Science.gov

Sample records for air supply means

  1. Air supply distributor for fireplaces

    SciTech Connect

    Eberhardt, H.A.

    1984-09-18

    An air supply distributor for fireplaces having an opening in the hearth for the supply of relatively cold air is used in combination with means, such as a log holder or grate, for supporting combustible products and comprises a pair of side walls and a top cover. The distributor is adapted to be positioned under the log holder or grate to overlie the hearth opening so that relatively cold air passing through the hearth opening is directed toward the front opening of the fireplace from which it passes to the fire for supporting combustion thereof thereby minimizing the amount of air drawn from the room.

  2. Fireplace having outside air supply

    SciTech Connect

    Hempel, R.A.

    1981-07-28

    An outside air system and combustion chamber closure assembly for use with a fireplace which provides means for supplying sufficient amounts of cooling air between the burning fuel and the closure assembly is disclosed. The closure assembly includes a frame surrounding the combustion chamber opening and at least one door operably mounted thereto. A grille is formed in the bottom rail of the frame for introduction of air into the combustion chamber. The outside air system includes an outside air duct which is coupled to a chamber defining an air plenum formed below the hearth of the fireplace and air cap assembly. The air cap assembly is positioned against the bottom rail of the frame and extends across the combustion chamber opening. The assembly includes a duct which communicates with the chamber defining the air plenum formed below the hearth and an air discharge housing positioned adjacent the bottom rail. A damper means is operably mounted in the air discharge housing and is adjustable between an outside air mode or a room air mode so that when said at least one door is closed, only outside air or room air will pass into the combustion chamber at hearth level in sufficient volume for fuel combustion as well as providing an excess of air to prevent overheating of the fireplace assembly and said at least one door.

  3. Engine powered auxiliary air supply system

    SciTech Connect

    Mc Lean, J.R.

    1987-01-27

    This patent describes an auxiliary air supply system comprising: an engine; at least one exhaust driven turbocharger including a turbine and a compressor associated therewith for supply of compressed air to the engine; a low pressure compressor including means for powering the low pressure compressor utilizing the engine exhaust gas and flow connected to receive a portion of the compressed air exiting the engine turbocharger compressor; a high pressure compressor including means for powering the high pressure compressor utilizing the engine exhaust gas and flow connected to receive the compressed air exiting the low pressure compressor; and means for directing engine exhaust gases between at least one engine turbocharger and the means for powering the low and high pressure compressors.

  4. Protective supplied breathing air garment

    DOEpatents

    Childers, E.L.; Hortenau, E.F. von.

    1984-07-10

    A breathing air garment is disclosed for isolating a wearer from hostile environments containing toxins or irritants includes a suit and a separate head protective enclosure or hood engaging a suit collar in sealing attachment. The hood and suit collar are cylindrically shaped and dimensioned to enable the wearer to withdraw his hands from the suit sleeves to perform manual tasks within the hood interior. Breathing air is supplied from an external air line with an air delivery hose attached to the hood interior. The hose feeds air into an annular halo-like fiber-filled plenum having spaced discharge orifices attached to the hood top wall. A plurality of air exhaust/check valves located at the suit extremities cooperate with the hood air delivery system to provide a cooling flow of circulating air from the hood throughout the suit interior. A suit entry seal provided on the suit rear torso panel permits access into the suit and is sealed with an adhesive sealing flap. 17 figs.

  5. Protective supplied breathing air garment

    DOEpatents

    Childers, Edward L.; von Hortenau, Erik F.

    1984-07-10

    A breathing air garment for isolating a wearer from hostile environments containing toxins or irritants includes a suit and a separate head protective enclosure or hood engaging a suit collar in sealing attachment. The hood and suit collar are cylindrically shaped and dimensioned to enable the wearer to withdraw his hands from the suit sleeves to perform manual tasks within the hood interior. Breathing air is supplied from an external air line with an air delivery hose attached to the hood interior. The hose feeds air into an annular halo-like fiber-filled plenum having spaced discharge orifices attached to the hood top wall. A plurality of air exhaust/check valves located at the suit extremities cooperate with the hood air delivery system to provide a cooling flow of circulating air from the hood throughout the suit interior. A suit entry seal provided on the suit rear torso panel permits access into the suit and is sealed with an adhesive sealing flap.

  6. Fluid-bed air-supply system

    DOEpatents

    Atabay, Keramettin

    1979-01-01

    The air-supply system for a fluidized-bed furnace includes two air conduits for the same combustion zone. The conduits feed separate sets of holes in a distributor plate through which fluidizing air flows to reach the bed. During normal operation, only one conduit and set of holes is used, but the second conduit and set of holes is employed during start-up.

  7. Protective supplied-breathing-air garment

    DOEpatents

    Childers, E.L.; von Hortenau, E.F.

    1982-05-28

    A breathing-air garment for isolating a wearer from hostile environments containing toxins or irritants is disclosed. The garment includes a suit and a separate head-protective enclosure or hood engaging a suit collar in sealing attachment. The hood and suit collar are cylindrically shaped and dimensioned to enable the wearer to withdraw his hands from the suit sleeves to perform manual tasks within the hood interior. Breathing air is supplied from an external air line with an air-delivery hose attached to the hood interior. The hose feeds air into an annular halo-like fiber-filled plenum having spaced discharge orifices attached to the hood top wall. A plurality of air exhaust/check valves located at the suit extremities cooperate with the hood air-delivery system to provide a cooling flow of circulating air from the hood throughout the suit interior. A suit entry seal provided on the suit sealed with an adhesive sealing flap.

  8. 46 CFR 197.432 - Surface-supplied air diving.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Surface-supplied air diving. 197.432 Section 197.432...-supplied air diving. The diving supervisor shall insure that— (a) Surface-supplied air diving is conducted... space; and (f) The surface-supplied air diver has the equipment required by § 197.346 (b) or (d)....

  9. 42 CFR 84.130 - Supplied-air respirators; description.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Supplied-air respirators; description. 84.130... SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Supplied-Air Respirators § 84.130 Supplied-air respirators; description. Supplied-air respirators, including all...

  10. 42 CFR 84.130 - Supplied-air respirators; description.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Supplied-air respirators; description. 84.130... SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Supplied-Air Respirators § 84.130 Supplied-air respirators; description. Supplied-air respirators, including all...

  11. 42 CFR 84.130 - Supplied-air respirators; description.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Supplied-air respirators; description. 84.130... SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Supplied-Air Respirators § 84.130 Supplied-air respirators; description. Supplied-air respirators, including all...

  12. 29 CFR 1910.425 - Surface-supplied air diving.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Surface-supplied air diving. 1910.425 Section 1910.425... Procedures § 1910.425 Surface-supplied air diving. (a) General. Employers engaged in surface-supplied air...-supplied air diving shall not be conducted at depths deeper than 190 fsw, except that dives with...

  13. 42 CFR 84.130 - Supplied-air respirators; description.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Supplied-air respirators; description. 84.130... SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Supplied-Air Respirators § 84.130 Supplied-air respirators; description. Supplied-air respirators, including all...

  14. 42 CFR 84.142 - Air supply source; hand-operated or motor driven air blowers; Type A supplied-air respirators...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Air supply source; hand-operated or motor driven air blowers; Type A supplied-air respirators; minimum requirements. 84.142 Section 84.142 Public....142 Air supply source; hand-operated or motor driven air blowers; Type A supplied-air...

  15. 42 CFR 84.142 - Air supply source; hand-operated or motor driven air blowers; Type A supplied-air respirators...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Air supply source; hand-operated or motor driven air blowers; Type A supplied-air respirators; minimum requirements. 84.142 Section 84.142 Public....142 Air supply source; hand-operated or motor driven air blowers; Type A supplied-air...

  16. 42 CFR 84.142 - Air supply source; hand-operated or motor driven air blowers; Type A supplied-air respirators...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Air supply source; hand-operated or motor driven air blowers; Type A supplied-air respirators; minimum requirements. 84.142 Section 84.142 Public....142 Air supply source; hand-operated or motor driven air blowers; Type A supplied-air...

  17. 42 CFR 84.142 - Air supply source; hand-operated or motor driven air blowers; Type A supplied-air respirators...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Air supply source; hand-operated or motor driven air blowers; Type A supplied-air respirators; minimum requirements. 84.142 Section 84.142 Public....142 Air supply source; hand-operated or motor driven air blowers; Type A supplied-air...

  18. 42 CFR 84.142 - Air supply source; hand-operated or motor driven air blowers; Type A supplied-air respirators...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Air supply source; hand-operated or motor driven air blowers; Type A supplied-air respirators; minimum requirements. 84.142 Section 84.142 Public....142 Air supply source; hand-operated or motor driven air blowers; Type A supplied-air...

  19. Air supply system for an internal combustion engine

    SciTech Connect

    Eftink, A.J.

    1991-03-12

    This patent describes a reciprocating piston internal combustion engine having a crankshaft and at least two cylinders, each cylinder having a displacement volume V{sub 1}, the improved means for supplying air to each cylinder. It comprises: a rotary, trochoidal chamber air pump defining at least one pair of pumping chambers, the number of pumping chambers being equal to the number of cylinders in the engine; air intake conduits connecting each pumping chamber to one cylinder of the engine; a rotor rotatable in each pair of pumping chambers, the rotor having three faces such that passage of a face of the rotor through a pumping chamber forces air in the pumping chamber into the associated air intake conduit and, consequently, into the engine cylinder; and means interconnecting the rotor and the crankshaft so as to rotate the rotor approximately one revolution for every three revolutions of the crankshaft.

  20. 46 CFR 197.432 - Surface-supplied air diving.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Surface-supplied air diving. 197.432 Section 197.432... STANDARDS GENERAL PROVISIONS Commercial Diving Operations Specific Diving Mode Procedures § 197.432 Surface-supplied air diving. The diving supervisor shall insure that— (a) Surface-supplied air diving is...

  1. 29 CFR 1910.425 - Surface-supplied air diving.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... dive area from ascending directly to the surface. ... 29 Labor 5 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Surface-supplied air diving. 1910.425 Section 1910.425... Procedures § 1910.425 Surface-supplied air diving. (a) General. Employers engaged in surface-supplied...

  2. 29 CFR 1910.425 - Surface-supplied air diving.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... dive area from ascending directly to the surface. ... 29 Labor 5 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Surface-supplied air diving. 1910.425 Section 1910.425... Procedures § 1910.425 Surface-supplied air diving. (a) General. Employers engaged in surface-supplied...

  3. 29 CFR 1910.425 - Surface-supplied air diving.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... dive area from ascending directly to the surface. ... 29 Labor 5 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Surface-supplied air diving. 1910.425 Section 1910.425... Procedures § 1910.425 Surface-supplied air diving. (a) General. Employers engaged in surface-supplied...

  4. 29 CFR 1926.1085 - Surface-supplied air diving.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Surface-supplied air diving. 1926.1085 Section 1926.1085..., DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION Diving Specific Operations Procedures § 1926.1085 Surface-supplied air diving. Note: The requirements applicable to construction...

  5. 29 CFR 1910.425 - Surface-supplied air diving.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 5 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Surface-supplied air diving. 1910.425 Section 1910.425 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS Commercial Diving Operations Specific Operations Procedures § 1910.425 Surface-supplied air...

  6. 29 CFR 1926.1085 - Surface-supplied air diving.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Surface-supplied air diving. 1926.1085 Section 1926.1085 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION... Procedures § 1926.1085 Surface-supplied air diving. Note: The requirements applicable to construction...

  7. 29 CFR 1926.1085 - Surface-supplied air diving.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Surface-supplied air diving. 1926.1085 Section 1926.1085 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION... Procedures § 1926.1085 Surface-supplied air diving. Note: The requirements applicable to construction...

  8. 29 CFR 1926.1085 - Surface-supplied air diving.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Surface-supplied air diving. 1926.1085 Section 1926.1085 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION... Procedures § 1926.1085 Surface-supplied air diving. Note: The requirements applicable to construction...

  9. Modeling monthly mean air temperature for Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alvares, Clayton Alcarde; Stape, José Luiz; Sentelhas, Paulo Cesar; de Moraes Gonçalves, José Leonardo

    2013-08-01

    Air temperature is one of the main weather variables influencing agriculture around the world. Its availability, however, is a concern, mainly in Brazil where the weather stations are more concentrated on the coastal regions of the country. Therefore, the present study had as an objective to develop models for estimating monthly and annual mean air temperature for the Brazilian territory using multiple regression and geographic information system techniques. Temperature data from 2,400 stations distributed across the Brazilian territory were used, 1,800 to develop the equations and 600 for validating them, as well as their geographical coordinates and altitude as independent variables for the models. A total of 39 models were developed, relating the dependent variables maximum, mean, and minimum air temperatures (monthly and annual) to the independent variables latitude, longitude, altitude, and their combinations. All regression models were statistically significant ( α ≤ 0.01). The monthly and annual temperature models presented determination coefficients between 0.54 and 0.96. We obtained an overall spatial correlation higher than 0.9 between the models proposed and the 16 major models already published for some Brazilian regions, considering a total of 3.67 × 108 pixels evaluated. Our national temperature models are recommended to predict air temperature in all Brazilian territories.

  10. Fuel cell stack with passive air supply

    DOEpatents

    Ren, Xiaoming; Gottesfeld, Shimshon

    2006-01-17

    A fuel cell stack has a plurality of polymer electrolyte fuel cells (PEFCs) where each PEFC includes a rectangular membrane electrode assembly (MEA) having a fuel flow field along a first axis and an air flow field along a second axis perpendicular to the first axis, where the fuel flow field is long relative to the air flow field. A cathode air flow field in each PEFC has air flow channels for air flow parallel to the second axis and that directly open to atmospheric air for air diffusion within the channels into contact with the MEA.

  11. Frequency response of a jet engine test facility air supply system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Franke, M. E.; Ross, M. L.

    1985-01-01

    The frequency response of a laboratory scale model of a portion of the air supply system of an engine test facility is obtained both experimentally and using one-dimensional, small-signal, distributed parameter theory. The effects of line terminations and mean flow are considered. Good agreement between experiment and theory is obtained. Predictions are extended to a full scale test facility air supply system operating under several possible test conditions.

  12. 42 CFR 84.147 - Type B supplied-air respirator; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Type B supplied-air respirator; minimum... DEVICES Supplied-Air Respirators § 84.147 Type B supplied-air respirator; minimum requirements. No Type B supplied-air respirator shall be approved for use with a blower or with connection to an air supply...

  13. 42 CFR 84.147 - Type B supplied-air respirator; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Type B supplied-air respirator; minimum... DEVICES Supplied-Air Respirators § 84.147 Type B supplied-air respirator; minimum requirements. No Type B supplied-air respirator shall be approved for use with a blower or with connection to an air supply...

  14. 42 CFR 84.150 - Air-supply line tests; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Respirators § 84.150 Air-supply line tests; minimum requirements. Air supply lines employed on Type A, Type B, and Type C supplied-air respirators shall meet the minimum test requirements set forth in Table 8...

  15. 42 CFR 84.150 - Air-supply line tests; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Respirators § 84.150 Air-supply line tests; minimum requirements. Air supply lines employed on Type A, Type B, and Type C supplied-air respirators shall meet the minimum test requirements set forth in Table 8...

  16. Mean Residence Time and Emergency Drinking Water Supply.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kralik, Martin; Humer, Franko

    2013-04-01

    Mean Residence Times (MRTs) of the raw water of drinking water supplies is the measurement of the water-isotopes (oxygen-18, hydrogen-2 and tritium (3H)). The traceability and the quality oft he lumped model calculation is based on the quality and the density of input (meteorological) stations in the region with monthly measurements. In addition, noble gas measurements in the groundwater (helium-3, krypton-85) and of industrial tracer gases (chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) and sulphurhexaflorid (SF6)) are important tools to estimate the MRTs of the raw water in the aquifers. To exclude the presence of small amounts of very recent waters, which are in cases of accidents some times heavily polluted, the raw water is tested for natural radionuclides (beryllium-7 or sulphur-35) with very short half-life or artificial fluorescence tracers. In addition, the estimate of the MRTs of groundwater is an essential part of the vulnerability assessment of drinking water supplies due to climate change impacts (frequency of droughts and floods in the recharge area) and offers a valuable tool to specify a sustainable water abstraction. The applicability of this approach was tested in several springs and groundwater monitoring wells used for raw water abstraction for drinking water supply in Austria.

  17. 30 CFR 75.326 - Mean entry air velocity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Mean entry air velocity. 75.326 Section 75.326... MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Ventilation § 75.326 Mean entry air velocity. In exhausting face ventilation systems, the mean entry air velocity shall be at least 60 feet per...

  18. 30 CFR 75.326 - Mean entry air velocity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Mean entry air velocity. 75.326 Section 75.326... MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Ventilation § 75.326 Mean entry air velocity. In exhausting face ventilation systems, the mean entry air velocity shall be at least 60 feet per...

  19. 30 CFR 75.326 - Mean entry air velocity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Mean entry air velocity. 75.326 Section 75.326... MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Ventilation § 75.326 Mean entry air velocity. In exhausting face ventilation systems, the mean entry air velocity shall be at least 60 feet per...

  20. 30 CFR 75.326 - Mean entry air velocity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Mean entry air velocity. 75.326 Section 75.326... MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Ventilation § 75.326 Mean entry air velocity. In exhausting face ventilation systems, the mean entry air velocity shall be at least 60 feet per...

  1. 30 CFR 75.326 - Mean entry air velocity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Mean entry air velocity. 75.326 Section 75.326... MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Ventilation § 75.326 Mean entry air velocity. In exhausting face ventilation systems, the mean entry air velocity shall be at least 60 feet per...

  2. 42 CFR 84.139 - Head and neck protection; supplied-air respirators; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Head and neck protection; supplied-air respirators... PROTECTIVE DEVICES Supplied-Air Respirators § 84.139 Head and neck protection; supplied-air respirators; minimum requirements. Type AE, BE, and CE supplied-air respirators shall be designed and constructed...

  3. 42 CFR 84.139 - Head and neck protection; supplied-air respirators; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Head and neck protection; supplied-air respirators... PROTECTIVE DEVICES Supplied-Air Respirators § 84.139 Head and neck protection; supplied-air respirators; minimum requirements. Type AE, BE, and CE supplied-air respirators shall be designed and constructed...

  4. 42 CFR 84.131 - Supplied-air respirators; required components.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Supplied-air respirators; required components. 84... Supplied-Air Respirators § 84.131 Supplied-air respirators; required components. (a) Each supplied-air respirator described in § 84.130 shall, where its design requires, contain the following component parts:...

  5. 42 CFR 84.131 - Supplied-air respirators; required components.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Supplied-air respirators; required components. 84... Supplied-Air Respirators § 84.131 Supplied-air respirators; required components. (a) Each supplied-air respirator described in § 84.130 shall, where its design requires, contain the following component parts:...

  6. Power supply with air core transformer and seperated power supplies for high dynamic range

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chutjian, Ara (Inventor); Aalami, Dean (Inventor); Darrach, Murray (Inventor); Orient, Otto (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    A power supply for a quadrupole mass spectrometer which operates using an RF signal. The RF signal is controllable via a feedback loop. The feedback loop is from the output, through a comparator, and compared to a digital signal. An air core transformer is used to minimize the weight. The air core transformer is driven via two out of phase sawtooth signals which drive opposite ends of the transformer.

  7. Validation of Interannual Differences of AIRS Monthly Mean Parameters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Susskind, Joel; Iredell, Lena; Keita, Fricky; Molnar, Gyula

    2005-01-01

    Monthly mean fields of select geophysical parameters derived from analysis of AIRS/AMSU data, and their interannual differences, are shown and compared with analogous fields derived from other sources. All AIRS fields are derived using the AIRS Science Team Version 4 algorithm. Monthly mean results are shown for January 2004, as are interannual differences between January 2004 and January 2003. AIRS temperature and water vapor profile fields are compared with monthly mean collocated ECMWF 3 hour forecast and monthly mean TOVS Pathfinder Path A data. AIRS Tropospheric and Stratospheric coarse climate indicators are compared with analogous MSU products derived by Spencer and christy and found in the TOVS Pathfinder Path A data set. Total ozone is compared with results produced by TOMS. OLR is compared with OLR derived using CERES data and found in the TOVS Pathfinder Path A data set. AIRS results agree well in all cases, especially in the interannual difference sense.

  8. Apparatus for supplying conditioned air at a substantially constant temperature and humidity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Obler, H. D. (Inventor)

    1980-01-01

    The apparatus includes a supply duct coupled to a source of supply air for carrying the supply air therethrough. A return duct is coupled to the supply duct for carrying return conditioned air therethrough. A temperature reducing device is coupled to the supply duct for decreasing the temperature of the supply and return conditioned air. A by-pass duct is coupled to the supply duct for selectively directing portions of the supply and return conditioned air around the temperature reducing device. Another by-pass duct is coupled to the return duct for selectively directing portions of the return conditioned air around the supply duct and the temperature reduction device. Controller devices selectively control the flow and amount of mixing of the supply and return conditioned air.

  9. 42 CFR 84.148 - Type C supplied-air respirator, continuous flow class; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Type C supplied-air respirator, continuous flow... RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Supplied-Air Respirators § 84.148 Type C supplied-air respirator, continuous flow class; minimum requirements. (a) Respirators tested under this section shall be approved only...

  10. Evaluation of Air Mixing and Thermal Comfort From High Sidewall Supply Air Jets

    SciTech Connect

    Ridouane, E. H.

    2011-09-01

    Uniform mixing of conditioned air with room air is an essential factor for providing comfort in homes. The higher the supply flow rates the easier to reach good mixing in the space. In high performance homes, however, the flow rates required to meet the small remaining thermal loads are not large enough to maintain uniform mixing in the space. The objective of this study is to resolve this issue and maintain uniform temperatures within future homes. We used computational fluid dynamics modeling to evaluate the performance of high sidewall air supply for residential applications in heating and cooling modes. Parameters of the study are the supply velocity, supply temperature, diffuser dimensions, and room dimensions. Laboratory experiments supported the study of thermal mixing in heating mode; we used the results to develop a correlation to predict high sidewall diffuser performance. For cooling mode, numerical analysis is presented. The results provide information to guide the selection of high sidewall supply diffusers to maintain proper room mixing for heating and cooling of high performance homes. It is proven that these systems can achieve good mixing and provide acceptable comfort levels. Recommendations are given on the operating conditions to guarantee occupant comfort.

  11. Tracing global supply chains to air pollution hotspots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moran, Daniel; Kanemoto, Keiichiro

    2016-09-01

    While high-income countries have made significant strides since the 1970s in improving air quality, air pollution continues to rise in many developing countries and the world as a whole. A significant share of the pollution burden in developing countries can be attributed to production for export to consumers in high-income nations. However, it remains a challenge to quantify individual actors’ share of responsibility for pollution, and to involve parties other than primary emitters in cleanup efforts. Here we present a new spatially explicit modeling approach to link SO2, NO x , and PM10 severe emissions hotspots to final consumers via global supply chains. These maps show developed countries reducing their emissions domestically but driving new pollution hotspots in developing countries. This is also the first time a spatially explicit footprint inventory has been established. Linking consumers and supply chains to emissions hotspots creates opportunities for other parties to participate alongside primary emitters and local regulators in pollution abatement efforts.

  12. Energy and air emission effects of water supply.

    PubMed

    Stokes, Jennifer R; Horvath, Arpad

    2009-04-15

    Life-cycle air emission effects of supplying water are explored using a hybrid life-cycle assessment For the typically sized U.S. utility analyzed, recycled water is preferable to desalination and comparable to importation. Seawater desalination has an energy and air emission footprint that is 1.5-2.4 times larger than that of imported water. However, some desalination modes fare better; brackish groundwater is 53-66% as environmentally intensive as seawater desalination. The annual water needs (326 m3) of a typical Californian that is met with imported water requires 5.8 GJ of energy and creates 360 kg of CO2 equivalent emissions. With seawater desalination, energy use would increase to 14 GJ and 800 kg of CO2 equivalent emissions. Meeting the water demand of California with desalination would consume 52% of the state's electricity. Supply options were reassessed using alternative electricity mixes, including the average mix of the United States and several renewable sources. Desalination using solar thermal energy has lower greenhouse gas emissions than that of imported and recycled water (using California's electricity mix), but using the U.S. mix increases the environmental footprint by 1.5 times. A comparison with a more energy-intensive international scenario shows that CO2 equivalent emissions for desalination in Dubai are 1.6 times larger than in California. The methods, decision support tool (WEST), and results of this study should persuade decision makers to make informed water policy choices by including energy consumption and material use effects in the decision-making process.

  13. Evaluation of Air Mixing and Thermal Comfort From High Sidewall Supply Air Jets

    SciTech Connect

    Ridouane, El Hassan

    2011-09-01

    Uniform mixing of conditioned air with room air is an essential factor for providing comfort in homes. The objective of the study outlined in this report is to resolve the issue that the flow rates that are required to meet the small remaining thermal loads are not large enough to maintain uniform mixing in the space.and maintain uniform temperatures within future homes. The results provide information to guide the selection of high sidewall supply diffusers to maintain proper room mixing for heating and cooling of high performance homes.

  14. GSOD Based Daily Global Mean Surface Temperature and Mean Sea Level Air Pressure (1982-2011)

    DOE Data Explorer

    Xuan Shi, Dali Wang

    2014-05-05

    This data product contains all the gridded data set at 1/4 degree resolution in ASCII format. Both mean temperature and mean sea level air pressure data are available. It also contains the GSOD data (1982-2011) from NOAA site, contains station number, location, temperature and pressures (sea level and station level). The data package also contains information related to the data processing methods

  15. Air/fuel supply system for use in a gas turbine engine

    DOEpatents

    Fox, Timothy A; Schilp, Reinhard; Gambacorta, Domenico

    2014-06-17

    A fuel injector for use in a gas turbine engine combustor assembly. The fuel injector includes a main body and a fuel supply structure. The main body has an inlet end and an outlet end and defines a longitudinal axis extending between the outlet and inlet ends. The main body comprises a plurality of air/fuel passages extending therethrough, each air/fuel passage including an inlet that receives air from a source of air and an outlet. The fuel supply structure communicates with and supplies fuel to the air/fuel passages for providing an air/fuel mixture within each air/fuel passage. The air/fuel mixtures exit the main body through respective air/fuel passage outlets.

  16. Spatial interpolation of monthly mean air temperature data for Latvia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aniskevich, Svetlana

    2016-04-01

    Temperature data with high spatial resolution are essential for appropriate and qualitative local characteristics analysis. Nowadays the surface observation station network in Latvia consists of 22 stations recording daily air temperature, thus in order to analyze very specific and local features in the spatial distribution of temperature values in the whole Latvia, a high quality spatial interpolation method is required. Until now inverse distance weighted interpolation was used for the interpolation of air temperature data at the meteorological and climatological service of the Latvian Environment, Geology and Meteorology Centre, and no additional topographical information was taken into account. This method made it almost impossible to reasonably assess the actual temperature gradient and distribution between the observation points. During this project a new interpolation method was applied and tested, considering auxiliary explanatory parameters. In order to spatially interpolate monthly mean temperature values, kriging with external drift was used over a grid of 1 km resolution, which contains parameters such as 5 km mean elevation, continentality, distance from the Gulf of Riga and the Baltic Sea, biggest lakes and rivers, population density. As the most appropriate of these parameters, based on a complex situation analysis, mean elevation and continentality was chosen. In order to validate interpolation results, several statistical indicators of the differences between predicted values and the values actually observed were used. Overall, the introduced model visually and statistically outperforms the previous interpolation method and provides a meteorologically reasonable result, taking into account factors that influence the spatial distribution of the monthly mean temperature.

  17. 42 CFR 84.155 - Airflow resistance test; Type C supplied-air respirator, continuous flow class and Type CE...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Airflow resistance test; Type C supplied-air... Respirators § 84.155 Airflow resistance test; Type C supplied-air respirator, continuous flow class and Type CE supplied-air respirator; minimum requirements. The resistance to air flowing from the...

  18. 42 CFR 84.155 - Airflow resistance test; Type C supplied-air respirator, continuous flow class and Type CE...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Airflow resistance test; Type C supplied-air... Respirators § 84.155 Airflow resistance test; Type C supplied-air respirator, continuous flow class and Type CE supplied-air respirator; minimum requirements. The resistance to air flowing from the...

  19. 42 CFR 84.155 - Airflow resistance test; Type C supplied-air respirator, continuous flow class and Type CE...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Airflow resistance test; Type C supplied-air... Respirators § 84.155 Airflow resistance test; Type C supplied-air respirator, continuous flow class and Type CE supplied-air respirator; minimum requirements. The resistance to air flowing from the...

  20. 42 CFR 84.155 - Airflow resistance test; Type C supplied-air respirator, continuous flow class and Type CE...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Airflow resistance test; Type C supplied-air... Respirators § 84.155 Airflow resistance test; Type C supplied-air respirator, continuous flow class and Type CE supplied-air respirator; minimum requirements. The resistance to air flowing from the...

  1. 42 CFR 84.149 - Type C supplied-air respirator, demand and pressure demand class; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Type C supplied-air respirator, demand and pressure... be approved only when used to supply respirable air at the pressures and quantities required. (b) The manufacturer shall specify the range of air pressure at the point of attachment of the air-supply hose to...

  2. 42 CFR 84.149 - Type C supplied-air respirator, demand and pressure demand class; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Type C supplied-air respirator, demand and pressure... be approved only when used to supply respirable air at the pressures and quantities required. (b) The manufacturer shall specify the range of air pressure at the point of attachment of the air-supply hose to...

  3. 42 CFR 84.149 - Type C supplied-air respirator, demand and pressure demand class; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Type C supplied-air respirator, demand and pressure... be approved only when used to supply respirable air at the pressures and quantities required. (b) The manufacturer shall specify the range of air pressure at the point of attachment of the air-supply hose to...

  4. 42 CFR 84.149 - Type C supplied-air respirator, demand and pressure demand class; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Type C supplied-air respirator, demand and pressure... be approved only when used to supply respirable air at the pressures and quantities required. (b) The manufacturer shall specify the range of air pressure at the point of attachment of the air-supply hose to...

  5. 42 CFR 84.149 - Type C supplied-air respirator, demand and pressure demand class; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Type C supplied-air respirator, demand and pressure... be approved only when used to supply respirable air at the pressures and quantities required. (b) The manufacturer shall specify the range of air pressure at the point of attachment of the air-supply hose to...

  6. Change point analysis of mean annual air temperature in Iran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shirvani, A.

    2015-06-01

    The existence of change point in the mean of air temperature is an important indicator of climate change. In this study, Student's t parametric and Mann-Whitney nonparametric Change Point Models (CPMs) were applied to test whether a change point has occurred in the mean of annual Air Temperature Anomalies Time Series (ATATS) of 27 synoptic stations in different regions of Iran for the period 1956-2010. The Likelihood Ratio Test (LRT) was also applied to evaluate the detected change points. The ATATS of all stations except Bandar Anzali and Gorgan stations, which were serially correlated, were transformed to produce an uncorrelated pre-whitened time series as an input file for the CPMs and LRT. Both the Student's t and Mann-Whitney CPMs detected the change point in the ATATS of (a) Tehran Mehrabad, Abadan, Kermanshah, Khoramabad and Yazd in 1992, (b) Mashhad and Tabriz in 1993, (c) Bandar Anzali, Babolsar and Ramsar in 1994, (d) Kerman and Zahedan in 1996 at 5% significance level. The likelihood ratio test shows that the ATATS before and after detected change points in these 12 stations are normally distributed with different means. The Student's t and Mann-Whitney CPMs suggested different change points for individual stations in Bushehr, Bam, Shahroud, and Gorgan. However, the LRT confirmed the change points in these four stations as 1997, 1996, 1993, and 1996, respectively. No change points were detected in the remaining 11 stations.

  7. 42 CFR 84.156 - Airflow resistance test; Type C supplied-air respirator, demand class; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Airflow resistance test; Type C supplied-air... APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Supplied-Air Respirators § 84.156 Airflow resistance test; Type C supplied-air respirator, demand class; minimum requirements. (a) Inhalation resistance shall...

  8. 42 CFR 84.156 - Airflow resistance test; Type C supplied-air respirator, demand class; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Airflow resistance test; Type C supplied-air... APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Supplied-Air Respirators § 84.156 Airflow resistance test; Type C supplied-air respirator, demand class; minimum requirements. (a) Inhalation resistance shall...

  9. 42 CFR 84.156 - Airflow resistance test; Type C supplied-air respirator, demand class; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Airflow resistance test; Type C supplied-air... APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Supplied-Air Respirators § 84.156 Airflow resistance test; Type C supplied-air respirator, demand class; minimum requirements. (a) Inhalation resistance shall...

  10. 42 CFR 84.156 - Airflow resistance test; Type C supplied-air respirator, demand class; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Airflow resistance test; Type C supplied-air... APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Supplied-Air Respirators § 84.156 Airflow resistance test; Type C supplied-air respirator, demand class; minimum requirements. (a) Inhalation resistance shall...

  11. 42 CFR 84.143 - Terminal fittings or chambers; Type B supplied-air respirators; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Terminal fittings or chambers; Type B supplied-air... RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Supplied-Air Respirators § 84.143 Terminal fittings or chambers; Type B... positive pressures shall not be approved for use on Type B supplied-air respirators. (b) Terminal...

  12. 42 CFR 84.143 - Terminal fittings or chambers; Type B supplied-air respirators; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... respirators; minimum requirements. 84.143 Section 84.143 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Supplied-Air Respirators § 84.143 Terminal fittings or chambers; Type B supplied-air respirators; minimum requirements. (a) Blowers or connections to air supplies...

  13. Control of an Isolated Table's Fluctuation Caused by Supplied Air Pressure Using a Voice Coil Motor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shirani, Habiburahman; Wakui, Shinji

    Pneumatic type anti-vibration apparatuses are used in the field of semiconductor manufacturing and precision measurement. The variation of the supplied air pressure from the air compressor causes the position fluctuation of the isolated table. A control method using a voice coil motor (VCM) as the actuator is proposed in this study to control the position fluctuation of the isolated table caused by the supplied air pressure. The feedforward compensator control scheme is used to provide a proper controlled signal to the VCM. According to the controlled signal, VCM exerts driving force in the opposite direction of the air spring expansion or compression to suppress the vibration of the isolated table.

  14. 42 CFR 84.154 - Airflow resistance test; Type B and Type BE supplied-air respirators; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Supplied-Air Respirators § 84.154 Airflow resistance test; Type B and Type BE supplied-air respirators; minimum requirements. (a) Airflow resistance shall be... diameter. (b) Airflow resistance shall not exceed 38 mm. (1.5 inches) of water-column height to air...

  15. 42 CFR 84.154 - Airflow resistance test; Type B and Type BE supplied-air respirators; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Supplied-Air Respirators § 84.154 Airflow resistance test; Type B and Type BE supplied-air respirators; minimum requirements. (a) Airflow resistance shall be... diameter. (b) Airflow resistance shall not exceed 38 mm. (1.5 inches) of water-column height to air...

  16. 42 CFR 84.154 - Airflow resistance test; Type B and Type BE supplied-air respirators; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Supplied-Air Respirators § 84.154 Airflow resistance test; Type B and Type BE supplied-air respirators; minimum requirements. (a) Airflow resistance shall be... diameter. (b) Airflow resistance shall not exceed 38 mm. (1.5 inches) of water-column height to air...

