarize the current understanding of local and regional air quality impacts of natural gas extraction, production, and use. Air emissions from the natural gas life cycle include greenhouse gases, ozone precursors (volatile organic compounds and nitrogen oxides), air toxics, and particulates. National and state regulators primarily use generic emission inventories to assess the climate, air quality, and health impacts of natural gas systems. These inventories rely on limited, incomplete, and sometimes outdated emission factors and activity data, based on few measurements. We discuss case studies for specific air impacts grouped by natural gas life cycle segment, summarize the potential benefits of using natural gas over other fossil fuels, and examine national and state emission regulations pertaining to natural gas systems. Finally, we highlight specific gaps in scientific knowledge and suggest that substantial additional measurements of air emissions from the natural gas life cycle are essential to understanding the impacts and benefits of this resource.

  14. Three-dimensional Diffusive Strip Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez-Ruiz, Daniel; Meunier, Patrice; Duchemin, Laurent; Villermaux, Emmanuel

    2016-11-01

    The Diffusive Strip Method (DSM) is a near-exact numerical method developed for mixing computations at large Péclet number in two-dimensions. The method consists in following stretched material lines to compute a-posteriori the resulting scalar field is extended here to three-dimensional flows, following surfaces. We describe its 3D peculiarities, and show how it applies to a simple Taylor-Couette configuration with non-rotating boundary conditions at the top end, bottom and outer cylinder. This flow produces an elaborate, although controlled, steady 3D flow which relies on the Ekman pumping arising from the rotation of the inner cylinder is both studied experimentally, and numerically modeled. A recurrent two-cells structure appears formed by stream tubes shaped as nested tori. A scalar blob in the flow experiences a Lagrangian oscillating dynamics with stretchings and compressions, driving the mixing process, and yielding both rapidly-mixed and nearly pure-diffusive regions. A triangulated-surface method is developed to calculate the blob elongation and scalar concentration PDFs through a single variable computation along the advected blob surface, capturing the rich evolution observed in the experiments.

  15. Ram Pressure Stripping of Galaxy JO201

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, Greta; Tonnesen, Stephanie; Jaffé, Yara; Bellhouse, Callum; Bianca Poggianti

    2017-01-01

    Despite the discovery of the morphology-density relation more than 30 years ago, the process driving the evolution of spiral galaxies into S0s in clusters is still widely debated. Ram pressure stripping--the removal of a galaxy's interstellar medium by the pressure of the intracluster medium through which it orbits--may help explain galactic evolution and quenching in clusters. MUSE (Multi Unit Spectroscopic Explorer) observational data of galaxy JO201 in cluster Abell 85 reveal it to be a jellyfish galaxy--one with an H-alpha emitting gas tail on only one side. We model the possible orbits for this galaxy, constrained by the cluster mass profile, line of sight velocity, and projected distance from the cluster center. Using Enzo, an adaptive mesh refinement hydrodynamics code, we simulate effects of ram pressure on this galaxy for a range of possible orbits. We present comparisons of both the morphology and velocity structure of our simulated galaxy to the observations of H-alpha emission.

  16. Control method for steel strip roughness in Two-stand temper mill rolling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Rui; Zhang, Qingdong; Zhang, Xiaofeng; Yu, Meng; Wang, Bo

    2015-05-01

    How to control surface roughness of steel strip in a narrow range for a long time has become an important question because surface roughness would significantly influence the appearance of the products. However, there are few effective solutions to solve the problem currently. In this paper, considering both asperities of work roll pressing in and squeezing the steel strip, two asperity contact models including squeezing model and pressing in model in a two-stand temper mill rolling are established by using finite element method (FEM). The simulation investigates the influences of multiple process parameters, such as work roll surface roughness, roll radius and roll force on the surface roughness of steel strip. The simulation results indicate that work rolls surface roughness and roll force play important roles in the products; furthermore, the effect of roll force in the first stand is opposite to the second. According to the analysis, a control method for steel strip surface roughness in a narrow range for a long time is proposed, which applies higher work roll roughness in the first stand and lower roll roughness in the second to make the steel strip roughness in a required narrow range. In the later stage of the production, decreasing the roll force in the first stand and increasing the roll force in the second stand guarantee the steel strip roughness relatively stable in a long time. The following experimental measurements on the surface topography and roughness of the steel strips during the whole process are also conducted. The results validate the simulation conclusions and prove the effect of the control method. The application of the proposed method in the steel strip production shows excellent performance including long service life of work roll and high finished product rate.

  17. HST Imaging of Dust Structures and Stars in the Ram Pressure Stripped Virgo Spirals NGC 4402 and NGC 4522: Stripped from the Outside In with Dense Cloud Decoupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abramson, A.; Kenney, J.; Crowl, H.; Tal, T.

    2016-08-01

    We describe and constrain the origins of interstellar medium (ISM) structures likely created by ongoing intracluster medium (ICM) ram pressure stripping in two Virgo Cluster spirals, NGC 4522 and NGC 4402, using Hubble Space Telescope (HST) BVI images of dust extinction and stars, as well as supplementary H i, Hα, and radio continuum images. With a spatial resolution of ˜10 pc in the HST images, this is the highest-resolution study to date of the physical processes that occur during an ICM-ISM ram pressure stripping interaction, ram pressure stripping's effects on the multi-phase, multi-density ISM, and the formation and evolution of ram-pressure-stripped tails. In dust extinction, we view the leading side of NGC 4402 and the trailing side of NGC 4522, and so we see distinct types of features in both. In both galaxies, we identify some regions where dense clouds are decoupling or have decoupled and others where it appears that kiloparsec-sized sections of the ISM are moving coherently. NGC 4522 has experienced stronger, more recent pressure and has the “jellyfish” morphology characteristic of some ram-pressure-stripped galaxies. Its stripped tail extends up from the disk plane in continuous upturns of dust and stars curving up to ˜2 kpc above the disk plane. On the other side of the galaxy, there is a kinematically and morphologically distinct extraplanar arm of young, blue stars and ISM above a mostly stripped portion of the disk, and between it and the disk plane are decoupled dust clouds that have not been completely stripped. The leading side of NGC 4402 contains two kiloparsec-scale linear dust filaments with complex substructure that have partially decoupled from the surrounding ISM. NGC 4402 also contains long dust ridges, suggesting that large parts of the ISM are being pushed out at once. Both galaxies contain long ridges of polarized radio continuum emission indicating the presence of large-scale, ordered magnetic fields. We propose that magnetic

  18. Schottky photodetector with tapered thin metal strip on silicon waveguide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Jingshu; Wu, Zhiwei; Li, Yuan; Zhao, Yanli

    2016-01-01

    We propose a Schottky photodetector with tapered thin metal strip on SOI platform. Schottky photodetector can detect photons below the semiconductor bandgap energy by exploiting the internal photoemission. In the internal photoemission process, the hot carriers generate in the tapered thin metal strip where light absorption occurs, and part of these carriers can be emitted over the Schottky barrier and collected as photocurrent. The small thickness of the tapered metal strip contributes to a high internal quantum efficiency of 11.25%. This metal-semiconductor structure acts as a photonics-plasmonics mode convertor. According to 3D-FDTD simulation, about 95.8% of the incident optical power can be absorbed in the absorption area within 4.5μm at wavelength of 1550 nm. The responsivity is estimated to be 0.135A/W at 1550 nm. This compact design with a low dark current has a minimum detectable power of -23.15 dβm. We argue that this design can promote the progress of all-Si photo-detection in near-infrared communication band.

  19. Low dose radiation damage effects in silicon strip detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiącek, P.; Dąbrowski, W.

    2016-11-01

    The radiation damage effects in silicon segmented detectors caused by X-rays have become recently an important research topic driven mainly by development of new detectors for applications at the European X-ray Free Electron Laser (E-XFEL). However, radiation damage in silicon strip is observed not only after extreme doses up to 1 GGy expected at E-XFEL, but also at doses in the range of tens of Gy, to which the detectors in laboratory instruments like X-ray diffractometers or X-ray spectrometers can be exposed. In this paper we report on investigation of radiation damage effects in a custom developed silicon strip detector used in laboratory diffractometers equipped with X-ray tubes. Our results show that significant degradation of detector performance occurs at low doses, well below 200 Gy, which can be reached during normal operation of laboratory instruments. Degradation of the detector energy resolution can be explained by increasing leakage current and increasing interstrip capacitance of the sensor. Another observed effect caused by accumulation of charge trapped in the surface oxide layer is change of charge division between adjacent strips. In addition, we have observed unexpected anomalies in the annealing process.

