Science.gov

Sample records for air supply line

  1. 42 CFR 84.150 - Air-supply line tests; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Respirators § 84.150 Air-supply line tests; minimum requirements. Air supply lines employed on Type A, Type B, and Type C supplied-air respirators shall meet the minimum test requirements set forth in Table 8...

  2. 42 CFR 84.150 - Air-supply line tests; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Respirators § 84.150 Air-supply line tests; minimum requirements. Air supply lines employed on Type A, Type B, and Type C supplied-air respirators shall meet the minimum test requirements set forth in Table 8...

  3. Protective supplied breathing air garment

    DOEpatents

    Childers, E.L.; Hortenau, E.F. von.

    1984-07-10

    A breathing air garment is disclosed for isolating a wearer from hostile environments containing toxins or irritants includes a suit and a separate head protective enclosure or hood engaging a suit collar in sealing attachment. The hood and suit collar are cylindrically shaped and dimensioned to enable the wearer to withdraw his hands from the suit sleeves to perform manual tasks within the hood interior. Breathing air is supplied from an external air line with an air delivery hose attached to the hood interior. The hose feeds air into an annular halo-like fiber-filled plenum having spaced discharge orifices attached to the hood top wall. A plurality of air exhaust/check valves located at the suit extremities cooperate with the hood air delivery system to provide a cooling flow of circulating air from the hood throughout the suit interior. A suit entry seal provided on the suit rear torso panel permits access into the suit and is sealed with an adhesive sealing flap. 17 figs.

  4. Protective supplied breathing air garment

    DOEpatents

    Childers, Edward L.; von Hortenau, Erik F.

    1984-07-10

    A breathing air garment for isolating a wearer from hostile environments containing toxins or irritants includes a suit and a separate head protective enclosure or hood engaging a suit collar in sealing attachment. The hood and suit collar are cylindrically shaped and dimensioned to enable the wearer to withdraw his hands from the suit sleeves to perform manual tasks within the hood interior. Breathing air is supplied from an external air line with an air delivery hose attached to the hood interior. The hose feeds air into an annular halo-like fiber-filled plenum having spaced discharge orifices attached to the hood top wall. A plurality of air exhaust/check valves located at the suit extremities cooperate with the hood air delivery system to provide a cooling flow of circulating air from the hood throughout the suit interior. A suit entry seal provided on the suit rear torso panel permits access into the suit and is sealed with an adhesive sealing flap.

  5. Air supply distributor for fireplaces

    SciTech Connect

    Eberhardt, H.A.

    1984-09-18

    An air supply distributor for fireplaces having an opening in the hearth for the supply of relatively cold air is used in combination with means, such as a log holder or grate, for supporting combustible products and comprises a pair of side walls and a top cover. The distributor is adapted to be positioned under the log holder or grate to overlie the hearth opening so that relatively cold air passing through the hearth opening is directed toward the front opening of the fireplace from which it passes to the fire for supporting combustion thereof thereby minimizing the amount of air drawn from the room.

  6. Fireplace having outside air supply

    SciTech Connect

    Hempel, R.A.

    1981-07-28

    An outside air system and combustion chamber closure assembly for use with a fireplace which provides means for supplying sufficient amounts of cooling air between the burning fuel and the closure assembly is disclosed. The closure assembly includes a frame surrounding the combustion chamber opening and at least one door operably mounted thereto. A grille is formed in the bottom rail of the frame for introduction of air into the combustion chamber. The outside air system includes an outside air duct which is coupled to a chamber defining an air plenum formed below the hearth of the fireplace and air cap assembly. The air cap assembly is positioned against the bottom rail of the frame and extends across the combustion chamber opening. The assembly includes a duct which communicates with the chamber defining the air plenum formed below the hearth and an air discharge housing positioned adjacent the bottom rail. A damper means is operably mounted in the air discharge housing and is adjustable between an outside air mode or a room air mode so that when said at least one door is closed, only outside air or room air will pass into the combustion chamber at hearth level in sufficient volume for fuel combustion as well as providing an excess of air to prevent overheating of the fireplace assembly and said at least one door.

  7. Protective supplied-breathing-air garment

    DOEpatents

    Childers, E.L.; von Hortenau, E.F.

    1982-05-28

    A breathing-air garment for isolating a wearer from hostile environments containing toxins or irritants is disclosed. The garment includes a suit and a separate head-protective enclosure or hood engaging a suit collar in sealing attachment. The hood and suit collar are cylindrically shaped and dimensioned to enable the wearer to withdraw his hands from the suit sleeves to perform manual tasks within the hood interior. Breathing air is supplied from an external air line with an air-delivery hose attached to the hood interior. The hose feeds air into an annular halo-like fiber-filled plenum having spaced discharge orifices attached to the hood top wall. A plurality of air exhaust/check valves located at the suit extremities cooperate with the hood air-delivery system to provide a cooling flow of circulating air from the hood throughout the suit interior. A suit entry seal provided on the suit sealed with an adhesive sealing flap.

  8. Fluid-bed air-supply system

    DOEpatents

    Atabay, Keramettin

    1979-01-01

    The air-supply system for a fluidized-bed furnace includes two air conduits for the same combustion zone. The conduits feed separate sets of holes in a distributor plate through which fluidizing air flows to reach the bed. During normal operation, only one conduit and set of holes is used, but the second conduit and set of holes is employed during start-up.

  9. 46 CFR 197.432 - Surface-supplied air diving.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Surface-supplied air diving. 197.432 Section 197.432...-supplied air diving. The diving supervisor shall insure that— (a) Surface-supplied air diving is conducted... space; and (f) The surface-supplied air diver has the equipment required by § 197.346 (b) or (d)....

  10. 42 CFR 84.130 - Supplied-air respirators; description.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Supplied-air respirators; description. 84.130... SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Supplied-Air Respirators § 84.130 Supplied-air respirators; description. Supplied-air respirators, including all...

  11. 42 CFR 84.130 - Supplied-air respirators; description.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Supplied-air respirators; description. 84.130... SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Supplied-Air Respirators § 84.130 Supplied-air respirators; description. Supplied-air respirators, including all...

  12. 42 CFR 84.130 - Supplied-air respirators; description.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Supplied-air respirators; description. 84.130... SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Supplied-Air Respirators § 84.130 Supplied-air respirators; description. Supplied-air respirators, including all...

  13. 29 CFR 1910.425 - Surface-supplied air diving.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Surface-supplied air diving. 1910.425 Section 1910.425... Procedures § 1910.425 Surface-supplied air diving. (a) General. Employers engaged in surface-supplied air...-supplied air diving shall not be conducted at depths deeper than 190 fsw, except that dives with...

  14. 42 CFR 84.130 - Supplied-air respirators; description.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Supplied-air respirators; description. 84.130... SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Supplied-Air Respirators § 84.130 Supplied-air respirators; description. Supplied-air respirators, including all...

  15. Engine powered auxiliary air supply system

    SciTech Connect

    Mc Lean, J.R.

    1987-01-27

    This patent describes an auxiliary air supply system comprising: an engine; at least one exhaust driven turbocharger including a turbine and a compressor associated therewith for supply of compressed air to the engine; a low pressure compressor including means for powering the low pressure compressor utilizing the engine exhaust gas and flow connected to receive a portion of the compressed air exiting the engine turbocharger compressor; a high pressure compressor including means for powering the high pressure compressor utilizing the engine exhaust gas and flow connected to receive the compressed air exiting the low pressure compressor; and means for directing engine exhaust gases between at least one engine turbocharger and the means for powering the low and high pressure compressors.

  16. 42 CFR 84.142 - Air supply source; hand-operated or motor driven air blowers; Type A supplied-air respirators...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Air supply source; hand-operated or motor driven air blowers; Type A supplied-air respirators; minimum requirements. 84.142 Section 84.142 Public....142 Air supply source; hand-operated or motor driven air blowers; Type A supplied-air...

  17. 42 CFR 84.142 - Air supply source; hand-operated or motor driven air blowers; Type A supplied-air respirators...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Air supply source; hand-operated or motor driven air blowers; Type A supplied-air respirators; minimum requirements. 84.142 Section 84.142 Public....142 Air supply source; hand-operated or motor driven air blowers; Type A supplied-air...

  18. 42 CFR 84.142 - Air supply source; hand-operated or motor driven air blowers; Type A supplied-air respirators...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Air supply source; hand-operated or motor driven air blowers; Type A supplied-air respirators; minimum requirements. 84.142 Section 84.142 Public....142 Air supply source; hand-operated or motor driven air blowers; Type A supplied-air...

  19. 42 CFR 84.142 - Air supply source; hand-operated or motor driven air blowers; Type A supplied-air respirators...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Air supply source; hand-operated or motor driven air blowers; Type A supplied-air respirators; minimum requirements. 84.142 Section 84.142 Public....142 Air supply source; hand-operated or motor driven air blowers; Type A supplied-air...

  20. 42 CFR 84.142 - Air supply source; hand-operated or motor driven air blowers; Type A supplied-air respirators...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Air supply source; hand-operated or motor driven air blowers; Type A supplied-air respirators; minimum requirements. 84.142 Section 84.142 Public....142 Air supply source; hand-operated or motor driven air blowers; Type A supplied-air...

  1. 46 CFR 197.432 - Surface-supplied air diving.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Surface-supplied air diving. 197.432 Section 197.432... STANDARDS GENERAL PROVISIONS Commercial Diving Operations Specific Diving Mode Procedures § 197.432 Surface-supplied air diving. The diving supervisor shall insure that— (a) Surface-supplied air diving is...

  2. 29 CFR 1910.425 - Surface-supplied air diving.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... dive area from ascending directly to the surface. ... 29 Labor 5 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Surface-supplied air diving. 1910.425 Section 1910.425... Procedures § 1910.425 Surface-supplied air diving. (a) General. Employers engaged in surface-supplied...

  3. 29 CFR 1910.425 - Surface-supplied air diving.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... dive area from ascending directly to the surface. ... 29 Labor 5 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Surface-supplied air diving. 1910.425 Section 1910.425... Procedures § 1910.425 Surface-supplied air diving. (a) General. Employers engaged in surface-supplied...

  4. 29 CFR 1910.425 - Surface-supplied air diving.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... dive area from ascending directly to the surface. ... 29 Labor 5 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Surface-supplied air diving. 1910.425 Section 1910.425... Procedures § 1910.425 Surface-supplied air diving. (a) General. Employers engaged in surface-supplied...

  5. Frequency response of a jet engine test facility air supply system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Franke, M. E.; Ross, M. L.

    1985-01-01

    The frequency response of a laboratory scale model of a portion of the air supply system of an engine test facility is obtained both experimentally and using one-dimensional, small-signal, distributed parameter theory. The effects of line terminations and mean flow are considered. Good agreement between experiment and theory is obtained. Predictions are extended to a full scale test facility air supply system operating under several possible test conditions.

  6. 29 CFR 1926.1085 - Surface-supplied air diving.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Surface-supplied air diving. 1926.1085 Section 1926.1085..., DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION Diving Specific Operations Procedures § 1926.1085 Surface-supplied air diving. Note: The requirements applicable to construction...

  7. 29 CFR 1910.425 - Surface-supplied air diving.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 5 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Surface-supplied air diving. 1910.425 Section 1910.425 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS Commercial Diving Operations Specific Operations Procedures § 1910.425 Surface-supplied air...

  8. 29 CFR 1926.1085 - Surface-supplied air diving.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Surface-supplied air diving. 1926.1085 Section 1926.1085 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION... Procedures § 1926.1085 Surface-supplied air diving. Note: The requirements applicable to construction...

  9. 29 CFR 1926.1085 - Surface-supplied air diving.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Surface-supplied air diving. 1926.1085 Section 1926.1085 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION... Procedures § 1926.1085 Surface-supplied air diving. Note: The requirements applicable to construction...

  10. 29 CFR 1926.1085 - Surface-supplied air diving.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Surface-supplied air diving. 1926.1085 Section 1926.1085 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION... Procedures § 1926.1085 Surface-supplied air diving. Note: The requirements applicable to construction...

  11. Fuel cell stack with passive air supply

    DOEpatents

    Ren, Xiaoming; Gottesfeld, Shimshon

    2006-01-17

    A fuel cell stack has a plurality of polymer electrolyte fuel cells (PEFCs) where each PEFC includes a rectangular membrane electrode assembly (MEA) having a fuel flow field along a first axis and an air flow field along a second axis perpendicular to the first axis, where the fuel flow field is long relative to the air flow field. A cathode air flow field in each PEFC has air flow channels for air flow parallel to the second axis and that directly open to atmospheric air for air diffusion within the channels into contact with the MEA.

  12. 42 CFR 84.147 - Type B supplied-air respirator; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Type B supplied-air respirator; minimum... DEVICES Supplied-Air Respirators § 84.147 Type B supplied-air respirator; minimum requirements. No Type B supplied-air respirator shall be approved for use with a blower or with connection to an air supply...

  13. 42 CFR 84.147 - Type B supplied-air respirator; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Type B supplied-air respirator; minimum... DEVICES Supplied-Air Respirators § 84.147 Type B supplied-air respirator; minimum requirements. No Type B supplied-air respirator shall be approved for use with a blower or with connection to an air supply...

  14. 42 CFR 84.139 - Head and neck protection; supplied-air respirators; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Head and neck protection; supplied-air respirators... PROTECTIVE DEVICES Supplied-Air Respirators § 84.139 Head and neck protection; supplied-air respirators; minimum requirements. Type AE, BE, and CE supplied-air respirators shall be designed and constructed...

  15. 42 CFR 84.139 - Head and neck protection; supplied-air respirators; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Head and neck protection; supplied-air respirators... PROTECTIVE DEVICES Supplied-Air Respirators § 84.139 Head and neck protection; supplied-air respirators; minimum requirements. Type AE, BE, and CE supplied-air respirators shall be designed and constructed...

  16. 42 CFR 84.131 - Supplied-air respirators; required components.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Supplied-air respirators; required components. 84... Supplied-Air Respirators § 84.131 Supplied-air respirators; required components. (a) Each supplied-air respirator described in § 84.130 shall, where its design requires, contain the following component parts:...

  17. 42 CFR 84.131 - Supplied-air respirators; required components.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Supplied-air respirators; required components. 84... Supplied-Air Respirators § 84.131 Supplied-air respirators; required components. (a) Each supplied-air respirator described in § 84.130 shall, where its design requires, contain the following component parts:...

  18. Power supply with air core transformer and seperated power supplies for high dynamic range

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chutjian, Ara (Inventor); Aalami, Dean (Inventor); Darrach, Murray (Inventor); Orient, Otto (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    A power supply for a quadrupole mass spectrometer which operates using an RF signal. The RF signal is controllable via a feedback loop. The feedback loop is from the output, through a comparator, and compared to a digital signal. An air core transformer is used to minimize the weight. The air core transformer is driven via two out of phase sawtooth signals which drive opposite ends of the transformer.

  19. Air supply system for an internal combustion engine

    SciTech Connect

    Eftink, A.J.

    1991-03-12

    This patent describes a reciprocating piston internal combustion engine having a crankshaft and at least two cylinders, each cylinder having a displacement volume V{sub 1}, the improved means for supplying air to each cylinder. It comprises: a rotary, trochoidal chamber air pump defining at least one pair of pumping chambers, the number of pumping chambers being equal to the number of cylinders in the engine; air intake conduits connecting each pumping chamber to one cylinder of the engine; a rotor rotatable in each pair of pumping chambers, the rotor having three faces such that passage of a face of the rotor through a pumping chamber forces air in the pumping chamber into the associated air intake conduit and, consequently, into the engine cylinder; and means interconnecting the rotor and the crankshaft so as to rotate the rotor approximately one revolution for every three revolutions of the crankshaft.

  20. Apparatus for supplying conditioned air at a substantially constant temperature and humidity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Obler, H. D. (Inventor)

    1980-01-01

    The apparatus includes a supply duct coupled to a source of supply air for carrying the supply air therethrough. A return duct is coupled to the supply duct for carrying return conditioned air therethrough. A temperature reducing device is coupled to the supply duct for decreasing the temperature of the supply and return conditioned air. A by-pass duct is coupled to the supply duct for selectively directing portions of the supply and return conditioned air around the temperature reducing device. Another by-pass duct is coupled to the return duct for selectively directing portions of the return conditioned air around the supply duct and the temperature reduction device. Controller devices selectively control the flow and amount of mixing of the supply and return conditioned air.

  1. In-line real time air monitor

    DOEpatents

    Wise, M.B.; Thompson, C.V.

    1998-07-14

    An in-line gas monitor capable of accurate gas composition analysis in a continuous real time manner even under strong applied vacuum conditions operates by mixing an air sample with helium forming a sample gas in two complementary sample loops embedded in a manifold which includes two pairs of 3-way solenoid valves. The sample gas is then analyzed in an ion trap mass spectrometer on a continuous basis. Two valve drivers actuate the two pairs of 3-way valves in a reciprocating fashion, so that there is always flow through the in-line gas monitor via one or the other of the sample loops. The duty cycle for the two pairs of 3-way valves is varied by tuning the two valve drivers to a duty cycle typically between 0.2 to 0.7 seconds. 3 figs.

  2. In-line real time air monitor

    DOEpatents

    Wise, Marcus B.; Thompson, Cyril V.

    1998-01-01

    An in-line gas monitor capable of accurate gas composition analysis in a continuous real time manner even under strong applied vacuum conditions operates by mixing an air sample with helium forming a sample gas in two complementary sample loops embedded in a manifold which includes two pairs of 3-way solenoid valves. The sample gas is then analyzed in an ion trap mass spectrometer on a continuous basis. Two valve drivers actuate the two pairs of 3-way valves in a reciprocating fashion, so that there is always flow through the in-line gas monitor via one or the other of the sample loops. The duty cycle for the two pairs of 3-way valves is varied by tuning the two valve drivers to a duty cycle typically between 0.2 to 0.7 seconds.

  3. New 48-inch line gives Wales more gas supplies

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-11-01

    A new 11-mile, 48-in pipeline will not only supply an even flow of gas from the British Gas national grid to towns in the Wales Gas district but also serve as a daily storage facility by means of nightime linepacking at 700 psi. The largest diameter gas line to be constructed in the UK, the pipeline is confined to a 165-ft wide corridor leading through wet and dry moorland, farms, reclaimed colliery tips, and bogs. Construction engineers took care to protect archeological features along the route and to restore the land to its original condition.

  4. 42 CFR 84.148 - Type C supplied-air respirator, continuous flow class; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Type C supplied-air respirator, continuous flow... RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Supplied-Air Respirators § 84.148 Type C supplied-air respirator, continuous flow class; minimum requirements. (a) Respirators tested under this section shall be approved only...

  5. Repair of Corrosion in Air Supply Piping at the NASA Glenn Research Center's 1 by 1 Foot Supersonic Wind Tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henry, Michael

    2000-01-01

    During a test at the NASA Glenn Research Center's 1 x 1 Supersonic Wing Tunnel, it was discovered that particles entrained in the air flow were damaging the pressure sensitive paint on a test article. An investigation found the source of the entrained particles to be rust on the internal surfaces of the air supply piping. To remedy the situation, the air supply line components made from carbon steel were either refurbished or replaced with new stainless steel components. The refurbishment process included various combinations of chemical cleaning, bead blasting, painting and plating.

  6. Evaluation of Air Mixing and Thermal Comfort From High Sidewall Supply Air Jets

    SciTech Connect

    Ridouane, E. H.

    2011-09-01

    Uniform mixing of conditioned air with room air is an essential factor for providing comfort in homes. The higher the supply flow rates the easier to reach good mixing in the space. In high performance homes, however, the flow rates required to meet the small remaining thermal loads are not large enough to maintain uniform mixing in the space. The objective of this study is to resolve this issue and maintain uniform temperatures within future homes. We used computational fluid dynamics modeling to evaluate the performance of high sidewall air supply for residential applications in heating and cooling modes. Parameters of the study are the supply velocity, supply temperature, diffuser dimensions, and room dimensions. Laboratory experiments supported the study of thermal mixing in heating mode; we used the results to develop a correlation to predict high sidewall diffuser performance. For cooling mode, numerical analysis is presented. The results provide information to guide the selection of high sidewall supply diffusers to maintain proper room mixing for heating and cooling of high performance homes. It is proven that these systems can achieve good mixing and provide acceptable comfort levels. Recommendations are given on the operating conditions to guarantee occupant comfort.

  7. Tracing global supply chains to air pollution hotspots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moran, Daniel; Kanemoto, Keiichiro

    2016-09-01

    While high-income countries have made significant strides since the 1970s in improving air quality, air pollution continues to rise in many developing countries and the world as a whole. A significant share of the pollution burden in developing countries can be attributed to production for export to consumers in high-income nations. However, it remains a challenge to quantify individual actors’ share of responsibility for pollution, and to involve parties other than primary emitters in cleanup efforts. Here we present a new spatially explicit modeling approach to link SO2, NO x , and PM10 severe emissions hotspots to final consumers via global supply chains. These maps show developed countries reducing their emissions domestically but driving new pollution hotspots in developing countries. This is also the first time a spatially explicit footprint inventory has been established. Linking consumers and supply chains to emissions hotspots creates opportunities for other parties to participate alongside primary emitters and local regulators in pollution abatement efforts.

  8. An On-Chip Noise Canceller with High Voltage Supply Lines for Nanosecond-Range Power Supply Noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakamura, Yasumi; Takamiya, Makoto; Sakurai, Takayasu

    An on-chip power supply noise canceller with higher voltage supply and switching transistor is proposed and the effectiveness of the canceller is experimentally verified. The noise canceller is effective for nano-second order noise caused by circuit wakeup or step increase of frequency in frequency hopping. The principle of the noise canceller is to reduce the current flowing through the supply line of VDD by injecting additional current from the higher voltage supply, so that the voltage drop across the VDD supply line is reduced. As additional current flow from higher supply, switching transistor has to be turned off not to increase the power consumption. With turn-off time of 2L/R, this current can be turned off without inducting another droop due to the increase of current flowing through the power supply line. The measurement shows the canceller reduces 68% of the noise with load circuit equivalent to 530k logic gates in 90-nm CMOS with 9% wire overhead, 1.5% area overhead, and 3% power overhead at 50k wake-ups/s. Compared to passive noise reduction, proposed noise canceller reduces power supply noise by 64% without wire overhead and to achieve same noise reduction with passive method, 77 times more C or 45 times less L is required. Too large switching transistor results in saturated noise reduction effect and higher power consumption. A rule-of-thumb is to set the on-resistance to supply 100% of load current when turned-on.

  9. Energy and air emission effects of water supply.

    PubMed

    Stokes, Jennifer R; Horvath, Arpad

    2009-04-15

    Life-cycle air emission effects of supplying water are explored using a hybrid life-cycle assessment For the typically sized U.S. utility analyzed, recycled water is preferable to desalination and comparable to importation. Seawater desalination has an energy and air emission footprint that is 1.5-2.4 times larger than that of imported water. However, some desalination modes fare better; brackish groundwater is 53-66% as environmentally intensive as seawater desalination. The annual water needs (326 m3) of a typical Californian that is met with imported water requires 5.8 GJ of energy and creates 360 kg of CO2 equivalent emissions. With seawater desalination, energy use would increase to 14 GJ and 800 kg of CO2 equivalent emissions. Meeting the water demand of California with desalination would consume 52% of the state's electricity. Supply options were reassessed using alternative electricity mixes, including the average mix of the United States and several renewable sources. Desalination using solar thermal energy has lower greenhouse gas emissions than that of imported and recycled water (using California's electricity mix), but using the U.S. mix increases the environmental footprint by 1.5 times. A comparison with a more energy-intensive international scenario shows that CO2 equivalent emissions for desalination in Dubai are 1.6 times larger than in California. The methods, decision support tool (WEST), and results of this study should persuade decision makers to make informed water policy choices by including energy consumption and material use effects in the decision-making process.

  10. Evaluation of Air Mixing and Thermal Comfort From High Sidewall Supply Air Jets

    SciTech Connect

    Ridouane, El Hassan

    2011-09-01

    Uniform mixing of conditioned air with room air is an essential factor for providing comfort in homes. The objective of the study outlined in this report is to resolve the issue that the flow rates that are required to meet the small remaining thermal loads are not large enough to maintain uniform mixing in the space.and maintain uniform temperatures within future homes. The results provide information to guide the selection of high sidewall supply diffusers to maintain proper room mixing for heating and cooling of high performance homes.

  11. 77 FR 59391 - Delta Air Lines, Inc., Continental Airlines, Inc., JetBlue Airways Corporation, United Air Lines...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-27

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Delta Air Lines, Inc., Continental Airlines, Inc., JetBlue Airways...(a) and 343.2(c); Delta Air Lines, Inc., Continental Airlines, Inc., JetBlue Airways...

  12. Air/fuel supply system for use in a gas turbine engine

    DOEpatents

    Fox, Timothy A; Schilp, Reinhard; Gambacorta, Domenico

    2014-06-17

    A fuel injector for use in a gas turbine engine combustor assembly. The fuel injector includes a main body and a fuel supply structure. The main body has an inlet end and an outlet end and defines a longitudinal axis extending between the outlet and inlet ends. The main body comprises a plurality of air/fuel passages extending therethrough, each air/fuel passage including an inlet that receives air from a source of air and an outlet. The fuel supply structure communicates with and supplies fuel to the air/fuel passages for providing an air/fuel mixture within each air/fuel passage. The air/fuel mixtures exit the main body through respective air/fuel passage outlets.

  13. Downhole steam generator using low pressure fuel and air supply

    DOEpatents

    Fox, Ronald L.

    1983-01-01

    An apparatus for generation of steam in a borehole for penetration into an earth formation wherein a spiral, tubular heat exchanger is used in the combustion chamber to isolate the combustion process from the water being superheated for conversion into steam. The isolation allows combustion of a relatively low pressure oxidant and fuel mixture for generating high enthalpy steam. The fuel is preheated by feedback of combustion gases from the top of the combustion chamber through a fuel preheater chamber. The hot exhaust gases of combustion at the bottom of the combustion chamber, after flowing over the heat exchanger enter an exhaust passage and pipe. The exhaust pipe is mounted inside the water supply line heating the water flowing into the heat exchanger. After being superheated in the heat exchanger, the water is ejected through an expansion nozzle and converts into steam prior to penetration into the earth formation. Pressure responsive doors are provided at a steam outlet downstream of the nozzle and close when the steam pressure is lost due to flameout.

  14. Penumatic-power supply

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kramer, R. C.

    1981-01-01

    Portable compressed air supply has two or more outputs at pressures from 20 to 100 psi. Applications include operating production equipment, spraying paint and lubricants, and pressurizing refrigeration systems. Supply filters air from standard high-pressure line, reduces it to working pressure, and adds lubricant when required. Regulator supplies low-pressure air to output channels. On channel lines, vernier-control valves select output pressures.

  15. The Bottom Line For Air Quality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis, Tom

    2000-01-01

    Discusses how the right type of flooring can help schools reduce indoor-air-quality problems. Using vinyl composition flooring to handle moisture and reduce fungi growth is examined as are the benefits of vinyl cushion tufted textile flooring for cost effectiveness, learning environment improvement, installation, and effectiveness in emergencies.…

  16. 42 CFR 84.155 - Airflow resistance test; Type C supplied-air respirator, continuous flow class and Type CE...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Airflow resistance test; Type C supplied-air... Respirators § 84.155 Airflow resistance test; Type C supplied-air respirator, continuous flow class and Type CE supplied-air respirator; minimum requirements. The resistance to air flowing from the...

  17. 42 CFR 84.155 - Airflow resistance test; Type C supplied-air respirator, continuous flow class and Type CE...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Airflow resistance test; Type C supplied-air... Respirators § 84.155 Airflow resistance test; Type C supplied-air respirator, continuous flow class and Type CE supplied-air respirator; minimum requirements. The resistance to air flowing from the...

  18. 42 CFR 84.155 - Airflow resistance test; Type C supplied-air respirator, continuous flow class and Type CE...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Airflow resistance test; Type C supplied-air... Respirators § 84.155 Airflow resistance test; Type C supplied-air respirator, continuous flow class and Type CE supplied-air respirator; minimum requirements. The resistance to air flowing from the...

  19. 42 CFR 84.155 - Airflow resistance test; Type C supplied-air respirator, continuous flow class and Type CE...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Airflow resistance test; Type C supplied-air... Respirators § 84.155 Airflow resistance test; Type C supplied-air respirator, continuous flow class and Type CE supplied-air respirator; minimum requirements. The resistance to air flowing from the...

  20. 42 CFR 84.149 - Type C supplied-air respirator, demand and pressure demand class; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Type C supplied-air respirator, demand and pressure... be approved only when used to supply respirable air at the pressures and quantities required. (b) The manufacturer shall specify the range of air pressure at the point of attachment of the air-supply hose to...

  1. 42 CFR 84.149 - Type C supplied-air respirator, demand and pressure demand class; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Type C supplied-air respirator, demand and pressure... be approved only when used to supply respirable air at the pressures and quantities required. (b) The manufacturer shall specify the range of air pressure at the point of attachment of the air-supply hose to...

  2. 42 CFR 84.149 - Type C supplied-air respirator, demand and pressure demand class; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Type C supplied-air respirator, demand and pressure... be approved only when used to supply respirable air at the pressures and quantities required. (b) The manufacturer shall specify the range of air pressure at the point of attachment of the air-supply hose to...

  3. 42 CFR 84.149 - Type C supplied-air respirator, demand and pressure demand class; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Type C supplied-air respirator, demand and pressure... be approved only when used to supply respirable air at the pressures and quantities required. (b) The manufacturer shall specify the range of air pressure at the point of attachment of the air-supply hose to...

  4. 42 CFR 84.149 - Type C supplied-air respirator, demand and pressure demand class; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Type C supplied-air respirator, demand and pressure... be approved only when used to supply respirable air at the pressures and quantities required. (b) The manufacturer shall specify the range of air pressure at the point of attachment of the air-supply hose to...

  5. 42 CFR 84.156 - Airflow resistance test; Type C supplied-air respirator, demand class; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Airflow resistance test; Type C supplied-air... APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Supplied-Air Respirators § 84.156 Airflow resistance test; Type C supplied-air respirator, demand class; minimum requirements. (a) Inhalation resistance shall...

  6. 42 CFR 84.156 - Airflow resistance test; Type C supplied-air respirator, demand class; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Airflow resistance test; Type C supplied-air... APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Supplied-Air Respirators § 84.156 Airflow resistance test; Type C supplied-air respirator, demand class; minimum requirements. (a) Inhalation resistance shall...

  7. 42 CFR 84.156 - Airflow resistance test; Type C supplied-air respirator, demand class; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Airflow resistance test; Type C supplied-air... APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Supplied-Air Respirators § 84.156 Airflow resistance test; Type C supplied-air respirator, demand class; minimum requirements. (a) Inhalation resistance shall...

  8. 42 CFR 84.156 - Airflow resistance test; Type C supplied-air respirator, demand class; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Airflow resistance test; Type C supplied-air... APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Supplied-Air Respirators § 84.156 Airflow resistance test; Type C supplied-air respirator, demand class; minimum requirements. (a) Inhalation resistance shall...

  9. 42 CFR 84.143 - Terminal fittings or chambers; Type B supplied-air respirators; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Terminal fittings or chambers; Type B supplied-air... RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Supplied-Air Respirators § 84.143 Terminal fittings or chambers; Type B... positive pressures shall not be approved for use on Type B supplied-air respirators. (b) Terminal...

  10. 42 CFR 84.143 - Terminal fittings or chambers; Type B supplied-air respirators; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... respirators; minimum requirements. 84.143 Section 84.143 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Supplied-Air Respirators § 84.143 Terminal fittings or chambers; Type B supplied-air respirators; minimum requirements. (a) Blowers or connections to air supplies...

  11. Control of an Isolated Table's Fluctuation Caused by Supplied Air Pressure Using a Voice Coil Motor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shirani, Habiburahman; Wakui, Shinji

    Pneumatic type anti-vibration apparatuses are used in the field of semiconductor manufacturing and precision measurement. The variation of the supplied air pressure from the air compressor causes the position fluctuation of the isolated table. A control method using a voice coil motor (VCM) as the actuator is proposed in this study to control the position fluctuation of the isolated table caused by the supplied air pressure. The feedforward compensator control scheme is used to provide a proper controlled signal to the VCM. According to the controlled signal, VCM exerts driving force in the opposite direction of the air spring expansion or compression to suppress the vibration of the isolated table.

  12. Signal pulses superimposed on power supply lines improve electrical control

    SciTech Connect

    1996-06-01

    To manipulate or monitor the operation of cranes and hoists, control engineers typically create control schemes that add numerous conductors, festoon systems, bulky dedicated conductor rails, radio and infrared controls. With modern power line communication equipment, power and intelligence can be combined to: add an unlimited number of control circuits without adding a single wire; have data communication without special cables; and eliminate bulky festoon systems and heavy cable track. Available from US Safety Trolley Corp., a SmartRail system superimposes data and control information on the power line to create a fully functional Local Area Network (LAN). The system network is based on the CEBus protocol EIA/IS-60 and uses a spread spectrum power line carrier technology. The heart of this system is the controller which manages all communication and control tasks. A power line coupling circuit couples the data signal from the controller to the a-c power conductors. These power conductors are often TRI-BAR/FOUR-BAR continuous conductor bar systems or existing conductor bar systems. The combination results in a secure data communications and control system for moving equipment.

  13. 78 FR 22911 - Delta Air Lines, Inc., Reservation Sales and Customer Care Call Center, Seatac, WA; Delta Air...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-17

    ... Employment and Training Administration Delta Air Lines, Inc., Reservation Sales and Customer Care Call Center, Seatac, WA; Delta Air Lines, Inc., Reservation Sales and Customer Care Call Center, Sioux City, IA... workers and former workers of Delta Air Lines, Inc., Reservation Sales and Customer Care Call...

  14. 42 CFR 84.154 - Airflow resistance test; Type B and Type BE supplied-air respirators; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Supplied-Air Respirators § 84.154 Airflow resistance test; Type B and Type BE supplied-air respirators; minimum requirements. (a) Airflow resistance shall be... diameter. (b) Airflow resistance shall not exceed 38 mm. (1.5 inches) of water-column height to air...

  15. 42 CFR 84.154 - Airflow resistance test; Type B and Type BE supplied-air respirators; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Supplied-Air Respirators § 84.154 Airflow resistance test; Type B and Type BE supplied-air respirators; minimum requirements. (a) Airflow resistance shall be... diameter. (b) Airflow resistance shall not exceed 38 mm. (1.5 inches) of water-column height to air...

  16. 42 CFR 84.154 - Airflow resistance test; Type B and Type BE supplied-air respirators; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Supplied-Air Respirators § 84.154 Airflow resistance test; Type B and Type BE supplied-air respirators; minimum requirements. (a) Airflow resistance shall be... diameter. (b) Airflow resistance shall not exceed 38 mm. (1.5 inches) of water-column height to air...

  17. 42 CFR 84.154 - Airflow resistance test; Type B and Type BE supplied-air respirators; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Supplied-Air Respirators § 84.154 Airflow resistance test; Type B and Type BE supplied-air respirators; minimum requirements. (a) Airflow resistance shall be... diameter. (b) Airflow resistance shall not exceed 38 mm. (1.5 inches) of water-column height to air...

  18. 42 CFR 84.154 - Airflow resistance test; Type B and Type BE supplied-air respirators; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Supplied-Air Respirators § 84.154 Airflow resistance test; Type B and Type BE supplied-air respirators; minimum requirements. (a) Airflow resistance shall be... diameter. (b) Airflow resistance shall not exceed 38 mm. (1.5 inches) of water-column height to air...

  19. 42 CFR 84.155 - Airflow resistance test; Type C supplied-air respirator, continuous flow class and Type CE...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... respirator, continuous flow class and Type CE supplied-air respirator; minimum requirements. 84.155 Section... Respirators § 84.155 Airflow resistance test; Type C supplied-air respirator, continuous flow class and Type... shall not exceed 25 mm. (1 inch) of water-column height when the air flow into the...

  20. Energy supplies and future engines for land, sea, and air.

    PubMed

    Wilson, David Gordon

    2012-06-01

    The years 2012 and beyond seem likely to record major changes in energy use and power generation. The Japanese tsunami has resulted in large countries either scaling back or abolishing the future use of nuclear energy. The discovery of what seems like vast amounts of economically deliverable natural gas has many forecasting a rapid switch from coal- to gas-fired generating plants. On the other hand, environmentalists have strong objections to the production of natural gas and of petroleum by hydraulic fracturing from shale, or by extraction of heavy oil. They believe that global warming from the use of fossil fuels is now established beyond question. There has been rapid progress in the development of alternative energy supplies, particularly from on-shore and off-shore wind. Progress toward a viable future energy mix has been slowed by a U.S. energy policy that seems to many to be driven by politics. The author will review the history of power and energy to put all of the above in context and will look at possible future developments. He will propose what he believes to be an idealized energy policy that could result in an optimum system that would be arrived at democratically. PMID:22788100

  1. Energy supplies and future engines for land, sea, and air.

    PubMed

    Wilson, David Gordon

    2012-06-01

    The years 2012 and beyond seem likely to record major changes in energy use and power generation. The Japanese tsunami has resulted in large countries either scaling back or abolishing the future use of nuclear energy. The discovery of what seems like vast amounts of economically deliverable natural gas has many forecasting a rapid switch from coal- to gas-fired generating plants. On the other hand, environmentalists have strong objections to the production of natural gas and of petroleum by hydraulic fracturing from shale, or by extraction of heavy oil. They believe that global warming from the use of fossil fuels is now established beyond question. There has been rapid progress in the development of alternative energy supplies, particularly from on-shore and off-shore wind. Progress toward a viable future energy mix has been slowed by a U.S. energy policy that seems to many to be driven by politics. The author will review the history of power and energy to put all of the above in context and will look at possible future developments. He will propose what he believes to be an idealized energy policy that could result in an optimum system that would be arrived at democratically.

  2. Wearable air supply for pneumatic artificial hearts and ventricular assist devices.

    PubMed

    Sipin, A J; Fabrey, W J; Smith, S H; Doussourd, J D; Olsen, D B

    1992-08-01

    An experimental wearable air supply for pneumatic artificial hearts and ventricular assist devices has been built and tested. The unit eliminates the need for tethering to a large, stationery driver. The miniaturized air supply is designed for ambulatory patients with implanted pulsatile pneumatic total artificial hearts (TAH) or pneumatic left-ventricular assist devices (LVAD), to permit mobility in clinical and home settings. The device has major short-term utility as a supply for pneumatic TAH or VAD bridges in patients awaiting heart transplants. The system design for the wearable driver includes a novel, fast rotary compressor, driven by a brushless direct current (DC) motor to supply air to the ventricle through an electromagnetically actuated directional valve, all controlled by a microcomputer. Stroke volume from 0 to 200 cc; pulse rate from 60 to 160 bpm, and duty cycle from 33% to 50% are selected on a keyboard, and the selected or measured parameters can be shown on a liquid crystal display. For control of delivery from a single ventricular assist device, stroke volume is controlled by variation of compressor speed. In the wearable air supply for a TAH, a single compressor drives both ventricles alternately through a double-acting directional valve. Air volume delivered to the left ventricle is adjusted by variation of compressor speed, and air volume to the right ventricle by variation of ejection time. The effect on blood flow rate of the lower impedance to the right ventricle is compensated by provision of a two-stage compressor, in which a single stage drives the right ventricle, and both stages connected in parallel drive the left ventricle. The overall dimensions of the prototype air supply for driving either a TAH or LVAD are 4.5 by 7.8 by 4.5 inches, including an emergency battery with a duration of 15 to 30 min depending on load. The weight is presently 5.5 lb, but this will be reduced in a production design and for a dedicated LVAD air supply

  3. Dynamic investigation of PEFC stacks in interaction with the air supply system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Philipps, F.; Simons, G.; Schiefer, K.

    This paper explores the behaviour of a dynamically operated fuel cell system regarding to an automotive application, examining the air supply and their interaction with the fuel cell stacks. The dynamic limits of stack operation are also discussed. Finally, the paper provides a description of the test facility used in these investigations. The research of dynamically operated fuel cell stacks shows that in order to achieve high energy efficiency, a power-dependent modulation of the pressure and flow rate of the air supply is necessary. A test facility designed for energy management and power train research (up to 42 kW) was used for the experiment. A number of 11.5 kW fuel cell stacks was examined experimentally with respect to performance in interaction with the air supply in stationary and dynamic operation. The stacks were tested individually and in parallel. All of them were operated "dead-end" on the hydrogen side. Experimental results varying the parameters and load curves applied to the air supply system are given in the paper. The results show different dynamic behaviours between the stacks and a substantial difference in efficiency and dynamic response of the fuel cell system operated with different strategies. The results of different operating strategies for fuel cell systems, with respect to the interaction between the fuel cell stack and the air supply and in their dependency on air mass flow and pressure level are presented. The examinations were done with the test facility using real current demand profile of the experimental car HyLite ® from zero to full load and the New European Drive Cycle (NEDC).

  4. On-line monitoring of methane in sewer air

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yiwen; Sharma, Keshab R.; Murthy, Sudhir; Johnson, Ian; Evans, Ted; Yuan, Zhiguo

    2014-01-01

    Methane is a highly potent greenhouse gas and contributes significantly to climate change. Recent studies have shown significant methane production in sewers. The studies conducted so far have relied on manual sampling followed by off-line laboratory-based chromatography analysis. These methods are labor-intensive when measuring methane emissions from a large number of sewers, and do not capture the dynamic variations in methane production. In this study, we investigated the suitability of infrared spectroscopy-based on-line methane sensors for measuring methane in humid and condensing sewer air. Two such sensors were comprehensively tested in the laboratory. Both sensors displayed high linearity (R2 > 0.999), with a detection limit of 0.023% and 0.110% by volume, respectively. Both sensors were robust against ambient temperature variations in the range of 5 to 35°C. While one sensor was robust against humidity variations, the other was found to be significantly affected by humidity. However, the problem was solved by equipping the sensor with a heating unit to increase the sensor surface temperature to 35°C. Field studies at three sites confirmed the performance and accuracy of the sensors when applied to actual sewer conditions, and revealed substantial and highly dynamic methane concentrations in sewer air. PMID:25319343

  5. On-line monitoring of methane in sewer air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yiwen; Sharma, Keshab R.; Murthy, Sudhir; Johnson, Ian; Evans, Ted; Yuan, Zhiguo

    2014-10-01

    Methane is a highly potent greenhouse gas and contributes significantly to climate change. Recent studies have shown significant methane production in sewers. The studies conducted so far have relied on manual sampling followed by off-line laboratory-based chromatography analysis. These methods are labor-intensive when measuring methane emissions from a large number of sewers, and do not capture the dynamic variations in methane production. In this study, we investigated the suitability of infrared spectroscopy-based on-line methane sensors for measuring methane in humid and condensing sewer air. Two such sensors were comprehensively tested in the laboratory. Both sensors displayed high linearity (R2 > 0.999), with a detection limit of 0.023% and 0.110% by volume, respectively. Both sensors were robust against ambient temperature variations in the range of 5 to 35°C. While one sensor was robust against humidity variations, the other was found to be significantly affected by humidity. However, the problem was solved by equipping the sensor with a heating unit to increase the sensor surface temperature to 35°C. Field studies at three sites confirmed the performance and accuracy of the sensors when applied to actual sewer conditions, and revealed substantial and highly dynamic methane concentrations in sewer air.

  6. 42 CFR 84.153 - Airflow resistance test, Type A and Type AE supplied-air respirators; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Supplied-Air Respirators § 84.153 Airflow resistance test, Type A and Type AE supplied-air respirators; minimum requirements. (a) Airflow resistance will be... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Airflow resistance test, Type A and Type...