  17. 42 CFR 84.154 - Airflow resistance test; Type B and Type BE supplied-air respirators; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Supplied-Air Respirators § 84.154 Airflow resistance test; Type B and Type BE supplied-air respirators; minimum requirements. (a) Airflow resistance shall be... diameter. (b) Airflow resistance shall not exceed 38 mm. (1.5 inches) of water-column height to air...

  18. 42 CFR 84.154 - Airflow resistance test; Type B and Type BE supplied-air respirators; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Supplied-Air Respirators § 84.154 Airflow resistance test; Type B and Type BE supplied-air respirators; minimum requirements. (a) Airflow resistance shall be... diameter. (b) Airflow resistance shall not exceed 38 mm. (1.5 inches) of water-column height to air...

  19. 42 CFR 84.155 - Airflow resistance test; Type C supplied-air respirator, continuous flow class and Type CE...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... respirator, continuous flow class and Type CE supplied-air respirator; minimum requirements. 84.155 Section... Respirators § 84.155 Airflow resistance test; Type C supplied-air respirator, continuous flow class and Type... shall not exceed 25 mm. (1 inch) of water-column height when the air flow into the...

  20. Energy supplies and future engines for land, sea, and air.

    PubMed

    Wilson, David Gordon

    2012-06-01

    The years 2012 and beyond seem likely to record major changes in energy use and power generation. The Japanese tsunami has resulted in large countries either scaling back or abolishing the future use of nuclear energy. The discovery of what seems like vast amounts of economically deliverable natural gas has many forecasting a rapid switch from coal- to gas-fired generating plants. On the other hand, environmentalists have strong objections to the production of natural gas and of petroleum by hydraulic fracturing from shale, or by extraction of heavy oil. They believe that global warming from the use of fossil fuels is now established beyond question. There has been rapid progress in the development of alternative energy supplies, particularly from on-shore and off-shore wind. Progress toward a viable future energy mix has been slowed by a U.S. energy policy that seems to many to be driven by politics. The author will review the history of power and energy to put all of the above in context and will look at possible future developments. He will propose what he believes to be an idealized energy policy that could result in an optimum system that would be arrived at democratically. PMID:22788100

  1. Downhole steam generator using low pressure fuel and air supply

    DOEpatents

    Fox, Ronald L.

    1983-01-01

    An apparatus for generation of steam in a borehole for penetration into an earth formation wherein a spiral, tubular heat exchanger is used in the combustion chamber to isolate the combustion process from the water being superheated for conversion into steam. The isolation allows combustion of a relatively low pressure oxidant and fuel mixture for generating high enthalpy steam. The fuel is preheated by feedback of combustion gases from the top of the combustion chamber through a fuel preheater chamber. The hot exhaust gases of combustion at the bottom of the combustion chamber, after flowing over the heat exchanger enter an exhaust passage and pipe. The exhaust pipe is mounted inside the water supply line heating the water flowing into the heat exchanger. After being superheated in the heat exchanger, the water is ejected through an expansion nozzle and converts into steam prior to penetration into the earth formation. Pressure responsive doors are provided at a steam outlet downstream of the nozzle and close when the steam pressure is lost due to flameout.

  2. Energy supplies and future engines for land, sea, and air.

    PubMed

    Wilson, David Gordon

    2012-06-01

    The years 2012 and beyond seem likely to record major changes in energy use and power generation. The Japanese tsunami has resulted in large countries either scaling back or abolishing the future use of nuclear energy. The discovery of what seems like vast amounts of economically deliverable natural gas has many forecasting a rapid switch from coal- to gas-fired generating plants. On the other hand, environmentalists have strong objections to the production of natural gas and of petroleum by hydraulic fracturing from shale, or by extraction of heavy oil. They believe that global warming from the use of fossil fuels is now established beyond question. There has been rapid progress in the development of alternative energy supplies, particularly from on-shore and off-shore wind. Progress toward a viable future energy mix has been slowed by a U.S. energy policy that seems to many to be driven by politics. The author will review the history of power and energy to put all of the above in context and will look at possible future developments. He will propose what he believes to be an idealized energy policy that could result in an optimum system that would be arrived at democratically.

  3. Wearable air supply for pneumatic artificial hearts and ventricular assist devices.

    PubMed

    Sipin, A J; Fabrey, W J; Smith, S H; Doussourd, J D; Olsen, D B

    1992-08-01

    An experimental wearable air supply for pneumatic artificial hearts and ventricular assist devices has been built and tested. The unit eliminates the need for tethering to a large, stationery driver. The miniaturized air supply is designed for ambulatory patients with implanted pulsatile pneumatic total artificial hearts (TAH) or pneumatic left-ventricular assist devices (LVAD), to permit mobility in clinical and home settings. The device has major short-term utility as a supply for pneumatic TAH or VAD bridges in patients awaiting heart transplants. The system design for the wearable driver includes a novel, fast rotary compressor, driven by a brushless direct current (DC) motor to supply air to the ventricle through an electromagnetically actuated directional valve, all controlled by a microcomputer. Stroke volume from 0 to 200 cc; pulse rate from 60 to 160 bpm, and duty cycle from 33% to 50% are selected on a keyboard, and the selected or measured parameters can be shown on a liquid crystal display. For control of delivery from a single ventricular assist device, stroke volume is controlled by variation of compressor speed. In the wearable air supply for a TAH, a single compressor drives both ventricles alternately through a double-acting directional valve. Air volume delivered to the left ventricle is adjusted by variation of compressor speed, and air volume to the right ventricle by variation of ejection time. The effect on blood flow rate of the lower impedance to the right ventricle is compensated by provision of a two-stage compressor, in which a single stage drives the right ventricle, and both stages connected in parallel drive the left ventricle. The overall dimensions of the prototype air supply for driving either a TAH or LVAD are 4.5 by 7.8 by 4.5 inches, including an emergency battery with a duration of 15 to 30 min depending on load. The weight is presently 5.5 lb, but this will be reduced in a production design and for a dedicated LVAD air supply

  4. Dynamic investigation of PEFC stacks in interaction with the air supply system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Philipps, F.; Simons, G.; Schiefer, K.

    This paper explores the behaviour of a dynamically operated fuel cell system regarding to an automotive application, examining the air supply and their interaction with the fuel cell stacks. The dynamic limits of stack operation are also discussed. Finally, the paper provides a description of the test facility used in these investigations. The research of dynamically operated fuel cell stacks shows that in order to achieve high energy efficiency, a power-dependent modulation of the pressure and flow rate of the air supply is necessary. A test facility designed for energy management and power train research (up to 42 kW) was used for the experiment. A number of 11.5 kW fuel cell stacks was examined experimentally with respect to performance in interaction with the air supply in stationary and dynamic operation. The stacks were tested individually and in parallel. All of them were operated "dead-end" on the hydrogen side. Experimental results varying the parameters and load curves applied to the air supply system are given in the paper. The results show different dynamic behaviours between the stacks and a substantial difference in efficiency and dynamic response of the fuel cell system operated with different strategies. The results of different operating strategies for fuel cell systems, with respect to the interaction between the fuel cell stack and the air supply and in their dependency on air mass flow and pressure level are presented. The examinations were done with the test facility using real current demand profile of the experimental car HyLite ® from zero to full load and the New European Drive Cycle (NEDC).

  5. Means of atmospheric air pollution reduction during drilling wells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shkitsa, L.; Yatsyshyn, T.; Lyakh, M.; Sydorenko, O.

    2016-08-01

    The process of drilling oil and gas wells is the source of air pollution through drilling mud evaporation containing hazardous chemical substances. The constructive solution for cleaning device of downhole tool that contains elements covering tube and clean the surface from the mud in the process of rising from the well is offered. Inside the device is filled with magnetic fluid containing the substance neutralizing hazardous substances. The use of the equipment proposed will make it possible to avoid penetration of harmful substances into the environment and to escape the harmful effects of aggressive substances for staff health and increase rig's fire safety.

  6. 42 CFR 84.153 - Airflow resistance test, Type A and Type AE supplied-air respirators; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Supplied-Air Respirators § 84.153 Airflow resistance test, Type A and Type AE supplied-air respirators; minimum requirements. (a) Airflow resistance will be... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Airflow resistance test, Type A and Type...

  7. 42 CFR 84.153 - Airflow resistance test, Type A and Type AE supplied-air respirators; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Supplied-Air Respirators § 84.153 Airflow resistance test, Type A and Type AE supplied-air respirators; minimum requirements. (a) Airflow resistance will be... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Airflow resistance test, Type A and Type...

  8. 42 CFR 84.153 - Airflow resistance test, Type A and Type AE supplied-air respirators; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Supplied-Air Respirators § 84.153 Airflow resistance test, Type A and Type AE supplied-air respirators; minimum requirements. (a) Airflow resistance will be... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Airflow resistance test, Type A and Type...

  9. 42 CFR 84.157 - Airflow resistance test; Type C supplied-air respirator, pressure-demand class; minimum...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... test; Type C supplied-air respirator, pressure-demand class; minimum requirements. (a) The static... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Airflow resistance test; Type C supplied-air respirator, pressure-demand class; minimum requirements. 84.157 Section 84.157 Public Health PUBLIC...

  10. 42 CFR 84.157 - Airflow resistance test; Type C supplied-air respirator, pressure-demand class; minimum...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... test; Type C supplied-air respirator, pressure-demand class; minimum requirements. (a) The static... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Airflow resistance test; Type C supplied-air respirator, pressure-demand class; minimum requirements. 84.157 Section 84.157 Public Health PUBLIC...

  11. 42 CFR 84.157 - Airflow resistance test; Type C supplied-air respirator, pressure-demand class; minimum...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... test; Type C supplied-air respirator, pressure-demand class; minimum requirements. (a) The static... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Airflow resistance test; Type C supplied-air respirator, pressure-demand class; minimum requirements. 84.157 Section 84.157 Public Health PUBLIC...

  12. 42 CFR 84.157 - Airflow resistance test; Type C supplied-air respirator, pressure-demand class; minimum...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... test; Type C supplied-air respirator, pressure-demand class; minimum requirements. (a) The static... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Airflow resistance test; Type C supplied-air respirator, pressure-demand class; minimum requirements. 84.157 Section 84.157 Public Health PUBLIC...

  13. 42 CFR 84.153 - Airflow resistance test, Type A and Type AE supplied-air respirators; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Airflow resistance test, Type A and Type AE supplied-air respirators; minimum requirements. 84.153 Section 84.153 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE... A and Type AE supplied-air respirators; minimum requirements. (a) Airflow resistance will...

  14. 42 CFR 84.153 - Airflow resistance test, Type A and Type AE supplied-air respirators; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Airflow resistance test, Type A and Type AE supplied-air respirators; minimum requirements. 84.153 Section 84.153 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE... A and Type AE supplied-air respirators; minimum requirements. (a) Airflow resistance will...

  15. Experimental investigation of personal air supply nozzle use in aircraft cabins.

    PubMed

    Fang, Zhaosong; Liu, Hong; Li, Baizhan; Baldwin, Andrew; Wang, Jian; Xia, Kechao

    2015-03-01

    To study air passengers' use of individual air supply nozzles in aircraft cabins, we constructed an experimental chamber which replicated the interior of a modern passenger aircraft. A series of experiments were conducted at different levels of cabin occupancy. Survey data were collected focused on the reasons for opening the nozzle, adjusting the level of air flow, and changing the direction of the air flow. The results showed that human thermal and draft sensations change over time in an aircraft cabin. The thermal sensation response was highest when the volunteers first entered the cabin and decreased over time until it stablized. Fifty-one percent of volunteers opened the nozzle to alleviate a feeling of stuffiness, and more than 50% adjusted the nozzle to improve upper body comfort. Over the period of the experiment the majority of volunteers chose to adjust their the air flow of their personal system. This confirms airline companies' decisions to install the individual aircraft ventilation systems in their aircraft indicates that personal air systems based on nozzle adjustment are essential for cabin comfort. These results will assist in the design of more efficient air distribution systems within passenger aircraft cabins where there is a need to optimize the air flow in order to efficiently improve aircraft passengers' thermal comfort and reduce energy use. PMID:25479988

  16. Experimental investigation of personal air supply nozzle use in aircraft cabins.

    PubMed

    Fang, Zhaosong; Liu, Hong; Li, Baizhan; Baldwin, Andrew; Wang, Jian; Xia, Kechao

    2015-03-01

    To study air passengers' use of individual air supply nozzles in aircraft cabins, we constructed an experimental chamber which replicated the interior of a modern passenger aircraft. A series of experiments were conducted at different levels of cabin occupancy. Survey data were collected focused on the reasons for opening the nozzle, adjusting the level of air flow, and changing the direction of the air flow. The results showed that human thermal and draft sensations change over time in an aircraft cabin. The thermal sensation response was highest when the volunteers first entered the cabin and decreased over time until it stablized. Fifty-one percent of volunteers opened the nozzle to alleviate a feeling of stuffiness, and more than 50% adjusted the nozzle to improve upper body comfort. Over the period of the experiment the majority of volunteers chose to adjust their the air flow of their personal system. This confirms airline companies' decisions to install the individual aircraft ventilation systems in their aircraft indicates that personal air systems based on nozzle adjustment are essential for cabin comfort. These results will assist in the design of more efficient air distribution systems within passenger aircraft cabins where there is a need to optimize the air flow in order to efficiently improve aircraft passengers' thermal comfort and reduce energy use.

  17. The study of indoor air pollution by means of magnetometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jelenska, M.; Górka-Kostrubiec, B.; Król, E.

    2012-04-01

    The aim of this study is to establish what kind of outside pollution penetrate into indoor spaces. Here we report preliminary results of magnetic monitoring study of indoor air pollution by particulate matter (PM) measured inside flats and houses placed in different locations in Warsaw area. Indoor air pollution level was evaluated by measuring magnetic properties of dust taken from vacuum cleaners used in private flats. The dust samples were taken from about 180 locations in Warsaw distributed in such polluted places as city centre or communication lines with heavy traffic and in unpolluted suburb places. The locations were also distributed according to height above ground level. There were taken in flats situated from first to 16th floors. The basic magnetic parameters such us, χ mass magnetic susceptibility, hysteresis loop parameters: coercive force (Hc), coercivity of remanence (Hcr), saturation magnetization (Ms) and saturation remanent magnetization (Mrs or SIRM) and χfd frequency dependence of susceptibility, have been used to identify indoor pollution level and to characterize domain state and granulometry of magnetic minerals. Identification of magnetic minerals have been made by measuring decay curve of SIRM during heating to temperature of 700 °C. For chosen samples concentration of 20 elements were measured. The most frequent values of susceptibility of dust are between 50 and 150 10-8 m3/kg with the maximum around 100 10-8 m3/kg. Thermomagnetic analysis for dust differs from that for soil samples taken in the vicinity. SIRM(T) curves for dust show remanence loss at 320 °C and at 520- 540 °C. This is diagnostic for pyrrhotite and magnetite as dominant magnetic minerals. Some samples demonstrate loss of remanence at 160 °C and at temperature characteristic for magnetite. Soil samples do not show pyrrhotite presence or loss of remanence at 160 °C. Display of hysteresis parameters on Day-Dunlop plot indicates predominance of SD/MD grains with

  18. Respirator protection factors: Part II-protection factors of supplied-air respirators.

    PubMed

    Hack, A L; Bradley, O D; Trujillo, A

    1980-05-01

    Protection Factors provided by 25 NIOSH approved supplied-air respirators were determined while the devices were worn by a panel of test subjects anthropometrically selected to represent adult facial sizes. Polydispersed DOP aerosol was used for respirator fit tests on continuous flow, demand, and pressure-demand respirators. Based on facepiece leakage measurements it appears that demand-type respirators should neither be used nor approved. The highest level of protection was provided by pressure-demand devices.

  19. Experimental investigation on a turbine compressor for air supply system of a fuel cell

    SciTech Connect

    Matsuda, Masayasu; Tsuchiyama, Syozo

    1996-12-31

    This report covers part of a joint study on a PEFC propulsion system for surface ships, summarized in a presentation to this Seminar, entitled {open_quotes}Study on a Polymer Electrolyte Fuel Cell (PEFC) Propulsion System for Surface Ships{close_quotes}, and which envisages application to a 1,500 DWT cargo vessel. The aspect treated here concerns a study on the air supply system for the PEFC, with particular reference to system components.

  20. Development of a method for the regeneration of an alkaline electrolyte in an air-aluminum chemical power supply

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pushkin, K. V.; Sevruk, S. D.; Suvorova, E. V.; Farmakovskaya, A. A.

    2015-12-01

    The results of studying the development of a regeneration technology for the spent alkaline electrolyte in an air-aluminum chemical power supply are presented. The application of this technology is a component of the wasteless and friendly environmental operation of an energy installation based on an air-aluminum chemical power supply. The operability of the energy installation based on the air-aluminum chemical power supply using regenerated alkaline electrolytes is experimentally confirmed. Technical requirements for the technological equipment for alkaline electrolyte regeneration are developed on the basis of the obtained results.

  1. Potential Impact of the National Plan for Future Electric Power Supply on Air Quality in Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shim, C.; Hong, J.

    2014-12-01

    Korean Ministry of Trade, Industry and Energy (MOTIE) announced the national plan for Korea's future electric power supply (2013 - 2027) in 2013. According to the plan, the national demand for electricity will be increased by 60% compared to that of 2010 and primary energy sources for electric generation will still lean on the fossil fuels such as petroleum, LNG, and coal, which would be a potential threat to air quality of Korea. This study focused on two subjects: (1) How the spatial distribution of the primary air pollutant's emissions (i.e., NOx, SOx, CO, PM) will be changed and (2) How the primary emission changes will influence on the national ambient air quality including ozone in 2027. We used GEOS-Chem model simulation with modification of Korean emissions inventory (Clean Air Policy Support System (CAPSS)) to simulate the current and future air quality in Korea. The national total emissions of CO, NOx, SOx, PM in year 2027 will be increased by 3%, 8%, 13%, 2%, respectively compared to 2010 and there are additional concern that the future location of the power plants will be closer to the Seoul Metropolitan Area (SMA), where there are approximately 20 million population vulnerable to the potentially worsened air quality. While there are slight increase of concentration of CO, NOx, SOx, and PM in 2027, the O3 concentration is expected to be similar to the level of 2010. Those results may imply the characteristics of air pollution in East Asia such as potentially severe O3 titration and poorer O3/CO or O3/NOx ratio. Furthermore, we will discuss on the impact of transboundary pollution transport from China in the future, which is one of the large factors to control the air quality of Korea.

  2. 42 CFR 84.163 - Man test for gases and vapors; Type C supplied-air respirators, demand and pressure-demand...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... for gases and vapors; Type C supplied-air respirators, demand and pressure-demand classes; test... for which approval is granted and at the minimum specified air-supply pressure. The maximum flow shall not exceed 425 liters (15 cubic feet) per minute at the maximum specified air-supply pressure with...

  3. 42 CFR 84.163 - Man test for gases and vapors; Type C supplied-air respirators, demand and pressure-demand...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... for gases and vapors; Type C supplied-air respirators, demand and pressure-demand classes; test... for which approval is granted and at the minimum specified air-supply pressure. The maximum flow shall not exceed 425 liters (15 cubic feet) per minute at the maximum specified air-supply pressure with...

  4. 42 CFR 84.163 - Man test for gases and vapors; Type C supplied-air respirators, demand and pressure-demand...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... for gases and vapors; Type C supplied-air respirators, demand and pressure-demand classes; test... for which approval is granted and at the minimum specified air-supply pressure. The maximum flow shall not exceed 425 liters (15 cubic feet) per minute at the maximum specified air-supply pressure with...

  5. 42 CFR 84.163 - Man test for gases and vapors; Type C supplied-air respirators, demand and pressure-demand...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... for gases and vapors; Type C supplied-air respirators, demand and pressure-demand classes; test... for which approval is granted and at the minimum specified air-supply pressure. The maximum flow shall not exceed 425 liters (15 cubic feet) per minute at the maximum specified air-supply pressure with...

  6. 42 CFR 84.163 - Man test for gases and vapors; Type C supplied-air respirators, demand and pressure-demand...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... for gases and vapors; Type C supplied-air respirators, demand and pressure-demand classes; test... for which approval is granted and at the minimum specified air-supply pressure. The maximum flow shall not exceed 425 liters (15 cubic feet) per minute at the maximum specified air-supply pressure with...

  7. Repair of Corrosion in Air Supply Piping at the NASA Glenn Research Center's 1 by 1 Foot Supersonic Wind Tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henry, Michael

    2000-01-01

    During a test at the NASA Glenn Research Center's 1 x 1 Supersonic Wing Tunnel, it was discovered that particles entrained in the air flow were damaging the pressure sensitive paint on a test article. An investigation found the source of the entrained particles to be rust on the internal surfaces of the air supply piping. To remedy the situation, the air supply line components made from carbon steel were either refurbished or replaced with new stainless steel components. The refurbishment process included various combinations of chemical cleaning, bead blasting, painting and plating.

  8. External CO2 and water supplies for enhancing electrical power generation of air-cathode microbial fuel cells.

    PubMed

    Ishizaki, So; Fujiki, Itto; Sano, Daisuke; Okabe, Satoshi

    2014-10-01

    Alkalization on the cathode electrode limits the electrical power generation of air-cathode microbial fuel cells (MFCs), and thus external proton supply to the cathode electrode is essential to enhance the electrical power generation. In this study, the effects of external CO2 and water supplies to the cathode electrode on the electrical power generation were investigated, and then the relative contributions of CO2 and water supplies to the total proton consumption were experimentally evaluated. The CO2 supply decreased the cathode pH and consequently increased the power generation. Carbonate dissolution was the main proton source under ambient air conditions, which provides about 67% of total protons consumed for the cathode reaction. It is also critical to adequately control the water content on the cathode electrode of air-cathode MFCs because the carbonate dissolution was highly dependent on water content. On the basis of these experimental results, the power density was increased by 400% (143.0 ± 3.5 mW/m(2) to 575.0 ± 36.0 mW/m(2)) by supplying a humid gas containing 50% CO2 to the cathode chamber. This study demonstrates that the simultaneous CO2 and water supplies to the cathode electrode were effective to increase the electrical power generation of air-cathode MFCs for the first time.

  9. Mitigation of tip vortex cavitation by means of air injection on a Kaplan turbine scale model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rivetti, A.; Angulo, M.; Lucino, C.; Liscia, S.

    2014-03-01

    Kaplan turbines operating at full-load conditions may undergo excessive vibration, noise and cavitation. In such cases, damage by erosion associated to tip vortex cavitation can be observed at the discharge ring. This phenomenon involves design features such as (1) overhang of guide vanes; (2) blade profile; (3) gap increasing size with blade opening; (4) suction head; (5) operation point; and (6) discharge ring stiffness, among others. Tip vortex cavitation may cause erosion at the discharge ring and draft tube inlet following a wavy pattern, in which the number of vanes can be clearly identified. Injection of pressurized air above the runner blade centerline was tested as a mean to mitigate discharge ring cavitation damage on a scale model. Air entrance was observed by means of a high-speed camera in order to track the air trajectory toward its mergence with the tip vortex cavitation core. Post-processing of acceleration signals shows that the level of vibration and the RSI frequency amplitude decrease proportionally with air flow rate injected. These findings reveal the potential mitigating effect of air injection in preventing cavitation damage and will be useful in further tests to be performed on prototype, aiming at determining the optimum air flow rate, size and distribution of the injectors.

  10. Telecommunications equipment power supply in the Arctic by means of solar panels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terekhin, Vladimir; Lagunov, Alexey

    2016-09-01

    Development of the Arctic region is one of the priorities in the Russian Federation. Amongst other things, a reliable telecommunications infrastructure in the Arctic is required. Petrol and diesel generators are traditionally employed but their use has considerable environmental impact. Solar panels can be used as an alternative power source. The electricity generated will be sufficient to supply small-sized telecommunications equipment with total the power of over 80 watts. An installation consisting of the solar modules, a charge controller, batteries, an inverter and load was designed. Tests were conducted at Cape Desire of the Novaya Zemlya (island). The solar panels provided in excess of 80 W from 7 a.m. to 11 p.m. The batteries charge during this time was sufficient to provide the power supply for the communication equipment during the night, from 11 p.m. to 7 a.m. The maximum value of 638 W of the power generation was observed at 3 p.m. The minimum value of 46 W was at 4 a.m. The solar modules thus can be used during the polar day to power the telecommunications equipment.

  11. Quantifying the effects of mixing and residual circulation on trends of stratospheric mean age of air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ploeger, Felix; Abalos, Marta; Birner, Thomas; Konopka, Paul; Legras, Bernard; Müller, Rolf; Riese, Martin

    2015-04-01

    Trends in stratospheric mean age of air are driven both by changes in the (slow, large scale) residual mean mass circulation and by changes in (fast, locally acting) eddy mixing. However, to what degree both effects affect mean age trends is an open question. Here, we present a method that allows the effects of mixing and residual circulation on trends of mean age of air to be quantified. This method is based on mean age simulations with the Lagrangian chemistry transport model CLaMS driven by ERA-Interim reanalysis, and on the mean age tracer continuity equation integrated along the residual circulation. CLaMS simulated climatological mean age in the lower stratosphere shows reliable agreement with balloon borne in-situ obsevations and with satellite observations by MIPAS (Michelson Interferometer for Passive Atmospheric Sounding). During 1990--2013, CLaMS simulated mean age decreases throughout most of the stratosphere, qualitatively consistent with results based on climate model simulations (e.g., Butchart et al., 2010). Remarkably, in the Northern hemisphere subtropics and mid-latitudes above about 24km CLaMS mean age trends are insignificant, consistent with published mean age trends from in-situ observations (Engel et al., 2009). Furthermore, during 2002--2012 CLaMS mean age changes show a clear hemispheric asymmetry in agreement with MIPAS satellite observations (Stiller et al., 2012; Ploeger et al., 2014) and HCl decadal changes (Mahieu et al., 2014). We find that changes in the transit time along the residual circulation alone cannot explain the mean age trends, and including the effect of mixing integrated along the air parcel history is essential. Therefore, differences in mean age trends between models or between models and observations are likely related to differences in the integrated effect of mixing on mean age of air. Above about 550K, trends in the integrated mixing effect appear to be likely coupled to residual circulation changes. References

  12. Experimental study of wood downdraft gasification for an improved producer gas quality through an innovative two-stage air and premixed air/gas supply approach.

    PubMed

    Jaojaruek, Kitipong; Jarungthammachote, Sompop; Gratuito, Maria Kathrina B; Wongsuwan, Hataitep; Homhual, Suwan

    2011-04-01

    This study conducted experiments on three different downdraft gasification approaches: single stage, conventional two-stage, and an innovative two-stage air and premixed air/gas supply approach. The innovative two-stage approach has two nozzle locations, one for air supply at combustion zone and the other located at the pyrolysis zone for supplying the premixed gas (air and producer gas). The producer gas is partially bypassed to mix with air and supplied to burn at the pyrolysis zone. The result shows that producer gas quality generated by the innovative two-stage approach improved as compared to conventional two-stage. The higher heating value (HHV) increased from 5.4 to 6.5 MJ/Nm(3). Tar content in producer gas reduced to less than 45 mg/Nm(3). With this approach, gas can be fed directly to an internal combustion engine. Furthermore, the gasification thermal efficiency also improved by approximately 14%. The approach gave double benefits on gas qualities and energy savings. PMID:21292477

  13. Experimental study of wood downdraft gasification for an improved producer gas quality through an innovative two-stage air and premixed air/gas supply approach.

    PubMed

    Jaojaruek, Kitipong; Jarungthammachote, Sompop; Gratuito, Maria Kathrina B; Wongsuwan, Hataitep; Homhual, Suwan

    2011-04-01

    This study conducted experiments on three different downdraft gasification approaches: single stage, conventional two-stage, and an innovative two-stage air and premixed air/gas supply approach. The innovative two-stage approach has two nozzle locations, one for air supply at combustion zone and the other located at the pyrolysis zone for supplying the premixed gas (air and producer gas). The producer gas is partially bypassed to mix with air and supplied to burn at the pyrolysis zone. The result shows that producer gas quality generated by the innovative two-stage approach improved as compared to conventional two-stage. The higher heating value (HHV) increased from 5.4 to 6.5 MJ/Nm(3). Tar content in producer gas reduced to less than 45 mg/Nm(3). With this approach, gas can be fed directly to an internal combustion engine. Furthermore, the gasification thermal efficiency also improved by approximately 14%. The approach gave double benefits on gas qualities and energy savings.

  14. EMI reduction by means of switching frequency modulation with variable delay in power supplies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mon, J.; Gago, J.; González, D.; Balcells, J.; Fernández, R.; Gil, I.; Bogónez, P.

    2012-01-01

    In this article, a new model to predict the amplitude reduction of the interference harmonics in power supplies with parallel topology is presented when the switching frequency modulation with variable delay (VDFM) technique is applied. The VDFM method consists of combining the interleaving and switching frequency modulation (SFM) techniques. The new model presented has been evaluated in a multichannel buck converter, operating with different numbers of converters when a triangular modulation profile is used. Theoretical study and experimental results show the influence of the number of converters and the modulation parameters with regard to electromagnetic interference reduction. From the new model presented, it is possible to predict the value of modulation parameters and the numbers of converters in order to satisfy the required attenuation regarding the electromagnetic compatibility directives, when a triangular modulation profile is used.

  15. Gas Engine-Driven Heat Pump Chiller for Air-Conditioning and Hot Water Supply Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujita, Toshihiko; Mita, Nobuhiro; Moriyama, Tadashi; Hoshino, Norimasa; Kimura, Yoshihisa

    In Part 1 of this study, the performance characteristics of a 457kW gas engine-driven heat pump (GHP) chiller have been obtained from a simulation model analysis for both cooling and heating modes and it has been found that the part-load characteristics of the GHP chiller are fairly well. On the back of Part 1, a computer simulation program has been developed for the evaluation of GHP chiller systems to compare with the other types of heat source systems for air-conditioning and hot water supply applications. The simulation program can be used to estimate annual energy consumption, annual CO2 emission, etc. of the systems with the data of monthly and hourly thermal loads on various buildings, outdoor air conditions, and characteristics of various components comprising the systems. By applying this to some cases of medium-scale hotel, office, shop, and hospital buildings, it has been found that the GHP chiller systems have advantages particularly in the cases of hotels and hospitals where a lot of hot water demand exists. It has also been found that the combination of a GHP chiller and a direct-fired absorption water chiller boiler (hot and chilled water generator) appears promising.

  16. Veterinary school consortia as a means of promoting the food-supply veterinary medicine pipeline.

    PubMed

    Moore, Dale A

    2006-01-01

    Ideas about centers of emphasis and veterinary medical teaching consortia have resurfaced to attract students into food-supply veterinary medicine (FSVM). From 1988 to 2000 a multiple veterinary school consortium approach to food-animal production medicine (FAPM) teaching was conducted to handle regional differences in case load, faculty strengths, and student interests. Six universities developed a memorandum of understanding to provide a wide variety of in-depth, species-specific clinical experiences in FAPM to balance their individual strengths and weakness in addressing food-animal agriculture, to provide for student exchange and faculty development, and to conduct research in food safety. Changes in leadership, redirection of funds, failure to publicize the program to faculty and students, and a focus on research as opposed to teaching led to dissolution of the consortium. However, this approach could work to improve recruitment and retention of students in FSVM if it focused on student exchange, fostered a more integrated curriculum across schools, encouraged faculty involvement, garnered institutional support, and used modern technology in teaching. Private veterinary practices as well as public/corporate practices could be integrated into a broader food-animal curriculum directed at building competency among FSVM students by providing the in-depth training they require. Requirements for the success of this type of program will include funding, marketing, leadership, communication, coordination, integration, and dedicated people with the time to make it work.

  17. Veterinary school consortia as a means of promoting the food-supply veterinary medicine pipeline.

    PubMed

    Moore, Dale A

    2006-01-01

    Ideas about centers of emphasis and veterinary medical teaching consortia have resurfaced to attract students into food-supply veterinary medicine (FSVM). From 1988 to 2000 a multiple veterinary school consortium approach to food-animal production medicine (FAPM) teaching was conducted to handle regional differences in case load, faculty strengths, and student interests. Six universities developed a memorandum of understanding to provide a wide variety of in-depth, species-specific clinical experiences in FAPM to balance their individual strengths and weakness in addressing food-animal agriculture, to provide for student exchange and faculty development, and to conduct research in food safety. Changes in leadership, redirection of funds, failure to publicize the program to faculty and students, and a focus on research as opposed to teaching led to dissolution of the consortium. However, this approach could work to improve recruitment and retention of students in FSVM if it focused on student exchange, fostered a more integrated curriculum across schools, encouraged faculty involvement, garnered institutional support, and used modern technology in teaching. Private veterinary practices as well as public/corporate practices could be integrated into a broader food-animal curriculum directed at building competency among FSVM students by providing the in-depth training they require. Requirements for the success of this type of program will include funding, marketing, leadership, communication, coordination, integration, and dedicated people with the time to make it work. PMID:17220493

  18. 42 CFR 84.157 - Airflow resistance test; Type C supplied-air respirator, pressure-demand class; minimum...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... respirator, pressure-demand class; minimum requirements. 84.157 Section 84.157 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH... test; Type C supplied-air respirator, pressure-demand class; minimum requirements. (a) The static pressure in the facepiece shall not exceed 38 mm. (1.5 inches) of water-column height. (b) The pressure...

  19. 42 CFR 84.159 - Man tests for gases and vapors; supplied-air respirators; general performance requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Man tests for gases and vapors; supplied-air respirators; general performance requirements. 84.159 Section 84.159 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE...

  20. 42 CFR 84.159 - Man tests for gases and vapors; supplied-air respirators; general performance requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Man tests for gases and vapors; supplied-air respirators; general performance requirements. 84.159 Section 84.159 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE...

  1. 42 CFR 84.159 - Man tests for gases and vapors; supplied-air respirators; general performance requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Man tests for gases and vapors; supplied-air respirators; general performance requirements. 84.159 Section 84.159 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE...

  2. 42 CFR 84.159 - Man tests for gases and vapors; supplied-air respirators; general performance requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Man tests for gases and vapors; supplied-air respirators; general performance requirements. 84.159 Section 84.159 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE...

  3. 42 CFR 84.159 - Man tests for gases and vapors; supplied-air respirators; general performance requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Man tests for gases and vapors; supplied-air respirators; general performance requirements. 84.159 Section 84.159 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE...

  4. Air Cleaning Devices for HVAC Supply Systems in Schools. Technical Bulletin.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wheeler, Arthur E.

    Guidelines for maintaining indoor air quality in schools with HVAC air cleaning systems are provided in this document. Information is offered on the importance of air cleaning, sources of air contaminants and indoor pollutants, types of air cleaners and particulate filters used in central HVAC systems, vapor and gas removal, and performance…

  5. Gas Engine-Driven Heat Pump Chiller for Air-Conditioning and Hot Water Supply Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujita, Toshihiko; Mita, Nobuhiro; Moriyama, Tadashi; Hoshino, Norimasa; Kimura, Yoshihisa

    A gas engine-driven heat pump (GHP) uses a natural gas-or LPG-powered engine to drive the compressor in a vapor-compression refrigeration cycle. The GHP has the benefits of being able to use the fuel energy effectively by recovering waste heat from the engine jacket coolant and exhaust gas and also to keep high efficiency even at part-load operation by varying the engine speed with relative ease. Hence, energy-efficient heat source systems for air-conditioning and hot water supply may be constructed with GHP chillers in place of conventional electrical-driven heat pump chillers. GHPs will necessarily contribute to the peak shaving of electrical demand in summer. In this study, the performance characteristics of a 457kW GHP chiller have been investigated by a simulation model analysis, for both cooling and heating modes. From the results of the analysis, it has been found that the part-load characteristics of the GHP chiller are fairly well. The evaluation of the heat source systems using GHP chillers will be described in Part 2.

