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Sample records for air stripping process

  1. Air Stripping Designs and Reactive Water Purification Processes for the Lunar Surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boul, Peter J.; Lange, Kevin; Conger, Bruce; Anderson, Molly

    2010-01-01

    Air stripping designs are considered to reduce the presence of volatile organic compounds in the purified water. Components of the wastewater streams are ranked by Henry's Law Constant and the suitability of air stripping in the purification of wastewater in terms of component removal is evaluated. Distillation processes are modeled in tandem with air stripping to demonstrate the potential effectiveness and utility of these methods in recycling wastewater on the Moon. Scaling factors for distillation and air stripping columns are presented to account for the difference in the lunar gravitation environment. Commercially available distillation and air stripping units which are considered suitable for Exploration Life Support are presented. The advantages to the various designs are summarized with respect to water purity levels, power consumption, and processing rates. An evaluation of reactive distillation and air stripping is presented with regards to the reduction of volatile organic compounds in the contaminated water and air. Among the methods presented, an architecture is presented for the evaluation of the simultaneous oxidation of organics in air and water. These and other designs are presented in light of potential improvements in power consumptions and air and water purities for architectures which include catalytic activity integrated into the water processor. In particular, catalytic oxidation of organics may be useful as a tool to remove contaminants that more traditional distillation and/or air stripping columns may not remove. A review of the current leading edge at the commercial level and at the research frontier in catalytically active materials is presented. Themes and directions from the engineering developments in catalyst design are presented conceptually in light of developments in the nanoscale chemistry of a variety of catalyst materials.

  2. Development Of Chemical Reduction And Air Stripping Processes To Remove Mercury From Wastewater

    SciTech Connect

    Jackson, Dennis G.; Looney, Brian B.; Craig, Robert R.; Thompson, Martha C.; Kmetz, Thomas F.

    2013-07-10

    This study evaluates the removal of mercury from wastewater using chemical reduction and air stripping using a full-scale treatment system at the Savannah River Site. The existing water treatment system utilizes air stripping as the unit operation to remove organic compounds from groundwater that also contains mercury (C ~ 250 ng/L). The baseline air stripping process was ineffective in removing mercury and the water exceeded a proposed limit of 51 ng/L. To test an enhancement to the existing treatment modality a continuous dose of reducing agent was injected for 6-hours at the inlet of the air stripper. This action resulted in the chemical reduction of mercury to Hg(0), a species that is removable with the existing unit operation. During the injection period a 94% decrease in concentration was observed and the effluent satisfied proposed limits. The process was optimized over a 2-day period by sequentially evaluating dose rates ranging from 0.64X to 297X stoichiometry. A minimum dose of 16X stoichiometry was necessary to initiate the reduction reaction that facilitated the mercury removal. Competing electron acceptors likely inhibited the reaction at the lower 1 doses, which prevented removal by air stripping. These results indicate that chemical reduction coupled with air stripping can effectively treat large-volumes of water to emerging part per trillion regulatory standards for mercury.

  3. Air stripping. (Latest citations from the NTIS database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-04-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the application of air stripping techniques to water treatment, including groundwater decontamination and wastewater purification. The advantages and disadvantages of air stripping over other water treatment processes are discussed. Cleanup of the organic emissions generated by air stripping is also considered. The primary applications of air stripping are in groundwater and soil cleanup. (Contains a minimum of 71 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  4. Reactive Distillation and Air Stripping Processes for Water Recycling and Trace Contaminant Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boul, Peter J.; Lange, Kevin E.; Conger, Bruce; Anderson, Molly

    2009-01-01

    Reactive distillation designs are considered to reduce the presence of volatile organic compounds in the purified water. Reactive distillation integrates a reactor with a distillation column. A review of the literature in this field has revealed a variety of functional reactive columns in industry. Wastewater may be purified by a combination of a reactor and a distiller (e.g., the EWRS or VPCAR concepts) or, in principle, through a design which integrates the reactor with the distiller. A review of the literature in reactive distillation has identified some different designs in such combinations of reactor and distiller. An evaluation of reactive distillation and reactive air stripping is presented with regards to the reduction of volatile organic compounds in the contaminated water and air. Among the methods presented, an architecture is presented for the evaluation of the simultaneous oxidation of organics in air and water. These and other designs are presented in light of potential improvements in power consumptions and air and water purities for architectures which include catalytic activity integrated into the water processor. In particular, catalytic oxidation of organics may be useful as a tool to remove contaminants that more traditional distillation and/or air stripping columns may not remove. A review of the current leading edge at the commercial level and at the research frontier in catalytically active materials is presented. Themes and directions from the engineering developments in catalyst design are presented conceptually in light of developments in the nanoscale chemistry of a variety of catalyst materials.

  5. Characterization of dissolved organic matter in landfill leachate during the combined treatment process of air stripping, Fenton, SBR and coagulation

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, ZhiPing; Wu, WenHui; Shi, Ping; Guo, JinSong; Cheng, Jin

    2015-07-15

    Highlights: • DOM fractions spectra analysis during the whole treatment process. • Efficient method was achieved to remove organic matters in landfill leachate. • Molecular weight distribution and fractions were discussed. - Abstract: A combined treatment process of air stripping + Fenton + sequencing batch reactor (SBR)+ coagulation was performed to remove the pollutants in landfill leachate. Molecular weight (MW) distribution and fractions of dissolved organic matter (DOM) were discussed to study the characteristics. The experiment showed that the removal rate of chemical oxygen demand (COD), five day biological oxygen demand (BOD{sub 5}) and ammonia nitrogen (NH{sub 3}−N) by the combined process were 92.8%, 87.8% and 98.0%, respectively. Humic acid (HA) and fulvic acid (FA) were the main fractions in raw leachate with 81.8% of the total COD concentration, while hydrophilic organic matter (HyI) was the dominant fraction in the final effluent of the combined process with 63.5% of the total COD concentration. After the combined treatment process, the removal rate of DOM and fractions HA, FA, HyI were 91.9%, 97.1%, 95.8% and 71.7%, respectively. Organic matters of MW < 2 k and MW > 100 k were removed with 90.5% and 97.9% COD concentration after the treatment. The ultraviolet–visible spectra (UV–vis), Fourier transform infrared spectra (FTIR) and three-dimensional excitation-emission matrices spectra (EEMs) indicated that benzene materials and phenol compounds were preferentially removed in air stripping. High MW matters, aromatic rings, conjugated moieties and some functional groups were mainly removed by Fenton. While small MW fractions, carboxylic acids, alcohols and protein-like materials were preferentially biodegraded via SBR. Fulvic-like and humic-like materials were mainly destroyed via Fenton oxidation and coagulation.

  6. Characterization of dissolved organic matter in landfill leachate during the combined treatment process of air stripping, Fenton, SBR and coagulation.

    PubMed

    Liu, ZhiPing; Wu, WenHui; Shi, Ping; Guo, JinSong; Cheng, Jin

    2015-07-01

    A combined treatment process of air stripping+Fenton+sequencing batch reactor (SBR)+ coagulation was performed to remove the pollutants in landfill leachate. Molecular weight (MW) distribution and fractions of dissolved organic matter (DOM) were discussed to study the characteristics. The experiment showed that the removal rate of chemical oxygen demand (COD), five day biological oxygen demand (BOD5) and ammonia nitrogen (NH3N) by the combined process were 92.8%, 87.8% and 98.0%, respectively. Humic acid (HA) and fulvic acid (FA) were the main fractions in raw leachate with 81.8% of the total COD concentration, while hydrophilic organic matter (HyI) was the dominant fraction in the final effluent of the combined process with 63.5% of the total COD concentration. After the combined treatment process, the removal rate of DOM and fractions HA, FA, HyI were 91.9%, 97.1%, 95.8% and 71.7%, respectively. Organic matters of MW<2k and MW>100k were removed with 90.5% and 97.9% COD concentration after the treatment. The ultraviolet-visible spectra (UV-vis), Fourier transform infrared spectra (FTIR) and three-dimensional excitation-emission matrices spectra (EEMs) indicated that benzene materials and phenol compounds were preferentially removed in air stripping. High MW matters, aromatic rings, conjugated moieties and some functional groups were mainly removed by Fenton. While smallMW fractions, carboxylic acids, alcohols and protein-like materials were preferentially biodegraded via SBR. Fulvic-like and humic-like materials were mainly destroyed via Fenton oxidation and coagulation. PMID:25899801

  7. Full scale field test of the in situ air stripping process at the Savannah River integrated demonstration test site

    SciTech Connect

    Looney, B.B.; Hazen, T.C.; Kaback, D.S.; Eddy, C.A.

    1991-06-29

    Under sponsorship from the US Department of Energy, technical personnel from the Savannah River Laboratory (SRL) and other DOE laboratories, universities and private industry have completed a full scale demonstration of environmental remediation using horizontal wells. This demonstration was performed as Phase I of an Integrated Demonstration Project designed to evaluate innovative remediation technologies for environmental restoration of sites contaminated with organic contaminants. The demonstration utilized two directionally drilled horizontal wells to deliver gases and extract contaminants from the subsurface. The resulting in situ air stripping process was designed to remediate soils and sediments above and below the water table as well as groundwater contaminated with volatile organic contaminants. The 139 day long test successfully removed volatile chlorinated solvents from the subsurface using the two horizontal wells. One well, approximately 300 ft (90m) long and 165 ft (50m) deep drilled below a contaminant plume in the groundwater, was used to inject air and strip the contaminants from the groundwater. A second horizontal well, approximately 175 ft (53m) long and 75 ft (23m) deep in the vadose zone, was used to extract residual contamination in the vadose zone along with the material purged from the groundwater. Pretest and posttest characterization data and monitoring data during the demonstration were collected to aid in interpretation of the test and to provide the information needed for future environmental restoration that employ directionally drilled wells as extraction or delivery systems. Contaminant concentration data and microbiological monitoring data are summarized in this report; the characterization data and geophysical monitoring data are documented in a series of related project reports.

  8. ENGINEERING BULLETIN: AIR STRIPPING OF AQUEOUS SOLUTIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Air striding is a means to transfer contaminants from aqueous solutions to air. ontaminants are not destroyed by air stripping but are physically separated from the aqueous solutions. ontaminant vapors are transferred into the air stream and, if necessary, can be treated by incin...

  9. Air stripping. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    1997-03-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the application of air stripping techniques to water treatment, including groundwater decontamination and wastewater purification. The advantages and disadvantages of air stripping over other water treatment processes are discussed. Cleanup of the organic emissions generated by air stripping is also considered. The primary applications of air stripping are in groundwater and soil cleanup. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  10. Air stripping. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    1995-02-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the application of air stripping techniques to water treatment, including groundwater decontamination and wastewater purification. The advantages and disadvantages of air stripping over other water treatment processes are discussed. Cleanup of the organic emissions generated by air stripping is also considered. The primary applications of air stripping are in groundwater and soil cleanup. (Contains a minimum of 89 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  11. Distillation and Air Stripping Designs for the Lunar Surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boul, Peter J.; Lange, Kevin E.; Conger, Bruce; Anderson, Molly

    2009-01-01

    Air stripping and distillation are two different gravity-based methods, which may be applied to the purification of wastewater on the lunar base. These gravity-based solutions to water processing are robust physical separation techniques, which may be advantageous to many other techniques for their simplicity in design and operation. The two techniques can be used in conjunction with each other to obtain high purity water. The components and feed compositions for modeling waste water streams are presented in conjunction with the Aspen property system for traditional stage distillation models and air stripping models. While the individual components for each of the waste streams will vary naturally within certain bounds, an analog model for waste water processing is suggested based on typical concentration ranges for these components. Target purity levels for the for recycled water are determined for each individual component based on NASA s required maximum contaminant levels for potable water Distillation processes are modeled separately and in tandem with air stripping to demonstrate the potential effectiveness and utility of these methods in recycling wastewater on the Moon. Optimum parameters such as reflux ratio, feed stage location, and processing rates are determined with respect to the power consumption of the process. Multistage distillation is evaluated for components in wastewater to determine the minimum number of stages necessary for each of 65 components in humidity condensate and urine wastewater mixed streams. Components of the wastewater streams are ranked by Henry s Law Constant and the suitability of air stripping in the purification of wastewater in terms of component removal is evaluated. Scaling factors for distillation and air stripping columns are presented to account for the difference in the lunar gravitation environment. Commercially available distillation and air stripping units which are considered suitable for Exploration Life Support

  12. An Air-Stripping Packed Bed Combined with a Biofilm-Type Biological Process for Treating BTEX and Total Petroleum Hydrocarbon Contaminated Groudwater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, U.; Park, S.; Lim, J.; Lee, W.; Kwon, S.; Kim, Y.

    2009-12-01

    In this study, we examined the removal efficiency of a volatile compound (e.g. toluene) and a less volatile compound [e.g. total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH)] using an air stripping packed bed combined with a biofilm-type biological process. We hypothesized that this system might be effective and economical to simultaneously remove both volatile and less volatile compounds. The gas-tight reactor has 5.9-inch-diameter and 48.8-inch-height. A spray nozzle was installed at the top cover to distribute the liquid evenly through reactor. The reactor was filled with polypropylene packing media for the increase of volatilization surface area and the growth of TPH degrading facultative aerobic bacteria on the surface of the packing media. In air stripping experiments, 45.6%, 71.7%, 72.0%, and 75.4% of toluene was removed at air injection rates of 0 L/min, 2.5 L/min, 4 L/min, and 6 L/min, respectively. Through the result, we confirmed that toluene removal efficiency increased by injecting higher amounts of air. TPH removal by stripping was minimal. To remove a less volatile TPH by commercial TPH degrading culture (BIO-ZYME B-52), 15-times diluted culture was circulated through the reactor for 2-3 days to build up a biofilm on the surface of packing media with 1 mg-soluble nitrogen source /L-water per 1 ppm of TPH. Experiments evaluating the degree of TPH biodegradation in this system are carrying out.

  13. Membrane air-stripping: Effects of pretreatment

    SciTech Connect

    Castro, K. ); Zander, A.K. . Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering)

    1995-03-01

    As a result of the Safe Drinking Water Act and its 1986 amendments, the number of regulated volatile organic chemicals (VOCs) has increased substantially. The discovery of drinking water supply sources contaminated by VOCs is also increasing. These factors have led to the development of alternative treatment methods for control of VOCs. Microporous polypropylene hollow-fiber membranes offer significant advantages over packed-tower aeration for removing volatile organic chemicals. A laboratory study assessed the performance of membrane air-stripping in continuous operation, while exposed to various pretreatments. Results indicate that membrane air-stripping is compatible with low-pH or low-chlorine waters but not with waters of high pH or high-chlorine concentration or those that are ozonated.

  14. Simultaneous removal of ammonia, P and COD from anaerobically digested piggery wastewater using an integrated process of chemical precipitation and air stripping.

    PubMed

    Quan, Xuejun; Ye, Changying; Xiong, Yanqi; Xiang, Jinxin; Wang, Fuping

    2010-06-15

    The paper presented an efficient integrated physicochemical process, which consists of chemical precipitation and air stripping, for the simultaneous removal of NH(3)-N, total P and COD from anaerobically digested piggery wastewater. In the integrated process, Ca(OH) (2) was used as the precipitant for NH(4)(+), PO(4)(3-) and organic phosphorous compounds, and as the pH adjuster for the air stripping of residual ammonia. The possibility of the suggested process and the related mechanisms were first investigated through a series of equilibrium tests. Laboratory scale tests were carried out to validate the application possibility of the integrated process using a new-patented water sparged aerocyclone reactor (WSA). The WSA could be effectively used for the simultaneous removal of NH(3)-N, total P and COD. 3g/L of Ca(OH) (2) is a proper dosage for the simultaneous removal. The simultaneous removal of NH(3)-N, total P and COD in the WSA reactor could be easily optimized by selecting a proper air inlet velocity and a proper jet velocity of the liquid phase. In all the cases, the removal efficiencies of the NH(3)-N, total P and COD were over 91%, 99.2% and 52% for NH(3)-N, total P and COD, respectively. The formed precipitates in the process could be easily settled down from the suspension system. Therefore, the integrated process provided an efficient alternative for the simultaneous removal of NH(3)-N, total P and COD from the wastewater. PMID:20189301

  15. Process development of thin strip steel casting

    SciTech Connect

    Sussman, R.C.; Williams, R.S.

    1990-12-01

    An important new frontier is being opened in steel processing with the emergence of thin strip casting. Casting steel directly to thin strip has enormous benefits in energy savings by potentially eliminating the need for hot reduction in a hot strip mill. This has been the driving force for numerous current research efforts into the direct strip casting of steel. The US Department of Energy initiated a program to evaluate the development of thin strip casting in the steel industry. In earlier phases of this program, planar flow casting on an experimental caster was studied by a team of engineers from Westinghouse Electric corporation and Armco Inc. A subsequent research program was designed as a fundamental and developmental study of both planar and melt overflow casting processes. This study was arranged as several separate and distinct tasks which were often completed by different teams of researchers. An early task was to design and build a water model to study fluid flow through different designs of planar flow casting nozzles. Another important task was mathematically modeling of melt overflow casting process. A mathematical solidification model for the formation of the strip in the melt overflow process was written. A study of the material and conditioning of casting substrates was made on the small wheel caster using the melt overflow casting process. This report discusses work on the development of thin steel casting.

  16. Modeling Air Stripping of Ammonia in an Agitated Vessel

    SciTech Connect

    Kofi, Adu-Wusu; Martino, Christopher J.; Wilmarth, William R.; Bennett, William M.; Peters, Robert s.

    2005-11-29

    A model has been developed to predict the rate of removal of ammonia (NH{sub 3}) from solution in a sparged agitated vessel. The model is first-order with respect to liquid-phase concentration of NH{sub 3}. The rate constant for the first-order equation is a function of parameters related to the vessel/impeller characteristics, the air/liquid properties as well as the process conditions. However, the vessel/impeller characteristics, the air/liquid properties, and the process conditions reduce the rate constant dependence to only three parameters, namely, the air sparge rate, the liquid volume or batch size, and the Henry's law constant of NH{sub 3} for the liquid or solution. Thus, the rate of removal is not mass-transfer limited. High air sparge rates, high temperatures, and low liquid volumes or batch sizes increase the rate of removal of NH{sub 3} from solution. The Henry's law constant effect is somewhat reflected in the temperature since Henry's law constant increases with increasing temperature. Data obtained from actual air stripping operation agree fairly well with the model predictions.

  17. INSECTICIDE CONCENTRATIONS IN AIR AFTER APPLICATION OF PEST CONTROL STRIPS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Contamination of air in homes due to spraying of pesticides is of concern to the public. A pest control strip which kills creeping and crawling insects by contact is one method of reducing the amount of insecticide in the air. Several different insecticides are now available in t...

  18. Cross-flow versus counterflow air-stripping towers

    SciTech Connect

    Little, J.C.; Marinas, B.J.

    1997-07-01

    Mass-transfer and pressure-drop packing performance correlations are used together with tower design equations and detailed cost models to compare the effectiveness of cross-flow and counterflow air stripping towers over a wide range of contaminant volatility. Cross-flow towers are shown to offer a significant economic advantage over counterflow towers when stripping low volatility organic contaminants primarily due to savings in energy costs. These savings increase as contaminant volatility decreases and as water flow rate increases. A further advantage of the cross-flow configuration is that it extends the feasible operating range for air stripping as cross-flow towers can accommodate higher air-to-water flow ratios than conventional counterflow towers. Finally it is shown that the optimized least-cost design for both counterflow and cross-flow towers varies with Henry`s law constant, water flow rate, and percent removal, but that the optimum is virtually insensitive to other cost and operating variables. This greatly simplifies the tower design procedure.

  19. Simulations of in situ air stripping demonstration at Savannah River

    SciTech Connect

    Robinson, B.A.; Rosenberg, N.D.; Zyvoloski, G.A.; Viswanathan, H.

    1994-06-01

    This report assesses the performance of the in situ air stripping technology demonstrated at the Savannah River Integrated Demonstration (SRID) site. This technology is a combination of air injection below the water table and vacuum extraction in the vadose zone, using a pair of horizontal wells. Our approach is based on the construction of a site-specific numerical model using the FEHM flow and transport code. We use the model as a tool to investigate improvements to performance, to improve the prediction of the performance of this technology over longer periods of time and at different sites, and to compare performance with other remediation technologies.

  20. Ammonia removal from landfill leachate by air stripping and absorption.

    PubMed

    Ferraz, Fernanda M; Povinelli, Jurandyr; Vieira, Eny Maria

    2013-01-01

    An old landfill leachate was pre-treated in a pilot-scale aerated packed tower operated in batch mode for total ammoniacal nitrogen (TAN) removal. The stripped ammonia was recovered with a 0.4 mol L(-1) H2SO4 solution, deionized water and tap water. Ca(OH)2 (95% purity) or commercial hydrated lime was added to the raw leachate to adjust its pH to 11, causing removal of colour (82%) and heavy metals (70-90% for Zn, Fe and Mn). The 0.4 molL(-1) H2SO4 solution was able to neutralize 80% of the stripped ammonia removed from 12 L of leachate. The effectiveness of the neutralization of ammonia with deionized water was 75%. Treating 100 L of leachate, the air stripping tower removed 88% of TAN after 72 h of aeration, and 87% of the stripped ammonia was recovered in two 31 L pilot-scale absorption units filled with 20 L of tap water. PMID:24350487

  1. PROCESS DESIGN MANUAL FOR STRIPPING OF ORGANICS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Procedures and correlations for designing and costing stripping towers for the removal of organics from aqueous streams are presented. The emphasis is on practical methods suitable for engineering estimates. The designs cover steam strippers with and without condensers and reflux...

  2. Reductive stripping process for uranium recovery from organic extracts

    DOEpatents

    Hurst, Jr., Fred J.

    1985-01-01

    In the reductive stripping of uranium from an organic extractant in a uranium recovery process, the use of phosphoric acid having a molarity in the range of 8 to 10 increases the efficiency of the reductive stripping and allows the strip step to operate with lower aqueous to organic recycle ratios and shorter retention time in the mixer stages. Under these operating conditions, less solvent is required in the process, and smaller, less expensive process equipment can be utilized. The high strength H.sub.3 PO.sub.4 is available from the evaporator stage of the process.

  3. Reductive stripping process for uranium recovery from organic extracts

    DOEpatents

    Hurst, F.J. Jr.

    1983-06-16

    In the reductive stripping of uranium from an organic extractant in a uranium recovery process, the use of phosphoric acid having a molarity in the range of 8 to 10 increases the efficiency of the reductive stripping and allows the strip step to operate with lower aqueous to organic recycle ratios and shorter retention time in the mixer stages. Under these operating conditions, less solvent is required in the process, and smaller, less expensive process equipment can be utilized. The high strength H/sub 3/PO/sub 4/ is available from the evaporator stage of the process.

  4. Evaporation and air-stripping to assess and reduce ethanolamines toxicity in oily wastewater.

    PubMed

    Libralato, G; Ghirardini, A Volpi; Avezzù, F

    2008-05-30

    Toxicity from industrial oily wastewater remains a problem even after conventional activated sludge treatment process, because of the persistence of some toxicant compounds. This work verified the removal efficiency of organic and inorganic pollutants and the effects of evaporation and air-stripping techniques on oily wastewater toxicity reduction. In a lab-scale plant, a vacuum evaporation procedure at three different temperatures and an air-stripping stage were tested on oily wastewater. Toxicity reduction/removal was observed at each treatment step via Microtox bioassay. A case study monitoring real scale evaporation was also done in a full-size wastewater treatment plant (WWTP). To implement part of a general project of toxicity reduction evaluation, additional investigations took into account the monoethanolamine (MEA), diethanolamine (DEA) and triethanolamine (TEA) role in toxicity definition after the evaporation phase, both as pure substances and mixtures. Only MEA and TEA appeared to contribute towards effluent toxicity. PMID:17980956

  5. Simulation of a Full Forward Extrusion Process from Metal Strip

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merklein, Marion; Stellin, Tommaso; Engel, Ulf

    2011-05-01

    The interest on mass production of small complex metal components is currently fostered by fields like electronics and micromechanics. A possible approach is seen in a multi-step bulk forming process, limited among scaling problems by handling difficulties between the forming stages. A radical simplification of the positioning of the workpiece is seen in a process in which a metal strip acts both as raw material and support of the workpiece through the different forming stages. Within the study of this method, a full forward extrusion process from metal strip has been simulated with the goal of getting the basic knowledge about the strip behavior and process performance. The influence of the main geometric and tribological features has been evaluated designing a full factorial plan. The role of the radius of curvature of the tool edges and of the factor of friction have become the points of main interest in the optimization of the process.

  6. Application of pig slurry to soils. Effect of air stripping treatment on nitrogen and TOC leaching.

    PubMed

    Bolado-Rodríguez, Silvia; García-Sinovas, David; Alvarez-Benedí, Javier

    2010-12-01

    The effect of physical-chemical slurry treatment on the mobility and transformation of nitrogen and organic matter from pig slurry after soil application is evaluated. Two different pig slurries (one treated by stripping with air at pH=9 and another non-treated) were applied at the top of a soil column, containing approximately 100 kg of soil. Effluents were monitored measuring concentration values of ammonia, nitrites, nitrates and total organic carbon (TOC). The breakthrough curves were modelled using STANMOD and HYDRUS 1D codes. Low concentrations of ammonia were detected in the effluent recovered at the bottom of the soil profile for both types of slurry. Nitrate concentration in effluent was lower and more homogenous over time when applying stripping treated pig slurry. In N modelling, adsorption of ammonia by soil proved an important process, nitrite and nitrate adsorption being less significant, although not negligible. Transformation from ammonia to nitrite controls the kinetics of the nitrification process. Total organic carbon in the column effluent was higher in the experiment using treated pig slurry, which can be attributed to organic matter solubilisation in the stripping treatment process. PMID:20705384

  7. Development of a thin steel strip casting process. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, R.S.

    1994-04-01

    This is a comprehensive effort to develop direct strip casting to the point where a pilot scale program for casting carbon steel strip could be initiated. All important aspects of the technology were being investigated, however the program was terminated early due to a change in the business strategy of the primary contractor, Armco Inc. (focus to be directed at specialty steels, not low carbon steel). At termination, the project was on target on all milestones and under budget. Major part was casting of strip at the experiment casting facility. A new caster, capable of producing direct cast strip of up to 12 in. wide in heats of 1000 and 3000 lb, was used. A total of 81 1000-1200 lb heats were cast as well as one test heat of 3000 lb. Most produced strip of from 0.016 to 0.085 in. thick. Process reliability was excellent for short casting times; quality was generally poor from modern hot strip mill standards, but the practices necessary for good surface quality were identified.

  8. Graphic Arts: Book Two. Process Camera, Stripping, and Platemaking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farajollahi, Karim; And Others

    The second of a three-volume set of instructional materials for a course in graphic arts, this manual consists of 10 instructional units dealing with the process camera, stripping, and platemaking. Covered in the individual units are the process camera and darkroom photography, line photography, half-tone photography, other darkroom techniques,…

  9. Graphic Arts: Process Camera, Stripping, and Platemaking. Third Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crummett, Dan

    This document contains teacher and student materials for a course in graphic arts concentrating on camera work, stripping, and plate making in the printing process. Eight units of instruction cover the following topics: (1) the process camera and darkroom equipment; (2) line photography; (3) halftone photography; (4) other darkroom techniques; (5)…

  10. Confinement and Tritium Stripping Systems for APT Tritium Processing

    SciTech Connect

    Hsu, R.H.; Heung, L.K.

    1997-10-20

    This report identifies functions and requirements for the tritium process confinement and clean-up system (PCCS) and provides supporting technical information for the selection and design of tritium confinement, clean-up (stripping) and recovery technologies for new tritium processing facilities in the Accelerator for the Production of Tritium (APT). The results of a survey of tritium confinement and clean-up systems for large-scale tritium handling facilities and recommendations for the APT are also presented.

  11. Reductive stripping process for the recovery of uranium from wet-process phosphoric acid

    DOEpatents

    Hurst, Fred J.; Crouse, David J.

    1984-01-01

    A reductive stripping flow sheet for recovery of uranium from wet-process phosphoric acid is described. Uranium is stripped from a uranium-loaded organic phase by a redox reaction converting the uranyl to uranous ion. The uranous ion is reoxidized to the uranyl oxidation state to form an aqueous feed solution highly concentrated in uranium. Processing of this feed through a second solvent extraction cycle requires far less stripping reagent as compared to a flow sheet which does not include the reductive stripping reaction.

  12. In situ air stripping using horizontal wells. Innovative technology summary report

    SciTech Connect

    1995-04-01

    In-situ air stripping employs horizontal wells to inject or sparge air into the ground water and vacuum extract VOC`S from vadose zone soils. The horizontal wells provide better access to the subsurface contamination, and the air sparging eliminates the need for surface ground water treatment systems and treats the subsurface in-situ. A full-scale demonstration was conducted at the Savannah River Plant in an area polluted with trichloroethylene and tetrachloroethylene. Results are described.

  13. Innovative technology summary report: in situ air stripping using horizontal wells

    SciTech Connect

    1995-04-01

    In situ air stripping (ISAS) technology was developed to remediate soils and ground water contaminated with volatile organic compounds (VOCs) both above and below the water table. ISAS employs horizontal wells to inject (sparge) air into the ground water and vacuum extract VOCs from vadose zone soils. The innovation is creation of a system that combines two somewhat innovative technologies, air sparging and horizontal wells, with a baseline technology, soil vapor extraction, to produce a more efficient in situ remediation system.

  14. Hydrophilic strips for preventing air bubble formation in a microfluidic chamber.

    PubMed

    Choi, Munseok; Na, Yang; Kim, Sung-Jin

    2015-12-01

    In a microfluidic chamber, unwanted formation of air bubbles is a critical problem. Here, we present a hydrophilic strip array that prevents air bubble formation in a microfluidic chamber. The array is located on the top surface of the chamber, which has a large variation in width, and consists of a repeated arrangement of super- and moderately hydrophilic strips. This repeated arrangement allows a flat meniscus (i.e. liquid front) to form when various solutions consisting of a single stream or two parallel streams with different hydrophilicities move through the chamber. The flat meniscus produced by the array completely prevents the formation of bubbles. Without the array in the chamber, the meniscus shape is highly convex, and bubbles frequently form in the chamber. This hydrophilic strip array will facilitate the use of a microfluidic chamber with a large variation in width for various microfluidic applications. PMID:26382942

  15. Process air quality data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Butler, C. M.; Hogge, J. E.

    1978-01-01

    Air quality sampling was conducted. Data for air quality parameters, recorded on written forms, punched cards or magnetic tape, are available for 1972 through 1975. Computer software was developed to (1) calculate several daily statistical measures of location, (2) plot time histories of data or the calculated daily statistics, (3) calculate simple correlation coefficients, and (4) plot scatter diagrams. Computer software was developed for processing air quality data to include time series analysis and goodness of fit tests. Computer software was developed to (1) calculate a larger number of daily statistical measures of location, and a number of daily monthly and yearly measures of location, dispersion, skewness and kurtosis, (2) decompose the extended time series model and (3) perform some goodness of fit tests. The computer program is described, documented and illustrated by examples. Recommendations are made for continuation of the development of research on processing air quality data.

  16. APPLICATIONS ANALYSIS REPORT: TOXIC TREATMENTS, IN-SITU STEAM/HOT-AIR STRIPPING TECHNOLOGY

    EPA Science Inventory

    This document is an evaluation of the performance of the Toxic Treatments (USA), Inc., (TTUSA) in situ steam/hot-air stripping technology and its applicability as an on-site treatment technique for hazardous waste site soil cleanup of volatile and semivolatile contaminants. Both ...

  17. DEMONSTRATION BULLETIN: IN-SITU STEAM/HOT AIR SOIL STRIPPING TOXIC TREATMENT (USA) INC.

    EPA Science Inventory

    This technology uses steam and hot air to strip volatile organics from contaminated soil. The treatment equipment is mobile and treats the soil in-situ without need for soil excavation or transportation. The organic contaminants volatilized from the soil are condensed and col...

  18. INTEGRATION OF PHOTOCATALYTIC OXIDATION WITH AIR STRIPPING OF CONTAMINATED AQUIFERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Bench scale laboratory studies and pilot scale studies in a simulated field-test situation were performed to evaluate the integration of gas-solid ultaviolet (UV) photocatalytic oxidation (PCO) downstream if an air stripper unit as a technology for cost-effectively treating water...

  19. Processing of data from innovative parabolic strip telescope.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kosejk, Vladislav; Novy, J.; Chadzitaskos, Goce

    2015-12-01

    This paper presents an innovative telescope design based on the usage of a parabolic strip fulfilling the function of an objective. Isaac Newton was the first to solve the problem of chromatic aberration, which is caused by a difference in the refractive index of lenses. This problem was solved by a new kind of telescope with a mirror used as an objective. There are many different kinds of telescopes. The most basic one is the lens telescope. This type of a telescope uses a set of lenses. Another type is the mirror telescope, which employs the concave mirror, spherical parabolic mirror or hyperbolically shaped mirror as its objective. The lens speed depends directly on the surface of a mirror. Both types can be combined to form a telescope composed of at least two mirrors and a set of lenses. The light is reflected from the primary mirror to the secondary one and then to the lens system. This type is smaller-sized, with a respectively reduced lens speed. The telescope design presented in this paper uses a parabolic strip fulfilling the function of an objective. Observed objects are projected as lines in a picture plane. Each of the lines of a size equal to the size of the strip corresponds to the sum of intensities of the light coming perpendicular to the objective from an observed object. A series of pictures taken with a different rotation and processed by a special reconstruction algorithm is needed to get 2D pictures. The telescope can also be used for fast detection of objects. In this mode, the rotation and multiple pictures are not needed, just one picture in the focus of a mirror is required to be taken.

  20. Ground water and soil remediation: In situ air stripping using horizontal wells

    SciTech Connect

    Kaback, D.S.; Looney, B.B.; Eddy, C.A.; Hazen, T.C.

    1990-01-01

    An innovative environmental restoration technology, in situ air stripping, has been demonstrated at the US Department of Energy (DOE) Savannah River Site (SRS) in South Carolina. This process, using horizontal wells, is designed to concurrently remediate unsaturated-zone soils and ground water containing Volatile Organic Compounds (VOC). In situ technologies have the potential to substantially reduce costs and time required for remediation as well as improve effectiveness of remediation. Horizontal wells were selected to deliver and extract fluids from the subsurface because their geometry can maximize the efficiency of a remediation system and they have great potential for remediating contaminant sources under existing facilities. The first demonstration of this new technology was conducted for a period of twenty weeks. A vacuum was first drawn on the vadose zone well until a steady-state removal of VOCs was obtained. Air was then injected at three different rates and at two different temperatures. An extensive characterization program was conducted at the site and an extensive monitoring network was installed prior to initiation of the test. Significant quantities of VOCs have been removed from the subsurface (equivalent to an eleven-well, 500-gpm, pump-and-treat system at the same site). Concentrations of VOCs in the ground water have been significantly reduced in a number of the monitoring wells.

  1. Ground water and soil remediation: In situ air stripping using horizontal wells

    SciTech Connect

    Kaback, D.S.; Looney, B.B.; Eddy, C.A.; Hazen, T.C.

    1990-12-31

    An innovative environmental restoration technology, in situ air stripping, has been demonstrated at the US Department of Energy (DOE) Savannah River Site (SRS) in South Carolina. This process, using horizontal wells, is designed to concurrently remediate unsaturated-zone soils and ground water containing Volatile Organic Compounds (VOC). In situ technologies have the potential to substantially reduce costs and time required for remediation as well as improve effectiveness of remediation. Horizontal wells were selected to deliver and extract fluids from the subsurface because their geometry can maximize the efficiency of a remediation system and they have great potential for remediating contaminant sources under existing facilities. The first demonstration of this new technology was conducted for a period of twenty weeks. A vacuum was first drawn on the vadose zone well until a steady-state removal of VOCs was obtained. Air was then injected at three different rates and at two different temperatures. An extensive characterization program was conducted at the site and an extensive monitoring network was installed prior to initiation of the test. Significant quantities of VOCs have been removed from the subsurface (equivalent to an eleven-well, 500-gpm, pump-and-treat system at the same site). Concentrations of VOCs in the ground water have been significantly reduced in a number of the monitoring wells.

  2. Problems Found Using a Radon Stripping Algorithm for Retrospective Assessment of Air Filter Samples

    SciTech Connect

    Robert Hayes

    2008-04-01

    An evaluation of a large number of air sample filters was undertaken using a commercial alpha and beta spectroscopy system employing a passive implanted planar silicon (PIPS) detector. Samples were only measured after air flow through the filters had ceased. Use of a commercial radon stripping algorithm was implemented to discriminate anthropogenic alpha activity on the filters from the radon progeny. When uncontaminated air filters were evaluated, the results showed that there was a time-dependent bias in both average estimates and measurement dispersion of anthropogenic activity estimates with the relative bias being small compared to the dispersion, indicating that the system would not give false positive indications for an appropriately set decision level. By also measuring environmental air sample filters simultaneously with electroplated alpha filters, use of the radon stripping algorithm demonstrated a number of substantial unexpected deviations from calibrated values indicating that the system would give false negative indications. Use of the current algorithm is, therefore, not recommended for general assay applications. Use of the PIPS detector should only be utilized for gross counting without appropriate modifications to the curve-fitting algorithm. As a screening method, the radon stripping algorithm might be expected to see elevated alpha activities on air sample filters (not due to radon progeny) around the 200 disintegrations per minute level.

  3. Use of a Radon Stripping Algorithm for Retrospective Assessment of Air Filter Samples

    SciTech Connect

    Robert Hayes

    2009-01-23

    An evaluation of a large number of air sample filters was undertaken using a commercial alpha and beta spectroscopy system employing a passive implanted planar silicon (PIPS) detector. Samples were only measured after air flow through the filters had ceased. Use of a commercial radon stripping algorithm was implemented to discriminate anthropogenic alpha and beta activity on the filters from the radon progeny. When uncontaminated air filters were evaluated, the results showed that there was a time-dependent bias in both average estimates and measurement dispersion with the relative bias being small compared to the dispersion. By also measuring environmental air sample filters simultaneously with electroplated alpha and beta sources, use of the radon stripping algorithm demonstrated a number of substantial unexpected deviations. Use of the current algorithm is therefore not recommended for assay applications and so use of the PIPS detector should only be utilized for gross counting without appropriate modifications to the curve fitting algorithm. As a screening method, the radon stripping algorithm might be expected to see elevated alpha and beta activities on air sample filters (not due to radon progeny) around the 200 dpm level.

  4. Lab experiments on the innovative rapid thick strip casting process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagy, Richard; Senk, Dieter

    2012-05-01

    Rapid thick strip casting (RTSC) by Anton Hulek, Inventmetall®, is an innovative concept for the production of hot strips with a final as-cast thickness of about 25 mm before rolling. The innovation of the mechanism consists in a vertical mould performing a caterpillar motion. This moving mould has an unconventional parallelogram-shaped cross-section. The conventional rectangular shape is formed in the shaping machine, which is placed straight below the mould. Further elements of the technology are state-of-the-art. For the investigation of this new casting system theoretical calculations were complemented with practical experiments. The investigation focused mainly on two key aspects: the characteristics of the mould and the shaping process. For the practical analysis a static mould with three pairs of elements in laboratory scale was developed and commissioned by the Dept. of Ferrous Metallurgy @ RWTH Aachen University. The shaping experiments were carried out in model scale with two different materials and in variable boundary conditions. The results of these experiments delivered important mechanical as well as thermal informations about the casting system.

  5. Process for recovering uranium using an alkyl pyrophosphoric acid and alkaline stripping solution

    SciTech Connect

    Worthington, R.E.; Magdics, A.

    1987-03-24

    A process is described for stripping uranium for a pregnant organic extractant comprising an alkyl pyrophosphoric acid dissolved in a substantially water-immiscible organic diluent. The organic extractant contains tetravalent uranium and an alcohol or phenol modifier in a quantity sufficient to retain substantially all the unhydrolyzed alkyl pyrophosphoric acid in solution in the diluent during stripping. The process comprises adding an oxidizing agent to the organic extractant and thereby oxidizing the tetravalent uranium to the +6 state in the organic extractant, and contacting the organic extractant containing the uranium in the +6 state with a stripping solution comprising an aqueous solution of an alkali metal or ammonium carbonate or hydroxide thereby stripping uranium from the organic extractant into the stripping solution. The resulting barren organic extractant containing substantially all of the unhydrolyzed alkyl pyrophosphoric acid dissolved in the diluent is separated from the stripping solution containing the stripped uranium, the barren extractant being suitable for recycle.

  6. Process for recovering uranium using an alkyl pyrophosphoric acid and alkaline stripping solution

    SciTech Connect

    Worthington, R.E.; Magdics, A.

    1987-03-24

    A process is described for stripping uranium from a pregnant organic extractant comprising an alkyl pyrophosphoric acid dissolved in a substantially water-immiscible organic diluent. The organic extractant contains tetravalent uranium and an alcohol or phenol modifier in a quantity sufficient to retain substantially all the unhydrolyzed alkyl pyrophosphoric acid in solution in the diluent during stripping. The process comprises adding an oxidizing agent to the organic extractant to and thereby oxidizing the tetravalent uranium to the +6 state in the organic extractant, and contacting the organic extractant containing the uranium in the +6 state with a stripping solution comprising an aqueous solution of an alkali metal or ammonium carbonate, nonsaturated in uranium. The uranium is stripped from, the organic extractant into the stripping solution, and the resulting barren organic extractant containing substantially all of the unhydrolyzed alkyl pyrophosphoric acid dissolved in the diluent is separated from the stripping solution containing the stripped uranium, the barren extractant being suitable for recycle.

  7. Transient thermal model of the continuous single-wheel thin-strip casting process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Guowei; Thomas, Brian G.

    1996-06-01

    A transient heat-transfer model (STRIP1D) has been developed to simulate the single-roll continuous strip-casting process. The model predicts temperature in the solidifying strip coupled with heat transfer in the rotating wheel, using an explicit finite difference procedure. The model has been calibrated using strip thickness data from a test caster at ARMCO Inc. (Middletown, OH) and verified with a range of other available measurements. The strip/wheel interface contact resistance and heat transfer were investigated in particular, and an empirical formula to calculate this heat-transfer coefficient as a function of contact time was obtained. Wheel temperature and final strip thickness are investigated as a function of casting speed, liquid steel pool depth, superheat, coatings on the wheel hot surface, strip detachment point, wheel wall thickness, and wheel material.

  8. COMPUTER PROCESSING OF MULTISPECTRAL SCANNER DATA OVER COAL STRIP MINES

    EPA Science Inventory

    There is little doubt that remote sensing techniques can be effectively applied to the task of monitoring coal strip mine progress and reclamation work. Aircraft multispectral scanner data acquired over six coal strip mines in the states of Wyoming, Montana, Colorado, and Arizona...

  9. Cryogenic fractionator gas as stripping gas of fines slurry in a coking and gasification process

    DOEpatents

    DeGeorge, Charles W.

    1981-01-01

    In an integrated coking and gasification process wherein a stream of fluidized solids is passed from a fluidized bed coking zone to a second fluidized bed and wherein entrained solid fines are recovered by a scrubbing process and wherein the resulting solids-liquid slurry is stripped with a stripping gas to remove acidic gases, at least a portion of the stripping gas comprises a gas comprising hydrogen, nitrogen and methane separated from the coker products.

  10. Integration of stripping of fines slurry in a coking and gasification process

    DOEpatents

    DeGeorge, Charles W.

    1980-01-01

    In an integrated fluid coking and gasification process wherein a stream of fluidized solids is passed from a fluidized bed coking zone to a second fluidized bed and wherein entrained solid fines are recovered by a wet scrubbing process and wherein the resulting solids-liquid slurry is stripped to remove acidic gases, the stripped vapors of the stripping zone are sent to the gas cleanup stage of the gasification product gas. The improved stripping integration is particularly useful in the combination coal liquefaction process, fluid coking of bottoms of the coal liquefaction zone and gasification of the product coke.

  11. Asymptotic analysis of surface waves in continuous strip casting processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kluwick, Alfred; Scheichl, Stefan

    2000-09-01

    This paper presents a two-dimensional analysis of surface waves possibly emerging in a specific open channel flow with continuous solidification, i.e. the fluid consisting of molten material is cooled from below and solidifies. In modern metallurgical engineering such processes are of importance for the strip casting of steel and other metals. The study is based on the assumption that the wavelengths are large compared to the characteristic depth of the melt but small compared to the solidification length. Within the framework of a weakly nonlinear theory the use of the Euler equations supplemented with the appropriate boundary conditions at the solidification front and the free surface yields two Korteweg-de Vries equations with varying coefficients, which govern the propagation of the waves. However, the adopted form of the asymptotic expansions ceases to be valid as the point of complete solidification is approached, where the displacements at the free boundary and the depth of the melt are of the same order. Thus, a separate investigation for this region is carried out in order to describe the further evolution of the surface waves and its influence on the final shape of the fully solidified metal sheet.

  12. Feasibility of cold rolling titanium strip cast by the plasma melt overflow process

    SciTech Connect

    Gaspar, T.A.; Sukonnik, I.M.; Bird, R.K.; Brewer, W.D.

    1995-12-31

    A new fabrication method tailored specifically for titanium alloys and intermetallics combined direct strip casting and cold rolling to produce foil products by completely eliminating hot working steps. Titanium strips 0.4-mm- to 0.7-mm-thick and 100-mm-wide were cast by the plasma melt overflow process. The cast strips were cold rolled to 0.15-mm-thick, fully dense foils. The effect of thermal and mechanical treatments on the microstructure of the cast strip was investigated. The cold rolled foils were characterized by measurement of average surface roughness, chemical composition, gas content and tensile properties.

  13. Nitrogen potential recovery and concentration of ammonia from swine manure using electrodialysis coupled with air stripping.

    PubMed

    Ippersiel, D; Mondor, M; Lamarche, F; Tremblay, F; Dubreuil, J; Masse, L

    2012-03-01

    The practice of intensive animal production in certain areas has resulted in excessive manure production for the available regional land base. Consequently, there is a need to develop treatment technologies to recover the valuable nutrients that manure contains so that the resulting product can be transported and used as fertilizer on agricultural land. The project presented here used electrodialysis in a dilution/concentration configuration to transfer the manure ammonia in the diluate solution by electromigration to an adjacent solution separated by an ion-exchange membrane under the driving force of an electrical potential. Then, air stripping from the electrodialysis-obtained concentrate solution without pH modification was used to isolate the ammonia in an acidic solution. An optimal process operating voltage of 17.5 V was first determined on the basis of current efficiency and total energy consumption. During the process, the swine manure pH varied from 8.5 to 8.2, values favourable for NH(4)(+) electromigration. Total ammonia nitrogen reached 21,352 mg/L in the concentrate solution, representing approximately seven times the concentration in the swine manure. Further increases in concentration were limited by water transfer from the diluate solution due to electroosmosis and osmosis. Applying vacuum to the concentrate reservoir was found to be more efficient than direct concentrate solution aeration for NH(3) recuperation in the acid trap, given that the ammonia recuperated under vacuum represented 14.5% of the theoretical value of the NH(3) present in the concentrate solution as compared to 6.2% for aeration. However, an excessively low concentrate solution pH (8.6-8.3) limited NH(3)volatilization toward the acid trap. These results suggest that the concentrate solution pH needs to be raised to promote the volatile NH(3) form of total ammonia nitrogen. PMID:21658837

  14. Bicarbonate of soda paint stripping process validation and material characterization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haas, Michael N.

    1995-01-01

    The Aircraft Production Division at San Antonio Air Logistics Center has conducted extensive investigation into the replacement of hazardous chemicals in aircraft component cleaning, degreasing, and depainting. One of the most viable solutions is process substitution utilizing abrasive techniques. SA-ALC has incorporated the use of Bicarbonate of Soda Blasting as one such substitution. Previous utilization of methylene chloride based chemical strippers and carbon removal agents has been replaced by a walk-in blast booth in which we remove carbon from engine nozzles and various gas turbine engine parts, depaint cowlings, and perform various other functions on a variety of parts. Prior to implementation of this new process, validation of the process was performed, and materials and waste stream characterization studies were conducted. These characterization studies examined the effects of the blasting process on the integrity of the thin-skinned aluminum substrates, the effects of the process on both air emissions and effluent disposal, and the effects on the personnel exposed to the process.

  15. Numerical simulation of solid liquid interface behavior during continuous strip casting process.

    PubMed

    Lee, Changbum; Yoon, Wooyoung; Shin, Seungwon; Lee, Jaewoo; Jang, Bo-Yun; Kim, Joonsoo; Ahn, Youngsoo; Lee, Jinseok

    2013-05-01

    A new metal-strip-casting process called continuous strip-casting (CSC) has been developed for making thin metal strips. A numerical simulation model to help understand solid-liquid interface behavior during CSC has been developed and used to identify the solidification morphologies of the strips and to determine the optimum processing conditions. In this study, we used a modified level contour reconstruction method (LCRM) and the sharp interface method to modify interface tracking, and performed a simulation analysis of the CSC process. The effects of process parameters such as heat-transfer coefficient and extrusion velocity on the behavior of the solid-liquid interface were estimated and used to improve the apparatus. A Sn (Tin) plate of dimensions 200 x 50 x 1 mm3 was successfully produced by CSC for a heat-transfer coefficient of 104 W/m2 K and an extrusion velocity of 0.2 m/s. PMID:23858856

  16. Stomatal Opening in Isolated Epidermal Strips of Vicia faba. I. Response to Light and to CO2-free Air 1

    PubMed Central

    Fischer, R. A.

    1968-01-01

    This paper reports a consistent and large opening response to light + CO2-free air in living stomata of isolated epidermal strips of Vicia faba. The response was compared to that of non-isolated stomata in leaf discs floating on water; stomatal apertures, guard cell solute potentials and starch contents were similar in the 2 situations. To obtain such stomatal behavior, it was necessary to float epidermal strips on dilute KCl solutions. This suggests that solute uptake is necessary for stomatal opening. The demonstration of normal stomatal behavior in isolated epidermal strips provides a very useful system in which to investigate the mechanism of stomatal opening. It was possible to show independent responses in stomatal aperture to light and to CO2-free air. PMID:16656995

  17. Using in-situ hot air/steam stripping (HASS) of hydrocarbons in soils

    SciTech Connect

    La Mori, P.N.

    1994-12-31

    The remediation of soils containing volatile (VOC) and semi-volatile (SVC) hydrocarbons is most desirably accomplished in-situ, i.e., without removal of the contaminated soils from the ground. This approach mitigates the environmental problem, i.e., does not transport it to another location, and when properly applied, does not impact on the local environment during remediation NOVATERRA has demonstrated commercially an in-situ, hot air/steam stripping (HASS) technology to remove VOC and SVC from soils both in the vadose and saturated zones. The technology consists of a drill tower which injects and mixes steam and hot air continuously into the soil below ground and a method to immediately capture all vapors escaping to the surface and remove the vaporized VOC/SVC using condensation and carbon beds. The air can be recompressed and recycled. The condensed liquid containing hydrocarbons is purified by distillation. The recovered hydrocarbons can be destroyed or recycled. The technology has successfully removed various chlorinated aliphatics and aromatics, glycol ethers, phthalates, polyaromatic compounds, ketones, petroleum hydrocarbons and many other compound types from sand to clay soils to risk based standards; e.g. 1 increased cancer risk in 1,000,000 using currently acceptable risk assessment standards.

  18. Regeneration of an aqueous solution from an acid gas absorption process by matrix stripping

    DOEpatents

    Rochelle, Gary T.; Oyenekan, Babatunde A.

    2011-03-08

    Carbon dioxide and other acid gases are removed from gaseous streams using aqueous absorption and stripping processes. By replacing the conventional stripper used to regenerate the aqueous solvent and capture the acid gas with a matrix stripping configuration, less energy is consumed. The matrix stripping configuration uses two or more reboiled strippers at different pressures. The rich feed from the absorption equipment is split among the strippers, and partially regenerated solvent from the highest pressure stripper flows to the middle of sequentially lower pressure strippers in a "matrix" pattern. By selecting certain parameters of the matrix stripping configuration such that the total energy required by the strippers to achieve a desired percentage of acid gas removal from the gaseous stream is minimized, further energy savings can be realized.

  19. Effect of process parameters on solidification of Al-33Cu strip in high speed twin roll strip casting- A numerical study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahoo, Seshadev

    2015-02-01

    In twin roll strip casting process, the solidification behavior in the molten pool affects the process efficiency and the product quality which is influenced by the process parameters. Numerical simulations have been carried out to analyze the fluid flow, heat transfer and solidification in high speed twin roll strip caster at different pouring temperatures and roll gaps and the knowledge of heat flux distribution at the liquid metal-roll interface. In the present study a numerical simulation has been carried out for the solidification of Al-33wt% Cu in the twin-roll strip casting system at different pouring temperatures and roll gaps. FLUENT 6.3.16 was used to model fluid flow, heat transfer and solidification behavior during the casting of Al-33wt. % Cu alloy. From the simulation results, the initial pouring temperature of the liquid metal and the roll gap has been optimized for producing quality strips.

  20. Technical development of double-clad process for thin strip casting of carbon steel

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, H.L.; Forkel, C.E.; Knudson, D.L.

    1984-08-01

    This report documents the technical development for a patent disclosure of a double-clad process for the continuous casting of thin-strip carbon steel. The fundamental idea of the disclosure is to form a product strip by depositing molten steel between two, cooled, clad strips of the same material. The claimed benefits include: (a) the conservation of energy in steel making through the elimination of soaking pits and reheat cycles, and (b) an improved surface on both sides of the as-cast product such that it will be suitable for direct feed to a cold-reduction mill. However, the process as conceived is not necessarily limited to the casting of carbon steel, but may be also applied to other metals and alloys. The work is described under three headings as follows. Preliminary Considerations and Scoping Analysis presents the basic idea of the double-clad, thin-strip casting process; the energy conservation potential; scoping heat transfer calculations for the casting process; and independent review of this work. Thermal Analysis for Roller Configuration of Double-Clad Process, presents the development, results, and independent review of a finite-element thermal analysis for the casting process as originally conceived (using only chilled rollers in direct contact with the clad material of the product strip). Further Considerations for Belt Configuration of Double-Clad Process deals with a modified equipment design which interposes two product support belts, one on each side of the product, between the clad strip and the rollers. In addition to the process description, this section presents the preliminary mechanical calculations for the endless metal belts and the work scope and results for the computer model revision and thermal analysis for the modified concept.