  7. 42 CFR 84.153 - Airflow resistance test, Type A and Type AE supplied-air respirators; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Supplied-Air Respirators § 84.153 Airflow resistance test, Type A and Type AE supplied-air respirators; minimum requirements. (a) Airflow resistance will be... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Airflow resistance test, Type A and Type...

  8. 42 CFR 84.153 - Airflow resistance test, Type A and Type AE supplied-air respirators; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Supplied-Air Respirators § 84.153 Airflow resistance test, Type A and Type AE supplied-air respirators; minimum requirements. (a) Airflow resistance will be... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Airflow resistance test, Type A and Type...

  9. 42 CFR 84.157 - Airflow resistance test; Type C supplied-air respirator, pressure-demand class; minimum...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... test; Type C supplied-air respirator, pressure-demand class; minimum requirements. (a) The static... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Airflow resistance test; Type C supplied-air respirator, pressure-demand class; minimum requirements. 84.157 Section 84.157 Public Health PUBLIC...

  10. 42 CFR 84.157 - Airflow resistance test; Type C supplied-air respirator, pressure-demand class; minimum...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... test; Type C supplied-air respirator, pressure-demand class; minimum requirements. (a) The static... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Airflow resistance test; Type C supplied-air respirator, pressure-demand class; minimum requirements. 84.157 Section 84.157 Public Health PUBLIC...

  11. 42 CFR 84.157 - Airflow resistance test; Type C supplied-air respirator, pressure-demand class; minimum...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... test; Type C supplied-air respirator, pressure-demand class; minimum requirements. (a) The static... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Airflow resistance test; Type C supplied-air respirator, pressure-demand class; minimum requirements. 84.157 Section 84.157 Public Health PUBLIC...

  12. 42 CFR 84.157 - Airflow resistance test; Type C supplied-air respirator, pressure-demand class; minimum...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... test; Type C supplied-air respirator, pressure-demand class; minimum requirements. (a) The static... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Airflow resistance test; Type C supplied-air respirator, pressure-demand class; minimum requirements. 84.157 Section 84.157 Public Health PUBLIC...

  13. 42 CFR 84.153 - Airflow resistance test, Type A and Type AE supplied-air respirators; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Airflow resistance test, Type A and Type AE supplied-air respirators; minimum requirements. 84.153 Section 84.153 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE... A and Type AE supplied-air respirators; minimum requirements. (a) Airflow resistance will...

  14. 42 CFR 84.153 - Airflow resistance test, Type A and Type AE supplied-air respirators; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Airflow resistance test, Type A and Type AE supplied-air respirators; minimum requirements. 84.153 Section 84.153 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE... A and Type AE supplied-air respirators; minimum requirements. (a) Airflow resistance will...

  15. Experimental investigation of personal air supply nozzle use in aircraft cabins.

    PubMed

    Fang, Zhaosong; Liu, Hong; Li, Baizhan; Baldwin, Andrew; Wang, Jian; Xia, Kechao

    2015-03-01

    To study air passengers' use of individual air supply nozzles in aircraft cabins, we constructed an experimental chamber which replicated the interior of a modern passenger aircraft. A series of experiments were conducted at different levels of cabin occupancy. Survey data were collected focused on the reasons for opening the nozzle, adjusting the level of air flow, and changing the direction of the air flow. The results showed that human thermal and draft sensations change over time in an aircraft cabin. The thermal sensation response was highest when the volunteers first entered the cabin and decreased over time until it stablized. Fifty-one percent of volunteers opened the nozzle to alleviate a feeling of stuffiness, and more than 50% adjusted the nozzle to improve upper body comfort. Over the period of the experiment the majority of volunteers chose to adjust their the air flow of their personal system. This confirms airline companies' decisions to install the individual aircraft ventilation systems in their aircraft indicates that personal air systems based on nozzle adjustment are essential for cabin comfort. These results will assist in the design of more efficient air distribution systems within passenger aircraft cabins where there is a need to optimize the air flow in order to efficiently improve aircraft passengers' thermal comfort and reduce energy use. PMID:25479988

  16. Experimental investigation of personal air supply nozzle use in aircraft cabins.

    PubMed

    Fang, Zhaosong; Liu, Hong; Li, Baizhan; Baldwin, Andrew; Wang, Jian; Xia, Kechao

    2015-03-01

    To study air passengers' use of individual air supply nozzles in aircraft cabins, we constructed an experimental chamber which replicated the interior of a modern passenger aircraft. A series of experiments were conducted at different levels of cabin occupancy. Survey data were collected focused on the reasons for opening the nozzle, adjusting the level of air flow, and changing the direction of the air flow. The results showed that human thermal and draft sensations change over time in an aircraft cabin. The thermal sensation response was highest when the volunteers first entered the cabin and decreased over time until it stablized. Fifty-one percent of volunteers opened the nozzle to alleviate a feeling of stuffiness, and more than 50% adjusted the nozzle to improve upper body comfort. Over the period of the experiment the majority of volunteers chose to adjust their the air flow of their personal system. This confirms airline companies' decisions to install the individual aircraft ventilation systems in their aircraft indicates that personal air systems based on nozzle adjustment are essential for cabin comfort. These results will assist in the design of more efficient air distribution systems within passenger aircraft cabins where there is a need to optimize the air flow in order to efficiently improve aircraft passengers' thermal comfort and reduce energy use.

  17. Contribution of 222Rn in domestic water supplies to 222Rn in indoor air in Colorado homes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lawrence, E.P.; Wanty, R.B.; Nyberg, P.

    1992-01-01

    The contribution of 222Rn from domestic water wells to indoor air was investigated in a study of 28 houses near Conifer, CO. Air concentrations determined by alpha-track detectors (ATDs) and continuous radon monitors were compared with the predictions of a single-cell model. In many of the houses, the water supply was shown to contribute significantly to levels of indoor 222Rn. The data from the ATD study were augmented with a continuous monitoring study of a house near Lyons, CO. The well water in that house has the highest known concentration of 222Rn in water yet reported (93 MBq m-3). The temporal pattern in the indoor 222Rn concentration corresponds to water-use records. In general, it is difficult to quantify the proportion of indoor radon attributable to water use. Several lines of evidence suggest that the single-cell model underestimates this proportion. Continuous- monitoring data, although useful, are impractical due to the cost of the equipment. We propose a protocol for 222Rn measurement based on three simultaneous integrating radon detectors that may help estimate the proportion of indoor 222Rn derived from the water supply.

  18. Respirator protection factors: Part II-protection factors of supplied-air respirators.

    PubMed

    Hack, A L; Bradley, O D; Trujillo, A

    1980-05-01

    Protection Factors provided by 25 NIOSH approved supplied-air respirators were determined while the devices were worn by a panel of test subjects anthropometrically selected to represent adult facial sizes. Polydispersed DOP aerosol was used for respirator fit tests on continuous flow, demand, and pressure-demand respirators. Based on facepiece leakage measurements it appears that demand-type respirators should neither be used nor approved. The highest level of protection was provided by pressure-demand devices.

  19. Experimental investigation on a turbine compressor for air supply system of a fuel cell

    SciTech Connect

    Matsuda, Masayasu; Tsuchiyama, Syozo

    1996-12-31

    This report covers part of a joint study on a PEFC propulsion system for surface ships, summarized in a presentation to this Seminar, entitled {open_quotes}Study on a Polymer Electrolyte Fuel Cell (PEFC) Propulsion System for Surface Ships{close_quotes}, and which envisages application to a 1,500 DWT cargo vessel. The aspect treated here concerns a study on the air supply system for the PEFC, with particular reference to system components.

  20. Development of a method for the regeneration of an alkaline electrolyte in an air-aluminum chemical power supply

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pushkin, K. V.; Sevruk, S. D.; Suvorova, E. V.; Farmakovskaya, A. A.

    2015-12-01

    The results of studying the development of a regeneration technology for the spent alkaline electrolyte in an air-aluminum chemical power supply are presented. The application of this technology is a component of the wasteless and friendly environmental operation of an energy installation based on an air-aluminum chemical power supply. The operability of the energy installation based on the air-aluminum chemical power supply using regenerated alkaline electrolytes is experimentally confirmed. Technical requirements for the technological equipment for alkaline electrolyte regeneration are developed on the basis of the obtained results.

  1. Potential Impact of the National Plan for Future Electric Power Supply on Air Quality in Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shim, C.; Hong, J.

    2014-12-01

    Korean Ministry of Trade, Industry and Energy (MOTIE) announced the national plan for Korea's future electric power supply (2013 - 2027) in 2013. According to the plan, the national demand for electricity will be increased by 60% compared to that of 2010 and primary energy sources for electric generation will still lean on the fossil fuels such as petroleum, LNG, and coal, which would be a potential threat to air quality of Korea. This study focused on two subjects: (1) How the spatial distribution of the primary air pollutant's emissions (i.e., NOx, SOx, CO, PM) will be changed and (2) How the primary emission changes will influence on the national ambient air quality including ozone in 2027. We used GEOS-Chem model simulation with modification of Korean emissions inventory (Clean Air Policy Support System (CAPSS)) to simulate the current and future air quality in Korea. The national total emissions of CO, NOx, SOx, PM in year 2027 will be increased by 3%, 8%, 13%, 2%, respectively compared to 2010 and there are additional concern that the future location of the power plants will be closer to the Seoul Metropolitan Area (SMA), where there are approximately 20 million population vulnerable to the potentially worsened air quality. While there are slight increase of concentration of CO, NOx, SOx, and PM in 2027, the O3 concentration is expected to be similar to the level of 2010. Those results may imply the characteristics of air pollution in East Asia such as potentially severe O3 titration and poorer O3/CO or O3/NOx ratio. Furthermore, we will discuss on the impact of transboundary pollution transport from China in the future, which is one of the large factors to control the air quality of Korea.

  2. 42 CFR 84.163 - Man test for gases and vapors; Type C supplied-air respirators, demand and pressure-demand...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... for gases and vapors; Type C supplied-air respirators, demand and pressure-demand classes; test... for which approval is granted and at the minimum specified air-supply pressure. The maximum flow shall not exceed 425 liters (15 cubic feet) per minute at the maximum specified air-supply pressure with...

  3. 42 CFR 84.163 - Man test for gases and vapors; Type C supplied-air respirators, demand and pressure-demand...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... for gases and vapors; Type C supplied-air respirators, demand and pressure-demand classes; test... for which approval is granted and at the minimum specified air-supply pressure. The maximum flow shall not exceed 425 liters (15 cubic feet) per minute at the maximum specified air-supply pressure with...

  4. 42 CFR 84.163 - Man test for gases and vapors; Type C supplied-air respirators, demand and pressure-demand...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... for gases and vapors; Type C supplied-air respirators, demand and pressure-demand classes; test... for which approval is granted and at the minimum specified air-supply pressure. The maximum flow shall not exceed 425 liters (15 cubic feet) per minute at the maximum specified air-supply pressure with...

  5. 42 CFR 84.163 - Man test for gases and vapors; Type C supplied-air respirators, demand and pressure-demand...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... for gases and vapors; Type C supplied-air respirators, demand and pressure-demand classes; test... for which approval is granted and at the minimum specified air-supply pressure. The maximum flow shall not exceed 425 liters (15 cubic feet) per minute at the maximum specified air-supply pressure with...

  6. 42 CFR 84.163 - Man test for gases and vapors; Type C supplied-air respirators, demand and pressure-demand...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... for gases and vapors; Type C supplied-air respirators, demand and pressure-demand classes; test... for which approval is granted and at the minimum specified air-supply pressure. The maximum flow shall not exceed 425 liters (15 cubic feet) per minute at the maximum specified air-supply pressure with...

  7. Generating diffuse discharge via repetitive nanosecond pulses and line-line electrodes in atmospheric air.

    PubMed

    Li, Lee; Liu, Yun-Long; Ge, Ya-Feng; Bin, Yu; Huang, Jia-Jia; Lin, Fo-Chan

    2013-10-01

    Diffuse discharge in atmospheric air can generate extremely high power density and large-scale non-thermal plasma. An achievable method of generating diffuse discharge is reported in this paper. Based on the resonance theory, a compact high-voltage repetitive nanosecond pulse generator (HRNPG) has been developed as discharge excitation source. The HRNPG mainly consists of repetitive charging circuit, Tesla transformer and sharpening switch. With the voltage lower than 1.0 kV, the primary repetitive charging circuit comprises two fast thyristors as low-voltage switches. A spiral Tesla transformer is designed to provide a peak transformation ratio of more than 100. The HRNPG prototype is capable of generating a pulse with over 100 kV peak voltage and ~30 ns rise-time at the repetition frequency of 500 Hz. Using the copper line electrodes with a diameter of 0.4 mm, the gaps with highly non-uniform electric field are structured. With the suitable gap spacing and applied pulse, the glow-like diffuse discharge has been generated in line-type and ring-type electrode pairs. Some typical images are presented. PMID:24182161

  8. Generating diffuse discharge via repetitive nanosecond pulses and line-line electrodes in atmospheric air.

    PubMed

    Li, Lee; Liu, Yun-Long; Ge, Ya-Feng; Bin, Yu; Huang, Jia-Jia; Lin, Fo-Chan

    2013-10-01

    Diffuse discharge in atmospheric air can generate extremely high power density and large-scale non-thermal plasma. An achievable method of generating diffuse discharge is reported in this paper. Based on the resonance theory, a compact high-voltage repetitive nanosecond pulse generator (HRNPG) has been developed as discharge excitation source. The HRNPG mainly consists of repetitive charging circuit, Tesla transformer and sharpening switch. With the voltage lower than 1.0 kV, the primary repetitive charging circuit comprises two fast thyristors as low-voltage switches. A spiral Tesla transformer is designed to provide a peak transformation ratio of more than 100. The HRNPG prototype is capable of generating a pulse with over 100 kV peak voltage and ~30 ns rise-time at the repetition frequency of 500 Hz. Using the copper line electrodes with a diameter of 0.4 mm, the gaps with highly non-uniform electric field are structured. With the suitable gap spacing and applied pulse, the glow-like diffuse discharge has been generated in line-type and ring-type electrode pairs. Some typical images are presented.

  9. Generating diffuse discharge via repetitive nanosecond pulses and line-line electrodes in atmospheric air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Lee; Liu, Yun-Long; Ge, Ya-Feng; Bin, Yu; Huang, Jia-Jia; Lin, Fo-Chan

    2013-10-01

    Diffuse discharge in atmospheric air can generate extremely high power density and large-scale non-thermal plasma. An achievable method of generating diffuse discharge is reported in this paper. Based on the resonance theory, a compact high-voltage repetitive nanosecond pulse generator (HRNPG) has been developed as discharge excitation source. The HRNPG mainly consists of repetitive charging circuit, Tesla transformer and sharpening switch. With the voltage lower than 1.0 kV, the primary repetitive charging circuit comprises two fast thyristors as low-voltage switches. A spiral Tesla transformer is designed to provide a peak transformation ratio of more than 100. The HRNPG prototype is capable of generating a pulse with over 100 kV peak voltage and ˜30 ns rise-time at the repetition frequency of 500 Hz. Using the copper line electrodes with a diameter of 0.4 mm, the gaps with highly non-uniform electric field are structured. With the suitable gap spacing and applied pulse, the glow-like diffuse discharge has been generated in line-type and ring-type electrode pairs. Some typical images are presented.

  10. Tracking hazardous air pollutants from a refinery fire by applying on-line and off-line air monitoring and back trajectory modeling.

    PubMed

    Shie, Ruei-Hao; Chan, Chang-Chuan

    2013-10-15

    The air monitors used by most regulatory authorities are designed to track the daily emissions of conventional pollutants and are not well suited for measuring hazardous air pollutants that are released from accidents such as refinery fires. By applying a wide variety of air-monitoring systems, including on-line Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, gas chromatography with a flame ionization detector, and off-line gas chromatography-mass spectrometry for measuring hazardous air pollutants during and after a fire at a petrochemical complex in central Taiwan on May 12, 2011, we were able to detect significantly higher levels of combustion-related gaseous and particulate pollutants, refinery-related hydrocarbons, and chlorinated hydrocarbons, such as 1,2-dichloroethane, vinyl chloride monomer, and dichloromethane, inside the complex and 10 km downwind from the fire than those measured during the normal operation periods. Both back trajectories and dispersion models further confirmed that high levels of hazardous air pollutants in the neighboring communities were carried by air mass flown from the 22 plants that were shut down by the fire. This study demonstrates that hazardous air pollutants from industrial accidents can successfully be identified and traced back to their emission sources by applying a timely and comprehensive air-monitoring campaign and back trajectory air flow models. PMID:23912073

  11. External CO2 and water supplies for enhancing electrical power generation of air-cathode microbial fuel cells.

    PubMed

    Ishizaki, So; Fujiki, Itto; Sano, Daisuke; Okabe, Satoshi

    2014-10-01

    Alkalization on the cathode electrode limits the electrical power generation of air-cathode microbial fuel cells (MFCs), and thus external proton supply to the cathode electrode is essential to enhance the electrical power generation. In this study, the effects of external CO2 and water supplies to the cathode electrode on the electrical power generation were investigated, and then the relative contributions of CO2 and water supplies to the total proton consumption were experimentally evaluated. The CO2 supply decreased the cathode pH and consequently increased the power generation. Carbonate dissolution was the main proton source under ambient air conditions, which provides about 67% of total protons consumed for the cathode reaction. It is also critical to adequately control the water content on the cathode electrode of air-cathode MFCs because the carbonate dissolution was highly dependent on water content. On the basis of these experimental results, the power density was increased by 400% (143.0 ± 3.5 mW/m(2) to 575.0 ± 36.0 mW/m(2)) by supplying a humid gas containing 50% CO2 to the cathode chamber. This study demonstrates that the simultaneous CO2 and water supplies to the cathode electrode were effective to increase the electrical power generation of air-cathode MFCs for the first time.

  12. Experimental study of wood downdraft gasification for an improved producer gas quality through an innovative two-stage air and premixed air/gas supply approach.

    PubMed

    Jaojaruek, Kitipong; Jarungthammachote, Sompop; Gratuito, Maria Kathrina B; Wongsuwan, Hataitep; Homhual, Suwan

    2011-04-01

    This study conducted experiments on three different downdraft gasification approaches: single stage, conventional two-stage, and an innovative two-stage air and premixed air/gas supply approach. The innovative two-stage approach has two nozzle locations, one for air supply at combustion zone and the other located at the pyrolysis zone for supplying the premixed gas (air and producer gas). The producer gas is partially bypassed to mix with air and supplied to burn at the pyrolysis zone. The result shows that producer gas quality generated by the innovative two-stage approach improved as compared to conventional two-stage. The higher heating value (HHV) increased from 5.4 to 6.5 MJ/Nm(3). Tar content in producer gas reduced to less than 45 mg/Nm(3). With this approach, gas can be fed directly to an internal combustion engine. Furthermore, the gasification thermal efficiency also improved by approximately 14%. The approach gave double benefits on gas qualities and energy savings. PMID:21292477

  13. Experimental study of wood downdraft gasification for an improved producer gas quality through an innovative two-stage air and premixed air/gas supply approach.

    PubMed

    Jaojaruek, Kitipong; Jarungthammachote, Sompop; Gratuito, Maria Kathrina B; Wongsuwan, Hataitep; Homhual, Suwan

    2011-04-01

    This study conducted experiments on three different downdraft gasification approaches: single stage, conventional two-stage, and an innovative two-stage air and premixed air/gas supply approach. The innovative two-stage approach has two nozzle locations, one for air supply at combustion zone and the other located at the pyrolysis zone for supplying the premixed gas (air and producer gas). The producer gas is partially bypassed to mix with air and supplied to burn at the pyrolysis zone. The result shows that producer gas quality generated by the innovative two-stage approach improved as compared to conventional two-stage. The higher heating value (HHV) increased from 5.4 to 6.5 MJ/Nm(3). Tar content in producer gas reduced to less than 45 mg/Nm(3). With this approach, gas can be fed directly to an internal combustion engine. Furthermore, the gasification thermal efficiency also improved by approximately 14%. The approach gave double benefits on gas qualities and energy savings.

  14. Gas Engine-Driven Heat Pump Chiller for Air-Conditioning and Hot Water Supply Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujita, Toshihiko; Mita, Nobuhiro; Moriyama, Tadashi; Hoshino, Norimasa; Kimura, Yoshihisa

    In Part 1 of this study, the performance characteristics of a 457kW gas engine-driven heat pump (GHP) chiller have been obtained from a simulation model analysis for both cooling and heating modes and it has been found that the part-load characteristics of the GHP chiller are fairly well. On the back of Part 1, a computer simulation program has been developed for the evaluation of GHP chiller systems to compare with the other types of heat source systems for air-conditioning and hot water supply applications. The simulation program can be used to estimate annual energy consumption, annual CO2 emission, etc. of the systems with the data of monthly and hourly thermal loads on various buildings, outdoor air conditions, and characteristics of various components comprising the systems. By applying this to some cases of medium-scale hotel, office, shop, and hospital buildings, it has been found that the GHP chiller systems have advantages particularly in the cases of hotels and hospitals where a lot of hot water demand exists. It has also been found that the combination of a GHP chiller and a direct-fired absorption water chiller boiler (hot and chilled water generator) appears promising.

  15. Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact: Sunrise II Water Supply Line

    SciTech Connect

    N /A

    2002-10-09

    Sunrise Power Company, LLC (Sunrise), has planned the modification of an existing power plant project to increase its generation capacity by 265 megawatts by 2003. The initial Sunrise facility was constructed in accordance with a license issued by the California Energy Commission (CEC) on December 6, 2000 and brought 320 MW of much needed power to commercial operation in June 2001. The Governor of the State of California issued recent Executive Orders to provide for emergency permit streamlining of projects that can help alleviate the current California energy crisis. Specifically, Executive Order D-25-01 directed the CEC to expedite processing amendments such as the Sunrise II modification that would increase generating capacity from 320 MW to 585 MW by summer 2003. As part of the modification, an approximately 15.3 mile water line will be installed. Additionally, improvements to West Kern Water District's (WKWD) Pumping Station ''B'', located on DOE land, will occur. Sunrise has requested a right-of-way grant for the construction of the water supply line on U.S. Bureau of Land Management (BLM) and DOE lands. Pursuant to the requirements of the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA), as amended, the potential impacts of the proposed action were analyzed in an Environmental Assessment (EA-1434) with the BLM acting as lead agency. Based on the analysis of the potential environmental impacts contained in the Environmental Assessment (EA), BLM has determined that significant impacts are not expected and an environmental impact statement is not required. The DOE, acting as a cooperating agency, has adopted the BLM's EA and is consequently issuing this Finding of No Significant Impact.

  16. 77 FR 5055 - Certain Lined Paper School Supplies From China, India, and Indonesia; Scheduling of Full Five...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-01

    ... reviews were such that full reviews pursuant to section 751(c)(5) of the Act should proceed (76 FR 72213... took effect on November 7, 2011. See 76 FR 61937 (Oct. 6, 2011) and the newly revised Commission's... COMMISSION Certain Lined Paper School Supplies From China, India, and Indonesia; Scheduling of Full...

  17. “A Reduced-form Model to Estimate Near-road Air Quality for Communities: the Community Line Source modeling system (C-LINE)”

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper presents the Community Line Source (C-LINE) modeling system that estimates toxic air pollutant (air toxics) concentration gradients within 500 meters of busy roadways for community-sized areas on the order of 100 km2. C-LINE accesses publicly available datasets with nat...

  18. 42 CFR 84.157 - Airflow resistance test; Type C supplied-air respirator, pressure-demand class; minimum...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... respirator, pressure-demand class; minimum requirements. 84.157 Section 84.157 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH... test; Type C supplied-air respirator, pressure-demand class; minimum requirements. (a) The static pressure in the facepiece shall not exceed 38 mm. (1.5 inches) of water-column height. (b) The pressure...

  19. 42 CFR 84.159 - Man tests for gases and vapors; supplied-air respirators; general performance requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Man tests for gases and vapors; supplied-air respirators; general performance requirements. 84.159 Section 84.159 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE...

  20. 42 CFR 84.159 - Man tests for gases and vapors; supplied-air respirators; general performance requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Man tests for gases and vapors; supplied-air respirators; general performance requirements. 84.159 Section 84.159 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE...

  1. 42 CFR 84.159 - Man tests for gases and vapors; supplied-air respirators; general performance requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Man tests for gases and vapors; supplied-air respirators; general performance requirements. 84.159 Section 84.159 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE...

  2. 42 CFR 84.159 - Man tests for gases and vapors; supplied-air respirators; general performance requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Man tests for gases and vapors; supplied-air respirators; general performance requirements. 84.159 Section 84.159 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE...

  3. 42 CFR 84.159 - Man tests for gases and vapors; supplied-air respirators; general performance requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Man tests for gases and vapors; supplied-air respirators; general performance requirements. 84.159 Section 84.159 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE...

  4. Air Cleaning Devices for HVAC Supply Systems in Schools. Technical Bulletin.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wheeler, Arthur E.

    Guidelines for maintaining indoor air quality in schools with HVAC air cleaning systems are provided in this document. Information is offered on the importance of air cleaning, sources of air contaminants and indoor pollutants, types of air cleaners and particulate filters used in central HVAC systems, vapor and gas removal, and performance…

  5. Gas Engine-Driven Heat Pump Chiller for Air-Conditioning and Hot Water Supply Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujita, Toshihiko; Mita, Nobuhiro; Moriyama, Tadashi; Hoshino, Norimasa; Kimura, Yoshihisa

    A gas engine-driven heat pump (GHP) uses a natural gas-or LPG-powered engine to drive the compressor in a vapor-compression refrigeration cycle. The GHP has the benefits of being able to use the fuel energy effectively by recovering waste heat from the engine jacket coolant and exhaust gas and also to keep high efficiency even at part-load operation by varying the engine speed with relative ease. Hence, energy-efficient heat source systems for air-conditioning and hot water supply may be constructed with GHP chillers in place of conventional electrical-driven heat pump chillers. GHPs will necessarily contribute to the peak shaving of electrical demand in summer. In this study, the performance characteristics of a 457kW GHP chiller have been investigated by a simulation model analysis, for both cooling and heating modes. From the results of the analysis, it has been found that the part-load characteristics of the GHP chiller are fairly well. The evaluation of the heat source systems using GHP chillers will be described in Part 2.

  6. 75 FR 44305 - Michigan Air-Line Railway Co.-Abandonment Exemption-in Oakland County, MI

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-28

    ... Surface Transportation Board Michigan Air-Line Railway Co.--Abandonment Exemption--in Oakland County, MI Michigan Air-Line Railway Co. (MAL Railway), filed a verified notice of exemption under 49 CFR pt. 1152 subpart F-Exempt Abandonments to abandon approximately 2.37 miles of its line of railroad...

  7. 76 FR 9402 - Michigan Air-Line Railway Co.-Abandonment Exemption-in Oakland County, MI

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-17

    ... Surface Transportation Board Michigan Air-Line Railway Co.--Abandonment Exemption--in Oakland County, MI On January 28, 2011, Michigan Air-Line Railway Co. (MAL Railway) filed with the Surface.... 10903 to abandon an approximately 5.45-mile rail line between milepost 45.26 (Engineer's Profile...

  8. Effect of car speed on amount of air supplied by ventilation system to the space of car cabin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fišer, Jan; Pokorný, Jan

    2014-03-01

    The amount of air supplied by ventilation system (HVAC system) of a car into a cabin is one of the main parameters for the correct simulation and prediction of a car cabin heat load. This amount is not based only on the current setting of the HVAC system, but also on the actual operating conditions and speed of the car. The authors therefore carried out experiments in the cabin of a passenger car in real traffic, while observing the amount of air on the speed of the car and setting of flap in mixing chamber. In a subsequent analysis the authors defined dependence of the airflow rate supplied by HVAC system on the speed of the car. Obtained empirical formulas were then used as a part of the code which calculates the data for the HVAC boundary conditions in the simulation of the car cabin environment.

  9. HOW TO HEAT AND COOL A HOME WITH 400 CFM SUPPLY AIR AND KEEP THE DUCTS IN THE CONDITIONED SPACE

    SciTech Connect

    ANDREWS,J.W.

    1999-05-01

    A design strategy is presented that can enable a typical new home to be heated, cooled, and ventilated with less than 400 cfm of delivered air. The strategy has three major elements. First, peak cooling loads are minimized by using good available technologies for the envelope, with emphasis on minimizing heat gains through the windows. Second, the envelope is designed to have very low natural air leakage rates, such that all the ventilation air can be drawn in at one point and passed over the cooling coil before it is mixed with the house air. This permits a significant portion of the cooling load to be met at an air flow rate of {approximately}200 cubic feet per minute (cfm) per ton, compared with the typical 400 cfm per ton in standard air-conditioning systems. Third, by reducing the amount of supply air needed to meet the envelope loads, the required size of ductwork is reduced, making it easier to locate the ducts within the conditioned space. This reduces duct loads to zero, completing the three-part energy conserving strategy.

  10. Contributing recharge areas to water-supply wells at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sheets, R.A.

    1994-01-01

    Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, in southwestern Ohio, has operated three well fields--Area B, Skeel Road, and the East Well Fields--to supply potable water for consumption and use for base activities. To protect these well fields from contamination and to comply with the Ohio Wellhead Protection Plan, the Base is developing a wellhead-protection program for the well fields. A three-dimensional, steady-state ground-water-flow model was developed in 1993 to simulate heads in (1) the buried-valley aquifer system that is tapped by the two active well fields, and in (2) an upland bedrock aquifer that may supply water to the wells. An advective particle-tracking algorithm that requires estimated porosities and simulated heads was used to estimate ground-water-flow pathlines and traveltimes to the active well fields. Contributing recharge areas (CRA's)--areas on the water table that contribute water to a well or well field--were generated for 1-, 5-, and 10-year traveltimes. Results from the simulation and subsequent particle tracking indicate that the CRA's for the Skeel Road Well Fields are oval and extend north- ward, toward the Mad River, as pumping at the well field increases. The sizes of the 1-, 5-, and 10-year CRA's of Skeel Road Well Field, under maximum pumping conditions, are approximately 0.5, 1.5 and 3.2 square miles, respectively. The CRA's for the Area B Well Field extend to the north, up the Mad River Valley; as pumping increases at the well field, the CRA's extend up the Mad River Valley under Huffman Dam. The sizes of the 1-, 5-, and 10-year CRA's of Area B Well Field, under maximum pumping conditions, are approximately 0.1, 0.5, and 0.9 square miles, respectively. The CRA's for the East Well Field are affected by nearby streams under average pumping conditions. The sizes of the 1-, 5-, and 10-year CRA's of the East Well Field, under maximum pumping conditions, are approximately 0.2, 1.2, and 2.4 square miles, respectively. However, as pumping increases

  11. 76 FR 52731 - On-Line Complaint Form for Service-Related Issues in Air Transportation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-23

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Office of the Secretary On-Line Complaint Form for Service-Related Issues in Air Transportation AGENCY: Office of the Secretary, Department of Transportation. ACTION: Notice and request for comments....

  12. Enhanced performance of an air-cathode microbial fuel cell with oxygen supply from an externally connected algal bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Kakarla, Ramesh; Kim, Jung Rae; Jeon, Byong-Hun; Min, Booki

    2015-11-01

    An algae bioreactor (ABR) was externally connected to air-cathode microbial fuel cells (MFCs) to increase power generation by supplying a high amount of oxygen to cathode electrode. The MFC with oxygen fed from ABR produced maximum cell voltage and cathode potential at a fixed loading of 459 mV and 10 mV, respectively. During polarization analysis, the MFC displayed a maximum power density of 0.63 W/m(2) (at 2.06 A/m(2)) using 39.2% O2 from ABR, which was approximately 30% higher compared with use of atmospheric air (0.44 W/m(2), 20.8% O2,). The cyclic voltammogram analysis exhibited a higher reduction current of -137 mA with 46.5% O2 compared to atmospheric air (-115 mA). Oxygen supply by algae bioreactor to air-cathode MFC could also maintain better MFC performance in long term operation by minimizing cathode potential drop over time.

  13. High cell density cultivation of Pseudomonas putida KT2440 using glucose without the need for oxygen enriched air supply.

    PubMed

    Davis, Reeta; Duane, Gearoid; Kenny, Shane T; Cerrone, Federico; Guzik, Maciej W; Babu, Ramesh P; Casey, Eoin; O'Connor, Kevin E

    2015-04-01

    High Cell Density (HCD) cultivation of bacteria is essential for the majority of industrial processes to achieve high volumetric productivity (g L(-1) h(-1) ) of a bioproduct of interest. This study developed a fed batch bioprocess using glucose as sole carbon and energy source for the HCD of the well described biocatalyst Pseudomonas putida KT2440 without the supply of oxygen enriched air. Growth kinetics data from batch fermentations were used for building a bioprocess model and designing feeding strategies. An exponential followed by linearly increasing feeding strategy of glucose was found to be effective in maintaining biomass productivity while also delaying the onset of dissolved oxygen (supplied via compressed air) limitation. A final cell dry weight (CDW) of 102 g L(-1) was achieved in 33 h with a biomass productivity of 3.1 g L(-1) h(-1) which are the highest ever reported values for P. putida strains using glucose without the supply of pure oxygen or oxygen enriched air. The usefulness of the biomass as a biocatalyst was demonstrated through the production of the biodegradable polymer polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA). When nonanoic acid (NA) was supplied to the glucose grown cells of P. putida KT2440, it accumulated 32% of CDW as PHA in 11 h (2.85 g L(-1) h(-1) ) resulting in a total of 0.56 kg of PHA in 18 L with a yield of 0.56 g PHA g NA(-1) .

  14. Second Line of Defense, Port of Buenos Aires and Exolgan Container Terminal Operational Testing and Evaluation Plan, Buenos Aires, Argentina

    SciTech Connect

    Roberts, Bryan W.

    2012-08-23

    The Office of the Second Line of Defense (SLD) Megaports project team for Argentina will conduct operational testing and evaluation (OT&E) at Exolgan Container Terminal at the Port of Dock Sud from July 16-20, 2012; and at the Port of Buenos Aires from September 3-7, 2012. SLD is installing radiation detection equipment to screen export, import, and transshipment containers at these locations. The purpose of OT&E is to validate and baseline an operable system that meets the SLD mission and to ensure the system continues to perform as expected in an operational environment with Argentina Customs effectively adjudicating alarms.

  15. Failure Monitoring and Leakage Detection for Underground Storage of Compressed Air Energy in Lined Rock Caverns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Hyung-Mok; Rutqvist, Jonny; Kim, Hyunwoo; Park, Dohyun; Ryu, Dong-Woo; Park, Eui-Seob

    2016-02-01

    Underground compressed air energy storage (CAES) in lined rock caverns (LRCs) provides a promising solution for storing energy on a large scale. One of the essential issues facing underground CAES implementation is the risk of air leakage from the storage caverns. Compressed air may leak through an initial defect in the inner containment liner, such as imperfect welds and construction joints, or through structurally damaged points of the liner during CAES operation for repeated compression and decompression cycles. Detection of the air leakage and identification of the leakage location around the underground storage cavern are required. In this study, we analyzed the displacement (or strain) monitoring method to detect the mechanical failure of liners that provides major pathways of air leakage using a previously developed numerical technique simulating the coupled thermodynamic and geomechanical behavior of underground CAES in LRCs. We analyzed the use of pressure monitoring to detect air leakage and characterize the leakage location. From the simulation results, we demonstrated that tangential strain monitoring at the inner face of sealing liners could enable one to detect failure. We also demonstrated that the use of the cross-correlation method between pressure history data measured at various sensors could identify the air leak location. These results may help in the overall design of a monitoring and alarm system for the successful implementation and operation of CAES in LRCs.

  16. [Microorganisms in heat supply lines and internal corrosion of steel pipes].

    PubMed

    Rozanova, E P; Dubinina, G A; Lebedeva, E V; Suntsova, L A; Lipovskikh, V M; Tsvetkov, N N

    2003-01-01

    In laboratory experiments with batch cultures of thermophilic microorganisms isolated from urban heat supply systems, the growth of sulfate-reducing, iron-oxidizing, and iron-reducing bacteria was found to accelerate the corrosion rate of the steel-3 plates used in the pipelines. In the absence of bacteria and dissolved oxygen, minimal, corrosion was determined. The aforementioned microorganisms, as well as sulfur-oxidizing bacteria, were found to be widespread in water and corrosion deposits in low-alloy steel pipelines (both delivery and return) of the Moscow heat networks, as well as in the corrosion deposits on the steel-3 plates in a testing unit supplied with the network water. The microorganisms were found in samples with water pH ranging from 8.1 to 9.6 and a temperature lower than 90 degrees C. Magnetite, lepidocrocite, goethite, X-ray amorphous ferric oxide were the corrosion products identified on the steel-3 plates, as well as siderite, aragonite, and S0. The effect of microbiological processes on the rate of electrochemical corrosion was evaluated from the accumulation of corrosion deposits and from variation in total and local corrosion of the steel plates in a testing unit.

  17. Water-supply potential from an asphalt-lined catchment near Holualoa Kona, Hawaii

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chinn, Salwyn S.W.

    1965-01-01

    The Jenkins-Whitesburg area includes approximately 250 square miles In Letcher and Pike Counties in the southeastern part of the Eastern Coal Field. In this area ground water is the principal source of water for nearly all rural families, most public supplies, several coal mines and coal processing plants, and one bottling plant. The major aquifers in the Jenkins-Whitesburg area are the Breathitt and Lee Formations of Pennsylvanian age. Other aquifers range in age from Devonian to Quaternary but are not important in this area because they occur at great depth or yield little or no water. The Breathitt Formation occurs throughout the area except along the crest and slopes of Pine Mountain and where it is covered by unconsolidated material of Quaternary age. The Breathitt Formation consists of shale, sandstone, and lesser amounts of coal and associated underclay. The yield of wells penetrating the Breathitt Formation ranges from less than 1 to 330 gallons per minute. Well yield is controlled by the type and depth of well, character of the aquifer, and topography of the well site. Generally, deep wells drilled in valleys of perennial streams offer the best potential for high yields. Although enough water for a minimum domestic supply (more than 100 gallons per day) may be obtained from shale, all high-yielding wells probably obtain water from vertical joints and from bedding planes which are best developed in sandstone. About 13 percent of the wells inventoried in the Breathitt Formation failed to supply enough water for a minimum domestic supply. Most of these are shallow dug wells or drilled wells on hillsides or hilltops. Abandoned coal mines are utilized as large infiltration galleries and furnish part of the water for several public supplies. The chemical quality of water from the Breathitt Formation varies considerably from place to place, but the water generally is acceptable for most domestic and industrial uses. Most water is a calcium magnesium bicarbonate

  18. Air-liquid interface cultures enhance the oxygen supply and trigger the structural and functional differentiation of intestinal porcine epithelial cells (IPEC).

    PubMed

    Nossol, Constanze; Diesing, A-K; Walk, N; Faber-Zuschratter, H; Hartig, R; Post, A; Kluess, J; Rothkötter, H-J; Kahlert, S

    2011-07-01

    The specific function of the epithelium as critical barrier between the intestinal lumen and the organism's internal microenvironment is reflected by permanent maintenance of intercellular junctions and cellular polarity. The intestinal epithelial cells are responsible for absorption of nutritional components, facing mechanical stress and a changing oxygen supplementation via blood stream. Oxygen itself can regulate the barrier and the absorptive function of the epithelium. Therefore, we compared the dish cell culture, the transwell-like membrane culture and the oxygen enriched air-liquid interface (ALI) culture. We demonstrated strong influence of the different culture conditions on morphology and function of intestinal porcine epithelial cell lines in vitro. ALI culture resulted in a significant increase in cell number, epithelial cell layer thickness and expression as well as apical localisation of the microvilli-associated protein villin. Remarkable similarities regarding the morphological parameters were observed between ALI cultures and intestinal epithelial cells in vivo. Furthermore, the functional analysis of protein uptake and degradation by the epithelial cells demonstrated the necessity of sufficient oxygen supply as achieved in ALI cultures. Our study is the first report providing marked evidence that optimised oxygen supply using ALI cultures directly affects the morphological differentiation and functional properties of intestinal epithelial cells in vitro.

  19. Comparison of various methods to distribute supply air in industrial facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Kirkpatrick, A.T.; Strobel, K.

    1999-07-01

    The evaluation of the ventilation effectiveness and thermal comfort for various industrial ventilation schemes has been carried out by scale model experimentation. Forty experiments involving ten ventilation arrangements, each with three supply airflow rates and two possible industrial process heat loads, were performed. Measurements of airspeed, temperature, and contaminant concentration allowed the thermal comfort and contaminant removal to be quantified using the ISO Comfort Standard ISO-7730 and the ventilation effectiveness indices, respectively. Archimedes number scaling was used to convert the small-scale measurements to full-scale conditions. The largest ventilation effectiveness occurred for a low supply/high return configuration, with values above 1.6, followed by a high supply/high return configuration with values in the range from 1.0 to 1.2. A low supply/low return configuration had values of about 1.0. The ventilation efficiency generally increased when the heat load was increased and/or the flow rate decreased. Increasing the number of diffusers in the occupied zone increased the ventilation effectiveness. The thermal comfort results depended on the diffuser configuration and the activity level of the worker. Most of the configurations produced acceptable thermal comfort results for a seated worker and unacceptable conditions at an increased activity and clothing level.

  20. 42 CFR 84.148 - Type C supplied-air respirator, continuous flow class; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... the hose connection shall not exceed 863 kN/m.2 (125 pounds per square inch gage). (c) Where the pressure at any point in the supply system exceeds 863 kN/m.2 (125 pounds per square inch gage), the... connection from exceeding 863 kN/m.2 (125 pounds per square inch gage) under any conditions....

  1. 42 CFR 84.148 - Type C supplied-air respirator, continuous flow class; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... the hose connection shall not exceed 863 kN/m.2 (125 pounds per square inch gage). (c) Where the pressure at any point in the supply system exceeds 863 kN/m.2 (125 pounds per square inch gage), the... connection from exceeding 863 kN/m.2 (125 pounds per square inch gage) under any conditions....

  2. 42 CFR 84.148 - Type C supplied-air respirator, continuous flow class; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... the hose connection shall not exceed 863 kN/m.2 (125 pounds per square inch gage). (c) Where the pressure at any point in the supply system exceeds 863 kN/m.2 (125 pounds per square inch gage), the... connection from exceeding 863 kN/m.2 (125 pounds per square inch gage) under any conditions....

  3. 42 CFR 84.148 - Type C supplied-air respirator, continuous flow class; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... the hose connection shall not exceed 863 kN/m.2 (125 pounds per square inch gage). (c) Where the pressure at any point in the supply system exceeds 863 kN/m.2 (125 pounds per square inch gage), the... connection from exceeding 863 kN/m.2 (125 pounds per square inch gage) under any conditions....