  20. Producing Foils From Direct Cast Titanium Alloy Strip

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stuart, T. A.; Gaspar, T. A.; Sukonnik, I. M.; Semiatan, S. L.; Batawi, E.; Peters, J. A.; Fraser, H. L.

    1996-01-01

    This research was undertaken to demonstrate the feasibility of producing high-quality, thin-gage, titanium foil from direct cast titanium strip. Melt Overflow Rapid Solidification Technology (MORST) was used to cast several different titanium alloys into 500 microns thick strip, 10 cm wide and up to 3 m long. The strip was then either ground, hot pack rolled or cold rolled, as appropriate, into foil. Gamma titanium aluminide (TiAl) was cast and ground to approximately 100 microns thick foil and alpha-2 titanium aluminide (Ti3AI) was cast and hot pack rolled to approximately 70 microns thick foil. CP Ti, Ti6Al2Sn4Zr2Mo, and Ti22AI23Nb (Orthorhombic), were successfully cast and cold-rolled into good quality foil (less than 125 microns thick). The foils were generally fully dense with smooth surfaces, had fine, uniform microstructures, and demonstrated mechanical properties equivalent to conventionally produced titanium. By eliminating many manufacturing steps, this technology has the potential to produce thin gage, titanium foil with good engineering properties at significantly reduced cost relative to conventional ingot metallurgy processing.

  1. Improving snow process modeling with satellite-based estimation of near-surface-air-temperature lapse rate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Lei; Sun, Litao; Shrestha, Maheswor; Li, Xiuping; Liu, Wenbin; Zhou, Jing; Yang, Kun; Lu, Hui; Chen, Deliang

    2016-10-01

    In distributed hydrological modeling, surface air temperature (Tair) is of great importance in simulating cold region processes, while the near-surface-air-temperature lapse rate (NLR) is crucial to prepare Tair (when interpolating Tair from site observations to model grids). In this study, a distributed biosphere hydrological model with improved snow physics (WEB-DHM-S) was rigorously evaluated in a typical cold, large river basin (e.g., the upper Yellow River basin), given a mean monthly NLRs. Based on the validated model, we have examined the influence of the NLR on the simulated snow processes and streamflows. We found that the NLR has a large effect on the simulated streamflows, with a maximum difference of greater than 24% among the various scenarios for NLRs considered. To supplement the insufficient number of monitoring sites for near-surface-air-temperature at developing/undeveloped mountain regions, the nighttime Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer land surface temperature is used as an alternative to derive the approximate NLR at a finer spatial scale (e.g., at different elevation bands, different land covers, different aspects, and different snow conditions). Using satellite-based estimation of NLR, the modeling of snow processes has been greatly refined. Results show that both the determination of rainfall/snowfall and the snowpack process were significantly improved, contributing to a reduced summer evapotranspiration and thus an improved streamflow simulation.

  2. Ultralow Level Mercury Treatment Using Chemical Reduction and Air Stripping

    SciTech Connect

    Looney, B.B.

    2001-02-23

    The overall objective of this work is to develop a reasonable and cost-effective approach to meet the emerging mercury standards, especially for high volume outfalls with concentrations below the drinking water standard.

  3. Ram Pressure Stripping and Morphological Transformation in the Coma Cluster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gregg, Michael; West, Michael

    2017-01-01

    The two largest spiral galaxies in the Coma cluster, NGC4911 and NGC4921, exhibit signs of being vigorously ram-pressure stripped by the hot intracluster medium. HST ACS and WFC3 images have revealed galactic scale shock fronts, giant "Pillars of Creation", rivulets of dust, and spatially coherent star formation in these grand design spirals. All evidence points to these galaxies being stressed by a global external source which can only be the hot intracluster medium (ICM). Inspired by these examples, we have obtained HST WFC3 imaging of five additional large spirals to search for and investigate the effects of ram pressure stripping across the wider Coma cluster. The results are equally spectacular as the first two examples. The geometry of the interactions in some cases allows us to estimate the various time scales involved, including gas flows out of the disk leading to creation of the ICM, and the attendant triggered star formation in the galaxy disks. The global star formation patterns and wholesale tidal stripping of matter yield insights into the spatial and temporal ISM-ICM interactions driving the evolution of galaxies in clusters and ultimately transforming their morphologies from spiral to S0. These processes, much more common in the early Universe, led to the wholesale morphological transformation of Hubble types during the assembly of rich clusters, when the intergalactic populations and hot ICM were first being created and laid down from such stripping and destruction of their member galaxies.We also report on two instrumental aspects of WFC3: 1) using the filter pair F350LP and F600LP to create an extremely broad pseudo Blue-Red color to achieve the greatest observing efficiency with HST, and 2) a WFC3 CCD effect which leads to apparent quantization of background counts, making automatic sky determination challenging when using drizzlepac routines.

  4. Evaporative heat transfer and enhancement performance of serpentine tubes with strip-type inserts using refrigerant-134a

    SciTech Connect

    Hsieh, S.S.; Jang, K.J.; Huang, M.T.

    1999-08-01

    Recent technological implications have given rise to increased interest in enhancement of the in-tube evaporation used in many air conditioning and refrigeration systems. Although many past studies have examined in-tube evaporative heat transfer enhancement and the associated pressure drop with internally finned tubes, in-tube evaporations with strip-type inserts, using R-134a as a refrigerant, have not been conducted. In addition, the fundamental phenomenon of nucleate boiling from a heated wall subject to a strip-type insert is as yet not well understood, especially for the flow in serpentine tubes. In this study, flow boiling tests were conducted in serpentine coil with inserts. To accomplish these tasks, experiments were performed in a seven-pass serpentine test tube with longitudinal strip and cross-strip types inserts, 10.6-mm inside diameter with R-134a as the boiling fluid immersed in a hot water bath.

  5. Anodic stripping voltammetry of silver nanoparticles: aggregation leads to incomplete stripping.

    PubMed

    Cloake, Samantha J; Toh, Her Shuang; Lee, Patricia T; Salter, Chris; Johnston, Colin; Compton, Richard G

    2015-02-01

    The influence of nanoparticle aggregation on anodic stripping voltammetry is reported. Dopamine-capped silver nanoparticles were chosen as a model system, and melamine was used to induce aggregation in the nanoparticles. Through the anodic stripping of the silver nanoparticles that were aggregated to different extents, it was found that the peak area of the oxidative signal corresponding to the stripping of silver to silver(I) ions decreases with increasing aggregation. Aggregation causes incomplete stripping of the silver nanoparticles. Two possible mechanisms of 'partial oxidation' and 'inactivation' of the nanoparticles are proposed to account for this finding. Aggregation effects must be considered when anodic stripping voltammetry is used for nanoparticle detection and quantification. Hence, drop casting, which is known to lead to aggregation, is not encouraged for preparing electrodes for analytical purposes.

  6. Situation Awareness Implications of Adaptive Automation of Air Traffic Controller Information Processing Functions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaber, David B.; McClernon, Christopher K.; Perry, Carlene M.; Segall, Noa

    2004-01-01

    The goal of this research was to define a measure of situation awareness (SA) in an air traffic control (ATC) task and to assess the influence of adaptive automation (AA) of various information processing functions on controller perception, comprehension and projection. The measure was also to serve as a basis for defining and developing an approach to triggering dynamic control allocations, as part of AA, based on controller SA. To achieve these objectives, an enhanced version of an ATC simulation (Multitask (copyright)) was developed for use in two human factors experiments. The simulation captured the basic functions of Terminal Radar Approach Control (TRACON) and was capable of presenting to operators four different modes of control, including information acquisition, information analysis, decision making and action implementation automation, as well as a completely manual control mode. The SA measure that was developed as part of the research was based on the Situation Awareness Global Assessment Technique (SAGAT), previous goal-directed task analyses of enroute control and TRACON, and a separate cognitive task analysis on the ATC simulation. The results of the analysis on Multitask were used as a basis for formulating SA queries as part of the SAGAT-based approach to measuring controller SA, which was used in the experiments. A total of 16 subjects were recruited for both experiments. Half the subjects were used in Experiment #1, which focused on assessing the sensitivity and reliability of the SA measurement approach in the ATC simulation. Comparisons were made of manual versus automated control. The remaining subjects were used in the second experiment, which was intended to more completely describe the SA implications of AA applied to specific controller information processing functions, and to describe how the measure could ultimately serve as a trigger of dynamic function allocations in the application of AA to ATC. Comparisons were made of the

  7. In-situ air sparging under confined aquifer conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Breeding, L.B.; Swartz, T.E.; Pringle, C.C.