  1. Ammonia removal from raw manure digestate by means of a turbulent mixing stripping process.

    PubMed

    Limoli, Alice; Langone, Michela; Andreottola, Gianni

    2016-07-01

    In this study, ammonia stripping by means of a turbulent mixing process followed by pH neutralization was investigated as a simple and cost-effective ammonia removal technique to treat raw manure digestate. Batch tests conducted using CaO, NaOH and H2O2 to control pH and temperature and combinations thereof showed that sodium hydroxide was the most suitable chemical, as it is easy to handle, minimizes treatment time and costs, does not increase the solid content of the sludge and allows to easily control the stripping process. NaOH dosage mainly depended on buffering capacity rather than on total solid content. The analysis of the ammonia stripping process indicated that ammonia removal was strongly dependent on pH, and ammonia removal rate followed the pseudo-first-order kinetics. Total solid content slightly influenced TAN removal efficiency. When NaOH was applied to treat raw digestate at pH 10 and mean temperature of 23 ± 2 °C, TAN removal efficiency reached 88.7% after 24 h of turbulent mixing stripping, without reaching inhibitory salinity levels. Moreover, pH neutralization with sulfuric acid following the stripping process improved raw digestate dewaterability. PMID:27031295

  2. Physical processes involved in strip electrode welding using the method of slatted splicing

    SciTech Connect

    Bushma, V. O.

    2010-12-15

    Physical processes that take place in a strip electrode during welding using the slatted splicing technique are considered. Flowing of the welding current in the electrode is shown to be the key process which determines electrode heating and melting. Technological receipts are proposed that allow obtaining high-quality welds by the method of slatted splicing.

  3. Thermal modeling of roll and strip interfaces in rolling processes. Part 2: Simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Tseng, A.A.

    1999-02-12

    Part 1 of this paper reviewed the modeling approaches and correlations used to study the interface heat transfer phenomena of the roll-strip contact region in rolling processes. The thermal contact conductance approach was recommended for modeling the interface phenomena. To illustrate, the recommended approach and selected correlations are adopted in the present study for modeling of the roll-strip interface region. The specific values of the parameters used to correlate the corresponding thermal contact conductance for the typical cold and hot rolling of steels are first estimated. The influence of thermal contact resistance on the temperature distributions of the roll and strip is then studied. Comparing the present simulation results with previously published experimental and analytical results shows that the thermal contact conductance approach and numerical models used can reliably simulate the heat transfer behavior of the rolling process.

  4. Introduction of an innovative water based photoresist stripping process using intelligent fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rudolph, Matthias; Thrun, Xaver; Schumann, Dirk; Hoehne, Anita; Esche, Silvio; Hohle, Christoph

    2014-03-01

    The usage of phasefluid based stripping agents to remove photoresists from silicon substrates was studied. Due to their highly dynamic inner structure phasefluids offer a new working principle, they are penetrating layers through smallest openings and lift off the material from the surface. These non-aggressive stripping fluids were investigated regarding their cleaning efficiency as well as contamination behavior to enable usage in semiconductor and MEMS manufacturing. A general proof of concept for the usage of phasefluids in resist stripping processes is shown on silicon coupons and BKM's are given for different resist types. In addition a baseline process on 12inch wafers has been developed and characterized in terms of metallic and ionic impurities and defect level.

  5. Field demonstration of in-situ air stripping using horizontal wells

    SciTech Connect

    Looney, B.B.; Kaback, D.S.

    1991-12-31

    Under sponsorship from the US Department of Energy, technical personnel from the Savannah River Laboratory and other DOE laboratories, universities and private industry have completed a full scale demonstration of environmental remediation using horizontal wells. The 139 day long test was designed to remove volatile chlorinated solvents from the subsurface using two horizontal wells. One well, approximately 90m long and 45m deep drilled below a contaminant plume in the groundwater, was used to inject air and strip the contaminants from the groundwater. A second horizontal well, approximately 50m long and 20m deep in the vadose zone, was used to extract residual contamination in the vadose zone along with the material purged from the groundwater. The test successfully removed approximately 7250 kg of contaminants. A large amount of characterization and monitoring data was collected to aid in interpretation of the test and to provide the information needed for future environmental restorations that employ directionally drilled wells as extraction or delivery systems.

  6. Field demonstration of in-situ air stripping using horizontal wells

    SciTech Connect

    Looney, B.B.; Kaback, D.S.

    1991-01-01

    Under sponsorship from the US Department of Energy, technical personnel from the Savannah River Laboratory and other DOE laboratories, universities and private industry have completed a full scale demonstration of environmental remediation using horizontal wells. The 139 day long test was designed to remove volatile chlorinated solvents from the subsurface using two horizontal wells. One well, approximately 90m long and 45m deep drilled below a contaminant plume in the groundwater, was used to inject air and strip the contaminants from the groundwater. A second horizontal well, approximately 50m long and 20m deep in the vadose zone, was used to extract residual contamination in the vadose zone along with the material purged from the groundwater. The test successfully removed approximately 7250 kg of contaminants. A large amount of characterization and monitoring data was collected to aid in interpretation of the test and to provide the information needed for future environmental restorations that employ directionally drilled wells as extraction or delivery systems.

  7. Microstructure evolution of eutectic Al-Cu strips by high-speed twin-roll strip casting process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahoo, Seshadev; Ghosh, Sudipto

    2015-10-01

    In the present investigation, microstructural evolutions of functionally graded eutectic Al-Cu strips prepared by high-speed twin-roll strip caster at different casting speeds and liquid melt superheats were studied. The as-cast sample was subjected to scanning electron microscope to study the evolution of microstructure of the strip at different casting speeds and liquid melt superheats. At different casting speeds, non-equilibrium eutectic structure observed on the Al-Cu eutectic strip consists of lamellar as well as wavy structure with a distinct boundary. The lamellar microstructure consists of alternating layers of well-bonded α-Al phase and θ-Al2Cu phase. The globular flowery structure within the eutectic matrix was observed on the strip at different liquid melt superheats. The microhardness of the as-cast strip was studied by Vickers hardness tester, and it was found that hardness value increases with increasing casting speed and decreases with increasing liquid melt superheat.

  8. Graphic Arts: Process Camera, Stripping, and Platemaking. Fourth Edition. Teacher Edition [and] Student Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Multistate Academic and Vocational Curriculum Consortium, Stillwater, OK.

    This publication contains both a teacher edition and a student edition of materials for a course in graphic arts that covers the process camera, stripping, and platemaking. The course introduces basic concepts and skills necessary for entry-level employment in a graphic communication occupation. The contents of the materials are tied to measurable…

  9. Effect of hydrodynamic pressure processing and aging on sarcoplasmic proteins of beef strip loins

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study evaluated the effects of hydrodynamic pressure processing (HDP) and aging on the sarcoplasmic proteins of beef strip loins. Loins (n=12) were halved at 48 h postmortem and assigned to HDP or control treatments. Following treatment, each half was divided into three portions for aging (0, 5...

  10. Modern processes of production of thin sheets and strips by continuous casting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smirnov, A. N.

    2012-06-01

    The history of the development of producing thin sheets and strips by continuous casting methods is considered. The mechanism of this sheet formation during casting of steel in a two-roll continuous caster is described. The advantages of this process over the corresponding traditional technologies are discussed.

  11. NaI(Tl) scintillator detectors stripping procedure for air kerma measurements of diagnostic X-ray beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliveira, L. S. R.; Conti, C. C.; Amorim, A. S.; Balthar, M. C. V.

    2013-03-01

    Air kerma is an essential quantity for the calibration of national standards used in diagnostic radiology and the measurement of operating parameters used in radiation protection. Its measurement within the appropriate limits of accuracy, uncertainty and reproducibility is important for the characterization and control of the radiation field for the dosimetry of the patients submitted to diagnostic radiology and, also, for the assessment of the system which produces radiological images. Only the incident beam must be considered for the calculation of the air kerma. Therefore, for energy spectrum, counts apart the total energy deposition in the detector must be subtracted. It is necessary to establish a procedure to sort out the different contributions to the original spectrum and remove the counts representing scattered photons in the detector's materials, partial energy deposition due to the interactions in the detector active volume and, also, the escape peaks contributions. The main goal of this work is to present spectrum stripping procedure, using the MCNP Monte Carlo computer code, for NaI(Tl) scintillation detectors to calculate the air kerma due to an X-ray beam usually used in medical radiology. The comparison between the spectrum before stripping procedure against the reference value showed a discrepancy of more than 63%, while the comparison with the same spectrum after the stripping procedure showed a discrepancy of less than 0.2%.

  12. Investigation of Mercury Reduction in Gold Stripping Process at Elevated Temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pramudya, Irawan

    Mercury is present in many gold ores. By processing these ores, there is a potential of emitting mercury to the environment. Carbon regeneration kiln stacks have been observed as one of the primary source of mercury emission into the atmosphere. Before it is recycled back into the carbon in leach (CIL) or carbon in columns (CIC), carbon used in the gold extraction process needs to be reactivated thermally. Emission of mercury can be minimized by keeping the mercury left in the carbon low before it goes to the carbon regeneration kiln stacks. The objective of this study is establishing the optimum elution conditions of mercury cyanide from loaded carbon (which includes the eluent, concentration, temperature and elution time) with respect to gold stripping. Several methods such as acid washing (UNR-100, HCl or ethanol/UNR-100) were investigated prior to the stripping process. Furthermore, conventional pressurized Zadra and modified Zadra were also studied with regards to mercury concentration in the solution and vapor state as well as maximizing the gold stripping from industrial loaded carbon. 7% UNR-100 acid washing of loaded carbon at 80°C was able to wash out approximately 90% of mercury while maintaining the gold adsorption on the carbon (selective washing). The addition of alcohol in the UNR-100 acid washing solution was able to enhance mercury washing from 90% to 97%. Furthermore, mercury stripping using conventional pressurized (cyanide-alkaline) Zadra was best performed at 80°C (minimal amount of mercury reduced and volatilized) whereas using the same process only 40% of gold was stripped, which makes this process not viable. When alcohol was added to the stripping solution, at 80°C, 95% of gold was detected in the solution while keeping the reduction and volatilization of mercury low. The outcome of this study provides a better understanding of mercury behavior during the acid washing and stripping processes so that the risk of mercury exposure and

  13. The microstructures of strip-cast low-carbon steels and their response to thermal processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shiang, L.-T.; Wray, P. J.

    1989-07-01

    The as-cast microstructure and its modification when subjected to heat treatment is examined for strip-cast low carbon steels. The local solidification rate in the twin-roll strip casting process is estimated to. be 590 to 850 °C/s, and the primary and secondary dendrite arm spacings are approximately 17 to 25 and 10 μm, respectively. The as-cast structure is predominantly Widmanstätten ferrite and, thereby, differs from the conventional hot-rolled sheet. It is suggested that the as-cast morphology is a result of the large initial austenite grain size and the cooling rate and is not a unique characteristic of rapid solidification of strip casting. By restricting the austenite grain size and cooling rate, polygonal ferrite morphology probably can be produced during strip casting. The response to heat treatment depends on the presence of aluminum; with a moderate amount of aluminum, the A1N precipitates in the as-cast structure inhibit the subsequent grain boundary movement and may affect the subsequent recrystallization behavior.

  14. Removal of organic pollutants from 2,2',5,5'-tetrachlorobenzidine (TCB) industrial wastewater by micro-electrochemical oxidation and air-stripping.

    PubMed

    Shibin, Xia; Shuichun, Xia; Changqing, Zhu

    2007-06-01

    A feasible method for treatment of the wastewater from the two-staged neutralization in 2,2',5,5'-tetrachlorobenzidine (TCB) manufacturing processes, a refractory dye intermediate effluents, based on combined micro-electrochemical oxidation or iron-chipping filtration (ICF) and air-stripping reactor (ASR), was developed. On conditions of HRT 1h, pH 3.0 in ICF and HRT 38 h, gas-liquid ratio 15, pH 6.0-8.65, temperature 26 degrees C in ASR, the overall COD, color, TCB and NH(4)(+)-N removal were 96.8%, 91%, 87.61% and 62%, respectively, during the treatment of TCB wastewater from the two-staged neutralization dissolved by methanol. The averaged 18.3%, 81.7% of the total degraded COD, 35.2%, 64.8% of TCB were carried out in ICF and ASR, respectively. NH(4)(+)-N removal was finished mainly in ASR. The experimental results indicated that the combined micro-electrochemical oxidation and air-stripping process performed good treatment of COD, color, TCB and NH(4)(+)-N removal in TCB wastewater from the two-staged neutralization dissolved by ethanol or acetone, came up the discharge standard in China. But the TCB wastewater from the two-staged neutralization dissolved by methanol should be deeply treated before discharged. PMID:17118553

  15. Numerical Simulation of Filling Process During Twin-Roll Strip Casting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Zhiyu; Wang, Bo; Zhang, Qinghua; Ma, Jie; Zhang, Jieyu

    2014-01-01

    The modeling and controlling of flow and solidification of melt metal in the filling process is important for obtaining the optimal pool level and the formation of the solidified metal layer on the surface of twin-rolls during the twin-roll strip casting. The proper delivery system and processing parameters plays a key role to control flow characteristics in the initial filling stage of the twin-roll strip casting process. In this paper, a commercial CFD software was employed to simulate the transient fluid flow, heat transfer, and solidifications behaviors during the pouring stage of twin-roll strip casting process using different delivery systems. A 3D model was set up to solve the coupled set of governing differential equations for mass, momentum, and energy balance. The transient free-surface problem was treated with the volume of fluid approach, a k-ɛ turbulence model was employed to handle the turbulence effect and an enthalpy method was used to predict phase change during solidification. The predicted results showed that a wedge-shaped delivery system might have a beneficial impact on the distribution of molten steel and solidification. The predicted surface profile agreed well with the measured values in water model.

  16. Status of in-situ air stripping tests and proposed modifications: Horizontal wells AMH-1 and AMH-2 Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect

    Kaback, D.S.; Looney, B.B.

    1989-08-01

    A project to drill and install two horizontal vapor extraction/air injection wells at the Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, South Carolina, was performed in September and October of 1988. The project was performed to test the feasibility of horizontal drilling technologies in shallow unconsolidated sediments. Additional study to evaluate the effectiveness of in-situ air stripping of volatile organics from the ground water and unsaturated soils is planned. This status report contains (1) a short summary of the construction details of the two horizontal wells and (2) proposed modifications to the original program plan (Kaback and Looney 1988; Looney and Kaback, 1988). The modifications include added pressure monitoring and use of an inert tracer gas (helium) to better evaluate system performance. This paper contains sections that provide information requested by the South Carolina Department Health and Environmental Control as part of the underground injection well permitting process. 3 refs., 6 figs.

  17. Acetone-butanol-ethanol from sweet sorghum juice by an immobilized fermentation-gas stripping integration process.

    PubMed

    Cai, Di; Wang, Yong; Chen, Changjing; Qin, Peiyong; Miao, Qi; Zhang, Changwei; Li, Ping; Tan, Tianwei

    2016-07-01

    In this study, sweet sorghum juice (SSJ) was used as the substrate in a simplified ABE fermentation-gas stripping integration process without nutrients supplementation. The sweet sorghum bagasse (SSB) after squeezing the fermentable juice was used as the immobilized carrier. The results indicated that the productivity of ABE fermentation process was improved by gas stripping integration. A total 24g/L of ABE solvents was obtained from 59.6g/L of initial sugar after 80h of fermentation with gas stripping. Then, long-term of fed-batch fermentation with continuous gas stripping was further performed. 112.9g/L of butanol, 44.1g/L of acetone, 9.5g/L of ethanol (total 166.5g/L of ABE) was produced in overall 312h of fermentation. At the same time, concentrated ABE product was obtained in the condensate of gas stripping. PMID:27060246

  18. A scanning electron microscopy comparison of enamel polishing methods after air-rotor stripping.

    PubMed

    Piacentini, C; Sfondrini, G

    1996-01-01

    In the last few years, orthodontic literature has shown particular interest in the interproximal enamel reduction technique described as stripping or slenderizing. Most researchers have shown, by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) studies, the difficulties encountered while attempting to remove coarse abrasions left after stripping with the first instrument. The objective of this SEM study was to compare the different polishing methods proposed in the literature and to assess the efficiency of our own procedure. For this purpose, 48 healthy human teeth (premolars and molars) were used after removal for orthodontic or periodontal reasons. The teeth were divided into eight groups of six teeth each (two molars and four premolars), and mounted on a typodont to simulate a clinical situation. Each group underwent stripping according to one of the following techniques: 16-blade tungsten carbide bur and fine and ultrafine diamond burs; coarse diamond bur and fine and ultrafine diamond burs; coarse diamond disk and Sof-Lex disks (Dental products/3M, St. Paul, Minn.); 16-blade tungsten carbide bur and phosphoric acid on finishing strip; and 8-straight blade tungsten carbide diamond bur and Sof-Lex disks. The SEM investigations demonstrated that it is not possible to eliminate, with normal polishing and cleaning methods, the furrows left on the enamel both by the diamond burs and the diamond disks and the 16-blade tungsten carbide burs. Mechanical and chemical stripping as well did not prove to be effective. By contrast, with the use of a 8-straight blade tungsten carbide bur followed by Sof-Lex disks for polishing the enamel, it is possible to obtain well-polished surfaces that many times appear smoother than the intact or untreated enamel. PMID:8540483

  19. Frictional interactions in forming processes: New studies with transparent sapphire strip-drawing dies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rao, R. S.; Lu, C. Y.; Wright, P. K.; Devenpeck, M. L.; Richmond, O.; Appleby, E. J.

    1982-05-01

    This research is concerned with the frictional interactions at the toolwork interfaces in the machining and strip-drawing processes. A novel feature is that transparent sapphire (single crystal Al2O3) is being used as the tool and die material. This allows the tribological features of the interface to be directly observed and recorded on movie-film. These qualitative studies provide information on the role of lubricants. In addition, techniques are being developed to quantify the velocity gradient along the interface. For example, in the drawing work it has been found that tracer markings (e.g. dye-spots), applied to the undrawn strip, remain intact during drawing and can be tracked along the sapphire/strip interface. Such data will be used as input to a finite-element, elasto-plastic-workhardening model of the deformation process. The latter can compute strip deformation characteristics, drawing forces and local coefficients of friction at the interface. Introductory results will be presented in this paper, obtained from drawing tin-plated mild steel with sapphire and cemented carbide dies. Drawing loads and die-separating forces will be presented and movie-films of the action of tracer markings at the interface shown. In order to demonstrate how this data can be used in an analysis of a large strain deformation process with friction, initial results from running the FIPDEF elasto-plastic code will be discussed. From a commercial viewpoint research on strip-drawing is of special interest to the can-making industry. From a physical viewpoint stripdrawing is of particular interest because it is a symmetrical, plane strain deformation and, in comparison with other metal processing operations, it is more readily modeled. However, until now the elasto-plastic codes that have been developed to predictively model drawing have had limitations: the most notable being that of quantifying the friction conditions at the die-work interface. Hence the specification of the

  20. Ultrasonic extraction and field-portable anodic stripping voltammetry for the determination of lead in workplace air samples.

    PubMed

    Ashley, K; Mapp, K J; Millson, M

    1998-10-01

    An on-site, field-portable analytical method for the determination of lead in workplace air samples, based on the use of ultrasonic extraction and anodic stripping voltammetry (ASV), was evaluated. Workplace air samples were obtained using a standard method involving particulate collection onto mixed cellulose ester membrane filters. Samples were collected at work sites where airborne particulates were generated from the abrasive blasting of lead-containing paint on highway bridges. Ultrasonic extraction (UE) of air filter samples in diluted nitric acid, followed by portable ASV, was used for the determination of lead. Also, performance evaluation samples consisting of reference materials of known lead concentration were subjected to the UE-ASV procedure for lead determination. Confirmatory analyses of the air filters and performance evaluation samples subjected to the UE-ASV lead measurement method were conducted by hotplate digestion in concentrated nitric acid and 30% hydrogen peroxide, followed by inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometric (ICP-AES) determination of lead. Recoveries of lead from performance evaluation materials (when using the UE-ASV method) were found to be quantitative. The performance of the UE-ASV method for lead in air filters was found to be acceptable, as evaluated by comparison with results from hotplate strong acid digestion followed by ICP-AES analysis. Based on the results of this study, the ultrasonic extraction/portable ASV procedure demonstrates potential for the on-site determination of lead in personal breathing zone and area air samples. PMID:9794065

  1. Membrane-assisted vapor stripping: energy efficient hybrid distillation-vapor permeation process for alcohol-water separation

    EPA Science Inventory

    BACKGROUND: Energy efficient alternatives to distillation for alcohol recovery from dilute solution are needed to improve biofuel sustainability. A process integrating steam stripping with a vapor compression step and a vapor permeation membrane separation step is proposed. The...

  2. Effect of CO{sub 2} air mixtures on the pH of air-stripped water at Treatment Facility D

    SciTech Connect

    Krauter, P.W.; Harrar, J.E.; Orloff, S.P.

    1998-01-01

    A small-scale model of the air stripping tanks at TFD was constructed and tested to determine the effect of carbon dioxide additions, to the stripper air, on system water pH. The objective was to determine whether this technique could be used to control and minimize CaCO{sub 3} scale formation. It was found that a concentration of 0.7 vol. % CO{sub 2} is required to maintain the water at its original, influent pH value of 7.4, but lower concentrations may be effective in controlling scale. There is also a possibility of reducing CO{sub 2} consumption by recycling the CO{sub 2}-rich air. The use of CO{sub 2} injection at Site 300 water treatment is reviewed.

  3. Producing thin strips by twin-roll casting—part I: Process aspects and quality issues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Ben Q.

    1995-05-01

    This two-part paper discusses recent advances in research and development for the direct production of coilable thin strips by twin-roll casting in both the aluminum and steel industries. While the former is empowering the casters to approach the theoretical productivity limit, the latter is striving to put pilot casters into commercial operation. These intensive R&D efforts are derived from the advantages, both economic and metallurgical, offered by the process. As twin-roll casting combines solidification and hot rolling into a single operation, the process requires low capital investment and low operational cost. Also, because of the high solidification rate attained in the process, the thin strips produced have a refined metallurgical structure, characterized by columnar and equiaxed zones with fine intermetallic particles. The enthusiasm about twin-roll casting is now being spread worldwide. This paper focuses on the process aspects and quality control of twin-roll casting. Part II, which will appear in the August issue, will review process modeling and pilot-plant development activities.

  4. Post-test evaluation of the geology, geochemistry, microbiology, and hydrology of the in situ air stripping demonstration site at the Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect

    Eddy Dilek, C.A.; Looney, B.B.; Hazen, T.C.; Nichols, R.L.; Fliermans, C.B.; Parker, W.H.; Dougherty, J.M.; Kaback, D.S.; Simmons, J.L.

    1993-07-01

    A full-scale demonstration of the use of horizontal wells for in situ air stripping for environment restoration was completed as part of the Savannah River Integrated Demonstration Program. The demonstration of in situ air stripping was the first in a series of demonstrations of innovative remediation technologies for the cleanup of sites contaminated with volatile organic contaminants. The in situ air stripping system consisted of two directionally drilled wells that delivered gases to and extract contamination from the subsurface. The demonstration was designed to remediate soils and sediments in the unsaturated and saturated zones as well as groundwater contaminated with volatile organic compounds. The demonstration successfully removed significant quantities of solvent from the subsurface. The field site and horizontal wells were subsequently used for an in situ bioremediation demonstration during which methane was added to the injected air. The field conditions documented herein represent the baseline status of the site for evaluating the in situ bioremediation as well as the post-test conditions for the in situ air stripping demonstration. Characterization activities focused on documenting the nature and distribution of contamination in the subsurface. The post-test characterization activities discussed herein include results from the analysis of sediment samples, three-dimensional images of the pretest and post-test data, contaminant inventories estimated from pretest and post-test models, a detailed lithologic cross sections of the site, results of aquifer testing, and measurements of geotechnical parameters of undisturbed core sediments.

  5. Edge-state-dependent tunneling of dipole-exchange spin waves in submicrometer magnetic strips with an air gap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xing, X. J.; Zhang, D.; Li, S. W.

    2012-12-01

    We have investigated the tunneling of dipole-exchange spin waves across an air gap in submicrometer-sized permalloy magnetic strips by means of micromagnetic simulations. The magnetizations beside the gap could form three distinct end-domain states with various strengths of dipolar coupling. Spin-wave tunneling through the gap at individual end-domain states is studied. It is found that the tunneling behavior is strongly dependent on these domain states. Nonmonotonic decay of transmission of spin waves with the increase of the gap width is observed. The underlying mechanism for these behaviors is proposed. The tunneling characteristics of the dipole-exchange spin waves differ essentially from those of the magnetostatic ones reported previously.

  6. Solution-Processed Self-Assembled Nanodielectrics on Template-Stripped Metal Substrates.

    PubMed

    McMorrow, Julian J; Walker, Amanda R; Sangwan, Vinod K; Jariwala, Deep; Hoffman, Emily; Everaerts, Ken; Facchetti, Antonio; Hersam, Mark C; Marks, Tobin J

    2015-12-01

    The coupling of hybrid organic-inorganic gate dielectrics with emergent unconventional semiconductors has yielded transistor devices exhibiting record-setting transport properties. However, extensive electronic transport measurements on these high-capacitance systems are often convoluted with the electronic response of the semiconducting silicon substrate. In this report, we demonstrate the growth of solution-processed zirconia self-assembled nanodielectrics (Zr-SAND) on template-stripped aluminum substrates. The resulting Zr-SAND on Al structures leverage the ultrasmooth (r.m.s. roughness <0.4 nm), chemically uniform nature of template-stripped metal substrates to demonstrate the same exceptional electronic uniformity (capacitance ∼700 nF cm(-2), leakage current <1 μA cm(-2) at -2 MV cm(-1)) and multilayer growth of Zr-SAND on Si, while exhibiting superior temperature and voltage capacitance responses. These results are important to conduct detailed transport measurements in emergent transistor technologies featuring SAND as well as for future applications in integrated circuits or flexible electronics. PMID:26479833

  7. On the evolution of unsteady disturbances in continuous strip casting processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kluwick, A.; Scheichl, St.

    1997-12-01

    Continuous solidification processes in thin layers of molten metal are of central importance in many fields of modern metallurgical engineering. This paper deals with unsteady disturbances possibly emerging at the free surface or the phase boundary within the solidification zone of a horizontal strip casting process. Assuming that the wave lengths of the disturbances are large compared to the characteristic depth of the melt, we can apply governing equations for one-dimensional flow. Furthermore, we assume the amplitudes of the disturbances to be so small that their evolution can be regarded as weakly nonlinear. Since unsteady wave propagation phenomena can arise from temperature variations as well as from the excitation of waves at the free surface or the solidification front, both mechanisms will be studied in the following. In the latter case the disturbances at the surface are found to be governed by the inviscid Burgers equations with varying coefficients and will then, in general, develop shock discontinuities.

  8. Interaction analysis of the twin-roller strip-casting process and the implications for process control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edwards, John B.; Cavazos, Alberto

    2005-06-01

    Twin-roller steel strip casting may offer advantages with respect to classic continuous-casting hot-rolling processes. Only a few studies have reported control aspects of this process, and, although successful, little attention has been given to the interactions between variables. In this study, the derivation of a 3 × 3 linearized multivariable model for process control purposes that has been proposed in previous investigations is presented. The model was simplified to a 2×2 plant. The process was found to be highly interactive and nonlinear, involving time delays. An analysis of interactions and their implications for process control is also presented. The multivariable model proposed was successfully used for multivariable control design in subsequent works.

  9. Evolution of microstructure, texture and inhibitor along the processing route for grain-oriented electrical steels using strip casting

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Hai-Tao; Yao, Sheng-Jie; Sun, Yu; Gao, Fei; Song, Hong-Yu; Liu, Guo-Huai; Li, Lei; Geng, Dian-Qiao; Liu, Zhen-Yu; Wang, Guo-Dong

    2015-08-15

    In the present work, a regular grade GO sheet was produced successively by strip casting, hot rolling, normalizing annealing, two-stage cold rolling with intermediate annealing, primary recrystallization annealing, secondary recrystallization annealing and purification. The aim of this paper was to characterize the evolution of microstructure, texture and inhibitor along the new processing route by comprehensive utilization of optical microscopy, X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy. It was found that a fine microstructure with the ferrite grain size range of 7–12 μm could be obtained in the primary recrystallization annealed sheet though a very coarse microstructure was produced in the initial as-cast strip. The main finding was that the “texture memory” effect on Goss texture started on the through-thickness intermediate annealed strip after first cold rolling, which was not similar to the “texture memory” effect on Goss texture starting on the surface layers of the hot rolled strip in the conventional production route. As a result, the origin of Goss nuclei capable of secondary recrystallization lied in the grains already presented in Goss orientation in the intermediate annealed strip after first cold rolling. Another finding was that fine and dispersive inhibitors (mainly AlN) were easy to be produced in the primary recrystallization microstructure due to the initial rapid solidification during strip casting and the subsequent rapid cooling, and the very high temperature reheating usually used before hot rolling in the conventional production route could be avoided. - Highlights: • A regular grade grain-oriented electrical steel was produced. • Evolution of microstructure, texture and inhibitor was characterized. • Origin of Goss nuclei lied in the intermediate annealed strip. • A fine primary recrystallization microstructure could be produced. • Effective inhibitors were easy to be obtained in the new processing route.

  10. Prigogine Theorem for the Process of Rolling of a Viscoplastic Strip

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solovei, V. D.

    2015-05-01

    Consideration is given to slow plane isothermal fl ow of a viscoplastic strip in rolling. Tangential stresses are assigned at the boundary of contact of the strip with the roll and at the boundaries between the fl ow region and the back and head rigid ends of the strip. A definition is provided for possible perturbations of the velocities of travel for special stationary flows of a viscoplastic strip in rolling. Minimum entropy production is proved for special stationary flows with respect to possible perturbations of velocities of travel (Prigogine theorem).

  11. Simulation of a hydraulic air ingestion process

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, F.C.; Golshani, A.

    1981-01-01

    A hydraulic air ingestion process which requires no mechanical moving parts to accomplish air compression but a downward flow of water and operates at nearly isothermal compression mode can be a viable alternative for the noncondensibles disposal of an OTEC open-cycle power system. A computer simulation of the process is presented based on one-dimensional lumped parameter analysis. Results of laboratory-scale experiments were obtained which compared favorably with the analytical results. A sensitivity study which depicts the effects of various parameters upon the applied head of the hydraulic air ingestion process is also presented.

  12. Analysis and Evaluation of Novel Al-Mg-Sc-Zr Aerospace Alloy Strip Produced Using the Horizontal Single Belt Casting (HSBC) Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ge, Sa; Celikin, Mert; Isac, Mihaiela; Guthrie, Roderick I. L.

    2015-04-01

    Horizontal single belt casting (HSBC) is a near net shape casting process in which molten metal is directly cast into thin strips, at high cooling rates (order of several 100 °C/s), with the potential for high volume, friction free, continuous production of metal strips. This casting process was used in the present work to produce strips of Al-Mg alloys in the AA5000 series, with additions of Sc and Zr. Such aluminum alloys show exceptional potential as a structural material for transportation/aerospace applications. To demonstrate the suitability of the HSBC process to manufacture competitive strip products of Al-Mg-Sc-Zr, the mechanical properties and microstructures of the strips produced using the HSBC process were compared with conventionally cast products. The effects of annealing on the mechanical properties of the strip-cast Al-Mg-Sc-Zr alloys were also investigated.

  13. Simultaneous stripping recovery of ammonia-nitrogen and precipitation of manganese from electrolytic manganese residue by air under calcium oxide assist.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hongliang; Liu, Renlong; Shu, Jiancheng; Li, Wensheng

    2015-01-01

    Leaching tests of electrolytic manganese residue (EMR) indicated that high contents of soluble manganese and ammonia-nitrogen posed a high environmental risk. This work reports the results of simultaneous stripping recovery of ammonia-nitrogen and precipitation of manganese by air under calcium oxide assist. The ammonia-nitrogen stripping rate increased with the dosage of CaO, the air flow rate and the temperature of EMR slurry. Stripped ammonia-nitrogen was absorbed by a solution of sulfuric acid and formed soluble (NH4)2SO4 and (NH4)3H(SO4)3. The major parameters that effected soluble manganese precipitation were the dosage of added CaO and the slurry temperature. Considering these two aspects, the efficient operation conditions should be conducted with 8 wt.% added CaO, 60°C, 800 mL min(-1) air flow rate and 60-min reaction time. Under these conditions 99.99% of the soluble manganese was precipitated as Mn3O4, which was confirmed by XRD and SEM-EDS analyses. In addition, the stripping rate of ammonia-nitrogen was 99.73%. Leaching tests showed the leached toxic substances concentrations of the treated EMR met the integrated wastewater discharge standard of China (GB8978-1996). PMID:26301855

  14. Processing AIRS Scientific Data Through Level 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Granger, Stephanie; Oliphant, Robert; Manning, Evan

    2010-01-01

    The Atmospheric Infra-Red Sounder (AIRS) Science Processing System (SPS) is a collection of computer programs, known as product generation executives (PGEs). The AIRS SPS PGEs are used for processing measurements received from the AIRS suite of infrared and microwave instruments orbiting the Earth onboard NASA's Aqua spacecraft. Early stages of the AIRS SPS development were described in a prior NASA Tech Briefs article: Initial Processing of Infrared Spectral Data (NPO-35243), Vol. 28, No. 11 (November 2004), page 39. In summary: Starting from Level 0 (representing raw AIRS data), the AIRS SPS PGEs and the data products they produce are identified by alphanumeric labels (1A, 1B, 2, and 3) representing successive stages or levels of processing. The previous NASA Tech Briefs article described processing through Level 2, the output of which comprises geo-located atmospheric data products such as temperature and humidity profiles among others. The AIRS Level 3 PGE samples selected information from the Level 2 standard products to produce a single global gridded product. One Level 3 product is generated for each day s collection of Level 2 data. In addition, daily Level 3 products are aggregated into two multiday products: an eight-day (half the orbital repeat cycle) product and monthly (calendar month) product.

  15. Effect of hydrodynamic pressure processing and aging on the tenderness and myofibrillar proteins of beef strip loins

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study evaluated the effects of hydrodynamic pressure processing (HDP) and aging on the tenderness and myofibrillar proteins of beef strip loins. Loins (n=12) were halved at 48 h postmortem and assigned to HDP or control treatments. Following treatment, each half was divided into three portions ...

  16. Solar-Powered Air Stripping at the Rocky Flats Site, Colorado - 12361

    SciTech Connect

    Boylan, John A.

    2012-07-01

    . Initially, several alternatives such as commercial air strippers and cascade aerators were evaluated; resulting cost estimates exceeded $100,000. After several simpler alternatives were considered and prototype testing was conducted, the existing effluent metering manhole was converted to house a spray-nozzle based, solar-powered air stripper, at a cost of approximately $20,000. About two-thirds of this cost was for the solar power system, which was initially designed to only provide power for 12 hours per day. Performance data are being collected and adjustments made to optimize the design, determine maintenance requirements, and establish power needs for continuous operation. Analytical data confirm the air stripper is sharply reducing concentrations of residual contaminants. (authors)

  17. Static voltage distribution between turns of secondary winding of air-core spiral strip transformer and its application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Hong-bo; Liu, Jin-liang; Cheng, Xin-bing; Zhang, Yu

    2011-09-01

    The static voltage distribution between winding turns has great impact on output characteristics and lifetime of the air-core spiral strip pulse transformer (ACSSPT). In this paper, winding inductance was calculated by electromagnetic theory, so that the static voltage distribution between turns of secondary winding of ACSSPT was analyzed conveniently. According to theoretical analysis, a voltage gradient because of the turn-to-turn capacitance was clearly noticeable across the ground turns. Simulation results of Pspice and CST EM Studio codes showed that the voltage distribution between turns of secondary winding had linear increments from the output turn to the ground turn. In experiment, the difference in increased voltage between the ground turns and the output turns of a 20-turns secondary winding is almost 50%, which is believed to be responsible for premature breakdown of the insulation, particularly between the ground turns. The experimental results demonstrated the theoretical analysis and simulation results, which had important value for stable and long lifetime ACSSPT design. A new ACSSPT with improved structure has been used successfully in intense electron beam accelerators steadily.

  18. AIRS Maps from Space Processing Software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, Charles K.; Licata, Stephen J.

    2012-01-01

    This software package processes Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) Level 2 swath standard product geophysical parameters, and generates global, colorized, annotated maps. It automatically generates daily and multi-day averaged colorized and annotated maps of various AIRS Level 2 swath geophysical parameters. It also generates AIRS input data sets for Eyes on Earth, Puffer-sphere, and Magic Planet. This program is tailored to AIRS Level 2 data products. It re-projects data into 1/4-degree grids that can be combined and averaged for any number of days. The software scales and colorizes global grids utilizing AIRS-specific color tables, and annotates images with title and color bar. This software can be tailored for use with other swath data products for the purposes of visualization.

  19. Enhancement of process capability for strip force of tight sets of optical fiber using Taguchi's Quality Engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Wen-Tsann; Wang, Shen-Tsu; Li, Meng-Hua; Huang, Chiao-Tzu

    2012-03-01

    Strip force is the key to identifying the quality of product during manufacturing tight sets of fiber. This study used Integrated computer-aided manufacturing DEFinition 0 (IDEF0) modeling to discuss detailed cladding processes of tight sets of fiber in transnational optical connector manufacturing. The results showed that, the key factor causing an instable interface connection is the extruder adjustment process. The factors causing improper strip force were analyzed through literature, practice, and gray relational analysis. The parameters design method of Taguchi's Quality Engineering was used to determine the optimal experimental combinations for processes of tight sets of fiber. This study employed case empirical analysis to obtain a model for improving the process of strip force of tight sets of fiber, and determines the correlation factors that affect the processes of quality for tight sets of fiber. The findings indicated that, process capability index (CPK) increased significantly, which can facilitate improvement of the product process capability and quality. The empirical results can serve as a reference for improving the product quality of the optical fiber industry.

  20. Dynamics of the fully stripped ion-hydrogen atom charge exchange process in dense quantum plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Ling-yu; Wan, Jiang-feng; Zhao, Xiao-ying; Xiao, Guo-qing; Duan, Wen-shan; Qi, Xin; Yang, Lei

    2014-09-15

    The plasma screening effects of dense quantum plasmas on charge exchange processes of a fully stripped ion colliding with a hydrogen atom are studied by the classical trajectory Monte Carlo method. The inter-particle interactions are described by the exponential cosine-screened Coulomb potentials. It is found that in weak screening conditions, cross sections increase with the increase of the ionic charge Z. However, in strong screening conditions, the dependence of cross sections on the ionic charge is related to the incident particle energy. At high energies, cross sections show a linear increase with the increase of Z, whereas at low energies, cross sections for Z≥4 become approximately the same. The He{sup 2+} and C{sup 6+} impacting charge exchange cross sections in dense quantum plasmas are also compared with those in weakly coupled plasmas. The interactions are described by the static screened Coulomb potential. It is found that for both He{sup 2+} and C{sup 6+}, the oscillatory screening effects of dense quantum plasmas are almost negligible in weak screening conditions. However, in strong screening conditions, the oscillatory screening effects enhance the screening effects of dense quantum plasmas, and the enhancement becomes more and more significant with the increase of the screening parameter and the ionic charge.

  1. Recovery of zinc from residues by SX-galvanic stripping process

    SciTech Connect

    Moats, M.S.; Chang, C.M.; O`Keefe, T.J.

    1995-12-31

    The treatment of oxidized residues of zinc with high iron content continues to present a technical challenge in both the steel and zinc industries. Two main problems are commonly identified and include high treatment costs and environmental concerns about contaminated, iron-bearing residuals. A new approach to this problem is described in which selective separation of the iron and zinc into salable products may be potentially feasible. The waste material is first leached to give a solution having an approximate concentration of 110 g/l Zn, 15 g/l Fe and 40 g/l H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} and other impurities such as Pb, Cd, Cu and Sb. A suitable organic, such as D2EHPA, is used to load the majority of the iron. The aqueous phase is then acceptable for zinc electrowinning after standard solution purification. The novel step in the flow sheet is the efficient recovery of the ferric iron from the organic solvent using a solid metal to reduce the iron to the ferrous state. The Fe{sup +2} is easily stripped into an aqueous phase in a relatively pure form, suitable for use in water treatment. Process parameters and possible flow sheet designs are described and discussed.

  2. Processing AIRS Scientific Data Through Level 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oliphant, Robert; Lee, Sung-Yung; Chahine, Moustafa; Susskind, Joel; arnet, Christopher; McMillin, Larry; Goldberg, Mitchell; Blaisdell, John; Rosenkranz, Philip; Strow, Larrabee

    2007-01-01

    The Atmospheric Infrared Spectrometer (AIRS) Science Processing System (SPS) is a collection of computer programs, denoted product generation executives (PGEs), for processing the readings of the AIRS suite of infrared and microwave instruments orbiting the Earth aboard NASA s Aqua spacecraft. AIRS SPS at an earlier stage of development was described in "Initial Processing of Infrared Spectral Data' (NPO-35243), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 28, No. 11 (November 2004), page 39. To recapitulate: Starting from level 0 (representing raw AIRS data), the PGEs and their data products are denoted by alphanumeric labels (1A, 1B, and 2) that signify the successive stages of processing. The cited prior article described processing through level 1B (the level-2 PGEs were not yet operational). The level-2 PGEs, which are now operational, receive packages of level-1B geolocated radiance data products and produce such geolocated geophysical atmospheric data products such as temperature and humidity profiles. The process of computing these geophysical data products is denoted "retrieval" and is quite complex. The main steps of the process are denoted microwave-only retrieval, cloud detection and cloud clearing, regression, full retrieval, and rapid transmittance algorithm.

  3. Does mechanistic modeling of filter strip pesticide mass balance and degradation processes affect environmental exposure assessments?

    PubMed

    Muñoz-Carpena, Rafael; Ritter, Amy; Fox, Garey A; Perez-Ovilla, Oscar

    2015-11-01

    Vegetative filter strips (VFS) are a widely adopted practice for limiting pesticide transport from adjacent fields to receiving waterbodies. The efficacy of VFS depends on site-specific input factors. To elucidate the complex and non-linear relationships among these factors requires a process-based modeling framework. Previous research proposed linking existing higher-tier environmental exposure models with a well-tested VFS model (VFSMOD). However, the framework assumed pesticide mass stored in the VFS was not available for transport in subsequent storm events. A new pesticide mass balance component was developed to estimate surface pesticide residue trapped in the VFS and its degradation between consecutive runoff events. The influence and necessity of the updated framework on acute and chronic estimated environmental concentrations (EECs) and percent reductions in EECs were investigated across three, 30-year U.S. EPA scenarios: Illinois corn, California tomato, and Oregon wheat. The updated framework with degradation predicted higher EECs than the existing framework without degradation for scenarios with greater sediment transport, longer VFS lengths, and highly sorbing and persistent pesticides. Global sensitivity analysis (GSA) assessed the relative importance of mass balance and degradation processes in the context of other input factors like VFS length (VL), organic-carbon sorption coefficient (Koc), and soil and water half-lives. Considering VFS pesticide residue and degradation was not important if single, large runoff events controlled transport, as is typical for higher percentiles considered in exposure assessments. Degradation processes become more important when considering percent reductions in acute or chronic EECs, especially under scenarios with lower pesticide losses. PMID:26218348

  4. FPGA-based signal processing for the LHCb silicon strip detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haefeli, G.; Bay, A.; Gong, A.

    2006-12-01

    We have developed an electronic board (TELL1) to interface the DAQ system of the LHCb experiment at CERN. Two hundred and eighty-nine TELL1 boards are needed to read out the different subdetectors including the silicon VEertex LOcator (VELO) (172 k strips), the Trigger Tracker (TT) (147 k strips) and the Inner Tracker (129 k strips). Each board can handle either 64 analog or 24 digital optical links. The TELL1 mother board provides common mode correction, zero suppression, data formatting, and a large network interface buffer. To satisfy the different requirements we have adopted a flexible FPGA design and made use of mezzanine cards. Mezzanines are used for data input from digital optical and analog copper links as well as for the Gigabit Ethernet interface to DAQ.

  5. Air Force electrochemical impregnation process results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, L. E.

    1978-01-01

    The status of the Air Force Electrochemical program was reviewed. The performance characteristics of the system was attributed to the use of an electrochemical impregnation process. The electrode improvements, the prototype equipment designs, and the actual construction of a production facility are discussed.

  6. Microstructure and properties of A2017 alloy strips processed by a novel process by combining semisolid rolling, deep rolling, and heat treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guan, Ren-guo; Wang, Xiang; Zhao, Zhan-yong; Wang, Wei-wei; Cao, Fu-rong; Liu, Chun-ming

    2013-08-01

    A novel short process for producing A2017 alloy strips with notable features of near net shape, saving energy, low cost, and high product performance was developed by combining semisolid rolling, deep rolling, and heat treatment. The microstructure and properties of the A2017 alloy strips were investigated by metallographic microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, tensile testing, and hardness measurement. The cross-sectional microstructure of the A2017 alloy strips is mainly composed of near-spherical primary grains. Many eutectic phases CuAl2 formed along primary grain boundaries during semisolid rolling are crushed and broken into small particles. After solution treatment at 495°C for 2 h the eutectic phases at grain boundaries have almost dissolved into the matrix. When the solution treatment time exceeds 2 h, grain coarsening happens. More and more grain interior phases precipitate with the aging time prolonging to 8 h. The precipitated particles are very small and distribute homogenously, and the tensile strength reaches its peak value. When the aging time is prolonged to 12 h, there is no obvious variation in the amount of precipitated phases, but the size and spacing of precipitated phases increase. The tensile strength of the A2017 alloy strips produced by the present method can reach 362.78 MPa, which is higher than that of the strips in the national standard of China.

  7. One-neutron stripping processes to excited states of the 6Li+96Zr reaction at near-barrier energies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, S. P.; Zhang, G. L.; Yang, J. C.; Zhang, H. Q.; Gomes, P. R. S.; Lubian, J.; Ferreira, J. L.; Wu, X. G.; Zhong, J.; He, C. Y.; Zheng, Y.; Li, C. B.; Li, G. S.; Qu, W. W.; Wang, F.; Zheng, L.; Yu, L.; Chen, Q. M.; Luo, P. W.; Li, H. W.; Wu, Y. H.; Zhou, W. K.; Zhu, B. J.; Sun, H. B.

    2016-01-01

    We report the measurement of one-neutron stripping to excited-state cross sections from the weakly bound projectile 6Li to the 96Zr target at near-barrier energies by the online γ -ray spectroscopy method. Transitions of the 97Zr nucleus were clearly identified by γ -γ coincidences. This cross section was found to be much smaller than the previously reported complete-fusion cross section for this system at energies above the barrier, whereas it becomes of the same magnitude around the Coulomb-barrier energy. No evidence of two-neutron transfer was found. We also performed coupled reaction channel calculations for the one-neutron stripping process. The calculation results are discussed.

  8. Excimer laser photoresist stripping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Genut, Menachem; Tehar-Zahav, Ofer; Iskevitch, Eli; Livshits, Boris

    1996-06-01

    A new method for stripping the most challenging photoresists on deep sub-micron technology semiconductor wafers has been developed. The method uses a combination of UV excimer laser ablation and reactive chemistry to strip the photoresist in a single dry process, eliminating the wet acids or solvents often used following ashing of high dose implantation (HDI) and reactive ion etching (RIE). The stripping process combines new removal mechanisms: chemical assisted UV excimer laser ablation/etching, laser induced chemical etching of side walls and residues, and enhanced combustion. During the laser pulses photolysis of the process gas occurs, UV laser radiation breaks the photoresist polymer chain bonds, and the photoresist (including foreign materials imbedded in it) is ablated. The combustion is ignited by the ablative impact of laser radiation and enhanced by the radicals formed during photo-thermal decomposition of the process gases. Following this process, the volatilized products and gases are evacuated. The optimum laser stripping conditions were developed to provide a wide process window for the most challenging stripping conditions, such as after HDI and RIE (metal, polysilicon), without causing damage to the wafer devices. A photoresist stripping system based on the described technology was designed and built. The system has been designated as the L-StripperTM and provides stripping time of 0.15 s/(micrometer cm2).

  9. CATALYTIC OXIDATION OF GROUNDWATER STRIPPING EMISSIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper reviews the applicability of catalytic oxidation to control ground-water air stripping gaseous effluents, with special attention to system designs and case histories. The variety of contaminants and catalyst poisons encountered in stripping operations are also reviewed....

  10. Tensile properties and interfacial bonding of multi-layered, high-purity titanium strips fabricated by ARB process.

    PubMed

    Ghafari-Gousheh, Soroush; Nedjad, Syamak Hossein; Khalil-Allafi, Jafar

    2015-11-01

    Severe plastic deformation (SPD) processing has shown very effective in promotion of mechanical properties of metals and alloys. In this study, the results of investigating mechanical properties and also inter-layer bond performance of accumulative roll bonded high purity titanium (HP-Ti) strips are presented. High purity titanium plates were severely deformed by use of a combination of cold rolling (CR) to a thickness reduction of approximately 87% and then accumulative roll bonding (ARB) for three cycles (N=3) at ambient temperature. Optical and scanning electron microscopy, tensile testing, and hardness measurements were conducted. The ARB strips exhibited lower tensile strength and ductility in comparison to cold rolled one which can basically be attributed to the poor function of the latest bonds established in the centerlines of the strips. Fractographic examinations revealed the interfacial de-bonding along the centerline between the layers having undergone roll bonding for just one cycle. It was while the interfaces having experienced roll bonding for more cycles showed much higher resistance against delaminating. PMID:26253205

  11. Hybrid Vapor Stripping-Vapor Permeation Process for Recovery and Dehydration of 1-Butanol and Acetone/Butanol/Ethanol from Dilute Aqueous Solutions. Part 2. Experimental Validation with Simple Mixtures and Actual Fermentation Broth

    EPA Science Inventory

    BACKGROUND: In Part1 of this work, a process integrating vapor stripping, vapor compression, and a vapor permeation membrane separation step, Membrane Assisted Vapor Stripping (MAVS), was predicted to produce energy savings compared to traditional distillation systems for separat...

  12. The Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) Modeling of the Horizontal Single Belt Casting (HSBC) Processing of Al-Mg-Sc-Zr Alloy Strips

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ge, S.; Isac, M.; Guthrie, R. I. L.

    2015-10-01

    Al-Mg-Sc-Zr alloys have shown exceptional potential as structural materials for transportation applications. These alloys have proved to be good candidates to be processed as thin strips via the horizontal single belt casting (HSBC) process. The HSBC process is a near-net-shape casting technology, which involves casting molten metal directly into thin strips, close to the final product thickness, at higher cooling rates than conventional continuous casting and thin-slab casting processes. It offers an efficient, economical, and environmentally friendly approach to the production of metal strips. Fluid mechanics and associated heat transfer are important aspects of any casting process, and the novel HSBC process is no exception. Three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics simulations using ANSYS FLUENT 14.5 were performed, in order to assess the importance and effects of the various operational conditions of the HSBC process. This enabled process parameter optimization. Numerical predictions were validated against experimental casting results.

  13. Process for recovering organic vapors from air

    DOEpatents

    Baker, Richard W.

    1985-01-01

    A process for recovering and concentrating organic vapor from a feed stream of air having an organic vapor content of no more than 20,000 ppm by volume. A thin semipermeable membrane is provided which has a feed side and a permeate side, a selectivity for organic vapor over air of at least 50, as measured by the ratio of organic vapor permeability to nitrogen permeability, and a permeability of organic vapor of at least 3.times.10.sup.-7 cm.sup.3 (STP) cm/cm.sup.2 sec.cm Hg. The feed stream is passed across the feed side of the thin semipermeable membrane while providing a pressure on the permeate side which is lower than the feed side by creating a partial vacuum on the permeate side so that organic vapor passes preferentially through the membrane to form an organic vapor depleted air stream on the feed side and an organic vapor enriched stream on the permeate side. The organic vapor which has passed through the membrane is compressed and condensed to recover the vapor as a liquid.

  14. AISI/DOE Advanced Process Control Program Vol. 3 of 6 Microstructure Engineering in Hot Strip Mills, Part 1 of 2: Integrated Mathematical Model

    SciTech Connect

    J.K. Brimacombe; I.V. Samarasekera; E.B. Hawbolt; T.R. Meadowcroft; M. Militzer; W.J. Pool; D.Q. Jin

    1999-07-31

    This report describes the work of developing an integrated model used to predict the thermal history, deformation, roll forces, microstructural evolution and mechanical properties of steel strip in a hot-strip mill. This achievement results from a joint research effort that is part of the American Iron and Steel Institute's (AIS) Advanced Process Control Program, a collaboration between the U.S. DOE and fifteen North American Steelmakers.

  15. Butanol production from wood pulping hydrolysate in an integrated fermentation-gas stripping process

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, CC; Dong, J; Yang, ST

    2013-09-01

    Wood pulping hydrolysate (WPH) containing mainly xylose and glucose as a potential substrate for acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) fermentation was studied. Due to the inhibitors present in the hydrolysate, several dilution levels and detoxification treatments, including overliming, activated charcoal adsorption, and resin adsorption, were evaluated for their effectiveness in relieving the inhibition on fermentation. Detoxification using resin and evaporation was found to be the most effective method in reducing the toxicity of WPH. ABE production in batch fermentation by Clostridium beijerinckii increased 68%, from 6.73 g/L in the non-treated and non-diluted WPH to 11.35 g/L in the resin treated WPH. With gas stripping for in situ product removal, ABE production from WPH increased to 17.73 g/L, demonstrating that gas stripping was effective in alleviating butanol toxicity by selectively separating butanol from the fermentation broth, which greatly improved solvents production and sugar conversion in the fermentation. (C) 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Characterization of the geology, geochemistry, hydrology and microbiology of the in-situ air stripping demonstration site at the Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect

    Eddy, C.A.; Looney, B.B.; Dougherty, J.M.; Hazen, T.C.; Kaback, D.S.

    1991-05-01

    The Savannah River Site is the location of an Integrated Demonstration Project designed to evaluate innovative remediation technologies for environmental restoration at sites contaminated with volatile organic contaminants. This demonstration utilizes directionally drilled horizontal wells to deliver gases and extract contaminants from the subsurface. Phase I of the Integrated Demonstration focused on the application and development of in-situ air stripping technologies to remediate soils and sediments above and below the water table as well as groundwater contaminated with volatile organic contaminants. The objective of this report is to provide baseline information on the geology, geochemistry, hydrology, and microbiology of the demonstration site prior to the test. The distribution of contaminants in soils and sediments in the saturated zone and groundwater is emphasized. These data will be combined with data collected after the demonstration in order to evaluate the effectiveness of in-situ air stripping. New technologies for environmental characterization that were evaluated include depth discrete groundwater sampling (HydroPunch) and three-dimensional modeling of contaminant data.

