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Sample records for air stripping technology

  1. APPLICATIONS ANALYSIS REPORT: TOXIC TREATMENTS, IN-SITU STEAM/HOT-AIR STRIPPING TECHNOLOGY

    EPA Science Inventory

    This document is an evaluation of the performance of the Toxic Treatments (USA), Inc., (TTUSA) in situ steam/hot-air stripping technology and its applicability as an on-site treatment technique for hazardous waste site soil cleanup of volatile and semivolatile contaminants. Both ...

  2. ENGINEERING BULLETIN: AIR STRIPPING OF AQUEOUS SOLUTIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Air striding is a means to transfer contaminants from aqueous solutions to air. ontaminants are not destroyed by air stripping but are physically separated from the aqueous solutions. ontaminant vapors are transferred into the air stream and, if necessary, can be treated by incin...

  3. Wide Strip Casting Technology of Magnesium Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, W.-J.; Kim, J. J.; Kim, I. J.; Choo, D.

    Extensive investigations relating to the production of high performance and low cost magnesium sheet by strip casting have been performed for the application to automotive parts and electronic devices. Research on magnesium sheet production technology started in 2004 by Research Institute of Industrial Science and Technology (RIST) with support of Pohang Iron and Steel Company (POSCO). POSCO has completed the world's first plant to manufacture magnesium coil. Another big project in order to develop wide strip casting technology for the automotive applications of magnesium sheets was started in succession.

  4. Feasibility and energetic evaluation of air stripping for bioethanol production.

    PubMed

    Schläfle, Sandra; Senn, Thomas; Gschwind, Peter; Kohlus, Reinhard

    2017-05-01

    Stripping of mashes with air as stripping gas and low ethanol contents between 3 and 5wt% was investigated in terms of its suitability for continuous bioethanol production. Experiments in a Blenke cascade system were carried out and the results were compared with values obtained from theoretical vapour-liquid-equilibrium calculations. The whole stripping process was energetically evaluated by a simulation in ChemCAD and compared to conventional distillation. Therefore several parameters such as temperature, air volume flow and initial ethanol load of the mash were varied. Air stripping was found to be a suitable separation method for bioethanol from mashes with low concentrations. However, energetic aspects have to be considered, when developing a new process. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Distillation and Air Stripping Designs for the Lunar Surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boul, Peter J.; Lange, Kevin E.; Conger, Bruce; Anderson, Molly

    2009-01-01

    Air stripping and distillation are two different gravity-based methods, which may be applied to the purification of wastewater on the lunar base. These gravity-based solutions to water processing are robust physical separation techniques, which may be advantageous to many other techniques for their simplicity in design and operation. The two techniques can be used in conjunction with each other to obtain high purity water. The components and feed compositions for modeling waste water streams are presented in conjunction with the Aspen property system for traditional stage distillation models and air stripping models. While the individual components for each of the waste streams will vary naturally within certain bounds, an analog model for waste water processing is suggested based on typical concentration ranges for these components. Target purity levels for the for recycled water are determined for each individual component based on NASA s required maximum contaminant levels for potable water Distillation processes are modeled separately and in tandem with air stripping to demonstrate the potential effectiveness and utility of these methods in recycling wastewater on the Moon. Optimum parameters such as reflux ratio, feed stage location, and processing rates are determined with respect to the power consumption of the process. Multistage distillation is evaluated for components in wastewater to determine the minimum number of stages necessary for each of 65 components in humidity condensate and urine wastewater mixed streams. Components of the wastewater streams are ranked by Henry s Law Constant and the suitability of air stripping in the purification of wastewater in terms of component removal is evaluated. Scaling factors for distillation and air stripping columns are presented to account for the difference in the lunar gravitation environment. Commercially available distillation and air stripping units which are considered suitable for Exploration Life Support

  6. REMEDIATION OF MTBE FROM DRINKING WATER: AIR STRIPPING FOLLOWED BY OFF-GAS ADSORPTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The widespread use of methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) as an oxygenate in gasoline has resulted in the contamination of a large number of ground and surface water sources. Even though air stripping has been proven to be an effective treatment technology for MTBE removal, off-ga...

  7. DEMONSTRATION BULLETIN: IN-SITU STEAM/HOT AIR SOIL STRIPPING TOXIC TREATMENT (USA) INC.

    EPA Science Inventory

    This technology uses steam and hot air to strip volatile organics from contaminated soil. The treatment equipment is mobile and treats the soil in-situ without need for soil excavation or transportation. The organic contaminants volatilized from the soil are condensed and col...

  8. Ammonia removal from landfill leachate by air stripping and absorption.

    PubMed

    Ferraz, Fernanda M; Povinelli, Jurandyr; Vieira, Eny Maria

    2013-01-01

    An old landfill leachate was pre-treated in a pilot-scale aerated packed tower operated in batch mode for total ammoniacal nitrogen (TAN) removal. The stripped ammonia was recovered with a 0.4 mol L(-1) H2SO4 solution, deionized water and tap water. Ca(OH)2 (95% purity) or commercial hydrated lime was added to the raw leachate to adjust its pH to 11, causing removal of colour (82%) and heavy metals (70-90% for Zn, Fe and Mn). The 0.4 molL(-1) H2SO4 solution was able to neutralize 80% of the stripped ammonia removed from 12 L of leachate. The effectiveness of the neutralization of ammonia with deionized water was 75%. Treating 100 L of leachate, the air stripping tower removed 88% of TAN after 72 h of aeration, and 87% of the stripped ammonia was recovered in two 31 L pilot-scale absorption units filled with 20 L of tap water.

  9. Clean Air Technology Center

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Clean Air Technology Center provides resources for emerging and existing air pollution prevention and control technologies and provides public access to data and information on their use, effectiveness and cost.

  10. INTEGRATION OF PHOTOCATALYTIC OXIDATION WITH AIR STRIPPING OF CONTAMINATED AQUIFERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Bench scale laboratory studies and pilot scale studies in a simulated field-test situation were performed to evaluate the integration of gas-solid ultaviolet (UV) photocatalytic oxidation (PCO) downstream if an air stripper unit as a technology for cost-effectively treating water...

  11. Comparison of Descemet stripping under continuous air flow, manual air injection and balanced salt solution for DMEK: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Gabbay, I E; Bahar, I; Nahum, Y; Livny, E

    2017-08-01

    Descemet's membrane endothelial keratoplasty (DMEK) involves removal of the recipient's Descemet membrane (DM) prior to transplanting the donor's DM. When using balanced salt solution (BSS) or ophthalmic viscosurgical devices (OVDs), visualization of the host's DM during its stripping may be inadequate and may result in Descemet remnants and could lead to sub-optimal surgical results. Previous articles described excellent visualization when utilizing air injection but this requires repeated air injection into the anterior chamber (AC). We present a pilot study that compares different techniques under which DM stripping can be performed: with continuous automated air infusion, with manual air infusion, and with BSS. We retrospectively compared video footage of DM stripping with BSS, with continuous air and with manual injection of air into the AC to determine DM stripping duration and the number of times the surgeon had to insert and retrieve a surgical instrument from the AC. Thirty videos of 10 consecutive cases of the three DM stripping techniques were evaluated. DM stripping duration was 3.26 (±1.32), 3.92 (±1.2) and 12.9 (±3.98) minutes for BSS, continuous air flow, and manual air injection, respectively. Frequency of instrument retrieval (FIR) was 3.6 (±1.71), 1.5 (±0.71) and 15.1 (±3.28) for BSS, continuous air flow, and manual air injection, respectively. Continuous air flow and BSS were both statistically different than manual air injection into the AC (p < 0.05), but did not differ from one another statistically. DM stripping during posterior lamellar surgery is imperative for favorable post-operative results and prevention of complications. Performing this step under air in the AC contributes to better visualization and an efficient surgery.

  12. Air Stripping Designs and Reactive Water Purification Processes for the Lunar Surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boul, Peter J.; Lange, Kevin; Conger, Bruce; Anderson, Molly

    2010-01-01

    Air stripping designs are considered to reduce the presence of volatile organic compounds in the purified water. Components of the wastewater streams are ranked by Henry's Law Constant and the suitability of air stripping in the purification of wastewater in terms of component removal is evaluated. Distillation processes are modeled in tandem with air stripping to demonstrate the potential effectiveness and utility of these methods in recycling wastewater on the Moon. Scaling factors for distillation and air stripping columns are presented to account for the difference in the lunar gravitation environment. Commercially available distillation and air stripping units which are considered suitable for Exploration Life Support are presented. The advantages to the various designs are summarized with respect to water purity levels, power consumption, and processing rates. An evaluation of reactive distillation and air stripping is presented with regards to the reduction of volatile organic compounds in the contaminated water and air. Among the methods presented, an architecture is presented for the evaluation of the simultaneous oxidation of organics in air and water. These and other designs are presented in light of potential improvements in power consumptions and air and water purities for architectures which include catalytic activity integrated into the water processor. In particular, catalytic oxidation of organics may be useful as a tool to remove contaminants that more traditional distillation and/or air stripping columns may not remove. A review of the current leading edge at the commercial level and at the research frontier in catalytically active materials is presented. Themes and directions from the engineering developments in catalyst design are presented conceptually in light of developments in the nanoscale chemistry of a variety of catalyst materials.

  13. AIR POLLUTION CONTROL TECHNOLOGIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    This is a chapter for John Wiley & Son's Mechanical Engineers' Handbook, and covers issues involving air pollution control. Various technologies for controlling sulfur oxides is considered including fuel desulfurization. It also considers control of nitrogen oxides including post...

  14. The role of flight progress strips in en route air traffic control : a time-series analysis.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1995-01-01

    Paper flight progress strips (FPSs) are currently used in the United States en route air traffic control system to document flight information. Impending automation will replace these paper strips with electronic flight data entries. In this observat...

  15. Air Cleaning Technologies

    PubMed Central

    2005-01-01

    Executive Summary Objective This health technology policy assessment will answer the following questions: When should in-room air cleaners be used? How effective are in-room air cleaners? Are in-room air cleaners that use combined HEPA and UVGI air cleaning technology more effective than those that use HEPA filtration alone? What is the Plasmacluster ion air purifier in the pandemic influenza preparation plan? The experience of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) locally, nationally, and internationally underscored the importance of administrative, environmental, and personal protective infection control measures in health care facilities. In the aftermath of the SARS crisis, there was a need for a clearer understanding of Ontario’s capacity to manage suspected or confirmed cases of airborne infectious diseases. In so doing, the Walker Commission thought that more attention should be paid to the potential use of new technologies such as in-room air cleaning units. It recommended that the Medical Advisory Secretariat of the Ontario Ministry of Health and Long-Term Care evaluate the appropriate use and effectiveness of such new technologies. Accordingly, the Ontario Health Technology Advisory Committee asked the Medical Advisory Secretariat to review the literature on the effectiveness and utility of in-room air cleaners that use high-efficiency particle air (HEPA) filters and ultraviolet germicidal irradiation (UVGI) air cleaning technology. Additionally, the Ontario Health Technology Advisory Committee prioritized a request from the ministry’s Emergency Management Unit to investigate the possible role of the Plasmacluster ion air purifier manufactured by Sharp Electronics Corporation, in the pandemic influenza preparation plan. Clinical Need Airborne transmission of infectious diseases depends in part on the concentration of breathable infectious pathogens (germs) in room air. Infection control is achieved by a combination of administrative, engineering

  16. Hydrophilic strips for preventing air bubble formation in a microfluidic chamber.

    PubMed

    Choi, Munseok; Na, Yang; Kim, Sung-Jin

    2015-12-01

    In a microfluidic chamber, unwanted formation of air bubbles is a critical problem. Here, we present a hydrophilic strip array that prevents air bubble formation in a microfluidic chamber. The array is located on the top surface of the chamber, which has a large variation in width, and consists of a repeated arrangement of super- and moderately hydrophilic strips. This repeated arrangement allows a flat meniscus (i.e. liquid front) to form when various solutions consisting of a single stream or two parallel streams with different hydrophilicities move through the chamber. The flat meniscus produced by the array completely prevents the formation of bubbles. Without the array in the chamber, the meniscus shape is highly convex, and bubbles frequently form in the chamber. This hydrophilic strip array will facilitate the use of a microfluidic chamber with a large variation in width for various microfluidic applications. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Clean Air Technology Center Products

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Clean Air Technology Center provides resources for emerging and existing air pollution prevention and control technologies and provides public access to data and information on their use, effectiveness and cost.

  18. En route air traffic controllers' use of flight progress strips : a graph-theoretic analysis.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1992-11-01

    In the United States, flight data are represented on a paper Flight Progress Strip (FPS). The role of the FPS has recently attracted attention because of plans to automate this aspect of air traffic control. The communication activities and FPS activ...

  19. Reduced posting and marking of flight progress strips for en route air traffic control : final report.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2000-02-01

    The new Display System Replacement (DSR) being implemented in air route traffic control centers (ARTCCs) will allow the data-side controller less room to post Flight Progress Strips (FPSs). We tested a new FPS marking and posting procedure designed t...

  20. AIS/DOE Technology Roadmap Program: Strip Casting: Anticipating New Routes To Steel Sheet

    SciTech Connect

    Prof. Alan W. Camb; Prof. Anthony Rollett

    2001-08-31

    To determine the potential for strip casting in the steel industry and to develop the fundamental knowledge necessary to allow the role of strip casting in the modern steel industry to be understood. Based upon a study of carbon steel strip castings that were either produced for the program at British Steel or were received from a pre-commercial production machine, the following conclusions were made. Strip casting of carbon steels is technically feasible for sheet material from slightly less than 1 mm thick to 3 mm thick, and, assuming that it is economically viable, it will be first applied inmore » carbon steel markets that do not require stringent surface quality or extensive forming. The potential of strip casting as a casting process to be developed for steel castings is very high as the cast strip has some very novel characteristics. Direct cast carbon strip has better surface quality, shape and profile than any other casting process currently available. The more rapidly solidified structure of direct cast strip tends to be strong with low ductility; however, with adequate thermal treatment, it is possible to develop a variety of properties from the same grade. The process is more amenable at this time to production tonnages per year of the order of 500,000 tons and as such will first find niche type applications. This technology is an additional technology for steel production and will be in addition to, rather than a replacement for, current casting machines.« less

  1. Post-test evaluation of the geology, geochemistry, microbiology, and hydrology of the in situ air stripping demonstration site at the Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect

    Eddy Dilek, C.A.; Looney, B.B.; Hazen, T.C.

    A full-scale demonstration of the use of horizontal wells for in situ air stripping for environment restoration was completed as part of the Savannah River Integrated Demonstration Program. The demonstration of in situ air stripping was the first in a series of demonstrations of innovative remediation technologies for the cleanup of sites contaminated with volatile organic contaminants. The in situ air stripping system consisted of two directionally drilled wells that delivered gases to and extract contamination from the subsurface. The demonstration was designed to remediate soils and sediments in the unsaturated and saturated zones as well as groundwater contaminated withmore » volatile organic compounds. The demonstration successfully removed significant quantities of solvent from the subsurface. The field site and horizontal wells were subsequently used for an in situ bioremediation demonstration during which methane was added to the injected air. The field conditions documented herein represent the baseline status of the site for evaluating the in situ bioremediation as well as the post-test conditions for the in situ air stripping demonstration. Characterization activities focused on documenting the nature and distribution of contamination in the subsurface. The post-test characterization activities discussed herein include results from the analysis of sediment samples, three-dimensional images of the pretest and post-test data, contaminant inventories estimated from pretest and post-test models, a detailed lithologic cross sections of the site, results of aquifer testing, and measurements of geotechnical parameters of undisturbed core sediments.« less

  2. Evaporation and air-stripping to assess and reduce ethanolamines toxicity in oily wastewater.

    PubMed

    Libralato, G; Ghirardini, A Volpi; Avezzù, F

    2008-05-30

    Toxicity from industrial oily wastewater remains a problem even after conventional activated sludge treatment process, because of the persistence of some toxicant compounds. This work verified the removal efficiency of organic and inorganic pollutants and the effects of evaporation and air-stripping techniques on oily wastewater toxicity reduction. In a lab-scale plant, a vacuum evaporation procedure at three different temperatures and an air-stripping stage were tested on oily wastewater. Toxicity reduction/removal was observed at each treatment step via Microtox bioassay. A case study monitoring real scale evaporation was also done in a full-size wastewater treatment plant (WWTP). To implement part of a general project of toxicity reduction evaluation, additional investigations took into account the monoethanolamine (MEA), diethanolamine (DEA) and triethanolamine (TEA) role in toxicity definition after the evaporation phase, both as pure substances and mixtures. Only MEA and TEA appeared to contribute towards effluent toxicity.

  3. [Air stripping-UASB process for the treatment of evaporator condensate from a Kraft pulp mill].

    PubMed

    Zhou, Wei-li; Qin, Xiao-peng; Yu, Jun; Imai, Tsuyoshi; Ukita, Masao

    2006-04-01

    Evaporator condensate from a kraft pulp mill is characterized by high temperature, high strength, poor nutrition, and some odor and inhibitive materials. In this study, air stripping-UASB process was developed to treat the wastewater from a kraft pulp mill. The lab scale study demonstrated that air stripping process removed 70%-80% of the volatile organic sulfur compounds. After that, the UASB reactor showed high efficiency, at the organic loading rate (COD) of 30 kg x (m3 x d)(-1), COD removal was retained about 95%. On the other hand, the inoculated granules were broken in the new surroundings and were replaced with the newly formed granules The scanning electronic microscope (SEM) observation showed wide difference of the predominant anaerobic microorganisms in the seed and newly formed granules.

  4. Reactive Distillation and Air Stripping Processes for Water Recycling and Trace Contaminant Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boul, Peter J.; Lange, Kevin E.; Conger, Bruce; Anderson, Molly

    2009-01-01

    Reactive distillation designs are considered to reduce the presence of volatile organic compounds in the purified water. Reactive distillation integrates a reactor with a distillation column. A review of the literature in this field has revealed a variety of functional reactive columns in industry. Wastewater may be purified by a combination of a reactor and a distiller (e.g., the EWRS or VPCAR concepts) or, in principle, through a design which integrates the reactor with the distiller. A review of the literature in reactive distillation has identified some different designs in such combinations of reactor and distiller. An evaluation of reactive distillation and reactive air stripping is presented with regards to the reduction of volatile organic compounds in the contaminated water and air. Among the methods presented, an architecture is presented for the evaluation of the simultaneous oxidation of organics in air and water. These and other designs are presented in light of potential improvements in power consumptions and air and water purities for architectures which include catalytic activity integrated into the water processor. In particular, catalytic oxidation of organics may be useful as a tool to remove contaminants that more traditional distillation and/or air stripping columns may not remove. A review of the current leading edge at the commercial level and at the research frontier in catalytically active materials is presented. Themes and directions from the engineering developments in catalyst design are presented conceptually in light of developments in the nanoscale chemistry of a variety of catalyst materials.

  5. Air transportation noise technology overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maggin, B.; Chestnutt, D.

    1973-01-01

    The NASA and DOT technology program planning for quieter air transportation systems is reviewed. To put this planning in context, the nature of the noise problem and the projected nature of the air transportation fleet are identified. The technology program planning reviewed here is discussed in relation to the following areas of activity: systems analysis, community acceptance, basic research and technology, and the various classes of civil aircraft, i.e. existing and advanced transports, powered-lift transports, and general aviation.

  6. Advanced Air Bag Technology Assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phen, R. L.; Dowdy, M. W.; Ebbeler, D. H.; Kim. E.-H.; Moore, N. R.; VanZandt, T. R.

    1998-01-01

    As a result of the concern for the growing number of air-bag-induced injuries and fatalities, the administrators of the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) agreed to a cooperative effort that "leverages NHTSA's expertise in motor vehicle safety restraint systems and biomechanics with NASAs position as one of the leaders in advanced technology development... to enable the state of air bag safety technology to advance at a faster pace..." They signed a NASA/NHTSA memorandum of understanding for NASA to "evaluate air bag to assess advanced air bag performance, establish the technological potential for improved technology (smart) air bag systems, and identify key expertise and technology within the agency (i.e., NASA) that can potentially contribute significantly to the improved effectiveness of air bags." NASA is committed to contributing to NHTSAs effort to: (1) understand and define critical parameters affecting air bag performance; (2) systematically assess air bag technology state of the art and its future potential; and (3) identify new concepts for air bag systems. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) was selected by NASA to respond to the memorandum of understanding by conducting an advanced air bag technology assessment. JPL analyzed the nature of the need for occupant restraint, how air bags operate alone and with safety belts to provide restraint, and the potential hazards introduced by the technology. This analysis yielded a set of critical parameters for restraint systems. The researchers examined data on the performance of current air bag technology, and searched for and assessed how new technologies could reduce the hazards introduced by air bags while providing the restraint protection that is their primary purpose. The critical parameters which were derived are: (1) the crash severity; (2) the use of seat belts; (3) the physical characteristics of the occupants; (4) the

  7. Hydrocarbon removal from bilgewater by a combination of air-stripping and photocatalysis.

    PubMed

    Cazoir, D; Fine, L; Ferronato, C; Chovelon, J-M

    2012-10-15

    In order to prevent hydrocarbon discharge at sea from the bilge of ships, the International Maritime Organization (IMO) enacted the MARPOL 73/78 convention in which effluents are now limited to those with maximum oil content of 15 ppmv. Thus, photocatalysis and air-stripping were combined for the hydrocarbon removal from a real oily bilgewater sample and an original monitoring of both aqueous and gaseous phases was performed by GC/MS to better understand the process. Our results show that the hydrocarbon oil index [HC] can be reduced to its maximum permissible value of 15 ppmv (MARPOL) in only 8.5h when photocatalysis and air-stripping are used together in a synergistic way, as against 17 h when photocatalysis is used alone. However, this air-assisted photocatalytic process emits a large quantity of volatile organic compounds (VOC) and, within the first four hours, ca. 10% of the hydrocarbon removal in the aqueous phase is actually just transferred into the gaseous one. Finally, we highlight that the n-alkanes with a number of carbon atoms higher than 15 (N(C)>15) are those which most decrease the rate of [HC] removal. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Secondary angle closure caused by air migrating behind the pupil in descemet stripping endothelial keratoplasty.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jung S; Desai, Neel R; Schmidt, Gregory W; Jun, Albert S; Schein, Oliver D; Stark, Walter J; Eghrari, Allen O; Gottsch, John D

    2009-07-01

    To report secondary angle closure caused by air migrating behind the pupil in the context of intraocular pressure (IOP) elevation in the early postoperative period after Descemet stripping endothelial keratoplasty (DSEK). A retrospective case series was conducted on 100 consecutive DSEK cases from 90 patients undergoing DSEK because of corneal disease from Fuchs corneal dystrophy, pseudophakic bullous keratopathy, aphakic bullous keratopathy, and iridocorneal endothelial syndrome. Preoperative and postoperative slit-lamp examinations and IOP measurements were ascertained for all 100 eyes. Main outcome measures included preoperative and postoperative IOP. Thirteen of 100 eyes developed an IOP rise of greater than 30 mm Hg on the first postoperative day. Six of these 13 patients developed angle closure from air migrating posterior to the iris and causing iridocorneal adhesions. One of these 13 patients developed pupillary block from air anterior to iris. Six of 13 patients developed increased IOP without pupillary block or iridocorneal adhesions and had a history of preexisting primary or secondary glaucoma. A secondary angle closure associated with DSEK is reported with air migrating behind the iris, resulting in extensive iridocorneal adhesions. An acute increase in IOP after DSEK can also be induced by air anterior to the iris causing pupillary block. IOP spikes are much more common in the first few postoperative days after DSEK. Medical treatment can occasionally resolve air posterior to the iris, but if iridocorneal adhesions are extensive and persistent, air removal and angle reformation may be necessary.

  9. Investigation of HV/HR-CMOS technology for the ATLAS Phase-II Strip Tracker Upgrade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fadeyev, V.; Galloway, Z.; Grabas, H.; Grillo, A. A.; Liang, Z.; Martinez-Mckinney, F.; Seiden, A.; Volk, J.; Affolder, A.; Buckland, M.; Meng, L.; Arndt, K.; Bortoletto, D.; Huffman, T.; John, J.; McMahon, S.; Nickerson, R.; Phillips, P.; Plackett, R.; Shipsey, I.; Vigani, L.; Bates, R.; Blue, A.; Buttar, C.; Kanisauskas, K.; Maneuski, D.; Benoit, M.; Di Bello, F.; Caragiulo, P.; Dragone, A.; Grenier, P.; Kenney, C.; Rubbo, F.; Segal, J.; Su, D.; Tamma, C.; Das, D.; Dopke, J.; Turchetta, R.; Wilson, F.; Worm, S.; Ehrler, F.; Peric, I.; Gregor, I. M.; Stanitzki, M.; Hoeferkamp, M.; Seidel, S.; Hommels, L. B. A.; Kramberger, G.; Mandić, I.; Mikuž, M.; Muenstermann, D.; Wang, R.; Zhang, J.; Warren, M.; Song, W.; Xiu, Q.; Zhu, H.

    2016-09-01

    ATLAS has formed strip CMOS project to study the use of CMOS MAPS devices as silicon strip sensors for the Phase-II Strip Tracker Upgrade. This choice of sensors promises several advantages over the conventional baseline design, such as better resolution, less material in the tracking volume, and faster construction speed. At the same time, many design features of the sensors are driven by the requirement of minimizing the impact on the rest of the detector. Hence the target devices feature long pixels which are grouped to form a virtual strip with binary-encoded z position. The key performance aspects are radiation hardness compatibility with HL-LHC environment, as well as extraction of the full hit position with full-reticle readout architecture. To date, several test chips have been submitted using two different CMOS technologies. The AMS 350 nm is a high voltage CMOS process (HV-CMOS), that features the sensor bias of up to 120 V. The TowerJazz 180 nm high resistivity CMOS process (HR-CMOS) uses a high resistivity epitaxial layer to provide the depletion region on top of the substrate. We have evaluated passive pixel performance, and charge collection projections. The results strongly support the radiation tolerance of these devices to radiation dose of the HL-LHC in the strip tracker region. We also describe design features for the next chip submission that are motivated by our technology evaluation.

  10. Final Environmental Assessment for the Skid Strip Area Development Plan at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station Florida

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-07-01

    including suggestions for reducing this burden, to Washington Headquarters Services, Directorate for Information Operations and Reports, 1215...Canaveral Air Force Station (CCAFS) Skid Strip. Since the facility no longer operates as a missile skid strip, it is referred to as the "Airfield...construction of a new 65 foot tall control tower; construction of a new Airfield Manager (AM) Operations Building that would adjoin the new tower; and

  11. Significant and stable drag reduction with air rings confined by alternated superhydrophobic and hydrophilic strips

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Haibao; Wen, Jun; Bao, Luyao; Jia, Laibing; Song, Dong; Song, Baowei; Pan, Guang; Scaraggi, Michele; Dini, Daniele; Xue, Qunji; Zhou, Feng

    2017-01-01

    Superhydrophobic surfaces have the potential to reduce the viscous drag of liquids by significantly decreasing friction at a solid-liquid interface due to the formation of air layers between solid walls and interacting liquids. However, the trapped air usually becomes unstable due to the finite nature of the domain over which it forms. We demonstrate for the first time that a large surface energy barrier can be formed to strongly pin the three-phase contact line of air/water/solid by covering the inner rotor of a Taylor-Couette flow apparatus with alternating superhydrophobic and hydrophilic circumferential strips. This prevents the disruption of the air layer, which forms stable and continuous air rings. The drag reduction measured at the inner rotor could be as much as 77.2%. Moreover, the air layers not only significantly reduce the strength of Taylor vortexes but also influence the number and position of the Taylor vortex pairs. This has strong implications in terms of energy efficiency maximization for marine applications and reduction of drag losses in, for example, fluid transport in pipelines and carriers. PMID:28879234

  12. Stomatal Opening in Isolated Epidermal Strips of Vicia faba. I. Response to Light and to CO2-free Air 1

    PubMed Central

    Fischer, R. A.

    1968-01-01

    This paper reports a consistent and large opening response to light + CO2-free air in living stomata of isolated epidermal strips of Vicia faba. The response was compared to that of non-isolated stomata in leaf discs floating on water; stomatal apertures, guard cell solute potentials and starch contents were similar in the 2 situations. To obtain such stomatal behavior, it was necessary to float epidermal strips on dilute KCl solutions. This suggests that solute uptake is necessary for stomatal opening. The demonstration of normal stomatal behavior in isolated epidermal strips provides a very useful system in which to investigate the mechanism of stomatal opening. It was possible to show independent responses in stomatal aperture to light and to CO2-free air. PMID:16656995

  13. Next Generation Air Measurement Technologies Fact Sheet

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA is advancing lower cost and portable air measurement technology to enhance monitoring capabilities for complying with the National Ambient Air Quality Standards. The technology is providing mobile and stationary real-time measurement capabilities.

  14. About the Clean Air Technology Center

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Clean Air Technology Center provides resources for emerging and existing air pollution prevention and control technologies and provides public access to data and information on their use, effectiveness and cost.

  15. Characterization of the geology, geochemistry, hydrology and microbiology of the in-situ air stripping demonstration site at the Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect

    Eddy, C.A.; Looney, B.B.; Dougherty, J.M.

    1991-05-01

    The Savannah River Site is the location of an Integrated Demonstration Project designed to evaluate innovative remediation technologies for environmental restoration at sites contaminated with volatile organic contaminants. This demonstration utilizes directionally drilled horizontal wells to deliver gases and extract contaminants from the subsurface. Phase I of the Integrated Demonstration focused on the application and development of in-situ air stripping technologies to remediate soils and sediments above and below the water table as well as groundwater contaminated with volatile organic contaminants. The objective of this report is to provide baseline information on the geology, geochemistry, hydrology, and microbiology of themore » demonstration site prior to the test. The distribution of contaminants in soils and sediments in the saturated zone and groundwater is emphasized. These data will be combined with data collected after the demonstration in order to evaluate the effectiveness of in-situ air stripping. New technologies for environmental characterization that were evaluated include depth discrete groundwater sampling (HydroPunch) and three-dimensional modeling of contaminant data.« less

  16. Application of ultrasound and air stripping for the removal of aromatic hydrocarbons from spent sulfidic caustic for use in autotrophic denitrification as an electron donor.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jae-Ho; Park, Jeung-Jin; Choi, Gi-Choong; Byun, Im-Gyu; Park, Tae-Joo; Lee, Tae-Ho

    2013-01-01

    Spent sulfidic caustic (SSC) produced from petroleum industry can be reused to denitrify nitrate-nitrogen via a biological nitrogen removal process as an electron donor for sulfur-based autotrophic denitrification, because it has a large amount of dissolved sulfur. However, SSC has to be refined because it also contains some aromatic hydrocarbons, typically benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylene (BTEX) and phenol that are recalcitrant organic compounds. In this study, laboratory-scale ultrasound irradiation and air stripping treatment were applied in order to remove these aromatic hydrocarbons. In the ultrasound system, both BTEX and phenol were exponentially removed by ultrasound irradiation during 60 min of reaction time to give the greatest removal efficiency of about 80%. Whereas, about 95% removal efficiency of BTEX was achieved, but not any significant phenol removal, within 30 min in the air stripping system, indicating that air stripping was a more efficient method than ultrasound irradiation. However, since air stripping did not remove any significant phenol, an additional process for degrading phenol was required. Accordingly, we applied a combined ultrasound and air stripping process. In these experiments, the removal efficiencies of BTEX and phenol were improved compared to the application of ultrasound and air stripping alone. Thus, the combined ultrasound and air stripping treatment is appropriate for refining SSC.

  17. Optimization of the integrated citric acid-methane fermentation process by air stripping and glucoamylase addition.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jian; Chen, Yang-Qiu; Zhang, Hong-Jian; Wang, Ke; Tang, Lei; Zhang, Jian-Hua; Chen, Xu-Sheng; Mao, Zhong-Gui

    2015-03-01

    To solve the problem of extraction wastewater in citric acid industry, an integrated citric acid-methane fermentation process was proposed. In the integrated process, extraction wastewater was treated by mesophilic anaerobic digestion and then reused to make mash for the next batch of citric acid fermentation. In this study, an Aspergillus niger mutant strain exhibiting resistance to high metal ions concentration was used to eliminate the inhibition of 200 mg/L Na(+) and 300 mg/L K(+) in anaerobic digestion effluent (ADE) and citric acid production increased by 25.0 %. Air stripping was used to remove ammonium, alkalinity, and part of metal ions in ADE before making mash. In consequence, citric acid production was significantly improved but still lower by 6.1 % than the control. Results indicated that metal ions in ADE synergistically inhibited the activity of glucoamylase, thus reducing citric acid production. When 130 U/g glucoamylase was added before fermentation, citric acid production was 141.5 g/L, which was even higher than the control (140.4 g/L). This process could completely eliminate extraction wastewater discharge and reduce water resource consumption.

  18. NaI(Tl) scintillator detectors stripping procedure for air kerma measurements of diagnostic X-ray beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliveira, L. S. R.; Conti, C. C.; Amorim, A. S.; Balthar, M. C. V.

    2013-03-01

    Air kerma is an essential quantity for the calibration of national standards used in diagnostic radiology and the measurement of operating parameters used in radiation protection. Its measurement within the appropriate limits of accuracy, uncertainty and reproducibility is important for the characterization and control of the radiation field for the dosimetry of the patients submitted to diagnostic radiology and, also, for the assessment of the system which produces radiological images. Only the incident beam must be considered for the calculation of the air kerma. Therefore, for energy spectrum, counts apart the total energy deposition in the detector must be subtracted. It is necessary to establish a procedure to sort out the different contributions to the original spectrum and remove the counts representing scattered photons in the detector's materials, partial energy deposition due to the interactions in the detector active volume and, also, the escape peaks contributions. The main goal of this work is to present spectrum stripping procedure, using the MCNP Monte Carlo computer code, for NaI(Tl) scintillation detectors to calculate the air kerma due to an X-ray beam usually used in medical radiology. The comparison between the spectrum before stripping procedure against the reference value showed a discrepancy of more than 63%, while the comparison with the same spectrum after the stripping procedure showed a discrepancy of less than 0.2%.

  19. ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION FOR AIR POLLUTION CONTROL TECHNOLOGIES: FINAL REPORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The technical objective of the Environmental Technology Verification (ETV) Program's Air Pollution Control Technology (APCT) Center is to verify environmental technology performance by obtaining objective quality-assured data, thus providing potential purchasers and permitters wi...

  20. AIR POLLUTION CONTROL TECHNOLOGIES (CHAPTER 65)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The chapter discusses the use of technologies for reducing air pollution emissions from stationary sources, with emphasis on the control of combustion gen-erated air pollution. Major stationary sources include utility power boilers, industrial boilers and heaters, metal smelting ...

  1. Cold-Rolled Strip Steel Stress Detection Technology Based on a Magnetoresistance Sensor and the Magnetoelastic Effect.

    PubMed

    Guan, Ben; Zang, Yong; Han, Xiaohui; Zheng, Kailun

    2018-05-21

    Driven by the demands for contactless stress detection, technologies are being used for shape control when producing cold-rolled strips. This paper presents a novel contactless stress detection technology based on a magnetoresistance sensor and the magnetoelastic effect, enabling the detection of internal stress in manufactured cold-rolled strips. An experimental device was designed and produced. Characteristics of this detection technology were investigated through experiments assisted by theoretical analysis. Theoretically, a linear correlation exists between the internal stress of strip steel and the voltage output of a magneto-resistive sensor. Therefore, for this stress detection system, the sensitivity of the stress detection was adjusted by adjusting the supply voltage of the magnetoresistance sensor, detection distance, and other relevant parameters. The stress detection experimental results showed that this detection system has good repeatability and linearity. The detection error was controlled within 1.5%. Moreover, the intrinsic factors of the detected strip steel, including thickness, carbon percentage, and crystal orientation, also affected the sensitivity of the detection system. The detection technology proposed in this research enables online contactless detection and meets the requirements for cold-rolled steel strips.

  2. Cold-Rolled Strip Steel Stress Detection Technology Based on a Magnetoresistance Sensor and the Magnetoelastic Effect

    PubMed Central

    Guan, Ben; Zang, Yong; Han, Xiaohui; Zheng, Kailun

    2018-01-01

    Driven by the demands for contactless stress detection, technologies are being used for shape control when producing cold-rolled strips. This paper presents a novel contactless stress detection technology based on a magnetoresistance sensor and the magnetoelastic effect, enabling the detection of internal stress in manufactured cold-rolled strips. An experimental device was designed and produced. Characteristics of this detection technology were investigated through experiments assisted by theoretical analysis. Theoretically, a linear correlation exists between the internal stress of strip steel and the voltage output of a magneto-resistive sensor. Therefore, for this stress detection system, the sensitivity of the stress detection was adjusted by adjusting the supply voltage of the magnetoresistance sensor, detection distance, and other relevant parameters. The stress detection experimental results showed that this detection system has good repeatability and linearity. The detection error was controlled within 1.5%. Moreover, the intrinsic factors of the detected strip steel, including thickness, carbon percentage, and crystal orientation, also affected the sensitivity of the detection system. The detection technology proposed in this research enables online contactless detection and meets the requirements for cold-rolled steel strips. PMID:29883387

  3. Influence of Individual Experience and Flight Strips on Air Traffic Controller Memory/Situational Awareness

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-06-01

    Aircraft 21 3-4 Mean Proportion Correct: Last Command Issued 22 3-5 Mean Proportion Correct: Last Altitude Change Issued 23 LIST OF TABLES Table Page 2-1...record altitude changes on strips. The same pattern of results was obtained. Participants with lower video-game experience showed poorer memory for...altitude changes than did those with higher experience, particularly when note- writing was not allowed. Flight strips may have been helpful to the group

  4. Next-generation air measurement technologies | Science ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This is a presentation at a workshop in Chicago on emerging air monitoring technologies, hosted by a local nonprofit. The audience is composed of a mixture of technical backgrounds. This presentation will be part of an opening panel and the goal is to give an overview of the state of science on emerging air sensor technology. This is a presentation at a workshop in Chicago on emerging air monitoring technologies, hosted by a local nonprofit. The audience is composed of a mixture of technical backgrounds. This presentation will be part of an opening panel and the goal is to give an overview of the state of science on emerging air sensor technology.

  5. Numerical analysis of the in-well vapor-stripping system demonstration at Edwards Air Force Base

    SciTech Connect

    White, M.D.; Gilmore, T.J.

    1996-10-01

    Numerical simulations, with the Subsurface Transport Over Multiple Phases (STOMP) simulator, were applied to the field demonstration of an in-well vapor-stripping system at Edwards Air Force Base (AFB), near Mojave, California. The demonstration field site on the Edwards AFB was previously contaminated from traversing groundwater that was contained a varied composition of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), which primarily includes trichloroethylene (TCE). Contaminant TCE originated from surface basin that had been used to collect runoff during the cleaning of experimental rocket powered planes in the 1960s and 1970s. This report documents those simulations and associated numerical analyses. A companion report documentsmore » the in- well vapor-stripping demonstration from a field perspective.« less

  6. Disruptive Innovation in Air Measurement Technology: Reality ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This presentation is a big picture overview on the changing state of air measurement technology in the world, with a focus on the introduction of low-cost sensors into the market place. The presentation discusses how these new technologies may be a case study in disruptive innovation for the air pollution measurement field. The intended audience is primarily those with experience in air pollution measurement methods, but much of the talk is accessible to the general public. This is a keynote presentation on emerging air monitoring technology, to be provided at the AWMA measurements conference in March, 2016.

  7. ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION AND INDOOR AIR

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper discusses environmental technology verification and indoor air. RTI has responsibility for a pilot program for indoor air products as part of the U.S. EPA's Environmental Technology Verification (ETV) program. The program objective is to further the development of sel...

  8. Air Conditioning and Heating Technology--II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gattone, Felix

    Twenty-eight chapters and numerous drawings provide information for instructors and students of air conditioning and heating technology. Chapter 1 lists the occupational opportunities in the field. Chapter 2 covers the background or development of the industry of air conditioning and heating technology. Chapter 3 includes some of the principle…

  9. Revised Uniform Summary of Surface Weather Observations (RUSSWO) for Yucca Flat Air Strip, Mercury, Nevada. Parts A-F

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-09-28

    FREQUENCY OF WIND DIRECTION AND SPEED (FROM HOURLY OBSERVATIONS) 03133 YUCCA FLAT AIR STRIP NV 6-77 SEF STATION STATION KANE TSARS NONIN ALL WF&THEk 1200...92.8 92.8 929 92.# 92.2 92.! 92. 92*, 92.6T 9*81 93.,* ~ 9. 3 3 393.3. 93. 9393. 93.22 93 9 9393 93󈨡 93.2 93.21 93.4 93.5 W 94.9 95.09a 9590 9. 51 51

  10. Air-Coupled Ultrasonic Receivers with High Electromechanical Coupling PMN-32%PT Strip-Like Piezoelectric Elements

    PubMed Central

    Kazys, Rymantas J.; Sliteris, Reimondas; Sestoke, Justina

    2017-01-01

    For improvement of the efficiency of air-coupled ultrasonic transducers PMN-32%PT piezoelectric crystals which possess very high piezoelectric properties may be used. The electromechanical coupling factor of such crystals for all main vibration modes such as the thickness extension and transverse extension modes is more than 0.9. Operation of ultrasonic transducers with such piezoelectric elements in transmitting and receiving modes is rather different. Therefore, for transmission and reception of ultrasonic signals, separate piezoelectric elements with different dimensions must be used. The objective of this research was development of novel air-coupled ultrasonic receivers with PMN-32%PT strip-like piezoelectric elements vibrating in a transverse-extension mode with electromechanically controlled operation and suitable for applications in ultrasonic arrays. Performance of piezoelectric receivers made of the PMN-32%PT strip-like elements vibrating in this mode may be efficiently controlled by selecting geometry of the electrodes covering side surfaces of the piezoelectric element. It is equivalent to introduction of electromechanical damping which does not require any additional backing element. For this purpose; we have proposed the continuous electrodes to divide into two pairs of electrodes. The one pair is used to pick up the electric signal; another one is exploited for electromechanical damping. Two types of electrodes may be used—rectangular or non-rectangular—with a gap between them directed at some angle, usually 45°. The frequency bandwidth is wider (up to 9 kHz) in the case of non-rectangular electrodes. The strip-like acoustic matching element bonded to the tip of the PMN-32%PT crystal may significantly enhance the performance of the ultrasonic receiver. It was proposed to use for this purpose AIREX T10.110 rigid polymer foam, the acoustic impedance of which is close to the optimal value necessary for matching with air. It was found that in order

  11. Air-Coupled Ultrasonic Receivers with High Electromechanical Coupling PMN-32%PT Strip-Like Piezoelectric Elements.

    PubMed

    Kazys, Rymantas J; Sliteris, Reimondas; Sestoke, Justina

    2017-10-16

    For improvement of the efficiency of air-coupled ultrasonic transducers PMN-32%PT piezoelectric crystals which possess very high piezoelectric properties may be used. The electromechanical coupling factor of such crystals for all main vibration modes such as the thickness extension and transverse extension modes is more than 0.9. Operation of ultrasonic transducers with such piezoelectric elements in transmitting and receiving modes is rather different. Therefore, for transmission and reception of ultrasonic signals, separate piezoelectric elements with different dimensions must be used. The objective of this research was development of novel air-coupled ultrasonic receivers with PMN-32%PT strip-like piezoelectric elements vibrating in a transverse-extension mode with electromechanically controlled operation and suitable for applications in ultrasonic arrays. Performance of piezoelectric receivers made of the PMN-32%PT strip-like elements vibrating in this mode may be efficiently controlled by selecting geometry of the electrodes covering side surfaces of the piezoelectric element. It is equivalent to introduction of electromechanical damping which does not require any additional backing element. For this purpose; we have proposed the continuous electrodes to divide into two pairs of electrodes. The one pair is used to pick up the electric signal; another one is exploited for electromechanical damping. Two types of electrodes may be used-rectangular or non-rectangular-with a gap between them directed at some angle, usually 45°. The frequency bandwidth is wider (up to 9 kHz) in the case of non-rectangular electrodes. The strip-like acoustic matching element bonded to the tip of the PMN-32%PT crystal may significantly enhance the performance of the ultrasonic receiver. It was proposed to use for this purpose AIREX T10.110 rigid polymer foam, the acoustic impedance of which is close to the optimal value necessary for matching with air. It was found that in order to

  12. VERIFICATION TESTING OF TECHNOLOGIES TO CLEAN OR FILTER VENTILATION AIR

    EPA Science Inventory

    Because of the importance of indoor air quality, Research Triangle Institute's Air Pollution Control Technology is adding indoor air products as a new technology category available for testing. This paper discusses RTI's participation in previous Environmental Technology Verifica...

  13. ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION FOR INDOOR AIR PRODUCTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper discusses environmental technology verification (ETV) for indoor air products. RTI is developing the framework for a verification testing program for indoor air products, as part of EPA's ETV program. RTI is establishing test protocols for products that fit into three...

  14. A Tire Air Maintenance Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pierce, Alan

    2012-01-01

    Improperly inflated car tires can reduce gas mileage and car performance, speed up tire wear, and even cause a tire to blow out. The AAA auto club recommends that someone check the air pressure of one's car's tires at least once a month. Wouldn't it be nice, though, if someone came up with a tire pressure-monitoring system that automatically kept…

  15. Clean Air Technology Initiative Projects

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA Pacific Southwest has provided funding to both South Coast AQMD and San Joaquin Valley APCD to help spur early-stage, innovative technologies that need further testing and demonstration prior to deployment and commercialization.

  16. Cryogenic hydrogen-induced air liquefaction technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Escher, William J. D.

    1990-01-01

    Extensively utilizing a special advanced airbreathing propulsion archives database, as well as direct contacts with individuals who were active in the field in previous years, a technical assessment of cryogenic hydrogen-induced air liquefaction, as a prospective onboard aerospace vehicle process, was performed and documented. The resulting assessment report is summarized. Technical findings are presented relating the status of air liquefaction technology, both as a singular technical area, and also that of a cluster of collateral technical areas including: compact lightweight cryogenic heat exchangers; heat exchanger atmospheric constituents fouling alleviation; para/ortho hydrogen shift conversion catalysts; hydrogen turbine expanders, cryogenic air compressors and liquid air pumps; hydrogen recycling using slush hydrogen as heat sink; liquid hydrogen/liquid air rocket-type combustion devices; air collection and enrichment systems (ACES); and technically related engine concepts.

  17. Characterization of dissolved organic matter in landfill leachate during the combined treatment process of air stripping, Fenton, SBR and coagulation

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, ZhiPing, E-mail: liulqs@163.com; Faculty of Urban Construction and Environmental Engineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400020; Wu, WenHui

    Highlights: • DOM fractions spectra analysis during the whole treatment process. • Efficient method was achieved to remove organic matters in landfill leachate. • Molecular weight distribution and fractions were discussed. - Abstract: A combined treatment process of air stripping + Fenton + sequencing batch reactor (SBR)+ coagulation was performed to remove the pollutants in landfill leachate. Molecular weight (MW) distribution and fractions of dissolved organic matter (DOM) were discussed to study the characteristics. The experiment showed that the removal rate of chemical oxygen demand (COD), five day biological oxygen demand (BOD{sub 5}) and ammonia nitrogen (NH{sub 3}−N) by themore » combined process were 92.8%, 87.8% and 98.0%, respectively. Humic acid (HA) and fulvic acid (FA) were the main fractions in raw leachate with 81.8% of the total COD concentration, while hydrophilic organic matter (HyI) was the dominant fraction in the final effluent of the combined process with 63.5% of the total COD concentration. After the combined treatment process, the removal rate of DOM and fractions HA, FA, HyI were 91.9%, 97.1%, 95.8% and 71.7%, respectively. Organic matters of MW < 2 k and MW > 100 k were removed with 90.5% and 97.9% COD concentration after the treatment. The ultraviolet–visible spectra (UV–vis), Fourier transform infrared spectra (FTIR) and three-dimensional excitation-emission matrices spectra (EEMs) indicated that benzene materials and phenol compounds were preferentially removed in air stripping. High MW matters, aromatic rings, conjugated moieties and some functional groups were mainly removed by Fenton. While small MW fractions, carboxylic acids, alcohols and protein-like materials were preferentially biodegraded via SBR. Fulvic-like and humic-like materials were mainly destroyed via Fenton oxidation and coagulation.« less

  18. AIR STRIPPING AND OFF-GAS ADSORPTION FOR THE REMOVAL OF MTBE FROM DRINKING WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Methyl-tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) is a synthetic organic chemical, primarily used for oxgenating fuel. The 1990 Federal Clean Air Act Amendments mandated the use of fuel oxgenates in areas where air quality did not meet national standards, which led to widespread use of MTBE in...