    1994-12-31

    In the summer of 1993, an effort to evaluate the effectiveness of in-situ air sparging (IAS) and soil vapor extraction (SVE) to remedy jet fuel condition found in Colorado River Terrace deposits was initiated by the Air Force Center for Environmental Excellence. Preliminary field tests were performed to develop air injection flow rates, IAS radius of influence, air entry pressure requirements, SVE radii of influence, SVE well head vacuum requirements, and SVE air extraction flow rates. In addition to the field tests, soil samples were, collected for formal geotechnical laboratory analysis. The information gathered from these preliminary field investigations were then used to design and install a pilot scale ground-water remediation system. The pilot scale system represents a modified version of the traditional IAS/SVE approach. Due to the presence of an overlying low permeability confining layer, the system was modified to inject and extract air from the phreatic zone. The vapor extraction wells are screened down into the saturated interval to provide an escape route for the air injected by the sparging system. This system is intended to trigger two remedial processes. The first is the physical stripping of dissolved phase volatile petroleum constituents as ground water contacts air channels forming around each sparge point. The second remedial process which may be activated by this system is enhanced aerobic biodegradation of organics due to the oxygenation of the saturated interval.

  8. Autonomous Agent-Based Simulation of a Model Simulating the Human Air-Threat Assessment Process

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-03-01

    multi - agent system (MAS) technology and is implemented in Java programming language. This research is a portion of Red Intent Project whose goal is to ultimately implement a model to predict the intent of any given track in the environment. For any air track in the simulation, two sets of agents are created, one for controlling track actions and one for predicting its identity and intent based on information received from track, the geopolitical situation and intelligence. The simulation is also capable of identifying coordinated actions between air tracks. We

  9. Case Studies of the Air Force Aerospace Ground Equipment (AGE) acquisition Management Process

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-12-01

    the methods for evaluating alternatives. A previous LMI study (LMI Task 72-1 Rev.) was undertaken at the request of the Air Force during 1972. That...developed for the sample. The sets of characteristics chosen include various functional types, levels of use, methods of procurement including Air... methods of procurement of the 76 items selected. >’ - ’•^•"^M’"iiirtnri,B’r’iäjiriMirlM ^ji^frito^»..*-,.^.«*).,.^.;.,. . ... ,.,..^.-^^;.- .: .fa

  10. Control of Air Pollution from Aviation: The Emission Standard Setting Process.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-01-01

    DTW DETROIT 1229 1071 996 1000 1020 EWR NEWARK 1553 1231 1143 1241 1504 HNL HONOLULU 2357 2147 2152 2271 2360 IAH HOUSTON 946 1018 803 816 974 JFK NEW...Towing", October 13, 1980, p. 39. Bach , W., and Daniels, A. (1977), "Simulation of Air Pollution from a Major Airport", Proceedings of International...February 1979, pp. 113-116. Daniels, Anders, and Bach , Wilfrid (1976), "Simulation of the Environ- mental Impact of an Airport on the Surrounding Air Quality

  11. Bimetallic strip for low temperature use

    DOEpatents

    Bussiere, Jean F.; Welch, David O.; Suenaga, Masaki

    1981-01-01

    There is provided a class of mechanically pre-stressed structures, suitably bi-layer strips comprising a layer of group 5 transition metals in intimate contact with a layer of an intermetallic compound of said transition metals with certain group 3A, 4A or 5A metals or metalloids suitably gallium, indium, silicon, germanium, tin, arsenic or antimony. The changes of Young's modulus of these bi-layered combinations at temperatures in the region of but somewhat above absolute zero provides a useful means of sensing temperature changes. Such bi-metallic strips may be used as control strips in thermostats, in direct dial reading instruments, or the like. The structures are made by preparing a sandwich of a group 5B transition metal strip between the substantially thicker strips of an alloy between copper and a predetermined group 3A, 4A or 5A metal or metalloid, holding the three layers of the sandwich in intimate contact heating the same, cooling the same and removing the copper alloy and then removing one of the two thus formed interlayer alloys between said transition metal and the metal previously alloyed with copper.

  12. An Investigation of the Factors which Affect the Career Selection Process of Air Force Systems Command Company Grade Officers.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-12-01

    form of ego protection similar to cognitive dissonance might create a low desirability for an outcome perceived as unattainable. Such a defensive...evaluating the turnover process. The effects of cognitive dissonance proposed by Festinger (1957) were shown by Vroom and Deci (1971) to have signifi...Air Force and civilian careers (see Chapter II for a discussion of force calculations). The pro- cedure, thus far, is in consonance with Vroom (1966

  13. Interdisciplinary study of atmospheric processes and constituents of the mid-Atlantic coastal region.. [air pollution control studies in Virginia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kindle, E. C.; Bandy, E. C.; Copeland, G.; Blais, R.; Levy, G.; Sonenshine, D.

    1975-01-01

    Past research projects for the year 1974-1975 are listed along with future research programs in the area of air pollution control, remote sensor analysis of smoke plumes, the biosphere component, and field experiments. A detailed budget analysis is presented. Attachments are included on the following topics: mapping forest vegetation with ERTS-1 MSS data and automatic data processing techniques, and use of LARS system for the quantitative determination of smoke plume lateral diffusion coefficients from ERTS images of Virginia.

  14. Development of High-Temperature Air Braze Filler Metals for Use in Two-Step Joining and Sealing Processes

    SciTech Connect

    Hardy, John S.; Weil, K. Scott

    2006-11-02

    Reactive air brazing (RAB) creates metallic braze joints between oxide surfaces. RAB can be performed in air and can undergo subsequent operation at temperatures up to 900ºC in oxidizing environments. This makes RAB an attractive joining method for creating seals in solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) which operate at temperatures between 700 and 850ºC and comprise cathode materials which are intolerant of reducing environments. Many planar SOFC designs require a two-step sealing process. Thus the seal formed during the first step must not melt or soften at the firing temperature of the second step, otherwise its integrity could be compromised. The goal of this study is to investigate the effects of adding Pd to a Ag-CuO RAB to produce a braze composition with a melting temperature high enough that it might be used in the first step of a two-step sealing process with unmodified Ag-CuO RAB used in the second step, thereby making possible a two step reactive air brazing process. Yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) is the substrate of choice in this study in order to simulate the initial sealing step in planar SOFCs which often involves sealing a yttrium-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) electrolyte to a metallic support frame. RAB compositions containing a 15 mol% Pd : 85 mol% Ag alloy with 8 mol% Cu added were found to provide the best combination of wettability, mechanical strength, and melting characteristics for brazing YSZ.

  15. Unencapsulated Air-stable Organic Field Effect Transistor by All Solution Processes for Low Power Vapor Sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Linrun; Tang, Wei; Zhao, Jiaqing; Yang, Ruozhang; Hu, Wei; Li, Qiaofeng; Wang, Ruolin; Guo, Xiaojun

    2016-02-01

    With its excellent mechanical flexibility, low-cost and low-temperature processing, the solution processed organic field-effect transistor (OFET) is a promising platform technology for developing ubiquitous sensor applications in digital health, environment monitoring and Internet of Things. However, a contradiction between achieving low voltage operation and having stable performance severely hinder the technology to become commercially viable. This work shows that, by reducing the sub-gap density of states (DOS) at the channel for low operation voltage and using a proper low-k non-polar polymer dielectric layer, such an issue can be addressed. Stable electrical properties after either being placed for weeks or continuously prolonged bias stressing for hours in ambient air are achieved for all solution processed unencapsulated OFETs with the channel being exposed to the ambient air for analyte detection. The fabricated device presents a steep subthreshold swing less than 100 mV/decade, and an ON/OFF ratio of 106 at a voltage swing of 3 V. The low voltage and stable operation allows the sensor made of the OFET to be incorporated into a battery-powered electronic system for continuously reliable sensing of ammonia vapor in ambient air with very small power consumption of about 50 nW.

  16. Evaluation of the performance of the cross-flow air classifier in manufactured sand processing via CFD-DEM simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petit, H. A.; Irassar, E. F.; Barbosa, M. R.

