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Sample records for air stripping technology

  1. APPLICATIONS ANALYSIS REPORT: TOXIC TREATMENTS, IN-SITU STEAM/HOT-AIR STRIPPING TECHNOLOGY

    EPA Science Inventory

    This document is an evaluation of the performance of the Toxic Treatments (USA), Inc., (TTUSA) in situ steam/hot-air stripping technology and its applicability as an on-site treatment technique for hazardous waste site soil cleanup of volatile and semivolatile contaminants. Both ...

  2. Liability and the marketing of high-tech law enforcement technologies: the air bag and barrier strip stories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Overlin, Trudy K.

    1999-01-01

    This paper will present information regarding the fate of technologies developed in the national laboratory, which were designed to meet a specific law enforcement user need, but were or were not successful in making it to market. The two examples, one successful and one not completely successful, will be presented in a perspective to provide discussion as too why their individual fates were as such. The two examples, air bag restraint and barriers strip, both law enforcement technologies, were both designed to meet a targeted need, and yet their success was different. One has been licensed to an industry partner and is currently on the shelf for purchase. The other is awaiting a licensee and its future is still undetermined. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the specific paths these technologies have taken to market, and to demonstrate that even when researchers have a good idea, their technology may never make it to the shelf. This paper also addresses some of the pitfalls of what occurs when researchers are too distant from the user community and what that distance can do to a successful or unsuccessful technology. Understanding this process is essential to the user communities that anticipate the market of technologies that they often help assist with or provide insight to. It is also important for users and manufacturers to understand why the research and development process can take years, and why some things do not fully actualize in accepted technologies.

  3. ENGINEERING BULLETIN: AIR STRIPPING OF AQUEOUS SOLUTIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Air striding is a means to transfer contaminants from aqueous solutions to air. ontaminants are not destroyed by air stripping but are physically separated from the aqueous solutions. ontaminant vapors are transferred into the air stream and, if necessary, can be treated by incin...

  4. Wide Strip Casting Technology of Magnesium Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, W.-J.; Kim, J. J.; Kim, I. J.; Choo, D.

    Extensive investigations relating to the production of high performance and low cost magnesium sheet by strip casting have been performed for the application to automotive parts and electronic devices. Research on magnesium sheet production technology started in 2004 by Research Institute of Industrial Science and Technology (RIST) with support of Pohang Iron and Steel Company (POSCO). POSCO has completed the world's first plant to manufacture magnesium coil. Another big project in order to develop wide strip casting technology for the automotive applications of magnesium sheets was started in succession.

  5. Groundwater air stripping: Effect on water toxicity

    SciTech Connect

    Eldridge, R.B.; Simpson, C.W.; Elliott, D.J.

    1995-02-01

    An air stripping unit was designed to reduce groundwater hydrocarbon content and biotoxicity to acceptable levels. A pilot plant study was conducted to determine the water treatability and to optimize the commercial unit design conditions. A measurement of the pilot plant effluent toxicity was obtained from {open_quotes}Microtox{close_quotes} analysis and rigorous bio-assays. These results indicated that reduction of the water hydrocarbon content to permitted discharge limits was accompanied by the elimination of water toxicity. The Onda mass transfer model was used to prepare the commercial unit design. A post-installation evaluation indicated that the model gave a good representation of the commercialmore » unit performance. Toxicity reductions observed in the pilot plant were also observed in the commercial unit. 3 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.« less

  6. Feasibility and energetic evaluation of air stripping for bioethanol production.

    PubMed

    Schläfle, Sandra; Senn, Thomas; Gschwind, Peter; Kohlus, Reinhard

    2017-05-01

    Stripping of mashes with air as stripping gas and low ethanol contents between 3 and 5wt% was investigated in terms of its suitability for continuous bioethanol production. Experiments in a Blenke cascade system were carried out and the results were compared with values obtained from theoretical vapour-liquid-equilibrium calculations. The whole stripping process was energetically evaluated by a simulation in ChemCAD and compared to conventional distillation. Therefore several parameters such as temperature, air volume flow and initial ethanol load of the mash were varied. Air stripping was found to be a suitable separation method for bioethanol from mashes with low concentrations. However, energetic aspects have to be considered, when developing a new process. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Distillation and Air Stripping Designs for the Lunar Surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boul, Peter J.; Lange, Kevin E.; Conger, Bruce; Anderson, Molly

    2009-01-01

    Air stripping and distillation are two different gravity-based methods, which may be applied to the purification of wastewater on the lunar base. These gravity-based solutions to water processing are robust physical separation techniques, which may be advantageous to many other techniques for their simplicity in design and operation. The two techniques can be used in conjunction with each other to obtain high purity water. The components and feed compositions for modeling waste water streams are presented in conjunction with the Aspen property system for traditional stage distillation models and air stripping models. While the individual components for each of the waste streams will vary naturally within certain bounds, an analog model for waste water processing is suggested based on typical concentration ranges for these components. Target purity levels for the for recycled water are determined for each individual component based on NASA s required maximum contaminant levels for potable water Distillation processes are modeled separately and in tandem with air stripping to demonstrate the potential effectiveness and utility of these methods in recycling wastewater on the Moon. Optimum parameters such as reflux ratio, feed stage location, and processing rates are determined with respect to the power consumption of the process. Multistage distillation is evaluated for components in wastewater to determine the minimum number of stages necessary for each of 65 components in humidity condensate and urine wastewater mixed streams. Components of the wastewater streams are ranked by Henry s Law Constant and the suitability of air stripping in the purification of wastewater in terms of component removal is evaluated. Scaling factors for distillation and air stripping columns are presented to account for the difference in the lunar gravitation environment. Commercially available distillation and air stripping units which are considered suitable for Exploration Life Support

  8. DEMONSTRATION BULLETIN: IN-SITU STEAM/HOT AIR SOIL STRIPPING TOXIC TREATMENT (USA) INC.

    EPA Science Inventory

    This technology uses steam and hot air to strip volatile organics from contaminated soil. The treatment equipment is mobile and treats the soil in-situ without need for soil excavation or transportation. The organic contaminants volatilized from the soil are condensed and col...

  9. REMEDIATION OF MTBE FROM DRINKING WATER: AIR STRIPPING FOLLOWED BY OFF-GAS ADSORPTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The widespread use of methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) as an oxygenate in gasoline has resulted in the contamination of a large number of ground and surface water sources. Even though air stripping has been proven to be an effective treatment technology for MTBE removal, off-ga...

  10. Air stripping VOCs from groundwater: Process design considerations

    SciTech Connect

    Ball, B.R.; Edwards, M.D.

    1992-02-01

    Considerations for evaluating and designing the air stripping process are presented by case study. The case study involves the design of an air stripping process to remediate groundwater contaminated with volatile organic compounds (VOCs) at a National Priorities List site in Tacoma, WA. Design objectives included developing a tower with minimum volume and energy requirements while complying with discharge air and water quality standards. A two-phase resistance model using Onda Correlations to determine liquid- and gas-phase mass transfer coefficients was used to assist in the evaluation and design. Considerations for applying the two-phase resistance model to air stripping tower designmore » are presented. The ability of the model to simulate process performance is demonstrated by comparison with actual data for 11 priority pollutant list VOCs evaluated during an onsite pilot study. Design procedures with which to develop a tower with minimum volume and energy requirements are described. Other considerations involving the evaluation of VOC emissions and the precipitation and buildup of inorganic constituents within the internal packing media are described.« less

  11. Clean Air Technology Center

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Clean Air Technology Center provides resources for emerging and existing air pollution prevention and control technologies and provides public access to data and information on their use, effectiveness and cost.

  12. On the performance of a cascade crossflow air stripping column

    SciTech Connect

    Akiyama, Y.; Valsaraj, K.T.; Wetzel, D.M.

    1996-10-01

    The cascade crossflow packed column is an innovative design that offers the separation advantages of countercurrent flow while avoiding flooding limitations. Liquid and gas cross-sectional flow areas and path length in contact with packing may be controlled independently. These features are illustrated by studying the air stripping of methylene chloride (MeCl), 1,2-dichloroethane (1,2-DCA), and methyl ethyl ketone (MEK). Stripping efficiencies in the cascade crossflow column were generally slightly smaller than in countercurrent flow at equal liquid and gas flow rates. However larger gas-to-liquid ratios were possible in crossflow, permitting larger maximum stripping efficiencies to be attained. The experimental mass transfermore » coefficients were smaller than predicted by the Onda correlation. Modifications to the gas-phase Onda correlation are proposed that reduce the magnitude of the average deviation between experiment and prediction for 40 tests to about 12%. Experimental values of 38 of 40 tests were within {+-}30% of modified Onda correlation predictions. Additional applications for the cascade crossflow concept are suggested, such as vacuum distillation columns and trickle-bed reactors, which require low pressure drop and/or large gas-to-liquid ratios.« less

  13. Remediation of MTBE from drinking water: air stripping followed by off-gas adsorption.

    PubMed

    Ramakrishnan, Balaji; Sorial, George A; Speth, Thomas F; Clark, Patrick; Zaffiro, Alan; Patterson, Craig; Hand, David W

    2004-05-01

    The widespread use of methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) as an oxygenate in gasoline has resulted in the contamination of a large number of ground and surface water sources. Even though air stripping has been proven to be an effective treatment technology for MTBE removal, off-gas treatment often is required in conjunction with it. This study evaluated the combined treatment technologies of air stripping followed by off-gas adsorption on a pilot scale for the treatment of MTBE-contaminated water. The effect of air/water ratios on the treatment efficiency was studied, and the mass transfer coefficient was determined. Air/water ratios of 105:1, 151:1, 177:1, 190:1, 202:1, and 206:1 were used, and a treatment efficiency of >99% was achieved for all the runs conducted. The depth of packing required to achieve maximum treatment efficiency decreased with increasing air/water ratio. Relative humidity (RH) impacts on the MTBE adsorption capacity of a granular activated carbon (GAC) and carbonaceous resin were determined from pilot plant studies. Breakthrough profiles obtained from the pilot plant studies conducted at 20, 30, and 50% RH indicated that GAC has a higher adsorptive capacity than resin. The adsorptive capacity of GAC decreased with increasing RH, whereas RH did not impact the resin adsorptive capacity.

  14. INTEGRATION OF PHOTOCATALYTIC OXIDATION WITH AIR STRIPPING OF CONTAMINATED AQUIFERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Bench scale laboratory studies and pilot scale studies in a simulated field-test situation were performed to evaluate the integration of gas-solid ultaviolet (UV) photocatalytic oxidation (PCO) downstream if an air stripper unit as a technology for cost-effectively treating water...

  15. AIR POLLUTION CONTROL TECHNOLOGIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    This is a chapter for John Wiley & Son's Mechanical Engineers' Handbook, and covers issues involving air pollution control. Various technologies for controlling sulfur oxides is considered including fuel desulfurization. It also considers control of nitrogen oxides including post...

  16. Comparison of Descemet stripping under continuous air flow, manual air injection and balanced salt solution for DMEK: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Gabbay, I E; Bahar, I; Nahum, Y; Livny, E

    2017-08-01

    Descemet's membrane endothelial keratoplasty (DMEK) involves removal of the recipient's Descemet membrane (DM) prior to transplanting the donor's DM. When using balanced salt solution (BSS) or ophthalmic viscosurgical devices (OVDs), visualization of the host's DM during its stripping may be inadequate and may result in Descemet remnants and could lead to sub-optimal surgical results. Previous articles described excellent visualization when utilizing air injection but this requires repeated air injection into the anterior chamber (AC). We present a pilot study that compares different techniques under which DM stripping can be performed: with continuous automated air infusion, with manual air infusion, and with BSS. We retrospectively compared video footage of DM stripping with BSS, with continuous air and with manual injection of air into the AC to determine DM stripping duration and the number of times the surgeon had to insert and retrieve a surgical instrument from the AC. Thirty videos of 10 consecutive cases of the three DM stripping techniques were evaluated. DM stripping duration was 3.26 (±1.32), 3.92 (±1.2) and 12.9 (±3.98) minutes for BSS, continuous air flow, and manual air injection, respectively. Frequency of instrument retrieval (FIR) was 3.6 (±1.71), 1.5 (±0.71) and 15.1 (±3.28) for BSS, continuous air flow, and manual air injection, respectively. Continuous air flow and BSS were both statistically different than manual air injection into the AC (p < 0.05), but did not differ from one another statistically. DM stripping during posterior lamellar surgery is imperative for favorable post-operative results and prevention of complications. Performing this step under air in the AC contributes to better visualization and an efficient surgery.

  17. Air Stripping Designs and Reactive Water Purification Processes for the Lunar Surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boul, Peter J.; Lange, Kevin; Conger, Bruce; Anderson, Molly

    2010-01-01

    Air stripping designs are considered to reduce the presence of volatile organic compounds in the purified water. Components of the wastewater streams are ranked by Henry's Law Constant and the suitability of air stripping in the purification of wastewater in terms of component removal is evaluated. Distillation processes are modeled in tandem with air stripping to demonstrate the potential effectiveness and utility of these methods in recycling wastewater on the Moon. Scaling factors for distillation and air stripping columns are presented to account for the difference in the lunar gravitation environment. Commercially available distillation and air stripping units which are considered suitable for Exploration Life Support are presented. The advantages to the various designs are summarized with respect to water purity levels, power consumption, and processing rates. An evaluation of reactive distillation and air stripping is presented with regards to the reduction of volatile organic compounds in the contaminated water and air. Among the methods presented, an architecture is presented for the evaluation of the simultaneous oxidation of organics in air and water. These and other designs are presented in light of potential improvements in power consumptions and air and water purities for architectures which include catalytic activity integrated into the water processor. In particular, catalytic oxidation of organics may be useful as a tool to remove contaminants that more traditional distillation and/or air stripping columns may not remove. A review of the current leading edge at the commercial level and at the research frontier in catalytically active materials is presented. Themes and directions from the engineering developments in catalyst design are presented conceptually in light of developments in the nanoscale chemistry of a variety of catalyst materials.

  18. The role of flight progress strips in en route air traffic control : a time-series analysis.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1995-01-01

    Paper flight progress strips (FPSs) are currently used in the United States en route air traffic control system to document flight information. Impending automation will replace these paper strips with electronic flight data entries. In this observat...

  19. Air Cleaning Technologies

    PubMed Central

    2005-01-01

    Executive Summary Objective This health technology policy assessment will answer the following questions: When should in-room air cleaners be used? How effective are in-room air cleaners? Are in-room air cleaners that use combined HEPA and UVGI air cleaning technology more effective than those that use HEPA filtration alone? What is the Plasmacluster ion air purifier in the pandemic influenza preparation plan? The experience of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) locally, nationally, and internationally underscored the importance of administrative, environmental, and personal protective infection control measures in health care facilities. In the aftermath of the SARS crisis, there was a need for a clearer understanding of Ontario’s capacity to manage suspected or confirmed cases of airborne infectious diseases. In so doing, the Walker Commission thought that more attention should be paid to the potential use of new technologies such as in-room air cleaning units. It recommended that the Medical Advisory Secretariat of the Ontario Ministry of Health and Long-Term Care evaluate the appropriate use and effectiveness of such new technologies. Accordingly, the Ontario Health Technology Advisory Committee asked the Medical Advisory Secretariat to review the literature on the effectiveness and utility of in-room air cleaners that use high-efficiency particle air (HEPA) filters and ultraviolet germicidal irradiation (UVGI) air cleaning technology. Additionally, the Ontario Health Technology Advisory Committee prioritized a request from the ministry’s Emergency Management Unit to investigate the possible role of the Plasmacluster ion air purifier manufactured by Sharp Electronics Corporation, in the pandemic influenza preparation plan. Clinical Need Airborne transmission of infectious diseases depends in part on the concentration of breathable infectious pathogens (germs) in room air. Infection control is achieved by a combination of administrative, engineering

  20. Clean Air Technology Center Products

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Clean Air Technology Center provides resources for emerging and existing air pollution prevention and control technologies and provides public access to data and information on their use, effectiveness and cost.

  1. En route air traffic controllers' use of flight progress strips : a graph-theoretic analysis.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1992-11-01

    In the United States, flight data are represented on a paper Flight Progress Strip (FPS). The role of the FPS has recently attracted attention because of plans to automate this aspect of air traffic control. The communication activities and FPS activ...

  2. Reduced posting and marking of flight progress strips for en route air traffic control : final report.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2000-02-01

    The new Display System Replacement (DSR) being implemented in air route traffic control centers (ARTCCs) will allow the data-side controller less room to post Flight Progress Strips (FPSs). We tested a new FPS marking and posting procedure designed t...

  3. Post-test evaluation of the geology, geochemistry, microbiology, and hydrology of the in situ air stripping demonstration site at the Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect

    Eddy Dilek, C.A.; Looney, B.B.; Hazen, T.C.

    1993-07-01

    A full-scale demonstration of the use of horizontal wells for in situ air stripping for environment restoration was completed as part of the Savannah River Integrated Demonstration Program. The demonstration of in situ air stripping was the first in a series of demonstrations of innovative remediation technologies for the cleanup of sites contaminated with volatile organic contaminants. The in situ air stripping system consisted of two directionally drilled wells that delivered gases to and extract contamination from the subsurface. The demonstration was designed to remediate soils and sediments in the unsaturated and saturated zones as well as groundwater contaminated withmore » volatile organic compounds. The demonstration successfully removed significant quantities of solvent from the subsurface. The field site and horizontal wells were subsequently used for an in situ bioremediation demonstration during which methane was added to the injected air. The field conditions documented herein represent the baseline status of the site for evaluating the in situ bioremediation as well as the post-test conditions for the in situ air stripping demonstration. Characterization activities focused on documenting the nature and distribution of contamination in the subsurface. The post-test characterization activities discussed herein include results from the analysis of sediment samples, three-dimensional images of the pretest and post-test data, contaminant inventories estimated from pretest and post-test models, a detailed lithologic cross sections of the site, results of aquifer testing, and measurements of geotechnical parameters of undisturbed core sediments.« less

  4. Evaluation of pH, alkalinity and temperature during air stripping process for ammonia removal from landfill leachate.

    PubMed

    Campos, Juacyara Carbonelli; Moura, Denise; Costa, Ana Paula; Yokoyama, Lidia; Araujo, Fabiana Valeria da Fonseca; Cammarota, Magali Christe; Cardillo, Luigi

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this research was to evaluate the air stripping technology for the removal of ammonia from landfill leachates. In this process, pH, temperature, airflow rate and operation time were investigated. Furthermore, the relationship between the leachate alkalinity and the ammonia removal efficiency during the process was studied. The leachate used in the tests was generated in the Gramacho Municipal Solid Waste Landfill (Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil). The best results were obtained with a temperature of 60(o)C, and they were independent of the pH value for 7 h of operation (the ammonia nitrogen removal was greater than 95%). A strong influence of the leachate alkalinity on the ammonia nitrogen removal was observed; as the alkalinity decreased, the ammonia concentration also decreased because of prior CO2 removal, which increased the pH and consequently favored the NH3 stripping. The air flow rate, in the values evaluated (73, 96 and 120 L air.h(-1).L(-1) of leachate), did not influence the results.

  5. Air transportation noise technology overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maggin, B.; Chestnutt, D.

    1973-01-01

    The NASA and DOT technology program planning for quieter air transportation systems is reviewed. To put this planning in context, the nature of the noise problem and the projected nature of the air transportation fleet are identified. The technology program planning reviewed here is discussed in relation to the following areas of activity: systems analysis, community acceptance, basic research and technology, and the various classes of civil aircraft, i.e. existing and advanced transports, powered-lift transports, and general aviation.

  6. Advanced Air Bag Technology Assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phen, R. L.; Dowdy, M. W.; Ebbeler, D. H.; Kim. E.-H.; Moore, N. R.; VanZandt, T. R.

    1998-01-01

    As a result of the concern for the growing number of air-bag-induced injuries and fatalities, the administrators of the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) agreed to a cooperative effort that "leverages NHTSA's expertise in motor vehicle safety restraint systems and biomechanics with NASAs position as one of the leaders in advanced technology development... to enable the state of air bag safety technology to advance at a faster pace..." They signed a NASA/NHTSA memorandum of understanding for NASA to "evaluate air bag to assess advanced air bag performance, establish the technological potential for improved technology (smart) air bag systems, and identify key expertise and technology within the agency (i.e., NASA) that can potentially contribute significantly to the improved effectiveness of air bags." NASA is committed to contributing to NHTSAs effort to: (1) understand and define critical parameters affecting air bag performance; (2) systematically assess air bag technology state of the art and its future potential; and (3) identify new concepts for air bag systems. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) was selected by NASA to respond to the memorandum of understanding by conducting an advanced air bag technology assessment. JPL analyzed the nature of the need for occupant restraint, how air bags operate alone and with safety belts to provide restraint, and the potential hazards introduced by the technology. This analysis yielded a set of critical parameters for restraint systems. The researchers examined data on the performance of current air bag technology, and searched for and assessed how new technologies could reduce the hazards introduced by air bags while providing the restraint protection that is their primary purpose. The critical parameters which were derived are: (1) the crash severity; (2) the use of seat belts; (3) the physical characteristics of the occupants; (4) the

  7. Reactive Distillation and Air Stripping Processes for Water Recycling and Trace Contaminant Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boul, Peter J.; Lange, Kevin E.; Conger, Bruce; Anderson, Molly

    2009-01-01

    Reactive distillation designs are considered to reduce the presence of volatile organic compounds in the purified water. Reactive distillation integrates a reactor with a distillation column. A review of the literature in this field has revealed a variety of functional reactive columns in industry. Wastewater may be purified by a combination of a reactor and a distiller (e.g., the EWRS or VPCAR concepts) or, in principle, through a design which integrates the reactor with the distiller. A review of the literature in reactive distillation has identified some different designs in such combinations of reactor and distiller. An evaluation of reactive distillation and reactive air stripping is presented with regards to the reduction of volatile organic compounds in the contaminated water and air. Among the methods presented, an architecture is presented for the evaluation of the simultaneous oxidation of organics in air and water. These and other designs are presented in light of potential improvements in power consumptions and air and water purities for architectures which include catalytic activity integrated into the water processor. In particular, catalytic oxidation of organics may be useful as a tool to remove contaminants that more traditional distillation and/or air stripping columns may not remove. A review of the current leading edge at the commercial level and at the research frontier in catalytically active materials is presented. Themes and directions from the engineering developments in catalyst design are presented conceptually in light of developments in the nanoscale chemistry of a variety of catalyst materials.

  8. Investigation of HV/HR-CMOS technology for the ATLAS Phase-II Strip Tracker Upgrade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fadeyev, V.; Galloway, Z.; Grabas, H.; Grillo, A. A.; Liang, Z.; Martinez-Mckinney, F.; Seiden, A.; Volk, J.; Affolder, A.; Buckland, M.; Meng, L.; Arndt, K.; Bortoletto, D.; Huffman, T.; John, J.; McMahon, S.; Nickerson, R.; Phillips, P.; Plackett, R.; Shipsey, I.; Vigani, L.; Bates, R.; Blue, A.; Buttar, C.; Kanisauskas, K.; Maneuski, D.; Benoit, M.; Di Bello, F.; Caragiulo, P.; Dragone, A.; Grenier, P.; Kenney, C.; Rubbo, F.; Segal, J.; Su, D.; Tamma, C.; Das, D.; Dopke, J.; Turchetta, R.; Wilson, F.; Worm, S.; Ehrler, F.; Peric, I.; Gregor, I. M.; Stanitzki, M.; Hoeferkamp, M.; Seidel, S.; Hommels, L. B. A.; Kramberger, G.; Mandić, I.; Mikuž, M.; Muenstermann, D.; Wang, R.; Zhang, J.; Warren, M.; Song, W.; Xiu, Q.; Zhu, H.

    2016-09-01

    ATLAS has formed strip CMOS project to study the use of CMOS MAPS devices as silicon strip sensors for the Phase-II Strip Tracker Upgrade. This choice of sensors promises several advantages over the conventional baseline design, such as better resolution, less material in the tracking volume, and faster construction speed. At the same time, many design features of the sensors are driven by the requirement of minimizing the impact on the rest of the detector. Hence the target devices feature long pixels which are grouped to form a virtual strip with binary-encoded z position. The key performance aspects are radiation hardness compatibility with HL-LHC environment, as well as extraction of the full hit position with full-reticle readout architecture. To date, several test chips have been submitted using two different CMOS technologies. The AMS 350 nm is a high voltage CMOS process (HV-CMOS), that features the sensor bias of up to 120 V. The TowerJazz 180 nm high resistivity CMOS process (HR-CMOS) uses a high resistivity epitaxial layer to provide the depletion region on top of the substrate. We have evaluated passive pixel performance, and charge collection projections. The results strongly support the radiation tolerance of these devices to radiation dose of the HL-LHC in the strip tracker region. We also describe design features for the next chip submission that are motivated by our technology evaluation.

  9. Heavy metal detection combining stripping electrochemistry and piezoelectric sensor technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    French, Lester A.; Schweyer, Michael G.; Foley, Janet B.; Andle, Jeffrey C.; Watson, Charles; Bruce, Mitchell R.; Bruce, Alice E.; Vetelino, John F.

    1998-12-01

    Mercury and other toxic, heavy metals must be detected at part per billion levels in drinking water and environmental monitoring applications. No portable technology is presently capable of providing the required sensitivity, simplicity or reliability. Piezoelectric sensor technology and electrochemical technology have both offered sound approaches to the detection of these pollutants. Both exhibit limitations which prevent their widespread acceptance in water quality assurance and in environmental remediation.

  10. Significant and stable drag reduction with air rings confined by alternated superhydrophobic and hydrophilic strips

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Haibao; Wen, Jun; Bao, Luyao; Jia, Laibing; Song, Dong; Song, Baowei; Pan, Guang; Scaraggi, Michele; Dini, Daniele; Xue, Qunji; Zhou, Feng

    2017-01-01

    Superhydrophobic surfaces have the potential to reduce the viscous drag of liquids by significantly decreasing friction at a solid-liquid interface due to the formation of air layers between solid walls and interacting liquids. However, the trapped air usually becomes unstable due to the finite nature of the domain over which it forms. We demonstrate for the first time that a large surface energy barrier can be formed to strongly pin the three-phase contact line of air/water/solid by covering the inner rotor of a Taylor-Couette flow apparatus with alternating superhydrophobic and hydrophilic circumferential strips. This prevents the disruption of the air layer, which forms stable and continuous air rings. The drag reduction measured at the inner rotor could be as much as 77.2%. Moreover, the air layers not only significantly reduce the strength of Taylor vortexes but also influence the number and position of the Taylor vortex pairs. This has strong implications in terms of energy efficiency maximization for marine applications and reduction of drag losses in, for example, fluid transport in pipelines and carriers. PMID:28879234

  11. TECHNOLOGY ASSESSMENT OF SOIL VAPOR EXTRACTION AND AIR SPARGING

    EPA Science Inventory

    Air sparging, also called "in situ air stripping and in situ volatilization" injects air into the saturated zone to strip away volatile organic compounds (VOCs) dissolved in groundwater and adsorbed to soil. hese volatile contaminants transfer in a vapor phase to the unsaturated ...

  12. Full scale field test of the in situ air stripping process at the Savannah River integrated demonstration test site

    SciTech Connect

    Looney, B.B.; Hazen, T.C.; Kaback, D.S.

    1991-06-29

    Under sponsorship from the US Department of Energy, technical personnel from the Savannah River Laboratory (SRL) and other DOE laboratories, universities and private industry have completed a full scale demonstration of environmental remediation using horizontal wells. This demonstration was performed as Phase I of an Integrated Demonstration Project designed to evaluate innovative remediation technologies for environmental restoration of sites contaminated with organic contaminants. The demonstration utilized two directionally drilled horizontal wells to deliver gases and extract contaminants from the subsurface. The resulting in situ air stripping process was designed to remediate soils and sediments above and below the water tablemore » as well as groundwater contaminated with volatile organic contaminants. The 139 day long test successfully removed volatile chlorinated solvents from the subsurface using the two horizontal wells. One well, approximately 300 ft (90m) long and 165 ft (50m) deep drilled below a contaminant plume in the groundwater, was used to inject air and strip the contaminants from the groundwater. A second horizontal well, approximately 175 ft (53m) long and 75 ft (23m) deep in the vadose zone, was used to extract residual contamination in the vadose zone along with the material purged from the groundwater. Pretest and posttest characterization data and monitoring data during the demonstration were collected to aid in interpretation of the test and to provide the information needed for future environmental restoration that employ directionally drilled wells as extraction or delivery systems. Contaminant concentration data and microbiological monitoring data are summarized in this report; the characterization data and geophysical monitoring data are documented in a series of related project reports.« less

  13. Stomatal Opening in Isolated Epidermal Strips of Vicia faba. I. Response to Light and to CO(2)-free Air.

    PubMed

    Fischer, R A

    1968-12-01

    This paper reports a consistent and large opening response to light + CO(2)-free air in living stomata of isolated epidermal strips of Vicia faba. The response was compared to that of non-isolated stomata in leaf discs floating on water; stomatal apertures, guard cell solute potentials and starch contents were similar in the 2 situations. To obtain such stomatal behavior, it was necessary to float epidermal strips on dilute KCl solutions. This suggests that solute uptake is necessary for stomatal opening.The demonstration of normal stomatal behavior in isolated epidermal strips provides a very useful system in which to investigate the mechanism of stomatal opening. It was possible to show independent responses in stomatal aperture to light and to CO(2)-free air.

  14. Next Generation Air Measurement Technologies Fact Sheet

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA is advancing lower cost and portable air measurement technology to enhance monitoring capabilities for complying with the National Ambient Air Quality Standards. The technology is providing mobile and stationary real-time measurement capabilities.

  15. About the Clean Air Technology Center

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Clean Air Technology Center provides resources for emerging and existing air pollution prevention and control technologies and provides public access to data and information on their use, effectiveness and cost.

  16. Characterization of the geology, geochemistry, hydrology and microbiology of the in-situ air stripping demonstration site at the Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect

    Eddy, C.A.; Looney, B.B.; Dougherty, J.M.

    1991-05-01

    The Savannah River Site is the location of an Integrated Demonstration Project designed to evaluate innovative remediation technologies for environmental restoration at sites contaminated with volatile organic contaminants. This demonstration utilizes directionally drilled horizontal wells to deliver gases and extract contaminants from the subsurface. Phase I of the Integrated Demonstration focused on the application and development of in-situ air stripping technologies to remediate soils and sediments above and below the water table as well as groundwater contaminated with volatile organic contaminants. The objective of this report is to provide baseline information on the geology, geochemistry, hydrology, and microbiology of themore » demonstration site prior to the test. The distribution of contaminants in soils and sediments in the saturated zone and groundwater is emphasized. These data will be combined with data collected after the demonstration in order to evaluate the effectiveness of in-situ air stripping. New technologies for environmental characterization that were evaluated include depth discrete groundwater sampling (HydroPunch) and three-dimensional modeling of contaminant data.« less

  17. Optimization of the integrated citric acid-methane fermentation process by air stripping and glucoamylase addition.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jian; Chen, Yang-Qiu; Zhang, Hong-Jian; Wang, Ke; Tang, Lei; Zhang, Jian-Hua; Chen, Xu-Sheng; Mao, Zhong-Gui

    2015-03-01

    To solve the problem of extraction wastewater in citric acid industry, an integrated citric acid-methane fermentation process was proposed. In the integrated process, extraction wastewater was treated by mesophilic anaerobic digestion and then reused to make mash for the next batch of citric acid fermentation. In this study, an Aspergillus niger mutant strain exhibiting resistance to high metal ions concentration was used to eliminate the inhibition of 200 mg/L Na(+) and 300 mg/L K(+) in anaerobic digestion effluent (ADE) and citric acid production increased by 25.0 %. Air stripping was used to remove ammonium, alkalinity, and part of metal ions in ADE before making mash. In consequence, citric acid production was significantly improved but still lower by 6.1 % than the control. Results indicated that metal ions in ADE synergistically inhibited the activity of glucoamylase, thus reducing citric acid production. When 130 U/g glucoamylase was added before fermentation, citric acid production was 141.5 g/L, which was even higher than the control (140.4 g/L). This process could completely eliminate extraction wastewater discharge and reduce water resource consumption.

  18. AIR POLLUTION CONTROL TECHNOLOGIES (CHAPTER 65)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The chapter discusses the use of technologies for reducing air pollution emissions from stationary sources, with emphasis on the control of combustion gen-erated air pollution. Major stationary sources include utility power boilers, industrial boilers and heaters, metal smelting ...

  19. Disruptive Innovation in Air Measurement Technology: Reality ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This presentation is a big picture overview on the changing state of air measurement technology in the world, with a focus on the introduction of low-cost sensors into the market place. The presentation discusses how these new technologies may be a case study in disruptive innovation for the air pollution measurement field. The intended audience is primarily those with experience in air pollution measurement methods, but much of the talk is accessible to the general public. This is a keynote presentation on emerging air monitoring technology, to be provided at the AWMA measurements conference in March, 2016.

  20. ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION AND INDOOR AIR

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper discusses environmental technology verification and indoor air. RTI has responsibility for a pilot program for indoor air products as part of the U.S. EPA's Environmental Technology Verification (ETV) program. The program objective is to further the development of sel...

  1. Air Conditioning and Heating Technology--II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gattone, Felix

    Twenty-eight chapters and numerous drawings provide information for instructors and students of air conditioning and heating technology. Chapter 1 lists the occupational opportunities in the field. Chapter 2 covers the background or development of the industry of air conditioning and heating technology. Chapter 3 includes some of the principle…

  2. Air Force Research Laboratory Technology Milestones 2007

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-01-01

    developmental and operational testing. This new technology incorporates a lithium-ion (Li-ion) rechargeable battery, a zinc air battery , and a handheld power...existing zinc air battery technology by leveraging the BA-8180 product. Originally developed U by Electric Fuel Battery Corporation under contract to

  3. Air Stripping and Emissions Control Technologies: Field Testing of Countercurrent Packings, Rotary Air Stripping, Catalytic Oxidation, and Adsorption Materials

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-05-01

    compounds were chosen because of the concentration present in the groundwater and the availability of physical properties data. 2. Analysis of Samples...appendix contains a data organization Table C-1 and examples from the 32 data sets used for analysis and evaluation in this report. The 32 data sets were...u ~~~~ ~ ~ ~ ~h ................... EXECUTIVE SUMMARY A. OBJECTIVE Contamination of groundwater by volatile organic compounds (VOCs) is a serious

  4. VERIFICATION TESTING OF TECHNOLOGIES TO CLEAN OR FILTER VENTILATION AIR

    EPA Science Inventory

    Because of the importance of indoor air quality, Research Triangle Institute's Air Pollution Control Technology is adding indoor air products as a new technology category available for testing. This paper discusses RTI's participation in previous Environmental Technology Verifica...

  5. ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION FOR INDOOR AIR PRODUCTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper discusses environmental technology verification (ETV) for indoor air products. RTI is developing the framework for a verification testing program for indoor air products, as part of EPA's ETV program. RTI is establishing test protocols for products that fit into three...

  6. Air-Coupled Ultrasonic Receivers with High Electromechanical Coupling PMN-32%PT Strip-Like Piezoelectric Elements

    PubMed Central

    Kazys, Rymantas J.; Sliteris, Reimondas; Sestoke, Justina

    2017-01-01

    For improvement of the efficiency of air-coupled ultrasonic transducers PMN-32%PT piezoelectric crystals which possess very high piezoelectric properties may be used. The electromechanical coupling factor of such crystals for all main vibration modes such as the thickness extension and transverse extension modes is more than 0.9. Operation of ultrasonic transducers with such piezoelectric elements in transmitting and receiving modes is rather different. Therefore, for transmission and reception of ultrasonic signals, separate piezoelectric elements with different dimensions must be used. The objective of this research was development of novel air-coupled ultrasonic receivers with PMN-32%PT strip-like piezoelectric elements vibrating in a transverse-extension mode with electromechanically controlled operation and suitable for applications in ultrasonic arrays. Performance of piezoelectric receivers made of the PMN-32%PT strip-like elements vibrating in this mode may be efficiently controlled by selecting geometry of the electrodes covering side surfaces of the piezoelectric element. It is equivalent to introduction of electromechanical damping which does not require any additional backing element. For this purpose; we have proposed the continuous electrodes to divide into two pairs of electrodes. The one pair is used to pick up the electric signal; another one is exploited for electromechanical damping. Two types of electrodes may be used—rectangular or non-rectangular—with a gap between them directed at some angle, usually 45°. The frequency bandwidth is wider (up to 9 kHz) in the case of non-rectangular electrodes. The strip-like acoustic matching element bonded to the tip of the PMN-32%PT crystal may significantly enhance the performance of the ultrasonic receiver. It was proposed to use for this purpose AIREX T10.110 rigid polymer foam, the acoustic impedance of which is close to the optimal value necessary for matching with air. It was found that in order

  7. Air-Coupled Ultrasonic Receivers with High Electromechanical Coupling PMN-32%PT Strip-Like Piezoelectric Elements.

    PubMed

    Kazys, Rymantas J; Sliteris, Reimondas; Sestoke, Justina

    2017-10-16

    For improvement of the efficiency of air-coupled ultrasonic transducers PMN-32%PT piezoelectric crystals which possess very high piezoelectric properties may be used. The electromechanical coupling factor of such crystals for all main vibration modes such as the thickness extension and transverse extension modes is more than 0.9. Operation of ultrasonic transducers with such piezoelectric elements in transmitting and receiving modes is rather different. Therefore, for transmission and reception of ultrasonic signals, separate piezoelectric elements with different dimensions must be used. The objective of this research was development of novel air-coupled ultrasonic receivers with PMN-32%PT strip-like piezoelectric elements vibrating in a transverse-extension mode with electromechanically controlled operation and suitable for applications in ultrasonic arrays. Performance of piezoelectric receivers made of the PMN-32%PT strip-like elements vibrating in this mode may be efficiently controlled by selecting geometry of the electrodes covering side surfaces of the piezoelectric element. It is equivalent to introduction of electromechanical damping which does not require any additional backing element. For this purpose; we have proposed the continuous electrodes to divide into two pairs of electrodes. The one pair is used to pick up the electric signal; another one is exploited for electromechanical damping. Two types of electrodes may be used-rectangular or non-rectangular-with a gap between them directed at some angle, usually 45°. The frequency bandwidth is wider (up to 9 kHz) in the case of non-rectangular electrodes. The strip-like acoustic matching element bonded to the tip of the PMN-32%PT crystal may significantly enhance the performance of the ultrasonic receiver. It was proposed to use for this purpose AIREX T10.110 rigid polymer foam, the acoustic impedance of which is close to the optimal value necessary for matching with air. It was found that in order to

  8. A Tire Air Maintenance Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pierce, Alan

    2012-01-01

    Improperly inflated car tires can reduce gas mileage and car performance, speed up tire wear, and even cause a tire to blow out. The AAA auto club recommends that someone check the air pressure of one's car's tires at least once a month. Wouldn't it be nice, though, if someone came up with a tire pressure-monitoring system that automatically kept…

  9. Clean Air Technology Initiative Projects

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA Pacific Southwest has provided funding to both South Coast AQMD and San Joaquin Valley APCD to help spur early-stage, innovative technologies that need further testing and demonstration prior to deployment and commercialization.

  10. Cryogenic hydrogen-induced air liquefaction technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Escher, William J. D.

    1990-01-01

    Extensively utilizing a special advanced airbreathing propulsion archives database, as well as direct contacts with individuals who were active in the field in previous years, a technical assessment of cryogenic hydrogen-induced air liquefaction, as a prospective onboard aerospace vehicle process, was performed and documented. The resulting assessment report is summarized. Technical findings are presented relating the status of air liquefaction technology, both as a singular technical area, and also that of a cluster of collateral technical areas including: compact lightweight cryogenic heat exchangers; heat exchanger atmospheric constituents fouling alleviation; para/ortho hydrogen shift conversion catalysts; hydrogen turbine expanders, cryogenic air compressors and liquid air pumps; hydrogen recycling using slush hydrogen as heat sink; liquid hydrogen/liquid air rocket-type combustion devices; air collection and enrichment systems (ACES); and technically related engine concepts.

  11. ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION FOR AIR POLLUTION CONTROL TECHNOLOGIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report describes the activities and progress of the pilot Air Pollution Control Technologies (APCT) portion of the Environmental Technology Verification (ETV) Program during the period from 09/15/97 to 09/15/02. The objective of the ETV Program is to verify the performance of...

  12. Edge-state-dependent tunneling of dipole-exchange spin waves in submicrometer magnetic strips with an air gap.

    PubMed

    Xing, X J; Zhang, D; Li, S W

    2012-12-14

    We have investigated the tunneling of dipole-exchange spin waves across an air gap in submicrometer-sized permalloy magnetic strips by means of micromagnetic simulations. The magnetizations beside the gap could form three distinct end-domain states with various strengths of dipolar coupling. Spin-wave tunneling through the gap at individual end-domain states is studied. It is found that the tunneling behavior is strongly dependent on these domain states. Nonmonotonic decay of transmission of spin waves with the increase of the gap width is observed. The underlying mechanism for these behaviors is proposed. The tunneling characteristics of the dipole-exchange spin waves differ essentially from those of the magnetostatic ones reported previously.

  13. Characterization of dissolved organic matter in landfill leachate during the combined treatment process of air stripping, Fenton, SBR and coagulation

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, ZhiPing, E-mail: liulqs@163.com; Faculty of Urban Construction and Environmental Engineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400020; Wu, WenHui

    2015-07-15

    Highlights: • DOM fractions spectra analysis during the whole treatment process. • Efficient method was achieved to remove organic matters in landfill leachate. • Molecular weight distribution and fractions were discussed. - Abstract: A combined treatment process of air stripping + Fenton + sequencing batch reactor (SBR)+ coagulation was performed to remove the pollutants in landfill leachate. Molecular weight (MW) distribution and fractions of dissolved organic matter (DOM) were discussed to study the characteristics. The experiment showed that the removal rate of chemical oxygen demand (COD), five day biological oxygen demand (BOD{sub 5}) and ammonia nitrogen (NH{sub 3}−N) by themore » combined process were 92.8%, 87.8% and 98.0%, respectively. Humic acid (HA) and fulvic acid (FA) were the main fractions in raw leachate with 81.8% of the total COD concentration, while hydrophilic organic matter (HyI) was the dominant fraction in the final effluent of the combined process with 63.5% of the total COD concentration. After the combined treatment process, the removal rate of DOM and fractions HA, FA, HyI were 91.9%, 97.1%, 95.8% and 71.7%, respectively. Organic matters of MW < 2 k and MW > 100 k were removed with 90.5% and 97.9% COD concentration after the treatment. The ultraviolet–visible spectra (UV–vis), Fourier transform infrared spectra (FTIR) and three-dimensional excitation-emission matrices spectra (EEMs) indicated that benzene materials and phenol compounds were preferentially removed in air stripping. High MW matters, aromatic rings, conjugated moieties and some functional groups were mainly removed by Fenton. While small MW fractions, carboxylic acids, alcohols and protein-like materials were preferentially biodegraded via SBR. Fulvic-like and humic-like materials were mainly destroyed via Fenton oxidation and coagulation.« less

  14. PROMOTING AIR QUALITY THROUGH ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper discusses the promotion of improved air quality through environmental technology verifications (ETVs). In 1995, the U.S. EPA's Office of Research and Development began the ETV Program in response to President Clinton's "Bridge to a Sustainable Future" and Vice Presiden...

  15. Next-generation air measurement technologies

    EPA Science Inventory

    This is a presentation at a workshop in Chicago on emerging air monitoring technologies, hosted by a local nonprofit. The audience is composed of a mixture of technical backgrounds. This presentation will be part of an opening panel and the goal is to give an overview of the st...

  16. Photocatalytic materials and technologies for air purification.

    PubMed

    Ren, Hangjuan; Koshy, Pramod; Chen, Wen-Fan; Qi, Shaohua; Sorrell, Charles Christopher

    2017-03-05

    Since there is increasing concern for the impact of air quality on human health, the present work surveys the materials and technologies for air purification using photocatalytic materials. The coverage includes (1) current photocatalytic materials for the decomposition of chemical contaminants and disinfection of pathogens present in air and (2) photocatalytic air purification systems that are used currently and under development. The present work focuses on five main themes. First, the mechanisms of photodegradation and photodisinfection are explained. Second, system designs for photocatalytic air purification are surveyed. Third, the photocatalytic materials used for air purification and their characteristics are considered, including both conventional and more recently developed photocatalysts. Fourth, the methods used to fabricate these materials are discussed. Fifth, the most significant coverage is devoted to materials design strategies aimed at improving the performance of photocatalysts for air purification. The review concludes with a brief consideration of promising future directions for materials research in photocatalysis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Green Propulsion Technologies for Advanced Air Transports

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Del Rosario, Ruben

    2015-01-01

    Air transportation is critical to U.S. and Global economic vitality. However, energy and climate issues challenge aviation's ability to be sustainable in the long term. Aviation must dramatically reduce fuel use and related emissions. Energy costs to U.S. airlines nearly tripled between 1995 and 2011, and continue to be the highest percentage of operating costs. The NASA Advanced Air Transports Technology Project addresses the comprehensive challenge of enabling revolutionary energy efficiency improvements in subsonic transport aircraft combined with dramatic reductions in harmful emissions and perceived noise to facilitate sustained growth of the air transportation system. Advanced technologies and the development of unconventional aircraft systems offer the potential to achieve these improvements. The presentation will highlight the NASA vision of revolutionary systems and propulsion technologies needed to achieve these challenging goals. Specifically, the primary focus is on the N+3 generation; that is, vehicles that are three generations beyond the current state of the art, requiring mature technology solutions in the 2025-30 timeframe.

  18. Green Propulsion Technologies for Advanced Air Transports

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Del Rosario, Ruben

    2015-01-01

    Air transportation is critical to U.S. and Global economic vitality. However, energy and climate issues challenge aviations ability to be sustainable in the long term. Aviation must dramatically reduce fuel use and related emissions. Energy costs to U.S. airlines nearly tripled between 1995 and 2011, and continue to be the highest percentage of operating costs. The NASA Advanced Air Transports Technology Project addresses the comprehensive challenge of enabling revolutionary energy efficiency improvements in subsonic transport aircraft combined with dramatic reductions in harmful emissions and perceived noise to facilitate sustained growth of the air transportation system. Advanced technologies and the development of unconventional aircraft systems offer the potential to achieve these improvements. The presentation will highlight the NASA vision of revolutionary systems and propulsion technologies needed to achieve these challenging goals. Specifically, the primary focus is on the N+3 generation; that is, vehicles that are three generations beyond the current state of the art, requiring mature technology solutions in the 2025-30 timeframe, which are envisioned as being powered by Hybrid Electric Propulsion Systems.

  19. Simultaneous stripping recovery of ammonia-nitrogen and precipitation of manganese from electrolytic manganese residue by air under calcium oxide assist.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hongliang; Liu, Renlong; Shu, Jiancheng; Li, Wensheng

    2015-01-01

    Leaching tests of electrolytic manganese residue (EMR) indicated that high contents of soluble manganese and ammonia-nitrogen posed a high environmental risk. This work reports the results of simultaneous stripping recovery of ammonia-nitrogen and precipitation of manganese by air under calcium oxide assist. The ammonia-nitrogen stripping rate increased with the dosage of CaO, the air flow rate and the temperature of EMR slurry. Stripped ammonia-nitrogen was absorbed by a solution of sulfuric acid and formed soluble (NH4)2SO4 and (NH4)3H(SO4)3. The major parameters that effected soluble manganese precipitation were the dosage of added CaO and the slurry temperature. Considering these two aspects, the efficient operation conditions should be conducted with 8 wt.% added CaO, 60°C, 800 mL min(-1) air flow rate and 60-min reaction time. Under these conditions 99.99% of the soluble manganese was precipitated as Mn3O4, which was confirmed by XRD and SEM-EDS analyses. In addition, the stripping rate of ammonia-nitrogen was 99.73%. Leaching tests showed the leached toxic substances concentrations of the treated EMR met the integrated wastewater discharge standard of China (GB8978-1996).

  20. ALTERNATIVE TECHNOLOGIES FOR REFRIGERATION AND AIR-CONDITIONING APPLICATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of an assessment of refrigeration technologies that are alternatives to vapor compression refrigeration for use in five application categories: domestic air conditioning, commercial air conditioning, mobile air conditioning, domestic refrigeration, and co...

  1. Gamma Large Area Silicon Telescope (GLAST): Applying silicon strip detector technology to the detection of gamma rays in space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atwood, W. B.

    1993-06-01

    The recent discoveries and excitement generated by space satellite experiment EGRET (presently operating on the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory (CGRO)) have prompted an investigation into modern detector technologies for the next generation space based gamma ray telescopes. The GLAST proposal is based on silicon strip detectors as the 'technology of choice' for space application: no consumables, no gas volume, robust (versus fragile), long lived, and self triggerable. The GLAST detector basically has two components: a tracking module preceding a calorimeter. The tracking module has planes of crossed strip (x,y) 300 (mu)m pitch silicon detectors coupled to a thin radiator to measure the coordinates of converted electron-positron pairs. The gap between the layers (approximately 5 cm) provides a lever arm for track fitting resulting in an angular resolution of less than 0.1 deg at high energy. The status of this R & D effort is discussed including details on triggering the instrument, the organization of the detector electronics and readout, and work on computer simulations to model this instrument.