  4. ETR COMPRESSOR BUILDING, TRA643. CAMERA FACES NORTH. AIR HEATERS LINE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    ETR COMPRESSOR BUILDING, TRA-643. CAMERA FACES NORTH. AIR HEATERS LINE UP AGAINST WALL, TO BE USED IN CONNECTION WITH ETR EXPERIMENTS. EACH HAD A HEAT OUTPUT OF 8 MILLION BTU PER HOUR, OPERATED AT 1260 DEGREES F. AND A PRESSURE OF 320 PSI. NOTE METAL WALLS AND ROOF. INL NEGATIVE NO. 56-3709. R.G. Larsen, Photographer, 11/13/1956 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  5. The Impact of On-line Searching on Document Supply Services at Individual Libraries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hosono, Kimio; Tanaka, Isao; Fukazawa, Yoshiko

    As use of on-line searching services has progressed in libraries, requests on primary materials have increased much more than before. For the purpose of clarifying this trend and countermeasures against it a survey by questionnaire was conducted in 1985. The respondants from totally 112 libraries are as follows ; 60 industrial libraries, 41 academic libraries and 11 libraries of research institutes and laboratories. It was shown that industrial libraries have received more requests on primary materials mostly resulting from on-line searching while the requests have not increased remarkably in academic libraries. Regardless the type of libraries, almost all libraries can not fully meet the requests with their own collection so that industrial libraries have to rely on external information services and academic libraries utilize interlibrary loan system. Requests are sent via on-line from industrial libraries, and by mail from academic libraries. In fact, any-libraries are not likely to review their material-collecting policy. Therefore it is urgent to establish the system which enables use of external information services or interlibrary loan system more than ever.

  6. Drawing on air: input techniques for controlled 3D line illustration.

    PubMed

    Keefe, Daniel; Zeleznik, Robert; Laidlaw, David

    2007-01-01

    We present Drawing on Air, a haptic-aided input technique for drawing controlled 3D curves through space. Drawing on Air addresses a control problem with current 3D modeling approaches based on sweeping movement of the hands through the air. While artists praise the immediacy and intuitiveness of these systems, a lack of control makes it nearly impossible to create 3D form beyond quick design sketches or gesture drawings. Drawing on Air introduces two new strategies for more controlled 3D drawing: one-handed drag drawing and two-handed tape drawing. Both approaches have advantages for drawing certain types of curves. We describe a tangent preserving method for transitioning between the two techniques while drawing. Haptic-aided redrawing and line weight adjustment while drawing are also supported in both approaches. In a quantitative user study evaluation by illustrators, the one and two-handed techniques performed at roughly the same level, and both significantly outperformed freehand drawing and freehand drawing augmented with a haptic friction effect. We present the design and results of this experiment as well as user feedback from artists and 3D models created in a style of line illustration for challenging artistic and scientific subjects.

  7. An Analytical Solution for Mechanical Responses Induced by Temperature and Air Pressure in a Lined Rock Cavern for Underground Compressed Air Energy Storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Shu-Wei; Xia, Cai-Chu; Du, Shi-Gui; Zhang, Ping-Yang; Zhou, Yu

    2015-03-01

    Mechanical responses induced by temperature and air pressure significantly affect the stability and durability of underground compressed air energy storage (CAES) in a lined rock cavern. An analytical solution for evaluating such responses is, thus, proposed in this paper. The lined cavern of interest consists of three layers, namely, a sealing layer, a concrete lining and the host rock. Governing equations for cavern temperature and air pressure, which involve heat transfer between the air and surrounding layers, are established first. Then, Laplace transform and superposition principle are applied to obtain the temperature around the lined cavern and the air pressure during the operational period. Afterwards, a thermo-elastic axisymmetrical model is used to analytically determine the stress and displacement variations induced by temperature and air pressure. The developments of temperature, displacement and stress during a typical operational cycle are discussed on the basis of the proposed approach. The approach is subsequently verified with a coupled compressed air and thermo-mechanical numerical simulation and by a previous study on temperature. Finally, the influence of temperature on total stress and displacement and the impact of the heat transfer coefficient are discussed. This paper shows that the temperature sharply fluctuates only on the sealing layer and the concrete lining. The resulting tensile hoop stresses on the sealing layer and concrete lining are considerably large in comparison with the initial air pressure. Moreover, temperature has a non-negligible effect on the lined cavern for underground compressed air storage. Meanwhile, temperature has a greater effect on hoop and longitudinal stress than on radial stress and displacement. In addition, the heat transfer coefficient affects the cavern stress to a higher degree than the displacement.

  8. Downhole steam generator using low-pressure fuel and air supply

    DOEpatents

    Fox, R.L.

    1981-01-07

    For tertiary oil recovery, an apparatus for downhole steam generation is designed in which water is not injected directly onto the flame in the combustor, the combustion process is isolated from the reservoir pressure, the fuel and oxidant are supplied to the combustor at relatively low pressures, and the hot exhaust gases is prevented from entering the earth formation but is used to preheat the fuel and oxidant and water. The combustion process is isolated from the steam generation process. (DLC)

  9. Combustor oscillation attenuation via the control of fuel-supply line dynamics

    DOEpatents

    Richards, George A.; Gemmen, Randall S.

    1998-01-01

    Combustion oscillation control in combustion systems using hydrocarbon fuels is provided by acoustically tuning a fuel-delivery line to a desired phase of the combustion oscillations for providing a pulse of a fuel-rich region at the oscillating flame front at each time when the oscillation produced pressure in the combustion chamber is in a low pressure phase. The additional heat release produced by burning such fuel-rich regions during low combustion chamber pressure effectively attenuates the combustion oscillations to a selected value.

  10. Combustor oscillation attenuation via the control of fuel-supply line dynamics

    DOEpatents

    Richards, G.A.; Gemmen, R.S.

    1998-09-22

    Combustion oscillation control in combustion systems using hydrocarbon fuels is provided by acoustically tuning a fuel-delivery line to a desired phase of the combustion oscillations for providing a pulse of a fuel-rich region at the oscillating flame front at each time when the oscillation produced pressure in the combustion chamber is in a low pressure phase. The additional heat release produced by burning such fuel-rich regions during low combustion chamber pressure effectively attenuates the combustion oscillations to a selected value. 9 figs.

  11. Impact of forest biomass residues to the energy supply chain on regional air quality.

    PubMed

    Rafael, S; Tarelho, L; Monteiro, A; Sá, E; Miranda, A I; Borrego, C; Lopes, M

    2015-02-01

    The increase of the share of renewable energy in Portugal can be met from different sources, of which forest biomass residues (FBR) can play a main role. Taking into account the demand for information about the strategy of FBR to energy, and its implications on the Portuguese climate policy, the impact of energy conversion of FBR on air quality is evaluated. Three emission scenarios were defined and a numerical air quality model was selected to perform this evaluation. The results reveal that the biomass thermal plants contribute to an increment of the pollutant concentrations in the atmosphere, however restricted to the surrounding areas of the thermal plants, and most significant for NO₂ and O₃.

  12. Impact of forest biomass residues to the energy supply chain on regional air quality.

    PubMed

    Rafael, S; Tarelho, L; Monteiro, A; Sá, E; Miranda, A I; Borrego, C; Lopes, M

    2015-02-01

    The increase of the share of renewable energy in Portugal can be met from different sources, of which forest biomass residues (FBR) can play a main role. Taking into account the demand for information about the strategy of FBR to energy, and its implications on the Portuguese climate policy, the impact of energy conversion of FBR on air quality is evaluated. Three emission scenarios were defined and a numerical air quality model was selected to perform this evaluation. The results reveal that the biomass thermal plants contribute to an increment of the pollutant concentrations in the atmosphere, however restricted to the surrounding areas of the thermal plants, and most significant for NO₂ and O₃. PMID:25461067

  13. ADL ORVIS: an air-delay-leg, line-imaging optically recording velocity interferometer system.

    PubMed

    Trott, Wayne M; Castañeda, Jaime N; Cooper, Marcia A

    2014-04-01

    An interferometry system that enables acquisition of spatially resolved velocity-time profiles with very high velocity sensitivity has been designed and applied to two diverse, instructive experimental problems: (1) measurement of low-amplitude reverberations in laser-driven flyer plates and (2) measurement of ramp-wave profiles in symmetric impact studies of fused silica. The delay leg in this version of a line-imaging optically recording velocity interferometer system (ORVIS) consists of a long air path that includes relay optics to transmit the optical signal through the interferometer cavity. Target image quality from the delay path at the image recombination plane is preserved by means of a compact and flexible optical design utilizing two parabolic reflectors (serving as the relay optics) in a folded path. With an instrument tuned to a velocity per fringe constant of 22.4 m s(-1) fringe(-1), differences of 1-2 m s(-1) across the probe line segment can be readily distinguished. Measurements that capture small spatial variations in flyer velocity are presented and briefly discussed. In the fused silica impact experiments, the ramp-wave profile observed by this air-delay instrument compares favorably to the profile recorded simultaneously by a conventional line-imaging ORVIS.

  14. ADL ORVIS: An air-delay-leg, line-imaging optically recording velocity interferometer system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trott, Wayne M.; Castañeda, Jaime N.; Cooper, Marcia A.

    2014-04-01

    An interferometry system that enables acquisition of spatially resolved velocity-time profiles with very high velocity sensitivity has been designed and applied to two diverse, instructive experimental problems: (1) measurement of low-amplitude reverberations in laser-driven flyer plates and (2) measurement of ramp-wave profiles in symmetric impact studies of fused silica. The delay leg in this version of a line-imaging optically recording velocity interferometer system (ORVIS) consists of a long air path that includes relay optics to transmit the optical signal through the interferometer cavity. Target image quality from the delay path at the image recombination plane is preserved by means of a compact and flexible optical design utilizing two parabolic reflectors (serving as the relay optics) in a folded path. With an instrument tuned to a velocity per fringe constant of 22.4 m s-1 fringe-1, differences of 1-2 m s-1 across the probe line segment can be readily distinguished. Measurements that capture small spatial variations in flyer velocity are presented and briefly discussed. In the fused silica impact experiments, the ramp-wave profile observed by this air-delay instrument compares favorably to the profile recorded simultaneously by a conventional line-imaging ORVIS.

  15. Assessing Aircraft Supply Air to Recommend Compounds for Timely Warning of Contamination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fox, Richard B.

    Taking aircraft out of service for even one day to correct fume-in-cabin events can cost the industry roughly $630 million per year in lost revenue. The quantitative correlation study investigated quantitative relationships between measured concentrations of contaminants in bleed air and probability of odor detectability. Data were collected from 94 aircraft engine and auxiliary power unit (APU) bleed air tests from an archival data set between 1997 and 2011, and no relationships were found. Pearson correlation was followed by regression analysis for individual contaminants. Significant relationships of concentrations of compounds in bleed air to probability of odor detectability were found (p<0.05), as well as between compound concentration and probability of sensory irritancy detectability. Study results may be useful to establish early warning levels. Predictive trend monitoring, a method to identify potential pending failure modes within a mechanical system, may influence scheduled down-time for maintenance as a planned event, rather than repair after a mechanical failure and thereby reduce operational costs associated with odor-in-cabin events. Twenty compounds (independent variables) were found statistically significant as related to probability of odor detectability (dependent variable 1). Seventeen compounds (independent variables) were found statistically significant as related to probability of sensory irritancy detectability (dependent variable 2). Additional research was recommended to further investigate relationships between concentrations of contaminants and probability of odor detectability or probability of sensory irritancy detectability for all turbine oil brands. Further research on implementation of predictive trend monitoring may be warranted to demonstrate how the monitoring process might be applied to in-flight application.

  16. - and Air-Broadened Line Shape Parameters of 12CH_4 : 4500-4620 CM-1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Devi, V. Malathy; Benner, D. Chris; Sung, Keeyoon; Brown, Linda; Crawford, Timothy J.; Smith, Mary Ann H.; Mantz, Arlan; Predoi-Cross, Adriana

    2014-06-01

    Accurate knowledge of spectral line shape parameters is important for infrared transmission and radiance calculations in the terrestrial atmosphere. We report the self- and air-broadened Lorentz widths, shifts and line mixing coefficients along with their temperature dependences for methane absorption lines in the 2.2 μm spectral region. For this, we obtained a series of high-resolution, high S/N spectra of 99.99% 12C-enriched samples of pure methane and its dilute mixtures in dry air at cold temperatures down to 150 K using the Bruker IFS 125HR Fourier transform spectrometer at JPL. The coolable absorption cell had an optical path of 20.38 cm and was specially built to reside inside the sample compartment of the Bruker FTS. The 13 spectra used in the analysis consisted of seven pure 12CH_4 spectra at pressures from 4.5 to 169 Torr and six air-broadened spectra with total sample pressures of 113-300 Torr and methane volume mixing ratios between 4 and 9.7%. These 13 spectra were fit simultaneously using the multispectrum least-squares fitting technique. The results will be compared to existing values reported in the literature. K. Sung, A. W. Mantz, L. R. Brown, et al., J. Mol. Spectrosc., 162 (2010) 124-134. D. C. Benner, C. P. Rinsland, V. Malathy Devi, M. A. H. Smith and D. Atkins, JQSRT, 53 (1995) 705-721. Research described in this paper was performed at Connecticut College, the College of William and Mary, NASA Langley Research Center and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under contracts and cooperative agreements with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration.

  17. [Techniques of on-line monitoring volatile organic compounds in ambient air with optical spectroscopy].

    PubMed

    Du, Zhen-Hui; Zhai, Ya-Qiong; Li, Jin-Yi; Hu, Bo

    2009-12-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are harmful gaseous pollutants in the ambient air. The techniques of on-line monitoring VOCs are very significant for environment protection. Until now, there is no single technology that can meet all the needs of monitoring various VOCs. The characteristics and present situation of several optical methods, which can be applied to on-line monitoring VOCs, including non dispersive infrared (NDIR), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, differential optical absorption spectroscopy (DOAS), and laser spectroscopy were reviewed. Comparison was completed between the national standard methods and spectroscopic method for measuring VOCs. The main analysis was focused on the status and trends of tuning diode laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS) technology. PMID:20210131

  18. Sampling size in the verification of manufactured-supplied air kerma strengths

    SciTech Connect

    Ramos, Luis Isaac; Martinez Monge, Rafael

    2005-11-15

    Quality control mandate that the air kerma strengths (S{sub K}) of permanent seeds be verified, this is usually done by statistics inferred from 10% of the seeds. The goal of this paper is to proposed a new sampling method in which the number of seeds to be measured will be set beforehand according to an a priori statistical level of uncertainty. The results are based on the assumption that the S{sub K} has a normal distribution. To demonstrate this, the S{sub K} of each of the seeds measured was corrected to ensure that the average S{sub K} of its sample remained the same. In this process 2030 results were collected and analyzed using a normal plot. In our opinion, the number of seeds sampled should be determined beforehand according to an a priori level of statistical uncertainty.

  19. Exploring the concept of compressed air energy storage (CAES) in lined rock caverns at shallow depth: A modeling study of air tightness and energy balance

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, H.-M.; Rutqvist, J.; Ryu, D.-W.; Choi, B.-H.; Sunwoo, C.; Song, W.-K.

    2011-07-15

    This paper presents a numerical modeling study of coupled thermodynamic, multiphase fluid flow and heat transport associated with underground compressed air energy storage (CAES) in lined rock caverns. Specifically, we explored the concept of using concrete lined caverns at a relatively shallow depth for which constructing and operational costs may be reduced if air tightness and stability can be assured. Our analysis showed that the key parameter to assure long-term air tightness in such a system was the permeability of both the concrete lining and the surrounding rock. The analysis also indicated that a concrete lining with a permeability of less than 1×10{sup -18} m{sup 2} would result in an acceptable air leakage rate of less than 1%, with the operational pressure range between 5 and 8 MPa at a depth of 100 m. It was further noted that capillary retention properties and the initial liquid saturation of the lining were very important. Indeed, air leakage could be effectively prevented when the air-entry pressure of the concrete lining is higher than the operational air pressure and when the lining is kept moist at a relatively high liquid saturation. Our subsequent energy-balance analysis demonstrated that the energy loss for a daily compression and decompression cycle is governed by the air-pressure loss, as well as heat loss by conduction to the concrete liner and surrounding rock. For a sufficiently tight system, i.e., for a concrete permeability off less than 1×10{sup -18} m{sup 2}, heat loss by heat conduction tends to become proportionally more important. However, the energy loss by heat conduction can be minimized by keeping the air-injection temperature of compressed air closer to the ambient temperature of the underground storage cavern. In such a case, almost all the heat loss during compression is gained back during subsequent decompression. Finally, our numerical simulation study showed that CAES in shallow rock caverns is feasible from a leakage

  20. Air

    MedlinePlus

    ... do to protect yourself from dirty air . Indoor air pollution and outdoor air pollution Air can be polluted indoors and it can ... this chart to see what things cause indoor air pollution and what things cause outdoor air pollution! Indoor ...

  1. Modeling of coupled thermodynamic and geomechanical performance of underground compressed air energy storage (CAES) in lined rock caverns

    SciTech Connect

    Rutqvist, J.; Kim, H. -M.; Ryu, D. -W.; Synn, J. -H.; Song, W. -K.

    2012-02-01

    We applied coupled nonisothermal, multiphase fluid flow and geomechanical numerical modeling to study the coupled thermodynamic and geomechanical performance of underground compressed air energy storage (CAES) in concrete-lined rock caverns. The paper focuses on CAES in lined caverns at relatively shallow depth (e.g., 100 m depth) in which a typical CAES operational pressure of 5 to 8 MPa is significantly higher than both ambient fluid pressure and in situ stress. We simulated a storage operation that included cyclic compression and decompression of air in the cavern, and investigated how pressure, temperature and stress evolve over several months of operation. We analyzed two different lining options, both with a 50 cm thick low permeability concrete lining, but in one case with an internal synthetic seal such as steel or rubber. For our simulated CAES system, the thermodynamic analysis showed that 96.7% of the energy injected during compression could be recovered during subsequent decompression, while 3.3% of the energy was lost by heat conduction to the surrounding media. Our geomechanical analysis showed that tensile effective stresses as high as 8 MPa could develop in the lining as a result of the air pressure exerted on the inner surface of the lining, whereas thermal stresses were relatively smaller and compressive. With the option of an internal synthetic seal, the maximum effective tensile stress was reduced from 8 to 5 MPa, but was still in substantial tension. We performed one simulation in which the tensile tangential stresses resulted in radial cracks and air leakage though the lining. This air leakage, however, was minor (about 0.16% of the air mass loss from one daily compression) in terms of CAES operational efficiency, and did not significantly impact the overall energy balance of the system. However, despite being minor in terms of energy balance, the air leakage resulted in a distinct pressure increase in the surrounding rock that could be

  2. Assisted venous drainage, venous air, and gaseous microemboli transmission into the arterial line: an in-vitro study.

    PubMed

    Rider, S P; Simon, L V; Rice, B J; Poulton, C C

    1998-12-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the interaction of cardiopulmonary bypass venous air with assisted venous drainage, focusing on its production of gaseous microemboli in the arterial line. An in-vitro recirculating cardiopulmonary bypass circuit containing fresh whole bovine blood was monitored with a pulsed-doppler microbubble detector. Air of specific amounts was injected into the venous line and gaseous microemboli counts were obtained distal to the arterial filter. Data was recorded for unassisted drainage, vacuum-assisted drainage, and centrifugal pump-assisted drainage. Centrifugal pump-assisted drainage produced over 300 microbubbles in one minute distal to the arterial filter when venous air was introduced into the circuit. Of these, 220 were greater than 80 microns in size. Vacuum-assisted drainage produced no microbubbles when the same amount of venous air was introduced into the circuit. However, vacuum-assisted drainage did produce some microbubbles in the arterial line when a stopcock was left open on the venous line for 30 seconds. Unassisted drainage produced no microbubbles at all levels of venous air entrainment. Air becomes entrained in the venous line from a variety of sources. In a typical gravity-drained situation, the air remains whole and is dissipated in the venous reservoir by buoyancy and filtration. In an assisted-drainage situation, the air is subjected to additional forces. The air is subjected to a greater degree of negative pressure and, with centrifugal pump assisted drainage, is subjected to kinetic energy imparted by the cones or vanes of the pump. The kinetic energy from the centrifugal pump appears to break the air into small bubbles which become suspended in the blood, passing through the reservoir, oxygenator, and arterial filter. In a clinical setting, these bubbles would be passed into a patient's arterial system.

  3. Fiber in-line Mach-Zehnder interferometer based on an inner air-cavity for high-pressure sensing.

    PubMed

    Talataisong, W; Wang, D N; Chitaree, R; Liao, C R; Wang, C

    2015-04-01

    We demonstrate a fiber in-line Mach-Zehnder interferometer based on an inner air-cavity with open micro-channel for high-pressure sensing applications. The inner air-cavity is fabricated by combining femtosecond laser micromachining and the fusion splicing technique. The micro-channel is drilled on the top of the inner air-cavity to allow the high-pressure gas to flow in. The fiber in-line device is miniature, robust, and stable in operation and exhibits a high pressure sensitivity of ∼8,239  pm/MPa.

  4. A dedicated on-line detecting system for auto air dryers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Chao-yu; Luo, Zai

    2013-10-01

    According to the correlative automobile industry standard and the requirements of manufacturer, this dedicated on-line detecting system is designed against the shortage of low degree automatic efficiency and detection precision of auto air dryer in the domestic. Fast automatic detection is achieved by combining the technology of computer control, mechatronics and pneumatics. This system can detect the speciality performance of pressure regulating valve and sealability of auto air dryer, in which online analytical processing of test data is available, at the same time, saving and inquiring data is achieved. Through some experimental analysis, it is indicated that efficient and accurate detection of the performance of auto air dryer is realized, and the test errors are less than 3%. Moreover, we carry out the type A evaluation of uncertainty in test data based on Bayesian theory, and the results show that the test uncertainties of all performance parameters are less than 0.5kPa, which can meet the requirements of operating industrial site absolutely.

  5. Dual Laser Beam Attenuation Processing: A Method for Line-averaging of Air Temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Afsharnaderi, H. R.; Pishvaei, M. R.

    2009-04-01

    In local scale there is a demand to measure horizontal air temperature averaged over farming and horticulture plots for frost point monitoring and evapotranspiration calculations. Using several dry bulb thermometers is problematic. This work then attends to laser instrumentation of air thermometry. The attenuation of laser beams from Rayleigh scattering has been applied for this purpose. The ratio of attenuation quantity for two isosceles parallel laser beams (850nm and 1064nm with 5W output) led to independent line-averaging of air temperature from transmission path-lengths. Typical measurements have been executed over 400x200 m2 garden. Digital resolution is 0.1°C but spatial resolution is quite fine. One of the advantages of dual signal processing is the filtration of ambiguities caused by beam scintillations. Usage of this instrument is recommended over plane area or in green-houses and limited by topography. Applicability may be extended to other studies such as micrometeorology and propagation experiments.

  6. Water-vapor line broadening and shifting by air, nitrogen, oxygen, and argon in the 720-nm wavelength region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grossmann, Benoist E.; Browell, Edward V.

    1989-01-01

    High-resolution spectroscopic measurements of H2O vapor in the 720-nm wavelength region were conducted to investigate the broadening and shifting of H2O lines by air, nitrogen, oxygen, and argon over a wide range of pressures and temperatures. For each of the buffer gases under study, a linear relationship was found between the widths and the shifts, with the broader lines having the smaller pressure shifts. The pressure shifts measured compared favorably with theoretical values reported by Bykov et al. (1988). The temperature-dependence exponents for air-broadening were found to be J-dependent, with the lower-J lines having the higher exponents.

  7. 42 CFR 84.162 - Man test for gases and vapors; Type C respirators, continuous-flow class and Type CE supplied-air...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Man test for gases and vapors; Type C respirators, continuous-flow class and Type CE supplied-air respirators; test requirements. 84.162 Section 84.162 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES...

  8. 42 CFR 84.162 - Man test for gases and vapors; Type C respirators, continuous-flow class and Type CE supplied-air...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Man test for gases and vapors; Type C respirators, continuous-flow class and Type CE supplied-air respirators; test requirements. 84.162 Section 84.162 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES...

  9. 42 CFR 84.162 - Man test for gases and vapors; Type C respirators, continuous-flow class and Type CE supplied-air...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Man test for gases and vapors; Type C respirators, continuous-flow class and Type CE supplied-air respirators; test requirements. 84.162 Section 84.162 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES...

  10. 42 CFR 84.162 - Man test for gases and vapors; Type C respirators, continuous-flow class and Type CE supplied-air...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Man test for gases and vapors; Type C respirators, continuous-flow class and Type CE supplied-air respirators; test requirements. 84.162 Section 84.162 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES...

  11. 42 CFR 84.162 - Man test for gases and vapors; Type C respirators, continuous-flow class and Type CE supplied-air...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Man test for gases and vapors; Type C respirators, continuous-flow class and Type CE supplied-air respirators; test requirements. 84.162 Section 84.162 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES...

  12. Korean Air Lines Flight 007: Lessons from the Past and Insights for the Future

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Degani, Asaf; Shafto, M. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The majority of the problems pilot encounter when using automated systems center around two factors: (1) the pilot has an incomplete and inadequate model of how the autopilot works; and (2) the displays and flight manuals, provided to the pilot, are inadequate for the task. The tragic accident of Korean Air Lines Flight 007, a Boeing 747 that deviated from its intended flight path, provides a compelling case-study of problems related to pilots' use of automated systems. This paper describes what had happened and exposes two types of human-automation interaction problems: (1) The pilots of KAL were not provided with adequate information about the actual behavior of the autopilot and its mode transition logic; and (2) The autopilot onboard KAL 007 did not provide adequate information to the flight crew about its active and armed modes. Both factors, according to the International Civil Aviation Organization (1993) report on the accident, contributed to the aircraft's lethal navigation error.

  13. Development of On-line Wildfire Emissions for the Operational Canadian Air Quality Forecast System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pavlovic, R.; Menard, S.; Chen, J.; Anselmo, D.; Paul-Andre, B.; Gravel, S.; Moran, M. D.; Davignon, D.

    2013-12-01

    An emissions processing system has been developed to incorporate near-real-time emissions from wildfires and large prescribed burns into Environment Canada's real-time GEM-MACH air quality (AQ) forecast system. Since the GEM-MACH forecast domain covers Canada and most of the USA, including Alaska, fire location information is needed for both of these large countries. Near-real-time satellite data are obtained and processed separately for the two countries for organizational reasons. Fire location and fuel consumption data for Canada are provided by the Canadian Forest Service's Canadian Wild Fire Information System (CWFIS) while fire location and emissions data for the U.S. are provided by the SMARTFIRE (Satellite Mapping Automated Reanalysis Tool for Fire Incident Reconciliation) system via the on-line BlueSky Gateway. During AQ model runs, emissions from individual fire sources are injected into elevated model layers based on plume-rise calculations and then transport and chemistry calculations are performed. This 'on the fly' approach to the insertion of emissions provides greater flexibility since on-line meteorology is used and reduces computational overhead in emission pre-processing. An experimental wildfire version of GEM-MACH was run in real-time mode for the summers of 2012 and 2013. 48-hour forecasts were generated every 12 hours (at 00 and 12 UTC). Noticeable improvements in the AQ forecasts for PM2.5 were seen in numerous regions where fire activity was high. Case studies evaluating model performance for specific regions, computed objective scores, and subjective evaluations by AQ forecasters will be included in this presentation. Using the lessons learned from the last two summers, Environment Canada will continue to work towards the goal of incorporating near-real-time intermittent wildfire emissions within the operational air quality forecast system.

  14. Acoustical transmission-line model of the middle-ear cavities and mastoid air cells.

    PubMed

    Keefe, Douglas H

    2015-04-01

    An acoustical transmission line model of the middle-ear cavities and mastoid air cell system (MACS) was constructed for the adult human middle ear with normal function. The air-filled cavities comprised the tympanic cavity, aditus, antrum, and MACS. A binary symmetrical airway branching model of the MACS was constructed using an optimization procedure to match the average total volume and surface area of human temporal bones. The acoustical input impedance of the MACS was calculated using a recursive procedure, and used to predict the input impedance of the middle-ear cavities at the location of the tympanic membrane. The model also calculated the ratio of the acoustical pressure in the antrum to the pressure in the middle-ear cavities at the location of the tympanic membrane. The predicted responses were sensitive to the magnitude of the viscothermal losses within the MACS. These predicted input impedance and pressure ratio functions explained the presence of multiple resonances reported in published data, which were not explained by existing MACS models.

  15. Acoustical transmission-line model of the middle-ear cavities and mastoid air cells

    PubMed Central

    Keefe, Douglas H.

    2015-01-01

    An acoustical transmission line model of the middle-ear cavities and mastoid air cell system (MACS) was constructed for the adult human middle ear with normal function. The air-filled cavities comprised the tympanic cavity, aditus, antrum, and MACS. A binary symmetrical airway branching model of the MACS was constructed using an optimization procedure to match the average total volume and surface area of human temporal bones. The acoustical input impedance of the MACS was calculated using a recursive procedure, and used to predict the input impedance of the middle-ear cavities at the location of the tympanic membrane. The model also calculated the ratio of the acoustical pressure in the antrum to the pressure in the middle-ear cavities at the location of the tympanic membrane. The predicted responses were sensitive to the magnitude of the viscothermal losses within the MACS. These predicted input impedance and pressure ratio functions explained the presence of multiple resonances reported in published data, which were not explained by existing MACS models. PMID:25920840

  16. 31P-nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy in vivo of six human melanoma xenograft lines: tumour bioenergetic status and blood supply.

    PubMed Central

    Lyng, H.; Olsen, D. R.; Southon, T. E.; Rofstad, E. K.

    1993-01-01

    Six human melanoma xenograft lines grown s.c. in BALB/c-nu/nu mice were subjected to 31P-nuclear magnetic resonance (31P-NMR) spectroscopy in vivo. The following resonances were detected: phosphomonoesters (PME), inorganic phosphate (Pi), phosphodiesters (PDE), phosphocreatine (PCr) and nucleoside triphosphate gamma, alpha and beta (NTP gamma, alpha and beta). The main purpose of the work was to search for possible relationships between 31P-NMR resonance ratios and tumour pH on the one hand and blood supply per viable tumour cell on the other. The latter parameter was measured by using the 86Rb uptake method. Tumour bioenergetic status [the (PCr + NTP beta)/Pi resonance ratio], tumour pH and blood supply per viable tumour cell decreased with increasing tumour volume for five of the six xenograft lines. The decrease in tumour bioenergetic status was due to a decrease in the (PCr + NTP beta)/total resonance ratio as well as an increase in the Pi/total resonance ratio. The decrease in the (PCr + NTP beta)/total resonance ratio was mainly a consequence of a decrease in the PCr/total resonance ratio for two lines and mainly a consequence of a decrease in the NTP beta/total resonance ratio for three lines. The magnitude of the decrease in the (PCr + NTP beta)/total resonance ratio and the magnitude of the decrease in tumour pH were correlated to the magnitude of the decrease in blood supply per viable tumour cell. Tumour pH decreased with decreasing tumour bioenergetic status, and the magnitude of this decrease was larger for the tumour lines showing a high than for those showing a low blood supply per viable tumour cell. No correlations across the tumour lines were found between tumour pH and tumour bioenergetic status or any other resonance ratio on the one hand and blood supply per viable tumour cell on the other. The differences in the 31P-NMR spectrum between the tumour lines were probably caused by differences in the intrinsic biochemical properties of the tumour

  17. Relationships between Growth, Growth Response to Nutrient Supply, and Ion Content Using a Recombinant Inbred Line Population in Arabidopsis1[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Prinzenberg, Aina E.; Barbier, Hugues; Salt, David E.; Stich, Benjamin; Reymond, Matthieu

    2010-01-01

    Growth is an integrative trait that responds to environmental factors and is crucial for plant fitness. A major environmental factor influencing plant growth is nutrient supply. In order to explore this relationship further, we quantified growth-related traits, ion content, and other biochemical traits (protein, hexose, and chlorophyll contents) of a recombinant inbred line population of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) grown on different levels of potassium and phosphate. Performing an all subsets multiple regression analyses revealed a link between growth-related traits and mineral nutrient content. Based on our results, up to 85% of growth variation can be explained by variation in ion content, highlighting the importance of ionomics for a broader understanding of plant growth. In addition, quantitative trait loci (QTLs) were detected for growth-related traits, ion content, further biochemical traits, and their responses to reduced supplies of potassium or phosphate. Colocalization of these QTLs is explored, and candidate genes are discussed. A QTL for rosette weight response to reduced potassium supply was identified on the bottom of chromosome 5, and its effects were validated using selected near isogenic lines. These lines retained over 20% more rosette weight in reduced potassium supply, accompanied by an increase in potassium content in their leaves. PMID:20826703

  18. Line parameters including temperature dependences of air- and self-broadened line shapes of 12C16O2: 2.06-μm region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benner, D. Chris; Devi, V. Malathy; Sung, Keeyoon; Brown, Linda R.; Miller, Charles E.; Payne, Vivienne H.; Drouin, Brian J.; Yu, Shanshan; Crawford, Timothy J.; Mantz, Arlan W.; Smith, Mary Ann H.; Gamache, Robert R.

    2016-08-01

    This study reports the results from analyzing a number of high resolution, high signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) spectra in the 2.06-μm spectral region for pure CO2 and mixtures of CO2 in dry air. A multispectrum nonlinear least squares curve fitting technique has been used to retrieve the various spectral line parameters. The dataset includes 27 spectra: ten pure CO2, two 99% 13C-enriched CO2 and fifteen spectra of mixtures of 12C-enriched CO2 in dry air. The spectra were recorded at various gas sample temperatures between 170 and 297 K. The absorption path lengths range from 0.347 to 49 m. The sample pressures for the pure CO2 spectra varied from 1.1 to 594 Torr; for the two 13CO2 spectra the pressures were ∼10 and 146 Torr. For the air-broadened spectra, the pressures of the gas mixtures varied between 200 and 711 Torr with CO2 volume mixing ratios ranging from 0.014% to 0.203%. The multispectrum fitting technique was applied to fit simultaneously all these spectra to retrieve consistent set of line positions, intensities, and line shape parameters including their temperature dependences; for this, the Voigt line shape was modified to include line mixing (via the relaxation matrix formalism) and quadratic speed dependence. The new results are compared to select published values, including recent ab initio calculations. These results are required to retrieve the column averaged dry air mole fraction (XCO2) from space-based observations, such as the Orbiting Carbon Observatory-2 (OCO-2) satellite mission that NASA launched in July 2014.

  19. On-line air-tightness and insertion loss simultaneous detection method of high air-tightness fiber optic penetration connector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jingchuan; Yang, Xiaoning; Wang, Jing; Jiang, Junfeng

    2015-08-01

    The high air-tightness multicore fiber optic penetration connector is a core component for the optical fiber sensing and communication technologies applied in the space environment simulator under the vacuum thermal environment. High air-tightness and insertion loss are the two key indexes of the fiber optic penetration connector. The air-tightness and insertion loss on-line synchronous detection method was proposed. First, established hardware-in-the-loop testing platform by using the vacuum pumping system, the vacuum vessel, the helium mass spectrometer leak detector and optical time-domain reflectmeter, then, described the air tightness and insertion loss on-line detection principle, finally, designed a detection test scheme and air-tightness and insertion loss were tested. Experimental results indicate that the leakage rate is lower than 1.0×10-7Pa•L/S, the minimum of which is1.0×10-10Pa•L/S and the insertion loss at wave length window 1550 nm is +/-0.07db, which is less than +/-0.1db. It can lay the data basis for the design of opto-mechanical combination and later period fine processing.

  20. Next Generation Air Measurements for Fugitive, Area Source, and Fence Line Applications

    EPA Science Inventory

    Next generation air measurements (NGAM) is an EPA term for the advancing field of air pollutant sensor technologies, data integration concepts, and geospatial modeling strategies. Ranging from personal sensors to satellite remote sensing, NGAM systems may provide revolutionary n...

  1. Removal of Gross Air Embolization from Cardiopulmonary Bypass Circuits with Integrated Arterial Line Filters: A Comparison of Circuit Designs.

    PubMed

    Reagor, James A; Holt, David W

    2016-03-01

    Advances in technology, the desire to minimize blood product transfusions, and concerns relating to inflammatory mediators have lead many practitioners and manufacturers to minimize cardiopulmonary bypass (CBP) circuit designs. The oxygenator and arterial line filter (ALF) have been integrated into one device as a method of attaining a reduction in prime volume and surface area. The instructions for use of a currently available oxygenator with integrated ALF recommends incorporating a recirculation line distal to the oxygenator. However, according to an unscientific survey, 70% of respondents utilize CPB circuits incorporating integrated ALFs without a path of recirculation distal to the oxygenator outlet. Considering this circuit design, the ability to quickly remove a gross air bolus in the blood path distal to the oxygenator may be compromised. This in vitro study was designed to determine if the time required to remove a gross air bolus from a CPB circuit without a path of recirculation distal to the oxygenator will be significantly longer than that of a circuit with a path of recirculation distal to the oxygenator. A significant difference was found in the mean time required to remove a gross air bolus between the circuit designs (p = .0003). Additionally, There was found to be a statistically significant difference in the mean time required to remove a gross air bolus between Trial 1 and Trials 4 (p = .015) and 5 (p =.014) irrespective of the circuit design. Under the parameters of this study, a recirculation line distal to an oxygenator with an integrated ALF significantly decreases the time it takes to remove an air bolus from the CPB circuit and may be safer for clinical use than the same circuit without a recirculation line. PMID:27134304

  2. Removal of Gross Air Embolization from Cardiopulmonary Bypass Circuits with Integrated Arterial Line Filters: A Comparison of Circuit Designs.

    PubMed

    Reagor, James A; Holt, David W

    2016-03-01

    Advances in technology, the desire to minimize blood product transfusions, and concerns relating to inflammatory mediators have lead many practitioners and manufacturers to minimize cardiopulmonary bypass (CBP) circuit designs. The oxygenator and arterial line filter (ALF) have been integrated into one device as a method of attaining a reduction in prime volume and surface area. The instructions for use of a currently available oxygenator with integrated ALF recommends incorporating a recirculation line distal to the oxygenator. However, according to an unscientific survey, 70% of respondents utilize CPB circuits incorporating integrated ALFs without a path of recirculation distal to the oxygenator outlet. Considering this circuit design, the ability to quickly remove a gross air bolus in the blood path distal to the oxygenator may be compromised. This in vitro study was designed to determine if the time required to remove a gross air bolus from a CPB circuit without a path of recirculation distal to the oxygenator will be significantly longer than that of a circuit with a path of recirculation distal to the oxygenator. A significant difference was found in the mean time required to remove a gross air bolus between the circuit designs (p = .0003). Additionally, There was found to be a statistically significant difference in the mean time required to remove a gross air bolus between Trial 1 and Trials 4 (p = .015) and 5 (p =.014) irrespective of the circuit design. Under the parameters of this study, a recirculation line distal to an oxygenator with an integrated ALF significantly decreases the time it takes to remove an air bolus from the CPB circuit and may be safer for clinical use than the same circuit without a recirculation line.

  3. Removal of Gross Air Embolization from Cardiopulmonary Bypass Circuits with Integrated Arterial Line Filters: A Comparison of Circuit Designs

    PubMed Central

    Reagor, James A.; Holt, David W.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract: Advances in technology, the desire to minimize blood product transfusions, and concerns relating to inflammatory mediators have lead many practitioners and manufacturers to minimize cardiopulmonary bypass (CBP) circuit designs. The oxygenator and arterial line filter (ALF) have been integrated into one device as a method of attaining a reduction in prime volume and surface area. The instructions for use of a currently available oxygenator with integrated ALF recommends incorporating a recirculation line distal to the oxygenator. However, according to an unscientific survey, 70% of respondents utilize CPB circuits incorporating integrated ALFs without a path of recirculation distal to the oxygenator outlet. Considering this circuit design, the ability to quickly remove a gross air bolus in the blood path distal to the oxygenator may be compromised. This in vitro study was designed to determine if the time required to remove a gross air bolus from a CPB circuit without a path of recirculation distal to the oxygenator will be significantly longer than that of a circuit with a path of recirculation distal to the oxygenator. A significant difference was found in the mean time required to remove a gross air bolus between the circuit designs (p = .0003). Additionally, There was found to be a statistically significant difference in the mean time required to remove a gross air bolus between Trial 1 and Trials 4 (p = .015) and 5 (p =.014) irrespective of the circuit design. Under the parameters of this study, a recirculation line distal to an oxygenator with an integrated ALF significantly decreases the time it takes to remove an air bolus from the CPB circuit and may be safer for clinical use than the same circuit without a recirculation line. PMID:27134304

  4. 76 FR 45851 - Certain Lined Paper School Supplies From China, India, and Indonesia-Institution of Five-Year...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-01

    ... supplies from China, India, and Indonesia (71 FR 56949). On April 14, 2011, Commerce amended in part the antidumping duty order on subject imports from India (76 FR 20954). The Commission is conducting reviews to... part 207), as most recently amended at 74 FR 2847 (January 16, 2009). \\1\\ No response to this...

  5. A study of the H2O absorption line shifts in the visible spectrum region due to air pressure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grossmann, B. E.; Browell, E. V.; Bykov, A. D.; Kapitanov, V. A.; Korotchenko, E. A.

    1990-01-01

    Results of measured and calculated shift coefficients are presented for 170 absorption lines of H2O in five vibrational-rotational bands. The measurements have been carried out using highly sensitive laser spectrometers with a resolution of at least 0.01/cm; the calculations are based on the Anderson-Tsao-Curnutte-Frost method. Good agreement is obtained between the theoretical and experimental values of the shift coefficients of H2O lines due to N2, O2, and air pressure.

  6. Filter for on-line air monitor unaffected by radon progeny and method of using same

    DOEpatents

    Phillips, Terrance D.; Edwards, Howard D.

    1999-01-01

    An apparatus for testing air having contaminants and radon progeny therein. The apparatus includes a sampling box having an inlet for receiving the air and an outlet for discharging the air. The sampling box includes a filter made of a plate of sintered stainless steel. The filter traps the contaminants, yet allows at least a portion of the radon progeny to pass therethrough. A method of testing air having contaminants and radon progeny therein. The method includes providing a testing apparatus that has a sampling box with an inlet for receiving the air and an outlet for discharging the air, and has a sintered stainless steel filter disposed within said sampling box; drawing air from a source into the sampling box using a vacuum pump; passing the air through the filter; monitoring the contaminants trapped by the filter; and providing an alarm when a selected level of contaminants is reached. The filter traps the contaminants, yet allows at least a portion of the radon progeny to pass therethrough.

  7. 42 CFR 84.156 - Airflow resistance test; Type C supplied-air respirator, demand class; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... exceed 50 millimeters (2 inches) of water at an air flow of 115 liters (4 cubic feet) per minute. (b) The exhalation resistance to a flow of air at a rate of 85 liters (3 cubic feet) per minute shall not exceed 25... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Airflow resistance test; Type C...

  8. Lines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mires, Peter B.

    2006-01-01

    National Geography Standards for the middle school years generally stress the teaching of latitude and longitude. There are many creative ways to explain the great grid that encircles our planet, but the author has found that students in his college-level geography courses especially enjoy human-interest stories associated with lines of latitude…

  9. Supply Rate and Equilibrium Inventory of Air Force Enlisted Personnel: A Simultaneous Model of the Accession and Retention Markets Incorporating Force Level Constraints. Final Report for Period July 1969-June 1976.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeVany, Arthur S.; And Others

    This research was designed to develop and test a model of the Air Force manpower market. The study indicates that previous manpower supply studies failed to account for simultaneous determination of enlistments and retentions and misinterpreted regressions as supply equations. They are, instead, reduced form equations resulting from joint…

  10. Experimental studies on an air-air jet exhaust pump

    SciTech Connect

    Chou, S.K.

    1986-01-01

    Industrial ventilation employing an air-air jet exhaust pump connected to a compressed-air line was investigated. The motive air supply pressure was maintained between 2 and 3 bar. A unique ejector housing was constructed to receive both the convergent-divergent primary nozzle and the mixing chamber. The entire unit adapts readily to any existing compressed-air system. The mixing chamber was so constructed that the length of its cylindrical section may be changed. Pressure variations along the mixing chamber were recorded, and this offered a valuable appreciation of the effects of the length-to-diameter ratios. Results indicate the influence of the supply air pressure and pressure ratio on the jet entrainment capacity and efficiency. It has also been shown that the present design is capable of achieving the maximum reported jet-pump efficiency of around 25% corresponding to a nozzle-to-mixing chamber area ratio of 0.15.