    2017-03-01

    Manufactured sands are particulate materials obtained as by product of rock crushing. Particle sizes in the sand can be as high as 6 mm and as low as a few microns. The concrete industry has been increasingly using these sands as fine aggregates to replace natural sands. The main shortcoming is the excess of particles smaller than <0.075 mm (Dust). This problem has been traditionally solved by a washing process. Air classification is being studied to replace the washing process and avoid the use of water. The complex classification process can only been understood with the aid of CFD-DEM simulations. This paper evaluates the applicability of a cross-flow air classifier to reduce the amount of dust in manufactured sands. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and discrete element modelling (DEM) were used for the assessment. Results show that the correct classification set up improves the size distribution of the raw materials. The cross-flow air classification is found to be influenced by the particle size distribution and the turbulence inside the chamber. The classifier can be re-designed to work at low inlet velocities to produce manufactured sand for the concrete industry.

  17. Unencapsulated Air-stable Organic Field Effect Transistor by All Solution Processes for Low Power Vapor Sensing

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Linrun; Tang, Wei; Zhao, Jiaqing; Yang, Ruozhang; Hu, Wei; Li, Qiaofeng; Wang, Ruolin; Guo, Xiaojun

    2016-01-01

    With its excellent mechanical flexibility, low-cost and low-temperature processing, the solution processed organic field-effect transistor (OFET) is a promising platform technology for developing ubiquitous sensor applications in digital health, environment monitoring and Internet of Things. However, a contradiction between achieving low voltage operation and having stable performance severely hinder the technology to become commercially viable. This work shows that, by reducing the sub-gap density of states (DOS) at the channel for low operation voltage and using a proper low-k non-polar polymer dielectric layer, such an issue can be addressed. Stable electrical properties after either being placed for weeks or continuously prolonged bias stressing for hours in ambient air are achieved for all solution processed unencapsulated OFETs with the channel being exposed to the ambient air for analyte detection. The fabricated device presents a steep subthreshold swing less than 100 mV/decade, and an ON/OFF ratio of 106 at a voltage swing of 3 V. The low voltage and stable operation allows the sensor made of the OFET to be incorporated into a battery-powered electronic system for continuously reliable sensing of ammonia vapor in ambient air with very small power consumption of about 50 nW. PMID:26861412

  18. Spectral deconvolution and operational use of stripping ratios in airborne radiometrics.

    PubMed

    Allyson, J D; Sanderson, D C

    2001-01-01

    Spectral deconvolution using stripping ratios for a set of pre-defined energy windows is the simplest means of reducing the most important part of gamma-ray spectral information. In this way, the effective interferences between the measured peaks are removed, leading, through a calibration, to clear estimates of radionuclide inventory. While laboratory measurements of stripping ratios are relatively easy to acquire, with detectors placed above small-scale calibration pads of known radionuclide concentrations, the extrapolation to measurements at altitudes where airborne survey detectors are used bring difficulties such as air-path attenuation and greater uncertainties in knowing ground level inventories. Stripping ratios are altitude dependent, and laboratory measurements using various absorbers to simulate the air-path have been used with some success. Full-scale measurements from an aircraft require a suitable location where radionuclide concentrations vary little over the field of view of the detector (which may be hundreds of metres). Monte Carlo simulations offer the potential of full-scale reproduction of gamma-ray transport and detection mechanisms. Investigations have been made to evaluate stripping ratios using experimental and Monte Carlo methods.

  19. 32 CFR 806.27 - Samples of Air Force FOIA processing documents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... documents. (a) This section includes suggested language in paragraph format that tracks Air Force and DoD... section, language in parentheses is for explanatory purposes only. Do not include any of the parenthetical language of this section in your FOIA correspondence. When optional language must be selected, the...

  20. SIMULATION OF INTRINSIC BIOREMEDIATION PROCESSES AT WURTSMITH AIR FORCE BASE, MICHIGAN

    EPA Science Inventory

    In October, 1988, a KC-135 aircraft crashed at Wurtsmith Air Force base (AFB), Oscoda, Michigan during an attempted landing. Approximately 3000 gallons of jet fuel (JP-4) were spilled onto the ground, with a large portion of the fuel entering the subsurface. Previous investigat...

  1. Growth of oxygen bubbles during recharge process in zinc-air battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Keliang; Pei, Pucheng; Ma, Ze; Chen, Huicui; Xu, Huachi; Chen, Dongfang; Xing, Haoqiang

    2015-11-01

    Rechargeable zinc-air battery used for energy storage has a serious problem of charging capacity limited by oxygen bubble coalescence. Fast removal of oxygen bubbles adhered to the charging electrode surface is of great importance for improving the charging performance of the battery. Here we show that the law of oxygen bubble growth can be achieved by means of phase-field simulation, revealing two phenomena of bubble detachment and bubble coalescence located in the charging electrode on both sides. Hydrodynamic electrolyte and partial insulation structure of the charging electrode are investigated to solve the problem of oxygen bubble coalescence during charging. Two types of rechargeable zinc-air battery are developed on the basis of different tri-electrode configurations, demonstrating that the charging performance of the battery with electrolyte flow (Ⅰ) is better than that of the battery with the partially insulated electrode (Ⅱ), while the battery Ⅱ is superior to the battery Ⅰ in the discharging performance, cost and portability. The proposed solutions and results would be available for promoting commercial application of rechargeable zinc-air batteries or other metal-air batteries.

  2. Prediction of Excess Air Factor in Automatic Feed Coal Burners by Processing of Flame Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Talu, Muhammed Fatih; Onat, Cem; Daskin, Mahmut

    2017-03-01

    In this study, the relationship between the visual information gathered from the flame images and the excess air factor λ in coal burners is investigated. In conventional coal burners the excess air factor λ. can be obtained using very expensive air measurement instruments. The proposed method to predict λ for a specific time in the coal burners consists of three distinct and consecutive stages; a) online flame images acquisition using a CCD camera, b) extraction meaningful information (flame intensity and brightness)from flame images, and c) learning these information (image features) with ANNs and estimate λ. Six different feature extraction methods have been used: CDF of Blue Channel, Co-Occurrence Matrix, L ∞-Frobenius Norms, Radiant Energy Signal (RES), PCA and Wavelet. When compared prediction results, it has seen that the use of co-occurrence matrix with ANNs has the best performance (RMSE = 0.07) in terms of accuracy. The results show that the proposed predicting system using flame images can be preferred instead of using expensive devices to measure excess air factor in during combustion.

  3. Environmental Impact Analysis Process. Environmental Impact Statement for the Closure of Mather Air Force Base

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-03-01

    the California Health and Safety Code). The Department would like to be informed of future activities and use plans associated with the Muther AFB...Page 2 cc: Lt. Col Richard Blank Chief, Environmental Management 323rd Flying Training Wing Mather Air Force Base, CA 95655-5000 Lt. Col. Jose Saenz

  4. Extraction of uranium: comparison of stripping with ammonia vs. strong acid

    SciTech Connect

    Moldovan, B.; Grinbaum, B.; Efraim, A.

    2008-07-01

    Following extraction of uranium in the first stage of solvent extraction using a tertiary amine, typically Alamine 336, the stripping of the extracted uranium is accomplished either by use of an aqueous solution of (NH{sub 4}){sub 2}SO{sub 4} /NH{sub 4}OH or by strong-acid stripping using 400-500 g/L H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}. Both processes have their merits and determine the downstream processing. The classical stripping with ammonia is followed by addition of strong base, to precipitate ammonium uranyl sulfate (NH{sub 4}){sub 2}UO{sub 2}(SO{sub 4}){sub 2}, which yields finally the yellow cake. Conversely, stripping with H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}, followed by oxidation with hydrogen peroxide yields uranyl oxide as product. At the Cameco Key Lake operation, both processes were tested on a pilot scale, using a Bateman Pulsed Column (BPC). The BPC proved to be applicable to both processes. It met the process criteria both for extraction and stripping, leaving less than 1 mg/L of U{sub 3}O{sub 8} in the raffinate, and product solution had the required concentration of U{sub 3}O{sub 8} at high flux and reasonable height of transfer unit. In the Key Lake mill, each operation can be carried out in a single column. The main advantages of the strong-acid stripping over ammonia stripping are: (1) 60% higher flux in the extraction, (2) tenfold higher concentration of the uranium in the product solution, and (3) far more robust process, with no need of pH control in the stripping and no need to add acid to the extraction in order to keep the pH above the point of precipitation of iron compounds. The advantages of the ammoniacal process are easier stripping, that is, less stages needed to reach equilibrium and lower concentration of modifier needed to prevent the creation of a third phase. (authors)

  5. Air-snow exchange of nitrate: a modelling approach to investigate physicochemical processes in surface snow at Dome C, Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bock, Josué; Savarino, Joël; Picard, Ghislain