  2. Gamma Large Area Silicon Telescope (GLAST) applying silicon strip detector technology to the detection of gamma rays in space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atwood, W. B.; GLAST Collaboration

    1994-03-01

    The recent discoveries and excitement generated by space satillite experiment EGRET (presently operating on the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory (CGRO)) have prompted an investigation into modern detector technologies for the next generation of space based gamma ray telescopes. The GLAST proposal is based on silicon strip detectors as the ``technology of choice'' for space application: no consumables, no gas volume, robust (versus fragile), long lived, and self-triggerable. The GLAST detector basically has two components: a tracking module preceding a calorimeter. The tracking module has planes of crossed strip (x, y) 300 μm pitch silicon detectors coupled to a thin radiator to measure the coordinates of converted electron-positron pairs. The gap between the layers (~ 5 cm) provides a lever arm for track fitting resulting in an angular resolution of < 0.1° at high energy. The status of this R & D effort is discussed including details on triggering the instrument, the organization of the detector electronics and readout, and work on computer simulations to model this instrument. The GLAST Collaboration: Ying-Chi Lin. P.E. Michelson. P.L. Nolan (Physics Dept., Stanford University): W.B. Atwood, E.D. Bloom, G.L. Godfrey, A.E. Snyder, R.E. Taylor (Stanford Linear Accelerator Center, Stanford University); and P.L. Hertz, K.S. Wood (Naval Research Laboratory.

  3. Gamma Large Area Silicon Telescope (GLAST) applying silicon strip detector technology to the detection of gamma rays in space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    GLAST Collaboration; Atwood, W. B

    1994-03-01

    The recent discoveries and excitement generated by space satillite experiment EGRET (presently operating on the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory (CGRO)) have prompted an investigation into modern detector technologies for the next generation of space based gamma ray telescopes. The GLAST proposal is based on silicon strip detectors as the “technology of choice” for space application: no consumables, no gas volume, robust (versus fragile), long lived, and self-triggerable. The GLAST detector basically has two components: a tracking module preceding a calorimeter. The tracking module has planes of crossed strip (x, y) 300 μm pitch silicon detectors coupled to a thin radiator to measure the coordinates of converted electron-positron pairs. The gap between the layers (∼ 5 cm) provides a lever arm for track fitting resulting in an angular resolution of < 0.1° at high energy. The status of this R & D effort is discussed including details on triggering the instrument, the organization of the detector electronics and readout, and work on computer simulations to model this instrument.

  4. Solar-Powered Air Stripping at the Rocky Flats Site, Colorado - 12361

    SciTech Connect

    Boylan, John A.

    2012-07-01

    effluent. Initially, several alternatives such as commercial air strippers and cascade aerators were evaluated; resulting cost estimates exceeded $100,000. After several simpler alternatives were considered and prototype testing was conducted, the existing effluent metering manhole was converted to house a spray-nozzle based, solar-powered air stripper, at a cost of approximately $20,000. About two-thirds of this cost was for the solar power system, which was initially designed to only provide power for 12 hours per day. Performance data are being collected and adjustments made to optimize the design, determine maintenance requirements, and establish power needs for continuous operation. Analytical data confirm the air stripper is sharply reducing concentrations of residual contaminants. (authors)« less

  5. Position sensitive and energy dispersive x-ray detector based on silicon strip detector technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiącek, P.; Dąbrowski, W.; Fink, J.; Fiutowski, T.; Krane, H.-G.; Loyer, F.; Schwamberger, A.; Świentek, K.; Venanzi, C.

    2015-04-01

    A new position sensitive detector with a global energy resolution for the entire detector of about 380 eV FWHM for 8.04 keV line at ambient temperature is presented. The measured global energy resolution is defined by the energy spectra summed over all strips of the detector, and thus it includes electronic noise of the front-end electronics, charge sharing effects, matching of parameters across the channels and other system noise sources. The target energy resolution has been achieved by segmentation of the strips to reduce their capacitance and by careful optimization of the front-end electronics. The key design aspects and parameters of the detector are discussed briefly in the paper. Excellent noise and matching performance of the readout ASIC and negligible system noise allow us to operate the detector with a discrimination threshold as low as 1 keV and to measure fluorescence radiation lines of light elements, down to Al Kα of 1.49 keV, simultaneously with measurements of the diffraction patterns. The measurement results that demonstrate the spectrometric and count rate performance of the developed detector are presented and discussed in the paper.

  6. Refrigeration and Air-Conditioning Technology Workshop

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewis, P. J.; Counce, D. M.

    1993-12-01

    The Alternative Fluorocarbon Environmental Acceptability Study (AFEAS), a consortium of fluorocarbon manufacturers, and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) are collaborating on a project to evaluate the energy use and global warming impacts of CFC alternatives. The goal of this project is to identify technologies that could replace the use of CFC's in refrigeration, heating, and air-conditioning equipment; to evaluate the direct impacts of chemical emissions on global warming; and to compile accurate estimates of energy use and indirect CO2 emissions of substitute technologies. The first phase of this work focused on alternatives that could be commercialized before the year 2000. The second phase of the project is examining not-in-kind and next-generation technologies that could be developed to replace CFC's, HCFC's, and HFC's over a longer period. As part of this effort, Oak Ridge National Laboratory held a workshop on June 23-25, 1993. The preliminary agenda covered a broad range of alternative technologies and at least one speaker was invited to make a brief presentation at the workshop on each technology. Some of the invited speakers were unable to participate, and in a few cases other experts could not be identified. As a result, those technologies were not represented at the workshop. Each speaker was asked to prepare a five to seven page paper addressing six key issues concerning the technology he/she is developing. These points are listed in the sidebar. Each expert also spoke for 20 to 25 minutes at the workshop and answered questions from the other participants concerning the presentation and area of expertise. The primary goal of the presentations and discussions was to identify the developmental state of the technology and to obtain comparable data on system efficiencies.

  7. Evidence of bias in air-water Henry's law constants for semivolatile organic compounds measured by inert gas stripping.

    PubMed

    Shunthirasingham, Chubashini; Lei, Ying Duan; Wania, Frank

    2007-06-01

    Accurate knowledge of the air-water Henry's law constant (H) is crucial for understanding an organic compound's environmental behavior. The inert gas stripping (IGS) method, widely used to measure H of semivolatile organic compounds (SOCs), may yield erroneously high values for compounds with a high water surface adsorption coefficient, K(IA), because chemical adsorbed to the bubble surface may be transferred to the head space upon bursting at the top of the stripping column. Experiments with alkanols of variable chain length identified a K(IA) threshold of approximately 10(-3) m, above which IGS is susceptible to this artifact. Most SOCs are predicted to have K(IA) values well above that threshold. IGS-determined H-values for chemicals belonging to various groups of SOCs were evaluated by comparison with H-values either calculated from reliable vapor pressure and solubility data or derived from data compilations that achieve thermodynamic consistency through optimized adjustment of measured physical-chemical property data. The investigated deviations were found to be generally consistent with what would be expected from a surface adsorption artifact. Namely, the apparent bias in IGS-determined H-values, if it occurs, (1) is positive, (2) increases with increasing size of an SOC, and (3) increases with decreasing temperature. It generally is also of a magnitude predicted using estimated K(IA) values. However, different studies display different K(IA) threshold values, beyond which the artifact becomes notable, and some studies appear to succeed in avoiding the artifact altogether. Whereas the use of aerosol traps cannot explain the absence of a surface adsorption artifact, it may be related to higher flow rates used by some investigators. For large compounds or those with more than one functional group, the predicted deviation is too large when compared to observations, suggesting that the estimated K(IA) values for those compounds are too high. A full quantitative

  8. Characterisation of edgeless technologies for pixellated and strip silicon detectors with a micro-focused X-ray beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bates, R.; Blue, A.; Christophersen, M.; Eklund, L.; Ely, S.; Fadeyev, V.; Gimenez, E.; Kachkanov, V.; Kalliopuska, J.; Macchiolo, A.; Maneuski, D.; Phlips, B. F.; Sadrozinski, H. F.-W.; Stewart, G.; Tartoni, N.; Zain, R. M.

    2013-01-01

    Reduced edge or ``edgeless'' detector design offers seamless tileability of sensors for a wide range of applications from particle physics to synchrotron and free election laser (FEL) facilities and medical imaging. Combined with through-silicon-via (TSV) technology, this would allow reduced material trackers for particle physics and an increase in the active area for synchrotron and FEL pixel detector systems. In order to quantify the performance of different edgeless fabrication methods, 2 edgeless detectors were characterized at the Diamond Light Source using an 11 μm FWHM 15 keV micro-focused X-ray beam. The devices under test were: a 150 μm thick silicon active edge pixel sensor fabricated at VTT and bump-bonded to a Medipix2 ROIC; and a 300 μm thick silicon strip sensor fabricated at CIS with edge reduction performed by SCIPP and the NRL and wire bonded to an ALiBaVa readout system. Sub-pixel resolution of the 55 μm active edge pixels was achieved. Further scans showed no drop in charge collection recorded between the centre and edge pixels, with a maximum deviation of 5% in charge collection between scanned edge pixels. Scans across the cleaved and standard guard ring edges of the strip detector also show no reduction in charge collection. These results indicate techniques such as the scribe, cleave and passivate (SCP) and active edge processes offer real potential for reduced edge, tiled sensors for imaging detection applications.

  9. CATALYTIC OXIDATION OF GROUNDWATER STRIPPING EMISSIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper reviews the applicability of catalytic oxidation to control ground-water air stripping gaseous effluents, with special attention to system designs and case histories. The variety of contaminants and catalyst poisons encountered in stripping operations are also reviewed....

  10. An Integrated Safety Analysis Methodology for Emerging Air Transport Technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kostiuk, Peter F.; Adams, Milton B.; Allinger, Deborah F.; Rosch, Gene; Kuchar, James

    1998-01-01

    The continuing growth of air traffic will place demands on NASA's Air Traffic Management (ATM) system that cannot be accommodated without the creation of significant delays and economic impacts. To deal with this situation, work has begun to develop new approaches to providing a safe and economical air transportation infrastructure. Many of these emerging air transport technologies will represent radically new approaches to ATM, both for ground and air operations.

  11. FIELD MEASUREMENT TECHNOLOGY FOR MERCURY IN SOIL AND SEDIMENT MTI INC'S PDV 6000 STRIPPING VOLTAMMETRY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Monitoring Technologies International Pty. Ltd. (MTI) has developed a Portable Digital Voltammeter (PDV) designed to identify and measure the concentration of heavy metal ions. MTI's PDV 6000 was demonstrated under the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Superfund Innovative Tec...

  12. Technology Candidates for Air-to-Air and Air-to-Ground Data Exchange

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haynes, Brian D.

    2015-01-01

    Technology Candidates for Air-to-Air and Air-to-Ground Data Exchange is a two-year research effort to visualize the U. S. aviation industry at a point 50 years in the future, and to define potential communication solutions to meet those future data exchange needs. The research team, led by XCELAR, was tasked with identifying future National Airspace System (NAS) scenarios, determining requirements and functions (including gaps), investigating technical and business issues for air, ground, & air-to-ground interactions, and reporting on the results. The project was conducted under technical direction from NASA and in collaboration with XCELAR's partner, National Institute of Aerospace, and NASA technical representatives. Parallel efforts were initiated to define the information exchange functional needs of the future NAS, and specific communication link technologies to potentially serve those needs. Those efforts converged with the mapping of each identified future NAS function to potential enabling communication solutions; those solutions were then compared with, and ranked relative to, each other on a technical basis in a structured analysis process. The technical solutions emerging from that process were then assessed from a business case perspective to determine their viability from a real-world adoption and deployment standpoint. The results of that analysis produced a proposed set of future solutions and most promising candidate technologies. Gap analyses were conducted at two points in the process, the first examining technical factors, and the second as part of the business case analysis. In each case, no gaps or unmet needs were identified in applying the solutions evaluated to the requirements identified. The future communication solutions identified in the research comprise both specific link technologies and two enabling technologies that apply to most or all specific links. As a result, the research resulted in a new analysis approach, viewing the

  13. 75 FR 80833 - Shipboard Air Emission Reduction Technology Report

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-23

    ... Reduction Technology Report AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice and request for comments. SUMMARY: In... Protection Agency, on Ship Emission Reduction Technology for cargo and passenger vessels that operate in... will survey new technology and new applications of existing technology for reducing air emissions from...

  14. Lower cost air measurement technology – what is on the ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This presentation is to the MARAMA 2014 annual monitoring meeting and is an invited talk to provide an overview on lower cost air measurement technology. This presentation is to the MARAMA 2014 annual monitoring meeting and is an invited talk to provide an overview on lower cost air measurement technology.

  15. Nanoscience and Technology at the Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-02-01

    AIR FORCE RESEARCH LABORATORY ( AFRL ) Dr. Richard A. Vaia Dr. Daniel Miracle Dr. Thomas Cruse Air Force Research ...Technology At The Air Force Research Laboratory ( AFRL ) 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT...98) Prescribed by ANSI Std Z39-18 AFRL NST Overview 2 AIR FORCE RESEARCH LABORATORY VISION We defend

  16. Nanoscience and Technology at the Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-05-01

    AIR FORCE RESEARCH LABORATORY ( AFRL ) Dr. Richard A. Vaia Dr. Daniel Miracle Dr. Thomas Cruse Air Force Research ...Technology At The Air Force Research Laboratory ( AFRL ) 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT...98) Prescribed by ANSI Std Z39-18 AFRL NST Overview 2 AIR FORCE RESEARCH LABORATORY VISION We defend

  17. Gamma large area silicon telescope: Applying SI strip detector technology to the detection of gamma rays in space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atwood, W. B.; Bloom, E. D.; Godfrey, G. L.; Hertz, P. L.; Lin, Ying-Chi; Nolan, P. L.; Snyder, A. E.; Taylor, R. E.; Wood, K. S.; Michelson, P. F.

    1992-12-01

    The recent discoveries and excitement generated by EGRET (Energetic Gamma Ray Experiment Telescope) (presently operating on CGRO (Compton Gamma Ray Observatory)) has prompted an investigation into modern technologies ultimately leading to the next generation space based gamma ray telescope. The goal is to design a detector that would increase the data acquisition rate by almost two orders of magnitude beyond EGRET, while at the same time improving on the angular resolution, the energy measurement of reconstructed gamma rays and the triggering capability of the instrument. The proposed GLAST (Gamma Ray Large Area Silicon Telescope) instrument is based on silicon particle detectors that offer the advantages of no consumables, no gas volume, robust (versus fragile), long lived, and self triggering. The GLAST detector is roughly modeled after EGRET in that a tracking module precedes a calorimeter. The GLAST tracker has planes of cross strip (x, y) 300 micrometer match silicon detectors coupled to a thin radiator to measure the coordinates of converted electron-positron pairs. An angular resolution of 0.1 deg at high energy is possible (the low energy angular resolution 100 MeV would be about 2 deg, limited by multiple scattering). The increased depth of the GLAST calorimeter over EGRET's extends the energy range to about 300 GeV.

  18. US Highway 395 Widen Median and Shoulder and Install Rumble Strips Project Environmental Assessment, Edwards Air Force Base, California

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-12-16

    vadose zone plume consisting primarily of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and total xylenes is present below the underground storage tank cluster... rocket fuel was reportedly poured down the mine shafts over the waste containers and then ignited, resulting in an 8-hour- long series of explosions. The...Environmental Assessment US Highway 395 Widen Median and Shoulder and Install Rumble Strips Project 2-76 temperature fluctuations, strong seasonal

  19. Air Quality Monitoring and Sensor Technologies

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA scientist Ron Williams presented on the features, examination, application, examples, and data quality of continuous monitoring study designs at EPA's Community Air Monitoring Training in July 2015.

  20. Optimization as a support for design of hot rolling technology of dual phase steel strips

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szeliga, Danuta; Sztangret, Łukasz; Kusiak, Jan; Pietrzyk, Maciej

    2013-05-01

    The objective of the paper was performing of the sensitivity analysis of the model used for design of manufacturing technology for auto body parts made of the Advanced High Strength Steels (AHSS). Dual phase steel was considered as an example. The sensitivity analysis was performed to evaluate the importance of all variables as far as their influence on the finishing rolling temperature and grain size. The phase composition after cooling was also considered. An arbitrary hot rolling process characterized only by a number of passes and cooling conditions between passes, as well as by laminar cooling parameters, was selected for the analysis. Metamodel of the rolling cycle was developed to decrease the computing costs for the optimization task. Modified Avrami equation was used for modelling phase transformations during cooling. Such process parameters as the initial temperature, interpass times, heat exchange coefficients and rolling velocities were selected as optimization variables for the rolling process. Parameters of the thermal cycles were selected as the optimization variables for the laminar cooling process. Achieving the required phase composition of product was the optimization objective function. Optimization was performed using various techniques, including methods inspired by nature optimization.

  1. Indoor Air Quality Science and Technology

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Understand indoor air in homes, schools, and offices. Most of us spend much of our time indoors. The air that we breathe in our homes, in schools, and in offices can put us at risk for health problems. Some pollutants can be chemicals, gases, and living or

  2. Laser ablation and competitive technologies in paint stripping of heavy anticorrosion coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schuöcker, Georg D.; Bielak, Robert

    2007-05-01

    During the last years surface preparation prior to coating operations became an important research and development task, since tightened environmental regulations have to be faced in view of the deliberation of hazardous compounds of coatings. Especially, ship-yards get more and more under pressure, because the environmental commitment of their Asian competitors is fairly limited. Therefore, in the US and in Europe several technology evaluation projects have been launched to face this challenge. The majority of coating service providers and ship yards use grit blasting; this process causes heavy emissions as of dust and enormous amounts of waste as polluted sand. Coating removal without any blasting material would reduce the environmental impact. Laser processing offers ecological advantages. Therefore thermal processes like laser ablation have been studied thoroughly in several published projects and also in this study. Many of these studies have been focused on the maintenance of airplanes, but not on de-coating of heavy protective coatings. In this case the required laser power is extra-high. This study is focused on the maintenance of heavy anti-corrosion coatings and compares the industrial requirements and the opportunities of the innovative laser processes. Based on the results of this analysis similar approaches as e.g. plasma jet coating ablation have been studied. It was concluded that none of these methods can compete economically with the conventional processes as grit blasting and water jetting since the required ablation rate is very high (>60m2/h). A new process is required that is not based on any blasting operation and which does not depend strongly on the coating's characteristic. The delamination of the coating where the coatings is not removed by evaporation, but in little pieces of the complete coating system meets these requirements. The delamination can be accomplished by the thermal destruction of the primer coating by an intense heat pulse

  3. Alternative Air Conditioning Technologies: Underfloor AirDistribution (UFAD)

    SciTech Connect

    Webster, Tom

    2004-06-01

    Recent trends in today's office environment make it increasingly more difficult for conventional centralized HVAC systems to satisfy the environmental preferences of individual officer workers using the standardized approach of providing a single uniform thermal and ventilation environment. Since its original introduction in West Germany during the 1950s, the open plan office containing modular workstation furniture and partitions is now the norm. Thermostatically controlled zones in open plan offices typically encompass relatively large numbers of workstations in which a diverse work population having a wide range of preferred temperatures must be accommodated. Modern office buildings are also being impacted bymore » a large influx of heat-generating equipment (computers, printers, etc.) whose loads may vary considerably from workstation to workstation. Offices are often reconfigured during the building's lifetime to respond to changing tenant needs, affecting the distribution of within-space loads and the ventilation pathways among and over office partitions. Compounding this problem, there has been a growing awareness of the importance of the comfort, health, and productivity of individual office workers, giving rise to an increased demand among employers and employees for a high-quality work environment. During recent years an increasing amount of attention has been paid to air distribution systems that individually condition the immediate environments of office workers within their workstations to address the issues outlined above. As with task/ambient lighting systems, the controls for the ''task'' components of these systems are partially or entirely decentralized and under the control of the occupants. Typically, the occupant has control over the speed and direction, and in some cases the temperature, of the incoming air supply. Variously called ''task/ambient conditioning,'' ''localized thermal distribution,'' and ''personalized air conditioning

  4. Rapid evolution of air sensor technologies

    EPA Science Inventory

    Outdoor air pollution measurement approaches have historically been conducted using stationary shelters that require significant space, power, and expertise to operate. The cost and logistical requirements to conduct monitoring have limited the number of locations with continuou...

  5. Development of a Novel Gas Pressurized Stripping Process-Based Technology for CO₂ Capture from Post-Combustion Flue Gases

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Shiaoguo

    2015-09-30

    A novel Gas Pressurized Stripping (GPS) post-combustion carbon capture (PCC) process has been developed by Carbon Capture Scientific, LLC, CONSOL Energy Inc., Nexant Inc., and Western Kentucky University in this bench-scale project. The GPS-based process presents a unique approach that uses a gas pressurized technology for CO₂ stripping at an elevated pressure to overcome the energy use and other disadvantages associated with the benchmark monoethanolamine (MEA) process. The project was aimed at performing laboratory- and bench-scale experiments to prove its technical feasibility and generate process engineering and scale-up data, and conducting a techno-economic analysis (TEA) to demonstrate its energy usemore » and cost competitiveness over the MEA process. To meet project goals and objectives, a combination of experimental work, process simulation, and technical and economic analysis studies were applied. The project conducted individual unit lab-scale tests for major process components, including a first absorption column, a GPS column, a second absorption column, and a flasher. Computer simulations were carried out to study the GPS column behavior under different operating conditions, to optimize the column design and operation, and to optimize the GPS process for an existing and a new power plant. The vapor-liquid equilibrium data under high loading and high temperature for the selected amines were also measured. The thermal and oxidative stability of the selected solvents were also tested experimentally and presented. A bench-scale column-based unit capable of achieving at least 90% CO₂ capture from a nominal 500 SLPM coal-derived flue gas slipstream was designed and built. This integrated, continuous, skid-mounted GPS system was tested using real flue gas from a coal-fired boiler at the National Carbon Capture Center (NCCC). The technical challenges of the GPS technology in stability, corrosion, and foaming of selected solvents, and environmental

  6. Simultaneous removal of ammonia, P and COD from anaerobically digested piggery wastewater using an integrated process of chemical precipitation and air stripping.

    PubMed

    Quan, Xuejun; Ye, Changying; Xiong, Yanqi; Xiang, Jinxin; Wang, Fuping

    2010-06-15

    The paper presented an efficient integrated physicochemical process, which consists of chemical precipitation and air stripping, for the simultaneous removal of NH(3)-N, total P and COD from anaerobically digested piggery wastewater. In the integrated process, Ca(OH) (2) was used as the precipitant for NH(4)(+), PO(4)(3-) and organic phosphorous compounds, and as the pH adjuster for the air stripping of residual ammonia. The possibility of the suggested process and the related mechanisms were first investigated through a series of equilibrium tests. Laboratory scale tests were carried out to validate the application possibility of the integrated process using a new-patented water sparged aerocyclone reactor (WSA). The WSA could be effectively used for the simultaneous removal of NH(3)-N, total P and COD. 3g/L of Ca(OH) (2) is a proper dosage for the simultaneous removal. The simultaneous removal of NH(3)-N, total P and COD in the WSA reactor could be easily optimized by selecting a proper air inlet velocity and a proper jet velocity of the liquid phase. In all the cases, the removal efficiencies of the NH(3)-N, total P and COD were over 91%, 99.2% and 52% for NH(3)-N, total P and COD, respectively. The formed precipitates in the process could be easily settled down from the suspension system. Therefore, the integrated process provided an efficient alternative for the simultaneous removal of NH(3)-N, total P and COD from the wastewater. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. SITE EMERGING TECHNOLOGY SUMMARY: INTEGRATION OF PHOTOCATALYTIC OXIDATION WITH AIR STRIPPING OF CONTAMINATED AQUIFERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    In a recently completed test program, bench-scale laboratory studies at Arizona State University (ASU) in Tempe, AZ, and pilot-scale studies in a simulated field test situation at Zentox Corp in Ocala, FL, were performed to evaluate the integration of gas-solid ultraviolet (UV) p...

  8. An Innovative Reactor Technology to Improve Indoor Air Quality

    SciTech Connect

    Rempel, Jane

    2013-03-30

    As residential buildings achieve tighter envelopes in order to minimize energy used for space heating and cooling, accumulation of indoor air pollutants such as volatile organic compounds (VOCs), becomes a major concern causing poor air quality and increased health risks. Current VOC removal methods include sorbents, ultraviolet photocatalytic oxidation (UVPCO), and increased ventilation, but these methods do not capture or destroy all VOCs or are prohibitively expensive to implement. TIAX's objective in this program was to develop a new VOC removal technology for residential buildings. This novel air purification technology is based on an innovative reactor and light source designmore » along with UVPCO properties of the chosen catalyst to purify indoor air and enhance indoor air quality (IAQ). During the program we designed, fabricated and tested a prototype air purifier to demonstrate its feasibility and effectiveness. We also measured kinetics of VOC destruction on photocatalysts, providing deep insight into reactor design.« less

  9. Technology options for an enhanced air cargo system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winston, M. M.

    1979-01-01

    A view of potential enhancements to the air cargo system through technology application is provided. NASA's role in addressing deficiencies of the current civil and military air cargo systems is outlined. The evolution of conventional airfreighter design is traced and projected through the 1990's. Also, several advanced airfreighter concepts incorporating unconventional design features are described to show their potentials benefits. A number of ongoing NASA technology programs are discussed to indicate the wide range of advanced technologies offering potential benefits to the air cargo system. The promise of advanced airfreighters is then viewed in light of the future air cargo infrastructure predicted by extensive systems studies. The derived outlook concludes that the aircraft technology benefits may be offset somewhat by adverse economic, environmental, and institutional constraints.

  10. VERIFICATION TESTING OF AIR POLLUTION CONTROL TECHNOLOGY QUALITY MANAGEMENT PLAN

    EPA Science Inventory

    This document is the basis for quality assurance for the Air Pollution Control Technology Verification Center (APCT Center) operated under the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). It describes the policies, organizational structure, responsibilities, procedures, and qualit...

  11. Future Technologies Needs Analysis. An Air University Staff Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reed, Dorothy D.

    This report summarizes the findings of a survey of all permanently assigned personnel at the Air University at Maxwell Air Force Base (Alabama) to determine what future workplace technologies will be needed to support the university's two major programs, Professional Military Education (PME) and Professional Continuing Education (PCE). The…

  12. The Application of Advanced Technology to Improve Air Bag Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phen, R.; Dowdy, M.; Ebbeler, D.; Kim, E.; Moore, N.; Van Zandt, T.

    1998-01-01

    In December 1996 the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) signed a memorandum of understanding for NASA to assess the capability of advanced technology to reduce air bag inflation-induced injuries and increase air bag effectiveness.

  13. IMPROVING AIR QUALITY THROUGH ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) began the Environmental Technology Verification (ETV) Program in 1995 as a means of working with the private sector to establish a market-based verification process available to all environmental technologies. Under EPA's Office of R...

  14. AIRS-Light instrument concept and critical technology development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maschhoff, Kevin R.

    2002-12-01

    Understanding Earth's climate, atmospheric transport mechanisms, and the hydrologic cycle requires a precise knowledge of global atmospheric circulation, temperature profiles, and water vapor distribution. The accuracy of advanced sounders such as AIRS/AMSU/HSB on NASA's Aqua spacecraft can match radiosonde accuracy. It is essential to fold those capabilities fully into the NPOESS, enabling soundings of radiosonde accuracy every 6 hours around the globe on an operational basis. However, the size, mass, power demands, and thermal characteristics of the Aqua sounding instrument suite cannot be accommodated on the NPOESS spacecraft. AIRS-Light is an instrument concept, developed under the Instrument Incubator Program, which provides IR sounding performance identical to the AIRS instrument but uses advances in HgCdTe FPA technology and pulse tube cooler technology, as well as design changes, to dramatically reduce the size, mass, and power demand, allowing AIRS-Light to meet all NPOESS spacecraft interface requirements. The AIRS-Light Instrument Incubator program fostered the development of photovoltaic-mode HgCdTe detector array technology for the 13.5-15.4 μm band covered by photoconductive-mode HgCdTe arrays in AIRS, achieved state of the art results in this band, and substantially reduced the development risk for this last new technology needed for AIRS-Light implementation.

  15. AIR Technology: A Step Towards ARINC 653 in Space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rufino, J.; Craveiro, J.; Schoofs, T.; Tatibana, C.; Windsor, J.

    2009-05-01

    The Integrated Modular Avionics and the ARINC 653 specifications are assuming a key role in the provision of a standard operating system interface for safety-critical applications in both the aeronautic and space markets. The AIR Technology, designed within the scope of an ESA initiative to develop a proof of concept, implements the notion of robust temporal and spatial partitioning. A different operating system kernel may be used per partition, furnishing the bare services to build the ARINC 653 application programming interface. This paper describes the advances done during AIR-II, an initiative to evolve the AIR Technology proof of concept towards an industrial product. Current prototype activities are based on RTEMS and on the SPARC V8 LEON3 processor and work is being done on the integration of Linux in the AIR Technology.

  16. An assessment of lighter than air technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vittek, J. F., Jr. (Editor)

    1975-01-01

    The workshop on LTA is summarized. The history and background are reviewed. The workshop reports for the following working groups are presented: policy, market analysis, economics, operations, and technology.

  17. Heating, Ventilating, and Air Conditioning. Energy Technology Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Occupational Research and Development, Inc., Waco, TX.

    This course in heating, ventilating, and air conditioning is one of 16 courses in the Energy Technology Series developed for an Energy Conservation-and-Use Technology curriculum. Intended for use in two-year postsecondary technical institutions to prepare technicians for employment, the courses are also useful in industry for updating employees in…

  18. Overview of Emerging Air Quality Monitoring Technologies and Their Data

    EPA Science Inventory

    This is a webinar presentation as part of a series on Air Quality Planning for Wildland Smoke. The purpose of the talk is to provide a basic overview of monitoring technologies and specifically focus on emerging technologies for PM2.5.

  19. Disruptive Innovation in Air Measurement Technology: Reality or Hype?

    EPA Science Inventory

    This presentation is a big picture overview on the changing state of air measurement technology in the world, with a focus on the introduction of low-cost sensors into the market place. The presentation discusses how these new technologies may be a case study in disruptive innov...

  20. Air Force Research Laboratory Technology Milestones 2008

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-01-01

    test of a manned aircraft powered by a pulsed- detonation engine ( PDE ) was a success. An AFRL-designed PDE that produced greater than 200 lbs of...Awareness Structural Mechanics Surface and Interfacial Science Theoretical Chemistry Unsteady and Rotating Flows Air Vehicles Directorate Mission Statement...Rocket Materials Optical Diagnostics Rocket-Based Combined-Cycle Engines Pressure-Sensitive Paints Solar Propulsion Pulsed- Detonation Engines

  1. Detection system for concentration quantization of colloidal-gold test strips based on embedded and image technology

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Facing the increasing food safety issues, Chinese government has been carrying out compulsory tests on food to meet the requirements of domestic and foreign markets. Colloidal-gold test strips using the colorimetric principle are widely used for rapid qualitative detection of harmful residues in fo...

  2. Cryogenic hydrogen-induced air-liquefaction technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Escher, William J. D.

    1990-01-01

    Extensive use of a special advanced airbreathing propulsion archives data base, as well as direct contacts with individuals who were active in the field in previous years, a technical assessment of cryogenic hydrogen induced air liquefaction, as a prospective onboard aerospace vehicle process, was performed and documented in 1986. The resulting assessment report is summarized. Technical findings relating the status of air liquefaction technology are presented both as a singular technical area, and also as that of a cluster of collateral technical areas including: Compact lightweight cryogenic heat exchangers; Heat exchanger atmospheric constituents fouling alleviation; Para/ortho hydrogen shift conversion catalysts; Hydrogen turbine expanders, cryogenic air compressors and liquid air pumps; Hydrogen recycling using slush hydrogen as heat sinks; Liquid hydrogen/liquid air rocket type combustion devices; Air Collection and Enrichment System (ACES); and Technically related engine concepts.

  3. AIRS-Light Instrument Concept and Critical Technology Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maschhoff, Kevin

    2001-01-01

    Understanding Earth's climate, atmospheric transport mechanisms, and the hydrologic cycle requires a precise knowledge of global atmospheric circulation, temperature profiles, and water vapor distribution. The accuracy of advanced sounders such as AIRS/AMSU/HSB on NASA's Aqua spacecraft can match radiosonde accuracy. It is essential to fold those capabilities fully into the NPOESS, enabling soundings of radiosonde accuracy, every 6 hours around the globe on an operational basis. However, the size, mass, power demands, and thermal characteristics of the Aqua sounding instrument suite cannot be accommodated on the NPOESS spacecraft. AIRS-Light is an instrument concept, developed under the Instrument Incubator Program, which provides IR sounding performance identical to the AIRS instrument, but uses advances in HgCdTe FPA technology and pulse tube cooler technology, as well as design changes to dramatically reduce the size, mass, and power demand, allowing AIRS-Light to meet all NPOESS spacecraft interface requirements. The instrument concept includes substantial re-use of AIRS component designs, including the complex AIRS FPA, to reduce development risk and cost. The AIRS-Light Instrument Incubator program fostered the development of photovoltaic-mode HgCdTe detector array technology for the 13.5-15.4 micron band covered by photoconductive-mode HgCdTe arrays in AIRS, achieved state of the art results in this band, and substantially reduced the development risk for this last new technology needed for AIRS-Light implementation, A demonstration of a prototype 14.5-15.4 micron band IRFPA in a reduced heat-load dewar together with the IMAS pulse tube cryocooler is in progress.

  4. Technology Needs for Air Force Autonomous Spacecraft

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-03-16

    months. I I I 2. It is estimated that a demonstration program would require * I from 15 to 30 months. I 3 . IASP TLCHNOLOGY REQUIREMENTS C.2.4. SPACECRAFT...ready 86 57 IASP TECHNOLOGY REQUIREMENTS I C.6.3. ACTIVE SPACECRAFT CHARGE CONTROL I REQU!4IP, B, A.F. spacecraft must survive in the natural

  5. Diesel Engine Air Emissions Reduction Technologies

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-04-01

    Holden Gene Griffin NAVFAC Engineering Service Center David Trueblood Cummins, Inc. Jason Jack United States Army Aberdeen Test Center...with additional funding provided by Cummins, Inc. One of the tested devices, the ESW, Inc. Particulate Reactor, uses only the heat of the engine for...5 2.2 Previous Testing of the Technology ............................................................................... 7 2.2.1

  6. Control Technologies for Room Air-conditioner and Packaged Air-conditioner

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ito, Nobuhisa

    Trends of control technologies about air-conditioning machineries, especially room or packaged air conditioners, are presented in this paper. Multiple air conditioning systems for office buildings are mainly described as one application of the refrigeration cycle control technologies including sensors for thermal comfort and heating/ cooling loads are also described as one of the system control technologies. Inverter systems and related technologies for driving variable speed compressors are described in both case of including induction motors and brushless DC motors. Technologies for more accurate control to meet various kind of regulations such as ozone layer destruction, energy saving and global warming, and for eliminating harmonic distortion of power source current, as a typical EMC problem, will be urgently desired.

  7. Air cleaning technologies: an evidence-based analysis.

    PubMed

    2005-01-01

    This health technology policy assessment will answer the following questions: When should in-room air cleaners be used?How effective are in-room air cleaners?Are in-room air cleaners that use combined HEPA and UVGI air cleaning technology more effective than those that use HEPA filtration alone?What is the Plasmacluster ion air purifier in the pandemic influenza preparation plan?The experience of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) locally, nationally, and internationally underscored the importance of administrative, environmental, and personal protective infection control measures in health care facilities. In the aftermath of the SARS crisis, there was a need for a clearer understanding of Ontario's capacity to manage suspected or confirmed cases of airborne infectious diseases. In so doing, the Walker Commission thought that more attention should be paid to the potential use of new technologies such as in-room air cleaning units. It recommended that the Medical Advisory Secretariat of the Ontario Ministry of Health and Long-Term Care evaluate the appropriate use and effectiveness of such new technologies. Accordingly, the Ontario Health Technology Advisory Committee asked the Medical Advisory Secretariat to review the literature on the effectiveness and utility of in-room air cleaners that use high-efficiency particle air (HEPA) filters and ultraviolet germicidal irradiation (UVGI) air cleaning technology. Additionally, the Ontario Health Technology Advisory Committee prioritized a request from the ministry's Emergency Management Unit to investigate the possible role of the Plasmacluster ion air purifier manufactured by Sharp Electronics Corporation, in the pandemic influenza preparation plan. Airborne transmission of infectious diseases depends in part on the concentration of breathable infectious pathogens (germs) in room air. Infection control is achieved by a combination of administrative, engineering, and personal protection methods. Engineering

  8. Air Force Laboratory’s 2005 Technology Milestones

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-01-01

    built, and demonstrated a portable airfield lighting system in less than 36 months. Based on efficient light -emitting diode ( LED ) technology, the...Incandescent lights are less reliable than LEDs and consume significantly more power. As a result, the portable systems currently used by the Air Force (AF...the Air Force and the medical community a reliable, accurate method to rapidly view a patient’s veins in conditions where the lighting is less than

  9. Integrated Technology Air Cleaners (ITAC): Design and Evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Fisk, William J.; Cohn, Sebastian; Destaillats, Hugo

    2013-09-13

    The primary objective of this project was to design, build, and test an air cleaner for residential use with the potential to substantially improve indoor air quality, or maintain indoor air quality unchanged, when outdoor air ventilation rates are reduced to save energy. Two air cleaners were designed and fabricated. The design targets for airflow rate, fan power, and projected cost were met. In short term laboratory studies, both units performed as expected; however, during field studies in homes, the formaldehyde removal performance of the air cleaners was much lower than expected. In subsequent laboratory studies, incomplete decomposition of somemore » indoor air volatile organic compounds, with formaldehyde as a product of partial decomposition of volatile organic compounds, was confirmed as the explanation for the poor formaldehyde removal performance in the field studies. The amount of formaldehyde produced per unit of decomposition of other volatile organic compounds was substantially diminished by increasing the amount of catalyst on the filter and also by decreasing the air velocity. Together, these two measures reduced formaldehyde production, per unit destruction of other volatile organic compounds, by a factor of four, while increasing the removal efficiency of volatile organic compounds by a factor of 1.4. A company with a southern California office is conducting studies in conjunction with Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, with the goal of incorporating the ITAC catalytic air cleaning technology in their future commercial products.« less

  10. Highly Polluted Wastewaters Treatment by Improved Dissolved Air Flotation Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moga, I. C.; Covaliu, C. I.; Matache, M. G.; Doroftei, B. I.

    2017-06-01

    Numerous investigations are oriented towards the development of new wastewater treatment technologies, having high efficiencies for removing even low concentrations of pollutants found in water. These efforts were determined by the destroyer impact of the pollutants to the environment and human’s health. For this reason this paper presents our study concerning an improved dissolved air flotation technology for wastewater treatment. There is described a dissolved air flotation (DAF) installation composed by two equipments: pressurized capsule and lamellar settling. Also, there are presented some advantages of using nanoparticles as flotation collectors.

  11. Influence of the gas composition on the efficiency of ammonia stripping of biogas digestate.

    PubMed

    Bousek, J; Scroccaro, D; Sima, Jan; Weissenbacher, Norbert; Fuchs, W

    2016-03-01

    Impact of strip gas composition on side stream ammonia stripping, a technology aiming at the reduction of high ammonia levels in anaerobic reactors, was investigated. Evaluation of the effect of oxygen contact during air stripping showed a distinct, though lower than perceived, inhibition of anaerobic microflora. To circumvent, the feasibility and possible constraints of biogas and flue gas as alternatives in side stream stripping were studied. Experiments, with ammonia bicarbonate model solution and digestate, were conducted. It was demonstrated that the stripping performance is negatively correlated to the CO2 level in the strip gas with a progressive performance loss towards higher concentrations. In contrast to biogas with its high CO2 content, the efficiency reduction observed for flue gas was significantly less pronounced. The later provides the additional benefit that its high thermal energy can be re-utilized in the stripping unit and it is therefore considered a viable alternative for air. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  12. Advanced Air Transportation Technologies Project, Final Document Collection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mogford, Richard H.; Wold, Sheryl (Editor)

    2008-01-01

    This CD ROM contains a compilation of the final documents of the Advanced Air Transportation Technologies (AAIT) project, which was an eight-year (1996 to 2004), $400M project managed by the Airspace Systems Program office, which was part of the Aeronautics Research Mission Directorate at NASA Headquarters. AAIT focused on developing advanced automation tools and air traffic management concepts that would help improve the efficiency of the National Airspace System, while maintaining or enhancing safety. The documents contained in the CD are final reports on AAIT tasks that serve to document the project's accomplishments over its eight-year term. Documents include information on: Advanced Air Transportation Technologies, Autonomous Operations Planner, Collaborative Arrival Planner, Distributed Air/Ground Traffic Management Concept Elements 5, 6, & 11, Direct-To, Direct-To Technology Transfer, Expedite Departure Path, En Route Data Exchange, Final Approach Spacing Tool - (Active and Passive), Multi-Center Traffic Management Advisor, Multi Center Traffic Management Advisor Technology Transfer, Surface Movement Advisor, Surface Management System, Surface Management System Technology Transfer and Traffic Flow Management Research & Development.

  13. TREATMENT OF CYANIDE SOLUTIONS AND SLURRIES USING AIR-SPARGED HYDROCYCLONE (ASH) TECHNOLOGY

    SciTech Connect

    Jan D. Miller; Terrence Chatwin; Jan Hupka

    2003-03-31

    The two-year Department of Energy (DOE) project ''Treatment of Cyanide Solutions and Slurries Using Air-Sparged Hydrocyclone (ASH) Technology'' (ASH/CN) has been completed. This project was also sponsored by industrial partners, ZPM Inc., Elbow Creek Engineering, Solvay Minerals, EIMCO-Baker Process, Newmont Mining Corporation, Cherokee Chemical Co., Placer Dome Inc., Earthworks Technology, Dawson Laboratories and Kennecott Minerals. Development of a new technology using the air-sparged hydrocyclone (ASH) as a reactor for either cyanide recovery or destruction was the research objective. It was expected that the ASH could potentially replace the conventional stripping tower presently used for HCN stripping and absorption with reducedmore » power costs. The project was carried out in two phases. The first phase included calculation of basic processing parameters for ASH technology, development of the flowsheet, and design/adaptation of the ASH mobile system for hydrogen cyanide (HCN) recovery from cyanide solutions. This was necessary because the ASH was previously used for volatile organics removal from contaminated water. The design and modification of the ASH were performed with the help from ZPM Inc. personnel. Among the modifications, the system was adapted for operation under negative pressure to assure safe operating conditions. The research staff was trained in the safe use of cyanide and in hazardous material regulations. Cyanide chemistry was reviewed resulting in identification of proper chemical dosages for cyanide destruction, after completion of each pilot plant run. The second phase of the research consisted of three field tests that were performed at the Newmont Mining Corporation gold cyanidation plant near Midas, Nevada. The first field test was run between July 26 and August 2, 2002, and the objective was to demonstrate continuous operation of the modified ASH mobile system. ASH units were applied for both stripping and absorption, to recover

  14. EPA activities related to emerging air sensor technology

    EPA Science Inventory

    This slide set was developed through contributions of NERL and NRMRL research groups and organized to explain the diversity of ongoing research related to emerging air sensor technology for an international audience. Gayle will be walking OAQPS through the slide set in advance o...

  15. Trend of Refrigeration and Air-Conditioning Technology in Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oh, Hoo-Kyu; Papk, Ki-Won

    It can be said that refrigeration and air-conditioning technology in Korea dates back to the ancient dynasty, all the way up to the Sokkuram(700s) and Seokbinggo(1700s), But modern refrigeration and air-conditioning technology was first developed in and introduced to Korea in the1960swith the modernization of Korea, Today it is at a level which meets that of advanced countries in both the industrial and domestic fields. As of 2003, there were about 700 companies that owned cold storage/freezing/refrigeration facilities, with cold storage capacity of about 2,000, 000tons and capacity per company of about 3,000 tons. These facilities most are continuously expanding and automating their facilities. 62 million units of refrigeration and air-conditioning machinery and equipment were produced in 2003, worth a total of 7.7 trillion won(about 7.7 thousand million US). On the academic side there are 9 universities and 12 junior colleges with courses in either refrigeration and air-conditioning or architectural equipment. Academic societies such as the Society of Air-conditioning and Refrigerating Engineers of Korea(SAREK), and industrial societies like the Korean Association of Refrigeration(KAR) are active members of the refrigeration and air-conditioning industry. The1eare also national/government-established research institutions such as the Korea Institute of Science and Technology(KIST), the Korea Institute of Machinery and Materials (KIMM), the Korea Institute of Energy Research(KIER), and the Korea Institute of Industrial Technology (KITECH).

  16. New continuous air pumping technique to improve clinical outcomes of descemet-stripping automated endothelial keratoplasty in asian patients with previous ahmed glaucoma valve implantation.

    PubMed

    Liang, Chang-Min; Chen, Yi-Hao; Lu, Da-Wen; Chen, Jiann-Torng; Tai, Ming-Cheng

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate the outcomes of Descemet-stripping automated endothelial keratoplasty (DSAEK) with the use of continuous air pumping technique in Asian eyes with previous Ahmed glaucoma valve implantation. The DSAEK procedure was modified in that complete air retention of the anterior chamber was maintained for 10 min using continuous air pumping at 30 mm Hg. The primary outcome measurement was graft survival, and postoperative clinical features including, rate of graft detachment, endothelial cell count, intraocular pressure (IOP), surgical time and cup/disc ratio were also recorded. A total of 13 eyes of 13 patients which underwent modified DSAEK and 6 eyes of 6 patients which underwent conventional DSAEK were included. There was a significant difference in graft survival curves between two groups (P = 0.029); the 1-year graft survival rates were estimated as 100% and 66.7% for patients with modified DSAEK and those with traditional DSAEK, respectively. The rate of graft detachment were 0% and 33.3% for the modified DSAEK and conventional DSAEK groups, respectively (P = 0.088). The significantly lowered surgical time for air tamponade was noted in the modified DSAEK group compared to that in the conventional DSAEK group [median (IQR): 10.0 (10.0, 10.0) min vs. 24.5 (22.0, 27.0) min; P<0.001] Postoperatively, patients in the modified DSAEK group had significantly lower IOP as compared to the conventional DSAEK group [12.0 (11.0, 15.0) mm Hg vs. 16.0 (15.0, 18.0) mm Hg; P = 0.047]. Modified DSAEK patients had higher endothelial cell counts as compared to conventional DSAEK patients [2148.0 (1964.0, 2218.0) vs. 1529.0 (713.0, 2014.0)], but the difference did not reach statistical significance (P = 0.072). New continuous air pumping technique in DSAEK can be performed safely and effectively in patients with prior GDDs placement who have corneal failure.

  17. Technology Horizons: A Vision for Air Force Science and Technology 2010-30

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-09-01

    90 32 Laser directed-energy systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92 33 Small satellites composed from standardized modular...innovations. xii │ technology horizons These include remotely piloted aircraft (RPA), air/spaceborne multi- intelligence sensing (radar, infrared , signals...endorsement of an AFRL planning construct for S&T to provide the stability needed for effective mid - and long-range development of technologies

  18. Improved dissolved air flotation technology for highly polluted wastewaters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moga, Ioana Corina; Covaliu, Ileana Cristina; Matache, Mihai Gabriel

    2017-04-01

    This research study presents the results obtained for a new dissolved air flotation unit used together with a lamellar clarifier for the treatment of highly polluted wastewaters. The research team already has obtained important results and patented the innovative elements, but in the near future the treatment facility will be improved by the addition of nanomaterials. It is intended to achieve the specified discharge below the limit set by current regulations in order to protect on long-term the environment. The proposed dissolved air flotation technology is composed from the following equipments: pressurized capsule, nanoparticles dosing system and lamellar settler diffusion system associated with flotation gear.

  19. NASA technology program for future civil air transports

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wright, H. T.

    1983-01-01

    An assessment is undertaken of the development status of technology, applicable to future civil air transport design, which is currently undergoing conceptual study or testing at NASA facilities. The NASA civil air transport effort emphasizes advanced aerodynamic computational capabilities, fuel-efficient engines, advanced turboprops, composite primary structure materials, advanced aerodynamic concepts in boundary layer laminarization and aircraft configuration, refined control, guidance and flight management systems, and the integration of all these design elements into optimal systems. Attention is given to such novel transport aircraft design concepts as forward swept wings, twin fuselages, sandwich composite structures, and swept blade propfans.

  20. Technological change and productivity growth in the air transport industry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosenberg, N.; Thompson, A.; Belsley, S. E.

    1978-01-01

    The progress of the civil air transport industry in the United States was examined in the light of a proposal of Enos who, after examining the growth of the petroleum industry, divided that phenomenon into two phases, the alpha and the beta; that is, the invention, first development and production, and the improvement phase. The civil air transport industry developed along similar lines with the technological progress coming in waves; each wave encompassing several new technological advances while retaining the best of the old ones. At the same time the productivity of the transport aircraft as expressed by the product of the aircraft velocity and the passenger capacity increased sufficiently to allow the direct operating cost in cents per passenger mile to continually decrease with each successive aircraft development.

  1. The promise of advanced technology for future air transports

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bower, R. E.

    1978-01-01

    Progress in all weather 4-D navigation and wake vortex attenuation research is discussed and the concept of time based metering of aircraft is recommended for increased emphasis. The far term advances in aircraft efficiency were shown to be skin friction reduction and advanced configuration types. The promise of very large aircraft, possibly all wing aircraft is discussed, as is an advanced concept for an aerial relay transportation system. Very significant technological developments were identified that can improve supersonic transport performance and reduce noise. The hypersonic transport was proposed as the ultimate step in air transportation in the atmosphere. Progress in the key technology areas of propulsion and structures was reviewed. Finally, the impact of alternate fuels on future air transports was considered and shown not to be a growth constraint.