  17. Alternatives to Nitric Acid Stripping in the Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX) Process for Cesium Removal from Alkaline High-Level Waste

    SciTech Connect

    Delmau, Laetitia Helene; Haverlock, Tamara; Bazelaire, Eve; Bonnesen, Peter V; Ditto, Mary E; Moyer, Bruce A

    2009-01-01

    Effective alternatives to nitric acid stripping in the Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX) solvent have been demonstrated in this work. The CSSX solvent employs calix[4]arene-bis(tert-octylbenzo-18-crown-6) (BOBCalixC6) as the cesium extractant in a modified alkane diluent for decontamination of alkaline high-level wastes. Results reported in this paper support the idea that replacement of the nitrate anion by a much more hydrophilic anion like borate can substantially lower cesium distribution ratios on stripping. Without any other change in the CSSX flowsheet, however, the use of a boric acid stripping solution in place of the 1 mM nitric acid solution used in the CSSX process marginally, though perhaps still usefully, improves stripping. The less-than-expected improvement was explained by the carryover of nitrate from scrubbing into stripping. Accordingly, more effective stripping is obtained after a scrub of the solvent with 0.1 M sodium hydroxide. Functional alternatives to boric acid include sodium bicarbonate or cesium hydroxide as strip solutions. Profound stripping improvement is achieved when trioctylamine, one of the components of the CSSX solvent, is replaced with a commercial guanidine reagent (LIX 79). The more basic guanidine affords greater latitude in selection of aqueous conditions in that it protonates even at mildly alkaline pH values. Under process-relevant conditions, cesium distributions on stripping are decreased on the order of 100-fold compared with current CSSX performance. The extraction properties of the solvent were preserved unchanged over three successive extract-scrub-strip cycles. From the point of view of compatibility with downstream processing, boric acid represents an attractive stripping agent, as it is also a potentially ideal feed for borosilicate vitrification of the separated 137Cs product stream. Possibilities for use of these results toward a dramatically better next-generation CSSX process, possibly one employing the

  18. Process for extractive-stripping of lean hydrocarbon gas streams at high pressure with a preferential physical solvent

    SciTech Connect

    Bunting, T.N.

    1987-09-22

    This patent describes a process for selectively extracting hydrocarbons from a hydrocarbon gas feed stream with a preferential physical solvent which provides selective capability for extremely high recoveries according to any selected degree of a selected hydrocarbon component and heavier hydrocarbons within the group consisting of ethane, propane, butane, and pentane without the need simultaneously to recover hydrocarbons lighter than the selected hydrocarbon component from the hydrocarbon gas feed stream. The recoveries are: (a) ethane in amounts within the range of 2-100%, (b) propane in amounts within the range of 2-100%, (c) butane in amounts within the range of 2-100%, or (d) pentanes and higher molecular weight hydrocarbons in amounts ranging up to 100% by the following steps: (a) selectively extracting and stripping the hydrocarbon gas feed stream with the physical solvent to produce a residue hydrocarbon gas stream of pipeline specifications and a rich solvent stream containing ethane and heavier hydrocarbon components, (b) distilling the rich solvent to produce: (1) the selected hydrocarbon component and heavier hydrocarbons as overhead product. The improvement comprises the selective enrichment of the hydrocarbon gas feed stream with recycle of a selected portion of the overhead product to the extracting and stripping step, whereby the extremely high recoveries according to the any selected degree are feasible without the excessive solvent flow rates or the high reboiler temperatures.

  19. DESCRIPTION OF ATMOSPHERIC TRANSPORT PROCESSES IN EULERIAN AIR QUALITY MODELS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Key differences among many types of air quality models are the way atmospheric advection and turbulent diffusion processes are treated. Gaussian models use analytical solutions of the advection-diffusion equations. Lagrangian models use a hypothetical air parcel concept effecti...

  20. Dissolved air-flotation processes. Technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Krofta, M.; Wang, L.K.

    1986-11-05

    The theories and applications of various dissolved-air-flotation clarifiers (Supracell, Sandfloat, Floatpress, and Sedifloat) are presented. Supracell is a high-rate dissolved-air-flotation clarifier with only 3 to 5 minutes of detention time. Major application of Supracell is industrial-effluent treatment. Sandfloat is a package plant consisting of flocculation, dissolved-air floatation and automatic backwash filtration, and designed for either potable water treatment or tertiary wastewater-treatment. Sedifloat is a wastewater-treatment package plant consisting of both sedimentation and dissolved-air flotation. Floatpress consists of both dissolved air flotation and filter press and is specifically designed for sludge thickening. A Krofta Bargefloat is a floating lake-water clarification plant designed for acid-rain neutralization, phosphorus removal, algae removal and lake-water purification. Bargefloat has built-in chemical feeders, flocculator, dissolved-air-flotation clarifier and sand filter on a barge.

  1. A Novel Powder Metallurgy Processing Approach to Prepare Fine-Grained Cu-Al-Ni Shape-Memory Alloy Strips from Elemental Powders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vajpai, S. K.; Dube, R. K.; Chatterjee, P.; Sangal, S.

    2012-07-01

    The current work describes the experimental results related to the successful preparation of fine-grained, Cu-Al-Ni, high-temperature shape-memory alloy (SMA) strips from elemental Cu, Al, and Ni powders via a novel powder metallurgy (P/M) processing approach. This route consists of short time period ball milling of elemental powder mixture, preform preparation from milled powder, sintering of preforms, hot-densification rolling of unsheathed sintered powder preforms under protective atmosphere, and postconsolidation homogenization treatment of the hot-rolled strips. It has been shown that it is possible to prepare chemically homogeneous Cu-Al-Ni SMA strips consisting of equiaxed grains of average size approximately 6 μm via the current processing approach. It also has been shown that fine-grained microstructure in the finished Cu-Al-Ni SMA strips resulted from the pinning effect of nanosized alumina particles present on the grain boundaries. The finished SMA strips were almost fully martensitic in nature, consisting of a mixture of β1^' } - and γ1^' } -type martensites. The Cu-Al-Ni SMA strips had 677 MPa average fracture strength, coupled with 13 pct average fracture strain. The fractured surfaces of the specimens exhibited primarily dimpled ductile type of fracture, together with some transgranular mode of fracture. The Cu-Al-Ni strips exhibited an almost 100 pct one-way shape recovery after bending followed by unconstrained heating at 1, 2, and 4 pct applied deformation prestrain. The two-way shape-memory strain was found approximately 0.35 pct after 15 training cycles at 4 pct applied training prestrain.

  2. Effect of Posttreatment on Microstructure and Magnetic Properties of Si Steel Strips Prepared by Twin-Roll Continuous Casting Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yi, Yu; Zhou, Zehua; Wang, Zehua; Jiang, Shaoqun; Huang, Weidong

    2012-10-01

    On the basis of early works, Si-steel strips with 3.0 wt pct Si content were prepared by twin-roll continuous casting (TRCC); posttreatment of double cold-rolling with different annealing temperature was completed, and accordingly, optimum parameters were ascertained. The microstructure and magnetic properties of the strips before and after posttreatment were investigated. The results indicated that Si steel strips could be successfully prepared by TRCC, and the best annealing conditions for posttreatment were 1223 K (950 °C) × 3 minutes in the Ar. Si steel strips exhibited the best magnetic properties after optimum posttreatment: core loss of 4.31 W/Kg and magnetic induction intensity of 1.69T. Moreover, proper posttreatment resulted in ordering of Fe3Si of the Si steel strips, and this ordering was a key factor on improvement of magnetic properties.

  3. Optimization and scale-down of wafer-based resist strip and rinse processes for photomask production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aggus, Brant L.; Weaver, Gene

    2002-03-01

    Retrofitting of wafer processing equipment is a common scenario in the photomask industry, as most available tools are built to accommodate the high throughput and substrate size of wafers. The acid process tanks in use at most mask shops are built to suit a single rack of 25 8 inch wafers, each coated with roughly two microns of photoresist. Conversely, a typical photomask shop sends one to two masks at a time through the resist strip line, each coated with 4500 angstroms of resist. The amount of unused volume of active chemical within an 8 inch X 8.5 inch X 10 inch acid tank when it is dumped is enough to warrant a hardware change. Experimentation has shown that it is possible to decrease Piranha usage by 43 percent by optimizing tank size for photomasks. The same logic applies to quick dump rinsers (QDRs). Additionally, water is wasted with 'spray down' processes, whereby masks are sprayed via perforated bars or nozzles. Because a < 0.5 μm viscous sublayer can not be practically achieved through spraying the mask, better cleaning performance is obtained with a bottom-filled weiring process. This is demonstrated through experimental results and theoretical mass transfer models.

  4. REMOVAL OF ORGANIC CCL CONTAMINANTS FROM DRINKING WATERS BY GAC, AIR STRIPPING, AND MEMBRANE PROCESSES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The 1996 amendments to the Safe Drinking Water Act (SWDA) require the US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) to establish a list of unregulated microbiological and chemical contaminants to aid in priority-setting for the Agency's drinking water program. This list, known as t...

  5. Stripping Voltammetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lovrić, Milivoj

    Electrochemical stripping means the oxidative or reductive removal of atoms, ions, or compounds from an electrode surface (or from the electrode body, as in the case of liquid mercury electrodes with dissolved metals) [1-5]. In general, these atoms, ions, or compounds have been preliminarily immobilized on the surface of an inert electrode (or within it) as the result of a preconcentration step, while the products of the electrochemical stripping will dissolve in the electrolytic solution. Often the product of the electrochemical stripping is identical to the analyte before the preconcentration. However, there are exemptions to these rules. Electroanalytical stripping methods comprise two steps: first, the accumulation of a dissolved analyte onto, or in, the working electrode, and, second, the subsequent stripping of the accumulated substance by a voltammetric [3, 5], potentiometric [6, 7], or coulometric [8] technique. In stripping voltammetry, the condition is that there are two independent linear relationships: the first one between the activity of accumulated substance and the concentration of analyte in the sample, and the second between the maximum stripping current and the accumulated substance activity. Hence, a cumulative linear relationship between the maximum response and the analyte concentration exists. However, the electrode capacity for the analyte accumulation is limited and the condition of linearity is satisfied only well below the electrode saturation. For this reason, stripping voltammetry is used mainly in trace analysis. The limit of detection depends on the factor of proportionality between the activity of the accumulated substance and the bulk concentration of the analyte. This factor is a constant in the case of a chemical accumulation, but for electrochemical accumulation it depends on the electrode potential. The factor of proportionality between the maximum stripping current and the analyte concentration is rarely known exactly. In fact

  6. Development of a Novel Gas Pressurized Stripping Process-Based Technology for CO₂ Capture from Post-Combustion Flue Gases

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Shiaoguo

    2015-09-30

    A novel Gas Pressurized Stripping (GPS) post-combustion carbon capture (PCC) process has been developed by Carbon Capture Scientific, LLC, CONSOL Energy Inc., Nexant Inc., and Western Kentucky University in this bench-scale project. The GPS-based process presents a unique approach that uses a gas pressurized technology for CO₂ stripping at an elevated pressure to overcome the energy use and other disadvantages associated with the benchmark monoethanolamine (MEA) process. The project was aimed at performing laboratory- and bench-scale experiments to prove its technical feasibility and generate process engineering and scale-up data, and conducting a techno-economic analysis (TEA) to demonstrate its energy use and cost competitiveness over the MEA process. To meet project goals and objectives, a combination of experimental work, process simulation, and technical and economic analysis studies were applied. The project conducted individual unit lab-scale tests for major process components, including a first absorption column, a GPS column, a second absorption column, and a flasher. Computer simulations were carried out to study the GPS column behavior under different operating conditions, to optimize the column design and operation, and to optimize the GPS process for an existing and a new power plant. The vapor-liquid equilibrium data under high loading and high temperature for the selected amines were also measured. The thermal and oxidative stability of the selected solvents were also tested experimentally and presented. A bench-scale column-based unit capable of achieving at least 90% CO₂ capture from a nominal 500 SLPM coal-derived flue gas slipstream was designed and built. This integrated, continuous, skid-mounted GPS system was tested using real flue gas from a coal-fired boiler at the National Carbon Capture Center (NCCC). The technical challenges of the GPS technology in stability, corrosion, and foaming of selected solvents, and environmental, health and

  7. Integration of photocatalytic oxidation with air stripping of contaminated aquifers. Report for 1 October 1993--30 June 1997

    SciTech Connect

    Changrani, R.; Raupp, G.B.; Turchi, C.

    1998-12-01

    The global objective of this work was to evaluate the integration of gas-solid ultraviolet (UV) photocatalytic oxidation (PCO) downstream of an air stripper as a technology for cost-effectively treating water pumped from an aquifer contaminated with chlorinated volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Experimental work was performed at the bench-scale in the laboratory during the first phase of the project, and at the pilot-scale in a simulated field-test situation during the second phase.

  8. Producing thin strips by twin-roll casting—part II: Process modeling and development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Ben Q.

    1995-08-01

    Extensive modeling work has appeared over the last decade and has contributed significantly to the fundamental understanding of the physical phenomena involved in twin-roll casting, such as fluid flow, heat transfer, and thermomechanical processing. The commitment of metals producers to the technology is strong, which is evidenced by numerous pilot-scale casters that have been constructed worldwide. Together with the process models, these casters have been instrumental in developing new process designs and in improving and optimizing the performance of existing twin-roll casters. Current R&D efforts are intensive in both the aluminum and the steel industries, with the former aiming to gain a higher productivity and the latter striving to scale up from pilot plants to commercial production.

  9. RESULTS OF THE EXTRACTION-SCRUB-STRIP TESTING USING AN IMPROVED SOLVENT FORMULATION AND SALT WASTE PROCESSING FACILITY SIMULATED WASTE

    SciTech Connect

    Peters, T.; Washington, A.; Fink, S.

    2012-01-09

    The Office of Waste Processing, within the Office of Technology Innovation and Development, is funding the development of an enhanced solvent - also known as the next generation solvent (NGS) - for deployment at the Savannah River Site to remove cesium from High Level Waste. The technical effort is a collaborative effort between Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL). As part of the program, the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) has performed a number of Extraction-Scrub-Strip (ESS) tests. These batch contact tests serve as first indicators of the cesium mass transfer solvent performance with actual or simulated waste. The test detailed in this report used simulated Tank 49H material, with the addition of extra potassium. The potassium was added at 1677 mg/L, the maximum projected (i.e., a worst case feed scenario) value for the Salt Waste Processing Facility (SWPF). The results of the test gave favorable results given that the potassium concentration was elevated (1677 mg/L compared to the current 513 mg/L). The cesium distribution value, DCs, for extraction was 57.1. As a comparison, a typical D{sub Cs} in an ESS test, using the baseline solvent formulation and the typical waste feed, is {approx}15. The Modular Caustic Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU) uses the Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX) process to remove cesium (Cs) from alkaline waste. This process involves the use of an organic extractant, BoBCalixC6, in an organic matrix to selectively remove cesium from the caustic waste. The organic solvent mixture flows counter-current to the caustic aqueous waste stream within centrifugal contactors. After extracting the cesium, the loaded solvent is stripped of cesium by contact with dilute nitric acid and the cesium concentrate is transferred to the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF), while the organic solvent is cleaned and recycled for further use. The Salt Waste Processing Facility (SWPF), under

  10. Epoxy-paint stripping using TEA CO2 laser: Determination of threshold fluence and the process parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Manoj; Bhargava, P.; Biswas, A. K.; Sahu, Shasikiran; Mandloi, V.; Ittoop, M. O.; Khattak, B. Q.; Tiwari, M. K.; Kukreja, L. M.

    2013-03-01

    It is shown that the threshold fluence for laser paint stripping can be accurately estimated from the heat of gasification and the absorption coefficient of the epoxy-paint. The threshold fluence determined experimentally by stripping of the epoxy-paint on a substrate using a TEA CO2 laser matches closely with the calculated value. The calculated threshold fluence and the measured absorption coefficient of the paint allowed us to determine the epoxy paint thickness that would be removed per pulse at a given laser fluence even without experimental trials. This was used to predict the optimum scan speed required to strip the epoxy-paint of a given thickness using a high average power TEA CO2 laser. Energy Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence (EDXRF) studies were also carried out on laser paint-stripped concrete substrate to show high efficacy of this modality.

  11. Strip and load data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, R. H.

    1984-01-01

    The method of taking batch data files and loading these files into the ADABAS data base management system (DBMS) is examined. This strip and load process allows the user to quickly become productive. Techniques for data fields and files definition are also included.

  12. An experimental investigation of springback of AA6061 aluminum alloy strip via V- bending process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdullah, A. B.; Samad, Z.

    2013-12-01

    Springback is one of the common geometrical defects found in the sheet metal forming process. Aluminium alloy with high content of magnesium such as AA6061 is preferred for their high formability limit, but commonly springback becomes a drawback. In this study, springback behaviour of the AA6061 will be observed. The effect of length, thickness and bend angle to the springback pattern was investigated and the result depicted that springback is more significant to thickness and bend angle, while the length gives less effect.

  13. Air Force research in optical processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neff, J.

    1981-01-01

    Optical and optical electronic hybrid processing especially in the application area of image processing are emphasized. Real time pattern recognition processors for such airborne missions as target recognition, tracking, and terminal guidance are studied.

  14. Robotic Stripping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    UltraStrip Systems, Inc.'s M-200 removes paint from the hulls of ships faster than traditional grit-blasting methods. And, it does so without producing toxic airborne particles common to traditional methods. The M-2000 magnetically attaches itself to the hull of the ship. Its water jets generate 40,000 pounds of pressure per square inch, blasting away paint down to the ships steel substrate. The only by product is water and dried paint chips and these are captured by a vacuum system so no toxic residue can escape. It was built out of a partnership between the Jet Propulsion Laboratory and the National Robotics Engineering Consortium.

  15. Laser processing of polytetrafluoroethylene (Teflon) in air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Z. B.; Hong, Ming Hui; Lu, Yong Feng; Chong, Tow Chong

    2003-02-01

    Teflon, polytetrafluorethylene (PTFE), is an important material in bioscience and medical application due to its special characteristics (non-flammable, anti-adhesive, heat-resistant and bio-compatible). The advantages of ultrashort laser processing of Teflon include a minimal thermal penetration region and low processing temperatures, precision removal of material, and good-quality feature definition. In this paper, laser processing of Teflon by Ti:Sapphire femtosecond laser (780 nm, 110 fs), Nd:YAG laser (532 nm, 7 ns) and CO2 laser (10.6 μm, 10 μs) has been investigated. For femtosecond laser processing, clear ablation takes place and provides high-quality groove on Teflon surface. Both the groove depth and the width increase as the laser fluence increase, and decrease almost linearly as the scanning speed increase for laser fluence below 5.0 J/cm2. For Nd:YAG processing, Teflon surface roughness is improved but no clean ablation is accessible, which makes it difficult to micromachine Teflon by Nd:YAG laser. For CO2 laser processing, laser-induced bumps were formed on Teflon surface with controlled laser parameters. The physics mechanisms for different pulse duration laser processing of Teflon are also discussed.

  16. Characterization of process air emissions in automotive production plants.

    PubMed

    D'Arcy, J B; Dasch, J M; Gundrum, A B; Rivera, J L; Johnson, J H; Carlson, D H; Sutherland, J W

    2016-01-01

    During manufacturing, particles produced from industrial processes become airborne. These airborne emissions represent a challenge from an industrial hygiene and environmental standpoint. A study was undertaken to characterize the particles associated with a variety of manufacturing processes found in the auto industry. Air particulates were collected in five automotive plants covering ten manufacturing processes in the areas of casting, machining, heat treatment and assembly. Collection procedures provided information on air concentration, size distribution, and chemical composition of the airborne particulate matter for each process and insight into the physical and chemical processes that created those particles. PMID:26273851

  17. STRIPPING PROCESS FOR PLUTONIUM

    DOEpatents

    Kolodney, M.

    1959-10-01

    A method for removing silver, nickel, cadmium, zinc, and indium coatings from plutonium objects while simultaneously rendering the plutonium object passive is described. The coated plutonium object is immersed as the anode in an electrolyte in which the plutonium is passive and the coating metal is not passive, using as a cathode a metal which does not dissolve rapidly in the electrolyte. and passing an electrical current through the electrolyte until the coating metal is removed from the plutonium body.

  18. Air separation by the Moltox process. Interim final report

    SciTech Connect

    Erickson, D.C.

    1981-04-01

    Results are described of a development program on a new and energy-saving process for air separation. The Moltox process involves reversibly reacting oxygen in air with a recirculating salt solution, such that oxygen is extracted without depressurizing the remaining nitrogen. Energy savings of approximately 50% are indicated for this process compared to conventional cryogenic air separation. The development program consisted of design, construction, and operation of a 6 liter/minute pilot plant; optimization of the process flowsheet through computer modelling; investigation of engineering aspects of the process including corrosion, safety, and NO/sub x/ generation; and an economic comparison to conventional cryogenic practice. All objectives were satisfactorily achieved except for continuous operation of the pilot plant, and the modifications necessary to achieve that have been identified. Economically the Moltox process shows a substantial advantage over large scale cryogenic plants which are powered by fuel vice electricity.

  19. Air stripping, oxidation, and activated-carbon adsorption studies for removal of taste and odor organics from water

    SciTech Connect

    Lalezary-Craig, S.

    1987-01-01

    A major class of water-consumer complaints are attributed to naturally occurring causatives of tastes and odors, among which a subgroup - the earthy-musty taste and odor compounds, documented to be spread worldwide - provides a special challenge to the scientific community and water utilities. The study was designed and executed to develop a firm basis for an understanding of the problem, as well as for optimization of process parameters for different-treatment techniques. The investigation began with determination of the physicochemical properties of a group of five earthy-musty taste and odor compounds including geosmin, 2-isobutyl-3-methoxy pyrazine (IBMP), 2-isopropyl-3-methoxy pyrazine (IPMP), 2-methylisoborneol (MIB), and 2, 3, 6-trichloroanisole (TCA). The second phase of the study investigated aeration, the application of oxidants such as chlorine, chlorine dioxide, and potassium permanganate, and several absorbents including manganese dioxide, kaolinite, and bentonite, for the mitigation of taste-and-odor problem. Other treatment processes investigated were ozonation and activated carbon adsorption. To investigate the efficiency of powdered activated carbon and closely simulate full-scale treatment operations, pilot-plant studies were conducted at one of the several plants operated by the Metropolitan Water District of Southern California.

  20. Effect of Nb Microalloying and Hot Rolling on Microstructure and Properties of Ultrathin Cast Strip Steels Produced by the CASTRIP® Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Kelvin Y.; Yao, Lan; Zhu, Chen; Cairney, Julie M.; Killmore, Chris R.; Barbaro, Frank J.; Williams, James G.; Ringer, Simon P.

    2011-08-01

    The microstructure and corresponding tensile properties of both plain and Nb-microalloyed grades of ultrathin cast strip (UCS) low alloy steel produced using the CASTRIP® process were studied. Both as-cast and hot-rolled strip cast steels with various levels of Nb microalloying were manufactured and investigated in this study. Hot rolling had little effect on the yield strength of Nb microalloyed UCS specimens for a given chemical composition, but resulted in a slightly finer microstructure. The effect of Nb microalloying was significant, and this is attributable to the promotion of finer, tougher austenite transformation products such as bainite and acicular ferrite at the expense of large polygonal ferrite grains. A fine dispersion of Nb solute clusters was observed in all Nb-containing steels following hot rolling, and it is suggested that this also contributes to the observed strengthening.

  1. Pretreatment of anaerobic digestion effluent with ammonia stripping and biogas purification.

    PubMed

    Lei, Xiaohui; Sugiura, Norio; Feng, Chuanping; Maekawa, Takaaki

    2007-07-16

    In this study, ammonia stripping was optimized for pretreating anaerobic digestion effluent from an anaerobic digestion plant, and the possibility of using CO(2) stripping and biogas injection for adjusting the pH of the effluent before and after the ammonia stripping process was also investigated. For ammonia stripping, the results showed that an overdose of calcium hydroxide, i.e., 27.5g/L wastewater, achieved higher ammonia, phosphorus, chemical oxygen demand, suspended solids, and turbidity removal efficiency. An air flow rate of 5L/min for 1L of wastewater was thought as suitable for engineering application. The pH of the anaerobic digestion effluent can be increased from about 7 to about 9 by CO(2) stripping, however which is insufficient for ammonia stripping. For 1L of wastewater treated after ammonia stripping, the pH can be neutralized to about 7 from greater than 11 through biogas injection at 1L/min for less than 30min, and continuous injection does not decrease the pH. It was roughly estimated that 43m(3) of biogas (CH(4):CO(2) approximately 60%:40%) produced daily could be purified to CH(4):CO(2) approximately 74%:26% by neutralizing the pH of the 5m(3) anaerobic digestion effluent pretreated by ammonia stripping. PMID:17178436

  2. Ammonia stripping of biologically treated liquid manure.

    PubMed

    Alitalo, Anni; Kyrö, Aleksis; Aura, Erkki

    2012-01-01

    A prerequisite for efficient ammonia removal in air stripping is that the pH of the liquid to be stripped is sufficiently high. Swine manure pH is usually around 7. At pH 7 (at 20°C), only 0.4% of ammonium is in ammonia form, and it is necessary to raise the pH of swine slurry to achieve efficient ammonia removal. Because manure has a very high buffering capacity, large amounts of chemicals are needed to change the slurry pH. The present study showed that efficient air stripping of manure can be achieved with a small amount of chemicals and without strong bases like NaOH. Slurry was subjected to aerobic biological treatment to raise pH before stripping. This facilitated 8 to 32% ammonia removal without chemical treatment. The slurry was further subjected to repeated cycles of stripping with MgO and Ca(OH)(2) additions after the first and second strippings, respectively, to raise slurry pH in between the stripping cycles. After three consecutive stripping cycles, 59 to 86% of the original ammonium had been removed. It was shown that the reduction in buffer capacity of the slurry was due to ammonia and carbonate removal during the stripping cycles. PMID:22218195

  3. Ammonia stripping, activated carbon adsorption and anaerobic biological oxidation as process combination for the treatment of oil shale wastewater.

    PubMed

    Alexandre, Verônica M F; do Nascimento, Felipe V; Cammarota, Magali C

    2016-10-01

    Anaerobic biodegradability of oil shale wastewater was investigated after the following pretreatment sequence: ammonia stripping and activated carbon adsorption. Anaerobic biological treatment of oil shale wastewater is technically feasible after stripping at pH 11 for reducing the N-NH3 concentration, adsorption with 5 g/L of activated carbon in order to reduce recalcitrance and pH adjustment with CO2 so that the sulphate concentration in the medium remains low. After this pretreatment sequence, it was possible to submit the wastewater without dilution to an anaerobic treatment with 62.7% soluble chemical oxygen demand removal and specific methane production of 233.2 mL CH4STP/g CODremoved. PMID:27003628

  4. Mechanism of photoreductive stripping of iron(III) in a liquid-liquid extraction system and its application for a hydrometallurgical process

    SciTech Connect

    Nishihama, Syouhei; Hirai, Takayuki; Komasawa, Isao

    1999-12-01

    The mechanism of the photoreductive stripping of iron(III) in the liquid-liquid extraction process was investigated by employing (2-ethylhexyl)phosphonic acid mono(2-ethylhexyl) ester (EHPNA) and bis(2-ethylhexyl)phosphoric acid (D2EHPA) as extractants, n-dodecane and kerosene as diluents, and a xenon lamp as the light source. The photoreductive stripping of iron(III) progressed by photoirradiation following an initial induction period caused by dissolved oxygen in the extraction system. The iron(III)-extractant complex was photoexcited in the organic phase and photoreduced to the iron(II) complex by electron donation from the water at the aqueous/organic interface. A kinetic study of the photoreductive stripping of iron(III) revealed that the photochemical reduction of iron(III) was the rate-determining step. The removal of iron from a simulated zinc refinery residue solution by using liquid-liquid extraction combined with photochemical reduction of iron was also investigated, showing that the rare metals in the refinery residue, gallium and indium, were recovered effectively and leaving almost all iron(III) in the aqueous phase.

  5. Spray Rolling Aluminum Strip

    SciTech Connect

    Lavernia, E.J.; Delplanque, J-P; McHugh, K.M.

    2006-05-10

    Spray forming is a competitive low-cost alternative to ingot metallurgy for manufacturing ferrous and non-ferrous alloy shapes. It produces materials with a reduced number of processing steps, while maintaining materials properties, with the possibility of near-net-shape manufacturing. However, there are several hurdles to large-scale commercial adoption of spray forming: 1) ensuring strip is consistently flat, 2) eliminating porosity, particularly at the deposit/substrate interface, and 3) improving material yield. Through this program, a new strip/sheet casting process, termed spray rolling, has been developed, which is an innovative manufacturing technique to produce aluminum net-shape products. Spray rolling combines the benefits of twin-roll casting and conventional spray forming, showing a promising potential to overcome the above hurdles associated with spray forming. Spray rolling requires less energy and generates less scrap than conventional processes and, consequently, enables the development of materials with lower environmental impacts in both processing and final products. Spray Rolling was developed as a collaborative project between the University of California-Davis, the Colorado School of Mines, the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory, and an industry team. The following objectives of this project were achieved: (1) Demonstration of the feasibility of the spray rolling process at the bench-scale level and evaluation of the materials properties of spray rolled aluminum strip alloys; and (2) Demonstration of 2X scalability of the process and documentation of technical hurdles to further scale up and initiate technology transfer to industry for eventual commercialization of the process.

  6. Experimental Air Pressure Tank Systems for Process Control Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Long, Christopher E.; Holland, Charles E.; Gatzke, Edward P.

    2006-01-01

    In process control education, particularly in the field of chemical engineering, there is an inherent need for industrially relevant hands-on apparatuses that enable one to bridge the gap between the theoretical content of coursework and real-world applications. At the University of South Carolina, two experimental air-pressure tank systems have…

  7. Materials, design and processing of air encapsulated MEMS packaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fritz, Nathan T.

    This work uses a three-dimensional air cavity technology to improve the fabrication, and functionality of microelectronics devices, performance of on-board transmission lines, and packaging of micro-electromechanical systems (MEMS). The air cavity process makes use of the decomposition of a patterned sacrificial polymer followed by the diffusion of its by-products through a curing polymer overcoat to obtain the embedded air structure. Applications and research of air cavities have focused on simple designs that concentrate on the size and functionality of the particular device. However, a lack of guidelines for fabrication, materials used, and structural design has led to mechanical stability issues and processing refinements. This work investigates improved air gap cavities for use in MEMS packaging processes, resulting in fewer fabrication flaws and lower cost. The identification of new materials, such as novel photo-definable organic/inorganic hybrid polymers, was studied for increased strength and rigidity due to their glass-like structure. A novel epoxy polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane (POSS) material was investigated and characterized for use as a photodefineable, permanent dielectrics with improved mechanical properties. The POSS material improved the air gap fabrication because it served as a high-selectivity etch mask for patterning sacrificial materials as well as a cavity overcoat material with improved rigidity. An investigation of overcoat thickness and decomposition kinetics provided a fundamental understanding of the properties that impart mechanical stability to cavities of different shape and volume. Metallization of the cavities was investigated so as to provide hermetic sealing and improved cavity strength. The improved air cavity, wafer-level packages were tested using resonator-type devices and chip-level lead frame packaging. The air cavity package was molded under traditional lead frame molding pressures and tested for mechanical

  8. Bench-Scale Development of a Hot Carbonate Absorption Process with Crystallization-Enabled High-Pressure Stripping for Post-Combustion CO{sub 2} Capture

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, Yongqi; DeVries, Nicholas; Ruhter, David; Manoranjan, Sahu; Ye, Qing; Ye, Xinhuai; Zhang, Shihan; Chen, Scott; Li, Zhiwei; O'Brien, Kevin

    2014-03-31

    A novel Hot Carbonate Absorption Process with Crystallization-Enabled High-Pressure Stripping (Hot-CAP) has been developed by the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign and Carbon Capture Scientific, LLC in this three-year, bench-scale project. The Hot-CAP features a concentrated carbonate solution (e.g., K{sub 2}CO{sub 3}) for CO{sub 2} absorption and a bicarbonate slurry (e.g., KHCO{sub 3}) for high-pressure CO{sub 2} stripping to overcome the energy use and other disadvantages associated with the benchmark monoethanolamine (MEA) process. The project was aimed at performing laboratory- and bench-scale experiments to prove its technical feasibility and generate process engineering and scale-up data, and conducting a techno-economic analysis (TEA) to demonstrate its energy use and cost competitiveness over MEA. To meet project goals and objectives, a combination of experimental, modeling, process simulation, and economic analysis studies were applied. Carefully designed and intensive experiments were conducted to measure thermodynamic and reaction engineering data relevant to four major unit operations in the Hot-CAP (i.e., CO{sub 2} absorption, CO{sub 2} stripping, bicarbonate crystallization, and sulfate reclamation). The rate promoters that could accelerate the CO{sub 2} absorption rate into the potassium carbonate/bicarbonate (PCB) solution to a level greater than that into the 5 M MEA solution were identified, and the superior performance of CO{sub 2} absorption into PCB was demonstrated in a bench-scale packed-bed column. Kinetic data on bicarbonate crystallization were developed and applied for crystallizer design and sizing. Parametric testing of high-pressure CO{sub 2} stripping with concentrated bicarbonate-dominant slurries at high temperatures ({>=}140{degrees}C) in a bench-scale stripping column demonstrated lower heat use than with MEA. The feasibility of a modified process for combining SO{sub 2} removal with CO{sub 2} capture was preliminarily

  9. Cutting Tool Wear After Pulsed Laser Processing in Air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yares'ko, S. I.

    2014-01-01

    We have ascertained the influence of the oxide film formed on the surface of the laser-processed zone of tool steels by irradiation in air on the wear of the cutting tool. It has been shown that laser pulsed processing makes it possible to influence actively the process of its wear. The presence of the oxide film increases the wear stability of the tool in a wide range of cutting speeds, widens the range of cutting regimes in which its least wear is achieved, and minimizes the wear rate. Cutting regimes, in which the highest efficiency of the irradiated tool is achieved, have been established.

  10. Processing of n+/p-/p+ strip detectors with atomic layer deposition (ALD) grown Al2O3 field insulator on magnetic Czochralski silicon (MCz-si) substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Härkönen, J.; Tuovinen, E.; Luukka, P.; Gädda, A.; Mäenpää, T.; Tuominen, E.; Arsenovich, T.; Junkes, A.; Wu, X.; Li, Z.

    2016-08-01

    Detectors manufactured on p-type silicon material are known to have significant advantages in very harsh radiation environment over n-type detectors, traditionally used in High Energy Physics experiments for particle tracking. In p-type (n+ segmentation on p substrate) position-sensitive strip detectors, however, the fixed oxide charge in the silicon dioxide is positive and, thus, causes electron accumulation at the Si/SiO2 interface. As a result, unless appropriate interstrip isolation is applied, the n-type strips are short-circuited. Widely adopted methods to terminate surface electron accumulation are segmented p-stop or p-spray field implantations. A different approach to overcome the near-surface electron accumulation at the interface of silicon dioxide and p-type silicon is to deposit a thin film field insulator with negative oxide charge. We have processed silicon strip detectors on p-type Magnetic Czochralski silicon (MCz-Si) substrates with aluminum oxide (Al2O3) thin film insulator, grown with Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD) method. The electrical characterization by current-voltage and capacitance-voltage measurement shows reliable performance of the aluminum oxide. The final proof of concept was obtained at the test beam with 200 GeV/c muons. For the non-irradiated detector the charge collection efficiency (CCE) was nearly 100% with a signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) of about 40, whereas for the 2×1015 neq/cm2 proton irradiated detector the CCE was 35%, when the sensor was biased at 500 V. These results are comparable with the results from p-type detectors with the p-spray and p-stop interstrip isolation techniques. In addition, interestingly, when the aluminum oxide was irradiated with Co-60 gamma-rays, an accumulation of negative fixed oxide charge in the oxide was observed.

  11. Varicose vein stripping

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002952.htm Varicose vein stripping To use the sharing features on this ... enable JavaScript. Vein stripping is surgery to remove varicose veins in the legs. Description Varicose veins are swollen, ...

  12. Make phthalic anhydride with low air ratio process

    SciTech Connect

    Verde, L.; Nari, A.

    1984-11-01

    A new process for the production of phthalic anhydride from o-xylene has been developed by Alusuisse Italia S.p.A. and is now being implemented in one of the two large reactors (15,500 tubes each) of Ftalital, Division of Alusuisse Italia. The main advantages of the new technology in comparison with the best current technology (the low energy process are essentially the following: An increase of the catalyst productivity by more than 40% A reduction of weight air/o-xylene ratio from 20:1 to 9.5:1 (corresponding to an increase in o-xylene concentration in air from 65 g/Nm/sup 3/ to 134 g/Nm/sup 3/); A consequent reduction of both capital investment and energy consumption, which contribute to reducing the transfer price of production of phthalic anhydride by more than US$40 per metric ton, at the present prevailing raw material and utilities costs. The new technology at low air ratio (LAR Process) was predicted upon the development of a new catalyst formulation specifically adapted to the purpose. This required about two years of research work in laboratories and pilot facilities of Alusuisse Italia.

  13. MEMBRANE BIOTREATMENT OF VOC-LADEN AIR

    EPA Science Inventory

    Microporous flat-sheet and hollow-fiber membrane contactors were used to support air-liquid and liquid-liquid mass transfer interfaces. Modular contactors were used in a two-step process designed to transfer VOCs from a contaminated air stream, through a stripping fluid, to a deg...

  14. Conveyorized Photoresist Stripping Replacement for Flex Circuit Fabrication

    SciTech Connect

    Megan Donahue

    2009-02-24

    A replacement conveyorized photoresist stripping system was characterized to replace the ASI photoresist stripping system. This system uses the qualified ADF-25c chemistry for the fabrication of flex circuits, while the ASI uses the qualified potassium hydroxide chemistry. The stripping process removes photoresist, which is used to protect the copper traces being formed during the etch process.

  15. Supporting the Future Air Traffic Control Projection Process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davison, Hayley J.; Hansman, R. John, Jr.

    2002-01-01

    In air traffic control, projecting what the air traffic situation will be over the next 30 seconds to 30 minutes is a key process in identifying conflicts that may arise so that evasive action can be taken upon discovery of these conflicts. A series of field visits in the Boston and New York terminal radar approach control (TRACON) facilities and in the oceanic air traffic control facilities in New York and Reykjavik, Iceland were conducted to investigate the projection process in two different ATC domains. The results from the site visits suggest that two types of projection are currently used in ATC tasks, depending on the type of separation minima and/or traffic restriction and information display used by the controller. As technologies improve and procedures change, care should be taken by designers to support projection through displays, automation, and procedures. It is critical to prevent time/space mismatches between interfaces and restrictions. Existing structure in traffic dynamics could be utilized to provide controllers with useful behavioral models on which to build projections. Subtle structure that the controllers are unable to internalize could be incorporated into an ATC projection aid.

  16. Lateral flow strip assay

    SciTech Connect

    Miles, Robin R.; Benett, William J.; Coleman, Matthew A.; Pearson, Francesca S.; Nasarabadi, Shanavaz L.

    2011-03-08

    A lateral flow strip assay apparatus comprising a housing; a lateral flow strip in the housing, the lateral flow strip having a receiving portion; a sample collection unit; and a reagent reservoir. Saliva and/or buccal cells are collected from an individual using the sample collection unit. The sample collection unit is immersed in the reagent reservoir. The tip of the lateral flow strip is immersed in the reservoir and the reagent/sample mixture wicks up into the lateral flow strip to perform the assay.

  17. Generation of low-temperature air plasma for food processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stepanova, Olga; Demidova, Maria; Astafiev, Alexander; Pinchuk, Mikhail; Balkir, Pinar; Turantas, Fulya

    2015-11-01

    The project is aimed at developing a physical and technical foundation of generating plasma with low gas temperature at atmospheric pressure for food industry needs. As known, plasma has an antimicrobial effect on the numerous types of microorganisms, including those that cause food spoilage. In this work an original experimental setup has been developed for the treatment of different foods. It is based on initiating corona or dielectric-barrier discharge in a chamber filled with ambient air in combination with a certain helium admixture. The experimental setup provides various conditions of discharge generation (including discharge gap geometry, supply voltage, velocity of gas flow, content of helium admixture in air and working pressure) and allows for the measurement of the electrical discharge parameters. Some recommendations on choosing optimal conditions of discharge generation for experiments on plasma food processing are developed.

  18. Effects of air flow directions on composting process temperature profile

    SciTech Connect

    Kulcu, Recep; Yaldiz, Osman

    2008-07-01

    In this study, chicken manure mixed with carnation wastes was composted by using three different air flow directions: R1-sucking (downward), R2-blowing (upward) and R3-mixed. The aim was to find out the most appropriate air flow direction type for composting to provide more homogenous temperature distribution in the reactors. The efficiency of each aeration method was evaluated by monitoring the evolution of parameters such as temperature, moisture content, CO{sub 2} and O{sub 2} ratio in the material and dry material losses. Aeration of the reactors was managed by radial fans. The results showed that R3 resulted in a more homogenous temperature distribution and high dry material loss throughout the composting process. The most heterogeneous temperature distribution and the lowest dry material loss were obtained in R2.

  19. Air

    MedlinePlus

    ... do to protect yourself from dirty air . Indoor air pollution and outdoor air pollution Air can be polluted indoors and it can ... this chart to see what things cause indoor air pollution and what things cause outdoor air pollution! Indoor ...

  20. Process study and exergy analysis of a novel air separation process cooled by LNG cold energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Wendong; Duan, Jiao; Mao, Wenjun

    2014-02-01

    In order to resolve the problems of the current air separation process such as the complex process, cumbersome operation and high operating costs, a novel air separation process cooled by LNG cold energy is proposed in this paper, which is based on high-efficiency heat exchanger network and chemical packing separation technology. The operating temperature range of LNG cold energy is widened from 133K-203K to 113K-283K by high-efficiency heat exchanger network and air separation pressure is declined from 0.5MPa to about 0.35MPa due to packing separation technology, thereby greatly improve the energy efficiency. Both the traditional and novel air separation processes are simulated with air handling capacity of 20t·h-1. Comparing with the traditional process, the LNG consumption is reduced by 44.2%, power consumption decrease is 211.5 kWh per hour, which means the annual benefit will be up to 1.218 million CNY. And the exergy efficiency is also improved by 42.5%.

  1. 32 CFR 806.29 - Administrative processing of Air Force FOIA requests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Administrative processing of Air Force FOIA requests. 806.29 Section 806.29 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE ADMINISTRATION AIR FORCE FREEDOM OF INFORMATION ACT PROGRAM § 806.29 Administrative processing of Air Force FOIA requests. (a) This section...

  2. 32 CFR 806.27 - Samples of Air Force FOIA processing documents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Samples of Air Force FOIA processing documents. 806.27 Section 806.27 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE ADMINISTRATION AIR FORCE FREEDOM OF INFORMATION ACT PROGRAM § 806.27 Samples of Air Force FOIA processing documents. (a) This section...

  3. Corrosion study in the chemical air separation (MOLTOX trademark ) process

    SciTech Connect

    Kang, Doohee; Wong, Kai P.; Archer, R.A.; Cassano, A.A.

    1988-12-01

    This report presents the results of studies aimed at solving the corrosion problems encountered during operation of the MOLTOX{trademark} pilot plant. These studies concentrated on the screening of commercial and developmental alloys under conditions simulating operation conditions in this high temperature molten salt process. Process economic studies were preformed in parallel with the laboratory testing to ensure that an economically feasible solution would be achieved. In addition to the above DOE co-funded studies, Air Products and Chemicals pursued proprietary studies aimed at developing a less corrosive salt mixture which would potentially allow the use of chemurgically available alloys such as stainless steels throughout the system. These studies will not be reported here; however, the results of corrosion tests in the new less corrosive salt mixtures are reported. Because our own studies on salt chemistry impacts heavily on the overall process and thereby has an influence on the experimental work conducted under this contract, some of the studies discussed here were impacted by our own proprietary data. Therefore, the reasons behind some of the experiments presented herein will not be explained because that information is proprietary to Air Products. 14 refs., 42 figs., 21 tabs.

  4. Process to manufacture effervescent tablets: air forced oven melt granulation.

    PubMed

    Yanze, F M; Duru, C; Jacob, M

    2000-12-01

    In the present study we apply melt granulation in an air forced oven, called "are forced oven melt granulation" to the single-stage manufacture of effervescent granules consisting of anhydrous citric acid (43.2%) and sodium bicarbonate (56.8%) in order to make tablets. This study established that process parameters such as concentration of PEG 6000, residence time in the air forced oven, fineness of PEG 6000, fineness of the initial effervescent mix and efficiency of two lubricants markedly influenced several granule and tablet characteristics. The granules ready to be compressed into tablets were stable for 7 days at 60% RH/18 degrees C. It is a dry, simple, rapid, effective, economical, reproducible process particularly well suited to the manufacture of effervescent granules which are easily compressed into effervescent tablets. Of all the formulations tested, only formulations B2 and E2 melt granulated for 30 minutes gave tablets which had optimum compression characteristics without processing problems during compression. PMID:11189868

  5. Ozone Generation in Air during Electron Beam Processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cleland, Marshall R.; Galloway, Richard A.

    Ozone, the triatomic form of oxygen, can be generated by exposing normal diatomic oxygen gas to energetic electrons, X-rays, nuclear gamma rays, short-wavelength ultraviolet radiation (UV) and electrical discharges. Ozone is toxic to all forms of life, and governmental regulations have been established to protect people from excessive exposures to this gas. The human threshold limit values (TLV) vary from 60 to 100 parts per billion (ppb) in air, depending on the agency or country involved. Much higher concentrations can be produced inside industrial electron beam (EB) facilities, so methods for ozone removal must be provided. Equations for calculating the ozone yield vs absorbed energy, the production rate vs absorbed power, and the concentration in the air of an EB facility are presented in this paper. Since the production rate and concentration are proportional to the EB power dissipated in air, they are dependent on the design and application of the irradiation facility. Examples of these calculations are given for a typical EB process to cross-link insulated electrical wire or plastic tubing. The electron energy and beam power are assumed to be 1.5 MeV and 75 kW.

  6. Process for removing an organic compound from water

    DOEpatents

    Baker, Richard W.; Kaschemekat, Jurgen; Wijmans, Johannes G.; Kamaruddin, Henky D.

    1993-12-28

    A process for removing organic compounds from water is disclosed. The process involves gas stripping followed by membrane separation treatment of the stripping gas. The stripping step can be carried out using one or multiple gas strippers and using air or any other gas as stripping gas. The membrane separation step can be carried out using a single-stage membrane unit or a multistage unit. Apparatus for carrying out the process is also disclosed. The process is particularly suited for treatment of contaminated groundwater or industrial wastewater.

  7. Ignition, Burning, and Extinction of a Strained Fuel Strip

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Selerland, T.; Karagozian, A. R.

    1996-01-01

    Flame structure and ignition and extinction processes associated with a strained fuel strip are explored numerically using detailed transport and complex kinetics for a propane-air reaction. Ignition modes are identified that are similar to those predicted by one-step activation energy asymptotics, i.e., modes in which diffusion flames can ignite as independent or dependent interfaces, and modes in which single premixed or partially premixed flames ignite. These ignition modes are found to be dependent on critical combinations of strain rate, fuel strip thickness, and initial reactant temperatures. Extinction in this configuration is seen to occur due to fuel consumption by adjacent flames, although viscosity is seen to have the effect of delaying extinction by reducing the effective strain rate and velocity field experienced by the flames.

  8. Release of air toxics during coating operations -- Understanding the process

    SciTech Connect

    Brush, P.A.; Fultz, B.S.

    1997-12-31

    Air toxics emissions, specifically volatile organic compounds (VOC), occur during the mixing, application, and drying of coatings. However, the means by which these emissions are quantified are generally a gross exaggeration. Many times this over-estimation results in the placement of permit emission limits on facilities that restrict operations unnecessarily. This paper will present and discuss the coating application process giving special attention to the points in the process and time periods over which VOCs may be released to the atmosphere. Finally, the highly conservative nature of emission estimation techniques and the methods by which permit limits are developed will be discussed and an alternative approach suggested that more closely represents VOC releases that occur during coating operations; thereby, allowing facilities to realize their operational potential without compromising the potential health impacts to offsite receptors.

  9. Anatomy comic strips.

    PubMed

    Park, Jin Seo; Kim, Dae Hyun; Chung, Min Suk

    2011-01-01

    Comics are powerful visual messages that convey immediate visceral meaning in ways that conventional texts often cannot. This article's authors created comic strips to teach anatomy more interestingly and effectively. Four-frame comic strips were conceptualized from a set of anatomy-related humorous stories gathered from the authors' collective imagination. The comics were drawn on paper and then recreated with digital graphics software. More than 500 comic strips have been drawn and labeled in Korean language, and some of them have been translated into English. All comic strips can be viewed on the Department of Anatomy homepage at the Ajou University School of Medicine, Suwon, Republic of Korea. The comic strips were written and drawn by experienced anatomists, and responses from viewers have generally been favorable. These anatomy comic strips, designed to help students learn the complexities of anatomy in a straightforward and humorous way, are expected to be improved further by the authors and other interested anatomists. PMID:21634024

  10. Mobile air monitoring data processing strategies and effects on spatial air pollution trends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brantley, H. L.; Hagler, G. S. W.; Kimbrough, S.; Williams, R. W.; Mukerjee, S.; Neas, L. M.

    2013-12-01

    The collection of real-time air quality measurements while in motion (i.e., mobile monitoring) is currently conducted worldwide to evaluate in situ emissions, local air quality trends, and air pollutant exposure. This measurement strategy pushes the limits of traditional data analysis with complex second-by-second multipollutant data varying as a function of time and location. Data reduction and filtering techniques are often applied to deduce trends, such as pollutant spatial gradients downwind of a highway. However, rarely do mobile monitoring studies report the sensitivity of their results to the chosen data processing approaches. The study being reported here utilized a large mobile monitoring dataset collected on a roadway network in central North Carolina to explore common data processing strategies including time-alignment, short-term emissions event detection, background estimation, and averaging techniques. One-second time resolution measurements of ultrafine particles ≤ 100 nm in diameter (UFPs), black carbon (BC), particulate matter (PM), carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO2), and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) were collected on twelve unique driving routes that were repeatedly sampled. Analyses demonstrate that the multiple emissions event detection strategies reported produce generally similar results and that utilizing a median (as opposed to a mean) as a summary statistic may be sufficient to avoid bias in near-source spatial trends. Background levels of the pollutants are shown to vary with time, and the estimated contributions of the background to the mean pollutant concentrations were: BC (6%), PM2.5-10 (12%), UFPs (19%), CO (38%), PM10 (45%), NO2 (51%), PM2.5 (56%), and CO2 (86%). Lastly, while temporal smoothing (e.g., 5 s averages) results in weak pair-wise correlation and the blurring of spatial trends, spatial averaging (e.g., 10 m) is demonstrated to increase correlation and refine spatial trends.

  11. Fabrication of high permeability non-oriented electrical steels by increasing <0 0 1> recrystallization texture using compacted strip casting processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Hai-Tao; Schneider, J.; Li, Hua-Long; Sun, Yu; Gao, Fei; Lu, Hui-Hu; Song, Hong-Yu; Li, Lei; Geng, Dian-Qiao; Liu, Zhen-Yu; Wang, Guo-Dong

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we will report on the application of the twin-roll casting technique to get a 2 mm thick material of Fe-3.2%Si alloy, which was finally hot rolled, cold rolled and annealed. After a mild hot rolling to a thickness of 1 mm and a mild cold rolling to a thickness of 0.35 mm, we obtained a high intensity of λ-fiber (<0 0 1>|| ND) and η-fiber (<0 0 1>|| RD) texture concentrated on cube ({0 0 1}<0 1 0>) component and a diminishing intensity of the γ-fiber (<1 1 1>|| ND) texture, and a large average grain size in the final processed material. The experimental results for the evolution of the microstructure and texture along the used processing routes were described within the paper in detail. The formation mechanism for the desired recrystallization textures were explained in terms of oriented nucleation, micro-growth selection, accumulated deformation stored energy, geometric softening and orientation pinning. It will be demonstrated that this new processing route using the compact strip casting offers the possibility to fabricate high permeability non-oriented electrical steels without additional fabrication steps like hot band annealing or two step cold rolling with intermediate annealing as in the case of conventional processing route.

  12. 32 CFR 806.29 - Administrative processing of Air Force FOIA requests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Administrative processing of Air Force FOIA... FORCE ADMINISTRATION AIR FORCE FREEDOM OF INFORMATION ACT PROGRAM § 806.29 Administrative processing of Air Force FOIA requests. (a) This section is a checklist format of processing steps and...

  13. 32 CFR 806.29 - Administrative processing of Air Force FOIA requests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Administrative processing of Air Force FOIA... FORCE ADMINISTRATION AIR FORCE FREEDOM OF INFORMATION ACT PROGRAM § 806.29 Administrative processing of Air Force FOIA requests. (a) This section is a checklist format of processing steps and...

  14. 32 CFR 806.29 - Administrative processing of Air Force FOIA requests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Administrative processing of Air Force FOIA... FORCE ADMINISTRATION AIR FORCE FREEDOM OF INFORMATION ACT PROGRAM § 806.29 Administrative processing of Air Force FOIA requests. (a) This section is a checklist format of processing steps and...

  15. 32 CFR 806.29 - Administrative processing of Air Force FOIA requests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Administrative processing of Air Force FOIA... FORCE ADMINISTRATION AIR FORCE FREEDOM OF INFORMATION ACT PROGRAM § 806.29 Administrative processing of Air Force FOIA requests. (a) This section is a checklist format of processing steps and...

  16. Delta XTE Spacecraft Arrives at CCAS Skid Strip

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    Footage shows the U.S Air Force Aircraft "Air Mobility Command" approaching, and landing at the Cape Canaveral Air Station Skid Strip (CCAS). The truck carrying the Delta XTE Spacecraft is also shown as it leaves the Air Mobility Command.

  17. AISI/DOE Advanced Process Control Program Vol. 3 of 6: MICROSTRUCTURAL ENGINEERING IN HOT-STRIP MILLS Part 2 of 2: Constitutive Behavior Modeling of Steels Under Hot-Rolling Conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Yi-Wen Cheng; Patrick Purtscher

    1999-07-30

    This report describes the development of models for predicting (1) constitutive behaviors and (2) mechanical properties of hot-rolled steels as functions of chemical composition, microstructural features, and processing variables. The study includes the following eight steels: A36, DQSK, HSLA-V, HSLA-Nb, HSLA-50/Ti-Nb, and two interstitial-free (IF) grades. These developed models have been integrated into the Hot-Strip Mill Model (HSMM), which simulates the hot strip rolling mills and predicts the mechanical properties of hot-rolled products. The HSMM model has been developed by the University of British Columbia-Canada as a part of project on the microstructural engineering in hot-strip mills.