    2016-04-01

    Snowpack is a multiphase (photo)chemical reactor that strongly influences the air composition in polar and snow-covered regions. Snowpack plays a special role in the nitrogen cycle, as it has been shown that nitrate undergoes numerous recycling stages (including photolysis) in the snow before being permanently buried in the firn. However, the current understanding of these physicochemical processes remains very poor. Several modelling studies have attempted to reproduce (photo)chemical reactions inside snow grains, but these required strong assumptions to characterise snow reactive properties, which are not well defined. Physical processes such as adsorption, solid state diffusion and co-condensation also affect snow chemical composition. We developed a model including a physically based parameterisation of these air-snow exchange processes for nitrate. This modelling study divides into two distinct parts: firstly, surface concentration of nitrate adsorbed onto snow is calculated using existing isotherm parametrisation. Secondly, bulk concentration of nitrate in solid solution into the ice matrix is modelled. In this second approach, solid state diffusion drives the evolution of nitrate concentration inside a layered spherical snow grain. A physically-based parameterisation defining the concentration at the air-snow interface was developed to account for the the co-condensation process. The model uses as input a one-year long time series of atmospheric nitrate concentration measured at Dome C, Antarctica. The modelled nitrate concentration in surface snow is compared to field measurements. We show that on the one hand, the adsorption of nitric acid on the surface of the snow grains fails to fit the observed variations. During winter and spring, the modelled adsorbed concentration of nitrate is 2.5 and 8.3-fold higher than the measured one, respectively. A strong diurnal variation driven by the temperature cycle and a peak occurring in early spring are two other

  6. [Evaluation of the content of harmful substances in the air of sewage treatment facilities of Astrakhan gas processing plant].

    PubMed

    Boĭko, V I; Dotsenko, Iu I; Boĭko, O V

    2013-01-01

    Despite the fact that the progress in regard to the degree of processing of natural gas and condensate in the Astrakhan gas processing plant is significant, necessary hygienic normalization of working environment on the part of the content of harmful substances in the air of working areas is still unable. Harmful substances were detected in the breathing zone of workers of sewage treatment plant almost constantly. In this connection there is a need in the further joint work hygienists, designers and manufacturers for the development and justification of new, more effective decisions - both on the part of as well technology as hardware design - with the purpose of improvement of working conditions.

  7. Tandem strip mill's multi-parameter coupling dynamic modeling based on the thickness control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Yan; Zhang, Yang; Sun, Jianliang; Zang, Yong

    2015-03-01

    The rolling process is determined by the interaction of a number of different movements, during which the relative movement occurs between the vibrating roll system and the rolled piece, and the roll system's vibration interacts with the strip's deformation and rigid movement. So many parameters being involved leads to a complex mechanism of this coupling effect. Through testing and analyzing the vibration signals of the mill in the rolling process, the rolling mill's coupled model is established with comprehensive consideration of the coupling interaction between the mill's vertical vibration, its torsional vibration and the working roll's horizontal vibration, and vibration characteristics of different forms of rolling mill's vibration are analyzed under the coupling effect. With comprehensive attention to the relationship between the roll system, the moving strip and the rolling parameters' dynamic properties, and also from the strip thickness control point of view, further research is done on the coupling mechanism between the roll system's movement and the moving strip's characteristics in the rolling process. As a result, the law of inertial coupling and the stiffness coupling effect caused by different forms of the roll system's vibration is determined and the existence of nonlinear characteristics caused by the elastic deformation of moving strip is also found. Furthermore, a multi-parameter coupling-dynamic model is established which takes the tandem strip mill as its research object by making a detailed kinematics analysis of the roll system and using the principle of virtual work. The coupling-dynamic model proposes the instruction to describe the roll system's movement, and analyzes its dynamic response and working stability, and provides a theoretical basis for the realization of the strip thickness' dynamic control.

  8. Combining Advanced Oxidation Processes: Assessment Of Process Additivity, Synergism, And Antagonism

    SciTech Connect

    Peters, Robert W.; Sharma, M.P.; Gbadebo Adewuyi, Yusuf

    2007-07-01

    This paper addresses the process interactions from combining integrated processes (such as advanced oxidation processes (AOPs), biological operations, air stripping, etc.). AOPs considered include: Fenton's reagent, ultraviolet light, titanium dioxide, ozone (O{sub 3}), hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}), sonication/acoustic cavitation, among others. A critical review of the technical literature has been performed, and the data has been analyzed in terms of the processes being additive, synergistic, or antagonistic. Predictions based on the individual unit operations are made and compared against the behavior of the combined unit operations. The data reported in this paper focus primarily on treatment of petroleum hydrocarbons and chlorinated solvents. (authors)

  9. Dynamic crack propagation in a viscoelastic strip

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popelar, C. H.; Atkinson, C.

    1980-04-01

    THE DYNAMIC PROPAGATION of a semi-infinite crack in a finite linear viscoelastic strip subjected to Mode I loading is investigated. Through the use of integral transforms the problem is reduced to solving a Wiener-Hopf equation. The asymptotic properties of the transforms are exploited to establish the stress intensity factor. Plane-stress and plane-strain stress intensity factors as a function of crack speed for both fully-clamped and shear-free lateral boundaries are presented for the standard linear viscoelastic solid. Comparisons are made with previously obtained asymptotic stress intensity factors and with stress intensity factors for the equivalent elastic strips.

  10. Grain size control of rhenium strip

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schuster, Gary B.

    1991-01-01

    Ensuring the desired grain size in the pure Re strip employed by the SP-100 space nuclear reactor design entails the establishment of an initial grain size in the as-received strip and the avoidance of excessive grain growth during subsequent fabrication. Pure Re tapered tensile specimens have been fabricated and tested in order to quantify the effects of grain-boundary migration. Grain size could be rendered fine and uniform by means of a rolling procedure that uses rather large reductions between short intermediate anneals. The critical strain regime varies inversely with annealing temperature.

  11. 75 FR 12988 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Area Sources: Asphalt Processing and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-18

    ... Sources: Asphalt Processing and Asphalt Roofing Manufacturing; Technical Correction AGENCY: Environmental... the asphalt processing and asphalt roofing manufacturing area source category (74 FR 63236). Following... the asphalt processing and asphalt roofing manufacturing area source category on December 2, 2009...

  12. Positioning for Endovenous Laser Ablation: Comparative Study with Thigh Stripping

    PubMed Central

    Masaki, Hisao; Yunoki, Yasuhiro; Watanabe, Yoshiko; Furukawa, Hiroshi; Yamasawa, Takahiko; Takiuchi, Hiroki; Honda, Takeshi; Kuwada, Noriaki; Kojima, Kenji; Tanemoto, Kazuo

    2016-01-01

    We performed a comparative study of surgical outcomes and venous functions between endovenous laser ablation with a 980-nm diode laser (EV group) and thigh stripping (ST group). There were no severe complications and initial success rates were 100% in both groups. In the EV group, preoperative symptoms improved in 94.3% of cases, the venous occlusion rate was 98%, and endovenous heat induced thrombosis had occurred in 11.9% (Class 3: 0.7%) at 12 months after the operation. Although comparative study of postoperative venous function by air plethysmography showed significant improvement in both groups, there was less recovery of postoperative venous function in the EV than in the ST group. (This article is a translation of J Jpn Coll Angiol 2015; 55: 13–20.) PMID:27738455

  13. Evaluating Defoaming Agents for the Stripping Columns at the In-Tank Precipitation Facility

    SciTech Connect

    McGlynn, J.F.

    1993-06-30

    The In-Tank Precipitation (ITP) process will concentrate the Tank 48 contents to approximately 10 wt. percent tetraphenylborate solids by filtration. The filtrate produced during the process flows to the ITP stripping columns where the soluble benzene is removed from the solution. It has been observed that a large pressure differential occurs across the column packing when the filtrate is processed in the column. One potential explanation for the pressure differential is that the filtrate is foaming in the column. Small scale stripping tests have verified that the salt solution foams. Waste Management requested assistance from SRTC in solving the foaming problem through technical task requests HLE-TTR-93013A/B (Benzene Stripper Performance Evaluation) and HLE-TTR-93044 (Kinetics of Benzene and Dissolution). Various tests were completed to determine an effective defoaming agent for use in the stripping columns. This document discusses the tests and the conclusions.