  2. Comparison between different interdental stripping methods and evaluation of abrasive strips: SEM analysis.

    PubMed

    Grippaudo, Cristina; Cancellieri, Daniela; Grecolini, Maria E; Deli, Roberto

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the morphological effects and the surface irregularities produced by different methods of mechanical stripping (abrasive strips and burs) and chemical stripping (37% orthophosphoric acid) and the surface changes following the finishing procedures (polishing strips) or the subsequent application of sealants, in order to establish the right stripping method that can guarantee the smoothest surface. We have also analysed the level of wear on the different abrasive strips employed, according to their structure. 160 proximal surfaces of 80 sound molar teeth extracted for orthodontic and periodontal reasons, were divided into: 1 control group with non-treated enamel proximal surfaces and 5 different groups according to the stripping method used, were observed with scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Each one of the 5 treated groups was also divided into 3 different subgroups according to the finishing procedures or the subsequent application of sealants. The finishing stage following the manual reduction proves to be fundamental in reducing the number and depth of grooves created by the stripping. After the air rotor stripping method, the use of sealants is advised in order to obtain a smoother surface. The analysis of the combinations of mechanical and chemical stripping showed unsatisfactory results. Concerning the wear of the strips, we have highlighted a different abrasion degree for the different types of strips analysed with SEM. The enamel damages are limited only if the finishing procedure is applied, independently of the type of abrasive strip employed. It would be advisable, though clinically seldom possible, the use of sealants after the air rotor stripping technique. Copyright © 2010 Società Italiana di Ortodonzia SIDO. Published by Elsevier Srl. All rights reserved.

  3. Investigation of air transportation technology at Princeton University, 1981

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stengel, R. F.

    1982-01-01

    A summary of the air transportation technology program is presented. The following topics were examined: (1) fuel use characteristics of general aviation aircraft; (2) dead-reckoning concept incorporating a fluidic rate sensor; (3) experimentation with an ultrasonic altimeter; (4) development of laser-based collision avoidance systems; (5) flight path reconstruction from sequential DME data; (6) application of fiber optics in flight control systems; and (7) voice recognition inputs for navigation/communication receiver tuning.

  4. Investigation of air transportation technology at Princeton University, 1980

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stengel, R. F.

    1981-01-01

    Several aspects of air transportation technology are discussed. The following are included: evaluation of an OMEGA-dead reckoning hybrid navigation system; implementation of a microprocessor controlled flight research ground station; investigation of fuel use characteristics of general aviation aircraft; investigation of a dead reckoning concept incorporating a fluidic rate sensor; experimentation related to ultrasonic altimetry; and concept development for a laser based collision avoidance system.

  5. Combustion Technology for Incinerating Wastes from Air Force Industrial Processes.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-02-01

    their performance in a field-scale thermal processing system, determine the expected pollutant emissions (ash, residue , gases), and derive a...waste for energy (not recycling cement kiln dust for clinker ) to be distinguishable from a commercial hazardous waste incinerator in -" its potential...8217...... _L2--S - -LS. 00 -7. 7.% .7 %.. -11111, )83,4 c ¢z COMBUSTION TECHNOLOGY FOR INCINERATING WASTES FROM AIR FORCE INDUSTRIAL PROCESSES W.M. SHAUB

  6. Investigation of air transportation technology at Princeton University, 1986

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stengel, Robert F.

    1988-01-01

    The Air Transportation Technology Program at Princeton proceeded along four avenues: Guidance and control strategies for penetration of microbursts and wind shear; Application of artificial intelligence in flight control systems; Computer aided control system design; and Effects of control saturation on closed loop stability and response of open loop unstable aircraft. Areas of investigation relate to guidance and control of commercial transports as well as general aviation aircraft. Interaction between the flight crew and automatic systems is a subject of prime concern.

  7. Vehicle safety : technologies, challenges, and research development expenditures for advanced air bags

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2001-06-01

    Some advanced air bag technologies are currently being installed in vehicles and others are still being developed. The principal advanced technology that is currently being installed in some vehicles is air bags that can inflate with lower or higher ...

  8. Air Pollution Studies in Metromanila and Catalysis Technology Towards Clean Air Philippines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallardo, S. M.

    - Considerable air quality and emission data gathered in Metropolitan Manila (MM) led to the development of automobile exhaust treatment catalysts as well as their continued improvement. Findings of a 5-year (1993-1998) collaborative work on the development of base metal oxide catalysts for automobile exhaust are summarized here. One study in 1991 reveals an average 16% increase in the number of motor vehicles in MM where 16% are new and the rest are old ones. Another study in 1992 shows the CO and hydrocarbon emission levels from different types of motor vehicles in MM as a function of the age of the vehicle, type of fuel, and the operating condition. Reports of the Department of Environment and Natural Resources (DENR) and other related studies also provided data showing the quality of air in MM. Currently, there are several requirements to further improve the catalyst performance towards the reduction of NOX and to develop catalyst-sorbent for simultaneous NOX-SOX removal. This is so because of the present condition of rain acidification that is found in certain places in MM. These air quality and emission data are needed not only to establish practical emission standards for motor vehicles and the stationary industries and power plants but also in the development of technologies for air pollution control and other clean technologies for cleaner air in the country.

  9. Development of a Test Facility for Air Revitalization Technology Evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lu, Sao-Dung; Lin, Amy; Campbell, Melissa; Smith, Frederick; Curley, Su

    2007-01-01

    Development of new air revitalization system (ARS) technology can initially be performed in a subscale laboratory environment, but in order to advance the maturity level, the technology must be tested in an end-to-end integrated environment. The Air Revitalization Technology Evaluation Facility (ARTEF) at the NASA Johnson Space Center serves as a ground test bed for evaluating emerging ARS technologies in an environment representative of spacecraft atmospheres. At the center of the ARTEF is a hypobaric chamber which serves as a sealed atmospheric chamber for closed loop testing. A Human Metabolic Simulator (HMS) was custom-built to simulate the consumption of oxygen, and production of carbon dioxide, moisture and heat of up to eight persons. A multitude of gas analyzers and dew point sensors are used to monitor the chamber atmosphere upstream and downstream of a test article. A robust vacuum system is needed to simulate the vacuum of space. A reliable data acquisition and control system is required to connect all the subsystems together. This paper presents the capabilities of the integrated test facility and some of the issues encountered during the integration.

  10. Segmented air bearing in micronozzle technology for the project SOFIA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muth, Michael; Schulz, Bernd

    1997-10-01

    Since 1986 there is a cooperation between NASA and DARA, Germany's space agency, to develop a flying telescope three times the size and ten times the light gathering ability of its predecessor -- the Kuiper Airborne Observatory. This project is called SOFIA -- Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy. The 2.5 meter telescope for the visible through the infrared and the sub-millimeter wavelengths to the microwaves will be mounted in a modified Boeing 747-SP with a cavity at the port side behind the wings. It can be opened at stratospheric altitudes of around 41,000 feet, above 99.9 percent of the interfering water vapor. When not in use, the telescope will be sheltered from environment by a door in the fuselage. Vibrations of the aircraft would spoil the telescope's images. Therefore the telescope has to be isolated from the aircraft's structure. One promising solution for the rotational uncoupling is a segmented spherical air bearing with a bearing sphere diameter of 1.2 meter, which carries the telescope on a thin air cushion. In this paper a new technology of air bearings with micro nozzles manufactured with the aid of a laser is presented. The innovation is rooted in the unique combination of excellent static and dynamic characteristics. These types of air bearings were developed at the Lehrstuhl fur Feingeratebau und Mikrotechnik at the Technical University of Munich, and they are produced in series by the AeroLas GmbH, Munich.

  11. Descemet stripping automated endothelial keratoplasty

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Namrata; Maharana, Prafulla K; Singhi, Shipra; Aron, Neelima; Patil, Mukesh

    2017-01-01

    Endothelial keratoplasty is at present the gold standard for surgical treatment of corneal endothelial pathologies not associated with significant corneal scar. Tremendous progress has been made in recent years in improving the technology of endothelial keratoplasty techniques, such as descemet stripping automated endothelial keratoplasty (DSAEK) and descemet membrane endothelial keratoplasty. In this review, we discuss the current techniques and outcomes of DSAEK. PMID:28440248

  12. National Security Science and Technology Initiative: Air Cargo Screening

    SciTech Connect

    Bingham, Philip R; White, Tim; Cespedes, Ernesto

    2010-11-01

    The non-intrusive inspection (NII) of consolidated air cargo carried on commercial passenger aircraft continues to be a technically challenging, high-priority requirement of the Department of Homeland Security's Science and Technology Directorate (DHS S&T), the Transportation Security Agency and the Federal Aviation Administration. The goal of deploying a screening system that can reliably and cost-effectively detect explosive threats in consolidated cargo without adversely affecting the flow of commerce will require significant technical advances that will take years to develop. To address this critical National Security need, the Battelle Memorial Institute (Battelle), under a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) with fourmore » of its associated US Department of Energy (DOE) National Laboratories (Oak Ridge, Pacific Northwest, Idaho, and Brookhaven), conducted a research and development initiative focused on identifying, evaluating, and integrating technologies for screening consolidated air cargo for the presence of explosive threats. Battelle invested $8.5M of internal research and development funds during fiscal years 2007 through 2009. The primary results of this effort are described in this document and can be summarized as follows: (1) Completed a gap analysis that identified threat signatures and observables, candidate technologies for detection, their current state of development, and provided recommendations for improvements to meet air cargo screening requirements. (2) Defined a Commodity/Threat/Detection matrix that focuses modeling and experimental efforts, identifies technology gaps and game-changing opportunities, and provides a means of summarizing current and emerging capabilities. (3) Defined key properties (e.g., elemental composition, average density, effective atomic weight) for basic commodity and explosive benchmarks, developed virtual models of the physical distributions (pallets) of three commodity types and three

  13. Improving estimates of air pollution exposure through ubiquitous sensing technologies

    PubMed Central

    de Nazelle, Audrey; Seto, Edmund; Donaire-Gonzalez, David; Mendez, Michelle; Matamala, Jaume; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J; Jerrett, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Traditional methods of exposure assessment in epidemiological studies often fail to integrate important information on activity patterns, which may lead to bias, loss of statistical power or both in health effects estimates. Novel sensing technologies integrated with mobile phones offer potential to reduce exposure measurement error. We sought to demonstrate the usability and relevance of the CalFit smartphone technology to track person-level time, geographic location, and physical activity patterns for improved air pollution exposure assessment. We deployed CalFit-equipped smartphones in a free living-population of 36 subjects in Barcelona, Spain. Information obtained on physical activity and geographic location was linked to space-time air pollution mapping. For instance, we found on average travel activities accounted for 6% of people’s time and 24% of their daily inhaled NO2. Due to the large number of mobile phone users, this technology potentially provides an unobtrusive means of collecting epidemiologic exposure data at low cost. PMID:23416743

  14. The Icarus Illusion: Technology, Doctrine and the Soviet Air Force.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-09-01

    OD-RI75 342 THE ICRUS ILLUSION: TECHNOLOGY DOCTRINE AD, THE SOlIT 1/ 2 AIR FORCE(U) NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL MONTEREY CA UNCLAS7SIFIED F /G 15/7 NL...34 -’. . " - , - -. ", ’ ’-.. _ ’ ,_ .,. e , "’, . , . . .’ .’ , :. " .. ’ , _e., " -. , , , , e . e , ’ _ ,. .. 3 "-"-. 0 " "_ - -’’ "e e " F ...4 3 951 1953 YEARi OT AIR¢CRArT D SIGN Figure 4. Evolution of Thickness/Chord Ratio (1945-1953) 30 0 | 300. C 2 90

  15. Investigation of air transportation technology at Princeton University, 1984

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stengel, Robert F.

    1987-01-01

    The Air Transportation Technology Program at Princeton University, a program emphasizing graduate and undergraduate student research, proceeded along four avenues during 1984: (1) guidance and control strategies for penetration of microbursts and wind shear; (2) application of artificial intelligence in flight control systems; (3) effects of control saturation on closed loop stability; and (4) response of open loop unstable aircraft. Areas of investigation relate to guidance and control of commercial transports as well as to general aviation aircraft. Interaction between the flight crew and automatic systems is a subject of principle concern. These areas of investigation are briefly discussed.

  16. SBIR Advanced Technologies in Aviation and Air Transportation System 2016

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyen, Hung D.; Steele, Gynelle C.; Kaszeta, Richard W.; Gold, Calman; Corke, Thomas C.; McGowan, Ryan; Matlis, Eric; Eichenlaub, Jesse; Davis, Joshua T.; Shah, Parthiv N.

    2017-01-01

    This report is intended to provide a broad knowledge of various topics associated with NASA's Aeronautics Research Mission Directorate (ARMD), with particular interest on the NASA SBIR contracts awarded from 2011-2012 executed by small companies. The content of this report focuses on the high-quality, cutting-edge research that will lead to revolutionary concepts, technologies, and capabilities that enable radical change to both the airspace system and the aircraft that fly within it, facilitating a safer, more environmentally friendly, and more efficient air transportation system.

  17. Environmental and Energy Quality Technologies. Task Order 0005: Organic Finishing Technologies, Sub Task 11: High Speed, Substrate Safe Specialty Coating Laser Stripping : Project: WP 2146

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-06-22

    acid , nitric acid , and phosphoric acid ), hydrogen cyanide...evaluation work performed at CTC ETF. The contaminants tested included acid mist (hydrobromic acid , hydrochloric acid , hydrofluoric acid , nitric acid ...15. Air Sampling Results Contaminate Permissible Exposure Limit Reporting Limit Weight (µg) Reported Air Sample Concentration Acid Mist

  18. ENVIRONMENTAL AND ENERGY QUALITY TECHNOLOGIES Task Order 0005: Organic Finishing Technologies Sub Task 11: High Speed, Substrate Safe Specialty Coating Laser Stripping

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-06-22

    acid , nitric acid , and phosphoric acid ), hydrogen cyanide...evaluation work performed at CTC ETF. The contaminants tested included acid mist (hydrobromic acid , hydrochloric acid , hydrofluoric acid , nitric acid ...15. Air Sampling Results Contaminate Permissible Exposure Limit Reporting Limit Weight (µg) Reported Air Sample Concentration Acid Mist

  19. Lateral flow strip assay

    DOEpatents

    Miles, Robin R [Danville, CA; Benett, William J [Livermore, CA; Coleman, Matthew A [Oakland, CA; Pearson, Francesca S [Livermore, CA; Nasarabadi, Shanavaz L [Livermore, CA

    2011-03-08

    A lateral flow strip assay apparatus comprising a housing; a lateral flow strip in the housing, the lateral flow strip having a receiving portion; a sample collection unit; and a reagent reservoir. Saliva and/or buccal cells are collected from an individual using the sample collection unit. The sample collection unit is immersed in the reagent reservoir. The tip of the lateral flow strip is immersed in the reservoir and the reagent/sample mixture wicks up into the lateral flow strip to perform the assay.

  20. Fixed Wing Project: Technologies for Advanced Air Transports

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Del Rosario, Ruben; Koudelka, John M.; Wahls, Richard A.; Madavan, Nateri

    2014-01-01

    The NASA Fundamental Aeronautics Fixed Wing (FW) Project addresses the comprehensive challenge of enabling revolutionary energy efficiency improvements in subsonic transport aircraft combined with dramatic reductions in harmful emissions and perceived noise to facilitate sustained growth of the air transportation system. Advanced technologies and the development of unconventional aircraft systems offer the potential to achieve these improvements. Multidisciplinary advances are required in aerodynamic efficiency to reduce drag, structural efficiency to reduce aircraft empty weight, and propulsive and thermal efficiency to reduce thrust-specific energy consumption (TSEC) for overall system benefit. Additionally, advances are required to reduce perceived noise without adversely affecting drag, weight, or TSEC, and to reduce harmful emissions without adversely affecting energy efficiency or noise.The presentation will highlight the Fixed Wing project vision of revolutionary systems and technologies needed to achieve these challenging goals. Specifically, the primary focus of the FW Project is on the N+3 generation; that is, vehicles that are three generations beyond the current state of the art, requiring mature technology solutions in the 2025-30 timeframe.

  1. EMERGING TECHNOLOGY BULLETIN: VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUND REMOVAL FROM AIR STREAMS BY MEMBRANES SEPARATION MEMBRANE TECHNOLOGY AND RESEARCH, INC.

    EPA Science Inventory

    This membrane separation technology developed by Membrane Technology and Research (MTR), Incorporated, is designed to remove volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from contaminated air streams. In the process, organic vapor-laden air contacts one side of a membrane that is permeable ...

  2. Technology Solutions Case Study: Sealed Air-Return Plenum Retrofit

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2012-08-01

    In this project, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory researchers greatly improved indoor air quality and HVAC performance by replacing an old, leaky air handler with a new air handler with an air-sealed return plenum with filter; they also sealed the ducts, and added a fresh air intake.

  3. Water and air ozone treatment as an alternative sanitizing technology.

    PubMed

    Martinelli, M; Giovannangeli, F; Rotunno, S; Trombetta, C M; Montomoli, E

    2017-03-01

    We investigated the effectiveness of ozone (aqueous and gaseous) treatment as an alternative sanitizing technology to common conventional disinfectants in reducing the microbial contamination of both water and air. Ozone was added for 20 minutes to a well-defined volume of water and air by the system named "Ozonomatic ® ". The effectiveness of ozonation was determined by counting CFU/ m3 or ml of bacteria present in samples of air or water collected before (T 0 ) and after (T 1 ) the addition of ozone and comparing the microbial load of different bacteria present in ozonized and nonozonized samples. When the ozonisation equipment was located at 30 cm from the surface of the water in the bath tub in which the bacteria investigated were inoculated, the treatment was able to reduce the total microbial load present in the aerosol by 70.4% at a temperature of 36°C for 48 hours. Conversely, at 22°C for 5 days, only a modest decrease (9.1%) was observed. Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were completely eliminated. A 93.9% reduction was observed for Staphylococcus aureus, followed by Streptococcus faecalis (25.9%). The addition of ozone to water was able to almost eliminate Staphylococcus aureus (98.9% reduction) and also to exert a strong impact on Legionella pneumophila (87.5% reduction). Streptococcus faecalis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa showed a decrease of 64.2% and 57.4%, respectively. Conversely, only a 26.4% reduction was observed for the bacterium Escherichia coli. This study showed that the addition of ozone in the air exerted a modest reduction on microbial load at 36°C, whereas no effect was observed at 22°C. Aqueous and gaseous ozone treatments were effective against microbial contaminants, reducing the CFU of the microorganisms studied. These results confirm the efficacy of the ozone disinfection treatment of both water and air; particularly, it constitutes an extremely promising alternative, allowing the possibility to reuse contaminated water.

  4. ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION--GENERIC VERIFICATION PROTOCOL FOR BIOLOGICAL AND AEROSOL TESTING OF GENERAL VENTILATION AIR CLEANERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Under EPA's Environmental Technology Verification Program, Research Triangle Institute (RTI) will operate the Air Pollution Control Technology Center to verify the filtration efficiency and bioaerosol inactivation efficiency of heating, ventilation and air conditioning air cleane...

  5. Nextgen Technologies for Mid-Term and Far-Term Air Traffic Control Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prevot, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes technologies for mid-term and far-term air traffic control operations in the Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen). The technologies were developed and evaluated with human-in-the-loop simulations in the Airspace Operations Laboratory (AOL) at the NASA Ames Research Center. The simulations were funded by several research focus areas within NASA's Airspace Systems program and some were co-funded by the FAA's Air Traffic Organization for Planning, Research and Technology.

  6. DEMONSTRATION BULLETIN: UNTERDUCK-VERDAMPFER- BRUNNEN TECHNOLOGY (UVB) VACUUM VAPORIZING WELL - ROY F. WESTON, INC./IEG TECHNOLOGIES CORPORATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Weston/IEG UVB technology is an in situ groundwater remediation technology that combines air-lift pumping and air stripping to clean aquifers contaminated with volatile organic compounds. A UVB system consists of a single well with two hydraulically separated screened interva...

  7. SITE TECHNOLOGY CAPSULE: UNTERDRUCK-VERDAMPFER- BRUNNEN TECHNOLOGY (UVB) VACUUM VAPORIZING WELL

    EPA Science Inventory

    The UVB technology is an in situ groundwater remediation technology for aquifers contaminated with compounds amenable to air stripping, and is an alternative method to pump-and-treat remediation of groundwater. The UVB technology is designed to remove VOCs from groundwater by tra...

  8. ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION REPORT - BAGHOUSE FILTRATION PRODUCTS - AIR PURATOR CORPORATION HUYGLAS 1405M FILTER SAMPLE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Baghouse filtration products (BFPs) were evaluated by the Air Pollution Control Technology (APCT) pilot of the Environmental Technology Verification (ETV) Program. The performance factor verified was the mean outlet particle concentration for the filter fabric as a function of th...

  9. TECHNOLOGY EVALUATION REPORT CEREX ENVIRONMENTAL SERVICES UV HOUND POINT SAMPLE AIR MONITOR

    EPA Science Inventory

    The USEPA's National Homeland Security Research Center (NHSRC) Technology Testing and Evaluation Program (TTEP) is carrying out performance tests on homeland security technologies. Under TTEP, Battelle evaluated the performance of the Cerex UV Hound point sample air monitor in de...

  10. Verification Testing of Air Pollution Control Technology Quality Management Plan Revision 2.3

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Air Pollution Control Technology Verification Center was established in 1995 as part of the EPA’s Environmental Technology Verification Program to accelerate the development and commercialization of improved environmental technologies’ performance.

  11. Technology evaluation of characterization of the air void system in concrete.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2009-09-01

    The objective of this project was to evaluate current technologies that have the capability of characterizing the air void system in concrete within the first several hours of placement. This objective was met by developing a comprehensive technology...

  12. Technology evaluation on characterization of the air void system in concrete.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2009-09-17

    The objective of this project was to evaluate current technologies that have the capability of characterizing the air void system in concrete within the first several hours of placement. This objective was met by developing a comprehensive technology...

  13. New technology revolutionizing how we understand the air around us

    EPA Science Inventory

    This presentation covers various technologies that I have been involved with, that have increased the spatial resolution possible for air pollution measurements. This includes the GMAP, Village Green Project, and emerging sensor technology.

  14. Evolution of Emergent Technologies for Producing Nonwoven Fabrics for Air Filtration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ou, Yingjie

    2016-01-01

    Nonwovens is a fast growing industry driven by technological research and development (R&D), and one of the major application areas for nonwovens is air filtration. Research on nonwovens technologies has mainly focused on the science and technology areas, but there is very little published research on technology management issues within the…

  15. A Program in Air Transportation Technology (Joint University Program)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stengel, Robert F.

    1996-01-01

    The Joint University Program on Air Transportation Technology was conducted at Princeton University from 1971 to 1995. Our vision was to further understanding of the design and operation of transport aircraft, of the effects of atmospheric environment on aircraft flight, and of the development and utilization of the National Airspace System. As an adjunct, the program emphasized the independent research of both graduate and undergraduate students. Recent principal goals were to develop and verify new methods for design and analysis of intelligent flight control systems, aircraft guidance logic for recovery from wake vortex encounter, and robust flight control systems. Our research scope subsumed problems associated with multidisciplinary aircraft design synthesis and analysis based on flight physics, providing a theoretical basis for developing innovative control concepts that enhance aircraft performance and safety. Our research focus was of direct interest not only to NASA but to manufacturers of aircraft and their associated systems. Our approach, metrics, and future directions described in the remainder of the report.

  16. Science Comic Strips

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Dae Hyun; Jang, Hae Gwon; Shin, Dong Sun; Kim, Sun-Ja; Yoo, Chang Young; Chung, Min Suk

    2012-01-01

    Science comic strips entitled Dr. Scifun were planned to promote science jobs and studies among professionals (scientists, graduate and undergraduate students) and children. To this end, the authors collected intriguing science stories as the basis of scenarios, and drew four-cut comic strips, first on paper and subsequently as computer files.…

  17. Anatomy Comic Strips

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Jin Seo; Kim, Dae Hyun; Chung, Min Suk

    2011-01-01

    Comics are powerful visual messages that convey immediate visceral meaning in ways that conventional texts often cannot. This article's authors created comic strips to teach anatomy more interestingly and effectively. Four-frame comic strips were conceptualized from a set of anatomy-related humorous stories gathered from the authors' collective…

  18. Evaluation of rumble strips.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1974-01-01

    Rumble strips have been used for a number of years at locations where a physical stimulus was needed to alert a motorist to some hazard. However, little study has been done to determine the optimum spacings for the strips. Through testing existing Vi...

  19. How controllers compensate for the lack of flight progress strips.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1996-02-01

    The role of the Flight Progress Strip, currently used to display important flight data, has been debated because of long range plans to automate the air traffic control (ATC) human-computer interface. Currently, the Fight Progress Strip is viewed by ...

  20. Spiral Galaxies Stripped Bare

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2010-10-01

    Six spectacular spiral galaxies are seen in a clear new light in images from ESO's Very Large Telescope (VLT) at the Paranal Observatory in Chile. The pictures were taken in infrared light, using the impressive power of the HAWK-I camera, and will help astronomers understand how the remarkable spiral patterns in galaxies form and evolve. HAWK-I [1] is one of the newest and most powerful cameras on ESO's Very Large Telescope (VLT). It is sensitive to infrared light, which means that much of the obscuring dust in the galaxies' spiral arms becomes transparent to its detectors. Compared to the earlier, and still much-used, VLT infrared camera ISAAC, HAWK-I has sixteen times as many pixels to cover a much larger area of sky in one shot and, by using newer technology than ISAAC, it has a greater sensitivity to faint infrared radiation [2]. Because HAWK-I can study galaxies stripped bare of the confusing effects of dust and glowing gas it is ideal for studying the vast numbers of stars that make up spiral arms. The six galaxies are part of a study of spiral structure led by Preben Grosbøl at ESO. These data were acquired to help understand the complex and subtle ways in which the stars in these systems form into such perfect spiral patterns. The first image shows NGC 5247, a spiral galaxy dominated by two huge arms, located 60-70 million light-years away. The galaxy lies face-on towards Earth, thus providing an excellent view of its pinwheel structure. It lies in the zodiacal constellation of Virgo (the Maiden). The galaxy in the second image is Messier 100, also known as NGC 4321, which was discovered in the 18th century. It is a fine example of a "grand design" spiral galaxy - a class of galaxies with very prominent and well-defined spiral arms. About 55 million light-years from Earth, Messier 100 is part of the Virgo Cluster of galaxies and lies in the constellation of Coma Berenices (Berenice's Hair, named after the ancient Egyptian queen Berenice II). The third

  1. Wavelength Division Multiplexing (WDM) Technology for Naval Air Applications

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-04-18

    Aerospace Photonics: despite significant commercial and DARPA funding of WDM technology, the technology has yet to impact Naval aerospace platforms. Affordability, environmental compatibility, and technology readiness level remain impediments. Directed technology maturation at the component, packaging, and system level are required.

  2. Can commonly-used fan-driven air cleaning technologies improve indoor air quality? A literature review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yinping; Mo, Jinhan; Li, Yuguo; Sundell, Jan; Wargocki, Pawel; Zhang, Jensen; Little, John C.; Corsi, Richard; Deng, Qihong; Leung, Michael H. K.; Fang, Lei; Chen, Wenhao; Li, Jinguang; Sun, Yuexia

    2011-08-01

    Air cleaning techniques have been applied worldwide with the goal of improving indoor air quality. The effectiveness of applying these techniques varies widely, and pollutant removal efficiency is usually determined in controlled laboratory environments which may not be realized in practice. Some air cleaners are largely ineffective, and some produce harmful by-products. To summarize what is known regarding the effectiveness of fan-driven air cleaning technologies, a state-of-the-art review of the scientific literature was undertaken by a multidisciplinary panel of experts from Europe, North America, and Asia with expertise in air cleaning, aerosol science, medicine, chemistry and ventilation. The effects on health were not examined. Over 26,000 articles were identified in major literature databases; 400 were selected as being relevant based on their titles and abstracts by the first two authors, who further reduced the number of articles to 160 based on the full texts. These articles were reviewed by the panel using predefined inclusion criteria during their first meeting. Additions were also made by the panel. Of these, 133 articles were finally selected for detailed review. Each article was assessed independently by two members of the panel and then judged by the entire panel during a consensus meeting. During this process 59 articles were deemed conclusive and their results were used for final reporting at their second meeting. The conclusions are that: (1) None of the reviewed technologies was able to effectively remove all indoor pollutants and many were found to generate undesirable by-products during operation. (2) Particle filtration and sorption of gaseous pollutants were among the most effective air cleaning technologies, but there is insufficient information regarding long-term performance and proper maintenance. (3) The existing data make it difficult to extract information such as Clean Air Delivery Rate (CADR), which represents a common benchmark for

  3. Stripping by laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malavallon, Olivier

    1995-04-01

    Laser beam stripping can be achieved using several active materials: YAG, CO2 Tea, or Excimer. The YAG laser appears to be the most efficient laser assessed in this report. However, the results obtained for productivity, quality, and type of stripping were very poor. Also, for stripping and on account of its specifications, the laser beam can only be used in an automated manner. In spite of these results, it seems that certain companies in Europe have recently developed technical solutions allowing better results to be obtained.

  4. Dynamic Resectorization and Coordination Technology: An Evaluation of Air Traffic Control Complexity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brinton, Christopher R.

    1996-01-01

    The work described in this report is done under contract with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) to support the Advanced Air Transportation Technology (AATR) program. The goal of this program is to contribute to and accelerate progress in Advanced Air Transportation Technologies. Wyndemere Incorporated is supporting this goal by studying the complexity of the Air Traffic Specialist's role in maintaining the safety of the Air Transportation system. It is envisioned that the implementation of Free Flight may significantly increase the complexity and difficulty of maintaining this safety. Wyndemere Incorporated is researching potential methods to reduce this complexity. This is the final report for the contract.

  5. 77 FR 41930 - Bleed Air Cleaning and Monitoring Equipment and Technology

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-17

    ... Technology ACTION: Notice; request for information. SUMMARY: The FAA seeks information from industry developers, manufacturers, and the public related to effective air cleaning technology and sensor technology... pressurized aircraft. The information obtained will inform the agency of potential research and development...

  6. EPA-developed, patented technologies related to air quality that are available for licensing

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Under the Federal Technology Transfer Act (FTTA), Federal Agencies can patent inventions developed during the course of research. These technologies can then be licensed to businesses or individuals for further development and sale in the marketplace. These technologies relate to monitoring and sampling air quality.

  7. Environmental Technology Verification: Supplement to Test/QA Plan for Biological and Aerosol Testing of General Ventilation Air Cleaners; Bioaerosol Inactivation Efficiency by HVAC In-Duct Ultraviolet Light Air Cleaners

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Air Pollution Control Technology Verification Center has selected general ventilation air cleaners as a technology area. The Generic Verification Protocol for Biological and Aerosol Testing of General Ventilation Air Cleaners is on the Environmental Technology Verification we...

  8. Varicose vein stripping

    MedlinePlus

    ... reflux - vein stripping; Venous ulcer - veins Patient Instructions Surgical wound care - open Varicose veins - what to ask your doctor Images Circulatory system References American Family Physician website. Management of varicose veins. www.aafp.org/afp/2008/ ...

  9. Use of moisture induced stress testing to evaluate stripping potential of hot mix asphalt (HMA).

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2012-07-01

    Stripping of hot mix asphalt (HMA) in the field is an ongoing issue for many Departments of Transportation : (DOTs). A leading cause of stripping is hydraulic scouring. The Moisture Induced Stress Tester (MIST) is a recently : developed technology th...

  10. Anatomy comic strips.

    PubMed

    Park, Jin Seo; Kim, Dae Hyun; Chung, Min Suk

    2011-01-01

    Comics are powerful visual messages that convey immediate visceral meaning in ways that conventional texts often cannot. This article's authors created comic strips to teach anatomy more interestingly and effectively. Four-frame comic strips were conceptualized from a set of anatomy-related humorous stories gathered from the authors' collective imagination. The comics were drawn on paper and then recreated with digital graphics software. More than 500 comic strips have been drawn and labeled in Korean language, and some of them have been translated into English. All comic strips can be viewed on the Department of Anatomy homepage at the Ajou University School of Medicine, Suwon, Republic of Korea. The comic strips were written and drawn by experienced anatomists, and responses from viewers have generally been favorable. These anatomy comic strips, designed to help students learn the complexities of anatomy in a straightforward and humorous way, are expected to be improved further by the authors and other interested anatomists. Copyright © 2011 American Association of Anatomists.

  11. Investigation of hybrid membrane-sorption technologies for air fractionating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laguntsov, N. I.; Kurchatov, I. M.; Korolev, M. V.; Tishin, A. V.

    2016-09-01

    Main aim of the work is to develop and to research single-circuit hybrid membrane- sorption system for enriching air with oxygen. The developed system allows to produce air, enriched with air up to 50%, purified from dust of any size, including nanoscale dust received in consequence of sorbent abrasion. In the course of the work the research of existing systems for air enrichment with oxygen, and the possibility of combining two methods of gas separation: membrane, and sorption, was conducted. The developed system differs from its analogues in that it has improved energy efficiency compared to methods of the membrane and sorption separation. Also work presents method of cyclogram determining of the hybrid system. In this methodic an algorithm for calculating of the cycles number, and determining of the stages duration in order to obtain the desired performance was presented.

  12. California Clean Air Technology Initiative (CATI) Memorandum of Agreement

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Memorandum of Agreement between the EPA, State of California EPA, State of California Air Resources Board, South Coast AQMD, and San Joaquin Valley APCD for coordination and collaboration on research projects.

  13. Incident-response monitoring technologies for aircraft cabin air quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magoha, Paul W.

    Poor air quality in commercial aircraft cabins can be caused by volatile organophosphorus (OP) compounds emitted from the jet engine bleed air system during smoke/fume incidents. Tri-cresyl phosphate (TCP), a common anti-wear additive in turbine engine oils, is an important component in today's global aircraft operations. However, exposure to TCP increases risks of certain adverse health effects. This research analyzed used aircraft cabin air filters for jet engine oil contaminants and designed a jet engine bleed air simulator (BAS) to replicate smoke/fume incidents caused by pyrolysis of jet engine oil. Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) with X-ray energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) and neutron activation analysis (NAA) were used for elemental analysis of filters, and gas chromatography interfaced with mass spectrometry (GC/MS) was used to analyze used filters to determine TCP isomers. The filter analysis study involved 110 used and 90 incident filters. Clean air filter samples exposed to different bleed air conditions simulating cabin air contamination incidents were also analyzed by FESEM/EDS, NAA, and GC/MS. Experiments were conducted on a BAS at various bleed air conditions typical of an operating jet engine so that the effects of temperature and pressure variations on jet engine oil aerosol formation could be determined. The GC/MS analysis of both used and incident filters characterized tri- m-cresyl phosphate (TmCP) and tri-p-cresyl phosphate (TpCP) by a base peak of an m/z = 368, with corresponding retention times of 21.9 and 23.4 minutes. The hydrocarbons in jet oil were characterized in the filters by a base peak pattern of an m/z = 85, 113. Using retention times and hydrocarbon thermal conductivity peak (TCP) pattern obtained from jet engine oil standards, five out of 110 used filters tested had oil markers. Meanwhile 22 out of 77 incident filters tested positive for oil fingerprints. Probit analysis of jet engine oil aerosols obtained

  14. Automated Laser Paint Stripping (ALPS) update

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lovoi, Paul

    1993-03-01

    To date, the DoD has played a major role in funding a number of paint stripping programs. Some technologies have proven less effective than contemplated. Others are still in the validation phase. Paint stripping is one of the hottest issues being addressed by the finishing industry since the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has mandated that chemical stripping using methylene chloride/phenolic type strippers be stopped. The DoD and commercial aircraft companies are hard-pressed to find an alternative. Automated laser paint stripping has been identified as a technique for removing coatings from aircraft surfaces. International Technical Associates (InTA) was awarded a Navy contract for an automated laser paint stripping system (ALPS) that will remove paint from metallic and composite substrates. For the program, which will validate laser paint stripping, InTA will design, build, test, and install a system for fighter-sized aircraft at both the Norfolk and North Island (San Diego) Aviation Depots.

  15. Air-Breathing Launch Vehicle Technology Being Developed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trefny, Charles J.

    2003-01-01

    Of the technical factors that would contribute to lowering the cost of space access, reusability has high potential. The primary objective of the GTX program is to determine whether or not air-breathing propulsion can enable reusable single-stage-to-orbit (SSTO) operations. The approach is based on maturation of a reference vehicle design with focus on the integration and flight-weight construction of its air-breathing rocket-based combined-cycle (RBCC) propulsion system.

  16. Cryogenic hydrogen-induced air-liquefaction technologies for combined-cycle propulsion applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Escher, William J. D.

    1992-01-01

    Given here is a technical assessment of the realization of cryogenic hydrogen induced air liquefaction technologies in a prospective onboard aerospace vehicle process setting. The technical findings related to the status of air liquefaction technologies are reviewed. Compact lightweight cryogenic heat exchangers, heat exchanger atmospheric constituent fouling alleviation measures, para/ortho-hydrogen shift-conversion catalysts, cryogenic air compressors and liquid air pumps, hydrogen recycling using slush hydrogen as a heat sink, liquid hydrogen/liquid air rocket-type combustion devices, and technically related engine concepts are discussed. Much of the LACE work is related to aerospaceplane propulsion concepts that were developed in the 1960's. Emphasis is placed on the Liquid Air Cycle Engine (LACE).

  17. Final Rule for Control of Hazardous Air Pollutants From Mobile Sources: Early Credit Technology Requirement Revision

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA is taking final action to revise the February 26, 2007 mobile source air toxics rule’s requirements that specify which benzene control technologies a refiner may utilize to qualify to generate early benzene credits.

  18. Improved Navigational Technology and Air Traffic Control: A Description of Controller Coordination and Workload

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1995-04-01

    Improved navigational technology, such as microwave landing systems (MLS) or : global positioning systems (GPS), installed in today's commercial aircraft : enable the air traffic control (ATC) system to better utilize its airspace. : This increased e...

  19. Environmental Technology Verification Report for Applikon MARGA Semi-Continuous Ambient Air Monitoring System

    EPA Science Inventory

    The verification test was conducted oer a period of 30 days (October 1 to October 31, 2008) and involved the continuous operation of duplicate semi-continuous monitoring technologies at the Burdens Creek Air Monitoring Site, an existing ambient-air monitoring station located near...

  20. DEVELOPMENT OF A NOVEL GAS PRESSURIZED STRIPPING (GPS)-BASED TECHNOLOGY FOR CO 2 CAPTURE FROM POST-COMBUSTION FLUE GASES Topical Report: Techno-Economic Analysis of GPS-based Technology for CO 2 Capture

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Shiaoguo

    2015-09-30

    This topical report presents the techno-economic analysis, conducted by Carbon Capture Scientific, LLC (CCS) and Nexant, for a nominal 550 MWe supercritical pulverized coal (PC) power plant utilizing CCS patented Gas Pressurized Stripping (GPS) technology for post-combustion carbon capture (PCC). Illinois No. 6 coal is used as fuel. Because of the difference in performance between the GPS-based PCC and the MEA-based CO2 absorption technology, the net power output of this plant is not exactly 550 MWe. DOE/NETL Case 11 supercritical PC plant without CO2 capture and Case 12 supercritical PC plant with benchmark MEA-based CO2 capture are chosen as references.more » In order to include CO2 compression process for the baseline case, CCS independently evaluated the generic 30 wt% MEA-based PCC process together with the CO2 compression section. The net power produced in the supercritical PC plant with GPS-based PCC is 647 MW, greater than the MEA-based design. The levelized cost of electricity (LCOE) over a 20-year period is adopted to assess techno-economic performance. The LCOE for the supercritical PC plant with GPS-based PCC, not considering CO2 transport, storage and monitoring (TS&M), is 97.4 mills/kWh, or 152% of the Case 11 supercritical PC plant without CO2 capture, equivalent to $39.6/tonne for the cost of CO2 capture. GPS-based PCC is also significantly superior to the generic MEA-based PCC with CO2 compression section, whose LCOE is as high as 109.6 mills/kWh.« less

  1. The impact of changing technology on the demand for air transportation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kneafsey, J. T.; Taneja, N. K.

    1978-01-01

    Demand models for air transportation that are sensitive to the impact of changing technology were developed. The models are responsive to potential changes in technology, and to changing economic, social, and political factors as well. In addition to anticipating the wide differences in the factors influencing the demand for long haul and short haul air travel, the models were designed to clearly distinguish among the unique features of these markets.

  2. Precise time technology for selected Air Force systems: Present status and future requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yannoni, N. F.

    1981-01-01

    Precise time and time interval (PTTI) technology is becoming increasingly significant to Air Force operations as digital techniques find expanded utility in military missions. Timing has a key role in the function as well as in navigation. A survey of the PTTI needs of several Air Force systems is presented. Current technology supporting these needs was reviewed and new requirements are emphasized for systems as they transfer from initial development to final operational deployment.

  3. Technology Solutions Case Study: Air Leakage and Air Transfer Between Garage and Living Space, Waldorf, Maryland

    SciTech Connect

    None

    2014-11-01

    In this project, Building Science Corporation worked with production homebuilder K. Hovnanian to evaluate air transfer between the garage and living space in a single-family detached home constructed by a production homebuilder in compliance with the 2009 International Residential Code and the 2009 International Energy Conservation Code. The project gathered important information about the performance of whole-building ventilation systems and garage ventilation systems as they relate to minimizing flow of contaminated air from garage to living space. A series of 25 multipoint fan pressurization tests and additional zone pressure diagnostic testing measured the garage and house air leakage, the garage-to-housemore » air leakage, and garage and house pressure relationships to each other and to outdoors using automated fan pressurization and pressure monitoring techniques. While the relative characteristics of this house may not represent the entire population of new construction configurations and air tightness levels (house and garage) throughout the country, the technical approach was conservative and should reasonably extend the usefulness of the results to a large spectrum of house configurations from this set of parametric tests in this one house. Based on the results of this testing, the two-step garage-to-house air leakage test protocol described above is recommended where whole-house exhaust ventilation is employed. For houses employing whole-house supply ventilation (positive pressure) or balanced ventilation (same pressure effect as the baseline condition), adherence to the EPA Indoor airPLUS house-to-garage air sealing requirements should be sufficient to expect little to no garage-to-house air transfer.« less

  4. Development of Micro Air Vehicle Technology With In-Flight Adaptive-Wing Structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waszak, Martin R. (Technical Monitor); Shkarayev, Sergey; Null, William; Wagner, Matthew

    2004-01-01

    This is a final report on the research studies, "Development of Micro Air Vehicle Technology with In-Flight Adaptrive-Wing Structure". This project involved the development of variable-camber technology to achieve efficient design of micro air vehicles. Specifically, it focused on the following topics: 1) Low Reynolds number wind tunnel testing of cambered-plate wings. 2) Theoretical performance analysis of micro air vehicles. 3) Design of a variable-camber MAV actuated by micro servos. 4) Test flights of a variable-camber MAV.

  5. Air

    MedlinePlus

    ... to protect yourself from dirty air . Indoor air pollution and outdoor air pollution Air can be polluted indoors and it can ... chart to see what things cause indoor air pollution and what things cause outdoor air pollution! Indoor ...

  6. Towards Personal Exposures: How Technology Is Changing Air Pollution and Health Research.

    PubMed

    Larkin, A; Hystad, P

    2017-12-01

    We present a review of emerging technologies and how these can transform personal air pollution exposure assessment and subsequent health research. Estimating personal air pollution exposures is currently split broadly into methods for modeling exposures for large populations versus measuring exposures for small populations. Air pollution sensors, smartphones, and air pollution models capitalizing on big/new data sources offer tremendous opportunity for unifying these approaches and improving long-term personal exposure prediction at scales needed for population-based research. A multi-disciplinary approach is needed to combine these technologies to not only estimate personal exposures for epidemiological research but also determine drivers of these exposures and new prevention opportunities. While available technologies can revolutionize air pollution exposure research, ethical, privacy, logistical, and data science challenges must be met before widespread implementations occur. Available technologies and related advances in data science can improve long-term personal air pollution exposure estimates at scales needed for population-based research. This will advance our ability to evaluate the impacts of air pollution on human health and develop effective prevention strategies.

  7. Air-Based Remediation Workshop - Section 8 Air-Based Remediation Technology Selection Logic

    EPA Science Inventory

    Pursuant to the EPA-AIT Implementing Arrangement 7 for Technical Environmental Collaboration, Activity 11 "Remediation of Contaminated Sites," the USEPA Office of International Affairs Organized a Forced Air Remediation Workshop in Taipei to deliver expert training to the Environ...

  8. Air-Based Remediation Workshop - Section 7 Sustainable Remediation And Air-Based Technologies

    EPA Science Inventory

    Pursuant to the EPA-AIT Implementing Arrangement 7 for Technical Environmental Collaboration, Activity 11 "Remediation of Contaminated Sites, " the USEPA Office of International Affairs Organized a Forced Air Remediation Workshop in Taipei to deliver expert training to the Enviro...

  9. The Air Force Manufacturing Technology (MANTECH): Technology transfer methodology as exemplified by the radar transmit/receive module program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Houpt, Tracy; Ridgely, Margaret

    1991-01-01

    The Air Force Manufacturing Technology program is involved with the improvement of radar transmit/receive modules for use in active phased array radars for advanced fighter aircraft. Improvements in all areas of manufacture and test of these modules resulting in order of magnitude improvements in the cost of and the rate of production are addressed, as well as the ongoing transfer of this technology to the Navy.

  10. REPORT TO CONGRESS: ASSESSMENT OF INTERNATIONAL AIR POLLUTION PREVENTION AND CONTROL TECHNOLOGY VOLUME 1. EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of a study that identifies new and innovative air pollution prevention and/or control technologies, of selected industrialized countries, that are not currently used extensively in the U.S. The technologies may be entirely new to the U.S., or they may be ...

  11. Investigation of air transportation technology at Ohio University, 1984

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcfarland, Richard H.

    1987-01-01

    The operational development of Loran-C for enroute navigation and nonprecision approaches was studied, and is only one of the many projects funded by the Joint University Program for Air Transportation at Ohio University. Other projects included work on the DATAC data bus monitor, global positioning system test bed receiver development, fiber optic data bus application in general aviation aircraft, and advanced remote monitoring techniques.

  12. Demonstration of Diesel Engine Air Emissions Reduction Technologies

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-12-01

    mi grams per mile GC gas chromatography GC /MS gas chromatography/mass spectrometry HAP hazardous air pollutant HC hydrocarbon HPLC/UV high...matter ppb parts per billion ppm parts per million PuriNOx Proprietary Water / Diesel Emulsified Fuel RPF robust particulate filter THC total...chemiluminescence NO, NO2 1 second 10 ppm Various/filter* PM, mass and chemistry 0.25 - 2 hours Various Tedlar bag/gas chromatography ( GC )-FID

  13. The Virtual Combat Air Staff. The Promise of Information Technologies,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1996-08-07

    Business Reengineering— Business Operations the Same, but Support Hierarchy Reduced 42 5.2 U.S. Air Force Resource Drawdown—Combat Power...con- struct a reality are either in work today or can be reasonably expected to come to fulfillment if historical trends continue. The revolution...organizational structures that achieve the efficiencies and creativity businesses have gained in the virtual and reengineered environments, while at the

  14. Air Force Research Laboratory’s 2006 Technology Milestones

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-01-01

    Vehicles ......................................................................................................... 10 AFRL Leads Falcon HTV -1 Model Tests...developed sensing capabilities to a portable Raman spectrometer for use as a commercially available (via DeltaNu, LLC), field-deployable device. The SERS...contact afrl.va.marketing@wpafb.af.mil • (937)255-2074 AFRL Leads Falcon HTV -1 Model Tests The Falcon program, a joint effort between Air Force Space

  15. Modeling Air Traffic Management Technologies with a Queuing Network Model of the National Airspace System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Long, Dou; Lee, David; Johnson, Jesse; Gaier, Eric; Kostiuk, Peter

    1999-01-01

    This report describes an integrated model of air traffic management (ATM) tools under development in two National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) programs -Terminal Area Productivity (TAP) and Advanced Air Transport Technologies (AATT). The model is made by adjusting parameters of LMINET, a queuing network model of the National Airspace System (NAS), which the Logistics Management Institute (LMI) developed for NASA. Operating LMINET with models of various combinations of TAP and AATT will give quantitative information about the effects of the tools on operations of the NAS. The costs of delays under different scenarios are calculated. An extension of Air Carrier Investment Model (ACIM) under ASAC developed by the Institute for NASA maps the technologies' impacts on NASA operations into cross-comparable benefits estimates for technologies and sets of technologies.

  16. Development of venturi/vortex scrubber technology for controlling chromium electroplating hazardous air emissions. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Hay, K.J.; Qi, S.; Northrup, J.I.

    1998-07-01

    Chromium has a combination of qualities that give chromium electroplating an important role in coating military hardware and armament. However, chromium electroplating and chromium anodizing operations create hazardous air pollutants in the form of hexavalent chromium. Conventional technologies for controlling this pollutant are expensive, noisy, and use a lot of energy and water. Consequently, an air pollution problem is turned into a water pollution problem that also requires treatment. There is a need for an economical control option that pollutes less than conventional technologies. This project developed control technologies to effectively and economically control hazardous air emissions from Army chromiummore » electroplating and anodizing operations, primarily focusing on the development of the Venturi/Vortex Scrubber technology (VVST).« less

  17. The impact of European legislative and technology measures to reduce air pollutants on air quality, human health and climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turnock, S. T.; Butt, E. W.; Richardson, T. B.; Mann, G. W.; Reddington, C. L.; Forster, P. M.; Haywood, J.; Crippa, M.; Janssens-Maenhout, G.; Johnson, C. E.; Bellouin, N.; Carslaw, K. S.; Spracklen, D. V.