  11. Phases, line tension and pattern formation in molecularly thin films at the air-water interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mandal, Pritam

    A Langmuir film, which is a molecularly thin insoluble film on a liquid substrate, is one practical realization of a quasi-two dimensional matter. The major advantages of this system for the study of phase separation and phase co-existence are (a) it allows accurate control of the components and molecular area of the film and (b) it can be studied by various methods that require very flat films. Phase separation in molecularly thin films plays an important role in a range of systems from biomembranes to biosensors. For example, phase-separated lipid nano-domains in biomembranes are thought to play crucial roles in membrane function. I use Brewster Angel Microscopy (BAM) coupled with Fluorescence Microscopy (FM) and static Light Scattering Microscopy (LSM) to image phases and patterns within Langmuir films. The three microscopic techniques --- BAM, FM and LSM --- are complimentary to each other, providing distinct sets of information. They allow direct comparison with literature results in lipid systems. I have quantitatively validated the use of detailed hydrodynamic simulations to determine line tension in monolayers. Line tension decreases as temperature rises. This decrease gives us information on the entropy associated with the line, and thus about line structure. I carefully consider the thermodynamics of line energy and entropy to make this connection. In the longer run, LSM will be exploited to give us further information about line structure. I have also extended the technique by testing it on domains within the curved surface of a bilayer vesicle. I also note that in the same way that the presence of surface-active agents, known as surfactants, affects surface energy, the addiction of line active agents alters the inter-phase line energy. Thus my results set to stage to systematically study the influence of line active agents ---'linactants' --- on the inter-phase line energy. Hierarchal self-assembled chiral patterns were observed as a function of

  12. Changes in lung function after working with the shotcrete lining method under compressed air conditions.

    PubMed Central

    Kessel, R; Redl, M; Mauermayer, R; Praml, G J

    1989-01-01

    Shotcrete techniques under compressed air are increasingly applied in the construction of tunnels. Up to now little is known about the influence of shotcrete dusts on the function of the lung. The lung function of 30 miners working with shotcrete under compressed air (before and after one shift) was measured. They carried personal air samplers to assess the total dust exposure. Long term effects were studied on a second group of 29 individuals exposed to shotcrete dusts and compressed air for two years. A significant increase of airway resistance and a significant decrease of some flow-volume parameters were found after one workshift. These changes partially correlate close to the dust exposure. After two years exposure a significant decrease of mean expiratory flow (MEF)50 and MEF25 was found. These results point to damage in the small airways and emphasise the major role of the lung function test--including the flow-volume manoeuvre for the medical examination of the workers. Additionally, they should carry filter masks. Images PMID:2923823

  13. Characterization of temperature non-uniformity over a premixed CH4-air flame based on line-of-sight TDLAS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Guangle; Liu, Jianguo; Xu, Zhenyu; He, Yabai; Kan, Ruifeng

    2016-01-01

    A novel technique for characterizing temperature non-uniformity has been investigated based on measurements of line-of-sight tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy. It utilized two fiber-coupled distributed feedback diode lasers at wavelengths around 1339 and 1392 nm as light sources to probe the field at multiple absorptions lines of water vapor and applied a temperature binning strategy combined with Gauss-Seidel iteration method to explore the temperature non-uniformity of the field in one dimension. The technique has been applied to a McKenna burner, which produced a flat premixed laminar CH4-air flame. The flame and its adjacent area formed an atmospheric field with significant non-uniformity of temperature and water vapor concentration. The effect of the number of temperature bins on column-density and temperature results has also been explored.

  14. Line parameters including temperature dependences of self- and air-broadened line shapes of 12C16O2: 1.6-μm region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Devi, V. Malathy; Benner, D. Chris; Sung, Keeyoon; Brown, Linda R.; Crawford, Timothy J.; Miller, Charles E.; Drouin, Brian J.; Payne, Vivienne H.; Yu, Shanshan; Smith, Mary Ann H.; Mantz, Arlan W.; Gamache, Robert R.

    2016-07-01

    Pressure-broadened line shapes in the 30013←00001 (ν1+4 ν20 +ν3) band of 12C16O2 at 6228 cm-1 are reanalyzed using new spectra recorded with sample temperatures down to 170 K. High resolution, high signal-to-noise (S/N) laboratory measurements of line shapes (Lorentz air- and self-broadened half-width coefficients, pressure-shift coefficients and off-diagonal relaxation matrix element coefficients) as a function of gas sample temperatures for various pressures and volume mixing ratios are presented. The spectra were recorded using two different Fourier transform spectrometers (FTS): (1) the McMath-Pierce FTS located at the National Solar Observatory on Kitt Peak, Arizona (and reported in Devi et al., J Mol Spectrosc 2007;245:52-80) and, (2) the Bruker IFS-125HR FTS at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, California. The 19 spectra taken at Kitt Peak were all recorded near room temperature while the 27 Bruker spectra were acquired both at room temperature and colder temperatures (170-296 K). Various spectral resolutions (0.004-0.011 cm-1), absorption path lengths (2.46-121 m) and CO2 samples (natural and 12C-enriched) were included in the dataset. To maximize the accuracies of the various retrieved line parameters, a multispectrum nonlinear least squares spectrum fitting software program was used to adjust the ro-vibrational constants (G,B,D etc.) and intensity parameters (including Herman-Wallis terms) instead of directly measuring the individual line positions and intensities. To minimize systematic residuals, line mixing (via off-diagonal relaxation matrix elements) and quadratic speed dependence parameters were included in the analysis. Contributions from other weakly absorbing bands: the 30013←00001 and 30012←00001 bands of 13C16O2, the 30013←00001 band of 12C16O18O, hot bands 31113←01101 and 32212←02201 of 12C16O2, as well as the 40013←10001 and the 40014←10002 bands of 12C16O2, present within the fitted interval were also measured

  15. Development of the GEM-MACH-FireWork System: An Air Quality Model with On-line Wildfire Emissions within the Canadian Operational Air Quality Forecast System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pavlovic, Radenko; Chen, Jack; Beaulieu, Paul-Andre; Anselmp, David; Gravel, Sylvie; Moran, Mike; Menard, Sylvain; Davignon, Didier

    2014-05-01

    A wildfire emissions processing system has been developed to incorporate near-real-time emissions from wildfires and large prescribed burns into Environment Canada's real-time GEM-MACH air quality (AQ) forecast system. Since the GEM-MACH forecast domain covers Canada and most of the U.S.A., including Alaska, fire location information is needed for both of these large countries. During AQ model runs, emissions from individual fire sources are injected into elevated model layers based on plume-rise calculations and then transport and chemistry calculations are performed. This "on the fly" approach to the insertion of the fire emissions provides flexibility and efficiency since on-line meteorology is used and computational overhead in emissions pre-processing is reduced. GEM-MACH-FireWork, an experimental wildfire version of GEM-MACH, was run in real-time mode for the summers of 2012 and 2013 in parallel with the normal operational version. 48-hour forecasts were generated every 12 hours (at 00 and 12 UTC). Noticeable improvements in the AQ forecasts for PM2.5 were seen in numerous regions where fire activity was high. Case studies evaluating model performance for specific regions and computed objective scores will be included in this presentation. Using the lessons learned from the last two summers, Environment Canada will continue to work towards the goal of incorporating near-real-time intermittent wildfire emissions into the operational air quality forecast system.

  16. Entrapment of an air gun pellet between the thyroid cartilage and the lining mucosa in a patient with a penetrating neck injury: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Air guns, either modern or traditional models, are powerful weapons that are capable of causing serious or life-threatening injuries. Case presentation Here, we present a case of an air gun pellet injury, with the pellet trapped between the thyroid cartilage and the lining mucosa of a 58-year-old Iranian man. Conclusion Entrapment of air gun pellet between thyroid cartilage and the lining mucosa, as presented in our case, may cause diagnostic challenges through the clinical presentation of slight odynophagia. PMID:22759623

  17. In-die ultrasonic and off-line air-coupled monitoring and characterization techniques for drug tablets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stephens, J. D.; Kowalczyk, B. R.; Hancock, B. C.; Kaul, G.; Akseli, I.; Cetinkaya, C.

    2012-05-01

    Mechanical integrity and properties of drug tablets may adversely affect their therapeutic and structural functions. An embedded ultrasound monitoring system for tablet mechanical property monitoring during compaction and a non-contact/non-destructive off-line air-coupled technique for determining the mechanical properties of coated drug tablets are presented. In the compaction monitoring system, the change of ToF and the reflection coefficient for the upper-punch surface interface as a function of compaction pressure has been studied. In the air-coupled measurement approach, air-coupled excitation and laser interferometric detection are utilized and their effectiveness in characterizing the mechanical properties of a drug tablet by examining its vibrational resonance frequencies is demonstrated. An iterative computational procedure based on the finite element method and Newton's method is developed to extract the mechanical properties of the coated tablet from a subset of its measured resonance frequencies. The mechanical properties characterized by this technique are compared to those obtained by a contact ultrasonic method.

  18. A systematic approach to advanced cockpit warning systems for air transport operations: Line pilot preferences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, D. H.; Simpson, C. A.

    1976-01-01

    Line pilots (fifty captains, first officers, and flight engineers) from 8 different airlines were administered a structured questionnaire relating to future warning system design and solutions to current warning system problems. This was followed by a semantic differential to obtain a factor analysis of 18 different cockpit warning signals on scales such as informative/distracting, annoying/soothing. Half the pilots received a demonstration of the experimental text and voice synthesizer warning systems before answering the questionnaire and the semantic differential. A control group answered the questionnaire and the semantic differential first, thus providing a check for the stability of pilot preferences with and without actual exposure to experimental systems. Generally, the preference data obtained revealed much consistency and strong agreement among line pilots concerning advance cockpit warning system design.

  19. Collisional Shift and Broadening of Iodine Spectral Lines in Air Near 543 nm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fletcher, D. G.; McDaniel, J. C.

    1995-01-01

    The collisional processes that influence the absorption of monochromatic light by iodine in air have been investigated. Measurements were made in both a static cell and an underexpanded jet flow over the range of properties encountered in typical compressible-flow aerodynamic applications. Experimentally measured values of the collisional shift and broadening coefficients were 0.058 +/- 0.004 and 0.53 +/- 0.010 GHz K(exp 0.7)/torr, respectively. The measured shift value showed reasonable agreement with theoretical calculations based on Lindholm-Foley collisional theory for a simple dispersive potential. The measured collisional broadening showed less favorable agreement with the calculated value.

  20. Contribution of Saharan dust in an integrated air quality system and its on-line assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiménez-Guerrero, Pedro; Pérez, Carlos; Jorba, Oriol; Baldasano, José M.

    2008-02-01

    Nowadays none of the operational daily forecasts in Europe includes the influence of Saharan dust on a non-climatic basis. In order to account for this, the BSC-CNS currently operates daily photochemical forecasts in the Iberian Peninsula with MM5-EMEP-CMAQ modelling system and Saharan dust forecasts over Southern Europe with Eta/DREAM. The necessity of coupling both modelling systems is addressed by the study of a long summer episode combining regional re-circulations and Saharan dust covering from June 19 to July 12, 2006. As a first approach, the natural dust contribution from Eta/DREAM is added on-line to the anthropogenic output of CMAQ. The performance of the model has been quantitatively evaluated with discrete and categorical (skill scores) statistics by a fully operational on-line comparison of the first-layer simulations results of CMAQ and CMAQ+DREAM and the values measured in two different stations located in the Mediterranean part of the domain. The results indicate a remarkable improvement in the discrete and skill-scores evaluation (accuracy, critical success index and probability of detection) of PM10 exceedances set in regulations when using CMAQ+DREAM compared to CMAQ- or DREAM-alone simulations.

  1. Hydrogeologic setting, water levels, and quality of water from supply wells at the US Marine Corps Air Station, Cherry Point, North Carolina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lloyd, O.B.; Daniel, C. C.

    1988-01-01

    The Marine Corps Air Station is located in the Coastal Plain province of North Carolina. Four freshwater aquifers of sand and limestone underlie the area to a depth of about 500 feet. Saline water occurs below this depth. The aquifers are separated by three confining units that are thin and discontinuous in the southern part. Water supply is obtained from 195- to 330 feet wells in the Castle Hayne aquifer. Many wells are near landfills that have received hazardous wastes. Groundwater withdrawals have reduced hydraulic heads in the Castle Hayne some 20 feet around active production wells, creating potential for downward movement of contaminated water from the surface and for upward movement of saline water that occurs at depth. Chemical analyses of water from the Castle Hayne aquifer indicate median concentrations of iron and manganese are 0.78 and 0.08 milligrams per liter, respectively, and lead and (or) nickel exceed drinking water standards in three wells. Chloride increased from 10 to more than 40 milligrams per liter in the deepest operating well over a 45-year period. Benzene concentrations range from 0.5 to 1.9 milligrams per liter in the southern part of the Air Station but were below the 5 milligrams per liter maximum contaminant level for drinking water. Fatty acids were found in concentrations as much as 28 micrograms per liter in water from wells in an area centered around the intersection of Roosevelt Boulevard and Slocum Road. Resampling is needed to verify all constituents that indicate contamination.

  2. Mouse thymic epithelial cell lines expressing "Aire" and peripheral tissue-specific antigens reproduce in vitro negative selection of T cells.

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, Yoshitaka; Takayanagi, Atsushi; Chen, Jiabing; Sakai, Kosuke; Kudoh, Jun; Shimizu, Nobuyoshi

    2011-08-15

    In the human thymus, AIRE (autoimmune regulator) gene is expressed in a very limited type of medullary thymic epithelial cells (mTECs) and no cognate cell lines are available, hence the molecular analysis of AIRE gene function has been difficult. To improve this situation, we attempted to isolate Aire-expressing cells and established three cell lines (Aire⁺TEC1, Aire⁺TEC2, Aire⁺DC) from the abnormally enlarged thymus, which was developed in the transgenic mice expressing SV40 T-antigen driven by the mouse Aire gene promoter. When these Aire⁺ cell lines were co-cultured with fresh thymocytes, they adhered to the majority of thymocytes and induced apoptosis as if negative selection of T-cells in the thymus is occurring in vitro. Further analysis revealed that these Aire⁺ cell lines are derived from mTECs and exhibit characteristic natures of "antigen presenting cells" including several distinct abilities: to express a variety of peripheral tissue-specific antigens, to produce immunoproteasome and immunological synapse, and to express some of TNFSFs (tumor necrosis factor super families). Thus, the newly established Aire⁺ cell lines will be invaluable for the further detailed analysis of AIRE gene function in the central tolerance of immunity and autoimmune disease.

  3. Air-broadened Lorentz halfwidths and pressure-induced line shifts in the nu(4) band of C-13H4

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Devi, V. Malathy; Benner, D. Chris; Rinsland, Curtis P.; Smith, Mary Ann H.

    1988-01-01

    Air-broadened halfwidths and pressure-induced line shifts in the nu(4) fundamental of C-13H4 were determined from spectra recorded at room temperature and at 0.01/cm resolution using a Fourier transform spectrometer. Halfwidths and pressure shifts were determined for over 180 transitions belonging to J-double prime values of less than or = to 16. Comparisons of air-broadened halfwidths and pressure-induced line shifts made for identical transitions in the nu(4) bands of C-12H4 and C-13H4 have shown that C-13H4 air-broadened halfwidths are about 5 percent smaller than the corresponding C-12H4 halfwidths, and the pressure shifts for C-13H4 lines are about 5-15 percent larger than those for C-12H4.

  4. Summary of Turbulence Data Obtained During United Air Lines Flight Evaluation of an Experimental C Band (5.5 cm) Airborne Weather Radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coe, E. C.; Fetner, M. W.

    1954-01-01

    Data on atmospheric turbulence in the vicinity of thunderstorms obtained during a flight evaluation of an experimental C band (5.5 cm) airborne radar are summarized. The turbulence data were obtained with an NACA VGH recorder installed in a United Air Lines DC-3 airplane.

  5. A small-scale air-cathode microbial fuel cell for on-line monitoring of water quality.

    PubMed

    Di Lorenzo, Mirella; Thomson, Alexander R; Schneider, Kenneth; Cameron, Petra J; Ieropoulos, Ioannis

    2014-12-15

    The heavy use of chemicals for agricultural, industrial and domestic purposes has increased the risk of freshwater contamination worldwide. Consequently, the demand for efficient new analytical tools for on-line and on-site water quality monitoring has become particularly urgent. In this study, a small-scale single chamber air-cathode microbial fuel cell (SCMFC), fabricated by rapid prototyping layer-by-layer 3D printing, was tested as a biosensor for continuous water quality monitoring. When acetate was fed as the rate-limiting substrate, the SCMFC acted as a sensor for chemical oxygen demand (COD) in water. The linear detection range was 3-164 ppm, with a sensitivity of 0.05 μA mM(-1) cm(-2) with respect to the anode total surface area. The response time was as fast as 2.8 min. At saturating acetate concentrations (COD>164 ppm), the miniature SCMFC could rapidly detect the presence of cadmium in water with high sensitivity (0.2 μg l(-1) cm(-2)) and a lower detection limit of only 1 μg l(-1). The biosensor dynamic range was 1-25 μg l(-1). Within this range of concentrations, cadmium affected only temporarily the electroactive biofilm at the anode. When the SCMFCs were again fed with fresh wastewater and no pollutant, the initial steady-state current was recovered within 12 min.

  6. Radiological engineering evaluation of the delay time line air scrubber located at the Clinton P. Anderson Meson Physics Facility (LAMPF)

    SciTech Connect

    Huneycutt, S.E.

    1996-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of the addition of an air scrubber to an already existing delay line and whether it would scrub {sup 11}CO{sub 2}. There were three main objectives of this study. The first objective was to determine the scrubbing efficiency of the scrubber. The scrubbing efficiency was then used to predict the dose rates in the scrubber area and compare those values with measurements from radiological surveys. The third objective was to determine if the shield blocks were effective in reducing the dose rates in the scrubber area. The activities were measured before and during scrubber operation and this information was used to calculate the scrubbing efficiency and the efficiency of {sup 11}CO{sub 2} removal was determined to be around 50%. Microshield was then used to predict dose rates and compared those values with measurements from radiological surveys. This was also used to determine the that the shield blocks around the scrubber were effective in reducing the dose rates from the radiation field produced by the radionuclides in the scrubber.

  7. A small-scale air-cathode microbial fuel cell for on-line monitoring of water quality.

    PubMed

    Di Lorenzo, Mirella; Thomson, Alexander R; Schneider, Kenneth; Cameron, Petra J; Ieropoulos, Ioannis

    2014-12-15

    The heavy use of chemicals for agricultural, industrial and domestic purposes has increased the risk of freshwater contamination worldwide. Consequently, the demand for efficient new analytical tools for on-line and on-site water quality monitoring has become particularly urgent. In this study, a small-scale single chamber air-cathode microbial fuel cell (SCMFC), fabricated by rapid prototyping layer-by-layer 3D printing, was tested as a biosensor for continuous water quality monitoring. When acetate was fed as the rate-limiting substrate, the SCMFC acted as a sensor for chemical oxygen demand (COD) in water. The linear detection range was 3-164 ppm, with a sensitivity of 0.05 μA mM(-1) cm(-2) with respect to the anode total surface area. The response time was as fast as 2.8 min. At saturating acetate concentrations (COD>164 ppm), the miniature SCMFC could rapidly detect the presence of cadmium in water with high sensitivity (0.2 μg l(-1) cm(-2)) and a lower detection limit of only 1 μg l(-1). The biosensor dynamic range was 1-25 μg l(-1). Within this range of concentrations, cadmium affected only temporarily the electroactive biofilm at the anode. When the SCMFCs were again fed with fresh wastewater and no pollutant, the initial steady-state current was recovered within 12 min. PMID:25005554

  8. Development, characterization and application of a new fibroblastic-like cell line from kidney of a freshwater air breathing fish Channa striatus (Bloch, 1793).

    PubMed

    Abdul Majeed, S; Nambi, K S N; Taju, G; Sahul Hameed, A S

    2013-07-01

    A new cell line, Channa striatus kidney (CSK), derived from the kidney tissue of murrel, was established and characterized. The CSK cell line was maintained in Leibovitz's L-15 supplemented with 10% fetal bovine serum and has been subcultured more than 140 times. This cell line was able to grow in a range of temperatures from 22 to 32°C with optimal growth at 28°C. The plating efficiency was very high (67.54%) and doubling time was approximately 29h. The kidney cell line was cryopreserved at different passage levels and revived successfully with 90-92% survival. Polymerase chain reaction amplification of mitochondrial 16S rRNA using primer specific to C. striatus confirmed the origin of this cell line from murrel. The cell line was further characterized by chromosome number, transfection and mycoplasma detection. A marine fish nodavirus was tested to determine the susceptibility of this new cell line. The CSK cell line was found to be susceptible to nodavirus and the infection was confirmed by cytopathic effect (CPE), reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), immunodot blot, enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), virus replication efficiency and real time RT-PCR. The present study highlights the development and characterization of a new kidney cell line from an air breathing fish that could be used as an in vitro tools for propagation of fish viruses and gene expression studies. PMID:23558109

  9. Results of borehole geophysical logging and hydraulic tests conducted in Area D supply wells, former US Naval Air Warfare Center, Warminster, Pennsylvania

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sloto, Ronald A.; Grazul, Kevin E.

    1998-01-01

    Borehole geophysical logging, aquifer tests, and aquifer-isolation (packer) tests were conducted in four supply wells at the former U.S. Naval Air Warfare Center (NAWC) in Warminster, PA to identify the depth and yield of water-bearing zones, occurrence of borehole flow, and effect of pumping on nearby wells. The study was conducted as part of an ongoing evaluation of ground-water contamination at the NAWC. Caliper, natural-gamma, single-point resistance, fluid resistivity, and fluid temperature logs and borehole television surveys were run in the supply wells, which range in depth from 242 to 560 ft (feet). Acoustic borehole televiewer and borehole deviation logs were run in two of the wells. The direction and rate of borehole-fluid movement under non-pumping conditions were measured with a high-resolution heatpulse flowmeter. The logs were used to locate water-bearing fractures, determine probable zones of vertical borehole-fluid movement, and determine the depth to set packers. An aquifer test was conducted in each well to determine open-hole specific capacity and the effect of pumping the open borehole on water levels in nearby wells. Specific capacities ranged from 0.21 to 1.7 (gal/min)/ft (gallons per minute per foot) of drawdown. Aquifer-isolation tests were conducted in each well to determine depth-discrete specific capacities and to determine the effect of pumping an individual fracture or fracture zone on water levels in nearby wells. Specific capacities of individual fractures and fracture zones ranged from 0 to 2.3 (gal/min)/ft. Most fractures identified as water-producing or water-receiving zones by borehole geophysical methods produced water when isolated and pumped. All hydrologically active fractures below 250 ft below land surface were identified as water-receiving zones and produced little water when isolated and pumped. In the two wells greater then 540 ft deep, downward borehole flow to the deep water-receiving fractures is caused by a large

  10. On-line analysis of volatile chlorinated hydrocarbons in air by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry Improvements in preconcentration and injection steps.

    PubMed

    Zoccolillo, Lelio; Amendola, Luca; Insogna, Susanna; Pastorini, Elisabetta

    2010-06-11

    An analytical system composed of a cryofocusing trap injector device coupled to a gas chromatograph with mass spectrometric detection (CTI-GC-MS) specific for the on-line analysis in air of volatile chlorinated hydrocarbons (VCHCs) (dichloromethane; chloroform; 1,1,1-trichloroethane; tetrachloromethane; 1,1,2-trichloroethylene; tetrachloroethylene) was developed. The cryofocusing trap injector was the result of appropriate low cost modifications to an original purge-and-trap device to make it suitable for direct air analysis even in the case of only slightly contaminated air samples, such as those from remote zones. The CTI device can rapidly and easily be rearranged into the purge-and-trap allowing water and air analysis with the same apparatus. Air samples, collected in stainless steel canisters, were introduced directly into the CTI-GC-MS system to realize cryo-concentration (at -120 degrees C), thermal desorption (at 200 degrees C) and for the subsequent analysis of volatiles. The operating phases and conditions were customised and optimized. Recovery efficiency was optimized in terms of moisture removal, cold trap temperature and sampling mass flow. The injection of entrapped volatiles was realized through a direct transfer with high chromatographic reliability (capillary column-capillary column). These improvements allowed obtaining limits of detection (LODs) at least one order of magnitude lower than current LODs for the investigated substances. The method was successfully employed on real samples: air from urban and rural areas and air from remote zones such as Antarctica.

  11. Automated high-speed analysis of selected organic compounds in urban air by on-line isotopic dilution cryofocusing gas chromatography/mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Davoli, E; Cappellini, L; Maggi, M; Fanelli, R

    1994-11-01

    An automated environmental air monitor has been developed to measure selected organic compounds in urban air. The instrument is based on a cryofocusing-thermal desorption gas chromatographic mass spectrometry technique where the mass spectrometer is a slightly modified residual gas analyzer (RGA). The RGA was chosen as a detector because the whole system must be robust for long periods, with 24-h continuous air monitoring. RCA are extremely simple and seemed the most reliable mass spectrometers for this purpose. Moreover, because they have no physically limited ion source, contamination is considerably reduced, so maintenance intervals are longer.The gas chromatograph is equipped with a computer-controlled six-way sampling valve, with a 100-mL sampling loop and thermal desorption cold trap injector. Environmental air is enriched with an isotopically labeled internal standard in the sampling line. This internal standard is added with a validated, custom-made, permeation tube device. The "on-line" internal standard provides for high quality quantitative data because all variations in instrument sensitivity in cryofocusing or in thermal desorption efficiency are taken into account. High repetition rates (down to 5 min for a full analytical cycle) are obtained with the use of an isothermal gas chromatography program, microbore capillary column, and environmental air sampling during the gas chromatography run.

  12. Evaluation of the PotoClean® decontamination technology for reprocessing of water supply lines in dental units during routine work

    PubMed Central

    Kramer, Axel; Koburger, Torsten; Taube, Lisa-Dorothea; Menzel, Michael; Meyer, Georg; Assadian, Ojan

    2012-01-01

    Background: A frequent problem in dental units is the microbial contamination of water and biofilm formation in the water supply lines. After random identification of a bacterial contaminated dental unit (310 cfu/ml) in a practise with 3 dental units we implemented the present study to evaluate the efficacy of the PotoClean® technology, based on anodic oxidation. Method: The efficacy of a regular low concentrated permanent decontamination (1 mg Cl/L) with an additional intensive decontamination by PotoClean® (three times 20 mg Cl/ml for 2 h) on three dental units was tested over 7 months. Microbial contamination, total chlorine concentration and redox potential have been analyzed. Dental unit A and B was 15 years old, unit C 5 years. Results: After 3 intensive decontaminations, in dental unit A and B the number of bacteria and moulds could be reduced less than 7 d. Thereafter the bacteria counts increased again during the subsequent 7 month period and the amount of moulds was with some exceptions 300 cfu/ml, although PotoClean® was constantly added in the system (1 mg Cl/L). After further 7.5 month only with low concentrated permanent disinfection (1 mg Cl/L) both units were successful decontaminated. Dental unit C represented an object which was easier to decontaminate because of the advanced construction (prevention of water stagnation) and the shorter useful life. At the beginning of the decontamination it was no bacterial contamination, but moulds were contained (300 cfu/ml). Already after the first intensive decontamination, no further bacteria and moulds could be detected. Discussion: An important factor for the efficacy of PotoClean® was the age of the units and their construction. For a new generation of dental units PotoClean® was effective during the whole period of monitoring. For two old types of dental unit with massive biofilm development the successful decontamination needed more than 7 month. Conclusion: The PotoClean® technology has resulted

  13. Air-flow regulation system for a coal gasifier

    DOEpatents

    Fasching, George E.

    1984-01-01

    An improved air-flow regulator for a fixed-bed coal gasifier is provided which allows close air-flow regulation from a compressor source even though the pressure variations are too rapid for a single primary control loop to respond. The improved system includes a primary controller to control a valve in the main (large) air supply line to regulate large slow changes in flow. A secondary controller is used to control a smaller, faster acting valve in a secondary (small) air supply line parallel to the main line valve to regulate rapid cyclic deviations in air flow. A low-pass filter with a time constant of from 20 to 50 seconds couples the output of the secondary controller to the input of the primary controller so that the primary controller only responds to slow changes in the air-flow rate, the faster, cyclic deviations in flow rate sensed and corrected by the secondary controller loop do not reach the primary controller due to the high frequency rejection provided by the filter. This control arrangement provides at least a factor of 5 improvement in air-flow regulation for a coal gasifier in which air is supplied by a reciprocating compressor through a surge tank.

  14. Comet assay and air-liquid interface exposure system: a new combination to evaluate genotoxic effects of cigarette whole smoke in human lung cell lines.

    PubMed

    Weber, Susanne; Hebestreit, Marco; Wilms, Torsten; Conroy, Lynda L; Rodrigo, Gregory

    2013-09-01

    Over the past three decades, the genotoxic effects of cigarette smoke have generally been evaluated in non-human cell models after exposure to particulate phase, gas phase, or cigarette smoke condensate, rather than the whole smoke aerosol itself. In vitro setups using human cell lines and whole smoke exposure to mimic actual aerosol exposure should more accurately reflect human cigarette smoke exposure. We investigated the VITROCELL® 24 air-liquid interface exposure system in combination with the comet assay to assess DNA damage in two different human lung epithelial cell lines exposed to whole smoke. Results showed a repeatable and reproducible dose-response relationship between DNA damage and increased whole smoke dose in both cell lines. Thus, the combination of the comet assay with the VITROCELL® 24 represents a valuable new in vitro test system to screen and assess DNA damage in human lung cells exposed to whole smoke.

  15. Multispectrum Analysis of 12CH4 in the v4 Band: I. Air-Broadened Half Widths, Pressure-Induced Shifts, Temperature Dependences and Line Mixing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, MaryAnn H.; Benner, D. Chris; Predoi-Cross, Adriana; Venkataraman, Malathy Devi

    2009-01-01

    Lorentz air-broadened half widths, pressure-induced shifts and their temperature dependences have been measured for over 430 transitions (allowed and forbidden) in the v4 band of (CH4)-12 over the temperature range 210 to 314 K. A multispectrum non linear least squares fitting technique was used to simultaneously fit a large number of high-resolution (0.006 to 0.01/cm) absorption spectra of pure methane and mixtures of methane diluted with dry air. Line mixing was detected for pairs of A-, E-, and F-species transitions in the P- and R-branch manifolds and quantified using the off-diagonal relaxation matrix elements formalism. The measured parameters are compared to air- and N2-broadened values reported in the literature for the v4 and other bands. The dependence of the various spectral line parameters upon the tetrahedral symmetry species and rotational quantum numbers of the transitions is discussed. All data used in the present work were recorded using the McMath-Pierce Fourier transform spectrometer located at the National Solar Observatory on Kitt Peak.

  16. Analysis of air ions in biological exposure systems, near HV dc electric power transmission lines, in rooms containing ion generators, and near exposed humans and animals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaune, William T.; Gillis, Murlin F.; Weigel, Richard J.

    1983-11-01

    A number of systems containing space charge are analyzed using the transit-time technique developed in an earlier paper. (1) An inequality is derived for a room containing an air-ion generator which relates the ion source current to the minimum space-charge density. (2) Published wind-tunnel data are treated, and the characteristics of space-charge plumes produced downstream from localized corona and radioactive sources are explained. (3) Space-charge data published by other researchers can be evaluated; three examples are given, and in two of them published space-charge densities substantially exceed calculated upper-bound values. (4) Formulae are derived for the extrapolation of ground-level space-charge-density, electric field, and ion-current-density data to points above ground level; these formulae are useful for characterizing the three-dimensional environments in systems where only ground-level measurements are available. (5) A simple upper bound is derived for ground-level space-charge densities produced by high-voltage direct-current (HV dc) transmission lines, and it is shown that actual lines do produce densities closely approaching this upper-bound value. (6) The perturbed space-charge density at the surface of the body of an animal or human exposed to air ions and electric fields is estimated, and it is shown that perturbed and unperturbed space-charge densities are approximately equal for exposure conditions simulating those at ground level near HV dc transmission lines.

  17. Air- and Self-Broadened Half Widths, Pressure-Induced Shifts, and Line Mixing in the Nu(sub 2) Band of (12)CH4

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, M. A. H.; Benner, D. Chris; Pedroi-Cross, A.; Devi, V. Malathy

    2013-01-01

    Lorentz self- and air-broadened half width and pressure-induced shift coefficients and their dependences on temperature have been measured from laboratory absorption spectra for nearly 130 transitions in the nu(sub 2) band of (12)CH4. In addition line mixing coefficients (using the relaxation matrix element formalism) for both self- and airbroadening were experimentally determined for the first time for a small number of transitions in this band. Accurate line positions and absolute line intensities were also determined. These parameters were obtained by analyzing high-resolution (approx. 0.003 to 0.01 per cm) laboratory spectra of high-purity natural CH4 and air-broadened CH4 recorded at temperatures between 226 and 297 K using the McMath-Pierce Fourier transform spectrometer (FTS) located at the National Solar Observatory on Kitt Peak, Arizona. A multispectrum nonlinear least squares technique was used to fit short (5-15 per cm) spectral intervals in 24-29 spectra simultaneously. Parameters were determined for nu(sub 2) transitions up to J" = 16. The variations of the measured broadening and shift parameters with the rotational quantum number index and tetrahedral symmetry species are examined. The present results are also compared with previous measurements available in the literature.

  18. Membrane Dehumidifier: High-Efficiency, On-Line Membrane Air Dehumidifier Enabling Sensible Cooling for Warm and Humid Climates

    SciTech Connect

    2010-09-01

    BEETIT Project: ADMA Products is developing a foil-like membrane for air conditioners that efficiently removes moisture from humid air. ADMA Products’s metal foil-like membrane consists of a paper thin, porous metal sheet coated with a layer of water-loving molecules. This new membrane allows water vapor to permeate across the membrane at high fluxes and at the same time, blocks air penetration efficiently resulting in high selectivity. The high selectivity of the membrane translates to less energy use, while the high permeation fluxes result in a more compact device. The new materials and the flat foil-like nature of the membrane facilitate the mass production of a low-coast compact dehumidification device

  19. Beam Transport of 4 GeV Protons from AGS to the Proton Interrogation Target of the Neutrino Line (Z_line) and Effect of the Air on the Transported Beam

    SciTech Connect

    Tsoupas,N.; Ahrens, L.; Pile, P.; Thieberger, P.; Murray, M.M.

    2008-10-01

    As part of the preparation for the Proton Interrogation Experiment, we have calculated the beam optics for the transport of 4 GeV protons, from the AGS extraction point, to the 'Cross-Section Target Wheel 1' and to the 'Proton Interrogation Target'. In this technical note we present three possible beam-transports each corresponding to a particular Fast Extracted Beam W B setup of the AGS. In addition we present results on the effect of the atmospheric air, (which fills the drift space of the last 100 [m] of the transport line), on the size of the beam, at two locations along the drift space, one location at the middle of the drift space and the other at the end where the 'Proton Interrogation Target' is placed. All the beam transports mentioned above require the removal of the WD1 dipole magnet, which is the first magnet of the W-line, because it acts as a limiting beam aperture, and the magnet is not used in the beam transport. An alternative solution of a beam transport, which does not require the removal of the WD1 magnet, is also presented. In this solution, which models the transport line using the TURTLE computer code[7], the vertical beam sizes at the location of the WD1 magnet is minimized to allow 'lossless' beam transport at the location of the WD1 magnet. A similar solution, but using a MAD model of the line, is also presented.

  20. On-line Chemistry within WRF: Description and Evaluation of a State-of-the-Art Multiscale Air Quality and Weather Prediction Model

    SciTech Connect

    Grell, Georg; Fast, Jerome D.; Gustafson, William I.; Peckham, Steven E.; McKeen, Stuart A.; Salzmann, Marc; Freitas, Saulo

    2010-01-01

    This is a conference proceeding that is now being put together as a book. This is chapter 2 of the book: "INTEGRATED SYSTEMS OF MESO-METEOROLOGICAL AND CHEMICAL TRANSPORT MODELS" published by Springer. The chapter title is "On-line Chemistry within WRF: Description and Evaluation of a State-of-the-Art Multiscale Air Quality and Weather Prediction Model." The original conference was the COST-728/NetFAM workshop on Integrated systems of meso-meteorological and chemical transport models, Danish Meteorological Institute, Copenhagen, May 21-23, 2007.

  1. Interpretation of borehole geophysical logs, aquifer-isolation tests, and water quality, supply wells 1 and 2, Willow Grove Naval Air Station/Joint Reserve Base, Horsham Township, Montgomery County, Pennsylvania

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sloto, Ronald A.; Goode, Daniel J.; Frasch, Steven M.

    2002-01-01

    Ground water pumped from supply wells 1 and 2 on the Willow Grove Naval Air Station/Joint Reserve Base (NAS/JRB) provides water for use at the base, including potable water for drinking. The supply wells have been contaminated by volatile organic compounds (VOC?s), particularly trichloroethylene (TCE) and tetrachloroethylene (PCE), and the water is treated to remove the VOC?s. The Willow Grove NAS/JRB and surrounding area are underlain by sedimentary rocks of the Triassic-age Stockton Formation, which form a complex, heterogeneous aquifer. The ground-water-flow system for the supply wells was characterized by use of borehole geophysical logs and heatpulse-flowmeter measurements. The heatpulse-flowmeter measurements showed upward and downward borehole flow under nonpumping conditions in both wells. The hydraulic and chemical properties of discrete water-bearing fractures in the supply wells were characterized by isolating each water-bearing fracture with straddle packers. Eight fractures in supply well 1 and five fractures in supply well 2 were selected for testing on the basis of the borehole geophysical logs and borehole television surveys. Water samples were collected from each isolated fracture and analyzed for VOC?s and inorganic constituents. Fractures at 50?59, 79?80, 196, 124?152, 182, 241, 256, and 350?354 ft btoc (feet below top of casing) were isolated in supply well 1. Specific capacities ranged from 0.26 to 5.7 (gal/min)/ft (gallons per minute per foot) of drawdown. The highest specific capacity was for the fracture isolated at 179.8?188 ft btoc. Specific capacity and depth of fracture were not related in either supply well. The highest concentrations of PCE were in water samples collected from fractures isolated at 236.8?245 and 249.8?258 ft btoc, which are hydraulically connected. The concentration of PCE generally increased with depth to a maximum of 39 mg/L (micrograms per liter) at a depth of 249.8? 258 ft btoc and then decreased to 21 mg/L at a

  2. 76 FR 43743 - Michigan Air-Line Railway Co.-Abandonment Exemption-in Oakland County, MI

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-21

    ....--Abandonment Exemption--in Oakland Cnty., Mich., AB 1053 (Sub-No. 1X) (STB served May 18, 2011). The line does... filings in response to this notice must refer to Docket No. AB 1053 (Sub-No. 2X), and must be sent to:...

  3. Temperature dependence of Lorentz air-broadening and pressure-shift coefficients of (12)CH4 lines in the 2.3-micron spectral region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Devi, V. Malathy; Benner, D. Chris; Smith, M. A. H.; Rinsland, C. P.

    1994-01-01

    High-resolution (0.01/cm) absorption spectra of lean mixtures of CH4 in dry air were recorded with the McMath-Pierce Fourier transform spectrometer (FTS) of the National Solar Observatory on Kitt Peak at various temperatures between 24 and -61 C. The spectra have been analyzed to determine the values at room temperature of pressure-broadened widths and pressure-induced shifts of more than 740 transitions. The temperature dependence of air-broadened widths and pressure-induced shifts was deduced for approx. 370 transitions in the nu(sub 1) + nu(sub 4), nu(sub 3) + nu(sub 4), and nu(sub 2) + nu(sub 3) bands of (12)CH4 located between 4118 and 4615/cm. These results were obtained by analyzing a total of 29 spectra simultaneously using a multi-spectral non-linear least-squares fitting technique. This new technique allowed the determination of correlated spectral line parameters (e.g. intensity and broadening coefficient) better than the procedure of averaging values obtained by fitting the spectra individually. This method also provided a direct determination of the uncertainties in the retrieved parameters due to random errors. For each band analysed in this study the dependence of the various spectral line parameters upon the tetrahedral symmetry species and the rotational quantum numbers of the transitions is also presented.

  4. Nursing Supplies

    MedlinePlus

    ... Stages Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share Nursing Supplies Page Content Article Body Throughout most of ... budget. (Nursing equipment also makes wonderful baby gifts.) Nursing Bras A well-made nursing bra that comfortably ...

  5. Power Supply

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    Maxwell Laboratories capacitor charging power supply is the first commercial spinoff from the NASA CCDS program - a consortia of industries and government establishments to accelerate development of ground and space based commercial applications of NASA technology. The power supply transforms and conditions large voltages to charge capacitors used in x-ray sources, medical accelerators, etc. It is lighter, more reliable, more compact and efficient. Originally developed for space lasers, its commercial potential was soon recognized.

  6. Air-Broadened Line Parameters for the 2←0 Bands of 13C16O and 12C18O at 2.3 μm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Devi, V. Malathy; Benner, D. Chris; Smith, M. A. H.; Mantz, A. W.; Sung, K.; Brown, L. R.

    2012-06-01

    Air-broadened line shape parameters were determined for the first time in the 2←0 bands of 13C16O near 4166.8 cm-1 and 12C18O near 4159.0 cm-1. Spectra were recorded at 0.005 cm-1 resolution using a coolable absorption cell in the sample compartment of the Bruker IFS 125HR Fourier transform spectrometer at Jet Propulsion Laboratory. Gas temperatures and pressures ranged from 150 to 298 K and 20 to 700 Torr, respectively. Line parameters were determined by broad-band multispectrum least-squares fitting of the 4000-4360 cm-1 region in 16 spectra simultaneously; each set included 4 isotope-enriched pure sample scans and 12 air+CO samples (13CO or C18O, as appropriate). The air-broadened parameters measured were Lorentz half-width coefficients, their temperature dependence exponents; pressure-induced shift coefficients, their temperature dependences; and off-diagonal relaxation matrix elements. Speed dependence parameters were included to minimize the fit residuals. For both isotopologues the individual line positions and intensities were constrained to their theoretical relationships in order to obtain the rovibrational (G, B, D, and H) and band intensity parameters, including Herman-Wallis coefficients. The results for 13C16O and 12C18O are compared with those for the 12C16O 2←0 band and discussed. K. Sung, A. W. Mantz, M. A. H. Smith, et al., JMS 262 (2010) 122-134. D. C. Benner, C. P. Rinsland, V. Malathy Devi, M. A. H. Smith and D. A. Atkins, JQSRT 53 (1995) 705-721. V. Malathy Devi, D. C. Benner, L. R. Brown, C. E. Miller and R. A. Toth, JMS 242 (2007) 90-117. V. Malathy Devi, D. C. Benner, M. A. H. Smith, et al., JQSRT (2012) in press. Research described in this paper was performed at Connecticut College, the College of William and Mary, NASA Langley Research Center and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under contracts and cooperative agreements with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration.

  7. Viscous airflow through a rigid tube with a compliant lining: a simple model for the air-mucus interaction in pulmonary airways.