  6. Sampling biases in datasets of historical mean air temperature over land.

    PubMed

    Wang, Kaicun

    2014-01-01

    Global mean surface air temperature (Ta) has been reported to have risen by 0.74°C over the last 100 years. However, the definition of mean Ta is still a subject of debate. The most defensible definition might be the integral of the continuous temperature measurements over a day (Td0). However, for technological and historical reasons, mean Ta over land have been taken to be the average of the daily maximum and minimum temperature measurements (Td1). All existing principal global temperature analyses over land rely heavily on Td1. Here, I make a first quantitative assessment of the bias in the use of Td1 to estimate trends of mean Ta using hourly Ta observations at 5600 globally distributed weather stations from the 1970s to 2013. I find that the use of Td1 has a negligible impact on the global mean warming rate. However, the trend of Td1 has a substantial bias at regional and local scales, with a root mean square error of over 25% at 5° × 5° grids. Therefore, caution should be taken when using mean Ta datasets based on Td1 to examine high resolution details of warming trends.

  7. Sampling biases in datasets of historical mean air temperature over land.

    PubMed

    Wang, Kaicun

    2014-01-01

    Global mean surface air temperature (Ta) has been reported to have risen by 0.74°C over the last 100 years. However, the definition of mean Ta is still a subject of debate. The most defensible definition might be the integral of the continuous temperature measurements over a day (Td0). However, for technological and historical reasons, mean Ta over land have been taken to be the average of the daily maximum and minimum temperature measurements (Td1). All existing principal global temperature analyses over land rely heavily on Td1. Here, I make a first quantitative assessment of the bias in the use of Td1 to estimate trends of mean Ta using hourly Ta observations at 5600 globally distributed weather stations from the 1970s to 2013. I find that the use of Td1 has a negligible impact on the global mean warming rate. However, the trend of Td1 has a substantial bias at regional and local scales, with a root mean square error of over 25% at 5° × 5° grids. Therefore, caution should be taken when using mean Ta datasets based on Td1 to examine high resolution details of warming trends. PMID:24717688

  8. Air conditioning system and component therefore distributing air flow from opposite directions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Obler, H. D.; Bauer, H. B. (Inventor)

    1974-01-01

    The air conditioning system comprises a plurality of separate air conditioning units coupled to a common supply duct such that air may be introduced into the supply duct in two opposite flow directions. A plurality of outlets such as registers or auxiliary or branch ducts communicate with the supply duct and valve means are disposed in the supply duct at at least some of the outlets for automatically channelling a controllable amount of air from the supply duct to the associated outlet regardless of the direction of air flow within the supply duct. The valve means comprises an automatic air volume control apparatus for distribution within the air supply duct into which air may be introduced from two opposite directions. The apparatus incorporates a freely swinging movable vane in the supply duct to automatically channel into the associated outlet only the deflected air flow which has the higher relative pressure.

  9. Trichloroethylene and tetrachloroethylene elimination from the air by means of a hybrid bioreactor with immobilized biomass.

    PubMed

    Tabernacka, Agnieszka; Zborowska, Ewa

    2012-09-01

    Two-phase bioreactors consisting of bacterial consortium in suspension and sorbents with immobilized biomass were used to treat waste air containing chlorinated ethenes, trichloroethylene (TCE) and tetrachloroethylene (PCE). Synthetic municipal sewage was used as the medium for bacterial growth. The system was operated with loadings in the range 1.48-4.76 gm(-3)h(-1) for TCE and 1.49-5.96 gm(-3)h(-1) for PCE. The efficiency of contaminant elimination was 55-86% in the bioreactor with wood chips and 33-89% in the bioreactor filled with zeolite. The best results were observed 1 week after the pollutant loading was increased. However, in these conditions, the stability of the process was not achieved. In the next 7 days the effectiveness of the system decreased. Contaminant removal efficiency, enzymatic activity and the biomass content were all diminished. The system was working without being supplied with additional hydrocarbons as the growth-supporting substrates. It is assumed that ammonia produced during the transformation of wastewater components induced enzymes for the cometabolic degradation of TCE and PCE. However, the evaluation of nitrogen compound transformations in the system is difficult due to the sorption on carriers and the combined processes of nitrification and the aerobic denitrification. An applied method of air treatment is advantageous from both economic and environmental point of views.

  10. Localization of an air target by means of GNSS-based multistatic radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akhmedov, Daulet Sh.; Raskaliyev, Almat S.

    2016-08-01

    The possibility of utilizing transmitters of opportunity for target detection, tracking and positioning is of great interest to the radar community. In particular the optional use of Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) has lately triggered scientific research that has purpose to take advantage of this source of signal generation for passive radar. Number of studies have been conducted previously on development of GNSS-based bistatic and multistatic radars for detection and range estimation to the object located in the close atmosphere. To further enrich research in this area, we present a novel method for coordinate determination of the air target by means of the GNSS-based multistatic radar.

  11. Effect of car speed on amount of air supplied by ventilation system to the space of car cabin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fišer, Jan; Pokorný, Jan

    2014-03-01

    The amount of air supplied by ventilation system (HVAC system) of a car into a cabin is one of the main parameters for the correct simulation and prediction of a car cabin heat load. This amount is not based only on the current setting of the HVAC system, but also on the actual operating conditions and speed of the car. The authors therefore carried out experiments in the cabin of a passenger car in real traffic, while observing the amount of air on the speed of the car and setting of flap in mixing chamber. In a subsequent analysis the authors defined dependence of the airflow rate supplied by HVAC system on the speed of the car. Obtained empirical formulas were then used as a part of the code which calculates the data for the HVAC boundary conditions in the simulation of the car cabin environment.

  12. HOW TO HEAT AND COOL A HOME WITH 400 CFM SUPPLY AIR AND KEEP THE DUCTS IN THE CONDITIONED SPACE

    SciTech Connect

    ANDREWS,J.W.

    1999-05-01

    A design strategy is presented that can enable a typical new home to be heated, cooled, and ventilated with less than 400 cfm of delivered air. The strategy has three major elements. First, peak cooling loads are minimized by using good available technologies for the envelope, with emphasis on minimizing heat gains through the windows. Second, the envelope is designed to have very low natural air leakage rates, such that all the ventilation air can be drawn in at one point and passed over the cooling coil before it is mixed with the house air. This permits a significant portion of the cooling load to be met at an air flow rate of {approximately}200 cubic feet per minute (cfm) per ton, compared with the typical 400 cfm per ton in standard air-conditioning systems. Third, by reducing the amount of supply air needed to meet the envelope loads, the required size of ductwork is reduced, making it easier to locate the ducts within the conditioned space. This reduces duct loads to zero, completing the three-part energy conserving strategy.

  13. Contributing recharge areas to water-supply wells at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sheets, R.A.

    1994-01-01

    Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, in southwestern Ohio, has operated three well fields--Area B, Skeel Road, and the East Well Fields--to supply potable water for consumption and use for base activities. To protect these well fields from contamination and to comply with the Ohio Wellhead Protection Plan, the Base is developing a wellhead-protection program for the well fields. A three-dimensional, steady-state ground-water-flow model was developed in 1993 to simulate heads in (1) the buried-valley aquifer system that is tapped by the two active well fields, and in (2) an upland bedrock aquifer that may supply water to the wells. An advective particle-tracking algorithm that requires estimated porosities and simulated heads was used to estimate ground-water-flow pathlines and traveltimes to the active well fields. Contributing recharge areas (CRA's)--areas on the water table that contribute water to a well or well field--were generated for 1-, 5-, and 10-year traveltimes. Results from the simulation and subsequent particle tracking indicate that the CRA's for the Skeel Road Well Fields are oval and extend north- ward, toward the Mad River, as pumping at the well field increases. The sizes of the 1-, 5-, and 10-year CRA's of Skeel Road Well Field, under maximum pumping conditions, are approximately 0.5, 1.5 and 3.2 square miles, respectively. The CRA's for the Area B Well Field extend to the north, up the Mad River Valley; as pumping increases at the well field, the CRA's extend up the Mad River Valley under Huffman Dam. The sizes of the 1-, 5-, and 10-year CRA's of Area B Well Field, under maximum pumping conditions, are approximately 0.1, 0.5, and 0.9 square miles, respectively. The CRA's for the East Well Field are affected by nearby streams under average pumping conditions. The sizes of the 1-, 5-, and 10-year CRA's of the East Well Field, under maximum pumping conditions, are approximately 0.2, 1.2, and 2.4 square miles, respectively. However, as pumping increases

  14. Meaning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harteveld, Casper

    The second world to be considered concerns Meaning. In contrast to Reality and Play, this world relates to the people, disciplines, and domains that are focused on creating a certain value. For example, if this value is about providing students knowledge about physics, it involves teachers, the learning sciences, and the domains education and physics. This level goes into the aspects and criteria that designers need to take into account from this perspective. The first aspect seems obvious when we talk of “games with a serious purpose.” They have a purpose and this needs to be elaborated on, for example in terms of what “learning objectives” it attempts to achieve. The subsequent aspect is not about what is being pursued but how. To attain a value, designers have to think about a strategy that they employ. In my case this concerned looking at the learning paradigms that have come into existence in the past century and see what they have to tell us about learning. This way, their principles can be translated into a game environment. This translation involves making the strategy concrete. Or, in other words, operationalizing the plan. This is the third aspect. In this level, I will further specifically explain how I derived requirements from each of the learning paradigms, like reflection and exploration, and how they can possibly be related to games. The fourth and final aspect is the context in which the game is going to be used. It matters who uses the game and when, where, and how the game is going to be used. When designers have looked at these aspects, they have developed a “value proposal” and the worth of it may be judged by criteria, like motivation, relevance, and transfer. But before I get to this, I first go into how we human beings are meaning creators and what role assumptions, knowledge, and ambiguity have in this. I will illustrate this with some silly jokes about doctors and Mickey Mouse, and with an illusion.

  15. Enhanced performance of an air-cathode microbial fuel cell with oxygen supply from an externally connected algal bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Kakarla, Ramesh; Kim, Jung Rae; Jeon, Byong-Hun; Min, Booki

    2015-11-01

    An algae bioreactor (ABR) was externally connected to air-cathode microbial fuel cells (MFCs) to increase power generation by supplying a high amount of oxygen to cathode electrode. The MFC with oxygen fed from ABR produced maximum cell voltage and cathode potential at a fixed loading of 459 mV and 10 mV, respectively. During polarization analysis, the MFC displayed a maximum power density of 0.63 W/m(2) (at 2.06 A/m(2)) using 39.2% O2 from ABR, which was approximately 30% higher compared with use of atmospheric air (0.44 W/m(2), 20.8% O2,). The cyclic voltammogram analysis exhibited a higher reduction current of -137 mA with 46.5% O2 compared to atmospheric air (-115 mA). Oxygen supply by algae bioreactor to air-cathode MFC could also maintain better MFC performance in long term operation by minimizing cathode potential drop over time.

  16. High cell density cultivation of Pseudomonas putida KT2440 using glucose without the need for oxygen enriched air supply.

    PubMed

    Davis, Reeta; Duane, Gearoid; Kenny, Shane T; Cerrone, Federico; Guzik, Maciej W; Babu, Ramesh P; Casey, Eoin; O'Connor, Kevin E

    2015-04-01

    High Cell Density (HCD) cultivation of bacteria is essential for the majority of industrial processes to achieve high volumetric productivity (g L(-1) h(-1) ) of a bioproduct of interest. This study developed a fed batch bioprocess using glucose as sole carbon and energy source for the HCD of the well described biocatalyst Pseudomonas putida KT2440 without the supply of oxygen enriched air. Growth kinetics data from batch fermentations were used for building a bioprocess model and designing feeding strategies. An exponential followed by linearly increasing feeding strategy of glucose was found to be effective in maintaining biomass productivity while also delaying the onset of dissolved oxygen (supplied via compressed air) limitation. A final cell dry weight (CDW) of 102 g L(-1) was achieved in 33 h with a biomass productivity of 3.1 g L(-1) h(-1) which are the highest ever reported values for P. putida strains using glucose without the supply of pure oxygen or oxygen enriched air. The usefulness of the biomass as a biocatalyst was demonstrated through the production of the biodegradable polymer polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA). When nonanoic acid (NA) was supplied to the glucose grown cells of P. putida KT2440, it accumulated 32% of CDW as PHA in 11 h (2.85 g L(-1) h(-1) ) resulting in a total of 0.56 kg of PHA in 18 L with a yield of 0.56 g PHA g NA(-1) .

  17. Assessing changes in stratospheric mean age of air and fractional release using historical trace gas observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laube, Johannes; Bönisch, Harald; Engel, Andreas; Röckmann, Thomas; Sturges, William

    2014-05-01

    Large-scale stratospheric transport is pre-dominantly governed by the Brewer-Dobson circulation. Due to climatic change a long-term acceleration of this residual stratospheric circulation has been proposed (e.g. Austin et al.,2006). Observational evidence has revealed indications for temporary changes (e.g. Bönisch et al., 2011) but a confirmation of a significant long-term trend is missing so far (e.g. Engel et al., 2009). A different aspect is a possible long-term change in the break-down of chemically important species such as chlorofluorocarbons as proposed by Butchart et al. 2001. Recent studies show significant differences adding up to more than 20 % in the chlorine released from such compounds (Newman et al., 2007; Laube et al., 2013). We here use a data set of three long-lived trace gases, namely SF6, CF2Cl2, and N2O, as measured in whole-air samples collected during balloon and aircraft flights between 1975 and 2011, to assess changes in stratospheric transport and chemistry. For this purpose we utilise the mean stratospheric transit times (or mean ages of air) in combination with a measure of the chemical decomposition (i.e. fractional release factors). We also evaluate the influence of different trend correction methods on these quantities and explore their variability with latitude, altitude, and season. References Austin, J. & Li, F.: On the relationship between the strength of the Brewer-Dobson circulation and the age of stratospheric air, Geophys. Res. Lett., 33, L17807, 2006. Bönisch, H., Engel, A., Birner, Th., Hoor, P., Tarasick, D. W., and Ray, E. A.: On the structural changes in the Brewer-Dobson circulation after 2000, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 11, 3937-3948, 2011. Butchart, N. & Scaife, A. A. Removal of chlorofluorocarbons by increased mass exchange between the stratosphere and troposphere in a changing climate. Nature, 410, 799-802, 2001. Engel, A., Möbius, T., Bönisch, H., Schmidt, U., Heinz, R., Levin, I., Atlas, E., Aoki, S., Nakazawa, T

  18. Meanings of blood, bleeding and blood donations in Pakistan: implications for national vs global safe blood supply policies

    PubMed Central

    Mumtaz, Zubia; Bowen, Sarah; Mumtaz, Rubina

    2012-01-01

    Contemporary public policy, supported by international arbitrators of blood policy such as the World Health Organization and the International Federation of the Red Cross, asserts that the safest blood is that donated by voluntary, non-remunerated donors from low-risk groups of the population. These policies promote anonymous donation and discourage kin-based or replacement donation. However, there is reason to question whether these policies, based largely on Western research and beliefs, are the most appropriate for ensuring an adequate safe blood supply in many other parts of the world. This research explored the various and complex meanings embedded in blood using empirical ethnographic data from Pakistan, with the intent of informing development of a national blood policy in that country. Using a focused ethnographic approach, data were collected in 26 in-depth interviews, 6 focus group discussions, 12 key informant interviews and 25 hours of observations in blood banks and maternity and surgical wards. The key finding was that notions of caste-based purity of blood, together with the belief that donors and recipients are symbolically knitted in a kin relationship, place a preference on kin-blood. The anonymity inherent in current systems of blood extraction, storage and use as embedded in contemporary policy discourse and practice was problematic as it blurred distinctions that were important within this society. The article highlights the importance—to ensuring a safe blood supply—of basing blood procurement policies on local, context-specific belief systems rather than relying on uniform, one-size-fits-all global policies. Drawing on our empirical findings and the literature, it is argued that the practice of kin-donated blood remains a feasible alternative to the global ideal of voluntary, anonymous donations. There is a need to focus on developing context-sensitive strategies for promoting blood safety, and critically revisit the assumptions

  19. Effect of airstream velocity on mean drop diameters of water sprays produced by pressure and air atomizing nozzles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ingebo, R. D.

    1977-01-01

    A scanning radiometer was used to determine the effect of airstream velocity on the mean drop diameter of water sprays produced by pressure atomizing and air atomizing fuel nozzles used in previous combustion studies. Increasing airstream velocity from 23 to 53.4 meters per second reduced the Sauter mean diameter by approximately 50 percent with both types of fuel nozzles. The use of a sonic cup attached to the tip of an air assist nozzle reduced the Sauter mean diameter by approximately 40 percent. Test conditions included airstream velocities of 23 to 53.4 meters per second at 293 K and atmospheric pressure.

  20. Comparison of various methods to distribute supply air in industrial facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Kirkpatrick, A.T.; Strobel, K.

    1999-07-01

    The evaluation of the ventilation effectiveness and thermal comfort for various industrial ventilation schemes has been carried out by scale model experimentation. Forty experiments involving ten ventilation arrangements, each with three supply airflow rates and two possible industrial process heat loads, were performed. Measurements of airspeed, temperature, and contaminant concentration allowed the thermal comfort and contaminant removal to be quantified using the ISO Comfort Standard ISO-7730 and the ventilation effectiveness indices, respectively. Archimedes number scaling was used to convert the small-scale measurements to full-scale conditions. The largest ventilation effectiveness occurred for a low supply/high return configuration, with values above 1.6, followed by a high supply/high return configuration with values in the range from 1.0 to 1.2. A low supply/low return configuration had values of about 1.0. The ventilation efficiency generally increased when the heat load was increased and/or the flow rate decreased. Increasing the number of diffusers in the occupied zone increased the ventilation effectiveness. The thermal comfort results depended on the diffuser configuration and the activity level of the worker. Most of the configurations produced acceptable thermal comfort results for a seated worker and unacceptable conditions at an increased activity and clothing level.

  1. 42 CFR 84.148 - Type C supplied-air respirator, continuous flow class; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... the hose connection shall not exceed 863 kN/m.2 (125 pounds per square inch gage). (c) Where the pressure at any point in the supply system exceeds 863 kN/m.2 (125 pounds per square inch gage), the... connection from exceeding 863 kN/m.2 (125 pounds per square inch gage) under any conditions....

  2. 42 CFR 84.148 - Type C supplied-air respirator, continuous flow class; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... the hose connection shall not exceed 863 kN/m.2 (125 pounds per square inch gage). (c) Where the pressure at any point in the supply system exceeds 863 kN/m.2 (125 pounds per square inch gage), the... connection from exceeding 863 kN/m.2 (125 pounds per square inch gage) under any conditions....

  3. 42 CFR 84.148 - Type C supplied-air respirator, continuous flow class; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... the hose connection shall not exceed 863 kN/m.2 (125 pounds per square inch gage). (c) Where the pressure at any point in the supply system exceeds 863 kN/m.2 (125 pounds per square inch gage), the... connection from exceeding 863 kN/m.2 (125 pounds per square inch gage) under any conditions....

  4. 42 CFR 84.148 - Type C supplied-air respirator, continuous flow class; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... the hose connection shall not exceed 863 kN/m.2 (125 pounds per square inch gage). (c) Where the pressure at any point in the supply system exceeds 863 kN/m.2 (125 pounds per square inch gage), the... connection from exceeding 863 kN/m.2 (125 pounds per square inch gage) under any conditions....

  5. Downhole steam generator using low-pressure fuel and air supply

    DOEpatents

    Fox, R.L.

    1981-01-07

    For tertiary oil recovery, an apparatus for downhole steam generation is designed in which water is not injected directly onto the flame in the combustor, the combustion process is isolated from the reservoir pressure, the fuel and oxidant are supplied to the combustor at relatively low pressures, and the hot exhaust gases is prevented from entering the earth formation but is used to preheat the fuel and oxidant and water. The combustion process is isolated from the steam generation process. (DLC)

  6. Contribution of 222Rn in domestic water supplies to 222Rn in indoor air in Colorado homes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lawrence, E.P.; Wanty, R.B.; Nyberg, P.

    1992-01-01

    The contribution of 222Rn from domestic water wells to indoor air was investigated in a study of 28 houses near Conifer, CO. Air concentrations determined by alpha-track detectors (ATDs) and continuous radon monitors were compared with the predictions of a single-cell model. In many of the houses, the water supply was shown to contribute significantly to levels of indoor 222Rn. The data from the ATD study were augmented with a continuous monitoring study of a house near Lyons, CO. The well water in that house has the highest known concentration of 222Rn in water yet reported (93 MBq m-3). The temporal pattern in the indoor 222Rn concentration corresponds to water-use records. In general, it is difficult to quantify the proportion of indoor radon attributable to water use. Several lines of evidence suggest that the single-cell model underestimates this proportion. Continuous- monitoring data, although useful, are impractical due to the cost of the equipment. We propose a protocol for 222Rn measurement based on three simultaneous integrating radon detectors that may help estimate the proportion of indoor 222Rn derived from the water supply.

  7. Impact of forest biomass residues to the energy supply chain on regional air quality.

    PubMed

    Rafael, S; Tarelho, L; Monteiro, A; Sá, E; Miranda, A I; Borrego, C; Lopes, M

    2015-02-01

    The increase of the share of renewable energy in Portugal can be met from different sources, of which forest biomass residues (FBR) can play a main role. Taking into account the demand for information about the strategy of FBR to energy, and its implications on the Portuguese climate policy, the impact of energy conversion of FBR on air quality is evaluated. Three emission scenarios were defined and a numerical air quality model was selected to perform this evaluation. The results reveal that the biomass thermal plants contribute to an increment of the pollutant concentrations in the atmosphere, however restricted to the surrounding areas of the thermal plants, and most significant for NO₂ and O₃.

  8. Impact of forest biomass residues to the energy supply chain on regional air quality.

    PubMed

    Rafael, S; Tarelho, L; Monteiro, A; Sá, E; Miranda, A I; Borrego, C; Lopes, M

    2015-02-01

    The increase of the share of renewable energy in Portugal can be met from different sources, of which forest biomass residues (FBR) can play a main role. Taking into account the demand for information about the strategy of FBR to energy, and its implications on the Portuguese climate policy, the impact of energy conversion of FBR on air quality is evaluated. Three emission scenarios were defined and a numerical air quality model was selected to perform this evaluation. The results reveal that the biomass thermal plants contribute to an increment of the pollutant concentrations in the atmosphere, however restricted to the surrounding areas of the thermal plants, and most significant for NO₂ and O₃. PMID:25461067

  9. Assessing Aircraft Supply Air to Recommend Compounds for Timely Warning of Contamination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fox, Richard B.

    Taking aircraft out of service for even one day to correct fume-in-cabin events can cost the industry roughly $630 million per year in lost revenue. The quantitative correlation study investigated quantitative relationships between measured concentrations of contaminants in bleed air and probability of odor detectability. Data were collected from 94 aircraft engine and auxiliary power unit (APU) bleed air tests from an archival data set between 1997 and 2011, and no relationships were found. Pearson correlation was followed by regression analysis for individual contaminants. Significant relationships of concentrations of compounds in bleed air to probability of odor detectability were found (p<0.05), as well as between compound concentration and probability of sensory irritancy detectability. Study results may be useful to establish early warning levels. Predictive trend monitoring, a method to identify potential pending failure modes within a mechanical system, may influence scheduled down-time for maintenance as a planned event, rather than repair after a mechanical failure and thereby reduce operational costs associated with odor-in-cabin events. Twenty compounds (independent variables) were found statistically significant as related to probability of odor detectability (dependent variable 1). Seventeen compounds (independent variables) were found statistically significant as related to probability of sensory irritancy detectability (dependent variable 2). Additional research was recommended to further investigate relationships between concentrations of contaminants and probability of odor detectability or probability of sensory irritancy detectability for all turbine oil brands. Further research on implementation of predictive trend monitoring may be warranted to demonstrate how the monitoring process might be applied to in-flight application.

  10. The Impact of Dry Midlevel Air on Hurricane Intensity in Idealized Simulations with No Mean Flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Braun, Scott A.; Sippel, Jason A.; Nolan, David S.

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the potential negative influences of dry midlevel air on the development of tropical cyclones (specifically, its role in enhancing cold downdraft activity and suppressing storm development). The Weather Research and Forecasting model is used to construct two sets of idealized simulations of hurricane development in environments with different configurations of dry air. The first set of simulations begins with dry air located north of the vortex center by distances ranging from 0 to 270 km, whereas the second set of simulations begins with dry air completely surrounding the vortex, but with moist envelopes in the vortex core ranging in size from 0 to 150 km in radius. No impact of the dry air is seen for dry layers located more than 270 km north of the initial vortex center (approximately 3 times the initial radius of maximum wind). When the dry air is initially closer to the vortex center, it suppresses convective development where it entrains into the storm circulation, leading to increasingly asymmetric convection and slower storm development. The presence of dry air throughout the domain, including the vortex center, substantially slows storm development. However, the presence of a moist envelope around the vortex center eliminates the deleterious impact on storm intensity. Instead, storm size is significantly reduced. The simulations suggest that dry air slows intensification only when it is located very close to the vortex core at early times. When it does slow storm development, it does so primarily by inducing outward- moving convective asymmetries that temporarily shift latent heating radially outward away from the high-vorticity inner core.

  11. Mean Ages of Stratospheric Air Derived From in Situ Observations of CO2, CH4, and N2O

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Andrews, A. E.; Boering, K. A.; Daube, B. C.; Wofsy, S. C.; Loewenstein, M.; Jost, H.; Podolske, J. R.; Webster, C. R.; Herman, R. L.; Scott, D. C.; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Accurate mean ages for stratospheric air have been derived from a spatially and temporally comprehensive set of in situ observations of CO2, CH4, and N2O obtained from 1992 to 1998 from the NASA ER-2 aircraft and balloon flights. Errors associated with the tropospheric CO2 seasonal cycle and interannual variations in the CO2 growth rate are less than 0.5 year throughout the stratosphere and less than 0.3 year for air older than 2 years (N2O less than 275 ppbv), indicating that the age spectra are broad enough to attenuate these influences over the time period covered by these observations. The distribution of mean age with latitude and altitude provides detailed, quantitative information about the general circulation of the stratosphere. At 20 km, sharp meridional gradients in the mean age are observed across the subtropics. Between 20 and 30 km, the average difference in mean age between the tropics and midlatitudes is approximately 2 years, with slightly smaller differences at higher and lower altitudes. The mean age in the midlatitude middle stratosphere (approx. 25-32 km) is relatively constant with respect to altitude at 5 plus or minus 0.5 years. Comparison with earlier balloon observations of CO2 dating back to the 1970s indicates that the mean age of air in this region has remained within 11 year of its current value over the last 25 years. A climatology of mean age is derived from the observed compact relationship between mean age and N2O. These characteristics of the distribution of mean age in the stratosphere will serve as critically needed diagnostics for models of stratospheric transport.

  12. Sampling size in the verification of manufactured-supplied air kerma strengths

    SciTech Connect

    Ramos, Luis Isaac; Martinez Monge, Rafael

    2005-11-15

    Quality control mandate that the air kerma strengths (S{sub K}) of permanent seeds be verified, this is usually done by statistics inferred from 10% of the seeds. The goal of this paper is to proposed a new sampling method in which the number of seeds to be measured will be set beforehand according to an a priori statistical level of uncertainty. The results are based on the assumption that the S{sub K} has a normal distribution. To demonstrate this, the S{sub K} of each of the seeds measured was corrected to ensure that the average S{sub K} of its sample remained the same. In this process 2030 results were collected and analyzed using a normal plot. In our opinion, the number of seeds sampled should be determined beforehand according to an a priori level of statistical uncertainty.

  13. Air

    MedlinePlus

    ... do to protect yourself from dirty air . Indoor air pollution and outdoor air pollution Air can be polluted indoors and it can ... this chart to see what things cause indoor air pollution and what things cause outdoor air pollution! Indoor ...

  14. Metal-air cells comprising collapsible foam members and means for minimizing internal pressure buildup

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodruff, Glenn (Inventor); Putt, Ronald A. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    This invention provides a prismatic zinc-air cell including, in general, a prismatic container having therein an air cathode, a separator and a zinc anode. The container has one or more oxygen access openings, and the air cathode is disposed in the container in gaseous communication with the oxygen access openings so as to allow access of oxygen to the cathode. The separator has a first side in electrolytic communication with the air cathode and a second side in electrolytic communication with the zinc anode. The separator isolates the cathode and the zinc anode from direct electrical contact and allows passage of electrolyte therebetween. An expansion chamber adjacent to the zinc anode is provided which accommodates expansion of the zinc anode during discharge of the cell. A suitable collapsible foam member generally occupies the expansion space, providing sufficient resistance tending to oppose movement of the zinc anode away from the separator while collapsing upon expansion of the zinc anode during discharge of the cell. One or more vent openings disposed in the container are in gaseous communication with the expansion space, functioning to satisfactorily minimize the pressure buildup within the container by venting gasses expelled as the foam collapses during cell discharge.

  15. Improved global prediction of 300 nautical mile mean free air anomalies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cruz, J. Y.

    1982-01-01

    Current procedures used for the global prediction of 300nm mean anomalies starting from known values of 1 deg by 1 deg mean anomalies yield unreasonable prediction results when applied to 300nm blocks which have a rapidly varying gravity anomaly field and which contain relatively few observed 60nm blocks. Improvement of overall 300nm anomaly prediction is first achieved by using area-weighted as opposed to unweighted averaging of the 25 generated 60nm mean anomalies inside the 300nm block. Then, improvement of prediction over rough 300nm blocks is realized through the use of fully known 1 deg by 1 deg mean elevations, taking advantage of the correlation that locally exists between 60nm mean anomalies and 60nm mean elevations inside the 300nm block. An improved prediction model which adapts itself to the roughness of the local anomaly field is found to be the model of Least Squares Collocation with systematic parameters, the systematic parameter being the slope b which is a type of Bouguer slope expressing the correlation that locally exists between 60nm mean anomalies and 60nm mean elevations.

  16. Intentional cargo disruption by nefarious means: Examining threats, systemic vulnerabilities and securitisation measures in complex global supply chains.

    PubMed

    McGreevy, Conor; Harrop, Wayne

    2015-01-01

    Global trade and commerce requires products to be securely contained and transferred in a timely way across great distances and between national boundaries. Throughout the process, cargo and containers are stored, handled and checked by a range of authorities and authorised agents. Intermodal transportation involves the use of container ships, planes, railway systems, land bridges, road networks and barges. This paper examines the the nefarious nature of intentional disruption and nefarious risks associated with the movement of cargo and container freight. The paper explores main threats, vulnerabilities and security measures relevant to significant intermodal transit risk issues such as theft, piracy, terrorism, contamination, counterfeiting and product tampering. Three risk and vulnerability models are examined and basic standards and regulations that are relevant to safe and secure transit of container goods across international supply networks are outlined. PMID:25990978

  17. Intentional cargo disruption by nefarious means: Examining threats, systemic vulnerabilities and securitisation measures in complex global supply chains.

    PubMed

    McGreevy, Conor; Harrop, Wayne

    2015-01-01

    Global trade and commerce requires products to be securely contained and transferred in a timely way across great distances and between national boundaries. Throughout the process, cargo and containers are stored, handled and checked by a range of authorities and authorised agents. Intermodal transportation involves the use of container ships, planes, railway systems, land bridges, road networks and barges. This paper examines the the nefarious nature of intentional disruption and nefarious risks associated with the movement of cargo and container freight. The paper explores main threats, vulnerabilities and security measures relevant to significant intermodal transit risk issues such as theft, piracy, terrorism, contamination, counterfeiting and product tampering. Three risk and vulnerability models are examined and basic standards and regulations that are relevant to safe and secure transit of container goods across international supply networks are outlined.

  18. Sociocultural and institutional drivers and constraints to mineral supply; the meaning of scarcity in the 21st century: drivers and constraints to the supply of minerals using regional, national and global perspectives

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brown, William M.

    2002-01-01

    The sociocultural dimensions of mineral supply at the outset of the 21st century are making the supply process increasingly complex. The dimensions encompass legal, financial, environmental, cultural, and global implications of mining, and are driving unprecedented change in the way minerals supply will be accomplished in the future. Minerals scarcity on a global scale is subordinate to other societal issues about mineral resources and reserves estimated to meet society's demands for decades to centuries in the future. This report reviews historical and present-day sociocultural drivers of change, and reactions of the minerals industry to these drivers. It is reflective primarily of conditions in the United States, but also uses examples from other countries. It expresses viewpoints on sociocultural drivers as seen by constituents of the minerals industry and several other communities of interest including Aboriginal peoples, non-government organizations; labor; mining-dependent communities; mining-affected communities; researchers; and government (federal, state/provincial, and local). It provides overviews of the demand for minerals in the United States, and the status of land available for mining. The report uses a case study of a metals mining project in Wisconsin to illustrate specific sociocultural drivers and constraints to minerals supply, and how these influence the minerals industry. Over the past 150 years, a progression of sociocultural movements under the headings of conservationism, environmentalism, and sustainable development have nurtured societal values that have come to influence the mineral supply process in important ways. These movements reflect a continuing tension between the demand for minerals and other resources, and the simultaneous demand for aesthetic, spiritual, ecological, cultural, and other attributes of the land. The tension is an important element in current international debates about the meaning and future of sustainable

  19. Control of airborne nickel welding fumes by means of a vertical laminar air flow system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Helms, T. C.

    1980-12-01

    The effectiveness of a clean room facility with laminar air flow in the control of nickel fumes is evaluated. The fumes are released from metal inert gas (MIG) and shielded metal arc (SMA) welding operations performed on mild steel using nickel filler materials. The laminar flow clean room approach to controlling welding fumes can be successful in certain small table top welding operations. However, almost any interferences that obstruct the downward airflow results in eddy currents and subsequent buildup of fumes by entrapment. Airflow patterns differ significantly when comparing table top operations to welding on large cylindrical and/or doughnut shaped items. After fifteen days of sampling, airflow was reduced to 140-150 feet per maximum. Additional prefiltering units would be required for efficient operation of a laminar air flow clean room in an actual shop situation.

  20. 42 CFR 84.162 - Man test for gases and vapors; Type C respirators, continuous-flow class and Type CE supplied-air...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Man test for gases and vapors; Type C respirators, continuous-flow class and Type CE supplied-air respirators; test requirements. 84.162 Section 84.162 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES...

  1. 42 CFR 84.162 - Man test for gases and vapors; Type C respirators, continuous-flow class and Type CE supplied-air...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Man test for gases and vapors; Type C respirators, continuous-flow class and Type CE supplied-air respirators; test requirements. 84.162 Section 84.162 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES...

  2. 42 CFR 84.162 - Man test for gases and vapors; Type C respirators, continuous-flow class and Type CE supplied-air...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Man test for gases and vapors; Type C respirators, continuous-flow class and Type CE supplied-air respirators; test requirements. 84.162 Section 84.162 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES...

  3. 42 CFR 84.162 - Man test for gases and vapors; Type C respirators, continuous-flow class and Type CE supplied-air...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Man test for gases and vapors; Type C respirators, continuous-flow class and Type CE supplied-air respirators; test requirements. 84.162 Section 84.162 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES...