    2016-02-01

    European air quality legislation has reduced emissions of air pollutants across Europe since the 1970s, affecting air quality, human health and regional climate. We used a coupled composition-climate model to simulate the impacts of European air quality legislation and technology measures implemented between 1970 and 2010. We contrast simulations using two emission scenarios; one with actual emissions in 2010 and the other with emissions that would have occurred in 2010 in the absence of technological improvements and end-of-pipe treatment measures in the energy, industrial and road transport sectors. European emissions of sulphur dioxide, black carbon (BC) and organic carbon in 2010 are 53%, 59% and 32% lower respectively compared to emissions that would have occurred in 2010 in the absence of legislative and technology measures. These emission reductions decreased simulated European annual mean concentrations of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) by 35%, sulphate by 44%, BC by 56% and particulate organic matter by 23%. The reduction in PM2.5 concentrations is calculated to have prevented 80 000 (37 000-116 000, at 95% confidence intervals) premature deaths annually across the European Union, resulting in a perceived financial benefit to society of US232 billion annually (1.4% of 2010 EU GDP). The reduction in aerosol concentrations due to legislative and technology measures caused a positive change in the aerosol radiative effect at the top of atmosphere, reduced atmospheric absorption and also increased the amount of solar radiation incident at the surface over Europe. We used an energy budget approximation to estimate that these changes in the radiative balance have increased European annual mean surface temperatures and precipitation by 0.45 ± 0.11 °C and by 13 ± 0.8 mm yr-1 respectively. Our results show that the implementation of European legislation and technological improvements to reduce the emission of air pollutants has improved air quality and human

  18. An Examination of the Demographic and Career Progression of Air Force Institute of Technology Cost Analysis Graduates.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1997-09-01

    Presented to the Faculty of the Graduate School of Logistics and Acquisition Management of the Air Force Institute of Technology Air University Air...ix ............................................................................................... 37 7. Graduate Prom otions ...a straight line that could be extrapolated to predict costs for various lot sizes. This was a good estimating tool given the technology available to

  19. Technology Needs Assessment of an Atmospheric Observation System for Multidisciplinary Air Quality/Meteorology Missions, Part 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alvarado, U. R.; Bortner, M. H.; Grenda, R. N.; Brehm, W. F.; Frippel, G. G.; Alyea, F.; Kraiman, H.; Folder, P.; Krowitz, L.

    1982-01-01

    The technology advancements that will be necessary to implement the atmospheric observation systems are considered. Upper and lower atmospheric air quality and meteorological parameters necessary to support the air quality investigations were included. The technology needs were found predominantly in areas related to sensors and measurements of air quality and meteorological measurements.

  20. Investigation of air transportation technology at Princeton University, 1985

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stengel, Robert F.

    1987-01-01

    The program proceeded along five avenues during 1985. Guidance and control strategies for penetration of microbursts and wind shear, application of artificial intelligence in flight control and air traffic control systems, the use of voice recognition in the cockpit, the effects of control saturation on closed-loop stability and response of open-loop unstable aircraft, and computer aided control system design are among the topics briefly considered. Areas of investigation relate to guidance and control of commercial transports as well as general aviation aircraft. Interaction between the flight crew and automatic systems is the subject of principal concern.

  1. Air Traffic Management: Civil/Military Systems and Technologies.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-02-01

    RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT (ORGANISATION DU TRAITE DE L’ATLANTIQUE NORD) rITIC ICTE JUL 23 1980 AGARD onferenceA4roceedin o.273 (7 A__RJRAFFIC MANAGEMENT...Executive: Colonel i.C. de Cha~sey, FAF PROGRAMME COMMITTEE FOR THE 29TH GCP SYMPOSIUM Co-Chairmen: Dr A.Benolt BE Mr C.T.Elliott us Members: Mr...Captain N.Frosig, DE kM~.. For Spcal i/ I ____a " FOREWORD In the evolution of Air Traffic Control certain important phases can be identified. Until

  2. Retractable barrier strip

    DOEpatents

    Marts, Donna J.; Barker, Stacey G.; Wowczuk, Andrew; Vellenoweth, Thomas E.

    2002-01-01

    A portable barrier strip having retractable tire-puncture spikes for puncturing a vehicle tire. The tire-puncture spikes have an armed position for puncturing a tire and a retracted position for not puncturing a tire. The strip comprises a plurality of barrier blocks having the tire-puncture spikes removably disposed in a shaft that is rotatably disposed in each barrier block. The plurality of barrier blocks hare hingedly interconnected by complementary hinges integrally formed into the side of each barrier block which allow the strip to be rolled for easy storage and retrieval, but which prevent irregular or back bending of the strip. The shafts of adjacent barrier blocks are pivotally interconnected via a double hinged universal joint to accommodate irregularities in a roadway surface and to transmit torsional motion of the shaft from block to block. A single flexshaft cable is connected to the shaft of an end block to allow a user to selectively cause the shafts of a plurality of adjacently connected barrier blocks to rotate the tire-puncture spikes to the armed position for puncturing a vehicle tire, and to the retracted position for not puncturing the tire. The flexshaft is provided with a resiliently biased retracting mechanism, and a release latch for allowing the spikes to be quickly retracted after the intended vehicle tire is punctured.

  3. Strip and load data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, R. H.

    1984-01-01

    The method of taking batch data files and loading these files into the ADABAS data base management system (DBMS) is examined. This strip and load process allows the user to quickly become productive. Techniques for data fields and files definition are also included.

  4. Retractable barrier strip

    DOEpatents

    Marts, Donna J.; Barker, Stacey G.; McQueen, Miles A.

    1996-01-01

    A portable barrier strip having retractable tire-puncture means for puncturing a vehicle tire. The tire-puncture means, such as spikes, have an armed position for puncturing a tire and a retracted position for not puncturing a tire. The strip comprises a plurality of barrier blocks having the tire-puncture means removably disposed in a shaft that is rotatably disposed in each barrier block. The shaft removably and pivotally interconnects the plurality of barrier blocks. Actuation cables cause the shaft to rotate the tire-puncture means to the armed position for puncturing a vehicle tire and to the retracted position for not puncturing the tire. Each tire-puncture means is received in a hollow-bed portion of its respective barrier block when in the retracted position. The barrier strip rests stable in its deployed position and substantially motionless as a tire rolls thereon and over. The strip is rolled up for retrieval, portability, and storage purposes, and extended and unrolled in its deployed position for use.

  5. Retractable barrier strip

    DOEpatents

    Marts, D.J.; Barker, S.G.; McQueen, M.A.

    1996-04-16

    A portable barrier strip is described having retractable tire-puncture means for puncturing a vehicle tire. The tire-puncture means, such as spikes, have an armed position for puncturing a tire and a retracted position for not puncturing a tire. The strip comprises a plurality of barrier blocks having the tire-puncture means removably disposed in a shaft that is rotatably disposed in each barrier block. The shaft removably and pivotally interconnects the plurality of barrier blocks. Actuation cables cause the shaft to rotate the tire-puncture means to the armed position for puncturing a vehicle tire and to the retracted position for not puncturing the tire. Each tire-puncture means is received in a hollow-bed portion of its respective barrier block when in the retracted position. The barrier strip rests in its deployed position and substantially motionless as a tire rolls thereon and over. The strip is rolled up for retrieval, portability, and storage purposes, and extended and unrolled in its deployed position for use. 13 figs.

  6. Selective chemical stripping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malavallon, Olivier

    1995-04-01

    At the end of the 80's, some of the large European airlines expressed a wish for paint systems with improved strippability on their aircraft, allowing the possibility to strip down to the primer without altering it, using 'mild' chemical strippers based on methylene chloride. These improvements were initially intended to reduce costs and stripping cycle times while facilitating rapid repainting, and this without the need to change the conventionally used industrial facilities. The level of in-service performance of these paint systems was to be the same as the previous ones. Requirements related to hygiene safety and the environment were added to these initial requirements. To meet customers' expectations, Aerospatiale, within the Airbus Industry GIE, formed a work group. This group was given the task of specifying, following up the elaboration and qualifying the paint systems allowing requirements to be met, in relation with the paint suppliers and the airlines. The analysis made in this report showed the interest of transferring as far upstream as possible (to paint conception level) most of the technical constraints related to stripping. Thus, the concept retained for the paint system, allowing selective chemical stripping, is a 3-coat system with characteristics as near as possible to the previously used paints.

  7. Impact of New Technology Weapons on SAC (Strategic Air Command) Conventional Air Operations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-06-01

    only a few.LO Secretary of Defense Weinberger discusses the role of new technology in our current modernization efforts: Today, we and our allies...Congress points out the importance of the role of new technology in the President’s strate- gic forces modernization plan and highlights the expanding

  8. USING WET AIR OXIDATION TECHNOLOGY TO DESTROY TETRAPHENYLBORATE

    SciTech Connect

    Adu-Wusu, K; Daniel McCabe, D; Bill Wilmarth, B

    2007-04-04

    A bench-scale feasibility study on the use of a Wet Air Oxidation (WAO) process to destroy a slurry laden with tetraphenylborate (TPB) compounds has been undertaken. WAO is an aqueous phase process in which soluble and/or insoluble waste constituents are oxidized using oxygen or oxygen in air at elevated temperatures and pressures ranging from 150 C and 1 MPa to 320 C and 22 MPa. The products of the reaction are CO{sub 2}, H{sub 2}O, and low molecular weight oxygenated organics (e.g. acetate, oxalate). Test results indicate WAO is a feasible process for destroying TPB, its primary daughter products [triphenylboranemore » (3PB), diphenylborinic acid (2PB), and phenylboronic acid (1PB)], phenol, and most of the biphenyl byproduct. The required conditions are a temperature of 300 C, a reaction time of 3 hours, 1:1 feed slurry dilution with 2M NaOH solution, the addition of CuSO{sub 4}.5H{sub 2}O solution (500 mg/L Cu) as catalyst, and the addition of 2000 mL/L of antifoam. However, for the destruction of TPB, its daughter compounds (3PB, 2PB, and 1PB), and phenol without consideration for biphenyl destruction, less severe conditions (280 C and 1-hour reaction time with similar remaining above conditions) are adequate.« less

  9. Clearing the Air: The Impact of the Clean Air Act on Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Redmond, John C., Ed.; And Others

    This compendium has been prepared to summarize the notable aspects of the U. S. Clear Air Amendments of 1970 for members of the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers and others. The work is not a complete explanation of the law and all of its ramifications; it is, rather, an expedient means to gain rapid insight into the more…

  10. Strip cutting in northern hardwoods

    Treesearch

    Richard M. Godman

    1992-01-01

    Interest in clearcutting young northern hardwood stands in strips is running high, especially now that mechanical fellers and skidders have been developed to harvest these stands. Strip cutting has several advantages-no overstory to worry about when treating the site, no overstory to remove later, and the economic advantage of cutting the strip only once.

  11. Structures Technology for Lighter-Than-Air Vehicles

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1977-03-02

    conventional rigid, geodetic and metalclad , and to make recommendations for optium LTA veh:Lcle design approaches which incorporate vehicle integrity...California for the Study of Metalclad Airship Hulls. This was a five-month program in which current technology in structures, materials and design was...applied to the design and evaluation of the metalclad concept. The remaining work reported here was performed in-house and much of it is survey type

  12. Technology base research on zinc/air battery systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sierraalcazar, H. B.; Nguyen, P. D.; Pinoli, A. A.

    1987-09-01

    The capacity extension of additives was tested in a 200 cmbi-cell and a Zn powder moving-bed slurry. It was found that for the Type A additives in 12 M KOH, 25 g/l of silicate provided higher capacity than stannate, titanate and aluminate additives. The optimum concentration of sorbitol (a Type B additive that stabilizes polymeric chains involving ZnO) was found to be 15 g/l in 12 M KOH. A silicate and sorbitol combination added to Zn powder slurry in 12 M KOH provided a 20 percent increase in discharge capacity (195 Ah/l at 200 A/cm) compared to the maximum capacity obtained with silicate alone. A much lower capacity (74 Ah/l) was realized with silicate as Type C additive (precipitation of ZnO away from the Zn surface, for low KOH concentrations). The mechanisms of passivation and capacity extension were discussed and a model presented. The cell voltage and power densities were determined for the discharge process as a function of: (1) current densities, (2) cathode depolarizer (air or oxygen), and (3) type of slurry (Zn powder or Zn coated polymeric bead). Air depolarization was observed to decrease the maximum power densities of both slurry types. The power densities obtained with Zn powder slurries were higher at all current densities investigated than those obtained with Zn coated polymeric beads (Zn-powder peak power densities more than doubled peak power densities obtained with Zn coated polymeric beads). The recharge process was studied with a planar electrode and with a rotating cylinder electrode. The current efficiency and cathode potentials were determined for glassy carbon and Mg cathodes. The dendritic Zn deposits were mechanically removed from the rotating cylinder electrode with fixed blades. Mechanical removal proved to be unsatisfactory in the embodiment investigated due to preferential dendritic growth on the baldes. Further investigations of discharge cell designs are underway.

  13. Air and Water System (AWS) Design and Technology Selection for the Vision for Space Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Harry; Kliss, Mark

    2005-01-01

    This paper considers technology selection for the crew air and water recycling systems to be used in long duration human space exploration. The specific objectives are to identify the most probable air and water technologies for the vision for space exploration and to identify the alternate technologies that might be developed. The approach is to conduct a preliminary first cut systems engineering analysis, beginning with the Air and Water System (AWS) requirements and the system mass balance, and then define the functional architecture, review the International Space Station (ISS) technologies, and discuss alternate technologies. The life support requirements for air and water are well known. The results of the mass flow and mass balance analysis help define the system architectural concept. The AWS includes five subsystems: Oxygen Supply, Condensate Purification, Urine Purification, Hygiene Water Purification, and Clothes Wash Purification. AWS technologies have been evaluated in the life support design for ISS node 3, and in earlier space station design studies, in proposals for the upgrade or evolution of the space station, and in studies of potential lunar or Mars missions. The leading candidate technologies for the vision for space exploration are those planned for Node 3 of the ISS. The ISS life support was designed to utilize Space Station Freedom (SSF) hardware to the maximum extent possible. The SSF final technology selection process, criteria, and results are discussed. Would it be cost-effective for the vision for space exploration to develop alternate technology? This paper will examine this and other questions associated with AWS design and technology selection.

  14. Neuro-Linguistic Programming: Human Technology for Today’s Air Force.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-04-01

    Part III, pp. 4-5. ’ 26. Ibid, p. 6. 27. Donald W. McCormick, " Neurolinguistic Programming : A Resource Guide and Review of the Research, The 1984...Carol Johnson, " Neurolinguistic Programming --Mystique or Mistake?" Army Organizational Effectiveness Journal, No. 1, 1985, pp. 74-80. 29. Dilts...AD-RI67 836 NEURO-LINGUISTIC PROGRAMMING : HUHAN TECHNOLOGY FOR / TODAY’S AIR FORCEMU AIR COMMAND ANM STAFF COLL NAXHELL AFB AL J B CAULFIELD APR 86

  15. The role of technology as air transportation faces the fuel situation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Driver, C.

    1980-01-01

    Perspectives on the air transportation fuel stituation are discussed including intercity air traffic, airline fuel consumption, fuel price effects on ticket price, and projected traffic and fuel useage between now and the year 2000. Actions taken by the airlines to reduce consumption are reviewed, as well as efforts currently underway to improve fuel consumption. Longer range technology payoffs resulting from NASA research programs are reviewed and results from studies on the use of alternate fuels are discussed.

  16. Bringing hands-on exploration of air quality technology to the ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This is an educational presentation to the OAQPS Teachers Workshop on the PM sensor kit and other related air technology educational activities. This workshop for teachers and other educators includes topics, such as: how EPA manages air quality, the environmental health effects and risks of air pollution, climate change, and sustainability solutions and more. Attendees will also build a DYI Sensor kit and explore energy choices and the environment when they play the interactive board game developed by EPA scientists called Generate! This workshop for teachers and other educators includes topics, such as: how EPA manages air quality, the environmental health effects and risks of air pollution, climate change and sustainability and more. Attendees will also build a DYI Sensor kit and explore energy choices and the environment when they play the interactive board game developed by EPA scientists called Generate!

  17. Gated strip proportional detector

    DOEpatents

    Morris, C.L.; Idzorek, G.C.; Atencio, L.G.

    1985-02-19

    A gated strip proportional detector includes a gas tight chamber which encloses a solid ground plane, a wire anode plane, a wire gating plane, and a multiconductor cathode plane. The anode plane amplifies the amount of charge deposited in the chamber by a factor of up to 10/sup 6/. The gating plane allows only charge within a narrow strip to reach the cathode. The cathode plane collects the charge allowed to pass through the gating plane on a set of conductors perpendicular to the open-gated region. By scanning the open-gated region across the chamber and reading out the charge collected on the cathode conductors after a suitable integration time for each location of the gate, a two-dimensional image of the intensity of the ionizing radiation incident on the detector can be made.

  18. Gated strip proportional detector

    DOEpatents

    Morris, Christopher L.; Idzorek, George C.; Atencio, Leroy G.

    1987-01-01

    A gated strip proportional detector includes a gas tight chamber which encloses a solid ground plane, a wire anode plane, a wire gating plane, and a multiconductor cathode plane. The anode plane amplifies the amount of charge deposited in the chamber by a factor of up to 10.sup.6. The gating plane allows only charge within a narrow strip to reach the cathode. The cathode plane collects the charge allowed to pass through the gating plane on a set of conductors perpendicular to the open-gated region. By scanning the open-gated region across the chamber and reading out the charge collected on the cathode conductors after a suitable integration time for each location of the gate, a two-dimensional image of the intensity of the ionizing radiation incident on the detector can be made.

  19. CO2 Capture from the Air: Technology Assessment and Implications for Climate Policy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keith, D. W.

    2002-05-01

    It is physically possible to capture CO2 directly from the air and immobilize it in geological structures. Today, there are no large-scale technologies that achieve air capture at reasonable cost. Yet, strong arguments suggest that it will comparatively easy to develop practical air capture technologies on the timescales relevant to climate policy [1]. This paper first analyzes the cost of air capture and then assesses the implications for climate policy. We first analyze the lower bound on the cost needed for air capture, describing the thermodynamic and physical limits to the use of energy and land. We then compare the costs of air capture to the cost of capture from combustion exhaust streams. While the intrinsic minimum energy requirement is larger for air capture, we argue that air capture has important structural advantages, such as the reduction of transport costs and the larger potential for economies of scale. These advantages suggest that, in the long-run air capture be competitive with other methods of achieving deep emissions reductions. We provide a preliminary engineering-economic analysis of an air capture system based on CaO to CaCO3 chemical looping [1]. We analyze the possibility of doing the calcination in a modified pressurized fluidized bed combustor (PFBC) burning coal in a CO2 rich atmosphere with oxygen supplied by an air separation unit. The CaCO3-to-coal ratio would be ~2:1 and the system would be nearly thermally neutral. PFBC systems have been demonstrated at capacities of over 100 MW. Such systems already include CaCO3 injection for sulfur control, and operate at suitable temperatures and pressures for calcination. We assess the potential to recover heat from the dissolution of CaO in order to reduce the overall energy requirements. We analyze the possibility of adapting existing large water/air heat exchangers for use as contacting systems to capture CO2 from the air using the calcium hydroxide solution. The implications of air capture

  20. ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION REPORT, PAINT OVERSPRAY ARRESTOR, PUROLATOR PRODUCTS AIR FILTRATION COMPANY, DMK804404 AND PB2424

    EPA Science Inventory

    Paint overspray arrestors (POAs) were evaluated by the Air Pollution Control Technology (APCT) pilot of the Environmental Technology Verification (ETV) Program. The performance factor verified was the particle filtration efficiency as a function of size for particles smaller than...

  1. Advanced Air Transportation Technologies (AATT) Project: Distributed Air-Ground Traffic Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mogford, Richard; Green, Steve; Ballin, Mark

    2002-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation provides an overview of active Distributed Air Ground Traffic Management (DAG-TM) work and reported on its overall progress to date. It does not include details on the concept elements (CEs).The DAG-TM research project is defined as a concept development and definition project and no tools will be delivered. Of the 14 CEs, three are being explored actively: CE-5, CE-6, and CE-11. Overviews of CE-5 (Free Maneuvering for User-Preferred Separation Assurance and Local TFM Conformance), CE-6 (En Route and Transition Trajectory Negotiation for User-Preferred Separation and Local TFM Conformance) and CE-11 (Self-Spacing for Merging and In-Trail Separation) are presented.

  2. Investigation of air transportation technology at Princeton University, 1990-1991

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stengel, Robert F.

    1991-01-01

    The Air Transportation Technology Program at Princeton University is a program that emphasizes graduate and undergraduate student research. The program proceeded along six avenues during the past year: microburst hazards to aircraft, intelligent failure tolerant control, computer-aided heuristics for piloted flight, stochastic robustness of flight control systems, neural networks for flight control, and computer-aided control system design.

  3. The Citizen Science Toolbox: A One-Stop Resource for Air Sensor Technology

    EPA Science Inventory

    The air sensor technology market is exploding with new sensors in all kinds of forms. Developers are putting sensors in wristbands, headphones, and cell phone add-ons. Small, portable and lower-cost measurement devices using sensors are coming on the market with a wide variety of...

  4. In depth review of the 1979 AIAA Lighter-Than-Air Systems Technology Conference

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ardema, M. D.

    1979-01-01

    The lighter than air (LTA) systems technology conference is reviewed. Highlights of the conference were: (1) the interest shown in patrol and surveillance airships, particularly for coastal patrol missions; (2) the session devoted to overviews of foreign activity; and (3) heavy lift and long range transport aircraft design considerations.

  5. Evaluating the Air Quality, Climate Change, and Economic Impacts of Biogas Management Technologies

    EPA Science Inventory

    This is an abstract for a presentation that describes a project to evaluate economic and environmental performance of several biogas management technologies. It will analyze various criteria air pollutants, greenhouse gas emissions, and costs associated with the use of biogas. Th...

  6. Soil-based filtration technology for air purification: potentials for environmental and space life support application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, Mark; Bohn, Hinrich

    Soil biofiltration, also known as Soil bed reactor (SBR), technology was originally developed in Germany to take advantage of the diversity in microbial mechanisms to control gases producing malodor in industrial processes. The approach has since gained wider international acceptance and seen numerous improvements, for example, by the use of high-organic compost beds to maximize microbial processes. This paper reviews the basic mechanisms which underlay soil processes involved in air purification, advantages and limitations of the technology and the cur-rent research status of the approach. Soil biofiltration has lower capital and operating/energetic costs than conventional technologies and is well adapted to handle contaminants in moderate concentrations. The systems can be engineered to optimize efficiency though manipulation of temperature, pH, moisture content, soil organic matter and airflow rates. SBR technology was modified for application in the Biosphere 2 project, which demonstrated in preparatory research with a number of closed system testbeds that soil could also support crop plants while also serving as soil filters with air pumps to push air through the soil. This Biosphere 2 research demonstrated in several closed system testbeds that a number of important trace gases could be kept under control and led to the engineering of the entire agricultural soil of Biosphere 2 to serve as a soil filtration unit for the facility. Soil biofiltration, coupled with food crop produc-tion, as a component of bioregenerative space life support systems has the advantages of lower energy use and avoidance of the consumables required for other air purification approaches. Expanding use of soil biofiltration can aid a number of environmental applications, from the mitigation of indoor air pollution, improvement of industrial air emissions and prevention of accidental release of toxic gases.

  7. A Distributed Simulation Facility to Support Human Factors Research in Advanced Air Transportation Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Amonlirdviman, Keith; Farley, Todd C.; Hansman, R. John, Jr.; Ladik, John F.; Sherer, Dana Z.

    1998-01-01

    A distributed real-time simulation of the civil air traffic environment developed to support human factors research in advanced air transportation technology is presented. The distributed environment is based on a custom simulation architecture designed for simplicity and flexibility in human experiments. Standard Internet protocols are used to create the distributed environment, linking all advanced cockpit simulator, all Air Traffic Control simulator, and a pseudo-aircraft control and simulation management station. The pseudo-aircraft control station also functions as a scenario design tool for coordinating human factors experiments. This station incorporates a pseudo-pilot interface designed to reduce workload for human operators piloting multiple aircraft simultaneously in real time. The application of this distributed simulation facility to support a study of the effect of shared information (via air-ground datalink) on pilot/controller shared situation awareness and re-route negotiation is also presented.

  8. Generic aspects of the airborne spread of human pathogens indoors and emerging air decontamination technologies.

    PubMed

    Ijaz, M Khalid; Zargar, Bahram; Wright, Kathryn E; Rubino, Joseph R; Sattar, Syed A

    2016-09-02

    Indoor air can be an important vehicle for a variety of human pathogens. This review provides examples of airborne transmission of infectious agents from experimental and field studies and discusses how airborne pathogens can contaminate other parts of the environment to give rise to secondary vehicles leading air-surface-air nexus with possible transmission to susceptible hosts. The following groups of human pathogens are covered because of their known or potential airborne spread: vegetative bacteria (staphylococci and legionellae), fungi (Aspergillus, Penicillium, and Cladosporium spp and Stachybotrys chartarum), enteric viruses (noro- and rotaviruses), respiratory viruses (influenza and coronaviruses), mycobacteria (tuberculous and nontuberculous), and bacterial spore formers (Clostridium difficile and Bacillus anthracis). An overview of methods for experimentally generating and recovering airborne human pathogens is included, along with a discussion of factors that influence microbial survival in indoor air. Available guidelines from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and other global regulatory bodies for the study of airborne pathogens are critically reviewed with particular reference to microbial surrogates that are recommended. Recent developments in experimental facilities to contaminate indoor air with microbial aerosols are presented, along with emerging technologies to decontaminate indoor air under field-relevant conditions. Furthermore, the role that air decontamination may play in reducing the contamination of environmental surfaces and its combined impact on interrupting the risk of pathogen spread in both domestic and institutional settings is discussed. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  9. Nanoscale Test Strips for Multiplexed Blood Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chan, Eugene

    2015-01-01

    A critical component of the DNA Medicine Institute's Reusable Handheld Electrolyte and Lab Technology for Humans (rHEALTH) sensor are nanoscale test strips, or nanostrips, that enable multiplexed blood analysis. Nanostrips are conceptually similar to the standard urinalysis test strip, but the strips are shrunk down a billionfold to the microscale. Each nanostrip can have several sensor pads that fluoresce in response to different targets in a sample. The strips carry identification tags that permit differentiation of a specific panel from hundreds of other nanostrip panels during a single measurement session. In Phase I of the project, the company fabricated, tested, and demonstrated functional parathyroid hormone and vitamin D nanostrips for bone metabolism, and thrombin aptamer and immunoglobulin G antibody nanostrips. In Phase II, numerous nanostrips were developed to address key space flight-based medical needs: assessment of bone metabolism, immune response, cardiac status, liver metabolism, and lipid profiles. This unique approach holds genuine promise for space-based portable biodiagnostics and for point-of-care (POC) health monitoring and diagnostics here on Earth.

  10. Paresev on Taxi Strip

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1962-01-17

    Test pilot Milton Thompson sitting in NASA Flight Research Center-built Paresev 1 (Paraglider Research Vehicle) on the taxi strip in front of the NASA Flight Research Center in 1962. In this photo the control stick can be seen coming from overhead and hanging in front of the pilot. The control system was a direct link with the wing membrane made of doped Irish linen. By maintaining simplicity during construction, it was possible to make control and configuration changes overnight and, in many instances, in minutes.

  11. Preliminary Design and Evaluation of Portable Electronic Flight Progress Strips

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doble, Nathan A.; Hansman, R. John

    2002-01-01

    There has been growing interest in using electronic alternatives to the paper Flight Progress Strip (FPS) for air traffic control. However, most research has been centered on radar-based control environments, and has not considered the unique operational needs of the airport air traffic control tower. Based on an analysis of the human factors issues for control tower Decision Support Tool (DST) interfaces, a requirement has been identified for an interaction mechanism which replicates the advantages of the paper FPS (e.g., head-up operation, portability) but also enables input and output with DSTs. An approach has been developed which uses a Portable Electronic FPS that has attributes of both a paper strip and an electronic strip. The prototype flight strip system uses Personal Digital Assistants (PDAs) to replace individual paper strips in addition to a central management interface which is displayed on a desktop computer. Each PDA is connected to the management interface via a wireless local area network. The Portable Electronic FPSs replicate the core functionality of paper flight strips and have additional features which provide a heads-up interface to a DST. A departure DST is used as a motivating example. The central management interface is used for aircraft scheduling and sequencing and provides an overview of airport departure operations. This paper will present the design of the Portable Electronic FPS system as well as preliminary evaluation results.

  12. Slow Dynamics Model of Compressed Air Energy Storage and Battery Storage Technologies for Automatic Generation Control

    SciTech Connect

    Krishnan, Venkat; Das, Trishna

    2016-05-01

    Increasing variable generation penetration and the consequent increase in short-term variability makes energy storage technologies look attractive, especially in the ancillary market for providing frequency regulation services. This paper presents slow dynamics model for compressed air energy storage and battery storage technologies that can be used in automatic generation control studies to assess the system frequency response and quantify the benefits from storage technologies in providing regulation service. The paper also represents the slow dynamics model of the power system integrated with storage technologies in a complete state space form. The storage technologies have been integrated to the IEEE 24more » bus system with single area, and a comparative study of various solution strategies including transmission enhancement and combustion turbine have been performed in terms of generation cycling and frequency response performance metrics.« less

  13. Investigation of air transportation technology at Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 1986

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simpson, Robert W.

    1988-01-01

    There were three areas of research sponsored in the Flight Transportation Lab. at MIT under the Joint University Research Program during 1986. The first was the completion of efforts investigating the possibility of using Loran-C for final approach guidance to a runway; the second is a preliminary exploration of the application of automated speech recognition in Air Traffic Control; the third is a continuation of a series of research topics into aircraft icing problems.

  14. Strip casting apparatus and method

    DOEpatents

    Williams, Robert S.; Baker, Donald F.

    1988-01-01

    Strip casting apparatus including a molten-metal-holding container and a nozzle to deposit molten metal onto a moving chill drum to directly cast continuous metallic strip. The nozzle body includes a slot bounded between a back and a front lip. The slot width exceeds about 20 times the gap distance between the nozzle and the chill drum surface. Preferably, the slot width exceeds 0.5 inch. This method of strip casting minimizes pressure drop, insuring better metal-to-chill-drum contact which promotes heat transfer and results in a better quality metallic strip.

  15. Strip casting apparatus and method

    DOEpatents

    Williams, R.S.; Baker, D.F.

    1988-09-20

    Strip casting apparatus including a molten-metal-holding container and a nozzle to deposit molten metal onto a moving chill drum to directly cast continuous metallic strip. The nozzle body includes a slot bounded between a back and a front lip. The slot width exceeds about 20 times the gap distance between the nozzle and the chill drum surface. Preferably, the slot width exceeds 0.5 inch. This method of strip casting minimizes pressure drop, insuring better metal-to-chill-drum contact which promotes heat transfer and results in a better quality metallic strip. 6 figs.

  16. Key Metrics and Goals for NASA's Advanced Air Transportation Technologies Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaplan, Bruce; Lee, David

    1998-01-01

    NASA's Advanced Air Transportation Technologies (AATT) program is developing a set of decision support tools to aid air traffic service providers, pilots, and airline operations centers in improving operations of the National Airspace System (NAS). NASA needs a set of unifying metrics to tie these efforts together, which it can use to track the progress of the AATT program and communicate program objectives and status within NASA and to stakeholders in the NAS. This report documents the results of our efforts and the four unifying metrics we recommend for the AATT program. They are: airport peak capacity, on-route sector capacity, block time and fuel, and free flight-enabling.

  17. Controlling air pollution from passenger ferries: cost-effectiveness of seven technological options.

    PubMed

    Farrell, Alexander E; Corbett, James J; Winebrake, James J

    2002-12-01

    Continued interest in improving air quality in the United States along with renewed interest in the expansion of urban passenger ferry service has created concern about air pollution from ferry vessels. This paper presents a methodology for estimating the air pollution emissions from passenger ferries and the costs of emissions control strategies. The methodology is used to estimate the emissions and costs of retrofitting or re-powering ferries with seven technological options (combinations of propulsion and emission control systems) onto three vessels currently in service in San Francisco Bay. The technologies include improved engine design, cleaner fuels (including natural gas), and exhaust gas cleanup devices. The three vessels span a range of ages and technologies, from a 25-year-old monohull to a modern, high-speed catamaran built only four years ago. By looking at a range of technologies, vessel designs, and service conditions, a sense of the broader implications of controlling emissions from passenger ferries across a range of vessels and service profiles is provided. Tier 2-certified engines are the most cost-effective choice, but all options are cost-effective relative to other emission control strategies already in place in the transportation system.

  18. Efficient ozone, sulfate, and ammonium free resist stripping process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dattilo, Davide; Dietze, Uwe

    2014-07-01

    In recent years, photomask resist strip and cleaning technology development was substantially driven by the industry's need to prevent surface haze formation through the elimination of sulfuric acid and ammonium hydroxide from these processes. As a result, conventional SPM (H2SO4 + H2O2) was replaced with Ozone water (DIO3) for resist stripping and organic removal to eliminate chemical haze formation [1, 2]. However, it has been shown that DIO3 basted strip and clean process causes oxidative degradation of photomask materials [3, 4]. Such material damage can affect optical properties of funcitional mask layers, causeing CD line-width, phase, transmission and reflection changes, adversely affecting image transfer during the Lithography process. To overcome Ozone induced surface damage, SUSS MicroTec successfully developed a highly efficient strip process, where photolysis of DIO3 is leading to highly reactive hydroxyl radical formation, as the main contribution to hydrocarbon removal without surface damage [5]. This technology has been further extended to a final clean process, which is utilizing pure DI water for residual organic material removal during final clean [6]. Recently, SUS MicroTec did also successfully release strip and clean processes which completely remove NH4OH, eliminating any chemicals known today to induce haze [7]. In this paper we show the benefits of these new technologies for highly efficient sulfate and ammonium free stripping and cleaning processes.

  19. Evaluation of environmentally acceptable coal combustion technology to increase coal use at CONUS Air Force Base

    SciTech Connect

    Beason, F.L.; Schilling, R.M.; Thomas, J.F.

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to explain the findings of the investigative phase of the Air Force Coal Utilization Program. The objective of this program is to place the Air Force in compliance with the intent of the Defense Appropriations Act as it relates to using additional coal in Department of Defense (ODD) Continental United States (COINS) facilities. The topics that will be discussed include: (1) the background of the legislation relating to this program and how the Air Force has approached this program. (2) the findings and conclusions of the investigative phase of the program, and (3) themore » environmentally acceptable combustion technologies that we considered. 4 refs. 3 tabs.« less

  20. Design of portable rumble strips.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2006-12-01

    "In 2003, the states involved in the Midwest Smart Work Zone Deployment Initiative identified : portable rumble strips (i.e., rumble strips that require no adhesive or fasteners, making them : applicable for very short term work zones) as a high prio...

  1. A Review of Monitoring Technologies for Trace Air Contaminants in the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    James, John T.; McCoy, J. Torin

    2004-01-01

    NASA issued a Request For Information (RFI) to identify technologies that might be available to monitor a list of air pollutants in the ISS atmosphere. After NASA received responses to the RFI, an expert panel was assembled to hear presentations from 9 technology proponents. The goal of the panel was to identify technologies that might be suitable for replacement of the current Volatile Organics Analyzer (VOA) within several years. The panelists consisted of 8 experts in analytical chemistry without any links to NASA and 7 people with specific expertise because of their roles in NASA programs. Each technology was scored using a tool that enabled rating of many specific aspects of the technology on a 4-point system. The maturity of the technologies ranged from well-tested instrument packages that had been designed for space applications and were nearly ready for flight to technologies that were untested and speculative in nature. All but one technology involved the use of gas chromatography for separation, and there were various detectors proposed including several mass spectrometers and ion mobility spectrometers. In general there was a tradeoff between large systems with considerable capability to address the target list and smaller systems that had much more limited capability.

  2. Human-Centered Technologies and Procedures for Future Air Traffic Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Philip; Woods, David; McCoy, Elaine; Billings, Charles; Sarter, Nadine; Denning, Rebecca; Dekker, Sidney

    1997-01-01

    The use of various methodologies to predict the impact of future Air Traffic Management (ATM) concepts and technologies is explored. The emphasis has been on the importance of modeling coordination and cooperation among multiple agents within this system, and on understanding how the interactions among these agents will be influenced as new roles, responsibilities, procedures and technologies are introduced. To accomplish this, we have been collecting data on performance under the current air traffic management system, identifying critical problem areas and looking for examples suggestive of general approaches for solving such problems. Using the results of these field studies, we have developed a set of concrete scenarios centered around future designs, and have studied performance in these scenarios with a set of 40 controllers, dispatchers, pilots and traffic managers.

  3. Sustainable in-well vapor stripping: A design, analytical model, and pilot study for groundwater remediation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sutton, Patrick T.; Ginn, Timothy R.

    2014-12-01

    A sustainable in-well vapor stripping system is designed as a cost-effective alternative for remediation of shallow chlorinated solvent groundwater plumes. A solar-powered air compressor is used to inject air bubbles into a monitoring well to strip volatile organic compounds from a liquid to vapor phase while simultaneously inducing groundwater circulation around the well screen. An analytical model of the remediation process is developed to estimate contaminant mass flow and removal rates. The model was calibrated based on a one-day pilot study conducted in an existing monitoring well at a former dry cleaning site. According to the model, induced groundwater circulation at the study site increased the contaminant mass flow rate into the well by approximately two orders of magnitude relative to ambient conditions. Modeled estimates for 5 h of pulsed air injection per day at the pilot study site indicated that the average effluent concentrations of dissolved tetrachloroethylene and trichloroethylene can be reduced by over 90% relative to the ambient concentrations. The results indicate that the system could be used cost-effectively as either a single- or multi-well point technology to substantially reduce the mass of dissolved chlorinated solvents in groundwater.

  4. Sustainable in-well vapor stripping: A design, analytical model, and pilot study for groundwater remediation.

    PubMed

    Sutton, Patrick T; Ginn, Timothy R

    2014-12-15

    A sustainable in-well vapor stripping system is designed as a cost-effective alternative for remediation of shallow chlorinated solvent groundwater plumes. A solar-powered air compressor is used to inject air bubbles into a monitoring well to strip volatile organic compounds from a liquid to vapor phase while simultaneously inducing groundwater circulation around the well screen. An analytical model of the remediation process is developed to estimate contaminant mass flow and removal rates. The model was calibrated based on a one-day pilot study conducted in an existing monitoring well at a former dry cleaning site. According to the model, induced groundwater circulation at the study site increased the contaminant mass flow rate into the well by approximately two orders of magnitude relative to ambient conditions. Modeled estimates for 5h of pulsed air injection per day at the pilot study site indicated that the average effluent concentrations of dissolved tetrachloroethylene and trichloroethylene can be reduced by over 90% relative to the ambient concentrations. The results indicate that the system could be used cost-effectively as either a single- or multi-well point technology to substantially reduce the mass of dissolved chlorinated solvents in groundwater. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Effect of pretreatments and air-frying, a novel technology, on acrylamide generation in fried potatoes.

    PubMed

    Sansano, M; Juan-Borrás, M; Escriche, I; Andrés, A; Heredia, A

    2015-05-01

    This paper investigated the effect of air-frying technology, in combination with a pretreatment based of soaking the samples in different chemical agent solutions (citric acid, glycine, calcium lactate, sodium chloride, or nicotinic acid [vitamin B3]), on the generation of acrylamide in fried potatoes. The influence of reducing sugars on the development of surface's color was also analyzed. The experiments were conducted at 180 °C by means of air-frying and deep-oil-frying, as a reference technology. Based on the evolution of color crust with frying time, it could be concluded that the rate of Maillard reaction decreased as the initial reducing sugars content increased in the raw material, and was also lower for deep-oil-frying than for air-frying regardless of pretreatments applied. Air-frying reduced acrylamide content by about 90% compared with conventional deep-oil-frying without being necessary the application of a pretreatment. However, deep-oil fried potatoes pretreated with solutions of nicotinic acid, citric acid, glycine at 1%, and NaCl at 2% presented much lower acrylamide levels (up to 80% to 90% reduction) than nonpretreated samples. © 2015 Institute of Food Technologists®

  6. Site Evaluation for Application of Fuel Cell Technology, Nellis Air Force Base, NV

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-03-01

    participated in the development and application of advanced fuel cell technology since fiscal yea 1993 (FY93). CERL selected and evaluated application sites...feedback to manufacturers for 29 of 30 commercially available fuel cell power plants and their thermal interfaces installed at Department of Defense...DoD) locations. This report presents an overview of the information collected at Nellis Air Force Base, NV, along with a conceptual fuel cell installation

  7. PM10 emission factor listing developed by technology transfer and AIRS source classification codes with documentation

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-11-01

    The report provides a listing of particulate matter emission factors, size-specific = or < 10 micrometers (PM10) for fuel combustion, industrial and commercial operations, and solid wastes disposals. The factor list is identified with appropriate EPA AIRS Facility Subsystem (AFS) Source Classification Codes (SCCs) and their process descriptions. An appendix to the listing provides documentation of technology transfer rationale for the PM10 emission factors.

  8. Rationale and plan for Center for Building Technology Research to improve indoor air quality

    SciTech Connect

    McNall, P.E.

    1986-01-01

    This report outlines a suggested five-year research plan for the Center for Building Technology (CBT) in support of resolving the emerging indoor-air-quality problem. The problem is defined, and the past research is summarized. The important Federal responsibilities are identified. NBS contributions and capabilities are noted. Future research needs are covered, and these form the basis for the CBT research plan, in cooperation with other Federal agencies, state and local governments, and the private sector.

  9. Bismuth-based electrochemical stripping analysis

    DOEpatents

    Wang, Joseph

    2004-01-27

    Method and apparatus for trace metal detection and analysis using bismuth-coated electrodes and electrochemical stripping analysis. Both anodic stripping voltammetry and adsorptive stripping analysis may be employed.

  10. Air Traffic Management Technology Demostration: 1 Research and Procedural Testing of Routes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Sara R.; Kibler, Jennifer L.; Hubbs, Clay E.; Smail, James W.

    2015-01-01

    NASA's Air Traffic Management Technology Demonstration-1 (ATD-1) will operationally demonstrate the feasibility of efficient arrival operations combining ground-based and airborne NASA technologies. The ATD-1 integrated system consists of the Traffic Management Advisor with Terminal Metering which generates precise time-based schedules to the runway and merge points; Controller Managed Spacing decision support tools which provide controllers with speed advisories and other information needed to meet the schedule; and Flight deck-based Interval Management avionics and procedures which allow flight crews to adjust their speed to achieve precise relative spacing. Initial studies identified air-ground challenges related to the integration of these three scheduling and spacing technologies, and NASA's airborne spacing algorithm was modified to address some of these challenges. The Research and Procedural Testing of Routes human-in-the-loop experiment was then conducted to assess the performance of the new spacing algorithm. The results of this experiment indicate that the algorithm performed as designed, and the pilot participants found the airborne spacing concept, air-ground procedures, and crew interface to be acceptable. However, the researchers concluded that the data revealed issues with the frequency of speed changes and speed reversals.

  11. An investigation of air transportation technology at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 1991-1992

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simpson, Robert W.

    1993-01-01

    There are two completed projects and five new or continuing research activities under the sponsorship of the FAA/NASA Joint University Program as the 1991-92 period ends. A brief summary of some of the continuing research projects is provided. The active research projects are: (1) extensions for the FASA (Final Approach Spacing Advisory) System; (2) radar tracking around a turn; (3) impact of advanced technologies of single pilot IFR operations; (4) system and human limitations in millimeter wave and infrared synthetic vision systems; and (5) differences in party line information usage by operational user groups.

  12. Laboratory test plan in-well vapor stripping system

    SciTech Connect

    Koegler, K.J

    1994-07-01

    This test plan describes the activities that will be conducted as a part of the laboratory testing of a full-scale mockup of the Stanford in-well vapor stripping system. These tests will be conducted to delineate design parameters for the in-well vapor stripping unit and to identify and quantify variables that are sensitive to the dynamic hydraulic effects induced by operation of the system. No radioactive materials are involved in this test. In-well vapor stripping has been used successfully as an alternative to conventional pump-and-treat technology for remediation of volatile organic compound (VOC) contaminated groundwater in Europe and more recently inmore » the United States. In-well vapor stripping permits in situ remediation of VOC-contaminated groundwater by combining an in-well vapor stripping system with a treatment well is used to extract and discharge groundwater simultaneously, resulting in the establishment of a vertical circulation groundwater flow cell in the aquifer. Groundwater extracted from the aquifer via the lower screened interval is treated for VOCs by in-well vapor stripping within the treatment well. This stripping causes aqueous phase VOCs to partition preferentially into a vapor phase. Treated groundwater is discharged back to the aquifer via the upper screened interval of the treatment well, while the vapor phase VOCs are simultaneously removed from the well bore and contained at the surface with a vacuum extraction system. Groundwater entrained into the vertical circulation flow cell becomes sequentially cleaned of VOC contamination in an efficient manner without the need for surface treatment and handling of contaminated groundwater. An added benefit of in-well vapor stripping is the ability to perform vadose zone vapor extraction concurrently with groundwater remediation. This uses the vacuum extraction capabilities of the in-well vapor stripping configured with the upper screened interval placed into the vadose zone above the

  13. NASA/Air Force/Environmental Protection Agency Interagency Depainting Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark-Ingram, Marceia

    1998-01-01

    Many popular and widely used paint stripping products have traditionally contained methylene chloride as their main active ingredient. However, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has critically curved the allowable use of methylene chloride under the National Emission Standard for Hazardous Air Pollutants regulating Aerospace Manufacturing and Rework Facilities . Compliance with this rule was mandatory by September 1998 for affected facilities. An effort is underway to identify and evaluate alternative depainting technologies emphasizing those believed both effective and environmentally benign. On behalf of the EPA and in cooperation with the United States Air Force, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration is conducting a technical assessment of several alternative technologies ( i.e. : chemical stripping, two CO2 blasting processes, CO2 xenon lamp coating removal, CO2 Laser stripping, plastic media blasting, sodium bicarbonate wet stripping, high pressure water stripping, and wheat starch blasting). These depainting processes represent five removal method categories, namely abrasive, impact, cryogenic, thermal, and/or molecular bonding dissociation. This paper discusses the test plan and parameters for this interagency study. Several thicknesses of clad and non-clad aluminum substrates were used to prepare test specimens. Each depainting process has been assigned a specimen lot, all of which have completed three to five stripping cycles. Numerous metallurgical evaluations are underway to assess the impact of these alternative depainting processes upon the structural integrity of the substrate.

  14. Simulation of the introduction of new technologies in air traffic management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yliniemi, Logan; Agogino, Adrian K.; Tumer, Kagan

    2015-07-01

    Accurate simulation of the effects of integrating new technologies into a complex system is critical to the modernisation of large infrastructure problems. This is especially true in the modernisation of our antiquated air traffic system, where there exist many layers of interacting procedures, controls, and automation all designed to cooperate with human operators. Additions of even simple new technologies may result in unexpected emergent behaviour due to complex human/machine interactions. One approach is to create high-fidelity human models coming from the field of human factors that can simulate a rich set of behaviours. However, such models are difficult to produce, especially to show unexpected emergent behaviour coming from many human operators interacting simultaneously within a complex system. Instead, we introduce an alternate approach. Instead of engineering complex human models, we directly model the emergent behaviour with relatively simple goal-directed agents. In this model, each autonomous agent in a system pursues individual goals, and the high-level behaviour of the system emerges from the interactions, foreseen or unforeseen, between the agents/actors. We show that this method is capable of reflecting the integration of new technologies in a historical case, and apply the same methodology for a possible future technology. Finally, we show how these high-level simulated behaviours compare to actual deployed air traffic control mechanisms in use today.

  15. Range gated strip proximity sensor

    DOEpatents

    McEwan, T.E.

    1996-12-03

    A range gated strip proximity sensor uses one set of sensor electronics and a distributed antenna or strip which extends along the perimeter to be sensed. A micro-power RF transmitter is coupled to the first end of the strip and transmits a sequence of RF pulses on the strip to produce a sensor field along the strip. A receiver is coupled to the second end of the strip, and generates a field reference signal in response to the sequence of pulse on the line combined with received electromagnetic energy from reflections in the field. The sensor signals comprise pulses of radio frequency signals having a duration of less than 10 nanoseconds, and a pulse repetition rate on the order of 1 to 10 MegaHertz or less. The duration of the radio frequency pulses is adjusted to control the range of the sensor. An RF detector feeds a filter capacitor in response to received pulses on the strip line to produce a field reference signal representing the average amplitude of the received pulses. When a received pulse is mixed with a received echo, the mixing causes a fluctuation in the amplitude of the field reference signal, providing a range-limited Doppler type signature of a field disturbance. 6 figs.

  16. Range gated strip proximity sensor

    DOEpatents

    McEwan, Thomas E.

    1996-01-01

    A range gated strip proximity sensor uses one set of sensor electronics and a distributed antenna or strip which extends along the perimeter to be sensed. A micro-power RF transmitter is coupled to the first end of the strip and transmits a sequence of RF pulses on the strip to produce a sensor field along the strip. A receiver is coupled to the second end of the strip, and generates a field reference signal in response to the sequence of pulse on the line combined with received electromagnetic energy from reflections in the field. The sensor signals comprise pulses of radio frequency signals having a duration of less than 10 nanoseconds, and a pulse repetition rate on the order of 1 to 10 MegaHertz or less. The duration of the radio frequency pulses is adjusted to control the range of the sensor. An RF detector feeds a filter capacitor in response to received pulses on the strip line to produce a field reference signal representing the average amplitude of the received pulses. When a received pulse is mixed with a received echo, the mixing causes a fluctuation in the amplitude of the field reference signal, providing a range-limited Doppler type signature of a field disturbance.