  18. Stripping organics from groundwater and wastewater

    SciTech Connect

    Lamarre, B.; Shearouse, D.

    1996-03-01

    At thousands of installations worldwide, air stripping has been used as an efficient method for removing volatile and semi-volatile contaminants from water -- both groundwater and industrial wastewater streams. In addition to numerous field installations, extensive laboratory analysis has confirmed the performance of various types and sizes of air strippers, and has made the practice highly predictable for a wide range of contaminants. The general principles of air stripping are quite simple. Within an air stripper, an air stream is directed across a thin film of contaminated water. Contaminants at the air-water interface volatilize and are discharged to the atmosphere, or to an off-gas treatment system. The two main types of air strippers are packed towers and try-type strippers. In many cases, air stripping can be a fast, efficient and economical approach to treating organics-laden water streams. However, since different wastewater streams can vary significantly, each must be evaluated to characterize its constitutents, determine each constituent`s potential affinity or resistance to being volatilized, and identify any pre-treatment steps that need to be taken to produce the desired results.

  19. 32 CFR 806.27 - Samples of Air Force FOIA processing documents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Samples of Air Force FOIA processing documents. 806.27 Section 806.27 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE ADMINISTRATION AIR FORCE FREEDOM OF INFORMATION ACT PROGRAM § 806.27 Samples of Air Force FOIA...

  20. 32 CFR 806.27 - Samples of Air Force FOIA processing documents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Samples of Air Force FOIA processing documents. 806.27 Section 806.27 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE ADMINISTRATION AIR FORCE FREEDOM OF INFORMATION ACT PROGRAM § 806.27 Samples of Air Force FOIA...

  1. 32 CFR 806.27 - Samples of Air Force FOIA processing documents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Samples of Air Force FOIA processing documents. 806.27 Section 806.27 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE ADMINISTRATION AIR FORCE FREEDOM OF INFORMATION ACT PROGRAM § 806.27 Samples of Air Force FOIA...

  2. 32 CFR 806.27 - Samples of Air Force FOIA processing documents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Samples of Air Force FOIA processing documents. 806.27 Section 806.27 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE ADMINISTRATION AIR FORCE FREEDOM OF INFORMATION ACT PROGRAM § 806.27 Samples of Air Force FOIA...

  3. 40 CFR 63.495 - Back-end process provisions-procedures to determine compliance using stripping technology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... the emulsion process, either Method 312a, 312b, or 312c of 40 CFR part 63, appendix A, shall be used... CFR part 63, appendix A, shall be used. (3) For polybutadiene rubber produced by the solution process, either Method 313a or 313b of 40 CFR part 63, appendix A, shall be used. (4) For...

  4. MEMBRANE-MODERATED STRIPPING PROCESS FOR REMOVING VOCS FROM WATER IN A COMPOSITE HOLLOW FIBER MODULE. (R825511C027)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The "stripmeation" process for removing volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from water has been introduced and studied. An aqueous solution of the VOC is passed through the bores of hydrophobic microporous polypropylene hollow fibers having a plasma polymerized silicone ...

  5. Anatomy Comic Strips

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Jin Seo; Kim, Dae Hyun; Chung, Min Suk

    2011-01-01

    Comics are powerful visual messages that convey immediate visceral meaning in ways that conventional texts often cannot. This article's authors created comic strips to teach anatomy more interestingly and effectively. Four-frame comic strips were conceptualized from a set of anatomy-related humorous stories gathered from the authors' collective…

  6. Prefix Stripping Revisited.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taft, Marcus

    1981-01-01

    Presents and analyzes three experiments on prefix stripping. Results show that pseudoprefixed words are indiscriminately treated as prefixed words and concludes that prefix stripping does occur in word recognition and that prefixed words are accessed through a representation of their stem. (Author/BK)

  7. Science Comic Strips

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Dae Hyun; Jang, Hae Gwon; Shin, Dong Sun; Kim, Sun-Ja; Yoo, Chang Young; Chung, Min Suk

    2012-01-01

    Science comic strips entitled Dr. Scifun were planned to promote science jobs and studies among professionals (scientists, graduate and undergraduate students) and children. To this end, the authors collected intriguing science stories as the basis of scenarios, and drew four-cut comic strips, first on paper and subsequently as computer files.…

  8. Mobile Air Monitoring Data Processing Strategies and Effects on Spatial Air Pollution Trends

    EPA Science Inventory

    The collection of real-time air quality measurements while in motion (i.e., mobile monitoring) is currently conducted worldwide to evaluate in situ emissions, local air quality trends, and air pollutant exposure. This measurement strategy pushes the limits of traditional data an...

  9. 40 CFR 265.1032 - Standards: Process vents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... owner or operator of a fa-cil-ity with process vents associated with distillation, fractionation, thin-film evaporation, solvent extraction or -air or steam stripping operations man-aging haz-ard-ous...

  10. 40 CFR 265.1032 - Standards: Process vents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... owner or operator of a fa-cil-ity with process vents associated with distillation, fractionation, thin-film evaporation, solvent extraction or -air or steam stripping operations man-aging haz-ard-ous...

  11. 40 CFR 265.1032 - Standards: Process vents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... owner or operator of a fa-cil-ity with process vents associated with distillation, fractionation, thin-film evaporation, solvent extraction or -air or steam stripping operations man-aging haz-ard-ous...

  12. Electron stripping processes of H⁻ ion beam in the 80 kV high voltage extraction column and low energy beam transport line at LANSCE.

    PubMed

    Draganic, I N

    2016-02-01

    Basic vacuum calculations were performed for various operating conditions of the Los Alamos National Neutron Science H(-) Cockcroft-Walton (CW) injector and the Ion Source Test Stand (ISTS). The vacuum pressure was estimated for both the CW and ISTS at five different points: (1) inside the H(-) ion source, (2) in front of the Pierce electrode, (3) at the extraction electrode, (4) at the column electrode, and (5) at the ground electrode. A static vacuum analysis of residual gases and the working hydrogen gas was completed for the normal ion source working regime. Gas density and partial pressure were estimated for the injected hydrogen gas. The attenuation of H(-) beam current and generation of electron current in the high voltage acceleration columns and low energy beam transport lines were calculated. The interaction of H(-) ions on molecular hydrogen (H2) is discussed as a dominant collision process in describing electron stripping rates. These results are used to estimate the observed increase in the ratio of electrons to H(-) ion beam in the ISTS beam transport line. PMID:26931993

  13. Electron stripping processes of H- ion beam in the 80 kV high voltage extraction column and low energy beam transport line at LANSCE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Draganic, I. N.

    2016-02-01

    Basic vacuum calculations were performed for various operating conditions of the Los Alamos National Neutron Science H- Cockcroft-Walton (CW) injector and the Ion Source Test Stand (ISTS). The vacuum pressure was estimated for both the CW and ISTS at five different points: (1) inside the H- ion source, (2) in front of the Pierce electrode, (3) at the extraction electrode, (4) at the column electrode, and (5) at the ground electrode. A static vacuum analysis of residual gases and the working hydrogen gas was completed for the normal ion source working regime. Gas density and partial pressure were estimated for the injected hydrogen gas. The attenuation of H- beam current and generation of electron current in the high voltage acceleration columns and low energy beam transport lines were calculated. The interaction of H- ions on molecular hydrogen (H2) is discussed as a dominant collision process in describing electron stripping rates. These results are used to estimate the observed increase in the ratio of electrons to H- ion beam in the ISTS beam transport line.

  14. EMISSIONS PROCESSING FOR THE ETA/ CMAQ AIR QUALITY FORECAST SYSTEM

    EPA Science Inventory

    NOAA and EPA have created an Air Quality Forecast (AQF) system. This AQF system links an adaptation of the EPA's Community Multiscale Air Quality Model with the 12 kilometer ETA model running operationally at NOAA's National Center for Environmental Predication (NCEP). One of the...

  15. Geometrical deuteron stripping revisited

    SciTech Connect

    Neoh, Y. S.; Yap, S. L.

    2014-03-05

    We investigate the reality of the idea of geometrical deuteron stripping originally envisioned by Serber. By taking into account of realistic deuteron wavefunction, nuclear density, and nucleon stopping mean free path, we are able to estimate inclusive deuteron stripping cross section for deuteron energy up to before pion production. Our semiclassical model contains only one global parameter constant for all nuclei which can be approximated by Woods-Saxon or any other spherically symmetric density distribution.

  16. Bench-Scale Development of a Hot Carbonate Absorption Process with Crystallization-Enabled High Pressure Stripping for Post-Combustion CO{sub 2} Capture

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, Yongqi

    2014-02-01

    This report summarizes the methodology and preliminary results of a techno-economic analysis on a hot carbonate absorption process (Hot-CAP) with crystallization-enabled high pressure stripping for post-combustion CO{sub 2} capture (PCC). This analysis was based on the Hot-CAP that is fully integrated with a sub-critical steam cycle, pulverized coal-fired power plant adopted in Case 10 of the DOE/NETL’s Cost and Performance Baseline for Fossil Energy Plants. The techno-economic analysis addressed several important aspects of the Hot-CAP for PCC application, including process design and simulation, equipment sizing, technical risk and mitigation strategy, performance evaluation, and cost analysis. Results show that the net power produced in the subcritical power plant equipped with Hot-CAP is 611 MWe, greater than that with Econoamine (550 MWe). The total capital cost for the Hot-CAP, including CO{sub 2} compression, is $399 million, less than that for the Econoamine PCC ($493 million). O&M costs for the power plant with Hot-CAP is $175 million annually, less than that with Econoamine ($178 million). The 20-year levelized cost of electricity (LCOE) for the power plant with Hot-CAP, including CO2 transportation and storage, is 119.4 mills/kWh, a 59% increase over that for the plant without CO2 capture. The LCOE increase caused by CO{sub 2} capture for the Hot-CAP is 31% lower than that for its Econoamine counterpart.

  17. Squaraine based solution processed inverted bulk heterojunction solar cells processed in air.

    PubMed

    Varma, P C Reshmi; Namboothiry, Manoj A G

    2016-02-01

    Inverted bulk heterojunction solar cells based on low temperature solution processed squaraine (SQ) and [6,6]-phenyl C71 butyric acid methyl-ester (PC71BM) with varying blend ratios were made in air. An optimized bulk heterojunction device of SQ and PC71BM (with a blend ratio of 1 : 6) showed a power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 2.45% with an incident photon to current conversion efficiency of 65% at 680 nm and a spectral window extending to the NIR region. The devices also showed an enhanced PCE value of 4.12% upon continuous illumination from an AM1.5G light source of intensity 1 Sun. The intensity dependent photocurrent studies showed a monomolecular recombination mechanism in the photovoltaic device performance. The device stored in air showed reasonable stability for a period of one month. PMID:26426261

  18. Sex and stripping

    PubMed Central

    Pellecchia, Marco; Grève, Pierre; Daffonchio, Daniele; Bandi, Claudio; Alma, Alberto

    2010-01-01

    Wolbachia pipientis is known to infect only arthropods and nematodes (mainly filarial worms). A unique feature shared by the two Phyla is the ability to replace the exoskeleton, a process known as ecdysis. This shared characteristic is thought to reflect a common ancestry. Arthropod moulting is induced by the steroid hormone 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E) and a role for ecdysteroids in nematode ecdysis has also been suggested. Removing Wolbachia from filarial worms impairs the host’s development. From analyses of the genome of Wolbachia harbored by the filarial nematode Brugia malayi and that of its host, the bacterium may provide a source of heme, an essential component of cytochrome P450’s that are necessary for steroid hormone biosynthetic pathways. In arthropods, Wolbachia is a reproductive manipulator, inducing various phenotypic effects that may be due to differences in host physiology, in particular, endocrine-related processes governing development and reproduction. Insect steroids have well-defined roles in the coordination of multiple developmental processes, and in adults they control important aspects of reproduction, including ovarian development, oogenesis, sexual behavior, and in some taxa vitellogenin biosynthesis. According to some authors ecdysteroids may also act as sex hormones. In insects sex differentiation is generally thought to be a strictly genetic process, in which each cell decides its own sexual fate based on its sex chromosome constitution, but, surprisingly, recent data demonstrate that in Drosophila sex determination is not cell-autonomous, as it happens in mammals. Thus the presence of signals coordinating the development of a gender-specific phenotype cannot be excluded. This could explain why Wolbachia interferes with insect reproduction; and also could explain why Wolbachia interferes with insect development. Thus, is “sex (=reproduction) and stripping (=ecdysis)” the key to the intimate relationship between Wolbachia and its

  19. Advanced fuel hydrocarbon remediation national test location - in situ air sparging system (revised)

    SciTech Connect

    Health, J.; Lory, E.

    1997-03-01

    Air sparging is the process of injecting clean air directly into an aquifer for remediation of contaminated groundwater. For removing contaminants, air sparging relies on two basic mechanisms working either alone or in tandem: biodegradation and volatilization. The objective of air sparging is to force air through contaminated aquifer materials to provide oxygen for bioremediation and/or to strip contaminants out of the aquifer.

  20. Ram Pressure Stripping: The Long Goodbye

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tonnesen, Stephanie; Lu, Yu; Benson, Andrew; Peter, Annika; Boylan-Kolchin, Michael; Wetzel, Andrew R.; Weisz, Daniel R.

    2016-01-01

    What turns off star formation in satellite galaxies? Ram pressure stripping, the removal of a galaxy's gas through direct interaction with the gas halo in which it orbits, is an attractive quenching mechanism, particularly in the Milky Way halo where the radial distribution of quenching is dramatic. However, many implementations of this process in semi-analytic models result in overly-rapid gas removal when compared with observations. We use high resolution hydrodynamical simulations run with Enzo to parameterize the stripping of disk and halo gas from an orbiting satellite galaxy for use in the semi-analytic modeling code Galacticus. We find that using the instantaneous ram pressure overestimates the amount of gas that is stripped, and present a physically-motivated module for including ram pressure stripping in semi-analytic models that uses the integral of the ram pressure experienced by a satellite galaxy. We will compare our results to observations of the Milky Way satellites.

  1. Validation of the Hot Strip Mill Model

    SciTech Connect

    Richard Shulkosky; David Rosberg; Jerrud Chapman

    2005-03-30

    The Hot Strip Mill Model (HSMM) is an off-line, PC based software originally developed by the University of British Columbia (UBC) and the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) under the AISI/DOE Advanced Process Control Program. The HSMM was developed to predict the temperatures, deformations, microstructure evolution and mechanical properties of steel strip or plate rolled in a hot mill. INTEG process group inc. undertook the current task of enhancing and validating the technology. With the support of 5 North American steel producers, INTEG process group tested and validated the model using actual operating data from the steel plants and enhanced the model to improve prediction results.

  2. Mastering Interproximal Stripping: With Innovations in Slenderization

    PubMed Central

    Shrivastav, Sunita S; Hazarey, Pushpa V

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT Crowding and irregularity remain a consistent problem for children. Management of space problems continues to play an important role in a dental practice. It also represents an area of major interaction between the primary provider and the specialists. Proximal stripping is routinely carried out to avoid extraction in borderline cases where space discrepancy is less and in cases where there is a discrepancy between the mesio- distal width of maxillary and mandibular teeth to satisfy Bolton ratio. Proximal stripping is carried out using of metallic abrasive strip, safe sided carborundum disk, or with long thin tapered fissure burs with air rotor. The use of rotary cutting instrument can harm the pulp by exposure of mechanical vibration and heat generation (in some cases). Whereas, the large diameter of the disk obstructs vision of the working area. Also fracturing away a portion is a common problem with disk. Tapered fissure burs cut the tooth structure as the width of bur or overcutting may occur of the tooth structure due to high speed. The use of metallic abrasive strip is the safest procedure amongst the above. The strip can be placed in the anterior region without any difficulty but using it in the posterior region is difficult as, it is difficult to hold it with fingers while stripping the posterior teeth. To avoid this inconvenience here with a simple and economical way of fabricating strip holder from routine lab material is presented. Clinical implications: Proper management of space in the primary and mixed dentitions can prevent unnecessary loss in arch length. Diagnosing and treating space problems requires an understanding of the etiology of crowding and the development of the dentition to render treatment for the mild, moderate and severe crowding cases. Most crowding problems with less than 4.5 mm can be resolved through preservation of the leeway space, regaining space or limited expansion in the late mixed dentition. In cases with 5 to 9 mm

  3. Modeling of membrane processes for air revitalization and water recovery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lange, Kevin E.; Foerg, Sandra L.; Dall-Bauman, Liese A.

    1992-01-01

    Gas-separation and reverse-osmosis membrane models are being developed in conjunction with membrane testing at NASA JSC. The completed gas-separation membrane model extracts effective component permeabilities from multicomponent test data, and predicts the effects of flow configuration, operating conditions, and membrane dimensions on module performance. Variable feed- and permeate-side pressures are considered. The model has been applied to test data for hollow-fiber membrane modules with simulated cabin-air feeds. Results are presented for a membrane designed for air drying applications. Extracted permeabilities are used to predict the effect of operating conditions on water enrichment in the permeate. A first-order reverse-osmosis model has been applied to test data for spiral wound membrane modules with a simulated hygiene water feed. The model estimates an effective local component rejection coefficient under pseudosteady-state conditions. Results are used to define requirements for a detailed reverse-osmosis model.

  4. Heat-transfer processes in air-cooled engine cylinders

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pinkel, Benjamin

    1938-01-01

    From a consideration of heat-transfer theory, semi-empirical expressions are set up for the transfer of heat from the combustion gases to the cylinder of an air-cooled engine and from the cylinder to the cooling air. Simple equations for the average head and barrel temperatures as functions of the important engine and cooling variables are obtained from these expressions. The expressions involve a few empirical constants, which may be readily determined from engine tests. Numerical values for these constants were obtained from single-cylinder engine tests for cylinders of the Pratt & Whitney 1535 and 1340-h engines. The equations provide a means of calculating the effect of the various engine and cooling variables on the cylinder temperatures and also of correlating the results of engine cooling tests. An example is given of the application of the equations to the correlation of cooling-test data obtained in flight.

  5. Clean-air legislation will buoy U. S. gas processing

    SciTech Connect

    Haun, R.R.; Ellington, E.E.; Otto, K.W. )

    1991-07-22

    This paper reports on the effects of recent U.S. clean-air legislation on NGL demand and pricing. Demand for all NGL products will be firm throughout the 1990s. Increased requirements for butane as methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) feedstock will strengthen butane prices. Higher base-load requirements for propane in new NGL-based olefin plants will also have a positive impact on propane prices.

  6. Optimization of the development process for air sampling filter standards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mena, RaJah Marie

    Air monitoring is an important analysis technique in health physics. However, creating standards which can be used to calibrate detectors used in the analysis of the filters deployed for air monitoring can be challenging. The activity of a standard should be well understood, this includes understanding how the location within the filter affects the final surface emission rate. The purpose of this research is to determine the parameters which most affect uncertainty in an air filter standard and optimize these parameters such that calibrations made with them most accurately reflect the true activity contained inside. A deposition pattern was chosen from literature to provide the best approximation of uniform deposition of material across the filter. Samples sets were created varying the type of radionuclide, amount of activity (high activity at 6.4 -- 306 Bq/filter and one low activity 0.05 -- 6.2 Bq/filter, and filter type. For samples analyzed for gamma or beta contaminants, the standards created with this procedure were deemed sufficient. Additional work is needed to reduce errors to ensure this is a viable procedure especially for alpha contaminants.

  7. Low-antimony—lead alloy strip production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolisnyk, P. S.; Vincze, A. M.

    Cominco is developing a new casting process for the continuous production of low-antimony—lead alloy strip that is expanded to make positive plates for hybrid-design, maintenance-free batteries. The stages of development from initial trials to pilot production plant are reviewed. The advantages of the process and the product are also discussed.

  8. Influence of the gas composition on the efficiency of ammonia stripping of biogas digestate.

    PubMed

    Bousek, J; Scroccaro, D; Sima, Jan; Weissenbacher, Norbert; Fuchs, W

    2016-03-01

    Impact of strip gas composition on side stream ammonia stripping, a technology aiming at the reduction of high ammonia levels in anaerobic reactors, was investigated. Evaluation of the effect of oxygen contact during air stripping showed a distinct, though lower than perceived, inhibition of anaerobic microflora. To circumvent, the feasibility and possible constraints of biogas and flue gas as alternatives in side stream stripping were studied. Experiments, with ammonia bicarbonate model solution and digestate, were conducted. It was demonstrated that the stripping performance is negatively correlated to the CO2 level in the strip gas with a progressive performance loss towards higher concentrations. In contrast to biogas with its high CO2 content, the efficiency reduction observed for flue gas was significantly less pronounced. The later provides the additional benefit that its high thermal energy can be re-utilized in the stripping unit and it is therefore considered a viable alternative for air. PMID:26735881

  9. Retractable barrier strip

    DOEpatents

    Marts, Donna J.; Barker, Stacey G.; McQueen, Miles A.

    1996-01-01

    A portable barrier strip having retractable tire-puncture means for puncturing a vehicle tire. The tire-puncture means, such as spikes, have an armed position for puncturing a tire and a retracted position for not puncturing a tire. The strip comprises a plurality of barrier blocks having the tire-puncture means removably disposed in a shaft that is rotatably disposed in each barrier block. The shaft removably and pivotally interconnects the plurality of barrier blocks. Actuation cables cause the shaft to rotate the tire-puncture means to the armed position for puncturing a vehicle tire and to the retracted position for not puncturing the tire. Each tire-puncture means is received in a hollow-bed portion of its respective barrier block when in the retracted position. The barrier strip rests stable in its deployed position and substantially motionless as a tire rolls thereon and over. The strip is rolled up for retrieval, portability, and storage purposes, and extended and unrolled in its deployed position for use.

  10. Retractable barrier strip

    DOEpatents

    Marts, Donna J.; Barker, Stacey G.; Wowczuk, Andrew; Vellenoweth, Thomas E.

    2002-01-01

    A portable barrier strip having retractable tire-puncture spikes for puncturing a vehicle tire. The tire-puncture spikes have an armed position for puncturing a tire and a retracted position for not puncturing a tire. The strip comprises a plurality of barrier blocks having the tire-puncture spikes removably disposed in a shaft that is rotatably disposed in each barrier block. The plurality of barrier blocks hare hingedly interconnected by complementary hinges integrally formed into the side of each barrier block which allow the strip to be rolled for easy storage and retrieval, but which prevent irregular or back bending of the strip. The shafts of adjacent barrier blocks are pivotally interconnected via a double hinged universal joint to accommodate irregularities in a roadway surface and to transmit torsional motion of the shaft from block to block. A single flexshaft cable is connected to the shaft of an end block to allow a user to selectively cause the shafts of a plurality of adjacently connected barrier blocks to rotate the tire-puncture spikes to the armed position for puncturing a vehicle tire, and to the retracted position for not puncturing the tire. The flexshaft is provided with a resiliently biased retracting mechanism, and a release latch for allowing the spikes to be quickly retracted after the intended vehicle tire is punctured.

  11. Retractable barrier strip

    DOEpatents

    Marts, D.J.; Barker, S.G.; McQueen, M.A.

    1996-04-16

    A portable barrier strip is described having retractable tire-puncture means for puncturing a vehicle tire. The tire-puncture means, such as spikes, have an armed position for puncturing a tire and a retracted position for not puncturing a tire. The strip comprises a plurality of barrier blocks having the tire-puncture means removably disposed in a shaft that is rotatably disposed in each barrier block. The shaft removably and pivotally interconnects the plurality of barrier blocks. Actuation cables cause the shaft to rotate the tire-puncture means to the armed position for puncturing a vehicle tire and to the retracted position for not puncturing the tire. Each tire-puncture means is received in a hollow-bed portion of its respective barrier block when in the retracted position. The barrier strip rests in its deployed position and substantially motionless as a tire rolls thereon and over. The strip is rolled up for retrieval, portability, and storage purposes, and extended and unrolled in its deployed position for use. 13 figs.

  12. Spray Rolling Aluminum Strip for Transportation Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Kevin M. McHugh; Y. Lin; Y. Zhou; E. J. Lavernia; J.-P. Delplanque; S. B. Johnson

    2005-02-01

    Spray rolling is a novel strip casting technology in which molten aluminum alloy is atomized and deposited into the roll gap of mill rolls to produce aluminum strip. A combined experimental/modeling approach has been followed in developing this technology with active participation from industry. The feasibility of this technology has been demonstrated at the laboratory scale and it is currently being scaled-up. This paper provides an overview of the process and compares the microstructure and properties of spray-rolled 2124 aluminum alloy with commercial ingot-processed material

  13. Modeling of continuous strip production by rheocasting

    SciTech Connect

    Matsumiya, T.; Flemings, M.C.

    1981-03-01

    A process was experimentally and mathematically modeled for continuous and direct production of metal strip from its molten state by the use of Rheocasting. The process comprises 1) continuous production of a Rheocast semisolid alloy, and 2) direct shaping of the semisolid into strip. Sn-15 pct Pb was used as the modeling alloy. Crack formation and surface quality of the strip produced depend on fraction solid and deformation force. Continuous, sound strip could be obtained with good surface quality when fraction solid was between 0.50 and 0.70 and deformation force did not exceed a given maximum. Sheet thickness depends on deformation force, fraction solid, rotor rate of Rheocaster and production line speed. At constant deformation force, sheet thickness increases as fraction solid increases, rotor rate decreases and line speed is reduced. Sheet thickness is larger in the center than in the edge, but the difference is reduced by applying edgers. Some segregation of lead toward the edges is observed, ad the segregation increases as amount of deformation is increased. A mathematical model for heat flow, solidification and deformation was constructed. The model predicts the point of completion of solidification in the strip and sheet thickness as a function of deformation force and line speed. Calculations are in good agreement with experimental results.

  14. Evolution of chemically processed air parcels in the lower stratosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stolarski, Richard S.; Douglass, Anne R.; Schoeberl, Mark R.

    1994-01-01

    Aircraft, ground-based, and satellite measurements indicate large concentrations of ClO in the lower stratosphere in and near the polar vortex. The amount of local ozone depletion caused by these large ClO concentrations will depend on the relative rates of ozone loss and ClO recovery. ClO recovery occurs when NO(x), from HNO3 photolysis, reacts with ClO to form ClONO2. We show that air parcels with large amounts of ClO will experience a subsequent ozone depletion that depends on the solar zenith angle. When the solar zenith angle is large in the middle of winter, the recovery of the ClO concentration in the parcel is slow relative to ozone depletion. In the spring, when the solar zenith angle is smaller, the ClO recovery is much faster. After ClO recovery, the chlorine chemistry has not returned to normal. The ClO has been converted to ClONO2. ClO production from further encounters with PSCs will be limited by the heterogeneous reaction of ClONO2 with water. Large ozone depletions, of the type seen in the Antarctic, occur only if there is significant irreversible denitrification in the air parcel.

  15. Asphaltene Erosion Process in Air Plasma: Emission Spectroscopy and Surface Analysis for Air-Plasma Reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez, H.; Flores, O.; C. Poveda, J.; Campillo, B.

    2012-04-01

    Optical emission spectroscopy (OES) was applied for plasma characterization during the erosion of asphaltene substrates. An amount of 100 mg of asphaltene was carefully applied to an electrode and exposed to air-plasma glow discharge at a pressure of 1.0 Torr. The plasma was generated in a stainless steel discharge chamber by an ac generator at a frequency of 60 Hz, output power of 50 W and a gas flow rate of 1.8 L/min. The electron temperature and ion density were estimated to be 2.15±0.11 eV and (1.24±0.05) × 1016 m-3, respectively, using a double Langmuir probe. OES was employed to observe the emission from the asphaltene exposed to air plasma. Both molecular band emission from N2, N+2, OH, CH, NH, O2 as well as CN, and atomic light emission from V and Hγ were observed and used to monitor the evolution of asphaltene erosion. The asphaltene erosion was analyzed with the aid of a scanning electron microscope (SEM) equipped with an energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) detector. The EDX analysis showed that the time evolution of elements C, O, S and V were similar; and the chemical composition of the exposed asphaltenes remained constant. Particle size evolution was measured, showing a maximum size of 2307 μm after 60 min. This behavior is most likely related to particle agglomeration as a function of time.

  16. Review of Benzene Stripping Alternatives for the Small Tank Precipitation Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Dworjanyn, L.O.

    2000-11-07

    Packed columns provide a proven technology for stripping benzene from salt solution. With continuous Small Tank Precipitation process the stripping load is reduced by a factor of four vs. former ITP cycling, and process continuity is maintained through to the Saltstone transfer tank. Lower stripping capacity allows new design options, including coarser packing and possibly reduced foaming packing.

  17. Gated strip proportional detector

    DOEpatents

    Morris, Christopher L.; Idzorek, George C.; Atencio, Leroy G.

    1987-01-01

    A gated strip proportional detector includes a gas tight chamber which encloses a solid ground plane, a wire anode plane, a wire gating plane, and a multiconductor cathode plane. The anode plane amplifies the amount of charge deposited in the chamber by a factor of up to 10.sup.6. The gating plane allows only charge within a narrow strip to reach the cathode. The cathode plane collects the charge allowed to pass through the gating plane on a set of conductors perpendicular to the open-gated region. By scanning the open-gated region across the chamber and reading out the charge collected on the cathode conductors after a suitable integration time for each location of the gate, a two-dimensional image of the intensity of the ionizing radiation incident on the detector can be made.

  18. Gated strip proportional detector

    DOEpatents

    Morris, C.L.; Idzorek, G.C.; Atencio, L.G.

    1985-02-19

    A gated strip proportional detector includes a gas tight chamber which encloses a solid ground plane, a wire anode plane, a wire gating plane, and a multiconductor cathode plane. The anode plane amplifies the amount of charge deposited in the chamber by a factor of up to 10/sup 6/. The gating plane allows only charge within a narrow strip to reach the cathode. The cathode plane collects the charge allowed to pass through the gating plane on a set of conductors perpendicular to the open-gated region. By scanning the open-gated region across the chamber and reading out the charge collected on the cathode conductors after a suitable integration time for each location of the gate, a two-dimensional image of the intensity of the ionizing radiation incident on the detector can be made.

  19. ERTS-1 data applied to strip mining

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, A. T.; Schubert, J.

    1976-01-01

    Two coal basins within the western region of the Potomac River Basin contain the largest strip-mining operations in western Maryland and West Virginia. The disturbed strip-mine areas were delineated along with the surrounding geological and vegetation features by using ERTS-1 data in both analog and digital form. The two digital systems employed were (1) the ERTS analysis system, a point-by-point digital analysis of spectral signatures based on known spectral values and (2) the LARS automatic data processing system. These two systems aided in efforts to determine the extent and state of strip mining in this region. Aircraft data, ground-verification information, and geological field studies also aided in the application of ERTS-1 imagery to perform an integrated analysis that assessed the adverse effects of strip mining. The results indicated that ERTS can both monitor and map the extent of strip mining to determine immediately the acreage affected and to indicate where future reclamation and revegetation may be necessary.

  20. Evaluating Membrane Processes for Air Conditioning; Highlights in Research and Development, NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    SciTech Connect

    2015-06-01

    This NREL Highlight discusses a recent state-of-the-art review of membrane processes for air conditioning that identifies future research opportunities. This highlight is being developed for the June 2015 S&T Alliance Board meeting.

  1. VITRIFICATION OF MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE COMBUSTION AIR POLLUTION CONTROL RESIDUES USING CORNING, INC. PROCESS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A demonstration was conducted to vitrify municipal solid waste (MSW) combustor air pollution control residue (APC) under the USEPA Municipal Waste Innovative Technology Evaluation Program. uplicate demonstration was conducted using a process developed by Corning Inc. in a cold cr...

  2. Strip edge cracking simulation in cold rolling

    SciTech Connect

    Hubert, C.; Dubar, L.; Dubar, M.; Dubois, A.

    2011-01-17

    This research work focuses on a specific defect which occurs during cold rolling of steel strips: edge-serration. Investigations on the industrial processes have led to the conclusion that this defect is the result of the edge-trimming and cold rolling sequences. The aim of this research work is to analyze the effect of the cutting process and the cold rolling on cracks occurrence, especially on strip edges.This study is performed using an experimental testing stand called Upsetting Rolling Test (URT). It allows to reproduce cold rolling contact parameters such as forward slip, reduction ratio and friction coefficients. Specimens sampled near trimmed industrial strip edges are deformed using the URT stand. Two sets of specimens with different stress states, obtained by annealing, are submitted to two reduction passes with extreme forward slips.Scanning electron microscopy observations added to 3D optical surface profiler topographies show that on one hand, forward slip has a major effect on cracks opening. On the other hand, cracks opening decreases according to high roll strip speed gradient. Concerning the heat-treated specimens, no crack appeared after all reduction passes, showing a large influence of the cutting process and consequently of the local stress state in the vicinity of the burnish and fracture regions.

  3. Steam stripping recycle developed for gasifier liquors

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-03-01

    When coal is gasified in fixed bed processes such as the British Gas/Lurgi Slagging Gasifier, the crude product contains steam which on cooling results in the formation of an aqueous liquor. This liquor contains soluble species such as hydrogen sulfide, ammonia, hydrogen cyanide, hydrogen chloride and phenols. These liquors are environmentally unacceptable and their disposal can be a serious problem. British Gas has developed a new process for the purification of such aqueous effluent liquors. It has been discovered that the gasification steam may be used, at gasification pressure, to strip the volatile compounds from such liquors and thereby include these compounds in the reactant stream where they are gasified within the main reactor. A portion of the gasifier feed steam may be superheated, passed through the condensate liquor, combined with the remaining portion of the gasifier feed steam and then injected through the tuyeres of the gasification plant. In this way an effluent liquor is produced with contains substantially only inorganic compounds, and these can be removed by conventional treatments. Although high-pressure steam stripping removes any lighter volatile components, compounds such as the higher molecular weight phenols may not be readily stripped out. The invention therefore provides also for the use of oxygen-containing gas under pressure to purify the effluent. The oxygen-containing gas may either be used alone, in a mixture with steam or as a second stage following the steam-stripping process.

  4. Process for removal of hazardous air pollutants from coal

    DOEpatents

    Akers, David J.; Ekechukwu, Kenneth N.; Aluko, Mobolaji E.; Lebowitz, Howard E.

    2000-01-01

    An improved process for removing mercury and other trace elements from coal containing pyrite by forming a slurry of finely divided coal in a liquid solvent capable of forming ions or radicals having a tendency to react with constituents of pyrite or to attack the bond between pyrite and coal and/or to react with mercury to form mercury vapors, and heating the slurry in a closed container to a temperature of at least about 50.degree. C. to produce vapors of the solvent and withdrawing vapors including solvent and mercury-containing vapors from the closed container, then separating mercury from the vapors withdrawn.

  5. Spray forming lead strip. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    McHugh, K.

    1996-04-10

    A cooperative research project was conducted between the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) and Johnson Controls, Inc. (JCI) to adapt the INEL spray forming process to produce near-net-shape lead alloy strip. The emphasis of the work was to spray form lead strip samples at INEL, using a variety of spray conditions, for characterization at JCI. An existing glove box apparatus was modified at INEL to spray form lead. The main spray forming components were housed inside the glove box. They included a spray nozzle, tundish (crucible), substrate assembly, gas heater and furnaces to heat the nozzle and tundish. To spray form metal strip, liquid metal was pressure-fed at a controlled rate through a series of circular orifices that span the width of the nozzle. There the metal contacted high velocity, high temperature inert gas (nitrogen) which atomized the molten material into fine droplets, entrained the droplets in a directed flow, and deposited them onto glass plates that were swept through the spray plume to form strip samples. In-flight convection cooling of the droplets followed by conduction and convection cooling at the substrate resulted in rapid solidification of the deposit. During operation, the inside of the glove box was purged with an inert gas to limit the effects of in-flight oxidation of the particles and spray-formed strips, as well as to protect personnel from exposure to airborne lead particulate. Remote controls were used to start/stop the spray and control the speed and position of the substrate. In addition, substrate samples were loaded into the substrate translator manually using the gloved side ports of the box. In this way, the glove box remained closed during a series of spray trials, and was opened only when loading the crucible with a lead charge or when removing lead strip samples for shipment to JCI.

  6. FIRST HST HARDWARE FOR SECOND SERVICING MISSION ARRIVES AT SKID STRIP AT CCAS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    FIRST HST HARDWARE FOR SECOND SERVICING MISSION ARRIVES AT SKID STRIP AT CCAS KSC-396C-3184.14 The first payload flight hardware for the second Hubble Space Telescope (HST) servicing mission arrives in Florida from Goddard Space Flight Center, Md. The equipment was shipped via C-5 cargo aircraft to the Skid Strip here on Cape Canaveral Air Station before being transferred to the Vertical Processing Facility on KSC. The flight support equipment shipment includes a clamp fixture called the Flight Support System (FSS) for securing the telescope in the orbiter payload bay and carriers for holding the two new scientific instruments slated to be installed on Hubble. The carriers are called the Second Axial Carrier (SAC) and Orbital Replacement Unit Carrier (ORUC). The second HST servicing is set to occur during Shuttle Mission STS-82 in February 1997.

  7. FIRST HST HARDWARE FOR SECOND SERVICING MISSION ARRIVES AT SKID STRIP AT CCAS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    FIRST HST HARDWARE FOR SECOND SERVICING MISSION ARRIVES AT SKID STRIP AT CCAS KSC-396C-3186.9 The first payload flight hardware for the second Hubble Space Telescope (HST) servicing mission arrives in Florida from Goddard Space Flight Center, Md. The equipment was shipped via C-5 cargo aircraft to the Skid Strip here on Cape Canaveral Air Station before being transferred to the Vertical Processing Facility on KSC. The flight support equipment shipment includes a clamp fixture called the Flight Support System (FSS) for securing the telescope in the orbiter payload bay and carriers for holding the two new scientific instruments slated to be installed on Hubble. The carriers are called the Second Axial Carrier (SAC) and Orbital Replacement Unit Carrier (ORUC). The second HST servicing is set to occur during Shuttle Mission STS-82 in February 1997.

  8. Preliminary Design and Evaluation of Portable Electronic Flight Progress Strips

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doble, Nathan A.; Hansman, R. John

    2002-01-01

    There has been growing interest in using electronic alternatives to the paper Flight Progress Strip (FPS) for air traffic control. However, most research has been centered on radar-based control environments, and has not considered the unique operational needs of the airport air traffic control tower. Based on an analysis of the human factors issues for control tower Decision Support Tool (DST) interfaces, a requirement has been identified for an interaction mechanism which replicates the advantages of the paper FPS (e.g., head-up operation, portability) but also enables input and output with DSTs. An approach has been developed which uses a Portable Electronic FPS that has attributes of both a paper strip and an electronic strip. The prototype flight strip system uses Personal Digital Assistants (PDAs) to replace individual paper strips in addition to a central management interface which is displayed on a desktop computer. Each PDA is connected to the management interface via a wireless local area network. The Portable Electronic FPSs replicate the core functionality of paper flight strips and have additional features which provide a heads-up interface to a DST. A departure DST is used as a motivating example. The central management interface is used for aircraft scheduling and sequencing and provides an overview of airport departure operations. This paper will present the design of the Portable Electronic FPS system as well as preliminary evaluation results.

  9. Paresev on Taxi Strip

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1962-01-01

    Test pilot Milton Thompson sitting in NASA Flight Research Center-built Paresev 1 (Paraglider Research Vehicle) on the taxi strip in front of the NASA Flight Research Center in 1962. In this photo the control stick can be seen coming from overhead and hanging in front of the pilot. The control system was a direct link with the wing membrane made of doped Irish linen. By maintaining simplicity during construction, it was possible to make control and configuration changes overnight and, in many instances, in minutes.

  10. About NICADD extruded scintillating strips

    SciTech Connect

    Dyshkant, A.; Beznosko, D.; Blazey, G.; Chakraborty, D.; Francis, K.; Kubik, D.; Lima, J.G.; Rykalin, V.; Zutshi, v.; Baldina, E.; Bross, A.; Deering, P.; Nebel, T.; Pla-Dalmau, A.; Schellpfeffer, J.; Serritella, C.; Zimmerman, J.; /Fermilab

    2005-04-01

    The results of control measurements of extruded scintillating strip responses to a radioactive source Sr-90 are provided, and details of strip choice, preparation, and method of measurement are included. About four hundred one meter long extruded scintillating strips were measured at four different points. These results were essential for prototyping a tail catcher and muon tracker for a future international electron positron linear collider detector.

  11. Martian Air Separation for In-Situ Resource Utilization Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacArthur, J. R.; Way, J. D.; Baldwin, R. M.; Mason, L. W.

    2002-01-01

    We will introduce the concept of using synthetic organic and inorganic membranes for the separation and purification of carbon dioxide (CO2) from mixtures of gases, such as those found in the Martian atmosphere. The class of applications targeted in this project are known as In Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU). ISRU involves the use of resources present on Mars, such as atmospheric gases, a concept that will dramatically reduce the amount of material that must be transferred from Earth to support a mission. ISRU technologies will provide many of the consumables required for a manned mission, such as rocket propellant, water, oxygen and buffer gases. The Martian atmosphere is primarily CO2, and also contains a few percent nitrogen and argon. Martian CO2 is a principal component of several ISRU processes that may be used in a manned Mars mission. For example, the Sabatier/Electrolysis (SE) process reacts atmospheric CO2 with hydrogen to produce methane (fuel), water, and oxygen. Pure gas and mixed gas permeation tests with CO2, Ar, N2, and O2 were performed over the temperature range 243 K to 295 K with a several candidate membrane materials including rubbery polymers (silicone rubber and PEBAX) and supported faujasite zeolite membranes. In experiments with commercially available silicone rubber membranes, the pure gas CO2 permeance (flux/driving force) increases from 460 GPUs to 655 GPUs as the temperature decreases from 295 K to 243 K. A GPU is a commonly used unit of permeance and is defined as 10-6 cm3(STP)/cm2-s-cm Hg. The ideal carbon dioxide/nitrogen separation factor (ratio of pure gas permeances) increases from 7.5 to 17.5 over the same temperature range. However, in mixed gas experiments, the CO2/N2 separation factor was much lower, increasing from 4.5 to 6 as the temperature decreased from 295 K to 243 K. This difference was attributed to plasticization of the rubbery polymer membrane by CO2.

  12. Spiral Galaxies Stripped Bare

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2010-10-01

    Six spectacular spiral galaxies are seen in a clear new light in images from ESO's Very Large Telescope (VLT) at the Paranal Observatory in Chile. The pictures were taken in infrared light, using the impressive power of the HAWK-I camera, and will help astronomers understand how the remarkable spiral patterns in galaxies form and evolve. HAWK-I [1] is one of the newest and most powerful cameras on ESO's Very Large Telescope (VLT). It is sensitive to infrared light, which means that much of the obscuring dust in the galaxies' spiral arms becomes transparent to its detectors. Compared to the earlier, and still much-used, VLT infrared camera ISAAC, HAWK-I has sixteen times as many pixels to cover a much larger area of sky in one shot and, by using newer technology than ISAAC, it has a greater sensitivity to faint infrared radiation [2]. Because HAWK-I can study galaxies stripped bare of the confusing effects of dust and glowing gas it is ideal for studying the vast numbers of stars that make up spiral arms. The six galaxies are part of a study of spiral structure led by Preben Grosbøl at ESO. These data were acquired to help understand the complex and subtle ways in which the stars in these systems form into such perfect spiral patterns. The first image shows NGC 5247, a spiral galaxy dominated by two huge arms, located 60-70 million light-years away. The galaxy lies face-on towards Earth, thus providing an excellent view of its pinwheel structure. It lies in the zodiacal constellation of Virgo (the Maiden). The galaxy in the second image is Messier 100, also known as NGC 4321, which was discovered in the 18th century. It is a fine example of a "grand design" spiral galaxy - a class of galaxies with very prominent and well-defined spiral arms. About 55 million light-years from Earth, Messier 100 is part of the Virgo Cluster of galaxies and lies in the constellation of Coma Berenices (Berenice's Hair, named after the ancient Egyptian queen Berenice II). The third

  13. Land Surface Process and Air Quality Research and Applications at MSFC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quattrochi, Dale; Khan, Maudood

    2007-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation provides an overview of land surface process and air quality research at MSFC including atmospheric modeling and ongoing research whose objective is to undertake a comprehensive spatiotemporal analysis of the effects of accurate land surface characterization on atmospheric modeling results, and public health applications. Land use maps as well as 10 meter air temperature, surface wind, PBL mean difference heights, NOx, ozone, and O3+NO2 plots as well as spatial growth model outputs are included. Emissions and general air quality modeling are also discussed.

  14. Strip casting apparatus and method

    DOEpatents

    Williams, R.S.; Baker, D.F.

    1988-09-20

    Strip casting apparatus including a molten-metal-holding container and a nozzle to deposit molten metal onto a moving chill drum to directly cast continuous metallic strip. The nozzle body includes a slot bounded between a back and a front lip. The slot width exceeds about 20 times the gap distance between the nozzle and the chill drum surface. Preferably, the slot width exceeds 0.5 inch. This method of strip casting minimizes pressure drop, insuring better metal-to-chill-drum contact which promotes heat transfer and results in a better quality metallic strip. 6 figs.

  15. Strip casting apparatus and method

    DOEpatents

    Williams, Robert S.; Baker, Donald F.

    1988-01-01

    Strip casting apparatus including a molten-metal-holding container and a nozzle to deposit molten metal onto a moving chill drum to directly cast continuous metallic strip. The nozzle body includes a slot bounded between a back and a front lip. The slot width exceeds about 20 times the gap distance between the nozzle and the chill drum surface. Preferably, the slot width exceeds 0.5 inch. This method of strip casting minimizes pressure drop, insuring better metal-to-chill-drum contact which promotes heat transfer and results in a better quality metallic strip.

  16. 75 FR 22469 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Gold Mine Ore Processing and Production...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-28

    ..., EPA published a list of section 112(c)(6) categories (63 FR 17838, April 10, 1998). At that time... Ore Processing and Production Area Source Category and Addition to Source Category List for Standards... Air Pollutants: Gold Mine Ore Processing and Production Area Source Category and Addition to...

  17. MEASUREMENT OF INDOOR AIR EMISSIONS FROM DRY-PROCESS PHOTOCOPY MACHINES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The article provides background information on indoor air emissions from office equipment, with emphasis on dry-process photocopy machines. The test method is described in detail along with results of a study to evaluate the test method using four dry-process photocopy machines. ...

  18. Intelligent control of robotic paint stripping using color vision feedback

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harvey, D. N.; Rogers, T. W.

    1993-08-01

    The paper describes a color-based machine vision system which is capable of functioning as a real-time process control system for a robotic work cell currently being developed for stripping paint from both large and small aircraft. The system is based on hue, saturation, and intensity representation of the image data and on rapid analysis techniques and is capable of differentiating between painted, primed, stripped, and roughened aircraft surfaces. These techniques were tested on a large number of aircraft paint schemes under actual stripping conditions, and were found to be fast and robust enough for real-time process control.

  19. Rupture of a fluid strip under partial wetting conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González, A. G.; Diez, J.; Gratton, R.; Gomba, J.

    2007-02-01

    We study the evolution of a long strip of viscous fluid on a horizontal glass substrate under partial-wetting conditions. This initial condition develops into an array of quasi-equidistant drops. The special feature of this dewetting scenario is that the pearling process, consisting of successive stages of bulge growth and pinching-off, does not occur simultaneously along the strip but propagates from the ends toward the strip center. We find that the footprint of each drop corresponds to two crossed elliptical shapes and report measurements of the breakup process and the dewetting dynamics.

  20. Si-STEEL Thin-Strip Prepared by Twin-Roll Continuous Casting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yi, Yu; Zhou, Zehua; Wang, Zehua; Jiang, Shaoqun; Huang, Weidong

    The fabrication process of Si-steel thin-strip by twin-roll continuous casting was described and the quality of the obtained Si-steel thin-strip was measured. Si-steel strips with 0.5-6.5 wt.% Si content were successfully prepared, and proper parameters including pouring temperature, height of molten pool, casting speed and pouring head mode were optimized, and their mechanisms were discussed. The relationship between quality factors of Si-steel including cracks, strip thickness, impurity and process parameters such as Si content and so on were discussed. The morphologies of the strips with different Si content were studied.

  1. Recent Advances in Improvement of Forecast Skill and Understanding Climate Processes Using AIRS Version-5 Products

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Susskind, Joel; Molnar, Gyula; Iredell, Lena; Rosenberg, Robert

    2012-01-01

    AIRS/AMSU is the state of the art infrared and microwave atmospheric sounding system flying aboard EOS Aqua. These observations, covering the period September 2002 until the present, have been analyzed using the AIRS Science Team Version-5 retrieval algorithm. AIRS is a high spectral resolution infrared grating spectrometer with spect,ral coverage from 650 per centimeter extending to 2660 per centimeter, with low noise and a spectral resolving power of 2400. A brief overview of the AIRS Version-5 retrieval procedure will be presented, including the AIRS channels used in different steps in the retrieval process. Many researchers have used these products to make significant advances in both climate and weather applications. Recent significant results of these experiments will be presented, including results showing that 1) assimilation of AIRS Quality Controlled temperature profiles into a General Circulation Model (GCM) significantly improves the ability to predict storm tracks of intense precipitation events; and 2) anomaly time-series of Outgoing Longwave Radiation (OLR) computed using AIRS sounding products closely match those determined from the CERES instrument, and furthermore explain that the phenomenon that global and especially tropical mean OLR have been decreasing since September 2002 is a result of El Nino/La Nina oscillations during this period.

  2. Near real-time AIRS processing and distribution system: from design to operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolf, Walter; King, Thomas; Goldberg, Mitchell D.; Zhou, Lihang; Barnet, Chris D.

    2004-10-01

    A near real-time AIRS processing and distribution system is fully operational at NOAA/NESDIS/ORA. The AIRS system went though three separate production phases: design and development, implementation, and operations. The design and development phase consisted of two years of preparation for the near real-time AIRS data. The approach was to fully emulate the AIRS measurement stream. This was accomplished by using a forecast model to represent the geophysical state and computation of simulated AIRS measurements using the characteristics of the AIRS channels. The preparation included file format development and the creation of a program to subset the radiance and product data. The implementation phase lasted over a year and involved utilizing AIRS/AMSU/HSB simulated data quasi-operationally. This simulated data was placed into deliverable files and distributed to the customers for their pre-launch preparations. The operational phase consisted of switching the simulation system to real data and is the current system status. Details of what went right and wrong at each production phase will be presented. This methodology eased the transition to operations and will be applied to other advanced sounders such as IASI and CrIS.

  3. Development of a Novel Gas Pressurized Process-Based Technology for CO2 Capture from Post-Combustion Flue Gases Preliminary Year 1 Techno-Economic Study Results and Methodology for Gas Pressurized Stripping Process

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Shiaoguo

    2013-03-01

    Under the DOE’s Innovations for Existing Plants (IEP) Program, Carbon Capture Scientific, LLC (CCS) is developing a novel gas pressurized stripping (GPS) process to enable efficient post-combustion carbon capture (PCC) from coal-fired power plants. A technology and economic feasibility study is required as a deliverable in the project Statement of Project Objectives. This study analyzes a fully integrated pulverized coal power plant equipped with GPS technology for PCC, and is carried out, to the maximum extent possible, in accordance to the methodology and data provided in ATTACHMENT 3 – Basis for Technology Feasibility Study of DOE Funding Opportunity Number: DE-FOA-0000403. The DOE/NETL report on “Cost and Performance Baseline for Fossil Energy Plants, Volume 1: Bituminous Coal and Natural Gas to Electricity (Original Issue Date, May 2007), NETL Report No. DOE/NETL-2007/1281, Revision 1, August 2007” was used as the main source of reference to be followed, as per the guidelines of ATTACHMENT 3 of DE-FOA-0000403. The DOE/NETL-2007/1281 study compared the feasibility of various combinations of power plant/CO2 capture process arrangements. The report contained a comprehensive set of design basis and economic evaluation assumptions and criteria, which are used as the main reference points for the purpose of this study. Specifically, Nexant adopted the design and economic evaluation basis from Case 12 of the above-mentioned DOE/NETL report. This case corresponds to a nominal 550 MWe (net), supercritical greenfield PC plant that utilizes an advanced MEAbased absorption system for CO2 capture and compression. For this techno-economic study, CCS’ GPS process replaces the MEA-based CO2 absorption system used in the original case. The objective of this study is to assess the performance of a full-scale GPS-based PCC design that is integrated with a supercritical PC plant similar to Case 12 of the DOE/NETL report, such that it corresponds to a nominal 550 MWe

  4. NASA/Air Force/Environmental Protection Agency Interagency Depainting Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark-Ingram, Marceia

    1998-01-01

    Many popular and widely used paint stripping products have traditionally contained methylene chloride as their main active ingredient. However, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has critically curved the allowable use of methylene chloride under the National Emission Standard for Hazardous Air Pollutants regulating Aerospace Manufacturing and Rework Facilities . Compliance with this rule was mandatory by September 1998 for affected facilities. An effort is underway to identify and evaluate alternative depainting technologies emphasizing those believed both effective and environmentally benign. On behalf of the EPA and in cooperation with the United States Air Force, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration is conducting a technical assessment of several alternative technologies ( i.e. : chemical stripping, two CO2 blasting processes, CO2 xenon lamp coating removal, CO2 Laser stripping, plastic media blasting, sodium bicarbonate wet stripping, high pressure water stripping, and wheat starch blasting). These depainting processes represent five removal method categories, namely abrasive, impact, cryogenic, thermal, and/or molecular bonding dissociation. This paper discusses the test plan and parameters for this interagency study. Several thicknesses of clad and non-clad aluminum substrates were used to prepare test specimens. Each depainting process has been assigned a specimen lot, all of which have completed three to five stripping cycles. Numerous metallurgical evaluations are underway to assess the impact of these alternative depainting processes upon the structural integrity of the substrate.

  5. Simulation of a Novel Single-column Cryogenic Air Separation Process Using LNG Cold Energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jieyu, Zheng; Yanzhong, Li; Guangpeng, Li; Biao, Si

    In this paper, a novel single-column air separation process is proposed with the implementation of heat pump technique and introduction of LNG coldenergy. The proposed process is verifiedand optimized through simulation on the Aspen Hysys® platform. Simulation results reveal that thepower consumption per unit mass of liquid productis around 0.218 kWh/kg, and the total exergy efficiency of the systemis 0.575. According to the latest literatures, an energy saving of 39.1% is achieved compared with those using conventional double-column air separation units.The introduction of LNG cold energy is an effective way to increase the system efficiency.