  14. New NRO Eastern Processing Facility at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station Florida. Environmental Assessment:

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-08-31

    associated with gopher tortoise burrows, which it occupies when inactive. The reproductive season encompasses copulation (November through April), egg...populations that remain are small, demographically isolated , and likely to decline (U.S. Air Force 2001). Based on the nine years of study of scrub...ridges. The soils have rapid permeability and low available water capacity due to the near-surface water table. This permeability rate allows water to

  15. Air-Sea and Lateral Exchange Processes in East Indian Coastal Current off Sri Lanka

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-09-30

    of which have a bearing on local air-sea fluxes. The project seeks to collect hydrographic data sets in the international waters (R/V Roger Revelle...and in Sri Lankan coastal waters (R/V Samuddrika). The measurements include thermohaline stratification, currents and the kinetic energy...conducted CTD and ADCP measurements in the southern BoB onboard R/V Roger Revelle and in Sri Lanka coastal waters using R/V Samuddrika. The data analysis

  16. General Plan-Based Environmental Impact Analysis Process Environmental Assessment, Altus Air Force Base

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-11-01

    standards define levels of air quality necessary to protect against decreased visibility and damage to animals, crops , vegetation, and buildings. Federal...located was utilized for agricultural purposes. The primary crops cultivated were cotton and wheat, allowing for the potential that pesticides...supports C-5, C-17, and KC-135 aircraft. The wing maintains operational currency of a highly- qualified instructor force and combat- ready aircrew

  17. Comparative study of denaturation of whey protein isolate (WPI) in convective air drying and isothermal heat treatment processes.

    PubMed

    Haque, M Amdadul; Aldred, Peter; Chen, Jie; Barrow, Colin J; Adhikari, Benu

    2013-11-15

    The extent and nature of denaturation of whey protein isolate (WPI) in convective air drying environments was measured and analysed using single droplet drying. A custom-built, single droplet drying instrument was used for this purpose. Single droplets having 5±0.1μl volume (initial droplet diameter 1.5±0.1mm) containing 10% (w/v) WPI were dried at air temperatures of 45, 65 and 80°C for 600s at constant air velocity of 0.5m/s. The extent and nature of denaturation of WPI in isothermal heat treatment processes was measured at 65 and 80°C for 600s and compared with those obtained from convective air drying. The extent of denaturation of WPI in a high hydrostatic pressure environment (600MPa for 600s) was also determined. The results showed that at the end of 600s of convective drying at 65°C the denaturation of WPI was 68.3%, while it was only 10.8% during isothermal heat treatment at the same medium temperature. When the medium temperature was maintained at 80°C, the denaturation loss of WPI was 90.0% and 68.7% during isothermal heat treatment and convective drying, respectively. The bovine serum albumin (BSA) fraction of WPI was found to be more stable in the convective drying conditions than β-lactoglobulin and α-lactalbumin, especially at longer drying times. The extent of denaturation of WPI in convective air drying (65 and 80°C) and isotheral heat treatment (80°C) for 600s was found to be higher than its denaturation in a high hydrostatic pressure environment at ambient temperature (600MPa for 600s).

  18. Extreme air pollution with contaminants originating from the mining-metallurgical processes.

    PubMed

    Serbula, Snezana M; Milosavljevic, Jelena S; Radojevic, Ana A; Kalinovic, Jelena V; Kalinovic, Tanja S

    2017-05-15

    Levels of SO2 and metals/metalloids in the air near a copper smelter in Bor (Serbia) from 2009 to 2015 were presented in this study. Annual levels of SO2 were constantly above the proposed limit value (LV), at almost all the measuring sites. SO2 concentrations on an annual level measured in different zones in Bor were several times higher compared to the LV in 2011, 2012, 2014 and 2015. Enormously high daily SO2 concentrations measured at the suburban zone (3734μgm(-3)) was 187 times higher than the LV given by the World Health Organization. Annual arsenic concentrations exceeded the LV at all the measuring sites during the study period. Extremely high annual As level in 2012 was 21 times higher than the LV proposed by the European Union. The annual lead and cadmium concentrations frequently exceeded the LV. The vicinity of the measuring sites to the copper smelter and the location of the sites in regard to the prevailing wind directions contribute to higher content of air pollutants. The data presented in this study revealed that extremely high concentrations of air polluting substances could rank the town of Bor as one of the most polluted regions in Serbia and beyond.

  19. Advanced water recycling through electrochemical treatment of effluent from dissolved air flotation unit of food processing industry.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Sukjoon; Hsieh, Jeffery S

    2010-01-01

    This study elucidates the feasibility of electrochemical treatment as a water recycling process in the dissolved air flotation (DAF) unit in the food industry. Effects of operation parameters such as current density, electrolysis time, initial pH of effluent, and mixing process were investigated on the removal of COD, TSS, and TDS of the DAF pretreated effluent. An increase of current density enhances the removal rates and reduces the electrolysis time to reach the maximum performance. The initial pH less than 7 and the addition of mixing process were proven to increase the efficiency of EC treatment. About 80% of COD, 100% of TSS, and 60% of TDS were successfully removed at 500 mA current for 1 hour of electrolysis. The final treated effluent was found to meet the discharge standard from the US Environmental Protection Agency. It was concluded that EC process could be effective as an advanced water resourcing technology in the food industry.

  20. Study of compression settlement of a three-layer rigid-plastic strip between parallel plates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aleksandrov, S. E.; Goldstein, R. V.

    2014-11-01

    The process of compression settlement of a three-layer strip between parallel plates is investigated under the plane strain conditions. The inner layer of the strip is assumed to be made of a rigid-plastic hardening material, and the two outer layers are assumed to be ideally rigid-plastic. The boundary value problem has two symmetry axes. It is assumed that the strip thickness is much less than its width. The boundary conditions at the strip edge and at the center are satisfied in integral form. Two friction regimes, i.e., sliding and adhesion, are possible on the surface of contact between the strip and the plates and on the interface between the layers. It is shown that the general structure of the solution depends on the regimes realized at the moment. In particular, one of the layers can remain rigid at a certain stage of the deformation process. The differential equations are stated which permit exactly determining the conditions of the friction regime change and the state of each layer (rigid or plastic); these equations must be solved numerically. For some values of parameters of the boundary value problem, the velocity field is singular near one or both surfaces of friction. In these cases, it is necessary to calculate the strain rate intensity coefficient whose value probably controls the process of formation of a narrow layer with strongly changed properties near the corresponding surface of friction.

  1. Lipids and Molecular Tools as Biomarkers in Monitoring Air Sparging Bioremediation Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heipieper, Hermann J.; Fischer, Janett

    2010-05-01

    The fluctuation of membrane lipids offers a promising tool as biomarkers for the analysis of microbial population changes as well as for the physiological status of micro-organisms. The investigation of changes in lipid composition is of common use for the assessment of physiological conditions in pure cultures. However, as lipid composition does not show drastic diversity among living organisms the use of lipids as biomarkers in mixed cultures and environmental samples has certain limitations. Therefore, special marker phospholipid fatty acids as well as modern statistical analysis of the results are necessary to receive certain information about the qualitative and quantitative changes of e.g. a soil microflora due to a contamination with organic compounds and its bioremediation. The use of lipids as biomarker in monitoring bioremediation are shown at the Hradčany site, a former Russian air force base in the Czech Republic that operated until 1990. In this time in an area of 32 ha soil and groundwater were contaminated with kerosene and BTEX compounds in an amount of 7,150 tons. This highly contaminated site is treated with the so-called air sparging method to clean-up the contamination by aerobic biodegradation. The results of PLFA analysis demonstrated a community shift to a gram-negative bacterial biomass with time. The results, including a principal component analysis (PCA) of the obtained fatty acid profiles, showed that the air sparging leads to substantial differences in microbial communities depending on the contamination levels and length of treatment, respectively. Obviously, the length of air sparging treatment controlling the BTEX concentration in soils causes temporal changes of bacterial community and adaptations of its respective members. This work was supported by the project BIOTOOL (Contract No. 003998) of the European Commission within its Sixth Framework Programme. Kabelitz N., Machackova J., Imfeld G., Brennerova M., Pieper D.H., Heipieper H

  2. Container lid gasket protective strip for double door transfer system

    DOEpatents

    Allen, Jr., Burgess M

    2013-02-19

    An apparatus and a process for forming a protective barrier seal along a "ring of concern" of a transfer container used with double door systems is provided. A protective substrate is supplied between a "ring of concern" and a safety cover in which an adhesive layer of the substrate engages the "ring of concern". A compressive foam strip along an opposite side of the substrate engages a safety cover such that a compressive force is maintained between the "ring of concern" and the adhesive layer of the substrate.