  17. Direct Air Capture of CO2 - an Overview of Carbon Engineering's Technology and Pilot Plant Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holmes, G.; Corless, A.

    2014-12-01

    At Carbon Engineering, we are developing and commercializing technology to scrub CO2 directly from atmospheric air at industrial scale. By providing atmospheric CO2 for use in fuel production, we can enable production of transportation fuels with ultra-low carbon intensities, which command price premiums in the growing set of constrained fuels markets such as California's LCFS. We are a Calgary based startup founded in 2009 with 10 employees, and we are considered a global leader in the direct air capture (DAC) field. We will review CE's DAC technology, based on a wet-scrubbing "air contactor" which absorbs CO2 into aqueous solution, and a chemical looping "regeneration" component, which liberates pure CO2 from this aqueous solution while re-making the original absorption chemical. CE's DAC tecnology exports purified atmospheric CO2, combined with the combustion CO2 from plant energy usage, as the end product. We will also discuss CE's 2014-2015 end-to-end Pilot Demonstration Unit. This is a $7M technology demonstration plant that CE is building with the help of key industrial partners and equipment vendors. Vendor design and engineering requirements have been used to specify the pilot air contactor, pellet reactor, calciner, and slaker modules, as well as auxiliary systems. These modules will be run for several months to obtain the engineering and performance data needed for subsequent commercial plant design, as well as to test the residual integration risks associated with CE's process. By the time of the AGU conference, the pilot is expected to be in late stages of fabrication or early stages of site installation.

  18. The Panda Strip Asic: Pasta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lai, A.

    2018-01-01

    PASTA is the 64 channel front-end chip, designed in a 110 nm CMOS technology to read out the strip sensors of the Micro Vertex Detector (MVD) of the PANDA experiment. This chip provides high resolution timestamp and deposited charge information by means of the time-over-threshold technique. Its working principle is based on a predecessor, the TOFPET ASIC, that was designed for medical applications. A general restructuring of the architecture was needed, in order to meet the specific requirements imposed by the physics programme of PANDA, especially in terms of radiation tolerance, spatial constraints, and readout in absence of a first level hardware trigger. The first revision of PASTA is currently under evaluation at the Forschungszentrum Jülich, where a data acquisition system dedicated to the MVD prototypes has been developed. This paper describes the main aspect of the chip design, gives an overview of the data acquisition system used for the verification, and shows the first results regarding the performance of PASTA.

  19. Water-quality impacts and overburden chemistry of Indiana study site. Environmental control technology survey of selected US strip-mining sites

    SciTech Connect

    Henricks, J.D.; Bogner, J.E.; Vocke, R.W.

    1982-12-01

    As part of a program to examine the ability of existing control technologies to meet federal guidelines for the quality of aqueous effluents from coal mines, an intensive study of water quality was conducted at a surface coal mine in Indiana during 1976 and 1977. Sampling was conducted every two weeks during the period May 1976-August 1977 at discharges draining both active mining and spoil areas, as well as receiving streams. Values of pH, dissolved iron, and manganese were within applicable OSM limits in mine discharge, but the total suspended solids limit was occasionally exceeded. The overburden at this sitemore » consists of calcareous till over shales with highly variable sulfur content.« less

  20. Air Force electrochemical power research and technology program for space applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, Douglas

    1987-01-01

    An overview is presented of the existing Air Force electrochemical power, battery, and fuel cell programs for space application. Present thrusts are described along with anticipated technology availability dates. Critical problems to be solved before system applications occur are highlighted. Areas of needed performance improvement of batteries and fuel cells presently used are outlined including target dates for key demonstrations of advanced technology. Anticipated performance and current schedules for present technology programs are reviewed. Programs that support conventional military satellite power systems and special high power applications are reviewed. Battery types include bipolar lead-acid, nickel-cadmium, silver-zinc, nickel-hydrogen, sodium-sulfur, and some candidate advanced couples. Fuel cells for pulsed and transportation power applications are discussed as are some candidate advanced regenerative concepts.

  1. Direct Cast Titanium Alloy Strip

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-08-01

    strip that has low levels of oxygen, hydrogen , nitrogen and carbon. There was no evidence of carbon contamination from the graphite tundish. The...6A-4V, Ti-14A1-21Nb and Ti-34A1-4V alloys were cast into 300-mm (12-in)-wide strip. The system casts strip that has low levels of oxygen, hydrogen ... floride slag to electrically insulate the titanium melt from the crucible wall. Duriron discovered that the calcium floride could be eliminated without

  2. Innovative pollution prevention program at Air Force owned Raytheon operated facility incorporating Russian technology

    SciTech Connect

    Stallings, J.H.; Cepeda-Calderon, S.

    1999-07-01

    Air Force Plant 44 in Tucson, Arizona is owned by the Air Force and operated by Raytheon Missile Systems Company. A joint Air Force/Raytheon Pollution Prevention Team operates at AFP 44 with the ultimate goal to minimize or eliminate the use of hazardous substances. The team works together to uncover new technologies and methods that will replace chemicals used in the plant's missile manufacturing facilities. The program maximizes pollution prevention by first eliminating hazardous material use, then chemical recycling, next hazardous waste reduction and finally wastewater treatment and recycling. From fiscal years 1994 through 1997, nine pollution prevention projects havemore » been implemented, totaling $2.6 million, with a payback averaging less than two years. A unique wastewater treatment method has been demonstrated as part of this program. This is electroflotation, a Russian technology which removes dispersed particles from liquid with gas bubbles obtained during water electrolysis. A unit was built in the US which successfully removed organic emulsions from wastewater. Operational units are planned for the removal of waste from waterfall paint booths. The pollution prevention joint team continues to be very active with two projects underway in FY 98 and two more funded for FY 99.« less

  3. Sustainable Water and Energy in Gaza Strip

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamdan, L.; Zarei, M.; Chianelli, R.; Gardner, E.

    2007-12-01

    Shortage of fresh water is a common problem in different areas of the world including the Middle East. Desalination of seawater and brackish water is the cheapest way to obtain fresh water in many regions. This research focuses on the situation in Gaza Strip where there is a severe shortage in the energy and water supply. The depletion of fresh water supplies and lack of wastewater treatments result in environmental problems. A solar powered cogeneration plant producing water and energy is proposed to be a suitable solution for Gaza Strip. Solar energy, using Concentrating Solar thermal Power (CSP) technologies, is used to produce electricity by a steam cycle power plant. Then the steam is directed to a desalination plant where it is used to heat the seawater to obtain freshwater. The main objective of this research is to outline a solution for the water problems in Gaza Strip, which includes a cogeneration (power and water) solar powered plant. The research includes four specific objectives: 1- an environmental and economic comparison between solar and fossil fuel energies; 2- technical details for the cogeneration plant; 3- cost and funding, 4- the benefits.

  4. CLOSED-LOOP STRIPPING ANALYSIS (CLSA) OF ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Synthetic musk compounds have been found in surface water, fish tissues, and human breast milk. Current techniques for separating these compounds from fish tissues require tedious sample clean-upprocedures A simple method for the deterrnination of these compounds in fish tissues has been developed. Closed-loop stripping of saponified fish tissues in a I -L Wheaton purge-and-trap vessel is used to strip compounds with high vapor pressures such as synthetic musks from the matrix onto a solid sorbent (Abselut Nexus). This technique is useful for screening biological tissues that contain lipids for musk compounds. Analytes are desorbed from the sorbent trap sequentially with polar and nonpolar solvents, concentrated, and directly analyzed by high resolution gas chromatography coupled to a mass spectrometer operating in the selected ion monitoring mode. In this paper, we analyzed two homogenized samples of whole fish tissues with spiked synthetic musk compounds using closed-loop stripping analysis (CLSA) and pressurized liquid extraction (PLE). The analytes were not recovered quantitatively but the extraction yield was sufficiently reproducible for at least semi-quantitative purposes (screening). The method was less expensive to implement and required significantly less sample preparation than the PLE technique. The research focused on in the subtasks is the development and application of state-of the-art technologies to meet the needs of the public, Office of Water,

  5. Environmental control technology survey of selected US strip mining sites. Volume 2B. Alabama. Water quality impacts and overburden chemistry of Alabama study site

    SciTech Connect

    Henricks, J D; Bogner, J E; Olsen, R D

    1980-05-01

    As part of a program to examine the ability of existing control technologies to meet federal guidelines for the quality of aqueous effluents from coal mines, an intensive study of water, coal, and overburden chemistry was conducted at a surface coal mine in Alabama from May 1976 through July 1977. Sampling sites included the pit sump, a stream downgrade from the mine, the discharge from the water treatment facility, and a small stream outside the mine drainage. Water samples were collected every two weeks by Argonne subcontractors at the Alabama Geological Survey and analysed for the following parameters: specific conductance,more » pH, temperature, acidity, bicarbonate, carbonate, chloride, total dissolved solids, suspended solids, sulfate, and 20 metals. Analysis of the coal and overburden shows that no potential acid problem exists at this mine. Water quality is good in both streams sampled, and high levels of dissolved elements are found only in water collected from the pit sump. The mine effluent is in compliance with Office of Surface Mining water quality standards.« less

  6. Environmental control technology survey of selected US strip mining sites. Volume 2C: Eastern Kentucky. Water quality impacts and overburden chemistry of Eastern Kentucky study sites

    SciTech Connect

    Schubert, J.P.; Bogner, J.E.; Henricks, J.D.

    1981-06-01

    As part of a program to examine the ability of existing control technologies to meet federal guidelines for the quality of aqueous effluents from coal mines, an intensive study of water, overburden, and coal chemistry was conducted at two surface coal mines in eastern Kentucky during 1976 and 1977. At Mine KY-1, very low concentrations of sulfur in the overburden rock and spoil resulted in alkaline mine water, with mean concentrations of iron and manganese about twice as high, and total suspended solids five times as high, as mean concentrations in the receiving stream. The high concentrations of total suspendedmore » solids, which nearly always exceeded the daily maximum allowable concentration set by the US Office of Surface Mining, were due to the inadequate water depth and short retention time in the settling ponds. At Mine KY-2, although high concentrations of sulfur were found in the overburden, the pH in a stream below the mine was usually between 6.0 and 8.0. After passing through a small settling pond, water from the mined KY-2 watershed had concentrations of calcium, zinc, and manganese that were 1.4, 7.5, and 19 times greater, respectively, than concentrations in the receiving stream. Suspended sediment in the KY-2 discharge was much less than that in the receiving stream. At either site, no significant increase in concentrations of any chemical parameter was perceptible in the receiving streams as a result of mine discharges. However, in the receiving stream below the KY-1 discharge, the concentration of total suspended solids was twice that found upstream of the discharge.« less

  7. Environmental-control-technology survey of selected US strip-mining sites: water-quality impacts and overburden chemistry of Tennessee study sites

    SciTech Connect

    Henning, R.J.; Henricks, J.D.; Bogner, J.E.

    1982-12-01

    As part of a program to examine the ability of existing control technologies to meet federal guidelines for the quality of aqueous effluents from coal mines, an intensive study of water quality was conducted at two surface coal mines in Tennessee during 1976 and 1977. In general, water quality in receiving streams below each mine is poor due to previous mining and inherent conditions such as poor substrate, low-volume discharges, and naturally low pH. Effluents from both mines appear to contribute acidic water that contains dissolved, potentially toxic metals. At Mine TN-1, treatment of acid drainage by diversion through limestone-riprappedmore » channels and an automatic NaOH feeder did not appear effective in controlling pH, iron, and manganese. Sedimentation ponds at TN-2 do not appear effective in controlling pH, iron, and manganese. However, total suspended solids appear to be adequately controlled by sedimentation ponds at both sites. There is a general lack of neutralizers in the overburden sequence. Overburden from the weathered zone should be segregated and subsequently replaced on the surface after reclamation. The remaining overburden is potentially acid-toxic and should be mixed with limestone and returned to the pit on a layer of crushed limestone. Efforts should be made to limit infiltration into spoils. Water control should be exercised in order to minimize infiltration of oxygen-bearing water into the mine-soil; this will reduce formation of acid seeps at the base of the spoil. At both sites, mining would not significantly increase the magnitude of downstream flooding. Increased impact on the receiving stream.« less

  8. Development of a Novel Gas Pressurized Process-Based Technology for CO2 Capture from Post-Combustion Flue Gases Preliminary Year 1 Techno-Economic Study Results and Methodology for Gas Pressurized Stripping Process

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Shiaoguo

    2013-03-01

    Under the DOE’s Innovations for Existing Plants (IEP) Program, Carbon Capture Scientific, LLC (CCS) is developing a novel gas pressurized stripping (GPS) process to enable efficient post-combustion carbon capture (PCC) from coal-fired power plants. A technology and economic feasibility study is required as a deliverable in the project Statement of Project Objectives. This study analyzes a fully integrated pulverized coal power plant equipped with GPS technology for PCC, and is carried out, to the maximum extent possible, in accordance to the methodology and data provided in ATTACHMENT 3 – Basis for Technology Feasibility Study of DOE Funding Opportunity Number: DE-FOA-0000403.more » The DOE/NETL report on “Cost and Performance Baseline for Fossil Energy Plants, Volume 1: Bituminous Coal and Natural Gas to Electricity (Original Issue Date, May 2007), NETL Report No. DOE/NETL-2007/1281, Revision 1, August 2007” was used as the main source of reference to be followed, as per the guidelines of ATTACHMENT 3 of DE-FOA-0000403. The DOE/NETL-2007/1281 study compared the feasibility of various combinations of power plant/CO2 capture process arrangements. The report contained a comprehensive set of design basis and economic evaluation assumptions and criteria, which are used as the main reference points for the purpose of this study. Specifically, Nexant adopted the design and economic evaluation basis from Case 12 of the above-mentioned DOE/NETL report. This case corresponds to a nominal 550 MWe (net), supercritical greenfield PC plant that utilizes an advanced MEAbased absorption system for CO2 capture and compression. For this techno-economic study, CCS’ GPS process replaces the MEA-based CO2 absorption system used in the original case. The objective of this study is to assess the performance of a full-scale GPS-based PCC design that is integrated with a supercritical PC plant similar to Case 12 of the DOE/NETL report, such that it corresponds to a nominal 550

  9. Buffers and vegetative filter strips

    Treesearch

    Matthew J. Helmers; Thomas M. Isenhart; Michael G. Dosskey; Seth M. Dabney

    2008-01-01

    This chapter describes the use of buffers and vegetative filter strips relative to water quality. In particular, we primarily discuss the herbaceous components of the following NRCS Conservation Practice Standards.

  10. Assessment of stripped asphalt pavement.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1989-01-01

    Many miles of stripped pavement need to be restored to a serviceable condition, but there is no accepted procedure to determine whether the pavement should remain in place or be removed during the rehabilitation process. This report describes the att...

  11. Control strip study : interim report.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1972-01-01

    This report is concerned with the application of the "control strip" technique using nuclear devices for compaction control of certain base courses and asphaltic concrete surface course. The technique, as evaluated here, consisted of applying increas...

  12. The Dark Side of the Moebius Strip.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwarz, Gideon E.

    1990-01-01

    Discussed are various models proposed for the Moebius strip. Included are a discussion of a smooth flat model and two smooth flat algebraic models, some results concerning the shortest Moebius strip, the Moebius strip of least elastic energy, and some observations on real-world Moebius strips. (KR)

  13. Gaseous and air decontamination technologies for Clostridium difficile in the healthcare environment.

    PubMed

    Davies, A; Pottage, T; Bennett, A; Walker, J

    2011-03-01

    The recent data for hospital-acquired infections suggest that infection rates for meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and Clostridium difficile are beginning to decrease. However, while there is still pressure to maintain this trend, the resistance of C. difficile spores to standard detergents continues to present a problem for many UK hospitals trying to prevent its spread or control outbreaks. Alternative disinfection technologies such as gaseous decontamination are currently being marketed to the healthcare sector as an alternative/supplement to manual disinfection, and have been shown to be effective in reducing environmental contamination. When used correctly, they offer a complementary technology to manual cleaning that increases the probability of an effective reduction in viability and provides a comparatively uniform distribution of disinfectant. Three gaseous decontamination technologies are examined for their suitability in reducing environmental contamination with C. difficile: gaseous hydrogen peroxide, chlorine dioxide and ozone. Air decontamination and UV-based technologies are also briefly described. We conclude that while there is a role to play for these new technologies in the decontamination of ward surfaces contaminated with C. difficile, the requirement for both a preclean before use and the limited 'in vivo' evidence means that extensive field trials are necessary to determine their cost-effectiveness in a healthcare setting. Copyright © 2010 The Hospital Infection Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. High Altitude Long Endurance Air Vehicle Analysis of Alternatives and Technology Requirements Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nickol, Craig L.; Guynn, Mark D.; Kohout, Lisa L.; Ozoroski, Thomas A.

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this study was to develop a variety of High Altitude Long Endurance (HALE) Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) conceptual designs for two operationally useful missions (hurricane science and communications relay) and compare their performance and cost characteristics. Sixteen potential HALE UAV configurations were initially developed, including heavier-than-air (HTA) and lighter-than-air (LTA) concepts with both consumable fuel and solar regenerative (SR) propulsion systems. Through an Analysis of Alternatives (AoA) down select process, the two leading consumable fuel configurations (one each from the HTA and LTA alternatives) and an HTA SR configuration were selected for further analysis. Cost effectiveness analysis of the consumable fuel configurations revealed that simply maximizing vehicle endurance can lead to a sub-optimum system solution. An LTA concept with a hybrid propulsion system (solar arrays and a hydrogen-air proton exchange membrane fuel cell) was found to have the best mission performance; however, an HTA diesel-fueled wing-body-tail configuration emerged as the preferred consumable fuel concept because of the large size and technical risk of the LTA concept. The baseline missions could not be performed by even the best HTA SR concept. Mission and SR technology trade studies were conducted to enhance understanding of the potential capabilities of such a vehicle. With near-term technology SR-powered HTA vehicles are limited to operation in favorable solar conditions, such as the long days and short nights of summer at higher latitudes. Energy storage system specific energy and solar cell efficiency were found to be the key technology areas for enhancing HTA SR performance.

  15. Large Aircraft Robotic Paint Stripping (LARPS) system and the high pressure water process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    See, David W.; Hofacker, Scott A.; Stone, M. Anthony; Harbaugh, Darcy

    1993-03-01

    The aircraft maintenance industry is beset by new Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) guidelines on air emissions, Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) standards, dwindling labor markets, Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) safety guidelines, and increased operating costs. In light of these factors, the USAF's Wright Laboratory Manufacturing Technology Directorate and the Aircraft Division of the Oklahoma City Air Logistics Center initiated a MANTECH/REPTECH effort to automate an alternate paint removal method and eliminate the current manual methylene chloride chemical stripping methods. This paper presents some of the background and history of the LARPS program, describes the LARPS system, documents the projected operational flow, quantifies some of the projected system benefits and describes the High Pressure Water Stripping Process. Certification of an alternative paint removal method to replace the current chemical process is being performed in two phases: Process Optimization and Process Validation. This paper also presents the results of the Process Optimization for metal substrates. Data on the coating removal rate, residual stresses, surface roughness, preliminary process envelopes, and technical plans for process Validation Testing will be discussed.

  16. Better-Than-Visual Technologies for Next Generation Air Transportation System Terminal Maneuvering Area Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prinzel, Lawrence J., III; Bailey, Randall E.; Shelton, Kevin J.; Jones, Denise R.; Kramer, Lynda J.; Arthur, Jarvis J., III; Williams, Steve P.; Barmore, Bryan E.; Ellis, Kyle E.; Rehfeld, Sherri A.

    2011-01-01

    A consortium of industry, academia and government agencies are devising new concepts for future U.S. aviation operations under the Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen). Many key capabilities are being identified to enable NextGen, including the concept of Equivalent Visual Operations (EVO) replicating the capacity and safety of today's visual flight rules (VFR) in all-weather conditions. NASA is striving to develop the technologies and knowledge to enable EVO and to extend EVO towards a Better-Than-Visual (BTV) operational concept. The BTV operational concept uses an electronic means to provide sufficient visual references of the external world and other required flight references on flight deck displays that enable VFR-like operational tempos and maintain and improve the safety of VFR while using VFR-like procedures in all-weather conditions. NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) research on technologies to enable the concept of BTV is described.

  17. Strip casting with fluxing agent applied to casting roll

    DOEpatents

    Williams, R.S.; O`Malley, R.J.; Sussman, R.C.

    1997-07-29

    A strip caster for producing a continuous strip includes a tundish for containing a melt, a pair of horizontally disposed water cooled casting rolls and devices for electrostatically coating the outer peripheral chill surfaces of the casting rolls with a powder flux material. The casting rolls are juxtaposed relative to one another for forming a pouting basin for receiving the melt through a teeming tube thereby establishing a meniscus between the rolls for forming the strip. The melt is protected from the outside air by a non-oxidizing gas passed through a supply line to a sealing chamber. A preferred flux is boron oxide having a melting point of about 550 C. The flux coating enhances wetting of the steel melt to the casting roll and dissolves any metal oxide formed on the roll. 3 figs.

  18. Strip casting with fluxing agent applied to casting roll

    DOEpatents

    Williams, Robert S.; O'Malley, Ronald J.; Sussman, Richard C.

    1997-01-01

    A strip caster (10) for producing a continuous strip (24) includes a tundish (12) for containing a melt (14), a pair of horizontally disposed water cooled casting rolls (22) and devices (29) for electrostatically coating the outer peripheral chill surfaces (44) of the casting rolls with a powder flux material (56). The casting rolls are juxtaposed relative to one another for forming a pouting basin (18) for receiving the melt through a teeming tube (16) thereby establishing a meniscus (20) between the rolls for forming the strip. The melt is protected from the outside air by a non-oxidizing gas passed through a supply line (28) to a sealing chamber (26). A preferred flux is boron oxide having a melting point of about 550.degree. C. The flux coating enhances wetting of the steel melt to the casting roll and dissolves any metal oxide formed on the roll.

  19. Air Traffic Management Technology Demonstration-1 Concept of Operations (ATD-1 ConOps), Version 3.0

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baxley, Brian T.; Johnson, William C.; Scardina, John; Shay, Richard F.

    2016-01-01

    This document describes the goals, benefits, technologies, and procedures of the Concept of Operations (ConOps) for the Air Traffic Management (ATM) Technology Demonstration #1 (ATD-1), and provides an update to the previous versions of the document [ref 1 and ref 2].

  20. AIR Louisville: Addressing Asthma With Technology, Crowdsourcing, Cross-Sector Collaboration, And Policy.

    PubMed

    Barrett, Meredith; Combs, Veronica; Su, Jason G; Henderson, Kelly; Tuffli, Michael

    2018-04-01

    Cross-sector partnerships benefit public health by leveraging ideas, resources, and expertise from a wide range of partners. In this study we documented the process and impact of AIR Louisville (a collaboration forged among the Louisville Metro Government, a nonprofit institute, and a technology company) in successfully tackling a complex public health challenge: asthma. We enrolled residents of Louisville, Kentucky, with asthma and used electronic inhaler sensors to monitor where and when they used medication. We found that the use of the digital health platform achieved positive clinical outcomes, including a 78 percent reduction in rescue inhaler use and a 48 percent improvement in symptom-free days. Moreover, the crowdsourced real-world data on inhaler use, combined with environmental data, led to policy recommendations including enhancing tree canopy, tree removal mitigation, zoning for air pollution emission buffers, recommended truck routes, and developing a community asthma notification system. AIR Louisville represents a model that can be replicated to address many public health challenges by simultaneously guiding individual, clinical, and policy decisions.

  1. All the Missiles Work: Technological Dislocations and Military Innovation: A Case Study in US Air Force Air-to-Air Armament, Post-World War II through Operation Rolling Thunder

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-01-01

    innovative systems integration vice outright systems acquisition, and the need for credible, innovative individuals and courageous commanders who are willing...Armament—United States—History. 4. Airplanes, Military— Armament—Technological innovations. 5. United States. Air Force—Weapons systems ...science from SAASS. He is currently pursuing a PhD in engineering systems at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. xiii Acknowledgments Like

  2. Spacecraft environmental interactions: A joint Air Force and NASA research and technology program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pike, C. P.; Purvis, C. K.; Hudson, W. R.

    1985-01-01

    A joint Air Force/NASA comprehensive research and technology program on spacecraft environmental interactions to develop technology to control interactions between large spacecraft systems and the charged-particle environment of space is described. This technology will support NASA/Department of Defense operations of the shuttle/IUS, shuttle/Centaur, and the force application and surveillance and detection missions, planning for transatmospheric vehicles and the NASA space station, and the AFSC military space system technology model. The program consists of combined contractual and in-house efforts aimed at understanding spacecraft environmental interaction phenomena and relating results of ground-based tests to space conditions. A concerted effort is being made to identify project-related environmental interactions of concern. The basic properties of materials are being investigated to develop or modify the materials as needed. A group simulation investigation is evaluating basic plasma interaction phenomena to provide inputs to the analytical modeling investigation. Systems performance is being evaluated by both groundbased tests and analysis.

  3. Directions in US Air Force space power energy generation and distribution technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reinhardt, Kitt; Keener, Dave; Schuller, Mike

    1997-01-01

    Recent trends in the development of high efficiency, light-weight, reliable and cost-effective space power technologies needed to support the development of near-term, next-generation government and commercial satellites will be discussed. Significant advancements in light-weight and reduced volume electrical power system (EPS) components are required to enable the design of future smallsats with power requirements of less than 1000 W to monster-sats having projected power demands ranging from 10-50 kW for civilian and military communications and space based radar needs. For these missions increased emphasis is placed on reducing total satellite mass to enable use of smaller, less costly, and easier to deploy launch vehicles. In support of these requirements a complement of power generation, power management and distribution, and energy storage technologies are under development at the Air Force Phillips Laboratory Space and Missiles Technology Directorate. Specific technologies presented in this paper include high efficiency multijunction solar cells, low-cost thin-film solar cells, ultra light-weight flexible solar arrays, solar electric thermal converters, and high-voltage (70-130 V) and high-efficiency power management and distribution (PMAD) electronics. The projected impact of EPS subsystem performance on existing, near-term, and next-generation 10-50 kW military satellites will be discussed, along with technical issues and status of EPS component development.

  4. Evolutionary Agent-Based Simulation of the Introduction of New Technologies in Air Traffic Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yliniemi, Logan; Agogino, Adrian K.; Tumer, Kagan

    2014-01-01

    Accurate simulation of the effects of integrating new technologies into a complex system is critical to the modernization of our antiquated air traffic system, where there exist many layers of interacting procedures, controls, and automation all designed to cooperate with human operators. Additions of even simple new technologies may result in unexpected emergent behavior due to complex human/ machine interactions. One approach is to create high-fidelity human models coming from the field of human factors that can simulate a rich set of behaviors. However, such models are difficult to produce, especially to show unexpected emergent behavior coming from many human operators interacting simultaneously within a complex system. Instead of engineering complex human models, we directly model the emergent behavior by evolving goal directed agents, representing human users. Using evolution we can predict how the agent representing the human user reacts given his/her goals. In this paradigm, each autonomous agent in a system pursues individual goals, and the behavior of the system emerges from the interactions, foreseen or unforeseen, between the agents/actors. We show that this method reflects the integration of new technologies in a historical case, and apply the same methodology for a possible future technology.

  5. Air quality and climate impacts of alternative bus technologies in Greater London.

    PubMed

    Chong, Uven; Yim, Steve H L; Barrett, Steven R H; Boies, Adam M

    2014-04-15

    The environmental impact of diesel-fueled buses can potentially be reduced by the adoption of alternative propulsion technologies such as lean-burn compressed natural gas (LB-CNG) or hybrid electric buses (HEB), and emissions control strategies such as a continuously regenerating trap (CRT), exhaust gas recirculation (EGR), or selective catalytic reduction with trap (SCRT). This study assessed the environmental costs and benefits of these bus technologies in Greater London relative to the existing fleet and characterized emissions changes due to alternative technologies. We found a >30% increase in CO2 equivalent (CO2e) emissions for CNG buses, a <5% change for exhaust treatment scenarios, and a 13% (90% confidence interval 3.8-20.9%) reduction for HEB relative to baseline CO2e emissions. A multiscale regional chemistry-transport model quantified the impact of alternative bus technologies on air quality, which was then related to premature mortality risk. We found the largest decrease in population exposure (about 83%) to particulate matter (PM2.5) occurred with LB-CNG buses. Monetized environmental and investment costs relative to the baseline gave estimated net present cost of LB-CNG or HEB conversion to be $187 million ($73 million to $301 million) or $36 million ($-25 million to $102 million), respectively, while EGR or SCRT estimated net present costs were $19 million ($7 million to $32 million) or $15 million ($8 million to $23 million), respectively.

  6. NREL's Energy-Saving Technology for Air Conditioning Cuts Peak Power Loads Without Using Harmful Refrigerants (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2012-07-01

    This fact sheet describes how the DEVAP air conditioner was invented, explains how the technology works, and why it won an R&D 100 Award. Desiccant-enhanced evaporative (DEVAP) air-conditioning will provide superior comfort for commercial buildings in any climate at a small fraction of the electricity costs of conventional air-conditioning equipment, releasing far less carbon dioxide and cutting costly peak electrical demand by an estimated 80%. Air conditioning currently consumes about 15% of the electricity generated in the United States and is a major contributor to peak electrical demand on hot summer days, which can lead to escalating power costs, brownouts,more » and rolling blackouts. DEVAP employs an innovative combination of air-cooling technologies to reduce energy use by up to 81%. DEVAP also shifts most of the energy needs to thermal energy sources, reducing annual electricity use by up to 90%. In doing so, DEVAP is estimated to cut peak electrical demand by nearly 80% in all climates. Widespread use of this cooling cycle would dramatically cut peak electrical loads throughout the country, saving billions of dollars in investments and operating costs for our nation's electrical utilities. Water is already used as a refrigerant in evaporative coolers, a common and widely used energy-saving technology for arid regions. The technology cools incoming hot, dry air by evaporating water into it. The energy absorbed by the water as it evaporates, known as the latent heat of vaporization, cools the air while humidifying it. However, evaporative coolers only function when the air is dry, and they deliver humid air that can lower the comfort level for building occupants. And even many dry climates like Phoenix, Arizona, have a humid season when evaporative cooling won't work well. DEVAP extends the applicability of evaporative cooling by first using a liquid desiccant-a water-absorbing material-to dry the air. The dry air is then passed to an indirect

  7. Amperometric Gas Sensors as a Low Cost Emerging Technology Platform for Air Quality Monitoring Applications: A Review.

    PubMed

    Baron, Ronan; Saffell, John

    2017-11-22

    This review examines the use of amperometric electrochemical gas sensors for monitoring inorganic gases that affect urban air quality. First, we consider amperometric gas sensor technology including its development toward specifically designed air quality sensors. We then review recent academic and research organizations' studies where this technology has been trialed for air quality monitoring applications: early studies showed the potential of electrochemical gas sensors when colocated with reference Air Quality Monitoring (AQM) stations. Spatially dense networks with fast temporal resolution provide information not available from sparse AQMs with longer recording intervals. We review how this technology is being offered as commercial urban air quality networks and consider the remaining challenges. Sensors must be sensitive, selective, and stable; air quality monitors/nodes must be electronically and mechanically well designed. Data correction is required and models with differing levels of sophistication are being designed. Data analysis and validation is possibly the biggest remaining hurdle needed to deliver reliable concentration readings. Finally, this review also considers the roles of companies, urban infrastructure requirements, and public research in the development of this technology.

  8. Effectiveness of anti-strip agents in asphalt mixtures.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2012-07-01

    Since the late 1970s there has been much research performed to better understand the stripping phenomenon in asphalt mixtures. : As a result, there have been changes in both materials and technology over the past 30 years to improve the resistance to...

  9. Optical strip waveguide: an analysis.

    PubMed

    Ogusu, K; Kawakami, S; Nishida, S

    1979-03-15

    An analysis of the strip waveguide is presented with special emphasis on reflection and transmission of a wave obliquely incident on the side of a strip. Mode conversion and the contribution of radiation modes are taken into account in the formulation. The numerical results of the mode conversion and attenuation constant of the fundamental leaky mode are presented and compared with the results of other authors. The numerical accuracy of our analysis is also checked by two different procedures. It is found that the radiation modes have considerable effects on the waveguide characteristics.

  10. Strip kymography of the glottis.

    PubMed

    Gall, V

    1984-01-01

    In this paper, a new photokymographical method of recording vocal cord vibrations is described, which has considerable advantages over the hitherto known method of larynx photokymography. Its temporal dissolving power is increased and the registration time can be prolonged to any extent. For one registration a series of so-called strip kymograms has to be made, where each single photo shows vibration-dependent, wave-formed distortions of the vocal cord margins of a selected section of the glottis. The possibilities of measurement are indicated. In some examples of strip kymograms the diagnostic efficiency of this method is demonstrated.

  11. Characteristics of laminates with delamination control strips

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sun, C. T.; Goering, J. C.; Alper, J. M.; Gause, L. W.

    1992-01-01

    Tough resin is needed to resist delamination crack propagation. However, modulus often has to be compromised because it is difficult to retain both high modulus and toughness in a matrix material. A potential solution is to use a hybrid system in which tough resin strips are included within a conventional matrix composite. By adjusting the spacing of the tough resin strips, maximum delamination size can be controlled. Experimental results for impact damage and subsequent damage propagation in laminates containing tough resin strips are reported. Plain adhesive strips and fiber-reinforced tough resin composite strips were used in constructing the hybrid laminates. Test results indicated that size of delamination inflicted by impact was confined between the tough resin strips. As a result, significantly increased residual compressive strength was obtained. Impacted laminates containing tough resin strips were also fatigue tested. It was found that these strips reduced the growth of the impact damage area relative to the growth seen in coupons with no tough resin strips. Damage growth from an open hole under tension fatigue was evaluated using both tough resin strips and glass fiber reinforced tough resin strips. Unreinforced tough resin strips retarded delamination growth from the open hole, but did not stop matrix cracks growing in the fiber direction. Fiber reinforced tough resin strips did not contain axial delamination growth from the open hole. However, they did act as crack arresters, stopping the through-the-thickness tension crack originating from the hole.

  12. Methods proposed to achieve air quality standards for mobile sources and technology surveillance.

    PubMed Central

    Piver, W T

    1975-01-01

    The methods proposed to meet the 1975 Standards of the Clean Air Act for mobile sources are alternative antiknocks, exhaust emission control devices, and alternative engine designs. Technology surveillance analysis applied to this situation is an attempt to anticipate potential public and environmental health problems from these methods, before they happen. Components of this analysis are exhaust emission characterization, environmental transport and transformation, levels of public and environmental exposure, and the influence of economics on the selection of alternative methods. The purpose of this presentation is to show trends as a result of the interaction of these different components. In no manner can these trends be interpreted explicitly as to what will really happen. Such an analysis is necessary so that public and environmental health officials have the opportunity to act on potential problems before they become manifest. PMID:50944

  13. Japanese power electronics inverter technology and its impact on the American air conditioning industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ushimaru, Kenji

    1990-08-01

    Since 1983, technological advances and market growth of inverter-driven variable-speed heat pumps in Japan have been dramatic. The high level of market penetration was promoted by a combination of political, economic, and trade policies in Japan. A unique environment was created in which the leading domestic industries, microprocessor manufacturing, compressors for air conditioning and refrigerators, and power electronic devices, were able to direct the development and market success of inverter-driven heat pumps. As a result, leading U.S. variable-speed heat pump manufacturers should expect a challenge from the Japanese producers of power devices and microprocessors. Because of the vertically-integrated production structure in Japan, in contrast to the out-sourcing culture of the United States, price competition at the component level (such as inverters, sensors, and controls) may impact the structure of the industry more severely than final product sales.

  14. Effects of a New Cooling Technology on Physical Performance in US Air Force Military Personnel.

    PubMed

    O'Hara, Reginald; Vojta, Christopher; Henry, Amy; Caldwell, Lydia; Wade, Molly; Swanton, Stacie; Linderman, Jon K; Ordway, Jason

    2016-01-01

    Heat-related illness is a critical factor for military personnel operating in hyperthermic environments. Heat illness can alter cognitive and physical performance during sustained operations missions. Therefore, the primary purpose of this investigation was to determine the effects of a novel cooling shirt on core body temperature in highly trained US Air Force personnel. Twelve trained (at least 80th percentile for aerobic fitness according to the American College of Sports Medicine, at least 90% on the US Air Force fitness test), male Air Force participants (mean values: age, 25 ± 2.8 years; height, 178 ± 7.9cm; body weight 78 ± 9.6kg; maximal oxygen uptake, 57 ± 1.9mL/kg/ min; and body fat, 10% ± 0.03%) completed this study. Subjects performed a 70-minute weighted treadmill walking test and 10-minute, 22.7kg sandbag shuttle test under two conditions: (1) "loaded" (shirt with cooling inserts) and (2) "unloaded" (shirt with no cooling inserts). Core body temperature, exercise heart rate, capillary blood lactate, and ratings of perceived exertion were recorded. Core body temperature was lower (ρ = .001) during the 70-minute treadmill walking test in the loaded condition. Peak core temperature during the 70-minute walking test was also significantly lower (ρ = .038) in the loaded condition. This lightweight (471g), passive cooling technology offers multiple hours of sustained cooling and reduced core and peak body temperature during a 70-minute, 22.7kg weighted-vest walking test. 2016.

  15. Agent Based Modeling of Air Carrier Behavior for Evaluation of Technology Equipage and Adoption

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horio, Brant M.; DeCicco, Anthony H.; Stouffer, Virginia L.; Hasan, Shahab; Rosenbaum, Rebecca L.; Smith, Jeremy C.

    2014-01-01

    As part of ongoing research, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and LMI developed a research framework to assist policymakers in identifying impacts on the U.S. air transportation system (ATS) of potential policies and technology related to the implementation of the Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen). This framework, called the Air Transportation System Evolutionary Simulation (ATS-EVOS), integrates multiple models into a single process flow to best simulate responses by U.S. commercial airlines and other ATS stakeholders to NextGen-related policies, and in turn, how those responses impact the ATS. Development of this framework required NASA and LMI to create an agent-based model of airline and passenger behavior. This Airline Evolutionary Simulation (AIRLINE-EVOS) models airline decisions about tactical airfare and schedule adjustments, and strategic decisions related to fleet assignments, market prices, and equipage. AIRLINE-EVOS models its own heterogeneous population of passenger agents that interact with airlines; this interaction allows the model to simulate the cycle of action-reaction as airlines compete with each other and engage passengers. We validated a baseline configuration of AIRLINE-EVOS against Airline Origin and Destination Survey (DB1B) data and subject matter expert opinion, and we verified the ATS-EVOS framework and agent behavior logic through scenario-based experiments. These experiments demonstrated AIRLINE-EVOS's capabilities in responding to an input price shock in fuel prices, and to equipage challenges in a series of analyses based on potential incentive policies for best equipped best served, optimal-wind routing, and traffic management initiative exemption concepts..

  16. Air-Based Remediation Workshop - Section 1 Sampling And Analysis Revelant To Air-Based Remediation Technologies

    EPA Science Inventory

    Pursant to the EPA-AIT Implementing Arrangement 7 for Technical Environmental Collaboration, Activity 11 "Remediation of Contaminated Sites," the USEPA Office of International Affairs Organized a Force Air Remediation Workshop in Taipei to deliver expert training to the Environme...

  17. Final Technical Report: Science and technology reviews of FACE[Free Air Carbon Enrichment

    SciTech Connect

    Strain, Boyd R.

    1998-03-23

    The purpose of this grant was to bring together the principals of all known facilities that had been developed, principals who had submitted proposals to develop FACE facilities, and principals who want to develop proposals for facilities. In addition, critical program personnel from potential funding agencies and a few high level science administrators were invited to observe the proceedings and to visit a working FACE facility. The objectives of this study are to conduct a three-day international meeting on scientific aspects of research with the new and developing free air carbon enrichment (FACE) technology. Immediately following the science meeting, conductmore » a two-day international meeting on experimental protocols to be applied in FACE research. To conduct a four day international meeting on the assessment of the responses of forest ecosystems to elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide. The three meetings supported by this grant were all highly successful meetings and resulted in the formation of an organized and identified working group with the acronym InterFACE (International Free-Air Carbon Dioxide Enrichment) working group.« less

  18. Investigation of air transportation technology at Princeton University, 1988-1989

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stengel, Robert F.

    1990-01-01

    The Air Transportation Technology Program at Princeton University, a program emphasizing graduate and undergraduate student research, proceeded along several avenues during the past year. A study of optimal trajectories for penetration of microbursts when encounter is unavoidable was conducted. The emphasis of current wind shear research is on developing an expert system for wind shear avoidance. A knowledge-based reconfigurable flight control system that is implemented with the Pascal programming language using parallel microprocessors was developed. This expert system could be considered a prototype for a failure-tolerant control system that can be constructed using existing hardware. Development of a real-time cockpit simulator continued during the year. The simulator provides a single-person crew station with both conventional and advanced control devices; it currently is programmed to simulate the Navion single-engine general aviation airplane. Alternatives for the air traffic control system giving particular attention to the institutional structure of the FAA are analyzed. A simple numerical procedure for estimating the stochastic robustness of control systems is being investigated. The revitalization of the general aviation industry is also discussed.

  19. AirClim: an efficient tool for climate evaluation of aircraft technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grewe, V.; Stenke, A.

    2008-08-01

    Climate change is a challenge to society and to cope with requires assessment tools which are suitable to evaluate new technology options with respect to their impact on global climate. Here we present AirClim, a model which comprises a linearisation of atmospheric processes from the emission to radiative forcing, resulting in an estimate in near surface temperature change, which is presumed to be a reasonable indicator for climate change. The model is designed to be applicable to aircraft technology, i.e. the climate agents CO2, H2O, CH4 and O3 (latter two resulting from NOx-emissions) and contrails are taken into account. AirClim combines a number of precalculated atmospheric data with aircraft emission data to obtain the temporal evolution of atmospheric concentration changes, radiative forcing and temperature changes. These precalculated data are derived from 25 steady-state simulations for the year 2050 with the climate-chemistry model E39/C, prescribing normalised emissions of nitrogen oxides and water vapour at various atmospheric regions. The results show that strongest climate impacts (year 2100) from ozone changes occur for emissions in the tropical upper troposphere (60 mW/m2; 80 mK for 1 TgN/year emitted) and from methane changes from emissions in the middle tropical troposphere (-2.7% change in methane lifetime; 30 mK per TgN/year). For short-lived species (e.g. ozone, water vapour, methane) individual perturbation lifetimes are derived depending on the region of emission. A comparison of this linearisation approach with results from a comprehensive climate-chemistry model shows reasonable agreement with respect to concentration changes, radiative forcing, and temperature changes. For example, the total impact of a supersonic fleet on radiative forcing (mainly water vapour) is reproduced within 10%. A wide range of application is demonstrated.

  20. Stripping potential of bituminous concrete.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1978-01-01

    Laboratory data were gathered with a newly developed stripping test in anticipation that the test would be adopted for use by the Department. In addition to providing experience in the performance of the test and interpretation of test results, the i...

  1. Safety evaluation of centerline rumble strips

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2003-11-10

    A study of centerline rumble strips was undertaken as part of the Massachusetts Highway Department Research Program. The objective of this research was to evaluate the effectiveness of centerline rumble strips in reducing crossover crashes and improv...

  2. A Method for Making Cross-Comparable Estimates of the Benefits of Decision Support Technologies for Air Traffic Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, David; Long, Dou; Etheridge, Mel; Plugge, Joana; Johnson, Jesse; Kostiuk, Peter

    1998-01-01

    We present a general method for making cross comparable estimates of the benefits of NASA-developed decision support technologies for air traffic management, and we apply a specific implementation of the method to estimate benefits of three decision support tools (DSTs) under development in NASA's advanced Air Transportation Technologies Program: Active Final Approach Spacing Tool (A-FAST), Expedite Departure Path (EDP), and Conflict Probe and Trial Planning Tool (CPTP). The report also reviews data about the present operation of the national airspace system (NAS) to identify opportunities for DST's to reduce delays and inefficiencies.

  3. Coupled Physical/Chemical and Biofiltration Technologies to Reduce Air Emissions from Forest Products Industries

    SciTech Connect

    Gary D. McGinnis

    2001-12-31

    The research is a laboratory and bench-scale investigation of a system to concentrate and destroy volatile organic compounds (VOCs), including hazardous air pollutants, formed from the drying of wood and the manufacture of wood board products (e.g., particle board and oriented strandboard). The approach that was investigated involved concentrating the dilute VOCs (<500 ppmv) with a physical/chemical adsorption unit, followed by the treatment of the concentrated voc stream (2,000 to 2,500 ppmv) with a biofiltration unit. The research program lasted three years, and involved three research organizations. Michigan Technological University was the primary recipient of the financial assistance, the USDAmore » Forest Products Laboratory (FPL) and Mississippi State University (MSU) were subcontractors to MTU. The ultimate objective of this research was to develop a pilot-scale demonstration of the technology with sufficient data to provide for the design of an industrial system. No commercialization activities were included in this project.« less

  4. Mississippi State University Center for Air Sea Technology FY95 Research Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yeske, Lanny; Corbin, James H.

    1995-01-01

    The Mississippi State University (MSU) Center for Air Sea Technology (CAST) evolved from the Institute for Naval Oceanography's (INO) Experimental Center for Mesoscale Ocean Prediction (ECMOP) which was started in 1989. MSU CAST subsequently began operation on 1 October 1992 under an Office of Naval Research (ONR) two-year grant which ended on 30 September 1994. In FY95 MSU CAST was successful in obtaining five additional research grants from ONR, as well as several other research contracts from the Naval Oceanographic Office via NASA, the Naval Research Laboratory, the Army Corps of Engineers, and private industry. In the past, MSU CAST technical research and development has produced tools, systems, techniques, and procedures that improve efficiency and overcome deficiency for both the operational and research communities residing with the Department of Defense, private industry, and university ocean modeling community. We continued this effort with the following thrust areas: to develop advanced methodologies and tools for model evaluation, validation and visualization, both oceanographic and atmospheric; to develop a system-level capability for conducting temporally and ; spatially scaled ocean simulations driven by or are responsive to ocean models, and take into consideration coupling to atmospheric models; to continue the existing oceanographic/atmospheric data management task with emphasis on distributed databases in a network environment, with database optimization and standardization, including use of Mosaic and World Wide Web (WWW) access; and to implement a high performance parallel computing technology for CAST ocean models

  5. The research and development of an air pollutant monitoring system based on DOAS technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Hua; Liu, Han-peng; Zheng, Ming; Meng, Xiao-feng

    2009-07-01

    This article illuminates a kind of sensor used in measuring the concentrations of the main pollutants in flue gas streams (Dust, SO2 and NOx) based on the UV-DOAS technology in air pollutant monitoring. Using the high-level embedded microprocessors and complex programmable logic device, the sensor completes system measurement, management and signal communication, and spectrum inversion and data saving are processed by PC at the same time. Differential optical absorption spectroscopy (DOAS) technology is used in the flue gas pollutant factor analysis through the sensor construction. The absorption spectra of SO2, NOx and smoke dust are inverted to reduce the interference of other factors in flue gas streams. At the same time, the effect of light source fluctuation and optical transmission ratio is considered and removed in the measurement system. The result shows that the monitoring accuracy of concentration of sulfur dioxide and smoke dust achieves +/-2%, the concentration of nitrogen oxides accuracy achieves +/-3%, which meets the requirements of the national standard. The sensor can be directly installed in a flue. As a result, process of measuring is simplified and measurement accuracy is improved. Further more, this method increases the stability of the system and reduces the maintenance costs. Measurement data is transferred through data bus between the sensor and upper PC to realize remote control and real-time measurement. Considering the severe conditions in measuring the main pollutants in flue gas streams, applications of anti-interference and anti-corrosion etc. are taken in the system design.

  6. 21 CFR 886.1800 - Schirmer strip.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Schirmer strip. 886.1800 Section 886.1800 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 886.1800 Schirmer strip. (a) Identification. A Schirmer strip is a...

  7. 21 CFR 886.1800 - Schirmer strip.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Schirmer strip. 886.1800 Section 886.1800 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 886.1800 Schirmer strip. (a) Identification. A Schirmer strip is a...

  8. 21 CFR 886.1800 - Schirmer strip.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Schirmer strip. 886.1800 Section 886.1800 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 886.1800 Schirmer strip. (a) Identification. A Schirmer strip is a...

  9. 21 CFR 886.1800 - Schirmer strip.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Schirmer strip. 886.1800 Section 886.1800 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 886.1800 Schirmer strip. (a) Identification. A Schirmer strip is a...

  10. Using Comic Strips in Language Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Csabay, Noémi

    2006-01-01

    The author believes that using comic strips in language-learning classes has three main benefits. First, comic strips motivate younger learners. Second, they provide a context and logically connected sentences to help language learning. Third, their visual information is helpful for comprehension. The author argues that comic strips can be used in…

  11. Guidelines for the application of removeable rumble strips

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2006-08-01

    This work was initiated to assess the viability of removable rumble strips as replacements for asphalt rumble strips, particularly in short term highway work zones. The two rumble strips tested were the Orange Rumble Strip from Advanced Traffic Marki...