    PubMed

    Evrensel, C A; Khan, R U; Elli, S; Krumpe, P E

    1993-08-01

    The respiratory tract of mammals is lined with a layer of mucus, described as viscoelastic semi-solid, above a layer of watery serous fluid. The interaction of these compliant layers with pulmonary airflow plays a major role in lung clearance by two-phase gas-liquid flow and in increased flow resistance in patients with obstructive airway diseases such as cystic fibrosis, chronic bronchitis and asthma. Experiments have shown that such coupled systems of flow-compliant-layers are quite susceptible to sudden shear instabilities, leading to formation of relatively large amplitude waves at the interface. Although these waves enhance the lung clearance by mobilizing the secretions, they increase the flow resistance in airways. The objective of this paper is to understand the basic interaction mechanism between the two media better by studying airflow through a rigid pipe that is lined by a compliant layer. The mathematical model that has been developed for this purpose is capable of explaining some of the published experimental observations. Wave instability theory is applied to the coupled air-mucus system to explore the stability of the interface. The results show that the onset flow speed for the initiation of unstable surface waves, and the resulting wavelength, are both very sensitive to mucus thickness. The model predicts that the instabilities initiate in the form of propagating waves for the elastic mucus where the wave speed is about 40 percent of the flow speed. The wavelength and phase speed to air velocity ratio are shown to increase with increasing mucus thickness.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  8. In-Line Ozonation for Sensitive Air-Monitoring of a Mustard-Gas Simulant by Atmospheric Pressure Chemical Ionization Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Okumura, Akihiko

    2015-09-01

    A highly sensitive method for real-time air-monitoring of mustard gas (bis(2-chloroethyl) sulfide, HD), which is a lethal blister agent, is proposed. Humidified air containing a HD simulant, 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide (2CEES), was mixed with ozone and then analyzed by using an atmospheric pressure chemical ionization ion trap tandem mass spectrometer. Mass-spectral ion peaks attributable to protonated molecules of intact, monooxygenated, and dioxygenated 2CEES (MH(+), MOH(+), and MO(2)H(+), respectively) were observed. As ozone concentration was increased from zero to 30 ppm, the signal intensity of MH(+) sharply decreased, that of MOH(+) increased once and then decreased, and that of MO(2)H(+) sharply increased until reaching a plateau. The signal intensity of MO(2)H(+) at the plateau was 40 times higher than that of MH(+) and 100 times higher than that of MOH(+) in the case without in-line ozonation. Twenty-ppm ozone gas was adequate to give a linear calibration curve for 2CEES obtained by detecting the MO(2)H(+) signal in the concentration range up to 60 μg/m(3), which is high enough for hygiene management. In the low concentration range lower than 3 μg/m(3), which is equal to the short-term exposure limit for HD, calibration plots unexpectedly fell off the linear calibration curve, but 0.6-μg/m(3) vapor was actually detected with the signal-to-noise ratio of nine. Ozone was generated from instrumentation air by using a simple and inexpensive home-made generator. 2CEES was ozonated in 1-m extended sampling tube in only 1 s.

  9. Air-Broadened Line Shapes in the 2ν_3 R Branch of ^{12}CH_4 Between 6014 and 6100 CM^{-1}

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Devi, V. Malathy; Benner, D. Chris; Sung, K.; Brown, L. R.; Crawford, T. J.; Yu, Shanshan; Smith, M. A. H.; Mantz, A. W.

    2013-06-01

    Complete and accurate information on line shape parameters of 2ν_3 methane transitions for air broadening as a function of temperature is critical not only for the correct interpretation of the observed atmospheric spectra but also for the development of a reliable theoretical model. For this reason, we obtained a series of high-resolution, high S/N spectra of high-purity ^{12}CH_4 and ^{12}CH_4 broadened with dry air at temperatures in the 130 to 295 K range using the Bruker IFS 125HR Fourier transform spectrometer at JPL. Two absorption cells were used in the experiment, a White cell with path length of 13 m for room temperature spectra and a 21 m Herriott cell for cold sample spectra. The 15 spectra used in the analysis consisted of 3 low pressure (0.26 to 2.57 Torr) spectra with pure ^{12}CH_4 and 12 air-broadened spectra with total sample pressures of 79-805 Torr and volume mixing ratios of methane between 0.23 and 1%. A multispectrum least-squares fitting technique was employed to fit all 15 spectra simultaneously. Preliminary results for select R(J) manifolds will be presented. A. W. Mantz, K. Sung, L. R. Brown, et al., abstract submitted to this Symposium. D. C. Benner, C. P. Rinsland, V. Malathy Devi, M. A. H. Smith and D. Atkins, JQSRT {53} (1995) 705-721. Research described in this paper was performed at Connecticut College, the College of William and Mary, NASA Langley Research Center and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under contracts and cooperative agreements with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration.

  10. In-Line Ozonation for Sensitive Air-Monitoring of a Mustard-Gas Simulant by Atmospheric Pressure Chemical Ionization Mass Spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okumura, Akihiko

    2015-09-01

    A highly sensitive method for real-time air-monitoring of mustard gas (bis(2-chloroethyl) sulfide, HD), which is a lethal blister agent, is proposed. Humidified air containing a HD simulant, 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide (2CEES), was mixed with ozone and then analyzed by using an atmospheric pressure chemical ionization ion trap tandem mass spectrometer. Mass-spectral ion peaks attributable to protonated molecules of intact, monooxygenated, and dioxygenated 2CEES (MH+, MOH+, and MO2H+, respectively) were observed. As ozone concentration was increased from zero to 30 ppm, the signal intensity of MH+ sharply decreased, that of MOH+ increased once and then decreased, and that of MO2H+ sharply increased until reaching a plateau. The signal intensity of MO2H+ at the plateau was 40 times higher than that of MH+ and 100 times higher than that of MOH+ in the case without in-line ozonation. Twenty-ppm ozone gas was adequate to give a linear calibration curve for 2CEES obtained by detecting the MO2H+ signal in the concentration range up to 60 μg/m3, which is high enough for hygiene management. In the low concentration range lower than 3 μg/m3, which is equal to the short-term exposure limit for HD, calibration plots unexpectedly fell off the linear calibration curve, but 0.6-μg/m3 vapor was actually detected with the signal-to-noise ratio of nine. Ozone was generated from instrumentation air by using a simple and inexpensive home-made generator. 2CEES was ozonated in 1-m extended sampling tube in only 1 s.

  11. An on-line analysis of 7 odorous volatile organic compounds in the ambient air surrounding a large industrial complex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kabir, Ehsanul; Kim, Ki-Hyun

    2010-09-01

    The concentrations of seven odorous volatile organic compounds (VOCs) including styrene (S), toluene (T), xylene (X), methyl ethyl ketone (MEK), isobutyl alcohol (i-BuAl), methyl isobutyl ketone (MIBK), and butyl acetate (BuAc) were measured continuously at hourly intervals from an on-line odor monitoring station in Ansan city, Korea (August 2005 to December 2007). Their concentration data (ppb) exhibited a narrow range of mean values despite large variabilities: 1.33 ± 8.81, 16.1 ± 96.6, 3.32 ± 11.5, 7.45 ± 10.3, 20.4 ± 2.38, 1.31 ± 1.16, and 2.43 ± 3.02, respectively. However, unlike aromatics, the distribution of other VOCs was characterized by infrequent occurrences, e.g., as large as 97.5% of i-BuAl data below detection limit. Comparison of temporal patterns indicates that aromatic VOCs are the highest in summer, while others tend to peak during fall (or summer). If the relative compositions of these VOCs were compared in terms of odor intensity, their contribution in the study area is unlikely significant as the malodor components. Evaluation of the data suggests that the distribution of the target VOCs should be affected more sensitively by local traffic activities rather than industrial processes in the surrounding area. Nonetheless, the potent roles of these volatile components should not be underestimated with respect to human health.

  12. Power supply

    SciTech Connect

    Yakymyshyn, Christopher Paul; Hamilton, Pamela Jane; Brubaker, Michael Allen

    2007-12-04

    A modular, low weight impedance dropping power supply with battery backup is disclosed that can be connected to a high voltage AC source and provide electrical power at a lower voltage. The design can be scaled over a wide range of input voltages and over a wide range of output voltages and delivered power.

  13. Impacts of rising air temperatures and emissions mitigation on electricity demand and supply in the United States: a multi-model comparison

    SciTech Connect

    McFarland, James; Zhou, Yuyu; Clarke, Leon; Sullivan, Patrick; Colman, Jesse; Jaglom, Wendy S.; Colley, Michelle; Patel, Pralit; Eom, Jiyon; Kim, Son H.; Kyle, G. Page; Schultz, Peter; Venkatesh, Boddu; Haydel, Juanita; Mack, Charlotte; Creason, Jared

    2015-06-10

    The electric power sector both affects and is affected by climate change. Numerous studies highlight the potential of the power sector to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Yet fewer studies have explored the physical impacts of climate change on the power sector. The present analysis examines how projected rising temperatures affect the demand for and supply of electricity. We apply a common set of temperature projections to three well-known electric sector models in the United States: the US version of the Global Change Assessment Model (GCAM-USA), the Regional Electricity Deployment System model (ReEDS), and the Integrated Planning Model (IPM®). Incorporating the effects of rising temperatures from a control scenario without emission mitigation into the models raises electricity demand by 1.6 to 6.5 % in 2050 with similar changes in emissions. The increase in system costs in the reference scenario to meet this additional demand is comparable to the change in system costs associated with decreasing power sector emissions by approximately 50 % in 2050. This result underscores the importance of adequately incorporating the effects of long-run temperature change in climate policy analysis.

  14. Impacts of Rising Air Temperatures and Emissions Mitigation on Electricity Demand and Supply in the United States. A Multi-Model Comparison

    DOE PAGES

    McFarland, James; Zhou, Yuyu; Clarke, Leon; Sullivan, Patrick; Colman, Jesse; Jaglom, Wendy S.; Colley, Michelle; Patel, Pralit; Eom, Jiyon; Kim, Son H.; et al

    2015-06-10

    The electric power sector both affects and is affected by climate change. Numerous studies highlight the potential of the power sector to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Fewer studies have explored the physical impacts of climate change on the power sector. Our present analysis examines how projected rising temperatures affect the demand for and supply of electricity. We apply a common set of temperature projections to three well-known electric sector models in the United States: the US version of the Global Change Assessment Model (GCAM-USA), the Regional Electricity Deployment System model (ReEDS), and the Integrated Planning Model (IPM®). Incorporating the effectsmore » of rising temperatures from a control scenario without emission mitigation into the models raises electricity demand by 1.6 to 6.5 % in 2050 with similar changes in emissions. Moreover, the increase in system costs in the reference scenario to meet this additional demand is comparable to the change in system costs associated with decreasing power sector emissions by approximately 50 % in 2050. This result underscores the importance of adequately incorporating the effects of long-run temperature change in climate policy analysis.« less

  15. Impacts of Rising Air Temperatures and Emissions Mitigation on Electricity Demand and Supply in the United States. A Multi-Model Comparison

    SciTech Connect

    McFarland, James; Zhou, Yuyu; Clarke, Leon; Sullivan, Patrick; Colman, Jesse; Jaglom, Wendy S.; Colley, Michelle; Patel, Pralit; Eom, Jiyon; Kim, Son H.; Kyle, G. Page; Schultz, Peter; Venkatesh, Boddu; Haydel, Juanita; Mack, Charlotte; Creason, Jared

    2015-06-10

    The electric power sector both affects and is affected by climate change. Numerous studies highlight the potential of the power sector to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Fewer studies have explored the physical impacts of climate change on the power sector. Our present analysis examines how projected rising temperatures affect the demand for and supply of electricity. We apply a common set of temperature projections to three well-known electric sector models in the United States: the US version of the Global Change Assessment Model (GCAM-USA), the Regional Electricity Deployment System model (ReEDS), and the Integrated Planning Model (IPM®). Incorporating the effects of rising temperatures from a control scenario without emission mitigation into the models raises electricity demand by 1.6 to 6.5 % in 2050 with similar changes in emissions. Moreover, the increase in system costs in the reference scenario to meet this additional demand is comparable to the change in system costs associated with decreasing power sector emissions by approximately 50 % in 2050. This result underscores the importance of adequately incorporating the effects of long-run temperature change in climate policy analysis.

  16. Erratum to: Impacts of rising air temperatures and emissions mitigation on electricity demand and supply in the United States: a multi-model comparison

    SciTech Connect

    McFarland, James; Zhou, Yuyu; Clarke, Leon; Sullivan, Patrick; Colman, Jesse; Jaglom, Wendy S.; Colley, Michelle; Patel, Pralit; Eom, Jiyon; Kim, Son H.; Kyle, G. Page; Schultz, Peter; Venkatesh, Boddu; Haydel, Juanita; Mack, Charlotte; Creason, Jared

    2015-07-07

    The electric power sector both affects and is affected by climate change. Numerous studies highlight the potential of the power sector to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Yet fewer studies have explored the physical impacts of climate change on the power sector. The present analysis examines how projected rising temperatures affect the demand for and supply of electricity. We apply a common set of temperature projections to three well-known electric sector models in the United States: the US version of the Global Change Assessment Model (GCAM-USA), the Regional Electricity Deployment System model (ReEDS), and the Integrated Planning Model (IPM®). Incorporating the effects of rising temperatures from a control scenario without emission mitigation into the models raises electricity demand by 1.6 to 6.5 % in 2050 with similar changes in emissions. The increase in system costs in the reference scenario to meet this additional demand is comparable to the change in system costs associated with decreasing power sector emissions by approximately 50 % in 2050. This result underscores the importance of adequately incorporating the effects of long-run temperature change in climate policy analysis.

  17. Oxygen supplies in disaster management.

    PubMed

    Blakeman, Thomas C; Branson, Richard D

    2013-01-01

    Mass casualty events and disasters, both natural and human-generated, occur frequently around the world and can generate scores of injured or ill victims in need of resources. Of the available medical supplies, oxygen remains the critical consumable resource in disaster management. Strategic management of oxygen supplies in disaster scenarios remains a priority. Hospitals have large supplies of liquid oxygen and a supply of compressed gas oxygen cylinders that allow several days of reserve, but a large influx of patients from a disaster can strain these resources. Most backup liquid oxygen supplies are attached to the main liquid system and supply line. In the event of damage to the main system, the reserve supply is rendered useless. The Strategic National Stockpile supplies medications, medical supplies, and equipment to disaster areas, but it does not supply oxygen. Contracted vendors can deliver oxygen to alternate care facilities in disaster areas, in the form of concentrators, compressed gas cylinders, and liquid oxygen. Planning for oxygen needs following a disaster still presents a substantial challenge, but alternate care facilities have proven to be valuable in relieving pressure from the mass influx of patients into hospitals, especially for those on home oxygen who require only an electrical source to power their oxygen concentrator. PMID:23271827

  18. Oxygen supplies in disaster management.

    PubMed

    Blakeman, Thomas C; Branson, Richard D

    2013-01-01

    Mass casualty events and disasters, both natural and human-generated, occur frequently around the world and can generate scores of injured or ill victims in need of resources. Of the available medical supplies, oxygen remains the critical consumable resource in disaster management. Strategic management of oxygen supplies in disaster scenarios remains a priority. Hospitals have large supplies of liquid oxygen and a supply of compressed gas oxygen cylinders that allow several days of reserve, but a large influx of patients from a disaster can strain these resources. Most backup liquid oxygen supplies are attached to the main liquid system and supply line. In the event of damage to the main system, the reserve supply is rendered useless. The Strategic National Stockpile supplies medications, medical supplies, and equipment to disaster areas, but it does not supply oxygen. Contracted vendors can deliver oxygen to alternate care facilities in disaster areas, in the form of concentrators, compressed gas cylinders, and liquid oxygen. Planning for oxygen needs following a disaster still presents a substantial challenge, but alternate care facilities have proven to be valuable in relieving pressure from the mass influx of patients into hospitals, especially for those on home oxygen who require only an electrical source to power their oxygen concentrator.

  19. Absolute intensities and self-, N2-, and air-broadened Lorentz halfwidths for selected lines in the nu3 band of (C-12)H3D from measurements with a tunable diode laser spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malathy Devi, V.; Benner, D. C.; Rinsland, C. P.; Smith, M. A. H.; Thakur, K. B.

    1986-01-01

    Absolute intensities and self-, air- and N2-broadened half-widths have been determined for the first time for individual lines in the nu3(A1) band of (C-12)H3D near 7.6 microns from measurements of individual vibration-rotation lines using a tunable diode laser spectrometer. The intensity measurements are believed to be accurate to within three percent. Within experimental uncertainties, equal broadening efficiencies are found for both air and nitrogen. Self-broadened half-widths determined for three transitions yield an average half-width value of 0.803 + or -0.0010/cm/atm at 296 K.

  20. Air conditioning system and component therefore distributing air flow from opposite directions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Obler, H. D.; Bauer, H. B. (Inventor)

    1974-01-01

    The air conditioning system comprises a plurality of separate air conditioning units coupled to a common supply duct such that air may be introduced into the supply duct in two opposite flow directions. A plurality of outlets such as registers or auxiliary or branch ducts communicate with the supply duct and valve means are disposed in the supply duct at at least some of the outlets for automatically channelling a controllable amount of air from the supply duct to the associated outlet regardless of the direction of air flow within the supply duct. The valve means comprises an automatic air volume control apparatus for distribution within the air supply duct into which air may be introduced from two opposite directions. The apparatus incorporates a freely swinging movable vane in the supply duct to automatically channel into the associated outlet only the deflected air flow which has the higher relative pressure.

  1. HIRFL-CSR power supply system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Daqing; Zhou, Zhongzu; Chen, Youxin; Wu, Rong; Shangguan, Jingbin; Bai, Zhen

    2001-12-01

    There are more than 200 power supplies will be employed in CSR power supply system. These power supplies provide DC and pulsed exciting current for all magnets in main ring (CSRm), experiment ring (CSRe), injection line of CSRm and RIB line. Six small-scale prototypes have been designed and made before formal manufacture. One thyristor rectifier pulsed converter was delivered to Lanzhou in January and all measurement has been finished in April. The result is satisfied.

  2. Power supply

    DOEpatents

    Hart, Edward J.; Leeman, James E.; MacDougall, Hugh R.; Marron, John J.; Smith, Calvin C.

    1976-01-01

    An electric power supply employs a striking means to initiate ferroelectric elements which provide electrical energy output which subsequently initiates an explosive charge which initiates a second ferroelectric current generator to deliver current to the coil of a magnetic field current generator, creating a magnetic field around the coil. Continued detonation effects compression of the magnetic field and subsequent generation and delivery of a large output current to appropriate output loads.

  3. Into Thin Air.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Mike

    2001-01-01

    Shows how schools are working to avoid the types of equipment, supplies, and maintenance practices that harm indoor air quality. Simple steps to maintaining a cleaner indoor air environment are highlighted as are steps to reducing the problem air quality and the occurrence of asthma. (GR)

  4. Teleconnected food supply shocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bren d'Amour, Christopher; Wenz, Leonie; Kalkuhl, Matthias; Steckel, Jan Christoph; Creutzig, Felix

    2016-03-01

    The 2008-2010 food crisis might have been a harbinger of fundamental climate-induced food crises with geopolitical implications. Heat-wave-induced yield losses in Russia and resulting export restrictions led to increases in market prices for wheat across the Middle East, likely contributing to the Arab Spring. With ongoing climate change, temperatures and temperature variability will rise, leading to higher uncertainty in yields for major nutritional crops. Here we investigate which countries are most vulnerable to teleconnected supply-shocks, i.e. where diets strongly rely on the import of wheat, maize, or rice, and where a large share of the population is living in poverty. We find that the Middle East is most sensitive to teleconnected supply shocks in wheat, Central America to supply shocks in maize, and Western Africa to supply shocks in rice. Weighing with poverty levels, Sub-Saharan Africa is most affected. Altogether, a simultaneous 10% reduction in exports of wheat, rice, and maize would reduce caloric intake of 55 million people living in poverty by about 5%. Export bans in major producing regions would put up to 200 million people below the poverty line at risk, 90% of which live in Sub-Saharan Africa. Our results suggest that a region-specific combination of national increases in agricultural productivity and diversification of trade partners and diets can effectively decrease future food security risks.

  5. Teleconnected food supply shocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bren d’Amour, Christopher; Wenz, Leonie; Kalkuhl, Matthias; Steckel, Jan Christoph; Creutzig, Felix

    2016-03-01

    The 2008–2010 food crisis might have been a harbinger of fundamental climate-induced food crises with geopolitical implications. Heat-wave-induced yield losses in Russia and resulting export restrictions led to increases in market prices for wheat across the Middle East, likely contributing to the Arab Spring. With ongoing climate change, temperatures and temperature variability will rise, leading to higher uncertainty in yields for major nutritional crops. Here we investigate which countries are most vulnerable to teleconnected supply-shocks, i.e. where diets strongly rely on the import of wheat, maize, or rice, and where a large share of the population is living in poverty. We find that the Middle East is most sensitive to teleconnected supply shocks in wheat, Central America to supply shocks in maize, and Western Africa to supply shocks in rice. Weighing with poverty levels, Sub-Saharan Africa is most affected. Altogether, a simultaneous 10% reduction in exports of wheat, rice, and maize would reduce caloric intake of 55 million people living in poverty by about 5%. Export bans in major producing regions would put up to 200 million people below the poverty line at risk, 90% of which live in Sub-Saharan Africa. Our results suggest that a region-specific combination of national increases in agricultural productivity and diversification of trade partners and diets can effectively decrease future food security risks.

  6. Reliability Estimates for Power Supplies

    SciTech Connect

    Lee C. Cadwallader; Peter I. Petersen

    2005-09-01

    Failure rates for large power supplies at a fusion facility are critical knowledge needed to estimate availability of the facility or to set priorties for repairs and spare components. A study of the "failure to operate on demand" and "failure to continue to operate" failure rates has been performed for the large power supplies at DIII-D, which provide power to the magnet coils, the neutral beam injectors, the electron cyclotron heating systems, and the fast wave systems. When one of the power supplies fails to operate, the research program has to be either temporarily changed or halted. If one of the power supplies for the toroidal or ohmic heating coils fails, the operations have to be suspended or the research is continued at de-rated parameters until a repair is completed. If one of the power supplies used in the auxiliary plasma heating systems fails the research is often temporarily changed until a repair is completed. The power supplies are operated remotely and repairs are only performed when the power supplies are off line, so that failure of a power supply does not cause any risk to personnel. The DIII-D Trouble Report database was used to determine the number of power supply faults (over 1,700 reports), and tokamak annual operations data supplied the number of shots, operating times, and power supply usage for the DIII-D operating campaigns between mid-1987 and 2004. Where possible, these power supply failure rates from DIII-D will be compared to similar work that has been performed for the Joint European Torus equipment. These independent data sets support validation of the fusion-specific failure rate values.

  7. OH-radical specific addition to the antioxidant glutathione S-atom at the air-water interface - Relevance to the redox balance of the lung epithelial lining fluid and the causality of adverse health effects induced by air pollution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colussi, A. J.; Enami, S.; Hoffmann, M. R.

    2015-12-01

    Inhalation of oxidant pollutants upsets the redox balance (RB) of the lung epithelial lining fluid (ELF) by triggering the formation of reactive OH-radicals therein. RB is deemed to be controlled by the equilibrium between the most abundant ELF protective antioxidant glutathione (GSH) and its putative disulfide GSSG oxidation product. The actual species produced from the oxidation of GSH initiated by ·OH in ELF interfacial layers exposed to air, i.e., under realistic ELF conditions, however, were never identified. Here we report the online electrospray mass spectrometric detection of sulfenate (GSO-), sulfinate (GSO2-) and sulfonate (GSO3-) on the surface of aqueous GSH solutions collided with ·OH(g). We show that these products arise from ·OH specific additions to S-atoms, rather than via H-abstraction from GS-H. The remarkable specificity of ·OH in interfacial water vis-a-vis its lack of selectivity in bulk water implicates an unprecedented steering process during ·OH-GSH encounters at water interfaces. A non-specific systemic immune response to inhaled oxidants should be expected if they were initially converted into a common ·OH intermediate on the ELF (e.g., via fast Fenton chemistry) and oxidative stress signaled by the [GSH]/[GSOH] ratio.

  8. Newborn pig trachea cell line cultured in air-liquid interface conditions allows a partial in vitro representation of the porcine upper airway tissue

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The domestic pig is an excellent animal model to study human microbial diseases due to its similarity to humans in terms of anatomy, physiology, and genetics. We assessed the suitability of an in vitro air-liquid interface (ALI) culture system for newborn pig trachea (NPTr) cells as a practical tool for analyzing the immune response of respiratory epithelial cells to aggressors. This cell line offers a wide microbial susceptibility spectrum to both viruses and bacteria. The purpose of our study was to evaluate and characterize diverse aspects of cell differentiation using different culture media. After the NPTr cells reached confluence, the apical medium was removed and the cells were fed by medium from the basal side. Results We assessed the cellular layer’s capacity to polarize and differentiate in ALI conditions. Using immunofluorescence and electronic microscopy we evaluated the presence of goblet and ciliated cells, the epithelial junction organization, and the transepithelial electrical resistance. We found that the cellular layer develops a variable density of mucus producing cells and acquires a transepithelial resistance. We also identified increased development of cellular junctions over the culture period. Finally, we observed variable expression of transcripts associated to proteins such as keratin 8, mucins (MUC1, MUC2, and MUC4), occludin, and villin 1. Conclusions The culture of NPTr cells in ALI conditions allows a partial in vitro representation of porcine upper airway tissue that could be used to investigate some aspects of host/respiratory pathogen interactions. PMID:24885012

  9. Preventing central line air embolism.

    PubMed

    Feil, Michelle

    2015-06-01

    The Pennsylvania Patient Safety Reporting System is a confidential, statewide Internet reporting system to which all Pennsylvania hospitals, outpatient-surgery facilities, birthing centers, and abortion facilities must file information on incidents and serious events.Safety Monitor is a column from Pennsylvania's Patient Safety Authority, the authority that informs nurses on issues that can affect patient safety and presents strategies they can easily integrate into practice. For more information on the authority, visit www.patientsafetyauthority.org. For the original article discussed in this column or for other articles on patient safety, click on "Patient Safety Advisories" and then "Advisory Library" in the left-hand navigation menu. PMID:26018011

  10. Remote coupling of air lines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fuchs, C. E.

    1971-01-01

    Bullseye coupler is projected pneumatically from one railroad car at the second car's point of connection. System depends on assumption that inaccuracies in relative position of cars do not exceed certain limits. System is usefull to oil drilling, marine rescue and salvage, nuclear work and chemical plant operations.

  11. The Anaesthesia Gas Supply System

    PubMed Central

    Das, Sabyasachi; Chattopadhyay, Subhrajyoti; Bose, Payel

    2013-01-01

    The anaesthesia gas supply system is designed to provide a safe, cost-effective and convenient system for the delivery of medical gases at the point of-use. The doctrine of the anaesthesia gas supply system is based on four essential principles: Identity, continuity, adequacy and quality. Knowledge about gas supply system is an integral component of safe anaesthetic practice. Mishaps involving the malfunction or misuse of medical gas supply to operating theatres have cost many lives. The medical gases used in anaesthesia and intensive care are oxygen, nitrous oxide, medical air, entonox, carbon dioxide and heliox. Oxygen is one of the most widely used gases for life-support and respiratory therapy besides anaesthetic procedures. In this article, an effort is made to describe the production, storage and delivery of anaesthetic gases. The design of anaesthesia equipment must take into account the local conditions such as climate, demand and power supply. The operational policy of the gas supply system should have a backup plan to cater to the emergency need of the hospital, in the event of the loss of the primary source of supply. PMID:24249882

  12. Finding gold in the supply chain.

    PubMed

    Caudle, Allen

    2009-12-01

    To optimize supply chain performance and achieve savings that enhance the bottom line, hospitals should: Generate purchase orders for every item purchased. Ensure the organization is protected from undue vendor influence. Keep track of where supply chain dollars are going. Review contracts regularly to ensure competitiveness. Have a contract for each product category. Buy only what the organization is sure to use. Get rid of excess inventory. Develop a strategic plan for continued supply chain savings. PMID:20027875

  13. Rotational level-dependent collisional broadening and line shift of the A2Sigma(+)-X2Pi (1,0) band of OH in hydrogen-air combustion gases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kessler, W. J.; Allen, M. G.; Davis, S. J.

    1993-01-01

    Measurements of the collisional broadening and line shift of the (1,0) band of the A2Sigma(+)-X2Pi system of OH are reported in atmospheric pressure hydrogen-air combustion gases. The measurements were made using a single-mode, narrow linewidth, frequency-doubled ring dye laser operating near 283 nm. The OH was generated in the combustion gases of a flat flame H2-air burner. Collisional broadening parameters for equilibrium mixtures of H2, O2, H2O, and N2 were obtained spanning a range of fuel/air equivalence ratios from 0.6 to 1.6 and temperatures from 1500 to 2050 K. Measurements were obtained spanning rotational quantum numbers from 4.5 to 16.5. The collision induced frequency shift was determined to be 0.1 that of the collisional broadening.

  14. 76 FR 51847 - Air Cargo Screening

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-18

    ... the air cargo supply chain. TSA Response: The 9/11 Act required the Secretary of Homeland Security to... conduct screening at stages earlier within the cargo supply chain and off-airport. Thus, the CCSP gives... air cargo throughout the supply chain. TSA has established multiple layers of security for cargo as...

  15. Piston reciprocating compressed air engine

    SciTech Connect

    Cestero, L.G.

    1987-03-24

    A compressed air engine is described comprising: (a). a reservoir of compressed air, (b). two power cylinders each containing a reciprocating piston connected to a crankshaft and flywheel, (c). a transfer cylinder which communicates with each power cylinder and the reservoir, and contains a reciprocating piston connected to the crankshaft, (d). valve means controlled by rotation of the crankshaft for supplying compressed air from the reservoir to each power cylinder and for exhausting compressed air from each power cylinder to the transfer cylinder, (e). valve means controlled by rotation of the crankshaft for supplying from the transfer cylinder to the reservoir compressed air supplied to the transfer cylinder on the exhaust strokes of the pistons of the power cylinders, and (f). an externally powered fan for assisting the exhaust of compressed air from each power cylinder to the transfer cylinder and from there to the compressed air reservoir.

  16. Ashcroft Pressure Switch Monitor for Low SCHe Supply Bottle Pressure

    SciTech Connect

    VAN KATWIJK, C.

    2000-06-21

    These pressure switches are located in the SCHe helium supply lines at the pressure bottles and upstream of the PRV. The switches monitor the SCHe supply bottle pressure and are set to alarm at 2200 psig. There is one switch for each SCHe supply (4). Electronic output signal is NON-SAFETY (GS).

  17. Aschroft Pressure Switch Monitor for Low SCHe Supply Bottle Pressure

    SciTech Connect

    VAN KATWIJK, C.

    2000-09-03

    These pressure switches are located in the SCHe helium supply lines at the pressure bottles and upstream of the PRV. The switches monitor the SCHe supply bottle pressure and are set to alarm at 2200 psig. There is one switch for each SCHe supply (4). Electronic output signal is NON-SAFETY (GS).

  18. Mountain Plains Learning Experience Guide: Plumbing. Course: Supply Piping Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arneson, R.; And Others

    One of three individualized courses included in a plumbing curriculum, this course covers installing, servicing, and repairing supply lines and fixtures commonly found in residential/commercial structures. The course is comprised of four units: (1) Pipe and Fittings, (2) Cold Water Supply, (3) Hot Water Supply, and (4) Fixtures. Each unit begins…

  19. REAL TIME, ON-LINE CHARACTERIZATION OF DIESEL GENERATOR AIR TOXIC EMISSIONS BY RESONANCE ENHANCED MULTI-PHOTON IONIZATION TIME OF FLIGHT MASS SPECTROMETRY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The laser based resonance, enhanced multi-photon ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (REMPI-TOFMS) technique has been applied to the exhaust gas stream of a diesel generator to measure, in real time, concentration levels of aromatic air toxics. Volatile organic compounds ...

  20. Dental operatory water lines.

    PubMed

    Beierle, J W

    1993-02-01

    Water samples were collected from dental handpiece and air-water syringe lines at various times during the day and cultured for the presence and prevalence of various microbes. It was found that the longer a dental unit was out of use, the greater the microbial build-up in water lines. However, purging lines for two to three minutes at the start of the day and between patients significantly reduced microbial presence.

  1. 32 CFR 901.24 - Supply of forms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Springs, CO 80840-5651. DD Form 1870 is stocked and issued by the Air Force Academy Activities Group, HQ... Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE MILITARY TRAINING AND SCHOOLS APPOINTMENT TO THE UNITED STATES AIR FORCE ACADEMY Nomination Procedures and Requirements § 901.24 Supply...

  2. 32 CFR 901.24 - Supply of forms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Springs, CO 80840-5651. DD Form 1870 is stocked and issued by the Air Force Academy Activities Group, HQ... Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE MILITARY TRAINING AND SCHOOLS APPOINTMENT TO THE UNITED STATES AIR FORCE ACADEMY Nomination Procedures and Requirements § 901.24 Supply...

  3. 32 CFR 901.24 - Supply of forms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Springs, CO 80840-5651. DD Form 1870 is stocked and issued by the Air Force Academy Activities Group, HQ... Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE MILITARY TRAINING AND SCHOOLS APPOINTMENT TO THE UNITED STATES AIR FORCE ACADEMY Nomination Procedures and Requirements § 901.24 Supply...

  4. 32 CFR 901.24 - Supply of forms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Springs, CO 80840-5651. DD Form 1870 is stocked and issued by the Air Force Academy Activities Group, HQ... Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE MILITARY TRAINING AND SCHOOLS APPOINTMENT TO THE UNITED STATES AIR FORCE ACADEMY Nomination Procedures and Requirements § 901.24 Supply...

  5. 32 CFR 901.24 - Supply of forms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Springs, CO 80840-5651. DD Form 1870 is stocked and issued by the Air Force Academy Activities Group, HQ... Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE MILITARY TRAINING AND SCHOOLS APPOINTMENT TO THE UNITED STATES AIR FORCE ACADEMY Nomination Procedures and Requirements § 901.24 Supply...

  6. 40 CFR 92.108 - Intake and cooling air measurements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... practice J244 (incorporated by reference at § 92.5) are allowed. (b) Humidity and temperature measurements. (1) Air that has had its absolute humidity altered is considered humidity-conditioned air. For this type of intake air supply, the humidity measurements must be made within the intake air supply...

  7. 40 CFR 91.310 - Engine intake air humidity measurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Engine intake air humidity measurement... Provisions § 91.310 Engine intake air humidity measurement. This section refers to engines which are supplied... air, the ambient testcell humidity measurement may be used. (a) Humidity conditioned air supply....

  8. 40 CFR 91.310 - Engine intake air humidity measurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Engine intake air humidity measurement... Provisions § 91.310 Engine intake air humidity measurement. This section refers to engines which are supplied... air, the ambient testcell humidity measurement may be used. (a) Humidity conditioned air supply....

  9. 40 CFR 91.310 - Engine intake air humidity measurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Engine intake air humidity measurement... Provisions § 91.310 Engine intake air humidity measurement. This section refers to engines which are supplied... air, the ambient testcell humidity measurement may be used. (a) Humidity conditioned air supply....

  10. Fuel supply control system for engine carburetors

    SciTech Connect

    Kishida, E.; Kobayashi, H.; Hidekazu, K.

    1986-01-14

    This patent describes a fuel supply control system for a vehicle internal combustion engine having a variable venturi type carburetor with a fixed main nozzle and a variable nozzle in which a higher suction of intake air than a predetermined rate increases the opening area of the variable nozzle. The principal component features of this system are, firstly, a separate first and second fuel supply increasing means connected to the main nozzle for selectively increasing the amount of fuel supplied through it and, secondly, a modality which can cause the first means to increase the fuel supply within a low-speed range of vehicle operation and also effect the first and second means to increase the fuel supply within a high-load range of engine operation.

  11. Relaxation of contact-line singularities solely by the Kelvin effect and apparent contact angles for isothermal volatile liquids in contact with air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rednikov, Alexey; Colinet, Pierre

    2013-11-01

    The contact (triple) line of a volatile liquid on a flat solid is studied theoretically. Like with a pure-vapor atmosphere [Phys. Rev. E 87, 010401, 2013], but here for isothermal diffusion-limited evaporation/condensation in the presence of an inert gas, we rigorously show that the notorious contact-line singularities (related to motion or phase change itself) can be regularized solely on account of the Kelvin effect (curvature dependence of the saturation conditions). No disjoining pressure, precursor films or Navier slip are in fact needed to this purpose, and nor are they taken into consideration here (``minimalist'' approach). The model applies to both perfect (zero Young's angle) and partial wetting, and is in particular used to study the related issue of evaporation-induced contact angles. Their modification by the contact-line motion (either advancing or receding) is assessed. The formulation is posed for a distinguished immediate vicinity of the contact line (the ``microregion''), the corresponding problem decoupling to leading order, here up to one unknown coefficient, from what actually happens at the macroscale. The lubrication approximation (implying sufficiently small contact angles) is used in the liquid, coupled with the diffusion equation in the gaz phase. Supported by ESA and BELSPO PRODEX and F.R.S.-FNRS.

  12. 40 CFR 91.310 - Engine intake air humidity measurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... with intake air other than the ambient air in the test cell (i.e., air which has been pumbed directly to the engine air intake system). For engines which use ambient test cell air for the engine intake... the humidity conditioning has taken place. (b) Unconditioned air supply. Humidity measurements...

  13. 40 CFR 90.310 - Engine intake air humidity measurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... engines which are supplied with intake air other than the ambient air in the test cell (i.e., air which has been pumped directly to the engine air intake system). For engines which use ambient test cell air for the engine intake air, the ambient test cell humidity measurement may be used. (a)...

  14. 40 CFR 91.310 - Engine intake air humidity measurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... with intake air other than the ambient air in the test cell (i.e., air which has been pumbed directly to the engine air intake system). For engines which use ambient test cell air for the engine intake... the humidity conditioning has taken place. (b) Unconditioned air supply. Humidity measurements...

  15. 40 CFR 90.310 - Engine intake air humidity measurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... engines which are supplied with intake air other than the ambient air in the test cell (i.e., air which has been pumped directly to the engine air intake system). For engines which use ambient test cell air for the engine intake air, the ambient test cell humidity measurement may be used. (a)...

  16. 14 CFR 29.1091 - Air induction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Air induction. 29.1091 Section 29.1091... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Induction System § 29.1091 Air induction. (a) The air induction system for each engine and auxiliary power unit must supply the air required by that engine...

  17. 14 CFR 29.1091 - Air induction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Air induction. 29.1091 Section 29.1091... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Induction System § 29.1091 Air induction. (a) The air induction system for each engine and auxiliary power unit must supply the air required by that engine...

  18. 14 CFR 29.1091 - Air induction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Air induction. 29.1091 Section 29.1091... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Induction System § 29.1091 Air induction. (a) The air induction system for each engine and auxiliary power unit must supply the air required by that engine...

  19. 14 CFR 27.1091 - Air induction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Air induction. 27.1091 Section 27.1091... STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Induction System § 27.1091 Air induction. (a) The air induction system for each engine must supply the air required by that engine under the operating...

  20. 14 CFR 27.1091 - Air induction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Air induction. 27.1091 Section 27.1091... STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Induction System § 27.1091 Air induction. (a) The air induction system for each engine must supply the air required by that engine under the operating...

  1. 14 CFR 27.1091 - Air induction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Air induction. 27.1091 Section 27.1091... STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Induction System § 27.1091 Air induction. (a) The air induction system for each engine must supply the air required by that engine under the operating...

  2. 14 CFR 27.1091 - Air induction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Air induction. 27.1091 Section 27.1091... STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Induction System § 27.1091 Air induction. (a) The air induction system for each engine must supply the air required by that engine under the operating...

  3. 14 CFR 29.1091 - Air induction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Air induction. 29.1091 Section 29.1091... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Induction System § 29.1091 Air induction. (a) The air induction system for each engine and auxiliary power unit must supply the air required by that engine...

  4. 14 CFR 27.1091 - Air induction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Air induction. 27.1091 Section 27.1091... STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Induction System § 27.1091 Air induction. (a) The air induction system for each engine must supply the air required by that engine under the operating...

  5. 14 CFR 29.1091 - Air induction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Air induction. 29.1091 Section 29.1091... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Induction System § 29.1091 Air induction. (a) The air induction system for each engine and auxiliary power unit must supply the air required by that engine...

  6. Feedstock Supply System Logistics

    SciTech Connect

    2006-06-01

    Feedstock supply is a significant cost component in the production of biobased fuels, products, and power. The uncertainty of the biomass feedstock supply chain and associated risks are major barriers to procuring capital funding for start-up biorefineries.

  7. Cytotoxicity, genotoxicity and oxidative stress of malachite green on the kidney and gill cell lines of freshwater air breathing fish Channa striata.

    PubMed

    Majeed, S Abdul; Nambi, K S N; Taju, G; Vimal, S; Venkatesan, C; Hameed, A S Sahul

    2014-12-01

    The cytotoxicity, genotoxicity and oxidative stress of malachite green (MG) was investigated using the fish Channa striata kidney (CSK) and Channa striata gill (CSG) cell lines. Five concentrations ranging from 0.001 to 10 μg mL(-1) were tested in three independent experiments. Cytotoxicity was assessed by 3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay, Rhodamine 123 and Alamar Blue. The mitochondrial changes and apoptosis of MG-exposed cells were observed by Rhodamine 123 and acridine orange/ethidium bromide (AO/EB) staining, respectively. In vitro potential DNA damaging effect of MG was tested using comet assay. Mitochondrial damage, apoptosis and DNA fragmentation increased in a concentration-dependent manner. Additionally, DNA electrophoretic mobility experiments were carried out to study the binding effect of MG to double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) of cells. DNA shift mobility experiments showed that MG is capable of strongly binding to linear dsDNA causing its degradation. Biochemical parameters such as lipid peroxidation (MDA), catalase (CAT) activity and reduced glutathione (GSH) levels were evaluated after exposure to MG. In CSK and CSG cell lines exposed to MG for 48 h, a significant increase in lipid peroxidation, which might be associated with decreased levels of reduced glutathione and catalase activity in these cell lines (p < 0.001), was observed.

  8. Cytotoxicity, genotoxicity and oxidative stress of malachite green on the kidney and gill cell lines of freshwater air breathing fish Channa striata.

    PubMed

    Majeed, S Abdul; Nambi, K S N; Taju, G; Vimal, S; Venkatesan, C; Hameed, A S Sahul

    2014-12-01

    The cytotoxicity, genotoxicity and oxidative stress of malachite green (MG) was investigated using the fish Channa striata kidney (CSK) and Channa striata gill (CSG) cell lines. Five concentrations ranging from 0.001 to 10 μg mL(-1) were tested in three independent experiments. Cytotoxicity was assessed by 3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay, Rhodamine 123 and Alamar Blue. The mitochondrial changes and apoptosis of MG-exposed cells were observed by Rhodamine 123 and acridine orange/ethidium bromide (AO/EB) staining, respectively. In vitro potential DNA damaging effect of MG was tested using comet assay. Mitochondrial damage, apoptosis and DNA fragmentation increased in a concentration-dependent manner. Additionally, DNA electrophoretic mobility experiments were carried out to study the binding effect of MG to double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) of cells. DNA shift mobility experiments showed that MG is capable of strongly binding to linear dsDNA causing its degradation. Biochemical parameters such as lipid peroxidation (MDA), catalase (CAT) activity and reduced glutathione (GSH) levels were evaluated after exposure to MG. In CSK and CSG cell lines exposed to MG for 48 h, a significant increase in lipid peroxidation, which might be associated with decreased levels of reduced glutathione and catalase activity in these cell lines (p < 0.001), was observed. PMID:25023653

  9. [Pollution of room air].