  6. Microtube Strip Heat Exchanger

    SciTech Connect

    Doty, F.D.

    1990-12-27

    Doty Scientific (DSI) believes their Microtube-Strip Heat Exchanger will contribute significantly to (a) the closed Brayton cycles being pursued at MIT, NASA, and elsewhere; (b) reverse Brayton cycle cryocoolers, currently being investigated by NASA for space missions, being applied to MRI superconducting magnets; and (c) high-efficiency cryogenic gas separation schemes for CO{sub 2} removal from exhaust stacks. The goal of this current study is to show the potential for substantial progress in high-effectiveness, low-cost, gas-to-gas heat exchangers for diverse applications at temperatures from below 100 K to above 1000 K. To date, the highest effectiveness measured is about 98%, and relative pressure drops below 0.1% with a specific conductance of about 45 W/kgK are reported. During the pre-award period DSI built and tested a 3-module heat exchanger bank using 103-tube microtube strip (MTS) modules. To add to their analytical capabilities, DSI has acquired computational fluid dynamics (CFD) software. This report describes the pre-award work and the status of the ten tasks of the current project, which are: analyze flow distribution and thermal stresses within individual modules; design a heat exchanger bank of ten modules with 400 microtube per module; obtain production quality tubestrip die and AISI 304 tubestrips; obtain production quality microtubing; construct revised MTS heat exchanger; construct dies and fixtures for prototype heat exchanger; construct 100 MTS modules; assemble 8-10 prototype MTS heat exchangers; test prototype MTS heat exchanger; and verify test through independent means. 7 refs., 9 figs. 1 tab. (CK)

  7. Bismuth-based electrochemical stripping analysis

    DOEpatents

    Wang, Joseph

    2004-01-27

    Method and apparatus for trace metal detection and analysis using bismuth-coated electrodes and electrochemical stripping analysis. Both anodic stripping voltammetry and adsorptive stripping analysis may be employed.

  8. Autoionization of He atoms by partially stripped ion impact

    SciTech Connect

    Otranto, S.; Olson, R.E.

    2005-08-15

    A study of the autoionization process induced by partially stripped ion impact is performed. Electron spectra in momentum space are predicted within a classical model for partially stripped ions. The results are compared with those obtained for pure Coulomb-like projectiles. A quantum-mechanical extension of the Barrachina-Macek model is proposed for partially stripped projectiles. Structure on the electron angular distribution arising in quantum and classical treatments is identified and compared. The presence of rainbow scattering interference is observed in the binary ring profile of the outgoing autoionized electrons for positive-ion impact.

  9. Effects of air injection during sap processing on maple syrup color, chemical composition and flavor volatiles.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Air injection (AI) is a maple sap processing technology reported to increase the efficiency of maple syrup production by increasing production of more economically valuable light-colored maple syrup, and reducing development of loose scale mineral precipitates in syrup, and scale deposits on evapora...

  10. EVALUATION OF A TEST METHOD FOR MEASURING INDOOR AIR EMISSIONS FROM DRY-PROCESS PHOTOCOPIERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A large chamber test method for measuring indoor air emissions from office equipment was developed, evaluated, and revised based on the initial testing of four dry-process photocopiers. Because all chambers may not necessarily produce similar results (e.g., due to differences in ...

  11. 76 FR 54528 - Standard Operating Procedures (SOP) of the Aircraft Certification Service (AIR) Process for the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-01

    ... (AIR) Process for the Sequencing of Certification and Validation Projects AGENCY: Federal Aviation...: Comments Invited You are invited to comment on the SOP for the sequencing of certification and validation... used for sequencing new certification and validation projects worked in its Aircraft...

  12. Complex utilization of snf processing wastes in air plasma of high-frequency torch discharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karengin, A. G.; Karengin, A. A.; Podgornaya, O. D.; Shlotgauer, E. E.

    2014-10-01

    We present results of complex spent nuclear fuel wastes utilization process in air plasma of high-frequency torch discharge in form of dispersed water-organic compositions. We demonstrate the possibility to apply magnetic separation for effective extraction of obtained dispersed solid products including magnetic iron oxide from water suspension.

  13. Range gated strip proximity sensor

    DOEpatents

    McEwan, T.E.

    1996-12-03

    A range gated strip proximity sensor uses one set of sensor electronics and a distributed antenna or strip which extends along the perimeter to be sensed. A micro-power RF transmitter is coupled to the first end of the strip and transmits a sequence of RF pulses on the strip to produce a sensor field along the strip. A receiver is coupled to the second end of the strip, and generates a field reference signal in response to the sequence of pulse on the line combined with received electromagnetic energy from reflections in the field. The sensor signals comprise pulses of radio frequency signals having a duration of less than 10 nanoseconds, and a pulse repetition rate on the order of 1 to 10 MegaHertz or less. The duration of the radio frequency pulses is adjusted to control the range of the sensor. An RF detector feeds a filter capacitor in response to received pulses on the strip line to produce a field reference signal representing the average amplitude of the received pulses. When a received pulse is mixed with a received echo, the mixing causes a fluctuation in the amplitude of the field reference signal, providing a range-limited Doppler type signature of a field disturbance. 6 figs.

  14. Range gated strip proximity sensor

    DOEpatents

    McEwan, Thomas E.

    1996-01-01

    A range gated strip proximity sensor uses one set of sensor electronics and a distributed antenna or strip which extends along the perimeter to be sensed. A micro-power RF transmitter is coupled to the first end of the strip and transmits a sequence of RF pulses on the strip to produce a sensor field along the strip. A receiver is coupled to the second end of the strip, and generates a field reference signal in response to the sequence of pulse on the line combined with received electromagnetic energy from reflections in the field. The sensor signals comprise pulses of radio frequency signals having a duration of less than 10 nanoseconds, and a pulse repetition rate on the order of 1 to 10 MegaHertz or less. The duration of the radio frequency pulses is adjusted to control the range of the sensor. An RF detector feeds a filter capacitor in response to received pulses on the strip line to produce a field reference signal representing the average amplitude of the received pulses. When a received pulse is mixed with a received echo, the mixing causes a fluctuation in the amplitude of the field reference signal, providing a range-limited Doppler type signature of a field disturbance.

  15. ERTS-1 investigation of ecological effects of strip mining in eastern Ohio

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chase, P. E.; Pettyjohn, W. A.

    1973-01-01

    Evidence is presented of ERTS capability to detect, map and monitor the effects of strip mining. Both enlarge ERTS imagery and statistically processed outline maps and imagery of stripped earth and standing water are compared to aerial photos of a strip mine near Coshocton, Ohio. The outline maps and decision imagery are at present limited to forming a disruption map of recently mined and unreclaimed earth and the resultant standing water within the mined area. It is planned to prepare a map of the reclaimed areas (reclamation map) within the stripped area and to detect and identify ecological effects such as vegetation kills and stream sedimentation external to the stripped areas.

  16. Solution-Processed Ultraelastic and Strong Air-Bubbled Graphene Foams.

    PubMed

    Lv, Lingxiao; Zhang, Panpan; Cheng, Huhu; Zhao, Yang; Zhang, Zhipan; Shi, Gaoquan; Qu, Liangti

    2016-06-01

    Solution-processed ultraelastic graphene foams are prepared via a convenient air-bubble-promoted synthesis. These foams can dissipate external compression through the ordered interconnecting graphene network between the bubbles without causing a local fracture and thus reliably show compressive stress of 5.4 MPa at a very high strain of 99%, setting a new benchmark for solution-processed graphene foams. PMID:27171551

  17. Analysis/design of strip reinforced random composites /strip hybrids/

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamis, C. C.; Sinclair, J. H.

    1978-01-01

    Results are described which were obtained by applying advanced analysis methods and composite mechanics to a strip-reinforced random composite square panel with fixed ends. This was done in order to illustrate the use of these methods for the apriori assessment of the composite panel when subjected to complex loading conditions. The panel was assumed to be of E-Glass/Random Composite. The strips were assumed to be of three advanced unidirectional composites to cover a range of low, intermediate, and high modulus stiffness. The panels were assumed to be subjected to complex loadings to assess their adequacy as load-carrying members in auto body, aircraft engine nacelle, and windmill blade applications. The results show that strip hybrid panels can be several times more structurally efficient than the random composite base materials. Some of the results are presented in graphical form and procedures are described for use of these graphs as guides for preliminary design of strip hybrids.

  18. Analysis/design of strip reinforced random composites (strip hybrids)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamis, C. C.; Sinclair, J. H.

    1978-01-01

    Advanced analysis methods and composite mechanics were applied to a strip-reinforced random composite square panel with fixed ends to illustrate the use of these methods for the a priori assessment of the composite panel when subjected to complex loading conditions. The panel was assumed to be of E-glass random composite. The strips were assumed to be of three advanced unidirectional composites to cover a range of low, intermediate, and high modulus stiffness. The panels were assumed to be subjected to complex loadings to assess their adequacy as load-carrying members in auto body, aircraft engine nacelle and windmill blade applications. The results show that strip hybrid panels can be several times more structurally efficient than the random composite base materials. Some of the results are presented in graphical form and procedures are described for use of these graphs as guides for preliminary design of strip hybrids.

  19. [Revision process and thinking of emission standard of air pollutants for cement industry].

    PubMed

    Jiang, Mei; Li, Xiao-Qian; Ji, Liang; Zou, Lan; Wei, Yu-Xia; Zhao, Guo-Hua; Che, Fei; Li, Gang; Zhang, Guo-Ning

    2014-12-01

    The new National Emission Standard of Air Pollutants for Cement Industry (GB 4915-2013) was released recently, which is the third revision since the first release in 1985. This paper reviewed the revision process for the emission standard of air pollutants in cement industry, analyzed the impact of environmental protection situation and management policies changes on the content and form of the standard. The standard formulating principles and several key issues together constitute the base of emission standard, which are not only important to complete the theories and methods of emission standard development, but also important to improve the environmental management and pollution control level. PMID:25826951

  20. Development of a gas-promoted oil agglomeration process: Air-promoted oil agglomeration of moderately hydrophobic coals. 2: Effect of air dosage in a model mixing system

    SciTech Connect

    Drzymala, J.; Wheelock, T.D.

    1996-07-01

    In a selective oil agglomeration process for cleaning coal, fine-size particles are suspended in water and treated with a water-immiscible hydrocarbon which can range from pentane to heavy fuel oil. Vigorous agitation is applied to disperse the oil and to produce frequent contacts between oil-coated particles. In Part 1 of this series of papers, it was shown that a definite amount of air had to be present in a laboratory mixing unit which produced a moderate shear rate in order to form compact, spherical agglomerates in an aqueous suspension of moderately hydrophobic coal using heptane or hexadecane as an agglomerate. In this paper, the effects of different amounts of air including dissolved air are discussed. The results indicate that a small amount of air will trigger the process of agglomeration, and even the air dissolved in water under equilibrium conditions at room temperature and pressure is sufficient to promote agglomeration provided it is released from solution.

  1. Control of ammonia air pollution through the management of thermal processes in cowsheds.

    PubMed

    Bleizgys, Rolandas; Bagdoniene, Indre

    2016-10-15

    Experimental researches performed in manufacturing cowsheds have demonstrated a variation of ammonia concentration and the factors influencing this most during different periods of the year. The process of ammonia evaporation from manure is influenced by many varying and interrelated factors with temperature and the intensity of air ventilation being the most critical ones. The influence of these factors on the process of ammonia evaporation was established by laboratory researches. An increase in temperature results in an exponential increase in ammonia emission, whereas the dependence of the emission on the air velocity is best expressed by a second degree polynomial. The results obtained may be used as a forecast of the ammonia emissions from cowsheds during different periods of the year. Intensive ventilation is required for the removal of excess moisture from the housing, and this limits the possibilities to reduce ammonia emissions by controlling the intensity of ventilation. A reduction in the amount of ventilation is only recommended if the air quality indices meet the requirements applied to the housing. Better opportunities to reduce ammonia emissions are provided through management of the thermal processes in a cowshed. If the average annual air temperature (11.3°C) is reduced by one degree in a cubicle housing cowshed, the ammonia emissions will decrease by 10%. PMID:27350091

  2. Microwave-assisted stripping of oil contaminated drill cuttings.

    PubMed

    Robinson, J P; Kingman, S W; Onobrakpeya, O

    2008-07-01

    The application of microwave heating technology to conventional gas stripping processes has been investigated in the remediation of contaminated drill cuttings. The technical feasibility and limitations of nitrogen and steam stripping processes are demonstrated, and it is shown that the combination of microwave heating with the stripping process offers a step change in performance. Order of magnitude improvements in processing time are shown for the microwave-assisted processes, as well as greatly improved levels of remediation. The mechanisms of contaminant removal are discussed, along with the phenomena which occur with microwave heating processes. The energy requirements of each of pure gas and microwave-assisted processes are also discussed, and the potential applications of each technology are highlighted relative to the overall remediation requirements. PMID:17433529

  3. Sustainable in-well vapor stripping: A design, analytical model, and pilot study for groundwater remediation.

    PubMed

    Sutton, Patrick T; Ginn, Timothy R

    2014-12-15

    A sustainable in-well vapor stripping system is designed as a cost-effective alternative for remediation of shallow chlorinated solvent groundwater plumes. A solar-powered air compressor is used to inject air bubbles into a monitoring well to strip volatile organic compounds from a liquid to vapor phase while simultaneously inducing groundwater circulation around the well screen. An analytical model of the remediation process is developed to estimate contaminant mass flow and removal rates. The model was calibrated based on a one-day pilot study conducted in an existing monitoring well at a former dry cleaning site. According to the model, induced groundwater circulation at the study site increased the contaminant mass flow rate into the well by approximately two orders of magnitude relative to ambient conditions. Modeled estimates for 5h of pulsed air injection per day at the pilot study site indicated that the average effluent concentrations of dissolved tetrachloroethylene and trichloroethylene can be reduced by over 90% relative to the ambient concentrations. The results indicate that the system could be used cost-effectively as either a single- or multi-well point technology to substantially reduce the mass of dissolved chlorinated solvents in groundwater. PMID:25461885

  4. Sustainable in-well vapor stripping: A design, analytical model, and pilot study for groundwater remediation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sutton, Patrick T.; Ginn, Timothy R.

    2014-12-01

    A sustainable in-well vapor stripping system is designed as a cost-effective alternative for remediation of shallow chlorinated solvent groundwater plumes. A solar-powered air compressor is used to inject air bubbles into a monitoring well to strip volatile organic compounds from a liquid to vapor phase while simultaneously inducing groundwater circulation around the well screen. An analytical model of the remediation process is developed to estimate contaminant mass flow and removal rates. The model was calibrated based on a one-day pilot study conducted in an existing monitoring well at a former dry cleaning site. According to the model, induced groundwater circulation at the study site increased the contaminant mass flow rate into the well by approximately two orders of magnitude relative to ambient conditions. Modeled estimates for 5 h of pulsed air injection per day at the pilot study site indicated that the average effluent concentrations of dissolved tetrachloroethylene and trichloroethylene can be reduced by over 90% relative to the ambient concentrations. The results indicate that the system could be used cost-effectively as either a single- or multi-well point technology to substantially reduce the mass of dissolved chlorinated solvents in groundwater.

  5. An Introduction to Intelligent Processing Programs Developed by the Air Force Manufacturing Technology Directorate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sampson, Paul G.; Sny, Linda C.

    1992-01-01

    The Air Force has numerous on-going manufacturing and integration development programs (machine tools, composites, metals, assembly, and electronics) which are instrumental in improving productivity in the aerospace industry, but more importantly, have identified strategies and technologies required for the integration of advanced processing equipment. An introduction to four current Air Force Manufacturing Technology Directorate (ManTech) manufacturing areas is provided. Research is being carried out in the following areas: (1) machining initiatives for aerospace subcontractors which provide for advanced technology and innovative manufacturing strategies to increase the capabilities of small shops; (2) innovative approaches to advance machine tool products and manufacturing processes; (3) innovative approaches to advance sensors for process control in machine tools; and (4) efforts currently underway to develop, with the support of industry, the Next Generation Workstation/Machine Controller (Low-End Controller Task).

  6. Modeling of the sorption and diffusion processes of volatile organic air pollutants in grape fruits.

    PubMed

    Górna-Binkul, A; Kaczmarski, K; Buszewski, B

    2001-06-01

    A mathematical model for the description of the sorption and diffusion processes of gaseous toluene and p-xylene in fruits of grape has been proposed. This model is based on the Fick's II low regarding a particle with a spherical shape (such as the berry of grapevine) and describes changes of air pollutant concentrations in different layers of the fruit, that is, the wax, peel, and pulp, during an exposure to contaminated air. The mass transfer coefficient and diffusion coefficients in the respective layers can be estimated using the experimental values. The theoretical data and the results from the exposure under steady-state laboratory conditions were compared and showed a good applicability of the proposed model for the prediction of volatile air pollutant partitioning in grape berries. PMID:11409983

  7. Piloted simulation of an air-ground profile negotiation process in a time-based Air Traffic Control environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, David H.; Green, Steven M.

    1993-01-01

    Historically, development of airborne flight management systems (FMS) and ground-based air traffic control (ATC) systems has tended to focus on different objectives with little consideration for operational integration. A joint program, between NASA's Ames Research Center (Ames) and Langley Research Center (Langley), is underway to investigate the issues of, and develop systems for, the integration of ATC and airborne automation systems. A simulation study was conducted to evaluate a profile negotiation process (PNP) between the Center/TRACON Automation System (CTAS) and an aircraft equipped with a four-dimensional flight management system (4D FMS). Prototype procedures were developed to support the functional implementation of this process. The PNP was designed to provide an arrival trajectory solution which satisfies the separation requirements of ATC while remaining as close as possible to the aircraft's preferred trajectory. Results from the experiment indicate the potential for successful incorporation of aircraft-preferred arrival trajectories in the CTAS automation environment. Fuel savings on the order of 2 percent to 8 percent, compared to fuel required for the baseline CTAS arrival speed strategy, were achieved in the test scenarios. The data link procedures and clearances developed for this experiment, while providing the necessary functionality, were found to be operationally unacceptable to the pilots. In particular, additional pilot control and understanding of the proposed aircraft-preferred trajectory, and a simplified clearance procedure were cited as necessary for operational implementation of the concept.

  8. In-well vapor stripping drilling and characterization work plan

    SciTech Connect

    Koegler, K.J.

    1994-03-13

    This work plan provides the information necessary for drilling, sampling, and hydrologic testing of wells to be completed in support of a demonstration of the in-well vapor stripping system. The in-well vapor stripping system is a remediation technology designed to preferentially extract volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from contaminated groundwater by converting them to a vapor phase. Air-lift pumping is used to lift and aerate groundwater within the well. The volatiles escaping the aerated water are drawn off by a slight vacuum and treated at the surface while the water is allowed to infiltrate the vadose zone back to the watertable.

  9. Automating and controlling dry paint stripping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cunliffe, F. R., III

    1989-03-01

    The key parameters which affect the efficiency and success of the dry paint-stripping process are discussed, including pressure at the nozzle, the size of the nozzle, the angle of blasting, the distance from the work-piece, the hardness and the size of the media, and the media flow. It is pointed out that, by automating the dry paint stripping process, many of these parameters can be controlled, making it possible to reproduce the same result, time and again. Attention is given to a recently developed automated aircraft wheel stripping machine, whose units are operated by joy stick controls from outside the cabinet. The wheel can be rotated and moved forward and backward in order to gain access to all of the surfaces; the operator also controls the nozzle manipulator which is a five-axis unit. At present, robotic systems are being developed for small aircraft and for the jumbo jets in use throughout the commercial airline fleets of the world.

  10. The Dark Side of the Moebius Strip.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwarz, Gideon E.

    1990-01-01

    Discussed are various models proposed for the Moebius strip. Included are a discussion of a smooth flat model and two smooth flat algebraic models, some results concerning the shortest Moebius strip, the Moebius strip of least elastic energy, and some observations on real-world Moebius strips. (KR)

  11. Strip casting with fluxing agent applied to casting roll

    DOEpatents

    Williams, Robert S.; O'Malley, Ronald J.; Sussman, Richard C.

    1997-01-01

    A strip caster (10) for producing a continuous strip (24) includes a tundish (12) for containing a melt (14), a pair of horizontally disposed water cooled casting rolls (22) and devices (29) for electrostatically coating the outer peripheral chill surfaces (44) of the casting rolls with a powder flux material (56). The casting rolls are juxtaposed relative to one another for forming a pouting basin (18) for receiving the melt through a teeming tube (16) thereby establishing a meniscus (20) between the rolls for forming the strip. The melt is protected from the outside air by a non-oxidizing gas passed through a supply line (28) to a sealing chamber (26). A preferred flux is boron oxide having a melting point of about 550.degree. C. The flux coating enhances wetting of the steel melt to the casting roll and dissolves any metal oxide formed on the roll.

  12. Strip casting with fluxing agent applied to casting roll

    DOEpatents

    Williams, R.S.; O`Malley, R.J.; Sussman, R.C.

    1997-07-29

    A strip caster for producing a continuous strip includes a tundish for containing a melt, a pair of horizontally disposed water cooled casting rolls and devices for electrostatically coating the outer peripheral chill surfaces of the casting rolls with a powder flux material. The casting rolls are juxtaposed relative to one another for forming a pouting basin for receiving the melt through a teeming tube thereby establishing a meniscus between the rolls for forming the strip. The melt is protected from the outside air by a non-oxidizing gas passed through a supply line to a sealing chamber. A preferred flux is boron oxide having a melting point of about 550 C. The flux coating enhances wetting of the steel melt to the casting roll and dissolves any metal oxide formed on the roll. 3 figs.

  13. TCT measurements with slim edge strip detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mandić, Igor; Cindro, Vladimir; Gorišek, Andrej; Kramberger, Gregor; Mikuž, Marko; Zavrtanik, Marko; Fadeyev, Vitaliy; Sadrozinski, Hartmut F.-W.; Christophersen, Marc; Phlips, Bernard

    2014-07-01

    Transient current technique (TCT) measurements with focused laser light on miniature silicon strip detectors (n+-type strips on p-type bulk) with one inactive edge thinned to about 100 μm using the Scribe-Cleave-Passivate (SCP) method are presented. Pulses of focused IR (λ=1064 nm) laser light were directed to the surface of the detector and charge collection properties near the slim edge were investigated. Measurements before and after irradiation with reactor neutrons up to 1 MeV equivalent fluence of 1.5×1015 neq/cm2 showed that SCP thinning of detector edge does not influence its charge collection properties. TCT measurements were done also with focused red laser beam (λ=640 nm) directed to the SCP processed side of the detector. The absorption length of red light in silicon is about 3 μm so with this measurement information about the electric field at the edge can be obtained. Observations of laser induced signals indicate that the electric field distribution along the depth of the detector at the detector edge is different than in the detector bulk: electric field is higher near the strip side and lower at the back side. This is a consequence of negative surface charge caused by passivation of the cleaved edge with Al2O3. The difference between bulk and edge electric field distributions gets smaller after irradiation.

  14. Spray-formed tooling and aluminum strip

    SciTech Connect

    McHugh, K.M.

    1995-11-01

    Spray forming is an advanced materials processing technology that converts a bulk liquid metal to a near-net-shape solid by depositing atomized droplets onto a suitably shaped substrate. By combining rapid solidification processing with product shape control, spray forming can reduce manufacturing costs while improving product quality. De Laval nozzles offer an alternative method to the more conventional spray nozzle designs. Two applications are described: high-volume production of aluminum alloy strip, and the production of specialized tooling, such as injection molds and dies, for rapid prototyping.

  15. An overview of the Noncyanide Metal Stripper program conducted at Kelly Air Force Base

    SciTech Connect

    Argyle, M.D.; Cowan, R.L.

    1995-01-01

    The Noncyanide Metal Stripper Program was a waste minimization effort aimed at identifying and testing suitable noncyanide stripping solutions that could replace the cyanide stripping solutions found in the United States Air Force (USAF) Air Logistics Centers (ALC). The program started with laboratory testing of commercial stripping solutions. The performance of these solutions was compared with the cyanide process solutions C-101 and C-106 targeted for replacement. Plate metal stripping rate, basis metal corrosion, and compatibility with masking materials and biodegradability were all used to determine the performance of each product. Those products that passed the acceptance criteria were field tested using 25 to 50-gallon solutions to determine optimum operating conditions, stripper maintenance requirements, and maximum solution loading and longevity. The program included investigating any adverse effects these new products might have on existing chemical and biological waste treatment processes. All cyanide stripping solutions at the San Antonio Air Logistics Command Center have been successfully replaced with commercial noncyanide products. Generally, these replacements were less toxic and generated less waste and had longer lifetimes than their cyanide counterparts.

  16. Radio frequency power issues and their implications to spacecraft processing at Vandenberg Air Force Base

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crean, Timothy G.

    Satellite usage of microcircuit technology for applications such as low-noise amplifiers is discussed with attention focused on the vulnerability of these devices to damage by high-power RF sources. The Vandenberg Air Force Base RF environment is described as well as a program underway which is designed to establish and control a 10 V/m RF environment at Titan payload processing facilities through a program of equipment modifications and procedural controls. It is argued that, for RF protection requirements beyond the 10 V/m range, it is necessary to incorporate RF shielding into the design of payload fairings, transporters and processing facilities.

  17. Pipeline rehabilitation -- conclusion: Two projects highlight water, air processes for reconditioning pipeline surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, S.A.; Werner, D.P. )

    1994-02-14

    In jobs for United Texas Transmission Co. and Natural Gas Pipeline Co. of America, a proprietary system of high-pressure water jet blasting for cleaning and air abrasive or mechanical-wheel blasting for surface preparation increased productivity and decreased time required for long-line pipelines rehabilitation projects. This second of two articles presents field results of the process' use for cleaning, conditioning, and coating pipelines by line-travel equipment. The first article detailed the procedure and notes tests of the process for asbestos-containing coatings.

  18. Los Alamos Controlled Air Incinerator for radioactive waste. Volume I. Rationale, process, equipment, performance, and recommendations

    SciTech Connect

    Neuls, A.S.; Draper, W.E.; Koenig, R.A.; Newmyer, J.M.; Warner, C.L.

    1982-08-01

    This two-volume report is a detailed design and operating documentation of the Los Alamos National Laboratory Controlled Air Incinerator (CAI) and is an aid to technology transfer to other Department of Energy contractor sites and the commercial sector. Volume I describes the CAI process, equipment, and performance, and it recommends modifications based on Los Alamos experience. It provides the necessary information for conceptual design and feasibility studies. Volume II provides descriptive engineering information such as drawing, specifications, calculations, and costs. It aids duplication of the process at other facilities.

  19. Optimizing the air flotation water treatment process. Final report, May 1997

    SciTech Connect

    Barnett, B.

    1998-09-01

    The injection water for the Nelson Project is a combination of produced and make-up water, typical of many Eastern Kansas operations. The make-up water is a low-salinity salt water from the Arbuckle Formation and contains dissolved minerals and sulfides. The produced water contains suspended oil, suspended clay and silt particles, along with a combination of other dissolved minerals. The combination of the two waters causes several undesirable reactions. The suspended solids load contained in the combined waters would plug a 75-micron plant bag filter within one day. Wellhead filters of 75-micron size were also being used on the injection wells. The poor water quality resulted in severe loss of injectivity and frequent wellbore cleaning of the injection wells. Various mechanical and graded-bed filtration methods were considered for cleaning the water. These methods were rejected due to the lack of field equipment and service availability. A number of vendors did not even respond to the author`s request. The air flotation process was selected as offering the best hope for a long-term solution. The objective of this work is to: increase the cost effectiveness of the process through optimizing process design factors and operational parameters. A vastly modified air flotation system is the principal tool for accomplishing the project objective. The air flotation unit, as received from manufacturer Separation Specialist, was primarily designed to remove oil from produced water. The additional requirement for solids removal necessitated major physical changes in the unit. Problems encountered with the air flotation unit and specific modifications are detailed in the body of the report.

  20. VALIDATION OF A COMMERCIAL PROCESS FOR INACTIVATION OF ESCHERICHIA COLI O157:H7, SALMONELLA, AND LISTERIA MONOCYTOGENES ON THE SURFACE OF WHOLE MUSCLE BEEF JERKY STRIPS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Evaporative cooling at the surface of beef jerky during drying may result in insufficient lethality of pathogens. Thus, we validated the lethality of time and temperature regimens for commercial processing of whole-muscle beef jerky. A total of ca. 8.0 log10 CFU of multiple-strain cocktails of Esch...

  1. Using nocturnal cold air drainage flow to monitor ecosystem processes in complex terrain.

    PubMed

    Pypker, Thomas G; Unsworth, Michael H; Mix, Alan C; Rugh, William; Ocheltree, Troy; Alstad, Karrin; Bond, Barbara J

    2007-04-01

    This paper presents initial investigations of a new approach to monitor ecosystem processes in complex terrain on large scales. Metabolic processes in mountainous ecosystems are poorly represented in current ecosystem monitoring campaigns because the methods used for monitoring metabolism at the ecosystem scale (e.g., eddy covariance) require flat study sites. Our goal was to investigate the potential for using nocturnal down-valley winds (cold air drainage) for monitoring ecosystem processes in mountainous terrain from two perspectives: measurements of the isotopic composition of ecosystem-respired CO2 (delta13C(ER)) and estimates of fluxes of CO2 transported in the drainage flow. To test if this approach is plausible, we monitored the wind patterns, CO2 concentrations, and the carbon isotopic composition of the air as it exited the base of a young (approximately 40 yr-old) and an old (>450 yr-old) steeply sided Douglas-fir watershed. Nocturnal cold air drainage within these watersheds was strong, deep, and occurred on more than 80% of summer nights. The depth of cold air drainage rapidly increased to tower height or greater when the net radiation at the top of the tower approached zero. The carbon isotope composition of CO2 in the drainage system holds promise as an indicator of variation in basin-scale physiological processes. Although there was little vertical variation in CO2 concentration at any point in time, we found that the range of CO2 concentration over a single evening was sufficient to estimate delta 13C(ER) from Keeling plot analyses. The seasonal variation in delta 13C(ER) followed expected trends: during the summer dry season delta 13C(ER) became less negative (more enriched in 13C), but once rain returned in the fall, delta 13C(ER) decreased. However, we found no correlation between recent weather (e.g., vapor pressure deficit) and delta 13C(ER) either concurrently or with up to a one-week lag. Preliminary estimates suggest that the nocturnal CO2

  2. Evaluation of an air spinning process to produce tailored biosynthetic nanofibre scaffolds.

    PubMed

    Sabbatier, Gad; Abadie, Pierre; Dieval, Florence; Durand, Bernard; Laroche, Gaétan

    2014-02-01

    We optimised the working parameters of an innovative air spinning device to produce nanofibrous polymer scaffolds for tissue engineering applications. Scanning electron microscopy was performed on the fibre scaffolds which were then used to identify various scaffold morphologies based on the ratio of surface occupied by the polymer fibres on that covered by the entire polymer scaffold assembly. Scaffolds were then produced with the spinning experimental parameters, resulting in 90% of fibres in the overall polymer construct, and were subsequently used to perform a multiple linear regression analysis to highlight the relationship between nanofibre diameter and the air spinning parameters. Polymer solution concentration was deemed as the most significant parameter to control fibre diameter during the spinning process, despite interactions between experimental parameters. Based on these findings, viscosity measurements were performed to clarify the effect of the polymer solution property on scaffold morphology. PMID:24411387

  3. PUMA - a new mathematical model for the rapid calculation of steady-state concentration profiles in mixer-settler extraction, partitioning, and stripping contactors using the Purex process

    SciTech Connect

    Geldard, J.F.

    1986-11-01

    The mathematical basis for a computer code PUMA (Plutonium-Uranium-Matrix-Algorithm) is described. The code simulates steady-state concentration profiles of solvent extraction contactors used in the Purex process, directly without first generating the transient behavior. The computational times are reduced, with no loss of accuracy, by about tenfold over those required by codes that generate the steady-state profiles via transient state conditions. Previously developed codes that simulate the steady-state conditions directly are not applicable to partitioning contactors, whereas PUMA is applicable to all contactors in the Purex process. Since most difficulties are encountered with partitioning contactors when simulating steady-state profiles via transient state conditions, it is with these contactors that the greatest saving in computer times is achieved.

  4. Measure Guideline: Wall Air Sealing and Insulation Methods in Existing Homes; An Overview of Opportunity and Process

    SciTech Connect

    Roberts, S.; Stephenson, R.

    2012-09-01

    This guide provides renovators and retrofit contractors an overview of considerations when including wall air sealing and insulation in an energy retrofit project. It also outlines the potential project risks, various materials for insulating, possible field inspections needed, installation procedures, as well as the benefits and drawbacks. The purpose of this document is to provide the outline of the overview and process of insulating and air sealing walls so that home retrofit professionals can identify approaches to air sealing and insulation measures.

  5. Investigation of Ignition and Combustion Processes of Diesel Engines Operating with Turbulence and Air-storage Chambers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Petersen, Hans

    1938-01-01

    The flame photographs obtained with combustion-chamber models of engines operating respectively, with turbulence chamber and air-storage chambers or cells, provide an insight into the air and fuel movements that take place before and during combustion in the combustion chamber. The relation between air velocity, start of injection, and time of combustion was determined for the combustion process employing a turbulence chamber.

  6. Development and evaluation of a profile negotiation process for integrating aircraft and air traffic control automation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, Steven M.; Denbraven, Wim; Williams, David H.

    1993-01-01

    The development and evaluation of the profile negotiation process (PNP), an interactive process between an aircraft and air traffic control (ATC) that integrates airborne and ground-based automation capabilities to determine conflict-free trajectories that are as close to an aircraft's preference as possible, are described. The PNP was evaluated in a real-time simulation experiment conducted jointly by NASA's Ames and Langley Research Centers. The Ames Center/TRACON Automation System (CTAS) was used to support the ATC environment, and the Langley Transport Systems Research Vehicle (TSRV) piloted cab was used to simulate a 4D Flight Management System (FMS) capable aircraft. Both systems were connected in real time by way of voice and data lines; digital datalink communications capability was developed and evaluated as a means of supporting the air/ground exchange of trajectory data. The controllers were able to consistently and effectively negotiate nominally conflict-free vertical profiles with the 4D-equipped aircraft. The actual profiles flown were substantially closer to the aircraft's preference than would have been possible without the PNP. However, there was a strong consensus among the pilots and controllers that the level of automation of the PNP should be increased to make the process more transparent. The experiment demonstrated the importance of an aircraft's ability to accurately execute a negotiated profile as well as the need for digital datalink to support advanced air/ground data communications. The concept of trajectory space is proposed as a comprehensive approach for coupling the processes of trajectory planning and tracking to allow maximum pilot discretion in meeting ATC constraints.

  7. Intrabeam stripping in H- Linacs

    SciTech Connect

    Lebedev, V.; Solyak, N.; Ostigy, J.-F.; Alexandrov, A.; Shishlo, A.; /Oak Ridge

    2010-09-01

    A beam loss in the superconducting part of the SNS linac has been observed during its commissioning and operation. Although the loss does not prevent the SNS high power operation, it results in an almost uniform irradiation of linac components and increased radiation levels in the tunnel. Multi-particle tracking could neither account for the magnitude of the observed loss nor its dependence on machine parameters. It was recently found that the loss is consistent with the intrabeam particle collisions resulting in stripping of H{sup -} ions. The paper describes experimental observations and corresponding analytical estimates of the intrabeam stripping.

  8. Characteristics of laminates with delamination control strips

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sun, C. T.; Goering, J. C.; Alper, J. M.; Gause, L. W.

    1992-01-01

    Tough resin is needed to resist delamination crack propagation. However, modulus often has to be compromised because it is difficult to retain both high modulus and toughness in a matrix material. A potential solution is to use a hybrid system in which tough resin strips are included within a conventional matrix composite. By adjusting the spacing of the tough resin strips, maximum delamination size can be controlled. Experimental results for impact damage and subsequent damage propagation in laminates containing tough resin strips are reported. Plain adhesive strips and fiber-reinforced tough resin composite strips were used in constructing the hybrid laminates. Test results indicated that size of delamination inflicted by impact was confined between the tough resin strips. As a result, significantly increased residual compressive strength was obtained. Impacted laminates containing tough resin strips were also fatigue tested. It was found that these strips reduced the growth of the impact damage area relative to the growth seen in coupons with no tough resin strips. Damage growth from an open hole under tension fatigue was evaluated using both tough resin strips and glass fiber reinforced tough resin strips. Unreinforced tough resin strips retarded delamination growth from the open hole, but did not stop matrix cracks growing in the fiber direction. Fiber reinforced tough resin strips did not contain axial delamination growth from the open hole. However, they did act as crack arresters, stopping the through-the-thickness tension crack originating from the hole.

  9. Characteristics of laminates with delamination control strips

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, C.T.; Goering, J.C.; Alper, J.M.; Gause, L.W.

    1992-09-01

    Tough resin is needed to resist delamination crack propagation. However, modulus often has to be compromised because it is difficult to retain both high modulus and toughness in a matrix material. A potential solution is to use a hybrid system in which tough resin strips are included within a conventional matrix composite. By adjusting the spacing of the tough resin strips, maximum delamination size can be controlled. Experimental results for impact damage and subsequent damage propagation in laminates containing tough resin strips are reported. Plain adhesive strips and fiber-reinforced tough resin composite strips were used in constructing the hybrid laminates. Test results indicated that size of delamination inflicted by impact was confined between the tough resin strips. As a result, significantly increased residual compressive strength was obtained. Impacted laminates containing tough resin strips were also fatigue tested. It was found that these strips reduced the growth of the impact damage area relative to the growth seen in coupons with no tough resin strips. Damage growth from an open hole under tension fatigue was evaluated using both tough resin strips and glass fiber reinforced tough resin strips. Unreinforced tough resin strips retarded delamination growth from the open hole, but did not stop matrix cracks growing in the fiber direction. Fiber reinforced tough resin strips did not contain axial delamination growth from the open hole. However, they did act as crack arresters, stopping the through-the-thickness tension crack originating from the hole.

  10. Screening Design of Supersonic Air Fuel Processing for Hard Metal Coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyphout, C.; Björklund, S.; Karlsson, M.; Runte, M.; Reisel, G.; Boccaccio, P.

    2014-12-01

    Replacement of electrolytic hard chromium method by thermal spray technology has shown a growing interest in the past decades, mainly pioneered by depositing WC-based material by conventional HVOF processes. Lower thermal energy and higher kinetic energy of sprayed particles achieved by newly developed Supersonic Air Fuel system, so-called HVAF-M3, significantly reduces decarburization, and increases wear and corrosion resistance properties, making HVAF-sprayed coatings attractive both economically and environmentally. In the present work, full factorial designs of experiments have been extensively utilized to establish relationships between hardware configurations, process and engineering variables, and coatings properties. The relevance of those process factors is emphasized and their significance is discussed in the optimization of coatings for improved abrasion wear and corrosion performances.

  11. [Analysis of an Air Pollution Process Using LiDAR in Nanjing, Spring of 2014].

    PubMed

    Bao, Qing; He, Jun-liang; Zha, Yong; Cheng, Feng; Li, Qian-nan

    2015-04-01

    Based on environmental monitoring data, meteorological data and the results of numerical simulation, a typical air pollution process in Nanjing, from 26th May to 1st June, 2014 was deeply analyzed combining aerosol extinction coefficient derived from LiDAR system. Experimental results showed that the entire pollution process was affected by both local pollution and exogenous inputs including dust and smoke. Meteorological factors played a significant role in the generation and elimination of pollutants. Low pressure and temperature inversion also hindered the diffusion of pollutants, while strong rainfall terminated the pollution process. During the pollution, the height of atmospheric boundary layer was lower than normal situation and changed little during the pollution period, which provided a poor diffusion condition for pollutants. LiDAR could accurately detect aerosol vertical structure which was able to capture the temporal and spatial variation of pollutant distributions. Therefore, LiDAR can be of great significance for the atmospheric pollution monitoring. PMID:26164889

  12. Modification of pure oxygen absorption equipment for concurrent stripping of carbon dioxide

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Watten, B.J.; Sibrell, P.L.; Montgomery, G.A.; Tsukuda, S.M.

    2004-01-01

    The high solubility of carbon dioxide precludes significant desorption within commercial oxygen absorption equipment. This operating characteristic of the equipment limits its application in recirculating water culture systems despite its ability to significantly increase allowable fish loading rates (kg/(L min)). Carbon dioxide (DC) is typically removed by air stripping. This process requires a significant energy input for forced air movement, air heating in cold climates and water pumping. We developed a modification for a spray tower that provides for carbon dioxide desorption as well as oxygen absorption. Elimination of the air-stripping step reduces pumping costs while allowing dissolved nitrogen to drop below saturation concentrations. This latter response provides for an improvement in oxygen absorption efficiency within the spray tower. DC desorption is achieved by directing head-space gases from the spray tower (O2, N2, CO2) through a sealed packed tower scrubber receiving a 2 N NaOH solution. Carbon dioxide is selectively removed from the gas stream, by chemical reaction, forming the product Na 2CO3. Scrubber off-gas, lean with regard to carbon dioxide but still rich with oxygen, is redirected through the spray tower for further stripping of DC and absorption of oxygen. Make-up NaOH is metered into the scrubbing solution sump on an as needed basis as directed by a feedback control loop programmed to maintain a scrubbing solution pH of 11.4-11.8. The spent NaOH solution is collected, then regenerated for reuse, in a batch process that requires relatively inexpensive hydrated lime (Ca(OH)2). A by-product of the regeneration step is an alkaline filter cake, which may have use in bio-solids stabilization. Given the enhanced gas transfer rates possible with chemical reaction, the required NaOH solution flow rate through the scrubber represents a fraction of the spray tower water flow rate. Further, isolation of the water being treated from the atmosphere (1

  13. High pressure water jet cutting and stripping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoppe, David T.; Babai, Majid K.

    1991-01-01

    High pressure water cutting techniques have a wide range of applications to the American space effort. Hydroblasting techniques are commonly used during the refurbishment of the reusable solid rocket motors. The process can be controlled to strip a thermal protective ablator without incurring any damage to the painted surface underneath by using a variation of possible parameters. Hydroblasting is a technique which is easily automated. Automation removes personnel from the hostile environment of the high pressure water. Computer controlled robots can perform the same task in a fraction of the time that would be required by manual operation.

  14. Design and performance of the Civil Air Patrol ARCHER hyperspectral processing system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stevenson, Brian; O'Connor, Rory; Kendall, William; Stocker, Alan; Schaff, William; Alexa, Drew; Salvador, John; Eismann, Michael; Barnard, Kenneth; Kershenstein, John

    2005-06-01

    The Civil Air Patrol (CAP) is procuring Airborne Real-time Cueing Hyperspectral Enhanced Reconnaissance (ARCHER) systems to increase their search-and-rescue mission capability. These systems are being installed on a fleet of Gippsland GA-8 aircraft, and will position CAP to gain realworld mission experience with the application of hyperspectral sensor and processing technology to search and rescue. The ARCHER system design, data processing, and operational concept leverage several years of investment in hyperspectral technology research and airborne system demonstration programs by the Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) and Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL). Each ARCHER system consists of a NovaSol-designed, pushbroom, visible/near-infrared (VNIR) hyperspectral imaging (HSI) sensor, a co-boresighted visible panchromatic high-resolution imaging (HRI) sensor, and a CMIGITS-III GPS/INS unit in an integrated sensor assembly mounted inside the GA-8 cabin. ARCHER incorporates an on-board data processing system developed by Space Computer Corporation (SCC) to perform numerous real-time processing functions including data acquisition and recording, raw data correction, target detection, cueing and chipping, precision image geo-registration, and display and dissemination of image products and target cue information. A ground processing station is provided for post-flight data playback and analysis. This paper describes the requirements and architecture of the ARCHER system, with emphasis on data processor design, components, software, interfaces, and displays. Key sensor performance characteristics and real-time data processing features are discussed. The use of the system for detecting and geo-locating ground targets in real-time is demonstrated using test data collected in Southern California in the fall of 2004.

  15. Thermodynamic and kinetic study of phenol degradation by a non-catalytic wet air oxidation process.

    PubMed

    Lefèvre, Sébastien; Boutin, Olivier; Ferrasse, Jean-Henry; Malleret, Laure; Faucherand, Rémy; Viand, Alain

    2011-08-01

    This work is dedicated to an accurate evaluation of thermodynamic and kinetics aspects of phenol degradation using wet air oxidation process. Phenol is a well known polluting molecule and therefore it is important having data of its behaviour during this process. A view cell is used for the experimental study, with an internal volume of 150 mL, able to reach pressures up to 30 MPa and temperatures up to 350°C. Concerning the thermodynamic phase equilibria, experimental and modelling results are obtained for different binary systems (water/nitrogen, water/air) and ternary system (water/nitrogen/phenol). The best model is the Predictive Soave Redlich Kwong one. This information is necessary to predict the composition of the gas phase during the process. It is also important for an implementation in a process simulation. The second part is dedicated to kinetics evaluation of the degradation of phenol. Different compounds have been detected using GC coupled with a MS. A kinetic scheme is deduced, taking into account the evolution of phenol, hydroquinones, catechol, resorcinol and acetic acid. The kinetic parameters are calculated for this scheme. These data are important to evaluate the evolution of the concentration of the different polluting molecules during the process. A simplified kinetic scheme, which can be easily implemented in a process simulation, is also determined for the direct degradation of phenol into H(2)O and CO(2). The Arrhenius law data obtained for the phenol disappearance are the following: k=1.8×10(6)±3.9×10(5)M(-1)s(-1) (pre-exponential factor) and E(a)=77±8 kJ mol(-1) (activation energy). PMID:21700312

  16. A hybrid biological process of indoor air treatment for toluene removal.

    PubMed

    Hort, C; Platel, V; Sochard, S; Munoz, Luengas A T; Ondarts, M; Reguer, A; Barona, A; Elias, A

    2014-12-01

    Bioprocesses, such as biofiltration, are commonly used to treat industrial effluents containing volatile organic compounds (VOCs) at low concentrations. Nevertheless, the use of biofiltration for indoor air pollution (IAP) treatment requires adjustments depending on specific indoor environments. Therefore, this study focuses on the convenience of a hybrid biological process for IAP treatment. A biofiltration reactor using a green waste compost was combined with an adsorption column filled with activated carbon (AC). This system treated a toluene-micropolluted effluent (concentration between 17 and 52 μg/m3), exhibiting concentration peaks close to 733 μg/m3 for a few hours per day. High removal efficiency was obtained despite changes in toluene inlet load (from 4.2 x 10(-3) to 0.20 g/m3/hr), which proves the hybrid system's effectiveness. In fact, during unexpected concentration changes, the efficiency of the biofilter is greatly decreased, but the adsorption column maintains the high efficiency of the entire process (removal efficiency [RE] close to 100%). Moreover, the adsorption column after biofiltration is able to deal with the problem of the emission of particles and/or microorganisms from the biofilter. Implications: Indoor air pollution is nowadays recognized as major environmental and health issue. This original study investigates the performance of a hybrid biological process combining a biofilter and an adsorption column for removal of indoor VOCs, specifically toluene. PMID:25562936

  17. Dual Laser Beam Attenuation Processing: A Method for Line-averaging of Air Temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Afsharnaderi, H. R.; Pishvaei, M. R.

    2009-04-01

    In local scale there is a demand to measure horizontal air temperature averaged over farming and horticulture plots for frost point monitoring and evapotranspiration calculations. Using several dry bulb thermometers is problematic. This work then attends to laser instrumentation of air thermometry. The attenuation of laser beams from Rayleigh scattering has been applied for this purpose. The ratio of attenuation quantity for two isosceles parallel laser beams (850nm and 1064nm with 5W output) led to independent line-averaging of air temperature from transmission path-lengths. Typical measurements have been executed over 400x200 m2 garden. Digital resolution is 0.1°C but spatial resolution is quite fine. One of the advantages of dual signal processing is the filtration of ambiguities caused by beam scintillations. Usage of this instrument is recommended over plane area or in green-houses and limited by topography. Applicability may be extended to other studies such as micrometeorology and propagation experiments.

  18. Validation of Real-Time Data Processing for the Ground and Air-MSPI Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Werne, Thomas; Bekker, Dmitriy L.; Pingree, Paula J.

    2011-01-01

    JPL is currently developing the multi-angle spectro-polarimetric imager (MSPI), targeted for the Aerosol-Cloud-Ecosystems (ACE) mission, as defined in the National Academies 2007 Decadal Survey. In preparation for the space instrument, the MSPI team has built two incremental camera systems (Ground- and Air-MSPI) to improve understanding of the proposed architecture. Ground-MSPI is a gimballed instrument used primarily for stationary observation and characterization of the imager and optics. The ER-2 based Air-MSPI operates in a step-and-stare mode, providing multi-angle imaging of a static target. This mode-of-operation simulates the observation scenario of the space instrument. Physically, MSPI is a pushbroom camera with a specialized frontend. Before imaging, light entering the camera passes through a pair of photoelastic modulators and a set of pattern polarizers. These optical elements act on the light to make polarimetric extraction computationally feasible. Calculating polarimetric parameters from the imager's data stream requires a real-time least-squares computation that produces coefficients of a truncated time-series expansion of the image. As reported in, the data processing algorithm can operate in real-time on a Xilinx Virtex-5 FPGA. Moving beyond verification with an onboard data source, the algorithm has been validated on a commercial development board interfaced with the ground camera. In addition, the algorithm has been instantiated within the Air-MSPI electronics board's FPGA, and in situ first-light has been achieved.

  19. Factors Affecting the Corporate Decision-Making Process of Air Transport Manufacturers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ollila, R. G.; Hill, J. D.; Noton, B. R.; Duffy, M. A.; Epstein, M. M.

    1976-01-01

    Fuel economy is a pivotal question influencing the future sale and utilization of commercial aircraft. The NASA Aircraft Energy Efficiency (ACEE) Program Office has a program intended to accelerate the readiness of advanced technologies for energy efficient aircraft. Because the decision to develop a new airframe or engine is a major financial hazard for manufacturers, it is important to know what factors influence the decision making process. A method is described for identifying and ranking individuals and organizations involved at each stage of commercial air transport development, and the barriers that must be overcome in adopting new technologies.

  20. Paraho environmental data. Part I. Process characterization. Par II. Air quality. Part III. Water quality

    SciTech Connect

    Heistand, R.N.; Atwood, R.A.; Richardson, K.L.

    1980-06-01

    From 1973 to 1978, Development Engineering, Inc. (DEI), a subsidiary of Paraho Development Corporation, demostrated the Paraho technology for surface oil shale retorting at Anvil Points, Colorado. A considerable amount of environmentally-related research was also conducted. This body of data represents the most comprehensive environmental data base relating to surface retorting that is currently available. In order to make this information available, the DOE Office of Environment has undertaken to compile, assemble, and publish this environmental data. The compilation has been prepared by DEI. This report includes the process characterization, air quality, and water quality categories.

  1. BUFFERS AND VEGETATIVE FILTER STRIPS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Buffers and filter strips are areas of permanent vegetation located within and between agricultural fields and the water courses to which they drain. These buffers are intended to intercept and slow runoff thereby providing water quality benefits. In addition, in many settings they are intended to...

  2. The Perils of Strip Searches.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trotter, Andrew

    1995-01-01

    Every year, a few administrators mishandle school searches and create spectacles similar to the New Castle, Pennsylvania, incident involving six illegally strip-searched students. Principals using "cops-and-robber" techniques to unearth contraband may not realize the potential for infringing on students' constitutional privacy rights. Strip…

  3. Bimaterial Thermal Strip With Increased Flexing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrison, Andrew D.

    1994-01-01

    In proposed bimaterial thermal strip, one layer has negative coefficient of thermal expansion, thereby increasing difference between coefficients of thermal expansion of two outer layers and consequently increasing flexing caused by change in temperature. Proposed bimaterial strips used in thermostats.

  4. Optimization of leachate treatment using persulfate/H2O2 based advanced oxidation process: case study: Deir El-Balah Landfill Site, Gaza Strip, Palestine.

    PubMed

    Hilles, Ahmed H; Abu Amr, Salem S; Hussein, Rim A; Arafa, Anwar I; El-Sebaie, Olfat D

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the performance of employing H2O2 reagent in persulfate activation to treat stabilized landfill leachate. A central composite design (CCD) with response surface methodology (RSM) was applied to evaluate the relationships between operating variables, such as persulfate and H2O2 dosages, pH, and reaction time, to identify the optimum operating conditions. Quadratic models for the following two responses proved to be significant with very low probabilities (<0.0001): chemical oxygen demand (COD) and NH3-N removal. The obtained optimum conditions included a reaction time of 116 min, 4.97 g S2O8(2-), 7.29 g H2O2 dosage and pH 11. The experimental results were corresponding well with predicted models (COD and NH3-N removal rates of 81% and 83%, respectively). The results obtained in the stabilized leachate treatment were compared with those from other treatment processes, such as persulfate only and H2O2 only, to evaluate its effectiveness. The combined method (i.e., /S2O8(2-)/H2O2) achieved higher removal efficiencies for COD and NH3-N compared with other studied applications. PMID:26744940

  5. TECHNOLOGY ASSESSMENT OF SOIL VAPOR EXTRACTION AND AIR SPARGING

    EPA Science Inventory

    Air sparging, also called "in situ air stripping and in situ volatilization" injects air into the saturated zone to strip away volatile organic compounds (VOCs) dissolved in groundwater and adsorbed to soil. hese volatile contaminants transfer in a vapor phase to the unsaturated ...

  6. Textures of strip cast Fe16%Cr

    SciTech Connect

    Raabe, D.; Reher, F.; Luecke, K. ); Hoelscher, M. )

    1993-07-01

    Ferritic stainless steels with a Cr content of 16% are mainly manufactured by continuous casting, hot rolling, cold rolling and final recrystallization. The recent development of the strip casting method, which provides sheets with an equivalent geometry, i.e. thickness and width as the hot rolled band, yields significant improvements in comparison to the conventional processing. The weak initial strip texture and the homogeneous microstructure through the sample thickness have shown evidence of avoiding the well known ridging phenomenon of the finally rolled and annealed product. The occurrence of ridging in conventionally processed FeCr steel has been attributed to the collective shear of grains with (hkl)<110>, i.e. [alpha]-fibre orientations, which become oriented and topologically arranged during hot rolling. In the present paper the textures of a stainless ferritic steel with 16% Cr and 0.02% C, strip casted (SC) as well as hot rolled (HR), were thus investigated. The textures were examined by measuring the four incomplete pole figures (110), (200), (112) and (103) in the back reflection mode. The orientation distribution function (ODF) was calculated by the series expansion method (1[sup max]=22). In the case of cubic crystal symmetry and orthorhombic sample symmetry an orientation can then be presented by the three Euler angles [var phi][sub 1], [var phi], [var phi][sub 2] in the reducted Euler space. Since bcc steels tend to develop characteristic fibre textures, it is favorable to present the ODFs as isointensity diagrams in [var phi][sub 1]-sections through the Eulerspace. In this work the [alpha]-fibre and the [gamma]-fibre are of major interest.