  19. ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION FOR AIR POLLUTION CONTROL TECHNOLOGIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report describes the activities and progress of the pilot Air Pollution Control Technologies (APCT) portion of the Environmental Technology Verification (ETV) Program during the period from 09/15/97 to 09/15/02. The objective of the ETV Program is to verify the performance of...

  20. Simultaneous stripping recovery of ammonia-nitrogen and precipitation of manganese from electrolytic manganese residue by air under calcium oxide assist.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hongliang; Liu, Renlong; Shu, Jiancheng; Li, Wensheng

    2015-01-01

    Leaching tests of electrolytic manganese residue (EMR) indicated that high contents of soluble manganese and ammonia-nitrogen posed a high environmental risk. This work reports the results of simultaneous stripping recovery of ammonia-nitrogen and precipitation of manganese by air under calcium oxide assist. The ammonia-nitrogen stripping rate increased with the dosage of CaO, the air flow rate and the temperature of EMR slurry. Stripped ammonia-nitrogen was absorbed by a solution of sulfuric acid and formed soluble (NH4)2SO4 and (NH4)3H(SO4)3. The major parameters that effected soluble manganese precipitation were the dosage of added CaO and the slurry temperature. Considering these two aspects, the efficient operation conditions should be conducted with 8 wt.% added CaO, 60°C, 800 mL min(-1) air flow rate and 60-min reaction time. Under these conditions 99.99% of the soluble manganese was precipitated as Mn3O4, which was confirmed by XRD and SEM-EDS analyses. In addition, the stripping rate of ammonia-nitrogen was 99.73%. Leaching tests showed the leached toxic substances concentrations of the treated EMR met the integrated wastewater discharge standard of China (GB8978-1996).

  1. PROMOTING AIR QUALITY THROUGH ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper discusses the promotion of improved air quality through environmental technology verifications (ETVs). In 1995, the U.S. EPA's Office of Research and Development began the ETV Program in response to President Clinton's "Bridge to a Sustainable Future" and Vice Presiden...

  2. Next-generation air measurement technologies

    EPA Science Inventory

    This is a presentation at a workshop in Chicago on emerging air monitoring technologies, hosted by a local nonprofit. The audience is composed of a mixture of technical backgrounds. This presentation will be part of an opening panel and the goal is to give an overview of the st...

  3. Photocatalytic materials and technologies for air purification.

    PubMed

    Ren, Hangjuan; Koshy, Pramod; Chen, Wen-Fan; Qi, Shaohua; Sorrell, Charles Christopher

    2017-03-05

    Since there is increasing concern for the impact of air quality on human health, the present work surveys the materials and technologies for air purification using photocatalytic materials. The coverage includes (1) current photocatalytic materials for the decomposition of chemical contaminants and disinfection of pathogens present in air and (2) photocatalytic air purification systems that are used currently and under development. The present work focuses on five main themes. First, the mechanisms of photodegradation and photodisinfection are explained. Second, system designs for photocatalytic air purification are surveyed. Third, the photocatalytic materials used for air purification and their characteristics are considered, including both conventional and more recently developed photocatalysts. Fourth, the methods used to fabricate these materials are discussed. Fifth, the most significant coverage is devoted to materials design strategies aimed at improving the performance of photocatalysts for air purification. The review concludes with a brief consideration of promising future directions for materials research in photocatalysis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Green Propulsion Technologies for Advanced Air Transports

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Del Rosario, Ruben

    2015-01-01

    Air transportation is critical to U.S. and Global economic vitality. However, energy and climate issues challenge aviations ability to be sustainable in the long term. Aviation must dramatically reduce fuel use and related emissions. Energy costs to U.S. airlines nearly tripled between 1995 and 2011, and continue to be the highest percentage of operating costs. The NASA Advanced Air Transports Technology Project addresses the comprehensive challenge of enabling revolutionary energy efficiency improvements in subsonic transport aircraft combined with dramatic reductions in harmful emissions and perceived noise to facilitate sustained growth of the air transportation system. Advanced technologies and the development of unconventional aircraft systems offer the potential to achieve these improvements. The presentation will highlight the NASA vision of revolutionary systems and propulsion technologies needed to achieve these challenging goals. Specifically, the primary focus is on the N+3 generation; that is, vehicles that are three generations beyond the current state of the art, requiring mature technology solutions in the 2025-30 timeframe, which are envisioned as being powered by Hybrid Electric Propulsion Systems.

  5. Green Propulsion Technologies for Advanced Air Transports

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Del Rosario, Ruben

    2015-01-01

    Air transportation is critical to U.S. and Global economic vitality. However, energy and climate issues challenge aviation's ability to be sustainable in the long term. Aviation must dramatically reduce fuel use and related emissions. Energy costs to U.S. airlines nearly tripled between 1995 and 2011, and continue to be the highest percentage of operating costs. The NASA Advanced Air Transports Technology Project addresses the comprehensive challenge of enabling revolutionary energy efficiency improvements in subsonic transport aircraft combined with dramatic reductions in harmful emissions and perceived noise to facilitate sustained growth of the air transportation system. Advanced technologies and the development of unconventional aircraft systems offer the potential to achieve these improvements. The presentation will highlight the NASA vision of revolutionary systems and propulsion technologies needed to achieve these challenging goals. Specifically, the primary focus is on the N+3 generation; that is, vehicles that are three generations beyond the current state of the art, requiring mature technology solutions in the 2025-30 timeframe.

  6. Static voltage distribution between turns of secondary winding of air-core spiral strip transformer and its application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Hong-bo; Liu, Jin-liang; Cheng, Xin-bing; Zhang, Yu

    2011-09-01

    The static voltage distribution between winding turns has great impact on output characteristics and lifetime of the air-core spiral strip pulse transformer (ACSSPT). In this paper, winding inductance was calculated by electromagnetic theory, so that the static voltage distribution between turns of secondary winding of ACSSPT was analyzed conveniently. According to theoretical analysis, a voltage gradient because of the turn-to-turn capacitance was clearly noticeable across the ground turns. Simulation results of Pspice and CST EM Studio codes showed that the voltage distribution between turns of secondary winding had linear increments from the output turn to the ground turn. In experiment, the difference in increased voltage between the ground turns and the output turns of a 20-turns secondary winding is almost 50%, which is believed to be responsible for premature breakdown of the insulation, particularly between the ground turns. The experimental results demonstrated the theoretical analysis and simulation results, which had important value for stable and long lifetime ACSSPT design. A new ACSSPT with improved structure has been used successfully in intense electron beam accelerators steadily.

  7. ALTERNATIVE TECHNOLOGIES FOR REFRIGERATION AND AIR-CONDITIONING APPLICATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of an assessment of refrigeration technologies that are alternatives to vapor compression refrigeration for use in five application categories: domestic air conditioning, commercial air conditioning, mobile air conditioning, domestic refrigeration, and co...

  8. Position sensitive and energy dispersive x-ray detector based on silicon strip detector technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiącek, P.; Dąbrowski, W.; Fink, J.; Fiutowski, T.; Krane, H.-G.; Loyer, F.; Schwamberger, A.; Świentek, K.; Venanzi, C.

    2015-04-01

    A new position sensitive detector with a global energy resolution for the entire detector of about 380 eV FWHM for 8.04 keV line at ambient temperature is presented. The measured global energy resolution is defined by the energy spectra summed over all strips of the detector, and thus it includes electronic noise of the front-end electronics, charge sharing effects, matching of parameters across the channels and other system noise sources. The target energy resolution has been achieved by segmentation of the strips to reduce their capacitance and by careful optimization of the front-end electronics. The key design aspects and parameters of the detector are discussed briefly in the paper. Excellent noise and matching performance of the readout ASIC and negligible system noise allow us to operate the detector with a discrimination threshold as low as 1 keV and to measure fluorescence radiation lines of light elements, down to Al Kα of 1.49 keV, simultaneously with measurements of the diffraction patterns. The measurement results that demonstrate the spectrometric and count rate performance of the developed detector are presented and discussed in the paper.

  9. CATALYTIC OXIDATION OF GROUNDWATER STRIPPING EMISSIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper reviews the applicability of catalytic oxidation to control ground-water air stripping gaseous effluents, with special attention to system designs and case histories. The variety of contaminants and catalyst poisons encountered in stripping operations are also reviewed....

  10. Refrigeration and air-conditioning technology workshop

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, P. J.; Counce, D. M.

    1993-01-01

    The Alternative Fluorocarbon Environmental Acceptability Study (AFEAS), a consortium of fluorocarbon manufacturers, and the US Department of Energy (DOE) are collaborating on a project to evaluate the energy use and global warming impacts of CFC alternatives. The goal of this project is to identify technologies that could replace the use of CFCs in refrigeration, heating, and air-conditioning equipment; to evaluate the direct impacts of chemical emissions on global warming; and to compile accurate estimates of energy use and, indirect CO{sub 2} emissions of substitute technologies. The first phase of this work focused on alternatives that could be commercialized before themore » year 2000. The second phase of the project is examining not-in-kind and next-generation technologies that could be developed to replace CFCs, HCFCs, and HFCs over a longer period. As part of this effort, Oak Ridge National Laboratory held a workshop on June 23--25, 1993. The preliminary agenda covered a broad range of alternative technologies and at least one speaker was invited to make a brief presentation at the workshop on each technology. Some of the invited speakers were unable to participate, and in a few cases other experts could not be identified. As a result, those technologies were not represented at the workshop. Each speaker was asked to prepare a five to seven page paper addressing six key issues concerning the technology he/she is developing. These points are listed in the sidebar. Each expert also spoke for 20 to 25 minutes at the workshop and answered questions from the other participants concerning the presentation and area of expertise. The primary goal of the presentations and discussions was to identify the developmental state of the technology and to obtain comparable data on system efficiencies. Individual papers are indexed separately.« less

  11. An Air-Stripping Packed Bed Combined with a Biofilm-Type Biological Process for Treating BTEX and Total Petroleum Hydrocarbon Contaminated Groudwater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, U.; Park, S.; Lim, J.; Lee, W.; Kwon, S.; Kim, Y.

    2009-12-01

    In this study, we examined the removal efficiency of a volatile compound (e.g. toluene) and a less volatile compound [e.g. total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH)] using an air stripping packed bed combined with a biofilm-type biological process. We hypothesized that this system might be effective and economical to simultaneously remove both volatile and less volatile compounds. The gas-tight reactor has 5.9-inch-diameter and 48.8-inch-height. A spray nozzle was installed at the top cover to distribute the liquid evenly through reactor. The reactor was filled with polypropylene packing media for the increase of volatilization surface area and the growth of TPH degrading facultative aerobic bacteria on the surface of the packing media. In air stripping experiments, 45.6%, 71.7%, 72.0%, and 75.4% of toluene was removed at air injection rates of 0 L/min, 2.5 L/min, 4 L/min, and 6 L/min, respectively. Through the result, we confirmed that toluene removal efficiency increased by injecting higher amounts of air. TPH removal by stripping was minimal. To remove a less volatile TPH by commercial TPH degrading culture (BIO-ZYME B-52), 15-times diluted culture was circulated through the reactor for 2-3 days to build up a biofilm on the surface of packing media with 1 mg-soluble nitrogen source /L-water per 1 ppm of TPH. Experiments evaluating the degree of TPH biodegradation in this system are carrying out.

  12. An Integrated Safety Analysis Methodology for Emerging Air Transport Technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kostiuk, Peter F.; Adams, Milton B.; Allinger, Deborah F.; Rosch, Gene; Kuchar, James

    1998-01-01

    The continuing growth of air traffic will place demands on NASA's Air Traffic Management (ATM) system that cannot be accommodated without the creation of significant delays and economic impacts. To deal with this situation, work has begun to develop new approaches to providing a safe and economical air transportation infrastructure. Many of these emerging air transport technologies will represent radically new approaches to ATM, both for ground and air operations.

  13. PUBLICATIONS (AIR POLLUTION TECHNOLOGY BRANCH, AIR POLLUTION PREVENTION AND CONTROL DIVISION, NRMRL)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Air Pollution Technology Branch (APTB) of NRMRL's Air Pollution Prevention and Control Division produces and publishes highly specialized technical and scientific documents related to APTB's research. Areas of research covered include artificial intelligence, CFC destruction,...

  14. Technology Candidates for Air-to-Air and Air-to-Ground Data Exchange

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haynes, Brian D.

    2015-01-01

    Technology Candidates for Air-to-Air and Air-to-Ground Data Exchange is a two-year research effort to visualize the U. S. aviation industry at a point 50 years in the future, and to define potential communication solutions to meet those future data exchange needs. The research team, led by XCELAR, was tasked with identifying future National Airspace System (NAS) scenarios, determining requirements and functions (including gaps), investigating technical and business issues for air, ground, & air-to-ground interactions, and reporting on the results. The project was conducted under technical direction from NASA and in collaboration with XCELAR's partner, National Institute of Aerospace, and NASA technical representatives. Parallel efforts were initiated to define the information exchange functional needs of the future NAS, and specific communication link technologies to potentially serve those needs. Those efforts converged with the mapping of each identified future NAS function to potential enabling communication solutions; those solutions were then compared with, and ranked relative to, each other on a technical basis in a structured analysis process. The technical solutions emerging from that process were then assessed from a business case perspective to determine their viability from a real-world adoption and deployment standpoint. The results of that analysis produced a proposed set of future solutions and most promising candidate technologies. Gap analyses were conducted at two points in the process, the first examining technical factors, and the second as part of the business case analysis. In each case, no gaps or unmet needs were identified in applying the solutions evaluated to the requirements identified. The future communication solutions identified in the research comprise both specific link technologies and two enabling technologies that apply to most or all specific links. As a result, the research resulted in a new analysis approach, viewing the

  15. 75 FR 80833 - Shipboard Air Emission Reduction Technology Report

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-23

    ... Reduction Technology Report AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice and request for comments. SUMMARY: In... Protection Agency, on Ship Emission Reduction Technology for cargo and passenger vessels that operate in... will survey new technology and new applications of existing technology for reducing air emissions from...

  16. Lower cost air measurement technology – what is on the ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This presentation is to the MARAMA 2014 annual monitoring meeting and is an invited talk to provide an overview on lower cost air measurement technology. This presentation is to the MARAMA 2014 annual monitoring meeting and is an invited talk to provide an overview on lower cost air measurement technology.

  17. Nanoscience and Technology at the Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-05-01

    AIR FORCE RESEARCH LABORATORY ( AFRL ) Dr. Richard A. Vaia Dr. Daniel Miracle Dr. Thomas Cruse Air Force Research ...Technology At The Air Force Research Laboratory ( AFRL ) 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT...98) Prescribed by ANSI Std Z39-18 AFRL NST Overview 2 AIR FORCE RESEARCH LABORATORY VISION We defend

  18. Nanoscience and Technology at the Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-02-01

    AIR FORCE RESEARCH LABORATORY ( AFRL ) Dr. Richard A. Vaia Dr. Daniel Miracle Dr. Thomas Cruse Air Force Research ...Technology At The Air Force Research Laboratory ( AFRL ) 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT...98) Prescribed by ANSI Std Z39-18 AFRL NST Overview 2 AIR FORCE RESEARCH LABORATORY VISION We defend

  19. Chitosan-Sodium Phytate Films with a Strong Water Barrier and Antimicrobial Properties Produced via One-Step-Consecutive-Stripping and Layer-by-Layer-Casting Technologies.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jie; Xiong, Liu; Li, Man; Sun, Qingjie

    2018-06-20

    The pursuit of sustainable functional materials requires the development of materials based on renewable resources and efficient fabrication methods. Here, we first fabricated chitosan-sodium phytate films via one-step-stripping and layer-by-layer-casting technologies. The proposed film-fabrication methods are general, facile, environmentally benign, cost-effective, and easy to scale up. The resultant one-step-stripped film was thin (9 ± 1 μm), soft, transparent, and strong, whereas the thickness of the layer-by-layer-cast film was 70 ± 3 μm. FTIR analysis of the films indicated the formation of interactions between the phosphoric groups in sodium phytate and the amino groups in chitosan. More importantly, the water-vapor-permeability values of the one-step-stripped and cast films were 4-5 orders of magnitude lower than chitosan films reported before. Layer-by-layer-cast films in particular exhibited high tensile strength (49.21 ± 1.12 MPa) and were more than three times stronger than other polyelectrolyte multilayer films. Both types of films remained stable in an acidic environment. Furthermore, the layer-by-layer-assembled films presented greater antimicrobial activity than the stripped films. The developed chitosan-sodium phytate films can enhance several biomedical and environmental applications, such as packaging, drug delivery, diagnostics, microfluidics, and biosensing.

  20. Laser ablation and competitive technologies in paint stripping of heavy anticorrosion coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schuöcker, Georg D.; Bielak, Robert

    2007-05-01

    During the last years surface preparation prior to coating operations became an important research and development task, since tightened environmental regulations have to be faced in view of the deliberation of hazardous compounds of coatings. Especially, ship-yards get more and more under pressure, because the environmental commitment of their Asian competitors is fairly limited. Therefore, in the US and in Europe several technology evaluation projects have been launched to face this challenge. The majority of coating service providers and ship yards use grit blasting; this process causes heavy emissions as of dust and enormous amounts of waste as polluted sand. Coating removal without any blasting material would reduce the environmental impact. Laser processing offers ecological advantages. Therefore thermal processes like laser ablation have been studied thoroughly in several published projects and also in this study. Many of these studies have been focused on the maintenance of airplanes, but not on de-coating of heavy protective coatings. In this case the required laser power is extra-high. This study is focused on the maintenance of heavy anti-corrosion coatings and compares the industrial requirements and the opportunities of the innovative laser processes. Based on the results of this analysis similar approaches as e.g. plasma jet coating ablation have been studied. It was concluded that none of these methods can compete economically with the conventional processes as grit blasting and water jetting since the required ablation rate is very high (>60m2/h). A new process is required that is not based on any blasting operation and which does not depend strongly on the coating's characteristic. The delamination of the coating where the coatings is not removed by evaporation, but in little pieces of the complete coating system meets these requirements. The delamination can be accomplished by the thermal destruction of the primer coating by an intense heat pulse

  1. Air Quality Monitoring and Sensor Technologies

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA scientist Ron Williams presented on the features, examination, application, examples, and data quality of continuous monitoring study designs at EPA's Community Air Monitoring Training in July 2015.

  2. Air Force Science and Technology Plan

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-01-01

    charged particles and guide high- power microwaves and radiofrequency waves in the air • Bioenergy – developing renewable biosolar hydrogen...Aeronautical sciences, control sciences, structures and integration Directed Energy High- power microwaves , lasers, beam control, space situational...Propulsion Turbine and rocket engines, advanced propulsion systems , system -level thermal management, and propulsion fuels and propellants Sensors Air

  3. Indoor Air Quality Science and Technology

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Understand indoor air in homes, schools, and offices. Most of us spend much of our time indoors. The air that we breathe in our homes, in schools, and in offices can put us at risk for health problems. Some pollutants can be chemicals, gases, and living or

  4. Development of a Novel Gas Pressurized Stripping Process-Based Technology for CO₂ Capture from Post-Combustion Flue Gases

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Shiaoguo

    A novel Gas Pressurized Stripping (GPS) post-combustion carbon capture (PCC) process has been developed by Carbon Capture Scientific, LLC, CONSOL Energy Inc., Nexant Inc., and Western Kentucky University in this bench-scale project. The GPS-based process presents a unique approach that uses a gas pressurized technology for CO₂ stripping at an elevated pressure to overcome the energy use and other disadvantages associated with the benchmark monoethanolamine (MEA) process. The project was aimed at performing laboratory- and bench-scale experiments to prove its technical feasibility and generate process engineering and scale-up data, and conducting a techno-economic analysis (TEA) to demonstrate its energy usemore » and cost competitiveness over the MEA process. To meet project goals and objectives, a combination of experimental work, process simulation, and technical and economic analysis studies were applied. The project conducted individual unit lab-scale tests for major process components, including a first absorption column, a GPS column, a second absorption column, and a flasher. Computer simulations were carried out to study the GPS column behavior under different operating conditions, to optimize the column design and operation, and to optimize the GPS process for an existing and a new power plant. The vapor-liquid equilibrium data under high loading and high temperature for the selected amines were also measured. The thermal and oxidative stability of the selected solvents were also tested experimentally and presented. A bench-scale column-based unit capable of achieving at least 90% CO₂ capture from a nominal 500 SLPM coal-derived flue gas slipstream was designed and built. This integrated, continuous, skid-mounted GPS system was tested using real flue gas from a coal-fired boiler at the National Carbon Capture Center (NCCC). The technical challenges of the GPS technology in stability, corrosion, and foaming of selected solvents, and environmental

  5. SITE EMERGING TECHNOLOGY SUMMARY: INTEGRATION OF PHOTOCATALYTIC OXIDATION WITH AIR STRIPPING OF CONTAMINATED AQUIFERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    In a recently completed test program, bench-scale laboratory studies at Arizona State University (ASU) in Tempe, AZ, and pilot-scale studies in a simulated field test situation at Zentox Corp in Ocala, FL, were performed to evaluate the integration of gas-solid ultraviolet (UV) p...

  6. Stripping Voltammetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lovrić, Milivoj

    Electrochemical stripping means the oxidative or reductive removal of atoms, ions, or compounds from an electrode surface (or from the electrode body, as in the case of liquid mercury electrodes with dissolved metals) [1-5]. In general, these atoms, ions, or compounds have been preliminarily immobilized on the surface of an inert electrode (or within it) as the result of a preconcentration step, while the products of the electrochemical stripping will dissolve in the electrolytic solution. Often the product of the electrochemical stripping is identical to the analyte before the preconcentration. However, there are exemptions to these rules. Electroanalytical stripping methods comprise two steps: first, the accumulation of a dissolved analyte onto, or in, the working electrode, and, second, the subsequent stripping of the accumulated substance by a voltammetric [3, 5], potentiometric [6, 7], or coulometric [8] technique. In stripping voltammetry, the condition is that there are two independent linear relationships: the first one between the activity of accumulated substance and the concentration of analyte in the sample, and the second between the maximum stripping current and the accumulated substance activity. Hence, a cumulative linear relationship between the maximum response and the analyte concentration exists. However, the electrode capacity for the analyte accumulation is limited and the condition of linearity is satisfied only well below the electrode saturation. For this reason, stripping voltammetry is used mainly in trace analysis. The limit of detection depends on the factor of proportionality between the activity of the accumulated substance and the bulk concentration of the analyte. This factor is a constant in the case of a chemical accumulation, but for electrochemical accumulation it depends on the electrode potential. The factor of proportionality between the maximum stripping current and the analyte concentration is rarely known exactly. In fact

  7. Rapid evolution of air sensor technologies

    EPA Science Inventory

    Outdoor air pollution measurement approaches have historically been conducted using stationary shelters that require significant space, power, and expertise to operate. The cost and logistical requirements to conduct monitoring have limited the number of locations with continuou...

  8. Treatment of pretreated coking wastewater by flocculation, alkali out, air stripping, and three-dimensional electrocatalytic oxidation with parallel plate electrodes.

    PubMed

    Wen-wu, Liu; Xiu-ping, Wang; Xue-yan, Tu; Chang-yong, Wang

    2014-10-01

    The coking wastewater generally comprises highly concentrated, recalcitrant, and toxic organic pollutants, so its treatment has been of great importance to prevent living beings and their environment from these hazardous contaminations. The treatment of pretreated coking wastewater by flocculation-coagulation, alkali out, air stripping, and three-dimensional (3-D) electrocatalytic oxidation was performed (gap between the used β-PbO2/Ti anode and titanium cathode, 12 mm; mass ratio of Cu-Mn/granular activated carbon (GAC) to effluent, 1:4; cell voltage, 7 V). The results showed that the pH adjusting from 3.7 to 6.1 was necessary for coagulants; alkali out played an important role because it brought up precipitation containing higher fatty acids as well as other contaminants to decrease the chemical oxygen demand (COD) in the effluent, and it had also forced the reduction of ammonia nitrogen (NH3-N) by incorporating with air stripping; for 3-D electrocatalytic oxidation with a bleaching liquid assisting, the initial pH 8.5 of effluent was suitable for Cu-Mn/GAC; moreover, it was considered that its Cu component was dedicated to the decrease of COD and NH3-N, while the Mn component specialized in the decay of NH3-N. The residual COD and NH3-N values in the final effluent with pH 6.5 were 95.8 and 8.8 mg/L, respectively, demonstrating that the whole processes applied were feasible and low in cost.

  9. Technology options for an enhanced air cargo system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winston, M. M.

    1979-01-01

    A view of potential enhancements to the air cargo system through technology application is provided. NASA's role in addressing deficiencies of the current civil and military air cargo systems is outlined. The evolution of conventional airfreighter design is traced and projected through the 1990's. Also, several advanced airfreighter concepts incorporating unconventional design features are described to show their potentials benefits. A number of ongoing NASA technology programs are discussed to indicate the wide range of advanced technologies offering potential benefits to the air cargo system. The promise of advanced airfreighters is then viewed in light of the future air cargo infrastructure predicted by extensive systems studies. The derived outlook concludes that the aircraft technology benefits may be offset somewhat by adverse economic, environmental, and institutional constraints.

  10. VERIFICATION TESTING OF AIR POLLUTION CONTROL TECHNOLOGY QUALITY MANAGEMENT PLAN

    EPA Science Inventory

    This document is the basis for quality assurance for the Air Pollution Control Technology Verification Center (APCT Center) operated under the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). It describes the policies, organizational structure, responsibilities, procedures, and qualit...

  11. The Application of Advanced Technology to Improve Air Bag Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phen, R.; Dowdy, M.; Ebbeler, D.; Kim, E.; Moore, N.; Van Zandt, T.

    1998-01-01

    In December 1996 the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) signed a memorandum of understanding for NASA to assess the capability of advanced technology to reduce air bag inflation-induced injuries and increase air bag effectiveness.

  12. Detection system for concentration quantization of colloidal-gold test strips based on embedded and image technology

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Facing the increasing food safety issues, Chinese government has been carrying out compulsory tests on food to meet the requirements of domestic and foreign markets. Colloidal-gold test strips using the colorimetric principle are widely used for rapid qualitative detection of harmful residues in fo...

  13. IMPROVING AIR QUALITY THROUGH ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) began the Environmental Technology Verification (ETV) Program in 1995 as a means of working with the private sector to establish a market-based verification process available to all environmental technologies. Under EPA's Office of R...

  14. PUBLICATIONS - AIR POLLUTION PREVENTION AND CONTROL TECHNOLOGY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Air Pollution Prevention and Control Division (APPCD)publishes highly scientific and technical information developed through its four research branches. A list of key publications produced by the individual branches can be viewed by visiting the website for the respective bra...

  15. Biofiltration: an innovative air pollution control technology for VOC emissions.

    PubMed

    Leson, G; Winer, A M

    1991-08-01

    Biofiltration is a relatively recent air pollution control (APC) technology in which off-gases containing biodegradable volatile organic compounds (VOC) or inorganic air toxics are vented through a biologically active material. This technology has been successfully applied in Germany and The Netherlands in many full-scale applications to control odors, VOC and air toxic emissions from a wide range of industrial and public sector sources. Control efficiencies of more than 90 percent have been achieved for many common air pollutants. Due to lower operating costs, biofiltration can provide significant economic advantages over other APC technologies if applied to off-gases that contain readily biodegradable pollutants in low concentrations. Environmental benefits include low energy requirements and the avoidance of cross media transfer of pollutants. This paper reviews the history and current status of biofiltration, outlines its underlying scientific and engineering principles, and discusses the applicability of biofilters for a wide range of specific emission sources.

  16. Disruptive Innovation in Air Measurement Technology: Reality or Hype?

    EPA Science Inventory

    This presentation is a big picture overview on the changing state of air measurement technology in the world, with a focus on the introduction of low-cost sensors into the market place. The presentation discusses how these new technologies may be a case study in disruptive innov...

  17. Heating, Ventilating, and Air Conditioning. Energy Technology Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Occupational Research and Development, Inc., Waco, TX.

    This course in heating, ventilating, and air conditioning is one of 16 courses in the Energy Technology Series developed for an Energy Conservation-and-Use Technology curriculum. Intended for use in two-year postsecondary technical institutions to prepare technicians for employment, the courses are also useful in industry for updating employees in…

  18. Development of vehicle magnetic air conditioner (VMAC) technology. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Gschneidner, Karl A., Jr.; Pecharsky, V.K.; Jiles, David

    2001-08-28

    The objective of Phase I was to explore the feasibility of the development of a new solid state refrigeration technology - magnetic refrigeration - in order to reduce power consumption of a vehicle air conditioner by 30%. The feasibility study was performed at Iowa State University (ISU) together with Astronautics Corporation of America Technology Center (ACATC), Madison, WI, through a subcontract with ISU.

  19. Overview of Emerging Air Quality Monitoring Technologies and Their Data

    EPA Science Inventory

    This is a webinar presentation as part of a series on Air Quality Planning for Wildland Smoke. The purpose of the talk is to provide a basic overview of monitoring technologies and specifically focus on emerging technologies for PM2.5.

  20. Robotic Stripping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    UltraStrip Systems, Inc.'s M-200 removes paint from the hulls of ships faster than traditional grit-blasting methods. And, it does so without producing toxic airborne particles common to traditional methods. The M-2000 magnetically attaches itself to the hull of the ship. Its water jets generate 40,000 pounds of pressure per square inch, blasting away paint down to the ships steel substrate. The only by product is water and dried paint chips and these are captured by a vacuum system so no toxic residue can escape. It was built out of a partnership between the Jet Propulsion Laboratory and the National Robotics Engineering Consortium.

  1. An assessment of lighter than air technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vittek, J. F., Jr. (Editor)

    1975-01-01

    The workshop on LTA is summarized. The history and background are reviewed. The workshop reports for the following working groups are presented: policy, market analysis, economics, operations, and technology.

  2. Diesel Engine Air Emissions Reduction Technologies

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-04-01

    Hour GC/MS Gas Chromatography /Mass Spectroscopy GC/FID Gas Chromatography /Flame Ionization Detector g/mile Gram per Mile HAP Hazardous Air...Pollutant HC Hydrocarbon HPLC/UV High Performance Liquid Chromatography / Ultraviolet KPa Kilo-Pascals NDIR Non Dispersive Infrared... Chromatography (GC) where the samples were collected on DNPH cartridges. Portable versions of these instruments were available and employed for

  3. RESEARCH AREA -- ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE CONTROL (AIR POLLUTION TECHNOLOGY BRANCH, AIR POLLUTION PREVENTION AND CONTROL DIVISION, NRMRL)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Air Pollution Technology Branch (APTB) of NRMRL's Air Pollution Prevention and Control Division in Research Triangle Park, NC, has conducted several research projects for evaluating the use of artificial intelligence (AI) to improve the control of pollution control systems an...

  4. Cryogenic hydrogen-induced air-liquefaction technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Escher, William J. D.

    1990-01-01

    Extensive use of a special advanced airbreathing propulsion archives data base, as well as direct contacts with individuals who were active in the field in previous years, a technical assessment of cryogenic hydrogen induced air liquefaction, as a prospective onboard aerospace vehicle process, was performed and documented in 1986. The resulting assessment report is summarized. Technical findings relating the status of air liquefaction technology are presented both as a singular technical area, and also as that of a cluster of collateral technical areas including: Compact lightweight cryogenic heat exchangers; Heat exchanger atmospheric constituents fouling alleviation; Para/ortho hydrogen shift conversion catalysts; Hydrogen turbine expanders, cryogenic air compressors and liquid air pumps; Hydrogen recycling using slush hydrogen as heat sinks; Liquid hydrogen/liquid air rocket type combustion devices; Air Collection and Enrichment System (ACES); and Technically related engine concepts.

  5. Control Technologies for Room Air-conditioner and Packaged Air-conditioner

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ito, Nobuhisa

    Trends of control technologies about air-conditioning machineries, especially room or packaged air conditioners, are presented in this paper. Multiple air conditioning systems for office buildings are mainly described as one application of the refrigeration cycle control technologies including sensors for thermal comfort and heating/ cooling loads are also described as one of the system control technologies. Inverter systems and related technologies for driving variable speed compressors are described in both case of including induction motors and brushless DC motors. Technologies for more accurate control to meet various kind of regulations such as ozone layer destruction, energy saving and global warming, and for eliminating harmonic distortion of power source current, as a typical EMC problem, will be urgently desired.

  6. AIRS-Light Instrument Concept and Critical Technology Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maschhoff, Kevin

    2001-01-01

    Understanding Earth's climate, atmospheric transport mechanisms, and the hydrologic cycle requires a precise knowledge of global atmospheric circulation, temperature profiles, and water vapor distribution. The accuracy of advanced sounders such as AIRS/AMSU/HSB on NASA's Aqua spacecraft can match radiosonde accuracy. It is essential to fold those capabilities fully into the NPOESS, enabling soundings of radiosonde accuracy, every 6 hours around the globe on an operational basis. However, the size, mass, power demands, and thermal characteristics of the Aqua sounding instrument suite cannot be accommodated on the NPOESS spacecraft. AIRS-Light is an instrument concept, developed under the Instrument Incubator Program, which provides IR sounding performance identical to the AIRS instrument, but uses advances in HgCdTe FPA technology and pulse tube cooler technology, as well as design changes to dramatically reduce the size, mass, and power demand, allowing AIRS-Light to meet all NPOESS spacecraft interface requirements. The instrument concept includes substantial re-use of AIRS component designs, including the complex AIRS FPA, to reduce development risk and cost. The AIRS-Light Instrument Incubator program fostered the development of photovoltaic-mode HgCdTe detector array technology for the 13.5-15.4 micron band covered by photoconductive-mode HgCdTe arrays in AIRS, achieved state of the art results in this band, and substantially reduced the development risk for this last new technology needed for AIRS-Light implementation, A demonstration of a prototype 14.5-15.4 micron band IRFPA in a reduced heat-load dewar together with the IMAS pulse tube cryocooler is in progress.

  7. Air Force Research Laboratory Technology Milestones 2007

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-01-01

    Propulsion Fuel Pumps and Fuel Systems Liquid Rockets and Combustion Gas Generators Micropropulsion Gears Monopropellants High-Cycle Fatigue and Its... Systems Electric Propulsion Engine Health Monitoring Systems High-Energy-Density Matter Exhaust Nozzles Injectors and Spray Measurements Fans Laser...of software models to drive development of component-based systems and lightweight domain-specific specification and verification technology. Highly

  8. Air cleaning technologies: an evidence-based analysis.

    PubMed

    2005-01-01

    This health technology policy assessment will answer the following questions: When should in-room air cleaners be used?How effective are in-room air cleaners?Are in-room air cleaners that use combined HEPA and UVGI air cleaning technology more effective than those that use HEPA filtration alone?What is the Plasmacluster ion air purifier in the pandemic influenza preparation plan?The experience of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) locally, nationally, and internationally underscored the importance of administrative, environmental, and personal protective infection control measures in health care facilities. In the aftermath of the SARS crisis, there was a need for a clearer understanding of Ontario's capacity to manage suspected or confirmed cases of airborne infectious diseases. In so doing, the Walker Commission thought that more attention should be paid to the potential use of new technologies such as in-room air cleaning units. It recommended that the Medical Advisory Secretariat of the Ontario Ministry of Health and Long-Term Care evaluate the appropriate use and effectiveness of such new technologies. Accordingly, the Ontario Health Technology Advisory Committee asked the Medical Advisory Secretariat to review the literature on the effectiveness and utility of in-room air cleaners that use high-efficiency particle air (HEPA) filters and ultraviolet germicidal irradiation (UVGI) air cleaning technology. Additionally, the Ontario Health Technology Advisory Committee prioritized a request from the ministry's Emergency Management Unit to investigate the possible role of the Plasmacluster ion air purifier manufactured by Sharp Electronics Corporation, in the pandemic influenza preparation plan. Airborne transmission of infectious diseases depends in part on the concentration of breathable infectious pathogens (germs) in room air. Infection control is achieved by a combination of administrative, engineering, and personal protection methods. Engineering

  9. Air Force Research Laboratory Technology Milestones 2010

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-01-01

    these self - healing , mixed-signal integrated circuits, or HEALIC, adjust to existing conditions in order to maintain the desired level of...functionality. As part of aiding the DARPA effort to realize this self - healing capability, sensors scientists managed the development of a wideband, 6-18 GHz...technology, with the subsequent demonstration activity presenting the integrated designs containing this self - healing circuitry. The newly-concept

  10. Highly Polluted Wastewaters Treatment by Improved Dissolved Air Flotation Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moga, I. C.; Covaliu, C. I.; Matache, M. G.; Doroftei, B. I.

    2017-06-01

    Numerous investigations are oriented towards the development of new wastewater treatment technologies, having high efficiencies for removing even low concentrations of pollutants found in water. These efforts were determined by the destroyer impact of the pollutants to the environment and human’s health. For this reason this paper presents our study concerning an improved dissolved air flotation technology for wastewater treatment. There is described a dissolved air flotation (DAF) installation composed by two equipments: pressurized capsule and lamellar settling. Also, there are presented some advantages of using nanoparticles as flotation collectors.

  11. Advanced Air Transportation Technologies Project, Final Document Collection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mogford, Richard H.; Wold, Sheryl (Editor)

    2008-01-01

    This CD ROM contains a compilation of the final documents of the Advanced Air Transportation Technologies (AAIT) project, which was an eight-year (1996 to 2004), $400M project managed by the Airspace Systems Program office, which was part of the Aeronautics Research Mission Directorate at NASA Headquarters. AAIT focused on developing advanced automation tools and air traffic management concepts that would help improve the efficiency of the National Airspace System, while maintaining or enhancing safety. The documents contained in the CD are final reports on AAIT tasks that serve to document the project's accomplishments over its eight-year term. Documents include information on: Advanced Air Transportation Technologies, Autonomous Operations Planner, Collaborative Arrival Planner, Distributed Air/Ground Traffic Management Concept Elements 5, 6, & 11, Direct-To, Direct-To Technology Transfer, Expedite Departure Path, En Route Data Exchange, Final Approach Spacing Tool - (Active and Passive), Multi-Center Traffic Management Advisor, Multi Center Traffic Management Advisor Technology Transfer, Surface Movement Advisor, Surface Management System, Surface Management System Technology Transfer and Traffic Flow Management Research & Development.

  12. Air Force Laboratory’s 2005 Technology Milestones

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-01-01

    Computational materials science methods can benefit the design and property prediction of complex real-world materials. With these models , scientists and...Warfighter Page Air High - Frequency Acoustic System...800) 203-6451 High - Frequency Acoustic System Payoff Scientists created the High - Frequency Acoustic Suppression Technology (HiFAST) airflow control

  13. EPA activities related to emerging air sensor technology

    EPA Science Inventory

    This slide set was developed through contributions of NERL and NRMRL research groups and organized to explain the diversity of ongoing research related to emerging air sensor technology for an international audience. Gayle will be walking OAQPS through the slide set in advance o...

  14. Comparison between different interdental stripping methods and evaluation of abrasive strips: SEM analysis.

    PubMed

    Grippaudo, Cristina; Cancellieri, Daniela; Grecolini, Maria E; Deli, Roberto

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the morphological effects and the surface irregularities produced by different methods of mechanical stripping (abrasive strips and burs) and chemical stripping (37% orthophosphoric acid) and the surface changes following the finishing procedures (polishing strips) or the subsequent application of sealants, in order to establish the right stripping method that can guarantee the smoothest surface. We have also analysed the level of wear on the different abrasive strips employed, according to their structure. 160 proximal surfaces of 80 sound molar teeth extracted for orthodontic and periodontal reasons, were divided into: 1 control group with non-treated enamel proximal surfaces and 5 different groups according to the stripping method used, were observed with scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Each one of the 5 treated groups was also divided into 3 different subgroups according to the finishing procedures or the subsequent application of sealants. The finishing stage following the manual reduction proves to be fundamental in reducing the number and depth of grooves created by the stripping. After the air rotor stripping method, the use of sealants is advised in order to obtain a smoother surface. The analysis of the combinations of mechanical and chemical stripping showed unsatisfactory results. Concerning the wear of the strips, we have highlighted a different abrasion degree for the different types of strips analysed with SEM. The enamel damages are limited only if the finishing procedure is applied, independently of the type of abrasive strip employed. It would be advisable, though clinically seldom possible, the use of sealants after the air rotor stripping technique. Copyright © 2010 Società Italiana di Ortodonzia SIDO. Published by Elsevier Srl. All rights reserved.

  15. Biofiltration: An innovative air pollution control technology for VOC emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Leson, G.; Winer, A.M.

    1991-08-01

    Biofiltration is a relatively recent air pollution control (APC) technology in which off-gases containing biodegradable volatile organic compounds (VOC) or inorganic air toxics are vented through a biologically active material. This technology has been successfully applied in Germany and The Netherlands in many full-scale applications to control odors, VOC and air toxic emissions from a wide range of industrial and public sector sources. Control efficiencies of more than 90 percent have been achieved for many common air pollutants. Due to lower operating costs, biofiltration can provide significant economic advantages over other APC technologies if applied to off-gases that contain readilymore » biodegradable pollutants in low concentrations. Environmental benefits include low energy requirements and the avoidance of cross media transfer of pollutants. This paper reviews the history and current status of biofiltration, outlines its underlying scientific and engineering principles, and discusses the applicability of biofilters for a wide range of specific emission sources.« less

  16. NASA technology program for future civil air transports

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wright, H. T.

    1983-01-01

    An assessment is undertaken of the development status of technology, applicable to future civil air transport design, which is currently undergoing conceptual study or testing at NASA facilities. The NASA civil air transport effort emphasizes advanced aerodynamic computational capabilities, fuel-efficient engines, advanced turboprops, composite primary structure materials, advanced aerodynamic concepts in boundary layer laminarization and aircraft configuration, refined control, guidance and flight management systems, and the integration of all these design elements into optimal systems. Attention is given to such novel transport aircraft design concepts as forward swept wings, twin fuselages, sandwich composite structures, and swept blade propfans.

  17. A closed-loop air revitalization process technology demonstrator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mulloth, Lila; Perry, Jay; Luna, Bernadette; Kliss, Mark

    Demonstrating a sustainable, reliable life support system process design that possesses the capability to close the oxygen cycle to the greatest extent possible is required for extensive surface exploration of the Moon and Mars by humans. A conceptual closed-loop air revitalization system process technology demonstrator that combines the CO2 removal, recovery, and reduction and oxygen generation operations in a single compact envelope is described. NASA has developed, and in some cases flown, process technologies for capturing metabolic CO2 from air, reducing CO2 to H2O and CH4, electrolyzing H2O to O2, and electrolyzing CO2 to O2 and CO among a number of candidates. Traditionally, these processes either operate in parallel with one another or have not taken full benefit of a unit operation-based design approach to take complete advantage of the synergy between individual technologies. The appropriate combination of process technologies must capitalize on the advantageous aspects of individual technologies while eliminating or transforming the features that limit their feasibility when considered alone. Such a process technology integration approach also provides advantages of optimized mass, power and volume characteristics for the hardware embodiment. The conceptual air revitalization system process design is an ideal technology demonstrator for the critically needed closed-loop life support capabilities for long duration human exploration of the lunar surface and extending crewed space exploration toward Mars. The conceptual process design incorporates low power CO2 removal, process gas drying, and advanced engineered adsorbents being developed by NASA and industry.

  18. POINTS-OF-CONTACT (AIR POLLUTION TECHNOLOGY BRANCH, AIR POLLUTION PREVENTION AND CONTROL DIVISION, NRMRL)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Air Pollution Technology Branch's (APTB) Point-of-Contact page lists APTB research areas along with the name, telephone number, and e-mail address for each responsible person. APTB's research areas include NOx Control, Hazardous Waste Incineration, Municipal Waste Combustion,...

  19. Technological change and productivity growth in the air transport industry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosenberg, N.; Thompson, A.; Belsley, S. E.

    1978-01-01

    The progress of the civil air transport industry in the United States was examined in the light of a proposal of Enos who, after examining the growth of the petroleum industry, divided that phenomenon into two phases, the alpha and the beta; that is, the invention, first development and production, and the improvement phase. The civil air transport industry developed along similar lines with the technological progress coming in waves; each wave encompassing several new technological advances while retaining the best of the old ones. At the same time the productivity of the transport aircraft as expressed by the product of the aircraft velocity and the passenger capacity increased sufficiently to allow the direct operating cost in cents per passenger mile to continually decrease with each successive aircraft development.

  20. The promise of advanced technology for future air transports

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bower, R. E.

    1978-01-01

    Progress in all weather 4-D navigation and wake vortex attenuation research is discussed and the concept of time based metering of aircraft is recommended for increased emphasis. The far term advances in aircraft efficiency were shown to be skin friction reduction and advanced configuration types. The promise of very large aircraft, possibly all wing aircraft is discussed, as is an advanced concept for an aerial relay transportation system. Very significant technological developments were identified that can improve supersonic transport performance and reduce noise. The hypersonic transport was proposed as the ultimate step in air transportation in the atmosphere. Progress in the key technology areas of propulsion and structures was reviewed. Finally, the impact of alternate fuels on future air transports was considered and shown not to be a growth constraint.

  1. Approximate strip exchanging.

    PubMed

    Roy, Swapnoneel; Thakur, Ashok Kumar

    2008-01-01

    Genome rearrangements have been modelled by a variety of primitives such as reversals, transpositions, block moves and block interchanges. We consider such a genome rearrangement primitive Strip Exchanges. Given a permutation, the challenge is to sort it by using minimum number of strip exchanges. A strip exchanging move interchanges the positions of two chosen strips so that they merge with other strips. The strip exchange problem is to sort a permutation using minimum number of strip exchanges. We present here the first non-trivial 2-approximation algorithm to this problem. We also observe that sorting by strip-exchanges is fixed-parameter-tractable. Lastly we discuss the application of strip exchanges in a different area Optical Character Recognition (OCR) with an example.

  2. Investigation of air transportation technology at Princeton University, 1986

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stengel, Robert F.

    1988-01-01

    The Air Transportation Technology Program at Princeton proceeded along four avenues: Guidance and control strategies for penetration of microbursts and wind shear; Application of artificial intelligence in flight control systems; Computer aided control system design; and Effects of control saturation on closed loop stability and response of open loop unstable aircraft. Areas of investigation relate to guidance and control of commercial transports as well as general aviation aircraft. Interaction between the flight crew and automatic systems is a subject of prime concern.

  3. Vehicle safety : technologies, challenges, and research development expenditures for advanced air bags

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2001-06-01

    Some advanced air bag technologies are currently being installed in vehicles and others are still being developed. The principal advanced technology that is currently being installed in some vehicles is air bags that can inflate with lower or higher ...

  4. High Technology Centrifugal Compressor for Commercial Air Conditioning Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Ruckes, John

    2006-04-15

    R&D Dynamics, Bloomfield, CT in partnership with the State of Connecticut has been developing a high technology, oil-free, energy-efficient centrifugal compressor called CENVA for commercial air conditioning systems under a program funded by the US Department of Energy. The CENVA compressor applies the foil bearing technology used in all modern aircraft, civil and military, air conditioning systems. The CENVA compressor will enhance the efficiency of water and air cooled chillers, packaged roof top units, and other air conditioning systems by providing an 18% reduction in energy consumption in the unit capacity range of 25 to 350 tons of refrigeration Themore » technical approach for CENVA involved the design and development of a high-speed, oil-free foil gas bearing-supported two-stage centrifugal compressor, CENVA encompassed the following high technologies, which are not currently utilized in commercial air conditioning systems: Foil gas bearings operating in HFC-134a; Efficient centrifugal impellers and diffusers; High speed motors and drives; and System integration of above technologies. Extensive design, development and testing efforts were carried out. Significant accomplishments achieved under this program are: (1) A total of 26 builds and over 200 tests were successfully completed with successively improved designs; (2) Use of foil gas bearings in refrigerant R134a was successfully proven; (3) A high speed, high power permanent magnet motor was developed; (4) An encoder was used for signal feedback between motor and controller. Due to temperature limitations of the encoder, the compressor could not operate at higher speed and in turn at higher pressure. In order to alleviate this problem a unique sensorless controller was developed; (5) This controller has successfully been tested as stand alone; however, it has not yet been integrated and tested as a system; (6) The compressor successfully operated at water cooled condensing temperatures Due to

  5. Data on performance of air stripping tower- PAC integrated system for removing of odor, taste, dye and organic materials from drinking water-A case study in Saqqez, Iran.