  12. Science and Technology: The Making of the Air Force Research Laboratory

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-01-01

    AFRL . . . . . . . . . . . 187 11 Air Force Research Laboratory : Before and After...United States Air Force during my tenure as chief of staff—the crea - tion of the Air Force Research Laboratory ( AFRL ). As the “high technology” service...consolidate four existing laboratories into one Air Force Research Laboratory ( AFRL ) designed to lead to a more efficient and streamlined

  13. Pretreatment of anaerobic digestion effluent with ammonia stripping and biogas purification.

    PubMed

    Lei, Xiaohui; Sugiura, Norio; Feng, Chuanping; Maekawa, Takaaki

    2007-07-16

    In this study, ammonia stripping was optimized for pretreating anaerobic digestion effluent from an anaerobic digestion plant, and the possibility of using CO(2) stripping and biogas injection for adjusting the pH of the effluent before and after the ammonia stripping process was also investigated. For ammonia stripping, the results showed that an overdose of calcium hydroxide, i.e., 27.5g/L wastewater, achieved higher ammonia, phosphorus, chemical oxygen demand, suspended solids, and turbidity removal efficiency. An air flow rate of 5L/min for 1L of wastewater was thought as suitable for engineering application. The pH of the anaerobic digestion effluent can be increased from about 7 to about 9 by CO(2) stripping, however which is insufficient for ammonia stripping. For 1L of wastewater treated after ammonia stripping, the pH can be neutralized to about 7 from greater than 11 through biogas injection at 1L/min for less than 30min, and continuous injection does not decrease the pH. It was roughly estimated that 43m(3) of biogas (CH(4):CO(2) approximately 60%:40%) produced daily could be purified to CH(4):CO(2) approximately 74%:26% by neutralizing the pH of the 5m(3) anaerobic digestion effluent pretreated by ammonia stripping.

  14. Emerging Fuel Cell Technology Being Developed: Offers Many Benefits to Air Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walker, James F.; Civinskas, Kestutis C.

    2004-01-01

    Fuel cells, which have recently received considerable attention for terrestrial applications ranging from automobiles to stationary power generation, may enable new aerospace missions as well as offer fuel savings, quiet operations, and reduced emissions for current and future aircraft. NASA has extensive experience with fuel cells, having used them on manned space flight systems over four decades. Consequently, the NASA Glenn Research Center has initiated an effort to investigate and develop fuel cell technologies for multiple aerospace applications. Two promising fuel cell types are the proton exchange membrane (PEM) and solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC). PEM technology, first used on the Gemini spacecraft in the sixties, remained unutilized thereafter until the automotive industry recently recognized the potential. PEM fuel cells are low-temperature devices offering quick startup time but requiring relatively pure hydrogen fuel. In contrast, SOFCs operate at high temperatures and tolerate higher levels of impurities. This flexibility allows SOFCs to use hydrocarbon fuels, which is an important factor considering our current liquid petroleum infrastructure. However, depending on the specific application, either PEM or SOFC can be attractive. As only NASA can, the Agency is pursuing fuel cell technology for civil uninhabited aerial vehicles (UAVs) because it offers enhanced scientific capabilities, including enabling highaltitude, long-endurance missions. The NASA Helios aircraft demonstrated altitudes approaching 100,000 ft using solar power in 2001, and future plans include the development of a regenerative PEM fuel cell to provide nighttime power. Unique to NASA's mission, the high-altitude aircraft application requires the PEM fuel cell to operate on pure oxygen, instead of the air typical of terrestrial applications.

  15. Real-time dissemination of air quality information using data streams and Web technologies: linking air quality to health risks in urban areas.

    PubMed

    Davila, Silvije; Ilić, Jadranka Pečar; Bešlić, Ivan

    2015-06-01

    This article presents a new, original application of modern information and communication technology to provide effective real-time dissemination of air quality information and related health risks to the general public. Our on-line subsystem for urban real-time air quality monitoring is a crucial component of a more comprehensive integrated information system, which has been developed by the Institute for Medical Research and Occupational Health. It relies on a StreamInsight data stream management system and service-oriented architecture to process data streamed from seven monitoring stations across Zagreb. Parameters that are monitored include gases (NO, NO2, CO, O3, H2S, SO2, benzene, NH3), particulate matter (PM10 and PM2.5), and meteorological data (wind speed and direction, temperature and pressure). Streamed data are processed in real-time using complex continuous queries. They first go through automated validation, then hourly air quality index is calculated for every station, and a report sent to the Croatian Environment Agency. If the parameter values exceed the corresponding regulation limits for three consecutive hours, the web service generates an alert for population groups at risk. Coupled with the Common Air Quality Index model, our web application brings air pollution information closer to the general population and raises awareness about environmental and health issues. Soon we intend to expand the service to a mobile application that is being developed.

  16. On the edge mode in the theory of TM scattering by a strip or strip grating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richmond, J. H.

    1980-11-01

    Consider a plane wave incident on a perfectly conducting strip (or strip grating), and let the incident electric vector be parallel with the edges of the strip. If the edge mode is included among the basis functions, it is found this greatly improves the convergence of the moment-method solution. Numerical data are included for the reflection coefficient of the strip grating. To correct an error in the previous literature, the rigorous solution is tabulated for broadside backscatter from a single strip.

  17. Field Operations and Enforcement Manual for Air Pollution Control. Volume II: Control Technology and General Source Inspection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weisburd, Melvin I.

    The Field Operations and Enforcement Manual for Air Pollution Control, Volume II, explains in detail the following: technology of source control, modification of operations, particulate control equipment, sulfur dioxide removal systems for power plants, and control equipment for gases and vapors; inspection procedures for general sources, fuel…

  18. Thermal Insulation Strips Conserve Energy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2009-01-01

    Launching the space shuttle involves an interesting paradox: While the temperatures inside the shuttle s main engines climb higher than 6,000 F hot enough to boil iron for fuel, the engines use liquid hydrogen, the second coldest liquid on Earth after liquid helium. Maintained below 20 K (-423 F), the liquid hydrogen is contained in the shuttle s rust-colored external tank. The external tank also contains liquid oxygen (kept below a somewhat less chilly 90 K or -297 F) that combines with the hydrogen to create an explosive mixture that along with the shuttle s two, powdered aluminum-fueled solid rocket boosters allows the shuttle to escape Earth s gravity. The cryogenic temperatures of the main engines liquid fuel can cause ice, frost, or liquefied air to build up on the external tank and other parts of the numerous launch fueling systems, posing a possible debris risk when the ice breaks off during launch and causing difficulties in the transfer and control of these cryogenic liquid propellants. Keeping the fuel at the necessary ultra-cold temperatures while minimizing ice buildup and other safety hazards, as well as reducing the operational maintenance costs, has required NASA to explore innovative ways for providing superior thermal insulation systems. To address the challenge, the Agency turned to an insulating technology so effective that, even though it is mostly air, a thin sheet can prevent a blowtorch from igniting a match. Aerogels were invented in 1931 and demonstrate properties that make them the most extraordinary insulating materials known; a 1-inch-thick piece of aerogel provides the same insulation as layering 15 panes of glass with air pockets in between. Derived from silica, aluminum oxide, or carbon gels using a supercritical drying process - resulting in a composition of almost 99-percent air - aerogels are the world s lightest solid (among 15 other titles they hold in the Guinness World Records), can float indefinitely on water if treated to be

  19. Antenna structure with distributed strip

    DOEpatents

    Rodenbeck, Christopher T [Albuquerque, NM

    2008-03-18

    An antenna comprises electrical conductors arranged to form a radiating element including a folded line configuration and a distributed strip configuration, where the radiating element is in proximity to a ground conductor. The folded line and the distributed strip can be electrically interconnected and substantially coplanar. The ground conductor can be spaced from, and coplanar to, the radiating element, or can alternatively lie in a plane set at an angle to the radiating element. Embodiments of the antenna include conductor patterns formed on a printed wiring board, having a ground plane, spacedly adjacent to and coplanar with the radiating element. Other embodiments of the antenna comprise a ground plane and radiating element on opposed sides of a printed wiring board. Other embodiments of the antenna comprise conductors that can be arranged as free standing "foils". Other embodiments include antennas that are encapsulated into a package containing the antenna.

  20. Antenna structure with distributed strip

    DOEpatents

    Rodenbeck, Christopher T.

    2008-10-21

    An antenna comprises electrical conductors arranged to form a radiating element including a folded line configuration and a distributed strip configuration, where the radiating element is in proximity to a ground conductor. The folded line and the distributed strip can be electrically interconnected and substantially coplanar. The ground conductor can be spaced from, and coplanar to, the radiating element, or can alternatively lie in a plane set at an angle to the radiating element. Embodiments of the antenna include conductor patterns formed on a printed wiring board, having a ground plane, spacedly adjacent to and coplanar with the radiating element. Other embodiments of the antenna comprise a ground plane and radiating element on opposed sides of a printed wiring board. Other embodiments of the antenna comprise conductors that can be arranged as free standing "foils". Other embodiments include antennas that are encapsulated into a package containing the antenna.

  1. Roll Casting of Aluminum Alloy Clad Strip

    SciTech Connect

    Nakamura, R.; Tsuge, H.; Haga, T.

    2011-01-17

    Casting of aluminum alloy three layers of clad strip was tried using the two sets of twin roll casters, and effects of the casting parameters on the cladding conditions were investigated. One twin roll caster was mounted on the other twin roll caster. Base strip was 8079 aluminum alloy and overlay strips were 6022 aluminum alloy. Effects of roll-load of upper and lower casters and melt temperature of the lower caster were investigated. When the roll-load of the upper and lower caster was large enough, the overlay strip could be solidified and be connected. The overlay strip could be connectedmore » when the melt of the overlay strip cast by the lower caster was low enough. Sound three layers of clad strip could be cast by proper conditions.« less

  2. Forceless Sadowsky strips are spherical

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Starostin, E. L.; van der Heijden, G. H. M.

    2018-02-01

    We show that thin rectangular ribbons, defined as energy-minimizing configurations of the Sadowsky functional for narrow developable elastic strips, have a propensity to form spherical shapes in the sense that forceless solutions lie on a sphere. This has implications for ribbonlike objects in (bio)polymer physics and nanoscience that cannot be described by the classical wormlike chain model. A wider class of functionals with this property is identified.

  3. Study of the technics of coating stripping and FBG writing on polyimide fiber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, ZhiQiang; Qi, HaiFeng; Ni, JiaSheng; Wang, Chang

    2017-10-01

    Compared with ordinary optical fiber, polyimide fiber has the characteristics of high temperature resistance and high strength, which has important application in the field of optical fiber sensing. The common methods of polyimide coating stripping were introduced in this paper, including high temperature stripping, chemical stripping and arc ablation. In order to meet the requirements of FBG writing technology, a method using argon ion laser ablation coating was proposed. The method can precisely control the stripping length of the coating and completely does not affect the tensile strength of the optical fiber. According to the experiment, the fabrication process of polyimide FBG is stripping-hydrogen loadingwriting. Under the same conditions, 10 FBG samples were fabricated with good uniformity of wavelength bandwidth and reflectivity. UV laser ablation of polyimide coating has been proved to be a safe, reliable and efficient method.

  4. Screen-Printed Electrodes Modified with "Green" Metals for Electrochemical Stripping Analysis of Toxic Elements.

    PubMed

    Economou, Anastasios

    2018-03-29

    This work reviews the field of screen-printed electrodes (SPEs) modified with "green" metals for electrochemical stripping analysis of toxic elements. Electrochemical stripping analysis has been established as a useful trace analysis technique offering many advantages compared to competing optical techniques. Although mercury has been the preferred electrode material for stripping analysis, the toxicity of mercury and the associated legal requirements in its use and disposal have prompted research towards the development of "green" metals as alternative electrode materials. When combined with the screen-printing technology, such environment-friendly metals can lead to disposable sensors for trace metal analysis with excellent operational characteristics. This review focuses on SPEs modified with Au, Bi, Sb, and Sn for stripping analysis of toxic elements. Different modification approaches (electroplating, bulk modification, use of metal precursors, microengineering techniques) are considered and representative applications are described. A developing related field, namely biosensing based on stripping analysis of metallic nanoprobe labels, is also briefly mentioned.

  5. Collisional stripping of planetary crusts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carter, Philip J.; Leinhardt, Zoë M.; Elliott, Tim; Stewart, Sarah T.; Walter, Michael J.

    2018-02-01

    Geochemical studies of planetary accretion and evolution have invoked various degrees of collisional erosion to explain differences in bulk composition between planets and chondrites. Here we undertake a full, dynamical evaluation of 'crustal stripping' during accretion and its key geochemical consequences. Crusts are expected to contain a significant fraction of planetary budgets of incompatible elements, which include the major heat producing nuclides. We present smoothed particle hydrodynamics simulations of collisions between differentiated rocky planetesimals and planetary embryos. We find that the crust is preferentially lost relative to the mantle during impacts, and we have developed a scaling law based on these simulations that approximates the mass of crust that remains in the largest remnant. Using this scaling law and a recent set of N-body simulations of terrestrial planet formation, we have estimated the maximum effect of crustal stripping on incompatible element abundances during the accretion of planetary embryos. We find that on average approximately one third of the initial crust is stripped from embryos as they accrete, which leads to a reduction of ∼20% in the budgets of the heat producing elements if the stripped crust does not reaccrete. Erosion of crusts can lead to non-chondritic ratios of incompatible elements, but the magnitude of this effect depends sensitively on the details of the crust-forming melting process on the planetesimals. The Lu/Hf system is fractionated for a wide range of crustal formation scenarios. Using eucrites (the products of planetesimal silicate melting, thought to represent the crust of Vesta) as a guide to the Lu/Hf of planetesimal crust partially lost during accretion, we predict the Earth could evolve to a superchondritic 176Hf/177Hf (3-5 parts per ten thousand) at present day. Such values are in keeping with compositional estimates of the bulk Earth. Stripping of planetary crusts during accretion can lead to

  6. Applied Technology of Bamboo Charcoal to Improvement and Purification of Air Quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takimoto, Akira; Tada, Yukio; Onishi, Hajime; Fukazawa, Tomohiro

    The use of bamboo charcoal, which is one of the carbon from wood, attracts attention from the viewpoint of the environmental protection. Bamboo charcoal has high adsorption removal ability to various substances. In addition Bamboo charcoal is effective also for the filtration of the suspended solid and the bacterium by the macro pore that originates in the plant frame structure. In present paper, a new concept of gas clean technology by bamboo charcoal and TiO2 with UV light irradiation was proposed. Its system is composed of TiO2-coated bamboo charcoal, TiO2-coated silica gel and UV lamp. Water vapor is adsorbed by bamboo charcoal and fine particles and airborne bacterium are trapped on the surface of it. Trapped contaminant is degraded by TiO2 and UV light. In addition, the degradation is promoted by •OH produced by adsorbed water vapor. The air purification sanitization possibility in high efficiency for this system was clarified.

  7. Review on Enhanced Heat Transfer Techniques using Modern Technologies for 4S Air Cooled Engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramasubramanian, S.; Bupesh Raja, V. K.

    2017-05-01

    Engine performance is a biggest challenge and a vital area of concern when it comes to automobiles. Researchers across the globe have been working decades together meticulously improvising the performance of engine in terms of efficiency. The durability of the engine components mainly depends on the thermal stress it undergoes over the period of operation. Air cooling of engine is the simplest and most desirous technique that has been adopted for ages. In this regard fins or extended surfaces are employed for effective cooling of the cylinder while in operation. The conductive and convective heat transfer rate from the cylinder to the fins and in turn from the fins to surrounding ambience determines the effective performance of the engine. In this paper an attempt is made to review and summarize the various researches that were conducted on the Fins in terms of profile geometry, number of fins, size, thickness factor, material used etc., and to bring about a long term solution with the modern technologies like nano coatings and nano materials.

  8. Technology Solutions Case Study: Ventilation System Effectiveness and Tested Indoor Air Quality Impacts

    SciTech Connect

    A. Rudd and D. Bergey

    2015-08-01

    Ventilation system effectiveness testing was conducted at two unoccupied, single-family, detached lab homes at the University of Texas - Tyler. Five ventilation system tests were conducted with various whole-building ventilation systems. Multizone fan pressurization testing characterized building and zone enclosure leakage. PFT testing showed multizone air change rates and interzonal airflow filtration. Indoor air recirculation by a central air distribution system can help improve the exhaust ventilation system by way of air mixing and filtration. In contrast, the supply and balanced ventilation systems showed that there is a significant benefit to drawing outside air from a known outside location, andmore » filtering and distributing that air. Compared to the Exhaust systems, the CFIS and ERV systems showed better ventilation air distribution and lower concentrations of particulates, formaldehyde and other VOCs.« less

  9. Evaluating the impact of ambient benzene vapor concentrations on product water from Condensation Water From Air technology.

    PubMed

    Kinder, Katherine M; Gellasch, Christopher A; Dusenbury, James S; Timmes, Thomas C; Hughes, Thomas M

    2017-07-15

    Globally, drinking water resources are diminishing in both quantity and quality. This situation has renewed interest in Condensation Water From Air (CWFA) technology, which utilizes water vapor in the air to produce water for both potable and non-potable purposes. However, there are currently insufficient data available to determine the relationship between air contaminants and the rate at which they are transferred from the air into CWFA untreated product water. This study implemented a novel experimental method utilizing an environmental test chamber to evaluate how air quality and temperature affects CWFA untreated product water quality in order to collect data that will inform the type of water treatment required to protect human health. This study found that temperature and benzene air concentration affected the untreated product water from a CWFA system. Benzene vapor concentrations representing a polluted outdoor environment resulted in benzene product water concentrations between 15% and 23% of the USEPA drinking water limit of 5μg/l. In contrast, product water benzene concentrations representing an indoor industrial environment were between 1.4 and 2.4 times higher than the drinking water limit. Lower condenser coil temperatures were correlated with an increased concentration of benzene in the product water. Environmental health professionals and engineers can integrate the results of this assessment to predict benzene concentrations in the product water and take appropriate health protective measures. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  10. Ignition, Burning, and Extinction of a Strained Fuel Strip

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Selerland, T.; Karagozian, A. R.

    1996-01-01

    Flame structure and ignition and extinction processes associated with a strained fuel strip are explored numerically using detailed transport and complex kinetics for a propane-air reaction. Ignition modes are identified that are similar to those predicted by one-step activation energy asymptotics, i.e., modes in which diffusion flames can ignite as independent or dependent interfaces, and modes in which single premixed or partially premixed flames ignite. These ignition modes are found to be dependent on critical combinations of strain rate, fuel strip thickness, and initial reactant temperatures. Extinction in this configuration is seen to occur due to fuel consumption by adjacent flames, although viscosity is seen to have the effect of delaying extinction by reducing the effective strain rate and velocity field experienced by the flames.

  11. Method for maintaining precise suction strip porosities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gallimore, Frank H. (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    This invention relates to a masking method generally and, more particularly to a method of masking perforated titanium sheets having laminar control suction strips. As illustrated in the drawings, a nonaerodynamic surface of a perforated sheet has alternating suction strip areas and bonding land areas. Suction strip tapes overlie the bonding land areas during application of a masking material to an upper surface of the suction strip tapes. Prior to bonding the perforated sheet to a composite structure, the bonding land tapes are removed. The entire opposite aerodynamic surface is masked with tape before bonding. This invention provides a precise control of suction strip porosities by ensuring that no chemicals penetrate the suction strip areas during bonding.

  12. Buffer strips in composites at elevated temperature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bigelow, C. A.

    1983-01-01

    The composite material 'buffer strip' concept is presently investigated at elevated temperatures for the case of graphite/polyimide buffer strip panels using a (45/0/45/90)2S layup, where the buffer strip material was 0-deg S-glass/polyimide. Each panel was loaded in tension until it failed, and radiographs and crack opening displacements were recorded during the tests to determine fracture onset, fracture arrest, and the extent of damage in the buffer strip after crack arrest. At 177 + or - 3 C, the buffer strips increased the panel strength by at least 40 percent in comparison with panels without buffer strips. Compared to similar panels tested at room temperature, those tested at elevated temperature had lower residual strengths, but higher failure strains.

  13. Ship emissions and the use of current air cleaning technology: contributions to air pollution and acidification in the Baltic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Claremar, Björn; Haglund, Karin; Rutgersson, Anna

    2017-10-01

    The shipping sector is a significant contributor to emissions of air pollutants in marine and coastal regions. In order to achieve sustainable shipping, primarily through new regulations and techniques, greater knowledge of dispersion and deposition of air pollutants is required. Regional model calculations of the dispersion and concentration of sulfur, nitrogen, and particulate matter, as well as deposition of oxidized sulfur and nitrogen from the international maritime sector in the Baltic Sea and the North Sea, have been made for the years 2011 to 2013. The contribution from shipping is highest along shipping lanes and near large ports for concentration and dry deposition. Sulfur is the most important pollutant coupled to shipping. The contribution of both SO2 concentration and dry deposition of sulfur represented up to 80 % of the total in some regions. WHO guidelines for annual concentrations were not trespassed for any analysed pollutant, other than PM2.5 in the Netherlands, Belgium, and central Poland. However, due to the resolution of the numerical model, 50 km × 50 km, there may be higher concentrations locally close to intense shipping lanes. Wet deposition is more spread and less sensitive to model resolution. The contribution of wet deposition of sulfur and nitrogen from shipping was up to 30 % of the total wet deposition. Comparison of simulated to measured concentration at two coastal stations close to shipping lanes showed some underestimations and missed maximums, probably due to resolution of the model and underestimated ship emissions. A change in regulation for maximum sulfur content in maritime fuel, in 2015 from 1 to 0.1 %, decreases the atmospheric sulfur concentration and deposition significantly. However, due to costs related to refining, the cleaning of exhausts through scrubbers has become a possible economic solution. Open-loop scrubbers meet the air quality criteria but their consequences for the marine environment are largely unknown

  14. First thin AC-coupled silicon strip sensors on 8-inch wafers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergauer, T.; Dragicevic, M.; König, A.; Hacker, J.; Bartl, U.

    2016-09-01

    The Institute of High Energy Physics (HEPHY) in Vienna and the semiconductor manufacturer Infineon Technologies Austria AG developed a production process for planar AC-coupled silicon strip sensors manufactured on 200 μm thick 8-inch p-type wafers. In late 2015, the first wafers were delivered featuring the world's largest AC-coupled silicon strip sensors. Detailed electrical measurements were carried out at HEPHY, where single strip and global parameters were measured. Mechanical studies were conducted and the long-term behavior was investigated using a climate chamber. Furthermore, the electrical properties of various test structures were investigated to validate the quality of the manufacturing process.

  15. Method of stripping metals from organic solvents

    DOEpatents

    Todd, Terry A [Aberdeen, ID; Law, Jack D [Pocatello, ID; Herbst, R Scott [Idaho Falls, ID; Romanovskiy, Valeriy N [St. Petersburg, RU; Smirnov, Igor V [St.-Petersburg, RU; Babain, Vasily A [St-Petersburg, RU; Esimantovski, Vyatcheslav M [St-Petersburg, RU

    2009-02-24

    A new method to strip metals from organic solvents in a manner that allows for the recycle of the stripping agent. The method utilizes carbonate solutions of organic amines with complexants, in low concentrations, to strip metals from organic solvents. The method allows for the distillation and reuse of organic amines. The concentrated metal/complexant fraction from distillation is more amenable to immobilization than solutions resulting from current practice.

  16. Quantifiable Lateral Flow Assay Test Strips

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    As easy to read as a home pregnancy test, three Quantifiable Lateral Flow Assay (QLFA) strips used to test water for E. coli show different results. The brightly glowing control line on the far right of each strip indicates that all three tests ran successfully. But the glowing test line on the middle left and bottom strips reveal their samples were contaminated with E. coli bacteria at two different concentrations. The color intensity correlates with concentration of contamination.

  17. A Search for Warriors: The Effects of Technology on the Air Force Ethos

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1997-04-01

    of soma cures ten gloomy. — Aldous Huxley Brave New World Change In The Air Global Engagement Following the 1996 Fall CORONA1 the Air Force...all drug the government gave the citizens of Aldous Huxley’s Brave New World to solve their problems (the “gloomys.”) In so doing the government...viii THE CHANGING AIR FORCE: A BRAVE NEW WORLD

  18. Air Force Science & Technology Issues & Opportunities Regarding High Performance Embedded Computing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-09-23

    Challenges by Domain * Air: Persistent air dominance is at risk * Increasingly effective air defenses * Proliferation of 5th generation fighters, cheap cruise missiles, and UASs * Light-speed war possibilities are terrifying * Space: Now a contested domain * Increasingly important * Increasingly vulnerable * Cyber: Cyber warfare has begun * We don’t control the battlespace * We rely on it more and more * We can’t find the enemy.

  19. Airspace Systems Program: Next Generation Air Transportation System Concepts and Technology Development FY2010 Project Plan Version 3.0

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kopardekar, Parimal H.

    2010-01-01

    This document describes the FY2010 plan for the management and execution of the Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen) Concepts and Technology Development (CTD) Project. The document was developed in response to guidance from the Airspace Systems Program (ASP), as approved by the Associate Administrator of the Aeronautics Research Mission Directorate (ARMD), and from guidelines in the Airspace Systems Program Plan. Congress established the multi-agency Joint Planning and Development Office (JPDO) in 2003 to develop a vision for the 2025 Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen) and to define the research required to enable it. NASA is one of seven agency partners contributing to the effort. Accordingly, NASA's ARMD realigned the Airspace Systems Program in 2007 to "directly address the fundamental research needs of the Next Generation Air Transportation System...in partnership with the member agencies of the JPDO." The Program subsequently established two new projects to meet this objective: the NextGen-Airspace Project and the NextGen-Airportal Project. Together, the projects will also focus NASA s technical expertise and world-class facilities to address the question of where, when, how and the extent to which automation can be applied to moving aircraft safely and efficiently through the NAS and technologies that address optimal allocation of ground and air technologies necessary for NextGen. Additionally, the roles and responsibilities of humans and automation influence in the NAS will be addressed by both projects. Foundational concept and technology research and development begun under the NextGen-Airspace and NextGen-Airportal projects will continue. There will be no change in NASA Research Announcement (NRA) strategy, nor will there be any change to NASA interfaces with the JPDO, Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), Research Transition Teams (RTTs), or other stakeholders

  20. Research on Emissions, Air quality, Climate, and Cooking Technologies in Northern Ghana (REACCTING): study rationale and protocol.

    PubMed

    Dickinson, Katherine L; Kanyomse, Ernest; Piedrahita, Ricardo; Coffey, Evan; Rivera, Isaac J; Adoctor, James; Alirigia, Rex; Muvandimwe, Didier; Dove, MacKenzie; Dukic, Vanja; Hayden, Mary H; Diaz-Sanchez, David; Abisiba, Adoctor Victor; Anaseba, Dominic; Hagar, Yolanda; Masson, Nicholas; Monaghan, Andrew; Titiati, Atsu; Steinhoff, Daniel F; Hsu, Yueh-Ya; Kaspar, Rachael; Brooks, Bre'Anna; Hodgson, Abraham; Hannigan, Michael; Oduro, Abraham Rexford; Wiedinmyer, Christine

    2015-02-12

    Cooking over open fires using solid fuels is both common practice throughout much of the world and widely recognized to contribute to human health, environmental, and social problems. The public health burden of household air pollution includes an estimated four million premature deaths each year. To be effective and generate useful insight into potential solutions, cookstove intervention studies must select cooking technologies that are appropriate for local socioeconomic conditions and cooking culture, and include interdisciplinary measurement strategies along a continuum of outcomes. REACCTING (Research on Emissions, Air quality, Climate, and Cooking Technologies in Northern Ghana) is an ongoing interdisciplinary randomized cookstove intervention study in the Kassena-Nankana District of Northern Ghana. The study tests two types of biomass burning stoves that have the potential to meet local cooking needs and represent different "rungs" in the cookstove technology ladder: a locally-made low-tech rocket stove and the imported, highly efficient Philips gasifier stove. Intervention households were randomized into four different groups, three of which received different combinations of two improved stoves, while the fourth group serves as a control for the duration of the study. Diverse measurements assess different points along the causal chain linking the intervention to final outcomes of interest. We assess stove use and cooking behavior, cooking emissions, household air pollution and personal exposure, health burden, and local to regional air quality. Integrated analysis and modeling will tackle a range of interdisciplinary science questions, including examining ambient exposures among the regional population, assessing how those exposures might change with different technologies and behaviors, and estimating the comparative impact of local behavior and technological changes versus regional climate variability and change on local air quality and health outcomes

  1. 75 FR 15655 - Requirements for Control Technology Determinations for Major Sources in Accordance With Clean Air...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-30

    ..., Sections 112(g) and 112(j) AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY... hazardous air pollutants under section 112(j) of the Clean Air Act. Specifically, we are proposing revisions to the section 112(j) rule to clarify and streamline the process for establishing case-by-case...

  2. EPA'S CONTROL TECHNOLOGY APPROACH TO ASSISTING STATES AND REGIONS WITH AIR TOXICS PROBLEMS: FIVE CASE STUDIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper discusses a new U.S. strategy to reduce public exposure to toxic air pollutants in the ambient air. he strategy calls for state and local authorities to take on more of the lead regulatory role. he shift in emphasis and responsibility prompted EPA's Offices of Research ...

  3. Air Force Institute of Technology, Civil Engineering School: Environmental Protection Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Air Force Inst. of Tech., Wright-Patterson AFB, OH. School of Engineering.

    This document contains information assembled by the Civil Engineering School to meet the initial requirements of NEPA 1969 and Executive Orders which required the Air Force to implement an effective environmental protection program. This course presents the various aspects of Air Force environmental protection problems which military personnel…

  4. New technologies for in vitro aerosol exposures at air liquid interfaces

    EPA Science Inventory

    Air pollution is a serious public health concern with local and global implications. Sometimes the effects of air pollution are distinct, and the causative pollutants can be easily identified and subsequently reduced. In many large cities, however, the cause-and-effect relationsh...

  5. The Arteries of Global Trade: Industrial Restructuring and Technological Change in the Transatlantic Air Cargo Industry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwarz, Guido

    2010-01-01

    Air cargo enjoys a special importance: together with maritime transport it is the backbone of global trade and is indispensable for contemporary globalization. Air transport is the only mode that combines worldwide reach with high speed. Nonetheless there is a dearth of geographic research that analyzes the current restructuring affecting the air…

  6. Vehicle safety : technologies, challenges, and research and development expenditures for advanced air bags

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2001-06-01

    One hundred seventy five fatalities - primarily children and small women - have been attributed to the deployment of an air bag in relatively low-speed crashes as of April 2001. Advanced air bag systems tailor the deployment of the bags to the charac...

  7. System and Propagation Availability Analysis for NASA's Advanced Air Transportation Technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ugweje, Okechukwu C.

    2000-01-01

    This report summarizes the research on the System and Propagation Availability Analysis for NASA's project on Advanced Air Transportation Technologies (AATT). The objectives of the project were to determine the communication systems requirements and architecture, and to investigate the effect of propagation on the transmission of space information. In this report, results from the first year investigation are presented and limitations are highlighted. To study the propagation links, an understanding of the total system architecture is necessary since the links form the major component of the overall architecture. This study was conducted by way of analysis, modeling and simulation on the system communication links. The overall goals was to develop an understanding of the space communication requirements relevant to the AATT project, and then analyze the links taking into consideration system availability under adverse atmospheric weather conditions. This project began with a preliminary study of the end-to-end system architecture by modeling a representative communication system in MATLAB SIMULINK. Based on the defining concepts, the possibility of computer modeling was determined. The investigations continue with the parametric studies of the communication system architecture. These studies were also carried out with SIMULINK modeling and simulation. After a series of modifications, two end-to-end communication links were identified as the most probable models for the communication architecture. Link budget calculations were then performed in MATHCAD and MATLAB for the identified communication scenarios. A remarkable outcome of this project is the development of a graphic user interface (GUI) program for the computation of the link budget parameters in real time. Using this program, one can interactively compute the link budget requirements after supplying a few necessary parameters. It provides a framework for the eventual automation of several computations

  8. Performance analysis of the T-DOC® air-charged catheters: An alternate technology for urodynamics.

    PubMed

    Couri, Bruna M; Bitzos, Stephanie; Bhardwaj, Deepak; Lockhart, Emily; Yue, Andy; Goping, Ing

    2018-02-01

    Urodynamics (UDS) is widely used for the diagnosis of lower urinary tract dysfunction. Air-Charged catheters (ACC), one of the newer technologies for UDS pressure recording, has been adopted in growing numbers around the world for the past 15 years. Currently, there is a lack of published studies characterizing specific performance of the ACC. Since linearity, hysteresis, pressure drift, and frequency response are important components in characterizing accuracy for catheter-manometer systems; this study aimed to assess these four aspects in ACC. A total of 180 T-DOC® ACC were used in three different laboratory settings to assess pressure linearity and hysteresis (15 dual-sensor vesical and urethral and 30 single-sensor abdominal), pressure drift over 2 h (115 single-sensor), and frequency response (20 single-sensor). Data are presented as mean ± standard deviation. ACC showed linearity of 0.99 ± 0.01, 0.99 ± 0.01, and 1.01 ± 0.01; and hysteresis of 0.57 ± 0.3%, 0.76 ± 0.48%, and 1 ± 0.89% for the abdominal, vesical, and urethral sensors, respectively. A pressure drift of 2.2 ± 1.4% at 1 h and 4.4 ± 2.5% at 2 h were observed when compared to baseline pressures. The catheters did not show any amplification factor during the sweep from 1 to 30 Hz, and recorded signals up to 5 Hz attenuating higher frequency signals. In this study the T-DOC® ACC showed a linear performance with minimal hysteresis associated with acceptable pressure drift, and adequate frequency response to capture clinically relevant pressures. The accurate results observed in this study suggest that these catheters are technically suitable to be used as a measuring instrument for UDS. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION: GENERIC VERIFICATION PROTOCOL FOR BIOLOGICAL AND AEROSOL TESTING OF GENERAL VENTILATION AIR CLEANERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency established the Environmental Technology Verification Program to accelerate the development and commercialization of improved environmental technology through third party verification and reporting of product performance. Research Triangl...

  10. 33 CFR 157.128 - Stripping system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... of the following devices for stripping oil from each cargo tank: (1) A positive displacement pump. (2) A self-priming centrifugal pump. (3) An eductor (4) Any other device accepted by the Commandant. (d... positive displacement pump or a self-priming centrifugal pump, the stripping system must have the following...

  11. 33 CFR 157.128 - Stripping system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... of the following devices for stripping oil from each cargo tank: (1) A positive displacement pump. (2) A self-priming centrifugal pump. (3) An eductor (4) Any other device accepted by the Commandant. (d... positive displacement pump or a self-priming centrifugal pump, the stripping system must have the following...

  12. 33 CFR 157.128 - Stripping system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... of the following devices for stripping oil from each cargo tank: (1) A positive displacement pump. (2) A self-priming centrifugal pump. (3) An eductor (4) Any other device accepted by the Commandant. (d... positive displacement pump or a self-priming centrifugal pump, the stripping system must have the following...

  13. 33 CFR 157.128 - Stripping system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... of the following devices for stripping oil from each cargo tank: (1) A positive displacement pump. (2) A self-priming centrifugal pump. (3) An eductor (4) Any other device accepted by the Commandant. (d... positive displacement pump or a self-priming centrifugal pump, the stripping system must have the following...

  14. Publicizing, Politicizing, and Neutralizing Homelessness: Comic Strips.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Penner, Maurice; Penner, Susan

    1994-01-01

    Analyzes 231 comic strips and 126 editorial cartoons featuring homelessness to uncover differences between public opinion manifested in popular culture and views held by local and national power groups. Finds that 57% of comic strips and 30% of editorial cartoons are neutralizing, either by using the homeless as "props" for other stories or issues…

  15. Strip clearcutting to regenerate northern hardwoods.

    Treesearch

    Frederick T. Metzger

    1980-01-01

    Describes results of strip clearcutting trials in mature northern hardwood and hemlock-hardwood stands in the Lake States. Two strip width and orientations were tested, with and without herbicide treatment of the advance regeneration. Establishment, growth, and species composition of the regeneration were assessed.

  16. Assessing community exposure to hazardous air pollutants by combining optical remote sensing and "low-cost" sensor technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pikelnaya, O.; Polidori, A.; Wimmer, R.; Mellqvist, J.; Samuelsson, J.; Marianne, E.; Andersson, P.; Brohede, S.; Izos, O.

    2017-12-01

    Industrial facilities such as refineries and oil processing facilities can be sources of chemicals adversely affecting human health, for example aromatic hydrocarbons and formaldehyde. In an urban setting, such as the South Coast Air Basin (SCAB), exposure to harmful air pollutants (HAP's) for residents of communities neighboring such facilities is of serious concern. Traditionally, exposure assessments are performed by modeling a community exposure using emission inventories and data collected at fixed air monitoring sites. However, recent field measurements found that emission inventories may underestimate HAP emissions from refineries; and HAP measurements data from fixed sites is lacking spatial resolution; as a result, the impact of HAP emissions on communities is highly uncertain. The next generation air monitoring technologies can help address these challenges. For example, dense "low-cost" sensors allow continuous monitoring of concentrations of pollutants within communities with high temporal- and spatial- resolution, and optical remote sensing (ORS) technologies offer measurements of emission fluxes and real-time ground-concentration mapping of HAPs. South Coast Air Quality Management District (SCAQMD) is currently conducting a multi-year study using ORS methods and "low-cost" Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) sensors to monitor HAP emissions from selected industrial facilities in the SCAB and their ambient concentrations in neighboring communities. For this purpose, quarterly mobile ORS surveys are conducted to quantify facility-wide emissions for VOCs, aromatic hydrocarbons and HCHO, and to collect ground-concentration profiles of these pollutants inside neighboring communities. Additionally, "low-cost" sensor nodes for deployment in neighborhood(s) downwind of the facilities have been developed in order to obtain long-term, granular data on neighborhood VOC concentrations, During this presentation we will discuss initial results of quarterly ORS

  17. Producing Foils From Direct Cast Titanium Alloy Strip

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stuart, T. A.; Gaspar, T. A.; Sukonnik, I. M.; Semiatan, S. L.; Batawi, E.; Peters, J. A.; Fraser, H. L.

    1996-01-01

    This research was undertaken to demonstrate the feasibility of producing high-quality, thin-gage, titanium foil from direct cast titanium strip. Melt Overflow Rapid Solidification Technology (MORST) was used to cast several different titanium alloys into 500 microns thick strip, 10 cm wide and up to 3 m long. The strip was then either ground, hot pack rolled or cold rolled, as appropriate, into foil. Gamma titanium aluminide (TiAl) was cast and ground to approximately 100 microns thick foil and alpha-2 titanium aluminide (Ti3AI) was cast and hot pack rolled to approximately 70 microns thick foil. CP Ti, Ti6Al2Sn4Zr2Mo, and Ti22AI23Nb (Orthorhombic), were successfully cast and cold-rolled into good quality foil (less than 125 microns thick). The foils were generally fully dense with smooth surfaces, had fine, uniform microstructures, and demonstrated mechanical properties equivalent to conventionally produced titanium. By eliminating many manufacturing steps, this technology has the potential to produce thin gage, titanium foil with good engineering properties at significantly reduced cost relative to conventional ingot metallurgy processing.

  18. Applications of low-cost sensing technologies for air quality monitoring and exposure assessment: How far have they gone?

    PubMed

    Morawska, Lidia; Thai, Phong K; Liu, Xiaoting; Asumadu-Sakyi, Akwasi; Ayoko, Godwin; Bartonova, Alena; Bedini, Andrea; Chai, Fahe; Christensen, Bryce; Dunbabin, Matthew; Gao, Jian; Hagler, Gayle S W; Jayaratne, Rohan; Kumar, Prashant; Lau, Alexis K H; Louie, Peter K K; Mazaheri, Mandana; Ning, Zhi; Motta, Nunzio; Mullins, Ben; Rahman, Md Mahmudur; Ristovski, Zoran; Shafiei, Mahnaz; Tjondronegoro, Dian; Westerdahl, Dane; Williams, Ron

    2018-04-25

    Over the past decade, a range of sensor technologies became available on the market, enabling a revolutionary shift in air pollution monitoring and assessment. With their cost of up to three orders of magnitude lower than standard/reference instruments, many avenues for applications have opened up. In particular, broader participation in air quality discussion and utilisation of information on air pollution by communities has become possible. However, many questions have been also asked about the actual benefits of these technologies. To address this issue, we conducted a comprehensive literature search including both the scientific and grey literature. We focused upon two questions: (1) Are these technologies fit for the various purposes envisaged? and (2) How far have these technologies and their applications progressed to provide answers and solutions? Regarding the former, we concluded that there is no clear answer to the question, due to a lack of: sensor/monitor manufacturers' quantitative specifications of performance, consensus regarding recommended end-use and associated minimal performance targets of these technologies, and the ability of the prospective users to formulate the requirements for their applications, or conditions of the intended use. Numerous studies have assessed and reported sensor/monitor performance under a range of specific conditions, and in many cases the performance was concluded to be satisfactory. The specific use cases for sensors/monitors included outdoor in a stationary mode, outdoor in a mobile mode, indoor environments and personal monitoring. Under certain conditions of application, project goals, and monitoring environments, some sensors/monitors were fit for a specific purpose. Based on analysis of 17 large projects, which reached applied outcome stage, and typically conducted by consortia of organizations, we observed that a sizable fraction of them (~ 30%) were commercial and/or crowd-funded. This fact by itself signals a

  19. Integrating Sensor Monitoring Technology into the Current Air Pollution Regulatory Support Paradigm: Practical Considerations

    EPA Science Inventory

    The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) along with state, local, and tribal governments operate Federal Reference Method (FRM) and Federal Equivalent Method (FEM) instruments to assess compliance with US air pollution standards designed to protect human and ecosystem health....

  20. QUALITY MANAGEMENT DURING SELECTION OF TECHNOLOGIES; EXAMPLE SITE MARCH AIR FORCE BASE, USA

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper describes the remedial approach, organizational structure and key elements facilitating effective and efficient remediation of contaminated sites at March Air Force Base (AFB), California. The U.S. implementation and quality assurance approach to site remediation for a...

  1. QUALITY MANAGEMENT DURING SELECTION OF TECHNOLOGIES EXAMPLE SITE MARCH AIR FORCE BASE, USA

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper describes the remedial approach, organizational structure and key elements facilitating effective and efficient remediation of contaminated sites at March Air Force Base (AFB), California. The U.S. implementation and quality assurance approach to site remediation for ...

  2. Rapid evolution of air pollution sensor technology for research and consumer product applications

    EPA Science Inventory

    Outdoor air pollution measurement approaches have historically been conducted using stationary shelters that require significant space, power, and expertise to operate. The cost and logistical requirements to conduct monitoring have limited the number of locations with continuou...

  3. Air Evaporation closed cycle water recovery technology - Advanced energy saving designs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morasko, Gwyndolyn; Putnam, David F.; Bagdigian, Robert

    1986-01-01

    The Air Evaporation water recovery system is a visible candidate for Space Station application. A four-man Air Evaporation open cycle system has been successfully demonstrated for waste water recovery in manned chamber tests. The design improvements described in this paper greatly enhance the system operation and energy efficiency of the air evaporation process. A state-of-the-art wick feed design which results in reduced logistics requirements is presented. In addition, several design concepts that incorporate regenerative features to minimize the energy input to the system are discussed. These include a recuperative heat exchanger, a heat pump for energy transfer to the air heater, and solar collectors for evaporative heat. The addition of the energy recovery devices will result in an energy reduction of more than 80 percent over the systems used in earlier manned chamber tests.

  4. Tailoring advanced technologies for air traffic control : the importance of the development process

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1995-04-01

    This paper describes a process that is currently being applied to the : development and assessment of an advanced air traffic control (ATC) system, the : Center TRACON Automation System (CTAS). This process deviates from established : practices of AT...

  5. CAPSULE REPORT: SOURCES AND AIR EMISSION CONTROL TECHNOLOGIES AT WASTE MANAGEMENT FACILITIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The chemicals processed during waste management operations can volatilize into the atmosphere and cause carcinogenic or other toxic effects or contribute to ozone formation. Regulations have been developed to control air emissions from these operations. The EPA has promulgated st...

  6. In-situ conditioning of a strip casting roll

    DOEpatents

    Williams, R.S.; Campbell, S.L.

    1997-07-29

    A strip caster (10) for producing a continuous strip (24) has a tundish (12) for containing a melt (14) and a pair of horizontally disposed water cooled casting rolls (22). The casting rolls are juxtaposed relative to one another for forming a pouring basin (18) for receiving the melt through a teeming tube (16) thereby establishing a meniscus (20) between the rolls for forming a strip (24). The melt is protected from the outside air by a non-oxidizing gas passed through a supply line (28) to a sealing chamber (26). Devices (29) for conditioning the outer peripheral chill surfaces of the casting rolls includes grit blasting nozzles (30A, 30B, 30C, 30D), a collection trough (32) for gathering the grit, a line (34) for recycling the grit to a bag house (36), a feeder (38) and a pressurized distributor (40) for delivering the grit to the nozzles. The conditioning nozzles remove dirt, metal oxides and surface imperfections providing a clean surface readily wetted by the melt.

  7. In-situ conditioning of a strip casting roll

    DOEpatents

    Williams, Robert S.; Campbell, Steven L.

    1997-01-01

    A strip caster (10) for producing a continuous strip (24) has a tundish (12) for containing a melt (14) and a pair of horizontally disposed water cooled casting rolls (22). The casting rolls are juxtaposed relative to one another for forming a pouring basin (18) for receiving the melt through a teeming tube (16) thereby establishing a meniscus (20) between the rolls for forming a strip (24). The melt is protected from the outside air by a non-oxidizing gas passed through a supply line (28) to a sealing chamber (26). Devices (29) for conditioning the outer peripheral chill surfaces of the casting rolls includes grit blasting nozzles (30A, 30B, 30C, 30D), a collection trough (32) for gathering the grit, a line (34) for recycling the grit to a bag house (36), a feeder (38) and a pressurized distributor (40) for delivering the grit to the nozzles. The conditioning nozzles remove dirt, metal oxides and surface imperfections providing a clean surface readily wetted by the melt.

  8. Innovative Technology Development for Comprehensive Air Quality Characterization from Open Burning

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-04-01

    that would be derived through ground level, open air detonation and burn tests. Work by (Lindsay et al. 1999) em- ployed blimp sampling at Hill Air...from the blimp for CO2, VOCs, chloride analyses, and particulate matter. The tests were partially suc- cessful, showed the potential for this type of...Watkins, T. Olsen. Final report–use of blimps to collect in-situ reaction products from detonation plumes. CH2MHill, Salt Lake City, UT. Mitchell W. J

  9. Investigation of radon level in air and tap water of workplaces at Thailand Institute of Nuclear Technology, Thailand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sola, P.; Youngchuay, U.; Kongsri, S.; Kongtana, A.

    2017-06-01

    Thailand Institute of Nuclear Technology (TINT) has continuously monitored radiation exposure and radionuclide in workplaces specifically radon gas to estimate effective dose for workers. Radon exposure is the second leading cause of lung cancer in the world. In this study, radon in air and tap water at building no. 3, 7, 8, 9 and 18 on Ongkharak site of TINT have been measured for 5 years from 2012 to 2016. Radon level in air and tap water were investigated on 83 stations (workplaces) and 54 samples, respectively. Radon concentrations in air and tap water were measured by using the pulsed ionization chamber (ATMOS 12 DPX). Indoor radon concentrations in air were in the range of 12-138 Bq.m-3 with an average value of 30.13±17.05 Bq.m-3. Radon concentrations in tap water were in the range of 0.10 to 2.89 Bq.l-1 with an average value of 0.51±0.55 Bq.l-1. The results of radon concentrations at TINT were below the US Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) safety limit of 148 Bq.m-3 and 150 Bq.l-1, for, air and tap water, respectively. The average effective dose for TINT’s workers due to indoor radon exposure was approximately 0.20±0.11 mSv.y-1. The value is 100 times less than the annual dose limit for limit occupational radiation worker defined by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP). As a result, the TINT’s workplaces are radiologically safe from radon content in air and tap water.

  10. ATR technology holds the key to a better, faster, and safer way to perform postattack air base damage assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohd, Maqsood A.

    1993-11-01

    Modern combat aircraft depend on high quality airfield surfaces for takeoff and landings (TOLs). This makes TOL surfaces a very attractive target to enemy attack. After an attack, the number one priority of the recovery forces at a combat air base is to restore the air base's war fighting capability; therefore, an accurate and expedient assessment of damage is the first step of the restoration process. At present a damage assessment system (DAS) that can accurately, rapidly, and safely characterize and evaluate the magnitude of damage from an enemy attack with conventional weaponry such as mines and bombs does not exist. Using the systems engineering approach, this paper develops a DAS based on the promising ATR technology for improving the conduct of the postattack air base DA function. This paper also examines and identifies the sensors and the sensor fusion techniques that form the core of this DAS. Furthermore, this paper ranks the exploitable technologies and recommends test-worthy systems for further analysis.

  11. [Comparison of sulfur fumigation processing and direct hot air heating technology on puerarin contents and efficacy of Puerariae Thomsonii Radix].