  7. A STRIPAK component Strip regulates neuronal morphogenesis by affecting microtubule stability

    PubMed Central

    Sakuma, Chisako; Okumura, Misako; Umehara, Tomoki; Miura, Masayuki; Chihara, Takahiro

    2015-01-01

    During neural development, regulation of microtubule stability is essential for proper morphogenesis of neurons. Recently, the striatin-interacting phosphatase and kinase (STRIPAK) complex was revealed to be involved in diverse cellular processes. However, there is little evidence that STRIPAK components regulate microtubule dynamics, especially in vivo. Here, we show that one of the core STRIPAK components, Strip, is required for microtubule organization during neuronal morphogenesis. Knockdown of Strip causes a decrease in the level of acetylated α-tubulin in Drosophila S2 cells, suggesting that Strip influences the stability of microtubules. We also found that Strip physically and genetically interacts with tubulin folding cofactor D (TBCD), an essential regulator of α- and β-tubulin heterodimers. Furthermore, we demonstrate the genetic interaction between strip and Down syndrome cell adhesion molecule (Dscam), a cell surface molecule that is known to work with TBCD. Thus, we propose that Strip regulates neuronal morphogenesis by affecting microtubule stability. PMID:26644129

  8. Noise determination in silicon micro strips

    SciTech Connect

    Dubbs, T.; Kashigin, S.; Kratzer, M.

    1996-06-01

    The authors report the study of amplifier noise on silicon micro strip detectors. They have used a fast, low noise amplifier-comparator VLSI chip with 22ns shaping time developed for the LHC to determine the noise at the pre-amp as a function of strip length and strip geometry, i.e., interstrip capacitance and ohmic strip resistance. In addition, they have tested the noise in irradiated detectors. They have compared the results with simulations using SPICE.

  9. 26 CFR 1.1286-1 - Tax treatment of certain stripped bonds and stripped coupons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... stripped bond or stripped coupon is less than the amount computed under subparagraphs (A) and (B) of...)) shall be considered to be zero. For purposes of this computation, the number of complete years to maturity is measured from the date the stripped bond or stripped coupon is purchased. (b) Treatment...

  10. 26 CFR 1.1286-1 - Tax treatment of certain stripped bonds and stripped coupons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 11 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Tax treatment of certain stripped bonds and stripped coupons. 1.1286-1 Section 1.1286-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE... Gains and Losses § 1.1286-1 Tax treatment of certain stripped bonds and stripped coupons. (a) De...

  11. 26 CFR 1.1286-1 - Tax treatment of certain stripped bonds and stripped coupons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 11 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Tax treatment of certain stripped bonds and stripped coupons. 1.1286-1 Section 1.1286-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE... Gains and Losses § 1.1286-1 Tax treatment of certain stripped bonds and stripped coupons. (a) De...

  12. 26 CFR 1.1286-1 - Tax treatment of certain stripped bonds and stripped coupons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 11 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Tax treatment of certain stripped bonds and stripped coupons. 1.1286-1 Section 1.1286-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE... Gains and Losses § 1.1286-1 Tax treatment of certain stripped bonds and stripped coupons. (a) De...

  13. 7 CFR 29.2304 - Strips.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Strips. 29.2304 Section 29.2304 Agriculture... INSPECTION Standards Official Standard Grades for Virginia Fire-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Type 21) § 29.2304 Strips... strips....

  14. 7 CFR 29.3551 - Strips.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Strips. 29.3551 Section 29.3551 Agriculture... Type 95) § 29.3551 Strips. The sides of a tobacco leaf from which the stem has been removed or a lot of tobacco composed of strips....

  15. 7 CFR 29.3551 - Strips.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Strips. 29.3551 Section 29.3551 Agriculture... Type 95) § 29.3551 Strips. The sides of a tobacco leaf from which the stem has been removed or a lot of tobacco composed of strips....

  16. 7 CFR 29.2556 - Strips.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Strips. 29.2556 Section 29.2556 Agriculture...-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Types 22, 23, and Foreign Type 96) § 29.2556 Strips. The sides of a tobacco leaf from which the stem has been removed or a lot of tobacco composed of strips....

  17. 7 CFR 29.6041 - Strips.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Strips. 29.6041 Section 29.6041 Agriculture... INSPECTION Standards Definitions § 29.6041 Strips. The sides of a tobacco leaf from which the stem has been removed or a lot of tobacco composed of strips....

  18. 7 CFR 29.6041 - Strips.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Strips. 29.6041 Section 29.6041 Agriculture... INSPECTION Standards Definitions § 29.6041 Strips. The sides of a tobacco leaf from which the stem has been removed or a lot of tobacco composed of strips....

  19. 7 CFR 29.1063 - Strips.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Strips. 29.1063 Section 29.1063 Agriculture... Type 92) § 29.1063 Strips. The sides of a tobacco leaf from which the stem has been removed from a lot of tobacco composed of strips....

  20. 7 CFR 29.3062 - Strips.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Strips. 29.3062 Section 29.3062 Agriculture... Strips. The sides of a tobacco leaf from which the stem has been removed; or a lot of tobacco composed of strips....

  1. 7 CFR 29.3062 - Strips.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Strips. 29.3062 Section 29.3062 Agriculture... Strips. The sides of a tobacco leaf from which the stem has been removed; or a lot of tobacco composed of strips....

  2. 7 CFR 29.2304 - Strips.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Strips. 29.2304 Section 29.2304 Agriculture... INSPECTION Standards Official Standard Grades for Virginia Fire-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Type 21) § 29.2304 Strips... strips....

  3. 7 CFR 29.2556 - Strips.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Strips. 29.2556 Section 29.2556 Agriculture...-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Types 22, 23, and Foreign Type 96) § 29.2556 Strips. The sides of a tobacco leaf from which the stem has been removed or a lot of tobacco composed of strips....

  4. 21 CFR 886.1800 - Schirmer strip.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Schirmer strip. 886.1800 Section 886.1800 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 886.1800 Schirmer strip. (a) Identification. A Schirmer strip is...

  5. 7 CFR 29.2304 - Strips.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Strips. 29.2304 Section 29.2304 Agriculture... INSPECTION Standards Official Standard Grades for Virginia Fire-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Type 21) § 29.2304 Strips... strips....

  6. 7 CFR 29.3551 - Strips.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Strips. 29.3551 Section 29.3551 Agriculture... Type 95) § 29.3551 Strips. The sides of a tobacco leaf from which the stem has been removed or a lot of tobacco composed of strips....

  7. 7 CFR 29.6041 - Strips.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Strips. 29.6041 Section 29.6041 Agriculture... INSPECTION Standards Definitions § 29.6041 Strips. The sides of a tobacco leaf from which the stem has been removed or a lot of tobacco composed of strips....

  8. 7 CFR 29.1063 - Strips.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Strips. 29.1063 Section 29.1063 Agriculture... Type 92) § 29.1063 Strips. The sides of a tobacco leaf from which the stem has been removed from a lot of tobacco composed of strips....

  9. 21 CFR 886.1800 - Schirmer strip.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Schirmer strip. 886.1800 Section 886.1800 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 886.1800 Schirmer strip. (a) Identification. A Schirmer strip is...

  10. 7 CFR 29.2556 - Strips.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Strips. 29.2556 Section 29.2556 Agriculture...-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Types 22, 23, and Foreign Type 96) § 29.2556 Strips. The sides of a tobacco leaf from which the stem has been removed or a lot of tobacco composed of strips....

  11. 7 CFR 29.3551 - Strips.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Strips. 29.3551 Section 29.3551 Agriculture... Type 95) § 29.3551 Strips. The sides of a tobacco leaf from which the stem has been removed or a lot of tobacco composed of strips....

  12. 7 CFR 29.2304 - Strips.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Strips. 29.2304 Section 29.2304 Agriculture... INSPECTION Standards Official Standard Grades for Virginia Fire-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Type 21) § 29.2304 Strips... strips....

  13. 7 CFR 29.1063 - Strips.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Strips. 29.1063 Section 29.1063 Agriculture... Type 92) § 29.1063 Strips. The sides of a tobacco leaf from which the stem has been removed from a lot of tobacco composed of strips....

  14. 7 CFR 29.3062 - Strips.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Strips. 29.3062 Section 29.3062 Agriculture... Strips. The sides of a tobacco leaf from which the stem has been removed; or a lot of tobacco composed of strips....

  15. 7 CFR 29.1063 - Strips.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Strips. 29.1063 Section 29.1063 Agriculture... Type 92) § 29.1063 Strips. The sides of a tobacco leaf from which the stem has been removed from a lot of tobacco composed of strips....

  16. 7 CFR 29.6041 - Strips.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Strips. 29.6041 Section 29.6041 Agriculture... INSPECTION Standards Definitions § 29.6041 Strips. The sides of a tobacco leaf from which the stem has been removed or a lot of tobacco composed of strips....

  17. 7 CFR 29.2556 - Strips.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Strips. 29.2556 Section 29.2556 Agriculture...-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Types 22, 23, and Foreign Type 96) § 29.2556 Strips. The sides of a tobacco leaf from which the stem has been removed or a lot of tobacco composed of strips....

  18. 7 CFR 29.3062 - Strips.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Strips. 29.3062 Section 29.3062 Agriculture... Strips. The sides of a tobacco leaf from which the stem has been removed; or a lot of tobacco composed of strips....

  19. 7 CFR 29.3551 - Strips.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Strips. 29.3551 Section 29.3551 Agriculture... Type 95) § 29.3551 Strips. The sides of a tobacco leaf from which the stem has been removed or a lot of tobacco composed of strips....

  20. 21 CFR 886.1800 - Schirmer strip.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Schirmer strip. 886.1800 Section 886.1800 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 886.1800 Schirmer strip. (a) Identification. A Schirmer strip is...

  1. 7 CFR 29.2304 - Strips.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Strips. 29.2304 Section 29.2304 Agriculture... INSPECTION Standards Official Standard Grades for Virginia Fire-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Type 21) § 29.2304 Strips... strips....

  2. 7 CFR 29.6041 - Strips.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Strips. 29.6041 Section 29.6041 Agriculture... INSPECTION Standards Definitions § 29.6041 Strips. The sides of a tobacco leaf from which the stem has been removed or a lot of tobacco composed of strips....

  3. 7 CFR 29.3062 - Strips.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Strips. 29.3062 Section 29.3062 Agriculture... Strips. The sides of a tobacco leaf from which the stem has been removed; or a lot of tobacco composed of strips....

  4. 7 CFR 29.2556 - Strips.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Strips. 29.2556 Section 29.2556 Agriculture...-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Types 22, 23, and Foreign Type 96) § 29.2556 Strips. The sides of a tobacco leaf from which the stem has been removed or a lot of tobacco composed of strips....

  5. 7 CFR 29.1063 - Strips.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Strips. 29.1063 Section 29.1063 Agriculture... Type 92) § 29.1063 Strips. The sides of a tobacco leaf from which the stem has been removed from a lot of tobacco composed of strips....

  6. Application of a statistical post-processing technique to a gridded, operational, air quality forecast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neal, L. S.; Agnew, P.; Moseley, S.; Ordóñez, C.; Savage, N. H.; Tilbee, M.

    2014-12-01

    An automated air quality forecast bias correction scheme based on the short-term persistence of model bias with respect to recent observations is described. The scheme has been implemented in the operational Met Office five day regional air quality forecast for the UK. It has been evaluated against routine hourly pollution observations for a year-long hindcast. The results demonstrate the value of the scheme in improving performance. For the first day of the forecast the post-processing reduces the bias from 7.02 to 0.53 μg m-3 for O3, from -4.70 to -0.63 μg m-3 for NO2, from -4.00 to -0.13 μg m-3 for PM2.5 and from -7.70 to -0.25 μg m-3 for PM10. Other metrics also improve for all species. An analysis of the variation of forecast skill with lead-time is presented and demonstrates that the post-processing increases forecast skill out to five days ahead.

  7. Atherosclerotic process in taxi drivers occupationally exposed to air pollution and co-morbidities.

    PubMed

    Brucker, Natália; Charão, Mariele F; Moro, Angela M; Ferrari, Pedro; Bubols, Guilherme; Sauer, Elisa; Fracasso, Rafael; Durgante, Juliano; Thiesen, Flávia V; Duarte, Marta M; Gioda, Adriana; Castro, Iran; Saldiva, Paulo H; Garcia, Solange C

    2014-05-01

    Consistent evidence has indicated that the exposure to environmental air pollution increases the risk of cardiovascular disease. This study aimed to evaluate the possible effects of occupational exposure to air pollution, especially to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and the influence of co-morbidities on the atherosclerotic process and inflammation. For that, biomarkers of exposure such as 1-hydroxypyrene urinary, oxidative damage and markers of cardiovascular risk were determined in plasma, serum and blood. In addition, inflammation models such as carotid intima-media thickness and serum inflammatory cytokines were analyzed in 58 taxi drivers with and without co-morbidity. The results demonstrated that considering only taxi drivers without co-morbidities, 15% presented carotid intima-media thickness above reference values. For the first time it has been demonstrated that urinary 1-hydroxypyrene levels were associated with carotid intima-media thickness and with serum homocysteine levels. The multiple linear regression analysis showed that several factors may contribute to the increased carotid intima-media thickness, among which age, interleukin-6, fibrinogen and exposure to PAHs stand out. In summary, our results suggest that chronic occupational exposure to atmospheric pollution could be an additional contributor to the atherogenesis process, leading to impaired vascular health. Moreover, carotid intima-media thickness, serum homocysteine levels, fibrinogen and the total cholesterol/HDL-c ratio could be suggested as preventive measures to monitor drivers' health. PMID:24637182

  8. The FUSE satellite is prepped for prelaunch processing at Hangar AE, Cape Canaveral Air Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Workers in Hangar AE, Cape Canaveral Air Station, begin removing the plastic covering from NASA's Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer (FUSE) satellite before prelaunch processing. FUSE will undergo a functional test of its systems, followed by installation of the flight batteries and solar arrays. Tests are also scheduled for the communications and data systems linking FUSE with the spacecraft control center at The Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Md. FUSE was developed and will be operated by The Johns Hopkins University under contract to Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md. FUSE will investigate the origin and evolution of the lightest elements in the universe - hydrogen and deuterium. In addition, the FUSE satellite will examine the forces and process involved in the evolution of the galaxies, stars and planetary systems by investigating light in the far ultraviolet portion of the electromagnetic spectrum. The launch aboard a Boeing Delta II rocket is targeted for May 20 at Launch Complex 17.

  9. The FUSE satellite is prepped for prelaunch processing at Hangar AE, Cape Canaveral Air Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    At Hangar AE, Cape Canaveral Air Station, NASA's Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer (FUSE) satellite is unveiled before prelaunch processing. FUSE will undergo a functional test of its systems, followed by installation of the flight batteries and solar arrays. Tests are also scheduled for the communications and data systems linking FUSE with the spacecraft control center at The Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Md. FUSE was developed and will be operated by The Johns Hopkins University under contract to Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md. FUSE will investigate the origin and evolution of the lightest elements in the universe - hydrogen and deuterium. In addition, the FUSE satellite will examine the forces and process involved in the evolution of the galaxies, stars and planetary systems by investigating light in the far ultraviolet portion of the electromagnetic spectrum. The launch aboard a Boeing Delta II rocket is targeted for May 20 at Launch Complex 17.

  10. The FUSE satellite is prepped for prelaunch processing at Hangar AE, Cape Canaveral Air Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Workers in Hangar AE, Cape Canaveral Air Station, get ready to remove the protective shipping cover from NASA's Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer (FUSE) satellite for prelaunch processing. FUSE will undergo a functional test of its systems, followed by installation of the flight batteries and solar arrays. Tests are also scheduled for the communications and data systems linking FUSE with the spacecraft control center at The Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Md. FUSE was developed and will be operated by The Johns Hopkins University under contract to Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md. FUSE will investigate the origin and evolution of the lightest elements in the universe - hydrogen and deuterium. In addition, the FUSE satellite will examine the forces and process involved in the evolution of the galaxies, stars and planetary systems by investigating light in the far ultraviolet portion of the electromagnetic spectrum. The launch aboard a Boeing Delta II rocket is targeted for May 20 at Launch Complex 17.

  11. The FUSE satellite is prepped for prelaunch processing at Hangar AE, Cape Canaveral Air Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    At Hangar AE, Cape Canaveral Air Station, NASA's Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer (FUSE) satellite stands alone after workstands have been removed. As part of prelaunch processing, FUSE will undergo a functional test of its systems, followed by installation of the flight batteries and solar arrays. Tests are also scheduled for the communications and data systems linking FUSE with the spacecraft control center at The Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Md. FUSE was developed and will be operated by The Johns Hopkins University under contract to Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md. FUSE will investigate the origin and evolution of the lightest elements in the universe - hydrogen and deuterium. In addition, the FUSE satellite will examine the forces and process involved in the evolution of the galaxies, stars and planetary systems by investigating light in the far ultraviolet portion of the electromagnetic spectrum. The launch aboard a Boeing Delta II rocket is targeted for May 20 at Launch Complex 17.

  12. Impact of Operating Context on the Use of Structure in Air Traffic Controller Cognitive Processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davison, Hayley J.; Histon, Jonathan M.; Ragnarsdottir, Margret Dora; Major, Laura M.; Hansman, R. John

    2004-01-01

    This paper investigates the influence of structure on air traffic controllers cognitive processes in the TRACON, En Route, and Oceanic environments. Radar data and voice command analyses were conducted to support hypotheses generated through observations and interviews conducted at the various facilities. Three general types of structure-based abstractions (standard flows, groupings, and critical points) have been identified as being used in each context, though the details of their application varied in accordance with the constraints of the particular operational environment. Projection emerged as a key cognitive process aided by the structure-based abstractions, and there appears to be a significant difference between how time-based versus spatial-based projection is performed by controllers. It is recommended that consideration be given to the value provided by the structure-based abstractions to the controller as well as to maintain consistency between the type (time or spatial) of information support provided to the controller.

  13. Review of Air Vitiation Effects on Scramjet Ignition and Flameholding Combustion Processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pellett, G. L.; Bruno, Claudio; Chinitz, W.

    2002-01-01

    This paper offers a detailed review and analysis of more than 100 papers on the physics and chemistry of scramjet ignition and flameholding combustion processes, and the known effects of air vitiation on these processes. The paper attempts to explain vitiation effects in terms of known chemical kinetics and flame propagation phenomena. Scaling methodology is also examined, and a highly simplified Damkoehler scaling technique based on OH radical production/destruction is developed to extrapolate ground test results, affected by vitiation, to flight testing conditions. The long term goal of this effort is to help provide effective means for extrapolating ground test data to flight, and thus to reduce the time and expense of both ground and flight testing.

  14. Synthesizing 3D Surfaces from Parameterized Strip Charts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robinson, Peter I.; Gomez, Julian; Morehouse, Michael; Gawdiak, Yuri

    2004-01-01

    We believe 3D information visualization has the power to unlock new levels of productivity in the monitoring and control of complex processes. Our goal is to provide visual methods to allow for rapid human insight into systems consisting of thousands to millions of parameters. We explore this hypothesis in two complex domains: NASA program management and NASA International Space Station (ISS) spacecraft computer operations. We seek to extend a common form of visualization called the strip chart from 2D to 3D. A strip chart can display the time series progression of a parameter and allows for trends and events to be identified. Strip charts can be overlayed when multiple parameters need to visualized in order to correlate their events. When many parameters are involved, the direct overlaying of strip charts can become confusing and may not fully utilize the graphing area to convey the relationships between the parameters. We provide a solution to this problem by generating 3D surfaces from parameterized strip charts. The 3D surface utilizes significantly more screen area to illustrate the differences in the parameters and the overlayed strip charts, and it can rapidly be scanned by humans to gain insight. The selection of the third dimension must be a parallel or parameterized homogenous resource in the target domain, defined using a finite, ordered, enumerated type, and not a heterogeneous type. We demonstrate our concepts with examples from the NASA program management domain (assessing the state of many plans) and the computers of the ISS (assessing the state of many computers). We identify 2D strip charts in each domain and show how to construct the corresponding 3D surfaces. The user can navigate the surface, zooming in on regions of interest, setting a mark and drilling down to source documents from which the data points have been derived. We close by discussing design issues, related work, and implementation challenges.

  15. Microtube strip heat exchanger

    SciTech Connect

    Doty, F.D.

    1991-10-16

    This progress report is for the September--October 1991 quarter. We have demonstrated feasibility of higher specific conductance by a factor of five than any other work in high-temperature gas-to-gas exchangers. These laminar-flow, microtube exchangers exhibit extremely low pressure drop compared to alternative compact designs under similar conditions because of their much shorter flow length and larger total flow area for lower flow velocities. The design appears to be amenable to mass production techniques, but considerable process development remains. The reduction in materials usage and the improved heat exchanger performance promise to be of enormous significance in advanced engine designs and in cryogenics.

  16. Process for removal of ammonia and acid gases from contaminated waters

    DOEpatents

    King, C.J.; Mackenzie, P.D.

    1982-09-03

    Contaminating basic gases, i.e., ammonia and acid gases, e.g., carbon dioxide, are removed from process waters or waste waters in a combined extraction and stripping process. Ammonia in the form of ammonium ion is extracted by an immiscible organic phase comprising a liquid cation exchange component, especially an organic phosphoric acid derivative, and preferably di-2-ethyl hexyl phosphoric acid, dissolved in an alkyl hydrocarbon, aryl hydrocarbon, higher alcohol, oxygenated hydrocarbon, halogenated hydrocarbon, and mixtures thereof. Concurrently, the acidic gaseous contaminants are stripped from the process or waste waters by stripping with stream, air, nitrogen, or the like. The liquid cation exchange component has the ammonia stripped therefrom by heating, and the component may be recycled to extract additional amounts of ammonia.

  17. Process for removal of ammonia and acid gases from contaminated waters

    DOEpatents

    King, C. Judson; MacKenzie, Patricia D.

    1985-01-01

    Contaminating basic gases, i.e., ammonia, and acid gases, e.g., carbon dioxide, are removed from process waters or waste waters in a combined extraction and stripping process. Ammonia in the form of ammonium ion is extracted by an immiscible organic phase comprising a liquid cation exchange component, especially an organic phosphoric acid derivative, and preferably di-2-ethyl hexyl phosphoric acid, dissolved in an alkyl hydrocarbon, aryl hydrocarbon, higher alcohol, oxygenated hydrocarbon, halogenated hydrocarbon, and mixtures thereof. Concurrently, the acidic gaseous contaminants are stripped from the process or waste waters by stripping with steam, air, nitrogen, or the like. The liquid cation exchange component has the ammonia stripped therefrom by heating, and the component may be recycled to extract additional amounts of ammonia.

  18. Simulation Based Low-Cost Composite Process Development at the US Air Force Research Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rice, Brian P.; Lee, C. William; Curliss, David B.

    2003-01-01

    Low-cost composite research in the US Air Force Research Laboratory, Materials and Manufacturing Directorate, Organic Matrix Composites Branch has focused on the theme of affordable performance. Practically, this means that we use a very broad view when considering the affordability of composites. Factors such as material costs, labor costs, recurring and nonrecurring manufacturing costs are balanced against performance to arrive at the relative affordability vs. performance measure of merit. The research efforts discussed here are two projects focused on affordable processing of composites. The first topic is the use of a neural network scheme to model cure reaction kinetics, then utilize the kinetics coupled with simple heat transport models to predict, in real-time, future exotherms and control them. The neural network scheme is demonstrated to be very robust and a much more efficient method that mechanistic cure modeling approach. This enables very practical low-cost processing of thick composite parts. The second project is liquid composite molding (LCM) process simulation. LCM processing of large 3D integrated composite parts has been demonstrated to be a very cost effective way to produce large integrated aerospace components specific examples of LCM processes are resin transfer molding (RTM), vacuum assisted resin transfer molding (VARTM), and other similar approaches. LCM process simulation is a critical part of developing an LCM process approach. Flow simulation enables the development of the most robust approach to introducing resin into complex preforms. Furthermore, LCM simulation can be used in conjunction with flow front sensors to control the LCM process in real-time to account for preform or resin variability.

  19. The study of leachate treatment by using three advanced oxidation process based wet air oxidation

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Wet air oxidation is regarded as appropriate options for wastewater treatment with average organic compounds. The general purpose of this research is to determine the efficiency of three wet air oxidation methods, wet oxidation with hydrogen peroxide and absorption with activated carbon in removing organic matter and nitrogenous compounds from Isfahan's urban leachate. A leachate sample with the volume of 1.5 liters entered into a steel reactor with the volume of three liters and was put under a 10-bar pressure, at temperatures of 100, 200, and 300° as well as three retention times of 30, 60, and 90 minutes. The sample was placed at 18 stages of leachate storage ponds in Isfahan Compost Plant with the volume of 20 liters, using three WPO, WAO methods and a combination of WAO/GAC for leachate pre-treatment. Thirty percent of pure oxygen and hydrogen peroxide were applied as oxidation agents. The COD removal efficiency in WAO method is 7.8-33.3%, in BOD is 14.7-50.6%, the maximum removal percentage (efficiency) for NH4-N is 53.3% and for NO3-N is 56.4-73.9%. The removal efficiency of COD and BOD5 is 4.6%-34 and 24%-50 respectively in WPO method. Adding GAC to the reactor, the removal efficiency of all parameters was improved. The maximum removal efficiency was increased 48% for COD, 31%-43.6 for BOD5 by a combinational method, and the ratio of BOD5/COD was also increased to 90%. In this paper, WAO and WPO process was used for Leachate pre-treatment and WAO/GAC combinational process was applied for improving the organic matter removal and leachate treatment; it was also determined that the recent process is much more efficient in removing resistant organic matter. PMID:23369258

  20. High-Performing Polycarbazole Derivatives for Efficient Solution-Processing of Organic Solar Cells in Air.

    PubMed

    Burgués-Ceballos, Ignasi; Hermerschmidt, Felix; Akkuratov, Alexander V; Susarova, Diana K; Troshin, Pavel A; Choulis, Stelios A

    2015-12-21

    The application of conjugated materials in organic photovoltaics (OPVs) is usually demonstrated in lab-scale spin-coated devices that are processed under controlled inert conditions. Although this is a necessary step to prove high efficiency, testing of promising materials in air should be done in the early stages of research to validate their real potential for low-cost, solution-processed, and large-scale OPVs. Also relevant for approaching commercialization needs is the use of printing techniques that are compatible with upscaling. Here, solution processing of organic solar cells based on three new poly(2,7-carbazole) derivatives is efficiently transferred, without significant losses, to air conditions and to several deposition methods using a simple device architecture. High efficiencies in the range between 5.0 % and 6.3 % are obtained in (rigid) spin-coated, doctor-bladed, and (flexible) slot-die-coated devices, which surpass the reference devices based on poly[N-9'-heptadecanyl-2,7-carbazole-alt-5,5-(4',7'-di-2-thienyl-2',1',3'-benzothiadiazole)] (PCDTBT). In contrast, inkjet printing does not provide reliable results with the presented polymers, which is attributed to their high molecular weight. When the device area in the best-performing system is increased from 9 mm(2) to 0.7 cm(2), the efficiency drops from 6.2 % to 5.0 %. Photocurrent mapping reveals inhomogeneous current generation derived from changes in the thickness of the active layer. PMID:26663820

  1. Sewage treatment by anaerobic biological process associated with dissolved air flotation.

    PubMed

    Reali, M A; Campos, J R; Penetra, R G

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a study performed with a lab-scale batch DAF unit fed with previously coagulated (with FeCl3 or cationic polymer) effluent from a pilot scale up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor treating domestic sewage. The adequate coagulation/flocculation conditions--chemical dosage, time (Tf) and mean velocity gradient (Gf) in the flocculation step--and air requirements for flotation process were investigated. Best results were achieved for 65 mg.l-1 of FeCl3 at Tf around 15 min and Gf of 80 s-1. In the assays where only polymer was applied, 7 mg.l-1 of cationic polymer dosage gave optimum removals with Tf around 15 min and Gf of 30 s-1. Air requirements ranged from 9.5 to 19.0 g of air.m-3 wastewater. Best TSS (95% and residual of 2 mg.l-1), COD (85% and residual of 20 mg.l-1) and total phosphate (95% and residual of 0.6 mg.l-1) removals were obtained when applying FeCl3, although the use of cationic polymer also produced good level of TSS (74% and residual of 14 mg.l-1) and COD (75% and residual of 45 mg.l-1) removals. For the UASB-DAF (batch) system and FeCl3, global efficiencies would be 97.2% for COD, 97.9% for phosphate and 98.9% for TSS. PMID:11394285

  2. Bonded orthotropic strips with cracks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Delale, F.; Erdogan, F.

    1978-01-01

    The elastostatic problem for a nonhomogeneous plane which consists of two sets of periodically arranged dissimilar orthotropic strips is considered. First, the problem of cracks fully imbedded into the homogeneous strips is considered. Then, the singular behavior of the stresses for two special crack geometries is studied in some detail. The first is the case of a broken laminate in which the crack tips touch the interfaces. The second is the case of cracks crossing the interfaces. A number of numerical examples are worked out in order to separate the primary material parameters influencing the stress intensity factors and the powers of stress singularity, and to determine the trends regarding the influence of the secondary parameters. Finally, some numerical results are given for the stress intensity factors in certain basic crack geometries and for typical material combinations.

  3. Antenna structure with distributed strip

    SciTech Connect

    Rodenbeck, Christopher T.

    2008-10-21

    An antenna comprises electrical conductors arranged to form a radiating element including a folded line configuration and a distributed strip configuration, where the radiating element is in proximity to a ground conductor. The folded line and the distributed strip can be electrically interconnected and substantially coplanar. The ground conductor can be spaced from, and coplanar to, the radiating element, or can alternatively lie in a plane set at an angle to the radiating element. Embodiments of the antenna include conductor patterns formed on a printed wiring board, having a ground plane, spacedly adjacent to and coplanar with the radiating element. Other embodiments of the antenna comprise a ground plane and radiating element on opposed sides of a printed wiring board. Other embodiments of the antenna comprise conductors that can be arranged as free standing "foils". Other embodiments include antennas that are encapsulated into a package containing the antenna.

  4. Antenna structure with distributed strip

    SciTech Connect

    Rodenbeck, Christopher T.

    2008-03-18

    An antenna comprises electrical conductors arranged to form a radiating element including a folded line configuration and a distributed strip configuration, where the radiating element is in proximity to a ground conductor. The folded line and the distributed strip can be electrically interconnected and substantially coplanar. The ground conductor can be spaced from, and coplanar to, the radiating element, or can alternatively lie in a plane set at an angle to the radiating element. Embodiments of the antenna include conductor patterns formed on a printed wiring board, having a ground plane, spacedly adjacent to and coplanar with the radiating element. Other embodiments of the antenna comprise a ground plane and radiating element on opposed sides of a printed wiring board. Other embodiments of the antenna comprise conductors that can be arranged as free standing "foils". Other embodiments include antennas that are encapsulated into a package containing the antenna.

  5. Roll Casting of Aluminum Alloy Clad Strip

    SciTech Connect

    Nakamura, R.; Tsuge, H.; Haga, T.; Watari, H.; Kumai, S.

    2011-01-17

    Casting of aluminum alloy three layers of clad strip was tried using the two sets of twin roll casters, and effects of the casting parameters on the cladding conditions were investigated. One twin roll caster was mounted on the other twin roll caster. Base strip was 8079 aluminum alloy and overlay strips were 6022 aluminum alloy. Effects of roll-load of upper and lower casters and melt temperature of the lower caster were investigated. When the roll-load of the upper and lower caster was large enough, the overlay strip could be solidified and be connected. The overlay strip could be connected when the melt of the overlay strip cast by the lower caster was low enough. Sound three layers of clad strip could be cast by proper conditions.

  6. Ultrafast formation of air-processable and high-quality polymer films on an aqueous substrate

    PubMed Central

    Noh, Jonghyeon; Jeong, Seonju; Lee, Jung-Yong

    2016-01-01

    Polymer solar cells are attracting attention as next-generation energy sources. Scalable deposition techniques of high-quality organic films should be guaranteed to realize highly efficient polymer solar cells in large areas for commercial viability. Herein, we introduce an ultrafast, scalable, and versatile process for forming high-quality organic films on an aqueous substrate by utilizing the spontaneous spreading phenomenon. This approach provides easy control over the thickness of the films by tuning the spreading conditions, and the films can be transferred to a variety of secondary substrates. Moreover, the controlled Marangoni flow and ultrafast removal of solvent during the process cause the films to have a uniform, high-quality nanomorphology with finely separated phase domains. Polymer solar cells were fabricated from a mixture of polymer and fullerene derivatives on an aqueous substrate by using the proposed technique, and the device exhibited an excellent power conversion efficiency of 8.44 %. Furthermore, a roll-to-roll production system was proposed as an air-processable and scalable commercial process for fabricating organic devices. PMID:27507624

  7. Ultrafast formation of air-processable and high-quality polymer films on an aqueous substrate.

    PubMed

    Noh, Jonghyeon; Jeong, Seonju; Lee, Jung-Yong

    2016-01-01

    Polymer solar cells are attracting attention as next-generation energy sources. Scalable deposition techniques of high-quality organic films should be guaranteed to realize highly efficient polymer solar cells in large areas for commercial viability. Herein, we introduce an ultrafast, scalable, and versatile process for forming high-quality organic films on an aqueous substrate by utilizing the spontaneous spreading phenomenon. This approach provides easy control over the thickness of the films by tuning the spreading conditions, and the films can be transferred to a variety of secondary substrates. Moreover, the controlled Marangoni flow and ultrafast removal of solvent during the process cause the films to have a uniform, high-quality nanomorphology with finely separated phase domains. Polymer solar cells were fabricated from a mixture of polymer and fullerene derivatives on an aqueous substrate by using the proposed technique, and the device exhibited an excellent power conversion efficiency of 8.44 %. Furthermore, a roll-to-roll production system was proposed as an air-processable and scalable commercial process for fabricating organic devices. PMID:27507624

  8. Ultrafast formation of air-processable and high-quality polymer films on an aqueous substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noh, Jonghyeon; Jeong, Seonju; Lee, Jung-Yong

    2016-08-01

    Polymer solar cells are attracting attention as next-generation energy sources. Scalable deposition techniques of high-quality organic films should be guaranteed to realize highly efficient polymer solar cells in large areas for commercial viability. Herein, we introduce an ultrafast, scalable, and versatile process for forming high-quality organic films on an aqueous substrate by utilizing the spontaneous spreading phenomenon. This approach provides easy control over the thickness of the films by tuning the spreading conditions, and the films can be transferred to a variety of secondary substrates. Moreover, the controlled Marangoni flow and ultrafast removal of solvent during the process cause the films to have a uniform, high-quality nanomorphology with finely separated phase domains. Polymer solar cells were fabricated from a mixture of polymer and fullerene derivatives on an aqueous substrate by using the proposed technique, and the device exhibited an excellent power conversion efficiency of 8.44 %. Furthermore, a roll-to-roll production system was proposed as an air-processable and scalable commercial process for fabricating organic devices.

  9. Riparian strip efficiency assessment in agricultural landscapes using stereoscopic very high spatial resolution satellite imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chokmani, Karem; Novoa, Julio

    2015-04-01

    Riparian strips are used worldwide to protect riverbanks and water quality in agricultural zones because of their several environmental benefits. A metric called the Riparian Strip Quality Index, which is based on the percentage area of riverine vegetation found on the riparian strip, is used to evaluate their ecological condition. This index could be considered an indicator of the potential capacity of riparian strips to filter sediments, retain pollutants, and provide shelter to terrestrial and aquatic species. Thus, in order to know if a riparian strip is truly efficient in agricultural lands, which means that it is fulfilling those ecological functions, it is necessary to understand their ability to intercept surface runoff. The latter is the major cause of water pollution and erosion in these productive areas. Besides vegetation coverage, topographic and hydrologic parameters must be included to model the intensity and spatial distribution of runoff streamflow at local scales. The geospatial information used to assess the ecological efficiency of riparian strips was extracted from very-high-spatial-resolution WorldView-2 satellite imagery. This information was then processed using current geospatial techniques such as object-based image analysis and was used to develop a Riparian Strip Efficiency Index. The results show that this index might be used to assess the efficiency of riparian strips, which will enable land managers to monitor changes occurring over time, identify priority areas for restoration activities. This, in turn, might ensure optimal allocation of private or public funds towards the most inefficient and threatened riparian strips.

  10. Clear air turbulence as a response to meso- and synoptic-scale dynamic processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keller, John L.

    1990-01-01

    The paper presents both the Roach equation for the rate of energy dissipation due to clear air turbulence and Richardson number tendencies in isentropic coordinates and examines the implications of these formulations to determine whether there is a dynamic interdependence between Ri and the nonturbulent deformation processes. The equation representing the ln(Ri) tendency is applied diagnostically to grids from an isentropic analysis of archived soundings. The evolution of the Richardson number fields over 12-hour time periods is examined using a mechanistic model. It is suggested that the application of the Roach equation for the turbulent dissipation rate should have a more restricted use. Analyses of the meso-alpha scale Richardson number and of the Richardson number tendency fields reveal a phase relationship consistent with the theoretical predictions.

  11. Patterning process and actuation in open air of micro-beam actuator based on conducting IPNs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khaldi, Alexandre; Plesse, Cédric; Soyer, Caroline; Chevrot, Claude; Teyssié, Dominique; Vidal, Frédéric; Cattan, Eric

    2012-04-01

    We report on new method to obtain micrometric electroactive polymer actuators operating in air. High speed conducting Interpenetrating Polymer Network (IPN) microactuators are synthesized and fully characterized. The IPN architecture used in this work allows solving the interface and adhesion problems, which have been reported in the design of classical conducting polymer-based actuators. We demonstrated that it is possible to reduce the thickness of these actuators by a specific synthetic pathway. IPN host matrixes based on polyethylene oxide / polytetrahydrofurane have been shaped by hot pressing. Then, the resulting thin host matrixes (below 10 μm) are compatible with the microfabrication technologies. After interpenetration of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT), these electroactive materials are micro-sized using dry etching process. Frequency responses and displacement have been characterized by scanning electronic microscopy. These conducting IPN microactuators can be considered as potential candidates in numerous low frequency applications, including micro-valves, micro-optical instrumentation and micro-robotics.

  12. Woven graphite epoxy composite test specimens with glass buffer strips

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bonnar, G. R.; Palmer, R. J.

    1982-01-01

    Woven unidirectional graphite cloth with bands of fiberglass replacing the graphite in discrete lengthwise locations was impregnated with epoxy resin and used to fabricate a series of composite tensile and shear specimens. The finished panels, with the fiberglass buffer strips, were tested. Details of the fabrication process are reported.

  13. The twin-roll strip casting of magnesium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, D.; Cowley, C. B.

    2004-05-01

    Commonwealth Scientific & Industrial Research Organization has been working since 2000 to develop twin-roll strip casting of magnesium alloy. The primary objective was to significantly reduce the manufacturing cost of the magnesium sheet through the twin-roll casting process. This article describes the goals and challenges of this project as well as pilot plant test results.

  14. Therapeutic surfactant-stripped frozen micelles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yumiao; Song, Wentao; Geng, Jumin; Chitgupi, Upendra; Unsal, Hande; Federizon, Jasmin; Rzayev, Javid; Sukumaran, Dinesh K.; Alexandridis, Paschalis; Lovell, Jonathan F.

    2016-05-01

    Injectable hydrophobic drugs are typically dissolved in surfactants and non-aqueous solvents which can induce negative side-effects. Alternatives like `top-down' fine milling of excipient-free injectable drug suspensions are not yet clinically viable and `bottom-up' self-assembled delivery systems usually substitute one solubilizing excipient for another, bringing new issues to consider. Here, we show that Pluronic (Poloxamer) block copolymers are amenable to low-temperature processing to strip away all free and loosely bound surfactant, leaving behind concentrated, kinetically frozen drug micelles containing minimal solubilizing excipient. This approach was validated for phylloquinone, cyclosporine, testosterone undecanoate, cabazitaxel and seven other bioactive molecules, achieving sizes between 45 and 160 nm and drug to solubilizer molar ratios 2-3 orders of magnitude higher than current formulations. Hypertonic saline or co-loaded cargo was found to prevent aggregation in some cases. Use of surfactant-stripped micelles avoided potential risks associated with other injectable formulations. Mechanistic insights are elucidated and therapeutic dose responses are demonstrated.

  15. Therapeutic surfactant-stripped frozen micelles

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yumiao; Song, Wentao; Geng, Jumin; Chitgupi, Upendra; Unsal, Hande; Federizon, Jasmin; Rzayev, Javid; Sukumaran, Dinesh K.; Alexandridis, Paschalis; Lovell, Jonathan F.

    2016-01-01

    Injectable hydrophobic drugs are typically dissolved in surfactants and non-aqueous solvents which can induce negative side-effects. Alternatives like ‘top-down' fine milling of excipient-free injectable drug suspensions are not yet clinically viable and ‘bottom-up' self-assembled delivery systems usually substitute one solubilizing excipient for another, bringing new issues to consider. Here, we show that Pluronic (Poloxamer) block copolymers are amenable to low-temperature processing to strip away all free and loosely bound surfactant, leaving behind concentrated, kinetically frozen drug micelles containing minimal solubilizing excipient. This approach was validated for phylloquinone, cyclosporine, testosterone undecanoate, cabazitaxel and seven other bioactive molecules, achieving sizes between 45 and 160 nm and drug to solubilizer molar ratios 2–3 orders of magnitude higher than current formulations. Hypertonic saline or co-loaded cargo was found to prevent aggregation in some cases. Use of surfactant-stripped micelles avoided potential risks associated with other injectable formulations. Mechanistic insights are elucidated and therapeutic dose responses are demonstrated. PMID:27193558

  16. Therapeutic surfactant-stripped frozen micelles.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yumiao; Song, Wentao; Geng, Jumin; Chitgupi, Upendra; Unsal, Hande; Federizon, Jasmin; Rzayev, Javid; Sukumaran, Dinesh K; Alexandridis, Paschalis; Lovell, Jonathan F

    2016-01-01

    Injectable hydrophobic drugs are typically dissolved in surfactants and non-aqueous solvents which can induce negative side-effects. Alternatives like 'top-down' fine milling of excipient-free injectable drug suspensions are not yet clinically viable and 'bottom-up' self-assembled delivery systems usually substitute one solubilizing excipient for another, bringing new issues to consider. Here, we show that Pluronic (Poloxamer) block copolymers are amenable to low-temperature processing to strip away all free and loosely bound surfactant, leaving behind concentrated, kinetically frozen drug micelles containing minimal solubilizing excipient. This approach was validated for phylloquinone, cyclosporine, testosterone undecanoate, cabazitaxel and seven other bioactive molecules, achieving sizes between 45 and 160 nm and drug to solubilizer molar ratios 2-3 orders of magnitude higher than current formulations. Hypertonic saline or co-loaded cargo was found to prevent aggregation in some cases. Use of surfactant-stripped micelles avoided potential risks associated with other injectable formulations. Mechanistic insights are elucidated and therapeutic dose responses are demonstrated. PMID:27193558

  17. Stripping of phenols in model cooling towers

    SciTech Connect

    Turner, C.D.; Moe, T.A.; Wentz, C.A.

    1987-01-01

    Cooling towers are used to remove waste heat from unit operations in chemical processing plants. Using cooling towers for wastewater treatment and disposal through internal recycling has become an important alternative because of stricter wastewater discharge standards, the expense of specialized wastewater treatment systems and the limited availability and cost of water in arid regions. Designs for synfuels plants must address the problem of wastewater disposal. Alternative systems under consideration usually include zero discharge designs that incorporate evaporative cooling towers in the system. The mechanisms for contaminant removal in cooling towers are biological oxidation, stripping and chemical precipitation. Chemical precipitation is generally considered undesirable because of losses in heat transfer efficiency. Predicting whether stripping or biological oxidation will be the primary removal mechanism for phenolic compounds from coal conversion wastewaters used as makeup in cooling towers does not appear to be possible based on the results of these tests. The tests do indicate that the biological oxidation of phenol is possible in forced draft cooling towers.

  18. Meteorological Processes Affecting Air Quality – Research and Model Development Needs

    EPA Science Inventory

    Meteorology modeling is an important component of air quality modeling systems that defines the physical and dynamical environment for atmospheric chemistry. The meteorology models used for air quality applications are based on numerical weather prediction models that were devel...

  19. Application of an adsorptive-thermocatalytic process for BTX removal from polluted air flow

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Zero valent iron and copper oxide nanoparticles (30-60 nm) were coated on a bed of natural zeolite (Clinoptilolite) with 1-2 mm grains and arranged as a dual filter in a stainless steel cylindrical reactor (I.D 4.5 cm and L = 30 cm) to investigating the coated bed removal efficiency for BTX. The experiments were conducted in three steps. First, with an air flow of 1.5 L/min and temperature range of 38 (ambient temperature) to 600°C the BTX removal and mineralization was surveyed. Then, in an optimized temperature the effect of flow rate and pollution loading rate were surveyed on BTX removal. Results The BTX removal at 300 and 400°C were respectively up to 87.47% and 94.03%. Also in these temperatures respectively 37.21% and 90.42% of BTX mineralization were achieved. In the retention times of 14.1 s and 7.05 s, respectively 96.18% and 78.42% of BTX was removed. Conclusions According to the results, this adsorptive-thermocatalytic process with using Clinoptilolite as an adsorbent bed and combined Fe0 and Cu2O nanoparticles as catalysts can be an efficient and competitive process in the condition of high flow rate and high pollution loading rate with an adequate process temperature of 350°C. PMID:24955244

  20. Buffing, burnishing, and stripping of vinyl asbestos floor tile

    SciTech Connect

    Hollett, B.A.; Edwards, A.; Clark, P.J.

    1995-10-01

    Studies were conducted to evaluate airborne asbestos concentrations during the three principal types of preventative maintenance (low-speed spray-buffing, ultra high-speed burnishing, and wet-stripping) used on asbestos-containing floor tiles. These were done under pre-existing and prepared levels of floor care maintenance. Airborne asbestos concentrations were measured before and during each floor care procedure to determine the magnitude of the increase in airborne asbestos levels during each procedure. Airborne total fiber concentrations were also measured for comparison with the Occupational Safety and Health Administration`s (OSHA) Permissible Exposure Limit (PEL) of 0.1 f/cm{sup 3}. Low-speed spray-buffing and wet-stripping were evaluated on pre-existing floor conditions and three levels of prepared floor care conditions (poor, medium, and good). Ultra high-speed burnishing and wet-stripping were evaluated on two levels of prepared floor care conditions (poor and good). Floor care conditions were defined in consultation with the Chemical Specialty Manufacturers Association and other representatives of floor-care chemical manufacturers. Controlled studies were conducted in an unoccupied building at the decommissioned Chanute Air Force Base in Rantoul, Illinois, with the cooperation of the U.S. Air Force. The building offered approximately 8600 ft{sup 2} of open floor space tiled with 9-inch by 9-inch resilient floor tile containing approximately 5% chrysotile asbestos.

  1. Developing a stronger understanding of aerosol sources and the impact of aqueous phase processing on coastal air quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prather, K. A.

    2014-12-01

    Atmospheric aerosols are produced by a variety of sources including emissions from cars and trucks, wildfires, ships, dust, and sea spray and play a significant role in impacting air pollution and regional climate. The ability of an aerosol to uptake water and undergo aqueous phase processing strongly depends on composition. On-line single particle mass spectrometry can provide insight into how particle composition impacts the degree of photochemical and aging processes atmospheric aerosols undergo. In particular, specific sulfur species including sulfate, hydroxymethanesulfate (HMS), and methanesulfonic acid (MSA) can serve as indicators of when an air mass has undergone aqueous phase processing. This presentation will describe recent field studies conducted at coastal sites to demonstrate how different aerosol sources and secondary processing impact coastal air quality.

  2. DEMONSTRATION BULLETIN: ADSORPTION-INTEGRATED-REACTION (AIR2000) PROCESS, KSE, INC.

    EPA Science Inventory

    This Bulletin is a brief description of the AIR2000 technology developed by KSE, Inc., of Amherst, MA. The AIR2000 unit treats air streams containing volatile organic compounds (VOCs). The demonstration occurred at the Stamina Mills superfund site in North Smithfield, RI from Aug...

  3. Bubble Stripping as a Tool To Reduce High Dissolved CO2 in Coastal Marine Ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Koweek, David A; Mucciarone, David A; Dunbar, Robert B

    2016-04-01

    High dissolved CO2 concentrations in coastal ecosystems are a common occurrence due to a combination of large ecosystem metabolism, shallow water, and long residence times. Many important coastal species may have adapted to this natural variability over time, but eutrophication and ocean acidification may be perturbing the water chemistry beyond the bounds of tolerance for these organisms. We are currently limited in our ability to deal with the geochemical changes unfolding in our coastal ocean. This study helps to address this deficit of solutions by introducing bubble stripping as a novel geochemical engineering approach to reducing high CO2 in coastal marine ecosystems. We use a process-based model to find that air/sea gas exchange rates within a bubbled system are 1-2 orders of magnitude higher than within a nonbubbled system. By coupling bubbling-enhanced ventilation to a coastal ecosystem metabolism model, we demonstrate that strategically timed bubble plumes can mitigate exposure to high CO2 under present-day conditions and that exposure mitigation is enhanced in the more acidic conditions predicted by the end of the century. We argue that shallow water CO2 bubble stripping should be considered among the growing list of engineering approaches intended to increase coastal resilience in a changing ocean. PMID:26988138

  4. Workload-Matched Adaptive Automation Support of Air Traffic Controller Information Processing Stages

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaber, David B.; Prinzel, Lawrence J., III; Wright, Melanie C.; Clamann, Michael P.

    2002-01-01

    Adaptive automation (AA) has been explored as a solution to the problems associated with human-automation interaction in supervisory control environments. However, research has focused on the performance effects of dynamic control allocations of early stage sensory and information acquisition functions. The present research compares the effects of AA to the entire range of information processing stages of human operators, such as air traffic controllers. The results provide evidence that the effectiveness of AA is dependent on the stage of task performance (human-machine system information processing) that is flexibly automated. The results suggest that humans are better able to adapt to AA when applied to lower-level sensory and psychomotor functions, such as information acquisition and action implementation, as compared to AA applied to cognitive (analysis and decision-making) tasks. The results also provide support for the use of AA, as compared to completely manual control. These results are discussed in terms of implications for AA design for aviation.

  5. Recommended direct simulation Monte Carlo collision model parameters for modeling ionized air transport processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swaminathan-Gopalan, Krishnan; Stephani, Kelly A.

    2016-02-01

    A systematic approach for calibrating the direct simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) collision model parameters to achieve consistency in the transport processes is presented. The DSMC collision cross section model parameters are calibrated for high temperature atmospheric conditions by matching the collision integrals from DSMC against ab initio based collision integrals that are currently employed in the Langley Aerothermodynamic Upwind Relaxation Algorithm (LAURA) and Data Parallel Line Relaxation (DPLR) high temperature computational fluid dynamics solvers. The DSMC parameter values are computed for the widely used Variable Hard Sphere (VHS) and the Variable Soft Sphere (VSS) models using the collision-specific pairing approach. The recommended best-fit VHS/VSS parameter values are provided over a temperature range of 1000-20 000 K for a thirteen-species ionized air mixture. Use of the VSS model is necessary to achieve consistency in transport processes of ionized gases. The agreement of the VSS model transport properties with the transport properties as determined by the ab initio collision integral fits was found to be within 6% in the entire temperature range, regardless of the composition of the mixture. The recommended model parameter values can be readily applied to any gas mixture involving binary collisional interactions between the chemical species presented for the specified temperature range.