    PubMed

    Pirsaheb, Meghdad; Mohammadi, Jalil; Khosravi, Touba; Sharafi, Hooshmnd; Moradi, Masoud

    2018-06-01

    Unpleasant taste or smell are more importantly constituents of drinking-water, lead to complaints from consumers. Dye and organic matter as well change in disinfection practice may generate taste and an odorous compound in treated water. According to low efficiency of conventional methods to remove taste and odor compounds, present study was aimed to evaluate the performance of air stripping tower- Poly Aluminum Chloride (PAC) integrated system to remove odor and taste, dye and organic materials from drinking water. Different air to water ratio and PAC doses were used to remove considered parameters in certain condition. The results of this study indicated that the maximum removal efficiency of 86.2, 76.47, 58.46 and 41.27% of taste and odor, dye, COD and TOC were achieved by the air stripping tower- PAC integrated system, respectively. However, the physico-chemical characteristics of water and adsorbent effect on the of substances removal efficiency considerably. It can be stated that the air striping tower - PAC integrated system is able to reduce the odor and taste-causing substances and organic matter to a level which is recommended by the Institute of Standards and Industrial Research of Iran.

  6. Development of a Test Facility for Air Revitalization Technology Evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lu, Sao-Dung; Lin, Amy; Campbell, Melissa; Smith, Frederick; Curley, Su

    2007-01-01

    Development of new air revitalization system (ARS) technology can initially be performed in a subscale laboratory environment, but in order to advance the maturity level, the technology must be tested in an end-to-end integrated environment. The Air Revitalization Technology Evaluation Facility (ARTEF) at the NASA Johnson Space Center serves as a ground test bed for evaluating emerging ARS technologies in an environment representative of spacecraft atmospheres. At the center of the ARTEF is a hypobaric chamber which serves as a sealed atmospheric chamber for closed loop testing. A Human Metabolic Simulator (HMS) was custom-built to simulate the consumption of oxygen, and production of carbon dioxide, moisture and heat of up to eight persons. A multitude of gas analyzers and dew point sensors are used to monitor the chamber atmosphere upstream and downstream of a test article. A robust vacuum system is needed to simulate the vacuum of space. A reliable data acquisition and control system is required to connect all the subsystems together. This paper presents the capabilities of the integrated test facility and some of the issues encountered during the integration.

  7. Science, technology, and application of THz air photonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, X. F.; Clough, B.; Ho, I.-C.; Kaur, G.; Liu, J.; Karpowicz, N.; Dai, J. M.; Zhang, X.-C.

    2010-11-01

    The significant scientific and technological potential of terahertz (THz) wave sensing and imaging has been attracted considerable attention within many fields of research. However, the development of remote, broadband THz wave sensing technology is lagging behind the compelling needs that exist in the areas of astronomy, global environmental monitoring, and homeland security. This is due to the challenge posed by high absorption of ambient moisture in the THz range. Although various time-domain THz detection techniques have recently been demonstrated, the requirement for an on-site bias or forward collection of the optical signal inevitably prohibits their applications for remote sensing. The objective of this paper is to report updated THz air-plasma technology to meet this great challenge of remote sensing. A focused optical pulse (mJ pulse energy and femtosecond pulse duration) in gas creates a plasma, which can serve to generate intense, broadband, and directional THz waves in the far field.

  8. Segmented air bearing in micronozzle technology for the project SOFIA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muth, Michael; Schulz, Bernd

    1997-10-01

    Since 1986 there is a cooperation between NASA and DARA, Germany's space agency, to develop a flying telescope three times the size and ten times the light gathering ability of its predecessor -- the Kuiper Airborne Observatory. This project is called SOFIA -- Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy. The 2.5 meter telescope for the visible through the infrared and the sub-millimeter wavelengths to the microwaves will be mounted in a modified Boeing 747-SP with a cavity at the port side behind the wings. It can be opened at stratospheric altitudes of around 41,000 feet, above 99.9 percent of the interfering water vapor. When not in use, the telescope will be sheltered from environment by a door in the fuselage. Vibrations of the aircraft would spoil the telescope's images. Therefore the telescope has to be isolated from the aircraft's structure. One promising solution for the rotational uncoupling is a segmented spherical air bearing with a bearing sphere diameter of 1.2 meter, which carries the telescope on a thin air cushion. In this paper a new technology of air bearings with micro nozzles manufactured with the aid of a laser is presented. The innovation is rooted in the unique combination of excellent static and dynamic characteristics. These types of air bearings were developed at the Lehrstuhl fur Feingeratebau und Mikrotechnik at the Technical University of Munich, and they are produced in series by the AeroLas GmbH, Munich.

  9. National Security Science and Technology Initiative: Air Cargo Screening

    SciTech Connect

    Bingham, Philip R; White, Tim; Cespedes, Ernesto

    The non-intrusive inspection (NII) of consolidated air cargo carried on commercial passenger aircraft continues to be a technically challenging, high-priority requirement of the Department of Homeland Security's Science and Technology Directorate (DHS S&T), the Transportation Security Agency and the Federal Aviation Administration. The goal of deploying a screening system that can reliably and cost-effectively detect explosive threats in consolidated cargo without adversely affecting the flow of commerce will require significant technical advances that will take years to develop. To address this critical National Security need, the Battelle Memorial Institute (Battelle), under a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) with fourmore » of its associated US Department of Energy (DOE) National Laboratories (Oak Ridge, Pacific Northwest, Idaho, and Brookhaven), conducted a research and development initiative focused on identifying, evaluating, and integrating technologies for screening consolidated air cargo for the presence of explosive threats. Battelle invested $8.5M of internal research and development funds during fiscal years 2007 through 2009. The primary results of this effort are described in this document and can be summarized as follows: (1) Completed a gap analysis that identified threat signatures and observables, candidate technologies for detection, their current state of development, and provided recommendations for improvements to meet air cargo screening requirements. (2) Defined a Commodity/Threat/Detection matrix that focuses modeling and experimental efforts, identifies technology gaps and game-changing opportunities, and provides a means of summarizing current and emerging capabilities. (3) Defined key properties (e.g., elemental composition, average density, effective atomic weight) for basic commodity and explosive benchmarks, developed virtual models of the physical distributions (pallets) of three commodity types and three

  10. Stripping and splicing polyimide-coated fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duke, Douglas; Kanda, Yoshiharu; Tobita, Kenyo; Yamauchi, Ryozo

    2011-05-01

    Polyimide is often used as a coating material for optical fibers used in high temperature environments such as aerospace or oil and gas sensor applications. Unfortunately, polyimide coating is very difficult to strip by conventional mechanical stripping methods. The glass fiber is easily damaged if the stripping process is not extremely well controlled. Stripping the polyimide coating by heating with a flame or arc typically results in a significant reduction in fiber strength. Strength may be maintained by using hot acid stripping, however the use of the strong hot acid presents safety hazards and also requires controlled and safe waste disposal. Another issue with polyimide coating is variability of the coating diameter from various manufacturers or due to different polyimide coating processes. This not only complicates the polyimide stripping issue, but also presents problems with precise clamping and alignment during splicing, especially when it is necessary to splice with a short cleave length. In this paper, we present new polyimide coating stripping technology. The significant feature of this stripping technology is achievement of good strength while avoiding the use of hot acid or heating. We also developed a new specialty fiber fusion splicer that enables precise alignment and splicing regardless of the variability of polyimide coating diameter, even when clamping on the coating.

  11. Improving estimates of air pollution exposure through ubiquitous sensing technologies

    PubMed Central

    de Nazelle, Audrey; Seto, Edmund; Donaire-Gonzalez, David; Mendez, Michelle; Matamala, Jaume; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J; Jerrett, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Traditional methods of exposure assessment in epidemiological studies often fail to integrate important information on activity patterns, which may lead to bias, loss of statistical power or both in health effects estimates. Novel sensing technologies integrated with mobile phones offer potential to reduce exposure measurement error. We sought to demonstrate the usability and relevance of the CalFit smartphone technology to track person-level time, geographic location, and physical activity patterns for improved air pollution exposure assessment. We deployed CalFit-equipped smartphones in a free living-population of 36 subjects in Barcelona, Spain. Information obtained on physical activity and geographic location was linked to space-time air pollution mapping. For instance, we found on average travel activities accounted for 6% of people’s time and 24% of their daily inhaled NO2. Due to the large number of mobile phone users, this technology potentially provides an unobtrusive means of collecting epidemiologic exposure data at low cost. PMID:23416743

  12. Improving estimates of air pollution exposure through ubiquitous sensing technologies.

    PubMed

    de Nazelle, Audrey; Seto, Edmund; Donaire-Gonzalez, David; Mendez, Michelle; Matamala, Jaume; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J; Jerrett, Michael

    2013-05-01

    Traditional methods of exposure assessment in epidemiological studies often fail to integrate important information on activity patterns, which may lead to bias, loss of statistical power, or both in health effects estimates. Novel sensing technologies integrated with mobile phones offer potential to reduce exposure measurement error. We sought to demonstrate the usability and relevance of the CalFit smartphone technology to track person-level time, geographic location, and physical activity patterns for improved air pollution exposure assessment. We deployed CalFit-equipped smartphones in a free-living population of 36 subjects in Barcelona, Spain. Information obtained on physical activity and geographic location was linked to space-time air pollution mapping. We found that information from CalFit could substantially alter exposure estimates. For instance, on average travel activities accounted for 6% of people's time and 24% of their daily inhaled NO2. Due to the large number of mobile phone users, this technology potentially provides an unobtrusive means of enhancing epidemiologic exposure data at low cost. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Lateral flow strip assay

    DOEpatents

    Miles, Robin R [Danville, CA; Benett, William J [Livermore, CA; Coleman, Matthew A [Oakland, CA; Pearson, Francesca S [Livermore, CA; Nasarabadi, Shanavaz L [Livermore, CA

    2011-03-08

    A lateral flow strip assay apparatus comprising a housing; a lateral flow strip in the housing, the lateral flow strip having a receiving portion; a sample collection unit; and a reagent reservoir. Saliva and/or buccal cells are collected from an individual using the sample collection unit. The sample collection unit is immersed in the reagent reservoir. The tip of the lateral flow strip is immersed in the reservoir and the reagent/sample mixture wicks up into the lateral flow strip to perform the assay.

  14. Investigation of air transportation technology at Princeton University, 1984

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stengel, Robert F.

    1987-01-01

    The Air Transportation Technology Program at Princeton University, a program emphasizing graduate and undergraduate student research, proceeded along four avenues during 1984: (1) guidance and control strategies for penetration of microbursts and wind shear; (2) application of artificial intelligence in flight control systems; (3) effects of control saturation on closed loop stability; and (4) response of open loop unstable aircraft. Areas of investigation relate to guidance and control of commercial transports as well as to general aviation aircraft. Interaction between the flight crew and automatic systems is a subject of principle concern. These areas of investigation are briefly discussed.

  15. SBIR Advanced Technologies in Aviation and Air Transportation System 2016

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyen, Hung D.; Steele, Gynelle C.; Kaszeta, Richard W.; Gold, Calman; Corke, Thomas C.; McGowan, Ryan; Matlis, Eric; Eichenlaub, Jesse; Davis, Joshua T.; Shah, Parthiv N.

    2017-01-01

    This report is intended to provide a broad knowledge of various topics associated with NASA's Aeronautics Research Mission Directorate (ARMD), with particular interest on the NASA SBIR contracts awarded from 2011-2012 executed by small companies. The content of this report focuses on the high-quality, cutting-edge research that will lead to revolutionary concepts, technologies, and capabilities that enable radical change to both the airspace system and the aircraft that fly within it, facilitating a safer, more environmentally friendly, and more efficient air transportation system.

  16. Modern air protection technologies at thermal power plants (review)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roslyakov, P. V.

    2016-07-01

    Realization of the ecologically safe technologies for fuel combustion in the steam boiler furnaces and the effective ways for treatment of flue gases at modern thermal power plants have been analyzed. The administrative and legal measures to stimulate introduction of the technologies for air protection at TPPs have been considered. It has been shown that both the primary intrafurnace measures for nitrogen oxide suppression and the secondary flue gas treatment methods are needed to meet the modern ecological standards. Examples of the environmentally safe methods for flame combustion of gas-oil and solid fuels in the boiler furnaces have been provided. The effective methods and units to treat flue gases from nitrogen and sulfur oxides and flue ash have been considered. It has been demonstrated that realization of the measures for air protection should be accompanied by introduction of the systems for continuous instrumentation control of the composition of combustion products in the gas path of boiler units and for monitoring of atmospheric emissions.

  17. Fixed Wing Project: Technologies for Advanced Air Transports

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Del Rosario, Ruben; Koudelka, John M.; Wahls, Richard A.; Madavan, Nateri

    2014-01-01

    The NASA Fundamental Aeronautics Fixed Wing (FW) Project addresses the comprehensive challenge of enabling revolutionary energy efficiency improvements in subsonic transport aircraft combined with dramatic reductions in harmful emissions and perceived noise to facilitate sustained growth of the air transportation system. Advanced technologies and the development of unconventional aircraft systems offer the potential to achieve these improvements. Multidisciplinary advances are required in aerodynamic efficiency to reduce drag, structural efficiency to reduce aircraft empty weight, and propulsive and thermal efficiency to reduce thrust-specific energy consumption (TSEC) for overall system benefit. Additionally, advances are required to reduce perceived noise without adversely affecting drag, weight, or TSEC, and to reduce harmful emissions without adversely affecting energy efficiency or noise.The presentation will highlight the Fixed Wing project vision of revolutionary systems and technologies needed to achieve these challenging goals. Specifically, the primary focus of the FW Project is on the N+3 generation; that is, vehicles that are three generations beyond the current state of the art, requiring mature technology solutions in the 2025-30 timeframe.

  18. EMERGING TECHNOLOGY BULLETIN: VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUND REMOVAL FROM AIR STREAMS BY MEMBRANES SEPARATION MEMBRANE TECHNOLOGY AND RESEARCH, INC.

    EPA Science Inventory

    This membrane separation technology developed by Membrane Technology and Research (MTR), Incorporated, is designed to remove volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from contaminated air streams. In the process, organic vapor-laden air contacts one side of a membrane that is permeable ...

  19. An investigation of air transportation technology at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 1992-1993

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simpson, Robert W.

    1994-01-01

    An investigation of air transportation technology at MIT during 1992 - 1993 is presented. One completed project and two continuing research activities are under the sponsorship of the FAA/NASA Joint University Program. The completed project was on tracking aircraft around a turn with wind effects. Active research projects are on ASLOTS - an interactive adaptive system of automated approach spacing of aircraft and alerting in automated and datalink capable cockpits.

  20. ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION--GENERIC VERIFICATION PROTOCOL FOR BIOLOGICAL AND AEROSOL TESTING OF GENERAL VENTILATION AIR CLEANERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Under EPA's Environmental Technology Verification Program, Research Triangle Institute (RTI) will operate the Air Pollution Control Technology Center to verify the filtration efficiency and bioaerosol inactivation efficiency of heating, ventilation and air conditioning air cleane...

  1. DEMONSTRATION BULLETIN: UNTERDUCK-VERDAMPFER- BRUNNEN TECHNOLOGY (UVB) VACUUM VAPORIZING WELL - ROY F. WESTON, INC./IEG TECHNOLOGIES CORPORATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Weston/IEG UVB technology is an in situ groundwater remediation technology that combines air-lift pumping and air stripping to clean aquifers contaminated with volatile organic compounds. A UVB system consists of a single well with two hydraulically separated screened interva...

  2. Nextgen Technologies for Mid-Term and Far-Term Air Traffic Control Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prevot, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes technologies for mid-term and far-term air traffic control operations in the Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen). The technologies were developed and evaluated with human-in-the-loop simulations in the Airspace Operations Laboratory (AOL) at the NASA Ames Research Center. The simulations were funded by several research focus areas within NASA's Airspace Systems program and some were co-funded by the FAA's Air Traffic Organization for Planning, Research and Technology.

  3. SITE TECHNOLOGY CAPSULE: UNTERDRUCK-VERDAMPFER- BRUNNEN TECHNOLOGY (UVB) VACUUM VAPORIZING WELL

    EPA Science Inventory

    The UVB technology is an in situ groundwater remediation technology for aquifers contaminated with compounds amenable to air stripping, and is an alternative method to pump-and-treat remediation of groundwater. The UVB technology is designed to remove VOCs from groundwater by tra...

  4. Wooded strips in Iowa

    Treesearch

    A.L. Hartong; K.E. Moessner

    1956-01-01

    The recent Forest Survey of Iowa reported as forest land only those areas larger than 1 acre in size and more than 120 feet wide. In farming states like Iowa, however, such small patches and narrow strips of wooded land take on greater significance than in more heavily forested states. Reasons for this are that small woodlands, especially in the form of narrow strips,...

  5. Anatomy Comic Strips

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Jin Seo; Kim, Dae Hyun; Chung, Min Suk

    2011-01-01

    Comics are powerful visual messages that convey immediate visceral meaning in ways that conventional texts often cannot. This article's authors created comic strips to teach anatomy more interestingly and effectively. Four-frame comic strips were conceptualized from a set of anatomy-related humorous stories gathered from the authors' collective…

  6. Science Comic Strips

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Dae Hyun; Jang, Hae Gwon; Shin, Dong Sun; Kim, Sun-Ja; Yoo, Chang Young; Chung, Min Suk

    2012-01-01

    Science comic strips entitled Dr. Scifun were planned to promote science jobs and studies among professionals (scientists, graduate and undergraduate students) and children. To this end, the authors collected intriguing science stories as the basis of scenarios, and drew four-cut comic strips, first on paper and subsequently as computer files.…

  7. Evaluation of rumble strips.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1974-01-01

    Rumble strips have been used for a number of years at locations where a physical stimulus was needed to alert a motorist to some hazard. However, little study has been done to determine the optimum spacings for the strips. Through testing existing Vi...

  8. ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION REPORT - BAGHOUSE FILTRATION PRODUCTS - AIR PURATOR CORPORATION HUYGLAS 1405M FILTER SAMPLE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Baghouse filtration products (BFPs) were evaluated by the Air Pollution Control Technology (APCT) pilot of the Environmental Technology Verification (ETV) Program. The performance factor verified was the mean outlet particle concentration for the filter fabric as a function of th...

  9. Verification Testing of Air Pollution Control Technology Quality Management Plan Revision 2.3

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Air Pollution Control Technology Verification Center was established in 1995 as part of the EPA’s Environmental Technology Verification Program to accelerate the development and commercialization of improved environmental technologies’ performance.

  10. TECHNOLOGY EVALUATION REPORT CEREX ENVIRONMENTAL SERVICES UV HOUND POINT SAMPLE AIR MONITOR

    EPA Science Inventory

    The USEPA's National Homeland Security Research Center (NHSRC) Technology Testing and Evaluation Program (TTEP) is carrying out performance tests on homeland security technologies. Under TTEP, Battelle evaluated the performance of the Cerex UV Hound point sample air monitor in de...

  11. Technology evaluation of characterization of the air void system in concrete.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2009-09-01

    The objective of this project was to evaluate current technologies that have the capability of characterizing the air void system in concrete within the first several hours of placement. This objective was met by developing a comprehensive technology...

  12. Technology evaluation on characterization of the air void system in concrete.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2009-09-17

    The objective of this project was to evaluate current technologies that have the capability of characterizing the air void system in concrete within the first several hours of placement. This objective was met by developing a comprehensive technology...

  13. New technology revolutionizing how we understand the air around us

    EPA Science Inventory

    This presentation covers various technologies that I have been involved with, that have increased the spatial resolution possible for air pollution measurements. This includes the GMAP, Village Green Project, and emerging sensor technology.

  14. How controllers compensate for the lack of flight progress strips.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1996-02-01

    The role of the Flight Progress Strip, currently used to display important flight data, has been debated because of long range plans to automate the air traffic control (ATC) human-computer interface. Currently, the Fight Progress Strip is viewed by ...

  15. An investigation of air transportation technology at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 1990-1991

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simpson, Robert W.

    1991-01-01

    Brief summaries are given of research activities at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) under the sponsorship of the FAA/NASA Joint University Program. Topics covered include hazard assessment and cockpit presentation issues for microburst alerting systems; the situational awareness effect of automated air traffic control (ATC) datalink clearance amendments; a graphical simulation system for adaptive, automated approach spacing; an expert system for temporal planning with application to runway configuration management; deterministic multi-zone ice accretion modeling; alert generation and cockpit presentation for an integrated microburst alerting system; and passive infrared ice detection for helicopter applications.

  16. Field testing of new-technology ambient air ozone monitors.

    PubMed

    Ollison, Will M; Crow, Walt; Spicer, Chester W

    2013-07-01

    Multibillion-dollar strategies control ambient air ozone (O3) levels in the United States, so it is essential that the measurements made to assess compliance with regulations be accurate. The predominant method employed to monitor O3 is ultraviolet (UV) photometry. Instruments employ a selective manganese dioxide or heated silver wool "scrubber" to remove O3 to provide a zero reference signal. Unfortunately, such scrubbers remove atmospheric constituents that absorb 254-nm light, causing measurement interference. Water vapor also interferes with the measurement under some circumstances. We report results of a 3-month field test of two new instruments designed to minimize interferences (2B Technologies model 211; Teledyne-API model 265E) that were operated in parallel with a conventional Thermo Scientific model 49C O3 monitor. The field test was hosted by the Houston Regional Monitoring Corporation (HRM). The model 211 photometer scrubs O3 with excess nitric oxide (NO) generated in situ by photolysis of added nitrous oxide (N2O) to provide a reference signal, eliminating the need for a conventional O3 scrubber. The model 265E analyzer directly measures O3-NO chemiluminescence from added excess NO to quantify O3 in the sample stream. Extensive quality control (QC) and collocated monitoring data are assessed to evaluate potential improvements to the accuracy of O3 compliance monitoring. Two new-technology ozone monitors were compared with a conventional monitor under field conditions. Over 3 months the conventional monitor reported more exceedances of the current standard than the new instruments, which could potentially result in an area being misjudged as "nonattainment." Instrument drift can affect O3 data accuracy, and the same degree of drift has a proportionally greater compliance effect as standard stringency is increased. Enhanced data quality assurance and data adjustment may be necessary to achieve the improved accuracy required to judge compliance with

  17. Evolution of Emergent Technologies for Producing Nonwoven Fabrics for Air Filtration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ou, Yingjie

    2016-01-01

    Nonwovens is a fast growing industry driven by technological research and development (R&D), and one of the major application areas for nonwovens is air filtration. Research on nonwovens technologies has mainly focused on the science and technology areas, but there is very little published research on technology management issues within the…

  18. Spiral Galaxies Stripped Bare

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2010-10-01

    Six spectacular spiral galaxies are seen in a clear new light in images from ESO's Very Large Telescope (VLT) at the Paranal Observatory in Chile. The pictures were taken in infrared light, using the impressive power of the HAWK-I camera, and will help astronomers understand how the remarkable spiral patterns in galaxies form and evolve. HAWK-I [1] is one of the newest and most powerful cameras on ESO's Very Large Telescope (VLT). It is sensitive to infrared light, which means that much of the obscuring dust in the galaxies' spiral arms becomes transparent to its detectors. Compared to the earlier, and still much-used, VLT infrared camera ISAAC, HAWK-I has sixteen times as many pixels to cover a much larger area of sky in one shot and, by using newer technology than ISAAC, it has a greater sensitivity to faint infrared radiation [2]. Because HAWK-I can study galaxies stripped bare of the confusing effects of dust and glowing gas it is ideal for studying the vast numbers of stars that make up spiral arms. The six galaxies are part of a study of spiral structure led by Preben Grosbøl at ESO. These data were acquired to help understand the complex and subtle ways in which the stars in these systems form into such perfect spiral patterns. The first image shows NGC 5247, a spiral galaxy dominated by two huge arms, located 60-70 million light-years away. The galaxy lies face-on towards Earth, thus providing an excellent view of its pinwheel structure. It lies in the zodiacal constellation of Virgo (the Maiden). The galaxy in the second image is Messier 100, also known as NGC 4321, which was discovered in the 18th century. It is a fine example of a "grand design" spiral galaxy - a class of galaxies with very prominent and well-defined spiral arms. About 55 million light-years from Earth, Messier 100 is part of the Virgo Cluster of galaxies and lies in the constellation of Coma Berenices (Berenice's Hair, named after the ancient Egyptian queen Berenice II). The third

  19. A Program in Air Transportation Technology (Joint University Program)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stengel, Robert F.

    1996-01-01

    The Joint University Program on Air Transportation Technology was conducted at Princeton University from 1971 to 1995. Our vision was to further understanding of the design and operation of transport aircraft, of the effects of atmospheric environment on aircraft flight, and of the development and utilization of the National Airspace System. As an adjunct, the program emphasized the independent research of both graduate and undergraduate students. Recent principal goals were to develop and verify new methods for design and analysis of intelligent flight control systems, aircraft guidance logic for recovery from wake vortex encounter, and robust flight control systems. Our research scope subsumed problems associated with multidisciplinary aircraft design synthesis and analysis based on flight physics, providing a theoretical basis for developing innovative control concepts that enhance aircraft performance and safety. Our research focus was of direct interest not only to NASA but to manufacturers of aircraft and their associated systems. Our approach, metrics, and future directions described in the remainder of the report.

  20. Stripping by laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malavallon, Olivier

    1995-04-01

    Laser beam stripping can be achieved using several active materials: YAG, CO2 Tea, or Excimer. The YAG laser appears to be the most efficient laser assessed in this report. However, the results obtained for productivity, quality, and type of stripping were very poor. Also, for stripping and on account of its specifications, the laser beam can only be used in an automated manner. In spite of these results, it seems that certain companies in Europe have recently developed technical solutions allowing better results to be obtained.

  1. Anatomy comic strips.

    PubMed

    Park, Jin Seo; Kim, Dae Hyun; Chung, Min Suk

    2011-01-01

    Comics are powerful visual messages that convey immediate visceral meaning in ways that conventional texts often cannot. This article's authors created comic strips to teach anatomy more interestingly and effectively. Four-frame comic strips were conceptualized from a set of anatomy-related humorous stories gathered from the authors' collective imagination. The comics were drawn on paper and then recreated with digital graphics software. More than 500 comic strips have been drawn and labeled in Korean language, and some of them have been translated into English. All comic strips can be viewed on the Department of Anatomy homepage at the Ajou University School of Medicine, Suwon, Republic of Korea. The comic strips were written and drawn by experienced anatomists, and responses from viewers have generally been favorable. These anatomy comic strips, designed to help students learn the complexities of anatomy in a straightforward and humorous way, are expected to be improved further by the authors and other interested anatomists. Copyright © 2011 American Association of Anatomists.

  2. Lighter-Than-Air and Pressurized Structures Technology for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-01-01

    through lighter-than-air or pressurized structures-based ( PSB ) technologies. Basically, we examined how to construct the UAV in such a way that a...considerable percentage of its weight will be supported by or composed of inflatable structures containing air or helium. In this way, PSB technology...will reduce the amount of energy required to keep the UAV aloft, thus allowing the use of smaller, slower, and quieter motors. Using PSB technology

  3. Technology Transfer of the Air Quality Assessment Model.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-02-01

    i T I, _______ ENGINEERING & SERVICES LABORATORY AIR FORCE ENGINEERING & SERVICES CENTER TYNOALL AIR FORCE BASE. FLORIDA 32403 OTIC FILE CO84 03...30 015 NOTICE PLEASE DO NOT REQUEST COPIES OF THIS REPORT FRO(M HQ AFESC./RD ( ENGINEERING AND SERVICES LABORATORY). ADDITONAL COPIES MAY BE PURCHASED...report was prepared by the Air Force Engineering and Services Center, Engineering and Services Laboratory, (AFESC/ RDV) Tyndall AFB, FL. This report

  4. Can commonly-used fan-driven air cleaning technologies improve indoor air quality? A literature review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yinping; Mo, Jinhan; Li, Yuguo; Sundell, Jan; Wargocki, Pawel; Zhang, Jensen; Little, John C.; Corsi, Richard; Deng, Qihong; Leung, Michael H. K.; Fang, Lei; Chen, Wenhao; Li, Jinguang; Sun, Yuexia

    2011-08-01

    Air cleaning techniques have been applied worldwide with the goal of improving indoor air quality. The effectiveness of applying these techniques varies widely, and pollutant removal efficiency is usually determined in controlled laboratory environments which may not be realized in practice. Some air cleaners are largely ineffective, and some produce harmful by-products. To summarize what is known regarding the effectiveness of fan-driven air cleaning technologies, a state-of-the-art review of the scientific literature was undertaken by a multidisciplinary panel of experts from Europe, North America, and Asia with expertise in air cleaning, aerosol science, medicine, chemistry and ventilation. The effects on health were not examined. Over 26,000 articles were identified in major literature databases; 400 were selected as being relevant based on their titles and abstracts by the first two authors, who further reduced the number of articles to 160 based on the full texts. These articles were reviewed by the panel using predefined inclusion criteria during their first meeting. Additions were also made by the panel. Of these, 133 articles were finally selected for detailed review. Each article was assessed independently by two members of the panel and then judged by the entire panel during a consensus meeting. During this process 59 articles were deemed conclusive and their results were used for final reporting at their second meeting. The conclusions are that: (1) None of the reviewed technologies was able to effectively remove all indoor pollutants and many were found to generate undesirable by-products during operation. (2) Particle filtration and sorption of gaseous pollutants were among the most effective air cleaning technologies, but there is insufficient information regarding long-term performance and proper maintenance. (3) The existing data make it difficult to extract information such as Clean Air Delivery Rate (CADR), which represents a common benchmark for

  5. Use of moisture induced stress testing to evaluate stripping potential of hot mix asphalt (HMA).

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2012-07-01

    Stripping of hot mix asphalt (HMA) in the field is an ongoing issue for many Departments of Transportation : (DOTs). A leading cause of stripping is hydraulic scouring. The Moisture Induced Stress Tester (MIST) is a recently : developed technology th...

  6. Automated Laser Paint Stripping (ALPS) update

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lovoi, Paul

    1993-03-01

    To date, the DoD has played a major role in funding a number of paint stripping programs. Some technologies have proven less effective than contemplated. Others are still in the validation phase. Paint stripping is one of the hottest issues being addressed by the finishing industry since the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has mandated that chemical stripping using methylene chloride/phenolic type strippers be stopped. The DoD and commercial aircraft companies are hard-pressed to find an alternative. Automated laser paint stripping has been identified as a technique for removing coatings from aircraft surfaces. International Technical Associates (InTA) was awarded a Navy contract for an automated laser paint stripping system (ALPS) that will remove paint from metallic and composite substrates. For the program, which will validate laser paint stripping, InTA will design, build, test, and install a system for fighter-sized aircraft at both the Norfolk and North Island (San Diego) Aviation Depots.

  7. Environmental Technology Verification: Supplement to Test/QA Plan for Biological and Aerosol Testing of General Ventilation Air Cleaners; Bioaerosol Inactivation Efficiency by HVAC In-Duct Ultraviolet Light Air Cleaners

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Air Pollution Control Technology Verification Center has selected general ventilation air cleaners as a technology area. The Generic Verification Protocol for Biological and Aerosol Testing of General Ventilation Air Cleaners is on the Environmental Technology Verification we...

  8. Demonstration of Diesel Engine Air Emissions Reduction Technologies

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-12-01

    16 Figure 5. Plots of Cheyenne Mountain Operating Cycle and Reference CBD Driving...Air Act CARB California Air Resources Board CBD Central Business District CCR California Code of Regulations CES Cummins Emissions Solutions CFR...matter ppb parts per billion ppm parts per million PuriNOx Proprietary Water / Diesel Emulsified Fuel RPF robust particulate filter THC total

  9. Dynamic Resectorization and Coordination Technology: An Evaluation of Air Traffic Control Complexity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brinton, Christopher R.

    1996-01-01

    The work described in this report is done under contract with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) to support the Advanced Air Transportation Technology (AATR) program. The goal of this program is to contribute to and accelerate progress in Advanced Air Transportation Technologies. Wyndemere Incorporated is supporting this goal by studying the complexity of the Air Traffic Specialist's role in maintaining the safety of the Air Transportation system. It is envisioned that the implementation of Free Flight may significantly increase the complexity and difficulty of maintaining this safety. Wyndemere Incorporated is researching potential methods to reduce this complexity. This is the final report for the contract.

  10. The Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990: Hazardous Air Pollutant Requirements and the DOE Clean Coal Technology Program

    SciTech Connect

    Moskowitz, P.D.; DePhillips, M.; Fthenakis, V.M.

    1991-12-31

    The purpose of the US Department of Energy -- Office of Fossil Energy (DOE FE) Clean Coal Technology Program (CCTP) is to provide the US energy marketplace with advanced, efficient, and environmentally sound coal-based technologies. The design, construction, and operation of Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Projects (CCTDP) will generate data needed to make informed, confident decisions on the commercial readiness of these technologies. These data also will provide information needed to ensure a proactive response by DOE and its industrial partners to the establishment of new regulations or a reactive response to existing regulations promulgated by the US Environmental Protectionmore » Agency (EPA). The objectives of this paper are to: (1) Present a preliminary examination of the potential implications of the Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA) -- Title 3 Hazardous Air Pollutant requirements to the commercialization of CCTDP; and (2) help define options available to DOE and its industrial partners to respond to this newly enacted Legislation.« less

  11. The Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990: Hazardous Air Pollutant Requirements and the DOE Clean Coal Technology Program

    SciTech Connect

    Moskowitz, P.D.; DePhillips, M.; Fthenakis, V.M.

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of the US Department of Energy -- Office of Fossil Energy (DOE FE) Clean Coal Technology Program (CCTP) is to provide the US energy marketplace with advanced, efficient, and environmentally sound coal-based technologies. The design, construction, and operation of Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Projects (CCTDP) will generate data needed to make informed, confident decisions on the commercial readiness of these technologies. These data also will provide information needed to ensure a proactive response by DOE and its industrial partners to the establishment of new regulations or a reactive response to existing regulations promulgated by the US Environmental Protectionmore » Agency (EPA). The objectives of this paper are to: (1) Present a preliminary examination of the potential implications of the Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA) -- Title 3 Hazardous Air Pollutant requirements to the commercialization of CCTDP; and (2) help define options available to DOE and its industrial partners to respond to this newly enacted Legislation.« less

  12. EPA-developed, patented technologies related to air quality that are available for licensing

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Under the Federal Technology Transfer Act (FTTA), Federal Agencies can patent inventions developed during the course of research. These technologies can then be licensed to businesses or individuals for further development and sale in the marketplace. These technologies relate to monitoring and sampling air quality.

  13. California Clean Air Technology Initiative (CATI) Memorandum of Agreement

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Memorandum of Agreement between the EPA, State of California EPA, State of California Air Resources Board, South Coast AQMD, and San Joaquin Valley APCD for coordination and collaboration on research projects.

  14. Incident-response monitoring technologies for aircraft cabin air quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magoha, Paul W.

    Poor air quality in commercial aircraft cabins can be caused by volatile organophosphorus (OP) compounds emitted from the jet engine bleed air system during smoke/fume incidents. Tri-cresyl phosphate (TCP), a common anti-wear additive in turbine engine oils, is an important component in today's global aircraft operations. However, exposure to TCP increases risks of certain adverse health effects. This research analyzed used aircraft cabin air filters for jet engine oil contaminants and designed a jet engine bleed air simulator (BAS) to replicate smoke/fume incidents caused by pyrolysis of jet engine oil. Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) with X-ray energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) and neutron activation analysis (NAA) were used for elemental analysis of filters, and gas chromatography interfaced with mass spectrometry (GC/MS) was used to analyze used filters to determine TCP isomers. The filter analysis study involved 110 used and 90 incident filters. Clean air filter samples exposed to different bleed air conditions simulating cabin air contamination incidents were also analyzed by FESEM/EDS, NAA, and GC/MS. Experiments were conducted on a BAS at various bleed air conditions typical of an operating jet engine so that the effects of temperature and pressure variations on jet engine oil aerosol formation could be determined. The GC/MS analysis of both used and incident filters characterized tri- m-cresyl phosphate (TmCP) and tri-p-cresyl phosphate (TpCP) by a base peak of an m/z = 368, with corresponding retention times of 21.9 and 23.4 minutes. The hydrocarbons in jet oil were characterized in the filters by a base peak pattern of an m/z = 85, 113. Using retention times and hydrocarbon thermal conductivity peak (TCP) pattern obtained from jet engine oil standards, five out of 110 used filters tested had oil markers. Meanwhile 22 out of 77 incident filters tested positive for oil fingerprints. Probit analysis of jet engine oil aerosols obtained

  15. Air-Breathing Launch Vehicle Technology Being Developed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trefny, Charles J.

    2003-01-01

    Of the technical factors that would contribute to lowering the cost of space access, reusability has high potential. The primary objective of the GTX program is to determine whether or not air-breathing propulsion can enable reusable single-stage-to-orbit (SSTO) operations. The approach is based on maturation of a reference vehicle design with focus on the integration and flight-weight construction of its air-breathing rocket-based combined-cycle (RBCC) propulsion system.

  16. DEVELOPMENT OF A NOVEL GAS PRESSURIZED STRIPPING (GPS)-BASED TECHNOLOGY FOR CO 2 CAPTURE FROM POST-COMBUSTION FLUE GASES Topical Report: Techno-Economic Analysis of GPS-based Technology for CO 2 Capture

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Shiaoguo

    This topical report presents the techno-economic analysis, conducted by Carbon Capture Scientific, LLC (CCS) and Nexant, for a nominal 550 MWe supercritical pulverized coal (PC) power plant utilizing CCS patented Gas Pressurized Stripping (GPS) technology for post-combustion carbon capture (PCC). Illinois No. 6 coal is used as fuel. Because of the difference in performance between the GPS-based PCC and the MEA-based CO2 absorption technology, the net power output of this plant is not exactly 550 MWe. DOE/NETL Case 11 supercritical PC plant without CO2 capture and Case 12 supercritical PC plant with benchmark MEA-based CO2 capture are chosen as references.more » In order to include CO2 compression process for the baseline case, CCS independently evaluated the generic 30 wt% MEA-based PCC process together with the CO2 compression section. The net power produced in the supercritical PC plant with GPS-based PCC is 647 MW, greater than the MEA-based design. The levelized cost of electricity (LCOE) over a 20-year period is adopted to assess techno-economic performance. The LCOE for the supercritical PC plant with GPS-based PCC, not considering CO2 transport, storage and monitoring (TS&M), is 97.4 mills/kWh, or 152% of the Case 11 supercritical PC plant without CO2 capture, equivalent to $39.6/tonne for the cost of CO2 capture. GPS-based PCC is also significantly superior to the generic MEA-based PCC with CO2 compression section, whose LCOE is as high as 109.6 mills/kWh.« less

  17. Cryogenic hydrogen-induced air-liquefaction technologies for combined-cycle propulsion applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Escher, William J. D.

    1992-01-01

    Given here is a technical assessment of the realization of cryogenic hydrogen induced air liquefaction technologies in a prospective onboard aerospace vehicle process setting. The technical findings related to the status of air liquefaction technologies are reviewed. Compact lightweight cryogenic heat exchangers, heat exchanger atmospheric constituent fouling alleviation measures, para/ortho-hydrogen shift-conversion catalysts, cryogenic air compressors and liquid air pumps, hydrogen recycling using slush hydrogen as a heat sink, liquid hydrogen/liquid air rocket-type combustion devices, and technically related engine concepts are discussed. Much of the LACE work is related to aerospaceplane propulsion concepts that were developed in the 1960's. Emphasis is placed on the Liquid Air Cycle Engine (LACE).

  18. Stripping without a stripper.

    PubMed

    Singh, D R; Shrestha, S K; Shretha, S K

    2004-01-01

    Varicose veins afflict some 10 to 20% of the population in the west. It is believed to be less prevalent in the developing nations. Though there are absolute indications of surgery for varicose veins, people in Nepal come for treatment of the varicose veins either to join the army or to work abroad. Not all hospitals in Nepal are equipped with a vein stripper. In KMCTH, we studied 29 patients who had their long Saphenous veins stripped either with a stripper or by tunnelling around the Saphenous vein. We found that the long Saphenous vein could be stripped via the tunnelling method with an additional incision above the knee joint which is cosmetically accepted by our patients Moreover the patients were much satisfied because of minimal or no bruises in the post operative period as compared to those who had the long Saphenous vein stripped with a stripper.

  19. Final Rule for Control of Hazardous Air Pollutants From Mobile Sources: Early Credit Technology Requirement Revision

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA is taking final action to revise the February 26, 2007 mobile source air toxics rule’s requirements that specify which benzene control technologies a refiner may utilize to qualify to generate early benzene credits.

  20. Improved Navigational Technology and Air Traffic Control: A Description of Controller Coordination and Workload

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1995-04-01

    Improved navigational technology, such as microwave landing systems (MLS) or : global positioning systems (GPS), installed in today's commercial aircraft : enable the air traffic control (ATC) system to better utilize its airspace. : This increased e...

  1. An Assessment and Application of Advances in Communication Technologies to Air Force Public Affairs Programs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-12-01

    CHAPTER 4: CABLE TELEVISION FRANCHISING FOR AIR FORCE BASES .................................. 37 Cable Television - A Brief History...38 Cable Television and Franchise Authorities .............. 41 Cable Television on Air Force Bases ................... 47 Taking Action at... Franchise Renewals .................. 49 Calling for Action on Cable TV ....................... 51 CHAPTER 5: COMMUNICATING BEYOND TECHNOLOGY ...... 53 Is New

  2. Environmental Technology Verification Report for Applikon MARGA Semi-Continuous Ambient Air Monitoring System

    EPA Science Inventory

    The verification test was conducted oer a period of 30 days (October 1 to October 31, 2008) and involved the continuous operation of duplicate semi-continuous monitoring technologies at the Burdens Creek Air Monitoring Site, an existing ambient-air monitoring station located near...

  3. The impact of changing technology on the demand for air transportation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kneafsey, J. T.; Taneja, N. K.

    1978-01-01

    Demand models for air transportation that are sensitive to the impact of changing technology were developed. The models are responsive to potential changes in technology, and to changing economic, social, and political factors as well. In addition to anticipating the wide differences in the factors influencing the demand for long haul and short haul air travel, the models were designed to clearly distinguish among the unique features of these markets.

  4. Precise time technology for selected Air Force systems: Present status and future requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yannoni, N. F.

    1981-01-01

    Precise time and time interval (PTTI) technology is becoming increasingly significant to Air Force operations as digital techniques find expanded utility in military missions. Timing has a key role in the function as well as in navigation. A survey of the PTTI needs of several Air Force systems is presented. Current technology supporting these needs was reviewed and new requirements are emphasized for systems as they transfer from initial development to final operational deployment.

  5. 2017 Air Force Global Strike Command Innovation and Technology Symposium

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-11-15

    and technological changes that may have occurred within American society and therefore may have different expectations, motivations and values...Participate in a discussion on hypersonic technology as a national imperative and what are government, industry and academia doing to accelerate this...USAF Deputy Chief, Weapons Requirements Division HAF/A5RW Mr. Robert B. Addis Defense Technologies Engineering Division, Lawrence Livermore National

  6. Technology Solutions Case Study: Air Leakage and Air Transfer Between Garage and Living Space, Waldorf, Maryland

    SciTech Connect

    None

    2014-11-01

    In this project, Building Science Corporation worked with production homebuilder K. Hovnanian to evaluate air transfer between the garage and living space in a single-family detached home constructed by a production homebuilder in compliance with the 2009 International Residential Code and the 2009 International Energy Conservation Code. The project gathered important information about the performance of whole-building ventilation systems and garage ventilation systems as they relate to minimizing flow of contaminated air from garage to living space. A series of 25 multipoint fan pressurization tests and additional zone pressure diagnostic testing measured the garage and house air leakage, the garage-to-housemore » air leakage, and garage and house pressure relationships to each other and to outdoors using automated fan pressurization and pressure monitoring techniques. While the relative characteristics of this house may not represent the entire population of new construction configurations and air tightness levels (house and garage) throughout the country, the technical approach was conservative and should reasonably extend the usefulness of the results to a large spectrum of house configurations from this set of parametric tests in this one house. Based on the results of this testing, the two-step garage-to-house air leakage test protocol described above is recommended where whole-house exhaust ventilation is employed. For houses employing whole-house supply ventilation (positive pressure) or balanced ventilation (same pressure effect as the baseline condition), adherence to the EPA Indoor airPLUS house-to-garage air sealing requirements should be sufficient to expect little to no garage-to-house air transfer.« less

  7. Retractable barrier strip

    DOEpatents

    Marts, D.J.; Barker, S.G.; McQueen, M.A.

    1996-04-16

    A portable barrier strip is described having retractable tire-puncture means for puncturing a vehicle tire. The tire-puncture means, such as spikes, have an armed position for puncturing a tire and a retracted position for not puncturing a tire. The strip comprises a plurality of barrier blocks having the tire-puncture means removably disposed in a shaft that is rotatably disposed in each barrier block. The shaft removably and pivotally interconnects the plurality of barrier blocks. Actuation cables cause the shaft to rotate the tire-puncture means to the armed position for puncturing a vehicle tire and to the retracted position for not puncturing the tire. Each tire-puncture means is received in a hollow-bed portion of its respective barrier block when in the retracted position. The barrier strip rests in its deployed position and substantially motionless as a tire rolls thereon and over. The strip is rolled up for retrieval, portability, and storage purposes, and extended and unrolled in its deployed position for use. 13 figs.

  8. Health in strip cartoons.

    PubMed

    Videlier, P; Piras, P

    1990-01-01

    Strip cartoons are among the most vivid means of communication at our disposal, and they are particularly popular with the young. Medical matters have featured in many stories, though usually in a peripheral role. Could more be done to use this powerful medium, or would deliberate exploitation destroy it?

  9. Retractable barrier strip

    DOEpatents

    Marts, Donna J.; Barker, Stacey G.; Wowczuk, Andrew; Vellenoweth, Thomas E.

    2002-01-01

    A portable barrier strip having retractable tire-puncture spikes for puncturing a vehicle tire. The tire-puncture spikes have an armed position for puncturing a tire and a retracted position for not puncturing a tire. The strip comprises a plurality of barrier blocks having the tire-puncture spikes removably disposed in a shaft that is rotatably disposed in each barrier block. The plurality of barrier blocks hare hingedly interconnected by complementary hinges integrally formed into the side of each barrier block which allow the strip to be rolled for easy storage and retrieval, but which prevent irregular or back bending of the strip. The shafts of adjacent barrier blocks are pivotally interconnected via a double hinged universal joint to accommodate irregularities in a roadway surface and to transmit torsional motion of the shaft from block to block. A single flexshaft cable is connected to the shaft of an end block to allow a user to selectively cause the shafts of a plurality of adjacently connected barrier blocks to rotate the tire-puncture spikes to the armed position for puncturing a vehicle tire, and to the retracted position for not puncturing the tire. The flexshaft is provided with a resiliently biased retracting mechanism, and a release latch for allowing the spikes to be quickly retracted after the intended vehicle tire is punctured.

  10. Retractable barrier strip

    DOEpatents

    Marts, Donna J.; Barker, Stacey G.; McQueen, Miles A.

    1996-01-01

    A portable barrier strip having retractable tire-puncture means for puncturing a vehicle tire. The tire-puncture means, such as spikes, have an armed position for puncturing a tire and a retracted position for not puncturing a tire. The strip comprises a plurality of barrier blocks having the tire-puncture means removably disposed in a shaft that is rotatably disposed in each barrier block. The shaft removably and pivotally interconnects the plurality of barrier blocks. Actuation cables cause the shaft to rotate the tire-puncture means to the armed position for puncturing a vehicle tire and to the retracted position for not puncturing the tire. Each tire-puncture means is received in a hollow-bed portion of its respective barrier block when in the retracted position. The barrier strip rests stable in its deployed position and substantially motionless as a tire rolls thereon and over. The strip is rolled up for retrieval, portability, and storage purposes, and extended and unrolled in its deployed position for use.

  11. Policy and technology for clean air - the federal government must make a strong commitment to applying state-of-art technologies to the challenge of clearing the air.