    PubMed

    Schlatter, J

    1986-01-01

    In the last decade the significance of indoor air pollution to human health has increased because of improved thermal insulation of buildings to save energy: air turnover is reduced and air quality is impaired. The most frequent air pollutants are tobacco smoke, radioactive radon gas emanating from the soil, formaldehyde from furniture and insulation material, nitrogen oxides from gas stoves, as well as solvents from cleaning agents. The most important pollutants leading to health hazards are tobacco smoke and air pollutants which are emitted continuously from building materials and furniture. Such pollutants have to be eliminated by reducing the emission rate. A fresh air supply is necessary to reduce the pollutants resulting from the inhabitants and their activities, the amount depending on the number of inhabitants and the usage of the room. The carbon dioxide level should not exceed 1500 ppm.

  10. Highly efficient welding power supply

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thommes, J. M.

    1980-09-01

    The results and findings of an energy efficient welding power development project are presented. The power source developed is to be used for electric arc welding processes in which 3.5 trillion Btu of energy can be saved annually. The power source developed incorporates the use of switch mode power supply techniques in order to convert industrial supply mains to appropriate welding voltages and currents. A series capacitor switch mode power circuit was the circuit technique chosen in order to optimize energy efficiency, costs, reliability, size/weight, and welding performance. Test results demonstrated an effective efficiency (taking into account idle power consumption) of 80 to 91 percent for the energy efficient power source while the conventional types of power sources tested ranged from 41 to 74 percent efficiency. Line power factor was also improved for the energy efficient power source. Field tests indicated additional refinements of weld process performance and power source audible noise emission reduction could be beneficial.

  11. Shelter and indoor air.

    PubMed Central

    Stolwijk, J A

    1990-01-01

    Improvements in outdoor air quality that were achieved through the implementation of the Clean Air Act accentuate the quality of the indoor air as an important, if not dominant, factor in the determination of the total population exposure to air contaminants. A number of developments are adding important new determinants of indoor air quality. Energy conservation strategies require reductions in infiltration of outdoor air into buildings. New materials introduced in the construction and in the maintenance of buildings are contributing new air contaminants into the building atmosphere. Larger buildings require more and more complex ventilation systems that are less and less under the individual control of the occupants. All of these factors contribute to the current reality that indoor air contains more pollutants, and often at higher concentrations, than outdoor air. Especially in the larger buildings, it will be necessary to assure that an adequate quantity of fresh air of acceptable quality is provided to each individual space, and that no new sources of pollutants are added to a space or a whole building without appropriate adjustments in the supply of fresh air. PMID:2401264

  12. Bee Line BR-1 Racer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1926-01-01

    Bee Line BR-1 Racer: The Bee Line BR-1 was a racing aircraft used to compete in the 1922 Pulitzer Air Race. The aircraft and its sister ship, the Bee Line BR-2, came to Langley and the NACA in 1926. The BR-1 is shown in the NACA hangar at Langley Field in early 1926.

  13. 141. NITROGEN SUPPLY PANEL PRESSURE REGULATOR IN NORTHWEST CORNER OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    141. NITROGEN SUPPLY PANEL PRESSURE REGULATOR IN NORTHWEST CORNER OF CONTROL ROOM (214), LSB (BLDG. 751), FACING WEST - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Pad 3 East, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  14. 133. NITROGEN SUPPLY PANEL ON SOUTH WALL OF CONTROL ROOM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    133. NITROGEN SUPPLY PANEL ON SOUTH WALL OF CONTROL ROOM (114), LSB (BLDG. 770) - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Pad 3 West, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  15. 7. SITE BUILDING 022 WATER SUPPLY TANK VIEW ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. SITE BUILDING 022 - WATER SUPPLY TANK - VIEW IS LOOKING NORTH AT WATER TOWERS AND DIRECTLY AT SITE ENTRY GATE. - Cape Cod Air Station, Massachusetts Military Reservation, Sandwich, Barnstable County, MA

  16. Speed-Dependent Broadening and Line-Mixing in CH_4 Perturbed by Air Near 1.64 μm for the French/german Climate Mission MERLIN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delahaye, Thibault; Tran, Thi Ngoc Ha; Reed, Zachary; Maxwell, Stephen E.; Hodges, Joseph

    2015-06-01

    Climate change is one of the greatest challenges presently facing mankind, and methane is one of the most powerful anthropogenic greenhouse gases. For a better understanding of future climate trends, a satellite dedicated to the measurements of atmospheric methane is under joint development by the French and German space research centers (CNES and DLR). The so-called MERLIN mission (Methane Remote Sensing Lidar Mission, 2019) aims at providing global information on atmospheric methane concentration with a relative uncertainty less than 2% and with a spatial resolution of 50 km Such spectroscopic monitoring of gases in the atmosphere of the Earth, requires a precise description of absorption lines shapes that goes beyond the usual Voigt profile (VP). In the case of methane, the differences between the measured profiles and those given by the VP can be very important, making the VP completely incompatible with the reliable detection of sources and sinks from space. In this work, we present the first results on the modeling of methane lines broadened by air in the 1.64 μm region and the associated spectroscopic parameters, taking into account various collisional effects between molecules that are neglected by the VP: collisional interference between the lines (line-mixing), collision-induced velocity changes (Dicke narrowing effect) and speed dependence of the collisional broadening and shifting. These results were obtained by simultaneously fitting the model parameters to high sensitivity and high-resolution cavity ring-down spectroscopy (CRDS) spectra recorded at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) over a wide pressure range (5 to 100 kPa). These spectroscopic data and the associated model to calculate the spectrum absorption coefficient will be then used to analyze ground-based atmospheric spectra at the TCCON facility in Park Falls, Wisconsin. C. Kiemle, M. Quatrevalet, G. Ehret et al., Atmos. Meas. Tech. 4 (2011) H. Tran, J.-M. Hartmann, G

  17. Air conditioned suit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carl, G. R. (Inventor)

    1973-01-01

    An environmentally controlled suit is described consisting of an airtight outergarment attached by an airtight bellows to the wall of a sterile chamber, an undergarment providing for circulation of air near the skin of the wearer, and a circulation system comprised of air supply and distribution to the extremities of the undegarment and central collection and exhaust of air from the midsection of the undergarment. A workman wearing the undergarment and attached circulation system enters the outer garment through a tunnel in the chamber wall and the attached bellows to work in the chamber without any danger of spreading bacteria.

  18. Air cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okamura, Okiyoshi; Wakasa, Masayuki; Tamanoi, Yoshihito

    1991-04-01

    The present invention relates to an air cell. This air cell provides a compact light-weight power source for model aircraft permitting them to fly for an extended period so that they may be used for such practical purposes as crop dusting, surveying, and photographing. The cell is comprised of a current collector so disposed between a magnesium, zinc, or aluminum alloy cathode and a petroleum graphite anode that it is in contact with the anode. The anode is formed by adding polytetrafluoroethylene dispersion liquid in a mixture of active carbon and graphite powder, pouring the mixture into a mold and heating it to form the anode. It is fabricated by a plurality of anode sections and is formed with at least one hole so that it can provide a cell which is compact in size and light in weight yet is capable of generating a high output. The anode, the cathode, and a separator are wetted by an electrolytic liquid. The electrolyte is continuously supplied through the life of the cell.

  19. United States Air Force 611th Civil Engineer Squadron, Elmendorf AFB, Alaska. Final engineering evaluation/cost analysis potential tce impact to the drinking water supply, Galena Airport, Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    1996-02-05

    This decision document presents the selected removal action to address potential trichloroethene (TCE) impact to drinking water supply wells, located in the Installation Restoration Program (IRP) site ST009, otherwise known as the West Unit, at Galena Airport, Alaska. The information fron the RI Report is summarized, along with an analysis of potential removal action alternatives, in the Engineering Evaluation/Cost Analysis (EE/CA).

  20. Air Pollution Control, Part I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strauss, Werner, Ed.

    Authoritative reviews in seven areas of current importance in air pollution control are supplied in this volume, the first of a two-part set. Titles contained in this book are: "Dispersion of Pollutants Emitted into the Atmosphere,""The Formation and Control of Oxides of Nitrogen in Air Pollution,""The Control of Sulfur Emissions from Combustion…

  1. Challenges associated with the sampling and analysis of organosulfur compounds in air using real-time PTR-ToF-MS and off-line GC-FID

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perraud, V.; Meinardi, S.; Blake, D. R.; Finlayson-Pitts, B. J.

    2015-12-01

    Organosulfur compounds (OSC) are naturally emitted via various processes involving phytoplankton and algae in marine regions, from animal metabolism and from biomass decomposition inland. These compounds are malodorant and reactive. Their oxidation to methanesulfonic and sulfuric acids leads to the formation and growth of atmospheric particles, which are known to have negative effects on visibility, climate and human health. In order to predict particle formation events, accurate measurements of the OSC precursors are essential. Here, two different approaches, proton-transfer reaction time-of-flight mass spectrometry (PTR-ToF-MS) and canister sampling coupled with GC-FID are compared for both laboratory standards [dimethyl sulfide (DMS), dimethyl disulfide (DMDS), dimethyl trisulfide (DMTS) and methanethiol (MTO)] and for a complex sample. Results show that both techniques produce accurate quantification of DMS. While PTR-ToF-MS provides real-time measurements of all four OSCs individually, significant fragmentation of DMDS and DMTS occurs, which can complicate their identification in complex mixtures. Canister sampling coupled with GC-FID provides excellent sensitivity for DMS, DMDS and DMTS. However, MTO was observed to react on metal surfaces to produce DMDS and, in the presence of hydrogen sulfide, even DMTS. Avoiding metal in sampling systems seems to be necessary for measuring all but dimethyl sulfide in air.

  2. Battery having electrolyte supply reservoir and activation tank disposed in a battery housing

    SciTech Connect

    Ruch, J.; Katryniok, D.

    1984-12-25

    A battery which makes possible a long-time operation under high load. The battery is made of a plurality of galvanic elements, especially metal-air-cells, each of which comprises a consumable metal electrode of planar shape which extends into a receptacle which is flushed with electrolyte. The sidewalls of the receptacle can be flushed free of air or oxygen. Each of the receptacles supports at least one gas diffusion electrode at a distance from the working surface of the consumable metal electrodes. In order to provide a battery which can be stored without restriction due to activation and deactivation, and which permits a rapid mechanical recharging independent of the electric circuit, a supply reservoir for the electrolyte is disposed in a housing below at least one cell unit. The supply reservoir is connected via a closure member with an electrolyte activation tank which is disposed at least partially above the working level of the electrolyte in the cells. Each cell receptacle can receive electrolyte from the supply reservoir via a pump and branch lines. The electrolyte can be circulated via this pump. By opening the closure member, the cell unit can be activated and deactivated as needed.

  3. In vitro effects induced by diesel exhaust at an air-liquid interface in a human lung alveolar carcinoma cell line A549.

    PubMed

    Okubo, Tomoko; Hosaka, Mitsugu; Nakae, Dai

    2015-01-01

    The present study examined the effects induced in vitro in human adenocarcinoma-derived alveolar basal epithelial A549 cells by diesel particulate matter (DPM) administered into the culture medium or by diesel exhaust administered at an air-liquid interface. When A549 cells were exposed to DPM in the culture medium, cell proliferation was inhibited at doses of 10-100 μg/mL; generation of interleukin (IL)-8 and the antioxidant enzyme, heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), were inhibited at a dose of 100 μg/mL, and hydroxyl radicals were produced, but could be inhibited by catalase or superoxide dismutase. In contrast, when A549 cells were exposed to diesel exhaust, cell proliferation was inhibited in the absence, but not in the presence, of a diesel particulate filter (DPF); in the absence of a DPF IL-8 was produced in the same amount as in the control cells but was suppressed in the presence of a DPF; HO-1 mRNA was transiently over-expressed in the presence of a DPF, and it was also increased slightly produced in the absence of a DPF but statistically not significant in the presence of a DPF, and it was also increased slightly produced in the absence of a DPF but statistically not significant; HO-1 was transiently produced independent of the absence or the presence of a DPF; and hydroxyl radicals were weakly produced, even in the presence of a DPF but could be inhibited by catalase or superoxide dismutase. It is thus suggested that oxidative stress may be induced by exposure to DPM or diesel exhaust and thereby exerts cytotoxic effect. The introduction of a DPF is effective to protect cells from the toxicity of diesel exhaust presumably by suppression of an oxidative stress.

  4. In vitro effects induced by diesel exhaust at an air-liquid interface in a human lung alveolar carcinoma cell line A549.

    PubMed

    Okubo, Tomoko; Hosaka, Mitsugu; Nakae, Dai

    2015-01-01

    The present study examined the effects induced in vitro in human adenocarcinoma-derived alveolar basal epithelial A549 cells by diesel particulate matter (DPM) administered into the culture medium or by diesel exhaust administered at an air-liquid interface. When A549 cells were exposed to DPM in the culture medium, cell proliferation was inhibited at doses of 10-100 μg/mL; generation of interleukin (IL)-8 and the antioxidant enzyme, heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), were inhibited at a dose of 100 μg/mL, and hydroxyl radicals were produced, but could be inhibited by catalase or superoxide dismutase. In contrast, when A549 cells were exposed to diesel exhaust, cell proliferation was inhibited in the absence, but not in the presence, of a diesel particulate filter (DPF); in the absence of a DPF IL-8 was produced in the same amount as in the control cells but was suppressed in the presence of a DPF; HO-1 mRNA was transiently over-expressed in the presence of a DPF, and it was also increased slightly produced in the absence of a DPF but statistically not significant in the presence of a DPF, and it was also increased slightly produced in the absence of a DPF but statistically not significant; HO-1 was transiently produced independent of the absence or the presence of a DPF; and hydroxyl radicals were weakly produced, even in the presence of a DPF but could be inhibited by catalase or superoxide dismutase. It is thus suggested that oxidative stress may be induced by exposure to DPM or diesel exhaust and thereby exerts cytotoxic effect. The introduction of a DPF is effective to protect cells from the toxicity of diesel exhaust presumably by suppression of an oxidative stress. PMID:25983017

  5. Air Pollution

    MedlinePlus

    Air pollution is a mixture of solid particles and gases in the air. Car emissions, chemicals from factories, ... Ozone, a gas, is a major part of air pollution in cities. When ozone forms air pollution, it's ...

  6. Competing for supply.

    PubMed

    Stolle, B

    2001-02-01

    The Internet was supposed to make it possible for anybody anywhere to get anything anytime. Instead, it's magnified suppliers' miscalculations into global shortages. But if the Net caused these supply chain woes, it's also the solution, says the CEO of a supply-chain software manufacturer. PMID:11213695

  7. Power supply conditioning circuit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Primas, L. E.; Loveland, R.

    1987-01-01

    A power supply conditioning circuit that can reduce Periodic and Random Deviations (PARD) on the output voltages of dc power supplies to -150 dBV from dc to several KHz with no measurable periodic deviations is described. The PARD for a typical commercial low noise power supply is -74 dBV for frequencies above 20 Hz and is often much worse at frequencies below 20 Hz. The power supply conditioning circuit described here relies on the large differences in the dynamic impedances of a constant current diode and a zener diode to establish a dc voltage with low PARD. Power supplies with low PARD are especially important in circuitry involving ultrastable frequencies for the Deep Space Network.

  8. Spatial Data Supply Chains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varadharajulu, P.; Azeem Saqiq, M.; Yu, F.; McMeekin, D. A.; West, G.; Arnold, L.; Moncrieff, S.

    2015-06-01

    This paper describes current research into the supply of spatial data to the end user in as close to real time as possible via the World Wide Web. The Spatial Data Infrastructure paradigm has been discussed since the early 1990s. The concept has evolved significantly since then but has almost always examined data from the perspective of the supplier. It has been a supplier driven focus rather than a user driven focus. The current research being conducted is making a paradigm shift and looking at the supply of spatial data as a supply chain, similar to a manufacturing supply chain in which users play a significant part. A comprehensive consultation process took place within Australia and New Zealand incorporating a large number of stakeholders. Three research projects that have arisen from this consultation process are examining Spatial Data Supply Chains within Australia and New Zealand and are discussed within this paper.

  9. Generating Resources Supply Curves.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration. Division of Power Resources Planning.

    1985-07-01

    This report documents Pacific Northwest supply curve information for both renewable and other generating resources. Resources are characterized as ''Renewable'' and ''Other'' as defined in section 3 or the Pacific Northwest Electric Power Planning and Conservation Act. The following resources are described: renewable: (cogeneration; geothermal; hydroelectric (new); hydroelectric (efficiency improvement); solar; and wind); other (nonrenewable generation resources: coal; combustion turbines; and nuclear. Each resource has the following information documented in tabular format: (1) Technical Characteristics; (2) Costs (capital and O and M); (3) Energy Distribution by Month; and (4) Supply Forecast (energy). Combustion turbine (CT) energy supply is not forecasted because of CT's typical peaking application. Their supply is therefore unconstrained in order to facilitate analysis of their operation in the regional electrical supply system. The generic nuclear resource is considered unavailable to the region over the planning horizon.

  10. Analyzing nonrenewable resource supply

    SciTech Connect

    Bohi, D.R.; Toman, M.A.

    1984-01-01

    Starting with their vision of a useful model of supply behavior as dynamic and market oriented, the authors examine the literature to see what it offers, to fill in some of the missing elements, and to direct attention to the research that is required. Following an introduction, separate chapters deal with the basic theory of supply behavior; joint products, externalities, and technical change; uncertainty, expectations, and supply behavior; aggregate supply and market behavior; and empirical methods and problems. The authors argue that practical understanding of nonrenewable resource supply is hampered by gaps among theory, methodology, and data, and offer a standard designed to achieve consistency among theory, data, and estimation methods. Their recommendations for additional research focus on general specification issues, uncertainty and expectations, market-level analysis, and strategic behavioral issues. 151 references, 9 figures.

  11. Selected supplies prognosis problems of aviation techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Żurek, J.; Czapla, R.

    2016-06-01

    Aviation technology, i.e. aircraft, control and airfield infrastructure wear out, become defective and need servicing. It seems indispensible to maintain facilities and spare parts at a level necessary to keep the technology in commission. The paper discusses the factors influencing spare parts supply requirements to secure air operations. Aviation technology has been classified with regard to various criteria, which influence the choice of supply management strategies, along with availability and aircraft exploitation cost. The method of optimization of the stock for a complex system characterized by series reliability structure according to the wear-out and cost criteria assuming Poisson's process of demand has been presented.

  12. Strategy Guideline: Compact Air Distribution Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Burdick, A.

    2013-06-01

    This Strategy Guideline discusses the benefits and challenges of using a compact air distribution system to handle the reduced loads and reduced air volume needed to condition the space within an energy efficient home. Traditional systems sized by 'rule of thumb' (i.e., 1 ton of cooling per 400 ft2 of floor space) that 'wash' the exterior walls with conditioned air from floor registers cannot provide appropriate air mixing and moisture removal in low-load homes. A compact air distribution system locates the HVAC equipment centrally with shorter ducts run to interior walls, and ceiling supply outlets throw the air toward the exterior walls along the ceiling plane; alternatively, high sidewall supply outlets throw the air toward the exterior walls. Potential drawbacks include resistance from installing contractors or code officials who are unfamiliar with compact air distribution systems, as well as a lack of availability of low-cost high sidewall or ceiling supply outlets to meet the low air volumes with good throw characteristics. The decision criteria for a compact air distribution system must be determined early in the whole-house design process, considering both supply and return air design. However, careful installation of a compact air distribution system can result in lower material costs from smaller equipment, shorter duct runs, and fewer outlets; increased installation efficiencies, including ease of fitting the system into conditioned space; lower loads on a better balanced HVAC system, and overall improved energy efficiency of the home.

  13. 24 CFR 3280.704 - Fuel supply systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Systems § 3280.704 Fuel supply systems. (a) LP—Gas system design and service line pressure. (1) Systems... have a design pressure of at least 312.5 psig. (i) Container supply systems shall be arranged for vapor... such openings. (6) LP-gas system enclosure and mounting. (i) Housings and enclosures shall be...

  14. Lifting BLS Power Supplies

    SciTech Connect

    Sarychev, Michael

    2007-08-01

    This note describes BLS power supplies lifting techniques and provides stress calculations for lifting plate and handles bolts. BLS power supply weight is about 120 Lbs, with the center of gravity shifted toward the right front side. A lifting plate is used to attach a power supply to a crane or a hoist. Stress calculations show that safety factors for lifting plate are 12.9 (vs. 5 required) for ultimate stress and 5.7 (vs. 3 required) for yield stress. Safety factor for shackle bolt thread shear load is 37, and safety factor for bolts that attach handles is 12.8.

  15. Supply and Demand

    MedlinePlus

    ... a good breastfeeding rhythm with your baby. In reality, the efficient supply-and-demand rhythm of normal ... is one reason it’s a good idea to alternate which breast you use to begin nursing. A ...

  16. Tuning magnet power supply

    SciTech Connect

    Han, B.M.; Karady, G.G.; Thiessen, H.A.

    1989-01-01

    The particles in a Rapid Cycling Accelerator are accelerated by rf cavities, which are tuned by dc biased ferrite cores. The tuning is achieved by the regulation of bias current, which is produced by a power supply. The tuning magnet power supply utilizes a bridge circuit, supplied by a three phase rectifier. During the rise of the current, when the particles are accelerated, the current is controlled with precision by the bridge which operates a power amplifier. During the fall of the current, the bridge operates in a switching mode and recovers the energy stored in the ferrites. The recovered energy is stored in a capacitor bank. The bridge circuit is built with 150 power transistors. The drive, protection and control circuit were designed and built from commercial component. The system will be used for a rf cavity experiment in Los Alamos and will serve as a prototype tuning power supply for future accelerators. 1 ref., 7 figs.

  17. Variable oxygen/nitrogen enriched intake air system for internal combustion engine applications

    DOEpatents

    Poola, Ramesh B.; Sekar, Ramanujam R.; Cole, Roger L.

    1997-01-01

    An air supply control system for selectively supplying ambient air, oxygen enriched air and nitrogen enriched air to an intake of an internal combustion engine includes an air mixing chamber that is in fluid communication with the air intake. At least a portion of the ambient air flowing to the mixing chamber is selectively diverted through a secondary path that includes a selectively permeable air separating membrane device due a differential pressure established across the air separating membrane. The permeable membrane device separates a portion of the nitrogen in the ambient air so that oxygen enriched air (permeate) and nitrogen enriched air (retentate) are produced. The oxygen enriched air and the nitrogen enriched air can be selectively supplied to the mixing chamber or expelled to atmosphere. Alternatively, a portion of the nitrogen enriched air can be supplied through another control valve to a monatomic-nitrogen plasma generator device so that atomic nitrogen produced from the nitrogen enriched air can be then injected into the exhaust of the engine. The oxygen enriched air or the nitrogen enriched air becomes mixed with the ambient air in the mixing chamber and then the mixed air is supplied to the intake of the engine. As a result, the air being supplied to the intake of the engine can be regulated with respect to the concentration of oxygen and/or nitrogen.

  18. Air Abrasion

    MedlinePlus

    ... delivered directly to your desktop! more... What Is Air Abrasion? Article Chapters What Is Air Abrasion? What Happens? The Pros and Cons Will I Feel Anything? Is Air Abrasion for Everyone? print full article print this ...

  19. Poster Puzzler Solution: Taking in Air | Poster

    Cancer.gov

    The current Poster Puzzler image shows the top of Building 560, where a new supply air handler was recently installed by Facilities Maintenance and Engineering (FME) staff, as part of lab renovations in wing 1, floor 1. FME staff enlarged the attic of the building to make space for the air handler. Building 560, the largest building at the NCI at Frederick campus, houses about 120 labs and has 19 air handlers. A supply air handler draws in outside air, filters it, cools or heats it, and adjusts the humidity to provide clean conditioned air to the laboratories. The Building 560 air handler weighs approximately 22,500 pounds and moves 22,000 cubic feet of air per minute.

  20. Petroleum supply monthly

    SciTech Connect

    1995-10-01

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of four publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information Administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. The other publications are the Weekly Petroleum Status Report (WPSR), the Winter Fuels Report, and the Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA). Data presented in the PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blends, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States.

  1. Petroleum Supply Monthly

    SciTech Connect

    1996-02-01

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of four publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information Administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. The other publications are the Weekly Petroleum Status Report (WPSR), the Winter Fuels Report, and the Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA). Data presented in the PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major U.S. geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics.

  2. Modified filter prevents conduction of microwave signals along high-voltage power supply leads

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mathison, R. P.

    1964-01-01

    Very lossy powdered iron material, in the lining of a polyester resin, replaces the dielectric material in the short coaxial transmission line of a simple filter. The lossy material absorbs microwave signals along high voltage power supply leads.

  3. Zero Carryover Liquid-Desiccant Air Conditioner for Solar Applications: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Lowenstein, A.; Slayzak, S.; Kozubal, E.

    2006-07-01

    A novel liquid-desiccant air conditioner that dries and cools building supply air will transform the use of direct-contact liquid-desiccant systems in HVAC applications, improving comfort, air quality, and providing energy-efficient humidity control.

  4. Perioperative supply chain management.

    PubMed

    Feistritzer, N R; Keck, B R

    2000-09-01

    Faced with declining revenues and increasing operating expenses, hospitals are evaluating numerous mechanisms designed to reduce costs while simultaneously maintaining quality care. Many facilities have targeted initial cost reduction efforts in the reduction of labor expenses. Once labor expenses have been "right sized," facilities have continued to focus on service delivery improvements by the optimization of the "supply chain" process. This report presents a case study of the efforts of Vanderbilt University Medical Center in the redesign of its supply chain management process in the department of Perioperative Services. Utilizing a multidisciplinary project management structure, 3 work teams were established to complete the redesign process. To date, the project has reduced costs by $2.3 million and enhanced quality patient care by enhancing the delivery of appropriate clinical supplies during the perioperative experience.

  5. Measure Lines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crissman, Sally

    2011-01-01

    One tool for enhancing students' work with data in the science classroom is the measure line. As a coteacher and curriculum developer for The Inquiry Project, the author has seen how measure lines--a number line in which the numbers refer to units of measure--help students not only represent data but also analyze it in ways that generate…

  6. FLIGHT LINE, LOOKING TOWARD FLIGHT LINE FIRE STATION (BUILDING 2748)CENTER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    FLIGHT LINE, LOOKING TOWARD FLIGHT LINE FIRE STATION (BUILDING 2748)CENTER AND AIRCRAFT MAINTENANCE DOCKS (BUILDINGS 2741 AND 2766)LEFT. VIEW TO NORTH - Plattsburgh Air Force Base, U.S. Route 9, Plattsburgh, Clinton County, NY

  7. Overview of the ATR Power Supplies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruno, D.; Soukas, A.; Toldo, F.; Lambiase, B.

    1997-05-01

    The AGS to RHIC transfer Line (ATR) transports a variety of beams from the Alternating Gradient Synchrotron (AGS) which gets its input from the Booster Synchrotron. In turn, the Booster receives input beams from either a Tandem Van de Graaff (heavy ions) or a Linac(protons). The AGS extracts beam bunches, up to a rate of 30 Hertz, to the ATR which will eventually feed the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) starting with the sextant test in January of 1996. The ATR is made up of the upgraded U line and the new W, X and Y lines. A test in 1995 transported beam to the end of the W line. During normal operation, a pulsed switching magnet at the end of the W line will bend the beam into the X line or the Y line so that the two rings in RHIC are filled with counter rotating beams. The ATR line is comprised of 80 power supplies (PS's), 17 of which are upgraded AGS PS's. The remaining 63 PS's were newly purchased. These PS's range from bipolar 600 watt linear type trim magnet PS's to 1 Megawatt, thyristor, dipole PS's. Results of the commissioning runs will be presented, as well as descriptions of regulation, filtering, and analog and digital controls.

  8. Overview of the ATR power supplies

    SciTech Connect

    Bruno, D.; Soukas, A.; Toldo, F.; Lambiase, R.F.

    1997-07-01

    The AGS to RHIC transfer line (ATR) transports a variety of beams from the Alternating Gradient Synchrotron (AGS) which gets its input from the Booster Synchrotron. In turn, the Booster receives input beams from either a Tandem Van de Graaff (heavy ions) or a Linac (protons). The AGS extracts beam bunches, up to a rate of 30 Hertz, to the ATR which feeds the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) starting with the sextant test in January of 1997. The ATR is made up of the upgraded U line and the new W, X, and Y lines. A test in 1995 transported beam to the end of the W line. During normal operation, a pulsed switching magnet at the end of the W line will bend the beam into the X line or the Y line so that the two storage rings in RHIC are filled with counter rotating beams. The ATR line is comprised of 80 power supplies (PS`s), 17 of which are upgraded AGS PS`s. The remaining 63 PS`s were newly purchased. These PS`s range from bipolar 600 watt linear type trim magnet PS`s to 1 Megawatt, thyristor, dipole PS`s. Results of the commissioning runs will be presented, as well as descriptions of regulation, filtering, and analog and digital controls.

  9. Coal supply for California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yancik, J. J.

    1978-01-01

    The potential sources and qualities of coals available for major utility and industrial consumers in California are examined and analyzed with respect to those factors that would affect the reliability of supplies. Other considerations, such as the requirements and assurances needed by the coal producers to enter into long-term contracts and dedicate large reserves of coal to these contracts are also discussed. Present and potential future mining contraints on coal mine operators are identified and analyzed with respect to their effect on availability of supply.

  10. 14 CFR 23.1091 - Air induction system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Air induction system. 23.1091 Section 23... § 23.1091 Air induction system. (a) The air induction system for each engine and auxiliary power unit and their accessories must supply the air required by that engine and auxiliary power unit and...

  11. 14 CFR 23.1091 - Air induction system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Air induction system. 23.1091 Section 23... § 23.1091 Air induction system. (a) The air induction system for each engine and auxiliary power unit and their accessories must supply the air required by that engine and auxiliary power unit and...

  12. 40 CFR 91.309 - Engine intake air temperature measurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Engine intake air temperature... Provisions § 91.309 Engine intake air temperature measurement. (a) Engine intake air temperature measurement... the supply system or in the air stream entering the engine. (b) The temperature measurements must...

  13. 40 CFR 91.309 - Engine intake air temperature measurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Engine intake air temperature... Provisions § 91.309 Engine intake air temperature measurement. (a) Engine intake air temperature measurement... the supply system or in the air stream entering the engine. (b) The temperature measurements must...

  14. 40 CFR 91.309 - Engine intake air temperature measurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Engine intake air temperature... Provisions § 91.309 Engine intake air temperature measurement. (a) Engine intake air temperature measurement... the supply system or in the air stream entering the engine. (b) The temperature measurements must...

  15. 40 CFR 91.309 - Engine intake air temperature measurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Engine intake air temperature... Provisions § 91.309 Engine intake air temperature measurement. (a) Engine intake air temperature measurement... the supply system or in the air stream entering the engine. (b) The temperature measurements must...

  16. 40 CFR 91.309 - Engine intake air temperature measurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Engine intake air temperature... Provisions § 91.309 Engine intake air temperature measurement. (a) Engine intake air temperature measurement... the supply system or in the air stream entering the engine. (b) The temperature measurements must...

  17. 40 CFR 92.108 - Intake and cooling air measurements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... recommended practice J244 (incorporated by reference at § 92.5) are allowed. (b) Humidity and temperature measurements. (1) Air that has had its absolute humidity altered is considered humidity-conditioned air. For this type of intake air supply, the humidity measurements must be made within the intake air...

  18. 40 CFR 92.108 - Intake and cooling air measurements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... recommended practice J244 (incorporated by reference at § 92.5) are allowed. (b) Humidity and temperature measurements. (1) Air that has had its absolute humidity altered is considered humidity-conditioned air. For this type of intake air supply, the humidity measurements must be made within the intake air...

  19. 40 CFR 92.108 - Intake and cooling air measurements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... recommended practice J244 (incorporated by reference at § 92.5) are allowed. (b) Humidity and temperature measurements. (1) Air that has had its absolute humidity altered is considered humidity-conditioned air. For this type of intake air supply, the humidity measurements must be made within the intake air...

  20. Inspecting an ethylene pipe line

    SciTech Connect

    Ramsvig, D.M. ); Duncan, J.; Zillinger, L. )

    1991-07-01

    This paper reports on the Alberta Gas Ethylene Co. (AGEC), completion of intensive internal cleaning and inspection program on their 112-mi ethylene pipe line. AGEC operates two ethylene manufacturing facilities in central Alberta, Canada. The ethylene plants are located 12.4 mi east of Red Deer, Alta., at Joffre, and supply two customers in Joffre. The remaining ethylene is shipped by the 112-mi, 12-in. line to a storage cavern near Edmonton.

  1. Vascular air embolism

    PubMed Central

    Gordy, Stephanie; Rowell, Susan

    2013-01-01

    Vascular air embolism is a rare but potentially fatal event. It may occur in a variety of procedures and surgeries but is most often associated as an iatrogenic complication of central line catheter insertion. This article reviews the incidence, pathophysiology, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of this phenomenon. PMID:23724390

  2. Supply-Chain Optimization Template

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quiett, William F.; Sealing, Scott L.

    2009-01-01

    The Supply-Chain Optimization Template (SCOT) is an instructional guide for identifying, evaluating, and optimizing (including re-engineering) aerospace- oriented supply chains. The SCOT was derived from the Supply Chain Council s Supply-Chain Operations Reference (SCC SCOR) Model, which is more generic and more oriented toward achieving a competitive advantage in business.

  3. Coolant line hydrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Barber, M.D.; Kipp, W.G.

    1987-03-17

    This patent describes a hydrometer unit for connection in an automobile coolant flow line comprising: a tubular fitting adapted to be connected to the coolant flow line; a coolant receiving chamber means connected to the tubular fitting for receiving coolant from the tubular fitting; and indicating float elements contained within the coolant receiving chamber means and adapted to rise therein individually as a function of the specific gravity of the coolant. The coolant receiving chamber means includes a closure cap which when connected to the tubular fitting forms a coolant receiving chamber, retaining means for retaining the indicating float elements within the coolant receiving chamber, a viewing window member of a substantially clear material through which the float elements can be visually observed within the coolant receiving chamber means, and air venturi means located within the coolant receiving chamber means for automatically removing air which may collect within the coolant chamber means.

  4. Power Supplies for Precooler Ring

    SciTech Connect

    Fuja, Raymond; Praeg, Walter

    1980-12-12

    Eight power supplies will energize the antiproton Precooler ring. there will be two series connected supplies per quadrant. These supplies will power 32 dipole and 19 quadrupole magnets. The resistance and inductance per quadrant is R = 1.4045 Ohms and L = 0.466. Each powr supply will have 12-phase series bridge rectifiers and will be energized from the 480 V 3-phase grid. The total of eight power supplies are numbered IA, IIA, IIIA, IVA, and IB, IIB, IIIB, and IVB. Each quadrant will contain one A and one B supply. A block diagram of the Precooler ring with its power supplies is shown in Figure 1.

  5. Supply chain quality.

    PubMed

    Feary, Simon

    2009-01-01

    As the development of complex manufacturing models and virtual companies become more prevalent in today's growing global markets, it is increasingly important to support the relationships between manufacturer and supplier. Utilising these relationships will ensure that supply chains operate more effectively and reduce costs, risks and time-to-market time frames, whilst maintaining product quality. PMID:20058652

  6. APS power supply controls

    SciTech Connect

    Saunders, C.W.; Despe, O.D.

    1994-03-31

    The purpose of this document is to provide comprehensive coverage of the APS power supply control design. This includes application software, embedded controller software, networks, and hardware. The basic components will be introduced first, followed by the requirements driving the overall design. Subsequent sections will address each component of the design one by one. Latter sections will address specific applications.

  7. Supply chain management.

    PubMed

    Palevich, R F

    1999-02-01

    This article describes how Do It Best Corp. has used technology to improve its supply chain management. Among other topics it discusses the company's use of electronic data interchange, the Internet, electronic forecasting, and warehouse management systems to gain substantial savings and increase its competitiveness. PMID:10345634

  8. Lightweight Regulated Power Supply

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mclyman, C. W.

    1985-01-01

    Power-supply circuit regulates output voltage by adjusting frequency of chopper circuit according to variations. Currently installed in battery charger for electric wheelchair, circuit is well suited to other uses in which light weight is important - for example, in portable computers, radios, and test instruments.

  9. Maintenance and supply options

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    The object of the Maintenance and Supply Option was to develop a high level operational philosophy related to maintenance and supply operations and incorporate these concepts into the Lunar Base Study. Specific products to be generated during this task were three trade studies and a conceptual design of the Logistic Supply Module. The crew size study was performed to evaluate crew sizes from the baseline size of four to a crew size of eight and determine the preferred crew size. The second trade study was to determine the impact of extending surface stay times and recommend a preferred duration of stay time as a function of crew, consumables, and equipment support capabilities. The third trade study was an evaluation of packaging and storage methods to determine the preferred logistics approach to support the lunar base. A modified scenario was developed and served as the basis of the individual trade studies. Assumptions and guidelines were also developed from experience with Apollo programs, Space Shuttle operations, and Space Station studies. With this information, the trade studies were performed and a conceptual design for the Logistic Supply Module was developed.

  10. Exploration Supply Chain Simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    The Exploration Supply Chain Simulation project was chartered by the NASA Exploration Systems Mission Directorate to develop a software tool, with proper data, to quantitatively analyze supply chains for future program planning. This tool is a discrete-event simulation that uses the basic supply chain concepts of planning, sourcing, making, delivering, and returning. This supply chain perspective is combined with other discrete or continuous simulation factors. Discrete resource events (such as launch or delivery reviews) are represented as organizational functional units. Continuous resources (such as civil service or contractor program functions) are defined as enabling functional units. Concepts of fixed and variable costs are included in the model to allow the discrete events to interact with cost calculations. The definition file is intrinsic to the model, but a blank start can be initiated at any time. The current definition file is an Orion Ares I crew launch vehicle. Parameters stretch from Kennedy Space Center across and into other program entities (Michaud Assembly Facility, Aliant Techsystems, Stennis Space Center, Johnson Space Center, etc.) though these will only gain detail as the file continues to evolve. The Orion Ares I file definition in the tool continues to evolve, and analysis from this tool is expected in 2008. This is the first application of such business-driven modeling to a NASA/government-- aerospace contractor endeavor.

  11. Chapter 22: Compressed Air Evaluation Protocol

    SciTech Connect

    Benton, N.

    2014-11-01

    Compressed-air systems are used widely throughout industry for many operations, including pneumatic tools, packaging and automation equipment, conveyors, and other industrial process operations. Compressed-air systems are defined as a group of subsystems composed of air compressors, air treatment equipment, controls, piping, pneumatic tools, pneumatically powered machinery, and process applications using compressed air. A compressed-air system has three primary functional subsystems: supply, distribution, and demand. Air compressors are the primary energy consumers in a compressed-air system and are the primary focus of this protocol. The two compressed-air energy efficiency measures specifically addressed in this protocol are: high-efficiency/variable speed drive (VSD) compressor replacing modulating compressor; compressed-air leak survey and repairs. This protocol provides direction on how to reliably verify savings from these two measures using a consistent approach for each.

  12. The Economics of Air Cargo

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kersey, J. W.

    1972-01-01

    The economic factors involved in air cargo operations and air cargo marketing development are discussed. Specific steps which are followed by various airports to reduce operating costs are described. The economics of cargo handling within an airline are analyzed with respect to: (1) paperwork costs, (2) terminal costs, (3) line haul costs, and (4) claims costs.

  13. Proton driver power supply system

    SciTech Connect

    C. Jach and D. Wolff

    2002-06-03

    This paper describes magnet power supply system for a proposed Proton Driver at Fermilab. The magnet power supply system consists of resonant dipole/quadrupole power supply system, quadrupole tracking, dipole correction (horizontal and vertical) and sextupole power supply systems. This paper also describes preliminary design of the power distribution system supplying 13.8 kV power to all proton Driver electrical systems.

  14. Reotemp Pressure Indicator Local Pressure Indication to Monitor the SCHE Supply Bottle Pressure

    SciTech Connect

    VAN KATWIJK, C.

    1999-07-01

    These 0-3000 psig range pressure indicators are located in the SCHe helium supply lines at the pressure bottles and upstream of the PRV. These accident monitoring local pressure indicators monitor the SCHe supply bottle pressure. There is one pressure indicator for each SCHe supply (4).

  15. Use of absorption refrigerating machines in mine air-conditioning systems

    SciTech Connect

    Duganov, G.V.; Rozhko, V.F.; Shtompel, A.I.; Timofeevskii, L.S.

    1984-07-01

    This article describes lithium bromide absorption refrigerating machines (LBARMs) designed for use in mine air-conditioning systems (MACS). The application of LBARMs in MACS is difficult due to the elevation of temperature of the cold carrier when supplied to the mine air refrigerants. A thermodynamic and thermoeconomic analysis was conducted to determine the principal lines of LBARM design for creating a suitable microclimate in underground mines. The MACS will maintain the temperature in the mines at a horizon of 913 m at 24-26/sup 0/C. A scheme is proposed for stage-by-stage cooling by connecting two machines in succession. It is concluded that the use of absorption refrigerating machines in coal mine air-conditioning systems facilitates the integrated and economic use of heat energy as well as of secondary heat resources for cold generation.

  16. High voltage power supply

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ruitberg, A. P.; Young, K. M. (Inventor)

    1985-01-01

    A high voltage power supply is formed by three discrete circuits energized by a battery to provide a plurality of concurrent output signals floating at a high output voltage on the order of several tens of kilovolts. In the first two circuits, the regulator stages are pulse width modulated and include adjustable ressistances for varying the duty cycles of pulse trains provided to corresponding oscillator stages while the third regulator stage includes an adjustable resistance for varying the amplitude of a steady signal provided to a third oscillator stage. In the first circuit, the oscillator, formed by a constant current drive network and a tuned resonant network included a step up transformer, is coupled to a second step up transformer which, in turn, supplies an amplified sinusoidal signal to a parallel pair of complementary poled rectifying, voltage multiplier stages to generate the high output voltage.

  17. Discontinuous Mode Power Supply

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lagadinos, John; Poulos, Ethel

    2012-01-01

    A document discusses the changes made to a standard push-pull inverter circuit to avoid saturation effects in the main inverter power supply. Typically, in a standard push-pull arrangement, the unsymmetrical primary excitation causes variations in the volt second integral of each half of the excitation cycle that could lead to the establishment of DC flux density in the magnetic core, which could eventually cause saturation of the main inverter transformer. The relocation of the filter reactor normally placed across the output of the power supply solves this problem. The filter reactor was placed in series with the primary circuit of the main inverter transformer, and is presented as impedance against the sudden changes on the input current. The reactor averaged the input current in the primary circuit, avoiding saturation of the main inverter transformer. Since the implementation of the described change, the above problem has not reoccurred, and failures in the main power transistors have been avoided.

  18. AIRS Level 2 Data Products

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vicente, Gilberto

    2003-01-01

    The Atmospheric InfraRed Sounder (AIRS) Standard Retrieval Product consists of retrieved cloud and surface properties; profiles of retrieved temperature, water vapor, and ozone; and a flag indicating the presence of cloud ice or water. They contain quality assessment flags in addition to retrieved quantities and are generated for all locations where atmospheric soundings are taken. An AIRS granule consists of 6 minutes of data. This corresponds to approximately 1/15 of an orbit but exactly 45 scan lines of AMSU-A data or 135 scan lines of AIRS and HSB data.