  4. 42 CFR 84.162 - Man test for gases and vapors; Type C respirators, continuous-flow class and Type CE supplied-air...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Man test for gases and vapors; Type C respirators, continuous-flow class and Type CE supplied-air respirators; test requirements. 84.162 Section 84.162 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES...

  5. Electron density measurements in an atmospheric pressure air plasma by means of infrared heterodyne interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leipold, Frank; Stark, Robert H.; El-Habachi, Ahmed; Schoenbach, Karl H.

    2000-09-01

    An infrared heterodyne interferometer has been used to measure the spatial distribution of the electron density in direct current, atmospheric pressure discharges in air. Spatial resolution of the electron density in the high-pressure glow discharge with characteristic dimensions on the order of 100 µm required the use of a CO2 laser at a wavelength of 10.6 µm. For this wavelength and electron densities greater than 1011 cm-3 the index of refraction of the atmospheric air plasma is mainly determined by heavy particles rather than electrons. The electron contribution to the refractive index was separated from that of the heavy particles by taking the different relaxation times of the two particle species into account. With the discharge operated in a repetitive pulsed mode, the initial rapid change of the refractive index was assumed to be due to the increase in electron density, whereas the following slower rise is due to the decrease in gas density caused by gas heating. By reducing the time between pulses, direct current conditions were approached, and the electron density as well as the gas density, and gas temperature, respectively, were obtained through extrapolation. A computation inversion method was used to determine the radial distribution of the plasma parameters in the cylindrical discharge. For a direct-current filamentary discharge in air, at a current of 10 mA, the electron density was found to be 1013 cm-3 in the centre, decreasing to half of this value at a radial distance of 0.21 mm. Gaussian temperature profiles with σ = 1.1 mm and maximum values of 1000-2000 K in the centre were also obtained with, however, larger error margins than for electron densities.

  6. Piston reciprocating compressed air engine

    SciTech Connect

    Cestero, L.G.

    1987-03-24

    A compressed air engine is described comprising: (a). a reservoir of compressed air, (b). two power cylinders each containing a reciprocating piston connected to a crankshaft and flywheel, (c). a transfer cylinder which communicates with each power cylinder and the reservoir, and contains a reciprocating piston connected to the crankshaft, (d). valve means controlled by rotation of the crankshaft for supplying compressed air from the reservoir to each power cylinder and for exhausting compressed air from each power cylinder to the transfer cylinder, (e). valve means controlled by rotation of the crankshaft for supplying from the transfer cylinder to the reservoir compressed air supplied to the transfer cylinder on the exhaust strokes of the pistons of the power cylinders, and (f). an externally powered fan for assisting the exhaust of compressed air from each power cylinder to the transfer cylinder and from there to the compressed air reservoir.

  7. Meteorological adjustment of yearly mean values for air pollutant concentration comparison

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sidik, S. M.; Neustadter, H. E.

    1976-01-01

    Using multiple linear regression analysis, models which estimate mean concentrations of Total Suspended Particulate (TSP), sulfur dioxide, and nitrogen dioxide as a function of several meteorologic variables, two rough economic indicators, and a simple trend in time are studied. Meteorologic data were obtained and do not include inversion heights. The goodness of fit of the estimated models is partially reflected by the squared coefficient of multiple correlation which indicates that, at the various sampling stations, the models accounted for about 23 to 47 percent of the total variance of the observed TSP concentrations. If the resulting model equations are used in place of simple overall means of the observed concentrations, there is about a 20 percent improvement in either: (1) predicting mean concentrations for specified meteorological conditions; or (2) adjusting successive yearly averages to allow for comparisons devoid of meteorological effects. An application to source identification is presented using regression coefficients of wind velocity predictor variables.

  8. Statistical downscaling of monthly mean air temperature to the beginning of flowering of Galanthus nivalis L. in Northern Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maak, K.; von Storch, Hans

    We have examined the relationship between phenological data and concurrent large-scale meterological data. As phenological data we have chosen the beginning of the flowering of Galanthus nivalis L. (flowering date) in Northern Germany, and as large-scale meteorological data we use monthly mean near-surface air temperatures for January, February and March. By means of canonical correlation analysis (CCA), a strong linear correlation between both sets of variables is identified. Twenty years of observed data are used to build the statistical model. To validate the derived relationship, the flowering date is downscaled from air temperature observations of an independent period. The statistical model is found to reproduce the observed flowering dates well, both in terms of variability as well as amplitude. Air temperature data from a general circulation model of climate change are used to estimate the flowering date in the case of increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration. We found that at a time of doubled CO2 concentration (expected by about 2035) G. nivalis L. in Northern Germany will flower 2 weeks and at the time of tripled CO2 concentration (expected by about 2085) 4 weeks earlier than presently.

  9. On the validity of the arithmetic-geometric mean method to locate the optimal solution in a supply chain system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chung, Kun-Jen

    2012-08-01

    Cardenas-Barron [Cardenas-Barron, L.E. (2010) 'A Simple Method to Compute Economic order Quantities: Some Observations', Applied Mathematical Modelling, 34, 1684-1688] indicates that there are several functions in which the arithmetic-geometric mean method (AGM) does not give the minimum. This article presents another situation to reveal that the AGM inequality to locate the optimal solution may be invalid for Teng, Chen, and Goyal [Teng, J.T., Chen, J., and Goyal S.K. (2009), 'A Comprehensive Note on: An Inventory Model under Two Levels of Trade Credit and Limited Storage Space Derived without Derivatives', Applied Mathematical Modelling, 33, 4388-4396], Teng and Goyal [Teng, J.T., and Goyal S.K. (2009), 'Comment on 'Optimal Inventory Replenishment Policy for the EPQ Model under Trade Credit Derived without Derivatives', International Journal of Systems Science, 40, 1095-1098] and Hsieh, Chang, Weng, and Dye [Hsieh, T.P., Chang, H.J., Weng, M.W., and Dye, C.Y. (2008), 'A Simple Approach to an Integrated Single-vendor Single-buyer Inventory System with Shortage', Production Planning and Control, 19, 601-604]. So, the main purpose of this article is to adopt the calculus approach not only to overcome shortcomings of the arithmetic-geometric mean method of Teng et al. (2009), Teng and Goyal (2009) and Hsieh et al. (2008), but also to develop the complete solution procedures for them.

  10. Control of airborne nickel welding fumes by means of a vertical laminar air flow system

    SciTech Connect

    Helms, T.C.

    1980-12-08

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effeciveness of a clean room facility with laminar air flow in the control of nickel fumes released from metal inert gas (MIG) and shielded metal arc (SMA) welding operations performed on mild steel using nickel filler materials. From data observed in these experiments, it appears that the laminar flow clean room approach to controlling welding fumes can be successful in certain small table top welding operations. However, almost any interferences that obstruct the downward airflow can result in eddy currents and subsequent build-up of fumes by entrapment. Airflow patterns differ significantly when comparing table top operations to welding on large cylindrical and/or doughnut shaped items. (JGB)

  11. Sustainable, alternative farming practices as a means to simultaneously secure food production and reduce air pollution in East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tai, A. P. K.; Fung, K. M.; Yong, T.; Liu, X.

    2015-12-01

    Proper agricultural land management is essential for securing food supply and minimizing damage to the environment. Among available farming practices, relay strip intercropping and fertilizer application are commonly used, but to study their wider environmental implications and possible feedbacks we require an Earth system modeling framework. In this study, the effectiveness of a maize-soybean relay strip intercropping system and fertilizer reduction is investigated using a multi-model method. The DNDC (DeNitrification-DeComposition) model is used to simulate agricultural activities and their impacts on the environment through nitrogen emissions and changes in soil chemical composition. Crop yield, soil nutrient content and nitrogen emissions to the atmosphere in major agricultural regions of China are predicted under various cultivation scenarios. The GEOS-Chem global chemical transport model is then used to estimate the effects on downwind particle and ozone air pollution. We show that relay strip intercropping and optimal fertilization not only improve crop productivity, but also retain soil nutrients, reduce ammonia emission and mitigate downwind air pollution. By cutting 25% fertilization inputs but cultivating maize and soybean together in a relay strip intercropping system used with field studies, total crop production was improved slightly by 4.4% compared to monoculture with conventional amount of fertilizers. NH3 volatilization decreases by 29%, equivalent to saving the pollution-induced health damage costs by about US$2.5 billion per year. The possible feedback effects from atmospheric nitrogen deposition onto the croplands are also investigated. We show that careful management and better quantitative understanding of alternative farming practices hold huge potential in simultaneously addressing different global change issues including the food crisis, air pollution and climate change, and calls for greater collaboration between scientists, farmers and

  12. Amelioration of the reactive nitrogen flux calculation by a day/night separation in weekly mean air concentration measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayashi, Kentaro; Matsuda, Kazuhide; Ono, Keisuke; Tokida, Takeshi; Hasegawa, Toshihiro

    2013-11-01

    The low time resolution of air concentration data of atmospheric deposition in regional monitoring networks makes it difficult to estimate fluxes between the land and the atmosphere. The present study was an evaluation of the effects of day/night separation for a low time resolution of air concentration measurements (i.e., weekly mean) for the estimation of reactive nitrogen fluxes. The target chemical species included reactive nitrogen primarily ammonia (NH3) and nitric acid gas (HNO3) and secondarily nitrous acid gas, particulate ammonium, and particulate nitrate in addition to sulfur dioxide (SO2) as a reference. Monitoring was conducted for one year at a single-crop rice paddy field in central Japan. The study period was divided into the cropping and fallow seasons, which were characterized by rice plants or a drained bare soil surface, respectively. The filter-pack method was applied to measure the weekly mean air concentrations with day/night separation for the target species at two heights (6 and 2 m above the ground surface). Both an inferential and a gradient method were applied to calculate the deposition and exchange fluxes, respectively. The day/night separation in a weekly sampling protocol, on average, reduced the underestimation of HNO3 fluxes for the inferential method by 15.2% ± 6.8% and 8.2% ± 6.1% in the cropping and fallow seasons, respectively, and reduced the overestimation of NH3 fluxes for the gradient method by 121% ± 128% in the cropping season. The fluxes calculated using the inferential method agreed relatively well with those calculated using the gradient method for HNO3 and SO2. The use of single-height measurements for air concentrations with day/night separation and flux calculations using the inferential method are recommended as an appropriate way to enhance the quality in calculated fluxes while simultaneously suppress the increase in labor cost.

  13. Muons in air showers at the Pierre Auger Observatory: Mean number in highly inclined events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aab, A.; Abreu, P.; Aglietta, M.; Ahn, E. J.; Al Samarai, I.; Albuquerque, I. F. M.; Allekotte, I.; Allen, J.; Allison, P.; Almela, A.; Alvarez Castillo, J.; Alvarez-Muñiz, J.; Alves Batista, R.; Ambrosio, M.; Aminaei, A.; Anchordoqui, L.; Andringa, S.; Aramo, C.; Aranda, V. M.; Arqueros, F.; Asorey, H.; Assis, P.; Aublin, J.; Ave, M.; Avenier, M.; Avila, G.; Badescu, A. M.; Barber, K. B.; Bäuml, J.; Baus, C.; Beatty, J. J.; Becker, K. H.; Bellido, J. A.; Berat, C.; Bertaina, M. E.; Bertou, X.; Biermann, P. L.; Billoir, P.; Blanco, M.; Bleve, C.; Blümer, H.; Boháčová, M.; Boncioli, D.; Bonifazi, C.; Bonino, R.; Borodai, N.; Brack, J.; Brancus, I.; Brogueira, P.; Brown, W. C.; Buchholz, P.; Bueno, A.; Buitink, S.; Buscemi, M.; Caballero-Mora, K. S.; Caccianiga, B.; Caccianiga, L.; Candusso, M.; Caramete, L.; Caruso, R.; Castellina, A.; Cataldi, G.; Cazon, L.; Cester, R.; Chavez, A. G.; Chiavassa, A.; Chinellato, J. A.; Chudoba, J.; Cilmo, M.; Clay, R. W.; Cocciolo, G.; Colalillo, R.; Coleman, A.; Collica, L.; Coluccia, M. R.; Conceição, R.; Contreras, F.; Cooper, M. J.; Cordier, A.; Coutu, S.; Covault, C. E.; Cronin, J.; Curutiu, A.; Dallier, R.; Daniel, B.; Dasso, S.; Daumiller, K.; Dawson, B. R.; de Almeida, R. M.; De Domenico, M.; de Jong, S. J.; de Mello Neto, J. R. T.; De Mitri, I.; de Oliveira, J.; de Souza, V.; del Peral, L.; Deligny, O.; Dembinski, H.; Dhital, N.; Di Giulio, C.; Di Matteo, A.; Diaz, J. C.; Díaz Castro, M. L.; Diogo, F.; Dobrigkeit, C.; Docters, W.; D'Olivo, J. C.; Dorofeev, A.; Dorosti Hasankiadeh, Q.; Dova, M. T.; Ebr, J.; Engel, R.; Erdmann, M.; Erfani, M.; Escobar, C. O.; Espadanal, J.; Etchegoyen, A.; Facal San Luis, P.; Falcke, H.; Fang, K.; Farrar, G.; Fauth, A. C.; Fazzini, N.; Ferguson, A. P.; Fernandes, M.; Fick, B.; Figueira, J. M.; Filevich, A.; Filipčič, A.; Fox, B. D.; Fratu, O.; Fröhlich, U.; Fuchs, B.; Fujii, T.; Gaior, R.; García, B.; Garcia Roca, S. T.; Garcia-Gamez, D.; Garcia-Pinto, D.; Garilli, G.; Gascon Bravo, A.; Gate, F.; Gemmeke, H.; Ghia, P. L.; Giaccari, U.; Giammarchi, M.; Giller, M.; Glaser, C.; Glass, H.; Gómez Berisso, M.; Gómez Vitale, P. F.; Gonçalves, P.; Gonzalez, J. G.; González, N.; Gookin, B.; Gordon, J.; Gorgi, A.; Gorham, P.; Gouffon, P.; Grebe, S.; Griffith, N.; Grillo, A. F.; Grubb, T. D.; Guardincerri, Y.; Guarino, F.; Guedes, G. P.; Hampel, M. R.; Hansen, P.; Harari, D.; Harrison, T. A.; Hartmann, S.; Harton, J. L.; Haungs, A.; Hebbeker, T.; Heck, D.; Heimann, P.; Herve, A. E.; Hill, G. C.; Hojvat, C.; Hollon, N.; Holt, E.; Homola, P.; Hörandel, J. R.; Horvath, P.; Hrabovský, M.; Huber, D.; Huege, T.; Insolia, A.; Isar, P. G.; Islo, K.; Jandt, I.; Jansen, S.; Jarne, C.; Josebachuili, M.; Kääpä, A.; Kambeitz, O.; Kampert, K. H.; Kasper, P.; Katkov, I.; Kégl, B.; Keilhauer, B.; Keivani, A.; Kemp, E.; Kieckhafer, R. M.; Klages, H. O.; Kleifges, M.; Kleinfeller, J.; Krause, R.; Krohm, N.; Krömer, O.; Kruppke-Hansen, D.; Kuempel, D.; Kunka, N.; LaHurd, D.; Latronico, L.; Lauer, R.; Lauscher, M.; Lautridou, P.; Le Coz, S.; Leão, M. S. A. B.; Lebrun, D.; Lebrun, P.; Leigui de Oliveira, M. A.; Letessier-Selvon, A.; Lhenry-Yvon, I.; Link, K.; López, R.; Louedec, K.; Lozano Bahilo, J.; Lu, L.; Lucero, A.; Ludwig, M.; Malacari, M.; Maldera, S.; Mallamaci, M.; Maller, J.; Mandat, D.; Mantsch, P.; Mariazzi, A. G.; Marin, V.; Mariş, I. C.; Marsella, G.; Martello, D.; Martin, L.; Martinez, H.; Martínez Bravo, O.; Martraire, D.; Masías Meza, J. J.; Mathes, H. J.; Mathys, S.; Matthews, J. J.; Matthews, A. J.; Matthiae, G.; Maurel, D.; Maurizio, D.; Mayotte, E.; Mazur, P. O.; Medina, C.; Medina-Tanco, G.; Melissas, M.; Melo, D.; Menshikov, A.; Messina, S.; Meyhandan, R.; Mićanović, S.; Micheletti, M. I.; Middendorf, L.; Minaya, I. A.; Miramonti, L.; Mitrica, B.; Molina-Bueno, L.; Mollerach, S.; Monasor, M.; Monnier Ragaigne, D.; Montanet, F.; Morello, C.; Mostafá, M.; Moura, C. A.; Muller, M. A.; Müller, G.; Münchmeyer, M.; Mussa, R.; Navarra, G.; Navas, S.; Necesal, P.; Nellen, L.; Nelles, A.; Neuser, J.; Newton, D.; Niechciol, M.; Niemietz, L.; Niggemann, T.; Nitz, D.; Nosek, D.; Novotny, V.; Nožka, L.; Ochilo, L.; Olinto, A.; Oliveira, M.; Olmos-Gilbaja, V. M.; Pacheco, N.; Pakk Selmi-Dei, D.; Palatka, M.; Pallotta, J.; Palmieri, N.; Papenbreer, P.; Parente, G.; Parra, A.; Paul, T.; Pech, M.; Pekala, J.; Pelayo, R.; Pepe, I. M.; Perrone, L.; Petermann, E.; Peters, C.; Petrera, S.; Petrov, Y.; Phuntsok, J.; Piegaia, R.; Pierog, T.; Pieroni, P.; Pimenta, M.; Pirronello, V.; Platino, M.; Plum, M.; Porcelli, A.; Porowski, C.; Prado, R. R.; Privitera, P.; Prouza, M.; Purrello, V.; Quel, E. J.; Querchfeld, S.; Quinn, S.; Rautenberg, J.; Ravel, O.; Ravignani, D.; Revenu, B.; Ridky, J.; Riggi, S.; Risse, M.; Ristori, P.; Rizi, V.; Roberts, J.; Rodrigues de Carvalho, W.; Rodriguez Fernandez, G.; Rodriguez Rojo, J.; Rodríguez-Frías, M. D.; Ros, G.; Rosado, J.; Rossler, T.; Roth, M.; Roulet, E.; Rovero, A. C.; Saffi, S. J.; Saftoiu, A.; Salamida, F.; Salazar, H.; Saleh, A.; Salesa Greus, F.; Salina, G.; Sánchez, F.; Sanchez-Lucas, P.; Santo, C. E.; Santos, E.; Santos, E. M.; Sarazin, F.; Sarkar, B.; Sarmento, R.; Sato, R.; Scharf, N.; Scherini, V.; Schieler, H.; Schiffer, P.; Scholten, O.; Schoorlemmer, H.; Schovánek, P.; Schröder, F. G.; Schulz, A.; Schulz, J.; Schumacher, J.; Sciutto, S. J.; Segreto, A.; Settimo, M.; Shadkam, A.; Shellard, R. C.; Sidelnik, I.; Sigl, G.; Sima, O.; Śmiałkowski, A.; Šmída, R.; Snow, G. R.; Sommers, P.; Sorokin, J.; Squartini, R.; Srivastava, Y. N.; Stanič, S.; Stapleton, J.; Stasielak, J.; Stephan, M.; Stutz, A.; Suarez, F.; Suomijärvi, T.; Supanitsky, A. D.; Sutherland, M. S.; Swain, J.; Szadkowski, Z.; Szuba, M.; Taborda, O. A.; Tapia, A.; Tartare, M.; Tepe, A.; Theodoro, V. M.; Timmermans, C.; Todero Peixoto, C. J.; Toma, G.; Tomankova, L.; Tomé, B.; Tonachini, A.; Torralba Elipe, G.; Torres Machado, D.; Travnicek, P.; Trovato, E.; Ulrich, R.; Unger, M.; Urban, M.; Valdés Galicia, J. F.; Valiño, I.; Valore, L.; van Aar, G.; van den Berg, A. M.; van Velzen, S.; van Vliet, A.; Varela, E.; Vargas Cárdenas, B.; Varner, G.; Vázquez, J. R.; Vázquez, R. A.; Veberič, D.; Verzi, V.; Vicha, J.; Videla, M.; Villaseñor, L.; Vlcek, B.; Vorobiov, S.; Wahlberg, H.; Wainberg, O.; Walz, D.; Watson, A. A.; Weber, M.; Weidenhaupt, K.; Weindl, A.; Werner, F.; Widom, A.; Wiencke, L.; Wilczyńska, B.; Wilczyński, H.; Will, M.; Williams, C.; Winchen, T.; Wittkowski, D.; Wundheiler, B.; Wykes, S.; Yamamoto, T.; Yapici, T.; Younk, P.; Yuan, G.; Yushkov, A.; Zamorano, B.; Zas, E.; Zavrtanik, D.; Zavrtanik, M.; Zaw, I.; Zepeda, A.; Zhou, J.; Zhu, Y.; Zimbres Silva, M.; Ziolkowski, M.; Zuccarello, F.; Pierre Auger Collaboration

    2015-02-01

    We present the first hybrid measurement of the average muon number in air showers at ultrahigh energies, initiated by cosmic rays with zenith angles between 62° and 80°. The measurement is based on 174 hybrid events recorded simultaneously with the surface detector array and the fluorescence detector of the Pierre Auger Observatory. The muon number for each shower is derived by scaling a simulated reference profile of the lateral muon density distribution at the ground until it fits the data. A 1019 eV shower with a zenith angle of 67°, which arrives at the surface detector array at an altitude of 1450 m above sea level, contains on average (2.68 ±0.04 ±0.48 (sys))×107 muons with energies larger than 0.3 GeV. The logarithmic gain d ln Nμ/d ln E of muons with increasing energy between 4 ×1018 eV and 5 ×1019 eV is measured to be (1.029 ±0.024 ±0.030 (sys)) .

  14. Muons in air showers at the Pierre Auger Observatory: Mean number in highly inclined events

    DOE PAGES

    Aab, Alexander

    2015-03-09

    We present the first hybrid measurement of the average muon number in air showers at ultra-high energies, initiated by cosmic rays with zenith angles between 62° and 80° . Our measurement is based on 174 hybrid events recorded simultaneously with the Surface Detector array and the Fluorescence Detector of the Pierre Auger Observatory. The muon number for each shower is derived by scaling a simulated reference profile of the lateral muon density distribution at the ground until it fits the data. A 1019 eV shower with a zenith angle of 67°, which arrives at the Surface Detector array at anmore » altitude of 1450 m above sea level, contains on average (2.68 ± 0.04 ± 0.48 (sys.)) × 107 muons with energies larger than 0.3 GeV. Finally, the logarithmic gain d ln Nµ/d ln E of muons with increasing energy between 4 × 1018 eV and 5 × 1019 eV is measured to be (1.029 ± 0.024 ± 0.030 (sys.)).« less

  15. Muons in air showers at the Pierre Auger Observatory: Mean number in highly inclined events

    SciTech Connect

    Aab, Alexander

    2015-03-09

    We present the first hybrid measurement of the average muon number in air showers at ultra-high energies, initiated by cosmic rays with zenith angles between 62° and 80° . Our measurement is based on 174 hybrid events recorded simultaneously with the Surface Detector array and the Fluorescence Detector of the Pierre Auger Observatory. The muon number for each shower is derived by scaling a simulated reference profile of the lateral muon density distribution at the ground until it fits the data. A 1019 eV shower with a zenith angle of 67°, which arrives at the Surface Detector array at an altitude of 1450 m above sea level, contains on average (2.68 ± 0.04 ± 0.48 (sys.)) × 107 muons with energies larger than 0.3 GeV. Finally, the logarithmic gain d ln Nµ/d ln E of muons with increasing energy between 4 × 1018 eV and 5 × 1019 eV is measured to be (1.029 ± 0.024 ± 0.030 (sys.)).

  16. Penumatic-power supply

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kramer, R. C.

    1981-01-01

    Portable compressed air supply has two or more outputs at pressures from 20 to 100 psi. Applications include operating production equipment, spraying paint and lubricants, and pressurizing refrigeration systems. Supply filters air from standard high-pressure line, reduces it to working pressure, and adds lubricant when required. Regulator supplies low-pressure air to output channels. On channel lines, vernier-control valves select output pressures.

  17. Fuel supply control system for engine carburetors

    SciTech Connect

    Kishida, E.; Kobayashi, H.; Hidekazu, K.

    1986-01-14

    This patent describes a fuel supply control system for a vehicle internal combustion engine having a variable venturi type carburetor with a fixed main nozzle and a variable nozzle in which a higher suction of intake air than a predetermined rate increases the opening area of the variable nozzle. The principal component features of this system are, firstly, a separate first and second fuel supply increasing means connected to the main nozzle for selectively increasing the amount of fuel supplied through it and, secondly, a modality which can cause the first means to increase the fuel supply within a low-speed range of vehicle operation and also effect the first and second means to increase the fuel supply within a high-load range of engine operation.

  18. Regional Contrasts of the Warming Rate over Land Significantly Depend on the Calculation Methods of Mean Air Temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Kaicun; Zhou, Chunlüe

    2016-04-01

    Global analyses of surface mean air temperature (Tm) are key datasets for climate change studies and provide fundamental evidences for global warming. However, the causes of regional contrasts in the warming rate revealed by such datasets, i.e., enhanced warming rates over the northern high latitudes and the "warming hole" over the central U.S., are still under debate. Here we show these regional contrasts depends on the calculation methods of Tm. Existing global analyses calculated Tm from daily minimum and maximum temperatures (T2). We found that T2 has a significant standard deviation error of 0.23 °C/decade in depicting the regional warming rate from 2000 to 2013 but can be reduced by two-thirds using Tm calculated from observations at four specific times (T4), which samples diurnal cycle of land surface air temperature more often. From 1973 to 1997, compared with T4, T2 significantly underestimated the warming rate over the central U.S. and overestimated the warming rate over the northern high latitudes. The ratio of the warming rate over China to that over the U.S. reduces from 2.3 by T2 to 1.4 by T4. This study shows that the studies of regional warming can be substantially improved by T4 instead of T2.

  19. Regional Contrasts of the Warming Rate over Land Significantly Depend on the Calculation Methods of Mean Air Temperature.

    PubMed

    Wang, Kaicun; Zhou, Chunlüe

    2015-01-01

    Global analyses of surface mean air temperature (T(m)) are key datasets for climate change studies and provide fundamental evidences for global warming. However, the causes of regional contrasts in the warming rate revealed by such datasets, i.e., enhanced warming rates over the northern high latitudes and the "warming hole" over the central U.S., are still under debate. Here we show these regional contrasts depend on the calculation methods of T(m). Existing global analyses calculate T(m) from daily minimum and maximum temperatures (T2). We found that T2 has a significant standard deviation error of 0.23 °C/decade in depicting the regional warming rate from 2000 to 2013 but can be reduced by two-thirds using T(m) calculated from observations at four specific times (T4), which samples diurnal cycle of land surface air temperature more often. From 1973 to 1997, compared with T4, T2 significantly underestimated the warming rate over the central U.S. and overestimated the warming rate over the northern high latitudes. The ratio of the warming rate over China to that over the U.S. reduces from 2.3 by T2 to 1.4 by T4. This study shows that the studies of regional warming can be substantially improved by T4 instead of T2. PMID:26198976

  20. Regional Contrasts of the Warming Rate over Land Significantly Depend on the Calculation Methods of Mean Air Temperature.

    PubMed

    Wang, Kaicun; Zhou, Chunlüe

    2015-07-22

    Global analyses of surface mean air temperature (T(m)) are key datasets for climate change studies and provide fundamental evidences for global warming. However, the causes of regional contrasts in the warming rate revealed by such datasets, i.e., enhanced warming rates over the northern high latitudes and the "warming hole" over the central U.S., are still under debate. Here we show these regional contrasts depend on the calculation methods of T(m). Existing global analyses calculate T(m) from daily minimum and maximum temperatures (T2). We found that T2 has a significant standard deviation error of 0.23 °C/decade in depicting the regional warming rate from 2000 to 2013 but can be reduced by two-thirds using T(m) calculated from observations at four specific times (T4), which samples diurnal cycle of land surface air temperature more often. From 1973 to 1997, compared with T4, T2 significantly underestimated the warming rate over the central U.S. and overestimated the warming rate over the northern high latitudes. The ratio of the warming rate over China to that over the U.S. reduces from 2.3 by T2 to 1.4 by T4. This study shows that the studies of regional warming can be substantially improved by T4 instead of T2.

  1. 42 CFR 84.156 - Airflow resistance test; Type C supplied-air respirator, demand class; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... exceed 50 millimeters (2 inches) of water at an air flow of 115 liters (4 cubic feet) per minute. (b) The exhalation resistance to a flow of air at a rate of 85 liters (3 cubic feet) per minute shall not exceed 25... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Airflow resistance test; Type C...

  2. Modeling and forecasting daily movement of ambient air mean PM₂.₅ concentration based on the elliptic orbit model with weekly quasi-periodic extension: a case study.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zong-chang

    2014-01-01

    Nowadays, the issue of air pollution has continuously been a global public health concern. Modeling and forecasting daily movement of ambient air mean PM2.5 concentration is an increasingly important task as it is intimately associated with human health that the air pollution has unignorable negative effects in reducing air quality, damaging environment, even causing serious harm to health. It is demonstrated that daily movement of mean PM₂.₅ concentration approximately exhibits weekly cyclical variations as daily particle pollution in the air is largely influenced by human daily activities. Then, based on weekly quasi-periodic extension for daily movement of mean PM₂.₅ concentration, the called elliptic orbit model is proposed to describe its movement. By mapping daily movement of mean PM₂.₅ concentration as one time series into the polar coordinates, each 7-day movement is depicted as one elliptic orbit. Experimental result and analysis indicate workability and effectiveness of the proposed method. Here we show that with the weekly quasi-periodic extension, daily movements of mean PM₂.₅ concentration at the given monitoring stations in Xiangtan of China are well described by the elliptic orbit model, which provides a vivid description for modeling and prediction daily movement of mean PM₂.₅ concentration in a concise and intuitive way.

  3. Effect of airstream velocity on mean drop diameters of water sprays produced by pressure and air atomizing nozzles. [for combustion studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ingebo, R. D.

    1977-01-01

    A scanning radiometer was used to determine the effect of airstream velocity on the mean drop diameter of water sprays produced by pressure atomizing and air atomizing fuel nozzles used in previous combustion studies. Increasing airstream velocity from 23 to 53.4 meters per second reduced the Sauter mean diameter by approximately 50 percent with both types of fuel nozzles. The use of a sonic cup attached to the tip of an air assist nozzle reduced the Sauter mean diameter by approximately 40 percent. Test conditions included airstream velocities of 23 to 53.4 meters per second at 293 K and atmospheric pressure.

  4. Supply Rate and Equilibrium Inventory of Air Force Enlisted Personnel: A Simultaneous Model of the Accession and Retention Markets Incorporating Force Level Constraints. Final Report for Period July 1969-June 1976.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeVany, Arthur S.; And Others

    This research was designed to develop and test a model of the Air Force manpower market. The study indicates that previous manpower supply studies failed to account for simultaneous determination of enlistments and retentions and misinterpreted regressions as supply equations. They are, instead, reduced form equations resulting from joint…

  5. MODELING AIR TOXICS AND PM 2.5 CONCENTRATION FIELDS AS A MEANS FOR FACILITATING HUMAN EXPOSURE ASSESSMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The capability of the US EPA Models-3/Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) modeling system is extended to provide gridded ambient air quality concentration fields at fine scales. These fields will drive human exposure to air toxics and fine particulate matter (PM2.5) models...

  6. Tunable SrAl2Si2O8: Eu phosphor prepared in air via valence state-controlled means

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jian; Liu, Yangai; Liu, Haikun; Ding, Hao; Fang, Minghao; Huang, Zhaohui

    2015-04-01

    SrAl2Si2O8: xEu (x = 0.5-8%) phosphors were prepared by the high-temperature solid-state reaction in air atmosphere. The phenomenon of Eu2+/Eu3+ coexistence was observed and the color of the SrAl2Si2O8: xEu phosphor could shift from light pink to blue by controllable and reproducible means. Photoluminescence (PL), excitation (PLE) spectra, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and the fluorescence decay curves were employed to detect the presence of Eu2+ and Eu3+ ions in the compound. Under ultraviolet excitation, the broad band emission peaked at 410 nm originated from the transition of 4f65d-4f7 from Eu2+ and narrow band emissions peaked at 591 nm, 614 nm, 655 nm, and 703 nm are derived from the 4f-4f transition of Eu3+ ions, although the Eu3+ precursors were employed. The reduction mechanism from Eu3+ to Eu2+ in this compound was discussed in detail and verified by photoluminescence properties through changing the addition amount of Eu, temperature rise and holding time.

  7. Definition and means of maintaining the room continuous air monitors portion of the plutonium finishing plant (PFP) safety envelope

    SciTech Connect

    WHITE, W.F.

    1999-05-20

    Room Continuous Air Monitors (CAMs) are used in areas where there is potential for dispersible radioactive material. These CAMs provide audible and visual alarms to warn personnel of an increase in airborne radioactivity.

  8. Rapid formaldehyde monitoring in ambient air by means of mid-infrared cavity leak-out spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dahnke, H.; von Basum, G.; Kleinermanns, K.; Hering, P.; Mürtz, M.

    We report the spectroscopic detection of formaldehyde in ambient air using cavity leak-out spectroscopy, a cw variant of cavity ring-down spectroscopy. This technique proved to be suitable for a real-time quantitative analysis of polluted air without any preprocessing of the air sample. Using a tunable CO-overtone sideband laser for the λ=3 μm spectral region and a ring-down cell with R=99.95% mirrors, we achieved a detection limit of 2 parts per billion formaldehyde in ambient air, corresponding to a minimum detectable absorption coefficient of 7×10-9/cm (sampling time: 2s). Calibration problems arising from the polarity of the molecule and due to HITRAN database uncertainties are discussed.

  9. Power supply

    DOEpatents

    Hart, Edward J.; Leeman, James E.; MacDougall, Hugh R.; Marron, John J.; Smith, Calvin C.

    1976-01-01

    An electric power supply employs a striking means to initiate ferroelectric elements which provide electrical energy output which subsequently initiates an explosive charge which initiates a second ferroelectric current generator to deliver current to the coil of a magnetic field current generator, creating a magnetic field around the coil. Continued detonation effects compression of the magnetic field and subsequent generation and delivery of a large output current to appropriate output loads.

  10. Air-liquid interface cultures enhance the oxygen supply and trigger the structural and functional differentiation of intestinal porcine epithelial cells (IPEC).

    PubMed

    Nossol, Constanze; Diesing, A-K; Walk, N; Faber-Zuschratter, H; Hartig, R; Post, A; Kluess, J; Rothkötter, H-J; Kahlert, S

    2011-07-01

    The specific function of the epithelium as critical barrier between the intestinal lumen and the organism's internal microenvironment is reflected by permanent maintenance of intercellular junctions and cellular polarity. The intestinal epithelial cells are responsible for absorption of nutritional components, facing mechanical stress and a changing oxygen supplementation via blood stream. Oxygen itself can regulate the barrier and the absorptive function of the epithelium. Therefore, we compared the dish cell culture, the transwell-like membrane culture and the oxygen enriched air-liquid interface (ALI) culture. We demonstrated strong influence of the different culture conditions on morphology and function of intestinal porcine epithelial cell lines in vitro. ALI culture resulted in a significant increase in cell number, epithelial cell layer thickness and expression as well as apical localisation of the microvilli-associated protein villin. Remarkable similarities regarding the morphological parameters were observed between ALI cultures and intestinal epithelial cells in vivo. Furthermore, the functional analysis of protein uptake and degradation by the epithelial cells demonstrated the necessity of sufficient oxygen supply as achieved in ALI cultures. Our study is the first report providing marked evidence that optimised oxygen supply using ALI cultures directly affects the morphological differentiation and functional properties of intestinal epithelial cells in vitro.