    PubMed

    Yu, Hong-Li; Zhang, Qian; Jin, Yang-Ping; Wang, Kui-Long; Lu, Tu-Lin; Li, Lin

    2016-07-01

    In order to compare the effect of sulfur fumigation processing and direct hot air heating technology on puerarin contents and efficacy of Puerariae Thomsonii Radix, the fresh roots of Pueraria thomsonii were cut into small pieces and prepared into direct sunshine drying samples, direct hot air drying samples, and sulfur fumigation-hot air drying samples. Moisture contents of the samples were then determined. The puerarin contents of different samples were compared by HPLC method. Moreover, the models of drunkenness mice were established, and then with superoxide dismutase (SOD) content as the index, aqueous decoction extracts of Puerariae Thomsonii Radix samples with sulfur fumigation processing and non-sulfur fumigation processing methods were administrated by ig; the effects of sulfur fumigation on contents of SOD in mice liver and serum were determined, and the sulfur fumigation samples and non-sulfur fumigation samples were investigated for moth and mildew under different packaging and storage conditions. Results showed that the sulfur fumigation samples significantly changed the puerarin content from Puerariae Thomsonii Radix. The content of puerarin was decreased gradually when increasing the times of sulfur fumigation and amount of sulfur. SOD content in drunken mice liver and serum was significantly decreased when increasing the times of sulfur fumigation, showing significant difference with both direct sunshine drying group and direct hot air drying group. Moth and mildew were not found in the sulfur fumigation samples and direct hot air drying samples whose moisture contents were lower than the limit in Pharmacopoeia. Research showed that sulfur fumigation can significantly reduce the content of main active ingredients and reduce the efficacy of Puerariae Thomsonii Radix, indicating that the quality of Puerariae Thomsonii Radix was significantly decreased after sulfur fumigation. However, the contents of the main active ingredients, efficacy and storage

  12. Report on Technology Horizons: A Vision for Air Force Science and Technology During 2010-2030. Volume 1

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-05-15

    blind or dazzle electro-optical and infrared sensors in ISR satellites. At somewhat higher power levels they can permanently disable these...less mature “cold atom” inertial navigation systems and timing systems based on compact matter- wave interferometry approaches. 16. Research is...construct for S&T to provide the stability needed for effective mid - and long-range development of technologies.  Define and implement a formal

  13. Br-PADAP embedded in cellulose acetate electrospun nanofibers: Colorimetric sensor strips for visual uranyl recognition.

    PubMed

    Hu, Lin; Yan, Xue-Wu; Li, Qi; Zhang, Xue-Ji; Shan, Dan

    2017-05-05

    In this work, a new visual colorimetric strip based on cellulose acetate nanofiber mats modified by 2-(5-Bromo-2-pyridylazo)-5-(diethylamino) phenol was successfully prepared via electrospinning technology. The prepared colorimetric strip showed high sensitivity towards UO 2 2+ with the yellow-to-purple color change signal. Upon the optimal conditions of solution pH at 6.0 and response time for 80min, the detection limit for UO 2 2+ can reach 50 ppb. Moreover, the strip also exhibited excellent anti-interference ability in the presence of other metal ions. In order to achieve the quantitative detection for UO 2 2+ , a color-differentiation map was established, which was prepared from converted H values. Finally, the strip was also used to detect UO 2 2+ in the seawater and showed high sensitivity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. NASA Turbulence Technologies In-Service Evaluation: Delta Air Lines Report-Out

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Amaral, Christian; Dickson, Steve; Watts, Bill

    2007-01-01

    Concluding an in-service evaluation of two new turbulence detection technologies developed in the Turbulence Prediction and Warning Systems (TPAWS) element of the NASA Aviation Safety and Security Program's Weather Accident Prevention Project (WxAP), this report documents Delta's experience working with the technologies, feedback gained from pilots and dispatchers concerning current turbulence techniques and procedures, and Delta's recommendations regarding directions for further efforts by the research community. Technologies evaluated included an automatic airborne turbulence encounter reporting technology called the Turbulence Auto PIREP System (TAPS), and a significant enhancement to the ability of modern airborne weather radars to predict and display turbulence of operational significance, called E-Turb radar.

  15. Evaluation of absorption/stripping for second phase expansion of KG gas cracker

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1995-12-01

    This report addresses technology evaluation for a second phase expansion of BP Chemical Ltd.`s (BPCL) KG cracker. Its primary objective was to determine if the absorption/stripping technology being developed by BPCL is competitive with cryogenic demethanization technology. The expansion basis for this evaluation is a 150,000 MTA ethylene increment. This increment represents an increase in KG`s capacity from 450,000 MTA after the current expansion to an ultimate capacity of 600,000 MTA. Two recovery systems for a 150,000 MTA expansion are compared: (1) Case A - Absorption/Stripping Expansion; and (2) Case B - ARS Expansion. Another objective of this report wasmore » to confirm the magnitude of the economic advantages of the absorption/stripping technology for grass roots applications. For that evaluation, absorption/stripping was compared with the original 350,000 MTA KG recovery system. The two additional 350,000 MTA grass roots cases evaluated are: (1) Case C - Absorption/Stripping - Grass Roots Design; (2) Case D - Conventional Cryogenic Recovery (Original KG 350,000 MTA design).« less

  16. Transfusion and blood donation in comic strips.

    PubMed

    Lefrère, Jean-Jacques; Danic, Bruno

    2013-07-01

    The representation of blood transfusion and donation of blood in the comic strip has never been studied. The comic strip, which is a relatively recent art, emerged in the 19th century before becoming a mass medium during the 20th century. We have sought, by calling on collectors and using the resources of Internet, comic strips devoted, wholly or in part, to the themes of transfusion and blood donation. We present some of them here in chronologic order, indicating the title, country of origin, year of publication, and names of authors. The theme of the superhero using transfusion to transmit his virtues or his powers is repeated throughout the 20th century in North American comic strips. More recently, comic strips have been conceived from the outset with a promotional aim. They perpetuate positive images and are directed toward a young readership, wielding humor to reduce the fear of venipuncture. Few comic strips denounce the abuse of the commercialization of products derived from the human body. The image of transfusion and blood donation given by the comic strips is not to be underestimated because their readership is primarily children, some of whom will become blood donors. Furthermore, if some readers are transfused during their lives, the impact of a memory more or less conscious of these childhood readings may resurface, both in hopes and in fears. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Aeroelastic deformation of a perforated strip

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guttag, M.; Karimi, H. H.; Falcón, C.; Reis, P. M.

    2018-01-01

    We perform a combined experimental and numerical investigation into the static deformation of perforated elastic strips under uniform aerodynamic loading at high-Reynolds-number conditions. The static shape of the porous strips, clamped either horizontally or vertically, is quantified as they are deformed by wind loading, induced by a horizontal flow. The experimental profiles are compared to numerical simulations using a reduced model that takes into account the normal drag force on the deformed surface. For both configurations (vertical and horizontal clamping), we compute the drag coefficient of the strip, by fitting the experimental data to the model, and find that it decreases as a function of porosity. Surprisingly, we find that, for every value of porosity, the drag coefficients for the horizontal configuration are larger than those of the vertical configuration. For all data in both configurations, with the exception of the continuous strip clamped vertically, a linear relation is found between the porosity and drag. Making use of this linearity, we can rescale the drag coefficient in a way that it becomes constant as a function of the Cauchy number, which relates the force due to fluid loading on the elastic strip to its bending rigidity, independently of the material properties and porosity of the strip and the flow speed. Our findings on flexible strips are contrasted to previous work on rigid perforated plates. These results highlight some open questions regarding the usage of reduced models to describe the deformation of flexible structures subjected to aerodynamic loading.

  18. An improved rolled strip pulse forming line.

    PubMed

    Li, Song; Qian, Bao-Liang; Yang, Han-Wu; Gao, Jing-Ming; Liu, Zhao-Xi

    2013-06-01

    The rolled strip pulse forming line (RSPFL) has advantages of compactness, portability, and long pulse achievability which could well meet the requirements of industrial application of the pulse power technology. In this paper, an improved RSPFL with an additional insulator between the grounded conductors is investigated numerically and experimentally. Results demonstrate that the jitter on the flat-top of the output voltage waveform is reduced to 3.8% due to the improved structure. Theoretical analysis shows that the electromagnetic coupling between the conductors of the RSPFL strongly influences the output voltage waveform. Therefore, the new structure was designed to minimize the detrimental effect of the electromagnetic coupling. Simulation results show that the electromagnetic coupling can be efficiently reduced in the improved RSPFL. Experimental results illustrate that the improved RSPFL, with dimensions and weight of Φ 290 × 250 mm and 16 kg, when used as a simple pulse forming line, could generate a well shaped quasi-square pulse with output power of hundreds of MW and pulse duration of 250 ns. Importantly, the improved RSPFL was successfully used as a Blumlein pulse forming line, and a 10.8 kV, 260 ns quasi-square pulse was obtained on a 2 Ω dummy load. Experiments show reasonable agreement with numerical analysis.

  19. 1986 CACTS International Conference on Air Cushion Technology, Toronto, Canada, Sept. 16-18, 1986, Preprints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacEwen, W. R.

    The present conference on the design and development, innovative configurational concepts, test result analyses and operational characteristics of ACVs gives attention to design criteria for light, high-speed ACVs in desert environments, preliminary over-water tests of linear propellers, tests on high speed hovercraft icebreaking, and the performance of an air cushion crawler all-terrain vehicle. Also discussed are the use of ACVs as high speed ASW vehicles, performance criteria for air cushion heave dynamics, the bounce characteristics of an ACV's responsive skirt, and the use of hovercraft in ice enforcement.

  20. Energy Horizons: A Science and Technology Vision for Air Force Energy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-04-01

    power. Beyond near-term efficient microprocessors, innovations such as memristors , photonic computing, and quantum computing could pro- duce significant...Efficient Computer Technology (W) • Hardware Architecture Advances (3-D Chips) (L) • Quantum Computing Technology (F) • Memristor -Based

  1. CONTACT: An Air Force Technical Report on Military Satellite Control Technology

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-07-09

    of overloading existing locations. Smaller size and remote control of each LEO station Figure 2: Network Using Common Relay Satelites reduces its...techniques, synchronization and encryption technology. ing new configurations as pertinent technologies become W available, and reducing or dropping

  2. Instabilities and Solitons in Minimal Strips.

    PubMed

    Machon, Thomas; Alexander, Gareth P; Goldstein, Raymond E; Pesci, Adriana I

    2016-07-01

    We show that highly twisted minimal strips can undergo a nonsingular transition, unlike the singular transitions seen in the Möbius strip and the catenoid. If the strip is nonorientable, this transition is topologically frustrated, and the resulting surface contains a helicoidal defect. Through a controlled analytic approximation, the system can be mapped onto a scalar ϕ^{4} theory on a nonorientable line bundle over the circle, where the defect becomes a topologically protected kink soliton or domain wall, thus establishing their existence in minimal surfaces. Demonstrations with soap films confirm these results and show how the position of the defect can be controlled through boundary deformation.

  3. Saving Energy Through Advanced Power Strips (Poster)

    SciTech Connect

    Christensen, D.

    2013-10-01

    Advanced Power Strips (APS) look just like ordinary power strips, except that they have built-in features that are designed to reduce the amount of energy used by many consumer electronics. There are several different types of APSs on the market, but they all operate on the same basic principle of shutting off the supply power to devices that are not in use. By replacing your standard power strip with an APS, you can signifcantly cut the amount of electricity used by your home office and entertainment center devices, and save money on your electric bill. This illustration summarizes the differentmore » options.« less

  4. 75 FR 22548 - Requirements for Control Technology Determinations for Major Sources in Accordance With Clean Air...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-29

    ..., Sections 112(g) and 112(j) AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Extension of public... case-by-case emission limits for major sources of hazardous air pollutants under section 112(j) of the..., when EPA published a proposed rule (75 FR 15655) amending the Section 112(j) rule (40 CFR part 63...

  5. Technology evaluation of heating, ventilation, and air conditioning for MIUS application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gill, W. L.; Keough, M. B.; Rippey, J. O.

    1974-01-01

    Potential ways of providing heating, ventilation, and air conditioning for a building complex serviced by a modular integrated utility system (MIUS) are examined. Literature surveys were conducted to investigate both conventional and unusual systems to serve this purpose. The advantages and disadvantages of the systems most compatible with MIUS are discussed.

  6. Investigation of air transportation technology at Ohio University, 1992-1993

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lilley, Robert W.

    1994-01-01

    The Joint University Program in Air Transportation Systems provides opportunities for progress by students, staff and faculty at the Avionics Engineering Center, Ohio University. During the 1992-93 year, four conference papers and two M.S. theses were produced; these are summarized in the bibliography. The conference papers are included in their entirety, for reference.

  7. Predicting the impacts of new technology aircraft on international air transportation demand

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ausrotas, R. A.

    1981-01-01

    International air transportation to and from the United States was analyzed. Long term and short term effects and causes of travel are described. The applicability of econometric methods to forecast passenger travel is discussed. A nomograph is developed which shows the interaction of economic growth, airline yields, and quality of service in producing international traffic.

  8. CORONA DESTRUCTION: AN INNOVATIVE CONTROL TECHNOLOGY FOR VOCS AND AIR TOXICS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper discusses the work and results to date leading to the demonstration of the corona destruction process at pilot scale. The research effort in corona destruction of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and air toxics has shown significant promise for providing a valuable co...

  9. EMERGING TECHNOLOGY REPORT: DESTRUCTION OF ORGANIC CONTAMINANTS IN AIR USING ADVANCED ULTRAVIOLET FLASHLAMPS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper describes a new process for photo-oxidation of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in air using an advanced ultraviolet source, a Purus xenon flashlamp. The flashlamps have greater output at 200-250 nm than medium-pressure mercury lamps at the same power and therefore ca...

  10. Application of air hammer drilling technology in igneous rocks of Junggar basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Hongshan; Feng, Guangtong; Yu, Haiye

    2018-03-01

    There were many technical problems such as serious well deviation, low penetration rate and long drilling cycle in igneous rocks because of its hardness, strong abrasive and poor drillability, which severely influenced the exploration and development process of Junggar basin. Through analyzing the difficulties of gas drilling with roller bits in Well HS 2, conducting the mechanics experiments about igneous rock, and deeply describing the rock-breaking mechanism of air hammer drilling and its adaptability in igneous rocks, air hammer drilling can realize deviation control and fast drilling in igneous rocks of piedmont zone and avoid the wear and fatigue fracture of drilling strings due to its characteristics of low WOB, low RPM and high frequency impact. Through firstly used in igneous rocks of Well HS 201, compared with gas drilling with cone bit, the average penetration rate and one-trip footage of air hammer drilling respectively increased by more than 2.45 times and 6.42 times while the well deviation was always controlled less than 2 degrees. Two records for Block HS were set up such as the fastest penetration rate of 14.29m/h in Φ444.5mm well hole and the highest one-trip footage of 470.62m in Φ311.2mm well hole. So air hammer drilling was an effective way to realize optimal and fast drilling in the igneous rock formation of Junggar basin.

  11. PRELIMINARY ASSESSMENT OF WORKER AND AMBIENT AIR EXPOSURES DURING SOIL REMEDIATION TECHNOLOGY DEMONSTRATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Hazardous waste site remediation workers or neighboring residents may be exposed to particulates during the remediation of lead contaminated soil sites. An industrial hygiene survey and air monitoring program for both lead and dust were performed during initial soil sampling acti...

  12. 78 FR 66107 - National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants Residual Risk and Technology Review for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-04

    ... Administration S/L/Ts State, local, and tribal air pollution control agencies SOP standing operating procedures... requirements include the installation of either a vapor recovery system or a carbon adsorption system. Transfer... adsorption system on storage vessels. For equipment leaks, the FPUF Production MACT standards require a leak...

  13. Building America Best Practices Series, Volume 10: Retrofit Techniques and Technologies: Air Sealing

    SciTech Connect

    Baechler, Michael C.; Gilbride, Theresa L.; Hefty, Marye G.

    2010-04-12

    This report was prepared by PNNL for the U.S. Department of Energy Building America Program. The report provides information to home owners who want to make their existing homes more energy efficient by sealing leaks in the building envelope (ceiling, walls, and floors) that let in drafts and let conditioned air escape. The report provides descriptions of 19 key areas of the home where air sealing can improve home performance and energy efficiency. The report includes suggestions on how to find a qualified weatherization or home performance contractor, what to expect in a home energy audit, opportune times for performingmore » air sealing, and what safety and health concerns to be aware of. The report describes some basic building science concepts and topics related to air sealing including ventilation, diagnostic tools, and code requirements. The report will be available for free download from the DOE Building America website. It is a suitable consumer education tool for home performance and weatherization contractors to share with customers to describe the process and value of home energy retrofits.« less

  14. PHYTOREMEDIATION OF GROUNDWATER AT AIR FORCE PLANT 4, CARSWELL, TEXAS - INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGY EVALUATION REPORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Over 600 Cottonwood trees were planted over a shallow groundwater plume in an attempt to detoxify the trichloroethylene (TCE) in a groundwater plume at a former Air Force facility. Two planting techniques were used: rooted stock about two years old, and 18 inch cuttings were inst...

  15. ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION REPORT, MIRATECH CORPORATIONM GECO 3001 AIR/FUEL RATIO CONTROLLER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Details on the verification test design, measurement test procedures, and Quality assurance/Quality Control (QA/QC) procedures can be found in the test plan titled Testing and Quality Assurance Plan, MIRATECH Corporation GECO 3100 Air/Fuel Ratio Controller (SRI 2001). It can be d...

  16. A video strip chart program

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, N.L.

    1994-12-31

    A strip chart recorder has been utilized for trend analysis of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory EN tandem since 1987. At the EN, the author could not afford the nice eight channel thermal pen recorder that was used at the 25 URC. He had to suffice with two channel fiber tip or capillary pen type recorders retrieved from salvage and maintained with parts from other salvaged recorders. After cycling through several machines that eventually became completely unserviceable, a search for a new thermal recorder was begun. As much as he hates to write computer code, he decided to try hismore » hand at getting an old data acquisition unit, that had been retrieved several years ago from salvage, to meet his needs. A BASIC language compiler was used because time was not available to learn a more advanced language. While attempting to increase acquisition and scroll speed on the 6 MHz 80286 that the code was first developed on, it became apparent that scrolling only the first small portion of the screen at high speed and then averaging that region and histogramming the average provided both the speed necessary for capturing fairly short duration events, and a trend record without use of back scrolling and disk storage routines. This turned out to be quite sufficient.« less

  17. Propulsion Noise Reduction Research in the NASA Advanced Air Transport Technology Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Van Zante, Dale; Nark, Douglas; Fernandez, Hamilton

    2017-01-01

    The Aircraft Noise Reduction (ANR) sub-project is focused on the generation, development, and testing of component noise reduction technologies progressing toward the NASA far term noise goals while providing associated near and mid-term benefits. The ANR sub-project has efforts in airframe noise reduction, propulsion (including fan and core) noise reduction, acoustic liner technology, and propulsion airframe aeroacoustics for candidate conventional and unconventional aircraft configurations. The current suite of propulsion specific noise research areas is reviewed along with emerging facility and measurement capabilities. In the longer term, the changes in engine and aircraft configuration will influence the suite of technologies necessary to reduce noise in next generation systems.

  18. Prevention of Stripping under Chip Seals

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2017-10-01

    Eighteen chip-sealed roadways in eight cities and counties in Minnesota were evaluated both in the field (for condition surveys and density tests) and in the laboratory (for permeability, stripping, tensile-strength ratio, asphalt film thickness, and...

  19. Temperature Profile of the Duracell Test Strip.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Viiri, Jouni; Kettunen, Lasse

    1996-01-01

    Presents the temperature profile of the Duracell Test Strip obtained using a Inframetrics 740 thermal imaging radiometer and ThermaGRAM95 software and compares this to the theoretical profile derived by Clark and Bonicamp. (JRH)

  20. Chemical Strips Anodic Film From Aluminum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eichinger, Eric C.

    1993-01-01

    Phosphoric acid solution offers advantages over other stripping solutions. More effective than other strippers and safer to use. Relatively environmentally benign, phosphoric acid stripper ceases its chemical attack so less process control is needed in its use.

  1. Rumble strips installation on thin pavement overlays.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2014-09-01

    The purpose of this project was to establish a synthesis of best practices from various state and other transportation agency stakeholders regarding the installation and re-installation of rumble strips on pavements treated with a thin pavement overl...

  2. Detection of stripping in hot mix asphalt.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2005-03-11

    Stripping in hot mix asphalt (HMA) refers to the loss of adhesion between the asphalt cement and the aggregate surface primarily caused by the action of moisture and moisture vapor (Kandhal and Rickards 2001). Moisture damage begins with a reduction ...

  3. Some Labour Implications of Technological Change in Rail and Air Transport.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gil, Avishai

    1986-01-01

    Repercussions of recent economic difficulties on job content, employment levels, structure of the work force, and industrial relations are examined. The effect of new technologies on these areas is discussed. (Author/CT)

  4. Clean Air Act Section 112(d)(6) Technology Review for Pulping and Papermaking Processes Memorandum

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The purpose of this November 2011 document is to present the results of a review of available information on developments in practices, processes, and control technologies that apply to pulping and papermaking processes.

  5. Air Force space power and thermal management technology - Requirements for the early 21st century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herrera, Ernest D.; Kuck, Inara

    Typical projections for military space power and thermal management technologies have posited requirements for high powered and highly survivable systems. Recent changes in defense needs, however, will require spacecraft that are smaller, lower powered, less survivable, and highly proliferated. Technologies will be developed to provide low cost, ultra-light, high power density, 'smart' conventional power systems. Compact nuclear power systems will also be developed to meet higher power needs.

  6. Investigation of Air Transportation Technology at Ohio University, 1989-1990

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lilley, Robert W.

    1990-01-01

    The activities of the participants in the Joint University Program (JUP) at Ohio University are briefly surveyed. During 1989 to 1990, five topics received emphasis. A spectrum-efficient weather data uplink system was designed, constructed, and flight tested. An integrated Global Positioning System/Inertial Navigation System (GPS/INS) study continued, utilizing the Redundant strapdown Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU) on loan from NASA. The Ridge Regression theory was refined and applied to air navigation scenarios. System Identification theory was applied to GPS data to point the way to better understanding of the effects of Selective Availability on civilian users of this navigation system. An analysis of thought-related (electroencephalographic) signals for application to control of computer systems that could have significance in aiding paraplegics or for hands-off systems control in industrial or air traffic control areas was carried out.

  7. Deuteron stripping reactions using dirac phenomenology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hawk, E. A.; McNeil, J. A.

    2001-04-01

    In this work deuteron stripping reactions are studied using the distorted wave born approximation employing dirac phenomenological potentials. In 1982 Shepard and Rost performed zero-range dirac phenomenological stripping calculations and found a dramatic reduction in the predicted cross sections when compared with similar nonrelativistic calculations. We extend the earlier work by including full finite range effects as well as the deuteron's internal D-state. Results will be compared with traditional nonrelativistic approaches and experimental data at low energy.

  8. Spray casting of steel strip: Process analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Annavarapu, Suresh; Apelian, Diran; Lawley, Alan

    1990-12-01

    Near-net shape manufacturing (NNSM) of thin steel sections by spray casting eliminates casting as a separate step with attendant improved microstructures and properties and significant energy savings. The process involves atomization of a stream of liquid metal and deposition of droplets in the generated spray on a moving substrate at mass flow rates of 0.25 to 2.5 kg/s. In this paper, NNSM of steel strip by the Osprey spray casting process is investigated by combining numerical simulation and experiments. Critical input parameters for the computation are quantified utilizing existing state-of-the-art mathematical models and specific experiments. Numerical computation of the consolidation of the spray at the substrate during manufacture of thin sections is conducted using both continuum and discrete event (“splat solidification”) approaches to predict: (1) variation of strip thickness in the transverse dimension and (2) isotherms and cooling rates across the strip thickness. Predicted geometries of the strip simulated by the continuum model are in good agreement with measurements. Predicted isotherms in narrow strip by the continuum approach are in reasonable agreement with thermocouple measurements for intermediate thicknesses (2 to 5 mm), and the observed microstructure is consistent with predicted cooling rates. The discrete event model predicts significantly higher cooling rates than the continuum model in the basal portion of the strip. This is consistent with the observed grain size in thin strip (strip. Beyond a threshold thickness, however, the discrete event model confirms the formation and persistence of a partially liquid layer at the growing surface of the deposit with an attendant decrease in the cooling rate. The influence of critical parameters on “splat solidification” is analyzed and assessed.

  9. Improved Performance of an Air Cooled Condenser (ACC) Using SPX Wind Guide Technology at Coal-Based Thermoelectric Power Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Ken Mortensen

    2010-12-31

    This project added a new airflow enhancement technology to an existing ACC cooling process at a selected coal power plant. Airflow parameters and efficiency improvement for the main plant cooling process using the applied technology were determined and compared with the capabilities of existing systems. The project required significant planning and pre-test execution in order to reach the required Air Cooled Condenser system configuration for evaluation. A host Power Plant ACC system had to be identified, agreement finalized, and addition of the SPX ACC Wind Guide Technology completed on that site. Design of the modification, along with procurement, fabrication, instrumentation,more » and installation of the new airflow enhancement technology were executed. Baseline and post-modification cooling system data was collected and evaluated. The improvement of ACC thermal performance after SPX wind guide installation was clear. Testing of the improvement indicates there is a 5% improvement in heat transfer coefficient in high wind conditions and 1% improvement at low wind speed. The benefit increased with increasing wind speed. This project was completed on schedule and within budget.« less

  10. Quantitative comparison of 3 enamel-stripping devices in vitro: how precisely can we strip teeth?

    PubMed

    Johner, Alexander Marc; Pandis, Nikolaos; Dudic, Alexander; Kiliaridis, Stavros

    2013-04-01

    In this in-vitro study, we aimed to investigate the predictability of the expected amount of stripping using 3 common stripping devices on premolars. One hundred eighty extracted premolars were mounted and aligned in silicone. Tooth mobility was tested with Periotest (Medizintechnik Gulden, Modautal, Germany) (8.3 ± 2.8 units). The selected methods for interproximal enamel reduction were hand-pulled strips (Horico, Hapf Ringleb & Company, Berlin, Germany), oscillating segmental disks (O-drive-OD 30; KaVo Dental, Biberach, Germany), and motor-driven abrasive strips (Orthofile; SDC Switzerland, Lugano-Grancia, Switzerland). With each device, the operator intended to strip 0.1, 0.2, 0.3, or 0.4 mm on the mesial side of 15 teeth. The teeth were scanned before and after stripping with a 3-dimensional laser scanner. Superposition and measurement of stripped enamel on the most mesial point of the tooth were conducted with Viewbox software (dHal Software, Kifissia, Greece). The Wilcoxon signed rank test and the Kruskal-Wallis test were applied; statistical significance was set at alpha ≤ 0.05. Large variations between the intended and the actual amounts of stripped enamel, and between stripping procedures, were observed. Significant differences were found at 0.1 mm of intended stripping (P ≤ 0.05) for the hand-pulled method and at 0.4 mm of intended stripping (P ≤ 0.001 to P = 0.05) for all methods. For all scenarios of enamel reduction, the actual amount of stripping was less than the predetermined and expected amount of stripping. The Kruskal-Wallis analysis showed no significant differences between the 3 methods. There were variations in the stripped amounts of enamel, and the stripping technique did not appear to be a significant predictor of the actual amount of enamel reduction. In most cases, actual stripping was less than the intended amount of enamel reduction. Copyright © 2013 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights

  11. Breakthrough Technologies Developed by the Air Force Research Laboratory and Its Predecessors

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-12-21

    where the GPS and INS navigation filters are dynamically coupled in a single navigation filter, showed a significant increase in jamming immunity ...that are really permanent magnets (that is, immune to self demagnetization), a property considered particularly important in dynamic applications...particularly bridges, that hitherto had remained largely immune from aerial bombardment. By 1979 a next generation LGB, the GBU-24, entered the Air Force

  12. The Mediterranean Crucible, 1942-1943: Did Technology or Tenets Achieve Air Superiority

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-06-01

    Intelligence, 125. 54 Message, to CoSs , Jan 6, 1943, Spaatz Papers, box 10, cited in Robert C. Ehrhart et al., “Building an Air Intelligence Organization...71 Message No. 3650 – NAF 72, Eisenhower to Combined CoSs , 31 December 1942, HRA Call no. 612.1622, IRIS...no. 242258, in USAF Collection, AFHRA. 72 Message No. 3650, Eisenhower to Combined CoSs . 73 Arthur Tedder, With Prejudice: The War Memoirs of

  13. Future Capabilities and Technologies for the Air Force in 2030. Executive Summary

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-07-01

    F-5, and the F-15, accumulating over 4,000 hours, of which 500 were in combat. He served in Viet - nam as a forward air controller with the 2nd... issues such as the gap between rich and poor, environmental degradation, and gov- ernment and corporate corruption.7 Post-Mao Zedong China, be- ginning...improving the north, or should corruption prove en- trenched, this could spark greater animosity among regions, resur- recting issues of reduced government

  14. Technology Solutions Case Study: Combustion Safety for Appliances Using Indoor Air

    SciTech Connect

    None

    2014-05-01

    This case study describes how to assess and carry out the combustion safety procedures for appliances and heating equipment that uses indoor air for combustion in low-rise residential buildings. Only appliances installed in the living space, or in an area freely communicating with the living space, vented alone or in tandem with another appliance are considered here. This document is for inspectors, auditors, and technicians working in homes where energy upgrades are being conducted whether or not air infiltration control is included in the package of measures being applied. In the indoor combustion air case, guidelines summarized here are basedmore » on language provided in several of the codes to establish minimum requirements for the space using simplified prescriptive measures. In addition, building performance testing procedures are provided by testing agencies. The codes in combination with the test procedures offer comprehensive combustion safety coverage to address safety concerns, allowing inexperienced residential energy retrofit inspectors to effectively address combustion safety issues and allow energy retrofits to proceed.« less

  15. Strip tillage width effects on sunflower seed emergence and yield

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Strip tillage is a type of conservation tillage characterized by tillage of a strip of soil and then planting the crop row along the centerline of the strip. Strip tillage combines the benefits of no-tillage and full-width tillage. The tilled zones are generally less than 50% of the field area. S...

  16. Uncovering dental implants using a new thermo-optically powered (TOP) technology with tissue air-cooling.

    PubMed

    Romanos, Georgios E; Belikov, Andrey V; Skrypnik, Alexei V; Feldchtein, Felix I; Smirnov, Michael Z; Altshuler, Gregory B

    2015-07-01

    Uncovering implants with lasers, while bloodless, has been associated with a risk of implant and bone overheating. The present study evaluated the effect of using a new generation of high-power diode lasers on the temperature of a dental implant and the surrounding tissues using an in vitro model. The implant temperature was measured at three locations using micro thermocouples. Collateral thermal damage of uncovered soft tissues was evaluated using NTBC stain. Implant temperature rise during and collateral thermal soft-tissue damage following implant uncovering with and without tissue air-cooling was studied using both the classic operational mode and the new thermo-optically powered (TOP) technology. For the classic surgical mode using a cork-initiated tip and constant laser power set at 3.4 W, the maximum temperature rise in the coronal and apical parts of the implant was 23.2 ± 4.1°С and 9.5 ± 1.8°С, respectively, while 1.5 ± 0.5 mm of collateral thermal damage of the soft tissue surrounding the implant model occurred. Using the TOP surgical tip with constant laser power reduced implant overheating by 30%; collateral thermal soft-tissue damage was 0.8 ± 0.2 mm. Using the TOP surgical mode with a tip temperature setting of 800°C and air-cooling reduced the implant temperature rise by more than 300%, and only 0.2 ± 0.1 mm of collateral thermal soft-tissue damage occurred, typical for optimized CO2 laser surgery. Furthermore, use of the new generation diode technology (TOP surgical mode) appeared to reduce the time required for implant uncovering by a factor of two, compared to the standard surgical mode. Use of the new generation diode technology (TOP surgical mode) may significantly reduce overheating of dental implants during uncovering and seems to be safer for the adjacent soft and hard tissues. Use of such diode lasers with air-cooling can radically reduce the rise in implant temperatures (by more than three times

  17. Beam tests of ATLAS SCT silicon strip detector modules

    SciTech Connect

    Campabadal, F.; Fleta, C.; Key, M.

    2004-08-18

    The design and technology of the silicon strip detector modules for the Semiconductor Tracker (SCT) of the ATLAS experiment have been finalized in the last several years. Integral to this process has been the measurement and verification of the tracking performance of the different module types in test beams at the CERN SPS and the KEK PS. Tests have been performed to explore the module performance under various operating conditions including detector bias voltage, magnetic field, incidence angle, and state of irradiation up to 3 1014 protons per square centimeter. A particular emphasis has been the understanding of the operationalmore » consequences of the binary readout scheme.« less

  18. IN2 Profile: 7AC Technologies Takes High-Efficiency Air Conditioning to a New Level

    SciTech Connect

    Kozubal, Eric; Swan, Jed; Luttik, Peter

    2017-03-13

    As part of the Wells Fargo Innovation Incubator (IN²) program, 7AC Technologies has developed a liquid desiccant evaporative technology that will result in a 40-50% energy savings for commercial buildings. The IN² program launched in October 2014 and is part of Wells Fargo’s 2020 Environmental Commitment to provide $100 million to environmentally-focused nonprofits and universities. The goal is to create an ecosystem that fosters and accelerates the commercialization of promising commercial buildings technologies that can provide scalable solutions to reduce the energy impact of buildings. According to the Department of Energy, nearly 40 percent of energy consumption in the U.S.more » today comes from buildings at an estimated cost of $413 billion.« less

  19. Human-Centered Technologies and Procedures for Future Air Traffic Management: A Preliminary Overview of 1996 Studies and Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Philip; McCoy, Elaine; Denning, Rebecca; Woods, David; Sarter, Nadine; Dekker, Sidney; Billings, Charles

    1996-01-01

    In this project, we have been exploring the use of a general methodology to predict the impact of future Air Traffic Management (ATM) concepts and technologies. In applying this methodology, our emphasis has been on the importance of modeling coordination and cooperation among the multiple agents within this system, and on understanding how the interactions among these agents will be influenced as new roles, responsibilities, procedures and technologies are introduced. To accomplish this, we have been collecting data on performance under the current air traffic management system, trying to identify critical problem areas and looking for exemplars suggestive of general approaches for solving such problems. Based on the results of these field studies, we have developed a set of scenarios centered around potential future system designs, and have conducted studies using these scenarios involving a total 40 controllers, dispatchers, pilots and traffic managers. The purpose of this report is to provide NASA with an early summary of the major recommendations that have resulted from our research under the AATT Program thus far. Recommendations 1-3 deal with general approaches that our findings suggest should be incorporated in future AATT Program activities, while Recommendations 4-11 identify some specific topics and technologies that merit research and development activities. Detailed technical reports containing supporting data, as well as the results of our still ongoing analyses, will be provided at a later date. The remainder of this report is organized as follows. Section 1 briefly describes the general design philosophy supported by our empirical studies. Section 2 presents the research methods we have used for identifying requirements for future system designs and for evaluating alternative design solutions. Section 3 discusses preliminary results from an initial set of investigations that we have conducted using these research methods. Section 4 then provides an

  20. In air durability study of solar selective coating for parabolic trough technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raccurt, Olivier; Matino, Francesca; Disdier, Angela; Braillon, Julien; Stollo, Alessio; Bourdon, Delphine; Maccari, Augusto

    2017-06-01

    The effectiveness of Parabolic Trough CSP (Concentrated Solar Power) is strongly dependent on the Heat Collector Element (HCE) and specifically on the thermal stability of solar absorber at high temperature. For Molten Salt applications, operative temperature up to 600°C can be reached with vacuum solar receiver tubes (HCE). Nevertheless operation in air is also possible: such operative mode requires yet a deep knowledge of the possible degradation mechanisms of the solar selective coating. Here we report on the results of the optical and thermal investigation performed by CEA LITEN on Archimede Solar Energy (ASE) absorber coating according to the established procedures and the experimental facilities settled in the framework of the STAGE-STE project. A complete study of the accelerating thermal ageing test in air at high temperatures (up to 500°C) of ASE solar absorber is presented. The relation between optical parameter, such as solar absorbance and emittance, and temperature as function of time is used to study the thermal stability of coating. To this aim, we use a performance criterion defined as the variation of solar emittance solar absorbance during the ageing test. The degradation mechanism at elevated temperatures has been identified as oxidation of the metallic part of the cermet layer, W to WO3 and WOx. By means of an Arrhenius analysis, an activation energy of approximately 150 kJ/mol is calculated for this degradation process. Such a value has been found consistent with the expects from literature. Additionally, the lifetime prediction in the case of CSP plant in Ouarzazate is presented. The results of this analysis show a good thermal stability of samples up to 375°C for 25 years of uses in CSP plants working in air.

  1. Investigation of air transportation technology at Princeton University, 1992-1993

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stengel, Robert F.

    1994-01-01

    The Air Transportation Research Program at Princeton University proceeded along five avenues during the past year: (1) Flight Control System Robustness; (2) Microburst Hazards to Aircraft; (3) Wind Rotor Hazards to Aircraft; (4) Intelligent Aircraft/Airspace Systems; and (5) Aerospace Optical Communications. This research resulted in a number of publications, including theses, archival papers, and conference papers. An annotated bibliography of publications that appeared between June 1992 and June 1993 is included. The research that these papers describe was supported in whole or in part by the Joint University Program, including work that was completed prior to the reporting period.

  2. Environmental Impact Analysis Process. Environmental Assessment for U.S. Air Force Atmospheric Interceptor Technology Program

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1997-11-01

    Vicinity F-9 4.4-1 On -Pad Noise Levels F-10 4.4-2 Near -Field In-Flight Noise Levels F-11 4.4-3 Sonic Boom Locations F-12 4.5-1 Safety Exclusion Zone and...No Significant Impact. A decision that a project will not have a significant effect on the environment. General Vicinity Near . Gravitational The...Phased Array Warning System) located on the central California coast used for tracking friendly and enemy missiles. PCBOOM 3 Model U.S. Air Force

  3. Performance of the first prototype of the CALICE scintillator strip electromagnetic calorimeter

    DOE PAGES

    Francis, K.; Repond, J.; Schlereth, J.; ...

    2014-11-01

    A first prototype of a scintillator strip-based electromagnetic calorimeter was built, consisting of 26 layers of tungsten absorber plates interleaved with planes of 45 × 10 × 3 mm³ plastic scintillator strips. Data were collected using a positron test beam at DESY with momenta between 1 and 6 GeV/c. The prototype's performance is presented in terms of the linearity and resolution of the energy measurement. These results represent an important milestone in the development of highly granular calorimeters using scintillator strip technology. A number of possible design improvements were identified, which should be implemented in a future detector of thismore » type. This technology is being developed for a future linear collider experiment, aiming at the precise measurement of jet energies using particle flow techniques.« less

  4. Potential impacts of advanced aerodynamic technology on air transportation system productivity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bushnell, Dennis M. (Editor)

    1994-01-01

    Summaries of a workshop held at NASA Langley Research Center in 1993 to explore the application of advanced aerodynamics to airport productivity improvement are discussed. Sessions included discussions of terminal area productivity problems and advanced aerodynamic technologies for enhanced high lift and reduced noise, emissions, and wake vortex hazard with emphasis upon advanced aircraft configurations and multidisciplinary solution options.

  5. Structural Technology Evaluation and Analysis Program (STEAP). Delivery Order 0049: Computational Prototyping of Micro Air Vehicles

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-01-01

    AFRL-RQ-WP-TR-2013-0031 STRUCTURAL TECHNOLOGY EVALUATION AND ANALYSIS PROGRAM (STEAP) Delivery Order 0049: Computational Prototyping of...ASSIGNED DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT. *//Signature// //Signature// PHILIP S. BERAN, Tech Advisor THOMAS CO, Chief Design and Analysis Branch...Design and Analysis Branch Aerospace Vehicles Division Aerospace Vehicles Division //Signature// FRANK WITZEMAN, Chief Aerospace

  6. Towards a Technology Policy: Implications for Education and Retraining. AIR 1992 Annual Forum Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Terwisga, Henk B.; van Rosmalen, Karel M. A.

    This paper investigates technology policy for national governments, particularly the importance of education and training and the role of institutions of higher education as components of such policies for the diffusion and absorption of knowledge, as part of an overall strategy for improving the competitive edge of a nation's enterprises. The…

  7. Clean air program : use of hydrogen to power the advanced technology transit bus (ATTB) : an assessment

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1997-11-01

    The Advanced Technology Transit Bus (ATTB), developed under primary funding from : the U.S. DOT/Federal Transit Administration (FTA), currently uses a power plant : based on a natural gas burning IC engine-generator set. FTA is interested in : demons...

  8. The use of flight progress strips while working live traffic: frequencies, importance, and perceived benefits.

    PubMed

    Durso, Francis T; Batsakes, Peter J; Crutchfield, Jerry M; Braden, Justin B; Manning, Carol A

    2004-01-01

    The Federal Aviation Administration's effort to automate air traffic control (ATC) requires that the functionality provided today be captured in future systems. We report the first quantitative naturalistic observation of paper flight progress strip interactions during operational use. Strip use was similar in a variety of situations, but some uses varied as a function of altitude, staffing, or the cooperative style used by controller teams. Design of automation should proceed by prioritizing changes based on frequency of use and importance and should ensure that an effective method of interacting with flight information is incorporated. In addition to applied relevance to the ATC domain, the results touch on several theoretical concerns relevant to dynamic environments. Actual and potential applications of this research include the establishment of a database of strip activity and an arsenal of information valuable to system designers.

  9. Air Traffic Management Technology Demonstration-1 Concept of Operations (ATD-1 ConOps), Version 2.0

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baxley, Brian T.; Johnson, William C.; Swenson, Harry N.; Robinson, John E.; Prevot, Tom; Callantine, Todd J.; Scardina, John; Greene, Michael

    2013-01-01

    This document is an update to the operations and procedures envisioned for NASA s Air Traffic Management (ATM) Technology Demonstration #1 (ATD-1). The ATD-1 Concept of Operations (ConOps) integrates three NASA technologies to achieve high throughput, fuel-efficient arrival operations into busy terminal airspace. They are Traffic Management Advisor with Terminal Metering (TMA-TM) for precise time-based schedules to the runway and points within the terminal area, Controller-Managed Spacing (CMS) decision support tools for terminal controllers to better manage aircraft delay using speed control, and Flight deck Interval Management (FIM) avionics and flight crew procedures to conduct airborne spacing operations. The ATD-1 concept provides de-conflicted and efficient operations of multiple arrival streams of aircraft, passing through multiple merge points, from top-of-descent (TOD) to the Final Approach Fix. These arrival streams are Optimized Profile Descents (OPDs) from en route altitude to the runway, using primarily speed control to maintain separation and schedule. The ATD-1 project is currently addressing the challenges of integrating the three technologies, and their implantation into an operational environment. The ATD-1 goals include increasing the throughput of high-density airports, reducing controller workload, increasing efficiency of arrival operations and the frequency of trajectory-based operations, and promoting aircraft ADS-B equipage.

  10. Energy technology, indoor air pollution, and respiratory infections in developing countries: A field study from Central Kenya

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ezzati, Majid

    Globally, more than two billion people rely on biofuels as the primary source of domestic energy. Exposure to indoor air pollution, especially to particulate matter, from biomass combustion, is a causal agent of respiratory and eye diseases. Acute respiratory infections (ARI) and chronic respiratory diseases lead the causes of disease and mortality worldwide, and account for more than 10% of the global burden of disease, mostly in developing countries. In this dissertation, I consider the linkages among household energy technology, indoor environment, and health. I provide quantitative analysis of (1) patterns of human exposure to indoor air pollution, (2) the exposure-response relationship for particulate matter and ARI, and (3) the pollution reducing performance of an array of stove-fuel combinations. Data are from three years (1996--1999) of field research in Central Kenya. I also briefly discuss the important issues in successful dissemination of household level technologies. I construct Profiles of exposure using continuous real-time monitoring of pollution concentration and the location and activities of household members, supplemented by data on the spatial dispersion of pollution and interviews. Exposure during brief high-intensity emission episodes accounts for 31%--61% of the total exposure of household members who participate in cooking and 0%--11% for those who do not. Simple models that neglect the spatial distribution of pollution within the home, intense emission episodes, and activity patterns underestimate exposure by 3%--71% for different demographic sub-groups, resulting in inaccurate and biased estimations. ARI and acute lower respiratory infections (ALRI) are increasing, concave functions of average daily exposure to PM10. The rate of increase declines for exposures above approximately 2000 mug·m -3. Consequently, programs aiming to reduce the adverse health impacts of indoor air pollution in developing countries should focus on measures that

  11. Parametric Evaluation of an Innovative Ultra-Violet PhotocatalyticOxidation (UVPCO) Air Cleaning Technology for Indoor Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Hodgson, Alfred T.; Sullivan, Douglas P.; Fisk, William J.

    2005-10-31

    An innovative Ultra-Violet Photocatalytic Oxidation (UVPCO) air cleaning technology employing a semitransparent catalyst coated on a semitransparent polymer substrate was evaluated to determine its effectiveness for treating mixtures of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) representative of indoor environments at low, indoor-relevant concentration levels. The experimental UVPCO contained four 30 by 30-cm honeycomb monoliths irradiated with nine UVA lamps arranged in three banks. A parametric evaluation of the effects of monolith thickness, air flow rate through the device, UV power, and reactant concentrations in inlet air was conducted for the purpose of suggesting design improvements. The UVPCO was challenged with three mixturesmore » of VOCs. A synthetic office mixture contained 27 VOCs commonly measured in office buildings. A building product mixture was created by combining sources including painted wallboard, composite wood products, carpet systems, and vinyl flooring. The third mixture contained formaldehyde and acetaldehyde. Steady state concentrations were produced in a classroom laboratory or a 20-m{sup 3} chamber. Air was drawn through the UVPCO, and single-pass conversion efficiencies were measured from replicate samples collected upstream and downstream of the reactor. Thirteen experiments were conducted in total. In this UVPCO employing a semitransparent monolith design, an increase in monolith thickness is expected to result in general increases in both reaction efficiencies and absolute reaction rates for VOCs oxidized by photocatalysis. The thickness of individual monolith panels was varied between 1.2 and 5 cm (5 to 20 cm total thickness) in experiments with the office mixture. VOC reaction efficiencies and rates increased with monolith thickness. However, the analysis of the relationship was confounded by high reaction efficiencies in all configurations for a number of compounds. These reaction efficiencies approached or exceeded 90% for alcohols

  12. Technology of Performance Improvement Brushless DC Motors and Inverter for Air conditioning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baba, Kazuhiko; Matsuoka, Atsushi; Shinomoto, Yosuke; Arisawa, Koichi

    High efficiency motors are demanded because of the viewpoint of environmental preservation. It is necessary to develop the technology of the energy conservation that can be achieved at low cost so that we may expand high efficiency motors onto the world. In this paper, the current status of the brushless DC motors and invertors to satisfy high efficiency, small size, high power and low cost is reviewed.

  13. USAF Expeditionary Security Operations 2040:A Technology Vision For Deployed Air Base Defense Capabilities

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-04-09

    leveraging improvements in technology trends in order to satisfy specific ESO capabilities requirements in 2040. For base security, laser -based...is between 80 and 85 percent as of 2012.25 Meanwhile, Raytheon recently explored a laser - based version of the Phalanx and Centurion to enable...Requirements for a laser version of the Centurion include sufficient power to defeat larger IDF threats, ruggedness to effectively operate in harsh

  14. An Evaluation of Wind Turbine Technology at Peterson Air Force Base

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-03-01

    Wind energy technology is a viable source for attaining the emission reduction and renewable energy use goals set forth by the executive office. In...such renewable energy resources as wind power. The specific problem addressed by this research is whether on-site wind energy generation can be more...economically feasible than the conventional energy consumption at Peterson AFB. The hypothesis of this research is that wind energy will not be

  15. Coal-Burning Technologies Applicable to Air Force Central Heating Plants

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-12-01

    using a process such as the Stretford acid gas removal technology.39 It should be noted that any such treatment of the gas will significantly...or limestone wet scrubbing system *....... . ... **.* .* .** ....** 48 15 Typical spray dryer/particulate collection process flow diagram *...*..*.a...using bituminous coats, this process is expected to produce a hot gas with a higher-heating-value range of about 130 to 180 Btu per dry standard

  16. Optimization and Performance Study of Select Heating Ventilation and Air Conditioning Technologies for Commercial Buildings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamal, Rajeev

    Buildings contribute a significant part to the electricity demand profile and peak demand for the electrical utilities. The addition of renewable energy generation adds additional variability and uncertainty to the power system. Demand side management in the buildings can help improve the demand profile for the utilities by shifting some of the demand from peak to off-peak times. Heating, ventilation and air-conditioning contribute around 45% to the overall demand of a building. This research studies two strategies for reducing the peak as well as shifting some demand from peak to off-peak periods in commercial buildings: 1. Use of gas heat pumps in place of electric heat pumps, and 2. Shifting demand for air conditioning from peak to off-peak by thermal energy storage in chilled water and ice. The first part of this study evaluates the field performance of gas engine-driven heat pumps (GEHP) tested in a commercial building in Florida. Four GEHP units of 8 Tons of Refrigeration (TR) capacity each providing air-conditioning to seven thermal zones in a commercial building, were instrumented for measuring their performance. The operation of these GEHPs was recorded for ten months, analyzed and compared with prior results reported in the literature. The instantaneous COPunit of these systems varied from 0.1 to 1.4 during typical summer week operation. The COP was low because the gas engines for the heat pumps were being used for loads that were much lower than design capacity which resulted in much lower efficiencies than expected. The performance of equivalent electric heat pump was simulated from a building energy model developed to mimic the measured building loads. An economic comparison of GEHPs and conventional electrical heat pumps was done based on the measured and simulated results. The average performance of the GEHP units was estimated to lie between those of EER-9.2 and EER-11.8 systems. The performance of GEHP systems suffers due to lower efficiency at

  17. Air Quality Management Using Modern Remote Sensing and Spatial Technologies and Associated Societal Costs

    PubMed Central

    Uddin, Waheed

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents a study of societal costs related to public health due to the degradation of air quality and the lack of physical activity, both affected by our built environment. The paper further shows road safety as another public health concern. Traffic fatalities are the number one cause of death in the world. Traffic accidents result in huge financial loss to the people involved and the related public health cost is a significant part of the total societal cost. Motor vehicle exhausts and industrial emissions, gasoline vapors, and chemical solvents as well as natural sources emit nitrogen oxides and volatile organic compounds, which are precursors to the formation of ground-level Ozone. High concentration values of ground-level Ozone in hot summer days produce smog and lead to respiratory problems and loss in worker’s productivity. These factors and associated economic costs to society are important in establishing public policy and decision-making for sustainable transportation and development of communities in both industrialized and developing countries. This paper presents new science models for predicting ground-level Ozone and related air quality degradation. The models include predictor variables of daily climatological data, traffic volume and mix, speed, aviation data, and emission inventory of point sources. These models have been implemented in the user friendly AQMAN computer program and used for a case study in Northern Mississippi. Life-cycle benefits from reduced societal costs can be used to implement sustainable transportation policies, enhance investment decision-making, and protect public health and the environment. PMID:16968969

  18. Bimetallic strip for low temperature use

    DOEpatents

    Bussiere, Jean F.; Welch, David O.; Suenaga, Masaki

    1981-01-01

    There is provided a class of mechanically pre-stressed structures, suitably bi-layer strips comprising a layer of group 5 transition metals in intimate contact with a layer of an intermetallic compound of said transition metals with certain group 3A, 4A or 5A metals or metalloids suitably gallium, indium, silicon, germanium, tin, arsenic or antimony. The changes of Young's modulus of these bi-layered combinations at temperatures in the region of but somewhat above absolute zero provides a useful means of sensing temperature changes. Such bi-metallic strips may be used as control strips in thermostats, in direct dial reading instruments, or the like. The structures are made by preparing a sandwich of a group 5B transition metal strip between the substantially thicker strips of an alloy between copper and a predetermined group 3A, 4A or 5A metal or metalloid, holding the three layers of the sandwich in intimate contact heating the same, cooling the same and removing the copper alloy and then removing one of the two thus formed interlayer alloys between said transition metal and the metal previously alloyed with copper.