    SciTech Connect

    Streets, D. G.; Decision and Information Sciences

    1999-01-01

    The federal government must make a strong commitment to applying state-of-the-art technologies to the challenge of clearing the air. Environmental hazards in one form or another surround us. While essentially all of them threaten our health and well-being, our ability to respond to them varies. We can move away from toxic waste sites; we can sanitize our water before we drink it; we can shield ourselves from harmful radiation. But we cannot escape the air. As a fluid medium, the air accepts all the contaminants we inject into it, mixes them together, and delivers the resulting concoction directly into ourmore » lungs. Though our exposure to air pollutants varies by time and place, and the effect depends on our individual susceptibilities, one truth remains: if we live, we breathe. Today, in many parts of the United States and in many other countries around the world, poor air quality threatens human health and the environment. But our expectations for clean air are higher today than they have ever been, and the damage caused by poor air quality is better understood than ever.« less

  12. Development of Micro Air Vehicle Technology With In-Flight Adaptive-Wing Structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waszak, Martin R. (Technical Monitor); Shkarayev, Sergey; Null, William; Wagner, Matthew

    2004-01-01

    This is a final report on the research studies, "Development of Micro Air Vehicle Technology with In-Flight Adaptrive-Wing Structure". This project involved the development of variable-camber technology to achieve efficient design of micro air vehicles. Specifically, it focused on the following topics: 1) Low Reynolds number wind tunnel testing of cambered-plate wings. 2) Theoretical performance analysis of micro air vehicles. 3) Design of a variable-camber MAV actuated by micro servos. 4) Test flights of a variable-camber MAV.

  13. A Cost Model for Air Force Institute of Technology Programs.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-09-01

    Patterson AFB OH, September 1977. ADA 047662. 16. Horngren , Charles T. Cost Accounting , A Managerial Emphasis. Englewood Cliffs NJ: Prentice Hall, Inc...25 S . Categorical Breakdown of AFIT Cost Matrix ....... .................. . 26 6. Elemental Breakdown of AFIT Direct Cost Category...maximum use of existing data sources such as the Air Force Accounting System for Operations. Justification for Research In past years, cost studies

  14. [USING URINARY STRIPS].

    PubMed

    Barbeito García, Ana; Sampayo Montenegro, Ana

    2015-10-01

    Urinalysis using reactive strip is a commonly used in clinical practice. Although mainly indicated as first step test when a urine infection it suspected, it may also be a helpful tool in the management of a wide range of disorders. Standard urine test strips may comprise of up to 10 different chemical pads or reagents (leukocytes, nitrites, pH, glucose, proteins, ketones, bilirubin, urobilinogen, density and blood) that allow a qualitative and semiquantitative analysis of a urine sample. The test method consists of immersing the strip completely in a well-mixed sample of urine and left to stand for the time necessary for the reactions to occur (which is variable depending on the manufacturer). Finally the colors that appear are compared against a specific chromatic scale provided. Several factors may influence the results causing a significant number of false positives and negatives. Such limitations should always be taken into account when reading the test. Despite clinical features lead to the suspicion of an infection, urine test strips is a fast screening test that may reinforce the diagnosis. The combination of dysuria, frequency and emergency, hematuria, pain and sensibility in the pelvis reaches a positive predictive value to identified a urine infection of 90 %. When only dysuria and emergency or high frequency are present, the such probability diminishes to 70-80%, and, when dysuria is the only symptom, it drops to 25%. Despite urine test strips is a fast, easy and cheap method for the diagnosis and follow-up of several diseases, results are fairly heterogeneous and may be influenced by external factors. Therefore a cautious interpretation if advised. Sensibility and specificity of urine test strips is widely variable (S 46%-86% and E 17%-93%). Although the highest diagnostic values are obtained at primary care centers, where such tests are routinely used in a diverse population, the number of false positives is still high. This issue should be taken into

  15. Air-Based Remediation Workshop - Section 7 Sustainable Remediation And Air-Based Technologies

    EPA Science Inventory

    Pursuant to the EPA-AIT Implementing Arrangement 7 for Technical Environmental Collaboration, Activity 11 "Remediation of Contaminated Sites, " the USEPA Office of International Affairs Organized a Forced Air Remediation Workshop in Taipei to deliver expert training to the Enviro...

  16. Air-Based Remediation Workshop - Section 8 Air-Based Remediation Technology Selection Logic

    EPA Science Inventory

    Pursuant to the EPA-AIT Implementing Arrangement 7 for Technical Environmental Collaboration, Activity 11 "Remediation of Contaminated Sites," the USEPA Office of International Affairs Organized a Forced Air Remediation Workshop in Taipei to deliver expert training to the Environ...

  17. Towards Personal Exposures: How Technology Is Changing Air Pollution and Health Research.

    PubMed

    Larkin, A; Hystad, P

    2017-12-01

    We present a review of emerging technologies and how these can transform personal air pollution exposure assessment and subsequent health research. Estimating personal air pollution exposures is currently split broadly into methods for modeling exposures for large populations versus measuring exposures for small populations. Air pollution sensors, smartphones, and air pollution models capitalizing on big/new data sources offer tremendous opportunity for unifying these approaches and improving long-term personal exposure prediction at scales needed for population-based research. A multi-disciplinary approach is needed to combine these technologies to not only estimate personal exposures for epidemiological research but also determine drivers of these exposures and new prevention opportunities. While available technologies can revolutionize air pollution exposure research, ethical, privacy, logistical, and data science challenges must be met before widespread implementations occur. Available technologies and related advances in data science can improve long-term personal air pollution exposure estimates at scales needed for population-based research. This will advance our ability to evaluate the impacts of air pollution on human health and develop effective prevention strategies.

  18. Strip cutting in northern hardwoods

    Treesearch

    Richard M. Godman

    1992-01-01

    Interest in clearcutting young northern hardwood stands in strips is running high, especially now that mechanical fellers and skidders have been developed to harvest these stands. Strip cutting has several advantages-no overstory to worry about when treating the site, no overstory to remove later, and the economic advantage of cutting the strip only once.

  19. An Evaluation of Wind Turbine Technology at Peterson Air Force Base

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-03-01

    by the wind speed. Darrieus turbines are ordinarily inexpensive and are used for electricity generation and irrigation. One advantage to a...AN EVALUATION OF WIND TURBINE TECHNOLOGY...02 AN EVALUATION OF WIND TURBINE TECHNOLOGY AT PETERSON AIR FORCE BASE THESIS Presented to the Faculty Department of

  20. REPORT TO CONGRESS: ASSESSMENT OF INTERNATIONAL AIR POLLUTION PREVENTION AND CONTROL TECHNOLOGY VOLUME 2. TECHNICAL REPORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of a study that identifies new and innovative air pollution prevention and/or control technologies, of selected industrialized countries, that are not currently used extensively in the U.S. The technologies may be entirely new to the U.S., or they may be ...

  1. REPORT TO CONGRESS: ASSESSMENT OF INTERNATIONAL AIR POLLUTION PREVENTION AND CONTROL TECHNOLOGY VOLUME 1. EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of a study that identifies new and innovative air pollution prevention and/or control technologies, of selected industrialized countries, that are not currently used extensively in the U.S. The technologies may be entirely new to the U.S., or they may be ...

  2. Investigation of air transportation technology at Princeton University, 1983

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stengel, Robert F.

    1987-01-01

    Progress is discussed for each of the following areas: voice recognition technology for flight control; guidance and control strategies for penetration of microbursts and wind shear; application of artificial intelligence in flight control systems; and computer-aided aircraft design.

  3. The Air Force Manufacturing Technology (MANTECH): Technology transfer methodology as exemplified by the radar transmit/receive module program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Houpt, Tracy; Ridgely, Margaret

    1991-01-01

    The Air Force Manufacturing Technology program is involved with the improvement of radar transmit/receive modules for use in active phased array radars for advanced fighter aircraft. Improvements in all areas of manufacture and test of these modules resulting in order of magnitude improvements in the cost of and the rate of production are addressed, as well as the ongoing transfer of this technology to the Navy.

  4. The Virtual Combat Air Staff. The Promise of Information Technologies,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1996-08-07

    development of specialists . The need for advance planning and orchestration of a growing variety of sup- port functions has required the commander to... ability for almost unlim- ited access to command authorities and fielded forces via worldwide communications, increased situational awareness, and the...mercially developed systems that incorporate the latest technologies, training programs will have to adapt to the rapid pace at which such technologies are

  5. Air Force Institute of Technology Research Report 2008

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-05-01

    Chapter) Instructor of the Year, March 2008. PETERSON , GILBERT L. Air Force Junior Scientist of the Year, September 2008. RAINES, RICHARD A...DIRECTORATE RODRIGUEZ, BENJAMIN M., II, JPEG Steganography Embedding Methods. AFIT/DEE/ENG/08-20. Faculty Advisor: Dr. Gilbert L. Peterson . Sponsor...Faculty Advisor: Dr. Gilbert L. Peterson . Sponsor: AFRL/RY. GIRARD, JASON A., Material Perturbations to Enhance Performance of the Theile Half-Width

  6. The impact of European legislative and technology measures to reduce air pollutants on air quality, human health and climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turnock, S. T.; Butt, E. W.; Richardson, T. B.; Mann, G. W.; Reddington, C. L.; Forster, P. M.; Haywood, J.; Crippa, M.; Janssens-Maenhout, G.; Johnson, C. E.; Bellouin, N.; Carslaw, K. S.; Spracklen, D. V.

    2016-02-01

    European air quality legislation has reduced emissions of air pollutants across Europe since the 1970s, affecting air quality, human health and regional climate. We used a coupled composition-climate model to simulate the impacts of European air quality legislation and technology measures implemented between 1970 and 2010. We contrast simulations using two emission scenarios; one with actual emissions in 2010 and the other with emissions that would have occurred in 2010 in the absence of technological improvements and end-of-pipe treatment measures in the energy, industrial and road transport sectors. European emissions of sulphur dioxide, black carbon (BC) and organic carbon in 2010 are 53%, 59% and 32% lower respectively compared to emissions that would have occurred in 2010 in the absence of legislative and technology measures. These emission reductions decreased simulated European annual mean concentrations of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) by 35%, sulphate by 44%, BC by 56% and particulate organic matter by 23%. The reduction in PM2.5 concentrations is calculated to have prevented 80 000 (37 000-116 000, at 95% confidence intervals) premature deaths annually across the European Union, resulting in a perceived financial benefit to society of US232 billion annually (1.4% of 2010 EU GDP). The reduction in aerosol concentrations due to legislative and technology measures caused a positive change in the aerosol radiative effect at the top of atmosphere, reduced atmospheric absorption and also increased the amount of solar radiation incident at the surface over Europe. We used an energy budget approximation to estimate that these changes in the radiative balance have increased European annual mean surface temperatures and precipitation by 0.45 ± 0.11 °C and by 13 ± 0.8 mm yr-1 respectively. Our results show that the implementation of European legislation and technological improvements to reduce the emission of air pollutants has improved air quality and human

  7. Modeling Air Traffic Management Technologies with a Queuing Network Model of the National Airspace System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Long, Dou; Lee, David; Johnson, Jesse; Gaier, Eric; Kostiuk, Peter

    1999-01-01

    This report describes an integrated model of air traffic management (ATM) tools under development in two National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) programs -Terminal Area Productivity (TAP) and Advanced Air Transport Technologies (AATT). The model is made by adjusting parameters of LMINET, a queuing network model of the National Airspace System (NAS), which the Logistics Management Institute (LMI) developed for NASA. Operating LMINET with models of various combinations of TAP and AATT will give quantitative information about the effects of the tools on operations of the NAS. The costs of delays under different scenarios are calculated. An extension of Air Carrier Investment Model (ACIM) under ASAC developed by the Institute for NASA maps the technologies' impacts on NASA operations into cross-comparable benefits estimates for technologies and sets of technologies.

  8. Technology Needs Assessment of an Atmospheric Observation System for Multidisciplinary Air Quality/Meteorology Missions, Part 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alvarado, U. R.; Bortner, M. H.; Grenda, R. N.; Brehm, W. F.; Frippel, G. G.; Alyea, F.; Kraiman, H.; Folder, P.; Krowitz, L.

    1982-01-01

    The technology advancements that will be necessary to implement the atmospheric observation systems are considered. Upper and lower atmospheric air quality and meteorological parameters necessary to support the air quality investigations were included. The technology needs were found predominantly in areas related to sensors and measurements of air quality and meteorological measurements.

  9. Investigation of air transportation technology at Princeton University, 1985

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stengel, Robert F.

    1987-01-01

    The program proceeded along five avenues during 1985. Guidance and control strategies for penetration of microbursts and wind shear, application of artificial intelligence in flight control and air traffic control systems, the use of voice recognition in the cockpit, the effects of control saturation on closed-loop stability and response of open-loop unstable aircraft, and computer aided control system design are among the topics briefly considered. Areas of investigation relate to guidance and control of commercial transports as well as general aviation aircraft. Interaction between the flight crew and automatic systems is the subject of principal concern.

  10. Gated strip proportional detector

    DOEpatents

    Morris, C.L.; Idzorek, G.C.; Atencio, L.G.

    1985-02-19

    A gated strip proportional detector includes a gas tight chamber which encloses a solid ground plane, a wire anode plane, a wire gating plane, and a multiconductor cathode plane. The anode plane amplifies the amount of charge deposited in the chamber by a factor of up to 10/sup 6/. The gating plane allows only charge within a narrow strip to reach the cathode. The cathode plane collects the charge allowed to pass through the gating plane on a set of conductors perpendicular to the open-gated region. By scanning the open-gated region across the chamber and reading out the charge collected on the cathode conductors after a suitable integration time for each location of the gate, a two-dimensional image of the intensity of the ionizing radiation incident on the detector can be made.

  11. Gated strip proportional detector

    DOEpatents

    Morris, Christopher L.; Idzorek, George C.; Atencio, Leroy G.

    1987-01-01

    A gated strip proportional detector includes a gas tight chamber which encloses a solid ground plane, a wire anode plane, a wire gating plane, and a multiconductor cathode plane. The anode plane amplifies the amount of charge deposited in the chamber by a factor of up to 10.sup.6. The gating plane allows only charge within a narrow strip to reach the cathode. The cathode plane collects the charge allowed to pass through the gating plane on a set of conductors perpendicular to the open-gated region. By scanning the open-gated region across the chamber and reading out the charge collected on the cathode conductors after a suitable integration time for each location of the gate, a two-dimensional image of the intensity of the ionizing radiation incident on the detector can be made.

  12. RESEARCH AREA -- MUNICIPAL WASTE COMBUSTION (AIR POLLUTION TECHNOLOGY BRANCH, AIR POLLUTION PREVENTION AND CONTROL DIVISION, NRMRL)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The municipal waste combustion (MWC) program supports the development of revised rules for air pollutant emissions from the MWC source category. Basic research is performed on MWC pollutant formation and control mechanisms for acid gas, trace organic, and trace metal emissions. T...

  13. Clearing the Air: The Impact of the Clean Air Act on Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Redmond, John C., Ed.; And Others

    This compendium has been prepared to summarize the notable aspects of the U. S. Clear Air Amendments of 1970 for members of the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers and others. The work is not a complete explanation of the law and all of its ramifications; it is, rather, an expedient means to gain rapid insight into the more…

  14. The Impact of Emerging Technologies on Future Air Capabilities

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1999-12-01

    ferroelectric FPAs (60). More advanced FPA technologies include quantum well IR photodetectors ( QWIPS ) and strained layer superlattices. Significant...microspacecraft. Expected benefits include enhanced handling qualities, vibration suppression, alleviation of noise and vibration and monitoring of vehicle...of fatigue loads, cabin vibration and both internal and external noise , as well as contributing to enhanced handling. This would result in better

  15. Air Force Manufacturing Technology. Year 2000 Project Book

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-01-01

    Electronic Warfare Component Manufacturing 13 National Center for Manufacturing Science 14 Product Research Market Analysis System 15 Electronics Acoustic...other agile organizations that can respond to rapidly changing market demands. Approach This program demonstrated and evaluated the advanced design...production worker contact with customers and suppliers; shopfloor identification of new technologies, markets , and products; and strategic planning to assure

  16. The role of technology as air transportation faces the fuel situation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Driver, C.

    1980-01-01

    Perspectives on the air transportation fuel stituation are discussed including intercity air traffic, airline fuel consumption, fuel price effects on ticket price, and projected traffic and fuel useage between now and the year 2000. Actions taken by the airlines to reduce consumption are reviewed, as well as efforts currently underway to improve fuel consumption. Longer range technology payoffs resulting from NASA research programs are reviewed and results from studies on the use of alternate fuels are discussed.

  17. Neuro-Linguistic Programming: Human Technology for Today’s Air Force.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-04-01

    Part III, pp. 4-5. ’ 26. Ibid, p. 6. 27. Donald W. McCormick, " Neurolinguistic Programming : A Resource Guide and Review of the Research, The 1984...Carol Johnson, " Neurolinguistic Programming --Mystique or Mistake?" Army Organizational Effectiveness Journal, No. 1, 1985, pp. 74-80. 29. Dilts...AD-RI67 836 NEURO-LINGUISTIC PROGRAMMING : HUHAN TECHNOLOGY FOR / TODAY’S AIR FORCEMU AIR COMMAND ANM STAFF COLL NAXHELL AFB AL J B CAULFIELD APR 86

  18. Air and Water System (AWS) Design and Technology Selection for the Vision for Space Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Harry; Kliss, Mark

    2005-01-01

    This paper considers technology selection for the crew air and water recycling systems to be used in long duration human space exploration. The specific objectives are to identify the most probable air and water technologies for the vision for space exploration and to identify the alternate technologies that might be developed. The approach is to conduct a preliminary first cut systems engineering analysis, beginning with the Air and Water System (AWS) requirements and the system mass balance, and then define the functional architecture, review the International Space Station (ISS) technologies, and discuss alternate technologies. The life support requirements for air and water are well known. The results of the mass flow and mass balance analysis help define the system architectural concept. The AWS includes five subsystems: Oxygen Supply, Condensate Purification, Urine Purification, Hygiene Water Purification, and Clothes Wash Purification. AWS technologies have been evaluated in the life support design for ISS node 3, and in earlier space station design studies, in proposals for the upgrade or evolution of the space station, and in studies of potential lunar or Mars missions. The leading candidate technologies for the vision for space exploration are those planned for Node 3 of the ISS. The ISS life support was designed to utilize Space Station Freedom (SSF) hardware to the maximum extent possible. The SSF final technology selection process, criteria, and results are discussed. Would it be cost-effective for the vision for space exploration to develop alternate technology? This paper will examine this and other questions associated with AWS design and technology selection.

  19. Oil/Water Emulsion and Aqueous Film Forming Foam (AFFF) Treatment Using Air-Sparged Hydrocyclone Technology

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-01-01

    Aqueous Film Forming Foam ( AFFF ) Treatment Using Air-Sparged Hydrocyclone Technology January 2003 Report Documentation Page Form ApprovedOMB No. 0704...2003 to 00-00-2003 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Oil/Water Emulsion and Aqueous Film Forming Foam ( AFFF ) Treatment Using Air-Sparged Hydrocyclone Technology...ACRONYMS AFB Air Force Base AFFF Aqueous Film Forming Foam AFRL Air Force Research Laboratory ASH

  20. Technology and the Evolution of the Strategic Air Command and the Air Force Space Command.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-04-01

    agree for the most part that technology is having a major effect upon national security and that it should be encouraged and even pushed in the key areas... effecting defense. (7 :7 ) America’s leadership is linked directly to its ability to adapt to technological innovations which have improved its...naviq,.tion, propulsion systems, electronic warfare systems, Ladars, and cockpit controls and displays much work still needs to be done. Pave Pillar is

  1. Bringing hands-on exploration of air quality technology to the ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This is an educational presentation to the OAQPS Teachers Workshop on the PM sensor kit and other related air technology educational activities. This workshop for teachers and other educators includes topics, such as: how EPA manages air quality, the environmental health effects and risks of air pollution, climate change, and sustainability solutions and more. Attendees will also build a DYI Sensor kit and explore energy choices and the environment when they play the interactive board game developed by EPA scientists called Generate! This workshop for teachers and other educators includes topics, such as: how EPA manages air quality, the environmental health effects and risks of air pollution, climate change and sustainability and more. Attendees will also build a DYI Sensor kit and explore energy choices and the environment when they play the interactive board game developed by EPA scientists called Generate!

  2. Overview of air biofiltration - basic technology, economics and integration with other control technologies for effective treatment of air toxics

    SciTech Connect

    Govind, R.; Bishop, D.F.

    1996-12-31

    This paper provides an overview of air biofiltration with experimental data on the performance of peat/compost, pelletized packed bed and structured media biofilters. It is shown that use of high surface area per unit volume structured media results in higher contaminant treatment rates per unit biofilter volume. Peat/compost biofilters exhibit lower removal efficiencies at high (> 100 ppmv) inlet contaminant concentrations and require control of media moisture content. Increase of temperature results in increasing biodegradation rates. It is shown that use of structured ceramic media allows effective control of biomass buildup by continuous removal of biomass from the biofilter mediamore » and that the biomass removal rate depends on nutrient flowrate. An experimental system is presented which enables biofilm kinetics to be determined and a simple biofilter model is developed in this paper. A group contribution approach has been developed to estimate biokinetic parameter which allows biofiltration effectiveness to be determined for a variety of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Finally, a procedure is presented, illustrated by an example, which is used to develop an integrated process for effective treatment of air contaminants. 22 refs., 12 figs., 4 tabs.« less

  3. Nanoscale Test Strips for Multiplexed Blood Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chan, Eugene

    2015-01-01

    A critical component of the DNA Medicine Institute's Reusable Handheld Electrolyte and Lab Technology for Humans (rHEALTH) sensor are nanoscale test strips, or nanostrips, that enable multiplexed blood analysis. Nanostrips are conceptually similar to the standard urinalysis test strip, but the strips are shrunk down a billionfold to the microscale. Each nanostrip can have several sensor pads that fluoresce in response to different targets in a sample. The strips carry identification tags that permit differentiation of a specific panel from hundreds of other nanostrip panels during a single measurement session. In Phase I of the project, the company fabricated, tested, and demonstrated functional parathyroid hormone and vitamin D nanostrips for bone metabolism, and thrombin aptamer and immunoglobulin G antibody nanostrips. In Phase II, numerous nanostrips were developed to address key space flight-based medical needs: assessment of bone metabolism, immune response, cardiac status, liver metabolism, and lipid profiles. This unique approach holds genuine promise for space-based portable biodiagnostics and for point-of-care (POC) health monitoring and diagnostics here on Earth.

  4. CO2 Capture from the Air: Technology Assessment and Implications for Climate Policy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keith, D. W.

    2002-05-01

    It is physically possible to capture CO2 directly from the air and immobilize it in geological structures. Today, there are no large-scale technologies that achieve air capture at reasonable cost. Yet, strong arguments suggest that it will comparatively easy to develop practical air capture technologies on the timescales relevant to climate policy [1]. This paper first analyzes the cost of air capture and then assesses the implications for climate policy. We first analyze the lower bound on the cost needed for air capture, describing the thermodynamic and physical limits to the use of energy and land. We then compare the costs of air capture to the cost of capture from combustion exhaust streams. While the intrinsic minimum energy requirement is larger for air capture, we argue that air capture has important structural advantages, such as the reduction of transport costs and the larger potential for economies of scale. These advantages suggest that, in the long-run air capture be competitive with other methods of achieving deep emissions reductions. We provide a preliminary engineering-economic analysis of an air capture system based on CaO to CaCO3 chemical looping [1]. We analyze the possibility of doing the calcination in a modified pressurized fluidized bed combustor (PFBC) burning coal in a CO2 rich atmosphere with oxygen supplied by an air separation unit. The CaCO3-to-coal ratio would be ~2:1 and the system would be nearly thermally neutral. PFBC systems have been demonstrated at capacities of over 100 MW. Such systems already include CaCO3 injection for sulfur control, and operate at suitable temperatures and pressures for calcination. We assess the potential to recover heat from the dissolution of CaO in order to reduce the overall energy requirements. We analyze the possibility of adapting existing large water/air heat exchangers for use as contacting systems to capture CO2 from the air using the calcium hydroxide solution. The implications of air capture

  5. Microtube strip heat exchanger

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doty, F. D.

    1991-07-01

    During the last quarter, Doty Scientific, Inc. (DSI) continued to make progress on the microtube strip (MTS) heat exchanger. The DSI completed a heat exchanger stress analysis of the ten-module heat exchanger bank; and performed a shell-side flow inhomogeneity analysis of the three-module heat exchanger bank. The company produced 50 tubestrips using an in-house CNC milling machine and began pressing them onto tube arrays. The DSI revised some of the tooling required to encapsulate a tube array and press tubestrips into the array to improve some of the prototype tooling.

  6. Preliminary Design and Evaluation of Portable Electronic Flight Progress Strips

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doble, Nathan A.; Hansman, R. John

    2002-01-01

    There has been growing interest in using electronic alternatives to the paper Flight Progress Strip (FPS) for air traffic control. However, most research has been centered on radar-based control environments, and has not considered the unique operational needs of the airport air traffic control tower. Based on an analysis of the human factors issues for control tower Decision Support Tool (DST) interfaces, a requirement has been identified for an interaction mechanism which replicates the advantages of the paper FPS (e.g., head-up operation, portability) but also enables input and output with DSTs. An approach has been developed which uses a Portable Electronic FPS that has attributes of both a paper strip and an electronic strip. The prototype flight strip system uses Personal Digital Assistants (PDAs) to replace individual paper strips in addition to a central management interface which is displayed on a desktop computer. Each PDA is connected to the management interface via a wireless local area network. The Portable Electronic FPSs replicate the core functionality of paper flight strips and have additional features which provide a heads-up interface to a DST. A departure DST is used as a motivating example. The central management interface is used for aircraft scheduling and sequencing and provides an overview of airport departure operations. This paper will present the design of the Portable Electronic FPS system as well as preliminary evaluation results.

  7. Progress in aeronautical research and technology applicable to civil air transports

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bower, R. E.

    1981-01-01

    Recent progress in the aeronautical research and technology program being conducted by the United States National Aeronautics and Space Administration is discussed. Emphasis is on computational capability, new testing facilities, drag reduction, turbofan and turboprop propulsion, noise, composite materials, active controls, integrated avionics, cockpit displays, flight management, and operating problems. It is shown that this technology is significantly impacting the efficiency of the new civil air transports. The excitement of emerging research promises even greater benefits to future aircraft developments.

  8. An Analysis of Career Progression Rates of Civilian Graduates of the Air Force Institute of Technology

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-09-01

    occurs at the point at which supplementary schooling is likely to convey job relevant skills. (17:715) Ariss and Timmins conducted a study to determine if...Hall, 1985) and reported by Ariss and Timmins in Public Personnel Management (3:3) also showed employees with 14 master’s degrees performed no better...Technology. 1993S/D Graduate Proarams Handbook. Air Force Institute of Technology (AU): Wright-Patterson AFB OH, 1992. 3. Ariss , Sonny S. and Sherman

  9. Strip casting apparatus and method

    DOEpatents

    Williams, R.S.; Baker, D.F.

    1988-09-20

    Strip casting apparatus including a molten-metal-holding container and a nozzle to deposit molten metal onto a moving chill drum to directly cast continuous metallic strip. The nozzle body includes a slot bounded between a back and a front lip. The slot width exceeds about 20 times the gap distance between the nozzle and the chill drum surface. Preferably, the slot width exceeds 0.5 inch. This method of strip casting minimizes pressure drop, insuring better metal-to-chill-drum contact which promotes heat transfer and results in a better quality metallic strip. 6 figs.

  10. Strip casting apparatus and method

    DOEpatents

    Williams, Robert S.; Baker, Donald F.

    1988-01-01

    Strip casting apparatus including a molten-metal-holding container and a nozzle to deposit molten metal onto a moving chill drum to directly cast continuous metallic strip. The nozzle body includes a slot bounded between a back and a front lip. The slot width exceeds about 20 times the gap distance between the nozzle and the chill drum surface. Preferably, the slot width exceeds 0.5 inch. This method of strip casting minimizes pressure drop, insuring better metal-to-chill-drum contact which promotes heat transfer and results in a better quality metallic strip.

  11. Analysis of Modes in an Unstable Strip Laser Resonator.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-12-01

    1977. 9. Siegman , A.E. "Unstable Optical Resonators for Laser Applications",Proceedings of the IEEE,53(3),277-287, March 1965. 10.------- "Unstable...7 AD-AO94 722 AIR FORCE INST OF TECH WRIGHT-PATTERSON AFB OH SCHOO--ETC F/6 20/5 ANALYSIS OF MODES IN AN UNSTABLE STRIP LASER RESONATORJ(U...Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio 81 2 09 018 AFIT/GEP/PH/801D-7 ANALYSIS OF ,ODES -’ IN AN JJNSTABLE STRIP LASER 3ESONATOR. THESIS AFIT/GEP/PH/800-7 James

  12. ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION REPORT, PAINT OVERSPRAY ARRESTOR, PUROLATOR PRODUCTS AIR FILTRATION COMPANY, DMK804404 AND PB2424

    EPA Science Inventory

    Paint overspray arrestors (POAs) were evaluated by the Air Pollution Control Technology (APCT) pilot of the Environmental Technology Verification (ETV) Program. The performance factor verified was the particle filtration efficiency as a function of size for particles smaller than...

  13. Advanced Air Transportation Technologies (AATT) Project: Distributed Air-Ground Traffic Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mogford, Richard; Green, Steve; Ballin, Mark

    2002-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation provides an overview of active Distributed Air Ground Traffic Management (DAG-TM) work and reported on its overall progress to date. It does not include details on the concept elements (CEs).The DAG-TM research project is defined as a concept development and definition project and no tools will be delivered. Of the 14 CEs, three are being explored actively: CE-5, CE-6, and CE-11. Overviews of CE-5 (Free Maneuvering for User-Preferred Separation Assurance and Local TFM Conformance), CE-6 (En Route and Transition Trajectory Negotiation for User-Preferred Separation and Local TFM Conformance) and CE-11 (Self-Spacing for Merging and In-Trail Separation) are presented.

  14. Electronic rumble strip

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stauffer, Donald R.; Lenz, James

    1997-02-01

    Single vehicle run-off-road accidents are responsible for significant numbers of injuries and fatalities, and significant property damage. This fact spurs interest in warning systems to alert drivers that vehicles are drifting towards the edge of the road, and that a run-off road accident is imminent. An early attempt at such a warning system is the use of machined grooves on the shoulder to create a rumble strip. Such a system only provides warning, however, as the vehicle actually leaves the traffic lane. More desirable is a system that warns in anticipation of such departure. Honeywell has under development a magnetic lateral guidance system that couples a sensitive magnetoresistive transducer with a magnetic traffic marking tape being developed by 3M. While this development was initially undertaken for use in automated highways, or for special tasks such as guiding snowplow owners, the system can provide an effective, all-weather warning system to provide alert of impending departure from the roadway. This electronic rumble strip is actually a simpler system than the baseline guidance system, and can monitor both distance from the traffic lane edge and the speed of approach to the edge with a low cost sensor.

  15. Evaluating the Air Quality, Climate Change, and Economic Impacts of Biogas Management Technologies

    EPA Science Inventory

    This is an abstract for a presentation that describes a project to evaluate economic and environmental performance of several biogas management technologies. It will analyze various criteria air pollutants, greenhouse gas emissions, and costs associated with the use of biogas. Th...

  16. The Citizen Science Toolbox: A One-Stop Resource for Air Sensor Technology

    EPA Science Inventory

    The air sensor technology market is exploding with new sensors in all kinds of forms. Developers are putting sensors in wristbands, headphones, and cell phone add-ons. Small, portable and lower-cost measurement devices using sensors are coming on the market with a wide variety of...

  17. Investigation of air transportation technology at Princeton University, 1990-1991

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stengel, Robert F.

    1991-01-01

    The Air Transportation Technology Program at Princeton University is a program that emphasizes graduate and undergraduate student research. The program proceeded along six avenues during the past year: microburst hazards to aircraft, intelligent failure tolerant control, computer-aided heuristics for piloted flight, stochastic robustness of flight control systems, neural networks for flight control, and computer-aided control system design.

  18. In depth review of the 1979 AIAA Lighter-Than-Air Systems Technology Conference

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ardema, M. D.

    1979-01-01

    The lighter than air (LTA) systems technology conference is reviewed. Highlights of the conference were: (1) the interest shown in patrol and surveillance airships, particularly for coastal patrol missions; (2) the session devoted to overviews of foreign activity; and (3) heavy lift and long range transport aircraft design considerations.

  19. Hot-Air Balloons: Project-Centered Study as a Bridge between Science and Technology Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barak, Moshe; Raz, Eli

    2000-01-01

    Describes the development of a project-based unit on hot-air balloons used with Israeli junior high school students. Concludes that students in the program gained experience with high-level scientific principles and technological processes, the project allows for a learning environment of cooperation and teamwork, and collaboration between…

  20. A Distributed Simulation Facility to Support Human Factors Research in Advanced Air Transportation Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Amonlirdviman, Keith; Farley, Todd C.; Hansman, R. John, Jr.; Ladik, John F.; Sherer, Dana Z.

    1998-01-01

    A distributed real-time simulation of the civil air traffic environment developed to support human factors research in advanced air transportation technology is presented. The distributed environment is based on a custom simulation architecture designed for simplicity and flexibility in human experiments. Standard Internet protocols are used to create the distributed environment, linking all advanced cockpit simulator, all Air Traffic Control simulator, and a pseudo-aircraft control and simulation management station. The pseudo-aircraft control station also functions as a scenario design tool for coordinating human factors experiments. This station incorporates a pseudo-pilot interface designed to reduce workload for human operators piloting multiple aircraft simultaneously in real time. The application of this distributed simulation facility to support a study of the effect of shared information (via air-ground datalink) on pilot/controller shared situation awareness and re-route negotiation is also presented.

  1. Soil-based filtration technology for air purification: potentials for environmental and space life support application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, Mark; Bohn, Hinrich

    Soil biofiltration, also known as Soil bed reactor (SBR), technology was originally developed in Germany to take advantage of the diversity in microbial mechanisms to control gases producing malodor in industrial processes. The approach has since gained wider international acceptance and seen numerous improvements, for example, by the use of high-organic compost beds to maximize microbial processes. This paper reviews the basic mechanisms which underlay soil processes involved in air purification, advantages and limitations of the technology and the cur-rent research status of the approach. Soil biofiltration has lower capital and operating/energetic costs than conventional technologies and is well adapted to handle contaminants in moderate concentrations. The systems can be engineered to optimize efficiency though manipulation of temperature, pH, moisture content, soil organic matter and airflow rates. SBR technology was modified for application in the Biosphere 2 project, which demonstrated in preparatory research with a number of closed system testbeds that soil could also support crop plants while also serving as soil filters with air pumps to push air through the soil. This Biosphere 2 research demonstrated in several closed system testbeds that a number of important trace gases could be kept under control and led to the engineering of the entire agricultural soil of Biosphere 2 to serve as a soil filtration unit for the facility. Soil biofiltration, coupled with food crop produc-tion, as a component of bioregenerative space life support systems has the advantages of lower energy use and avoidance of the consumables required for other air purification approaches. Expanding use of soil biofiltration can aid a number of environmental applications, from the mitigation of indoor air pollution, improvement of industrial air emissions and prevention of accidental release of toxic gases.

  2. Generic aspects of the airborne spread of human pathogens indoors and emerging air decontamination technologies.

    PubMed

    Ijaz, M Khalid; Zargar, Bahram; Wright, Kathryn E; Rubino, Joseph R; Sattar, Syed A

    2016-09-02

    Indoor air can be an important vehicle for a variety of human pathogens. This review provides examples of airborne transmission of infectious agents from experimental and field studies and discusses how airborne pathogens can contaminate other parts of the environment to give rise to secondary vehicles leading air-surface-air nexus with possible transmission to susceptible hosts. The following groups of human pathogens are covered because of their known or potential airborne spread: vegetative bacteria (staphylococci and legionellae), fungi (Aspergillus, Penicillium, and Cladosporium spp and Stachybotrys chartarum), enteric viruses (noro- and rotaviruses), respiratory viruses (influenza and coronaviruses), mycobacteria (tuberculous and nontuberculous), and bacterial spore formers (Clostridium difficile and Bacillus anthracis). An overview of methods for experimentally generating and recovering airborne human pathogens is included, along with a discussion of factors that influence microbial survival in indoor air. Available guidelines from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and other global regulatory bodies for the study of airborne pathogens are critically reviewed with particular reference to microbial surrogates that are recommended. Recent developments in experimental facilities to contaminate indoor air with microbial aerosols are presented, along with emerging technologies to decontaminate indoor air under field-relevant conditions. Furthermore, the role that air decontamination may play in reducing the contamination of environmental surfaces and its combined impact on interrupting the risk of pathogen spread in both domestic and institutional settings is discussed. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  3. A Suggested Approach for Producing VAMS Air Transportation System Technology Roadmaps

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weathers, Del

    2002-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation provides an overview on the use of technology 'roadmaps' in order to facilitate the research development of VAMS (Virtual Airspace Modeling and Simulation). These roadmaps are to be produced by each concept team, updated annually, discussed at the technical interchange meetings (TIMs), shared among all VAMS participants, and made available electronically. These concept-specific technology roadmaps will be subsequently blended into an integrated catalog of roadmaps, technical discussions, and research recommendations. A historical example of ATM (Air Traffic Management) research and technology from 1940 to 1999 as shown in a series of 'roadmaps' is also included.

  4. An Introduction to Intelligent Processing Programs Developed by the Air Force Manufacturing Technology Directorate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sampson, Paul G.; Sny, Linda C.

    1992-01-01

    The Air Force has numerous on-going manufacturing and integration development programs (machine tools, composites, metals, assembly, and electronics) which are instrumental in improving productivity in the aerospace industry, but more importantly, have identified strategies and technologies required for the integration of advanced processing equipment. An introduction to four current Air Force Manufacturing Technology Directorate (ManTech) manufacturing areas is provided. Research is being carried out in the following areas: (1) machining initiatives for aerospace subcontractors which provide for advanced technology and innovative manufacturing strategies to increase the capabilities of small shops; (2) innovative approaches to advance machine tool products and manufacturing processes; (3) innovative approaches to advance sensors for process control in machine tools; and (4) efforts currently underway to develop, with the support of industry, the Next Generation Workstation/Machine Controller (Low-End Controller Task).

  5. Air Force Research Laboratory space technology strategic investment model: analysis and outcomes for warfighter capabilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Preiss, Bruce; Greene, Lloyd; Kriebel, Jamie; Wasson, Robert

    2006-05-01

    The Air Force Research Laboratory utilizes a value model as a primary input for space technology planning and budgeting. The Space Sector at AFRL headquarters manages space technology investment across all the geographically disparate technical directorates and ensures that integrated planning is achieved across the space community. The space investment portfolio must ultimately balance near, mid, and far-term investments across all the critical space mission areas. Investment levels and growth areas can always be identified by a typical capability analysis or gap analysis, but the value model approach goes one step deeper and helps identify the potential payoff of technology investments by linking the technology directly to an existing or potential concept. The value of the technology is then viewed from the enabling performance perspective of the concept that ultimately fulfills the Air Force mission. The process of linking space technologies to future concepts and technology roadmaps will be reviewed in this paper, along with representative results from this planning cycle. The initial assumptions in this process will be identified along with the strengths and weaknesses of this planning methodology.

  6. Design of portable rumble strips.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2006-12-01

    "In 2003, the states involved in the Midwest Smart Work Zone Deployment Initiative identified : portable rumble strips (i.e., rumble strips that require no adhesive or fasteners, making them : applicable for very short term work zones) as a high prio...

  7. Microtube strip heat exchanger

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doty, F. D.

    1990-12-01

    Doty Scientific (DSI) believes their microtube-strip heat exchanger will contribute significantly to the following: (1) the closed Brayton cycles being pursued at MIT, NASA, and elsewhere; (2) reverse Brayton cycle cryocoolers, currently being investigated by NASA for space missions, being applied to MRI superconducting magnets; and (3) high-efficiency cryogenic gas separation schemes for CO2 removal from exhaust stacks. The goal of this current study is to show the potential for substantial progress in high-effectiveness, low-cost, gas-to-gas heat exchangers for diverse applications at temperatures from below 100 K to above 1000 K. To date, the highest effectiveness measured is about 98 percent and relative pressure drops below 0.1 percent with a specific conductance of about 45 W/kgK are reported. During the pre-award period DSI built and tested a 3-module heat exchanger bank using 103-tube microtube strip (MTS) modules. To add to their analytical capabilities, DSI has acquired computational fluid dynamics (CFD) software. This report describes the pre-award work and the status of the ten tasks of the current project, which are: analyze flow distribution and thermal stresses within individual modules; design a heat exchanger bank of ten modules with 400 microtube per module; obtain production quality tubestrip die and AISI 304 tubestrips; obtain production quality microtubing; construct revised MTS heat exchanger; construct dies and fixtures for prototype heat exchanger; construct 100 MTS modules; assemble 8 to 10 prototype MTS heat exchangers; test prototype MTS heat exchanger; and verify test through independent means.

  8. Slow Dynamics Model of Compressed Air Energy Storage and Battery Storage Technologies for Automatic Generation Control

    SciTech Connect

    Krishnan, Venkat; Das, Trishna

    Increasing variable generation penetration and the consequent increase in short-term variability makes energy storage technologies look attractive, especially in the ancillary market for providing frequency regulation services. This paper presents slow dynamics model for compressed air energy storage and battery storage technologies that can be used in automatic generation control studies to assess the system frequency response and quantify the benefits from storage technologies in providing regulation service. The paper also represents the slow dynamics model of the power system integrated with storage technologies in a complete state space form. The storage technologies have been integrated to the IEEE 24more » bus system with single area, and a comparative study of various solution strategies including transmission enhancement and combustion turbine have been performed in terms of generation cycling and frequency response performance metrics.« less

  9. CONTACT: An Air Force technical report on military satellite control technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weakley, Christopher K.

    1993-07-01

    This technical report focuses on Military Satellite Control Technologies and their application to the Air Force Satellite Control Network (AFSCN). This report is a compilation of articles that provide an overview of the AFSCN and the Advanced Technology Program, and discusses relevant technical issues and developments applicable to the AFSCN. Among the topics covered are articles on Future Technology Projections; Future AFSCN Topologies; Modeling of the AFSCN; Wide Area Communications Technology Evolution; Automating AFSCN Resource Scheduling; Health & Status Monitoring at Remote Tracking Stations; Software Metrics and Tools for Measuring AFSCN Software Performance; Human-Computer Interface Working Group; Trusted Systems Workshop; and the University Technical Interaction Program. In addition, Key Technology Area points of contact are listed in the report.

  10. Sustainable in-well vapor stripping: A design, analytical model, and pilot study for groundwater remediation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sutton, Patrick T.; Ginn, Timothy R.

    2014-12-01

    A sustainable in-well vapor stripping system is designed as a cost-effective alternative for remediation of shallow chlorinated solvent groundwater plumes. A solar-powered air compressor is used to inject air bubbles into a monitoring well to strip volatile organic compounds from a liquid to vapor phase while simultaneously inducing groundwater circulation around the well screen. An analytical model of the remediation process is developed to estimate contaminant mass flow and removal rates. The model was calibrated based on a one-day pilot study conducted in an existing monitoring well at a former dry cleaning site. According to the model, induced groundwater circulation at the study site increased the contaminant mass flow rate into the well by approximately two orders of magnitude relative to ambient conditions. Modeled estimates for 5 h of pulsed air injection per day at the pilot study site indicated that the average effluent concentrations of dissolved tetrachloroethylene and trichloroethylene can be reduced by over 90% relative to the ambient concentrations. The results indicate that the system could be used cost-effectively as either a single- or multi-well point technology to substantially reduce the mass of dissolved chlorinated solvents in groundwater.

  11. Sustainable in-well vapor stripping: A design, analytical model, and pilot study for groundwater remediation.

    PubMed

    Sutton, Patrick T; Ginn, Timothy R

    2014-12-15

    A sustainable in-well vapor stripping system is designed as a cost-effective alternative for remediation of shallow chlorinated solvent groundwater plumes. A solar-powered air compressor is used to inject air bubbles into a monitoring well to strip volatile organic compounds from a liquid to vapor phase while simultaneously inducing groundwater circulation around the well screen. An analytical model of the remediation process is developed to estimate contaminant mass flow and removal rates. The model was calibrated based on a one-day pilot study conducted in an existing monitoring well at a former dry cleaning site. According to the model, induced groundwater circulation at the study site increased the contaminant mass flow rate into the well by approximately two orders of magnitude relative to ambient conditions. Modeled estimates for 5h of pulsed air injection per day at the pilot study site indicated that the average effluent concentrations of dissolved tetrachloroethylene and trichloroethylene can be reduced by over 90% relative to the ambient concentrations. The results indicate that the system could be used cost-effectively as either a single- or multi-well point technology to substantially reduce the mass of dissolved chlorinated solvents in groundwater. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Bismuth-based electrochemical stripping analysis

    DOEpatents

    Wang, Joseph

    2004-01-27

    Method and apparatus for trace metal detection and analysis using bismuth-coated electrodes and electrochemical stripping analysis. Both anodic stripping voltammetry and adsorptive stripping analysis may be employed.

  13. Identification of Air Force Emerging Technologies and Militarily Significant Emerging Technologies.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-08-31

    taking an integrated approach to avionics and EU, the various sensors and receivers on the aircraft can time-share the use of common signal processors...functions mentioned above has required, in addition to a separate sensor or antenna, a totally independent electronics suite. Many of the advanced...Classification A3. IMAGING SENSOR AUTOPROCESSOR The Air Force has contracted with Rockwell International and Honeywell in this work. Rockwell’s work is

  14. Key Metrics and Goals for NASA's Advanced Air Transportation Technologies Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaplan, Bruce; Lee, David

    1998-01-01

    NASA's Advanced Air Transportation Technologies (AATT) program is developing a set of decision support tools to aid air traffic service providers, pilots, and airline operations centers in improving operations of the National Airspace System (NAS). NASA needs a set of unifying metrics to tie these efforts together, which it can use to track the progress of the AATT program and communicate program objectives and status within NASA and to stakeholders in the NAS. This report documents the results of our efforts and the four unifying metrics we recommend for the AATT program. They are: airport peak capacity, on-route sector capacity, block time and fuel, and free flight-enabling.

  15. Controlling air pollution from passenger ferries: cost-effectiveness of seven technological options.

    PubMed

    Farrell, Alexander E; Corbett, James J; Winebrake, James J

    2002-12-01

    Continued interest in improving air quality in the United States along with renewed interest in the expansion of urban passenger ferry service has created concern about air pollution from ferry vessels. This paper presents a methodology for estimating the air pollution emissions from passenger ferries and the costs of emissions control strategies. The methodology is used to estimate the emissions and costs of retrofitting or re-powering ferries with seven technological options (combinations of propulsion and emission control systems) onto three vessels currently in service in San Francisco Bay. The technologies include improved engine design, cleaner fuels (including natural gas), and exhaust gas cleanup devices. The three vessels span a range of ages and technologies, from a 25-year-old monohull to a modern, high-speed catamaran built only four years ago. By looking at a range of technologies, vessel designs, and service conditions, a sense of the broader implications of controlling emissions from passenger ferries across a range of vessels and service profiles is provided. Tier 2-certified engines are the most cost-effective choice, but all options are cost-effective relative to other emission control strategies already in place in the transportation system.

  16. Range gated strip proximity sensor

    DOEpatents

    McEwan, T.E.

    1996-12-03

    A range gated strip proximity sensor uses one set of sensor electronics and a distributed antenna or strip which extends along the perimeter to be sensed. A micro-power RF transmitter is coupled to the first end of the strip and transmits a sequence of RF pulses on the strip to produce a sensor field along the strip. A receiver is coupled to the second end of the strip, and generates a field reference signal in response to the sequence of pulse on the line combined with received electromagnetic energy from reflections in the field. The sensor signals comprise pulses of radio frequency signals having a duration of less than 10 nanoseconds, and a pulse repetition rate on the order of 1 to 10 MegaHertz or less. The duration of the radio frequency pulses is adjusted to control the range of the sensor. An RF detector feeds a filter capacitor in response to received pulses on the strip line to produce a field reference signal representing the average amplitude of the received pulses. When a received pulse is mixed with a received echo, the mixing causes a fluctuation in the amplitude of the field reference signal, providing a range-limited Doppler type signature of a field disturbance. 6 figs.

  17. Range gated strip proximity sensor

    DOEpatents

    McEwan, Thomas E.

    1996-01-01

    A range gated strip proximity sensor uses one set of sensor electronics and a distributed antenna or strip which extends along the perimeter to be sensed. A micro-power RF transmitter is coupled to the first end of the strip and transmits a sequence of RF pulses on the strip to produce a sensor field along the strip. A receiver is coupled to the second end of the strip, and generates a field reference signal in response to the sequence of pulse on the line combined with received electromagnetic energy from reflections in the field. The sensor signals comprise pulses of radio frequency signals having a duration of less than 10 nanoseconds, and a pulse repetition rate on the order of 1 to 10 MegaHertz or less. The duration of the radio frequency pulses is adjusted to control the range of the sensor. An RF detector feeds a filter capacitor in response to received pulses on the strip line to produce a field reference signal representing the average amplitude of the received pulses. When a received pulse is mixed with a received echo, the mixing causes a fluctuation in the amplitude of the field reference signal, providing a range-limited Doppler type signature of a field disturbance.