  6. Radon gas distribution in natural gas processing facilities and workplace air environment.

    PubMed

    Al-Masri, M S; Shwiekani, R

    2008-04-01

    Evaluation was made of the distribution of radon gas and radiation exposure rates in the four main natural gas treatment facilities in Syria. The results showed that radiation exposure rates at contact of all equipment were within the natural levels (0.09-0.1 microSvh(-1)) except for the reflex pumps where a dose rate value of 3 microSvh(-1) was recorded. Radon concentrations in Syrian natural gas varied between 15.4 Bq m(-3) and 1141 Bq m(-3); natural gas associated with oil production was found to contain higher concentrations than the non-associated natural gas. In addition, radon concentrations were higher in the central processing facilities than the wellheads; these high levels are due to pressurizing and concentrating processes that enhance radon gas and its decay products. Moreover, the lowest 222Rn concentration was in the natural gas fraction used for producing sulfur; a value of 80 Bq m(-3) was observed. On the other hand, maximum radon gas and its decay product concentrations in workplace air environments were found to be relatively high in the gas analysis laboratories; a value of 458 Bq m(-3) was observed. However, all reported levels in the workplaces in the four main stations were below the action level set by IAEA for chronic exposure situations involving radon, which is 1000 Bq m(-3). PMID:17905489

  7. Monitoring the Electrochemical Processes in the Lithium-Air Battery by Solid State NMR Spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Leskes, Michal; Moore, Amy J; Goward, Gillian R; Grey, Clare P

    2013-12-27

    A multi-nuclear solid-state NMR approach is employed to investigate the lithium-air battery, to monitor the evolution of the electrochemical products formed during cycling, and to gain insight into processes affecting capacity fading. While lithium peroxide is identified by (17)O solid state NMR (ssNMR) as the predominant product in the first discharge in 1,2-dimethoxyethane (DME) based electrolytes, it reacts with the carbon cathode surface to form carbonate during the charging process. (13)C ssNMR provides evidence for carbonate formation on the surface of the carbon cathode, the carbonate being removed at high charging voltages in the first cycle, but accumulating in later cycles. Small amounts of lithium hydroxide and formate are also detected in discharged cathodes and while the hydroxide formation is reversible, the formate persists and accumulates in the cathode upon further cycling. The results indicate that the rechargeability of the battery is limited by both the electrolyte and the carbon cathode stability. The utility of ssNMR spectroscopy in directly detecting product formation and decomposition within the battery is demonstrated, a necessary step in the assessment of new electrolytes, catalysts, and cathode materials for the development of a viable lithium-oxygen battery. PMID:24489976

  8. Monitoring the Electrochemical Processes in the Lithium–Air Battery by Solid State NMR Spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    A multi-nuclear solid-state NMR approach is employed to investigate the lithium–air battery, to monitor the evolution of the electrochemical products formed during cycling, and to gain insight into processes affecting capacity fading. While lithium peroxide is identified by 17O solid state NMR (ssNMR) as the predominant product in the first discharge in 1,2-dimethoxyethane (DME) based electrolytes, it reacts with the carbon cathode surface to form carbonate during the charging process. 13C ssNMR provides evidence for carbonate formation on the surface of the carbon cathode, the carbonate being removed at high charging voltages in the first cycle, but accumulating in later cycles. Small amounts of lithium hydroxide and formate are also detected in discharged cathodes and while the hydroxide formation is reversible, the formate persists and accumulates in the cathode upon further cycling. The results indicate that the rechargeability of the battery is limited by both the electrolyte and the carbon cathode stability. The utility of ssNMR spectroscopy in directly detecting product formation and decomposition within the battery is demonstrated, a necessary step in the assessment of new electrolytes, catalysts, and cathode materials for the development of a viable lithium–oxygen battery. PMID:24489976

  9. The Influence of Contact Space on Arc Commutation Process in Air Circuit Breaker

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niu, Chunping; Ding, Juwen; Yang, Fei; Dong, Delong; Rong, Mingzhe; Xu, Dan

    2016-05-01

    In this paper, a 3D magneto-hydrodynamic (MHD) arc simulation model is applied to analyze the arc motion during current interruption in a certain air circuit breaker (ACB). The distributions of pressure, temperature, gas flow and current density of the arc plasma in the arc region are calculated, and the factors influencing the commutation process are analyzed according to the calculated results. Based on the airflow in the arc chamber, the causes of arc commutation asynchrony and the back commutation are investigated. It indicates that a reasonable contact space design is crucial to a successful arc commutation process. To verify the simulation results, the influence of contact space on arc voltage and arc commutation is tested. This research can provide methods and references to the optimization of ACB design. supported by National Key Basic Research Program of China (973 Program) (Nos. 2015CB251002, 6132620303) and National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 51221005, 51377128, 51577144), and Science and Technology Project Through Grid State Corporation (No. SGSNKYOOKJJS1501564)

  10. Reference quality upper-air measurements: GRUAN data processing for the Vaisala RS92 radiosonde

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dirksen, R. J.; Sommer, M.; Immler, F. J.; Hurst, D. F.; Kivi, R.; Vömel, H.

    2014-12-01

    The GCOS (Global Climate Observing System) Reference Upper-Air Network (GRUAN) data processing for the Vaisala RS92 radiosonde was developed to meet the criteria for reference measurements. These criteria stipulate the collection of metadata, the use of well-documented correction algorithms, and estimates of the measurement uncertainty. An important and novel aspect of the GRUAN processing is that the uncertainty estimates are vertically resolved. This paper describes the algorithms that are applied in version 2 of the GRUAN processing to correct for systematic errors in radiosonde measurements of pressure, temperature, humidity, and wind, as well as how the uncertainties related to these error sources are derived. Currently, the RS92 is launched on a regular basis at 13 out of 15 GRUAN sites. An additional GRUAN requirement for performing reference measurements with the RS92 is that the manufacturer-prescribed procedure for the radiosonde's preparation, i.e. heated reconditioning of the sensors and recalibration during ground check, is followed. In the GRUAN processing however, the recalibration of the humidity sensors that is applied during ground check is removed. For the dominant error source, solar radiation, laboratory experiments were performed to investigate and model its effect on the RS92's temperature and humidity measurements. GRUAN uncertainty estimates are 0.15 K for night-time temperature measurements and approximately 0.6 K at 25 km during daytime. The other uncertainty estimates are up to 6% relative humidity for humidity, 10-50 m for geopotential height, 0.6 hPa for pressure, 0.4-1 m s-1 for wind speed, and 1° for wind direction. Daytime temperature profiles for GRUAN and Vaisala processing are comparable and consistent within the estimated uncertainty. GRUAN daytime humidity profiles are up to 15% moister than Vaisala processed profiles, of which two-thirds is due to the radiation dry bias correction and one-third is due to an additional

  11. Laboratory-scale analysis of aquifer remediation by in-well vapor stripping 1. Laboratory results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonen, Ori; Gvirtzman, Haim

    1997-12-01

    This study is a laboratory test of the aquifer remediation concept proposed by Gvirtzman and Gorelick (1992, Transp. Porous Media, 8: 71-92), which involves the removal of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) dissolved in groundwater. The principle is to inject air into a well, creating air-lift pumping, which is used as a means of in-well vapor stripping. The partially treated water is separated from the VOC vapor and infiltrates back to the water table. A laboratory-scale aquifer model containing a remediation-well prototype was used to trace VOC removal over time. The removal rates of trichloroethylene (TCE), toluene and chloroform were monitored using eight triple-level observation wells. The continuous decrease of VOC concentrations in space and time was interpreted based on three processes: (1) the diffusional mass transfer between the contaminated water and the air bubbles during their rise within the well: (2) the desorption of VOCs from the solid matrix to the water phase; (3) the flow field in the saturated zone driven by the continuous water circulation between the pumping well and the recharging area. In a companion paper (Pinto et al., 1997), three-dimensional flow and transport modeling with inter-phase mass transfer is carried out to simulate these processes.

  12. Buffer strips in composites at elevated temperature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bigelow, C. A.

    1983-01-01

    The composite material 'buffer strip' concept is presently investigated at elevated temperatures for the case of graphite/polyimide buffer strip panels using a (45/0/45/90)2S layup, where the buffer strip material was 0-deg S-glass/polyimide. Each panel was loaded in tension until it failed, and radiographs and crack opening displacements were recorded during the tests to determine fracture onset, fracture arrest, and the extent of damage in the buffer strip after crack arrest. At 177 + or - 3 C, the buffer strips increased the panel strength by at least 40 percent in comparison with panels without buffer strips. Compared to similar panels tested at room temperature, those tested at elevated temperature had lower residual strengths, but higher failure strains.

  13. Strip of heat-recoverable articles

    SciTech Connect

    McLoughlin, R.H.; Kirkham, S.W.

    1985-01-29

    A strip of hollow heat-recoverable articles formed side-by-side by tear welding two lengths of polymeric material together at intervals so that individual articles may be torn off. A preferred method of making the strip involves cross-linking after the tear welding, heating the strip, and inflating the hollow articles to render them heat-recoverable by introducing pressure via an interconnecting passage formed for that purpose during the tear welding.

  14. Method of stripping metals from organic solvents

    DOEpatents

    Todd, Terry A.; Law, Jack D.; Herbst, R. Scott; Romanovskiy, Valeriy N.; Smirnov, Igor V.; Babain, Vasily A.; Esimantovski, Vyatcheslav M.

    2009-02-24

    A new method to strip metals from organic solvents in a manner that allows for the recycle of the stripping agent. The method utilizes carbonate solutions of organic amines with complexants, in low concentrations, to strip metals from organic solvents. The method allows for the distillation and reuse of organic amines. The concentrated metal/complexant fraction from distillation is more amenable to immobilization than solutions resulting from current practice.

  15. Studies of NICADD Extruded Scintillator Strips

    SciTech Connect

    Dychkant, Alexandre; et al.

    2005-03-01

    About four hundred one meter long, 10 cm wide and 5 mm thick extruded scintillating strips were measured at four different points. The results of measurements strip responses to a radioactive source {sup 90}Sr are provided, and details of strip choice, preparation, and method of measurement are included. This work was essential for prototyping a tail catcher and muon tracker for a future international electron positron linear collider detector.

  16. Quantifiable Lateral Flow Assay Test Strips

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    As easy to read as a home pregnancy test, three Quantifiable Lateral Flow Assay (QLFA) strips used to test water for E. coli show different results. The brightly glowing control line on the far right of each strip indicates that all three tests ran successfully. But the glowing test line on the middle left and bottom strips reveal their samples were contaminated with E. coli bacteria at two different concentrations. The color intensity correlates with concentration of contamination.

  17. Processes of ammonia air-surface exchange in a fertilized Zea mays canopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, J. T.; Jones, M. R.; Bash, J. O.; Myles, L.; Meyers, T.; Schwede, D.; Herrick, J.; Nemitz, E.; Robarge, W.

    2013-02-01

    Recent incorporation of coupled soil biogeochemical and bi-directional NH3 air-surface exchange algorithms into regional air quality models holds promise for further reducing uncertainty in estimates of NH3 emissions from fertilized soils. While this represents a significant advancement over previous approaches, the evaluation and improvement of such modeling systems for fertilized crops requires process-level field measurements over extended periods of time that capture the range of soil, vegetation, and atmospheric conditions that drive short-term (i.e., post-fertilization) and total growing season NH3 fluxes. This study examines the processes of NH3 air-surface exchange in a fertilized corn (Zea mays) canopy over the majority of a growing season to characterize soil emissions after fertilization and investigate soil-canopy interactions. Micrometeorological flux measurements above the canopy, measurements of soil, leaf apoplast and dew/guttation chemistry, and a combination of in-canopy measurements, inverse source/sink, and resistance modeling were employed. Over a period of approximately 10 weeks following fertilization, daily mean and median net canopy-scale fluxes yielded cumulative total N losses of 8.4% and 6.1%, respectively, of the 134 kg N ha-1 surface applied to the soil as urea ammonium nitrate (UAN). During the first month after fertilization, daily mean emission fluxes were positively correlated with soil temperature and soil volumetric water. Diurnally, maximum hourly average fluxes of ≈ 700 ng N m-2 s-1 occurred near mid-day, coincident with the daily maximum in friction velocity. Net emission was still observed 5 to 10 weeks after fertilization, although mid-day peak fluxes had declined to ≈ 125 ng N m-2 s-1. A key finding of the surface chemistry measurements was the observation of high pH (7.0-8.5) in leaf dew/guttation, which reduced the ability of the canopy to recapture soil emissions during wet periods. In-canopy measurements near peak

  18. Processes of ammonia air-surface exchange in a fertilized Zea mays canopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, J. T.; Jones, M. R.; Bash, J. O.; Myles, L.; Meyers, T.; Schwede, D.; Herrick, J.; Nemitz, E.; Robarge, W.

    2012-06-01

    Recent incorporation of coupled soil biogeochemical and bi-directional NH3 air-surface exchange algorithms into regional air quality models holds promise for further reducing uncertainty in estimates of NH3 emissions from fertilized soils. While this represents a significant advancement over previous approaches, the evaluation and improvement of such modeling systems for fertilized crops requires process level field measurements over extended periods of time that capture the range of soil, vegetation, and atmospheric conditions that drive short term (i.e., post fertilization) and total growing seasonNH3 fluxes. This study examines the processes of NH3 air-surface exchange in a fertilized corn (Zea mays) canopy over the majority of a growing season to characterize soil emissions after fertilization and investigate soil-canopy interactions. Micrometeorological flux measurements above the canopy, measurements of soil, leaf apoplast and dew/guttation chemistry, and a combination of in-canopy measurements, inverse source/sink, and resistance modeling were employed. Over a period of approximately 10 weeks following fertilization, daily mean and median net canopy-scale fluxes yielded cumulative total N losses of 8.4% and 6.1%, respectively, of the 134 kg N ha-1 surface applied to the soil as urea ammonium nitrate (UAN). During the first month after fertilization, daily mean emission fluxes were positively correlated with soil temperature and soil volumetric water. Diurnally, maximum hourly average fluxes of ≈700 ng N m-2 s-1 occurred near mid-day, coincident with the daily maximum in friction velocity. Net emission was still observed 5 to 10 weeks after fertilization, although mid-day peak fluxes had declined to ≈125 ng N m-2 s-1 A key finding of the surface chemistry measurements was the observation of high pH (7.0 - 8.5) in leaf dew/guttation, which reduced the ability of the canopy to recapture soil emissions during wet periods. In-canopy measurements near peak LAI

  19. Reduction of gas phase air toxics from combustion and incineration sources using the GE-Mitsui-BG activated coke process

    SciTech Connect

    Olson, D.G.; Tsuji, K.; Shiraishi, I.

    1998-04-01

    The dry desulfurization, denitification and air toxics removal process using activated coke (AC) was originally researched and developed during the 1960`s by Bergbau Forschung (BF), now called Deutsche Montan Technologies. Mitsui Mining Company (MMC) signed a licensing agreement with BF in 1982 to investigate, test and adapt the system to facilities in Japan. Japanese regulations are stricter than in the United States toward SOx/NOx pollutants, as well as flyash emissions from the utility industry, oil refineries and other industries. This process is installed on four coal-fired boilers and Fluidized Catalytic Cracker (FCC) units. These plants were constructed by MMC in Japan and Uhde GmbH in Germany. General Electric Environmental Services, Inc. (GEESI) signed a license agreement in 1992 with MMC and Mitsui and Company, Ltd. of Tokyo. Under this agreement, GEESI will market, design, fabricate and install the Mitsui-BF process for flue gas cleaning applications in North America. MMC also developed a technology to produce AC used in the dry DeSOx/DeNOx/Air Toxics removal process based on their own metallurgical coke manufacturing technology. This paper provides information on the details of MMC`s AC used in the dry DeSOx/DeNOx/Air Toxics removal process and of the DeSOx/DeNOx/Air Toxics removal process itself.

  20. Effects of floc and bubble size on the efficiency of the dissolved air flotation (DAF) process.

    PubMed

    Han, Mooyoung; Kim, Tschung-il; Kim, Jinho

    2007-01-01

    Dissolved air flotation (DAF) is a method for removing particles from water using micro bubbles instead of settlement. The process has proved to be successful and, since the 1960s, accepted as an alternative to the conventional sedimentation process for water and wastewater treatment. However, limited research into the process, especially the fundamental characteristics of bubbles and particles, has been carried out. The single collector collision model is not capable of determining the effects of particular characteristics, such as the size and surface charge of bubbles and particles. Han has published a set of modeling results after calculating the collision efficiency between bubbles and particles by trajectory analysis. His major conclusion was that collision efficiency is maximum when the bubbles and particles are nearly the same size but have opposite charge. However, experimental verification of this conclusion has not been carried out yet. This paper describes a new method for measuring the size of particles and bubbles developed using computational image analysis. DAF efficiency is influenced by the effect of the recycle ratio on various average floc sizes. The larger the recycle ratio, the higher the DAF efficiency at the same pressure and particle size. The treatment efficiency is also affected by the saturation pressure, because the bubble size and bubble volume concentration are controlled by the pressure. The highest efficiency is obtained when the floc size is larger than the bubble size. These results, namely that the highest collision efficiency occurs when the particles and bubbles are about the same size, are more in accordance with the trajectory model than with the white water collector model, which implies that the larger the particles, the higher is the collision efficiency. PMID:18048983

  1. Writing in the Air: Contributions of Finger Movement to Cognitive Processing.

    PubMed

    Itaguchi, Yoshihiro; Yamada, Chiharu; Fukuzawa, Kazuyoshi

    2015-01-01

    The present study investigated the interactions between motor action and cognitive processing with particular reference to kanji-culture individuals. Kanji-culture individuals often move their finger as if they are writing when they are solving cognitive tasks, for example, when they try to recall the spelling of English words. This behavior is called kusho, meaning air-writing in Japanese. However, its functional role is still unknown. To reveal the role of kusho behavior in cognitive processing, we conducted a series of experiments, employing two different cognitive tasks, a construction task and a stroke count task. To distinguish the effects of the kinetic aspects of kusho behavior, we set three hand conditions in the tasks; participants were instructed to use either kusho, unrelated finger movements or do nothing during the response time. To isolate possible visual effects, two visual conditions in which participants saw their hand and the other in which they did not, were introduced. We used the number of correct responses and response time as measures of the task performance. The results showed that kusho behavior has different functional roles in the two types of cognitive tasks. In the construction task, the visual feedback from finger movement facilitated identifying a character, whereas the kinetic feedback or motor commands for the behavior did not help to solve the task. In the stroke count task, by contrast, the kinetic aspects of the finger movements influenced counting performance depending on the type of the finger movement. Regardless of the visual condition, kusho behavior improved task performance and unrelated finger movements degraded it. These results indicated that motor behavior contributes to cognitive processes. We discussed possible mechanisms of the modality dependent contribution. These findings might lead to better understanding of the complex interaction between action and cognition in daily life. PMID:26061273

  2. PM2.5 analog forecast and Kalman filter post-processing for the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Djalalova, Irina; Delle Monache, Luca; Wilczak, James

    2015-10-01

    A new post-processing method for surface particulate matter (PM2.5) predictions from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) developmental air quality forecasting system using the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model is described. It includes three main components: A real-time quality control procedure for surface PM2.5 observations; Model post-processing at each observational site using historical forecast analogs and Kalman filtering; Spreading the forecast corrections from the observation locations to the entire gridded domain.

  3. The fabrication of polyfluorene and polycarbazole-based photovoltaic devices using an air-stable process route

    SciTech Connect

    Bovill, E.; Lidzey, D. G.; Yi, H.; Iraqi, A.

    2014-12-01

    We report a comparative study based on the fabrication of polymer:fullerene photovoltaic (PV) devices incorporating carbazole, fluorene, and a PTB based co-polymer. We have explored the efficiency and performance of such devices when the active polymer:fullerene layer is deposited by spin-casting either under nitrogen or ambient conditions. We show that PV devices based on carbazole and fluorene based materials have very similar power conversion efficiencies when processed under both air and nitrogen, with other photobleaching measurements suggesting that such materials have comparatively enhanced photostability. Devices based on the PTB co-polymer, however, have reduced efficiency when processed in air.

  4. Physicochemical processes in the indirect interaction between surface air plasma and deionized water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Z. C.; Liu, D. X.; Chen, C.; Li, D.; Yang, A. J.; Rong, M. Z.; Chen, H. L.; Kong, M. G.

    2015-12-01

    One of the most central scientific questions for plasma applications in healthcare and environmental remediation is the chemical identity and the dose profile of plasma-induced reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (ROS/RNS) that can act on an object inside a liquid. A logical focus is on aqueous physicochemical processes near a sample with a direct link to their upstream gaseous processes in the plasma region and a separation gap from the liquid bulk. Here, a system-level modeling framework is developed for indirect interactions of surface air plasma and a deionized water bulk and its predictions are found to be in good agreement with the measurement of gas-phase ozone and aqueous long-living ROS/RNS concentrations. The plasma region is described with a global model, whereas the air gap and the liquid region are simulated with a 1D fluid model. All three regions are treated as one integrated entity and computed simultaneously. With experimental validation, the system-level modeling shows that the dominant aqueous ROS/RNS are long-living species (e.g. H2O2 aq, O3 aq, nitrite/nitrate, H+ aq). While most short-living gaseous species could hardly survive their passage to the liquid, aqueous short-living ROS/RNS are generated in situ through reactions among long-living plasma species and with water molecules. This plasma-mediated remote production of aqueous ROS/RNS is important for the abundance of aqueous HO2 aq, HO3 aq, OHaq and \\text{O}2- aq as well as NO2 aq and NO3 aq. Aqueous plasma chemistry offers a novel and significant pathway to activate a given biological outcome, as exemplified here for bacterial deactivation in plasma-activated water. Additional factors that may synergistically broaden the usefulness of aqueous plasma chemistry include an electric field by aqueous ions and liquid acidification. The system-modeling framework will be useful in assisting designs and analyses of future investigations of plasma-liquid and plasma-cell interactions.

  5. Dynamic underground stripping. Innovative technology summary report

    SciTech Connect

    1995-04-01

    Dynamic Underground Stripping (DUS) is a combination of technologies targeted to remediate soil and ground water contaminated with organic compounds. DUS is effective both above and below the water table and is especially well suited for sites with interbedded sand and clay layers. The main technologies comprising DUS are steam injection at the periphery of a contaminated area to heat permeable subsurface areas, vaporize volatile compounds bound to the soil, and drive contaminants to centrally located vacuum extraction wells; electrical heating of less permeable sediments to vaporize contaminants and drive them into the steam zone; and underground imaging such as Electrical Resistance Tomography to delineate heated areas to ensure total cleanup and process control. A full-scale demonstration was conducted on a gasoline spill site at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory in Livermore, California from November 1992 through December 1993.

  6. Bismuth electrodes, an alternative in stripping voltammetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barón-Jaimez, J.; Joya, M. R.; Barba-Ortega, J.

    2013-11-01

    The heavy metals are known as highly toxic contaminants, the processes carried out in industry contribute that finally they remain dispersed in effluents and sewage, doing part of the food chain. The importance of controlling the levels of these heavy metals has become an international policy, so it has generated interest in developing new analytical methodologies for its determination [1, 2, 3, 4]. The stripping voltammetry has been considered as a family of electro-sensitive analytical techniques useful for the determination of trace levels of many metals in environmental, clinical and industrial samples [3, 4]. This work presents an overview of these bismuth-based electrodes which were introduced around 2000, which have interesting characteristics for detection of heavy metals and which represent an alternative to mercury electrodes.

  7. Studies on the stripping of cerium from the loaded tbp-kerosene solution

    SciTech Connect

    Rizk, S.E.; Abdel Rahman, N.; Daoud, J.A.; Aly, H.F.

    2008-07-01

    The reductive stripping of Ce(IV) from the loaded organic phase (30% TBP in kerosene) was investigated, using two stripping agents, EDTA and H{sub 2}O{sub 2}, in nitric acid. The results are compared to determine the optimum conditions for the reduction of Ce(IV) in the organic phase to Ce(III) in the aqueous phase. For each of the two stripping agents, the effect of different parameters affecting the reduction process was investigated: stripping-agent concentration, nitric acid concentration, phase ratio, shaking time, and temperature. The results are compared and discussed in terms of the conditions required for maximum reductive stripping of Ce(IV). (authors)

  8. Thick Silicon Double-Sided Strip Detectors for Low-Energy Small-Animal SPECT

    PubMed Central

    Shokouhi, Sepideh; McDonald, Benjamin S.; Durko, Heather L.; Fritz, Mark A.; Furenlid, Lars R.; Peterson, Todd E.

    2010-01-01

    This work presents characterization studies of thick silicon double-sided strip detectors for a high-resolution small-animal SPECT. The dimension of these detectors is 60.4 mm × 60.4 mm × 1 mm. There are 1024 strips on each side that give the coordinates of the photon interaction, with each strip processed by a separate ASIC channel. Our measurement shows that intrinsic spatial resolution equivalent to the 59 μm strip pitch is attainable. Good trigger uniformity can be achieved by proper setting of a 4-bit DAC in each ASIC channel to remove trigger threshold variations. This is particularly important for triggering at low energies. The thick silicon DSSD (Double-sided strip detector) shows high potential for small-animal SPECT. PMID:20686626

  9. Bonded orthotropic strips with cracks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Delale, F.; Erdogan, F.

    1979-01-01

    The elastostatic problem for a nonhomogeneous plane which consists of two sets of periodically arranged dissimilar orthotropic strips is considered. It is assumed that the plane contains a series of collinear cracks perpendicular to the interfaces and is loaded in tension away from and perpendicular to the cracks. The problem of cracks fully imbedded into the homogeneous strips is considered. The singular behavior of the stresses for two special crack geometries is studied. The first is the case of a broken laminate in which the crack tips touch the interfaces. The second is the case of cracks crossing the interfaces. An interesting result found from the analysis of the latter is that for certain orthotropic material combinations the stress state at the point of intersection of a crack and an interface may be bounded whereas in isotropic materials at this point stresses are always singular. A number of numerical examples are worked out to separate the primary material parameters influencing the stress intensity factors and the powers of stress singularity, and to determine the trends regarding the influence of the secondary parameters. Some numerical results are given for the stress intensity factors in certain basic crack geometries and for typical material combinations.

  10. On-line surface inspection for continuous cast aluminum strip

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernandez, Carlos; Campoy, Pascual; Platero, Carlos; Sebastian, Jose M.; Aracil, Rafael

    1993-12-01

    A general architecture for detecting and analyzing surface defects in aluminum strip is described. Information concerning visual information from the aluminum surface, surface temperature and strip dimensions--profile thickness-is processed jointly by means of an expert system in order to determine the quality level of each aluminum coil produced; control actions over the casting process, derived from this information, are also suggested by an expert system. This paper shows in deep work related to surface image analysis. The data volume to be processed, up to 20 Mbytes/s, has forced up the development of a high parallel architecture for high-speed image processing. A specially suitable lighting system has been developed for enhancing matrical image acquisition from metallic surfaces that includes reflect avoidance as well as uniform incident angle of light along the scanned portion of surface--about 120000 square mm.

  11. Intercomparison of the community multiscale air quality model and CALGRID using process analysis.

    PubMed

    O'Neill, Susan M; Lamb, Brian K

    2005-08-01

    This study was designed to examine the similarities and differences between two advanced photochemical air quality modeling systems: EPA Models-3/CMAQ and CALGRID/CALMET. Both modeling systems were applied to an ozone episode that occurred along the I-5 urban corridor in western Washington and Oregon during July 11-14, 1996. Both models employed the same modeling domain and used the same detailed gridded emission inventory. The CMAQ model was run using both the CB-IV and RADM2 chemical mechanisms, while CALGRID was used with the SAPRC-97 chemical mechanism. Outputfrom the Mesoscale Meteorological Model (MM5) employed with observational nudging was used in both models. The two modeling systems, representing three chemical mechanisms and two sets of meteorological inputs, were evaluated in terms of statistical performance measures for both 1- and 8-h average observed ozone concentrations. The results showed that the different versions of the systems were more similar than different, and all versions performed well in the Portland region and downwind of Seattle but performed poorly in the more rural region north of Seattle. Improving the meteorological input into the CALGRID/CALMET system with planetary boundary layer (PBL) parameters from the Models-3/CMAQ meteorology preprocessor (MCIP) improved the performance of the CALGRID/CALMET system. The 8-h ensemble case was often the best performer of all the cases indicating that the models perform better over longer analysis periods. The 1-h ensemble case, derived from all runs, was not necessarily an improvement over the five individual cases, but the standard deviation about the mean provided a measure of overall modeling uncertainty. Process analysis was applied to examine the contribution of the individual processes to the species conservation equation. The process analysis results indicated that the two modeling systems arrive at similar solutions by very different means. Transport rates are faster and exhibit

  12. Online aptitude automatic surface quality inspection system for hot rolled strips steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Jin; Xie, Zhi-jiang; Wang, Xue; Sun, Nan-Nan

    2005-12-01

    Defects on the surface of hot rolled steel strips are main factors to evaluate quality of steel strips, an improved image recognition algorithm are used to extract the feature of Defects on the surface of steel strips. Base on the Machine vision and Artificial Neural Networks, establish a defect recognition method to select defect on the surface of steel strips. Base on these research. A surface inspection system and advanced algorithms for image processing to hot rolled strips is developed. Preparing two different fashion to lighting, adopting line blast vidicon of CCD on the surface steel strips on-line. Opening up capacity-diagnose-system with level the surface of steel strips on line, toward the above and undersurface of steel strips with ferric oxide, injure, stamp etc of defects on the surface to analyze and estimate. Miscarriage of justice and alternate of justice rate not preponderate over 5%.Geting hold of applications on some big enterprises of steel at home. Experiment proved that this measure is feasible and effective.

  13. Gas Loss by Ram Pressure Stripping and Internal Feedback from Low-mass Milky Way Satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emerick, Andrew; Mac Low, Mordecai-Mark; Grcevich, Jana; Gatto, Andrea

    2016-08-01

    The evolution of dwarf satellites in the Milky Way (MW) is affected by a combination of ram pressure stripping (RPS), tidal stripping, and internal feedback from massive stars. We investigate gas loss processes in the smallest satellites of the MW using three-dimensional, high-resolution, idealized wind tunnel simulations, accounting for gas loss through both ram pressure stripping and expulsion by supernova feedback. Using initial conditions appropriate for a dwarf galaxy like Leo T, we investigate whether or not environmental gas stripping and internal feedback can quench these low-mass galaxies on the expected timescales, shorter than 2 Gyr. We find that supernova feedback contributes negligibly to the stripping rate for these low star formation rate galaxies. However, we also find that RPS is less efficient than expected in the stripping scenarios we consider. Our work suggests that although RPS can eventually completely strip these galaxies, other physics is likely at play to reconcile our computed stripping times with the rapid quenching timescales deduced from observations of low-mass MW dwarf galaxies. We discuss the roles additional physics may play in this scenario, including host-satellite tidal interactions, cored versus cuspy dark matter profiles, reionization, and satellite preprocessing. We conclude that a proper accounting of these physics together is necessary to understand the quenching of low-mass MW satellites.

  14. First thin AC-coupled silicon strip sensors on 8-inch wafers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergauer, T.; Dragicevic, M.; König, A.; Hacker, J.; Bartl, U.

    2016-09-01

    The Institute of High Energy Physics (HEPHY) in Vienna and the semiconductor manufacturer Infineon Technologies Austria AG developed a production process for planar AC-coupled silicon strip sensors manufactured on 200 μm thick 8-inch p-type wafers. In late 2015, the first wafers were delivered featuring the world's largest AC-coupled silicon strip sensors. Detailed electrical measurements were carried out at HEPHY, where single strip and global parameters were measured. Mechanical studies were conducted and the long-term behavior was investigated using a climate chamber. Furthermore, the electrical properties of various test structures were investigated to validate the quality of the manufacturing process.

  15. Spray-forming monolithic aluminum alloy and metal matrix composite strip

    SciTech Connect

    McHugh, K.M.

    1995-10-01

    Spray forming with de Laval nozzles is an advanced materials processing technology that converts a bulk liquid metal to a near-net-shape solid by depositing atomized droplets onto a suitably shaped substrate. Using this approach, aluminum alloys have been spray formed as strip, with technoeconomic advantages over conventional hot mill processing and continuous casting. The spray-formed strip had a flat profile, minimal porosity, high yield, and refined microstructure. In an adaptation to the technique, 6061 Al/SiC particulate-reinforced metal matrix composite strip was produced by codeposition of the phases.

  16. Thermal Insulation Strips Conserve Energy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2009-01-01

    Launching the space shuttle involves an interesting paradox: While the temperatures inside the shuttle s main engines climb higher than 6,000 F hot enough to boil iron for fuel, the engines use liquid hydrogen, the second coldest liquid on Earth after liquid helium. Maintained below 20 K (-423 F), the liquid hydrogen is contained in the shuttle s rust-colored external tank. The external tank also contains liquid oxygen (kept below a somewhat less chilly 90 K or -297 F) that combines with the hydrogen to create an explosive mixture that along with the shuttle s two, powdered aluminum-fueled solid rocket boosters allows the shuttle to escape Earth s gravity. The cryogenic temperatures of the main engines liquid fuel can cause ice, frost, or liquefied air to build up on the external tank and other parts of the numerous launch fueling systems, posing a possible debris risk when the ice breaks off during launch and causing difficulties in the transfer and control of these cryogenic liquid propellants. Keeping the fuel at the necessary ultra-cold temperatures while minimizing ice buildup and other safety hazards, as well as reducing the operational maintenance costs, has required NASA to explore innovative ways for providing superior thermal insulation systems. To address the challenge, the Agency turned to an insulating technology so effective that, even though it is mostly air, a thin sheet can prevent a blowtorch from igniting a match. Aerogels were invented in 1931 and demonstrate properties that make them the most extraordinary insulating materials known; a 1-inch-thick piece of aerogel provides the same insulation as layering 15 panes of glass with air pockets in between. Derived from silica, aluminum oxide, or carbon gels using a supercritical drying process - resulting in a composition of almost 99-percent air - aerogels are the world s lightest solid (among 15 other titles they hold in the Guinness World Records), can float indefinitely on water if treated to be

  17. Cyclic membrane separation process

    DOEpatents

    Bowser, John

    2004-04-13

    A cyclic process for controlling environmental emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOC) from vapor recovery in storage and dispensing operations of liquids maintains a vacuum in the storage tank ullage. In one of a two-part cyclic process ullage vapor is discharged through a vapor recovery system in which VOC are stripped from vented gas with a selectively gas permeable membrane. In the other part, the membrane is inoperative while gas pressure rises in the ullage. Ambient air is charged to the membrane separation unit during the latter part of the cycle.

  18. [Effect of air humidity on traditional Chinese medicine extract of spray drying process and prediction of its powder stability].

    PubMed

    He, Yan; Xie, Yin; Zheng, Long-jin; Liu, Wei; Rao, Xiao-yong; Luo, Xiao-jian

    2015-02-01

    In order to solve the adhesion and the softening problems of traditional Chinese medicine extract during spray drying, a new method of adding dehumidified air into spray drying process was proposed, and the storage stability conditions of extract powder could be predicted. Kouyanqing extract was taken as model drug to investigate on the wet air (RH = 70%) and dry air conditions of spray drying. Under the dry air condition, the influence of the spray drying result with different air compression ratio and the spray-dried powder properties (extract powder recovery rate, adhesion percentage, water content, angle of repose, compression ratio, particle size and distribution) with 100, 110, 120, 130, 140 °C inlet temperature were studied. The hygroscopic investigation and Tg value with different moisture content of ideal powder were determined. The water activity-equilibrium moisture content (aw-EMC) and the equilibrium moisture content-Tg (EMC-Tg) relationships were fitted by GAB equation and Gordon-Taylor model respectively, and the state diagram of kouyanqing powder was obtained to guide the rational storage conditions. The study found that in the condition of dry air, the extract powder water content decreased with the increase of air compression ratio and the spray drying effect with air compression ratio of 100% was the best performance; in the condition of wet air, the extract powder with high water content and low yield, and the value were 4.26% and 16.73 °C, while, in the dry air condition the values were 2.43% and 24.86 °C with the same other instru- ment parameters. From the analysis of kouyanqing powder state diagram, in order to keep the stability, the critical water content of 3.42% and the critical water content of 0.188. As the water decreased Tg value of extract powder is the major problem of causing adhesion and softening during spray drying, it is meaningful to aid dehumidified air during the process. PMID:26084164

  19. Evaluating coagulation pretreatment on poultry processing wastewater for dissolved air flotation.

    PubMed

    Dassey, Adam J; Theegala, Chandra S

    2012-01-01

    Eleven metal coagulants and one polyelectrolyte were assessed for their suitability in assisting a dissolved air flotation (DAF) system aimed at treating poultry processing wastewater. Preliminary jar tests determined that a combination of 800 mg/L of FeCl(3) (ferric chloride) and 900 mg/L of Floccin 1115 would provide the best treatment by removing at least 98% of the total suspended solids (TSS) and 97% of the volatile suspended solids (VSS), while providing a 97% increase in water clarity. Final flotation tests suggested that the flocculated particles could be carried to the surface with 40% recycle ratio of the DAF. The resulting supernatant indicated 94.7% increase in clarity (± 1.4%), 97.3% reduction in TSS (± 0.5%), 96.6% reduction in VSS (±1.1%), 91% reduction in chemical oxygen demand (COD), and nearly 100% removal of fats, oils, and greases (FOGs). Despite the high removal efficiencies, flotation was found not to be critically necessary for treatment because the high concentration of coagulants caused settling of the flocs to occur just as rapidly. Potential coagulant overdosing is suspected at the higher end of the tested coagulant concentrations due to limited alkalinity in the wastewater. However, lack of residual metal (coagulant) ions in water may be linked to reactions leading to phosphate precipitation. The exact effect of the competing phosphate reaction on treatment efficiency is not clearly evident from this present study. PMID:22871004

  20. Treatment of biomass gasification wastewater using a combined wet air oxidation/activated sludge process

    SciTech Connect

    English, C.J.; Petty, S.E.; Sklarew, D.S.

    1983-02-01

    A lab-scale treatability study for using thermal and biological oxidation to treat a biomass gasification wastewater (BGW) having a chemical oxygen demand (COD) of 46,000 mg/l is described. Wet air oxidation (WA0) at 300/sup 0/C and 13.8 MPa (2000 psi) was used to initially treat the BGW and resulted in a COD reduction of 74%. This was followed by conventional activated sludge treatment using operating conditions typical of municipal sewage treatment plants. This resulted in an additional 95% COD removal. Overall COD reduction for the combined process was 99%. A detailed chemical analysis of the raw BGW and thermal and biological effluents was performed using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). These results showed a 97% decrease in total extractable organics with WA0 and a 99.6% decrease for combined WA0 and activated sludge treatment. Components of the treated waters tended to be fewer in number and more highly oxidized. An experiment was conducted to determine the amount of COD reduction caused by volatilization during biological treatment. Unfortunately, this did not yield conclusive results. Treatment of BGW using WA0 followed by activated sludge appears to be very effective and investigations at a larger scale are recommended.

  1. Improved air stability of perovskite solar cells via solution-processed metal oxide transport layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    You, Jingbi; Meng, Lei; Song, Tze-Bin; Guo, Tzung-Fang; Yang, Yang (Michael); Chang, Wei-Hsuan; Hong, Ziruo; Chen, Huajun; Zhou, Huanping; Chen, Qi; Liu, Yongsheng; De Marco, Nicholas; Yang, Yang

    2016-01-01

    Lead halide perovskite solar cells have recently attracted tremendous attention because of their excellent photovoltaic efficiencies. However, the poor stability of both the perovskite material and the charge transport layers has so far prevented the fabrication of devices that can withstand sustained operation under normal conditions. Here, we report a solution-processed lead halide perovskite solar cell that has p-type NiOx and n-type ZnO nanoparticles as hole and electron transport layers, respectively, and shows improved stability against water and oxygen degradation when compared with devices with organic charge transport layers. Our cells have a p-i-n structure (glass/indium tin oxide/NiOx/perovskite/ZnO/Al), in which the ZnO layer isolates the perovskite and Al layers, thus preventing degradation. After 60 days storage in air at room temperature, our all-metal-oxide devices retain about 90% of their original efficiency, unlike control devices made with organic transport layers, which undergo a complete degradation after just 5 days. The initial power conversion efficiency of our devices is 14.6 ± 1.5%, with an uncertified maximum value of 16.1%.

  2. Improved air stability of perovskite solar cells via solution-processed metal oxide transport layers.

    PubMed

    You, Jingbi; Meng, Lei; Song, Tze-Bin; Guo, Tzung-Fang; Yang, Yang Michael; Chang, Wei-Hsuan; Hong, Ziruo; Chen, Huajun; Zhou, Huanping; Chen, Qi; Liu, Yongsheng; De Marco, Nicholas; Yang, Yang

    2016-01-01

    Lead halide perovskite solar cells have recently attracted tremendous attention because of their excellent photovoltaic efficiencies. However, the poor stability of both the perovskite material and the charge transport layers has so far prevented the fabrication of devices that can withstand sustained operation under normal conditions. Here, we report a solution-processed lead halide perovskite solar cell that has p-type NiO(x) and n-type ZnO nanoparticles as hole and electron transport layers, respectively, and shows improved stability against water and oxygen degradation when compared with devices with organic charge transport layers. Our cells have a p-i-n structure (glass/indium tin oxide/NiO(x)/perovskite/ZnO/Al), in which the ZnO layer isolates the perovskite and Al layers, thus preventing degradation. After 60 days storage in air at room temperature, our all-metal-oxide devices retain about 90% of their original efficiency, unlike control devices made with organic transport layers, which undergo a complete degradation after just 5 days. The initial power conversion efficiency of our devices is 14.6 ± 1.5%, with an uncertified maximum value of 16.1%. PMID:26457966

  3. Processes of Ammonia Air-Surface Exchange in a Fertilized Zea Mays Canopy

    EPA Science Inventory

    Recent incorporation of coupled soil biogeochemical and bi-directional NH3 air-surface exchange algorithms into regional air quality models holds promise for further reducing uncertainty in estimates of NH3 emissions from fertilized soils. While this advancement represents a sig...

  4. THE EMISSION PROCESSING SYSTEM FOR THE ETA/CMAQ AIR QUALITY FORECAST SYSTEM

    EPA Science Inventory

    NOAA and EPA have created an Air Quality Forecast (AQF) system. This AQF system links an adaptation of the EPA's Community Multiscale Air Quality Model with the 12 kilometer ETA model running operationally at NOAA's National Center for Environmental Predication (NCEP). One of th...

  5. Sensitivity of rainfall-runoff processes in the Hydrological Open Air Laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Széles, Borbála; Parajka, Juraj; Blöschl, Günter; Oismüller, Markus; Hajnal, Géza

    2016-04-01

    The objective of the present study was to simulate the rainfall response and analyse the sensitivity of rainfall-runoff processes of the Hydrological Open Air Laboratory (HOAL) in Petzenkirchen, a small experimental watershed (66 ha) located in the western part of Lower Austria and dominated by agricultural land use. Due to the extensive monitoring network in the HOAL, the spatial and temporal heterogeneity of hydro-meteorological elements are exceptionally well represented on the catchment scale. The study aimed to exploit the facilities of the available database collected by innovative sensing techniques to advance the understanding of various rainfall-runoff processes. The TUWmodel, a lumped, conceptual hydrological model, following the structure of the HBV model was implemented on the catchment. In addition to the surface runoff at the catchment outlet, several different runoff generation mechanisms (tile drainage flow, saturation excess runoff from wetlands and groundwater discharge from springs) were also simulated, which gave an opportunity to describe the spatial distribution of model parameters in the study area. This helped to proceed from the original lumped model concept towards a spatially distributed one. The other focus of this work was to distinguish the dominant model parameters from the less sensitive ones for each tributary with different runoff type by applying two different sensitivity analysis methods, the simple local perturbation and the global Latin-Hypercube-One-Factor-At-a-Time (LH-OAT) tools. Moreover, the impacts of modifying the initial parameters of the LH-OAT method and the applied objective functions were also taken into consideration. The results and findings of the model and sensitivity analyses were summarized and future development perspectives were outlined. Key words: spatial heterogeneity of rainfall-runoff mechanisms, sensitivity analysis, lumped conceptual hydrological model

  6. Chemically modified flexible strips as electrochemical biosensors.

    PubMed

    Thota, Raju; Ganesh, V

    2014-09-21

    A flexible and disposable strip sensor for non-enzymatic glucose detection is demonstrated in this work. The strips are prepared by using chemical modification processes followed by a simple electroless deposition of copper. Essentially, polyester overhead projector (OHP) transparent films are modified with a monolayer of 3-aminopropyltrimethoxysilane (APTMS) and polyaniline (PANI) conducting polymer. Later, nanostructured copper is deposited onto this modified film. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) studies are used for the structural, morphological and crystallinity characterization of the modified films. Electrochemical techniques, namely cyclic voltammetry (CV) and chronoamperometry (CA), are employed for the non-enzymatic detection of glucose. These studies clearly reveal the formation of homogeneous, close-packed spherical Cu particles converged into uniform film that exhibits a good catalytic activity towards the oxidation of glucose. The Cu/PANI/APTMS/OHP sensor displays a remarkable enhancement in the oxidation current density, a very high sensitivity value of 2.8456 mA cm(-2) per mM, and a linear concentration range from 100 μM to 6.5 mM associated with glucose detection. Detection limit is estimated to be 5 μM and the response time of the sensor is determined to be less than 5 s. For comparison, similar studies are performed without PANI, namely Cu/APTMS/OHP films for glucose detection. In this case, a sensitivity value of 2.4457 mA cm(-2) per mM and a linear concentration range of 100 μM-3 mM are estimated. The higher performance characteristics observed in the case of Cu/PANI/APTMS/OHP are attributed to the synergistic effects of the conducting polymer acting as an electron facilitator and the nanostructured Cu films. These disposable, flexible and low-cost strip sensors have also been applied to the detection of glucose in clinical blood serum samples and the results obtained agree very well with the actual glucose

  7. Evaluation of reactive oxygen species generating AirOcare system for reducing airborne microbial populations in a meat processing plant

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The microbial contamination of meat and meat products is of continuing concern to the meat industry and regulatory agencies. Air has been established as a source of microbial contamination in slaughter and processing facilities. The objective of this research was to determine the efficacy of reactiv...

  8. Strategy Strips for Self-Reliant Readers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sowell, Dorothy J.

    2003-01-01

    Explains how reading strategy strips were developed to focus students' attention on specific reading steps. Notes that students became more personally knowledgeable and independent by using reading strategy strips. Proposes that their small-group participation helped them progress as collaborative thinkers. (PM)

  9. 33 CFR 157.128 - Stripping system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Crude Oil Washing (COW) System on Tank Vessels Design, Equipment, and Installation § 157.128 Stripping...) must have a stripping system that is designed to remove crude oil from— (1) Each cargo tank at 1.25... under § 157.140(a)(2). (b) Each cargo tank must be designed to allow the level of crude oil in the...

  10. 33 CFR 157.128 - Stripping system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Crude Oil Washing (COW) System on Tank Vessels Design, Equipment, and Installation § 157.128 Stripping...) must have a stripping system that is designed to remove crude oil from— (1) Each cargo tank at 1.25... under § 157.140(a)(2). (b) Each cargo tank must be designed to allow the level of crude oil in the...

  11. Influence of surface emission processes on a fast-pulsed dielectric barrier discharge in air at atmospheric pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pechereau, François; Bonaventura, Zdeněk; Bourdon, Anne

    2016-08-01

    This paper presents simulations of an atmospheric pressure air discharge in a point-to-plane geometry with a dielectric layer parallel to the cathode plane. Experimentally, a discharge reignition in the air gap below the dielectrics has been observed. With a 2D fluid model, it is shown that due to the fast rise of the high voltage applied and the sharp point used, a first positive spherical discharge forms around the point. Then this discharge propagates axially and impacts the dielectrics. As the first discharge starts spreading on the upper dielectric surface, in the second air gap with a low preionization density of {{10}4}~\\text{c}{{\\text{m}}-3} , the 2D fluid model predicts a rapid reignition of a positive discharge. As in experiments, the discharge reignition is much slower, a discussion on physical processes to be considered in the model to increase the reignition delay is presented. The limit case with no initial seed charges in the second air gap has been studied. First, we have calculated the time to release an electron from the cathode surface by thermionic and field emission processes for a work function φ \\in ≤ft[3,4\\right] eV and an amplification factor β \\in ≤ft[100,220\\right] . Then a 3D Monte Carlo model has been used to follow the dynamics of formation of an avalanche starting from a single electron emitted at the cathode. Due to the high electric field in the second air gap, we have shown that in a few nanoseconds, a Gaussian cloud of seed charges is formed at a small distance from the cathode plane. This Gaussian cloud has been used as the initial condition of the 2D fluid model in the second air gap. In this case, the propagation of a double headed discharge in the second air gap has been observed and the reignition delay is in rather good agreement with experiments.

  12. In-situ conditioning of a strip casting roll

    DOEpatents

    Williams, Robert S.; Campbell, Steven L.

    1997-01-01

    A strip caster (10) for producing a continuous strip (24) has a tundish (12) for containing a melt (14) and a pair of horizontally disposed water cooled casting rolls (22). The casting rolls are juxtaposed relative to one another for forming a pouring basin (18) for receiving the melt through a teeming tube (16) thereby establishing a meniscus (20) between the rolls for forming a strip (24). The melt is protected from the outside air by a non-oxidizing gas passed through a supply line (28) to a sealing chamber (26). Devices (29) for conditioning the outer peripheral chill surfaces of the casting rolls includes grit blasting nozzles (30A, 30B, 30C, 30D), a collection trough (32) for gathering the grit, a line (34) for recycling the grit to a bag house (36), a feeder (38) and a pressurized distributor (40) for delivering the grit to the nozzles. The conditioning nozzles remove dirt, metal oxides and surface imperfections providing a clean surface readily wetted by the melt.

  13. In-situ conditioning of a strip casting roll

    DOEpatents

    Williams, R.S.; Campbell, S.L.

    1997-07-29

    A strip caster (10) for producing a continuous strip (24) has a tundish (12) for containing a melt (14) and a pair of horizontally disposed water cooled casting rolls (22). The casting rolls are juxtaposed relative to one another for forming a pouring basin (18) for receiving the melt through a teeming tube (16) thereby establishing a meniscus (20) between the rolls for forming a strip (24). The melt is protected from the outside air by a non-oxidizing gas passed through a supply line (28) to a sealing chamber (26). Devices (29) for conditioning the outer peripheral chill surfaces of the casting rolls includes grit blasting nozzles (30A, 30B, 30C, 30D), a collection trough (32) for gathering the grit, a line (34) for recycling the grit to a bag house (36), a feeder (38) and a pressurized distributor (40) for delivering the grit to the nozzles. The conditioning nozzles remove dirt, metal oxides and surface imperfections providing a clean surface readily wetted by the melt.

  14. Identification of processes affecting excess air formation during natural bank filtration and managed aquifer recharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Massmann, Gudrun; Sültenfuß, Jürgen

    2008-09-01

    SummaryManaged aquifer recharge is gaining importance as a practice to bank and treat surface water for drinking water production. Neon (Ne) concentrations were analysed at four different recharge sites in and near Berlin, where groundwater is recharged directly from surface water courses, either by near-natural bank filtration, induced bank filtration or engineered basin recharge. Neon concentrations in excess of saturation (ΔNe) were used to identify excess air in the infiltrates. Excess air concentrations were around saturation at the near-natural bank filtration site, where river water infiltrates through a permeable river bed into a confined aquifer under completely saturated conditions. At two induced unconfined bank filtration sites, samples generally contained excess air (up to 60% ΔNe). Highest excess air concentrations (up to 81% ΔNe) were encountered at the engineered basin recharge site. The degree of water table fluctuations, the water saturation of the sediments in the infiltration zone and the presence of a confining layer affect the formation of excess air. Excess air can only be used to trace bank filtrate or artificially recharged water in a setting where the ambient groundwater in the near vicinity of production wells is not affected by large water-table fluctuations. Nevertheless, excess air concentrations provide valuable additional information on the type of recharge (saturated or unsaturated, degree of water table fluctuations).

  15. Metal processing wastes: air pollution. 1976-April 1980 (citations from the NTIS data base). Report for 1976-1980

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-08-01

    Research reports on air pollution from metal processing are cited. They include control, quantity, economics, and health aspects. The citations cover broad industry studies as well as the analysis of problems of specific industrial plants and processes. The emphasis is on refining, smelting, casting and metal working for the iron and steel aluminum, copper, chromium, zinc, and other metal industries. (This updated bibliography contains 250 citations, none of which are new entries to the previous edition.)

  16. Smooth Muscle Strips for Intestinal Tissue Engineering

    PubMed Central

    Walthers, Christopher M.; Lee, Min; Wu, Benjamin M.; Dunn, James C. Y.

    2014-01-01

    Functionally contracting smooth muscle is an essential part of the engineered intestine that has not been replicated in vitro. The purpose of this study is to produce contracting smooth muscle in culture by maintaining the native smooth muscle organization. We employed intact smooth muscle strips and compared them to dissociated smooth muscle cells in culture for 14 days. Cells isolated by enzymatic digestion quickly lost maturity markers for smooth muscle cells and contained few enteric neural and glial cells. Cultured smooth muscle strips exhibited periodic contraction and maintained neural and glial markers. Smooth muscle strips cultured for 14 days also exhibited regular fluctuation of intracellular calcium, whereas cultured smooth muscle cells did not. After implantation in omentum for 14 days on polycaprolactone scaffolds, smooth muscle strip constructs expressed high levels of smooth muscle maturity markers as well as enteric neural and glial cells. Intact smooth muscle strips may be a useful component for engineered intestinal smooth muscle. PMID:25486279

  17. Development of a single wheel, high speed aluminum strip caster

    SciTech Connect

    Ray, L.D.; Sloan, G.A.

    1996-10-01

    The aluminum industry has been in search of a viable continuous casting process for many years. Such a process would provide an increase in production as well as lower production costs. The melt drag process is capable of producing thin aluminum sheet at extremely high casting rates. Over the past ten years, many milestones have been reached in making this process acceptable for use in production. Some of these accomplishments are reviewed in this paper along with a general overview of some of the technical aspects of melt drag casting. In addition, a comparison is made with other processes available for continuously casting aluminum slab and strip.

  18. [Air Dielectric Barrier Discharge Emission Spectrum Measurement and Particle Analysis of Discharge Process].

    PubMed

    Shen, Shuang-yan; Jin, Xing; Zhang, Peng

    2016-02-01

    The emission spectrum detection and diagnosis is one of the most common methods of application to the plasma. It provides wealth of information of the chemical and physical process of the plasma. The analysis of discharge plasma dynamic behavior plays an important role in the study of gas discharge mechanism and application. An air dielectric discharge spectrum measuring device was designed and the emission spectrum data was measured under the experimental condition. The plasma particles evolution was analyzed from the emission spectrum. The numerical calculation model was established and the density equation, energy transfer equation and the Boltzmann equation was coupled to analyze the change of the particle density to explain the emission spectrum characteristics. The results are that the particle density is growing with the increasing of reduced electric field. The particle density is one or two orders of magnitude difference for the same particle at the same moment for the reduced electric field of 40, 60 or 80 Td. A lot of N₂ (A³), N₂ (A³) and N₂ (C³) particles are generated by the electric field excitation. However, it transforms quickly due to the higher energy level. The transformation returns to the balance after the discharge of 10⁻⁶ s. The emission spectrometer measured in the experiments is mostly generated by the transition of excited nitrogen. The peak concentration of O₂ (A¹), O₂ (B¹) and O₂ (A³ ∑⁺u) is not low compared to the excited nitrogen molecules. These particles energy is relatively low and the transition spectral is longer. The spectrometer does not capture the oxygen emission spectrum. And the peak concentration of O particles is small, so the transition emission spectrum is weak. The calculation results of the stabled model can well explain the emission spectrum data. PMID:27209731

  19. Radiative Processes In Air Excited By An ArF Laser

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mckenzie, Robert L.; Huo, Winifred; Laufer, Gabriel

    1990-01-01

    Report describes experimental and theoretical studies of emission spectrum of air excited by light from ArF laser. Purpose of studies to determine conditions under which fluorescence from O2 used to measure temperatures in aerodynamic flows.