  11. The induction of water to the inlet air as a means of internal cooling in aircraft-engine cylinders

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rothrock, Addison M; Krsek, Alois, Jr; Jones, Anthony W

    1943-01-01

    Report presents the results of investigations conducted on a full-scale air-cooled aircraft-engine cylinder of 202-cubic inch displacement to determine the effects of internal cooling by water induction on the maximum permissible power and output of an internal-combustion engine. For a range of fuel-air and water-fuel ratios, the engine inlet pressure was increased until knock was detected aurally, the power was then decreased 7 percent holding the ratios constant. The data indicated that water was a very effective internal coolant, permitting large increases in engine power as limited by either knock or by cylinder temperatures.

  12. Study Case of Air-Mass Modification over Poland and Romania Observed by the Means of Multiwavelength Raman Depolarization Lidars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costa-Surós, Montserrat; Janicka, Lucja; Stachlewska, Iwona S.; Nemuc, Anca; Talianu, Camelia; Heese, Birgit; Engelmann, Ronny

    2016-06-01

    An air-mass modification, on its way from Poland to Romania, observed between 19-21 July 2014 is discussed. The air-mass was investigated using data of two multi-wavelength lidars capable of performing regular elastic, depolarization and Raman measurements in Warsaw, Poland, and in Magurele, Romania. The analysis was focused on evaluating optical properties of aerosol in order to search for similarities and differences in the vertical profiles describing the atmospheric layers above the two stations within given period.

  13. Hydrogeologic setting, water levels, and quality of water from supply wells at the US Marine Corps Air Station, Cherry Point, North Carolina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lloyd, O.B.; Daniel, C. C.

    1988-01-01

    The Marine Corps Air Station is located in the Coastal Plain province of North Carolina. Four freshwater aquifers of sand and limestone underlie the area to a depth of about 500 feet. Saline water occurs below this depth. The aquifers are separated by three confining units that are thin and discontinuous in the southern part. Water supply is obtained from 195- to 330 feet wells in the Castle Hayne aquifer. Many wells are near landfills that have received hazardous wastes. Groundwater withdrawals have reduced hydraulic heads in the Castle Hayne some 20 feet around active production wells, creating potential for downward movement of contaminated water from the surface and for upward movement of saline water that occurs at depth. Chemical analyses of water from the Castle Hayne aquifer indicate median concentrations of iron and manganese are 0.78 and 0.08 milligrams per liter, respectively, and lead and (or) nickel exceed drinking water standards in three wells. Chloride increased from 10 to more than 40 milligrams per liter in the deepest operating well over a 45-year period. Benzene concentrations range from 0.5 to 1.9 milligrams per liter in the southern part of the Air Station but were below the 5 milligrams per liter maximum contaminant level for drinking water. Fatty acids were found in concentrations as much as 28 micrograms per liter in water from wells in an area centered around the intersection of Roosevelt Boulevard and Slocum Road. Resampling is needed to verify all constituents that indicate contamination.

  14. Air Quality Analysis by Using Fuzzy Inference System and Fuzzy C-mean Clustering in Tehran, Iran from 2009–2013

    PubMed Central

    HAMEDIAN, Amir Abbas; JAVID, Allahbakhsh; MOTESADDI ZARANDI, Saeed; RASHIDI, Yousef; MAJLESI, Monireh

    2016-01-01

    Background: Since the industrial revolution, the rate of industrialization and urbanization has increased dramatically. Regarding this issue, specific regions mostly located in developing countries have been confronted with serious problems, particularly environmental problems among which air pollution is of high importance. Methods: Eleven parameters, including CO, SO2, PM10, PM2.5, O3, NO2, benzene, toluene, ethyl-benzene, xylene, and 1,3-butadiene, have been accounted over a period of two years (2011–2012) from five monitoring stations located at Tehran, Iran, were assessed by using fuzzy inference system and fuzzy c-mean clustering. Results: These tools showed that the quality of criteria pollutants between the year 2011 and 2012 did not as much effect the public health as the other pollutants did. Conclusion: Using the air EPA AQI, the quality of air, and also the managerial plans required to improve the quality can be misled. PMID:27516999

  15. Mixing of cloud and clear air in centimeter scales observed in laboratory by means of Particle Image Velocimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korczyk, Piotr; Malinowski, Szymon P.; Kowalewski, Tomasz A.

    2006-11-01

    Cloudy air, containing small (∅ 14 μm) water droplets, undergoes mixing with the unsaturated environment inside the cloud chamber in the process resembling smallest scales of entrainment and mixing in real clouds. Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) applied to images from the chamber interior is used to investigate dynamics of the process in scales from 1.2 mm to few centimeters. A special algorithm, allowing for investigation of droplets motion, is developed, tested and adapted to the experimental data. Two velocity components retrieved in the vertical cross-section through the chamber interior indicate anisotropy of small-scale turbulent motions, with the preferred vertical direction. This result confirms earlier numerical studies, indicating that evaporation of cloud droplets at the cloud-clear air interface may substantially influence the small-scale turbulence in clouds.

  16. The Relationship of Loss, Mean Age of Air and the Distribution of CFC's to Stratospheric Circulation and Implications for Atmospheric Lifetimes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Douglas, A. R.; Stolarski, R. S.; Schoeberl, M. R.; Jackman, C. H.; Gupta, M. L.; Newman, P. A.; Nielsen, J. E.; Fleming, E. L.

    2008-01-01

    Model-derived estimates of the annually integrated destruction and lifetime for various ozone depleting substances (ODSs) depend on the simulated stratospheric transport and mixing in the global model used to produce the estimate. Observations in the middle and high latitude lower stratosphere show that the mean age of an air parcel (i.e., the time since its stratospheric entry) is related to the fractional release for the ODs (i.e., the amount of the ODS that has been destroyed relative to the amount at the time of stratospheric entry). We use back trajectory calculations to produce an age spectrum, and explain the relationship between the mean age and the fractional release by showing that older elements in the age spectrum have experienced higher altitudes and greater ODs destruction than younger elements. In our study, models with faster circulations produce distributions for the age-of-air that are 'young' compared to a distribution derived from observations. These models also fail to reproduce the observed relationship between the mean age of air and the fractional release. Models with slower circulations produce both realistic distributions for mean age and a realistic relationship between mean age and fractional release. These models also produce a CFCl3 lifetime of approximately 56 years, longer than the 45 year lifetime used to project future mixing ratios. We find that the use of flux boundary conditions in assessment models would have several advantages, including consistency between ODS evolution and simulated loss even if the simulated residual circulation changes due to climate change.

  17. Mixing of cloud and clear air in centimeter scales observed in laboratory by means of particle image velocimetry.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malinowski, S. P.; Korczyk, P.; Kowalewski, T. A.; Jaczewski, A.

    2003-04-01

    Turbulent mixing of cloud with unsaturated environmental air in a laboratory chamber is visualized in two-dimensional vertical cross-section by pulses of laser light. Turbulence is produced by evaporative cooling of cloud water and the following generation of negative buoyancy. Images of cloudy filaments created by mixing are collected by the high resolution CCD camera. Consecutive images are analysed with the Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) techniques allowing for determination of two components of turbulent velocities of cloud patterns in scales of order of few millimetres. Examples of mixing events (patterns and corresponding velocities)as well as statistics of observed velocity fields will be presented and discussed.

  18. The development of the July 1989 1 deg x 1 deg and 30' x 30' terrestrial mean free-air anomaly data bases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Jeong-Hee; Rapp, Richard H.

    1990-01-01

    In June 1986 a 1 x 1 deg/mean free-air anomaly data file containing 48955 anomalies was completed. In August 1986 a 30 x 30 min mean free-air anomaly file was defined containing 31787 values. For the past three years data has been collected to upgrade these mean anomaly files. The primary emphasis was the collection of data to be used for the estimation of 30 min means anomalies in land areas. The emphasis on land areas was due to the anticipated use of 30 min anomalies derived from satellite altimeter data in the ocean areas. There were 10 data sources in the August 1986 file. Twenty-eight sources were added based on the collection of both point and mean anomalies from a number of individuals and organizations. A preliminary 30 min file was constructed from the 38 data sources. This file was used to calculate 1 x 1 deg mean anomalies. This 1 x 1 deg file was merged with a 1 x 1 deg file which was a merger of the June 1986 file plus a 1 x 1 deg file made available by DMA Aerospace Center. Certain bad 30 min anomalies were identified and deleted from the preliminary 30 min file leading to the final 30 min file (the July 1989 30 min file) with 66990 anomalies and their accuracy. These anomalies were used to again compute 1 x 1 deg anomalies which were merged with the previous June 86 DMAAC data file. The final 1 x 1 deg mean anomaly file (the July 89 1 x 1 deg data base) contained 50793 anomalies and their accuracy. The anomaly data files were significantly improved over the prior data sets in the following geographic regions: Africa, Scandinavia, Canada, United States, Mexico, Central and South America. Substantial land areas remain where there is little or no available data.

  19. Control of Relative Air Humidity as a Potential Means to Improve Hygiene on Surfaces: A Preliminary Approach with Listeria monocytogenes

    PubMed Central

    Zoz, Fiona; Iaconelli, Cyril; Lang, Emilie; Iddir, Hayet; Guyot, Stéphane; Grandvalet, Cosette; Gervais, Patrick; Beney, Laurent

    2016-01-01

    Relative air humidity fluctuations could potentially affect the development and persistence of pathogenic microorganisms in their environments. This study aimed to characterize the impact of relative air humidity (RH) variations on the survival of Listeria monocytogenes, a bacterium persisting on food processing plant surfaces. To assess conditions leading to the lowest survival rate, four strains of L. monocytogenes (EGDe, CCL500, CCL128, and LO28) were exposed to different RH conditions (75%, 68%, 43% and 11%) with different drying kinetics and then rehydrated either progressively or instantaneously. The main factors that affected the survival of L. monocytogenes were RH level and rehydration kinetics. Lowest survival rates between 1% and 0.001% were obtained after 3 hours of treatment under optimal conditions (68% RH and instantaneous rehydration). The survival rate was decreased under 0.001% after prolonged exposure (16h) of cells under optimal conditions. Application of two successive dehydration and rehydration cycles led to an additional decrease in survival rate. This preliminary study, performed in model conditions with L. monocytogenes, showed that controlled ambient RH fluctuations could offer new possibilities to control foodborne pathogens in food processing environments and improve food safety. PMID:26840373

  20. Control of Relative Air Humidity as a Potential Means to Improve Hygiene on Surfaces: A Preliminary Approach with Listeria monocytogenes.

    PubMed

    Zoz, Fiona; Iaconelli, Cyril; Lang, Emilie; Iddir, Hayet; Guyot, Stéphane; Grandvalet, Cosette; Gervais, Patrick; Beney, Laurent

    2016-01-01

    Relative air humidity fluctuations could potentially affect the development and persistence of pathogenic microorganisms in their environments. This study aimed to characterize the impact of relative air humidity (RH) variations on the survival of Listeria monocytogenes, a bacterium persisting on food processing plant surfaces. To assess conditions leading to the lowest survival rate, four strains of L. monocytogenes (EGDe, CCL500, CCL128, and LO28) were exposed to different RH conditions (75%, 68%, 43% and 11%) with different drying kinetics and then rehydrated either progressively or instantaneously. The main factors that affected the survival of L. monocytogenes were RH level and rehydration kinetics. Lowest survival rates between 1% and 0.001% were obtained after 3 hours of treatment under optimal conditions (68% RH and instantaneous rehydration). The survival rate was decreased under 0.001% after prolonged exposure (16h) of cells under optimal conditions. Application of two successive dehydration and rehydration cycles led to an additional decrease in survival rate. This preliminary study, performed in model conditions with L. monocytogenes, showed that controlled ambient RH fluctuations could offer new possibilities to control foodborne pathogens in food processing environments and improve food safety.

  1. Air-fuel ratio control system for an internal combustion engine with a three way catalytic converter

    SciTech Connect

    Fujimura, A.; Sato, Y.

    1986-04-29

    An air-fuel ratio control system is described for an internal combustion engine having at least one of a main fuel passage and a slow fuel passage in a fuel supply system thereof, the air-fuel ratio control system being adapted for performing a feedback control of air-fuel ratio according to a detected oxygen concentration of an exhaust gas of the engine, and comprising: an auxiliary fuel supply means for supplying an auxiliary fuel to the engine through a fuel nozzle opening at a venturi part of a carburetor of the engine; an intake air temperature sensing means for sensing temperature of intake air introduced to the engine; and a control means for operating/stopping the feedback control of air-fuel ratio in accordance with the temperature of intake air sensed by the intake air temperature sensing means, the control means comprising a single control valve being adapted to stop the feedback control of air-fuel ratio and activate the auxiliary fuel supply means and to stop a supply of air into at least one of the main fuel passage and slow fuel passage, for enriching the air-fuel ratio when the temperature of intake air is below a predetermined level.

  2. PHOTOCITYTEX - A LIFE project on the air pollution treatment in European urban environments by means of photocatalytic textiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ródenas, Milagros; Fages, Eduardo; Fatarella, Enrico; Herrero, David; Castagnoli, Lidia; Borrás, Esther; Vera, Teresa; Gómez, Tatiana; Carreño, Javier; López, Ramón; Gimeno, Cristina; Catota, Marlon; Muñoz, Amalia

    2016-04-01

    In urban areas, air pollution from traffic is becoming a growing problem. In recent years the use of titanium dioxide (TiO2) based photocatalytic self-cleaning and de-polluting materials has been considered to remove these pollutants. TiO2 is now commercially available and used in construction material or paints for environmental purposes. Further work, however, is still required to clarify the potential impacts from wider TiO2 use. Specific test conditions are required to provide objective and accurate knowledge. Under the LIFE PHOTOCITYTEX project, the effectiveness of using TiO2-based photocatalytic nanomaterials in building textiles as a way of improving the air quality in urban areas will be assessed. Moreover, information on secondary products formed during the tests will be obtained, yielding a better overall understanding of the whole process and its implications. For this purpose, a series of demonstrations are foreseen, comprising 1. lab-test and development of textile prototypes at lab scale, 2. larger scale demonstration of the use of photocatalytic textiles in the depollution of urban environments employing the EUPHORE chambers to simulate a number of environmental conditions of various European cities and 3. field demonstrations installing the photocatalytic textiles in two urban locations in Quart de Poblet, a tunnel and a school. A one-year extensive passive dosimetric campaign has already being carried out to characterize the selected urban sites before the installation of the photocatalytic textile prototypes, and a similar campaign after their installation is ongoing. Also, more comprehensive intensive active measurement campaigns have been conducted to account for winter and summer conditions. In parallel, lab-tests have already been completed to determine optimal photocatalytic formulations on textiles, followed by experiments at EUPHORE. Information on the deployment of the campaigns is given together with laboratory conclusions and first

  3. Exploratory data analysis for robot perception of room environments by means of an in-air sonar scanner.

    PubMed

    Giannoccaro, Nicola Ivan; Spedicato, Luigi

    2013-08-01

    In this paper, the authors have developed a new method for reconstructing the boundary walls of a room environment by using a mechatronic device consisting of four ultrasonic sensors rotated by a servo modular actuator. This scanning system allows to measure the times of flight in each motor position so as to explore the surrounding space detecting reflections from the boundary walls and from other static obstacles. In addition to undesired reflections, due to non-target obstacles interposed between the sensors and the target surfaces, several spurious times are observed at the corners because of multiple reflections. The Fuzzy C-Means (FCM) algorithm is used for partitioning the obtained dataset in five clusters and some considerations on the output signal energy permit to select the two subsets concerned with multipath echoes. Each remaining cluster is associated to a set of three-dimensional points by considering the directivity of the wide beam propagated. In order to discard the observations that are numerically distant from the confidence data, the three sets are filtered by means of an ellipsoid defined by the Principal Component Analysis (PCA). The best-fit planes are obtained by testing the eigenvalues and relating eigenvectors of the covariance matrix of each filtered set. Several tests are shown and discussed for appreciating the effectiveness of the described approach and they are aimed at making a robot aware of its environment.

  4. Results of borehole geophysical logging and hydraulic tests conducted in Area D supply wells, former US Naval Air Warfare Center, Warminster, Pennsylvania

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sloto, Ronald A.; Grazul, Kevin E.

    1998-01-01

    Borehole geophysical logging, aquifer tests, and aquifer-isolation (packer) tests were conducted in four supply wells at the former U.S. Naval Air Warfare Center (NAWC) in Warminster, PA to identify the depth and yield of water-bearing zones, occurrence of borehole flow, and effect of pumping on nearby wells. The study was conducted as part of an ongoing evaluation of ground-water contamination at the NAWC. Caliper, natural-gamma, single-point resistance, fluid resistivity, and fluid temperature logs and borehole television surveys were run in the supply wells, which range in depth from 242 to 560 ft (feet). Acoustic borehole televiewer and borehole deviation logs were run in two of the wells. The direction and rate of borehole-fluid movement under non-pumping conditions were measured with a high-resolution heatpulse flowmeter. The logs were used to locate water-bearing fractures, determine probable zones of vertical borehole-fluid movement, and determine the depth to set packers. An aquifer test was conducted in each well to determine open-hole specific capacity and the effect of pumping the open borehole on water levels in nearby wells. Specific capacities ranged from 0.21 to 1.7 (gal/min)/ft (gallons per minute per foot) of drawdown. Aquifer-isolation tests were conducted in each well to determine depth-discrete specific capacities and to determine the effect of pumping an individual fracture or fracture zone on water levels in nearby wells. Specific capacities of individual fractures and fracture zones ranged from 0 to 2.3 (gal/min)/ft. Most fractures identified as water-producing or water-receiving zones by borehole geophysical methods produced water when isolated and pumped. All hydrologically active fractures below 250 ft below land surface were identified as water-receiving zones and produced little water when isolated and pumped. In the two wells greater then 540 ft deep, downward borehole flow to the deep water-receiving fractures is caused by a large

  5. Spatial downscaling and mapping of daily precipitation and air temperature using daily station data and monthly mean maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flint, A. L.; Flint, L. E.; Stern, M. A.

    2013-12-01

    Accurate maps of daily weather variables are an essential component of hydrologic and ecologic modeling. Here we present a four-step method that uses daily station data and transient monthly maps of precipitation and air temperature. This method uses the monthly maps to help interpolate between stations for more accurate production of daily maps at any spatial resolution. The first step analyzes the quality of the each station's data using a discrepancy analysis that compares statistics derived from a statistical jack-knifing approach with a time-series evaluation of discrepancies generated for each station. Although several methods could be used for the second step of producing initial maps, such as kriging, splines, etc., we used a gradient plus inverse distance squared method that was developed to produce accurate climate maps for sparse data regions with widely separated and few climate stations, far fewer than would be needed for techniques such as kriging. The gradient plus inverse distance squared method uses local gradients in the climate parameters, easting, northing, and elevation, to adjust the inverse distance squared estimates for local gradients such as lapse rates, inversions, or rain shadows at scales of 10's of meters to kilometers. The third step is to downscale World Wide Web (web) based transient monthly data, such as Precipitation-Elevation Regression on Independent Slope Method (PRISM) for the US (4 km or 800 m maps) or Climate Research Unit (CRU 3.1) data sets (40 km for global applications) to the scale of the daily data's digital elevation model. In the final step the downscaled transient monthly maps are used to adjust the daily time-series mapped data (~30 maps/month) for each month. These adjustments are used to scale daily maps so that summing them for precipitation or averaging them for temperature would more accurately reproduce the variability in selected monthly maps. This method allows for individual days to have maxima or minima

  6. An Analysis of Simulated and Observed Global Mean Near-Surface Air Temperature Anomalies from 1979 to 1999: Trends and Attribution of Causes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    MacKay, R. M.; Ko, M. K. W.

    2001-01-01

    The 1979 - 1999 response of the climate system to variations in solar spectral irradiance is estimated by comparing the global averaged surface temperature anomalies simulated by a 2D (two dimensional) energy balance climate model to observed temperature anomalies. We perform a multiple regression of southern oscillation index and the individual model responses to solar irradiance variations, stratospheric and tropospheric aerosol loading, stratospheric ozone trends, and greenhouse gases onto each of five near-surface temperature anomaly data sets. We estimate the observed difference in global mean near surface air temperature attributable to the solar irradiance difference between solar maximum and solar minimum to be between 0.06 and 0.11 K, and that 1.1 - 3.8% of the total variance in monthly mean near-surface air temperature data is attributable to nations in solar spectral irradiance. For the five temperature data sets used in our analysis, the trends in raw monthly mean temperature anomaly data have a large range, spanning a factor of 3 from 0.06 to 0.17 K/decade. However. our analysis suggests that trends in monthly temperature anomalies attributable to the combination of greenhouse gas, stratospheric ozone, and tropospheric sulfate aerosol variations are much more consistent among data sets, ranging from 0.16 to 0.24 K/decade. Our model results suggest that roughly half of the warming from greenhouse gases is cancelled by the cooling from changes in stratospheric ozone. Tropospheric sulfate aerosol loading in the present day atmospheric contributes significantly to the net radiative forcing of the present day climate system. However, because the change in magnitude and latitudinal distribution of tropospheric sulfate aerosol has been small over the past 20 years, the change in the direct radiative forcing attributable to changes in aerosol loading over this time is also small.

  7. Hemispheric asymmetries and seasonality of mean age of air in the lower stratosphere: Deep versus shallow branch of the Brewer-Dobson circulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konopka, Paul; Ploeger, Felix; Tao, Mengchu; Birner, Thomas; Riese, Martin

    2015-03-01

    Based on multiannual simulations with the Chemical Lagrangian Model of the Stratosphere, (CLaMS) driven by ECMWF ERA-Interim reanalysis, we discuss hemispheric asymmetries and the seasonality of the mean age of air (AoA) in the lower stratosphere. First, the planetary wave forcing of the Brewer-Dobson circulation is quantified in terms of Eliassen Palm flux divergence calculated by using the isentropic coordinate θ. While the forcing of the deep branch at θ = 1000 K (around 10 hPa) has a clear maximum in each hemisphere during the respective winter, the shallow branch of the Brewer-Dobson circulation, i.e., between 100 and 70 hPa (380 < θ < 420 K), shows almost opposite seasonality in both hemispheres with a pronounced minimum between June and September in the Southern Hemisphere. Second, we decompose the time-tendency of AoA into the contributions of the residual circulation and of eddy mixing by analyzing the zonally averaged tracer continuity equation. In the tropical lower stratosphere between ±30°, the air becomes younger during boreal winter and older during boreal summer. During boreal winter, the decrease of AoA due to tropical upwelling outweighs aging by isentropic mixing. In contrast, weaker isentropic mixing outweighs an even weaker upwelling in boreal summer and fall making the air older during these seasons. Poleward of 60°, the deep branch locally increases AoA and eddy mixing locally decreases AoA with the strongest net decrease during spring. Eddy mixing in the Northern Hemisphere outweighs that in the Southern Hemisphere throughout the year.

  8. Autocorrelation standard deviation and root mean square frequency analysis of polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell to monitor for hydrogen and air undersupply

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Joo Gon; Mukherjee, Santanu; Bates, Alex; Zickel, Benjamin; Park, Sam; Son, Byung Rak; Choi, Jae Sung; Kwon, Osung; Lee, Dong Ha; Chung, Hyun-Youl

    2015-12-01

    Proton exchange membrane fuel cells are a promising energy conversion device which can help to solve urgent environmental and economic problems. Among the various types of fuel cells, the air breathing proton exchange membrane fuel cell, which minimizes the balance of plant, has drawn a lot of attention due to its superior energy density. In this study a compact, air breathing, proton exchange membrane fuel cell based on Nafion and a Pt/C membrane electrode assembly was designed. The fuel cell was tested using a Scribner Associates 850e fuel cell test station. Specifically, the hydrogen fuel and oxygen starvation of the fuel cell were accurately and systematically tested and analyzed using a frequency analysis method which can analyze the input and output frequency. The analysis of the frequency variation under a fuel starvation condition was done using RMSF (root mean square frequency) and ACSD (autocorrelation standard deviation). The study reveals two significant results: first, the fuel starvations show entirely different phenomenon in both RMSF and ACSD and second, the results of the Autocorrelation show clearer results for fuel starvation detection than the results with RMSF.

  9. Estimation of mean-glandular dose from monitoring breast entrance skin air kerma using a high sensitivity metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistor (MOSFET) dosimeter system in mammography.

    PubMed

    Dong, S L; Chu, T C; Lee, J S; Lan, G Y; Wu, T H; Yeh, Y H; Hwang, J J

    2002-12-01

    Estimation of mean-glandular dose (MGD) has been investigated in recent years due to the potential risks of radiation-induced carcinogenesis associated with the mammographic examination for diagnostic radiology. In this study, a new technique for immediate readout of breast entrance skin air kerma (BESAK) using high sensitivity MOSFET dosimeter after mammographic projection was introduced and a formula for the prediction of tube output with exposure records was developed. A series of appropriate conversion factors was applied to the MGD determination from the BESAK. The study results showed that signal response of the high sensitivity MOSFET exhibited excellent linearity within mammographic dose ranges, and that the energy dependence was less than 3% for each anode/filter combination at the tube potentials 25-30 kV. Good agreement was observed between the BESAK and the tube exposure output measurement for breasts thicker than 30 mm. In addition, the air kerma estimated from our prediction formula provided sufficient accuracy for thinner breasts. The average MGD from 120 Asian females was 1.5 mGy, comparable to other studies. Our results suggest that the high sensitivity MOSFET dosimeter system is a good candidate for immediately readout of BESAK after mammographic procedures.

  10. Assessment of Simulated Changes in Air Temperature and Precipitation over Central Asia via Multi-Model Ensemble Means of CMIP5 Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozturk, Tugba; Tufan Turp, M.; Türkeş, Murat; Kurnaz, M. Levent

    2014-05-01

    In this study, we conducted a multi-model ensemble mean approach in order to investigate the projected changes in surface air temperatures and precipitation totals over Central Asia. Even though there are totally sixty seven different models of thirty modeling groups all around the world participating in the World Climate Research Programme (WCRP) Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5), forty four models among them were used due to data availability. Central Asia (known as Region 8), which is one of twelve domains of the Coordinated Regional Climate Downscaling Experiment (CORDEX), was chosen as a domain of study. In this respect, we focused on two distinct scenarios (i.e. RCP4.5 and RCP8.5) for three different future periods (i.e. 2010-2040, 2040 - 2070 and 2070 - 2100) to examine accurately the foreseen changes in two fundamental climate variables (surface air temperature and precipitation total) for the Central Asia region. This work has been supported by Bogazici University BAP under project number 7362. One of the authors (MLK) was partially supported by Mercator-IPC Fellowship Program.

  11. Climatological mean and decadal change in surface ocean pCO 2, and net sea-air CO 2 flux over the global oceans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takahashi, Taro; Sutherland, Stewart C.; Wanninkhof, Rik; Sweeney, Colm; Feely, Richard A.; Chipman, David W.; Hales, Burke; Friederich, Gernot; Chavez, Francisco; Sabine, Christopher; Watson, Andrew; Bakker, Dorothee C. E.; Schuster, Ute; Metzl, Nicolas; Yoshikawa-Inoue, Hisayuki; Ishii, Masao; Midorikawa, Takashi; Nojiri, Yukihiro; Körtzinger, Arne; Steinhoff, Tobias; Hoppema, Mario; Olafsson, Jon; Arnarson, Thorarinn S.; Tilbrook, Bronte; Johannessen, Truls; Olsen, Are; Bellerby, Richard; Wong, C. S.; Delille, Bruno; Bates, N. R.; de Baar, Hein J. W.

    2009-04-01

    A climatological mean distribution for the surface water pCO 2 over the global oceans in non-El Niño conditions has been constructed with spatial resolution of 4° (latitude) ×5° (longitude) for a reference year 2000 based upon about 3 million measurements of surface water pCO 2 obtained from 1970 to 2007. The database used for this study is about 3 times larger than the 0.94 million used for our earlier paper [Takahashi et al., 2002. Global sea-air CO 2 flux based on climatological surface ocean pCO 2, and seasonal biological and temperature effects. Deep-Sea Res. II, 49, 1601-1622]. A time-trend analysis using deseasonalized surface water pCO 2 data in portions of the North Atlantic, North and South Pacific and Southern Oceans (which cover about 27% of the global ocean areas) indicates that the surface water pCO 2 over these oceanic areas has increased on average at a mean rate of 1.5 μatm y -1 with basin-specific rates varying between 1.2±0.5 and 2.1±0.4 μatm y -1. A global ocean database for a single reference year 2000 is assembled using this mean rate for correcting observations made in different years to the reference year. The observations made during El Niño periods in the equatorial Pacific and those made in coastal zones are excluded from the database. Seasonal changes in the surface water pCO 2 and the sea-air pCO 2 difference over four climatic zones in the Atlantic, Pacific, Indian and Southern Oceans are presented. Over the Southern Ocean seasonal ice zone, the seasonality is complex. Although it cannot be thoroughly documented due to the limited extent of observations, seasonal changes in pCO 2 are approximated by using the data for under-ice waters during austral winter and those for the marginal ice and ice-free zones. The net air-sea CO 2 flux is estimated using the sea-air pCO 2 difference and the air-sea gas transfer rate that is parameterized as a function of (wind speed) 2 with a scaling factor of 0.26. This is estimated by inverting

  12. Interpretation of borehole geophysical logs, aquifer-isolation tests, and water quality, supply wells 1 and 2, Willow Grove Naval Air Station/Joint Reserve Base, Horsham Township, Montgomery County, Pennsylvania

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sloto, Ronald A.; Goode, Daniel J.; Frasch, Steven M.

    2002-01-01

    Ground water pumped from supply wells 1 and 2 on the Willow Grove Naval Air Station/Joint Reserve Base (NAS/JRB) provides water for use at the base, including potable water for drinking. The supply wells have been contaminated by volatile organic compounds (VOC?s), particularly trichloroethylene (TCE) and tetrachloroethylene (PCE), and the water is treated to remove the VOC?s. The Willow Grove NAS/JRB and surrounding area are underlain by sedimentary rocks of the Triassic-age Stockton Formation, which form a complex, heterogeneous aquifer. The ground-water-flow system for the supply wells was characterized by use of borehole geophysical logs and heatpulse-flowmeter measurements. The heatpulse-flowmeter measurements showed upward and downward borehole flow under nonpumping conditions in both wells. The hydraulic and chemical properties of discrete water-bearing fractures in the supply wells were characterized by isolating each water-bearing fracture with straddle packers. Eight fractures in supply well 1 and five fractures in supply well 2 were selected for testing on the basis of the borehole geophysical logs and borehole television surveys. Water samples were collected from each isolated fracture and analyzed for VOC?s and inorganic constituents. Fractures at 50?59, 79?80, 196, 124?152, 182, 241, 256, and 350?354 ft btoc (feet below top of casing) were isolated in supply well 1. Specific capacities ranged from 0.26 to 5.7 (gal/min)/ft (gallons per minute per foot) of drawdown. The highest specific capacity was for the fracture isolated at 179.8?188 ft btoc. Specific capacity and depth of fracture were not related in either supply well. The highest concentrations of PCE were in water samples collected from fractures isolated at 236.8?245 and 249.8?258 ft btoc, which are hydraulically connected. The concentration of PCE generally increased with depth to a maximum of 39 mg/L (micrograms per liter) at a depth of 249.8? 258 ft btoc and then decreased to 21 mg/L at a

  13. Nursing Supplies

    MedlinePlus

    ... Stages Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share Nursing Supplies Page Content Article Body Throughout most of ... budget. (Nursing equipment also makes wonderful baby gifts.) Nursing Bras A well-made nursing bra that comfortably ...

  14. Self-powered automatic secondary air controllers for woodstoves and small furnaces

    DOEpatents

    Siemer, Darryl D.

    1991-01-01

    A controller for automatically regulating the supply of secondary combustion air to woodstoves and small furnaces. The controller includes a movable air valve for controlling the amount of secondary air admitted into the chamber. A self powered means monitors the concentration of combustible gases and vapors and actuates the movable air valve to increase the supply of secondary air in response to increasing concentrations of the combustible gases and vapors. The self-powered means can be two fluid filled sensor bulbs, one of which has a coating of a combustion catalyst. Alternatively, the self powered means can be two metallic stripes laminated together, one of which is coated with a combustion catalyst, and when heated, causes the air valve to actuate.

  15. Power Supply

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    Maxwell Laboratories capacitor charging power supply is the first commercial spinoff from the NASA CCDS program - a consortia of industries and government establishments to accelerate development of ground and space based commercial applications of NASA technology. The power supply transforms and conditions large voltages to charge capacitors used in x-ray sources, medical accelerators, etc. It is lighter, more reliable, more compact and efficient. Originally developed for space lasers, its commercial potential was soon recognized.

  16. Method and apparatus for supplying fuel to internal combustion engine

    SciTech Connect

    Tomita, T.

    1986-03-25

    An apparatus is described for supplying fuel to a two-cycle internal combustion engine having a rotating crankshaft in a crank chamber, comprising an intake port provided in the engine and open to the crank chamber of the engine, a single intake passage connected at one end to the intake port and at an opposite end leading to atmosphere, and means connected to an intermediate portion of the intake passage for supplying fuel to the latter and suspending fuel supply thereto. The means consists of: a carburetor disposed in the intermediate portion of the intake passage, the carburetor having a venturi portion, a float chamber and a fuel injection nozzle connecting between the venturi portion and the float chamber; a stop valve for controlling injection of fuel into the intake passage through the fuel injection nozzle; a valve actuator operatively connected to the stop valve; and a switch means disposed in a circuit connecting the stop valve and the valve actuator, the switch means being operatively connected to the crankshaft of the engine to actuate the stop valve in accordance with revolution speed of the engine, such that the means acts to alternately admit air-fuel mixture and fresh air only, respectively, during alternate revolutions of the engine.

  17. Power supply

    SciTech Connect

    Yakymyshyn, Christopher Paul; Hamilton, Pamela Jane; Brubaker, Michael Allen

    2007-12-04

    A modular, low weight impedance dropping power supply with battery backup is disclosed that can be connected to a high voltage AC source and provide electrical power at a lower voltage. The design can be scaled over a wide range of input voltages and over a wide range of output voltages and delivered power.

  18. Impacts of rising air temperatures and emissions mitigation on electricity demand and supply in the United States: a multi-model comparison

    SciTech Connect

    McFarland, James; Zhou, Yuyu; Clarke, Leon; Sullivan, Patrick; Colman, Jesse; Jaglom, Wendy S.; Colley, Michelle; Patel, Pralit; Eom, Jiyon; Kim, Son H.; Kyle, G. Page; Schultz, Peter; Venkatesh, Boddu; Haydel, Juanita; Mack, Charlotte; Creason, Jared

    2015-06-10

    The electric power sector both affects and is affected by climate change. Numerous studies highlight the potential of the power sector to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Yet fewer studies have explored the physical impacts of climate change on the power sector. The present analysis examines how projected rising temperatures affect the demand for and supply of electricity. We apply a common set of temperature projections to three well-known electric sector models in the United States: the US version of the Global Change Assessment Model (GCAM-USA), the Regional Electricity Deployment System model (ReEDS), and the Integrated Planning Model (IPM®). Incorporating the effects of rising temperatures from a control scenario without emission mitigation into the models raises electricity demand by 1.6 to 6.5 % in 2050 with similar changes in emissions. The increase in system costs in the reference scenario to meet this additional demand is comparable to the change in system costs associated with decreasing power sector emissions by approximately 50 % in 2050. This result underscores the importance of adequately incorporating the effects of long-run temperature change in climate policy analysis.