  18. NASA/Air Force/Environmental Protection Agency Interagency Depainting Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark-Ingram, Marceia

    1998-01-01

    Many popular and widely used paint stripping products have traditionally contained methylene chloride as their main active ingredient. However, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has critically curved the allowable use of methylene chloride under the National Emission Standard for Hazardous Air Pollutants regulating Aerospace Manufacturing and Rework Facilities . Compliance with this rule was mandatory by September 1998 for affected facilities. An effort is underway to identify and evaluate alternative depainting technologies emphasizing those believed both effective and environmentally benign. On behalf of the EPA and in cooperation with the United States Air Force, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration is conducting a technical assessment of several alternative technologies ( i.e. : chemical stripping, two CO2 blasting processes, CO2 xenon lamp coating removal, CO2 Laser stripping, plastic media blasting, sodium bicarbonate wet stripping, high pressure water stripping, and wheat starch blasting). These depainting processes represent five removal method categories, namely abrasive, impact, cryogenic, thermal, and/or molecular bonding dissociation. This paper discusses the test plan and parameters for this interagency study. Several thicknesses of clad and non-clad aluminum substrates were used to prepare test specimens. Each depainting process has been assigned a specimen lot, all of which have completed three to five stripping cycles. Numerous metallurgical evaluations are underway to assess the impact of these alternative depainting processes upon the structural integrity of the substrate.

  19. Cleaning mechanism of particle contaminants on large aperture optical components by using air knife sweeping technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niu, Longfei; Liu, Hao; Miao, Xinxiang; Lv, Haibing; Yuan, Xiaodong; Zhou, Hai; Yao, Caizhen; Zhou, Guorui; Li, Qin

    2017-05-01

    The cleaning mechanism of optical surface particle contaminants in the light pneumatic tube was simulated based on the static equations and JKR model. Cleaning verification experiment based on air knife sweeping system and on-line monitoring system in high power laser facility was set up in order to verify the simulated results. Results showed that the removal ratio is significantly influenced by sweeping velocity and angle. The removal ratio can reach to 94.3% by using higher input pressure of the air knife, demonstrating that the air knife sweeping technology is useful for maintaining the surface cleanliness of optical elements, and thus guaranteeing the long-term stable running of the high power laser facility.

  20. The Panda Strip Asic: Pasta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lai, A.

    2018-01-01

    PASTA is the 64 channel front-end chip, designed in a 110 nm CMOS technology to read out the strip sensors of the Micro Vertex Detector (MVD) of the PANDA experiment. This chip provides high resolution timestamp and deposited charge information by means of the time-over-threshold technique. Its working principle is based on a predecessor, the TOFPET ASIC, that was designed for medical applications. A general restructuring of the architecture was needed, in order to meet the specific requirements imposed by the physics programme of PANDA, especially in terms of radiation tolerance, spatial constraints, and readout in absence of a first level hardware trigger. The first revision of PASTA is currently under evaluation at the Forschungszentrum Jülich, where a data acquisition system dedicated to the MVD prototypes has been developed. This paper describes the main aspect of the chip design, gives an overview of the data acquisition system used for the verification, and shows the first results regarding the performance of PASTA.

  1. Analysis/design of strip reinforced random composites (strip hybrids)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamis, C. C.; Sinclair, J. H.

    1978-01-01

    Advanced analysis methods and composite mechanics were applied to a strip-reinforced random composite square panel with fixed ends to illustrate the use of these methods for the a priori assessment of the composite panel when subjected to complex loading conditions. The panel was assumed to be of E-glass random composite. The strips were assumed to be of three advanced unidirectional composites to cover a range of low, intermediate, and high modulus stiffness. The panels were assumed to be subjected to complex loadings to assess their adequacy as load-carrying members in auto body, aircraft engine nacelle and windmill blade applications. The results show that strip hybrid panels can be several times more structurally efficient than the random composite base materials. Some of the results are presented in graphical form and procedures are described for use of these graphs as guides for preliminary design of strip hybrids.

  2. The impact of wood stove technology upgrades on indoor residential air quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, Ryan W.; Leckie, Sara; Millar, Gail; Brauer, Michael

    2009-12-01

    Fine particulate matter (PM 2.5) air pollution has been linked to adverse health impacts, and combustion sources including residential wood-burning may play an important role in some regions. Recent evidence suggests that indoor air quality may improve in homes where older, non-certified wood stoves are exchanged for lower emissions EPA-certified alternatives. As part of a wood stove exchange program in northern British Columbia, Canada, we sampled outdoor and indoor air at 15 homes during 6-day sampling sessions both before and after non-certified wood stoves were exchanged. During each sampling session two consecutive 3-day PM 2.5 samples were collected onto Teflon filters, which were weighed and analyzed for the wood smoke tracer levoglucosan. Residential PM 2.5 infiltration efficiencies ( Finf) were estimated from continuous light scattering measurements made with nephelometers, and estimates of Finf were used to calculate the outdoor- and indoor-generated contributions to indoor air. There was not a consistent relationship between stove technology and outdoor or indoor concentrations of PM 2.5 or levoglucosan. Mean Finf estimates were low and similar during pre- and post-exchange periods (0.32 ± 0.17 and 0.33 ± 0.17, respectively). Indoor sources contributed the majority (˜65%) of the indoor PM 2.5 concentrations, independent of stove technology, although low indoor-outdoor levoglucosan ratios (median ≤ 0.19) and low indoor PM 2.5-levoglucosan correlations ( r ≤ 0.19) suggested that wood smoke was not a major indoor PM 2.5 source in most of these homes. In summary, despite the potential for extensive wood stove exchange programs to reduce outdoor PM 2.5 concentrations in wood smoke-impacted communities, we did not find a consistent relationship between stove technology upgrades and indoor air quality improvements in homes where stoves were exchanged.

  3. Human-Centered Technologies and Procedures for Future Air Traffic Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Philip; Woods, David; McCoy, Elaine; Billings, Charles; Sarter, Nadine; Denning, Rebecca; Dekker, Sidney

    1997-01-01

    The use of various methodologies to predict the impact of future Air Traffic Management (ATM) concepts and technologies is explored. The emphasis has been on the importance of modeling coordination and cooperation among multiple agents within this system, and on understanding how the interactions among these agents will be influenced as new roles, responsibilities, procedures and technologies are introduced. To accomplish this, we have been collecting data on performance under the current air traffic management system, identifying critical problem areas and looking for examples suggestive of general approaches for solving such problems. Using the results of these field studies, we have developed a set of concrete scenarios centered around future designs, and have studied performance in these scenarios with a set of 40 controllers, dispatchers, pilots and traffic managers.

  4. A Review of Monitoring Technologies for Trace Air Contaminants in the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    James, John T.; McCoy, J. Torin

    2004-01-01

    NASA issued a Request For Information (RFI) to identify technologies that might be available to monitor a list of air pollutants in the ISS atmosphere. After NASA received responses to the RFI, an expert panel was assembled to hear presentations from 9 technology proponents. The goal of the panel was to identify technologies that might be suitable for replacement of the current Volatile Organics Analyzer (VOA) within several years. The panelists consisted of 8 experts in analytical chemistry without any links to NASA and 7 people with specific expertise because of their roles in NASA programs. Each technology was scored using a tool that enabled rating of many specific aspects of the technology on a 4-point system. The maturity of the technologies ranged from well-tested instrument packages that had been designed for space applications and were nearly ready for flight to technologies that were untested and speculative in nature. All but one technology involved the use of gas chromatography for separation, and there were various detectors proposed including several mass spectrometers and ion mobility spectrometers. In general there was a tradeoff between large systems with considerable capability to address the target list and smaller systems that had much more limited capability.

  5. Investigation of Air Transportation Technology at Princeton University, 1989-1990

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stengel, Robert F.

    1990-01-01

    The Air Transportation Technology Program at Princeton University proceeded along six avenues during the past year: microburst hazards to aircraft; machine-intelligent, fault tolerant flight control; computer aided heuristics for piloted flight; stochastic robustness for flight control systems; neural networks for flight control; and computer aided control system design. These topics are briefly discussed, and an annotated bibliography of publications that appeared between January 1989 and June 1990 is given.

  6. Energy Horizons: A Science and Technology Vision for Air Force Energy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-04-01

    target energy as a center of gravity. To date , more than 3,000 American Sol- diers and contractors have been killed or wounded protecting supply...failing to comply with a collection of information if it does not display a currently valid OMB control number. 1. REPORT DATE APR 2012 2. REPORT TYPE...3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2012 to 00-00-2012 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Energy Horizons: A Science and Technology Vision for Air Force Energy 5a

  7. The lateral tarsal strip revisited. The enhanced tarsal strip.

    PubMed

    Jordan, D R; Anderson, R L

    1989-04-01

    The lateral tarsal strip procedure was originally designed for the treatment of upper and lower eyelid laxity, or lateral canthal tendon laxity or malposition. Despite the excellent results with a standard tarsal strip procedure for those eyelids with laxity and excess skin, we have encountered a number of patients with lower eyelid or canthal malpositions or both who would benefit from a tarsal strip, but who do not have lax tissues (especially skin), and may in fact have a shortage of skin. These include cases of lower lid retraction or canthal malposition following trauma, blepharoplasty, or other operations, and patients with tendency toward or having cicatricial ectropion. Any anterior lamella removal in such patients would aggravate the lid malposition and weaken the lateral canthal tissues to be sutured. We suggest a modification of the tarsal strip (developed by one of us [R.L.A.]) to treat many such patients without requiring additional anterior lamella (skin graft) or more formidable procedures. We refer to this technique as the "enhanced tarsal strip" technique, and we use this technique more frequently than the original tarsal strip procedure.

  8. Microtube strip heat exchanger

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doty, F. D.

    1991-04-01

    During the last quarter, Doty Scientific, Inc. (DSI) continued to make progress on the microtube strip (MTS) heat exchangers. The team has begun a heat exchanger stress analysis; however, they have been concentrating the bulk of their analytical energies on a computational fluid dynmaics (CFD) model to determine the location and magnitude of shell-side flow maldistribution which decreases heat exchanger effectiveness. DSI received 120 fineblanked tubestrips from Southern Fineblanking (SFB) for manufacturing process development. Both SFB and NIST provided inspection reports of the tubestrips. DSI completed the tooling required to encapsulate a tube array and press tubestrips on the array. Pressing the tubestrips on tube arrays showed design deficiencies both in the tubestrip design and the tooling design. DSI has a number of revisions in process to correct these deficiencies. The research effort has identified a more economical fusible alloy for encapsulating the tube array, and determined the parameters required to successfully encapsulate the tube array with the new alloy. A more compact MTS heat exchanger bank was designed.

  9. Air Traffic Management Technology Demostration: 1 Research and Procedural Testing of Routes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Sara R.; Kibler, Jennifer L.; Hubbs, Clay E.; Smail, James W.

    2015-01-01

    NASA's Air Traffic Management Technology Demonstration-1 (ATD-1) will operationally demonstrate the feasibility of efficient arrival operations combining ground-based and airborne NASA technologies. The ATD-1 integrated system consists of the Traffic Management Advisor with Terminal Metering which generates precise time-based schedules to the runway and merge points; Controller Managed Spacing decision support tools which provide controllers with speed advisories and other information needed to meet the schedule; and Flight deck-based Interval Management avionics and procedures which allow flight crews to adjust their speed to achieve precise relative spacing. Initial studies identified air-ground challenges related to the integration of these three scheduling and spacing technologies, and NASA's airborne spacing algorithm was modified to address some of these challenges. The Research and Procedural Testing of Routes human-in-the-loop experiment was then conducted to assess the performance of the new spacing algorithm. The results of this experiment indicate that the algorithm performed as designed, and the pilot participants found the airborne spacing concept, air-ground procedures, and crew interface to be acceptable. However, the researchers concluded that the data revealed issues with the frequency of speed changes and speed reversals.

  10. Sustainable Water and Energy in Gaza Strip

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamdan, L.; Zarei, M.; Chianelli, R.; Gardner, E.

    2007-12-01

    Shortage of fresh water is a common problem in different areas of the world including the Middle East. Desalination of seawater and brackish water is the cheapest way to obtain fresh water in many regions. This research focuses on the situation in Gaza Strip where there is a severe shortage in the energy and water supply. The depletion of fresh water supplies and lack of wastewater treatments result in environmental problems. A solar powered cogeneration plant producing water and energy is proposed to be a suitable solution for Gaza Strip. Solar energy, using Concentrating Solar thermal Power (CSP) technologies, is used to produce electricity by a steam cycle power plant. Then the steam is directed to a desalination plant where it is used to heat the seawater to obtain freshwater. The main objective of this research is to outline a solution for the water problems in Gaza Strip, which includes a cogeneration (power and water) solar powered plant. The research includes four specific objectives: 1- an environmental and economic comparison between solar and fossil fuel energies; 2- technical details for the cogeneration plant; 3- cost and funding, 4- the benefits.

  11. CLOSED-LOOP STRIPPING ANALYSIS (CLSA) OF ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Synthetic musk compounds have been found in surface water, fish tissues, and human breast milk. Current techniques for separating these compounds from fish tissues require tedious sample clean-upprocedures A simple method for the deterrnination of these compounds in fish tissues has been developed. Closed-loop stripping of saponified fish tissues in a I -L Wheaton purge-and-trap vessel is used to strip compounds with high vapor pressures such as synthetic musks from the matrix onto a solid sorbent (Abselut Nexus). This technique is useful for screening biological tissues that contain lipids for musk compounds. Analytes are desorbed from the sorbent trap sequentially with polar and nonpolar solvents, concentrated, and directly analyzed by high resolution gas chromatography coupled to a mass spectrometer operating in the selected ion monitoring mode. In this paper, we analyzed two homogenized samples of whole fish tissues with spiked synthetic musk compounds using closed-loop stripping analysis (CLSA) and pressurized liquid extraction (PLE). The analytes were not recovered quantitatively but the extraction yield was sufficiently reproducible for at least semi-quantitative purposes (screening). The method was less expensive to implement and required significantly less sample preparation than the PLE technique. The research focused on in the subtasks is the development and application of state-of the-art technologies to meet the needs of the public, Office of Water,

  12. Assessment of stripped asphalt pavement.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1989-01-01

    Many miles of stripped pavement need to be restored to a serviceable condition, but there is no accepted procedure to determine whether the pavement should remain in place or be removed during the rehabilitation process. This report describes the att...

  13. Buffers and vegetative filter strips

    Treesearch

    Matthew J. Helmers; Thomas M. Isenhart; Michael G. Dosskey; Seth M. Dabney

    2008-01-01

    This chapter describes the use of buffers and vegetative filter strips relative to water quality. In particular, we primarily discuss the herbaceous components of the following NRCS Conservation Practice Standards.

  14. Control strip study : interim report.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1972-01-01

    This report is concerned with the application of the "control strip" technique using nuclear devices for compaction control of certain base courses and asphaltic concrete surface course. The technique, as evaluated here, consisted of applying increas...

  15. The Dark Side of the Moebius Strip.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwarz, Gideon E.

    1990-01-01

    Discussed are various models proposed for the Moebius strip. Included are a discussion of a smooth flat model and two smooth flat algebraic models, some results concerning the shortest Moebius strip, the Moebius strip of least elastic energy, and some observations on real-world Moebius strips. (KR)

  16. The BIPM flexure-strip balance FB-2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Picard, A.

    2004-08-01

    A mass comparator for 1 kg weights has been designed and built at the BIPM based on our experience with a prototype flexure-strip balance named FB-1. The flexure-strip balance FB-2 is fully automated and mainly used for research. It consistently achieves a repeatability of weighings in air or in vacuum of 1 kg artefacts at least ten times better than that obtainable with the best knife-edge balances. The aim of this paper is to describe the design and capabilities of the FB-2, drawing on theoretical studies already published. Finally, results obtained with the FB-2 are given to illustrate its metrological possibilities.

  17. Direct Air Capture of CO2 - an Overview of Carbon Engineering's Technology and Pilot Plant Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holmes, G.; Corless, A.

    2014-12-01

    At Carbon Engineering, we are developing and commercializing technology to scrub CO2 directly from atmospheric air at industrial scale. By providing atmospheric CO2 for use in fuel production, we can enable production of transportation fuels with ultra-low carbon intensities, which command price premiums in the growing set of constrained fuels markets such as California's LCFS. We are a Calgary based startup founded in 2009 with 10 employees, and we are considered a global leader in the direct air capture (DAC) field. We will review CE's DAC technology, based on a wet-scrubbing "air contactor" which absorbs CO2 into aqueous solution, and a chemical looping "regeneration" component, which liberates pure CO2 from this aqueous solution while re-making the original absorption chemical. CE's DAC tecnology exports purified atmospheric CO2, combined with the combustion CO2 from plant energy usage, as the end product. We will also discuss CE's 2014-2015 end-to-end Pilot Demonstration Unit. This is a $7M technology demonstration plant that CE is building with the help of key industrial partners and equipment vendors. Vendor design and engineering requirements have been used to specify the pilot air contactor, pellet reactor, calciner, and slaker modules, as well as auxiliary systems. These modules will be run for several months to obtain the engineering and performance data needed for subsequent commercial plant design, as well as to test the residual integration risks associated with CE's process. By the time of the AGU conference, the pilot is expected to be in late stages of fabrication or early stages of site installation.

  18. Air Force electrochemical power research and technology program for space applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, Douglas

    1987-01-01

    An overview is presented of the existing Air Force electrochemical power, battery, and fuel cell programs for space application. Present thrusts are described along with anticipated technology availability dates. Critical problems to be solved before system applications occur are highlighted. Areas of needed performance improvement of batteries and fuel cells presently used are outlined including target dates for key demonstrations of advanced technology. Anticipated performance and current schedules for present technology programs are reviewed. Programs that support conventional military satellite power systems and special high power applications are reviewed. Battery types include bipolar lead-acid, nickel-cadmium, silver-zinc, nickel-hydrogen, sodium-sulfur, and some candidate advanced couples. Fuel cells for pulsed and transportation power applications are discussed as are some candidate advanced regenerative concepts.

  19. Development of air conditioning technologies to reduce CO2 emissions in the commercial sector

    PubMed Central

    Yoshida, Yukiko

    2006-01-01

    Background Architectural methods that take into account global environmental conservation generally concentrate on mitigating the heat load of buildings. Here, we evaluate the reduction of carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions that can be achieved by improving heating, ventilating, and air conditioning (HVAC) technologies. Results The Climate Change Research Hall (CCRH) of the National Institute for Environmental Studies (NIES) is used as a case study. CCRH was built in line with the "Green Government Buildings" program of the Government Buildings Department at the Ministry of Land, Infrastructure and Transport in Japan. We have assessed the technology used in this building, and found that there is a possibility to reduce energy consumption in the HVAC system by 30%. Conclusion Saving energy reduces CO2 emissions in the commercial sector, although emission factors depend on the country or region. Consequently, energy savings potential may serve as a criterion in selecting HVAC technologies with respect to emission reduction targets. PMID:17062161

  20. Large Aircraft Robotic Paint Stripping (LARPS) system and the high pressure water process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    See, David W.; Hofacker, Scott A.; Stone, M. Anthony; Harbaugh, Darcy

    1993-03-01

    The aircraft maintenance industry is beset by new Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) guidelines on air emissions, Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) standards, dwindling labor markets, Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) safety guidelines, and increased operating costs. In light of these factors, the USAF's Wright Laboratory Manufacturing Technology Directorate and the Aircraft Division of the Oklahoma City Air Logistics Center initiated a MANTECH/REPTECH effort to automate an alternate paint removal method and eliminate the current manual methylene chloride chemical stripping methods. This paper presents some of the background and history of the LARPS program, describes the LARPS system, documents the projected operational flow, quantifies some of the projected system benefits and describes the High Pressure Water Stripping Process. Certification of an alternative paint removal method to replace the current chemical process is being performed in two phases: Process Optimization and Process Validation. This paper also presents the results of the Process Optimization for metal substrates. Data on the coating removal rate, residual stresses, surface roughness, preliminary process envelopes, and technical plans for process Validation Testing will be discussed.

  1. Strip casting with fluxing agent applied to casting roll

    DOEpatents

    Williams, R.S.; O`Malley, R.J.; Sussman, R.C.

    1997-07-29

    A strip caster for producing a continuous strip includes a tundish for containing a melt, a pair of horizontally disposed water cooled casting rolls and devices for electrostatically coating the outer peripheral chill surfaces of the casting rolls with a powder flux material. The casting rolls are juxtaposed relative to one another for forming a pouting basin for receiving the melt through a teeming tube thereby establishing a meniscus between the rolls for forming the strip. The melt is protected from the outside air by a non-oxidizing gas passed through a supply line to a sealing chamber. A preferred flux is boron oxide having a melting point of about 550 C. The flux coating enhances wetting of the steel melt to the casting roll and dissolves any metal oxide formed on the roll. 3 figs.

  2. Strip casting with fluxing agent applied to casting roll

    DOEpatents

    Williams, Robert S.; O'Malley, Ronald J.; Sussman, Richard C.

    1997-01-01

    A strip caster (10) for producing a continuous strip (24) includes a tundish (12) for containing a melt (14), a pair of horizontally disposed water cooled casting rolls (22) and devices (29) for electrostatically coating the outer peripheral chill surfaces (44) of the casting rolls with a powder flux material (56). The casting rolls are juxtaposed relative to one another for forming a pouting basin (18) for receiving the melt through a teeming tube (16) thereby establishing a meniscus (20) between the rolls for forming the strip. The melt is protected from the outside air by a non-oxidizing gas passed through a supply line (28) to a sealing chamber (26). A preferred flux is boron oxide having a melting point of about 550.degree. C. The flux coating enhances wetting of the steel melt to the casting roll and dissolves any metal oxide formed on the roll.

  3. Effects of a New Cooling Technology on Physical Performance in U.S Air Force Military Personnel

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-03-25

    AFRL-SA-WP-SR-2015-0001 Effects of a New Cooling Technology on Physical Performance in U.S. Air Force Military Personnel...Ph.D. March 2015 Air Force Research Laboratory 711th Human Performance Wing School of Aerospace Medicine Aeromedical Research...LT COL SUSAN DUKES DR. RICHARD A. HERSACK Chief, Aircrew Select & Perform Res Chair, Aeromedical

  4. High Altitude Long Endurance Air Vehicle Analysis of Alternatives and Technology Requirements Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nickol, Craig L.; Guynn, Mark D.; Kohout, Lisa L.; Ozoroski, Thomas A.

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this study was to develop a variety of High Altitude Long Endurance (HALE) Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) conceptual designs for two operationally useful missions (hurricane science and communications relay) and compare their performance and cost characteristics. Sixteen potential HALE UAV configurations were initially developed, including heavier-than-air (HTA) and lighter-than-air (LTA) concepts with both consumable fuel and solar regenerative (SR) propulsion systems. Through an Analysis of Alternatives (AoA) down select process, the two leading consumable fuel configurations (one each from the HTA and LTA alternatives) and an HTA SR configuration were selected for further analysis. Cost effectiveness analysis of the consumable fuel configurations revealed that simply maximizing vehicle endurance can lead to a sub-optimum system solution. An LTA concept with a hybrid propulsion system (solar arrays and a hydrogen-air proton exchange membrane fuel cell) was found to have the best mission performance; however, an HTA diesel-fueled wing-body-tail configuration emerged as the preferred consumable fuel concept because of the large size and technical risk of the LTA concept. The baseline missions could not be performed by even the best HTA SR concept. Mission and SR technology trade studies were conducted to enhance understanding of the potential capabilities of such a vehicle. With near-term technology SR-powered HTA vehicles are limited to operation in favorable solar conditions, such as the long days and short nights of summer at higher latitudes. Energy storage system specific energy and solar cell efficiency were found to be the key technology areas for enhancing HTA SR performance.

  5. Gaseous and air decontamination technologies for Clostridium difficile in the healthcare environment.

    PubMed

    Davies, A; Pottage, T; Bennett, A; Walker, J

    2011-03-01

    The recent data for hospital-acquired infections suggest that infection rates for meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and Clostridium difficile are beginning to decrease. However, while there is still pressure to maintain this trend, the resistance of C. difficile spores to standard detergents continues to present a problem for many UK hospitals trying to prevent its spread or control outbreaks. Alternative disinfection technologies such as gaseous decontamination are currently being marketed to the healthcare sector as an alternative/supplement to manual disinfection, and have been shown to be effective in reducing environmental contamination. When used correctly, they offer a complementary technology to manual cleaning that increases the probability of an effective reduction in viability and provides a comparatively uniform distribution of disinfectant. Three gaseous decontamination technologies are examined for their suitability in reducing environmental contamination with C. difficile: gaseous hydrogen peroxide, chlorine dioxide and ozone. Air decontamination and UV-based technologies are also briefly described. We conclude that while there is a role to play for these new technologies in the decontamination of ward surfaces contaminated with C. difficile, the requirement for both a preclean before use and the limited 'in vivo' evidence means that extensive field trials are necessary to determine their cost-effectiveness in a healthcare setting. Copyright © 2010 The Hospital Infection Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Waking the sleeping giant: Introducing new heat exchanger technology into the residential air-conditioning marketplace

    SciTech Connect

    Chapp, T.; Voss, M.; Stephens, C.

    1998-07-01

    The Air Conditioning Industry has made tremendous strides in improvements to the energy efficiency and reliability of its product offerings over the past 40 years. These improvement can be attributed to enhancements of components, optimization of the energy cycle, and modernized and refined manufacturing techniques. During this same period, energy consumption for space cooling has grown significantly. In January of 1992, the minimum efficiency requirement for central air conditioning equipment was raised to 10 SEER. This efficiency level is likely to increase further under the auspices of the National Appliance Energy Conservation Act (NAECA). A new type of heat exchangermore » was developed for air conditioning equipment by Modine Manufacturing Company in the early 1990's. Despite significant advantages in terms of energy efficiency, dehumidification, durability, and refrigerant charge there has been little interest expressed by the air conditioning industry. A cooperative effort between Modine, various utilities, and several state energy offices has been organized to test and demonstrate the viability of this heat exchanger design throughout the nation. This paper will review the fundamentals of heat exchanger design and document this simple, yet novel technology. These experiences involving equipment retrofits have been documented with respect to the performance potential of air conditioning system constructed with PF{trademark} Heat Exchangers (generically referred to as microchannel heat exchangers) from both an energy efficiency as well as a comfort perspective. The paper will also detail the current plan to introduce 16 to 24 systems into an extended field test throughout the US which commenced in the Fall of 1997.« less

  7. EPA's control technology approach to assisting states and regions with air toxics problems: Five case studies

    SciTech Connect

    Nolen, S.L.; Dimmick, W.F.

    1990-10-01

    The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) announced in June 1985 a new strategy to reduce public exposure to toxic air pollutants in the ambient air. Over the next 5-8 years, the strategy called for State and Local authorities to take on more of the lead regulatory role, with the Agency providing technical and financial assistance to their efforts. The shift in emphasis and responsibility from the Federal level to State and Local air toxics programs and the need to transfer expertise from the Federal level to the appropriate State or Local level prompted EPA's Office of Research and Development (ORD) andmore » EPA's Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards (OAQPS) to develop and implement an innovative technical assistance program. This program is called the Control Technology Center (CTC). It has since been expanded to include technical assistance in the area of control of air toxics, particulate matter, and volatile organic compounds (VOCs); emission measurements; and other areas where expertise is available to ORD and OAQPS. During the CTC's first year of operation, operating guidelines were developed and three categories of technical assistance were established. These categories are telephone HOTLINE calls, direct engineering assistance, and technical guidance projects. The CTC HOTLINE is a special telephone number which State and Local Agencies can call for easy access to EPA personnel who can provide prompt assistance in a variety of ways including discussions, references to pertinent literature, and referrals to other EPA personnel. In some cases, a HOTLINE call will require more in-depth engineering analysis indicating a need for direct engineering assistance.« less

  8. System and technology considerations for space-based air traffic surveillance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vaisnys, A.

    1986-01-01

    This paper describes the system trade-offs examined in a recent study of space-based air traffic surveillance. Three system options, each satisfying a set of different constraints, were considered. The main difference in the technology needed to implement the three systems was determined to be the size of the spacecraft antenna aperture. It was found that essentially equivalent position location accuracy could be achieved with apertures from 50 meters down to less than a meter in diameter, depending on the choice of signal structure and on the desired user update rate.

  9. Better-Than-Visual Technologies for Next Generation Air Transportation System Terminal Maneuvering Area Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prinzel, Lawrence J., III; Bailey, Randall E.; Shelton, Kevin J.; Jones, Denise R.; Kramer, Lynda J.; Arthur, Jarvis J., III; Williams, Steve P.; Barmore, Bryan E.; Ellis, Kyle E.; Rehfeld, Sherri A.

    2011-01-01

    A consortium of industry, academia and government agencies are devising new concepts for future U.S. aviation operations under the Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen). Many key capabilities are being identified to enable NextGen, including the concept of Equivalent Visual Operations (EVO) replicating the capacity and safety of today's visual flight rules (VFR) in all-weather conditions. NASA is striving to develop the technologies and knowledge to enable EVO and to extend EVO towards a Better-Than-Visual (BTV) operational concept. The BTV operational concept uses an electronic means to provide sufficient visual references of the external world and other required flight references on flight deck displays that enable VFR-like operational tempos and maintain and improve the safety of VFR while using VFR-like procedures in all-weather conditions. NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) research on technologies to enable the concept of BTV is described.

  10. Effectiveness of anti-strip agents in asphalt mixtures.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2012-07-01

    Since the late 1970s there has been much research performed to better understand the stripping phenomenon in asphalt mixtures. : As a result, there have been changes in both materials and technology over the past 30 years to improve the resistance to...

  11. The role of heat transfer in strip casting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Misra, Paretosh

    The last few years have witnessed rapid developments in the area of strip casting of steel. It involves smaller capital and operating cost, lower greenhouse gas emissions, and an opportunity to create newer products due to a faster solidification rate that leads to a different solidification structure. Thus, ample reasons for interest in the technology exist. At the same time, it needs to be determined if the properties of a strip cast product can match those of a conventional product and if it is possible to produce steel strip at high production rates. The first objective of this work was to characterize the quality, structure, and properties of strip cast material of different chemistries and cast at different machines, to identify the critical operating conditions that would result in the best properties. Determination of the possible range of properties was also aimed, given that the structure of the material is different from the traditional material. The second objective was to investigate ways to increase the rate of heat transfer in strip casting, as that will also enhance the productivity of a strip caster. It was also envisaged to see what effect a high rate of heat transfer will have on the properties of the strip cast material. Results from the strip cast material characterization that was carried out to achieve the first objective indicated that an effective control of heat transfer is very important to get the best properties. Samples that showed best properties had a uniform solidification structure consisting of columnar grains running from the edge of a strip to the centerline, indicating a good control of heat transfer, and their dendrite spacings pointed towards a relatively faster rate of cooling between the rolls. These findings indicated that heat transfer is a core issue in strip casting. The mechanism of increase in the rate of heat transfer in strip casting due to the presence of liquid oxide films at the metal-mold interface was examined

  12. ANALYSIS OF DEUTERON STRIPPING EXPERIMENTS

    SciTech Connect

    Amado, R.D.

    1959-05-01

    Deuteron stripping experiments analyzed according to the theory of Butter are a nearly unique source of information on the orbital angular momentum and single-particle widths of nuclear bound states. A number of problems in the Butter theory remain. Chew and Low show that in reactions in which there is a contribution from thc exchange of a single particles there can appear isolated poles in the normalized Born approximation to the cross section and that the residue at these poles can be related to quantities of physical interest. Stripping is such a reactions and the Butter theory is the renormalized Bornmore » approximation. (A.C.)« less

  13. Air Traffic Management Technology Demonstration-1 Concept of Operations (ATD-1 ConOps), Version 3.0

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baxley, Brian T.; Johnson, William C.; Scardina, John; Shay, Richard F.

    2016-01-01

    This document describes the goals, benefits, technologies, and procedures of the Concept of Operations (ConOps) for the Air Traffic Management (ATM) Technology Demonstration #1 (ATD-1), and provides an update to the previous versions of the document [ref 1 and ref 2].

  14. NREL's Energy-Saving Technology for Air Conditioning Cuts Peak Power Loads Without Using Harmful Refrigerants (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2012-07-01

    This fact sheet describes how the DEVAP air conditioner was invented, explains how the technology works, and why it won an R&D 100 Award. Desiccant-enhanced evaporative (DEVAP) air-conditioning will provide superior comfort for commercial buildings in any climate at a small fraction of the electricity costs of conventional air-conditioning equipment, releasing far less carbon dioxide and cutting costly peak electrical demand by an estimated 80%. Air conditioning currently consumes about 15% of the electricity generated in the United States and is a major contributor to peak electrical demand on hot summer days, which can lead to escalating power costs, brownouts,more » and rolling blackouts. DEVAP employs an innovative combination of air-cooling technologies to reduce energy use by up to 81%. DEVAP also shifts most of the energy needs to thermal energy sources, reducing annual electricity use by up to 90%. In doing so, DEVAP is estimated to cut peak electrical demand by nearly 80% in all climates. Widespread use of this cooling cycle would dramatically cut peak electrical loads throughout the country, saving billions of dollars in investments and operating costs for our nation's electrical utilities. Water is already used as a refrigerant in evaporative coolers, a common and widely used energy-saving technology for arid regions. The technology cools incoming hot, dry air by evaporating water into it. The energy absorbed by the water as it evaporates, known as the latent heat of vaporization, cools the air while humidifying it. However, evaporative coolers only function when the air is dry, and they deliver humid air that can lower the comfort level for building occupants. And even many dry climates like Phoenix, Arizona, have a humid season when evaporative cooling won't work well. DEVAP extends the applicability of evaporative cooling by first using a liquid desiccant-a water-absorbing material-to dry the air. The dry air is then passed to an indirect

  15. AIR Louisville: Addressing Asthma With Technology, Crowdsourcing, Cross-Sector Collaboration, And Policy.

    PubMed

    Barrett, Meredith; Combs, Veronica; Su, Jason G; Henderson, Kelly; Tuffli, Michael

    2018-04-01

    Cross-sector partnerships benefit public health by leveraging ideas, resources, and expertise from a wide range of partners. In this study we documented the process and impact of AIR Louisville (a collaboration forged among the Louisville Metro Government, a nonprofit institute, and a technology company) in successfully tackling a complex public health challenge: asthma. We enrolled residents of Louisville, Kentucky, with asthma and used electronic inhaler sensors to monitor where and when they used medication. We found that the use of the digital health platform achieved positive clinical outcomes, including a 78 percent reduction in rescue inhaler use and a 48 percent improvement in symptom-free days. Moreover, the crowdsourced real-world data on inhaler use, combined with environmental data, led to policy recommendations including enhancing tree canopy, tree removal mitigation, zoning for air pollution emission buffers, recommended truck routes, and developing a community asthma notification system. AIR Louisville represents a model that can be replicated to address many public health challenges by simultaneously guiding individual, clinical, and policy decisions.

  16. Evaluation of Innovative Volatile Organic Compound and Hazardous Air Pollutant Control Technologies for U.S. Air Force Paint Spray Booths

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-10-01

    adsorption/incineration * Membrane vapor separation/condensation * Supercritical fluid oxidation • UV/ozone destruction * Molten salt combustion process...separation/ separate air stream contaminants 9 Oxygenated solvents condensation * Chlorinated hydrocarbons Supercritical fluid * Technology utilizing high...testing or full-scale unit capacity; they are: * Supercritical fluid oxidation • UV/ozone destruction * Molten salt incineration * Infrared incineration

  17. Evolutionary Agent-Based Simulation of the Introduction of New Technologies in Air Traffic Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yliniemi, Logan; Agogino, Adrian K.; Tumer, Kagan

    2014-01-01

    Accurate simulation of the effects of integrating new technologies into a complex system is critical to the modernization of our antiquated air traffic system, where there exist many layers of interacting procedures, controls, and automation all designed to cooperate with human operators. Additions of even simple new technologies may result in unexpected emergent behavior due to complex human/ machine interactions. One approach is to create high-fidelity human models coming from the field of human factors that can simulate a rich set of behaviors. However, such models are difficult to produce, especially to show unexpected emergent behavior coming from many human operators interacting simultaneously within a complex system. Instead of engineering complex human models, we directly model the emergent behavior by evolving goal directed agents, representing human users. Using evolution we can predict how the agent representing the human user reacts given his/her goals. In this paradigm, each autonomous agent in a system pursues individual goals, and the behavior of the system emerges from the interactions, foreseen or unforeseen, between the agents/actors. We show that this method reflects the integration of new technologies in a historical case, and apply the same methodology for a possible future technology.

  18. Spacecraft environmental interactions: A joint Air Force and NASA research and technology program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pike, C. P.; Purvis, C. K.; Hudson, W. R.

    1985-01-01

    A joint Air Force/NASA comprehensive research and technology program on spacecraft environmental interactions to develop technology to control interactions between large spacecraft systems and the charged-particle environment of space is described. This technology will support NASA/Department of Defense operations of the shuttle/IUS, shuttle/Centaur, and the force application and surveillance and detection missions, planning for transatmospheric vehicles and the NASA space station, and the AFSC military space system technology model. The program consists of combined contractual and in-house efforts aimed at understanding spacecraft environmental interaction phenomena and relating results of ground-based tests to space conditions. A concerted effort is being made to identify project-related environmental interactions of concern. The basic properties of materials are being investigated to develop or modify the materials as needed. A group simulation investigation is evaluating basic plasma interaction phenomena to provide inputs to the analytical modeling investigation. Systems performance is being evaluated by both groundbased tests and analysis.

  19. Air quality and climate impacts of alternative bus technologies in Greater London.

    PubMed

    Chong, Uven; Yim, Steve H L; Barrett, Steven R H; Boies, Adam M

    2014-04-15

    The environmental impact of diesel-fueled buses can potentially be reduced by the adoption of alternative propulsion technologies such as lean-burn compressed natural gas (LB-CNG) or hybrid electric buses (HEB), and emissions control strategies such as a continuously regenerating trap (CRT), exhaust gas recirculation (EGR), or selective catalytic reduction with trap (SCRT). This study assessed the environmental costs and benefits of these bus technologies in Greater London relative to the existing fleet and characterized emissions changes due to alternative technologies. We found a >30% increase in CO2 equivalent (CO2e) emissions for CNG buses, a <5% change for exhaust treatment scenarios, and a 13% (90% confidence interval 3.8-20.9%) reduction for HEB relative to baseline CO2e emissions. A multiscale regional chemistry-transport model quantified the impact of alternative bus technologies on air quality, which was then related to premature mortality risk. We found the largest decrease in population exposure (about 83%) to particulate matter (PM2.5) occurred with LB-CNG buses. Monetized environmental and investment costs relative to the baseline gave estimated net present cost of LB-CNG or HEB conversion to be $187 million ($73 million to $301 million) or $36 million ($-25 million to $102 million), respectively, while EGR or SCRT estimated net present costs were $19 million ($7 million to $32 million) or $15 million ($8 million to $23 million), respectively.

  20. Characteristics of laminates with delamination control strips

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sun, C. T.; Goering, J. C.; Alper, J. M.; Gause, L. W.

    1992-01-01

    Tough resin is needed to resist delamination crack propagation. However, modulus often has to be compromised because it is difficult to retain both high modulus and toughness in a matrix material. A potential solution is to use a hybrid system in which tough resin strips are included within a conventional matrix composite. By adjusting the spacing of the tough resin strips, maximum delamination size can be controlled. Experimental results for impact damage and subsequent damage propagation in laminates containing tough resin strips are reported. Plain adhesive strips and fiber-reinforced tough resin composite strips were used in constructing the hybrid laminates. Test results indicated that size of delamination inflicted by impact was confined between the tough resin strips. As a result, significantly increased residual compressive strength was obtained. Impacted laminates containing tough resin strips were also fatigue tested. It was found that these strips reduced the growth of the impact damage area relative to the growth seen in coupons with no tough resin strips. Damage growth from an open hole under tension fatigue was evaluated using both tough resin strips and glass fiber reinforced tough resin strips. Unreinforced tough resin strips retarded delamination growth from the open hole, but did not stop matrix cracks growing in the fiber direction. Fiber reinforced tough resin strips did not contain axial delamination growth from the open hole. However, they did act as crack arresters, stopping the through-the-thickness tension crack originating from the hole.

  1. Effects of indoor air purification by an air cleaning system (Koala technology) on semen parameters in male factor infertility: results of a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Paradisi, R; Vanella, S; Barzanti, R; Cani, C; Battaglia, C; Seracchioli, R; Venturoli, S

    2009-06-01

    A number of studies indicated a clear decline in semen quality in the past 30-50 years and there is accumulating evidence that this decline might result from exposure to high levels of air pollution. To examine the impact of environment on male reproductive ability, we undertook for the first time a pilot study on semen quality of infertile men exposed to purification of indoor air. Ten subjects with a history of unexplained male infertility and poor semen quality were exposed for at least 1 year to a cleaning indoor air system (Koala technology). The key feature of this air purifier is the unique innovative multiple filtering system. The treatment of total purification of indoor air showed neither improvements in semen parameters nor variation in reproductive hormones (P = N.S.), but induced an evident increase (P < 0.03 and more) in seminal leucocytic concentrations. Within the limits due to the small sample of subjects recruited, the sole purification of indoor air does not seem enough to improve semen quality, although the increase in leucocytic concentrations could indicate an activation of the role of immunosurveillance in a purified indoor air environment.

  2. Stripping potential of bituminous concrete.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1978-01-01

    Laboratory data were gathered with a newly developed stripping test in anticipation that the test would be adopted for use by the Department. In addition to providing experience in the performance of the test and interpretation of test results, the i...

  3. Let's Create a Comic Strip.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Gary; Sherman, Ross

    1999-01-01

    Considers how teachers can help students become literate, critical, creative thinkers by aligning curricula, teaching strategies, and instructional resources. Promotes literacy, higher-level thinking, and writing skills through the interdisciplinary approach of combining language and art. Suggests that creating a comic strip stimulates and…

  4. Wooded Strips and Windbreaks in Kansas, 1981

    Treesearch

    Thomas L. Castonguay; Mark H. Hansen

    1984-01-01

    In 1981 wooded strips and windbreaks in Kansas coverd 336,000 acres and were more than 54,000 miles long. Wooded strips contained 300 million board feet of sawtimber and 92 million cubic feet of growing stock.

  5. Centerline Rumble Strips Safety And Maintenance Impacts

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2014-09-01

    Soon after implementation of centerline rumble strips in Georgia around 2005-2006, GDOT observed pavement distress and deterioration at one of the centerline rumble strips sites. As no definitive correlation has been drawn between centerline rumble s...

  6. Safety evaluation of centerline rumble strips

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2003-11-10

    A study of centerline rumble strips was undertaken as part of the Massachusetts Highway Department Research Program. The objective of this research was to evaluate the effectiveness of centerline rumble strips in reducing crossover crashes and improv...

  7. Amperometric Gas Sensors as a Low Cost Emerging Technology Platform for Air Quality Monitoring Applications: A Review.

    PubMed

    Baron, Ronan; Saffell, John

    2017-11-22

    This review examines the use of amperometric electrochemical gas sensors for monitoring inorganic gases that affect urban air quality. First, we consider amperometric gas sensor technology including its development toward specifically designed air quality sensors. We then review recent academic and research organizations' studies where this technology has been trialed for air quality monitoring applications: early studies showed the potential of electrochemical gas sensors when colocated with reference Air Quality Monitoring (AQM) stations. Spatially dense networks with fast temporal resolution provide information not available from sparse AQMs with longer recording intervals. We review how this technology is being offered as commercial urban air quality networks and consider the remaining challenges. Sensors must be sensitive, selective, and stable; air quality monitors/nodes must be electronically and mechanically well designed. Data correction is required and models with differing levels of sophistication are being designed. Data analysis and validation is possibly the biggest remaining hurdle needed to deliver reliable concentration readings. Finally, this review also considers the roles of companies, urban infrastructure requirements, and public research in the development of this technology.

  8. Intraply Hybrid Composites Would Contain Control Strips

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamis, Christos C.; Shiao, Chi-Yu

    1996-01-01

    "Smart" structural components with sensors and/or actuators distributed throughout their volumes made of intraply hybrid composite materials, according to proposal. Strips of hybrid control material interspersed with strips of ordinary (passive) composite material in some layers, providing distributed control capability. For example, near and far edges of plate bent upward by commanding bottom control strips to expand and simultaneously commanding upper control strips to contract.

  9. Microtube strip heat exchanger

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doty, F. D.

    1992-07-01

    The purpose of this contract has been to explore the limits of miniaturization of heat exchangers with the goals of (1) improving the theoretical understanding of laminar heat exchangers, (2) evaluating various manufacturing difficulties, and (3) identifying major applications for the technology. A low-cost, ultra-compact heat exchanger could have an enormous impact on industry in the areas of cryocoolers and energy conversion. Compact cryocoolers based on the reverse Brayton cycle (RBC) would become practical with the availability of compact heat exchangers. Many experts believe that hardware advances in personal computer technology will rapidly slow down in four to six years unless lowcost, portable cryocoolers suitable for the desktop supercomputer can be developed. Compact refrigeration systems would permit dramatic advances in high-performance computer work stations with 'conventional' microprocessors operating at 150 K, and especially with low-cost cryocoolers below 77 K. NASA has also expressed strong interest in our MTS exchanger for space-based RBC cryocoolers for sensor cooling. We have demonstrated feasibility of higher specific conductance by a factor of five than any other work in high-temperature gas-to-gas exchangers. These laminar-flow, microtube exchangers exhibit extremely low pressure drop compared to alternative compact designs under similar conditions because of their much shorter flow length and larger total flow area for lower flow velocities. The design appears to be amenable to mass production techniques, but considerable process development remains. The reduction in materials usage and the improved heat exchanger performance promise to be of enormous significance in advanced engine designs and in cryogenics.

  10. Using Comic Strips in Language Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Csabay, Noémi

    2006-01-01

    The author believes that using comic strips in language-learning classes has three main benefits. First, comic strips motivate younger learners. Second, they provide a context and logically connected sentences to help language learning. Third, their visual information is helpful for comprehension. The author argues that comic strips can be used in…

  11. Bicycle-Friendly Shoulder Rumble Strips

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2000-03-01

    Shoulder rumble strips have proven to be an effective way to reduce run-off-the-road (ROR) crashes on urban and rural freeways. As the use of shoulder rumble strips is being extended to non-freeway facilities, bicyclists will encounter rumble strips ...

  12. Air

    MedlinePlus

    ... cause outdoor air pollution! Indoor pollutants Outdoor pollutants Animal dander (skin and fur) Ground-level ozone (smog) Dust mites Dust* Cockroaches Dirt* Mold Smoke* Secondhand smoke Liquids* Pesticides (either tracked in from outside or used in the house) Industrial emissions (like smoke and ...

  13. Guidelines for the application of removeable rumble strips

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2006-08-01

    This work was initiated to assess the viability of removable rumble strips as replacements for asphalt rumble strips, particularly in short term highway work zones. The two rumble strips tested were the Orange Rumble Strip from Advanced Traffic Marki...

  14. Air-Based Remediation Workshop - Section 1 Sampling And Analysis Revelant To Air-Based Remediation Technologies

    EPA Science Inventory

    Pursant to the EPA-AIT Implementing Arrangement 7 for Technical Environmental Collaboration, Activity 11 "Remediation of Contaminated Sites," the USEPA Office of International Affairs Organized a Force Air Remediation Workshop in Taipei to deliver expert training to the Environme...