  19. Streamlining the supply chain.

    PubMed

    Neumann, Lydon

    2003-07-01

    Effective management of the supply chain requires attention to: Product management--formulary development and maintenance, compliance, clinical involvement, standardization, and demand-matching. Sourcing and contracting--vendor consolidation, GPO portfolio management, price leveling, content management, and direct contracting Purchasing and payment-cycle--automatic placement, web enablement, centralization, evaluated receipts settlement, and invoice matching Inventory and distribution management--"unofficial" and "official" locations, vendor-managed inventory, automatic replenishment, and freight management.

  20. Streamlining the supply chain.

    PubMed

    Neumann, Lydon

    2003-07-01

    Effective management of the supply chain requires attention to: Product management--formulary development and maintenance, compliance, clinical involvement, standardization, and demand-matching. Sourcing and contracting--vendor consolidation, GPO portfolio management, price leveling, content management, and direct contracting Purchasing and payment-cycle--automatic placement, web enablement, centralization, evaluated receipts settlement, and invoice matching Inventory and distribution management--"unofficial" and "official" locations, vendor-managed inventory, automatic replenishment, and freight management. PMID:12866156

  1. Air resources

    SciTech Connect

    1995-10-01

    This section describes the ambient (surrounding) air quality of the TVA region, discusses TVA emission contributions to ambient air quality, and identifies air quality impacts to human health and welfare. Volume 2 Technical Document 2, Environmental Consequences, describes how changes in TVA emissions could affect regional air quality, human health, environmental resources, and materials. The primary region of the affected environment is broadly defined as the state of Tennessee, as well as southern Kentucky, western Virginia, southern West Virginia, western North Carolina, and northern Georgia, Alabama, and Mississippi. This area represents the watershed of the Tennessee River and the 201 counties of the greater TVA service area. Emissions from outside the Tennessee Valley region contribute to air quality in the Valley. Also, TVA emissions are transported outside the Valley and have some impact on air quality beyond the primary study area. Although the study area experiences a number of air quality problems, overall air quality is good.

  2. Air Pollution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilpin, Alan

    A summary of one of our most pressing environmental problems, air pollution, is offered in this book by the Director of Air Pollution Control for the Queensland (Australia) State Government. Discussion of the subject is not restricted to Queensland or Australian problems and policies, however, but includes analysis of air pollution the world over.…

  3. Solar-powered hot-air system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    Solar-powered air heater supplies part or all of space heating requirements of residential or commercial buildings and is interfaced with air to water heat exchanger to heat domestic hot water. System has potential application in drying agricultural products such as cotton, lumber, corn, grains, and peanuts.

  4. Air contamination of a closed anesthesia circuit.

    PubMed

    Mizuno, K; Sumiyoshi, R

    1998-01-01

    Closed-circuit anesthesia (CCA) has certain advantages such as decreased cost, decreased anesthetic gas pollution, improved inhalational gas humidity and temperature in comparison to conventional inhalational anesthesia using a high fresh gas flow, i.e. more than 2 L x min(-1), with a semi-closed breathing circuit. The main disadvantage of CCA is the possibility of hypoxic anesthetic gas delivery. This potentially lethal situation is caused by an insufficient oxygen flow rate for the body metabolism or by the accumulation of inactive gas, usually nitrogen, within the breathing circuit in spite of a sufficient oxygen concentration in the fresh gas supply to the breathing circuit. In the latter case, the accumulation of inactive gas may also lead an increased risk of awareness because of its dilution effect on the concentrations of inhalational anesthetics. We herein present a case of air contamination of the breathing circuit through a sampling line of an anesthetic gas monitor. The air caused a decrease in the oxygen concentration during closed circuit anesthesia.

  5. Health costs of a reduced energy supply.

    PubMed

    McCarroll, J R

    1983-10-01

    Health effects associated with electricity production, especially air pollution from fossil fuel combustion, have received much attention in the past 30 years. Virtually no attention has been paid to the health costs of a reduced or overpriced energy supply although these are real and formidable. Stringent regulations mandating control technology on stack emissions and/or burning of low sulfur fuels have been promulgated which cost the American public billions of dollars. These have indeed alleviated some health problems, but pressures to further tighten regulations offer little chance of further health benefits commensurate with their cost and are most likely to produce a new series of problems. PMID:6653529

  6. Nonequilibrium air radiation (Nequair) program: User's manual

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, C.

    1985-07-01

    A supplement to the data relating to the calculation of nonequilibrium radiation in flight regimes of aeroassisted orbital transfer vehicles contains the listings of the computer code NEQAIR (Nonequilibrium Air Radiation), its primary input data, and explanation of the user-supplied input variables. The user-supplied input variables are the thermodynamic variables of air at a given point, i.e., number densities of various chemical species, translational temperatures of heavy particles and electrons, and vibrational temperature. These thermodynamic variables do not necessarily have to be in thermodynamic equilibrium. The code calculates emission and absorption characteristics of air under these given conditions.

  7. Nonequilibrium air radiation (Nequair) program: User's manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Park, C.

    1985-01-01

    A supplement to the data relating to the calculation of nonequilibrium radiation in flight regimes of aeroassisted orbital transfer vehicles contains the listings of the computer code NEQAIR (Nonequilibrium Air Radiation), its primary input data, and explanation of the user-supplied input variables. The user-supplied input variables are the thermodynamic variables of air at a given point, i.e., number densities of various chemical species, translational temperatures of heavy particles and electrons, and vibrational temperature. These thermodynamic variables do not necessarily have to be in thermodynamic equilibrium. The code calculates emission and absorption characteristics of air under these given conditions.

  8. Food and water supply

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Popov, I. G.

    1975-01-01

    Supplying astronauts with adequate food and water on short and long-term space flights is discussed based on experiences gained in space flight. Food consumption, energy requirements, and suitability of the foodstuffs for space flight are among the factors considered. Physicochemical and biological methods of food production and regeneration of water from astronaut metabolic wastes, as well as wastes produced in a closed ecological system, or as a result of technical processes taking place in various spacecraft systems are suggested for long-term space flights.

  9. Strategy Guideline. Compact Air Distribution Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Burdick, Arlan

    2013-06-01

    This guideline discusses the benefits and challenges of using a compact air distribution system to handle the reduced loads and reduced air volume needed to condition the space within an energy efficient home. The decision criteria for a compact air distribution system must be determined early in the whole-house design process, considering both supply and return air design. However, careful installation of a compact air distribution system can result in lower material costs from smaller equipment, shorter duct runs, and fewer outlets; increased installation efficiencies, including ease of fitting the system into conditioned space; lower loads on a better balanced HVAC system, and overall improved energy efficiency of the home.

  10. Oil supply: the outlook

    SciTech Connect

    Velocci, T.

    1982-07-01

    The post oil-glut world will leave OPEC still in control of world production levels and prices. Some estimates show US imports rising as much as 35% to 4.3 million barrels a day as the recession ends, but others think the direct coupling of energy demand and economic growth has ended. The potential for a substantial comeback in energy-intensive industries and a replacement of business inventories could lead to a surge in demand. The current increase in gasoline demand is seasonal, and reflects an effort to replenish oil inventories. Industry spokesmen credit high prices for the moderating effect on demand. US investment in oil exploration will rise only 14% to $95.3 billion after a 39% increase in 1980 because of stable oil prices. Offshore and Alaskan exploration have a high, but expensive, potential for reducing future imports. US dependence has dropped from 48% to 30% of total supply since 1977 because of exploration efforts and the Strategic Petroleum Reserve. Any future supply crisis will depend on Middle East politics, a break in the price and production swings, and OPEC manipulation of the market. (DCK)

  11. Future natural gas supplies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Despite recent optimism about the outlook for the future supply of domestic conventional natural gas, the Congressional Office of Technology Assessment (OTA) finds insufficient evidence to clearly justify either an optimistic or a pessimistic view. In a technical memorandum entitled “U.S. Natural Gas Availability: Conventional Gas Supply Through the Year 2000,” released recently by Rep. Philip R. Sharp (D-Ind,), chairman of the Subcommittee on Fossil and Synthetic Fuels of the Committee on Energy and Commerce, OTA concluded that substantial technical uncertainties prevented a reliable estimation of the likely natural gas production rates for later in this century. Even ignoring the potential for significant changes in gas prices and technology, OTA estimated that conventional gas production by the lower 48 states in the year 2000 could range from 9 to 19 trillion cubic feet (TCF) (0.25 to 0.53 trillion cubic meters), compared to 1982 production of 17.5 TCF. Similarly, production in the year 1990 could range from 13 to 20 TCF.

  12. Public water supplies in eastern Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sundstrom, Raymond W.; Hastings, W.W.; Broadhurst, W.L.

    1948-01-01

    This report gives a summarized description of the public water supplies in 77 counties of eastern Texas, extending from the Louisiana boundary to a northsouth line approximately along the ninety-seventh meridian. It gives the available data as follows for each of 323 communities: The population of the community; the name of the official from whom the information was obtained; the ownership of the waterworks, whether private or municipal; the source of supply, whether ground or surface water; the amount of water consumed; the facilities for storage; the number of customers served; the character of the chemical and sanitary treatment of the water, if any; and the chemical analyses of the water. Where ground water is used the following is also given: Records of wells, including drillers' logs; character of the pumping equipment; yield of the wells and water level records where they are available.

  13. Energy supplies and future engines for land, sea, and air.

    PubMed

    Hidy, George M; Chow, Judith C; England, Glen C; Legge, Alan H; Lloyd, Alan C; Watson, John G

    2012-11-01

    The 2012 Critical Review Discussion complements Wilson, (2012), provides pointers to more detailed treatments of different topics and adds additional dimensions to the area of "energy". These include broader aspects of technologies driven by fuel resources and environmental issues, the concept of energy technology innovation, evolution in transportation resources, and complexities of energy policies addressing carbon taxes or carbon trading. National and global energy data bases are identified and evaluated and conversion factors are given to allow their comparability.

  14. 46 CFR 197.432 - Surface-supplied air diving.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... at depths less than 190 fsw, except that dives with bottom times of 30 minutes or less may be... is continuously tended while in the water; (d) When a diver is in a physically confining space... time greater than 120 minutes, except when the diver is using a heavy-weight diving outfit or is...

  15. 46 CFR 197.432 - Surface-supplied air diving.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... at depths less than 190 fsw, except that dives with bottom times of 30 minutes or less may be... is continuously tended while in the water; (d) When a diver is in a physically confining space... time greater than 120 minutes, except when the diver is using a heavy-weight diving outfit or is...

  16. 42 CFR 84.130 - Supplied-air respirators; description.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... designed to protect the wearer's head and neck against impact and abrasion from rebounding abrasive... against impact and abrasion from rebounding abrasive material, and with shielding material such as plastic... from rebounding abrasive material, and with shielding material such as plastic, glass, woven...

  17. 116. PNEUMATIC SUPPLY PANEL IN CENTER OF VEHICLE MECHANICAL SYSTEMS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    116. PNEUMATIC SUPPLY PANEL IN CENTER OF VEHICLE MECHANICAL SYSTEMS ROOM (111) OF LSB (BLDG. 770), FACING NORTH. CONTROLS FOR FLOW AND PRESSURE REGULATION OF NITROGEN ON RIGHT SIDE OF PANEL; CONTROLS FOR HELIUM ON LEFT SIDE OF PANEL (AT LEFT EDGE OF PHOTO). - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Pad 3 West, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  18. 117. PNEUMATIC SUPPLY PANEL IN CENTER OF VEHICLE MECHANICAL SYSTEMS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    117. PNEUMATIC SUPPLY PANEL IN CENTER OF VEHICLE MECHANICAL SYSTEMS ROOM (111), LSB (BLDG. 770), FACING NORTH. CONTROLS FOR FLOW AND PRESSURE REGULATION OF HELIUM ON LEFT SIDE OF PANEL; CONTROLS FOR NITROGEN ON RIGHT SIDE OF PANEL (AT RIGHT EDGE OF PHOTO). - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Pad 3 West, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  19. Massachusetts Study of Teacher Supply and Demand: Trends and Projections

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levin, Jesse; Berg-Jacobson, Alex; Atchison, Drew; Lee, Katelyn; Vontsolos, Emily

    2015-01-01

    In April 2015, the Massachusetts Department of Elementary and Secondary Education (ESE) commissioned American Institutes for Research (AIR) to develop a comprehensive set of 10-year projections of teacher supply and demand in order to inform planning for future workforce needs. This included state-level projections both in the aggregate, as well…

  20. 33. View of data converter and power supply for TR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    33. View of data converter and power supply for TR system in transmitter building no. 102, mezzanine level. - Clear Air Force Station, Ballistic Missile Early Warning System Site II, One mile west of mile marker 293.5 on Parks Highway, 5 miles southwest of Anderson, Anderson, Denali Borough, AK

  1. ASME PTC 47 - IGCC performance testing: Air separation issues

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, A.R.

    1998-07-01

    Air separation units have been incorporated into the designs of many gasification combined cycle projects worldwide for the supply of pressurized oxygen and nitrogen. Pressurized gaseous oxygen at a purity usually above 95% by volume is supplied to the gasification unit to partially oxidized a hydrocarbon feed to yield syngas. Nitrogen streams are used for purging and inerting purposes or for the reactor. Several facilities have incorporated integration of air and/or nitrogen streams between the gas turbine and the air separation unit to improve overall facility cost, power output and efficiency. Gasification processes that are based on air as the oxidant source may also require an air separation unit to supply pressurized nitrogen for inerting and dry fuel transport. This paper reports on the progress of PTC 47's air separation subcommittee in defining test measurement boundaries and performance parameter definitions for the testing of an air separation unit as a subsystem of the gasification combined cycle facility.

  2. Air Conditioning Overflow Sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    The Technology Transfer Office at Stennis Space Center helped a local inventor develop a prototype of an attachment for central air conditioners and heat pumps that helps monitor water levels to prevent condensation overflow. The sensor will indicate a need for drain line maintenance and prevent possible damage caused by drain pan water spillover. An engineer in the Stennis Space Center prototype Development Laboratory used SSC sensor technology in the development of the sensor.

  3. Sustainable Biomass Supply Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Erin Searcy; Dave Muth; Erin Wilkerson; Shahab Sokansanj; Bryan Jenkins; Peter Titman; Nathan Parker; Quinn Hart; Richard Nelson

    2009-04-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) aims to displace 30% of the 2004 gasoline use (60 billion gal/yr) with biofuels by 2030 as outlined in the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007, which will require 700 million tons of biomass to be sustainably delivered to biorefineries annually. Lignocellulosic biomass will make an important contribution towards meeting DOE’s ethanol production goals. For the biofuels industry to be an economically viable enterprise, the feedstock supply system (i.e., moving the biomass from the field to the refinery) cannot contribute more that 30% of the total cost of the biofuel production. The Idaho National Laboratory in collaboration with Oak Ridge National Laboratory, University of California, Davis and Kansas State University are developing a set of tools for identifying economical, sustainable feedstocks on a regional basis based on biorefinery siting.

  4. Switching power supply

    DOEpatents

    Mihalka, A.M.

    1984-06-05

    The invention is a repratable capacitor charging, switching power supply. A ferrite transformer steps up a dc input. The transformer primary is in a full bridge configuration utilizing power MOSFETs as the bridge switches. The transformer secondary is fed into a high voltage, full wave rectifier whose output is connected directly to the energy storage capacitor. The transformer is designed to provide adequate leakage inductance to limit capacitor current. The MOSFETs are switched to the variable frequency from 20 to 50 kHz to charge a capacitor from 0.6 kV. The peak current in a transformer primary and secondary is controlled by increasing the pulse width as the capacitor charges. A digital ripple counter counts pulses and after a preselected desired number is reached an up-counter is clocked.

  5. World petroleum supplies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bell, Peter M.

    A number of conclusions by political conservatives about the fate of world petroleum supplies have been emerging lately. Among the most recent of them arose from discussions, held at the 1983 spring meeting of the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS), which focused on the environment and resource study entitled “The Global 2000 Report” (New Scientist, June 9, 1983). Fred Singer, representing the Heritage Foundation of Washington, D.C., criticized the report, which predicted shortages in the near future, saying that the current world-wide oil glut will continue beyond the year 2000. Alternatives to the use of petroleum are a part of the cause. Singer argued that conservation, nuclear energy, and other petroleum substitutes will continue to suppress the demand for petroleum. In addition, according to other evaluations, exploration for petroleum and natural gas has not really begun.

  6. Power Supply Unit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    The Cuk DC to DC Switching Converter was developed by Caltech Professors, Slobodan Cuk and R. D. Middlebrook. The converter changes unsuitable dc voltage into one or more voltages suitable for powering electronic equipment; it can also be used in converting dc current to ac and vice versa. It was named one of the 100 most significant technical advances of 1979. The Cuk converter is more efficient than previous conversion devices, simpler, smaller, lighter, cheaper and highly reliable. The first application of the technology is in the Compucorp 685 word/data processor, manufactured by Compucorp. NASA waived title rights; Caltech granted exclusive license to the inventors, who in turn, transferred their rights to a company they founded called TESLA Company, which sublicenses the converter design and related technology to companies making power supplies for use in their own products.

  7. NNSA TRITIUM SUPPLY CHAIN

    SciTech Connect

    Wyrick, Steven; Cordaro, Joseph; Founds, Nanette; Chambellan, Curtis

    2013-08-21

    Savannah River Site plays a critical role in the Tritium Production Supply Chain for the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA). The entire process includes: • Production of Tritium Producing Burnable Absorber Rods (TPBARs) at the Westinghouse WesDyne Nuclear Fuels Plant in Columbia, South Carolina • Production of unobligated Low Enriched Uranium (LEU) at the United States Enrichment Corporation (USEC) in Portsmouth, Ohio • Irradiation of TPBARs with the LEU at the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) Watts Bar Reactor • Extraction of tritium from the irradiated TPBARs at the Tritium Extraction Facility (TEF) at Savannah River Site • Processing the tritium at the Savannah River Site, which includes removal of nonhydrogen species and separation of the hydrogen isotopes of protium, deuterium and tritium.

  8. Petroleum engineering manpower supply

    SciTech Connect

    Dorfman, M.

    1982-09-01

    The supply of Petroleum Engineers within the U.S. has shown an exponential growth during the last decade due to increases in the price of petroleum and concommitant demand for engineers in the petroleum industry at all levels of activity. Schools currently have very large enrollments; many lack sufficient faculty and facilities to adequately handle the large loads. Recent uncertainty in long range forecasting of petroleum demand, coupled with uncertainty in the price of oil due to turmoil in the Middle East and the discovery of additional large reserves of petroleum as a result of increased drilling, has led to a decline of approximately 25% in the price of crude oil on the spot market and subsequent reductions in drilling in 1982 from a high of 4,500 rigs in the U.S. to 2528 rigs by August 31, 1982; a reduction of 44% this year. This reduction in activity will be reflected in reduced job opportunities for many new graduates in December 1982 and in 1983, and the ''pipelines'' within the schools are filled with students in expectation of good jobs in the private sector of the economy. Since Petroleum Engineering departments maintain a close tie with industry, it is essential that some balance be maintained between supply and demand, so as to try to prevent a glut of engineers descending upon the market. Steps are underway at many schools. to reduce enrollments by a variety of methods at the present time. An upturn in demand in petroleum prices may serve to mitigate the problem within the next two years, but a long-range interchange between industrial hiring forecasts and universities is essential in planning for the future.

  9. 46 CFR 197.310 - Air compressor system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Air compressor system. 197.310 Section 197.310 Shipping... GENERAL PROVISIONS Commercial Diving Operations Equipment § 197.310 Air compressor system. A compressor used to supply breathing air to a diver must have— (a) A volume tank that is— (1) Built and stamped...

  10. 46 CFR 197.310 - Air compressor system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Air compressor system. 197.310 Section 197.310 Shipping... GENERAL PROVISIONS Commercial Diving Operations Equipment § 197.310 Air compressor system. A compressor used to supply breathing air to a diver must have— (a) A volume tank that is— (1) Built and stamped...

  11. Improving Energy Security for Air Force Installations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schill, David

    Like civilian infrastructure, Air Force installations are dependent on electrical energy for daily operations. Energy shortages translate to decreased productivity, higher costs, and increased health risks. But for the United States military, energy shortages have the potential to become national security risks. Over ninety-five percent of the electrical energy used by the Air Force is supplied by the domestic grid, which is susceptible to shortages and disruptions. Many Air Force operations require a continuous source of energy, and while the Air Force has historically established redundant supplies of electrical energy, these back-ups are designed for short-term outages and may not provide sufficient supply for a longer, sustained power outage. Furthermore, it is the goal of the Department of Defense to produce or procure 25 percent of its facility energy from renewable sources by fiscal year 2025. In a government budget environment where decision makers are required to provide more capability with less money, it is becoming increasingly important for informed decisions regarding which energy supply options bear the most benefit for an installation. The analysis begins by exploring the field of energy supply options available to an Air Force installation. The supply options are assessed according to their ability to provide continuous and reliable energy, their applicability to unique requirements of Air Force installations, and their costs. Various methods of calculating energy usage by an installation are also addressed. The next step of this research develops a methodology and tool which assesses how an installation responds to various power outage scenarios. Lastly, various energy supply options are applied to the tool, and the results are reported in terms of cost and loss of installation capability. This approach will allow installation commanders and energy managers the ability to evaluate the cost and effectiveness of various energy investment options.

  12. Air Pollution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox, Donald L.

    1989-01-01

    Materials related to air pollution are reviewed for the period January 1987, to October 1988. The topics are pollution monitoring, air pollution, and environmental chemistry. The organization consists of two major analytical divisions: (1) gaseous methods; and (2) aerosol and particulate methods. (MVL)

  13. Air Pollution.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Air quality is affected by many types of pollutants that are emitted from various sources, including stationary and mobile. These sources release both criteria and hazardous air pollutants, which cause health effects, ecological harm, and material damage. They are generally categ...

  14. Dynamic Performance of a Residential Air-to-Air Heat Pump.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, George E.; Bean, John

    This publication is a study of the dynamic performance of a 5-ton air-to-air heat pump in a residence in Washington, D.C. The effect of part-load operation on the heat pump's cooling and heating coefficients of performance was determined. Discrepancies between measured performance and manufacturer-supplied performance data were found when the unit…

  15. Electronic control system for air fuel ratio compensation in highlands

    SciTech Connect

    Kimura, J.; Noji, A.

    1981-12-29

    An electronic control system which electronically controls the air fuel ratio of a mixture being supplied to a gasoline engine in highlands is described. An orifice device is provided in a passage through which secondary air is supplied to the venturi section of the engine carburetor. An electronic control unit carries out programmed control of the orifice opening of the orifice device in response to the atmospheric pressure and the engine temperature to create a reference pressure. A further electronic control unit drives a second air control valve provided in the secondary air supply passage along a predetermined operating characteristic pattern in response to the difference between the reference pressure and an actual pressure present in the venturi section of the carburetor. A mixture having an optimum air fuel ratio corresponding to the atmospheric pressure can thus be supplied to the engine from the carburetor.

  16. Developing sustainable food supply chains.

    PubMed

    Smith, B Gail

    2008-02-27

    This paper reviews the opportunities available for food businesses to encourage consumers to eat healthier and more nutritious diets, to invest in more sustainable manufacturing and distribution systems and to develop procurement systems based on more sustainable forms of agriculture. The important factors in developing more sustainable supply chains are identified as the type of supply chain involved and the individual business attitude to extending responsibility for product quality into social and environmental performance within their own supply chains. Interpersonal trust and working to standards are both important to build more sustainable local and many conserved food supply chains, but inadequate to transform mainstream agriculture and raw material supplies to the manufactured and commodity food markets. Cooperation among food manufacturers, retailers, NGOs, governmental and farmers' organizations is vital in order to raise standards for some supply chains and to enable farmers to adopt more sustainable agricultural practices. PMID:17766237

  17. Optics Supply Planning System

    SciTech Connect

    Gaylord, J

    2009-04-30

    The purpose of this study is to specify the design for an initial optics supply planning system for NIF, and to present quality assurance and test plans for the construction of the system as specified. The National Ignition Facility (NIF) is a large laser facility that is just starting operations. Thousands of specialized optics are required to operate the laser, and must be exchanged over time based on the laser shot plan and predictions of damage. Careful planning and tracking of optic exchanges is necessary because of the tight inventory of spare optics, and the long lead times for optics procurements and production changes. Automated inventory forecasting and production planning tools are required to replace existing manual processes. The optics groups members who are expected to use the supply planning system are the stakeholders for this project, and are divided into three groups. Each of these groups participated in a requirements specification that was used to develop this design. (1) Optics Management--These are the top level stakeholdersk, and the final decision makers. This group is the interface to shot operations, is ultimately responsible for optics supply, and decides which exchanges will be made. (2) Work Center Managers--This group manages the on site optics processing work centers. They schedule the daily work center operations, and are responsible for developing long term processing, equipment, and staffing plans. (3) Component Engineers--This group manages the vendor contracts for the manufacture of new optics and the off site rework of existing optics. They are responsible for sourcing vendors, negotiating contracts, and managing vendor processes. The scope of this analysis is to describe the structure and design details of a system that will meet all requirements that were described by stakeholders and documented in the analysis model for this project. The design specifies the architecture, components, interfaces, and data stores of the system

  18. Cholangiocytes and blood supply

    PubMed Central

    Gaudio, Eugenio; Franchitto, Antonio; Pannarale, Luigi; Carpino, Guido; Alpini, Gianfranco; Francis, Heather; Glaser, Shannon; Alvaro, Domenico; Onori, Paolo

    2006-01-01

    The microvascular supply of the biliary tree, the peribiliary plexus (PBP), stems from the hepatic artery branches and flows into the hepatic sinusoids. A detailed three-dimensional study of the PBP has been performed by using the Scanning Electron Microscopy vascular corrosion casts (SEMvcc) technique. Considering that the PBP plays a fundamental role in supporting the secretory and absorptive functions of the biliary epithelium, their organization in either normalcy and pathology is explored. The normal liver shows the PBP arranged around extra- and intrahepatic biliary tree. In the small portal tract PBP was characterized by a single layer of capillaries which progressively continued with the extrahepatic PBP where it showed a more complex vascular network. After common duct ligation (BDL), progressive modifications of bile duct and PBP proliferation are observed. The PBP presents a three-dimensional network arranged around many bile ducts and appears as bundles of vessels, composed by capillaries of homogeneous diameter with a typical round mesh structure. The PBP network is easily distinguishable from the sinusoidal network which appears normal. Considering the enormous extension of the PBP during BDL, the possible role played by the Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF) is evaluated. VEGF-A, VEGF-C and their related receptors appeared highly immunopositive in proliferating cholangiocytes of BDL rats. The administration of anti-VEGF-A or anti-VEGF-C antibodies to BDL rats as well as hepatic artery ligation induced a reduced bile duct mass. The administration of rVEGF-A to BDL hepatic artery ligated rats prevented the decrease of cholangiocyte proliferation and VEGF-A expression as compared to BDL control rats. These data suggest the role of arterial blood supply of the biliary tree in conditions of cholangiocyte proliferation, such as it occurs during chronic cholestasis. On the other hand, the role played by VEGF as a tool of cross-talk between

  19. D0 Cryo Instrument Air Backup System

    SciTech Connect

    Urbin, J.; /Fermilab

    1990-11-20

    The D0 instrument air system for cryo controls has an emergency backup supply of nitrogen gas. The backup system consists of a high pressure tube trailer (38 tubes - 2400 psig MAWP), piping, valves, regulators and pressure monitoring instrumentation. The trailer is located south of DAB alongside the LN{sub 2} Dewar. Fixed piping ties to the trailer with a flex-hose. The piping follows the cryo piping bridge entering the south wall of DAB. where it passes through the pipe chase and into the cryo pump room (Rm 315). The high pressure gas is regulated down to 90 psig before tying into the compressor supplied instrument air system. Check valves are installed at the tee for the primary air and the backup N{sub 2}. Normal operating pressure for instrument air is 100-120 psig. With the backup supply pressure set to 90 psig, 'emergency air' is supplied whenever primary air pressure falls below 90 psig. There are two additional, outside connections to the system: one is a connection for repumping the trailer after a minimum backup volume is reached and the other is an auxiliary flex-hose connection for another trailer. All manual valves at system connections will be locked closed when not in use. The system's maximum allowable working pressure (MAWP) is 2400 psi, which is the trailer MAWP. All piping and components have a minimum 2400 psi working pressure. Actual component working pressures are included in the component list.

  20. Zapping the food supply

    SciTech Connect

    Louria, D.B. )

    1990-09-01

    The idea of exposing food to gamma radiation is over 30 years old, and in 1963 the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) began to permit the irradiation of wheat. Over the years, a few more foodstuffs such as spices and tea were added, but in 1984 the FDA started to approve irradiation of a much broader list of products which now includes meat, poultry, and fresh fruits and vegetables. Simultaneously the FDA has increased the levels of radiation that may be used. The FDA's recent willingness to allow most of the food supply to be irradiated - and at high doses - has triggered an acrimonious debate. The amount of radiation involved is substantial, with intensities millions of times greater than that of an ordinary chest X-ray. The announced goal of promoters of food irradiation is to obtain general approval for the use of up to one million rad. Irradiation does not make food radioactive, nor has alleged radioactivity been at issue in the debate. But there is concern that foods processed by irradiation may contain radiolytic products that could have toxic effects. 12 refs.

  1. 24 CFR 3280.704 - Fuel supply systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Systems § 3280.704 Fuel supply systems. (a) LP—Gas system design and service line pressure. (1) Systems... container is in service or shall be provided with a suitable internal withdrawal tube which communicates with the vapor space on or near the highest point in the container when it is mounted in...

  2. 10 CFR Appendix Z to Subpart B of... - Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption of External Power Supplies

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... power supply that is designed to convert line voltage AC input into more than one simultaneous lower-voltage output. j. Nameplate input frequency means the AC input frequency of the power supply as specified on the manufacturer's label on the power supply housing. k. Nameplate input voltage means the...

  3. 10 CFR Appendix Z to Subpart B of... - Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption of External Power Supplies

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ..., of the total real output power produced by a power supply to the real input power required to produce...-voltage output. j. Nameplate input frequency means the AC input frequency of the power supply as specified... supply that is designed to convert line voltage AC input into lower voltage AC output and is able...

  4. Evaluation of workplace air monitoring locations

    SciTech Connect

    Stoetzel, G.A.; Cicotte, G.R.; Lynch, T.P. ); Aldrich, L.K. )

    1991-10-01

    Current federal guidance on occupational radiation protection recognizes the importance of conducting air flow studies to assist in the placement of air sampling and monitoring equipment. In support of this, Pacific Northwest Laboratory has provided technical assistance to Westinghouse Hanford Company for the purpose of evaluating the adequacy of air sampling and monitoring locations at selected Hanford facilities. Qualitative air flow studies were performed using smoke aerosols to visually determine air movement. Three examples are provided of how air flow studies results, along with information on the purpose of the air sample being collected, were used as a guide in placing the air samplers and monitors. Preparatory steps in conducting an air flow study should include: (1) identifying type of work performed in the work area including any actual or potential release points; (2) determining the amounts of radioactive material available for release and its chemical and physical form; (3) obtaining accurate work area descriptions and diagrams; (4) identifying the location of existing air samplers and monitors; (5) documenting physical and ventilation configurations; (6) notifying appropriate staff of the test; and (7) obtaining necessary equipment and supplies. The primary steps in conducting an air flow study are measurements of air velocities in the work area, release of the smoke aerosol at selected locations in the work area and the observation of air flow patterns, and finally evaluation and documentation of the results. 2 refs., 3 figs.

  5. Intelligent process quality control system into supply chain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Shijie; Jiang, Xingyu; Wang, Yingchun

    2010-01-01

    To cope with the challenges of monitoring dynamic and variable quality variation into supply chain, diagnosing the abnormal variation at the right moment, is a difficult problem that a enterprise in supply chain faces in process quality control. An intelligent process quality control mode into supply chain, which integrated quality prevention, analysis, diagnosis and adjustment, and corresponding functional modules and framework were all put forward. This mode dealt mainly with constructing and running intelligent quality control system, such as the theory of similarity manufacturing, Statistical Process Control (SPC), neural network. Furthermore, some key enabling technologies were studied in detail, including process quality analysis on-line based on similarity process and process quality diagnosis based on Elman and expert system of process quality adjustment. It is basis of realizing network, intelligent and automatic process quality control into supply.

  6. Intelligent process quality control system into supply chain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Shijie; Jiang, Xingyu; Wang, Yingchun

    2009-12-01

    To cope with the challenges of monitoring dynamic and variable quality variation into supply chain, diagnosing the abnormal variation at the right moment, is a difficult problem that a enterprise in supply chain faces in process quality control. An intelligent process quality control mode into supply chain, which integrated quality prevention, analysis, diagnosis and adjustment, and corresponding functional modules and framework were all put forward. This mode dealt mainly with constructing and running intelligent quality control system, such as the theory of similarity manufacturing, Statistical Process Control (SPC), neural network. Furthermore, some key enabling technologies were studied in detail, including process quality analysis on-line based on similarity process and process quality diagnosis based on Elman and expert system of process quality adjustment. It is basis of realizing network, intelligent and automatic process quality control into supply.

  7. Air Pollution

    MedlinePlus

    ... tobacco smoke. How is air pollution linked to climate change? While climate change is a global process, it ... ozone levels are also a concern. Impacts of Climate Change on Human Health in the United States: A ...

  8. Air Apparent.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harbster, David A.

    1988-01-01

    Explains the principle upon which a barometer operates. Describes how to construct two barometric devices for use in the classroom that show air's changing pressure. Cites some conditions for predicting weather. (RT)

  9. Repetitive resonant railgun power supply

    DOEpatents

    Honig, E.M.; Nunnally, W.C.

    1985-06-19

    A repetitive resonant railgun power supply provides energy for repetitively propelling projectiles from a pair of parallel rails. The supply comprises an energy storage capacitor, a storage inductor to form a resonant circuit with the energy storage capacitor and a magnetic switch to transfer energy between the resonant circuit and the pair of parallel rails for the propelling of projectiles.

  10. Repetitive resonant railgun power supply

    DOEpatents

    Honig, Emanuel M.; Nunnally, William C.

    1988-01-01

    A repetitive resonant railgun power supply provides energy for repetitively propelling projectiles from a pair of parallel rails. The supply comprises an energy storage capacitor, a storage inductor to form a resonant circuit with the energy storage capacitor and a magnetic switch to transfer energy between the resonant circuit and the pair of parallel rails for the propelling of projectiles.

  11. Building an efficient supply chain.

    PubMed

    Scalise, Dagmara

    2005-08-01

    Realizing at last that supply chain management can produce efficiencies and save costs, hospitals are beginning to adopt practices from other industries, such as the concept of extended supply chains, to improve product flow. They're also investing in enterprise planning resource software, radio frequency identification and other technologies, using quality data to drive standardization and streamlining processes.

  12. Air Cooling for High Temperature Power Electronics (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Waye, S.; Musselman, M.; King, C.

    2014-09-01

    Current emphasis on developing high-temperature power electronics, including wide-bandgap materials such as silicon carbide and gallium nitride, increases the opportunity for a completely air-cooled inverter at higher powers. This removes the liquid cooling system for the inverter, saving weight and volume on the liquid-to-air heat exchanger, coolant lines, pumps, and coolant, replacing them with just a fan and air supply ducting. We investigate the potential for an air-cooled heat exchanger from a component and systems-level approach to meet specific power and power density targets. A proposed baseline air-cooled heat exchanger design that does not meet those targets was optimized using a parametric computational fluid dynamics analysis, examining the effects of heat exchanger geometry and device location, fixing the device heat dissipation and maximum junction temperature. The CFD results were extrapolated to a full inverter, including casing, capacitor, bus bar, gate driver, and control board component weights and volumes. Surrogate ducting was tested to understand the pressure drop and subsequent system parasitic load. Geometries that met targets with acceptable loads on the system were down-selected for experimentation. Nine baseline configuration modules dissipated the target heat dissipation, but fell below specific power and power density targets. Six optimized configuration modules dissipated the target heat load, exceeding the specific power and power density targets. By maintaining the same 175 degrees C maximum junction temperature, an optimized heat exchanger design and higher device heat fluxes allowed a reduction in the number of modules required, increasing specific power and power density while still maintaining the inverter power.

  13. Urban air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    Air pollution and the risk of potential health effects are not sufficiently convincing reasons for people to stop driving their cars, according to a study by the Population Reference Bureau (PRB) released on November 18.While sufficient levels of suspended particulate matter, carbon monoxide, and lead can present health concerns, the study found that many people surveyed for the study were not convinced of the clear linkage between air pollution and health.

  14. Air Cleaning Technologies

    PubMed Central

    2005-01-01

    zoster, whereas close contact is required for the direct transmission of infectious diseases transmitted by droplets, such as influenza (the flu) and SARS. The Technology In-room air cleaners are supplied as portable or fixed devices. Fixed devices can be attached to either a wall or ceiling and are preferred over portable units because they have a greater degree of reliability (if installed properly) for achieving adequate room air mixing and airflow patterns, which are important for optimal effectiveness. Through a method of air recirculation, an in-room air cleaner can be used to increase room ventilation rates and if used to exhaust air out of the room it can create a negative-pressure room for airborne infection isolation (AII) when the building’s HVAC system cannot do so. A negative-pressure room is one where clean air flows into the room but contaminated air does not flow out of it. Contaminated room air is pulled into the in-room air cleaner and cleaned by passing through a series of filters, which remove the airborne infectious pathogens. The cleaned air is either recirculated into the room or exhausted outside the building. By filtering contaminated room air and then recirculating the cleaned air into the room, an in-room air cleaner can improve the room’s ventilation. By exhausting the filtered air to the outside the unit can create a negative-pressure room. There are many types of in-room air cleaners. They vary widely in the airflow rates through the unit, the type of air cleaning technology used, and the technical design. Crucial to maximizing the efficiency of any in-room air cleaner is its strategic placement and set-up within a room, which should be done in consultation with ventilation engineers, infection control experts, and/or industrial hygienists. A poorly positioned air cleaner may disrupt airflow patterns within the room and through the air cleaner, thereby compromising its air cleaning efficiency. The effectiveness of an in-room air cleaner

  15. Petroleum supply monthly, August 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-09-01

    This publication the Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of four publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information Administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. The other publications are the Weekly Petroleum Status Report, (WPSR), the Winter Fuels Report, and the Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA). Data presented describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. Data presented are divided into Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics.

  16. New, rugged, high power Cockcroft-Walton power supply

    SciTech Connect

    Hinkson, J.; Behrsing, G.; Hazelton, E.; Hearn, W.; Lancaster, H.

    1981-03-01

    A ten foot (3 m), ten-stage air-insulated Crockcroft-Walton power supply designed and built at LBL has been tested to 900 kV at the SuperHILAC. Operating at 80 kHz, the power supply features low ripple, moderate stored energy, 10 ma average current, and no bouncer requirement for pulsed loads. Other system features include: inexpensive generating voltmeters and a capacitive pick off for monitoring and regulation in lieu of costly resistance dividers, home-made semiconductor rectifier modules, excellent component protection against sparking, and easy maintenance. This report describes design, construction, and testing of the high voltage system.

  17. Air conditioning and refrigeration engineering

    SciTech Connect

    Kreith, F.

    1999-12-01

    This book supplies the basics of design, from selecting the optimum system and equipment to preparing the drawings and specifications. It discusses the four phases of preparing a project: gathering information, developing alternatives, evaluating alternatives, and selling the best solution. In addition, the author breaks down the responsibilities of the engineer design documents, computer aided design, and government codes and standards. It provides you with an easy reference to all aspects of the topic. This resource addresses the most current areas of interest, such as computer aided design and drafting, desiccant air conditioning and energy conservation. It is a thorough and convenient guide to air conditioning and refrigeration engineering. Contents include: introduction; psychrometrics; air-conditioning processes and cycles; refrigerants and refrigeration cycles; outdoor design conditions and indoor design criteria; load calculations; air handling units and packaged units; refrigeration components and evaporative coolers; water systems; heating systems; refrigeration systems; thermal storage system; air system basics; absorption systems; air-conditioning systems and selection; and desiccant dehumidification and air-conditioning.

  18. Food-Growing, Air- And Water-Cleaning Module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sauer, R. L.; Scheld, H. W.; Mafnuson, J. W.

    1988-01-01

    Apparatus produces fresh vegetables and removes pollutants from air. Hydroponic apparatus performs dual function of growing fresh vegetables and purifying air and water. Leafy vegetables rooted in granular growth medium grow in light of fluorescent lamps. Air flowing over leaves supplies carbon dioxide and receives fresh oxygen from them. Adaptable to production of food and cleaning of air and water in closed environments as in underwater research stations and submarines.

  19. 40 CFR 81.182 - Northwest Maine Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of Air... intersected by a line common to the northern boundary of Township No. 6, Phillips Town, Salem Township,...

  20. 40 CFR 81.182 - Northwest Maine Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of Air... intersected by a line common to the northern boundary of Township No. 6, Phillips Town, Salem Township,...

  1. 40 CFR 81.182 - Northwest Maine Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of Air... intersected by a line common to the northern boundary of Township No. 6, Phillips Town, Salem Township,...

  2. 40 CFR 81.182 - Northwest Maine Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of Air... intersected by a line common to the northern boundary of Township No. 6, Phillips Town, Salem Township,...

  3. 40 CFR 81.182 - Northwest Maine Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of Air... intersected by a line common to the northern boundary of Township No. 6, Phillips Town, Salem Township,...

  4. Wetland and water supply

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Baker, John Augustus

    1960-01-01

    The Geological Survey has received numerous inquiries about the effects of proposed changes in the wetland environment. The nature of the inquiries suggests a general confusion in the public mind as to wetland values and an increasing concern by the public with the need for facts as a basis for sound decisions when public action is required. Perhaps the largest gap in our knowledge is in regard to the role played by the wetland in the natural water scheme. Specialists in such fields as agriculture and conservation have studied the wetland in relation to its special uses and values for farming and as a habitat for fish and wildlife. However, except as studied incidentally by these specialists, the role of the wetland with respect to water has been largely neglected. This facet of the wetland problem is of direct concern to the Geological Survey. We commonly speak of water in terms of its place in the hydrologic environment---as, for example, surface water or ground water. These terms imply that water can be neatly pigeonholed. With respect to the wetland environment nothing can be further from the truth. In fact, one objective of this discussion is to demonstrate that for the wetland environment surface water, ground water, and soil water cannot be separated realistically, but are closely interrelated and must be studied together. It should be noted that this statement holds true for the hydrologic environment in general, and that the wetland environment is by no means unique in this respect. Our second and principal objective is to identify some of the problems that must be studied in order to clarify the role of the wetland in relation to water supply. We have chosen to approach these objectives by briefly describing one area for which we have some information, and by using this example to point out some of the problems that need study. First, however, let us define what we, as geohydrologists, mean by wetland and briefly consider wetland classifications. For our

  5. Autonomous uninterruptable power supply apparatus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masson, J. H.

    1984-12-01

    This invention relates broadly to a power supply apparatus, and in particular to an autonomous uninterruptable power supply apparatus. The purpose of an uninterruptable power supply (UPS) is to protect critical electrical loads from transient or steady stage outages or disturbances in the primary power source. The basic configuration of a typical, commercially available, uninterruptable power supply is comprised at a minimum of a standby battery and a battery charger and may also include an inverter for AC applications. Systems of this type can be found in most computer installations and laboratory systems which cannot tolerate even momentary disturbances of input power. This document describes an autonomous uninterruptable power supply apparatus utilizing a digital processor unit as a control and monitor unit to measure and control input and output parameters in the power supply. A battery charger is utilized to maintain the voltage and current levels with the backup battery supply source which powers an inverter unit that converts the DC power to an AC output.