  19. Impacts of Rising Air Temperatures and Emissions Mitigation on Electricity Demand and Supply in the United States. A Multi-Model Comparison

    DOE PAGES

    McFarland, James; Zhou, Yuyu; Clarke, Leon; Sullivan, Patrick; Colman, Jesse; Jaglom, Wendy S.; Colley, Michelle; Patel, Pralit; Eom, Jiyon; Kim, Son H.; et al

    2015-06-10

    The electric power sector both affects and is affected by climate change. Numerous studies highlight the potential of the power sector to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Fewer studies have explored the physical impacts of climate change on the power sector. Our present analysis examines how projected rising temperatures affect the demand for and supply of electricity. We apply a common set of temperature projections to three well-known electric sector models in the United States: the US version of the Global Change Assessment Model (GCAM-USA), the Regional Electricity Deployment System model (ReEDS), and the Integrated Planning Model (IPM®). Incorporating the effectsmore » of rising temperatures from a control scenario without emission mitigation into the models raises electricity demand by 1.6 to 6.5 % in 2050 with similar changes in emissions. Moreover, the increase in system costs in the reference scenario to meet this additional demand is comparable to the change in system costs associated with decreasing power sector emissions by approximately 50 % in 2050. This result underscores the importance of adequately incorporating the effects of long-run temperature change in climate policy analysis.« less

  20. Impacts of Rising Air Temperatures and Emissions Mitigation on Electricity Demand and Supply in the United States. A Multi-Model Comparison

    SciTech Connect

    McFarland, James; Zhou, Yuyu; Clarke, Leon; Sullivan, Patrick; Colman, Jesse; Jaglom, Wendy S.; Colley, Michelle; Patel, Pralit; Eom, Jiyon; Kim, Son H.; Kyle, G. Page; Schultz, Peter; Venkatesh, Boddu; Haydel, Juanita; Mack, Charlotte; Creason, Jared

    2015-06-10

    The electric power sector both affects and is affected by climate change. Numerous studies highlight the potential of the power sector to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Fewer studies have explored the physical impacts of climate change on the power sector. Our present analysis examines how projected rising temperatures affect the demand for and supply of electricity. We apply a common set of temperature projections to three well-known electric sector models in the United States: the US version of the Global Change Assessment Model (GCAM-USA), the Regional Electricity Deployment System model (ReEDS), and the Integrated Planning Model (IPM®). Incorporating the effects of rising temperatures from a control scenario without emission mitigation into the models raises electricity demand by 1.6 to 6.5 % in 2050 with similar changes in emissions. Moreover, the increase in system costs in the reference scenario to meet this additional demand is comparable to the change in system costs associated with decreasing power sector emissions by approximately 50 % in 2050. This result underscores the importance of adequately incorporating the effects of long-run temperature change in climate policy analysis.

  1. Erratum to: Impacts of rising air temperatures and emissions mitigation on electricity demand and supply in the United States: a multi-model comparison

    SciTech Connect

    McFarland, James; Zhou, Yuyu; Clarke, Leon; Sullivan, Patrick; Colman, Jesse; Jaglom, Wendy S.; Colley, Michelle; Patel, Pralit; Eom, Jiyon; Kim, Son H.; Kyle, G. Page; Schultz, Peter; Venkatesh, Boddu; Haydel, Juanita; Mack, Charlotte; Creason, Jared

    2015-07-07

    The electric power sector both affects and is affected by climate change. Numerous studies highlight the potential of the power sector to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Yet fewer studies have explored the physical impacts of climate change on the power sector. The present analysis examines how projected rising temperatures affect the demand for and supply of electricity. We apply a common set of temperature projections to three well-known electric sector models in the United States: the US version of the Global Change Assessment Model (GCAM-USA), the Regional Electricity Deployment System model (ReEDS), and the Integrated Planning Model (IPM®). Incorporating the effects of rising temperatures from a control scenario without emission mitigation into the models raises electricity demand by 1.6 to 6.5 % in 2050 with similar changes in emissions. The increase in system costs in the reference scenario to meet this additional demand is comparable to the change in system costs associated with decreasing power sector emissions by approximately 50 % in 2050. This result underscores the importance of adequately incorporating the effects of long-run temperature change in climate policy analysis.

  2. Into Thin Air.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Mike

    2001-01-01

    Shows how schools are working to avoid the types of equipment, supplies, and maintenance practices that harm indoor air quality. Simple steps to maintaining a cleaner indoor air environment are highlighted as are steps to reducing the problem air quality and the occurrence of asthma. (GR)

  3. Air-assist fuel injection nozzle

    SciTech Connect

    Klomp, E.D.

    1987-09-15

    An air-assist fuel injection nozzle is described for use in discharging fuel into an associate combustion chamber of an internal combustion engine. The injection nozzle includes a nozzle body means. The straight walled spray tip portion has a plurality of radial discharge orifices extending. An axial bore in the body means extends from the opposite end to define a bushing, a needle plunger reciprocably received in the bushing between a fully raised position and a fully depressed position corresponding to the end of a suction stroke and the end of a pump stroke, respectively. The needle plunger has a radial supply passage and a radial discharge ports angularly aligned with the radial discharge orifices, wherein the discharge ports are in flow communication with the blind bore. The needle plunger and the interior portion of the enclosed end of the nozzle body means define a variable volume pump chamber. The nozzle body means includes a supply passage means with a check valve in fluid communication with the radial supply passage when the needle plunger is in the raised position. The opposite end of the supply passage means is to sequentially receive a metered quantity of pressurized fuel, and the needle plunger allows aeriform fluid flow from the combustion chamber into the pump chamber. The needle plunger blocks flow through the radial discharge orifices until such time as the needle plunger has moved a predetermined axial extent so that the radial discharge ports come into alignment with the radial discharge orifices to initiate an air-assist discharge of air, fuel vapors and fuel from the radial discharge orifices.

  4. PRESERVATION OF AS(III) AND AS(V) IN DRINKING WATER SUPPLY SAMPLES FROM ACROSS THE UNITED STATES USING EDTA AND ACETIC ACID AS A MEANS OF MINIMIZING IRON-ARSENIC CO-PRECIPITATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper evaluates seven different treatment/storage conditions for the preservation of the native As(III)/As(V) found in ten drinking water supplies from across the US. These ten waters were chosen because they have different As(III)/As(V) distributions; six of these waters c...

  5. 7 CFR 1000.6 - Supply plant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Supply plant. 1000.6 Section 1000.6 Agriculture... Definitions § 1000.6 Supply plant. Supply plant means a plant approved by a duly constituted regulatory agency... diverts fluid milk products to other plants or manufactures dairy products on its premises....

  6. 7 CFR 1000.6 - Supply plant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Supply plant. 1000.6 Section 1000.6 Agriculture... Definitions § 1000.6 Supply plant. Supply plant means a plant approved by a duly constituted regulatory agency... diverts fluid milk products to other plants or manufactures dairy products on its premises....

  7. 7 CFR 1000.6 - Supply plant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Supply plant. 1000.6 Section 1000.6 Agriculture... Definitions § 1000.6 Supply plant. Supply plant means a plant approved by a duly constituted regulatory agency... diverts fluid milk products to other plants or manufactures dairy products on its premises....

  8. 7 CFR 1000.6 - Supply plant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Supply plant. 1000.6 Section 1000.6 Agriculture... Definitions § 1000.6 Supply plant. Supply plant means a plant approved by a duly constituted regulatory agency... diverts fluid milk products to other plants or manufactures dairy products on its premises....

  9. 7 CFR 1000.6 - Supply plant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Supply plant. 1000.6 Section 1000.6 Agriculture... Definitions § 1000.6 Supply plant. Supply plant means a plant approved by a duly constituted regulatory agency... diverts fluid milk products to other plants or manufactures dairy products on its premises....

  10. The Relationship of Loss, Mean Age of Air and the Distribution of CFCs to Stratospheric Circulation and Implications for Atmospheric Lifetimes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Douglass, A. R.; Stolarski, R. S.; Schoeberl, M. R.; Jackman, C. H.; Guptal, M. L.; Newman, P. A.; Nielsen, J. E.; Fleming, E. L.

    2007-01-01

    Man-made molecules called chlorofluorcarbons (CFCs) are broken apart in the stratosphere by high energy light, and the reactive chlorine gases that come from them cause the ozone hole. Since the ozone layer stops high energy light from reaching low altitudes, CFCs must be transported to high altitudes to be broken apart. The number of molecules per volume (the density) is much smaller at high altitudes than near the surface, and CFC molecules have a very small chance of reaching that altitude in any particular year. Many tons of CFCs were put into the atmosphere during the end of the last century, and it will take many years for all of them to be destroyed. Each CFC has an atmospheric lifetime that depends on the amount of energy required to break them apart. Two of the gases that were made the most are CFC13 and CF2C12. It takes more energy to break apart CF2C12 than CFC13, and its lifetime is about 100 years, nearly twice as long as the lifetime for CFC13. It is hard to figure out the lifetimes from surface measurements because we don't know exactly how much was released into the air each year. Atmospheric models are used to predict what will happen to ozone and other gases as the CFCs decrease and other gases like C02 continue to increase during the next century. CFC lifetimes are used to predict future concentrations and all assessment models use the predicted future concentrations. The models have different circulations and the amount of CFC lost according to the model may not match the loss that is expected according to the lifetime. In models the amount destroyed per year depends on how fast the model pushes air into the stratosphere and how much goes to high altitudes each year. This paper looks at the way the model circulation changes the lifetimes, and looks at measurements that tell us which model is more realistic. Some models do a good job reproducing the age-of-air, which tells us that these models are circulating the stratospheric air at the right

  11. The Anaesthesia Gas Supply System

    PubMed Central

    Das, Sabyasachi; Chattopadhyay, Subhrajyoti; Bose, Payel

    2013-01-01

    The anaesthesia gas supply system is designed to provide a safe, cost-effective and convenient system for the delivery of medical gases at the point of-use. The doctrine of the anaesthesia gas supply system is based on four essential principles: Identity, continuity, adequacy and quality. Knowledge about gas supply system is an integral component of safe anaesthetic practice. Mishaps involving the malfunction or misuse of medical gas supply to operating theatres have cost many lives. The medical gases used in anaesthesia and intensive care are oxygen, nitrous oxide, medical air, entonox, carbon dioxide and heliox. Oxygen is one of the most widely used gases for life-support and respiratory therapy besides anaesthetic procedures. In this article, an effort is made to describe the production, storage and delivery of anaesthetic gases. The design of anaesthesia equipment must take into account the local conditions such as climate, demand and power supply. The operational policy of the gas supply system should have a backup plan to cater to the emergency need of the hospital, in the event of the loss of the primary source of supply. PMID:24249882

  12. Characteristics of the calibration curves of copper for the rapid sorting of steel scrap by means of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy under ambient air atmospheres.

    PubMed

    Kashiwakura, Shunsuke; Wagatsuma, Kazuaki

    2013-01-01

    For the rapid and precise sorting of steel scrap with relatively high contents of copper, laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) is a promising method. It has several advantages such that it can work under ambient air atmospheres, and specimens can be tested without any pretreatment, such as acid digestion, polishing of the surface of the specimens, etc. For the application of LIBS for actual steel scrap, we obtained emission spectra by an LIBS system, which was mainly comprised of an Nd:YAG laser, an Echelle-type spectrometer, and an ICCD detector. The standard reference materials (SRMs) of JISF FXS 350-352, which are Fe-Cu binary alloy and have certified concentrations of copper, were employed for making calibration lines. Considering spectral interferences from the emission lines of the iron matrix in the alloys, Cu I lines having wavelengths of 324.754 and 327.396 nm could be chosen. In five replicate measurements of each SRM, shorter delay times after laser irradiation and longer gate widths for detecting the transient emission signal are suggested to be the optimal experiment parameters. In the determination process, utilizing the calibration line from Cu I 327.396 nm was better because of less spectral interference. By using 200 pulsed laser shots for the measurement sequence, a limit of detection of 0.004 Cu at% could be obtained.

  13. Pump for supplying pressurized fuel to fuel injector of internal combustion engine

    SciTech Connect

    Igashira, T.; Sakakibara, Y.; Yoshinaga, T.; Abe, S.

    1987-03-17

    This patent describes a pump for supplying pressurized fuel to a fuel injector of an internal combustion engine comprising: a pump body having a bore; a plunger slidably disposed in the bore, the plunger and the bore forming a pump chamber enlarging and contracting according to displacement of the plunger in the bore. The pump chamber is connected to the fuel injector and holds fuel to be supplied to the fuel injector, the pump chamber sucking fuel from a reservoir when increasing in volume thereof and discharging the fuel when reducing in volume thereof so that pressurized fuel is supplied to the fuel injector. The plunger is provided with a transmitting member; means for urging the plunger in a direction that the plunger reduces the volume of the pump chamber, the urging means having means for applying a substantially constant force. The urging means is a pressure supply mechanism supplying highly pressurized air into the pump body; and a cam rotating in synchronization with rotation of the engine, the cam engaging with the transmitting member for part of the cycle of rotation of the engine so that the plunger increases the volume of the pump chamber. The cam releases the plunger in the remaining cycle of rotation of the engine to allow the urging means to urge the plunger so that the plunger displaces in a direction to reduce the volume of the pump chamber.

  14. RFID in Space: Exploring the Feasibility and Performance of Gen 2 Tags as a Means of Tracking Equipment, Supplies, and Consumable Products in Cargo Transport Bags onboard a Space Vehicle or Habitat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Erick C.; Richards, Casey; Herstein, Kelli; Franca, Rodrigo; Yagoda, Evan L.; Vasquez, Reuben

    2008-01-01

    Current inventory management techniques for consumables and supplies aboard space vehicles are burdensome and time consuming. Inventory of food, clothing, and supplies are taken periodically by manually scanning the barcodes on each item. The inaccuracy of reading barcodes and the excessive amount of time it takes for the astronauts to perform this function would be better spent doing scientific experiments. Therefore, there is a need for an alternative method of inventory control by NASA astronauts. Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) is an automatic data capture technology that has potential to create a more effective and user-friendly inventory management system (IMS). In this paper we introduce a Design for Six Sigma Research (DFSS-R) methodology that allows for reliability testing of RFID systems. The research methodology uses a modified sequential design of experiments process to test and evaluate the quality of commercially available RFID technology. The results from the experimentation are compared to the requirements provided by NASA to evaluate the feasibility of using passive Generation 2 RFID technology to improve inventory control aboard crew exploration vehicles.

  15. The Meaning of Meaning, Etc.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nilsen, Don L. F.

    This paper attempts to dispel a number of misconceptions about the nature of meaning, namely that: (1) synonyms are words that have the same meanings, (2) antonyms are words that have opposite meanings, (3) homonyms are words that sound the same but have different spellings and meanings, (4) converses are antonyms rather than synonyms, (5)…

  16. Continuous air monitor filter changeout apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Rodgers, John C.

    2008-07-15

    An apparatus and corresponding method for automatically changing out a filter cartridge in a continuous air monitor. The apparatus includes: a first container sized to hold filter cartridge replacements; a second container sized to hold used filter cartridges; a transport insert connectively attached to the first and second containers; a shuttle block, sized to hold the filter cartridges that is located within the transport insert; a transport driver mechanism means used to supply a motive force to move the shuttle block within the transport insert; and, a control means for operating the transport driver mechanism.

  17. 76 FR 51847 - Air Cargo Screening

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-18

    ... the air cargo supply chain. TSA Response: The 9/11 Act required the Secretary of Homeland Security to... conduct screening at stages earlier within the cargo supply chain and off-airport. Thus, the CCSP gives... air cargo throughout the supply chain. TSA has established multiple layers of security for cargo as...

  18. 41 CFR 101-27.303 - Reducing long supply.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Reducing long supply...-Maximizing Use of Inventories § 101-27.303 Reducing long supply. Through effective interagency matching of... curtailing procurement and by utilizing and redistributing long supply. (The term long supply means...

  19. 41 CFR 101-27.303 - Reducing long supply.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2011-07-01 2007-07-01 true Reducing long supply. 101...-Maximizing Use of Inventories § 101-27.303 Reducing long supply. Through effective interagency matching of... curtailing procurement and by utilizing and redistributing long supply. (The term long supply means...

  20. 41 CFR 101-27.303 - Reducing long supply.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true Reducing long supply. 101...-Maximizing Use of Inventories § 101-27.303 Reducing long supply. Through effective interagency matching of... curtailing procurement and by utilizing and redistributing long supply. (The term long supply means...

  1. 41 CFR 101-27.303 - Reducing long supply.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2014-07-01 2012-07-01 true Reducing long supply. 101...-Maximizing Use of Inventories § 101-27.303 Reducing long supply. Through effective interagency matching of... curtailing procurement and by utilizing and redistributing long supply. (The term long supply means...

  2. 48 CFR 252.239-7018 - Supply chain risk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Supply chain risk. 252.239... Clauses 252.239-7018 Supply chain risk. As prescribed in 239.7306(b), use the following clause: Supply... contractor incidental to a contract. Supply chain risk means the risk that an adversary may...

  3. Intonational meaning.

    PubMed

    Prieto, Pilar

    2015-01-01

    Traditionally, prosodic studies have focused on the study of intonational form and the study of intonational meaning has been relatively neglected. Similarly, the fields of semantics and pragmatics have paid little attention to the pragmatic uses of intonation. As a result, there is no firm agreement within the linguistic community on how to integrate the analysis of intonational meaning across languages into a unified prosodic, semantic, and pragmatic approach. This article provides an overview of the literature on intonational meaning, describing the recent advances made in the fields of prosody, semantics/pragmatics, and syntax. Several theoretical approaches to explaining the semantics and pragmatics of intonation are presented. A common feature to most frameworks is that intonation (1) should be regarded as an integral part of linguistic grammar; and (2) typically encodes meanings related to the modal aspect of propositions. However, features such as compositionality, duality of structure, and context-dependency are still hotly debated issues. These features will be discussed from different theoretical perspectives, and we will identify potential advances related to the full integration of intonational meaning into dynamic and multidimensional models of meaning.

  4. Intonational meaning.

    PubMed

    Prieto, Pilar

    2015-01-01

    Traditionally, prosodic studies have focused on the study of intonational form and the study of intonational meaning has been relatively neglected. Similarly, the fields of semantics and pragmatics have paid little attention to the pragmatic uses of intonation. As a result, there is no firm agreement within the linguistic community on how to integrate the analysis of intonational meaning across languages into a unified prosodic, semantic, and pragmatic approach. This article provides an overview of the literature on intonational meaning, describing the recent advances made in the fields of prosody, semantics/pragmatics, and syntax. Several theoretical approaches to explaining the semantics and pragmatics of intonation are presented. A common feature to most frameworks is that intonation (1) should be regarded as an integral part of linguistic grammar; and (2) typically encodes meanings related to the modal aspect of propositions. However, features such as compositionality, duality of structure, and context-dependency are still hotly debated issues. These features will be discussed from different theoretical perspectives, and we will identify potential advances related to the full integration of intonational meaning into dynamic and multidimensional models of meaning. PMID:26263426

  5. Shock-activated electrochemical power supplies

    DOEpatents

    Benedick, William B.; Graham, Robert A.; Morosin, Bruno

    1988-01-01

    A shock-activated electrochemical power supply is provided which is initiated extremely rapidly and which has a long shelf life. Electrochemical power supplies of this invention are initiated much faster than conventional thermal batteries. Power supplies of this invention comprise an inactive electrolyte and means for generating a high-pressure shock wave such that the shock wave is propagated through the electrolytes rendering the electrolyte electrochemically active.

  6. Shock-activated electrochemical power supplies

    DOEpatents

    Benedick, W.B.; Graham, R.A.; Morosin, B.

    1987-04-20

    A shock-activated electrochemical power supply is provided which is initiated extremely rapidly and which has a long shelf life. Electrochemical power supplies of this invention are initiated much faster than conventional thermal batteries. Power supplies of this invention comprise an inactive electrolyte and means for generating a high-pressure shock wave such that the shock wave is propagated through the electrolyte rendering the electrolyte electrochemically active. 2 figs.

  7. Shock-activated electrochemical power supplies

    DOEpatents

    Benedick, W.B.; Graham, R.A.; Morosin, B.

    1988-11-08

    A shock-activated electrochemical power supply is provided which is initiated extremely rapidly and which has a long shelf life. Electrochemical power supplies of this invention are initiated much faster than conventional thermal batteries. Power supplies of this invention comprise an inactive electrolyte and means for generating a high-pressure shock wave such that the shock wave is propagated through the electrolytes rendering the electrolyte electrochemically active. 2 figs.

  8. Analysis of 222Rn concentration in North Carolina household water supplies derived from private wells.

    PubMed

    Watson, J E; Evans, J P; Mabry, A M

    1993-08-01

    The objectives of this study were to characterize the concentrations of 222Rn in North Carolina household groundwater supplies and to investigate the relationship between indoor air and groundwater 222Rn concentrations. Measurements of 222Rn in groundwater supplies were performed in 400 North Carolina homes in which a state/Environmental Protection Agency survey had made measurements of indoor airborne 222Rn. The arithmetic mean 222Rn concentration measured in groundwater supplies statewide was 67 Bq L-1 (1,800 pCi L-1), and the geometric mean was 24 Bq L-1 (660 pCi L-1). Sixty-seven percent of the state's homes with wells had 222Rn water concentrations in excess of the Environmental Protection Agency's proposed limit for public drinking water supplies of 11 Bq L-1 (300 pCi L-1). The percentage of homes with water concentrations in excess of the proposed limit was 30% in the eastern region of the state, 75% in the central region, and 83% in the western region. No significant correlation was observed between measurements of indoor air and water 222Rn concentrations in these homes.

  9. 32 CFR 901.24 - Supply of forms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Springs, CO 80840-5651. DD Form 1870 is stocked and issued by the Air Force Academy Activities Group, HQ... Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE MILITARY TRAINING AND SCHOOLS APPOINTMENT TO THE UNITED STATES AIR FORCE ACADEMY Nomination Procedures and Requirements § 901.24 Supply...

  10. 32 CFR 901.24 - Supply of forms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Springs, CO 80840-5651. DD Form 1870 is stocked and issued by the Air Force Academy Activities Group, HQ... Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE MILITARY TRAINING AND SCHOOLS APPOINTMENT TO THE UNITED STATES AIR FORCE ACADEMY Nomination Procedures and Requirements § 901.24 Supply...

  11. 32 CFR 901.24 - Supply of forms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Springs, CO 80840-5651. DD Form 1870 is stocked and issued by the Air Force Academy Activities Group, HQ... Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE MILITARY TRAINING AND SCHOOLS APPOINTMENT TO THE UNITED STATES AIR FORCE ACADEMY Nomination Procedures and Requirements § 901.24 Supply...

  12. 32 CFR 901.24 - Supply of forms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Springs, CO 80840-5651. DD Form 1870 is stocked and issued by the Air Force Academy Activities Group, HQ... Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE MILITARY TRAINING AND SCHOOLS APPOINTMENT TO THE UNITED STATES AIR FORCE ACADEMY Nomination Procedures and Requirements § 901.24 Supply...

  13. 32 CFR 901.24 - Supply of forms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Springs, CO 80840-5651. DD Form 1870 is stocked and issued by the Air Force Academy Activities Group, HQ... Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE MILITARY TRAINING AND SCHOOLS APPOINTMENT TO THE UNITED STATES AIR FORCE ACADEMY Nomination Procedures and Requirements § 901.24 Supply...

  14. 40 CFR 92.108 - Intake and cooling air measurements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... practice J244 (incorporated by reference at § 92.5) are allowed. (b) Humidity and temperature measurements. (1) Air that has had its absolute humidity altered is considered humidity-conditioned air. For this type of intake air supply, the humidity measurements must be made within the intake air supply...

  15. 40 CFR 91.310 - Engine intake air humidity measurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Engine intake air humidity measurement... Provisions § 91.310 Engine intake air humidity measurement. This section refers to engines which are supplied... air, the ambient testcell humidity measurement may be used. (a) Humidity conditioned air supply....

  16. 40 CFR 91.310 - Engine intake air humidity measurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Engine intake air humidity measurement... Provisions § 91.310 Engine intake air humidity measurement. This section refers to engines which are supplied... air, the ambient testcell humidity measurement may be used. (a) Humidity conditioned air supply....

  17. 40 CFR 91.310 - Engine intake air humidity measurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Engine intake air humidity measurement... Provisions § 91.310 Engine intake air humidity measurement. This section refers to engines which are supplied... air, the ambient testcell humidity measurement may be used. (a) Humidity conditioned air supply....

  18. How Mean is the Mean?

    PubMed Central

    Speelman, Craig P.; McGann, Marek

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we voice concerns about the uncritical manner in which the mean is often used as a summary statistic in psychological research. We identify a number of implicit assumptions underlying the use of the mean and argue that the fragility of these assumptions should be more carefully considered. We examine some of the ways in which the potential violation of these assumptions can lead us into significant theoretical and methodological error. Illustrations of alternative models of research already extant within Psychology are used to explore methods of research less mean-dependent and suggest that a critical assessment of the assumptions underlying its use in research play a more explicit role in the process of study design and review. PMID:23888147

  19. Wood stove with safety forced air system

    SciTech Connect

    Erickson, A.J.; Thulman, R.D.

    1982-08-03

    A high efficiency, air-tight wood stove has a firebox with front, side, rear, top and bottom walls, primary air introducing means for admitting combustion air into the firebox, air flow means adjacent the bottom of the firebox for directing a flow of air upwardly across at least one firebox wall, at least one supplemental air inlet for diverting a portion of the air from the air flow means into the firebox, fan means for forcing air through the air flow means and through the supplemental air inlet, the size of the primary air introducing means being chosen to automatically restrict the combustion in the firebox if the fan means stops to maintain the temperature of the stove and surroundings at safe levels.

  20. 40 CFR 91.310 - Engine intake air humidity measurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... with intake air other than the ambient air in the test cell (i.e., air which has been pumbed directly to the engine air intake system). For engines which use ambient test cell air for the engine intake... the humidity conditioning has taken place. (b) Unconditioned air supply. Humidity measurements...

  1. 40 CFR 90.310 - Engine intake air humidity measurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... engines which are supplied with intake air other than the ambient air in the test cell (i.e., air which has been pumped directly to the engine air intake system). For engines which use ambient test cell air for the engine intake air, the ambient test cell humidity measurement may be used. (a)...

  2. 40 CFR 91.310 - Engine intake air humidity measurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... with intake air other than the ambient air in the test cell (i.e., air which has been pumbed directly to the engine air intake system). For engines which use ambient test cell air for the engine intake... the humidity conditioning has taken place. (b) Unconditioned air supply. Humidity measurements...

  3. 40 CFR 90.310 - Engine intake air humidity measurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... engines which are supplied with intake air other than the ambient air in the test cell (i.e., air which has been pumped directly to the engine air intake system). For engines which use ambient test cell air for the engine intake air, the ambient test cell humidity measurement may be used. (a)...

  4. 14 CFR 29.1091 - Air induction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Air induction. 29.1091 Section 29.1091... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Induction System § 29.1091 Air induction. (a) The air induction system for each engine and auxiliary power unit must supply the air required by that engine...

  5. 14 CFR 29.1091 - Air induction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Air induction. 29.1091 Section 29.1091... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Induction System § 29.1091 Air induction. (a) The air induction system for each engine and auxiliary power unit must supply the air required by that engine...

  6. 14 CFR 29.1091 - Air induction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Air induction. 29.1091 Section 29.1091... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Induction System § 29.1091 Air induction. (a) The air induction system for each engine and auxiliary power unit must supply the air required by that engine...

  7. 14 CFR 27.1091 - Air induction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Air induction. 27.1091 Section 27.1091... STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Induction System § 27.1091 Air induction. (a) The air induction system for each engine must supply the air required by that engine under the operating...

  8. 14 CFR 27.1091 - Air induction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Air induction. 27.1091 Section 27.1091... STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Induction System § 27.1091 Air induction. (a) The air induction system for each engine must supply the air required by that engine under the operating...

  9. 14 CFR 27.1091 - Air induction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Air induction. 27.1091 Section 27.1091... STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Induction System § 27.1091 Air induction. (a) The air induction system for each engine must supply the air required by that engine under the operating...

  10. 14 CFR 27.1091 - Air induction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Air induction. 27.1091 Section 27.1091... STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Induction System § 27.1091 Air induction. (a) The air induction system for each engine must supply the air required by that engine under the operating...

  11. 14 CFR 29.1091 - Air induction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Air induction. 29.1091 Section 29.1091... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Induction System § 29.1091 Air induction. (a) The air induction system for each engine and auxiliary power unit must supply the air required by that engine...

  12. 14 CFR 27.1091 - Air induction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Air induction. 27.1091 Section 27.1091... STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Induction System § 27.1091 Air induction. (a) The air induction system for each engine must supply the air required by that engine under the operating...

  13. 14 CFR 29.1091 - Air induction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Air induction. 29.1091 Section 29.1091... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Induction System § 29.1091 Air induction. (a) The air induction system for each engine and auxiliary power unit must supply the air required by that engine...

  14. Feedstock Supply System Logistics

    SciTech Connect

    2006-06-01

    Feedstock supply is a significant cost component in the production of biobased fuels, products, and power. The uncertainty of the biomass feedstock supply chain and associated risks are major barriers to procuring capital funding for start-up biorefineries.

  15. Synthetic optimization of air turbine for dental handpieces.

    PubMed

    Shi, Z Y; Dong, T

    2014-01-01

    A synthetic optimization of Pelton air turbine in dental handpieces concerning the power output, compressed air consumption and rotation speed in the mean time is implemented by employing a standard design procedure and variable limitation from practical dentistry. The Pareto optimal solution sets acquired by using the Normalized Normal Constraint method are mainly comprised of two piecewise continuous parts. On the Pareto frontier, the supply air stagnation pressure stalls at the lower boundary of the design space, the rotation speed is a constant value within the recommended range from literature, the blade tip clearance insensitive to while the nozzle radius increases with power output and mass flow rate of compressed air to which the residual geometric dimensions are showing an opposite trend within their respective "pieces" compared to the nozzle radius. PMID:25571069

  16. [Pollution of room air].

    PubMed

    Schlatter, J

    1986-01-01

    In the last decade the significance of indoor air pollution to human health has increased because of improved thermal insulation of buildings to save energy: air turnover is reduced and air quality is impaired. The most frequent air pollutants are tobacco smoke, radioactive radon gas emanating from the soil, formaldehyde from furniture and insulation material, nitrogen oxides from gas stoves, as well as solvents from cleaning agents. The most important pollutants leading to health hazards are tobacco smoke and air pollutants which are emitted continuously from building materials and furniture. Such pollutants have to be eliminated by reducing the emission rate. A fresh air supply is necessary to reduce the pollutants resulting from the inhabitants and their activities, the amount depending on the number of inhabitants and the usage of the room. The carbon dioxide level should not exceed 1500 ppm.

  17. Solar assisted heat pump on air collectors: A simulation tool

    SciTech Connect

    Karagiorgas, Michalis; Galatis, Kostas; Tsagouri, Manolis; Tsoutsos, Theocharis; Botzios-Valaskakis, Aristotelis

    2010-01-15

    The heating system of the bioclimatic building of the Greek National Centre for Renewable Energy Sources (CRES) comprises two heating plants: the first one includes an air source heat pump, Solar Air Collectors (SACs) and a heat distribution system (comprising a fan coil unit network); the second one is, mainly, a geothermal heat pump unit to cover the ground floor thermal needs. The SAC configuration as well as the fraction of the building heating load covered by the heating plant are assessed in two operation modes; the direct (hot air from the collectors is supplied directly to the heated space) and the indirect mode (warm air from the SAC or its mixture with ambient air is not supplied directly to the heated space but indirectly into the evaporator of the air source heat pump). The technique of the indirect mode of heating aims at maximizing the efficiency of the SAC, saving electrical power consumed by the compressor of the heat pump, and therefore, at optimizing the coefficient of performance (COP) of the heat pump due to the increased intake of ambient thermal energy by means of the SAC. Results are given for three research objectives: assessment of the heat pump efficiency whether in direct or indirect heating mode; Assessment of the overall heating plant efficiency on a daily or hourly basis; Assessment of the credibility of the suggested simulation model TSAGAIR by comparing its results with the TRNSYS ones. (author)

  18. Isokinetic air sampler

    DOEpatents

    Sehmel, George A.

    1979-01-01

    An isokinetic air sampler includes a filter, a holder for the filter, an air pump for drawing air through the filter at a fixed, predetermined rate, an inlet assembly for the sampler having an inlet opening therein of a size such that isokinetic air sampling is obtained at a particular wind speed, a closure for the inlet opening and means for simultaneously opening the closure and turning on the air pump when the wind speed is such that isokinetic air sampling is obtained. A system incorporating a plurality of such samplers provided with air pumps set to draw air through the filter at the same fixed, predetermined rate and having different inlet opening sizes for use at different wind speeds is included within the ambit of the present invention as is a method of sampling air to measure airborne concentrations of particulate pollutants as a function of wind speed.

  19. Shelter and indoor air.

    PubMed Central

    Stolwijk, J A

    1990-01-01

    Improvements in outdoor air quality that were achieved through the implementation of the Clean Air Act accentuate the quality of the indoor air as an important, if not dominant, factor in the determination of the total population exposure to air contaminants. A number of developments are adding important new determinants of indoor air quality. Energy conservation strategies require reductions in infiltration of outdoor air into buildings. New materials introduced in the construction and in the maintenance of buildings are contributing new air contaminants into the building atmosphere. Larger buildings require more and more complex ventilation systems that are less and less under the individual control of the occupants. All of these factors contribute to the current reality that indoor air contains more pollutants, and often at higher concentrations, than outdoor air. Especially in the larger buildings, it will be necessary to assure that an adequate quantity of fresh air of acceptable quality is provided to each individual space, and that no new sources of pollutants are added to a space or a whole building without appropriate adjustments in the supply of fresh air. PMID:2401264

  20. 40 CFR 160.45 - Test system supply facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... aquatic plants. (2) Facilities for plant growth, including, but not limited to greenhouses, growth... preserved by appropriate means. (b) When appropriate, plant supply facilities shall be provided....

  1. 40 CFR 160.45 - Test system supply facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... aquatic plants. (2) Facilities for plant growth, including, but not limited to greenhouses, growth... preserved by appropriate means. (b) When appropriate, plant supply facilities shall be provided....

  2. 40 CFR 160.45 - Test system supply facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... aquatic plants. (2) Facilities for plant growth, including, but not limited to greenhouses, growth... preserved by appropriate means. (b) When appropriate, plant supply facilities shall be provided....

  3. 40 CFR 160.45 - Test system supply facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... aquatic plants. (2) Facilities for plant growth, including, but not limited to greenhouses, growth... preserved by appropriate means. (b) When appropriate, plant supply facilities shall be provided....