  19. Modeling of continuous strip production by rheocasting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsumiya, T.; Flemings, M. C.

    1981-03-01

    A process was experimentally and mathematically modeled for continuous and direct production of metal strip from its molten state by the use of Rheocasting. The process comprises 1) continuous production of a Rheocast semisolid alloy, and 2) direct shaping of the semisolid into strip. Sn-15 pct Pb was used as the modeling alloy. Crack formation and surface quality of the strip produced depend on fraction solid and deformation force. Continuous, sound strip could be obtained with good surface quality when fraction solid was between 0.50 and 0.70 and deformation force did not exceed a given maximum. Sheet thickness depends on deformation force, fraction solid, rotor rate of Rheocaster and production line speed. At constant deformation force, sheet thickness increases as fraction solid increases, rotor rate decreases and line speed is reduced. Sheet thickness is larger in the center than in the edge, but the difference is reduced by applying edgers. Some segregation of lead toward the edges is observed, and the segregation increases as amount of deformation is increased. A mathematical model for heat flow, solidification and deformation was constructed. The model predicts the point of completion of solidification in the strip and sheet thickness as a function of deformation force and line speed. Calculations are in good agreement with experimental results.

  20. Modeling of continuous strip production by rheocasting

    SciTech Connect

    Matsumiya, T.; Flemings, M.C.

    1981-03-01

    A process was experimentally and mathematically modeled for continuous and direct production of metal strip from its molten state by the use of Rheocasting. The process comprises 1) continuous production of a Rheocast semisolid alloy, and 2) direct shaping of the semisolid into strip. Sn-15 pct Pb was used as the modeling alloy. Crack formation and surface quality of the strip produced depend on fraction solid and deformation force. Continuous, sound strip could be obtained with good surface quality when fraction solid was between 0.50 and 0.70 and deformation force did not exceed a given maximum. Sheet thickness depends onmore » deformation force, fraction solid, rotor rate of Rheocaster and production line speed. At constant deformation force, sheet thickness increases as fraction solid increases, rotor rate decreases and line speed is reduced. Sheet thickness is larger in the center than in the edge, but the difference is reduced by applying edgers. Some segregation of lead toward the edges is observed, ad the segregation increases as amount of deformation is increased. A mathematical model for heat flow, solidification and deformation was constructed. The model predicts the point of completion of solidification in the strip and sheet thickness as a function of deformation force and line speed. Calculations are in good agreement with experimental results.« less

  1. ERTS-1 data applied to strip mining

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, A. T.; Schubert, J.

    1976-01-01

    Two coal basins within the western region of the Potomac River Basin contain the largest strip-mining operations in western Maryland and West Virginia. The disturbed strip-mine areas were delineated along with the surrounding geological and vegetation features by using ERTS-1 data in both analog and digital form. The two digital systems employed were (1) the ERTS analysis system, a point-by-point digital analysis of spectral signatures based on known spectral values and (2) the LARS automatic data processing system. These two systems aided in efforts to determine the extent and state of strip mining in this region. Aircraft data, ground-verification information, and geological field studies also aided in the application of ERTS-1 imagery to perform an integrated analysis that assessed the adverse effects of strip mining. The results indicated that ERTS can both monitor and map the extent of strip mining to determine immediately the acreage affected and to indicate where future reclamation and revegetation may be necessary.

  2. Self-Deployable Spring-Strip Booms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fang, Houfei; Lou, Michael; Palmer, Nathan

    2003-01-01

    Booms and other structures consisting mainly of thin spring strips are undergoing development. These structures are designed to be lightweight, to be compactly stowable, and to be capable of springing to stable configurations at full extension once released from stowage. Conceived for use as self-deploying structures in outer space, portable structures of this type may also be useful on Earth in applications in which there are requirements for light weight and small transportation volume. The elements common to these structures are spring strips with curved cross sections -- similar to spring strips of the type commonly used as compactly stowable carpenters' measuring tapes. These structures exploit the nonlinear mechanical properties of such tapes, namely (1) strong resistance to axial buckling while they are straight and (2) ease with which they can be wound into compact rolls once they have been initially bent. For a structure that contains multiple such strips, the net effect of the combined nonlinear characteristics is the following: (1) When at full extension, the structure is in a stable state, in which it is rigid and strong. (2) When stowed compactly, the structure is in a state that is semistable in the sense that only a small force is needed to restrain the structure against deployment. (3) The strain energy stored in the spring strips during compaction is sufficient to deploy the structure to full extension when the restraint is removed.

  3. Optimization of effective absorption enhancement of paired-strips gold nanoantennas arrays in organic thin-films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Zih-Ying; Su, Chen-Wei; Chen, Kuo-Ping

    2018-01-01

    This study sought to optimize the dimensional characteristics of paired-strips gold nanoantennas embedded in a P3HT: PCBM thin-film by taking into account the tradeoff between the size of the nanostructures and absorber layer as well as the gaps between nanoparticles, to maximize the effective absorption enhancement. The average enhancement behavior within the working region was discussed using integral analysis, which is important for overall enhancement. The discussion would focus on comparing the bands' features of paired-strips nanoantennas embedded in a dielectric thin-film, and in air. By the average absorption 3D slices plots, in which the dimension width, height, and gap are changed with a fixed wavelength; the optimized dimension of paired-strips nanoantennas could be realized. Fixing the period (400 nm) of paired-strips nanoantennas embedded in P3HT:PCBM thin-films (120 nm in thickness) enhanced absorption by 9.8 times.

  4. On the Application of Rapid Prototyping Technology for the Fabrication of Flapping Wings for Micro Air Vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kraemer, Kurtis Leigh

    Micro air vehicles (MAV) are a class of small uninhabited aircraft with dimensions less than 15 cm (6 in) and mass less than 500g (1.1 lbs). The aim of this research was to develop a fast, accurate, low-cost, and repeatable fabrication process for flapping MAV wings. Through the use of the RepRap Mendel open-source fused-deposition modeling (FDM) rapid prototyping machine ("3-D printer"), various wing prototypes were designed and fabricated using a bio-inspired approach. Testing of the aerodynamic performance of both real locust wings and the 3-D printed wing prototypes was performed through axial spin testing. Bending stiffness measurements were also performed on the 3-D printed wings. Through the use of open-source rapid prototyping technology, a fast and low-cost fabrication process for flapping MAV wings has been developed, out of which further understanding of flapping wing design and fabrication has been gained.

  5. Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Callison, Daniel

    2002-01-01

    Discussion of technology focuses on instructional technology. Topics include inquiry and technology; curriculum development; reflection and curriculum evaluation; criteria for technological innovations that will increase student motivation; standards; impact of new technologies on library media centers; software; and future trends. (LRW)

  6. The potential impact of developments in electronic technology on the future conduct of air warfare, volume 3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1986-12-01

    Advances in microelectronics have resulted in circuit densities many orders of magnitude greater than in current usage, making possible higher speed circuitry and greater storage capacity. RF techniques are also leading to monolithic microwave integrated circuits and microstrip antennas with corresponding reductions in size and weight. In addition, rapid advances are taking place in computer architecture and software that will provide improved information processing and control. This, coupled with progress in artificial intelligence and man-machine interface, offers promise of greatly improved battle management in the cockpit. The scale of changes is such that the nature of air warfare should be significantly affected over the next twenty years. This study examined the potential of electronic technology and potential benefits such as improvements in information processing, reduction in size and weight, increased reliability and maintainability; determined the applicability of such improvements to avionics and command and control systems and such functions as navigation and guidance, communications, surveillance, cockpit engineering and electronic warfare; and examined the impact on air warfare in the time period 2000 to 2010.

  7. International Pacific Air and Space Technology Conference and Aircraft Symposium, 29th, Gifu, Japan, Oct. 7-11, 1991, Proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    Various papers on air and space technology are presented. Individual topics addressed include: media selection analysis: implications for training design, high-speed challenge for rotary wing aircraft, high-speed VSTOL answer to congestion, next generation in computational aerodynamics, acrobatic airship 'Acrostat', ducted fan VTOL for working platform, Arianespace launch of Lightsats, small particle acceleration by minirailgun, free-wake analyses of a hovering rotor using panel method, update of the X-29 high-angle-of-attack program, economic approach to accurate wing design, flow field around thick delta wing with rounded leading edge, aerostructural integrated design of forward-swept wing, static characteristics of a two-phase fluid drop system, simplfied-modelmore » approach to group combustion of fuel spray, avionics flight systems for the 21st century. Also discussed are: Aircraft Command in Emergency Situations, spectrogram diagnosis of aircraft disasters, shock interaction induced by two hemisphere-cylinders, impact response of composite UHB propeller blades, high-altitude lighter-than-air powered platform, integrated wiring system, auxiliary power units for current and future aircraft, Space Shuttle Orbiter Auxiliary Power Unit status, numerical analysis of RCS jet in hypersonic flights, energy requirements for the space frontier, electrical system options for space exploration, aerospace plane hydrogen scramjet boosting, manual control of vehicles with time-varying dynamics, design of strongly stabilizing controller, development of the Liquid Apogee Propulsion System for ETS-VI.« less

  8. Study of silicon strip waveguides with diffraction gratings and photonic crystals tuned to a wavelength of 1.5 µm

    SciTech Connect

    Barabanenkov, M. Yu., E-mail: barab@iptm.ru; Vyatkin, A. F.; Volkov, V. T.

    2015-12-15

    Single-mode submicrometer-thick strip waveguides on silicon-on-insulator substrates, fabricated by silicon-planar-technology methods are considered. To solve the problem of 1.5-µm wavelength radiation input-output and its frequency filtering, strip diffraction gratings and two-dimensional photonic crystals are integrated into waveguides. The reflection and transmission spectra of gratings and photonic crystals are calculated. The waveguide-mode-attenuation coefficient for a polycrystalline silicon waveguide is experimentally estimated.

  9. Application of Advanced Technologies to Small, Short-haul Air Transports

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adcock, C.; Coverston, C.; Knapton, B.

    1980-01-01

    A study was conducted of the application of advanced technologies to small, short-haul transport aircraft. A three abreast, 30 passenger design for flights of approximately 100 nautical miles was evaluated. Higher wing loading, active flight control, and a gust alleviation system results in improved ride quality. Substantial savings in fuel and direct operating cost are forecast. An aircraft of this configuration also has significant benefits in forms of reliability and operability which should enable it to sell a total of 450 units through 1990, of which 80% are for airline use.

  10. The Development Status and Key Technologies of Solar Powered Unmanned Air Vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sai, Li; Wei, Zhou; Xueren, Wang

    2017-03-01

    By analyzing the development status of several typical solar powered unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) at home and abroad, the key technologies involved in the design and manufacture of solar powered UAV and the technical difficulties need to be solved at present are obtained. It is pointed out that with the improvement of energy system efficiency, advanced aerodynamic configuration design, realization of high applicability flight stability and control system, breakthrough of efficient propulsion system, the application prospect of solar powered UAV will be more extensive.

  11. TECHNOLOGY EVALUATION FOR WATERBORNE MERCURY REMOVAL AT THE Y12 NATIONAL SECURITY COMPLEX

    SciTech Connect

    He, Feng; Liang, Liyuan; Miller, Carrie L

    2011-01-01

    The Hg-contaminated processing water produced at Y-12 facility is discharged through the storm drain system, merged at Outfall 200, and then discharged to EFPC. Most of the baseflow mercury at Outfall 200 arises from a small number of short sections of storm drain. This report discusses the waterborne mercury treatment technologies to decrease mercury loading to the surface water of EFPC at Y-12 NSC. We reviewed current available waterborne Hg treatment technologies based on the specific conditions of Y-12 and identified two possible options: SnCl2 reduction coupled with air stripping (SnCl2/air stripping) and sorption. The ORNL 2008 and 2009 fieldmore » studies suggested that SnCl2/air stripping has the capability to remove waterborne mercury with efficiency higher than 90% at Outfall 200. To achieve this goal, dechlorination (i.e., removing residual chlorine from water) using dechlorinating agents such as thiosulfate has to be performed before the reduction. It is unclear whether or not SnCl2/air stripping can reduce the mercury concentration from ~1000 ng/L to 51 ng/L at a full-scale operation. Therefore, a pilot test is a logical step before a full-scale design to answer questions such as Hg removal efficiency, selection of dechlorinating agents, and so on. The major advantages of the SnCl2/air stripping system are: (1) expected low cost at high flow (e.g., the flow at Outfall 200); and (2) production of minimum secondary waste. However, there are many environmental uncertainties associated with this technology by introducing tin to EFPC ecosystem, for example tin methylation causing abiotic Hg methylation, which should be addressed before a full-scale implementation. Mercury adsorption by granular activated carbon (GAC) is a proven technology for treating Hg at Y-12. The ONRL 2010 lab sorption studies suggest that thiol-based resins hold the promise to combine with GAC to form a more cost-effective treatment system. To achieve a treatment goal of 51 ng/L at

  12. Influence of regional development policies and clean technology adoption on future air pollution exposure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hixson, Mark; Mahmud, Abdullah; Hu, Jianlin; Bai, Song; Niemeier, Debbie A.; Handy, Susan L.; Gao, Shengyi; Lund, Jay R.; Sullivan, Dana Coe; Kleeman, Michael J.

    2010-02-01

    Future air pollution emissions in the year 2030 were estimated for the San Joaquin Valley (SJV) in central California using a combined system of land use, mobile, off-road, stationary, area, and biogenic emissions models. Four scenarios were developed that use different assumptions about the density of development and level of investment in transportation infrastructure to accommodate the expected doubling of the SJV population in the next 20 years. Scenario 1 reflects current land-use patterns and infrastructure while scenario 2 encouraged compact urban footprints including redevelopment of existing urban centers and investments in transit. Scenario 3 allowed sprawling development in the SJV with reduced population density in existing urban centers and construction of all planned freeways. Scenario 4 followed currently adopted land use and transportation plans for the SJV. The air quality resulting from these urban development scenarios was evaluated using meteorology from a winter stagnation event that occurred on December 15th, 2000 to January 7th 2001. Predicted base-case PM2.5 mass concentrations within the region exceeded 35 μg m -3 over the 22-day episode. Compact growth reduced the PM2.5 concentrations by ˜1 μg m -3 relative to the base-case over most of the SJV with the exception of increases (˜1 μg m -3) in urban centers driven by increased concentrations of elemental carbon (EC) and organic carbon (OC). Low-density development increased the PM2.5 concentrations by 1-4 μg m -3 over most of the region, with decreases (0.5-2 μg m -3) around urban areas. Population-weighted average PM2.5 concentrations were very similar for all development scenarios ranging between 16 and 17.4 μg m -3. Exposure to primary PM components such as EC and OC increased 10-15% for high density development scenarios and decreased by 11-19% for low-density scenarios. Patterns for secondary PM components such as nitrate and ammonium ion were almost exactly reversed, with a 10

  13. Stripped interstellar gas in cluster cooling flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Soker, Noam; Bregman, Joel N.; Sarazin, Craig L.

    1991-01-01

    It is suggested that nonlinear perturbations which lead to thermal instabilities in cooling flows might start as blobs of interstellar gas which are stipped out of cluster galaxies. Assuming that most of the gas produced by stellar mass loss in cluster galaxies is stripped from the galaxies, the total rate of such stripping is roughly 100 solar masses/yr, which is similar to the rates of cooling in cluster cooling flows. It is possible that a substantial portion of the cooling gas originates as blobs of interstellar gas stripped from galaxies. The magnetic fields within and outside of the low-entropy perturbations may help to maintain their identities by suppressing both thermal conduction and Kelvin-Helmholtz instabilities. These density fluctuations may disrupt the propagation of radio jets through the intracluster gas, which may be one mechanism for producing wideangle-tail radio galaxies.

  14. Mass production of extensive air showers for the Pierre Auger Collaboration using Grid Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lozano Bahilo, Julio; Pierre Auger Collaboration

    2012-06-01

    When ultra-high energy cosmic rays enter the atmosphere they interact producing extensive air showers (EAS) which are the objects studied by the Pierre Auger Observatory. The number of particles involved in an EAS at these energies is of the order of billions and the generation of a single simulated EAS requires many hours of computing time with current processors. In addition, the storage space consumed by the output of one simulated EAS is very high. Therefore we have to make use of Grid resources to be able to generate sufficient quantities of showers for our physics studies in reasonable time periods. We have developed a set of highly automated scripts written in common software scripting languages in order to deal with the high number of jobs which we have to submit regularly to the Grid. In spite of the low number of sites supporting our Virtual Organization (VO) we have reached the top spot on CPU consumption among non LHC (Large Hadron Collider) VOs within EGI (European Grid Infrastructure).

  15. Air quality estimates in Mediterranean cities using high resolution satellite technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chudnovsky, Alexandra; Lyapustin, Alexei; Wang, Yujie

    2016-04-01

    Satellite imaging is an essential tool for monitoring air pollution because, unlike ground observations, it supplies continuous data with global coverage of terrestrial and atmospheric components. Satellite-based Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) retrievals reflect particle abundance in the atmospheric column. This data provide some indication on the extent of particle concentrations. However, it is difficult to retrieve AOD at high spatial resolution above areas with high surface reflectance and heterogeneous land cover, such as urban areas. Therefore, many crowded regions worldwide including Israel, AOD climatology are still uncertain because of the high ground reflectance and coarse spatial resolution. Recently, a new Multi-Angle Implementation of Atmospheric Correction (MAIAC) algorithm was developed for MODIS which provides AOD at 1 km resolution. This study aims to investigate the spatial variability of AOD within Israeli and several other Mediterranean cities. In addition, we aim to characterize the impact of climatic condition on pollution patterns in-and-between cities and to identify days when cities exhibit the highest variability in AOD. Furthermore, we assessed the differences in pollution levels between adjacent locations. We will report on spatial variability in AOD levels derived from high 1km resolution MAIAC AOD algorithm on a temporal basis, in relation to season and synoptic-meteorological conditions.

  16. Spectral deconvolution and operational use of stripping ratios in airborne radiometrics.

    PubMed

    Allyson, J D; Sanderson, D C

    2001-01-01

    Spectral deconvolution using stripping ratios for a set of pre-defined energy windows is the simplest means of reducing the most important part of gamma-ray spectral information. In this way, the effective interferences between the measured peaks are removed, leading, through a calibration, to clear estimates of radionuclide inventory. While laboratory measurements of stripping ratios are relatively easy to acquire, with detectors placed above small-scale calibration pads of known radionuclide concentrations, the extrapolation to measurements at altitudes where airborne survey detectors are used bring difficulties such as air-path attenuation and greater uncertainties in knowing ground level inventories. Stripping ratios are altitude dependent, and laboratory measurements using various absorbers to simulate the air-path have been used with some success. Full-scale measurements from an aircraft require a suitable location where radionuclide concentrations vary little over the field of view of the detector (which may be hundreds of metres). Monte Carlo simulations offer the potential of full-scale reproduction of gamma-ray transport and detection mechanisms. Investigations have been made to evaluate stripping ratios using experimental and Monte Carlo methods.

  17. Grain size control of rhenium strip

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schuster, Gary B.

    1991-01-01

    Ensuring the desired grain size in the pure Re strip employed by the SP-100 space nuclear reactor design entails the establishment of an initial grain size in the as-received strip and the avoidance of excessive grain growth during subsequent fabrication. Pure Re tapered tensile specimens have been fabricated and tested in order to quantify the effects of grain-boundary migration. Grain size could be rendered fine and uniform by means of a rolling procedure that uses rather large reductions between short intermediate anneals. The critical strain regime varies inversely with annealing temperature.

  18. Gold strip gratings with binary supercell.

    PubMed

    Magno, Giovanni; Marrocco, Valeria; Grande, Marco; D'Orazio, Antonella

    2013-08-01

    In this Letter, the study of a periodic structure composed of gold strips arranged in double-period unit cells, in a symmetric and asymmetric environment, is reported. The spectral maps show that the formation of the plasmonic bandgap and the extraordinary optical transmission are subjected to the proportion between the strip widths. Moreover, when the asymmetric environment is considered, high-transmittance and high-absorbance states arise. Hence, by controlling the geometrical parameters of the binary-periodic structure, it is possible to tailor the spectral response of the grating enhancing the desired features and exploiting them for different applications.

  19. Gauze strip tourniquet for nail surgery.

    PubMed

    Grover, Chander; Nanda, Soni; Nagi Reddy, Belum Siva

    2014-07-01

    All nail surgical procedures require the use of a tourniquet. The nail bed, being a very vascular structure, needs to be exsanguinated at the start and then a tourniquet needs to be tied at the base. A number of tourniquets have been described, including a Foley's catheter, a Penrose drain, a rubber strip or a rubber band. The present article explains the use of the easily available, improvised, gauze strip tourniquet. This does not require much special preparation, is easily autoclavable, perfect for single use and can achieve exsanguination as well as tightening as a single step. This technique does not require much learning and is easily reproducible in almost all surgical setups.

  20. Air Traffic Management Technology Demonstration-1 Concept of Operations (ATD-1 ConOps)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baxley, Brian T.; Johnson, William C.; Swenson, Harry; Robinson, John E.; Prevot, Thomas; Callantine, Todd; Scardina, John; Greene, Michael

    2012-01-01

    The operational goal of the ATD-1 ConOps is to enable aircraft, using their onboard FMS capabilities, to fly Optimized Profile Descents (OPDs) from cruise to the runway threshold at a high-density airport, at a high throughput rate, using primarily speed control to maintain in-trail separation and the arrival schedule. The three technologies in the ATD-1 ConOps achieve this by calculating a precise arrival schedule, using controller decision support tools to provide terminal controllers with speeds for aircraft to fly to meet times at a particular meter points, and onboard software providing flight crews with speeds for the aircraft to fly to achieve a particular spacing behind preceding aircraft.

  1. Technology of oxygen production in the membranecryogenic air separation system for a 600 MW oxy-type pulverized bed boiler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berdowska, Sylwia; Skorek-Osikowska, Anna

    2012-09-01

    In this paper the results of the thermodynamic analysis of the oxy-combustion type pulverized bed boiler integrated with a hybrid, membrane- cryogenic oxygen separation installation are presented. For the calculations a 600 MW boiler with live steam parameters at 31.1 MPa /654.9 oC and reheated steam at 6.15 MPa/672.4 oC was chosen. In this paper the hybrid membrane-cryogenic technology as oxygen production unit for pulverized bed boiler was proposed. Such an installation consists of a membrane module and two cryogenic distillation columns. Models of these installations were built in the Aspen software. The energy intensity of the oxygen production process in the hybrid system was compared with the cryogenic technology. The analysis of the influence of membrane surface area on the energy intensity of the process of air separation as well as the influence of oxygen concentration at the inlet to the cryogenic installation on the energy intensity of a hybrid unit was performed.

  2. Maglev vehicles and superconductor technology: Integration of high-speed ground transportation into the air travel system

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, L.R.; Rote, D.M.; Hull, J.R.

    1989-04-01

    This study was undertaken to (1) evaluate the potential contribution of high-temperature superconductors (HTSCs) to the technical and economic feasibility of magnetically levitated (maglev) vehicles, (2) determine the status of maglev transportation research in the United States and abroad, (3) identify the likelihood of a significant transportation market for high-speed maglev vehicles, and (4) provide a preliminary assessment of the potential energy and economic benefits of maglev systems. HTSCs should be considered as an enhancing, rather than an enabling, development for maglev transportation because they should improve reliability and reduce energy and maintenance costs. Superconducting maglev transportation technologies were developedmore » in the United States in the late 1960s and early 1970s. Federal support was withdrawn in 1975, but major maglev transportation programs were continued in Japan and West Germany, where full-scale prototypes now carry passengers at speeds of 250 mi/h in demonstration runs. Maglev systems are generally viewed as very-high-speed train systems, but this study shows that the potential market for maglev technology as a train system, e.g., from one downtown to another, is limited. Rather, aircraft and maglev vehicles should be seen as complementing rather than competing transportation systems. If maglev systems were integrated into major hub airport operations, they could become economical in many relatively high-density US corridors. Air traffic congestion and associated noise and pollutant emissions around airports would also be reduced. 68 refs., 26 figs., 16 tabs.« less

  3. Electroactive polymers as a novel actuator technology for lighter-than-air vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michel, Silvain; Dürager, Christian; Zobel, Martin; Fink, Erich

    2007-04-01

    In this paper the worldwide first EAP actuated blimp will be presented. It consists of a slightly pressurized Helium filled body of a biologically inspired form with Dielectric Elastomer (DE) actuators driving a classical cross tail with two vertical and horizontal rudders for flight control. Two versions of actuators will be discussed: The first version consisted of "spring-roll" type of cylindrical actuators placed together with the electrical supply and control unit in the pay load gondola. The second version consisted of a configuration, where the actuators are placed between the control surfaces and the rudders. This novel type of EAP actuator named "active hinge" was developed and characterized first in the laboratory and afterwards optimized for minimum weight and finally integrated in the blimp structure. In the design phase a numerical simulation tool for the prediction of the DE actuators was developed based on a material model calibrated with the test results from cylindrical actuators. The electrical supply and control system was developed and optimized for minimum of weight. Special attention was paid to the electromagnetic systems compatibility of the high voltage electrical supply system of the DE actuators and the radio flight control system. The design and production of this 3.5 meter long Lighter-than-Air vehicle was collaboration between Empa Duebendorf Switzerland and the Technical University of Berlin. The first version of this EAP blimp first flew at an RC airship regatta hold on 24 th of June 2006 in Dresden Germany, while the second version had his maiden flight on 8 th of January 2007 in Duebendorf Switzerland. In both cases satisfactory flight control performances were demonstrated.

  4. Air Pollutant Emissions Projections for the Cement and Steel Industry in China and the Impact of Emissions Control Technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Hasanbeigi, Ali; Khanna, Nina; Price, Lynn

    2017-03-01

    China’s cement and steel industry accounts for approximately half of the world’s total cement and steel production. These two industries are two of the most energy-intensive and highest carbon dioxide (CO 2)-emitting industries and two of the key industrial contributors to air pollution in China. For example, the cement industry is the largest source of particulate matter (PM) emissions in China, accounting for 40 percent of its industrial PM emissions and 27 percent of its total national PM emissions. The Chinese steel industry contributed to approximately 20 percent of sulfur dioxide (SO 2) emissions and 27 percent of PM emissionsmore » for all key manufacturing industries in China in 2013. In this study, we analyzed and projected the total PM and SO2 emissions from the Chinese cement and steel industry from 2010–2050 under three different scenarios: a Base Case scenario, an Advanced scenario, and an Advanced EOP (end-of-pipe) scenario. We used bottom-up emissions control technologies data and assumptions to project the emissions. In addition, we conducted an economic analysis to estimate the cost for PM emissions reductions in the Chinese cement industry using EOP control technologies, energy efficiency measures, and product change measures. The results of the emissions projection showed that there is not a substantial difference in PM emissions between the Base Case and Advanced scenarios, for both the cement and steel industries. This is mainly because PM emissions in the cement industry caused mainly by production process and not the fuel use. Since our forecast for the cement production in the Base Case and Advanced scenarios are not too different from each other, this results in only a slight difference in PM emissions forecast for these two scenarios. Also, we assumed a similar share and penetration rate of control technologies from 2010 up to 2050 for these two scenarios for the cement and steel industry. However, the Advanced EOP scenario showed

  5. STS-96 crew at Skid Strip to return to Houston

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    STS-96 Commander Kent V. Rominger, holding his daughter, Kristen, exits the bus at the Cape Canaveral Air Station Skid Strip before boarding a plane for a return to the Johnson Space Center in Houston, Texas. Other crew members also returning are Pilot Rick D. Husband, and Mission Specialists Ellen Ochoa (Ph.D.), Tamara E. Jernigan (Ph.D.), Daniel Barry (M.D., Ph.D.), Julie Payette, with the Canadian Space Agency, and Valery Ivanovich Tokarev, with the Russian Space Agency. After a successful 10-day mission to the International Space Station aboard Space Shuttle Discovery, the STS-96 crew landed June 6 at 2:02:43 a.m. EDT, in the 11th night landing at KSC.

  6. Air Sensor Toolbox

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Air Sensor Toolbox provides information to citizen scientists, researchers and developers interested in learning more about new lower-cost compact air sensor technologies and tools for measuring air quality.

  7. Investigation of air transportation technology at Ohio University: 1993-1994

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lilley, Robert W.

    1995-01-01

    The Joint University Program (JUP) offers students, faculty, and staff of the Avionics Engineering Center the opportunity to conduct basic research relating to the safety and efficiency of the National Airspace System. During the 1993-1994 year research was continued in a variety of GPS-related technologies and also in a hybrid data uplink system. (1) Processing techniques developed for the GPS attitude determination have been applied to centimeter-level kinematic GPS aircraft positioning for flight reference systems and aircraft autoland and taxiing operations. This resulted in the first real-time kinematic GPS autoland. (2) The fault detection and isolation (FDI) algorithm developed under the Joint University Program has been fully adopted by RTCA Special Committee 159 as the baseline algorithm for sole-means navigation of GPS integrated with GLONASS, LORAN-C, or baro-altimeter. (3) A Satellite Coverage Research Analysis Model (SCRAM) has been developed which provides outage areas, outage dynamics, and availability information for satellite-based navigation systems. RTCA Special Committee 159 has adopted this model for use in their work. (4) A basic receiver structure has been simulated and tested for use with the hybrid data uplink. This uplink utilizes the phase of an existing AM carrier to transmit digital data, thus both amplitude and phase modulation are applied, resulting in a hybrid carrier. The receiver simulation is directly applicable to real-time implementation as a result of the development platform.

  8. Conventional and Multiscale Modeling of Microstructure Evolution During Laminar Cooling of DP Steel Strips

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pietrzyk, Maciej; Kusiak, Jan; Kuziak, Roman; Madej, Łukasz; Szeliga, Danuta; Gołąb, Rafał

    2014-12-01

    Physical and numerical simulations of the hot rolling and laminar cooling of DP steel strips are presented in the paper. The objectives of the paper were twofold. Physical simulations of hot plastic deformation were used to identify and validate numerical models. Validated models were applied to simulate the manufacturing of DP steel strips. Conventional flow stress model and microstructure evolution model were used in the hot deformation part. The approach to the complex systems analysis based on global thermodynamic characterization and detailed microstructure characterization was applied to determine equilibrium state at various temperatures. Finally, two numerical models were used to simulate kinetics of austenite decomposition at varying temperatures: the first, conventional model based on the Avrami equation, and the second, the discrete Cellular Automata approach. Plastometric tests and stress relaxation tests were used for identification of the hot rolling model for the DP steel. Dilatometric tests were performed to identify the phase transformation models. Verification confirmed good accuracy of all models. Validated models were applied to simulate the manufacturing of DP steel strips. Influence of technological parameters ( e.g., strip thickness and velocity, active sections in the laminar cooling, and water flux in the sections) on the DP microstructure was analyzed. The cooling schedules, which give required microstructures were proposed. The numerical tool, which simulates manufacturing chain for DP steel strips is the main output of the paper.

  9. Research and Development Trend of Shape Control for Cold Rolling Strip

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Dong-Cheng; Liu, Hong-Min; Liu, Jun

    2017-09-01

    Shape is an important quality index of cold rolling strip. Up to now, many problems in the shape control domain have not been solved satisfactorily, and a review on the research progress in the shape control domain can help to seek new breakthrough directions. In the past 10 years, researches and applications of shape control models, shape control means, shape detection technology, and shape control system have achieved significant progress. In the aspect of shape control models, the researches in the past improve the accuracy, speed and robustness of the models. The intelligentization of shape control models should be strengthened in the future. In the aspect of the shape control means, the researches in the past focus on the roll optimization, mill type selection, process optimization, local strip shape control, edge drop control, and so on. In the future, more attention should be paid to the coordination control of both strip shape and other quality indexes, and the refinement of control objective should be strengthened. In the aspects of shape detection technology and shape control system, some new types of shape detection meters and shape control systems are developed and have successfully industrial applications. In the future, the standardization of shape detection technology and shape control system should be promoted to solve the problem of compatibility. In general, the four expected development trends of shape control for cold rolling strip in the future are intelligentization, coordination, refinement, and standardization. The proposed research provides new breakthrough directions for improving shape quality.

  10. Cottonwood Seeds - In on Bulldozed Strips

    Treesearch

    R. L. Johnson

    1961-01-01

    In a stand of cutover hardwood near Vicksburg, Mississippi, cottonwood has been regenerated naturally by clearing or deadening the overstory and then cutting shallow strips or trenches into the ground with a bulldozer. The method was successful because it exposed mineral soil, controlled competing plants, and increased soil moisture.

  11. Comic Strips to Accompany Science Museum Exhibits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chung, Beom Sun; Park, Eun-mi; Kim, Sang-Hee; Cho, Sook-kyoung; Chung, Min Suk

    2016-01-01

    Science museums make the effort to create exhibits with amusing explanations. However, existing explanation signs with lengthy text are not appealing, and as such, visitors do not pay attention to them. In contrast, conspicuous comic strips composed of simple drawings and humors can attract science museum visitors. This study attempted to reveal…

  12. Trees for strip-mined lands

    Treesearch

    George Hart; William R. Byrnes

    1960-01-01

    Open-pit or strip mining has become an important method of mining bituminous coal in Pennsylvania. In 1958 some 19.5 million tons of soft coal - 29 percent of the total bituminous production in the State - were produced by this method.

  13. The Island (In)Sensitivity of Stripping

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Potter, David

    2017-01-01

    Ellipsis plays a key role in the understanding of the relationship between what is uttered and what is understood. In elliptical utterances, less is said than is understood. How is it that a mere fragment of a sentence can be understood as something more? This dissertation explores the syntax of one type of elliptical phenomena, Stripping. A…

  14. Preparation of rumble strips prior to overlayment.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2010-07-01

    The use of rumble strips in pavement to reduce run-off-road accidents is relatively new. In New Hampshire, these installations began in the mid to : late 1990s. The New Hampshire Department of Transportation performed its first overlay of rumble stri...

  15. Anodic Stripping Voltammetry: An Instrumental Analysis Experiment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Joseph

    1983-01-01

    Describes an experiment designed to acquaint students with the theory and applications of anodic stripping voltammetry (ASV) as well as such ASV problems as contamination associated with trace analysis. The experimental procedure, instrumentation, and materials discussed are designed to minimize cost and keep procedures as simple as possible. (JM)

  16. 21 CFR 886.1800 - Schirmer strip.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Schirmer strip. 886.1800 Section 886.1800 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES... stimulate and evaluate formation of tears. (b) Classification. Class I (general controls). If the device is...

  17. Strip malls, city trees, and community values

    Treesearch

    Kathleen L. Wolf

    2009-01-01

    Strip malls (also known as mini-malls) are a common urban land use, historically promoted by U.S. zoning practices that concentrate retail and commercial development in a narrow band along arterials and major streets. More recently, communities are redeveloping mini-mall zones, expanding landscape plantings as biotechnology, and attempting to create a sense of place....

  18. Distribution of maple strip flooring in 1969

    Treesearch

    William C. Miller; William C. Miller

    1971-01-01

    This paper is the second in a series on the residential and commercial hardwood flooring industry. Unlike the first paper in the series, which dealt with oak strip flooring industry, this paper analyzes several qualitative questions pertaining to the maple flooring industry. The next paper planned for this series will analyze quantitative as well as qualitative...

  19. Physical distribution of oak strip flooring 1969

    Treesearch

    William C. Miller; William C. Miller

    1971-01-01

    As an aid to the marketing of oak strip flooring, a study was made of the distribution process for this product, from manufacture to consumer-where the flooring came from, where it went, how much was shipped, and who handled it.

  20. Cardiac Muscle Studies with Rat Ventricular Strips

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitten, Bert K.; Faleschini, Richard J.

    1977-01-01

    Details undergraduate physiology laboratory experiments that demonstrate mechanical properties of cardiac muscle, using strips from the ventricle of a rat heart. Includes procedures for obtaining length-tension curves, demonstrating the role of calcium in excitation-contraction coupling, and showing effects of several cardiovascular drugs…

  1. The Strip-of-Grass Challenge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roman, Harry T.

    2016-01-01

    This brief article discusses various ways to use the grassy strip of land extending about three feet between the sidewalk and the street curb in many cities and neighborhoods. Next, it discusses the potential impact of different uses of this space on things like: people disembarking from their cars, clearance to existing fire hydrants, and town…

  2. Ecological effects of strip mining in Ohio

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chase, P. E. (Principal Investigator)

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. One result significant as a practical application and for cost benefit analysis is the relative ease with which ERTS-1 will monitor new and unclaimed stripping activities in Southeastern Ohio and in all of Appalachia. Band 5 resolution appears to be better than the often reported 80 meters. The strip mines stand out well enough to be easily identified without other graphic aids. Standing water within the strip mined area stands out in either bands 6 or 7. Areas of several acres are visible. Significant increases in surface extent of water of stripped areas should be detectable on a comparative basis. The degree of reclamation is observable in the imagery in rather gross percentage steps and for areas larger than the bare earth sizes in the table. The gradation in tones in the different bands indicates that probability density imagery using the four bands in CCT data (and statistical processing) is likely to separate degrees of vegetative reclamation.

  3. 33 CFR 157.128 - Stripping system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) A self-priming centrifugal pump. (3) An eductor (4) Any other device accepted by the Commandant. (d... positive displacement pump or a self-priming centrifugal pump, the stripping system must have the following... monitoring devices to indicate operation of the pump. (i) Flow indicator. (ii) Stroke counter. (iii...

  4. Topics in Chemical Instrumentation: CII. Automated Anodic Stripping Voltammetry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stock, John T.; Ewing, Galen W., Ed.

    1980-01-01

    Presents details of anodic stripping analysis (ASV) in college chemistry laboratory experiments. Provides block diagrams of the analyzer system, circuitry and power supplies of the automated stripping analyzer, and instructions for implementing microcomputer control of the ASV. (CS)

  5. Guidelines for using centerline rumble strips in Virginia.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2005-01-01

    Following the wide and successful use of continuous shoulder rumble strips, many state departments of transportations (DOTs) installed centerline rumble strips (CLRS) on rural two-lane and undivided multilane highways in an effort to reduce cross-ove...

  6. Evaluation of the effectiveness of pavement rumble strips : final report.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2008-01-01

    This report analyzes the effectiveness of continuous shoulder rumble strips (CSRS) and center line rumble strips (CLRS) on rural two lane roads in Kentucky. This study evaluates the safety benefits, and design details associated with the application ...

  7. 25 CFR 170.445 - What is a strip map?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Planning, Design, and Construction of Indian Reservation Roads Program Facilities Irr Inventory § 170.445 What is a strip map? A strip map is a graphic representation of a section of road or other...

  8. 25 CFR 170.445 - What is a strip map?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Planning, Design, and Construction of Indian Reservation Roads Program Facilities Irr Inventory § 170.445 What is a strip map? A strip map is a graphic representation of a section of road or other...

  9. 25 CFR 170.445 - What is a strip map?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Planning, Design, and Construction of Indian Reservation Roads Program Facilities Irr Inventory § 170.445 What is a strip map? A strip map is a graphic representation of a section of road or other...

  10. 25 CFR 170.445 - What is a strip map?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Planning, Design, and Construction of Indian Reservation Roads Program Facilities Irr Inventory § 170.445 What is a strip map? A strip map is a graphic representation of a section of road or other...

  11. Calibrating ultrasonic test equipment for checking thin metal strip stock

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peterson, R. M.

    1967-01-01

    Calibration technique detects minute laminar-type discontinuities in thin metal strip stock. Patterns of plastic tape are preselected to include minutely calculated discontinuities and the tape is applied to the strip stock to intercept the incident sonic beam.

  12. Laboratory testing of Alcoscan saliva-alcohol test strips

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1986-10-01

    This report describes a laboratory evaluation of Alcoscan saliva-alcohol test strips. The objectives of this work were: (1) to determine the precision and accuracy of the Alcoscan strips; and (2) to determine what effect extreme ambient temperatures ...

  13. Development of Alternative Continuing Educational Systems for Preventing the Technological Obsolescence of Air Force Scientists and Engineers. Volume 1. Basic Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slebodnick, Edward B.; And Others

    Volume 1 of the study reports a work effort to define and give guidelines for the acquisition of cost-effective alternative continuing education (CE) systems to prevent the technological obsolescence of Air Force military scientific and engineering officer personnel. A detailed background survey of the problem was conducted using questionnaires,…

  14. High-Rate Capable Floating Strip Micromegas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bortfeldt, Jonathan; Bender, Michael; Biebel, Otmar; Danger, Helge; Flierl, Bernhard; Hertenberger, Ralf; Lösel, Philipp; Moll, Samuel; Parodi, Katia; Rinaldi, Ilaria; Ruschke, Alexander; Zibell, André

    2016-04-01

    We report on the optimization of discharge insensitive floating strip Micromegas (MICRO-MEsh GASeous) detectors, fit for use in high-energy muon spectrometers. The suitability of these detectors for particle tracking is shown in high-background environments and at very high particle fluxes up to 60 MHz/cm2. Measurement and simulation of the microscopic discharge behavior have demonstrated the excellent discharge tolerance. A floating strip Micromegas with an active area of 48 cm × 50 cm with 1920 copper anode strips exhibits in 120 GeV pion beams a spatial resolution of 50 μm at detection efficiencies above 95%. Pulse height, spatial resolution and detection efficiency are homogeneous over the detector. Reconstruction of particle track inclination in a single detector plane is discussed, optimum angular resolutions below 5° are observed. Systematic deviations of this μTPC-method are fully understood. The reconstruction capabilities for minimum ionizing muons are investigated in a 6.4 cm × 6.4 cm floating strip Micromegas under intense background irradiation of the whole active area with 20 MeV protons at a rate of 550 kHz. The spatial resolution for muons is not distorted by space charge effects. A 6.4 cm × 6.4 cm floating strip Micromegas doublet with low material budget is investigated in highly ionizing proton and carbon ion beams at particle rates between 2 MHz and 2 GHz. Stable operation up to the highest rates is observed, spatial resolution, detection efficiencies, the multi-hit and high-rate capability are discussed.

  15. Fracture of composite plates containing periodic buffer strips

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Erdogan, F.; Bakioglu, M.

    1974-01-01

    Fracture of a composite plate which consists of perfectly bonded parallel load carrying laminates and buffer strips is considered. Fatigue cracks appear and spread in main laminates or in buffer strips or in both perpendicular to the interfaces. The external load is applied to the plate parallel to the strips and away from the crack region. The problem is solved for fully imbedded cracks and for broken laminates or strips. Corresponding stress intensity factors are calculated.

  16. Thermal-Balance Strip for Fluted LFC Panels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bono, P.

    1985-01-01

    Waviness of less than 0.004 inch achieved using titanium strips. Process uses titanium balancing strips to keep waviness within 0.004inch limit. Balancing strips reduce thermal bonding stresses on lower fiberglass fluted sections and placed so fiberglass ends up sandwiched between porous titanium skin and titanium balance strip. Method requires less skill and less labor intensive than composite-wrapped-mandrel method.

  17. An evaluation of the performance and optimization of a new wastewater treatment technology: the air suction flow-biofilm reactor.

    PubMed

    Forde, P; Kennelly, C; Gerrity, S; Collins, G; Clifford, Eoghan

    2015-01-01

    In this laboratory study, a novel wastewater treatment technology, the air suction flow-biofilm reactor (ASF-BR) - a sequencing batch biofilm reactor technology with a passive aeration mechanism - was investigated for its efficiency in removing organic carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus, from high-strength synthetic wastewaters. A laboratory-scale ASF-BR comprising 2 reactors, 350 mm in diameter and 450 mm in height, was investigated over 2 studies (Studies 1 and 2) for a total of 430 days. Study 1 lasted a total of 166 days and involved a 9-step sequence alternating between aeration, anoxic treatment and settlement. The cycle time was 12.1 h and the reactors were operated at a substrate loading rate of 3.60 g filtered chemical oxygen demand (CODf)/m2 media/d, 0.28 g filtered total nitrogen (TNf)/m2 media/d, 0.24 g ammonium-nitrogen (NH4-N)/m2 media/d and 0.07 g ortho-phosphate (PO4-P)/m2 media/d. The average removal rates achieved during Study 1 were 98% CODf, 88% TNf, 97% NH4-N and 35% PO4-P. During Study 2 (264 days), the unit was operated at a loading rate of 2.49 g CODf/m2 media/d, 0.24 g TNf/m2 media/d, 0.20 g NH4-N/m2 media/d and 0.06 PO4-P/m2 media/d. The energy requirement during this study was reduced by modifying the treatment cycle in include fewer pumping cycles. Removal rates in Study 2 averaged 97% CODf, 86% TNf, 99% NH4-N and 76% PO4-P. The excess sludge production of the system was evaluated and detailed analyses of the treatment cycles were carried out. Biomass yields were estimated at 0.09 g SS/g CODf, removed and 0.21 g SS/g CODf, removed for Studies 1 and 2, respectively. Gene analysis showed that the use of a partial vacuum did not affect the growth of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria. The results indicate that the ASF-BR and passive aeration technologies can offer efficient alternatives to existing technologies.

  18. A strategy for climate evaluation of aircraft technology: an efficient climate impact assessment tool - AirClim

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grewe, V.; Stenke, A.

    2007-08-01

    Climate change is a challenge to society and to cope with requires assessment tools which are suitable to evaluate new technology options with respect to their impact on climate. Here we present AirClim, a model which comprises a linearisation of the processes occurring from the emission to an estimate in near surface temperature change, which is presumed to be a reasonable indicator for climate change. The model is designed to be applicable to aircraft technology, i.e.~the climate agents CO2, H2O, CH4 and O3 (latter two resulting from NOx-emissions) and contrails are taken into account. It employs a number of precalculated atmospheric data and combines them with aircraft emission data to obtain the temporal evolution of atmospheric concentration changes, radiative forcing and temperature changes. The linearisation is based on precalculated data derived from 25 steady-state simulations of the state-of-the-art climate-chemistry model E39/C, which include sustained normalised emissions at various atmospheric regions. The results show that strongest climate impacts from ozone changes occur for emissions in the tropical upper troposphere (60 mW/m²; 80 mK for 1 TgN emitted), whereas from methane in the middle tropical troposphere (-2.7% change in methane lifetime; -30 mK per TgN). The estimate of the temperature changes caused by the individual climate agents takes into account a perturbation lifetime, related to the region of emission. A comparison of this approach with results from the TRADEOFF and SCENIC projects shows reasonable agreement with respect to concentration changes, radiative forcing, and temperature changes. The total impact of a supersonic fleet on radiative forcing (mainly water vapour) is reproduced within 5%. For subsonic air traffic (sustained emissions after 2050) results show that although ozone-radiative forcing is much less important than that from CO2 for the year 2100. However the impact on temperature is of comparable size even when taking

  19. The impact of strip clearcutting on red oak seedling development

    Treesearch

    Jamie L. Schuler; Michael Boyce; Gary W. Miller

    2017-01-01

    A mature upland yellow-poplar/red oak stand was harvested using an alternating strip clearcut method. Red oak seedlings were planted across a light gradient between the cut and residual strips to assess the potential ability of the residual strips to foster the development of competitive oak seedlings over time. After one growing season, no differences in seedling...

  20. Physical and mechanical properties of flakeboard reinforced with bamboo strips

    Treesearch

    Ge Wang; Zhehui Jiang; Chung Y. Hse; Todd F. Shupe

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the physical and mechanical performance of flakeboard reinforced with bamboo strips. The study investigated three different bamboo strip alignment patterns and an experimental control. All panels were tested in static bending both along parallel and perpendicular to the lengths of the bamboo strips. Internal bond...