  3. Numerical Modeling of Flow Dynamics in The Aluminum Smelting Process: Comparison Between Air-Water and CO2-Cryolite Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Zhibin; Feng, Yuqing; Schwarz, M. Philip; Witt, Peter J.; Wang, Zhaowen; Cooksey, Mark

    2016-12-01

    Air-water models have been widely applied as substitutes for CO2-cryolite systems in the study of the complex bubble dynamics and bubble-driven flow that occurs in the molten electrolyte phase in the aluminum electrolytic process, but the detailed difference between the two systems has not been studied. This paper makes a numerical comparison between the bubble dynamics for the two systems. Simulations of both single bubble and continuous bubbling were conducted using a three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics (3D CFD) modeling approach with a volume of fluid (VOF) method to capture the phase interfaces. In the single bubble simulations, it was found that bubbles sliding under an anode in a CO2-cryolite system have a smaller bubble thickness and a higher sliding velocity than those in the air-water system for bubbles of the same volume. Dimensionless analysis and numerical simulation show that contact angle is the dominant factor producing these differences; the effects of kinematic viscosity, surface tension, and density are very small. In the continuous bubbling simulations, the continuous stream of air bubbles detaches from the anode sidewall after a period of climbing, just as it does in the single bubble simulation, but bubbles have less tendency to migrate away from the wall. Quasi-stable state flow characteristics, i.e., time-averaged bath flow pattern, turbulence kinetic energy, turbulence dissipation rate, and gas volume fraction, show a remarkable agreement between the two systems in terms of distribution and magnitude. From the current numerical comparisons, it is believed that the air-water model is a close substitutive model for studying bubble-driven bath flow in aluminum smelting processes. However, because of the difference in bubble morphologies between the two systems, and also the reactive generation and growth of bubbles in the real system, there will likely be some differences in bubble coverage of the anode in the anode-cathode gap.

  4. Numerical Modeling of Flow Dynamics in The Aluminum Smelting Process: Comparison Between Air-Water and CO2-Cryolite Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Zhibin; Feng, Yuqing; Schwarz, M. Philip; Witt, Peter J.; Wang, Zhaowen; Cooksey, Mark

    2017-04-01

    Air-water models have been widely applied as substitutes for CO2-cryolite systems in the study of the complex bubble dynamics and bubble-driven flow that occurs in the molten electrolyte phase in the aluminum electrolytic process, but the detailed difference between the two systems has not been studied. This paper makes a numerical comparison between the bubble dynamics for the two systems. Simulations of both single bubble and continuous bubbling were conducted using a three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics (3D CFD) modeling approach with a volume of fluid (VOF) method to capture the phase interfaces. In the single bubble simulations, it was found that bubbles sliding under an anode in a CO2-cryolite system have a smaller bubble thickness and a higher sliding velocity than those in the air-water system for bubbles of the same volume. Dimensionless analysis and numerical simulation show that contact angle is the dominant factor producing these differences; the effects of kinematic viscosity, surface tension, and density are very small. In the continuous bubbling simulations, the continuous stream of air bubbles detaches from the anode sidewall after a period of climbing, just as it does in the single bubble simulation, but bubbles have less tendency to migrate away from the wall. Quasi-stable state flow characteristics, i.e., time-averaged bath flow pattern, turbulence kinetic energy, turbulence dissipation rate, and gas volume fraction, show a remarkable agreement between the two systems in terms of distribution and magnitude. From the current numerical comparisons, it is believed that the air-water model is a close substitutive model for studying bubble-driven bath flow in aluminum smelting processes. However, because of the difference in bubble morphologies between the two systems, and also the reactive generation and growth of bubbles in the real system, there will likely be some differences in bubble coverage of the anode in the anode-cathode gap.

  5. Cardiac Muscle Studies with Rat Ventricular Strips

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitten, Bert K.; Faleschini, Richard J.

    1977-01-01

    Details undergraduate physiology laboratory experiments that demonstrate mechanical properties of cardiac muscle, using strips from the ventricle of a rat heart. Includes procedures for obtaining length-tension curves, demonstrating the role of calcium in excitation-contraction coupling, and showing effects of several cardiovascular drugs…

  6. Propulsion by Helical Strips in Circular Channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yesilyurt, Serhat; Demir, Ebru

    2016-11-01

    Progress in manufacturing techniques avails the production of artificial micro swimmers (AMS) in various shapes and sizes. There are numerous studies on the generation of efficient locomotion by means of helical tails with circular cross-sections. This work focuses on locomotion with helical strips in circular channels. A CFD model is used to analyze the effects of geometric parameters and the radius of the channel on swimming velocity of infinite helical-strips in circular channels. Results show that there is an optimum wavelength that depends on thickness to channel radius ratio, suggesting that these parameters need to be optimized simultaneously. With constant torque, thinner strips swim faster, whereas under constant angular velocity application, thicker strips (in radial direction) prevail. As width approaches the wavelength, velocity decreases under both conditions, unless a magnetically coated tail is simulated, for which width has an optimum value. Increasing channel radius to helix amplitude ratio increases the velocity up to a maximum and after a slight drop, saturation occurs as bulk swimming conditions are approached.

  7. Comic Strips to Accompany Science Museum Exhibits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chung, Beom Sun; Park, Eun-mi; Kim, Sang-Hee; Cho, Sook-kyoung; Chung, Min Suk

    2016-01-01

    Science museums make the effort to create exhibits with amusing explanations. However, existing explanation signs with lengthy text are not appealing, and as such, visitors do not pay attention to them. In contrast, conspicuous comic strips composed of simple drawings and humors can attract science museum visitors. This study attempted to reveal…

  8. Anodic Stripping Voltammetry: An Instrumental Analysis Experiment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Joseph

    1983-01-01

    Describes an experiment designed to acquaint students with the theory and applications of anodic stripping voltammetry (ASV) as well as such ASV problems as contamination associated with trace analysis. The experimental procedure, instrumentation, and materials discussed are designed to minimize cost and keep procedures as simple as possible. (JM)

  9. Nanoscale Test Strips for Multiplexed Blood Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chan, Eugene

    2015-01-01

    A critical component of the DNA Medicine Institute's Reusable Handheld Electrolyte and Lab Technology for Humans (rHEALTH) sensor are nanoscale test strips, or nanostrips, that enable multiplexed blood analysis. Nanostrips are conceptually similar to the standard urinalysis test strip, but the strips are shrunk down a billionfold to the microscale. Each nanostrip can have several sensor pads that fluoresce in response to different targets in a sample. The strips carry identification tags that permit differentiation of a specific panel from hundreds of other nanostrip panels during a single measurement session. In Phase I of the project, the company fabricated, tested, and demonstrated functional parathyroid hormone and vitamin D nanostrips for bone metabolism, and thrombin aptamer and immunoglobulin G antibody nanostrips. In Phase II, numerous nanostrips were developed to address key space flight-based medical needs: assessment of bone metabolism, immune response, cardiac status, liver metabolism, and lipid profiles. This unique approach holds genuine promise for space-based portable biodiagnostics and for point-of-care (POC) health monitoring and diagnostics here on Earth.

  10. Calibrating ultrasonic test equipment for checking thin metal strip stock

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peterson, R. M.

    1967-01-01

    Calibration technique detects minute laminar-type discontinuities in thin metal strip stock. Patterns of plastic tape are preselected to include minutely calculated discontinuities and the tape is applied to the strip stock to intercept the incident sonic beam.

  11. Topics in Chemical Instrumentation: CII. Automated Anodic Stripping Voltammetry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stock, John T.; Ewing, Galen W., Ed.