  15. Proposed Approval of California Air Plan Revision; San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District; Reasonably Available Control Technology Demonstration

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA isproposing to approve revisions to the SJVUAPCD portion of the California SIP applying to the San Joaquin Valley of California concerning demonstration regarding RACT requirements for the 2008 8-hour ozone National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS)

  16. Methods proposed to achieve air quality standards for mobile sources and technology surveillance.

    PubMed Central

    Piver, W T

    1975-01-01

    The methods proposed to meet the 1975 Standards of the Clean Air Act for mobile sources are alternative antiknocks, exhaust emission control devices, and alternative engine designs. Technology surveillance analysis applied to this situation is an attempt to anticipate potential public and environmental health problems from these methods, before they happen. Components of this analysis are exhaust emission characterization, environmental transport and transformation, levels of public and environmental exposure, and the influence of economics on the selection of alternative methods. The purpose of this presentation is to show trends as a result of the interaction of these different components. In no manner can these trends be interpreted explicitly as to what will really happen. Such an analysis is necessary so that public and environmental health officials have the opportunity to act on potential problems before they become manifest. PMID:50944

  17. Japanese power electronics inverter technology and its impact on the American air conditioning industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ushimaru, Kenji

    1990-08-01

    Since 1983, technological advances and market growth of inverter-driven variable-speed heat pumps in Japan have been dramatic. The high level of market penetration was promoted by a combination of political, economic, and trade policies in Japan. A unique environment was created in which the leading domestic industries, microprocessor manufacturing, compressors for air conditioning and refrigerators, and power electronic devices, were able to direct the development and market success of inverter-driven heat pumps. As a result, leading U.S. variable-speed heat pump manufacturers should expect a challenge from the Japanese producers of power devices and microprocessors. Because of the vertically-integrated production structure in Japan, in contrast to the out-sourcing culture of the United States, price competition at the component level (such as inverters, sensors, and controls) may impact the structure of the industry more severely than final product sales.

  18. Introduction Analysis of Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Technologies in Micro Grid Type Food Industrial Park

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimazaki, Yoichi

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the refrigerating and air-conditioning technologies in cases of introducing both cogeneration system and energy network in food industrial park. The energy data of 14 factories were classified into steam, hot water, heating, cooling, refrigerating, freezing and electric power by interviews. The author developed a micro grid model based on linear programming so as to minimize the total system costs. The industrial park was divided into the 2,500 square meter mesh in order to take steam transport into consideration. Four cases were investigated. It was found that the electric power driven freezer was introduced compared with the ammonia absorption freezer. The ammonia absorption freezer was introduced in the factory that there is a little steam demand and large freezing demand at the same time.

  19. Effects of a New Cooling Technology on Physical Performance in US Air Force Military Personnel.

    PubMed

    O'Hara, Reginald; Vojta, Christopher; Henry, Amy; Caldwell, Lydia; Wade, Molly; Swanton, Stacie; Linderman, Jon K; Ordway, Jason

    2016-01-01

    Heat-related illness is a critical factor for military personnel operating in hyperthermic environments. Heat illness can alter cognitive and physical performance during sustained operations missions. Therefore, the primary purpose of this investigation was to determine the effects of a novel cooling shirt on core body temperature in highly trained US Air Force personnel. Twelve trained (at least 80th percentile for aerobic fitness according to the American College of Sports Medicine, at least 90% on the US Air Force fitness test), male Air Force participants (mean values: age, 25 ± 2.8 years; height, 178 ± 7.9cm; body weight 78 ± 9.6kg; maximal oxygen uptake, 57 ± 1.9mL/kg/ min; and body fat, 10% ± 0.03%) completed this study. Subjects performed a 70-minute weighted treadmill walking test and 10-minute, 22.7kg sandbag shuttle test under two conditions: (1) "loaded" (shirt with cooling inserts) and (2) "unloaded" (shirt with no cooling inserts). Core body temperature, exercise heart rate, capillary blood lactate, and ratings of perceived exertion were recorded. Core body temperature was lower (ρ = .001) during the 70-minute treadmill walking test in the loaded condition. Peak core temperature during the 70-minute walking test was also significantly lower (ρ = .038) in the loaded condition. This lightweight (471g), passive cooling technology offers multiple hours of sustained cooling and reduced core and peak body temperature during a 70-minute, 22.7kg weighted-vest walking test. 2016.

  20. Agent Based Modeling of Air Carrier Behavior for Evaluation of Technology Equipage and Adoption

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horio, Brant M.; DeCicco, Anthony H.; Stouffer, Virginia L.; Hasan, Shahab; Rosenbaum, Rebecca L.; Smith, Jeremy C.

    2014-01-01

    As part of ongoing research, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and LMI developed a research framework to assist policymakers in identifying impacts on the U.S. air transportation system (ATS) of potential policies and technology related to the implementation of the Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen). This framework, called the Air Transportation System Evolutionary Simulation (ATS-EVOS), integrates multiple models into a single process flow to best simulate responses by U.S. commercial airlines and other ATS stakeholders to NextGen-related policies, and in turn, how those responses impact the ATS. Development of this framework required NASA and LMI to create an agent-based model of airline and passenger behavior. This Airline Evolutionary Simulation (AIRLINE-EVOS) models airline decisions about tactical airfare and schedule adjustments, and strategic decisions related to fleet assignments, market prices, and equipage. AIRLINE-EVOS models its own heterogeneous population of passenger agents that interact with airlines; this interaction allows the model to simulate the cycle of action-reaction as airlines compete with each other and engage passengers. We validated a baseline configuration of AIRLINE-EVOS against Airline Origin and Destination Survey (DB1B) data and subject matter expert opinion, and we verified the ATS-EVOS framework and agent behavior logic through scenario-based experiments. These experiments demonstrated AIRLINE-EVOS's capabilities in responding to an input price shock in fuel prices, and to equipage challenges in a series of analyses based on potential incentive policies for best equipped best served, optimal-wind routing, and traffic management initiative exemption concepts..

  1. Investigation of air transportation technology at Princeton University, 1988-1989

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stengel, Robert F.

    1990-01-01

    The Air Transportation Technology Program at Princeton University, a program emphasizing graduate and undergraduate student research, proceeded along several avenues during the past year. A study of optimal trajectories for penetration of microbursts when encounter is unavoidable was conducted. The emphasis of current wind shear research is on developing an expert system for wind shear avoidance. A knowledge-based reconfigurable flight control system that is implemented with the Pascal programming language using parallel microprocessors was developed. This expert system could be considered a prototype for a failure-tolerant control system that can be constructed using existing hardware. Development of a real-time cockpit simulator continued during the year. The simulator provides a single-person crew station with both conventional and advanced control devices; it currently is programmed to simulate the Navion single-engine general aviation airplane. Alternatives for the air traffic control system giving particular attention to the institutional structure of the FAA are analyzed. A simple numerical procedure for estimating the stochastic robustness of control systems is being investigated. The revitalization of the general aviation industry is also discussed.

  2. A Method for Making Cross-Comparable Estimates of the Benefits of Decision Support Technologies for Air Traffic Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, David; Long, Dou; Etheridge, Mel; Plugge, Joana; Johnson, Jesse; Kostiuk, Peter

    1998-01-01

    We present a general method for making cross comparable estimates of the benefits of NASA-developed decision support technologies for air traffic management, and we apply a specific implementation of the method to estimate benefits of three decision support tools (DSTs) under development in NASA's advanced Air Transportation Technologies Program: Active Final Approach Spacing Tool (A-FAST), Expedite Departure Path (EDP), and Conflict Probe and Trial Planning Tool (CPTP). The report also reviews data about the present operation of the national airspace system (NAS) to identify opportunities for DST's to reduce delays and inefficiencies.

  3. The Vertex on a Strip

    SciTech Connect

    Kashani-Poor, A.

    2004-11-03

    We demonstrate that for a broad class of local Calabi-Yau geometries built around a string of IP{sup 1}s--those whose toric diagrams are given by triangulations of a strip--we can derive simple rules, based on the topological vertex, for obtaining expressions for the topological string partition function in which the sums over Young tableaux have been performed. By allowing non-trivial tableaux on the external legs of the corresponding web diagrams, these strips can be used as building blocks for more general geometries. As applications of our result, we study the behavior of topological string amplitudes under flops, as well as checkmore » Nekrasov's conjecture in its most general form.« less

  4. Bonded orthotropic strips with cracks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Delale, F.; Erdogan, F.

    1978-01-01

    The elastostatic problem for a nonhomogeneous plane which consists of two sets of periodically arranged dissimilar orthotropic strips is considered. First, the problem of cracks fully imbedded into the homogeneous strips is considered. Then, the singular behavior of the stresses for two special crack geometries is studied in some detail. The first is the case of a broken laminate in which the crack tips touch the interfaces. The second is the case of cracks crossing the interfaces. A number of numerical examples are worked out in order to separate the primary material parameters influencing the stress intensity factors and the powers of stress singularity, and to determine the trends regarding the influence of the secondary parameters. Finally, some numerical results are given for the stress intensity factors in certain basic crack geometries and for typical material combinations.

  5. Antenna structure with distributed strip

    DOEpatents

    Rodenbeck, Christopher T.

    2008-10-21

    An antenna comprises electrical conductors arranged to form a radiating element including a folded line configuration and a distributed strip configuration, where the radiating element is in proximity to a ground conductor. The folded line and the distributed strip can be electrically interconnected and substantially coplanar. The ground conductor can be spaced from, and coplanar to, the radiating element, or can alternatively lie in a plane set at an angle to the radiating element. Embodiments of the antenna include conductor patterns formed on a printed wiring board, having a ground plane, spacedly adjacent to and coplanar with the radiating element. Other embodiments of the antenna comprise a ground plane and radiating element on opposed sides of a printed wiring board. Other embodiments of the antenna comprise conductors that can be arranged as free standing "foils". Other embodiments include antennas that are encapsulated into a package containing the antenna.

  6. Antenna structure with distributed strip

    DOEpatents

    Rodenbeck, Christopher T [Albuquerque, NM

    2008-03-18

    An antenna comprises electrical conductors arranged to form a radiating element including a folded line configuration and a distributed strip configuration, where the radiating element is in proximity to a ground conductor. The folded line and the distributed strip can be electrically interconnected and substantially coplanar. The ground conductor can be spaced from, and coplanar to, the radiating element, or can alternatively lie in a plane set at an angle to the radiating element. Embodiments of the antenna include conductor patterns formed on a printed wiring board, having a ground plane, spacedly adjacent to and coplanar with the radiating element. Other embodiments of the antenna comprise a ground plane and radiating element on opposed sides of a printed wiring board. Other embodiments of the antenna comprise conductors that can be arranged as free standing "foils". Other embodiments include antennas that are encapsulated into a package containing the antenna.

  7. Thermal Insulation Strips Conserve Energy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2009-01-01

    Launching the space shuttle involves an interesting paradox: While the temperatures inside the shuttle s main engines climb higher than 6,000 F hot enough to boil iron for fuel, the engines use liquid hydrogen, the second coldest liquid on Earth after liquid helium. Maintained below 20 K (-423 F), the liquid hydrogen is contained in the shuttle s rust-colored external tank. The external tank also contains liquid oxygen (kept below a somewhat less chilly 90 K or -297 F) that combines with the hydrogen to create an explosive mixture that along with the shuttle s two, powdered aluminum-fueled solid rocket boosters allows the shuttle to escape Earth s gravity. The cryogenic temperatures of the main engines liquid fuel can cause ice, frost, or liquefied air to build up on the external tank and other parts of the numerous launch fueling systems, posing a possible debris risk when the ice breaks off during launch and causing difficulties in the transfer and control of these cryogenic liquid propellants. Keeping the fuel at the necessary ultra-cold temperatures while minimizing ice buildup and other safety hazards, as well as reducing the operational maintenance costs, has required NASA to explore innovative ways for providing superior thermal insulation systems. To address the challenge, the Agency turned to an insulating technology so effective that, even though it is mostly air, a thin sheet can prevent a blowtorch from igniting a match. Aerogels were invented in 1931 and demonstrate properties that make them the most extraordinary insulating materials known; a 1-inch-thick piece of aerogel provides the same insulation as layering 15 panes of glass with air pockets in between. Derived from silica, aluminum oxide, or carbon gels using a supercritical drying process - resulting in a composition of almost 99-percent air - aerogels are the world s lightest solid (among 15 other titles they hold in the Guinness World Records), can float indefinitely on water if treated to be

  8. Roll Casting of Aluminum Alloy Clad Strip

    SciTech Connect

    Nakamura, R.; Tsuge, H.; Haga, T.

    2011-01-17

    Casting of aluminum alloy three layers of clad strip was tried using the two sets of twin roll casters, and effects of the casting parameters on the cladding conditions were investigated. One twin roll caster was mounted on the other twin roll caster. Base strip was 8079 aluminum alloy and overlay strips were 6022 aluminum alloy. Effects of roll-load of upper and lower casters and melt temperature of the lower caster were investigated. When the roll-load of the upper and lower caster was large enough, the overlay strip could be solidified and be connected. The overlay strip could be connectedmore » when the melt of the overlay strip cast by the lower caster was low enough. Sound three layers of clad strip could be cast by proper conditions.« less

  9. Sensitive albuminuria analysis using dye-binding based test strips.

    PubMed

    Delanghe, Joris R; Himpe, Jonas; De Cock, Naomi; Delanghe, Sigurd; De Herde, Kevin; Stove, Veronique; Speeckaert, Marijn M

    2017-08-01

    Populations at increased risk for chronic kidney disease should be screened for albuminuria. Possibilities of advanced urine strip readers based on complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) sensor technology were investigated for obtaining quantitative albuminuria results. Reflectance data of test strips (Sysmex UFC 3500 reader+CMOS) were compared with albuminuria (BNII) and with proteinuria (Cobas 8000). Urinary creatinine was assayed using a Jaffe-based creatinine assay (Cobas 8000). Calibration curve was made between 11.5 and 121.5mg/L with detection limit of 5.5mg/L. Within-run CV values of reflectance data were 0.21% (UC-Control L; 10mg/L) and 0.37% (UC-Control H; >150mg/L) for albumin, and 0.71%/3.97% for creatinine. Between-run CV values were 0.24%/0.42% for albumin and 0.93%/5.13% for creatinine. A strong correlation (r=0.92) was obtained between albuminuria (BNII) and protein strip reflectance data. Creatinine reflectance data correlated well with Jaffe-based urinary creatinine data (r=0.90). Albumin:creatinine ratio obtained by test strip and by wet chemistry showed a good correlation (r=0.59). Carbamylated, glycated and partially hydrolyzed isoforms of albumin could be detected by test strip. Dye-binding based albumin test strip assay in combination with a CMOS based reader would potentially allow quantitative analysis of albuminuria and determination of albumin:creatinine ratio. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Screen-Printed Electrodes Modified with "Green" Metals for Electrochemical Stripping Analysis of Toxic Elements.

    PubMed

    Economou, Anastasios

    2018-03-29

    This work reviews the field of screen-printed electrodes (SPEs) modified with "green" metals for electrochemical stripping analysis of toxic elements. Electrochemical stripping analysis has been established as a useful trace analysis technique offering many advantages compared to competing optical techniques. Although mercury has been the preferred electrode material for stripping analysis, the toxicity of mercury and the associated legal requirements in its use and disposal have prompted research towards the development of "green" metals as alternative electrode materials. When combined with the screen-printing technology, such environment-friendly metals can lead to disposable sensors for trace metal analysis with excellent operational characteristics. This review focuses on SPEs modified with Au, Bi, Sb, and Sn for stripping analysis of toxic elements. Different modification approaches (electroplating, bulk modification, use of metal precursors, microengineering techniques) are considered and representative applications are described. A developing related field, namely biosensing based on stripping analysis of metallic nanoprobe labels, is also briefly mentioned.

  11. Study of the technics of coating stripping and FBG writing on polyimide fiber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, ZhiQiang; Qi, HaiFeng; Ni, JiaSheng; Wang, Chang

    2017-10-01

    Compared with ordinary optical fiber, polyimide fiber has the characteristics of high temperature resistance and high strength, which has important application in the field of optical fiber sensing. The common methods of polyimide coating stripping were introduced in this paper, including high temperature stripping, chemical stripping and arc ablation. In order to meet the requirements of FBG writing technology, a method using argon ion laser ablation coating was proposed. The method can precisely control the stripping length of the coating and completely does not affect the tensile strength of the optical fiber. According to the experiment, the fabrication process of polyimide FBG is stripping-hydrogen loadingwriting. Under the same conditions, 10 FBG samples were fabricated with good uniformity of wavelength bandwidth and reflectivity. UV laser ablation of polyimide coating has been proved to be a safe, reliable and efficient method.

  12. Coupled Physical/Chemical and Biofiltration Technologies to Reduce Air Emissions from Forest Products Industries

    SciTech Connect

    Gary D. McGinnis

    2001-12-31

    The research is a laboratory and bench-scale investigation of a system to concentrate and destroy volatile organic compounds (VOCs), including hazardous air pollutants, formed from the drying of wood and the manufacture of wood board products (e.g., particle board and oriented strandboard). The approach that was investigated involved concentrating the dilute VOCs (<500 ppmv) with a physical/chemical adsorption unit, followed by the treatment of the concentrated voc stream (2,000 to 2,500 ppmv) with a biofiltration unit. The research program lasted three years, and involved three research organizations. Michigan Technological University was the primary recipient of the financial assistance, the USDAmore » Forest Products Laboratory (FPL) and Mississippi State University (MSU) were subcontractors to MTU. The ultimate objective of this research was to develop a pilot-scale demonstration of the technology with sufficient data to provide for the design of an industrial system. No commercialization activities were included in this project.« less

  13. Mississippi State University Center for Air Sea Technology FY95 Research Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yeske, Lanny; Corbin, James H.

    1995-01-01

    The Mississippi State University (MSU) Center for Air Sea Technology (CAST) evolved from the Institute for Naval Oceanography's (INO) Experimental Center for Mesoscale Ocean Prediction (ECMOP) which was started in 1989. MSU CAST subsequently began operation on 1 October 1992 under an Office of Naval Research (ONR) two-year grant which ended on 30 September 1994. In FY95 MSU CAST was successful in obtaining five additional research grants from ONR, as well as several other research contracts from the Naval Oceanographic Office via NASA, the Naval Research Laboratory, the Army Corps of Engineers, and private industry. In the past, MSU CAST technical research and development has produced tools, systems, techniques, and procedures that improve efficiency and overcome deficiency for both the operational and research communities residing with the Department of Defense, private industry, and university ocean modeling community. We continued this effort with the following thrust areas: to develop advanced methodologies and tools for model evaluation, validation and visualization, both oceanographic and atmospheric; to develop a system-level capability for conducting temporally and ; spatially scaled ocean simulations driven by or are responsive to ocean models, and take into consideration coupling to atmospheric models; to continue the existing oceanographic/atmospheric data management task with emphasis on distributed databases in a network environment, with database optimization and standardization, including use of Mosaic and World Wide Web (WWW) access; and to implement a high performance parallel computing technology for CAST ocean models

  14. Science and Technology: The Making of the Air Force Research Laboratory

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-01-01

    AFRL . . . . . . . . . . . 187 11 Air Force Research Laboratory : Before and After...United States Air Force during my tenure as chief of staff—the crea - tion of the Air Force Research Laboratory ( AFRL ). As the “high technology” service...consolidate four existing laboratories into one Air Force Research Laboratory ( AFRL ) designed to lead to a more efficient and streamlined

  15. Collisional stripping of planetary crusts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carter, Philip J.; Leinhardt, Zoë M.; Elliott, Tim; Stewart, Sarah T.; Walter, Michael J.

    2018-02-01

    Geochemical studies of planetary accretion and evolution have invoked various degrees of collisional erosion to explain differences in bulk composition between planets and chondrites. Here we undertake a full, dynamical evaluation of 'crustal stripping' during accretion and its key geochemical consequences. Crusts are expected to contain a significant fraction of planetary budgets of incompatible elements, which include the major heat producing nuclides. We present smoothed particle hydrodynamics simulations of collisions between differentiated rocky planetesimals and planetary embryos. We find that the crust is preferentially lost relative to the mantle during impacts, and we have developed a scaling law based on these simulations that approximates the mass of crust that remains in the largest remnant. Using this scaling law and a recent set of N-body simulations of terrestrial planet formation, we have estimated the maximum effect of crustal stripping on incompatible element abundances during the accretion of planetary embryos. We find that on average approximately one third of the initial crust is stripped from embryos as they accrete, which leads to a reduction of ∼20% in the budgets of the heat producing elements if the stripped crust does not reaccrete. Erosion of crusts can lead to non-chondritic ratios of incompatible elements, but the magnitude of this effect depends sensitively on the details of the crust-forming melting process on the planetesimals. The Lu/Hf system is fractionated for a wide range of crustal formation scenarios. Using eucrites (the products of planetesimal silicate melting, thought to represent the crust of Vesta) as a guide to the Lu/Hf of planetesimal crust partially lost during accretion, we predict the Earth could evolve to a superchondritic 176Hf/177Hf (3-5 parts per ten thousand) at present day. Such values are in keeping with compositional estimates of the bulk Earth. Stripping of planetary crusts during accretion can lead to

  16. Real-time dissemination of air quality information using data streams and Web technologies: linking air quality to health risks in urban areas.

    PubMed

    Davila, Silvije; Ilić, Jadranka Pečar; Bešlić, Ivan

    2015-06-01

    This article presents a new, original application of modern information and communication technology to provide effective real-time dissemination of air quality information and related health risks to the general public. Our on-line subsystem for urban real-time air quality monitoring is a crucial component of a more comprehensive integrated information system, which has been developed by the Institute for Medical Research and Occupational Health. It relies on a StreamInsight data stream management system and service-oriented architecture to process data streamed from seven monitoring stations across Zagreb. Parameters that are monitored include gases (NO, NO2, CO, O3, H2S, SO2, benzene, NH3), particulate matter (PM10 and PM2.5), and meteorological data (wind speed and direction, temperature and pressure). Streamed data are processed in real-time using complex continuous queries. They first go through automated validation, then hourly air quality index is calculated for every station, and a report sent to the Croatian Environment Agency. If the parameter values exceed the corresponding regulation limits for three consecutive hours, the web service generates an alert for population groups at risk. Coupled with the Common Air Quality Index model, our web application brings air pollution information closer to the general population and raises awareness about environmental and health issues. Soon we intend to expand the service to a mobile application that is being developed.

  17. Emerging Fuel Cell Technology Being Developed: Offers Many Benefits to Air Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walker, James F.; Civinskas, Kestutis C.

    2004-01-01

    Fuel cells, which have recently received considerable attention for terrestrial applications ranging from automobiles to stationary power generation, may enable new aerospace missions as well as offer fuel savings, quiet operations, and reduced emissions for current and future aircraft. NASA has extensive experience with fuel cells, having used them on manned space flight systems over four decades. Consequently, the NASA Glenn Research Center has initiated an effort to investigate and develop fuel cell technologies for multiple aerospace applications. Two promising fuel cell types are the proton exchange membrane (PEM) and solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC). PEM technology, first used on the Gemini spacecraft in the sixties, remained unutilized thereafter until the automotive industry recently recognized the potential. PEM fuel cells are low-temperature devices offering quick startup time but requiring relatively pure hydrogen fuel. In contrast, SOFCs operate at high temperatures and tolerate higher levels of impurities. This flexibility allows SOFCs to use hydrocarbon fuels, which is an important factor considering our current liquid petroleum infrastructure. However, depending on the specific application, either PEM or SOFC can be attractive. As only NASA can, the Agency is pursuing fuel cell technology for civil uninhabited aerial vehicles (UAVs) because it offers enhanced scientific capabilities, including enabling highaltitude, long-endurance missions. The NASA Helios aircraft demonstrated altitudes approaching 100,000 ft using solar power in 2001, and future plans include the development of a regenerative PEM fuel cell to provide nighttime power. Unique to NASA's mission, the high-altitude aircraft application requires the PEM fuel cell to operate on pure oxygen, instead of the air typical of terrestrial applications.

  18. Insulation Technology in Dry Air and Vacuum for a 72kV Low Pressured Dry Air Insulated Switchgear

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshida, Tadahiro; Koga, Hiromi; Harada, Takakazu; Miki, Shinichi; Arioka, Masahiro; Sato, Shinji; Yoshida, Satoru; Inoue, Naoaki; Maruyama, Akihiko; Takeuchi, Toshie

    A new 72kV rated low pressured dry air insulated switchgear applying electromagnetic actuation and function that supports CBM has been developed. First, dielectric characteristics in dry air under lightning impulse application has been investigated at bare and insulator covered electrodes. Dependence of the breakdown electric field strength on the effective area has been clarified to apply the configuration design of the insulation mold for the vacuum interrupter. In addition, moisture volume dependence on surface resistance has been clarified to decide moisture volume in gas pressure tank. Next, a new vacuum circuit breaker (VCB) has been designed. To keep dimensions from former 72kV SF6 gas insulated switchgear, distance between contacts in vacuum interrupter is needed to be shorter than that of former switchgear. Voltage withstand capability between electrodes practically designed for vacuum interrupter has been investigated under dc voltage application simulated the small capacitive current breaking test. Gap configuration including contacts and slits has been optimized and distance has been shortened 11% from former switchgear. As a result, the new low pressured dry air insulated switchgear has been designed comparably in outer size to former SF6 gas insulated switchgear. Using dry air as an insulation medium with low pressure has been able to reduce the environmental burden.

  19. Buffing, burnishing, and stripping of vinyl asbestos floor tile

    SciTech Connect

    Hollett, B.A.; Edwards, A.; Clark, P.J.

    Studies were conducted to evaluate airborne asbestos concentrations during the three principal types of preventative maintenance (low-speed spray-buffing, ultra high-speed burnishing, and wet-stripping) used on asbestos-containing floor tiles. These were done under pre-existing and prepared levels of floor care maintenance. Airborne asbestos concentrations were measured before and during each floor care procedure to determine the magnitude of the increase in airborne asbestos levels during each procedure. Airborne total fiber concentrations were also measured for comparison with the Occupational Safety and Health Administration`s (OSHA) Permissible Exposure Limit (PEL) of 0.1 f/cm{sup 3}. Low-speed spray-buffing and wet-stripping were evaluated on pre-existing floormore » conditions and three levels of prepared floor care conditions (poor, medium, and good). Ultra high-speed burnishing and wet-stripping were evaluated on two levels of prepared floor care conditions (poor and good). Floor care conditions were defined in consultation with the Chemical Specialty Manufacturers Association and other representatives of floor-care chemical manufacturers. Controlled studies were conducted in an unoccupied building at the decommissioned Chanute Air Force Base in Rantoul, Illinois, with the cooperation of the U.S. Air Force. The building offered approximately 8600 ft{sup 2} of open floor space tiled with 9-inch by 9-inch resilient floor tile containing approximately 5% chrysotile asbestos.« less

  20. Applications of low-cost sensing technologies for air quality monitoring and exposure assessment: How far have they gone?

    EPA Science Inventory

    Over the past decade, a range of sensor technologies became available on the market, enabling a revolutionary shift in air pollution monitoring and assessment. With their cost of up to three orders of magnitude lower than standard/reference instruments, many avenues for applicati...

  1. Field Operations and Enforcement Manual for Air Pollution Control. Volume II: Control Technology and General Source Inspection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weisburd, Melvin I.

    The Field Operations and Enforcement Manual for Air Pollution Control, Volume II, explains in detail the following: technology of source control, modification of operations, particulate control equipment, sulfur dioxide removal systems for power plants, and control equipment for gases and vapors; inspection procedures for general sources, fuel…

  2. A Study of the Factors Associated with Successful Technology Transfer and their Applicability to Air Force Technology Transfers.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1995-09-01

    transfer project. (D) 8a Organization has a technology transfer organization. (D,A) 10a Marketing and advertising of technologies targeted to relevant...Entrepreneurial (D) Developer: 10A: Marketing and advertising of technologies targeted to relevant industries. Most developers indicate that they marketed...regard to marketing and advertising . 10B: Technology maturation supported by internal units or by contracting out. Technology maturation is the

  3. Ignition, Burning, and Extinction of a Strained Fuel Strip

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Selerland, T.; Karagozian, A. R.

    1996-01-01

    Flame structure and ignition and extinction processes associated with a strained fuel strip are explored numerically using detailed transport and complex kinetics for a propane-air reaction. Ignition modes are identified that are similar to those predicted by one-step activation energy asymptotics, i.e., modes in which diffusion flames can ignite as independent or dependent interfaces, and modes in which single premixed or partially premixed flames ignite. These ignition modes are found to be dependent on critical combinations of strain rate, fuel strip thickness, and initial reactant temperatures. Extinction in this configuration is seen to occur due to fuel consumption by adjacent flames, although viscosity is seen to have the effect of delaying extinction by reducing the effective strain rate and velocity field experienced by the flames.

  4. Method for maintaining precise suction strip porosities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gallimore, Frank H. (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    This invention relates to a masking method generally and, more particularly to a method of masking perforated titanium sheets having laminar control suction strips. As illustrated in the drawings, a nonaerodynamic surface of a perforated sheet has alternating suction strip areas and bonding land areas. Suction strip tapes overlie the bonding land areas during application of a masking material to an upper surface of the suction strip tapes. Prior to bonding the perforated sheet to a composite structure, the bonding land tapes are removed. The entire opposite aerodynamic surface is masked with tape before bonding. This invention provides a precise control of suction strip porosities by ensuring that no chemicals penetrate the suction strip areas during bonding.

  5. Buffer strips in composites at elevated temperature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bigelow, C. A.

    1983-01-01

    The composite material 'buffer strip' concept is presently investigated at elevated temperatures for the case of graphite/polyimide buffer strip panels using a (45/0/45/90)2S layup, where the buffer strip material was 0-deg S-glass/polyimide. Each panel was loaded in tension until it failed, and radiographs and crack opening displacements were recorded during the tests to determine fracture onset, fracture arrest, and the extent of damage in the buffer strip after crack arrest. At 177 + or - 3 C, the buffer strips increased the panel strength by at least 40 percent in comparison with panels without buffer strips. Compared to similar panels tested at room temperature, those tested at elevated temperature had lower residual strengths, but higher failure strains.

  6. Method of stripping metals from organic solvents

    DOEpatents

    Todd, Terry A [Aberdeen, ID; Law, Jack D [Pocatello, ID; Herbst, R Scott [Idaho Falls, ID; Romanovskiy, Valeriy N [St. Petersburg, RU; Smirnov, Igor V [St.-Petersburg, RU; Babain, Vasily A [St-Petersburg, RU; Esimantovski, Vyatcheslav M [St-Petersburg, RU

    2009-02-24

    A new method to strip metals from organic solvents in a manner that allows for the recycle of the stripping agent. The method utilizes carbonate solutions of organic amines with complexants, in low concentrations, to strip metals from organic solvents. The method allows for the distillation and reuse of organic amines. The concentrated metal/complexant fraction from distillation is more amenable to immobilization than solutions resulting from current practice.

  7. Quantifiable Lateral Flow Assay Test Strips

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    As easy to read as a home pregnancy test, three Quantifiable Lateral Flow Assay (QLFA) strips used to test water for E. coli show different results. The brightly glowing control line on the far right of each strip indicates that all three tests ran successfully. But the glowing test line on the middle left and bottom strips reveal their samples were contaminated with E. coli bacteria at two different concentrations. The color intensity correlates with concentration of contamination.

  8. Review on Enhanced Heat Transfer Techniques using Modern Technologies for 4S Air Cooled Engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramasubramanian, S.; Bupesh Raja, V. K.

    2017-05-01

    Engine performance is a biggest challenge and a vital area of concern when it comes to automobiles. Researchers across the globe have been working decades together meticulously improvising the performance of engine in terms of efficiency. The durability of the engine components mainly depends on the thermal stress it undergoes over the period of operation. Air cooling of engine is the simplest and most desirous technique that has been adopted for ages. In this regard fins or extended surfaces are employed for effective cooling of the cylinder while in operation. The conductive and convective heat transfer rate from the cylinder to the fins and in turn from the fins to surrounding ambience determines the effective performance of the engine. In this paper an attempt is made to review and summarize the various researches that were conducted on the Fins in terms of profile geometry, number of fins, size, thickness factor, material used etc., and to bring about a long term solution with the modern technologies like nano coatings and nano materials.

  9. The Whipple Strip Sky Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kertzman, M. P.

    As part of the normal operation of the Whipple 10m Gamma Ray telescope, ten minute drift scan “zenith” runs are made each night of observation for use as calibration. Most of the events recorded during a zenith run are due to the background of cosmic ray showers. However, it would be possible for a hitherto unknown source of gamma rays to drift through the field. This paper reports the results of a search for serendipitous high energy gamma ray sources in the Whipple 10m nightly calibration zenith data. From 2000-2004 nightly calibration runs were taken at an elevation of 89 º. A 2- D analysis of these drift scan runs produces a strip of width ~ 3.5º in declination and spanning the full range of right ascension. In the 2004-05 observing season the calibration runs were taken at elevations of 86° and 83°. Beginning in the 2005-06 season, the nightly calibration runs were taken at an elevation of 80º. Collectively, these drift scans cover a strip approximately 12.5º wide in declination, centered at declination 37.18º, and spanning the full range of RA. The analysis procedures developed for drift scan data, the sensitivity of the method, and the results will be presented.

  10. Bonded orthotropic strips with cracks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Delale, F.; Erdogan, F.

    1979-01-01

    The elastostatic problem for a nonhomogeneous plane which consists of two sets of periodically arranged dissimilar orthotropic strips is considered. It is assumed that the plane contains a series of collinear cracks perpendicular to the interfaces and is loaded in tension away from and perpendicular to the cracks. The problem of cracks fully imbedded into the homogeneous strips is considered. The singular behavior of the stresses for two special crack geometries is studied. The first is the case of a broken laminate in which the crack tips touch the interfaces. The second is the case of cracks crossing the interfaces. An interesting result found from the analysis of the latter is that for certain orthotropic material combinations the stress state at the point of intersection of a crack and an interface may be bounded whereas in isotropic materials at this point stresses are always singular. A number of numerical examples are worked out to separate the primary material parameters influencing the stress intensity factors and the powers of stress singularity, and to determine the trends regarding the influence of the secondary parameters. Some numerical results are given for the stress intensity factors in certain basic crack geometries and for typical material combinations.

  11. Technology Solutions Case Study: Ventilation System Effectiveness and Tested Indoor Air Quality Impacts

    SciTech Connect

    A. Rudd and D. Bergey

    Ventilation system effectiveness testing was conducted at two unoccupied, single-family, detached lab homes at the University of Texas - Tyler. Five ventilation system tests were conducted with various whole-building ventilation systems. Multizone fan pressurization testing characterized building and zone enclosure leakage. PFT testing showed multizone air change rates and interzonal airflow filtration. Indoor air recirculation by a central air distribution system can help improve the exhaust ventilation system by way of air mixing and filtration. In contrast, the supply and balanced ventilation systems showed that there is a significant benefit to drawing outside air from a known outside location, andmore » filtering and distributing that air. Compared to the Exhaust systems, the CFIS and ERV systems showed better ventilation air distribution and lower concentrations of particulates, formaldehyde and other VOCs.« less

  12. Evaluating the impact of ambient benzene vapor concentrations on product water from Condensation Water From Air technology.

    PubMed

    Kinder, Katherine M; Gellasch, Christopher A; Dusenbury, James S; Timmes, Thomas C; Hughes, Thomas M

    2017-07-15

    Globally, drinking water resources are diminishing in both quantity and quality. This situation has renewed interest in Condensation Water From Air (CWFA) technology, which utilizes water vapor in the air to produce water for both potable and non-potable purposes. However, there are currently insufficient data available to determine the relationship between air contaminants and the rate at which they are transferred from the air into CWFA untreated product water. This study implemented a novel experimental method utilizing an environmental test chamber to evaluate how air quality and temperature affects CWFA untreated product water quality in order to collect data that will inform the type of water treatment required to protect human health. This study found that temperature and benzene air concentration affected the untreated product water from a CWFA system. Benzene vapor concentrations representing a polluted outdoor environment resulted in benzene product water concentrations between 15% and 23% of the USEPA drinking water limit of 5μg/l. In contrast, product water benzene concentrations representing an indoor industrial environment were between 1.4 and 2.4 times higher than the drinking water limit. Lower condenser coil temperatures were correlated with an increased concentration of benzene in the product water. Environmental health professionals and engineers can integrate the results of this assessment to predict benzene concentrations in the product water and take appropriate health protective measures. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  13. Ship emissions and the use of current air cleaning technology: contributions to air pollution and acidification in the Baltic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Claremar, Björn; Haglund, Karin; Rutgersson, Anna

    2017-10-01

    The shipping sector is a significant contributor to emissions of air pollutants in marine and coastal regions. In order to achieve sustainable shipping, primarily through new regulations and techniques, greater knowledge of dispersion and deposition of air pollutants is required. Regional model calculations of the dispersion and concentration of sulfur, nitrogen, and particulate matter, as well as deposition of oxidized sulfur and nitrogen from the international maritime sector in the Baltic Sea and the North Sea, have been made for the years 2011 to 2013. The contribution from shipping is highest along shipping lanes and near large ports for concentration and dry deposition. Sulfur is the most important pollutant coupled to shipping. The contribution of both SO2 concentration and dry deposition of sulfur represented up to 80 % of the total in some regions. WHO guidelines for annual concentrations were not trespassed for any analysed pollutant, other than PM2.5 in the Netherlands, Belgium, and central Poland. However, due to the resolution of the numerical model, 50 km × 50 km, there may be higher concentrations locally close to intense shipping lanes. Wet deposition is more spread and less sensitive to model resolution. The contribution of wet deposition of sulfur and nitrogen from shipping was up to 30 % of the total wet deposition. Comparison of simulated to measured concentration at two coastal stations close to shipping lanes showed some underestimations and missed maximums, probably due to resolution of the model and underestimated ship emissions. A change in regulation for maximum sulfur content in maritime fuel, in 2015 from 1 to 0.1 %, decreases the atmospheric sulfur concentration and deposition significantly. However, due to costs related to refining, the cleaning of exhausts through scrubbers has become a possible economic solution. Open-loop scrubbers meet the air quality criteria but their consequences for the marine environment are largely unknown

  14. Air ionization as a control technology for off-gas emissions of volatile organic compounds.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ki-Hyun; Szulejko, Jan E; Kumar, Pawan; Kwon, Eilhann E; Adelodun, Adedeji A; Reddy, Police Anil Kumar

    2017-06-01

    High energy electron-impact ionizers have found applications mainly in industry to reduce off-gas emissions from waste gas streams at low cost and high efficiency because of their ability to oxidize many airborne organic pollutants (e.g., volatile organic compounds (VOCs)) to CO 2 and H 2 O. Applications of air ionizers in indoor air quality management are limited due to poor removal efficiency and production of noxious side products, e.g., ozone (O 3 ). In this paper, we provide a critical evaluation of the pollutant removal performance of air ionizing system through comprehensive review of the literature. In particular, we focus on removal of VOCs and odorants. We also discuss the generation of unwanted air ionization byproducts such as O 3 , NOx, and VOC oxidation intermediates that limit the use of air-ionizers in indoor air quality management. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  15. Air Superiority at Red Flag: Mass, Technology, and Winning the Next War

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-10-01

    NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) Air University,Air Force Research Institute,Maxwell AFB,AL,36112 8 . PERFORMING...REPORT unclassified b. ABSTRACT unclassified c. THIS PAGE unclassified Standard Form 298 (Rev. 8 -98) Prescribed by ANSI Std Z39-18 Air University...27 8 Attrition variation versus threat aircraft . . . . . . . 30 vi Figure Page 9 Threat weapon and

  16. Air Force Science & Technology Issues & Opportunities Regarding High Performance Embedded Computing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-09-23

    Challenges by Domain * Air: Persistent air dominance is at risk * Increasingly effective air defenses * Proliferation of 5th generation fighters, cheap cruise missiles, and UASs * Light-speed war possibilities are terrifying * Space: Now a contested domain * Increasingly important * Increasingly vulnerable * Cyber: Cyber warfare has begun * We don’t control the battlespace * We rely on it more and more * We can’t find the enemy.

  17. 33 CFR 157.128 - Stripping system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...) POLLUTION RULES FOR THE PROTECTION OF THE MARINE ENVIRONMENT RELATING TO TANK VESSELS CARRYING OIL IN BULK Crude Oil Washing (COW) System on Tank Vessels Design, Equipment, and Installation § 157.128 Stripping...) must have a stripping system that is designed to remove crude oil from— (1) Each cargo tank at 1.25...

  18. 33 CFR 157.128 - Stripping system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...) POLLUTION RULES FOR THE PROTECTION OF THE MARINE ENVIRONMENT RELATING TO TANK VESSELS CARRYING OIL IN BULK Crude Oil Washing (COW) System on Tank Vessels Design, Equipment, and Installation § 157.128 Stripping...) must have a stripping system that is designed to remove crude oil from— (1) Each cargo tank at 1.25...

  19. 33 CFR 157.128 - Stripping system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...) POLLUTION RULES FOR THE PROTECTION OF THE MARINE ENVIRONMENT RELATING TO TANK VESSELS CARRYING OIL IN BULK Crude Oil Washing (COW) System on Tank Vessels Design, Equipment, and Installation § 157.128 Stripping...) must have a stripping system that is designed to remove crude oil from— (1) Each cargo tank at 1.25...

  20. 33 CFR 157.128 - Stripping system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...) POLLUTION RULES FOR THE PROTECTION OF THE MARINE ENVIRONMENT RELATING TO TANK VESSELS CARRYING OIL IN BULK Crude Oil Washing (COW) System on Tank Vessels Design, Equipment, and Installation § 157.128 Stripping...) must have a stripping system that is designed to remove crude oil from— (1) Each cargo tank at 1.25...

  1. Strip clearcutting to regenerate northern hardwoods.

    Treesearch

    Frederick T. Metzger

    1980-01-01

    Describes results of strip clearcutting trials in mature northern hardwood and hemlock-hardwood stands in the Lake States. Two strip width and orientations were tested, with and without herbicide treatment of the advance regeneration. Establishment, growth, and species composition of the regeneration were assessed.

  2. Biofiltration technology for the removal of toluene from polluted air using Streptomyces griseus.

    PubMed

    Mohamed, Elham F; Awad, Gamal; Andriantsiferana, Caroline; El-Diwany, Ahmed I

    2016-01-01

    Biofiltration technology has been recognized as a promising biotechnology for treating the volatile organic compounds (VOCs) present in polluted air. This study aims to investigate the performance of a biofiltration system of Streptomyces griseus sp. DSM-40759 immobilized on activated carbon (PICA S23) towards the adsorption and degradation of toluene vapour as well as to regenerate the activated carbon in situ. The batch studies were performed using nutrient agar medium and basal salt medium (BSM) for microbial growth. Initially the pre-cultures were incubated at a temperature of 28°C on a rotary shaker at 150 rpm. After two days, the strain S. griseus DSM-40759 was immobilized on a known weight of activated carbon (12 g). The results of biofilter performance showed three different stages with a quick adsorption phase with approximately 95% of toluene removal after 70 min, a slow biotransformation phase by immobilized cells. In the later, the removal efficiency decreased significantly with the extension of time and reached 60% during this stage. Moreover, a final quick removal phase by the immobilized cells had an average removal efficiency of toluene around 95% after 500 min. The toluene degradation was found to be more than 84% after the second cycle and the biofilter was still capable of removing additional toluene. Thus, the results demonstrated the feasibility and reusability of a new biofilter system for toluene removal as well as extending the activated carbon's capacity and this could be a potential solution to reuse the activated carbon in industrial application.

  3. Deployment hinge using wraparound strips

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blanc, Eric

    1992-01-01

    Aerospatiale developed a new appendage deployment concept called AMEDE (French acronym for improvement of deployment mechanisms) with a view toward increased simplicity and functional reliability. This new concept, applicable to the deployment of any type of spaceborne appendage (in particular to solar arrays), enables deployment without synchronization or speed regulation devices. On the other hand, it requires the use of hinges with low driving or resistive torques. The AMEDE concept is compared with the conventional deployment concept. The conceptual and functional principles for the ADELE hinge are presented, as well as the hinges' main characteristics. The development status of both the AMEDE concept and the ADELE (French acronym for deployment hinge using wraparound strips) hinge are addressed.

  4. Producing Foils From Direct Cast Titanium Alloy Strip

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stuart, T. A.; Gaspar, T. A.; Sukonnik, I. M.; Semiatan, S. L.; Batawi, E.; Peters, J. A.; Fraser, H. L.

    1996-01-01

    This research was undertaken to demonstrate the feasibility of producing high-quality, thin-gage, titanium foil from direct cast titanium strip. Melt Overflow Rapid Solidification Technology (MORST) was used to cast several different titanium alloys into 500 microns thick strip, 10 cm wide and up to 3 m long. The strip was then either ground, hot pack rolled or cold rolled, as appropriate, into foil. Gamma titanium aluminide (TiAl) was cast and ground to approximately 100 microns thick foil and alpha-2 titanium aluminide (Ti3AI) was cast and hot pack rolled to approximately 70 microns thick foil. CP Ti, Ti6Al2Sn4Zr2Mo, and Ti22AI23Nb (Orthorhombic), were successfully cast and cold-rolled into good quality foil (less than 125 microns thick). The foils were generally fully dense with smooth surfaces, had fine, uniform microstructures, and demonstrated mechanical properties equivalent to conventionally produced titanium. By eliminating many manufacturing steps, this technology has the potential to produce thin gage, titanium foil with good engineering properties at significantly reduced cost relative to conventional ingot metallurgy processing.

  5. In-situ conditioning of a strip casting roll

    DOEpatents

    Williams, Robert S.; Campbell, Steven L.

    1997-01-01

    A strip caster (10) for producing a continuous strip (24) has a tundish (12) for containing a melt (14) and a pair of horizontally disposed water cooled casting rolls (22). The casting rolls are juxtaposed relative to one another for forming a pouring basin (18) for receiving the melt through a teeming tube (16) thereby establishing a meniscus (20) between the rolls for forming a strip (24). The melt is protected from the outside air by a non-oxidizing gas passed through a supply line (28) to a sealing chamber (26). Devices (29) for conditioning the outer peripheral chill surfaces of the casting rolls includes grit blasting nozzles (30A, 30B, 30C, 30D), a collection trough (32) for gathering the grit, a line (34) for recycling the grit to a bag house (36), a feeder (38) and a pressurized distributor (40) for delivering the grit to the nozzles. The conditioning nozzles remove dirt, metal oxides and surface imperfections providing a clean surface readily wetted by the melt.

  6. In-situ conditioning of a strip casting roll

    DOEpatents

    Williams, R.S.; Campbell, S.L.

    1997-07-29

    A strip caster (10) for producing a continuous strip (24) has a tundish (12) for containing a melt (14) and a pair of horizontally disposed water cooled casting rolls (22). The casting rolls are juxtaposed relative to one another for forming a pouring basin (18) for receiving the melt through a teeming tube (16) thereby establishing a meniscus (20) between the rolls for forming a strip (24). The melt is protected from the outside air by a non-oxidizing gas passed through a supply line (28) to a sealing chamber (26). Devices (29) for conditioning the outer peripheral chill surfaces of the casting rolls includes grit blasting nozzles (30A, 30B, 30C, 30D), a collection trough (32) for gathering the grit, a line (34) for recycling the grit to a bag house (36), a feeder (38) and a pressurized distributor (40) for delivering the grit to the nozzles. The conditioning nozzles remove dirt, metal oxides and surface imperfections providing a clean surface readily wetted by the melt.

  7. Synthesis of Shoulder Rumble Strip Practices and Policies.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2001-12-07

    This synthesis provides a review of shoulder rumble strip research and the rumble strips' crash reduction record. A discussion of shoulder rumble strips as perceived by the motorist and the bicyclist is followed by the presentation of results of thre...

  8. 21 CFR 882.5900 - Preformed craniosynostosis strip.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... craniosynostosis strip. (a) Identification. A preformed craniosynostosis strip is a plastic strip used to cover bone edges of craniectomy sites (sites where the skull has been cut) to prevent the bone from regrowing...

  9. 21 CFR 882.5900 - Preformed craniosynostosis strip.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... craniosynostosis strip. (a) Identification. A preformed craniosynostosis strip is a plastic strip used to cover bone edges of craniectomy sites (sites where the skull has been cut) to prevent the bone from regrowing...

  10. 21 CFR 882.5900 - Preformed craniosynostosis strip.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... craniosynostosis strip. (a) Identification. A preformed craniosynostosis strip is a plastic strip used to cover bone edges of craniectomy sites (sites where the skull has been cut) to prevent the bone from regrowing...

  11. 21 CFR 882.5900 - Preformed craniosynostosis strip.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... craniosynostosis strip. (a) Identification. A preformed craniosynostosis strip is a plastic strip used to cover bone edges of craniectomy sites (sites where the skull has been cut) to prevent the bone from regrowing...

  12. Airspace Systems Program: Next Generation Air Transportation System Concepts and Technology Development FY2010 Project Plan Version 3.0

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kopardekar, Parimal H.