  20. Evaluation of FOXFET biased ac-coupled silicon strip detector prototypes for CDF SVX upgrade

    SciTech Connect

    Laakso, M. Research Inst. for High Energy Physics , Helsinki )

    1992-03-01

    Silicon microstrip detectors for high-precision charged particle position measurements have been used in nuclear and particle physics for years. The detectors have evolved from simple surface barrier strip detectors with metal strips to highly complicated double-sided AC-coupled junction detectors. The feature of AC-coupling the readout electrodes from the diode strips necessitates the manufacture of a separate biasing structure for the strips, which comprises a common bias line together with a means for preventing the signal from one strip from spreading to its neighbors through the bias line. The obvious solution to this is to bias the strips through individual high value resistors. These resistors can be integrated on the detector wafer by depositing a layer of resistive polycrystalline silicon and patterning it to form the individual resistors. To circumvent the extra processing step required for polysilicon resistor processing and the rather difficult tuning of the process to obtain uniform and high enough resistance values throughout the large detector area, alternative methods for strip biasing have been devised. These include the usage of electron accumulation layer resistance for N{sup +}{minus} strips or the usage of the phenomenon known as the punch-through effect for P{sup +}{minus} strips. In this paper we present measurement results about the operation and radiation resistance of detectors with a punch-through effect based biasing structure known as a Field OXide Field-Effect Transistor (FOXFET), and present a model describing the FOXFET behavior. The studied detectors were prototypes for detectors to be used in the CDF silicon vertex detector upgrade.

  1. Assessment of practicality of remote sensing techniques for a study of the effects of strip mining in Alabama

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hughes, T. H.; Dillion, A. C., III; White, J. R., Jr.; Drummond, S. E., Jr.; Hooks, W. G.

    1975-01-01

    Because of the volume of coal produced by strip mining, the proximity of mining operations, and the diversity of mining methods (e.g. contour stripping, area stripping, multiple seam stripping, and augering, as well as underground mining), the Warrior Coal Basin seemed best suited for initial studies on the physical impact of strip mining in Alabama. Two test sites, (Cordova and Searles) representative of the various strip mining techniques and environmental problems, were chosen for intensive studies of the correlation between remote sensing and ground truth data. Efforts were eventually concentrated in the Searles Area, since it is more accessible and offers a better opportunity for study of erosional and depositional processes than the Cordova Area.

  2. Energy-Efficient Bioalcohol Recovery by Gel Stripping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Godbole, Rutvik; Ma, Lan; Hedden, Ronald

    2014-03-01

    Design of energy-efficient processes for recovering butanol and ethanol from dilute fermentations is a key challenge facing the biofuels industry due to the high energy consumption of traditional multi-stage distillation processes. Gel stripping is an alternative purification process by which a dilute alcohol is stripped from the fermentation product by passing it through a packed bed containing particles of a selectively absorbent polymeric gel material. The gel must be selective for the alcohol, while swelling to a reasonable degree in dilute alcohol-water mixtures. To accelerate materials optimization, a combinatorial approach is taken to screen a matrix of copolymer gels having orthogonal gradients in crosslinker concentration and hydrophilicity. Using a combination of swelling in pure solvents, the selectivity and distribution coefficients of alcohols in the gels can be predicted based upon multi-component extensions of Flory-Rehner theory. Predictions can be validated by measuring swelling in water/alcohol mixtures and conducting h HPLC analysis of the external liquid. 95% + removal of butanol from dilute aqueous solutions has been demonstrated, and a mathematical model of the unsteady-state gel stripping process has been developed. NSF CMMI Award 1335082.

  3. Thermomechanical Behavior of Work Rolls During Warm Strip Rolling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khalili, L.; Serajzadeh, S.; Koohbor, B.

    2012-12-01

    A mathematical model was developed to assess thermomechanical behavior of work rolls during warm rolling processes. A combined finite element analysis-slab method was first developed to determine thermal and mechanical responses of the strip being rolled under steady-state conditions, and then, the calculated roll pressure and temperature field were utilized as the governing boundary conditions for the thermomechanical problem of the work roll. Finally, the thermomechanical stresses within the work rolls were predicted by a thermoelastic finite element approach. The results of the model indicate that, in warm strip rolling, thermal and mechanical stresses developed in the work rolls are comparable, and thus, both thermal and mechanical aspects of the problem should be considered in such a problem. Besides, the model was shown to be capable of determining the effects of various rolling parameters on the thermomechanical behavior of the work rolls during warm rolling process.

  4. A Strip Cell in Pyroelectric Devices.

    PubMed

    Siao, An-Shen; Chao, Ching-Kong; Hsiao, Chun-Ching

    2016-01-01

    The pyroelectric effect affords the opportunity to convert temporal temperature fluctuations into usable electrical energy in order to develop abundantly available waste heat. A strip pyroelectric cell, used to enhance temperature variation rates by lateral temperature gradients and to reduce cell capacitance to further promote the induced voltage, is described as a means of improving pyroelectric energy transformation. A precision dicing saw was successfully applied in fabricating the pyroelectric cell with a strip form. The strip pyroelectric cell with a high-narrow cross section is able to greatly absorb thermal energy via the side walls of the strips, thereby inducing lateral temperature gradients and increasing temperature variation rates in a thicker pyroelectric cell. Both simulation and experimentation show that the strip pyroelectric cell improves the electrical outputs of pyroelectric cells and enhances the efficiency of pyroelectric harvesters. The strip-type pyroelectric cell has a larger temperature variation when compared to the trenched electrode and the original type, by about 1.9 and 2.4 times, respectively. The measured electrical output of the strip type demonstrates a conspicuous increase in stored energy as compared to the trenched electrode and the original type, by of about 15.6 and 19.8 times, respectively. PMID:26999134

  5. A Strip Cell in Pyroelectric Devices

    PubMed Central

    Siao, An-Shen; Chao, Ching-Kong; Hsiao, Chun-Ching

    2016-01-01

    The pyroelectric effect affords the opportunity to convert temporal temperature fluctuations into usable electrical energy in order to develop abundantly available waste heat. A strip pyroelectric cell, used to enhance temperature variation rates by lateral temperature gradients and to reduce cell capacitance to further promote the induced voltage, is described as a means of improving pyroelectric energy transformation. A precision dicing saw was successfully applied in fabricating the pyroelectric cell with a strip form. The strip pyroelectric cell with a high-narrow cross section is able to greatly absorb thermal energy via the side walls of the strips, thereby inducing lateral temperature gradients and increasing temperature variation rates in a thicker pyroelectric cell. Both simulation and experimentation show that the strip pyroelectric cell improves the electrical outputs of pyroelectric cells and enhances the efficiency of pyroelectric harvesters. The strip-type pyroelectric cell has a larger temperature variation when compared to the trenched electrode and the original type, by about 1.9 and 2.4 times, respectively. The measured electrical output of the strip type demonstrates a conspicuous increase in stored energy as compared to the trenched electrode and the original type, by of about 15.6 and 19.8 times, respectively. PMID:26999134

  6. Transfusion and blood donation in comic strips.

    PubMed

    Lefrère, Jean-Jacques; Danic, Bruno

    2013-07-01

    The representation of blood transfusion and donation of blood in the comic strip has never been studied. The comic strip, which is a relatively recent art, emerged in the 19th century before becoming a mass medium during the 20th century. We have sought, by calling on collectors and using the resources of Internet, comic strips devoted, wholly or in part, to the themes of transfusion and blood donation. We present some of them here in chronologic order, indicating the title, country of origin, year of publication, and names of authors. The theme of the superhero using transfusion to transmit his virtues or his powers is repeated throughout the 20th century in North American comic strips. More recently, comic strips have been conceived from the outset with a promotional aim. They perpetuate positive images and are directed toward a young readership, wielding humor to reduce the fear of venipuncture. Few comic strips denounce the abuse of the commercialization of products derived from the human body. The image of transfusion and blood donation given by the comic strips is not to be underestimated because their readership is primarily children, some of whom will become blood donors. Furthermore, if some readers are transfused during their lives, the impact of a memory more or less conscious of these childhood readings may resurface, both in hopes and in fears. PMID:23643789

  7. Retractable spiked barrier strip for law enforcement

    SciTech Connect

    Marts, D.J.; Barker, S.G.

    1995-03-01

    The Idaho National Engineering Laboratory has designed an laboratory tested a prototype retractable spiked barrier strip for law enforcement. The proposed system, which is ready for controlled field testing, expands the functionality of existing spiked barrier strips. A retractable barrier strip, one that can place the spikes in either the active (vertical) or passive (horizontal) position, would allow law enforcement personnel to lay the unobtrusive strip across a road far in advance of a fleeing vehicle. No damage occurs to passing vehicles until the spikes are activated, and that can be done from a safe distance and at a strategic location when the offending vehicle is close to the strip. The concept also allows the strips to be place safely across several roadways that are potential paths of a fleeing vehicle. Since they are not activated until needed, they are harmless to nonoffending vehicles. The laboratory tests conducted on the system indicate that it will puncture tires only when the spikes are rotated to the active position and is safe to travel over when the spikes are in the down position. The strip itself will not cause instability to a vehicle driving over it, nor is the strip disturbed or adversely affected by vehicles driving over it. The spikes can be quickly rotated between the active (vertical) and passive (horizontal) position. However, the laboratory tests have only demonstrated that the retractable spiked barrier strip can perform its intended function in a laboratory environment. Field tests are needed to finalize the design and develop the system into a functional law enforcement tool.

  8. Situation Awareness Implications of Adaptive Automation of Air Traffic Controller Information Processing Functions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaber, David B.; McClernon, Christopher K.; Perry, Carlene M.; Segall, Noa

    2004-01-01

    The goal of this research was to define a measure of situation awareness (SA) in an air traffic control (ATC) task and to assess the influence of adaptive automation (AA) of various information processing functions on controller perception, comprehension and projection. The measure was also to serve as a basis for defining and developing an approach to triggering dynamic control allocations, as part of AA, based on controller SA. To achieve these objectives, an enhanced version of an ATC simulation (Multitask (copyright)) was developed for use in two human factors experiments. The simulation captured the basic functions of Terminal Radar Approach Control (TRACON) and was capable of presenting to operators four different modes of control, including information acquisition, information analysis, decision making and action implementation automation, as well as a completely manual control mode. The SA measure that was developed as part of the research was based on the Situation Awareness Global Assessment Technique (SAGAT), previous goal-directed task analyses of enroute control and TRACON, and a separate cognitive task analysis on the ATC simulation. The results of the analysis on Multitask were used as a basis for formulating SA queries as part of the SAGAT-based approach to measuring controller SA, which was used in the experiments. A total of 16 subjects were recruited for both experiments. Half the subjects were used in Experiment #1, which focused on assessing the sensitivity and reliability of the SA measurement approach in the ATC simulation. Comparisons were made of manual versus automated control. The remaining subjects were used in the second experiment, which was intended to more completely describe the SA implications of AA applied to specific controller information processing functions, and to describe how the measure could ultimately serve as a trigger of dynamic function allocations in the application of AA to ATC. Comparisons were made of the

  9. Processing of high performance (LRE)-Ba Cu O large, single-grain bulk superconductors in air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hari Babu, N.; Iida, K.; Shi, Y.; Cardwell, D. A.

    2006-10-01

    We report the fabrication of large (LRE)BCO single-grains with improved superconducting properties for LRE = Nd, Sm and Gd using a practical process via both conventional top seeded melt growth (TSMG) and seeded infiltration-growth (SIG). This process uses a new generic seed crystal that promotes heterogeneous grain nucleation in the required orientation and suppresses the formation of solid solution in a controlled manner within individual grains by the addition of excess BaO2 to the precursor powder. The spatial distribution of the superconducting properties of LRE bulk superconductors as a function of BaO2 addition for large (LRE)BCO grains fabricated in air by TSMG and SIG for LRE = Gd, Sm and Nd are compared. The optimum BaO2 content required to fabricate single-grain (LRE)BCO with high and homogeneous Tc is determined from these experiments for each LRE system. The irreversibility fields of (LRE)BCO bulk superconductors processed in air are as high as those processed in reduced PO2. Critical current densities in excess of 105 A/cm2 at 77 K and higher trapped fields have been achieved in optimized (LRE)BCO superconductors fabricated in air for the first time.

  10. High energy H- ion transport and stripping

    SciTech Connect

    Chou, W.; /Fermilab

    2005-05-01

    During the Proton Driver design study based on an 8 GeV superconducting RF H{sup -} linac, a major concern is the feasibility of transport and injection of high energy H{sup -} ions because the energy of H{sup -} beam would be an order of magnitude higher than the existing ones. This paper will focus on two key technical issues: (1) stripping losses during transport (including stripping by blackbody radiation, magnetic field and residual gases); (2) stripping efficiency of carbon foil during injection.

  11. Instabilities and Solitons in Minimal Strips

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Machon, Thomas; Alexander, Gareth P.; Goldstein, Raymond E.; Pesci, Adriana I.

    2016-07-01

    We show that highly twisted minimal strips can undergo a nonsingular transition, unlike the singular transitions seen in the Möbius strip and the catenoid. If the strip is nonorientable, this transition is topologically frustrated, and the resulting surface contains a helicoidal defect. Through a controlled analytic approximation, the system can be mapped onto a scalar ϕ4 theory on a nonorientable line bundle over the circle, where the defect becomes a topologically protected kink soliton or domain wall, thus establishing their existence in minimal surfaces. Demonstrations with soap films confirm these results and show how the position of the defect can be controlled through boundary deformation.

  12. Instabilities and Solitons in Minimal Strips.

    PubMed

    Machon, Thomas; Alexander, Gareth P; Goldstein, Raymond E; Pesci, Adriana I

    2016-07-01

    We show that highly twisted minimal strips can undergo a nonsingular transition, unlike the singular transitions seen in the Möbius strip and the catenoid. If the strip is nonorientable, this transition is topologically frustrated, and the resulting surface contains a helicoidal defect. Through a controlled analytic approximation, the system can be mapped onto a scalar ϕ^{4} theory on a nonorientable line bundle over the circle, where the defect becomes a topologically protected kink soliton or domain wall, thus establishing their existence in minimal surfaces. Demonstrations with soap films confirm these results and show how the position of the defect can be controlled through boundary deformation. PMID:27419593

  13. Saving Energy Through Advanced Power Strips (Poster)

    SciTech Connect

    Christensen, D.

    2013-10-01

    Advanced Power Strips (APS) look just like ordinary power strips, except that they have built-in features that are designed to reduce the amount of energy used by many consumer electronics. There are several different types of APSs on the market, but they all operate on the same basic principle of shutting off the supply power to devices that are not in use. By replacing your standard power strip with an APS, you can signifcantly cut the amount of electricity used by your home office and entertainment center devices, and save money on your electric bill. This illustration summarizes the different options.

  14. DRAMATIC IMPROVEMENTS IN CAUSTIC-SIDE SOLVENT EXTRACTION OF CESIUM THROUGH MORE EFFICIENT STRIPPING

    SciTech Connect

    Delmau, Laetitia Helene; Bazelaire, Eve; Bonnesen, Peter V; Engle, Nancy L; Gorbunova, Maryna; Haverlock, Tamara; Moyer, Bruce A; Ensor, Dale; Meadors, Viola M; Harmon, Ben; Bartsch, Richard A.; Surowiec, Malgorzata A.; Zhou, Hui

    2008-01-01

    Dramatic potential improvements to the chemistry of the Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX) process are presented as related to enhancement of cesium stripping. The current process for removing cesium from the alkaline high-level waste (HLW) at the USDOE Savannah River Site employs acidic scrub and strip stages and shows remarkable extraction and selectivity properties for cesium. It was determined that cesium stripping can be greatly improved with caustic or near-neutral stages using sodium hydroxide and boric acid as scrub and strip solutions, respectively. Improvements can also be achieved by appending pH-sensitive functional groups to the calix[4]arene-crown-6 extractant. Addition of a proton-ionizable group to the calixarene frame leads to a dramatic "pH swing" of up to 6 orders of magnitude change in cesium distribution ratio.

  15. Rigorous Strip Adjustment of Airborne Laserscanning Data Based on the Icp Algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glira, P.; Pfeifer, N.; Briese, C.; Ressl, C.

    2015-08-01

    Airborne Laser Scanning (ALS) is an efficient method for the acquisition of dense and accurate point clouds over extended areas. To ensure a gapless coverage of the area, point clouds are collected strip wise with a considerable overlap. The redundant information contained in these overlap areas can be used, together with ground-truth data, to re-calibrate the ALS system and to compensate for systematic measurement errors. This process, usually denoted as strip adjustment, leads to an improved georeferencing of the ALS strips, or in other words, to a higher data quality of the acquired point clouds. We present a fully automatic strip adjustment method that (a) uses the original scanner and trajectory measurements, (b) performs an on-the-job calibration of the entire ALS multisensor system, and (c) corrects the trajectory errors individually for each strip. Like in the Iterative Closest Point (ICP) algorithm, correspondences are established iteratively and directly between points of overlapping ALS strips (avoiding a time-consuming segmentation and/or interpolation of the point clouds). The suitability of the method for large amounts of data is demonstrated on the basis of an ALS block consisting of 103 strips.

  16. Characterization of radiolytically generated degradation products in the strip section of a TRUEX flowsheet

    SciTech Connect

    Dean R. Peterman; Lonnie G. Olson; Gary S. Groenewold; Rocklan G. McDowell; Richard D. Tillotson; Jack D. Law

    2013-08-01

    This report presents a summary of the work performed to meet the FCRD level 2 milestone M3FT-13IN0302053, “Identification of TRUEX Strip Degradation.” The INL radiolysis test loop has been used to identify radiolytically generated degradation products in the strip section of the TRUEX flowsheet. These data were used to evaluate impact of the formation of radiolytic degradation products in the strip section upon the efficacy of the TRUEX flowsheet for the recovery of trivalent actinides and lanthanides from acidic solution. The nominal composition of the TRUEX solvent used in this study is 0.2 M CMPO and 1.4 M TBP dissolved in n-dodecane and the nominal composition of the TRUEX strip solution is 1.5 M lactic acid and 0.050 M diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid. Gamma irradiation of a mixture of TRUEX process solvent and stripping solution in the test loop does not adversely impact flowsheet performance as measured by stripping americium ratios. The observed increase in americium stripping distribution ratios with increasing absorbed dose indicates the radiolytic production of organic soluble degradation compounds.

  17. Nonlocality in deuteron stripping reactions.

    PubMed

    Timofeyuk, N K; Johnson, R C

    2013-03-15

    We propose a new method for the analysis of deuteron stripping reactions, A(d,p)B, in which the nonlocality of nucleon-nucleus interactions and three-body degrees of freedom are accounted for in a consistent way. The model deals with equivalent local nucleon potentials taken at an energy shifted by ∼40  MeV from the "E(d)/2" value frequently used in the analysis of experimental data, where E(d) is the incident deuteron energy. The "E(d)/2" rule lies at the heart of all three-body analyses of (d, p) reactions performed so far with the aim of obtaining nuclear structure properties such as spectroscopic factors and asymptotic normalization coefficients that are crucial for our understanding of nuclear shell evolution in neutron- and proton-rich regions of the nuclear periodic table and for predicting the cross sections of stellar reactions. The large predicted shift arises from the large relative kinetic energy of the neutron and proton in the incident deuteron in those components of the n+p+A wave function that dominate the (d, p) reaction amplitude. The large shift reduces the effective d-A potentials and leads to a change in predicted (d, p) cross sections, thus affecting the interpretation of these reactions in terms of nuclear structure. PMID:25166525

  18. A video strip chart program

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, N.L.

    1994-12-31

    A strip chart recorder has been utilized for trend analysis of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory EN tandem since 1987. At the EN, the author could not afford the nice eight channel thermal pen recorder that was used at the 25 URC. He had to suffice with two channel fiber tip or capillary pen type recorders retrieved from salvage and maintained with parts from other salvaged recorders. After cycling through several machines that eventually became completely unserviceable, a search for a new thermal recorder was begun. As much as he hates to write computer code, he decided to try his hand at getting an old data acquisition unit, that had been retrieved several years ago from salvage, to meet his needs. A BASIC language compiler was used because time was not available to learn a more advanced language. While attempting to increase acquisition and scroll speed on the 6 MHz 80286 that the code was first developed on, it became apparent that scrolling only the first small portion of the screen at high speed and then averaging that region and histogramming the average provided both the speed necessary for capturing fairly short duration events, and a trend record without use of back scrolling and disk storage routines. This turned out to be quite sufficient.

  19. Microstructure Engineering in Hot Strip Mills, Part 1 of 2: Integrated mathematical Model

    SciTech Connect

    J.K. Brimacombe; I.V. Samaraseker; E.B. Hawbolt; T.R. Meadowcroft; M. Militzer; W.J. Pool; D.Q. Jin

    1998-09-30

    This report describes the work of developing an integrated model used to predict the thermal history, deformation, roll forces, microstructural evaluation and mechanical properties of steel strip in a hot-strip mill. This achievement results from a join research effort that is part of the American Iron and Steel Institute's (AISI) Advanced Process Control Program, a collaboration between the U.S. DOE and fifteen North American steel makers.

  20. Effect of Water Spray Evaporative Cooling at the Inlet of Regeneration Air Stream on the Performance of an Adsorption Desiccant Cooling Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ando, Kosuke; Kodama, Akio; Hirose, Tsutomu; Goto, Motonobu; Okano, Hiroshi

    This paper shows an influence of evaporative cooler at the inlet of regeneration air stream of an adsorptive desiccant cooling process on the cooling/dehumidifying performance. This evaporative cooling was expected to cause humidity increase in regeneration air reducing the dehumidifying performance of the honeycomb absorber, while the evaporative cooling plays an important role to produce a lower temperature in supply air. Two different airs to be used for the regeneration of the desiccant wheel were considered. One was fresh outside air (OA mode) and the other was air ventilated from the room (RA mode). Experimental results showed that the amount of dehumidified water obtained at the process without water spray evaporative cooler was actually larger than that of process with water spray evaporative cooler. This behavior was mainly due to increase of humidity or relative humidity in the regeneration air as expected. However, temperature of supply air produced by the process with the evaporator was rather lower than that of the other because of the cooled return air, resulting higher CE value. Regarding the operating mode, the evaporative cooler at the OA-mode was no longer useful at higher ambient humidity because of the difficulty of the evaporation of the water in such high humidity. It was also found that its dehumidifying performance was remarkably decreased at higher ambient humidity and lower regeneration temperature since the effective adsorption capacity at the resulting high relative humidity of the regeneration air decreased.

  1. 75 FR 28227 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Gold Mine Ore Processing and Production...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-20

    ..., 2010, when EPA published the proposed rule (75 FR 22470). Several parties requested that EPA extend the... provided in the SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION section of the April 28, 2010 (75 FR 22470) Federal Register... AGENCY 40 CFR Parts 9 and 63 RIN 2060-AP48 National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants:...

  2. SIMULATION OF INTRINSIC BIOREMEDIATION PROCESSES AT WURTSMITH AIR FORCE BASE, MICHIGAN

    EPA Science Inventory

    In October, 1988, a KC-135 aircraft crashed at Wurtsmith Air Force base (AFB), Oscoda, Michigan during an attempted landing. Approximately 3000 gallons of jet fuel (JP-4) were spilled onto the ground, with a large portion of the fuel entering the subsurface. Previous investigat...

  3. Growth of oxygen bubbles during recharge process in zinc-air battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Keliang; Pei, Pucheng; Ma, Ze; Chen, Huicui; Xu, Huachi; Chen, Dongfang; Xing, Haoqiang

    2015-11-01

    Rechargeable zinc-air battery used for energy storage has a serious problem of charging capacity limited by oxygen bubble coalescence. Fast removal of oxygen bubbles adhered to the charging electrode surface is of great importance for improving the charging performance of the battery. Here we show that the law of oxygen bubble growth can be achieved by means of phase-field simulation, revealing two phenomena of bubble detachment and bubble coalescence located in the charging electrode on both sides. Hydrodynamic electrolyte and partial insulation structure of the charging electrode are investigated to solve the problem of oxygen bubble coalescence during charging. Two types of rechargeable zinc-air battery are developed on the basis of different tri-electrode configurations, demonstrating that the charging performance of the battery with electrolyte flow (Ⅰ) is better than that of the battery with the partially insulated electrode (Ⅱ), while the battery Ⅱ is superior to the battery Ⅰ in the discharging performance, cost and portability. The proposed solutions and results would be available for promoting commercial application of rechargeable zinc-air batteries or other metal-air batteries.

  4. Water and entrapped air redistribution in heterogeneous sand sample: Quantitative neutron imaging of the process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snehota, Michal; Jelinkova, Vladimira; Sobotkova, Martina; Sacha, Jan; Vontobel, Peter; Hovind, Jan

    2015-02-01

    Saturated flow in soil with the occurrence of preferential flow often exhibits temporal changes of saturated hydraulic conductivity even during the time scale of a single infiltration event. These effects, observed in a number of experiments done mainly on heterogeneous soils, are often attributed to the changing distribution of water and air in the sample. We have measured the variation of the flow rates during the steady state stage of the constant head ponded infiltration experiment conducted on a packed sample composed of three different grades of sand. The experiment was monitored by quantitative neutron imaging, which provided information about the spatial distribution of water in the sample. Measurements were taken during (i) the initial stages of infiltration by neutron radiography and (ii) during the steady state flow by neutron tomography. A gradual decrease of the hydraulic conductivity has been observed during the first 4 h of the infiltration event. A series of neutron tomography images taken during the quasi-steady state stage showed the trapping of air bubbles in coarser sand. Furthermore, the water content in the coarse sand decreased even more while the water content in the embedded fine sand blocks gradually increased. The experimental results support the hypothesis that the effect of the gradual hydraulic conductivity decrease is caused by entrapped air redistribution and the build up of bubbles in preferential pathways. The trapped air thus restricts the preferential flow pathways and causes lower hydraulic conductivity.

  5. Interdisciplinary study of atmospheric processes and constituents of the mid-Atlantic coastal region.. [air pollution control studies in Virginia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kindle, E. C.; Bandy, E. C.; Copeland, G.; Blais, R.; Levy, G.; Sonenshine, D.

    1975-01-01

    Past research projects for the year 1974-1975 are listed along with future research programs in the area of air pollution control, remote sensor analysis of smoke plumes, the biosphere component, and field experiments. A detailed budget analysis is presented. Attachments are included on the following topics: mapping forest vegetation with ERTS-1 MSS data and automatic data processing techniques, and use of LARS system for the quantitative determination of smoke plume lateral diffusion coefficients from ERTS images of Virginia.

  6. A preliminary assessment of the Montreal process indicators of air pollution for the United States.

    PubMed

    Coulston, John W; Riitters, Kurt H; Smith, Gretchen C

    2004-07-01

    Air pollutants pose a risk to forest health and vitality in the United States. Here we present the major findings from a national scale air pollution assessment that is part of the United States' 2003 Report on Sustainable Forests. We examine trends and the percent forest subjected to specific levels of ozone and wet deposition of sulfate, nitrate, and ammonium. Results are reported by Resource Planning Act (RPA) reporting region and integrated by forest type using multivariate clustering. Estimates of sulfate deposition for forested areas had decreasing trends (1994-2000) across RPA regions that were statistically significant for North and South RPA regions. Nitrate deposition rates were relatively constant for the 1994 to 2000 period, but the South RPA region had a statistically decreasing trend. The North and South RPA regions experienced the highest ammonium deposition rates and showed slightly decreasing trends. Ozone concentrations were highest in portions of the Pacific Coast RPA region and relatively high across much of the South RPA region. Both the South and Rocky Mountain RPA regions had an increasing trend in ozone exposure. Ozone-induced foliar injury to sensitive species was recorded in all regions except for the Rocky Mountain region. The multivariate analysis showed that the oak-hickory and loblolly-shortleaf pine forest types were generally exposed to more air pollution than other forest types, and the redwood, western white pine, and larch forest types were generally exposed to less. These findings offer a new approach to national air pollution assessments and are intended to help focus research and planning initiatives related to air pollution and forest health. PMID:15195820

  7. Technique for stripping Teflon insulated wire

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Babb, B. D.

    1967-01-01

    Cryogenic stripping of Teflon insulated wire leaves no residue and produces no physical damage. After the wire is immersed in liquid nitrogen, bent slightly, and returned to room temperature, the Teflon is removed by fingernails or flat-nosed pliers.

  8. Ultralow Level Mercury Treatment Using Chemical Reduction and Air Stripping

    SciTech Connect

    Looney, B.B.

    2001-02-23

    The overall objective of this work is to develop a reasonable and cost-effective approach to meet the emerging mercury standards, especially for high volume outfalls with concentrations below the drinking water standard.

  9. Unencapsulated Air-stable Organic Field Effect Transistor by All Solution Processes for Low Power Vapor Sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Linrun; Tang, Wei; Zhao, Jiaqing; Yang, Ruozhang; Hu, Wei; Li, Qiaofeng; Wang, Ruolin; Guo, Xiaojun

    2016-02-01

    With its excellent mechanical flexibility, low-cost and low-temperature processing, the solution processed organic field-effect transistor (OFET) is a promising platform technology for developing ubiquitous sensor applications in digital health, environment monitoring and Internet of Things. However, a contradiction between achieving low voltage operation and having stable performance severely hinder the technology to become commercially viable. This work shows that, by reducing the sub-gap density of states (DOS) at the channel for low operation voltage and using a proper low-k non-polar polymer dielectric layer, such an issue can be addressed. Stable electrical properties after either being placed for weeks or continuously prolonged bias stressing for hours in ambient air are achieved for all solution processed unencapsulated OFETs with the channel being exposed to the ambient air for analyte detection. The fabricated device presents a steep subthreshold swing less than 100 mV/decade, and an ON/OFF ratio of 106 at a voltage swing of 3 V. The low voltage and stable operation allows the sensor made of the OFET to be incorporated into a battery-powered electronic system for continuously reliable sensing of ammonia vapor in ambient air with very small power consumption of about 50 nW.

  10. Unencapsulated Air-stable Organic Field Effect Transistor by All Solution Processes for Low Power Vapor Sensing.

    PubMed

    Feng, Linrun; Tang, Wei; Zhao, Jiaqing; Yang, Ruozhang; Hu, Wei; Li, Qiaofeng; Wang, Ruolin; Guo, Xiaojun

    2016-01-01

    With its excellent mechanical flexibility, low-cost and low-temperature processing, the solution processed organic field-effect transistor (OFET) is a promising platform technology for developing ubiquitous sensor applications in digital health, environment monitoring and Internet of Things. However, a contradiction between achieving low voltage operation and having stable performance severely hinder the technology to become commercially viable. This work shows that, by reducing the sub-gap density of states (DOS) at the channel for low operation voltage and using a proper low-k non-polar polymer dielectric layer, such an issue can be addressed. Stable electrical properties after either being placed for weeks or continuously prolonged bias stressing for hours in ambient air are achieved for all solution processed unencapsulated OFETs with the channel being exposed to the ambient air for analyte detection. The fabricated device presents a steep subthreshold swing less than 100 mV/decade, and an ON/OFF ratio of 10(6) at a voltage swing of 3 V. The low voltage and stable operation allows the sensor made of the OFET to be incorporated into a battery-powered electronic system for continuously reliable sensing of ammonia vapor in ambient air with very small power consumption of about 50 nW. PMID:26861412

  11. Unencapsulated Air-stable Organic Field Effect Transistor by All Solution Processes for Low Power Vapor Sensing

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Linrun; Tang, Wei; Zhao, Jiaqing; Yang, Ruozhang; Hu, Wei; Li, Qiaofeng; Wang, Ruolin; Guo, Xiaojun

    2016-01-01

    With its excellent mechanical flexibility, low-cost and low-temperature processing, the solution processed organic field-effect transistor (OFET) is a promising platform technology for developing ubiquitous sensor applications in digital health, environment monitoring and Internet of Things. However, a contradiction between achieving low voltage operation and having stable performance severely hinder the technology to become commercially viable. This work shows that, by reducing the sub-gap density of states (DOS) at the channel for low operation voltage and using a proper low-k non-polar polymer dielectric layer, such an issue can be addressed. Stable electrical properties after either being placed for weeks or continuously prolonged bias stressing for hours in ambient air are achieved for all solution processed unencapsulated OFETs with the channel being exposed to the ambient air for analyte detection. The fabricated device presents a steep subthreshold swing less than 100 mV/decade, and an ON/OFF ratio of 106 at a voltage swing of 3 V. The low voltage and stable operation allows the sensor made of the OFET to be incorporated into a battery-powered electronic system for continuously reliable sensing of ammonia vapor in ambient air with very small power consumption of about 50 nW. PMID:26861412

  12. Method and apparatus for planar drag strip casting

    DOEpatents

    Powell, John C.; Campbell, Steven L.

    1991-01-01

    The present invention is directed to an improved process and apparatus for strip casting. The combination of a planar flow casting nozzle positioned back from the top dead center position with an attached nozzle extension, provides an increased level of casting control and quality. The nozzle extension provides a means of containing the molten pool above the rotating substrate to increase the control of molten metal at the edges of the strip and increase the range of coating thicknesses which may be produced. The level of molten metal in the containment means is regulated to be above the level of melt supplying the casting nozzle which produces a condition of planar drag flow with the casting substrate prior to solidification.

  13. Method and apparatus for planar drag strip casting

    DOEpatents

    Powell, J.C.; Campbell, S.L.

    1991-11-12

    The present invention is directed to an improved process and apparatus for strip casting. The combination of a planar flow casting nozzle positioned back from the top dead center position with an attached nozzle extension, provides an increased level of casting control and quality. The nozzle extension provides a means of containing the molten pool above the rotating substrate to increase the control of molten metal at the edges of the strip and increase the range of coating thicknesses which may be produced. The level of molten metal in the containment means is regulated to be above the level of melt supplying the casting nozzle which produces a condition of planar drag flow with the casting substrate prior to solidification. 5 figures.

  14. 25 CFR 170.445 - What is a strip map?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true What is a strip map? 170.445 Section 170.445 Indians... What is a strip map? A strip map is a graphic representation of a section of road or other transportation facility being added to or modified in the IRR Inventory. Each strip map submitted with an...

  15. 25 CFR 170.445 - What is a strip map?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What is a strip map? 170.445 Section 170.445 Indians... What is a strip map? A strip map is a graphic representation of a section of road or other transportation facility being added to or modified in the IRR Inventory. Each strip map submitted with an...

  16. 12 CFR 204.132 - Treatment of loan strip participations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Treatment of loan strip participations. 204.132... strip participations. (a) Effective March 31, 1988, the glossary section of the instructions for the... participation arrangements (sometimes known or styled as loan strips or strip participations) are regarded...

  17. 12 CFR 204.132 - Treatment of loan strip participations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Treatment of loan strip participations. 204.132... strip participations. (a) Effective March 31, 1988, the glossary section of the instructions for the... participation arrangements (sometimes known or styled as loan strips or strip participations) are regarded...

  18. 21 CFR 882.5900 - Preformed craniosynostosis strip.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Preformed craniosynostosis strip. 882.5900 Section 882.5900 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... craniosynostosis strip. (a) Identification. A preformed craniosynostosis strip is a plastic strip used to...

  19. 21 CFR 882.5900 - Preformed craniosynostosis strip.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Preformed craniosynostosis strip. 882.5900 Section 882.5900 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... craniosynostosis strip. (a) Identification. A preformed craniosynostosis strip is a plastic strip used to...

  20. 21 CFR 882.5900 - Preformed craniosynostosis strip.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Preformed craniosynostosis strip. 882.5900 Section 882.5900 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... craniosynostosis strip. (a) Identification. A preformed craniosynostosis strip is a plastic strip used to...

  1. 12 CFR 204.132 - Treatment of loan strip participations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Treatment of loan strip participations. 204.132... strip participations. (a) Effective March 31, 1988, the glossary section of the instructions for the... participation arrangements (sometimes known or styled as loan strips or strip participations) are regarded...

  2. 12 CFR 204.132 - Treatment of loan strip participations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Treatment of loan strip participations. 204.132... strip participations. (a) Effective March 31, 1988, the glossary section of the instructions for the... participation arrangements (sometimes known or styled as loan strips or strip participations) are regarded...

  3. 12 CFR 204.132 - Treatment of loan strip participations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Treatment of loan strip participations. 204.132... strip participations. (a) Effective March 31, 1988, the glossary section of the instructions for the... participation arrangements (sometimes known or styled as loan strips or strip participations) are regarded...

  4. 21 CFR 882.5900 - Preformed craniosynostosis strip.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Preformed craniosynostosis strip. 882.5900 Section 882.5900 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... craniosynostosis strip. (a) Identification. A preformed craniosynostosis strip is a plastic strip used to...

  5. 25 CFR 170.445 - What is a strip map?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false What is a strip map? 170.445 Section 170.445 Indians... What is a strip map? A strip map is a graphic representation of a section of road or other transportation facility being added to or modified in the IRR Inventory. Each strip map submitted with an...

  6. 25 CFR 170.445 - What is a strip map?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false What is a strip map? 170.445 Section 170.445 Indians... What is a strip map? A strip map is a graphic representation of a section of road or other transportation facility being added to or modified in the IRR Inventory. Each strip map submitted with an...

  7. 25 CFR 170.445 - What is a strip map?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false What is a strip map? 170.445 Section 170.445 Indians... What is a strip map? A strip map is a graphic representation of a section of road or other transportation facility being added to or modified in the IRR Inventory. Each strip map submitted with an...

  8. Air-snow exchange of nitrate: a modelling approach to investigate physicochemical processes in surface snow at Dome C, Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bock, Josué; Savarino, Joël; Picard, Ghislain

    2016-04-01

    Snowpack is a multiphase (photo)chemical reactor that strongly influences the air composition in polar and snow-covered regions. Snowpack plays a special role in the nitrogen cycle, as it has been shown that nitrate undergoes numerous recycling stages (including photolysis) in the snow before being permanently buried in the firn. However, the current understanding of these physicochemical processes remains very poor. Several modelling studies have attempted to reproduce (photo)chemical reactions inside snow grains, but these required strong assumptions to characterise snow reactive properties, which are not well defined. Physical processes such as adsorption, solid state diffusion and co-condensation also affect snow chemical composition. We developed a model including a physically based parameterisation of these air-snow exchange processes for nitrate. This modelling study divides into two distinct parts: firstly, surface concentration of nitrate adsorbed onto snow is calculated using existing isotherm parametrisation. Secondly, bulk concentration of nitrate in solid solution into the ice matrix is modelled. In this second approach, solid state diffusion drives the evolution of nitrate concentration inside a layered spherical snow grain. A physically-based parameterisation defining the concentration at the air-snow interface was developed to account for the the co-condensation process. The model uses as input a one-year long time series of atmospheric nitrate concentration measured at Dome C, Antarctica. The modelled nitrate concentration in surface snow is compared to field measurements. We show that on the one hand, the adsorption of nitric acid on the surface of the snow grains fails to fit the observed variations. During winter and spring, the modelled adsorbed concentration of nitrate is 2.5 and 8.3-fold higher than the measured one, respectively. A strong diurnal variation driven by the temperature cycle and a peak occurring in early spring are two other

  9. Efficient organic-inorganic hybrid perovskite solar cells processed in air.

    PubMed

    Seetharaman S, Madhu; Nagarjuna, Puvvala; Kumar, P Naresh; Singh, Surya Prakash; Deepa, Melepurath; Namboothiry, Manoj A G

    2014-12-01

    Organic-inorganic hybrid perovskite solar cells with fluorine doped tin oxide/titanium dioxide/CH3NH3PbI3-xClx/poly(3-hexylthiophene)/silver were made in air with more than 50% humidity. The best devices showed an open circuit voltage of 640 mV, a short circuit current density of 18.85 mA cm(-2), a fill factor of 0.407 and a power conversion efficiency of 5.67%. The devices showed external quantum efficiency varying from 60 to 80% over a wavelength region of 350 nm to 750 nm of the solar spectrum. The morphology of the perovskite was investigated using scanning electron microscopy and it was found to be porous in nature. This study provides insights into air-stability of perovskite solar cells. PMID:25315711

  10. Fast online emission monitoring of volatile organic compounds (VOC) in wastewater and product streams (using stripping with direct steam injection).

    PubMed

    Schocker, Alexander; Lissner, Bert

    2012-03-01

    Open-loop stripping analysis (also referred to as dynamic headspace) is a very flexible and robust technology for online monitoring of volatile organic compounds in wastewater or coolant. However, the quality and reliability of the analytical results depend strongly on the temperature during the stripping process. Hence, the careful and constant heating of the liquid phase inside the stripping column is a critical parameter. In addition, this stripping at high temperatures extends the spectrum of traceable organics to less volatile and more polar compounds with detection limits down to the ppm-level. This paper presents a novel and promising approach for fast, efficient, and constant heating by the direct injection of process steam into the strip medium. The performance of the system is demonstrated for temperatures up to 75 °C and traces of various hydrocarbons in water (e.g., tetrahydrofuran, methanol, 1-propanol, n-butanol, ethylbenzene). PMID:22186871

  11. Lipids and Molecular Tools as Biomarkers in Monitoring Air Sparging Bioremediation Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heipieper, Hermann J.; Fischer, Janett

    2010-05-01

    The fluctuation of membrane lipids offers a promising tool as biomarkers for the analysis of microbial population changes as well as for the physiological status of micro-organisms. The investigation of changes in lipid composition is of common use for the assessment of physiological conditions in pure cultures. However, as lipid composition does not show drastic diversity among living organisms the use of lipids as biomarkers in mixed cultures and environmental samples has certain limitations. Therefore, special marker phospholipid fatty acids as well as modern statistical analysis of the results are necessary to receive certain information about the qualitative and quantitative changes of e.g. a soil microflora due to a contamination with organic compounds and its bioremediation. The use of lipids as biomarker in monitoring bioremediation are shown at the Hradčany site, a former Russian air force base in the Czech Republic that operated until 1990. In this time in an area of 32 ha soil and groundwater were contaminated with kerosene and BTEX compounds in an amount of 7,150 tons. This highly contaminated site is treated with the so-called air sparging method to clean-up the contamination by aerobic biodegradation. The results of PLFA analysis demonstrated a community shift to a gram-negative bacterial biomass with time. The results, including a principal component analysis (PCA) of the obtained fatty acid profiles, showed that the air sparging leads to substantial differences in microbial communities depending on the contamination levels and length of treatment, respectively. Obviously, the length of air sparging treatment controlling the BTEX concentration in soils causes temporal changes of bacterial community and adaptations of its respective members. This work was supported by the project BIOTOOL (Contract No. 003998) of the European Commission within its Sixth Framework Programme. Kabelitz N., Machackova J., Imfeld G., Brennerova M., Pieper D.H., Heipieper H

  12. Comparative study of denaturation of whey protein isolate (WPI) in convective air drying and isothermal heat treatment processes.

    PubMed

    Haque, M Amdadul; Aldred, Peter; Chen, Jie; Barrow, Colin J; Adhikari, Benu

    2013-11-15

    The extent and nature of denaturation of whey protein isolate (WPI) in convective air drying environments was measured and analysed using single droplet drying. A custom-built, single droplet drying instrument was used for this purpose. Single droplets having 5±0.1μl volume (initial droplet diameter 1.5±0.1mm) containing 10% (w/v) WPI were dried at air temperatures of 45, 65 and 80°C for 600s at constant air velocity of 0.5m/s. The extent and nature of denaturation of WPI in isothermal heat treatment processes was measured at 65 and 80°C for 600s and compared with those obtained from convective air drying. The extent of denaturation of WPI in a high hydrostatic pressure environment (600MPa for 600s) was also determined. The results showed that at the end of 600s of convective drying at 65°C the denaturation of WPI was 68.3%, while it was only 10.8% during isothermal heat treatment at the same medium temperature. When the medium temperature was maintained at 80°C, the denaturation loss of WPI was 90.0% and 68.7% during isothermal heat treatment and convective drying, respectively. The bovine serum albumin (BSA) fraction of WPI was found to be more stable in the convective drying conditions than β-lactoglobulin and α-lactalbumin, especially at longer drying times. The extent of denaturation of WPI in convective air drying (65 and 80°C) and isotheral heat treatment (80°C) for 600s was found to be higher than its denaturation in a high hydrostatic pressure environment at ambient temperature (600MPa for 600s). PMID:23790837

  13. The use of flight progress strips while working live traffic: frequencies, importance, and perceived benefits.

    PubMed

    Durso, Francis T; Batsakes, Peter J; Crutchfield, Jerry M; Braden, Justin B; Manning, Carol A

    2004-01-01

    The Federal Aviation Administration's effort to automate air traffic control (ATC) requires that the functionality provided today be captured in future systems. We report the first quantitative naturalistic observation of paper flight progress strip interactions during operational use. Strip use was similar in a variety of situations, but some uses varied as a function of altitude, staffing, or the cooperative style used by controller teams. Design of automation should proceed by prioritizing changes based on frequency of use and importance and should ensure that an effective method of interacting with flight information is incorporated. In addition to applied relevance to the ATC domain, the results touch on several theoretical concerns relevant to dynamic environments. Actual and potential applications of this research include the establishment of a database of strip activity and an arsenal of information valuable to system designers. PMID:15151154

  14. Impact of Blow/Fill/Seal process variables in determining rate of vial contamination by air dispersed microorganisms.

    PubMed

    Leo, Frank; Poisson, Patrick; Sinclair, Colin S; Tallentire, Alan

    2005-01-01

    Controlled challenges of air dispersed spores of Bacillus subtilis NCIMB 8649 have been generated in a custom-built challenge room housing a Blow/Fill/Seal machine filling filter-sterilized trypticase soy broth into 5.5 cm3 low density polyethylene vials. The effects on the rate of vial contamination of systematic changes in the process variables, rate of provision of ballooning air, delay in the application of mould vacuum and duration of transfer of the open vial, have been examined. Overall, the findings show that the conditions of vial formation can affect appreciably the rate of vial contamination from airborne spores. The indications are that heat lethality, associated with the elevated temperature required for polymer extrusion and vial formation, has a role in determining such contamination. PMID:16316067

  15. Helical currents in metallic Rashba strips

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamad, Ignacio J.; Gazza, Claudio J.; Riera, José A.

    2016-05-01

    We study the texture of helical currents in metallic planar strips in the presence of Rashba spin-orbit coupling (RSOC) on the lattice at zero temperature. In the noninteracting case and in the absence of external electromagnetic sources, we determine, by exact numerical diagonalization of the single-particle Hamiltonian, the distribution across the strip section of these Rashba helical currents (RHC) as well as their sign oscillation, as a function of the RSOC strength, strip width, electron filling, and strip boundary conditions. Then, we study the effects of charge currents introduced into the system by an Aharonov-Bohm flux for the case of rings or by a voltage bias in the case of open strips. The former setup is studied by variational Monte Carlo, and the latter by the time-dependent density-matrix renormalization-group technique. Particularly for strips formed by two, three, and four coupled chains, we show how these RHC vary in the presence of such induced charge current, and how their differences between spin-up and spin-down electron currents on each chain help to explain the distribution across the strip of charge currents, both of the spin-conserving and the spin-flipping types. We also predict the appearance of polarized charge currents on each chain. Finally, we show that these Rashba helical currents and their derived features remain in the presence of an on-site Hubbard repulsion as long as the system remains metallic, at quarter filling, and even at half filling where a Mott-Hubbard metal-insulator transition occurs for large Hubbard repulsion.

  16. Enhanced Ultraviolet Stability of Air-Processed Polymer Solar Cells by Al Doping of the ZnO Interlayer.

    PubMed

    Prosa, Mario; Tessarolo, Marta; Bolognesi, Margherita; Margeat, Olivier; Gedefaw, Desta; Gaceur, Meriem; Videlot-Ackermann, Christine; Andersson, Mats R; Muccini, Michele; Seri, Mirko; Ackermann, Jörg

    2016-01-27

    Photostability of organic photovoltaic devices represents a key requirement for the commercialization of this technology. In this field, ZnO is one of the most attractive materials employed as an electron transport layer, and the investigation of its photostability is of particular interest. Indeed, oxygen is known to chemisorb on ZnO and can be released upon UV illumination. Therefore, a deep analysis of the UV/oxygen effects on working devices is relevant for the industrial production where the coating processes take place in air and oxygen/ZnO contact cannot be avoided. Here we investigate the light-soaking stability of inverted organic solar cells in which four different solution-processed ZnO-based nanoparticles were used as electron transport layers: (i) pristine ZnO, (ii) 0.03 at %, (iii) 0.37 at %, and (iv) 0.8 at % aluminum-doped AZO nanoparticles. The degradation of solar cells under prolonged illumination (40 h under 1 sun), in which the ZnO/AZO layers were processed in air or inert atmosphere, is studied. We demonstrate that the presence of oxygen during the ZnO/AZO processing is crucial for the photostability of the resulting solar cell. While devices based on undoped ZnO were particularly affected by degradation, we found that using AZO nanoparticles the losses in performance, due to the presence of oxygen, were partially or totally prevented depending on the Al doping level. PMID:26751271

  17. HST Imaging of Dust Structures and Stars in the Ram Pressure Stripped Virgo Spirals NGC 4402 and NGC 4522: Stripped from the Outside In with Dense Cloud Decoupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abramson, A.; Kenney, J.; Crowl, H.; Tal, T.

    2016-08-01

    We describe and constrain the origins of interstellar medium (ISM) structures likely created by ongoing intracluster medium (ICM) ram pressure stripping in two Virgo Cluster spirals, NGC 4522 and NGC 4402, using Hubble Space Telescope (HST) BVI images of dust extinction and stars, as well as supplementary H i, Hα, and radio continuum images. With a spatial resolution of ∼10 pc in the HST images, this is the highest-resolution study to date of the physical processes that occur during an ICM–ISM ram pressure stripping interaction, ram pressure stripping's effects on the multi-phase, multi-density ISM, and the formation and evolution of ram-pressure-stripped tails. In dust extinction, we view the leading side of NGC 4402 and the trailing side of NGC 4522, and so we see distinct types of features in both. In both galaxies, we identify some regions where dense clouds are decoupling or have decoupled and others where it appears that kiloparsec-sized sections of the ISM are moving coherently. NGC 4522 has experienced stronger, more recent pressure and has the “jellyfish” morphology characteristic of some ram-pressure-stripped galaxies. Its stripped tail extends up from the disk plane in continuous upturns of dust and stars curving up to ∼2 kpc above the disk plane. On the other side of the galaxy, there is a kinematically and morphologically distinct extraplanar arm of young, blue stars and ISM above a mostly stripped portion of the disk, and between it and the disk plane are decoupled dust clouds that have not been completely stripped. The leading side of NGC 4402 contains two kiloparsec-scale linear dust filaments with complex substructure that have partially decoupled from the surrounding ISM. NGC 4402 also contains long dust ridges, suggesting that large parts of the ISM are being pushed out at once. Both galaxies contain long ridges of polarized radio continuum emission indicating the presence of large-scale, ordered magnetic fields. We propose that

  18. HST Imaging of Dust Structures and Stars in the Ram Pressure Stripped Virgo Spirals NGC 4402 and NGC 4522: Stripped from the Outside In with Dense Cloud Decoupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abramson, A.; Kenney, J.; Crowl, H.; Tal, T.

    2016-08-01

    We describe and constrain the origins of interstellar medium (ISM) structures likely created by ongoing intracluster medium (ICM) ram pressure stripping in two Virgo Cluster spirals, NGC 4522 and NGC 4402, using Hubble Space Telescope (HST) BVI images of dust extinction and stars, as well as supplementary H i, Hα, and radio continuum images. With a spatial resolution of ˜10 pc in the HST images, this is the highest-resolution study to date of the physical processes that occur during an ICM–ISM ram pressure stripping interaction, ram pressure stripping's effects on the multi-phase, multi-density ISM, and the formation and evolution of ram-pressure-stripped tails. In dust extinction, we view the leading side of NGC 4402 and the trailing side of NGC 4522, and so we see distinct types of features in both. In both galaxies, we identify some regions where dense clouds are decoupling or have decoupled and others where it appears that kiloparsec-sized sections of the ISM are moving coherently. NGC 4522 has experienced stronger, more recent pressure and has the “jellyfish” morphology characteristic of some ram-pressure-stripped galaxies. Its stripped tail extends up from the disk plane in continuous upturns of dust and stars curving up to ˜2 kpc above the disk plane. On the other side of the galaxy, there is a kinematically and morphologically distinct extraplanar arm of young, blue stars and ISM above a mostly stripped portion of the disk, and between it and the disk plane are decoupled dust clouds that have not been completely stripped. The leading side of NGC 4402 contains two kiloparsec-scale linear dust filaments with complex substructure that have partially decoupled from the surrounding ISM. NGC 4402 also contains long dust ridges, suggesting that large parts of the ISM are being pushed out at once. Both galaxies contain long ridges of polarized radio continuum emission indicating the presence of large-scale, ordered magnetic fields. We propose that magnetic

  19. Sexy ladies sexing ladies: women as consumers in strip clubs.

    PubMed

    Wosick-Correa, Kassia R; Joseph, Lauren J

    2008-01-01

    Recent shifts in the consumer base of the sex industry have involved greater female attendance in strip clubs. This article examines how strip clubs and dancers incorporate female patrons into a sexualized space traditionally designed for men by identifying three interactional processes: passing over, sidestaging, and tailoring. We suggest dancers pass over women because they perceive female patron behavior to include resistance to "buying the game" and spending patterns that diverge from male customers. Drawing on Goffman's dramaturgical analysis, we suggest the dynamic relationship between dancer and female patron involves what we term sidestaging, which refers to both dancers' disclosure and how the club's spatial organization inhibits the construction of women as customers through sharing gendered spaces, such as the bathroom. We argue that when a dancer tailors her lap dance for a female patron, she succeeds in acknowledging the female customer's sexual subjectivity and potential same-sex desires by providing an individualized avenue for exploring an erotic experience. Finally, we discuss data implications for understanding how same-sex desire and sexual identity operate in an environment that eroticizes the female form, and how the strip club becomes a potential space for engaging in same-sex eroticism that includes elements of play. PMID:18686149

  20. Producing Foils From Direct Cast Titanium Alloy Strip

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stuart, T. A.; Gaspar, T. A.; Sukonnik, I. M.; Semiatan, S. L.; Batawi, E.; Peters, J. A.; Fraser, H. L.

    1996-01-01

    This research was undertaken to demonstrate the feasibility of producing high-quality, thin-gage, titanium foil from direct cast titanium strip. Melt Overflow Rapid Solidification Technology (MORST) was used to cast several different titanium alloys into 500 microns thick strip, 10 cm wide and up to 3 m long. The strip was then either ground, hot pack rolled or cold rolled, as appropriate, into foil. Gamma titanium aluminide (TiAl) was cast and ground to approximately 100 microns thick foil and alpha-2 titanium aluminide (Ti3AI) was cast and hot pack rolled to approximately 70 microns thick foil. CP Ti, Ti6Al2Sn4Zr2Mo, and Ti22AI23Nb (Orthorhombic), were successfully cast and cold-rolled into good quality foil (less than 125 microns thick). The foils were generally fully dense with smooth surfaces, had fine, uniform microstructures, and demonstrated mechanical properties equivalent to conventionally produced titanium. By eliminating many manufacturing steps, this technology has the potential to produce thin gage, titanium foil with good engineering properties at significantly reduced cost relative to conventional ingot metallurgy processing.