  4. 141. NITROGEN SUPPLY PANEL PRESSURE REGULATOR IN NORTHWEST CORNER OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    141. NITROGEN SUPPLY PANEL PRESSURE REGULATOR IN NORTHWEST CORNER OF CONTROL ROOM (214), LSB (BLDG. 751), FACING WEST - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Pad 3 East, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  5. 133. NITROGEN SUPPLY PANEL ON SOUTH WALL OF CONTROL ROOM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    133. NITROGEN SUPPLY PANEL ON SOUTH WALL OF CONTROL ROOM (114), LSB (BLDG. 770) - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Pad 3 West, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  6. 7. SITE BUILDING 022 WATER SUPPLY TANK VIEW ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. SITE BUILDING 022 - WATER SUPPLY TANK - VIEW IS LOOKING NORTH AT WATER TOWERS AND DIRECTLY AT SITE ENTRY GATE. - Cape Cod Air Station, Massachusetts Military Reservation, Sandwich, Barnstable County, MA

  7. 7 CFR 1124.11 - Cooperative reserve supply unit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Cooperative reserve supply unit. 1124.11 Section 1124... MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1124.11 Cooperative reserve supply unit. Cooperative reserve supply unit means any cooperative association or its agent that is a handler pursuant to §...

  8. Air conditioned suit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carl, G. R. (Inventor)

    1973-01-01

    An environmentally controlled suit is described consisting of an airtight outergarment attached by an airtight bellows to the wall of a sterile chamber, an undergarment providing for circulation of air near the skin of the wearer, and a circulation system comprised of air supply and distribution to the extremities of the undegarment and central collection and exhaust of air from the midsection of the undergarment. A workman wearing the undergarment and attached circulation system enters the outer garment through a tunnel in the chamber wall and the attached bellows to work in the chamber without any danger of spreading bacteria.

  9. Air cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okamura, Okiyoshi; Wakasa, Masayuki; Tamanoi, Yoshihito

    1991-04-01

    The present invention relates to an air cell. This air cell provides a compact light-weight power source for model aircraft permitting them to fly for an extended period so that they may be used for such practical purposes as crop dusting, surveying, and photographing. The cell is comprised of a current collector so disposed between a magnesium, zinc, or aluminum alloy cathode and a petroleum graphite anode that it is in contact with the anode. The anode is formed by adding polytetrafluoroethylene dispersion liquid in a mixture of active carbon and graphite powder, pouring the mixture into a mold and heating it to form the anode. It is fabricated by a plurality of anode sections and is formed with at least one hole so that it can provide a cell which is compact in size and light in weight yet is capable of generating a high output. The anode, the cathode, and a separator are wetted by an electrolytic liquid. The electrolyte is continuously supplied through the life of the cell.

  10. United States Air Force 611th Civil Engineer Squadron, Elmendorf AFB, Alaska. Final engineering evaluation/cost analysis potential tce impact to the drinking water supply, Galena Airport, Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    1996-02-05

    This decision document presents the selected removal action to address potential trichloroethene (TCE) impact to drinking water supply wells, located in the Installation Restoration Program (IRP) site ST009, otherwise known as the West Unit, at Galena Airport, Alaska. The information fron the RI Report is summarized, along with an analysis of potential removal action alternatives, in the Engineering Evaluation/Cost Analysis (EE/CA).

  11. Experimental studies on an air-air jet exhaust pump

    SciTech Connect

    Chou, S.K.

    1986-01-01

    Industrial ventilation employing an air-air jet exhaust pump connected to a compressed-air line was investigated. The motive air supply pressure was maintained between 2 and 3 bar. A unique ejector housing was constructed to receive both the convergent-divergent primary nozzle and the mixing chamber. The entire unit adapts readily to any existing compressed-air system. The mixing chamber was so constructed that the length of its cylindrical section may be changed. Pressure variations along the mixing chamber were recorded, and this offered a valuable appreciation of the effects of the length-to-diameter ratios. Results indicate the influence of the supply air pressure and pressure ratio on the jet entrainment capacity and efficiency. It has also been shown that the present design is capable of achieving the maximum reported jet-pump efficiency of around 25% corresponding to a nozzle-to-mixing chamber area ratio of 0.15.

  12. Air Pollution Control, Part I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strauss, Werner, Ed.

    Authoritative reviews in seven areas of current importance in air pollution control are supplied in this volume, the first of a two-part set. Titles contained in this book are: "Dispersion of Pollutants Emitted into the Atmosphere,""The Formation and Control of Oxides of Nitrogen in Air Pollution,""The Control of Sulfur Emissions from Combustion…

  13. New intelligent magnet power supplies for LAMPF

    SciTech Connect

    Cohen, S.; Sturrock, J.

    1991-01-01

    New magnet power supplies are scheduled to be installed in the proton linac at the Clinton P. Anderson Meson Physics Facility (LAMPF). The control and interface design of these power supplies represents a departure from all others onsite. A high-level ASCII control protocol has been designed. The supplies have sophisticated microprocessor control onboard and communicate with the accelerator control system via RS-422 (serial communications). The low-level software used by the accelerator control system is currently being rewritten to accommodate these new devices. They will communicate with the control system through a terminal server port connected to the site-wide ethernet backbone. This means that each supply will, for all intents and purposes, be a network object. Details of the design strategies for the analog and digital control for these supplies as well as the control protocol interface will be presented. 5 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  14. Air Pollution

    MedlinePlus

    Air pollution is a mixture of solid particles and gases in the air. Car emissions, chemicals from factories, ... Ozone, a gas, is a major part of air pollution in cities. When ozone forms air pollution, it's ...

  15. Competing for supply.

    PubMed

    Stolle, B

    2001-02-01

    The Internet was supposed to make it possible for anybody anywhere to get anything anytime. Instead, it's magnified suppliers' miscalculations into global shortages. But if the Net caused these supply chain woes, it's also the solution, says the CEO of a supply-chain software manufacturer. PMID:11213695

  16. Power supply conditioning circuit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Primas, L. E.; Loveland, R.

    1987-01-01

    A power supply conditioning circuit that can reduce Periodic and Random Deviations (PARD) on the output voltages of dc power supplies to -150 dBV from dc to several KHz with no measurable periodic deviations is described. The PARD for a typical commercial low noise power supply is -74 dBV for frequencies above 20 Hz and is often much worse at frequencies below 20 Hz. The power supply conditioning circuit described here relies on the large differences in the dynamic impedances of a constant current diode and a zener diode to establish a dc voltage with low PARD. Power supplies with low PARD are especially important in circuitry involving ultrastable frequencies for the Deep Space Network.

  17. Spatial Data Supply Chains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varadharajulu, P.; Azeem Saqiq, M.; Yu, F.; McMeekin, D. A.; West, G.; Arnold, L.; Moncrieff, S.

    2015-06-01

    This paper describes current research into the supply of spatial data to the end user in as close to real time as possible via the World Wide Web. The Spatial Data Infrastructure paradigm has been discussed since the early 1990s. The concept has evolved significantly since then but has almost always examined data from the perspective of the supplier. It has been a supplier driven focus rather than a user driven focus. The current research being conducted is making a paradigm shift and looking at the supply of spatial data as a supply chain, similar to a manufacturing supply chain in which users play a significant part. A comprehensive consultation process took place within Australia and New Zealand incorporating a large number of stakeholders. Three research projects that have arisen from this consultation process are examining Spatial Data Supply Chains within Australia and New Zealand and are discussed within this paper.

  18. Generating Resources Supply Curves.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration. Division of Power Resources Planning.

    1985-07-01

    This report documents Pacific Northwest supply curve information for both renewable and other generating resources. Resources are characterized as ''Renewable'' and ''Other'' as defined in section 3 or the Pacific Northwest Electric Power Planning and Conservation Act. The following resources are described: renewable: (cogeneration; geothermal; hydroelectric (new); hydroelectric (efficiency improvement); solar; and wind); other (nonrenewable generation resources: coal; combustion turbines; and nuclear. Each resource has the following information documented in tabular format: (1) Technical Characteristics; (2) Costs (capital and O and M); (3) Energy Distribution by Month; and (4) Supply Forecast (energy). Combustion turbine (CT) energy supply is not forecasted because of CT's typical peaking application. Their supply is therefore unconstrained in order to facilitate analysis of their operation in the regional electrical supply system. The generic nuclear resource is considered unavailable to the region over the planning horizon.

  19. Analyzing nonrenewable resource supply

    SciTech Connect

    Bohi, D.R.; Toman, M.A.

    1984-01-01

    Starting with their vision of a useful model of supply behavior as dynamic and market oriented, the authors examine the literature to see what it offers, to fill in some of the missing elements, and to direct attention to the research that is required. Following an introduction, separate chapters deal with the basic theory of supply behavior; joint products, externalities, and technical change; uncertainty, expectations, and supply behavior; aggregate supply and market behavior; and empirical methods and problems. The authors argue that practical understanding of nonrenewable resource supply is hampered by gaps among theory, methodology, and data, and offer a standard designed to achieve consistency among theory, data, and estimation methods. Their recommendations for additional research focus on general specification issues, uncertainty and expectations, market-level analysis, and strategic behavioral issues. 151 references, 9 figures.

  20. Selected supplies prognosis problems of aviation techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Żurek, J.; Czapla, R.

    2016-06-01

    Aviation technology, i.e. aircraft, control and airfield infrastructure wear out, become defective and need servicing. It seems indispensible to maintain facilities and spare parts at a level necessary to keep the technology in commission. The paper discusses the factors influencing spare parts supply requirements to secure air operations. Aviation technology has been classified with regard to various criteria, which influence the choice of supply management strategies, along with availability and aircraft exploitation cost. The method of optimization of the stock for a complex system characterized by series reliability structure according to the wear-out and cost criteria assuming Poisson's process of demand has been presented.

  1. ECS with advanced air cycle machine

    SciTech Connect

    Thomson, M.W.; Matulich, D.S.; Emerson, T.P.

    1990-11-06

    This patent describes an environmental control system for conditioning air delivered to an enclosed space operated in conjunction with a multistage turbine engine providing power for the enclosed space. It comprises: bleed air means for extracting an air flow of pressurized high temperature bleed air from the high pressure stage of the multistage turbine engine; first turbine means for directly receiving and converting latent thermal energy of the bleed air flow into rotational power; compressor means for receiving the bleed air flow from the first turbine means and for repressurizing the bleed air. The compressor means rotationally driven by the first turbine means; primary heat exchange means downstream of the compressor means for cooling the pressurized bleed air flow in heat exchange relationship with a flow of ram air; second turbine means for converting energy of the bleed air flow to rotational power and for further conditioning the bleed air flow, the second turbine means located downstream of the heat exchange means and integrally mounted to drive the compressor means; and duct means communicating with the second turbine means and the enclosed space for carrying the air flow to the enclosed space.

  2. Strategy Guideline: Compact Air Distribution Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Burdick, A.

    2013-06-01

    This Strategy Guideline discusses the benefits and challenges of using a compact air distribution system to handle the reduced loads and reduced air volume needed to condition the space within an energy efficient home. Traditional systems sized by 'rule of thumb' (i.e., 1 ton of cooling per 400 ft2 of floor space) that 'wash' the exterior walls with conditioned air from floor registers cannot provide appropriate air mixing and moisture removal in low-load homes. A compact air distribution system locates the HVAC equipment centrally with shorter ducts run to interior walls, and ceiling supply outlets throw the air toward the exterior walls along the ceiling plane; alternatively, high sidewall supply outlets throw the air toward the exterior walls. Potential drawbacks include resistance from installing contractors or code officials who are unfamiliar with compact air distribution systems, as well as a lack of availability of low-cost high sidewall or ceiling supply outlets to meet the low air volumes with good throw characteristics. The decision criteria for a compact air distribution system must be determined early in the whole-house design process, considering both supply and return air design. However, careful installation of a compact air distribution system can result in lower material costs from smaller equipment, shorter duct runs, and fewer outlets; increased installation efficiencies, including ease of fitting the system into conditioned space; lower loads on a better balanced HVAC system, and overall improved energy efficiency of the home.

  3. Lifting BLS Power Supplies

    SciTech Connect

    Sarychev, Michael

    2007-08-01

    This note describes BLS power supplies lifting techniques and provides stress calculations for lifting plate and handles bolts. BLS power supply weight is about 120 Lbs, with the center of gravity shifted toward the right front side. A lifting plate is used to attach a power supply to a crane or a hoist. Stress calculations show that safety factors for lifting plate are 12.9 (vs. 5 required) for ultimate stress and 5.7 (vs. 3 required) for yield stress. Safety factor for shackle bolt thread shear load is 37, and safety factor for bolts that attach handles is 12.8.

  4. Supply and Demand

    MedlinePlus

    ... a good breastfeeding rhythm with your baby. In reality, the efficient supply-and-demand rhythm of normal ... is one reason it’s a good idea to alternate which breast you use to begin nursing. A ...

  5. Tuning magnet power supply

    SciTech Connect

    Han, B.M.; Karady, G.G.; Thiessen, H.A.

    1989-01-01

    The particles in a Rapid Cycling Accelerator are accelerated by rf cavities, which are tuned by dc biased ferrite cores. The tuning is achieved by the regulation of bias current, which is produced by a power supply. The tuning magnet power supply utilizes a bridge circuit, supplied by a three phase rectifier. During the rise of the current, when the particles are accelerated, the current is controlled with precision by the bridge which operates a power amplifier. During the fall of the current, the bridge operates in a switching mode and recovers the energy stored in the ferrites. The recovered energy is stored in a capacitor bank. The bridge circuit is built with 150 power transistors. The drive, protection and control circuit were designed and built from commercial component. The system will be used for a rf cavity experiment in Los Alamos and will serve as a prototype tuning power supply for future accelerators. 1 ref., 7 figs.

  6. Variable oxygen/nitrogen enriched intake air system for internal combustion engine applications

    DOEpatents

    Poola, Ramesh B.; Sekar, Ramanujam R.; Cole, Roger L.

    1997-01-01

    An air supply control system for selectively supplying ambient air, oxygen enriched air and nitrogen enriched air to an intake of an internal combustion engine includes an air mixing chamber that is in fluid communication with the air intake. At least a portion of the ambient air flowing to the mixing chamber is selectively diverted through a secondary path that includes a selectively permeable air separating membrane device due a differential pressure established across the air separating membrane. The permeable membrane device separates a portion of the nitrogen in the ambient air so that oxygen enriched air (permeate) and nitrogen enriched air (retentate) are produced. The oxygen enriched air and the nitrogen enriched air can be selectively supplied to the mixing chamber or expelled to atmosphere. Alternatively, a portion of the nitrogen enriched air can be supplied through another control valve to a monatomic-nitrogen plasma generator device so that atomic nitrogen produced from the nitrogen enriched air can be then injected into the exhaust of the engine. The oxygen enriched air or the nitrogen enriched air becomes mixed with the ambient air in the mixing chamber and then the mixed air is supplied to the intake of the engine. As a result, the air being supplied to the intake of the engine can be regulated with respect to the concentration of oxygen and/or nitrogen.

  7. Dietary mineral supplies in Africa

    PubMed Central

    Joy, Edward J M; Ander, E Louise; Young, Scott D; Black, Colin R; Watts, Michael J; Chilimba, Allan D C; Chilima, Benson; Siyame, Edwin W P; Kalimbira, Alexander A; Hurst, Rachel; Fairweather-Tait, Susan J; Stein, Alexander J; Gibson, Rosalind S; White, Philip J; Broadley, Martin R

    2014-01-01

    Dietary micronutrient deficiencies (MNDs) are widespread, yet their prevalence can be difficult to assess. Here, we estimate MND risks due to inadequate intakes for seven minerals in Africa using food supply and composition data, and consider the potential of food-based and agricultural interventions. Food Balance Sheets (FBSs) for 46 countries were integrated with food composition data to estimate per capita supply of calcium (Ca), copper (Cu), iron (Fe), iodine (I), magnesium (Mg), selenium (Se) and zinc (Zn), and also phytate. Deficiency risks were quantified using an estimated average requirement (EAR) ‘cut-point’ approach. Deficiency risks are highest for Ca (54% of the population), followed by Zn (40%), Se (28%) and I (19%, after accounting for iodized salt consumption). The risk of Cu (1%) and Mg (<1%) deficiency are low. Deficiency risks are generally lower in the north and west of Africa. Multiple MND risks are high in many countries. The population-weighted mean phytate supply is 2770 mg capita−1 day−1. Deficiency risks for Fe are lower than expected (5%). However, ‘cut-point’ approaches for Fe are sensitive to assumptions regarding requirements; e.g. estimates of Fe deficiency risks are 43% under very low bioavailability scenarios consistent with high-phytate, low-animal protein diets. Fertilization and breeding strategies could greatly reduce certain MNDs. For example, meeting harvestplus breeding targets for Zn would reduce dietary Zn deficiency risk by 90% based on supply data. Dietary diversification or direct fortification is likely to be needed to address Ca deficiency risks. PMID:24524331

  8. Mars sample return power supply

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoang, Don; Ludwigs, Sharon; Schmitz, Paul; Wright, John

    1988-01-01

    A power supply is designed for a vehicle able to operate on the surface of Mars for a period of 5 to 10 years. This vehicle will be used for sample and data collection. The design is based on the assumption that the vehicle will be unmanned. Also, there will be no means by which components could be repaired or replaced while on the Martian surface. A consequence of this is that all equipment must meet high standards of reliability and, if possible, redundancy. Power will be supplied to the vehicle by means of a General Purpose Heat Source capable of producing a minimum of 7 kW of thermal power. The heat generated from the General Purpose Heat Source will be transferred to a Stirling engine via hot side heat pipes. The Stirling engine will then convert this heat into 2 kW of electrical power. Cold side heat pipes will be used to carry away waste heat, which will be released to the Martian environment via radiators connected to the end of the cold side heat pipes.

  9. Air Abrasion

    MedlinePlus

    ... delivered directly to your desktop! more... What Is Air Abrasion? Article Chapters What Is Air Abrasion? What Happens? The Pros and Cons Will I Feel Anything? Is Air Abrasion for Everyone? print full article print this ...

  10. Poster Puzzler Solution: Taking in Air | Poster

    Cancer.gov

    The current Poster Puzzler image shows the top of Building 560, where a new supply air handler was recently installed by Facilities Maintenance and Engineering (FME) staff, as part of lab renovations in wing 1, floor 1. FME staff enlarged the attic of the building to make space for the air handler. Building 560, the largest building at the NCI at Frederick campus, houses about 120 labs and has 19 air handlers. A supply air handler draws in outside air, filters it, cools or heats it, and adjusts the humidity to provide clean conditioned air to the laboratories. The Building 560 air handler weighs approximately 22,500 pounds and moves 22,000 cubic feet of air per minute.

  11. 41 CFR 101-30.101-10 - GSA section of the Federal Supply Catalog.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Federal Supply Catalog. 101-30.101-10 Section 101-30.101-10 Public Contracts and Property Management... PROCUREMENT 30-FEDERAL CATALOG SYSTEM 30.1-General § 101-30.101-10 GSA section of the Federal Supply Catalog. GSA section of the Federal Supply Catalog means a series of supply catalogs issued by GSA as...

  12. 41 CFR 101-30.101-10 - GSA section of the Federal Supply Catalog.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Federal Supply Catalog. 101-30.101-10 Section 101-30.101-10 Public Contracts and Property Management... PROCUREMENT 30-FEDERAL CATALOG SYSTEM 30.1-General § 101-30.101-10 GSA section of the Federal Supply Catalog. GSA section of the Federal Supply Catalog means a series of supply catalogs issued by GSA as...

  13. 41 CFR 101-30.101-10 - GSA section of the Federal Supply Catalog.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Federal Supply Catalog. 101-30.101-10 Section 101-30.101-10 Public Contracts and Property Management... PROCUREMENT 30-FEDERAL CATALOG SYSTEM 30.1-General § 101-30.101-10 GSA section of the Federal Supply Catalog. GSA section of the Federal Supply Catalog means a series of supply catalogs issued by GSA as...

  14. 41 CFR 101-30.101-10 - GSA section of the Federal Supply Catalog.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Federal Supply Catalog. 101-30.101-10 Section 101-30.101-10 Public Contracts and Property Management... PROCUREMENT 30-FEDERAL CATALOG SYSTEM 30.1-General § 101-30.101-10 GSA section of the Federal Supply Catalog. GSA section of the Federal Supply Catalog means a series of supply catalogs issued by GSA as...

  15. 41 CFR 101-30.101-10 - GSA section of the Federal Supply Catalog.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Federal Supply Catalog. 101-30.101-10 Section 101-30.101-10 Public Contracts and Property Management... PROCUREMENT 30-FEDERAL CATALOG SYSTEM 30.1-General § 101-30.101-10 GSA section of the Federal Supply Catalog. GSA section of the Federal Supply Catalog means a series of supply catalogs issued by GSA as...

  16. Using Water Transfers to Manage Supply Risk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Characklis, G. W.

    2007-12-01

    Most cities currently rely on water supplies with sufficient capacity to meet demand under almost all conditions. However, the rising costs of water supply development make the maintenance of infrequently used excess capacity increasingly expensive, and more utilities are considering the use of water transfers as a means of more cost effectively meeting demand under drought conditions. Transfers can take place between utilities, as well as different user groups (e.g., municipal and agricultural), and can involve both treated and untreated water. In cases where both the "buyer" and "seller" draw water from the same supply, contractual agreements alone can facilitate a transfer, but in other cases new infrastructure (e.g., pipelines) will be required. Developing and valuing transfer agreements and/or infrastructure investments requires probabilistic supply/demand analyses that incorporate elements of both hydrology and economics. The complexity of these analyses increases as more sophisticated types of agreements (e. g., options) are considered, and as utilities begin to consider how to integrate transfers into long-term planning efforts involving a more diversified portfolio of supply assets. This discussion will revolve around the methods used to develop minimum (expected) cost portfolios of supply assets that meet specified reliability goals. Two different case studies, one in both the eastern and western U.S., will be described with attention to: the role that transfers can play in reducing average supply costs; tradeoffs between costs and supply reliability, and; the effects of different transfer agreement types on the infrastructure capacity required to complete the transfers. Results will provide insights into the cost savings potential of more flexible water supply strategies.

  17. Petroleum supply monthly

    SciTech Connect

    1995-10-01

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of four publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information Administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. The other publications are the Weekly Petroleum Status Report (WPSR), the Winter Fuels Report, and the Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA). Data presented in the PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blends, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States.

  18. Petroleum Supply Monthly

    SciTech Connect

    1996-02-01

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of four publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information Administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. The other publications are the Weekly Petroleum Status Report (WPSR), the Winter Fuels Report, and the Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA). Data presented in the PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major U.S. geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics.

  19. Method and apparatus for varying the fuel ratio of an air-fuel mixture

    SciTech Connect

    Leonardi, S.

    1981-03-24

    A method and apparatus is described for varying the fuel ratio of an air-fuel mixture supplied to the carburetor of an internal combustion engine. In a first embodiment, a valve opens and closes a port in an aluminum block between a passage coupled to the pcv and carburetor and a second passage open to the atmosphere. A spring in the second passage modulates the air flow as a function of vacuum pressure and thermally responsive means maintains the valve closed until the engine reaches its operating temperature. In a second embodiment the valve is opened as a function of the wind pressure produced during vehicle movement.

  20. Zero Carryover Liquid-Desiccant Air Conditioner for Solar Applications: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Lowenstein, A.; Slayzak, S.; Kozubal, E.

    2006-07-01

    A novel liquid-desiccant air conditioner that dries and cools building supply air will transform the use of direct-contact liquid-desiccant systems in HVAC applications, improving comfort, air quality, and providing energy-efficient humidity control.

  1. Wetland and water supply

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Baker, John Augustus

    1960-01-01

    The Geological Survey has received numerous inquiries about the effects of proposed changes in the wetland environment. The nature of the inquiries suggests a general confusion in the public mind as to wetland values and an increasing concern by the public with the need for facts as a basis for sound decisions when public action is required. Perhaps the largest gap in our knowledge is in regard to the role played by the wetland in the natural water scheme. Specialists in such fields as agriculture and conservation have studied the wetland in relation to its special uses and values for farming and as a habitat for fish and wildlife. However, except as studied incidentally by these specialists, the role of the wetland with respect to water has been largely neglected. This facet of the wetland problem is of direct concern to the Geological Survey. We commonly speak of water in terms of its place in the hydrologic environment---as, for example, surface water or ground water. These terms imply that water can be neatly pigeonholed. With respect to the wetland environment nothing can be further from the truth. In fact, one objective of this discussion is to demonstrate that for the wetland environment surface water, ground water, and soil water cannot be separated realistically, but are closely interrelated and must be studied together. It should be noted that this statement holds true for the hydrologic environment in general, and that the wetland environment is by no means unique in this respect. Our second and principal objective is to identify some of the problems that must be studied in order to clarify the role of the wetland in relation to water supply. We have chosen to approach these objectives by briefly describing one area for which we have some information, and by using this example to point out some of the problems that need study. First, however, let us define what we, as geohydrologists, mean by wetland and briefly consider wetland classifications. For our

  2. Perioperative supply chain management.

    PubMed

    Feistritzer, N R; Keck, B R

    2000-09-01

    Faced with declining revenues and increasing operating expenses, hospitals are evaluating numerous mechanisms designed to reduce costs while simultaneously maintaining quality care. Many facilities have targeted initial cost reduction efforts in the reduction of labor expenses. Once labor expenses have been "right sized," facilities have continued to focus on service delivery improvements by the optimization of the "supply chain" process. This report presents a case study of the efforts of Vanderbilt University Medical Center in the redesign of its supply chain management process in the department of Perioperative Services. Utilizing a multidisciplinary project management structure, 3 work teams were established to complete the redesign process. To date, the project has reduced costs by $2.3 million and enhanced quality patient care by enhancing the delivery of appropriate clinical supplies during the perioperative experience.

  3. Coal supply for California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yancik, J. J.

    1978-01-01

    The potential sources and qualities of coals available for major utility and industrial consumers in California are examined and analyzed with respect to those factors that would affect the reliability of supplies. Other considerations, such as the requirements and assurances needed by the coal producers to enter into long-term contracts and dedicate large reserves of coal to these contracts are also discussed. Present and potential future mining contraints on coal mine operators are identified and analyzed with respect to their effect on availability of supply.

  4. 14 CFR 23.1091 - Air induction system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Air induction system. 23.1091 Section 23... § 23.1091 Air induction system. (a) The air induction system for each engine and auxiliary power unit and their accessories must supply the air required by that engine and auxiliary power unit and...

  5. 14 CFR 23.1091 - Air induction system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Air induction system. 23.1091 Section 23... § 23.1091 Air induction system. (a) The air induction system for each engine and auxiliary power unit and their accessories must supply the air required by that engine and auxiliary power unit and...

  6. 40 CFR 91.309 - Engine intake air temperature measurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Engine intake air temperature... Provisions § 91.309 Engine intake air temperature measurement. (a) Engine intake air temperature measurement... the supply system or in the air stream entering the engine. (b) The temperature measurements must...

  7. 40 CFR 91.309 - Engine intake air temperature measurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Engine intake air temperature... Provisions § 91.309 Engine intake air temperature measurement. (a) Engine intake air temperature measurement... the supply system or in the air stream entering the engine. (b) The temperature measurements must...

  8. 40 CFR 91.309 - Engine intake air temperature measurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Engine intake air temperature... Provisions § 91.309 Engine intake air temperature measurement. (a) Engine intake air temperature measurement... the supply system or in the air stream entering the engine. (b) The temperature measurements must...

  9. 40 CFR 91.309 - Engine intake air temperature measurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Engine intake air temperature... Provisions § 91.309 Engine intake air temperature measurement. (a) Engine intake air temperature measurement... the supply system or in the air stream entering the engine. (b) The temperature measurements must...

  10. 40 CFR 91.309 - Engine intake air temperature measurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Engine intake air temperature... Provisions § 91.309 Engine intake air temperature measurement. (a) Engine intake air temperature measurement... the supply system or in the air stream entering the engine. (b) The temperature measurements must...

  11. 40 CFR 92.108 - Intake and cooling air measurements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... recommended practice J244 (incorporated by reference at § 92.5) are allowed. (b) Humidity and temperature measurements. (1) Air that has had its absolute humidity altered is considered humidity-conditioned air. For this type of intake air supply, the humidity measurements must be made within the intake air...

  12. 40 CFR 92.108 - Intake and cooling air measurements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... recommended practice J244 (incorporated by reference at § 92.5) are allowed. (b) Humidity and temperature measurements. (1) Air that has had its absolute humidity altered is considered humidity-conditioned air. For this type of intake air supply, the humidity measurements must be made within the intake air...

  13. 40 CFR 92.108 - Intake and cooling air measurements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... recommended practice J244 (incorporated by reference at § 92.5) are allowed. (b) Humidity and temperature measurements. (1) Air that has had its absolute humidity altered is considered humidity-conditioned air. For this type of intake air supply, the humidity measurements must be made within the intake air...

  14. Supply-Chain Optimization Template

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quiett, William F.; Sealing, Scott L.

    2009-01-01

    The Supply-Chain Optimization Template (SCOT) is an instructional guide for identifying, evaluating, and optimizing (including re-engineering) aerospace- oriented supply chains. The SCOT was derived from the Supply Chain Council s Supply-Chain Operations Reference (SCC SCOR) Model, which is more generic and more oriented toward achieving a competitive advantage in business.

  15. Power Supplies for Precooler Ring

    SciTech Connect

    Fuja, Raymond; Praeg, Walter

    1980-12-12

    Eight power supplies will energize the antiproton Precooler ring. there will be two series connected supplies per quadrant. These supplies will power 32 dipole and 19 quadrupole magnets. The resistance and inductance per quadrant is R = 1.4045 Ohms and L = 0.466. Each powr supply will have 12-phase series bridge rectifiers and will be energized from the 480 V 3-phase grid. The total of eight power supplies are numbered IA, IIA, IIIA, IVA, and IB, IIB, IIIB, and IVB. Each quadrant will contain one A and one B supply. A block diagram of the Precooler ring with its power supplies is shown in Figure 1.

  16. Supply chain quality.

    PubMed

    Feary, Simon

    2009-01-01

    As the development of complex manufacturing models and virtual companies become more prevalent in today's growing global markets, it is increasingly important to support the relationships between manufacturer and supplier. Utilising these relationships will ensure that supply chains operate more effectively and reduce costs, risks and time-to-market time frames, whilst maintaining product quality. PMID:20058652

  17. APS power supply controls

    SciTech Connect

    Saunders, C.W.; Despe, O.D.

    1994-03-31

    The purpose of this document is to provide comprehensive coverage of the APS power supply control design. This includes application software, embedded controller software, networks, and hardware. The basic components will be introduced first, followed by the requirements driving the overall design. Subsequent sections will address each component of the design one by one. Latter sections will address specific applications.

  18. Supply chain management.

    PubMed

    Palevich, R F

    1999-02-01

    This article describes how Do It Best Corp. has used technology to improve its supply chain management. Among other topics it discusses the company's use of electronic data interchange, the Internet, electronic forecasting, and warehouse management systems to gain substantial savings and increase its competitiveness. PMID:10345634

  19. Teleconnected food supply shocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bren d'Amour, Christopher; Wenz, Leonie; Kalkuhl, Matthias; Steckel, Jan Christoph; Creutzig, Felix

    2016-03-01

    The 2008-2010 food crisis might have been a harbinger of fundamental climate-induced food crises with geopolitical implications. Heat-wave-induced yield losses in Russia and resulting export restrictions led to increases in market prices for wheat across the Middle East, likely contributing to the Arab Spring. With ongoing climate change, temperatures and temperature variability will rise, leading to higher uncertainty in yields for major nutritional crops. Here we investigate which countries are most vulnerable to teleconnected supply-shocks, i.e. where diets strongly rely on the import of wheat, maize, or rice, and where a large share of the population is living in poverty. We find that the Middle East is most sensitive to teleconnected supply shocks in wheat, Central America to supply shocks in maize, and Western Africa to supply shocks in rice. Weighing with poverty levels, Sub-Saharan Africa is most affected. Altogether, a simultaneous 10% reduction in exports of wheat, rice, and maize would reduce caloric intake of 55 million people living in poverty by about 5%. Export bans in major producing regions would put up to 200 million people below the poverty line at risk, 90% of which live in Sub-Saharan Africa. Our results suggest that a region-specific combination of national increases in agricultural productivity and diversification of trade partners and diets can effectively decrease future food security risks.

  20. Lightweight Regulated Power Supply

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mclyman, C. W.

    1985-01-01

    Power-supply circuit regulates output voltage by adjusting frequency of chopper circuit according to variations. Currently installed in battery charger for electric wheelchair, circuit is well suited to other uses in which light weight is important - for example, in portable computers, radios, and test instruments.

  1. Maintenance and supply options

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    The object of the Maintenance and Supply Option was to develop a high level operational philosophy related to maintenance and supply operations and incorporate these concepts into the Lunar Base Study. Specific products to be generated during this task were three trade studies and a conceptual design of the Logistic Supply Module. The crew size study was performed to evaluate crew sizes from the baseline size of four to a crew size of eight and determine the preferred crew size. The second trade study was to determine the impact of extending surface stay times and recommend a preferred duration of stay time as a function of crew, consumables, and equipment support capabilities. The third trade study was an evaluation of packaging and storage methods to determine the preferred logistics approach to support the lunar base. A modified scenario was developed and served as the basis of the individual trade studies. Assumptions and guidelines were also developed from experience with Apollo programs, Space Shuttle operations, and Space Station studies. With this information, the trade studies were performed and a conceptual design for the Logistic Supply Module was developed.

  2. Teleconnected food supply shocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bren d’Amour, Christopher; Wenz, Leonie; Kalkuhl, Matthias; Steckel, Jan Christoph; Creutzig, Felix

    2016-03-01

    The 2008–2010 food crisis might have been a harbinger of fundamental climate-induced food crises with geopolitical implications. Heat-wave-induced yield losses in Russia and resulting export restrictions led to increases in market prices for wheat across the Middle East, likely contributing to the Arab Spring. With ongoing climate change, temperatures and temperature variability will rise, leading to higher uncertainty in yields for major nutritional crops. Here we investigate which countries are most vulnerable to teleconnected supply-shocks, i.e. where diets strongly rely on the import of wheat, maize, or rice, and where a large share of the population is living in poverty. We find that the Middle East is most sensitive to teleconnected supply shocks in wheat, Central America to supply shocks in maize, and Western Africa to supply shocks in rice. Weighing with poverty levels, Sub-Saharan Africa is most affected. Altogether, a simultaneous 10% reduction in exports of wheat, rice, and maize would reduce caloric intake of 55 million people living in poverty by about 5%. Export bans in major producing regions would put up to 200 million people below the poverty line at risk, 90% of which live in Sub-Saharan Africa. Our results suggest that a region-specific combination of national increases in agricultural productivity and diversification of trade partners and diets can effectively decrease future food security risks.

  3. Exploration Supply Chain Simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    The Exploration Supply Chain Simulation project was chartered by the NASA Exploration Systems Mission Directorate to develop a software tool, with proper data, to quantitatively analyze supply chains for future program planning. This tool is a discrete-event simulation that uses the basic supply chain concepts of planning, sourcing, making, delivering, and returning. This supply chain perspective is combined with other discrete or continuous simulation factors. Discrete resource events (such as launch or delivery reviews) are represented as organizational functional units. Continuous resources (such as civil service or contractor program functions) are defined as enabling functional units. Concepts of fixed and variable costs are included in the model to allow the discrete events to interact with cost calculations. The definition file is intrinsic to the model, but a blank start can be initiated at any time. The current definition file is an Orion Ares I crew launch vehicle. Parameters stretch from Kennedy Space Center across and into other program entities (Michaud Assembly Facility, Aliant Techsystems, Stennis Space Center, Johnson Space Center, etc.) though these will only gain detail as the file continues to evolve. The Orion Ares I file definition in the tool continues to evolve, and analysis from this tool is expected in 2008. This is the first application of such business-driven modeling to a NASA/government-- aerospace contractor endeavor.