    1980-01-01

    Presents details of anodic stripping analysis (ASV) in college chemistry laboratory experiments. Provides block diagrams of the analyzer system, circuitry and power supplies of the automated stripping analyzer, and instructions for implementing microcomputer control of the ASV. (CS)

  12. Refuges, flower strips, biodiversity and agronomic interest.

    PubMed

    Roy, Grégory; Wateau, Karine; Legrand, Mickaël; Oste, Sandrine

    2008-01-01

    Several arthropods are natural predators of pests, and they are able to reduce and control their population development. FREDON Nord Pas-de-Calais (Federation Regionate de Defense contre les Organismes Nuisibles = Regional Federation for Pest Control) has begun for a long time to form farmers to the recognition of beneficial arthropods and to show them their usefulness. These beneficial insects or arachnids are present everywhere, in orchards and even in fields which are areas relatively poor in biodiversity. Adults feed in the flower strips instead larvae and some adults feed on preys such as aphids or caterpillars. Most of the time, beneficial insects can regulate pest but sometimes, in agricultural area, they can't make it early enough and efficiently. Their action begin too late and there biodiversity and number are too low. It's possible to enhance their action by manipulating the ecological infrastructures, like sewing flower strips or installing refuges. Flower strips increase the density of natural enemies and make them be present earlier in the field in order to control pests. Refuges permit beneficial's to spend winter on the spot. So they're able to be active and to grow in number earlier. From 2004 to 2007, on the one hand, FREDON Nord Pas-de-Calais has developed a research program. Its purpose was to inventory practices and also tools and means available and to judge the advisability of using such or such beneficial refuge in orchards. On the second hand, it studied the impact in orchard of refuges on population of beneficial's and the difference there were between manufactured refuges and homemade refuges. Interesting prospects were obtained with some of them. Otherwise, since 2003, FREDON has studied flower strips influence on beneficial population and their impact on pest control. In cabbage fields, results of trials have shown that flower strips lead to a reduction of aphid number under acceptable economic level, up to 50 meters from flower strips

  13. Dry stripping as a surface treatment method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nieminen, Ilkka

    1992-03-01

    High environmental and safety standards as well as use of new paint and substrate materials have created the need for developing stripping methods to substitute chemical and mechanical methods and on the other hand for expanding the applicability of blasting as a surface treatment. Plastic Media Blasting (PMB) (alternatively Dry Stripping System (DSS)) is an emerging technology first used in aircraft maintenance for paint stripping. Traditionally this task is performed by brushing and grinding or by using chemical solvents. With plastic media it is possible to remove thick paints with high adhesion without damaging the substrate and even layer by layer. If suitable type of plastic media, blasting pressure low enough, media concentration high enough and on the other right blasting time, blasting distance and blasting angle are chosen, the effectiveness of PMB can be varied to a large extent. In regard to the hardness of media plastic particles are situated between some organic materials and shots used in sand blasting. Therefore composite materials can be treated without damaging the substrate or thin metal plates without causing any deformations. The principle of plastic media blasting equipment is similar to traditional blasting equipment. Nevertheless the properties of plastic media are different to harder particles used in shot peening resulting in higher demands for filtration, ventilation and recycling systems. In addition the facilities have to contain proper recovery equipment, because plastic media can be reused, even 20 times. In recycling systems plastic media is cleaned, too large and too small particles are removed, hard and magnetic particles are removed from reusable media and dust is separated from media. In addition to paint stripping PMB can successfully be used for cleaning of surfaces from contamination and to some extent for polishing, grinding and roughening. Paint stripping has been the main application so far, but there may be many other

  14. Clean Air Act Section 112(d)(6) Technology Review for Pulping and Papermaking Processes Memorandum

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The purpose of this November 2011 document is to present the results of a review of available information on developments in practices, processes, and control technologies that apply to pulping and papermaking processes.

  15. Radiative processes in air excited by an ArF laser

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laufer, Gabriel; Mckenzie, Robert L.; Huo, Winifred M.

    1988-01-01

    The emission spectrum of air that is excited by an ArF laser has been investigated experimentally and theoretically to determine the conditions under which fluorescence from O2 can be used for the measurement of temperature in aerodynamic flows. In addition to the expected fluorescence from O2, the spectrum from excitation with an intense laser beam is shown to contain significant contributions from the near-resonant Raman fundamental and overtone bands, the four-photon fluorescence excitation of C produced from ambient CO2, and possibly the three-photon excitation of O(2+). The nature of the radiative interactions contributing to these additional features is described.

  16. Study the Z-Plane Strip Capacitance

    SciTech Connect

    Parikh, H.; Swain, S.; /SLAC

    2005-12-15

    The BaBaR detector at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center is currently undergoing an upgrade to improve its muon and neutral hadron detection system. The Resistive Plate Chambers (RPCs) that had been used till now have deteriorated in performance over the past few years and are being replaced by Limited Streamer Tube (LSTs). Each layer of the system consists of a set of up to 10 streamer tube modules which provide one coordinate ({phi} coordinate) and a single ''Z-plane'' which provides the Z coordinate of the hit. The large area Z-planes (up to 12m{sup 2}) are 1mm thick and contain 96 copper strips that detect the induced charge from avalanches created in the streamer tube wires. All the Z-planes needed for the upgrade have already been constructed, but only a third of the planes were installed last summer. After installing the 24 Z-planes last year, it was learned that 0.7% of the strips were dead when put inside the detector. This was mainly due to the delicate solder joint between the read-out cable and the strip, and since it is difficult to access or replace the Z-planes inside the detector, it is very important to perform various tests to make sure that the Z-planes will be efficient and effective in the long term. We measure the capacitance between the copper strips and the ground plane, and compare it to the theoretical value that we expect. Instead of measuring the capacitance channel by channel, which would be a very tedious job, we developed a more effective method of measuring the capacitance. Since all the Z-planes were built at SLAC, we also built a smaller 46 cm by 30 cm Z-plane with 12 strips just to see how they were constructed and to gain a better understanding about the solder joints.

  17. Investigation of HV/HR-CMOS technology for the ATLAS Phase-II Strip Tracker Upgrade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fadeyev, V.; Galloway, Z.; Grabas, H.; Grillo, A. A.; Liang, Z.; Martinez-Mckinney, F.; Seiden, A.; Volk, J.; Affolder, A.; Buckland, M.; Meng, L.; Arndt, K.; Bortoletto, D.; Huffman, T.; John, J.; McMahon, S.; Nickerson, R.; Phillips, P.; Plackett, R.; Shipsey, I.; Vigani, L.; Bates, R.; Blue, A.; Buttar, C.; Kanisauskas, K.; Maneuski, D.; Benoit, M.; Di Bello, F.; Caragiulo, P.; Dragone, A.; Grenier, P.; Kenney, C.; Rubbo, F.; Segal, J.; Su, D.; Tamma, C.; Das, D.; Dopke, J.; Turchetta, R.; Wilson, F.; Worm, S.; Ehrler, F.; Peric, I.; Gregor, I. M.; Stanitzki, M.; Hoeferkamp, M.; Seidel, S.; Hommels, L. B. A.; Kramberger, G.; Mandić, I.; Mikuž, M.; Muenstermann, D.; Wang, R.; Zhang, J.; Warren, M.; Song, W.; Xiu, Q.; Zhu, H.

    2016-09-01

    ATLAS has formed strip CMOS project to study the use of CMOS MAPS devices as silicon strip sensors for the Phase-II Strip Tracker Upgrade. This choice of sensors promises several advantages over the conventional baseline design, such as better resolution, less material in the tracking volume, and faster construction speed. At the same time, many design features of the sensors are driven by the requirement of minimizing the impact on the rest of the detector. Hence the target devices feature long pixels which are grouped to form a virtual strip with binary-encoded z position. The key performance aspects are radiation hardness compatibility with HL-LHC environment, as well as extraction of the full hit position with full-reticle readout architecture. To date, several test chips have been submitted using two different CMOS technologies. The AMS 350 nm is a high voltage CMOS process (HV-CMOS), that features the sensor bias of up to 120 V. The TowerJazz 180 nm high resistivity CMOS process (HR-CMOS) uses a high resistivity epitaxial layer to provide the depletion region on top of the substrate. We have evaluated passive pixel performance, and charge collection projections. The results strongly support the radiation tolerance of these devices to radiation dose of the HL-LHC in the strip tracker region. We also describe design features for the next chip submission that are motivated by our technology evaluation.

  18. Environmental Impact Analysis Process. Environmental Assessment, U.S. Air Force, Military Airlift Command. Repair and Extension of Taxiways A, AA, and E, Kirtland Air Force Base, NM

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-08-01

    Kirtland Air Force Base New MexicoU I I Prepared for I Department of the Air Force Headquarters Military Airlift Command Scott Air Force Base, Illinois...Mariah Associates (1988), and USAF (ND). Birds are the most commonly reported wildlife in the area. Common species include the horned lark (Eremophila...already exclude all but the few species fully adapted to urban environments. These include several rodent and bird species which tolerate the noise and

  19. 21 CFR 880.2200 - Liquid crystal forehead temperature strip.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Liquid crystal forehead temperature strip. 880... Personal Use Monitoring Devices § 880.2200 Liquid crystal forehead temperature strip. (a) Identification. A liquid crystal forehead temperature strip is a device applied to the forehead that is used to...

  20. 21 CFR 880.2200 - Liquid crystal forehead temperature strip.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Liquid crystal forehead temperature strip. 880... Personal Use Monitoring Devices § 880.2200 Liquid crystal forehead temperature strip. (a) Identification. A liquid crystal forehead temperature strip is a device applied to the forehead that is used to...