    2010-01-01

    This document describes the FY2010 plan for the management and execution of the Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen) Concepts and Technology Development (CTD) Project. The document was developed in response to guidance from the Airspace Systems Program (ASP), as approved by the Associate Administrator of the Aeronautics Research Mission Directorate (ARMD), and from guidelines in the Airspace Systems Program Plan. Congress established the multi-agency Joint Planning and Development Office (JPDO) in 2003 to develop a vision for the 2025 Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen) and to define the research required to enable it. NASA is one of seven agency partners contributing to the effort. Accordingly, NASA's ARMD realigned the Airspace Systems Program in 2007 to "directly address the fundamental research needs of the Next Generation Air Transportation System...in partnership with the member agencies of the JPDO." The Program subsequently established two new projects to meet this objective: the NextGen-Airspace Project and the NextGen-Airportal Project. Together, the projects will also focus NASA s technical expertise and world-class facilities to address the question of where, when, how and the extent to which automation can be applied to moving aircraft safely and efficiently through the NAS and technologies that address optimal allocation of ground and air technologies necessary for NextGen. Additionally, the roles and responsibilities of humans and automation influence in the NAS will be addressed by both projects. Foundational concept and technology research and development begun under the NextGen-Airspace and NextGen-Airportal projects will continue. There will be no change in NASA Research Announcement (NRA) strategy, nor will there be any change to NASA interfaces with the JPDO, Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), Research Transition Teams (RTTs), or other stakeholders

  13. Research on Emissions, Air quality, Climate, and Cooking Technologies in Northern Ghana (REACCTING): study rationale and protocol.

    PubMed

    Dickinson, Katherine L; Kanyomse, Ernest; Piedrahita, Ricardo; Coffey, Evan; Rivera, Isaac J; Adoctor, James; Alirigia, Rex; Muvandimwe, Didier; Dove, MacKenzie; Dukic, Vanja; Hayden, Mary H; Diaz-Sanchez, David; Abisiba, Adoctor Victor; Anaseba, Dominic; Hagar, Yolanda; Masson, Nicholas; Monaghan, Andrew; Titiati, Atsu; Steinhoff, Daniel F; Hsu, Yueh-Ya; Kaspar, Rachael; Brooks, Bre'Anna; Hodgson, Abraham; Hannigan, Michael; Oduro, Abraham Rexford; Wiedinmyer, Christine

    2015-02-12

    Cooking over open fires using solid fuels is both common practice throughout much of the world and widely recognized to contribute to human health, environmental, and social problems. The public health burden of household air pollution includes an estimated four million premature deaths each year. To be effective and generate useful insight into potential solutions, cookstove intervention studies must select cooking technologies that are appropriate for local socioeconomic conditions and cooking culture, and include interdisciplinary measurement strategies along a continuum of outcomes. REACCTING (Research on Emissions, Air quality, Climate, and Cooking Technologies in Northern Ghana) is an ongoing interdisciplinary randomized cookstove intervention study in the Kassena-Nankana District of Northern Ghana. The study tests two types of biomass burning stoves that have the potential to meet local cooking needs and represent different "rungs" in the cookstove technology ladder: a locally-made low-tech rocket stove and the imported, highly efficient Philips gasifier stove. Intervention households were randomized into four different groups, three of which received different combinations of two improved stoves, while the fourth group serves as a control for the duration of the study. Diverse measurements assess different points along the causal chain linking the intervention to final outcomes of interest. We assess stove use and cooking behavior, cooking emissions, household air pollution and personal exposure, health burden, and local to regional air quality. Integrated analysis and modeling will tackle a range of interdisciplinary science questions, including examining ambient exposures among the regional population, assessing how those exposures might change with different technologies and behaviors, and estimating the comparative impact of local behavior and technological changes versus regional climate variability and change on local air quality and health outcomes

  14. EPA'S CONTROL TECHNOLOGY APPROACH TO ASSISTING STATES AND REGIONS WITH AIR TOXICS PROBLEMS: FIVE CASE STUDIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper discusses a new U.S. strategy to reduce public exposure to toxic air pollutants in the ambient air. he strategy calls for state and local authorities to take on more of the lead regulatory role. he shift in emphasis and responsibility prompted EPA's Offices of Research ...

  15. 77 FR 41930 - Bleed Air Cleaning and Monitoring Equipment and Technology

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-17

    ... for the engine and auxiliary power unit bleed air supplied to the passenger cabin and flight deck of a... INFORMATION CONTACT: For questions concerning this action, contact Jim Knight, Research Planning Division, AVP... of removing oil-based contaminants from the bleed air supplied to the passenger cabin and flight deck...

  16. New technologies for in vitro aerosol exposures at air liquid interfaces

    EPA Science Inventory

    Air pollution is a serious public health concern with local and global implications. Sometimes the effects of air pollution are distinct, and the causative pollutants can be easily identified and subsequently reduced. In many large cities, however, the cause-and-effect relationsh...

  17. Kinetics of Some Metal Atom and Metal Fluoride Oxidation Reactions Relevant to Air Force Technology Development

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-03-01

    Products and Chemicals , Inc ., supplied a complete analysis with each cylinder. Initial measurements with the original batch (cylinder 1) were considered...NF 3] in this limited tempera- ture range. The NFs used in these experiments was made available by Kelly Air Force Base. The manufacturer, Air

  18. Vehicle safety : technologies, challenges, and research and development expenditures for advanced air bags

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2001-06-01

    One hundred seventy five fatalities - primarily children and small women - have been attributed to the deployment of an air bag in relatively low-speed crashes as of April 2001. Advanced air bag systems tailor the deployment of the bags to the charac...

  19. The Arteries of Global Trade: Industrial Restructuring and Technological Change in the Transatlantic Air Cargo Industry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwarz, Guido

    2010-01-01

    Air cargo enjoys a special importance: together with maritime transport it is the backbone of global trade and is indispensable for contemporary globalization. Air transport is the only mode that combines worldwide reach with high speed. Nonetheless there is a dearth of geographic research that analyzes the current restructuring affecting the air…

  20. Air Force Institute of Technology, Civil Engineering School: Environmental Protection Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Air Force Inst. of Tech., Wright-Patterson AFB, OH. School of Engineering.

    This document contains information assembled by the Civil Engineering School to meet the initial requirements of NEPA 1969 and Executive Orders which required the Air Force to implement an effective environmental protection program. This course presents the various aspects of Air Force environmental protection problems which military personnel…

  1. Report on Technology Horizons: A Vision for Air Force Science and Technology During 2010-2030. Volume 1

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-05-15

    flow and decision processes across the air and space domains. It thus comprises traditional wired and fiber-optic computer networks based on...dual flow path design allow high volumetric efficiency, and high cruise speed provides significantly increased survivability. Vertical takeoff...emerging “third-stream engine architectures” can enable for constant mass flow engines that can provide further reductions in fuel consumption. A wide

  2. Innovative and water based stripping approach for thick and bulk photoresists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rudolph, Matthias; Schumann, Dirk; Thrun, Xaver; Esche, Silvio; Hohle, Christoph

    2014-10-01

    The usage of phase fluid based stripping agents to remove photoresists from silicon substrates was studied. Photoresists are required for many silicon based technologies such as MEMS patterning, 3D-Integration or frontend and backend of line semiconductor applications [1]. Although the use of resists is very common, their successful integration often depends on the ability to remove the resist after certain processing steps. On the one hand the resist is changing during subsequent process steps that can cause a thermally activated cross-linking which increases the stripping complexity. Resist removal is also challenging after the formation of a hard polymer surface layer during plasma or implant processes which is called skin or crust [2]. On the other hand the choice of stripping chemistry is often limited due to the presence of functional materials such as metals which can be damaged by aggressive stripping chemistries [3].

  3. A novel experimental technology for testing efficacy of air purifiers on pollen reduction.

    PubMed

    Bergmann, Karl-Christian; Sehlinger, Torsten; Gildemeister, Julia; Zuberbier, Torsten

    2017-01-01

    Allergenic pollen exposure is mostly seen as an outdoor phenomenon but studies have shown an indoor exposure: different pollen species including birch and grass pollen in houses, schools, and shops are leading to long-lasting symptoms even after the pollen season because pollen settle on surfaces and re-enter the indoor air depending on ventilation. To reduce indoor pollen load, windows need to be closed and devices should be used: as pure wiping and cleaning of surfaces is mostly not sufficient, air cleaners may be helpful in reducing pollen counts in indoor environment. The efficacy of an air cleaner is usually described by the filtration rate of standard dust particle sizes which is not necessarily related to clinical efficacy. A novel study design was developed using the technical equipment of a new mobile exposure chamber to investigate participants with allergic rhinitis (individual observational, controlled, prospective, single arm study). The tested air cleaner reduced the grass pollen-induced (4000 grass pollen/m 3 over 90 min) nasal symptoms (total nasal symptom score) significantly from 6 and 4 points (1st and 2nd exposure in sham run) to less than 1 point when air cleaner was activated. The novel study protocol is suitable for testing efficacy of air cleaners and the tested air cleaner is effective in reducing clinical symptoms due to grass pollen in an indoor environment.

  4. Aeroelastic deformation of a perforated strip

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guttag, M.; Karimi, H. H.; Falcón, C.; Reis, P. M.

    2018-01-01

    We perform a combined experimental and numerical investigation into the static deformation of perforated elastic strips under uniform aerodynamic loading at high-Reynolds-number conditions. The static shape of the porous strips, clamped either horizontally or vertically, is quantified as they are deformed by wind loading, induced by a horizontal flow. The experimental profiles are compared to numerical simulations using a reduced model that takes into account the normal drag force on the deformed surface. For both configurations (vertical and horizontal clamping), we compute the drag coefficient of the strip, by fitting the experimental data to the model, and find that it decreases as a function of porosity. Surprisingly, we find that, for every value of porosity, the drag coefficients for the horizontal configuration are larger than those of the vertical configuration. For all data in both configurations, with the exception of the continuous strip clamped vertically, a linear relation is found between the porosity and drag. Making use of this linearity, we can rescale the drag coefficient in a way that it becomes constant as a function of the Cauchy number, which relates the force due to fluid loading on the elastic strip to its bending rigidity, independently of the material properties and porosity of the strip and the flow speed. Our findings on flexible strips are contrasted to previous work on rigid perforated plates. These results highlight some open questions regarding the usage of reduced models to describe the deformation of flexible structures subjected to aerodynamic loading.

  5. A Strip Cell in Pyroelectric Devices

    PubMed Central

    Siao, An-Shen; Chao, Ching-Kong; Hsiao, Chun-Ching

    2016-01-01

    The pyroelectric effect affords the opportunity to convert temporal temperature fluctuations into usable electrical energy in order to develop abundantly available waste heat. A strip pyroelectric cell, used to enhance temperature variation rates by lateral temperature gradients and to reduce cell capacitance to further promote the induced voltage, is described as a means of improving pyroelectric energy transformation. A precision dicing saw was successfully applied in fabricating the pyroelectric cell with a strip form. The strip pyroelectric cell with a high-narrow cross section is able to greatly absorb thermal energy via the side walls of the strips, thereby inducing lateral temperature gradients and increasing temperature variation rates in a thicker pyroelectric cell. Both simulation and experimentation show that the strip pyroelectric cell improves the electrical outputs of pyroelectric cells and enhances the efficiency of pyroelectric harvesters. The strip-type pyroelectric cell has a larger temperature variation when compared to the trenched electrode and the original type, by about 1.9 and 2.4 times, respectively. The measured electrical output of the strip type demonstrates a conspicuous increase in stored energy as compared to the trenched electrode and the original type, by of about 15.6 and 19.8 times, respectively. PMID:26999134

  6. Transfusion and blood donation in comic strips.

    PubMed

    Lefrère, Jean-Jacques; Danic, Bruno

    2013-07-01

    The representation of blood transfusion and donation of blood in the comic strip has never been studied. The comic strip, which is a relatively recent art, emerged in the 19th century before becoming a mass medium during the 20th century. We have sought, by calling on collectors and using the resources of Internet, comic strips devoted, wholly or in part, to the themes of transfusion and blood donation. We present some of them here in chronologic order, indicating the title, country of origin, year of publication, and names of authors. The theme of the superhero using transfusion to transmit his virtues or his powers is repeated throughout the 20th century in North American comic strips. More recently, comic strips have been conceived from the outset with a promotional aim. They perpetuate positive images and are directed toward a young readership, wielding humor to reduce the fear of venipuncture. Few comic strips denounce the abuse of the commercialization of products derived from the human body. The image of transfusion and blood donation given by the comic strips is not to be underestimated because their readership is primarily children, some of whom will become blood donors. Furthermore, if some readers are transfused during their lives, the impact of a memory more or less conscious of these childhood readings may resurface, both in hopes and in fears. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Assessing community exposure to hazardous air pollutants by combining optical remote sensing and "low-cost" sensor technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pikelnaya, O.; Polidori, A.; Wimmer, R.; Mellqvist, J.; Samuelsson, J.; Marianne, E.; Andersson, P.; Brohede, S.; Izos, O.

    2017-12-01

    Industrial facilities such as refineries and oil processing facilities can be sources of chemicals adversely affecting human health, for example aromatic hydrocarbons and formaldehyde. In an urban setting, such as the South Coast Air Basin (SCAB), exposure to harmful air pollutants (HAP's) for residents of communities neighboring such facilities is of serious concern. Traditionally, exposure assessments are performed by modeling a community exposure using emission inventories and data collected at fixed air monitoring sites. However, recent field measurements found that emission inventories may underestimate HAP emissions from refineries; and HAP measurements data from fixed sites is lacking spatial resolution; as a result, the impact of HAP emissions on communities is highly uncertain. The next generation air monitoring technologies can help address these challenges. For example, dense "low-cost" sensors allow continuous monitoring of concentrations of pollutants within communities with high temporal- and spatial- resolution, and optical remote sensing (ORS) technologies offer measurements of emission fluxes and real-time ground-concentration mapping of HAPs. South Coast Air Quality Management District (SCAQMD) is currently conducting a multi-year study using ORS methods and "low-cost" Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) sensors to monitor HAP emissions from selected industrial facilities in the SCAB and their ambient concentrations in neighboring communities. For this purpose, quarterly mobile ORS surveys are conducted to quantify facility-wide emissions for VOCs, aromatic hydrocarbons and HCHO, and to collect ground-concentration profiles of these pollutants inside neighboring communities. Additionally, "low-cost" sensor nodes for deployment in neighborhood(s) downwind of the facilities have been developed in order to obtain long-term, granular data on neighborhood VOC concentrations, During this presentation we will discuss initial results of quarterly ORS

  8. System and Propagation Availability Analysis for NASA's Advanced Air Transportation Technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ugweje, Okechukwu C.

    2000-01-01

    This report summarizes the research on the System and Propagation Availability Analysis for NASA's project on Advanced Air Transportation Technologies (AATT). The objectives of the project were to determine the communication systems requirements and architecture, and to investigate the effect of propagation on the transmission of space information. In this report, results from the first year investigation are presented and limitations are highlighted. To study the propagation links, an understanding of the total system architecture is necessary since the links form the major component of the overall architecture. This study was conducted by way of analysis, modeling and simulation on the system communication links. The overall goals was to develop an understanding of the space communication requirements relevant to the AATT project, and then analyze the links taking into consideration system availability under adverse atmospheric weather conditions. This project began with a preliminary study of the end-to-end system architecture by modeling a representative communication system in MATLAB SIMULINK. Based on the defining concepts, the possibility of computer modeling was determined. The investigations continue with the parametric studies of the communication system architecture. These studies were also carried out with SIMULINK modeling and simulation. After a series of modifications, two end-to-end communication links were identified as the most probable models for the communication architecture. Link budget calculations were then performed in MATHCAD and MATLAB for the identified communication scenarios. A remarkable outcome of this project is the development of a graphic user interface (GUI) program for the computation of the link budget parameters in real time. Using this program, one can interactively compute the link budget requirements after supplying a few necessary parameters. It provides a framework for the eventual automation of several computations

  9. ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION REPORT - PHOTOACOUSTIC SPECTROPHOTOMATER INNOVA AIR TECH INSTRUMENTS MODEL 1312 MULTI-GAS MONITOR

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Through the Environmental Technology Verification Program, is working to accelerate the acceptance and use of innovative technologies that improve the way the United States manages its environmental problems. This report documents demons...

  10. Applications of low-cost sensing technologies for air quality monitoring and exposure assessment: How far have they gone?

    PubMed

    Morawska, Lidia; Thai, Phong K; Liu, Xiaoting; Asumadu-Sakyi, Akwasi; Ayoko, Godwin; Bartonova, Alena; Bedini, Andrea; Chai, Fahe; Christensen, Bryce; Dunbabin, Matthew; Gao, Jian; Hagler, Gayle S W; Jayaratne, Rohan; Kumar, Prashant; Lau, Alexis K H; Louie, Peter K K; Mazaheri, Mandana; Ning, Zhi; Motta, Nunzio; Mullins, Ben; Rahman, Md Mahmudur; Ristovski, Zoran; Shafiei, Mahnaz; Tjondronegoro, Dian; Westerdahl, Dane; Williams, Ron

    2018-07-01

    Over the past decade, a range of sensor technologies became available on the market, enabling a revolutionary shift in air pollution monitoring and assessment. With their cost of up to three orders of magnitude lower than standard/reference instruments, many avenues for applications have opened up. In particular, broader participation in air quality discussion and utilisation of information on air pollution by communities has become possible. However, many questions have been also asked about the actual benefits of these technologies. To address this issue, we conducted a comprehensive literature search including both the scientific and grey literature. We focused upon two questions: (1) Are these technologies fit for the various purposes envisaged? and (2) How far have these technologies and their applications progressed to provide answers and solutions? Regarding the former, we concluded that there is no clear answer to the question, due to a lack of: sensor/monitor manufacturers' quantitative specifications of performance, consensus regarding recommended end-use and associated minimal performance targets of these technologies, and the ability of the prospective users to formulate the requirements for their applications, or conditions of the intended use. Numerous studies have assessed and reported sensor/monitor performance under a range of specific conditions, and in many cases the performance was concluded to be satisfactory. The specific use cases for sensors/monitors included outdoor in a stationary mode, outdoor in a mobile mode, indoor environments and personal monitoring. Under certain conditions of application, project goals, and monitoring environments, some sensors/monitors were fit for a specific purpose. Based on analysis of 17 large projects, which reached applied outcome stage, and typically conducted by consortia of organizations, we observed that a sizable fraction of them (~ 30%) were commercial and/or crowd-funded. This fact by itself signals a

  11. CAPSULE REPORT: SOURCES AND AIR EMISSION CONTROL TECHNOLOGIES AT WASTE MANAGEMENT FACILITIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The chemicals processed during waste management operations can volatilize into the atmosphere and cause carcinogenic or other toxic effects or contribute to ozone formation. Regulations have been developed to control air emissions from these operations. The EPA has promulgated st...

  12. Rapid evolution of air pollution sensor technology for research and consumer product applications

    EPA Science Inventory

    Outdoor air pollution measurement approaches have historically been conducted using stationary shelters that require significant space, power, and expertise to operate. The cost and logistical requirements to conduct monitoring have limited the number of locations with continuou...

  13. Integrating Sensor Monitoring Technology into the Current Air Pollution Regulatory Support Paradigm: Practical Considerations

    EPA Science Inventory

    The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) along with state, local, and tribal governments operate Federal Reference Method (FRM) and Federal Equivalent Method (FEM) instruments to assess compliance with US air pollution standards designed to protect human and ecosystem health....

  14. Air Evaporation closed cycle water recovery technology - Advanced energy saving designs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morasko, Gwyndolyn; Putnam, David F.; Bagdigian, Robert

    1986-01-01

    The Air Evaporation water recovery system is a visible candidate for Space Station application. A four-man Air Evaporation open cycle system has been successfully demonstrated for waste water recovery in manned chamber tests. The design improvements described in this paper greatly enhance the system operation and energy efficiency of the air evaporation process. A state-of-the-art wick feed design which results in reduced logistics requirements is presented. In addition, several design concepts that incorporate regenerative features to minimize the energy input to the system are discussed. These include a recuperative heat exchanger, a heat pump for energy transfer to the air heater, and solar collectors for evaporative heat. The addition of the energy recovery devices will result in an energy reduction of more than 80 percent over the systems used in earlier manned chamber tests.

  15. QUALITY MANAGEMENT DURING SELECTION OF TECHNOLOGIES; EXAMPLE SITE MARCH AIR FORCE BASE, USA

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper describes the remedial approach, organizational structure and key elements facilitating effective and efficient remediation of contaminated sites at March Air Force Base (AFB), California. The U.S. implementation and quality assurance approach to site remediation for a...

  16. QUALITY MANAGEMENT DURING SELECTION OF TECHNOLOGIES EXAMPLE SITE MARCH AIR FORCE BASE, USA

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper describes the remedial approach, organizational structure and key elements facilitating effective and efficient remediation of contaminated sites at March Air Force Base (AFB), California. The U.S. implementation and quality assurance approach to site remediation for ...

  17. Tailoring advanced technologies for air traffic control : the importance of the development process

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1995-04-01

    This paper describes a process that is currently being applied to the : development and assessment of an advanced air traffic control (ATC) system, the : Center TRACON Automation System (CTAS). This process deviates from established : practices of AT...

  18. Stripping voltammetry in environmental and food analysis.

    PubMed

    Brainina, K Z; Malakhova, N A; Stojko, N Y

    2000-10-01

    The review covers over 230 papers published mostly in the last 5 years. The goal of the review is to attract the attention of researchers and users to stripping voltammetry in particular, its application in environmental monitoring and analysis of foodstuffs. The sensors employed are impregnated graphite, carbon paste, thick film carbon/graphite and thin film metallic electrodes modified in-situ or beforehand. Hanging mercury drop electrodes and mercury coated glassy carbon electrodes are also mentioned. Strip and long-lived sensors for portable instruments and flow through systems are discussed as devices for future development and application of stripping voltammetry.

  19. A Search for Warriors: The Effects of Technology on the Air Force Ethos

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1997-04-01

    quoted by Oberstleutnant Peter F. Hauser, and Lt Col John Rawls , C., and Maj. John C. Ornduff, “Lessons from the Kriegsakademie: A Reflection of the...Engagement: A Vision for the 21st Century Air Force. Washington DC: Headquarters USAF, November 1996. Hauser, Oberstleutnant Peter F., and Rawls , Lt Col...Modern Strategy from Machiavelli to the Nuclear Age. Princeton, NJ.: Princeton University Press, 1986. “Recent Space Issues and Development.” Air Force

  20. Current Close Air Support Doctrine: Out of Step With New Technology and Urban CAS Requirements

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-05-18

    friendly injury from CAS attacks in danger close situations discouraged the use and reduced the effectiveness of CAS. Subsequently, all participants...September 2000. Unpublished Thesis Bell, Steven E. “ Close Air Support for the Future.” Unpublished Research Paper, U.S. Army Command and General Staff...Naval War College, Newport, RI: 2000. Garret, Thomas W. “ Close Air Support: Why All the Fuss?” Unpublished Research Paper, U.S. Army War College

  1. Investigation of radon level in air and tap water of workplaces at Thailand Institute of Nuclear Technology, Thailand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sola, P.; Youngchuay, U.; Kongsri, S.; Kongtana, A.

    2017-06-01

    Thailand Institute of Nuclear Technology (TINT) has continuously monitored radiation exposure and radionuclide in workplaces specifically radon gas to estimate effective dose for workers. Radon exposure is the second leading cause of lung cancer in the world. In this study, radon in air and tap water at building no. 3, 7, 8, 9 and 18 on Ongkharak site of TINT have been measured for 5 years from 2012 to 2016. Radon level in air and tap water were investigated on 83 stations (workplaces) and 54 samples, respectively. Radon concentrations in air and tap water were measured by using the pulsed ionization chamber (ATMOS 12 DPX). Indoor radon concentrations in air were in the range of 12-138 Bq.m-3 with an average value of 30.13±17.05 Bq.m-3. Radon concentrations in tap water were in the range of 0.10 to 2.89 Bq.l-1 with an average value of 0.51±0.55 Bq.l-1. The results of radon concentrations at TINT were below the US Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) safety limit of 148 Bq.m-3 and 150 Bq.l-1, for, air and tap water, respectively. The average effective dose for TINT’s workers due to indoor radon exposure was approximately 0.20±0.11 mSv.y-1. The value is 100 times less than the annual dose limit for limit occupational radiation worker defined by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP). As a result, the TINT’s workplaces are radiologically safe from radon content in air and tap water.

  2. [Comparison of sulfur fumigation processing and direct hot air heating technology on puerarin contents and efficacy of Puerariae Thomsonii Radix].

    PubMed

    Yu, Hong-Li; Zhang, Qian; Jin, Yang-Ping; Wang, Kui-Long; Lu, Tu-Lin; Li, Lin

    2016-07-01

    In order to compare the effect of sulfur fumigation processing and direct hot air heating technology on puerarin contents and efficacy of Puerariae Thomsonii Radix, the fresh roots of Pueraria thomsonii were cut into small pieces and prepared into direct sunshine drying samples, direct hot air drying samples, and sulfur fumigation-hot air drying samples. Moisture contents of the samples were then determined. The puerarin contents of different samples were compared by HPLC method. Moreover, the models of drunkenness mice were established, and then with superoxide dismutase (SOD) content as the index, aqueous decoction extracts of Puerariae Thomsonii Radix samples with sulfur fumigation processing and non-sulfur fumigation processing methods were administrated by ig; the effects of sulfur fumigation on contents of SOD in mice liver and serum were determined, and the sulfur fumigation samples and non-sulfur fumigation samples were investigated for moth and mildew under different packaging and storage conditions. Results showed that the sulfur fumigation samples significantly changed the puerarin content from Puerariae Thomsonii Radix. The content of puerarin was decreased gradually when increasing the times of sulfur fumigation and amount of sulfur. SOD content in drunken mice liver and serum was significantly decreased when increasing the times of sulfur fumigation, showing significant difference with both direct sunshine drying group and direct hot air drying group. Moth and mildew were not found in the sulfur fumigation samples and direct hot air drying samples whose moisture contents were lower than the limit in Pharmacopoeia. Research showed that sulfur fumigation can significantly reduce the content of main active ingredients and reduce the efficacy of Puerariae Thomsonii Radix, indicating that the quality of Puerariae Thomsonii Radix was significantly decreased after sulfur fumigation. However, the contents of the main active ingredients, efficacy and storage

  3. AirSAR 2004 plaque unveiling by NASA Administrator Sean O'Keefe and Fernando Gutierrez, Costa Rican Minister of Science and Technology(MICIT)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2004-03-03

    AirSAR 2004 Mesoamerica plaque unveiling by NASA Administrator Sean O'Keefe and Fernando Gutierrez, Costa Rican Minister of Science and Technology(MICIT). AirSAR 2004 Mesoamerica is a three-week expedition by an international team of scientists that will use an all-weather imaging tool, called the Airborne Synthetic Aperture Radar (AirSAR), in a mission ranging from the tropical rain forests of Central America to frigid Antarctica.

  4. Rumble strips installation on thin pavement overlays.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2014-09-01

    The purpose of this project was to establish a synthesis of best practices from various state and other transportation agency stakeholders regarding the installation and re-installation of rumble strips on pavements treated with a thin pavement overl...

  5. Development of Temporary Rumble Strip Specifications

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2016-02-01

    The objective of this study was to develop specifications for portable reusable temporary rumble strips for their applications in different work zone settings in Kansas. A detailed literature review, a survey of practice, and a closed-course test wer...

  6. Detection of stripping in hot mix asphalt.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2005-03-11

    Stripping in hot mix asphalt (HMA) refers to the loss of adhesion between the asphalt cement and the aggregate surface primarily caused by the action of moisture and moisture vapor (Kandhal and Rickards 2001). Moisture damage begins with a reduction ...

  7. Chemical Strips Anodic Film From Aluminum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eichinger, Eric C.

    1993-01-01

    Phosphoric acid solution offers advantages over other stripping solutions. More effective than other strippers and safer to use. Relatively environmentally benign, phosphoric acid stripper ceases its chemical attack so less process control is needed in its use.

  8. Prevention of Stripping under Chip Seals

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2017-10-01

    Eighteen chip-sealed roadways in eight cities and counties in Minnesota were evaluated both in the field (for condition surveys and density tests) and in the laboratory (for permeability, stripping, tensile-strength ratio, asphalt film thickness, and...

  9. Electrostatics of crossed arrays of strips.

    PubMed

    Danicki, Eugene

    2010-07-01

    The BIS-expansion method is widely applied in analysis of SAW devices. Its generalization is presented for two planar periodic systems of perfectly conducting strips arranged perpendicularly on both sides of a dielectric layer. The generalized method can be applied in the evaluation of capacitances of strips on printed circuits boards and certain microwave devices, but primarily it may help in evaluation of 2-D piezoelectric sensors and actuators, with row and column addressing their elements, and also piezoelectric bulk wave resonators.

  10. Fixture for multiple-FCC chemical stripping and plating

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Angele, W.; Norton, W. E.

    1971-01-01

    For chemical stripping, lead tape applied near ends to be stripped protects insulation. Taped ends are submerged half way in stripping solution. For electroplating, both ends of FCC are stripped - top ends for electric contact, others for submersion in electroplating solution.

  11. NASA Turbulence Technologies In-Service Evaluation: Delta Air Lines Report-Out

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Amaral, Christian; Dickson, Steve; Watts, Bill

    2007-01-01

    Concluding an in-service evaluation of two new turbulence detection technologies developed in the Turbulence Prediction and Warning Systems (TPAWS) element of the NASA Aviation Safety and Security Program's Weather Accident Prevention Project (WxAP), this report documents Delta's experience working with the technologies, feedback gained from pilots and dispatchers concerning current turbulence techniques and procedures, and Delta's recommendations regarding directions for further efforts by the research community. Technologies evaluated included an automatic airborne turbulence encounter reporting technology called the Turbulence Auto PIREP System (TAPS), and a significant enhancement to the ability of modern airborne weather radars to predict and display turbulence of operational significance, called E-Turb radar.

  12. New Close Air Support Doctrine: Getting Control of Emerging Technology and Advanced Concepts

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-05-31

    tactics, techniques, and procedures (TTPs). Since 1996 , the JCAS community, lead by an Office of the Secretary of Defense JCAS Joint Test Force, has tried...addressing CAS control in the urban environment. The first of these is Major Kenneth T. Stefanek’s thesis “The Utilization of Inertially Guided Weapons in...the 1995 to 1996 academic year to be submitted to the Chief of Staff of the Air Force in support of future concepts development. This paper, “Close Air

  13. Review and status of heat-transfer technology for internal passages of air-cooled turbine blades

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yeh, F. C.; Stepka, F. S.

    1984-01-01

    Selected literature on heat-transfer and pressure losses for airflow through passages for several cooling methods generally applicable to gas turbine blades is reviewed. Some useful correlating equations are highlighted. The status of turbine-blade internal air-cooling technology for both nonrotating and rotating blades is discussed and the areas where further research is needed are indicated. The cooling methods considered include convection cooling in passages, impingement cooling at the leading edge and at the midchord, and convection cooling in passages, augmented by pin fins and the use of roughened internal walls.

  14. Technology evaluation of heating, ventilation, and air conditioning for MIUS application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gill, W. L.; Keough, M. B.; Rippey, J. O.

    1974-01-01

    Potential ways of providing heating, ventilation, and air conditioning for a building complex serviced by a modular integrated utility system (MIUS) are examined. Literature surveys were conducted to investigate both conventional and unusual systems to serve this purpose. The advantages and disadvantages of the systems most compatible with MIUS are discussed.

  15. A Compendium of Air Force Institute of Technology Thesis Abstracts Related to Acquisition Management

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-09-01

    SHOULD PROGRAM DIRECTORS BE GRANTED CONTRACTING AUTHORITY? Champlain, George F. Sep 89 AD-A216 357 ABSTRACT: In Air Force Systems Command (AFSC...COMPETITIVE PRICES IN THE ACQUISITION OF WEAPON SYSTEM REPLENISHMENT SPARE PARTS. Brost , Edward J, Sep 82 AD-A122 962 ABSTRACT: Competition is the

  16. EMERGING TECHNOLOGY REPORT: DESTRUCTION OF ORGANIC CONTAMINANTS IN AIR USING ADVANCED ULTRAVIOLET FLASHLAMPS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper describes a new process for photo-oxidation of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in air using an advanced ultraviolet source, a Purus xenon flashlamp. The flashlamps have greater output at 200-250 nm than medium-pressure mercury lamps at the same power and therefore ca...

  17. Air Pollution Technology: A Suggested Two-Year Post High School Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santa Fe Community Coll., Gainesville, FL.

    The purpose of this guide is to help school administrators and instructors in planning and developing new programs in the air pollution control field, or in evaluating those in existence. It contains course outlines for technical specialization courses as well as necessary basic science and communication courses. Also included are plans for…

  18. Motor Transportation Technology: Automechanics. [Air Conditioning.] Block IX. A-IX.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas A and M Univ., College Station. Vocational Instructional Services.

    This packet contains 13 teacher lesson plans with related student information, job sheets, and task sheets for a block of instruction on motor vehicle refrigeration (air conditioning) systems in a course on auto mechanics. Lesson plans, which are either informational or manipulative in format, take the teacher step-by-step through each lesson.…

  19. PHYTOREMEDIATION OF GROUNDWATER AT AIR FORCE PLANT 4, CARSWELL, TEXAS - INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGY EVALUATION REPORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Over 600 Cottonwood trees were planted over a shallow groundwater plume in an attempt to detoxify the trichloroethylene (TCE) in a groundwater plume at a former Air Force facility. Two planting techniques were used: rooted stock about two years old, and 18 inch cuttings were inst...

  20. CORONA DESTRUCTION: AN INNOVATIVE CONTROL TECHNOLOGY FOR VOCS AND AIR TOXICS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper discusses the work and results to date leading to the demonstration of the corona destruction process at pilot scale. The research effort in corona destruction of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and air toxics has shown significant promise for providing a valuable co...

  1. ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION REPORT, MIRATECH CORPORATIONM GECO 3001 AIR/FUEL RATIO CONTROLLER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Details on the verification test design, measurement test procedures, and Quality assurance/Quality Control (QA/QC) procedures can be found in the test plan titled Testing and Quality Assurance Plan, MIRATECH Corporation GECO 3100 Air/Fuel Ratio Controller (SRI 2001). It can be d...

  2. U.S. Air Force Research Technology Area Plan, FY 1989

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-09-01

    Continue on reverse if necessaty and identify by block number) FIELD GROUP SUB-GROUP 19. ABSTRACT (Continue on reverse if necessary and identify by...Armstrong Aerospace Medical Research Laboratory (AAMRL) USAF School of Aerospace Medical Research Laboratory (USAFSAM) Rome Air Development Center...development of advanced weapon concepts and advance the state of the art in systems development, electromagnetic countermeasures, nuclear weapons

  3. 75 FR 22548 - Requirements for Control Technology Determinations for Major Sources in Accordance With Clean Air...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-29

    ..., Sections 112(g) and 112(j) AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Extension of public... case-by-case emission limits for major sources of hazardous air pollutants under section 112(j) of the..., when EPA published a proposed rule (75 FR 15655) amending the Section 112(j) rule (40 CFR part 63...

  4. Horizons in Learning Innovation through Technology: Prospects for Air Force Education Benefits

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-06-10

    prototyping, and implementation. Successfully implementing disruptive innovations requires change management to help steward the identification ...systems and environments for Air Force education benefits goes beyond the identification and analysis of emerging horizons. Processes and methods...scene, a patrol area, or a suspect lineup (“Augmented- reality,” 2010). Connection to Innovation Triangle. The concepts of LVC and AR are quickly

  5. Application of air hammer drilling technology in igneous rocks of Junggar basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Hongshan; Feng, Guangtong; Yu, Haiye

    2018-03-01

    There were many technical problems such as serious well deviation, low penetration rate and long drilling cycle in igneous rocks because of its hardness, strong abrasive and poor drillability, which severely influenced the exploration and development process of Junggar basin. Through analyzing the difficulties of gas drilling with roller bits in Well HS 2, conducting the mechanics experiments about igneous rock, and deeply describing the rock-breaking mechanism of air hammer drilling and its adaptability in igneous rocks, air hammer drilling can realize deviation control and fast drilling in igneous rocks of piedmont zone and avoid the wear and fatigue fracture of drilling strings due to its characteristics of low WOB, low RPM and high frequency impact. Through firstly used in igneous rocks of Well HS 201, compared with gas drilling with cone bit, the average penetration rate and one-trip footage of air hammer drilling respectively increased by more than 2.45 times and 6.42 times while the well deviation was always controlled less than 2 degrees. Two records for Block HS were set up such as the fastest penetration rate of 14.29m/h in Φ444.5mm well hole and the highest one-trip footage of 470.62m in Φ311.2mm well hole. So air hammer drilling was an effective way to realize optimal and fast drilling in the igneous rock formation of Junggar basin.

  6. Predicting the impacts of new technology aircraft on international air transportation demand

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ausrotas, R. A.

    1981-01-01

    International air transportation to and from the United States was analyzed. Long term and short term effects and causes of travel are described. The applicability of econometric methods to forecast passenger travel is discussed. A nomograph is developed which shows the interaction of economic growth, airline yields, and quality of service in producing international traffic.

  7. FEASIBILITY STUDY TO DEMONSTRATE APPLICABILITY OF TUNABLE INFRARED LASER EMISSION SPECTROSCOPY TECHNOLOGY TO MEASURE AIR POLLUTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    This project involves the real-time measurement of air quality using open-path IR spectroscopy. A prototype open-path tunable laser absorption spectroscopy instrument was designed, built, and successfully operated for several hundred hours between October and December 2000. The...

  8. PRELIMINARY ASSESSMENT OF WORKER AND AMBIENT AIR EXPOSURES DURING SOIL REMEDIATION TECHNOLOGY DEMONSTRATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Hazardous waste site remediation workers or neighboring residents may be exposed to particulates during the remediation of lead contaminated soil sites. An industrial hygiene survey and air monitoring program for both lead and dust were performed during initial soil sampling acti...

  9. Implementing Advanced Technologies in the Republic of China Air Force Officer Training System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-03-01

    Strategy Political Radar Systems Emergency Education Medicine Maneuvers Entertainment & Systems Design Primary Care Welfare Telegraph Systems I1 The...Planning area includes the career fields of Organization, Aircraft, Weapons, Air Strategy , and Maneuvers. In the Political area of occupational...materials to be considered. The current strategy is to maintain massive inventories of written testing materials for use in officer evaluations

  10. Performance of the first prototype of the CALICE scintillator strip electromagnetic calorimeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Francis, K.; Repond, J.; Schlereth, J.; Smith, J.; Xia, L.; Baldolemar, E.; Li, J.; Park, S. T.; Sosebee, M.; White, A. P.; Yu, J.; Eigen, G.; Mikami, Y.; Watson, N. K.; Thomson, M. A.; Ward, D. R.; Benchekroun, D.; Hoummada, A.; Khoulaki, Y.; Apostolakis, J.; Dotti, A.; Folger, G.; Ivantchenko, V.; Ribon, A.; Uzhinskiy, V.; Cârloganu, C.; Gay, P.; Manen, S.; Royer, L.; Tytgat, M.; Zaganidis, N.; Blazey, G. C.; Dyshkant, A.; Lima, J. G. R.; Zutshi, V.; Hostachy, J.-Y.; Morin, L.; Cornett, U.; David, D.; Ebrahimi, A.; Falley, G.; Gadow, K.; Göttlicher, P.; Günter, C.; Hartbrich, O.; Hermberg, B.; Karstensen, S.; Krivan, F.; Krüger, K.; Lutz, B.; Morozov, S.; Morgunov, V.; Neubüser, C.; Reinecke, M.; Sefkow, F.; Smirnov, P.; Terwort, M.; Garutti, E.; Laurien, S.; Lu, S.; Marchesini, I.; Matysek, M.; Ramilli, M.; Briggl, K.; Eckert, P.; Harion, T.; Schultz-Coulon, H.-Ch.; Shen, W.; Stamen, R.; Bilki, B.; Norbeck, E.; Northacker, D.; Onel, Y.; Wilson, G. W.; Kawagoe, K.; Sudo, Y.; Yoshioka, T.; Dauncey, P. D.; Wing, M.; Salvatore, F.; Cortina Gil, E.; Mannai, S.; Baulieu, G.; Calabria, P.; Caponetto, L.; Combaret, C.; Della Negra, R.; Grenier, G.; Han, R.; Ianigro, J.-C.; Kieffer, R.; Laktineh, I.; Lumb, N.; Mathez, H.; Mirabito, L.; Petrukhin, A.; Steen, A.; Tromeur, W.; Vander Donckt, M.; Zoccarato, Y.; Calvo Alamillo, E.; Fouz, M.-C.; Puerta-Pelayo, J.; Corriveau, F.; Bobchenko, B.; Chadeeva, M.; Danilov, M.; Epifantsev, A.; Markin, O.; Mizuk, R.; Novikov, E.; Popov, V.; Rusinov, V.; Tarkovsky, E.; Besson, D.; Buzhan, P.; Ilyin, A.; Kantserov, V.; Kaplin, V.; Karakash, A.; Popova, E.; Tikhomirov, V.; Kiesling, C.; Seidel, K.; Simon, F.; Soldner, C.; Weuste, L.; Amjad, M. S.; Bonis, J.; Callier, S.; Conforti di Lorenzo, S.; Cornebise, P.; Doublet, Ph.; Dulucq, F.; Fleury, J.; Frisson, T.; van der Kolk, N.; Li, H.; Martin-Chassard, G.; Richard, F.; de la Taille, Ch.; Pöschl, R.; Raux, L.; Rouëné, J.; Seguin-Moreau, N.; Anduze, M.; Balagura, V.; Boudry, V.; Brient, J.-C.; Cornat, R.; Frotin, M.; Gastaldi, F.; Guliyev, E.; Haddad, Y.; Magniette, F.; Musat, G.; Ruan, M.; Tran, T. H.; Videau, H.; Bulanek, B.; Zacek, J.; Cvach, J.; Gallus, P.; Havranek, M.; Janata, M.; Kvasnicka, J.; Lednicky, D.; Marcisovsky, M.; Polak, I.; Popule, J.; Tomasek, L.; Tomasek, M.; Ruzicka, P.; Sicho, P.; Smolik, J.; Vrba, V.; Zalesak, J.; Belhorma, B.; Ghazlane, H.; Kotera, K.; Ono, H.; Takeshita, T.; Uozumi, S.; Jeans, D.; Chang, S.; Khan, A.; Kim, D. H.; Kong, D. J.; Oh, Y. D.; Götze, M.; Sauer, J.; Weber, S.; Zeitnitz, C.

    2014-11-01

    A first prototype of a scintillator strip-based electromagnetic calorimeter was built, consisting of 26 layers of tungsten absorber plates interleaved with planes of 45×10×3 mm3 plastic scintillator strips. Data were collected using a positron test beam at DESY with momenta between 1 and 6 GeV/c. The prototype's performance is presented in terms of the linearity and resolution of the energy measurement. These results represent an important milestone in the development of highly granular calorimeters using scintillator strip technology. A number of possible design improvements were identified, which should be implemented in a future detector of this type. This technology is being developed for a future linear collider experiment, aiming at the precise measurement of jet energies using particle flow techniques.

  11. Performance of the first prototype of the CALICE scintillator strip electromagnetic calorimeter

    DOE PAGES

    Francis, K.; Repond, J.; Schlereth, J.; ...

    2014-11-01

    A first prototype of a scintillator strip-based electromagnetic calorimeter was built, consisting of 26 layers of tungsten absorber plates interleaved with planes of 45 × 10 × 3 mm³ plastic scintillator strips. Data were collected using a positron test beam at DESY with momenta between 1 and 6 GeV/c. The prototype's performance is presented in terms of the linearity and resolution of the energy measurement. These results represent an important milestone in the development of highly granular calorimeters using scintillator strip technology. A number of possible design improvements were identified, which should be implemented in a future detector of thismore » type. This technology is being developed for a future linear collider experiment, aiming at the precise measurement of jet energies using particle flow techniques.« less

  12. Propulsion Noise Reduction Research in the NASA Advanced Air Transport Technology Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Van Zante, Dale; Nark, Douglas; Fernandez, Hamilton

    2017-01-01

    The Aircraft Noise Reduction (ANR) sub-project is focused on the generation, development, and testing of component noise reduction technologies progressing toward the NASA far term noise goals while providing associated near and mid-term benefits. The ANR sub-project has efforts in airframe noise reduction, propulsion (including fan and core) noise reduction, acoustic liner technology, and propulsion airframe aeroacoustics for candidate conventional and unconventional aircraft configurations. The current suite of propulsion specific noise research areas is reviewed along with emerging facility and measurement capabilities. In the longer term, the changes in engine and aircraft configuration will influence the suite of technologies necessary to reduce noise in next generation systems.

  13. An Analysis of Air Pollution Control Technologies for Shipyard Emitted Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCS)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-03-01

    3.1.1 Incineration 3.1.2 Oxidation 3.2 Sorption Processes 3.2.1 Adsorption 3.2.2 Absorption 3.3 Condensation 3.4 Hybrid Systems 4.0 Examples of Recent...droplets are then collected onto a surface for removal. ● Hybrid systems use the strength of one technology to compensate for the weakness in another...technology has inherent advantages and disadvantages depending upon its application. Hybrid systems , or combinations of these technologies, are

  14. Clean Air Act Section 112(d)(6) Technology Review for Pulping and Papermaking Processes Memorandum

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The purpose of this November 2011 document is to present the results of a review of available information on developments in practices, processes, and control technologies that apply to pulping and papermaking processes.

  15. Some Labour Implications of Technological Change in Rail and Air Transport.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gil, Avishai

    1986-01-01

    Repercussions of recent economic difficulties on job content, employment levels, structure of the work force, and industrial relations are examined. The effect of new technologies on these areas is discussed. (Author/CT)

  16. Investigation of Air Transportation Technology at Ohio University, 1989-1990

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lilley, Robert W.

    1990-01-01

    The activities of the participants in the Joint University Program (JUP) at Ohio University are briefly surveyed. During 1989 to 1990, five topics received emphasis. A spectrum-efficient weather data uplink system was designed, constructed, and flight tested. An integrated Global Positioning System/Inertial Navigation System (GPS/INS) study continued, utilizing the Redundant strapdown Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU) on loan from NASA. The Ridge Regression theory was refined and applied to air navigation scenarios. System Identification theory was applied to GPS data to point the way to better understanding of the effects of Selective Availability on civilian users of this navigation system. An analysis of thought-related (electroencephalographic) signals for application to control of computer systems that could have significance in aiding paraplegics or for hands-off systems control in industrial or air traffic control areas was carried out.

  17. Air Force space power and thermal management technology - Requirements for the early 21st century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herrera, Ernest D.; Kuck, Inara

    Typical projections for military space power and thermal management technologies have posited requirements for high powered and highly survivable systems. Recent changes in defense needs, however, will require spacecraft that are smaller, lower powered, less survivable, and highly proliferated. Technologies will be developed to provide low cost, ultra-light, high power density, 'smart' conventional power systems. Compact nuclear power systems will also be developed to meet higher power needs.

  18. The Mediterranean Crucible, 1942-1943: Did Technology or Tenets Achieve Air Superiority

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-06-01

    messages of critical Luftwaffe communications. The decryption, analysis, and dissemination of messages from the German Enigma coding machine, facilitated...the ability to “read the Luftwaffe [Enigma] keys in North Africa from the first day of their introduction” in the theater.5 This system, code ...IRIS no. 118168, in USAF Collection, AFHRA, Part IV, 1. 21 AWPD-42, Part IV, 1. superiority which enables its possessor to conduct air

  19. Environmental Sensor Technologies and Procedures for Detecting and Identifying Indoor Air Pollution

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-03-01

    level of RSP in the air. RSP aggravates dust-related allergies. It also aggravates the problem of radon or biological contaminants. Radon daughters -the...the earth and is pulled into buildings through cracks in the foundation and other entry points. Radon itself decays into radon daughters which are...heart disease. ETS aggravates the danger of exposure to radon by a factor of 5 because it contains respirable particles to which radon daughters can

  20. National Security Science and Technology Initiative: Air Cargo Screening, Final Report for CRADA Number NFE-07-01081

    SciTech Connect

    Bingham, Philip; Bush, John; Bowerman, Biays

    The non-intrusive inspection (NII) of consolidated air cargo carried on commercial passenger aircraft continues to be a technically challenging, high-priority requirement of the Department of Homeland Security’s Science and Technology Directorate (DHS S&T), the Transportation Security Agency and the Federal Aviation Administration. The goal of deploying a screening system that can reliably and cost-effectively detect explosive threats in consolidated cargo without adversely affecting the flow of commerce will require significant technical advances that will take years to develop. To address this critical National Security need, the Battelle Memorial Institute (Battelle), under a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) with fourmore » of its associated US Department of Energy (DOE) National Laboratories (Oak Ridge, Pacific Northwest, Idaho, and Brookhaven), conducted a research and development initiative focused on identifying, evaluating, and integrating technologies for screening consolidated air cargo for the presence of explosive threats. Battelle invested $8.5M of internal research and development funds during fiscal years 2007 through 2009.« less

  1. Low-resistance strip sensors for beam-loss event protection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ullán, M.; Benítez, V.; Quirion, D.; Zabala, M.; Pellegrini, G.; Lozano, M.; Lacasta, C.; Soldevila, U.; García, C.; Fadeyev, V.; Wortman, J.; DeFilippis, J.; Shumko, M.; Grillo, A. A.; Sadrozinski, H. F.-W.