  6. Water supply and demand in an energy supply model

    SciTech Connect

    Abbey, D; Loose, V

    1980-12-01

    This report describes a tool for water and energy-related policy analysis, the development of a water supply and demand sector in a linear programming model of energy supply in the United States. The model allows adjustments in the input mix and plant siting in response to water scarcity. Thus, on the demand side energy conversion facilities can substitute more costly dry cooling systems for conventional evaporative systems. On the supply side groundwater and water purchased from irrigators are available as more costly alternatives to unappropriated surface water. Water supply data is developed for 30 regions in 10 Western states. Preliminary results for a 1990 energy demand scenario suggest that, at this level of spatial analysis, water availability plays a minor role in plant siting. Future policy applications of the modeling system are discussed including the evaluation of alternative patterns of synthetic fuels development.

  7. [Contemporary solutions for better air quality at electric welders workplace].

    PubMed

    Markova, O L; Ivanova, E V

    2015-01-01

    The article deals with hygienic evaluation of electric welder's workplace, concerning chemical factor, with technical solutions on organization of supply-and-exhaust ventilation and methods to improve air quality in various welding tasks. PMID:25895242

  8. Interior, looking southeast Beale Air Force Base, Perimeter Acquisition ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior, looking southeast - Beale Air Force Base, Perimeter Acquisition Vehicle Entry Phased-Array Warning System, Supply Warehouse, End of Spencer Paul Road, north of Warren Shingle Road (14th Street), Marysville, Yuba County, CA

  9. Exterior, looking north Beale Air Force Base, Perimeter Acquisition ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Exterior, looking north - Beale Air Force Base, Perimeter Acquisition Vehicle Entry Phased-Array Warning System, Supply Warehouse, End of Spencer Paul Road, north of Warren Shingle Road (14th Street), Marysville, Yuba County, CA

  10. Multiple resonant railgun power supply

    DOEpatents

    Honig, E.M.; Nunnally, W.C.

    1985-06-19

    A multiple repetitive resonant railgun power supply provides energy for repetitively propelling projectiles from a pair of parallel rails. A plurality of serially connected paired parallel rails are powered by similar power supplies. Each supply comprises an energy storage capacitor, a storage inductor to form a resonant circuit with the energy storage capacitor and a magnetic switch to transfer energy between the resonant circuit and the pair of parallel rails for the propelling of projectiles. The multiple serial operation permits relatively small energy components to deliver overall relatively large amounts of energy to the projectiles being propelled.

  11. Multiple resonant railgun power supply

    DOEpatents

    Honig, Emanuel M.; Nunnally, William C.

    1988-01-01

    A multiple repetitive resonant railgun power supply provides energy for repetitively propelling projectiles from a pair of parallel rails. A plurality of serially connected paired parallel rails are powered by similar power supplies. Each supply comprises an energy storage capacitor, a storage inductor to form a resonant circuit with the energy storage capacitor and a magnetic switch to transfer energy between the resonant circuit and the pair of parallel rails for the propelling of projectiles. The multiple serial operation permits relatively small energy components to deliver overall relatively large amounts of energy to the projectiles being propelled.

  12. Petroleum supply monthly, April 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-04-01

    Data presented in the Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographical regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the US. The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the US.

  13. Petroleum supply monthly, February 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-03-01

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly presents data describing the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the US. The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders; operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. Data are divided into two sections: Summary statistics and Detailed statistics.

  14. Air Leakage and Air Transfer Between Garage and Living Space

    SciTech Connect

    Rudd, A.

    2014-09-01

    This research project focused on evaluation of air transfer between the garage and living space in a single-family detached home constructed by a production homebuilder in compliance with the 2009 International Residential Code and the 2009 International Energy Conservation Code. The project gathered important information about the performance of whole-building ventilation systems and garage ventilation systems as they relate to minimizing flow of contaminated air from garage to living space. A series of 25 multi-point fan pressurization tests and additional zone pressure diagnostic testing characterized the garage and house air leakage, the garage-to-house air leakage, and garage and house pressure relationships to each other and to outdoors using automated fan pressurization and pressure monitoring techniques. While the relative characteristics of this house may not represent the entire population of new construction configurations and air tightness levels (house and garage) throughout the country, the technical approach was conservative and should reasonably extend the usefulness of the results to a large spectrum of house configurations from this set of parametric tests in this one house. Based on the results of this testing, the two-step garage-to-house air leakage test protocol described above is recommended where whole-house exhaust ventilation is employed. For houses employing whole-house supply ventilation (positive pressure) or balanced ventilation (same pressure effect as the Baseline condition), adherence to the EPA Indoor airPLUS house-to-garage air sealing requirements should be sufficient to expect little to no garage-to-house air transfer.

  15. Air Dehydration Membranes for Nonaqueous Lithium-Air Batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Jian; Xu, Wu; Li, Xiaohong S; Liu, Wei

    2010-06-11

    In this paper, several types of new membranes were innovated and used as an O2-selective and H2O barrier films attached onto the cathode of non-aqueous Li-air batteries for continuous supplying of dry air into the batteries from ambient air. The membranes were prepared by depositing an O2/H2O selective coating layer on the exterior surface of a newly-invented thin porous Ni substrate sheet at thickness of ~50µm. The coatings tried include hydrophobic silicalite type zeolite and Teflon (PTFE) materials. The melted PTFE-membrane on the porous Ni sheet at 360°C enabled the Li-air batteries with Ketjen black carbon air electrodes to operate in ambient air (with 20% RH) for 21 days with a specific capacity of 1022 mAh/g carbon and a specific energy of 2792 Wh/kg carbon. Its performance is much better than the battery assembled with the same battery material but by use of a commercial, porous PTFE diffusion membranes as the moisture barrier layer on the cathode, which only had a discharge time of five and half days corresponding to a specific capacity of 267 mAh/g carbon and a specific energy of 704Wh/kg carbon. The Li-air battery with the present selective membrane barrier layer even showed better performance in ambient air operation (20% RH) than the reference battery tested in the dry air box (< 1% RH).

  16. Air surveillance

    SciTech Connect

    Patton, G.W.

    1995-06-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the air surveillance and monitoring programs currently in operation at that Hanford Site. Atmospheric releases of pollutants from Hanford to the surrounding region are a potential source of human exposure. For that reason, both radioactive and nonradioactive materials in air are monitored at a number of locations. The influence of Hanford emissions on local radionuclide concentrations was evaluated by comparing concentrations measured at distant locations within the region to concentrations measured at the Site perimeter. This section discusses sample collection, analytical methods, and the results of the Hanford air surveillance program. A complete listing of all analytical results summarized in this section is reported separately by Bisping (1995).

  17. Making Li-air batteries rechargeable: material challenges

    SciTech Connect

    Shao, Yuyan; Ding, Fei; Xiao, Jie; Zhang, Jian; Xu, Wu; Park, Seh Kyu; Zhang, Jiguang; Wang, Yong; Liu, Jun

    2013-02-25

    A Li-air battery could potentially provide three to five times higher energy density/specific energy than conventional batteries, thus enable the driving range of an electric vehicle comparable to a gasoline vehicle. However, making Li-air batteries rechargeable presents significant challenges, mostly related with materials. Herein, we discuss the key factors that influence the rechargeability of Li-air batteries with a focus on nonaqueous system. The status and materials challenges for nonaqueous rechargeable Li-air batteries are reviewed. These include electrolytes, cathode (electocatalysts), lithium metal anodes, and oxygen-selective membranes (oxygen supply from air). The perspective of rechargeable Li-air batteries is provided.

  18. 39. DETAIL OF SAND FILTER SYSTEM. MAIN LINE RUNS IN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    39. DETAIL OF SAND FILTER SYSTEM. MAIN LINE RUNS IN FOREGROUND WITH VALVES IN CONCRETE PITS. - Kalaupapa Water Supply System, Waikolu Valley to Kalaupapa Settlement, Island of Molokai, Kalaupapa, Kalawao County, HI

  19. Analysis of residual chlorine in simple drinking water distribution system with intermittent water supply

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goyal, Roopali V.; Patel, H. M.

    2015-09-01

    Knowledge of residual chlorine concentration at various locations in drinking water distribution system is essential final check to the quality of water supplied to the consumers. This paper presents a methodology to find out the residual chlorine concentration at various locations in simple branch network by integrating the hydraulic and water quality model using first-order chlorine decay equation with booster chlorination nodes for intermittent water supply. The explicit equations are developed to compute the residual chlorine in network with a long distribution pipe line at critical nodes. These equations are applicable to Indian conditions where intermittent water supply is the most common system of water supply. It is observed that in intermittent water supply, the residual chlorine at farthest node is sensitive to water supply hours and travelling time of chlorine. Thus, the travelling time of chlorine can be considered to justify the requirement of booster chlorination for intermittent water supply.

  20. 10 CFR 600.324 - Supplies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Supplies. 600.324 Section 600.324 Energy DEPARTMENT OF... Supplies. (a) Title vests in the recipient upon acquisition of supplies acquired with Federal funds under... unused supplies. If the inventory of unused supplies exceeds $5,000 in total aggregate value and...

  1. 32 CFR 34.24 - Supplies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Supplies. 34.24 Section 34.24 National Defense... § 34.24 Supplies. (a) Title shall vest in the recipient upon acquisition for supplies acquired with... shall retain any unused supplies. If the inventory of unused supplies exceeds $5,000 in total...

  2. The 3He Supply Problem

    SciTech Connect

    Kouzes, Richard T.

    2009-05-01

    One of the main uses for 3He is in gas proportional counters for neutron detection. Radiation portal monitors deployed for homeland security and non-proliferation use such detectors. Other uses of 3He are for research detectors, commercial instruments, well logging detectors, dilution refrigerators, for targets or cooling in nuclear research, and for basic research in condensed matter physics. The US supply of 3He comes almost entirely from the decay of tritium used in nuclear weapons by the US and Russia. A few other countries contribute a small amount to the world’s 3He supply. Due to the large increase in use of 3He for homeland security, the supply has dwindled, and can no longer meet the demand. This white paper reviews the problems of supply, utilization, and alternatives.

  3. Fuel cell power supply with oxidant and fuel gas switching

    DOEpatents

    McElroy, James F.; Chludzinski, Paul J.; Dantowitz, Philip

    1987-01-01

    This invention relates to a fuel cell vehicular power plant. Fuel for the fuel stack is supplied by a hydrocarbon (methanol) catalytic cracking reactor and CO shift reactor. A water electrolysis subsystem is associated with the stack. During low power operation part of the fuel cell power is used to electrolyze water with hydrogen and oxygen electrolysis products being stored in pressure vessels. During peak power intervals, viz, during acceleration or start-up, pure oxygen and pure hydrogen from the pressure vessel are supplied as the reaction gases to the cathodes and anodes in place of air and methanol reformate. This allows the fuel cell stack to be sized for normal low power/air operation but with a peak power capacity several times greater than that for normal operation.

  4. Fuel cell power supply with oxidant and fuel gas switching

    DOEpatents

    McElroy, J.F.; Chludzinski, P.J.; Dantowitz, P.

    1987-04-14

    This invention relates to a fuel cell vehicular power plant. Fuel for the fuel stack is supplied by a hydrocarbon (methanol) catalytic cracking reactor and CO shift reactor. A water electrolysis subsystem is associated with the stack. During low power operation part of the fuel cell power is used to electrolyze water with hydrogen and oxygen electrolysis products being stored in pressure vessels. During peak power intervals, viz, during acceleration or start-up, pure oxygen and pure hydrogen from the pressure vessel are supplied as the reaction gases to the cathodes and anodes in place of air and methanol reformate. This allows the fuel cell stack to be sized for normal low power/air operation but with a peak power capacity several times greater than that for normal operation. 2 figs.

  5. E-beam high voltage switching power supply

    DOEpatents

    Shimer, Daniel W.; Lange, Arnold C.

    1997-01-01

    A high power, solid state power supply is described for producing a controllable, constant high voltage output under varying and arcing loads suitable for powering an electron beam gun or other ion source. The present power supply is most useful for outputs in a range of about 100-400 kW or more. The power supply is comprised of a plurality of discrete switching type dc-dc converter modules, each comprising a voltage regulator, an inductor, an inverter for producing a high frequency square wave current of alternating polarity, an improved inverter voltage clamping circuit, a step up transformer, and an output rectifier for producing a dc voltage at the output of each module. The inputs to the converter modules are fed from a common dc rectifier/filter and are linked together in parallel through decoupling networks to suppress high frequency input interactions. The outputs of the converter modules are linked together in series and connected to the input of the transmission line to the load through a decoupling and line matching network. The dc-dc converter modules are phase activated such that for n modules, each module is activated equally 360.degree./n out of phase with respect to a successive module. The phased activation of the converter modules, combined with the square current waveforms out of the step up transformers, allows the power supply to operate with greatly reduced output capacitance values which minimizes the stored energy available for discharge into an electron beam gun or the like during arcing. The present power supply also provides dynamic response to varying loads by controlling the voltage regulator duty cycle using simulated voltage feedback signals and voltage feedback loops. Circuitry is also provided for sensing incipient arc currents reflected at the output of the power supply and for simultaneously decoupling the power supply circuitry from the arcing load.

  6. E-beam high voltage switching power supply

    DOEpatents

    Shimer, D.W.; Lange, A.C.

    1997-03-11

    A high power, solid state power supply is described for producing a controllable, constant high voltage output under varying and arcing loads suitable for powering an electron beam gun or other ion source. The present power supply is most useful for outputs in a range of about 100-400 kW or more. The power supply is comprised of a plurality of discrete switching type dc-dc converter modules, each comprising a voltage regulator, an inductor, an inverter for producing a high frequency square wave current of alternating polarity, an improved inverter voltage clamping circuit, a step up transformer, and an output rectifier for producing a dc voltage at the output of each module. The inputs to the converter modules are fed from a common dc rectifier/filter and are linked together in parallel through decoupling networks to suppress high frequency input interactions. The outputs of the converter modules are linked together in series and connected to the input of the transmission line to the load through a decoupling and line matching network. The dc-dc converter modules are phase activated such that for n modules, each module is activated equally 360{degree}/n out of phase with respect to a successive module. The phased activation of the converter modules, combined with the square current waveforms out of the step up transformers, allows the power supply to operate with greatly reduced output capacitance values which minimizes the stored energy available for discharge into an electron beam gun or the like during arcing. The present power supply also provides dynamic response to varying loads by controlling the voltage regulator duty cycle using simulated voltage feedback signals and voltage feedback loops. Circuitry is also provided for sensing incipient arc currents reflected at the output of the power supply and for simultaneously decoupling the power supply circuitry from the arcing load. 7 figs.

  7. TRANSISTOR HIGH VOLTAGE POWER SUPPLY

    DOEpatents

    Driver, G.E.

    1958-07-15

    High voltage, direct current power supplies are described for use with battery powered nuclear detection equipment. The particular advantages of the power supply described, are increased efficiency and reduced size and welght brought about by the use of transistors in the circuit. An important feature resides tn the employment of a pair of transistors in an alternatefiring oscillator circuit having a coupling transformer and other circuit components which are used for interconnecting the various electrodes of the transistors.

  8. ORION downconverter and power supply

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nishimura, H. G.

    1982-01-01

    The receiver subsystem supplies the front end assembly (downconverter) and power supply for the ORION Mobile Station. These assemblies are designed to withstand severe environmental conditions. The mechanical, electronic, environmental and maintenance design considerations encountered during the design phase of this project are discussed. The two channel S/X downconverter has a 400 MHz bandwidth channel. Phase stability of 2 and 7 deg at S- and X-bands, respectively, is achieved with a temperature stabilized first local oscillator.

  9. Booster main magnet power supply, present operation and potential future upgrades

    SciTech Connect

    Bajon, E.; Bannon, M.; Marneris, I.; Danowski, G.; Sandberg, J.; Savatteri, S.

    2011-03-28

    The Brookhaven Booster Main Magnet Power Supply (MMPS) is a 24 pulse thyristor control supply, rated at 5500 Amps, +/-2000 Volts, or 3000 Amps, +/-6000 Volts. The power supply is fed directly from the power utility and the peak magnet power is 18 MWatts. This peak power is seen directly at the incoming ac line. This power supply has been in operation for the last 18 years. This paper will describe the present topology and operation of the power supply, the feedback control system and the different modes of operation of the power supply. Since the power supply has been in operation for the last 18 years, upgrading this power supply is essential. A new power supply topology has been studied where energy is stored in capacitor banks. DC to DC converters are used to convert the dc voltage stored in the capacitor banks to pulsed DC voltage into the magnet load. This enables the average incoming power from the ac line to be constant while the peak magnet power is pulsed to +/- 18 MWatts. Simulations and waveforms of this power supply will be presented.

  10. Reinforcement learning in supply chains.

    PubMed

    Valluri, Annapurna; North, Michael J; Macal, Charles M

    2009-10-01

    Effective management of supply chains creates value and can strategically position companies. In practice, human beings have been found to be both surprisingly successful and disappointingly inept at managing supply chains. The related fields of cognitive psychology and artificial intelligence have postulated a variety of potential mechanisms to explain this behavior. One of the leading candidates is reinforcement learning. This paper applies agent-based modeling to investigate the comparative behavioral consequences of three simple reinforcement learning algorithms in a multi-stage supply chain. For the first time, our findings show that the specific algorithm that is employed can have dramatic effects on the results obtained. Reinforcement learning is found to be valuable in multi-stage supply chains with several learning agents, as independent agents can learn to coordinate their behavior. However, learning in multi-stage supply chains using these postulated approaches from cognitive psychology and artificial intelligence take extremely long time periods to achieve stability which raises questions about their ability to explain behavior in real supply chains. The fact that it takes thousands of periods for agents to learn in this simple multi-agent setting provides new evidence that real world decision makers are unlikely to be using strict reinforcement learning in practice.

  11. Petroleum supply monthly, April 1990

    SciTech Connect

    1990-06-26

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of three publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information Administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. The other two publications are the Weekly Petroleum Status Report (WPSR) and the Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA). Data presented in the Petroleum Supply Monthly describe (PSM) the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in Primary Supply.'' Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: (1) the Summary Statistics and (2) the Detailed Statistics.

  12. Air ion exposure system for plants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrow, R. C.; Tibbitts, T. W.

    1987-01-01

    A system was developed for subjecting plants to elevated air ion levels. This system consisted of a rectangular Plexiglas chamber lined with a Faraday cage. Air ions were generated by corona discharge from frayed stainless steel fibers placed at one end of the chamber. This source was capable of producing varying levels of either positive or negative air ions. During plant exposures, environmental conditions were controlled by operating the unit in a growth chamber.

  13. NREL Provides Guidance to Improve Air Mixing and Thermal Comfort in Homes (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2012-02-01

    NREL research determines optimal HVAC system design for proper air mixing and thermal comfort in homes. As U.S. homes become more energy efficient, heating, ventilation, and cooling (HVAC) systems will be downsized, and the air flow volumes required to meet heating and cooling loads may be too small to maintain uniform room air mixing-which can affect thermal comfort. Researchers at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) evaluated the performance of high sidewall air supply inlets and confirmed that these systems can achieve good air mixing and provide suitable comfort levels for occupants. Using computational fluid dynamics modeling, NREL scientists tested the performance of high sidewall supply air jets over a wide range of parameters including supply air temperature, air velocity, and inlet size. This technique uses the model output to determine how well the supply air mixes with the room air. Thermal comfort is evaluated by monitoring air temperature and velocity in more than 600,000 control volumes that make up the occupied zone of a single room. The room has an acceptable comfort level when more than 70% of the control volumes meet the comfort criteria on both air temperature and velocity. The study shows that high sidewall supply air jets achieve uniform mixing in a room, which is essential for providing acceptable comfort levels. The study also provides information required to optimize overall space conditioning system design in both heating and cooling modes.

  14. Air Pollution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scorer, Richard S.

    The purpose of this book is to describe the basic mechanisms whereby pollution is transported and diffused in the atmosphere. It is designed to give practitioners an understanding of basic mechanics and physics so they may have a correct basis on which to formulate their decisions related to practical air pollution control problems. Since many…

  15. Air Pollution

    PubMed Central

    Clifton, Marjorie

    1964-01-01

    Dr Marjorie Clifton describes the classification of gaseous and nongaseous constituents of air pollution and then outlines the methods of measuring these. The National Survey embraced 150 towns of all sizes throughout England and Wales and provided data on smoke and sulphur dioxide in relation to climate, topography, industrialization, population density, fuel utilization and urban development. Dr W C Turner discusses the relationship between air pollution and mortality from respiratory conditions, and particularly the incidence of chronic bronchitis. He postulates a theory that such respiratory conditions arise as an allergy to the spores of certain moulds, spore formation being encouraged by the air humidity in Greatv Britain and overcrowded and damp living conditions. He describes the results of a twenty-week study undertaken in 1962-3, showing associations between respiratory disease and levels of air pollution. Dr Stuart Carne undertook a survey in general practice to plot the patterns of respiratory illness in London during the winter of 1962-3. There were two peaks of respiratory illnesses coinciding with the fog at the beginning of December and the freeze-up from the end of December until the beginning of March. PMID:14178955

  16. Low temperature air with high IAQ for dry climates

    SciTech Connect

    Scofield, C.M. ); Des Champs, N.H. )

    1995-01-01

    This article describes how low temperature supply air and air-to-air heat exchangers can furnish 100% outdoor air with reduced peak energy demands. The use of low temperature supply air systems in arid climates greatly simplifies the air-conditioning design. Risks associated with moisture migration and sweating of duct and terminal equipment are reduced. Insulation and vapor barrier design requirements are not nearly as critical as they are in the humid, ambient conditions that exist in the eastern United States. The introduction of outdoor air to meet ASHRAE Standard 62-1989 becomes far less taxing on the mechanical cooling equipment because of the lower enthalpy levels of the dry western climate. Energy costs to assure indoor air quality (IAQ) are lower than for more tropical climates. In arid regions, maintaining acceptable indoor relative humidity (RH) levels becomes a major IAQ concern. For the western United States, coupling an air-to-air heat exchanger to direct (adiabatic) evaporative coolers can greatly reduce low temperature supply air refrigeration energy requirements and winter humidification costs while ensuring proper ventilation.

  17. Secondary air control system in an internal combustion engine

    SciTech Connect

    Takeda, K.

    1981-11-10

    This application discloses a secondary air control system in an internal combustion engine. The system comprises: an exhaust gas purifying device mounted on an exhaust pipe; a secondary air control valve which comprises a diaphragm actuated by vacuum pressure for controlling secondary supply air to said exhaust gas purifying device; a solenoid valve for controlling said vacuum pressure which acts upon said secondary air control valve; a vacuum sensor which detects the vacuum pressure at a small venturi of a carburetor; a thermo-sensor for detecting the intake air temperature; an air flow meter mounted on a secondary air supply pipe; a thermo-sensor for detecting the secondary air temperature mounted on said secondary air supply pipe, and; a computer to which said valuum sensor, said thermo-sensors, and said air flow meter are connected so as to feed input signals thereto, said solenoid valve being connected to the output of said computer so as to control the secondary air quantity in response to said input signals.

  18. Line Mixing in Water Vapor and Methane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, M. A. H.; Brown, L. R.; Toth, R. A.; Devi, V. Malathy; Benner, Chris

    2006-01-01

    A multispectrum fitting algorithm has been used to identify line mixing and determine mixing parameters for infrared transitions of H2O and CH4 in the 5-9 micrometer region. Line mixing parameters at room temperature were determined for two pairs of transitions in the v2 fundamental band of H2O-16, for self-broadening and for broadening by H2, He, CO2, N2, O2 and air. Line mixing parameters have been determined from air-broadened CH4 spectra, recorded at temperatures between 210 K and 314 K, in selected R-branch manifolds of the v4 band. For both H2O and CH4, the inclusion of line mixing was seen to have a greater effect on the retrieved values of the line shifts than on the retrieved values of other parameters

  19. Single transmission line data acquisition system

    DOEpatents

    Fasching, George E.

    1984-01-01

    A single transmission line interrogated multiple channel data acquisition system is provided in which a plurality of remote station/sensors monitor specific process variables and transmit measurement values over the single transmission line to a master station when addressed by the master station. Power for all remote stations (up to 980) is provided by driving the line with constant voltage supplied from the master station and automatically maintained independent of the number of remote stations directly connected to the line. The transmission line can be an RG-62 coaxial cable with lengths up to about 10,000 feet with branches up to 500 feet. The remote stations can be attached randomly along the line. The remote stations can be scanned at rates up to 980 channels/second.

  20. 500 Watt Diesel Fueled TPV Portable Power Supply

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horne, W. E.; Morgan, M. D.; Sundaram, V. S.; Butcher, T.

    2003-01-01

    A test-bed 500 watt diesel fueled thermophotovoltaic (TPV) portable power supply is described. The goal of the design is a compact, rugged field portable unit weighing less than 15 pounds without fuel. The conversion efficiency goal is set at 15% fuel energy to electric energy delivered to an external load at 24 volts. A burner/recuperator system has been developed to meet the objectives of high combustion air preheat temperatures with a compact heat exchanger, low excess air operation, and high convective heat transfer rates to the silicon carbide emitter surface. The burner incorporates a air blast atomizer with 100% of the combustion air passing through the nozzle. Designed firing rate of 2900 watts at 0.07 gallons of oil per hour. This incorporates a single air supply dc motor/fan set and avoids the need for a system air compressor. The recuperator consists of three annular, concentric laminar flow passages. Heat from the combustion of the diesel fuel is both radiantly and convectively coupled to the inside wall of a cylindrical silicon carbide emitter. The outer wall of the emitter then radiates blackbody energy at the design temperature of 1400°C. The cylindrical emitter is enclosed in a quartz envelope that separates it from the photovoltaic (PV) cells. Spectral control is accomplished by a resonant mesh IR band-pass filter placed between the emitter and the PV array. The narrow band of energy transmitted by the filter is intercepted and converted to electricity by an array of GaSb PV cells. The array consists of 216 1-cm × 1-cm GaSb cells arranged into series and parallel arrays. An array of heat pipes couple the PV cell arrays to a heat exchanger which is cooled by forced air convection. A brief status of the key TPV technologies is presented followed by data characterizing the performance of the 500 watt TPV system.

  1. TRANSPORT OF WASTE SIMULANTS IN PJM VENT LINES

    SciTech Connect

    Qureshi, Z

    2007-02-21

    The experimental work was conducted to determine whether there is a potential for waste simulant to transport or 'creep' up the air link line and contaminate the pulse jet vent system, and possibly cause long term restriction of the air link line. Additionally, if simulant creep occurred, establish operating parameters for washing down the line. The amount of the addition of flush fluids and mixer downtime must be quantified.

  2. Central line infections - hospitals

    MedlinePlus

    ... infection; CVC - infection; Central venous device - infection; Infection control - central line infection; Nosocomial infection - central line infection; Hospital acquired infection - central line infection; Patient safety - central ...

  3. Air Traffic Control: Economics of Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murphy, James R.

    2004-01-01

    Contents include the following: 1. Commercial flight is a partnership. Airlines. Pilots. Air traffic control. 2. Airline schedules and weather problems can cause delays at the airport. Delays are inevitable in de-regulated industry due to simple economics. 3.Delays can be mitigated. Build more runways/technology. Increase airspace supply. 4. Cost/benefit analysis determine justification.

  4. Prediction of Air Mixing From High Sidewall Diffusers in Cooling Mode: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Ridouane, E. H.; Gawlik, K.

    2011-02-01

    Computational fluid dynamics modeling was used to evaluate the performance of high sidewall air supply in cooling mode. The research focused on the design, placement, and operation of air supply diffusers located high on a sidewall and return grilles located near the floor on the same sidewall. Parameters of the study are the supply velocity, supply temperature, diffuser dimensions and room dimensions. Thermal loads characteristic of high performance homes were applied at the walls and room temperature was controlled via a thermostat. The results are intended to provide information to guide the selection of high sidewall supply diffusers to provide proper room mixing for cooling of high performance homes.

  5. Petroleum supply monthly, October 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-10-26

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of four publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information Administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. The other publications are the Weekly Petroleum Status Report (WPSR), the Winter Fuels Report, and the Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA). Data presented in the PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics.

  6. Petroleum supply monthly, May 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-05-27

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of four publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information Administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. The other publications are the Weekly Petroleum Status Report (WPSR), the Winter Fuels Report, and the Petroleum supply annual (PSA). Data presented in the PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics.

  7. Petroleum supply monthly, July 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-07-26

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of four publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information Administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. The other publications are the Weekly Petroleum Status Report (WPSR), the Winter Fuels Report, and the Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA). Data presented in the PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics.

  8. Petroleum supply monthly, June 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-06-28

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of four publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information Administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. The other publications are the Weekly Petroleum Status Report (WPSR), the Winter Fuels Report, and the Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA). Data presented in the PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics.

  9. Petroleum supply monthly, January 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1996-02-15

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of four publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information Administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. The other publications are the Weekly Petroleum Status Report (WPSR), the Winter Fuels Report, and the Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA). Data presented in the PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics.

  10. Petroleum supply monthly, September 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-09-30

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of three publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information Administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. The other two publications are the Weekly Petroleum Status Report (WPSR) and the Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA). Data presented in PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administrations for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 states and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in Primary Supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections (1) the Summary Statistics and (2) the Detailed Statistics. 65 tabs.

  11. Petroleum Supply Monthly, August 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-10-30

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of three publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. The other two publications are the Weekly Petroleum Status Report (WPSR) and the Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA). Data presented in the PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) district movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in Primary Supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections (1) the Summary Statistics and (2) the Detailed Statistics.

  12. 49 CFR 393.44 - Front brake lines, protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Front brake lines, protection. 393.44 Section 393... ACCESSORIES NECESSARY FOR SAFE OPERATION Brakes § 393.44 Front brake lines, protection. On every bus, if equipped with air brakes, the braking system shall be so constructed that in the event any brake line...

  13. 49 CFR 393.44 - Front brake lines, protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Front brake lines, protection. 393.44 Section 393... ACCESSORIES NECESSARY FOR SAFE OPERATION Brakes § 393.44 Front brake lines, protection. On every bus, if equipped with air brakes, the braking system shall be so constructed that in the event any brake line...

  14. 49 CFR 393.44 - Front brake lines, protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Front brake lines, protection. 393.44 Section 393... ACCESSORIES NECESSARY FOR SAFE OPERATION Brakes § 393.44 Front brake lines, protection. On every bus, if equipped with air brakes, the braking system shall be so constructed that in the event any brake line...

  15. Petroleum supply monthly, August 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-08-26

    Data presented in the Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics.

  16. Petroleum supply monthly, July 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-07-29

    Data presented in the Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: Petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States.

  17. International Oil Supplies and Demands

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-09-01

    The eleventh Energy Modeling Forum (EMF) working group met four times over the 1989--90 period to compare alternative perspectives on international oil supplies and demands through 2010 and to discuss how alternative supply and demand trends influence the world's dependence upon Middle Eastern oil. Proprietors of eleven economic models of the world oil market used their respective models to simulate a dozen scenarios using standardized assumptions. From its inception, the study was not designed to focus on the short-run impacts of disruptions on oil markets. Nor did the working group attempt to provide a forecast or just a single view of the likely future path for oil prices. The model results guided the group's thinking about many important longer-run market relationships and helped to identify differences of opinion about future oil supplies, demands, and dependence.

  18. International Oil Supplies and Demands

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-04-01

    The eleventh Energy Modeling Forum (EMF) working group met four times over the 1989--1990 period to compare alternative perspectives on international oil supplies and demands through 2010 and to discuss how alternative supply and demand trends influence the world's dependence upon Middle Eastern oil. Proprietors of eleven economic models of the world oil market used their respective models to simulate a dozen scenarios using standardized assumptions. From its inception, the study was not designed to focus on the short-run impacts of disruptions on oil markets. Nor did the working group attempt to provide a forecast or just a single view of the likely future path for oil prices. The model results guided the group's thinking about many important longer-run market relationships and helped to identify differences of opinion about future oil supplies, demands, and dependence.

  19. 14 CFR 33.66 - Bleed air system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: AIRCRAFT ENGINES Design and Construction; Turbine Aircraft Engines § 33.66 Bleed air system. The engine must supply bleed air without adverse effect on the engine, excluding reduced thrust or...

  20. 75 FR 65594 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Ohio; Ohio Ambient Air Quality...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-26

    ... methods: 1. http://www.regulations.gov : Follow the on-line instructions for submitting comments. 2. E...: Melissa M. Barnhart, Environmental Scientist, Control Strategies Section, Air Programs Branch...

  1. Leading a supply chain turnaround.

    PubMed

    Slone, Reuben E

    2004-10-01

    Just five years ago, salespeople at Whirlpool were in the habit of referring to their supply chain organization as the "sales disablers." Now the company excels at getting products to the right place at the right time--while managing to keep inventories low. How did that happen? In this first-person account, Reuben Slone, Whirlpool's vice president of Global Supply Chain, describes how he and his colleagues devised the right supply chain strategy, sold it internally, and implemented it. Slone insisted that the right focal point for the strategy was the satisfaction of consumers at the end of the supply chain. Most supply chain initiatives do the opposite: They start with the realities of a company's manufacturing base and proceed from there. Through a series of interviews with trade customers large and small, his team identified 27 different capabilities that drove industry perceptions of Whirlpool's performance. Knowing it was infeasible to aim for world-class performance across all of them, Slone weighed the costs of excelling at each and found the combination of initiatives that would provide overall competitive advantage. A highly disciplined project management office and broad training in project management were key to keeping work on budget and on benefit. Slone set an intense pace--three "releases" of new capabilities every month--that the group maintains to this day. Lest this seem like a technology story, however, Slone insists it is just as much a "talent renaissance." People are proud today to be part of Whirlpool's supply chain organization, and its new generation of talent will give the company a competitive advantage for years to come. PMID:15559580

  2. Leading a supply chain turnaround.

    PubMed

    Slone, Reuben E

    2004-10-01

    Just five years ago, salespeople at Whirlpool were in the habit of referring to their supply chain organization as the "sales disablers." Now the company excels at getting products to the right place at the right time--while managing to keep inventories low. How did that happen? In this first-person account, Reuben Slone, Whirlpool's vice president of Global Supply Chain, describes how he and his colleagues devised the right supply chain strategy, sold it internally, and implemented it. Slone insisted that the right focal point for the strategy was the satisfaction of consumers at the end of the supply chain. Most supply chain initiatives do the opposite: They start with the realities of a company's manufacturing base and proceed from there. Through a series of interviews with trade customers large and small, his team identified 27 different capabilities that drove industry perceptions of Whirlpool's performance. Knowing it was infeasible to aim for world-class performance across all of them, Slone weighed the costs of excelling at each and found the combination of initiatives that would provide overall competitive advantage. A highly disciplined project management office and broad training in project management were key to keeping work on budget and on benefit. Slone set an intense pace--three "releases" of new capabilities every month--that the group maintains to this day. Lest this seem like a technology story, however, Slone insists it is just as much a "talent renaissance." People are proud today to be part of Whirlpool's supply chain organization, and its new generation of talent will give the company a competitive advantage for years to come.

  3. Petroleum supply monthly, January 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-01-01

    Data presented describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States. The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States.

  4. The effects of air leaks on solar air heating systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elkin, R.; Cash, M.

    1979-01-01

    This paper presents the results of an investigation to determine the effects of leakages in collector and duct work on the system performance of a typical single-family residence solar air heating system. Positive (leakage out) and negative (leakage in) pressure systems were examined. Collector and duct leakage rates were varied from 10 to 30 percent of the system flow rate. Within the range of leakage rates investigated, solar contribution to heated space and domestic hot water loads was found to be reduced up to 30 percent from the no-leak system contribution with duct leakage equally divided between supply and return duct; with supply duct leakage greater than return leakage a reduction of up to 35 percent was noted. The negative pressure system exhibited a reduction in solar contribution somewhat larger than the positive pressure system for the same leakage rates.

  5. 77 FR 53174 - Certain Lined Paper Products From Indonesia: Revocation of Antidumping and Countervailing Duty...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-31

    ..., 76 FR 45778 (August 1, 2011) and Certain Lined Paper School Supplies From China, India, and Indonesia... Republic of China, 76 FR 76123 (December 6, 2011) and Certain Lined Paper Products From Indonesia: Final... Paper School Supplies From China, India, and Indonesia, 77 FR 51570 (August 24, 2012). See also...

  6. Nutrient leaching from sediments according to different oxygen supplying conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, J.; Park, J. I.; Choi, S. H.; Kim, K.

    2014-12-01

    To estimate the role of sediments controlling the water quality, many studies have adopted nutrient leaching experiments. However, the experiments were mostly performed under air-open condition, which is different from the actual condition at the bottom of fairly stagnant water body. Therefore, the results may not properly reflect the capability of the sediments supplying the nutrients to the water column. In this study, nutrient leaching experiments were conducted using various sediment samples under two different oxygen supplying conditions: one open and the other closed to the air. For this study, 5 sediment samples were collected from lakes and rivers around Kunsan, Korea. Air-closed leaching experiments were carried out using conventional BOD glass bottles (355 mL) without any head spaces. All the experiments were performed at a solid:solution ratio of 1:7.3. Each reactor was incubated at 25 ℃ for 72 hours or 120 hours. The solution was analyzed for pH, DO, Eh, NO3-N, NH4-N, and PO4-P after the incubation. Silt+clay fraction, total nitrogen (TN), total phosphorus (TP), and COD of the sediments showed close correlations with each other. Air-closed condition showed much higher leached concentrations for NH4-N and PO4-P (up to 60 times) than the air-open condition and the concentrations increased with the incubation time. However, the differences were very small in the experiments using sandy sediments (<0.13 mg/L and < 50 ug/L for NH4 and PO4 concentrations, respectively). In general, the leached NH4 and PO4 concentrations from the air-open experiments were not correlated well with the fine fractions due to nitrification and suppression of Fe-oxide reduction in aerobic condition, respectively. Because of this reason, some air-open results showed NO3-N concentrations higher than the concentrations obtained from the air-closed experiments. The experiments closed to air showed NO3-N concentrations substantially decreasing with the incubation time due to

  7. Magnetically switched power supply system for lasers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pacala, Thomas J. (Inventor)

    1987-01-01

    A laser power supply system is described in which separate pulses are utilized to avalanche ionize the gas within the laser and then produce a sustained discharge to cause the gas to emit light energy. A pulsed voltage source is used to charge a storage device such as a distributed capacitance. A transmission line or other suitable electrical conductor connects the storage device to the laser. A saturable inductor switch is coupled in the transmission line for containing the energy within the storage device until the voltage level across the storage device reaches a predetermined level, which level is less than that required to avalanche ionize the gas. An avalanche ionization pulse generating circuit is coupled to the laser for generating a high voltage pulse of sufficient amplitude to avalanche ionize the laser gas. Once the laser gas is avalanche ionized, the energy within the storage device is discharged through the saturable inductor switch into the laser to provide the sustained discharge. The avalanche ionization generating circuit may include a separate voltage source which is connected across the laser or may be in the form of a voltage multiplier circuit connected between the storage device and the laser.

  8. Secondary air injection system and method

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Ko-Jen; Walter, Darrell J.

    2014-08-19

    According to one embodiment of the invention, a secondary air injection system includes a first conduit in fluid communication with at least one first exhaust passage of the internal combustion engine and a second conduit in fluid communication with at least one second exhaust passage of the internal combustion engine, wherein the at least one first and second exhaust passages are in fluid communication with a turbocharger. The system also includes an air supply in fluid communication with the first and second conduits and a flow control device that controls fluid communication between the air supply and the first conduit and the second conduit and thereby controls fluid communication to the first and second exhaust passages of the internal combustion engine.

  9. Combustion air can become a problem

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-01-01

    Improper air combustion in a well-sealed house can result in an inadequate supply of oxygen and dangerous or fatal carbon monoxide levels. An opening for outside combustion air can prevent ''air starvation'' and if properly located and sized, can save energy by improving the furnace efficiency. This opening will also keep cold outside air from entering when the furnace is not in use, and prevent a blockage when in use, if properly designed. Possible indicators of inadequate combustion air in oil-fueled homes are: chimney smoke is black-colored, fuel smell in house, soot accumulation, popping, banging, or late ignition in the furnace. In natural gas-fueled homes: excessive moisture collecting on windows and walls, frequent headaches, burning feeling in nose and eyes. (JMT)

  10. 46 CFR 108.467 - Water supply.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Water supply. 108.467 Section 108.467 Shipping COAST... Fire Extinguishing Systems Foam Extinguishing Systems § 108.467 Water supply. The water supply of a foam extinguishing system must not be the water supply of the fire main system on the unit unless...

  11. 46 CFR 108.467 - Water supply.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Water supply. 108.467 Section 108.467 Shipping COAST... Fire Extinguishing Systems Foam Extinguishing Systems § 108.467 Water supply. The water supply of a foam extinguishing system must not be the water supply of the fire main system on the unit unless...

  12. 46 CFR 108.467 - Water supply.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Water supply. 108.467 Section 108.467 Shipping COAST... Fire Extinguishing Systems Foam Extinguishing Systems § 108.467 Water supply. The water supply of a foam extinguishing system must not be the water supply of the fire main system on the unit unless...

  13. 46 CFR 108.467 - Water supply.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Water supply. 108.467 Section 108.467 Shipping COAST... Fire Extinguishing Systems Foam Extinguishing Systems § 108.467 Water supply. The water supply of a foam extinguishing system must not be the water supply of the fire main system on the unit unless...

  14. 46 CFR 108.467 - Water supply.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Water supply. 108.467 Section 108.467 Shipping COAST... Fire Extinguishing Systems Foam Extinguishing Systems § 108.467 Water supply. The water supply of a foam extinguishing system must not be the water supply of the fire main system on the unit unless...

  15. Art Supply Inventors. Children's Art Diary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szekely, George

    2001-01-01

    Discusses types of art materials that children enjoy using in their artworks. Explores the art materials such as tasty art supplies, such as candy; peeled supplies, such as pencil shavings; sticky art supplies, such as Band-Aids; and fast-food supplies, such as forks and spoons. (CMK)

  16. 20 CFR 437.33 - Supplies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Supplies. 437.33 Section 437.33 Employees... Supplies. (a) Title. Title to supplies acquired under a grant or subgrant will vest, upon acquisition, in... supplies exceeding $5,000 in total aggregate fair market value upon termination or completion of the...

  17. 29 CFR 1470.33 - Supplies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Supplies. 1470.33 Section 1470.33 Labor Regulations... Changes, Property, and Subawards § 1470.33 Supplies. (a) Title. Title to supplies acquired under a grant.... If there is a residual inventory of unused supplies exceeding $5,000 in total aggregate fair...

  18. 10 CFR 215.3 - Supply reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Supply reports. 215.3 Section 215.3 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OIL COLLECTION OF FOREIGN OIL SUPPLY AGREEMENT INFORMATION § 215.3 Supply reports. (a) Any person... oil for the period specified in the agreement, pursuant to supply arrangements with the...

  19. 10 CFR 218.11 - Supply orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Supply orders. 218.11 Section 218.11 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OIL STANDBY MANDATORY INTERNATIONAL OIL ALLOCATION Supply Orders § 218.11 Supply orders. (a) A supply order shall require that the firm to which it is issued take actions specified therein relating...

  20. 45 CFR 2541.330 - Supplies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Supplies. 2541.330 Section 2541.330 Public Welfare..., Property and Subawards § 2541.330 Supplies. (a) Title. Title to supplies acquired under a grant or subgrant... residual inventory of unused supplies exceeding $5,000 in total aggregate fair market value...