    2014-11-01

    AC-coupled silicon strip sensors can be damaged in case of a beam loss due to the possibility of a large charge accumulation in the bulk, developing very high voltages across the coupling capacitors which can destroy them. Punch-through structures are currently used to avoid this problem helping to evacuate the accumulated charge as large voltages are developing. Nevertheless, previous experiments, performed with laser pulses, have shown that these structures can become ineffective in relatively long strips. The large value of the implant resistance can effectively isolate the "far" end of the strip from the punch-through structure leading to large voltages. We present here our developments to fabricate low-resistance strip sensors to avoid this problem. The deposition of a conducting material in contact with the implants drastically reduces the strip resistance, assuring the effectiveness of the punch-through structures. First devices have been fabricated with this new technology. Initial results with laser tests show the expected reduction in peak voltages on the low resistivity implants. Other aspects of the sensor performance, including the signal formation, are not affected by the new technology.

  2. ERTS-1 data applied to strip mining

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, A. T.; Schubert, J.

    1976-01-01

    Two coal basins within the western region of the Potomac River Basin contain the largest strip-mining operations in western Maryland and West Virginia. The disturbed strip-mine areas were delineated along with the surrounding geological and vegetation features by using ERTS-1 data in both analog and digital form. The two digital systems employed were (1) the ERTS analysis system, a point-by-point digital analysis of spectral signatures based on known spectral values and (2) the LARS automatic data processing system. These two systems aided in efforts to determine the extent and state of strip mining in this region. Aircraft data, ground-verification information, and geological field studies also aided in the application of ERTS-1 imagery to perform an integrated analysis that assessed the adverse effects of strip mining. The results indicated that ERTS can both monitor and map the extent of strip mining to determine immediately the acreage affected and to indicate where future reclamation and revegetation may be necessary.

  3. Bimetallic strip for low temperature use

    DOEpatents

    Bussiere, Jean F.; Welch, David O.; Suenaga, Masaki

    1981-01-01

    There is provided a class of mechanically pre-stressed structures, suitably bi-layer strips comprising a layer of group 5 transition metals in intimate contact with a layer of an intermetallic compound of said transition metals with certain group 3A, 4A or 5A metals or metalloids suitably gallium, indium, silicon, germanium, tin, arsenic or antimony. The changes of Young's modulus of these bi-layered combinations at temperatures in the region of but somewhat above absolute zero provides a useful means of sensing temperature changes. Such bi-metallic strips may be used as control strips in thermostats, in direct dial reading instruments, or the like. The structures are made by preparing a sandwich of a group 5B transition metal strip between the substantially thicker strips of an alloy between copper and a predetermined group 3A, 4A or 5A metal or metalloid, holding the three layers of the sandwich in intimate contact heating the same, cooling the same and removing the copper alloy and then removing one of the two thus formed interlayer alloys between said transition metal and the metal previously alloyed with copper.

  4. Uncovering dental implants using a new thermo-optically powered (TOP) technology with tissue air-cooling.

    PubMed

    Romanos, Georgios E; Belikov, Andrey V; Skrypnik, Alexei V; Feldchtein, Felix I; Smirnov, Michael Z; Altshuler, Gregory B

    2015-07-01

    Uncovering implants with lasers, while bloodless, has been associated with a risk of implant and bone overheating. The present study evaluated the effect of using a new generation of high-power diode lasers on the temperature of a dental implant and the surrounding tissues using an in vitro model. The implant temperature was measured at three locations using micro thermocouples. Collateral thermal damage of uncovered soft tissues was evaluated using NTBC stain. Implant temperature rise during and collateral thermal soft-tissue damage following implant uncovering with and without tissue air-cooling was studied using both the classic operational mode and the new thermo-optically powered (TOP) technology. For the classic surgical mode using a cork-initiated tip and constant laser power set at 3.4 W, the maximum temperature rise in the coronal and apical parts of the implant was 23.2 ± 4.1°С and 9.5 ± 1.8°С, respectively, while 1.5 ± 0.5 mm of collateral thermal damage of the soft tissue surrounding the implant model occurred. Using the TOP surgical tip with constant laser power reduced implant overheating by 30%; collateral thermal soft-tissue damage was 0.8 ± 0.2 mm. Using the TOP surgical mode with a tip temperature setting of 800°C and air-cooling reduced the implant temperature rise by more than 300%, and only 0.2 ± 0.1 mm of collateral thermal soft-tissue damage occurred, typical for optimized CO2 laser surgery. Furthermore, use of the new generation diode technology (TOP surgical mode) appeared to reduce the time required for implant uncovering by a factor of two, compared to the standard surgical mode. Use of the new generation diode technology (TOP surgical mode) may significantly reduce overheating of dental implants during uncovering and seems to be safer for the adjacent soft and hard tissues. Use of such diode lasers with air-cooling can radically reduce the rise in implant temperatures (by more than three times

  5. Optimization of effective absorption enhancement of paired-strips gold nanoantennas arrays in organic thin-films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Zih-Ying; Su, Chen-Wei; Chen, Kuo-Ping

    2018-01-01

    This study sought to optimize the dimensional characteristics of paired-strips gold nanoantennas embedded in a P3HT: PCBM thin-film by taking into account the tradeoff between the size of the nanostructures and absorber layer as well as the gaps between nanoparticles, to maximize the effective absorption enhancement. The average enhancement behavior within the working region was discussed using integral analysis, which is important for overall enhancement. The discussion would focus on comparing the bands' features of paired-strips nanoantennas embedded in a dielectric thin-film, and in air. By the average absorption 3D slices plots, in which the dimension width, height, and gap are changed with a fixed wavelength; the optimized dimension of paired-strips nanoantennas could be realized. Fixing the period (400 nm) of paired-strips nanoantennas embedded in P3HT:PCBM thin-films (120 nm in thickness) enhanced absorption by 9.8 times.

  6. Air pollution control residues from waste incineration: current UK situation and assessment of alternative technologies.

    PubMed

    Rani, D Amutha; Boccaccini, A R; Deegan, D; Cheeseman, C R

    2008-11-01

    Current disposal options for APC residues in the UK and alternative treatment technologies developed world-wide have been reviewed. APC residues are currently landfilled in the UK where they undergo in situ solidification, although the future acceptability of this option is uncertain because the EU waste acceptance criteria (WAC) introduce strict limits on leaching that are difficult to achieve. Other APC residue treatment processes have been developed which are reported to reduce leaching to below relevant regulatory limits. The Ferrox process, the VKI process, the WES-PHix process, stabilisation/solidification using cementitious binders and a range of thermal treatment processes are reviewed. Thermal treatment technologies convert APC residues combined with other wastes into inert glass or glass-ceramics that encapsulate heavy metals. The waste management industry will inevitably use the cheapest available option for treating APC residues and strict interpretation and enforcement of waste legislation is required if new, potentially more sustainable technologies are to become commercially viable.

  7. IN2 Profile: 7AC Technologies Takes High-Efficiency Air Conditioning to a New Level

    SciTech Connect

    Kozubal, Eric; Swan, Jed; Luttik, Peter

    As part of the Wells Fargo Innovation Incubator (IN²) program, 7AC Technologies has developed a liquid desiccant evaporative technology that will result in a 40-50% energy savings for commercial buildings. The IN² program launched in October 2014 and is part of Wells Fargo’s 2020 Environmental Commitment to provide $100 million to environmentally-focused nonprofits and universities. The goal is to create an ecosystem that fosters and accelerates the commercialization of promising commercial buildings technologies that can provide scalable solutions to reduce the energy impact of buildings. According to the Department of Energy, nearly 40 percent of energy consumption in the U.S.more » today comes from buildings at an estimated cost of $413 billion.« less

  8. Human-Centered Technologies and Procedures for Future Air Traffic Management: A Preliminary Overview of 1996 Studies and Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Philip; McCoy, Elaine; Denning, Rebecca; Woods, David; Sarter, Nadine; Dekker, Sidney; Billings, Charles

    1996-01-01

    In this project, we have been exploring the use of a general methodology to predict the impact of future Air Traffic Management (ATM) concepts and technologies. In applying this methodology, our emphasis has been on the importance of modeling coordination and cooperation among the multiple agents within this system, and on understanding how the interactions among these agents will be influenced as new roles, responsibilities, procedures and technologies are introduced. To accomplish this, we have been collecting data on performance under the current air traffic management system, trying to identify critical problem areas and looking for exemplars suggestive of general approaches for solving such problems. Based on the results of these field studies, we have developed a set of scenarios centered around potential future system designs, and have conducted studies using these scenarios involving a total 40 controllers, dispatchers, pilots and traffic managers. The purpose of this report is to provide NASA with an early summary of the major recommendations that have resulted from our research under the AATT Program thus far. Recommendations 1-3 deal with general approaches that our findings suggest should be incorporated in future AATT Program activities, while Recommendations 4-11 identify some specific topics and technologies that merit research and development activities. Detailed technical reports containing supporting data, as well as the results of our still ongoing analyses, will be provided at a later date. The remainder of this report is organized as follows. Section 1 briefly describes the general design philosophy supported by our empirical studies. Section 2 presents the research methods we have used for identifying requirements for future system designs and for evaluating alternative design solutions. Section 3 discusses preliminary results from an initial set of investigations that we have conducted using these research methods. Section 4 then provides an

  9. Investigation of air transportation technology at Princeton University, 1992-1993

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stengel, Robert F.

    1994-01-01

    The Air Transportation Research Program at Princeton University proceeded along five avenues during the past year: (1) Flight Control System Robustness; (2) Microburst Hazards to Aircraft; (3) Wind Rotor Hazards to Aircraft; (4) Intelligent Aircraft/Airspace Systems; and (5) Aerospace Optical Communications. This research resulted in a number of publications, including theses, archival papers, and conference papers. An annotated bibliography of publications that appeared between June 1992 and June 1993 is included. The research that these papers describe was supported in whole or in part by the Joint University Program, including work that was completed prior to the reporting period.

  10. A review of lighter-than-air progress in the United States and its technological significance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mayer, N. J.; Krida, R. H.

    1977-01-01

    Lighter-than-air craft for transportation and communications systems are discussed, with attention given to tethered balloons used to provide stable platforms for airborne surveillance equipment, freight-carrying balloons, manned scientific research balloons such as Atmosat, high-altitude superpressure aerostats employed in satellite communications systems, airport feeder airships, and naval surveillance airships. In addition, technical problems associated with the development of advanced aerostats, including the aerodynamics of hybrid combinations of large rotor systems and aerostat hulls, the application of composites to balloon shells, computer analyses of the complex geometrical structures of aerostats and propulsion systems for airships, are considered.

  11. Stripped interstellar gas in cluster cooling flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Soker, Noam; Bregman, Joel N.; Sarazin, Craig L.

    1991-01-01

    It is suggested that nonlinear perturbations which lead to thermal instabilities in cooling flows might start as blobs of interstellar gas which are stipped out of cluster galaxies. Assuming that most of the gas produced by stellar mass loss in cluster galaxies is stripped from the galaxies, the total rate of such stripping is roughly 100 solar masses/yr, which is similar to the rates of cooling in cluster cooling flows. It is possible that a substantial portion of the cooling gas originates as blobs of interstellar gas stripped from galaxies. The magnetic fields within and outside of the low-entropy perturbations may help to maintain their identities by suppressing both thermal conduction and Kelvin-Helmholtz instabilities. These density fluctuations may disrupt the propagation of radio jets through the intracluster gas, which may be one mechanism for producing wideangle-tail radio galaxies.

  12. Study of silicon strip waveguides with diffraction gratings and photonic crystals tuned to a wavelength of 1.5 µm

    SciTech Connect

    Barabanenkov, M. Yu., E-mail: barab@iptm.ru; Vyatkin, A. F.; Volkov, V. T.

    2015-12-15

    Single-mode submicrometer-thick strip waveguides on silicon-on-insulator substrates, fabricated by silicon-planar-technology methods are considered. To solve the problem of 1.5-µm wavelength radiation input-output and its frequency filtering, strip diffraction gratings and two-dimensional photonic crystals are integrated into waveguides. The reflection and transmission spectra of gratings and photonic crystals are calculated. The waveguide-mode-attenuation coefficient for a polycrystalline silicon waveguide is experimentally estimated.

  13. Potential impacts of advanced aerodynamic technology on air transportation system productivity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bushnell, Dennis M. (Editor)

    1994-01-01

    Summaries of a workshop held at NASA Langley Research Center in 1993 to explore the application of advanced aerodynamics to airport productivity improvement are discussed. Sessions included discussions of terminal area productivity problems and advanced aerodynamic technologies for enhanced high lift and reduced noise, emissions, and wake vortex hazard with emphasis upon advanced aircraft configurations and multidisciplinary solution options.

  14. Clean air program : use of hydrogen to power the advanced technology transit bus (ATTB) : an assessment

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1997-11-01

    The Advanced Technology Transit Bus (ATTB), developed under primary funding from : the U.S. DOT/Federal Transit Administration (FTA), currently uses a power plant : based on a natural gas burning IC engine-generator set. FTA is interested in : demons...

  15. Towards a Technology Policy: Implications for Education and Retraining. AIR 1992 Annual Forum Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Terwisga, Henk B.; van Rosmalen, Karel M. A.

    This paper investigates technology policy for national governments, particularly the importance of education and training and the role of institutions of higher education as components of such policies for the diffusion and absorption of knowledge, as part of an overall strategy for improving the competitive edge of a nation's enterprises. The…

  16. Spectral deconvolution and operational use of stripping ratios in airborne radiometrics.

    PubMed

    Allyson, J D; Sanderson, D C

    2001-01-01

    Spectral deconvolution using stripping ratios for a set of pre-defined energy windows is the simplest means of reducing the most important part of gamma-ray spectral information. In this way, the effective interferences between the measured peaks are removed, leading, through a calibration, to clear estimates of radionuclide inventory. While laboratory measurements of stripping ratios are relatively easy to acquire, with detectors placed above small-scale calibration pads of known radionuclide concentrations, the extrapolation to measurements at altitudes where airborne survey detectors are used bring difficulties such as air-path attenuation and greater uncertainties in knowing ground level inventories. Stripping ratios are altitude dependent, and laboratory measurements using various absorbers to simulate the air-path have been used with some success. Full-scale measurements from an aircraft require a suitable location where radionuclide concentrations vary little over the field of view of the detector (which may be hundreds of metres). Monte Carlo simulations offer the potential of full-scale reproduction of gamma-ray transport and detection mechanisms. Investigations have been made to evaluate stripping ratios using experimental and Monte Carlo methods.

  17. Technology diffusion and environmental regulation: Evidence from electric power plants under the Clean Air Act

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frey, Elaine F.

    Even though environmental policy can greatly affect the path of technology diffusion, the economics literature contains limited empirical evidence of this relationship. My research will contribute to the available evidence by providing insight into the technology adoption decisions of electric generating firms. Since policies are often evaluated based on the incentives they provide to promote adoption of new technologies, it is important that policy makers understand the relationship between technological diffusion and regulation structure to make informed decisions. Lessons learned from this study can be used to guide future policies such as those directed to mitigate climate change. I first explore the diffusion of scrubbers, a sulfur dioxide (SO 2) abatement technology, in response to federal market-based regulations and state command-and-control regulations. I develop a simple theoretical model to describe the adoption decisions of scrubbers and use a survival model to empirically test the theoretical model. I find that power plants with strict command-and-control regulations have a high probability of installing a scrubber. These findings suggest that although market-based regulations have encouraged diffusion, many scrubbers have been installed because of state regulatory pressure. Although tradable permit systems are thought to give firms more flexibility in choosing abatement technologies, I show that interactions between a permit system and pre-existing command-and-control regulations can limit that flexibility. In a separate analysis, I explore the diffusion of combined cycle (CC) generating units, which are natural gas-fired generating units that are cleaner and more efficient than alternative generating units. I model the decision to consider adoption of a CC generating unit and the extent to which the technology is adopted in response to environmental regulations imposed on new sources of pollutants. To accomplish this, I use a zero-inflated Poisson

  18. Research on tessellation with triangle strip

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Li; Zhang, Huaisheng

    2018-04-01

    The tessellation module of graphics pipeline can generate many triangles to specify surface detail characteristics, which are usually organized in triangle lists. However, the number of generated vertices is large and there are many repeated vertices. This paper proposes a new tessellation approach of triangle strips, which makes use of the adjacent relationship among triangles. It decreases the number of generated vertices which will benefits latter computation and storage. Experiments show that the number of generated vertices by the strip approach is about 51% of traditional triangle lists, which can improve the performance of GPU tessellation.

  19. Grain size control of rhenium strip

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schuster, Gary B.

    1991-01-01

    Ensuring the desired grain size in the pure Re strip employed by the SP-100 space nuclear reactor design entails the establishment of an initial grain size in the as-received strip and the avoidance of excessive grain growth during subsequent fabrication. Pure Re tapered tensile specimens have been fabricated and tested in order to quantify the effects of grain-boundary migration. Grain size could be rendered fine and uniform by means of a rolling procedure that uses rather large reductions between short intermediate anneals. The critical strain regime varies inversely with annealing temperature.

  20. Air Traffic Management Technology Demonstration-1 Concept of Operations (ATD-1 ConOps), Version 2.0

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baxley, Brian T.; Johnson, William C.; Swenson, Harry N.; Robinson, John E.; Prevot, Tom; Callantine, Todd J.; Scardina, John; Greene, Michael

    2013-01-01

    This document is an update to the operations and procedures envisioned for NASA s Air Traffic Management (ATM) Technology Demonstration #1 (ATD-1). The ATD-1 Concept of Operations (ConOps) integrates three NASA technologies to achieve high throughput, fuel-efficient arrival operations into busy terminal airspace. They are Traffic Management Advisor with Terminal Metering (TMA-TM) for precise time-based schedules to the runway and points within the terminal area, Controller-Managed Spacing (CMS) decision support tools for terminal controllers to better manage aircraft delay using speed control, and Flight deck Interval Management (FIM) avionics and flight crew procedures to conduct airborne spacing operations. The ATD-1 concept provides de-conflicted and efficient operations of multiple arrival streams of aircraft, passing through multiple merge points, from top-of-descent (TOD) to the Final Approach Fix. These arrival streams are Optimized Profile Descents (OPDs) from en route altitude to the runway, using primarily speed control to maintain separation and schedule. The ATD-1 project is currently addressing the challenges of integrating the three technologies, and their implantation into an operational environment. The ATD-1 goals include increasing the throughput of high-density airports, reducing controller workload, increasing efficiency of arrival operations and the frequency of trajectory-based operations, and promoting aircraft ADS-B equipage.

  1. Parametric Evaluation of an Innovative Ultra-Violet PhotocatalyticOxidation (UVPCO) Air Cleaning Technology for Indoor Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Hodgson, Alfred T.; Sullivan, Douglas P.; Fisk, William J.

    2005-10-31

    An innovative Ultra-Violet Photocatalytic Oxidation (UVPCO) air cleaning technology employing a semitransparent catalyst coated on a semitransparent polymer substrate was evaluated to determine its effectiveness for treating mixtures of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) representative of indoor environments at low, indoor-relevant concentration levels. The experimental UVPCO contained four 30 by 30-cm honeycomb monoliths irradiated with nine UVA lamps arranged in three banks. A parametric evaluation of the effects of monolith thickness, air flow rate through the device, UV power, and reactant concentrations in inlet air was conducted for the purpose of suggesting design improvements. The UVPCO was challenged with three mixturesmore » of VOCs. A synthetic office mixture contained 27 VOCs commonly measured in office buildings. A building product mixture was created by combining sources including painted wallboard, composite wood products, carpet systems, and vinyl flooring. The third mixture contained formaldehyde and acetaldehyde. Steady state concentrations were produced in a classroom laboratory or a 20-m{sup 3} chamber. Air was drawn through the UVPCO, and single-pass conversion efficiencies were measured from replicate samples collected upstream and downstream of the reactor. Thirteen experiments were conducted in total. In this UVPCO employing a semitransparent monolith design, an increase in monolith thickness is expected to result in general increases in both reaction efficiencies and absolute reaction rates for VOCs oxidized by photocatalysis. The thickness of individual monolith panels was varied between 1.2 and 5 cm (5 to 20 cm total thickness) in experiments with the office mixture. VOC reaction efficiencies and rates increased with monolith thickness. However, the analysis of the relationship was confounded by high reaction efficiencies in all configurations for a number of compounds. These reaction efficiencies approached or exceeded 90% for alcohols

  2. Investigation of air transportation technology at Princeton University, 1991-1992

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stengel, Robert F.

    1993-01-01

    The Air Transportation Research Program at Princeton University proceeded along six avenues during the past year: (1) intelligent flight control; (2) computer-aided control system design; (3) neural networks for flight control; (4) stochastic robustness of flight control systems; (5) microburst hazards to aircraft; and (6) fundamental dynamics of atmospheric flight. This research has resulted in a number of publications, including archival papers and conference papers. An annotated bibliography of publications that appeared between June 1991 and June 1992 appears at the end of this report. The research that these papers describe was supported in whole or in part by the Joint University Program, including work that was completed prior to the reporting period.

  3. Optimization and Performance Study of Select Heating Ventilation and Air Conditioning Technologies for Commercial Buildings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamal, Rajeev

    Buildings contribute a significant part to the electricity demand profile and peak demand for the electrical utilities. The addition of renewable energy generation adds additional variability and uncertainty to the power system. Demand side management in the buildings can help improve the demand profile for the utilities by shifting some of the demand from peak to off-peak times. Heating, ventilation and air-conditioning contribute around 45% to the overall demand of a building. This research studies two strategies for reducing the peak as well as shifting some demand from peak to off-peak periods in commercial buildings: 1. Use of gas heat pumps in place of electric heat pumps, and 2. Shifting demand for air conditioning from peak to off-peak by thermal energy storage in chilled water and ice. The first part of this study evaluates the field performance of gas engine-driven heat pumps (GEHP) tested in a commercial building in Florida. Four GEHP units of 8 Tons of Refrigeration (TR) capacity each providing air-conditioning to seven thermal zones in a commercial building, were instrumented for measuring their performance. The operation of these GEHPs was recorded for ten months, analyzed and compared with prior results reported in the literature. The instantaneous COPunit of these systems varied from 0.1 to 1.4 during typical summer week operation. The COP was low because the gas engines for the heat pumps were being used for loads that were much lower than design capacity which resulted in much lower efficiencies than expected. The performance of equivalent electric heat pump was simulated from a building energy model developed to mimic the measured building loads. An economic comparison of GEHPs and conventional electrical heat pumps was done based on the measured and simulated results. The average performance of the GEHP units was estimated to lie between those of EER-9.2 and EER-11.8 systems. The performance of GEHP systems suffers due to lower efficiency at

  4. AF-TRUST, Air Force Team for Research in Ubiquitous Secure Technology

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-07-26

    Charles Sutton, J. D. Tygar, and Kai Xia. Book chapter in Jeffrey J. P. Tsai and Philip S. Yu (eds.) Machine Learning in Cyber Trust: Security, Privacy...enterprise, tactical, embedded systems and command and control levels. From these studies, commissioned by Dr . Sekar Chandersekaran of the Secretary of the...Data centers avoid IP Multicast because of a series of problems with the technology. • Dr . Multicast (the MCMD), a system that maps traditional I PMC

  5. Technology of Performance Improvement Brushless DC Motors and Inverter for Air conditioning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baba, Kazuhiko; Matsuoka, Atsushi; Shinomoto, Yosuke; Arisawa, Koichi

    High efficiency motors are demanded because of the viewpoint of environmental preservation. It is necessary to develop the technology of the energy conservation that can be achieved at low cost so that we may expand high efficiency motors onto the world. In this paper, the current status of the brushless DC motors and invertors to satisfy high efficiency, small size, high power and low cost is reviewed.

  6. Breakthrough Technologies Developed by the Air Force Research Laboratory and Its Predecessors

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-12-21

    quickly plan its most economical fabrication within the constraints of schedule, availability of raw materials, and variability of materials and...intensive—more efficient and economical . ManTech introduced automation and inspection technologies, including the use of scanning electron...the novel use of asphalt mixed with ammonium nitrate as a solid propellant, a mixture first devised at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. That line of

  7. Coal-Burning Technologies Applicable to Air Force Central Heating Plants

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-12-01

    8 3. DESCRIPTION OF REPLACEMENT OR EXPANSION TECHNOLOGIES ........ 9 3.1.1 Shell (Fire- Tube ) Boilers ........... 9...3.1.2 Water- Tube Boilers .*.*........***.... 10 3.1.3 Packaged vs Field-Erected Construction ...... 11 3.2 STOKER FIRING ...... .. 11 3.2.1 Description...FIGURES 4 Figure Pg 1 Schematic diagram of a typical scotch shell boiler: wet-back, three-pass design ..~............... 9 2 Commnon tube patterns for

  8. Air Quality Management Using Modern Remote Sensing and Spatial Technologies and Associated Societal Costs

    PubMed Central

    Uddin, Waheed

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents a study of societal costs related to public health due to the degradation of air quality and the lack of physical activity, both affected by our built environment. The paper further shows road safety as another public health concern. Traffic fatalities are the number one cause of death in the world. Traffic accidents result in huge financial loss to the people involved and the related public health cost is a significant part of the total societal cost. Motor vehicle exhausts and industrial emissions, gasoline vapors, and chemical solvents as well as natural sources emit nitrogen oxides and volatile organic compounds, which are precursors to the formation of ground-level Ozone. High concentration values of ground-level Ozone in hot summer days produce smog and lead to respiratory problems and loss in worker’s productivity. These factors and associated economic costs to society are important in establishing public policy and decision-making for sustainable transportation and development of communities in both industrialized and developing countries. This paper presents new science models for predicting ground-level Ozone and related air quality degradation. The models include predictor variables of daily climatological data, traffic volume and mix, speed, aviation data, and emission inventory of point sources. These models have been implemented in the user friendly AQMAN computer program and used for a case study in Northern Mississippi. Life-cycle benefits from reduced societal costs can be used to implement sustainable transportation policies, enhance investment decision-making, and protect public health and the environment. PMID:16968969

  9. The development of differential inductors using double air-bridge structure based on integrated passive device technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yang; Yao, Zhao; Fu, Xiao-Qian; Li, Zhi-Ming; Shan, Fu-Kai; Wang, Cong

    2017-05-01

    Recently, integrated passive devices have become increasingly popular; inductor realization, in particular, offers interesting high performance for RF modules and systems. In this paper, a development of differential inductor fabricated by integrated passive devices technology using a double air-bridge structure is presented. A study of the model development of the differential inductor is first demonstrated. In this model section, a segment box analysis method is applied to provide a clear presentation of the differential inductor. Compared with other work that only shows a brief description of the process, the integrated passive devices process used to fabricate the inductor in this study is elaborated on. Finally, a characterization of differential inductors with different physical layout parameters is illustrated based on inductance and quality factors, which provides a valuable reference for realizing high performance. The proposed work provides a good solution for the design, fabrication and practical application of RF modules and systems.

  10. Heat transfer technology for internal passages of air-cooled blades for heavy-duty gas turbines.

    PubMed

    Weigand, B; Semmler, K; von Wolfersdorf, J

    2001-05-01

    The present review paper, although far from being complete, aims to give an overview about the present state of the art in the field of heat transfer technology for internal cooling of gas turbine blades. After showing some typical modern cooled blades, the different methods to enhance heat transfer in the internal passages of air-cooled blades are discussed. The complicated flows occurring in bends are described in detail, because of their increasing importance for modern cooling designs. A short review about testing of cooling design elements is given, showing the interaction of the different cooling features as well. The special focus of the present review has been put on the cooling of blades for heavy-duty gas turbines, which show several differences compared to aero-engine blades.

  11. On the Application of Rapid Prototyping Technology for the Fabrication of Flapping Wings for Micro Air Vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kraemer, Kurtis Leigh

    Micro air vehicles (MAV) are a class of small uninhabited aircraft with dimensions less than 15 cm (6 in) and mass less than 500g (1.1 lbs). The aim of this research was to develop a fast, accurate, low-cost, and repeatable fabrication process for flapping MAV wings. Through the use of the RepRap Mendel open-source fused-deposition modeling (FDM) rapid prototyping machine ("3-D printer"), various wing prototypes were designed and fabricated using a bio-inspired approach. Testing of the aerodynamic performance of both real locust wings and the 3-D printed wing prototypes was performed through axial spin testing. Bending stiffness measurements were also performed on the 3-D printed wings. Through the use of open-source rapid prototyping technology, a fast and low-cost fabrication process for flapping MAV wings has been developed, out of which further understanding of flapping wing design and fabrication has been gained.

  12. International Pacific Air and Space Technology Conference and Aircraft Symposium, 29th, Gifu, Japan, Oct. 7-11, 1991, Proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    Various papers on air and space technology are presented. Individual topics addressed include: media selection analysis: implications for training design, high-speed challenge for rotary wing aircraft, high-speed VSTOL answer to congestion, next generation in computational aerodynamics, acrobatic airship 'Acrostat', ducted fan VTOL for working platform, Arianespace launch of Lightsats, small particle acceleration by minirailgun, free-wake analyses of a hovering rotor using panel method, update of the X-29 high-angle-of-attack program, economic approach to accurate wing design, flow field around thick delta wing with rounded leading edge, aerostructural integrated design of forward-swept wing, static characteristics of a two-phase fluid drop system, simplfied-modelmore » approach to group combustion of fuel spray, avionics flight systems for the 21st century. Also discussed are: Aircraft Command in Emergency Situations, spectrogram diagnosis of aircraft disasters, shock interaction induced by two hemisphere-cylinders, impact response of composite UHB propeller blades, high-altitude lighter-than-air powered platform, integrated wiring system, auxiliary power units for current and future aircraft, Space Shuttle Orbiter Auxiliary Power Unit status, numerical analysis of RCS jet in hypersonic flights, energy requirements for the space frontier, electrical system options for space exploration, aerospace plane hydrogen scramjet boosting, manual control of vehicles with time-varying dynamics, design of strongly stabilizing controller, development of the Liquid Apogee Propulsion System for ETS-VI.« less

  13. Preinvestigation evaluation of corrective measure technologies for the Badger Army Ammunition Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Benioff, P.A.; Tsai, S.Y.

    1989-02-01

    This report briefly describes and evaluates the suitability of corrective measure technologies for possible use at the solid waste management units (SWMUs) at the Badger Army Ammunition Plant (BAAP), near Baraboo, Wisconsin. Corrective measure technologies considered for contaminated soils include excavation plus on- or off-site disposal in landfills or by incineration, use of solidification or stabilization methods, and in-situ methods such as bioreclamation and chemical or physical methods. Technologies considered for treatment of contaminated groundwater include groundwater pumping followed by discharge or treatment by air stripping and use of subsurface barriers. 5 refs., 1 tab.

  14. Cardiac Muscle Studies with Rat Ventricular Strips

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitten, Bert K.; Faleschini, Richard J.

    1977-01-01

    Details undergraduate physiology laboratory experiments that demonstrate mechanical properties of cardiac muscle, using strips from the ventricle of a rat heart. Includes procedures for obtaining length-tension curves, demonstrating the role of calcium in excitation-contraction coupling, and showing effects of several cardiovascular drugs…

  15. Lithographic Stripping; Printing 2: 9755.03.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dade County Public Schools, Miami, FL.

    The course is one of a group which provides 11th grade students with the general information, technical knowledge, basic skills, attitudes, and values required for job entry level in printing. The course is 90 hours in length. Course content includes goals, specific objectives, orientation, safety in the stripping department, and a stripping…

  16. Distribution of maple strip flooring in 1969

    Treesearch

    William C. Miller; William C. Miller

    1971-01-01

    This paper is the second in a series on the residential and commercial hardwood flooring industry. Unlike the first paper in the series, which dealt with oak strip flooring industry, this paper analyzes several qualitative questions pertaining to the maple flooring industry. The next paper planned for this series will analyze quantitative as well as qualitative...

  17. Comic Strips to Accompany Science Museum Exhibits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chung, Beom Sun; Park, Eun-mi; Kim, Sang-Hee; Cho, Sook-kyoung; Chung, Min Suk

    2016-01-01

    Science museums make the effort to create exhibits with amusing explanations. However, existing explanation signs with lengthy text are not appealing, and as such, visitors do not pay attention to them. In contrast, conspicuous comic strips composed of simple drawings and humors can attract science museum visitors. This study attempted to reveal…

  18. Trees for strip-mined lands

    Treesearch

    George Hart; William R. Byrnes

    1960-01-01

    Open-pit or strip mining has become an important method of mining bituminous coal in Pennsylvania. In 1958 some 19.5 million tons of soft coal - 29 percent of the total bituminous production in the State - were produced by this method.

  19. Strip malls, city trees, and community values

    Treesearch

    Kathleen L. Wolf

    2009-01-01

    Strip malls (also known as mini-malls) are a common urban land use, historically promoted by U.S. zoning practices that concentrate retail and commercial development in a narrow band along arterials and major streets. More recently, communities are redeveloping mini-mall zones, expanding landscape plantings as biotechnology, and attempting to create a sense of place....

  20. The Strip-of-Grass Challenge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roman, Harry T.

    2016-01-01

    This brief article discusses various ways to use the grassy strip of land extending about three feet between the sidewalk and the street curb in many cities and neighborhoods. Next, it discusses the potential impact of different uses of this space on things like: people disembarking from their cars, clearance to existing fire hydrants, and town…

  1. Ignition Delay Associated with a Strained Strip

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gerk, T. J.; Karagozian, A. R.

    1996-01-01

    Ignition processes associated with two adjacent fuel-oxidizer interferences bounding a strained fuel strip are explored here using single-step activation energy asymptotics. Calculations are made for constant as well as temporally decaying strain fields. There possible models of ignition are determined: one in which the two interfaces ignite independently as diffusion flames; one in which the two interfaces ignite dependently and in which ignition occurs to form a single , premixed flame at very high strain rates before ignition is completely prevented. In contrast to a single, isolated interface in which ignition can be prevented by overmatching heat production with heat convection due to strain, ignition of a strained fuel strip can also be prevented if the finite extend of fuel is diluted by oxidizer more quickly than heat production can cause a positive feedback thermal runaway. These behaviors are dependent on the relative sizes of timescales associated with species and heat diffusion, with convection due to strain, and with the chemical reaction. The result here indicate that adjacent, strained species interfaces may ignite quite differently in nature from ignition of a single, strained intrface and that their interdependence should be considered as the interfaces are brought closer together in complex strain fields. Critical strain rates leading to complete ignition delay are found to be considerably smaller for the fuel strip than those for single interfaces as the fuel strip is made thin in comparison to diffusion and chemical length scales.

  2. Modelling of RR Lyrae instability strips

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szabo, Robert; Csubry, Zoltan

    2001-02-01

    Recent studies indicates that the slope of the empirical blue edge of the RR Lyrae fundamental mode instability strip is irreconcilable with the theoretical blue edges. Nonlinear hydrodynamical pulsational code involving turbulent convection was used to follow fundamental/first overtone mode selection mechanism. This method combined with the results of horizontal branch evolutionary computations was applied to rethink the problem.

  3. Physical distribution of oak strip flooring 1969

    Treesearch

    William C. Miller; William C. Miller

    1971-01-01

    As an aid to the marketing of oak strip flooring, a study was made of the distribution process for this product, from manufacture to consumer-where the flooring came from, where it went, how much was shipped, and who handled it.

  4. Preparation of rumble strips prior to overlayment.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2010-07-01

    The use of rumble strips in pavement to reduce run-off-road accidents is relatively new. In New Hampshire, these installations began in the mid to : late 1990s. The New Hampshire Department of Transportation performed its first overlay of rumble stri...

  5. Cottonwood Seeds - In on Bulldozed Strips

    Treesearch

    R. L. Johnson

    1961-01-01

    In a stand of cutover hardwood near Vicksburg, Mississippi, cottonwood has been regenerated naturally by clearing or deadening the overstory and then cutting shallow strips or trenches into the ground with a bulldozer. The method was successful because it exposed mineral soil, controlled competing plants, and increased soil moisture.

  6. Calibrating ultrasonic test equipment for checking thin metal strip stock

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peterson, R. M.

    1967-01-01

    Calibration technique detects minute laminar-type discontinuities in thin metal strip stock. Patterns of plastic tape are preselected to include minutely calculated discontinuities and the tape is applied to the strip stock to intercept the incident sonic beam.

  7. 30 CFR 77.1001 - Stripping; loose material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Ground Control § 77.1001 Stripping; loose material. Loose hazardous material shall be stripped for a safe... angle of repose, or barriers, baffle boards, screens, or other devices be provided that afford...

  8. Evaluation of the effectiveness of pavement rumble strips : final report.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2008-01-01

    This report analyzes the effectiveness of continuous shoulder rumble strips (CSRS) and center line rumble strips (CLRS) on rural two lane roads in Kentucky. This study evaluates the safety benefits, and design details associated with the application ...

  9. Laboratory testing of Alcoscan saliva-alcohol test strips

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1986-10-01

    This report describes a laboratory evaluation of Alcoscan saliva-alcohol test strips. The objectives of this work were: (1) to determine the precision and accuracy of the Alcoscan strips; and (2) to determine what effect extreme ambient temperatures ...

  10. Guidelines for using centerline rumble strips in Virginia.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2005-01-01

    Following the wide and successful use of continuous shoulder rumble strips, many state departments of transportations (DOTs) installed centerline rumble strips (CLRS) on rural two-lane and undivided multilane highways in an effort to reduce cross-ove...

  11. Refuges, flower strips, biodiversity and agronomic interest.

    PubMed

    Roy, Grégory; Wateau, Karine; Legrand, Mickaël; Oste, Sandrine

    2008-01-01

    Several arthropods are natural predators of pests, and they are able to reduce and control their population development. FREDON Nord Pas-de-Calais (Federation Regionate de Defense contre les Organismes Nuisibles = Regional Federation for Pest Control) has begun for a long time to form farmers to the recognition of beneficial arthropods and to show them their usefulness. These beneficial insects or arachnids are present everywhere, in orchards and even in fields which are areas relatively poor in biodiversity. Adults feed in the flower strips instead larvae and some adults feed on preys such as aphids or caterpillars. Most of the time, beneficial insects can regulate pest but sometimes, in agricultural area, they can't make it early enough and efficiently. Their action begin too late and there biodiversity and number are too low. It's possible to enhance their action by manipulating the ecological infrastructures, like sewing flower strips or installing refuges. Flower strips increase the density of natural enemies and make them be present earlier in the field in order to control pests. Refuges permit beneficial's to spend winter on the spot. So they're able to be active and to grow in number earlier. From 2004 to 2007, on the one hand, FREDON Nord Pas-de-Calais has developed a research program. Its purpose was to inventory practices and also tools and means available and to judge the advisability of using such or such beneficial refuge in orchards. On the second hand, it studied the impact in orchard of refuges on population of beneficial's and the difference there were between manufactured refuges and homemade refuges. Interesting prospects were obtained with some of them. Otherwise, since 2003, FREDON has studied flower strips influence on beneficial population and their impact on pest control. In cabbage fields, results of trials have shown that flower strips lead to a reduction of aphid number under acceptable economic level, up to 50 meters from flower strips

  12. The Development Status and Key Technologies of Solar Powered Unmanned Air Vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sai, Li; Wei, Zhou; Xueren, Wang

    2017-03-01

    By analyzing the development status of several typical solar powered unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) at home and abroad, the key technologies involved in the design and manufacture of solar powered UAV and the technical difficulties need to be solved at present are obtained. It is pointed out that with the improvement of energy system efficiency, advanced aerodynamic configuration design, realization of high applicability flight stability and control system, breakthrough of efficient propulsion system, the application prospect of solar powered UAV will be more extensive.

  13. Application of Advanced Technologies to Small, Short-haul Air Transports

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adcock, C.; Coverston, C.; Knapton, B.

    1980-01-01

    A study was conducted of the application of advanced technologies to small, short-haul transport aircraft. A three abreast, 30 passenger design for flights of approximately 100 nautical miles was evaluated. Higher wing loading, active flight control, and a gust alleviation system results in improved ride quality. Substantial savings in fuel and direct operating cost are forecast. An aircraft of this configuration also has significant benefits in forms of reliability and operability which should enable it to sell a total of 450 units through 1990, of which 80% are for airline use.

  14. Research and Development Trend of Shape Control for Cold Rolling Strip

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Dong-Cheng; Liu, Hong-Min; Liu, Jun

    2017-09-01

    Shape is an important quality index of cold rolling strip. Up to now, many problems in the shape control domain have not been solved satisfactorily, and a review on the research progress in the shape control domain can help to seek new breakthrough directions. In the past 10 years, researches and applications of shape control models, shape control means, shape detection technology, and shape control system have achieved significant progress. In the aspect of shape control models, the researches in the past improve the accuracy, speed and robustness of the models. The intelligentization of shape control models should be strengthened in the future. In the aspect of the shape control means, the researches in the past focus on the roll optimization, mill type selection, process optimization, local strip shape control, edge drop control, and so on. In the future, more attention should be paid to the coordination control of both strip shape and other quality indexes, and the refinement of control objective should be strengthened. In the aspects of shape detection technology and shape control system, some new types of shape detection meters and shape control systems are developed and have successfully industrial applications. In the future, the standardization of shape detection technology and shape control system should be promoted to solve the problem of compatibility. In general, the four expected development trends of shape control for cold rolling strip in the future are intelligentization, coordination, refinement, and standardization. The proposed research provides new breakthrough directions for improving shape quality.

  15. Air Sensor Toolbox

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Air Sensor Toolbox provides information to citizen scientists, researchers and developers interested in learning more about new lower-cost compact air sensor technologies and tools for measuring air quality.

  16. High-Rate Capable Floating Strip Micromegas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bortfeldt, Jonathan; Bender, Michael; Biebel, Otmar; Danger, Helge; Flierl, Bernhard; Hertenberger, Ralf; Lösel, Philipp; Moll, Samuel; Parodi, Katia; Rinaldi, Ilaria; Ruschke, Alexander; Zibell, André

    2016-04-01

    We report on the optimization of discharge insensitive floating strip Micromegas (MICRO-MEsh GASeous) detectors, fit for use in high-energy muon spectrometers. The suitability of these detectors for particle tracking is shown in high-background environments and at very high particle fluxes up to 60 MHz/cm2. Measurement and simulation of the microscopic discharge behavior have demonstrated the excellent discharge tolerance. A floating strip Micromegas with an active area of 48 cm × 50 cm with 1920 copper anode strips exhibits in 120 GeV pion beams a spatial resolution of 50 μm at detection efficiencies above 95%. Pulse height, spatial resolution and detection efficiency are homogeneous over the detector. Reconstruction of particle track inclination in a single detector plane is discussed, optimum angular resolutions below 5° are observed. Systematic deviations of this μTPC-method are fully understood. The reconstruction capabilities for minimum ionizing muons are investigated in a 6.4 cm × 6.4 cm floating strip Micromegas under intense background irradiation of the whole active area with 20 MeV protons at a rate of 550 kHz. The spatial resolution for muons is not distorted by space charge effects. A 6.4 cm × 6.4 cm floating strip Micromegas doublet with low material budget is investigated in highly ionizing proton and carbon ion beams at particle rates between 2 MHz and 2 GHz. Stable operation up to the highest rates is observed, spatial resolution, detection efficiencies, the multi-hit and high-rate capability are discussed.

  17. Utilizing adaptive wing technology in the control of a micro air vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Null, William R.; Wagner, Matthew G.; Shkarayev, Sergey V.; Jouse, Wayne C.; Brock, Keith M.

    2002-07-01

    Evolution of the design of micro air vehicles (MAVs) towards miniaturization has been severely constrained by the size and mass of the electronic components needed to control the vehicles. Recent research, experimentation, and development in the area of smart materials have led to the possibility of embedding control actuators, fabricated from smart materials, in the wing of the vehicle, reducing both the size and mass of these components. Further advantages can be realized by developing adaptive wing structures. Small size and mass, and low airspeeds, can lead to considerable buffeting during flight, and may result in a loss of flight control. In order to counter these effects, we are developing a thin, variable-cambered airfoil design with actuators embedded within the wing. In addition to reducing the mass and size of the vehicle or, conversely, increasing its available payload, an important benefit from the adaptive wing concept is the possibility of in-flight modification of the flight envelope. Reduced airspeeds, which are crucial during loiter, can be realized by an in-flight increase in wing camber. Conversely, decreases in camber provide for an airframe best suited for rapid ingress/egress and extension of the mission range.

  18. Mass production of extensive air showers for the Pierre Auger Collaboration using Grid Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lozano Bahilo, Julio; Pierre Auger Collaboration

    2012-06-01

    When ultra-high energy cosmic rays enter the atmosphere they interact producing extensive air showers (EAS) which are the objects studied by the Pierre Auger Observatory. The number of particles involved in an EAS at these energies is of the order of billions and the generation of a single simulated EAS requires many hours of computing time with current processors. In addition, the storage space consumed by the output of one simulated EAS is very high. Therefore we have to make use of Grid resources to be able to generate sufficient quantities of showers for our physics studies in reasonable time periods. We have developed a set of highly automated scripts written in common software scripting languages in order to deal with the high number of jobs which we have to submit regularly to the Grid. In spite of the low number of sites supporting our Virtual Organization (VO) we have reached the top spot on CPU consumption among non LHC (Large Hadron Collider) VOs within EGI (European Grid Infrastructure).

  19. Experimental study of defoaming by air-borne power ultrasonic technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodríguez, Germán; Riera, Enrique; Gallego-Juárez, Juan A.; Acosta, Víctor M.; Pinto, Alberto; Martínez, Ignacio; Blanco, Alfonso

    2010-01-01

    Foam is a dispersion of gas in a liquid in which the distances between the gas bubbles are very small. Foams are frequently generated in the manufacture of many products as result from the aeration and agitation of liquids, from the vaporization of the liquid and also from biological or chemical reactions. Foams are generally an unwanted product in industrial processes because they cause difficulties in process control and in equipment operation. The most efficient conventional method for defoaming is the use of chemical agents but they contaminate the product. High-intensity ultrasonic waves offer a clean procedure to break foam bubbles. The potential use of ultrasound for foam breaking that was known since many years has been recently reinforced by the application of a new type of ultrasonic defoamer based on the stepped-plate high-power transducers to generate air-borne ultrasound. This defoamer has been successfully applied in several industrial problems such as the control of excess foam produced during the filling operation of bottles and cans on high-speed canning lines and in fermenting vessels and other reactors of great dimensions. The treatment of such industrial problems requires the proper characterization and quantification of the main parameters involved in the mechanisms of the defoaming effect. This paper deals with an experimental study about the separate influence of such parameters with the aim of improving the application of the stepped-plate power ultrasonic generators for the production of the defoaming action on industrial processes

  20. Instrumentation design and installation for monitoring air injection ground water remediation technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Hall, B.L.; Baldwin, C.K.; Lachmar, T.E.

    2000-03-31

    An in situ instrumentation bundle was designed for inclusion in monitoring wells that were installed at the Wasatch Trailer Sales site in Layton, Utah, to evaluate in situ air sparging (IAS) and in-well aeration (IWA). Sensors for the bundle were selected based on laboratory evaluation of accuracy and precision, as well as consideration of size and cost. SenSym pressure transducers, Campbell Scientific, Inc. (CSI) T-type thermocouples, and dissolved oxygen (DO) probes manufactured by Technalithics Inc. (Waco, Texas), were selected for each of the 27 saturated zone bundles. Each saturated zone bundle also included a stirring blade to mix water nearmore » the DO probe. A Figaro oxygen sensor was included in the vadose zone bundle. The monitoring wells were installed by direct push technique to minimize soil disruption and to ensure intimate contact between the 18 inch (46 cm) long screens and the soil. A data acquisition system, comprised of a CSI 21X data logger and four CSI AM416 multiplexers, was used to control the stirring blades and record signals from more than 70 in situ sensors. The instrumentation performed well during evaluation of IAS and IWA at the site. However, the SenSym pressure transducers were not adequately temperature compensated and will need to be replaced.« less