  4. Chapter 22: Compressed Air Evaluation Protocol

    SciTech Connect

    Benton, N.

    2014-11-01

    Compressed-air systems are used widely throughout industry for many operations, including pneumatic tools, packaging and automation equipment, conveyors, and other industrial process operations. Compressed-air systems are defined as a group of subsystems composed of air compressors, air treatment equipment, controls, piping, pneumatic tools, pneumatically powered machinery, and process applications using compressed air. A compressed-air system has three primary functional subsystems: supply, distribution, and demand. Air compressors are the primary energy consumers in a compressed-air system and are the primary focus of this protocol. The two compressed-air energy efficiency measures specifically addressed in this protocol are: high-efficiency/variable speed drive (VSD) compressor replacing modulating compressor; compressed-air leak survey and repairs. This protocol provides direction on how to reliably verify savings from these two measures using a consistent approach for each.

  5. Intraoral Air Pressure of Alaryngeal Speakers during a No-Air Insufflation Maneuver.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gorham, Mary M.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Intraoral air pressure was recorded during the production of consonant cognate pairs by 8 esophageal speakers (mean age 67 years) under 2 experimental conditions: after the insufflation of air and without air insufflation. Results revealed that peak intraoral air pressure magnitudes were significantly greater following the insufflation of air than…

  6. Proton driver power supply system

    SciTech Connect

    C. Jach and D. Wolff

    2002-06-03

    This paper describes magnet power supply system for a proposed Proton Driver at Fermilab. The magnet power supply system consists of resonant dipole/quadrupole power supply system, quadrupole tracking, dipole correction (horizontal and vertical) and sextupole power supply systems. This paper also describes preliminary design of the power distribution system supplying 13.8 kV power to all proton Driver electrical systems.

  7. 40 CFR 792.45 - Test system supply facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... maintaining algae and aquatic plants. (2) Facilities, as specified in the protocol, for plant growth, including but not limited to, greenhouses, growth chambers, light banks, and fields. (c) When appropriate... supplies shall be preserved by appropriate means. (b) When appropriate, plant supply facilities shall...

  8. 40 CFR 792.45 - Test system supply facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... maintaining algae and aquatic plants. (2) Facilities, as specified in the protocol, for plant growth, including but not limited to, greenhouses, growth chambers, light banks, and fields. (c) When appropriate... supplies shall be preserved by appropriate means. (b) When appropriate, plant supply facilities shall...

  9. 40 CFR 792.45 - Test system supply facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... maintaining algae and aquatic plants. (2) Facilities, as specified in the protocol, for plant growth, including but not limited to, greenhouses, growth chambers, light banks, and fields. (c) When appropriate... supplies shall be preserved by appropriate means. (b) When appropriate, plant supply facilities shall...

  10. 40 CFR 792.45 - Test system supply facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... maintaining algae and aquatic plants. (2) Facilities, as specified in the protocol, for plant growth, including but not limited to, greenhouses, growth chambers, light banks, and fields. (c) When appropriate... supplies shall be preserved by appropriate means. (b) When appropriate, plant supply facilities shall...

  11. 47 CFR 80.917 - Reserve power supply.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... batteries, they must be installed as high above the bilge as practicable, secured against shifting with... power supply circuits must be protected from overloads. (f) Means must be provided for charging any storage batteries used as a reserve power supply for the required radiotelephone installation. There...

  12. 47 CFR 80.860 - Reserve power supply.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... § 80.871. (d) All circuits connected to the reserve power supply must be protected from overloads. (e) Means must be provided for charging any batteries used as a reserve power supply. A continuous indication of the rate and polarity of the charging current during charging of the batteries must be...

  13. Can Water Mean Health?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Black, Maggie, Ed.

    1983-01-01

    This issue of UNICEF News explores the theme of connections between water and health in developing countries. The introductory article discusses prospects for improving health through water projects during the International Drinking Water Supply and Sanitation Decade (1981-90). Subsequent articles focus on (1) effects of a piped water supply on…

  14. Pellet stove with enhanced air circulation efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Burke, T.M.; Burke, W.L.

    1992-06-23

    This patent describes a stove for converting fuel to heat. It comprises means defining a fuel storage area; means for pressurizing the fuel storage area, the means comprising a single air blowing means; means defining a combustion area for allowing combustion to take place; vent means for venting air from the combustion area; means defining a heat exchange area adjacent to and in contact with the combustion area for removing heat from the combustion area; and means for conducting pressurized air from the fuel storage area directly to the combustion area and directly to the heat exchange area.

  15. High voltage power supply

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ruitberg, A. P.; Young, K. M. (Inventor)

    1985-01-01

    A high voltage power supply is formed by three discrete circuits energized by a battery to provide a plurality of concurrent output signals floating at a high output voltage on the order of several tens of kilovolts. In the first two circuits, the regulator stages are pulse width modulated and include adjustable ressistances for varying the duty cycles of pulse trains provided to corresponding oscillator stages while the third regulator stage includes an adjustable resistance for varying the amplitude of a steady signal provided to a third oscillator stage. In the first circuit, the oscillator, formed by a constant current drive network and a tuned resonant network included a step up transformer, is coupled to a second step up transformer which, in turn, supplies an amplified sinusoidal signal to a parallel pair of complementary poled rectifying, voltage multiplier stages to generate the high output voltage.

  16. Discontinuous Mode Power Supply

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lagadinos, John; Poulos, Ethel

    2012-01-01

    A document discusses the changes made to a standard push-pull inverter circuit to avoid saturation effects in the main inverter power supply. Typically, in a standard push-pull arrangement, the unsymmetrical primary excitation causes variations in the volt second integral of each half of the excitation cycle that could lead to the establishment of DC flux density in the magnetic core, which could eventually cause saturation of the main inverter transformer. The relocation of the filter reactor normally placed across the output of the power supply solves this problem. The filter reactor was placed in series with the primary circuit of the main inverter transformer, and is presented as impedance against the sudden changes on the input current. The reactor averaged the input current in the primary circuit, avoiding saturation of the main inverter transformer. Since the implementation of the described change, the above problem has not reoccurred, and failures in the main power transistors have been avoided.

  17. Streamlining the supply chain.

    PubMed

    Neumann, Lydon

    2003-07-01

    Effective management of the supply chain requires attention to: Product management--formulary development and maintenance, compliance, clinical involvement, standardization, and demand-matching. Sourcing and contracting--vendor consolidation, GPO portfolio management, price leveling, content management, and direct contracting Purchasing and payment-cycle--automatic placement, web enablement, centralization, evaluated receipts settlement, and invoice matching Inventory and distribution management--"unofficial" and "official" locations, vendor-managed inventory, automatic replenishment, and freight management.

  18. Streamlining the supply chain.

    PubMed

    Neumann, Lydon

    2003-07-01

    Effective management of the supply chain requires attention to: Product management--formulary development and maintenance, compliance, clinical involvement, standardization, and demand-matching. Sourcing and contracting--vendor consolidation, GPO portfolio management, price leveling, content management, and direct contracting Purchasing and payment-cycle--automatic placement, web enablement, centralization, evaluated receipts settlement, and invoice matching Inventory and distribution management--"unofficial" and "official" locations, vendor-managed inventory, automatic replenishment, and freight management. PMID:12866156

  19. Air resources

    SciTech Connect

    1995-10-01

    This section describes the ambient (surrounding) air quality of the TVA region, discusses TVA emission contributions to ambient air quality, and identifies air quality impacts to human health and welfare. Volume 2 Technical Document 2, Environmental Consequences, describes how changes in TVA emissions could affect regional air quality, human health, environmental resources, and materials. The primary region of the affected environment is broadly defined as the state of Tennessee, as well as southern Kentucky, western Virginia, southern West Virginia, western North Carolina, and northern Georgia, Alabama, and Mississippi. This area represents the watershed of the Tennessee River and the 201 counties of the greater TVA service area. Emissions from outside the Tennessee Valley region contribute to air quality in the Valley. Also, TVA emissions are transported outside the Valley and have some impact on air quality beyond the primary study area. Although the study area experiences a number of air quality problems, overall air quality is good.

  20. Distinguished ENSO response and moisture supply of dominant intraseasonal modes in the East Asian summer monsoon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oh, Hyoeun; Ha, Kyung-Ja; Chu, Jung-Eun; Yun, Kyung-Sook

    2013-04-01

    On the basis of various self-organizing map (SOM) analysis, a kind of artificial neural network, the dominant modes of the East Asian summer monsoon (EASM) are identified as the Meiyu-Baiu, Changma, post-Changma, and the dry-spell modes. The SOM approach supposes that sudden phase change during summer monsoon period results from the presence of non-linear coupled features of intraseasonal phases. Thus, the origin and nature of the moisture supply in the dominant intraseasonal modes of the EASM rainfall can be identified in terms of each mode. To discuss the uniqueness of EASM major modes, the horizontal and vertical moisture supply are examined using moisture budget equation consisting of convergence, advection and transient eddy terms. Strong moisture convergence region can be found over the southern part of Meiyu-Baiu rainband. The Changma mode has zonal-oriented moisture source which confined to low-level from surface to 925-hPa over the Korean peninsula. Furthermore, convective instability deeply developed in the Changma mode. It means advection of moist, warm air by low-level wind from the south and cold, dry air from the north are fundamental for generating convective instability and sustaining convective activity. On the contrary to Changma mode, post-Changma mode has meridional-oriented moisture source with its deep vertical profile. Moisture divergence regions cover the northern China, Korea, and Japan for dry-spell mode. Besides the moisture convergence and advection, the transient eddies play a role in supplying moisture over the boundary region of mean flow. Detailed analyses for the relationship between external components such as El Niño Southern Oscillation which can be affected slowly on the inter-annual time scale have been discussed.

  1. Released air during vapor and air cavitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jablonská, Jana; Kozubková, Milada

    2016-06-01

    Cavitation today is a very important problem that is solved by means of experimental and mathematical methods. The article deals with the generation of cavitation in convergent divergent nozzle of rectangular cross section. Measurement of pressure, flow rate, temperature, amount of dissolved air in the liquid and visualization of cavitation area using high-speed camera was performed for different flow rates. The measurement results were generalized by dimensionless analysis, which allows easy detection of cavitation in the nozzle. For numerical simulation the multiphase mathematical model of cavitation consisting of water and vapor was created. During verification the disagreement with the measurements for higher flow rates was proved, therefore the model was extended to multiphase mathematical model (water, vapor and air), due to release of dissolved air. For the mathematical modeling the multiphase turbulence RNG k-ɛ model for low Reynolds number flow with vapor and air cavitation was used. Subsequently the sizes of the cavitation area were verified. In article the inlet pressure and loss coefficient depending on the amount of air added to the mathematical model are evaluated. On the basis of the approach it may be create a methodology to estimate the amount of released air added at the inlet to the modeled area.

  2. ENGINEERING BULLETIN: AIR STRIPPING OF AQUEOUS SOLUTIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Air striding is a means to transfer contaminants from aqueous solutions to air. ontaminants are not destroyed by air stripping but are physically separated from the aqueous solutions. ontaminant vapors are transferred into the air stream and, if necessary, can be treated by incin...

  3. 14 CFR 125.155 - Shutoff means.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR CARRIERS... designated fire zone. However, means need not be provided to shut off flow in lines that are an integral part of an engine. (b) The shutoff means must allow an emergency operating sequence that is...

  4. 14 CFR 121.257 - Shutoff means.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR CARRIERS..., means need not be provided to shut off flow in lines that are an integral part of an engine. (b) The shutoff means must allow an emergency operating sequence that is compatible with the emergency...

  5. Air Pollution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilpin, Alan

    A summary of one of our most pressing environmental problems, air pollution, is offered in this book by the Director of Air Pollution Control for the Queensland (Australia) State Government. Discussion of the subject is not restricted to Queensland or Australian problems and policies, however, but includes analysis of air pollution the world over.…

  6. Wind generating means

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, M. F.

    1985-02-05

    A system for obtaining air movement is disclosed which includes a basin of water covered by a solar energy-transmitting dome a spaced distance over the basin. The basin is located on a mountainside, adjacent a cliff, or the like, a surface type heat exchanger is located in the water adjacent the bottom of the basin, and an air inlet passage is provided having one end which terminates above the water surface beneath the dome and an opposite end connected to the heat exchanger. A long air outlet passage in the form of a flexible tube made of canvas, plastic sheet, or the like, is connected to the outlet from the heat exchanger, which outlet passage extends downwardly along the mountain slope, cliff, or the like. Venturi tubes are located along the air outlet passage, and vane-driven devices are positioned at the venturi tubes for operation by the cooled air flowing downwardly therethrough. An air valve at the bottom end of the air outlet passage controls the rate of air flow therethrough. The long air outlet passage is shielded from the sun to prevent solar heating of air flowing therethrough.

  7. Solar-powered hot-air system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    Solar-powered air heater supplies part or all of space heating requirements of residential or commercial buildings and is interfaced with air to water heat exchanger to heat domestic hot water. System has potential application in drying agricultural products such as cotton, lumber, corn, grains, and peanuts.

  8. Health costs of a reduced energy supply.

    PubMed

    McCarroll, J R

    1983-10-01

    Health effects associated with electricity production, especially air pollution from fossil fuel combustion, have received much attention in the past 30 years. Virtually no attention has been paid to the health costs of a reduced or overpriced energy supply although these are real and formidable. Stringent regulations mandating control technology on stack emissions and/or burning of low sulfur fuels have been promulgated which cost the American public billions of dollars. These have indeed alleviated some health problems, but pressures to further tighten regulations offer little chance of further health benefits commensurate with their cost and are most likely to produce a new series of problems. PMID:6653529

  9. Zoned heating and air conditioning system

    SciTech Connect

    Beachboard, S.A.

    1987-06-16

    This patent describes a zoned heating and air conditioning system comprising: a central air handling system with an air heating means and an air cooling means and a blower connected to an air duct system; thermostats each have heating and cooling set points, respectively associated with and located in different zones of a building; dampers respectively associated with each building zone positioned in the air duct system. Each damper has an open position allowing air into the respective zone from the duct system and a closed position; relay means for connecting one thermostat to the air handling system upon a call for heating or cooling by one thermostat and disconnecting all other thermostats by connecting one thermostat's connections between the thermostat and air handling system. Only one thermostat is connected to the air handling system at a time and the relay means disconnects one thermostat from the air handling system after one thermostat is satisified; and damper actuating means for unlocking each damper in one building zone responsive actuated by a respective zone thermostat connected to the air handling system by the relay means. The damper actuates means including a damper solenoid for each damper located adjacent each damper and connected to a respective zone thermostat. It unlocks each damper in one building zone responsive to being actuated by the respective zone thermostat and unlocks the dampers in one building zone when one thermostat is actuated while preventing the dampers in another thermostat's building zone from unlocking.

  10. Nonequilibrium air radiation (Nequair) program: User's manual

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, C.

    1985-07-01

    A supplement to the data relating to the calculation of nonequilibrium radiation in flight regimes of aeroassisted orbital transfer vehicles contains the listings of the computer code NEQAIR (Nonequilibrium Air Radiation), its primary input data, and explanation of the user-supplied input variables. The user-supplied input variables are the thermodynamic variables of air at a given point, i.e., number densities of various chemical species, translational temperatures of heavy particles and electrons, and vibrational temperature. These thermodynamic variables do not necessarily have to be in thermodynamic equilibrium. The code calculates emission and absorption characteristics of air under these given conditions.

  11. Nonequilibrium air radiation (Nequair) program: User's manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Park, C.

    1985-01-01

    A supplement to the data relating to the calculation of nonequilibrium radiation in flight regimes of aeroassisted orbital transfer vehicles contains the listings of the computer code NEQAIR (Nonequilibrium Air Radiation), its primary input data, and explanation of the user-supplied input variables. The user-supplied input variables are the thermodynamic variables of air at a given point, i.e., number densities of various chemical species, translational temperatures of heavy particles and electrons, and vibrational temperature. These thermodynamic variables do not necessarily have to be in thermodynamic equilibrium. The code calculates emission and absorption characteristics of air under these given conditions.

  12. Food and water supply

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Popov, I. G.

    1975-01-01

    Supplying astronauts with adequate food and water on short and long-term space flights is discussed based on experiences gained in space flight. Food consumption, energy requirements, and suitability of the foodstuffs for space flight are among the factors considered. Physicochemical and biological methods of food production and regeneration of water from astronaut metabolic wastes, as well as wastes produced in a closed ecological system, or as a result of technical processes taking place in various spacecraft systems are suggested for long-term space flights.

  13. Strategy Guideline. Compact Air Distribution Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Burdick, Arlan

    2013-06-01

    This guideline discusses the benefits and challenges of using a compact air distribution system to handle the reduced loads and reduced air volume needed to condition the space within an energy efficient home. The decision criteria for a compact air distribution system must be determined early in the whole-house design process, considering both supply and return air design. However, careful installation of a compact air distribution system can result in lower material costs from smaller equipment, shorter duct runs, and fewer outlets; increased installation efficiencies, including ease of fitting the system into conditioned space; lower loads on a better balanced HVAC system, and overall improved energy efficiency of the home.

  14. Education and Ultimate Meaning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schinkel, Anders

    2015-01-01

    Richard Peters and John White have both argued that education should contribute to the meaning people are able to find in or give to life. Both dismiss the idea of ultimate or profound meaning ("the meaning of life") in favour of ordinary meaning, or "meaning in life". Thus they exemplify the trend visible also in the general…

  15. Air turbo-ramjet engine

    SciTech Connect

    Kepler, C.E.

    1991-12-24

    This patent describes a jet engine capable of being used to power an aircraft throughout a range of speeds from subsonic to high supersonic. It comprises means for bounding an internal passage centered on an axis and including, in succession as considered in the direction of axial flow of incoming air into and through the passage, a fixed-area air inlet section, a diverging passage section, a mixing section, a combustion section, and an outlet section; fan means situated in the air inlet section and including a rotor mounted in the bounding means for rotation about the axis and including a plurality of circumferentially spaced rotor blade members; means for selectively rotating the rotor about the axis with attendant impelling action of the rotor blade members on the air flowing therebetween; and means for selectively discharging air from a region of the passage situated between the air inlet section and the diverging passage section to the exterior of the bounding means, both at subsonic and supersonic speeds of the aircraft, when the amount of incoming air passing through the fixed-area inlet section exceeds that required in the combustion section.

  16. Oil supply: the outlook

    SciTech Connect

    Velocci, T.

    1982-07-01

    The post oil-glut world will leave OPEC still in control of world production levels and prices. Some estimates show US imports rising as much as 35% to 4.3 million barrels a day as the recession ends, but others think the direct coupling of energy demand and economic growth has ended. The potential for a substantial comeback in energy-intensive industries and a replacement of business inventories could lead to a surge in demand. The current increase in gasoline demand is seasonal, and reflects an effort to replenish oil inventories. Industry spokesmen credit high prices for the moderating effect on demand. US investment in oil exploration will rise only 14% to $95.3 billion after a 39% increase in 1980 because of stable oil prices. Offshore and Alaskan exploration have a high, but expensive, potential for reducing future imports. US dependence has dropped from 48% to 30% of total supply since 1977 because of exploration efforts and the Strategic Petroleum Reserve. Any future supply crisis will depend on Middle East politics, a break in the price and production swings, and OPEC manipulation of the market. (DCK)

  17. Future natural gas supplies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Despite recent optimism about the outlook for the future supply of domestic conventional natural gas, the Congressional Office of Technology Assessment (OTA) finds insufficient evidence to clearly justify either an optimistic or a pessimistic view. In a technical memorandum entitled “U.S. Natural Gas Availability: Conventional Gas Supply Through the Year 2000,” released recently by Rep. Philip R. Sharp (D-Ind,), chairman of the Subcommittee on Fossil and Synthetic Fuels of the Committee on Energy and Commerce, OTA concluded that substantial technical uncertainties prevented a reliable estimation of the likely natural gas production rates for later in this century. Even ignoring the potential for significant changes in gas prices and technology, OTA estimated that conventional gas production by the lower 48 states in the year 2000 could range from 9 to 19 trillion cubic feet (TCF) (0.25 to 0.53 trillion cubic meters), compared to 1982 production of 17.5 TCF. Similarly, production in the year 1990 could range from 13 to 20 TCF.

  18. Estimating the Mean Annual Surface Air Temperature at Armagh Observatory, Northern Ireland, and the Global Land-Ocean Temperature Index for Sunspot Cycle 24, the Current Ongoing Sunspot Cycle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Robert M.

    2013-01-01

    surface air temperature (ASAT) and the Global Land-Ocean Temperature Index (GLOTI) in relation to SSN and the SC in order to determine their likely values during SC24. Hence, it may provide insight as to whether solar forcing of global temperature is now lessening as a contributor to global warming, thereby indicating a possible cooling in the near term immediate future that potentially could ameliorate the effect of increased anthropogenic warming.

  19. Energy supplies and future engines for land, sea, and air.

    PubMed

    Hidy, George M; Chow, Judith C; England, Glen C; Legge, Alan H; Lloyd, Alan C; Watson, John G

    2012-11-01

    The 2012 Critical Review Discussion complements Wilson, (2012), provides pointers to more detailed treatments of different topics and adds additional dimensions to the area of "energy". These include broader aspects of technologies driven by fuel resources and environmental issues, the concept of energy technology innovation, evolution in transportation resources, and complexities of energy policies addressing carbon taxes or carbon trading. National and global energy data bases are identified and evaluated and conversion factors are given to allow their comparability.

  20. 46 CFR 197.432 - Surface-supplied air diving.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... at depths less than 190 fsw, except that dives with bottom times of 30 minutes or less may be... is continuously tended while in the water; (d) When a diver is in a physically confining space... time greater than 120 minutes, except when the diver is using a heavy-weight diving outfit or is...

  1. 46 CFR 197.432 - Surface-supplied air diving.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... at depths less than 190 fsw, except that dives with bottom times of 30 minutes or less may be... is continuously tended while in the water; (d) When a diver is in a physically confining space... time greater than 120 minutes, except when the diver is using a heavy-weight diving outfit or is...

  2. 42 CFR 84.130 - Supplied-air respirators; description.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... designed to protect the wearer's head and neck against impact and abrasion from rebounding abrasive... against impact and abrasion from rebounding abrasive material, and with shielding material such as plastic... from rebounding abrasive material, and with shielding material such as plastic, glass, woven...

  3. 116. PNEUMATIC SUPPLY PANEL IN CENTER OF VEHICLE MECHANICAL SYSTEMS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    116. PNEUMATIC SUPPLY PANEL IN CENTER OF VEHICLE MECHANICAL SYSTEMS ROOM (111) OF LSB (BLDG. 770), FACING NORTH. CONTROLS FOR FLOW AND PRESSURE REGULATION OF NITROGEN ON RIGHT SIDE OF PANEL; CONTROLS FOR HELIUM ON LEFT SIDE OF PANEL (AT LEFT EDGE OF PHOTO). - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Pad 3 West, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  4. 117. PNEUMATIC SUPPLY PANEL IN CENTER OF VEHICLE MECHANICAL SYSTEMS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    117. PNEUMATIC SUPPLY PANEL IN CENTER OF VEHICLE MECHANICAL SYSTEMS ROOM (111), LSB (BLDG. 770), FACING NORTH. CONTROLS FOR FLOW AND PRESSURE REGULATION OF HELIUM ON LEFT SIDE OF PANEL; CONTROLS FOR NITROGEN ON RIGHT SIDE OF PANEL (AT RIGHT EDGE OF PHOTO). - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Pad 3 West, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  5. Massachusetts Study of Teacher Supply and Demand: Trends and Projections

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levin, Jesse; Berg-Jacobson, Alex; Atchison, Drew; Lee, Katelyn; Vontsolos, Emily

    2015-01-01

    In April 2015, the Massachusetts Department of Elementary and Secondary Education (ESE) commissioned American Institutes for Research (AIR) to develop a comprehensive set of 10-year projections of teacher supply and demand in order to inform planning for future workforce needs. This included state-level projections both in the aggregate, as well…

  6. 33. View of data converter and power supply for TR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    33. View of data converter and power supply for TR system in transmitter building no. 102, mezzanine level. - Clear Air Force Station, Ballistic Missile Early Warning System Site II, One mile west of mile marker 293.5 on Parks Highway, 5 miles southwest of Anderson, Anderson, Denali Borough, AK

  7. AIR COOLED NEUTRONIC REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Fermi, E.; Szilard, L.

    1958-05-27

    A nuclear reactor of the air-cooled, graphite moderated type is described. The active core consists of a cubicle mass of graphite, approximately 25 feet in each dimension, having horizontal channels of square cross section extending between two of the opposite faces, a plurality of cylindrical uranium slugs disposed in end to end abutting relationship within said channels providing a space in the channels through which air may be circulated, and a cadmium control rod extending within a channel provided in the moderator. Suitable shielding is provlded around the core, as are also provided a fuel element loading and discharge means, and a means to circulate air through the coolant channels through the fuel charels to cool the reactor.

  8. [Darwinism and the meaning of "meaning"].

    PubMed

    Castrodeza, Carlos

    2009-01-01

    The problem of the meaning of life is herewith contemplated from a Darwinian perspective. It is argued how factors such as existential depression, the concern about the meaning of "meaning," the problem of evil, death as the end of our personal identity, happiness as an unachievable goal, etc. may well have an adaptive dimension "controlled" neither by ourselves nor obscure third parties (conspiracy theories) but "simply" by our genes (replicators in general) so that little if anything is to be done to find a radical remedy for the human condition. PMID:21032944

  9. Air conditioning system

    DOEpatents

    Lowenstein, Andrew; Miller, Jeffrey; Gruendeman, Peter; DaSilva, Michael

    2005-02-01

    An air conditioner comprises a plurality of plates arranged in a successively stacked configuration with portions thereof having a spaced apart arrangement, and defining between successive adjacent pairs of plates at the spaced apart portions a first and second series of discrete alternating passages wherein a first air stream is passed through the first series of passages and a second air stream is passed through the second series of passages; and said stacked configuration of plates forming integrally therewith a liquid delivery means for delivering from a source a sufficient quantity of a liquid to the inside surfaces of the first series of fluid passages in a manner which provides a continuous flow of the liquid from a first end to a second end of the plurality of plates while in contact with the first air stream.

  10. Cleaning supplies and equipment

    MedlinePlus

    ... something means to clean it to destroy germs. Disinfectants are the cleaning solutions that are used to ... each solution. You may need to allow the disinfectant to dry on the equipment for a set ...

  11. Pulsed power supply for an electrostatic precipitator

    SciTech Connect

    Santamaria, G.T.

    1986-07-15

    An electrostatic precipitator power supply circuit is described for generating voltage pulses on the precipitator while allowing a residual collection voltage to be retained on the precipitator during intervals between pulses, where the voltage of the pulses is substantially in excess of the residual voltage, the power supply circuit comprising: means for generating the high voltage pulses at the secondary inductance of a step-up transformer by discharging a capacitor through the primary inductance of the step-up transformer; the electrostatic precipitator connected to the secondary inductance of the step-up transformer to receive the high voltage pulses; and means for returning a portion of the high voltage pulses to the capacitor, and for maintaining the residual voltage on the precipitator during interpulse periods including means with a variable impedance adapted for providing a maximum impedance during interpulse periods and a minimum impedance during high voltage pulses and means for causing the variable impedance means to exhibit a minimum impedance during the return of a portion of the high voltage pulses.

  12. ASME PTC 47 - IGCC performance testing: Air separation issues

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, A.R.

    1998-07-01

    Air separation units have been incorporated into the designs of many gasification combined cycle projects worldwide for the supply of pressurized oxygen and nitrogen. Pressurized gaseous oxygen at a purity usually above 95% by volume is supplied to the gasification unit to partially oxidized a hydrocarbon feed to yield syngas. Nitrogen streams are used for purging and inerting purposes or for the reactor. Several facilities have incorporated integration of air and/or nitrogen streams between the gas turbine and the air separation unit to improve overall facility cost, power output and efficiency. Gasification processes that are based on air as the oxidant source may also require an air separation unit to supply pressurized nitrogen for inerting and dry fuel transport. This paper reports on the progress of PTC 47's air separation subcommittee in defining test measurement boundaries and performance parameter definitions for the testing of an air separation unit as a subsystem of the gasification combined cycle facility.

  13. 14 CFR 330.3 - What do the terms used in this part mean?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... than a commuter air carrier, that holds authority issued under 14 CFR part 298 and 14 CFR part 121 or part 135. Available seat-miles (ASMs) means the aircraft miles flown on each flight stage by an air... carrier means an air carrier as defined in 14 CFR 298.2(e) that holds a commuter air carrier...

  14. Sustainable Biomass Supply Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Erin Searcy; Dave Muth; Erin Wilkerson; Shahab Sokansanj; Bryan Jenkins; Peter Titman; Nathan Parker; Quinn Hart; Richard Nelson

    2009-04-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) aims to displace 30% of the 2004 gasoline use (60 billion gal/yr) with biofuels by 2030 as outlined in the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007, which will require 700 million tons of biomass to be sustainably delivered to biorefineries annually. Lignocellulosic biomass will make an important contribution towards meeting DOE’s ethanol production goals. For the biofuels industry to be an economically viable enterprise, the feedstock supply system (i.e., moving the biomass from the field to the refinery) cannot contribute more that 30% of the total cost of the biofuel production. The Idaho National Laboratory in collaboration with Oak Ridge National Laboratory, University of California, Davis and Kansas State University are developing a set of tools for identifying economical, sustainable feedstocks on a regional basis based on biorefinery siting.

  15. Switching power supply

    DOEpatents

    Mihalka, A.M.

    1984-06-05

    The invention is a repratable capacitor charging, switching power supply. A ferrite transformer steps up a dc input. The transformer primary is in a full bridge configuration utilizing power MOSFETs as the bridge switches. The transformer secondary is fed into a high voltage, full wave rectifier whose output is connected directly to the energy storage capacitor. The transformer is designed to provide adequate leakage inductance to limit capacitor current. The MOSFETs are switched to the variable frequency from 20 to 50 kHz to charge a capacitor from 0.6 kV. The peak current in a transformer primary and secondary is controlled by increasing the pulse width as the capacitor charges. A digital ripple counter counts pulses and after a preselected desired number is reached an up-counter is clocked.

  16. World petroleum supplies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bell, Peter M.

    A number of conclusions by political conservatives about the fate of world petroleum supplies have been emerging lately. Among the most recent of them arose from discussions, held at the 1983 spring meeting of the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS), which focused on the environment and resource study entitled “The Global 2000 Report” (New Scientist, June 9, 1983). Fred Singer, representing the Heritage Foundation of Washington, D.C., criticized the report, which predicted shortages in the near future, saying that the current world-wide oil glut will continue beyond the year 2000. Alternatives to the use of petroleum are a part of the cause. Singer argued that conservation, nuclear energy, and other petroleum substitutes will continue to suppress the demand for petroleum. In addition, according to other evaluations, exploration for petroleum and natural gas has not really begun.

  17. Power Supply Unit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    The Cuk DC to DC Switching Converter was developed by Caltech Professors, Slobodan Cuk and R. D. Middlebrook. The converter changes unsuitable dc voltage into one or more voltages suitable for powering electronic equipment; it can also be used in converting dc current to ac and vice versa. It was named one of the 100 most significant technical advances of 1979. The Cuk converter is more efficient than previous conversion devices, simpler, smaller, lighter, cheaper and highly reliable. The first application of the technology is in the Compucorp 685 word/data processor, manufactured by Compucorp. NASA waived title rights; Caltech granted exclusive license to the inventors, who in turn, transferred their rights to a company they founded called TESLA Company, which sublicenses the converter design and related technology to companies making power supplies for use in their own products.

  18. NNSA TRITIUM SUPPLY CHAIN

    SciTech Connect

    Wyrick, Steven; Cordaro, Joseph; Founds, Nanette; Chambellan, Curtis

    2013-08-21

    Savannah River Site plays a critical role in the Tritium Production Supply Chain for the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA). The entire process includes: • Production of Tritium Producing Burnable Absorber Rods (TPBARs) at the Westinghouse WesDyne Nuclear Fuels Plant in Columbia, South Carolina • Production of unobligated Low Enriched Uranium (LEU) at the United States Enrichment Corporation (USEC) in Portsmouth, Ohio • Irradiation of TPBARs with the LEU at the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) Watts Bar Reactor • Extraction of tritium from the irradiated TPBARs at the Tritium Extraction Facility (TEF) at Savannah River Site • Processing the tritium at the Savannah River Site, which includes removal of nonhydrogen species and separation of the hydrogen isotopes of protium, deuterium and tritium.

  19. Petroleum engineering manpower supply

    SciTech Connect

    Dorfman, M.

    1982-09-01

    The supply of Petroleum Engineers within the U.S. has shown an exponential growth during the last decade due to increases in the price of petroleum and concommitant demand for engineers in the petroleum industry at all levels of activity. Schools currently have very large enrollments; many lack sufficient faculty and facilities to adequately handle the large loads. Recent uncertainty in long range forecasting of petroleum demand, coupled with uncertainty in the price of oil due to turmoil in the Middle East and the discovery of additional large reserves of petroleum as a result of increased drilling, has led to a decline of approximately 25% in the price of crude oil on the spot market and subsequent reductions in drilling in 1982 from a high of 4,500 rigs in the U.S. to 2528 rigs by August 31, 1982; a reduction of 44% this year. This reduction in activity will be reflected in reduced job opportunities for many new graduates in December 1982 and in 1983, and the ''pipelines'' within the schools are filled with students in expectation of good jobs in the private sector of the economy. Since Petroleum Engineering departments maintain a close tie with industry, it is essential that some balance be maintained between supply and demand, so as to try to prevent a glut of engineers descending upon the market. Steps are underway at many schools. to reduce enrollments by a variety of methods at the present time. An upturn in demand in petroleum prices may serve to mitigate the problem within the next two years, but a long-range interchange between industrial hiring forecasts and universities is essential in planning for the future.

  20. 46 CFR 197.310 - Air compressor system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Air compressor system. 197.310 Section 197.310 Shipping... GENERAL PROVISIONS Commercial Diving Operations Equipment § 197.310 Air compressor system. A compressor used to supply breathing air to a diver must have— (a) A volume tank that is— (1) Built and stamped...

  1. 46 CFR 197.310 - Air compressor system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Air compressor system. 197.310 Section 197.310 Shipping... GENERAL PROVISIONS Commercial Diving Operations Equipment § 197.310 Air compressor system. A compressor used to supply breathing air to a diver must have— (a) A volume tank that is— (1) Built and stamped...

  2. Education for Making Meaning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nash, Robert J.; Jang, Jennifer J. J.

    2014-01-01

    This chapter explains the meaning of meaning-making for the quarterlife generation. It describes what is called the meaning-quest--consisting of nine core meaning-making questions--and offers two examples of the pedagogy that the authors use in working with students.

  3. Oxygen supplies in disaster management.

    PubMed

    Blakeman, Thomas C; Branson, Richard D

    2013-01-01

    Mass casualty events and disasters, both natural and human-generated, occur frequently around the world and can generate scores of injured or ill victims in need of resources. Of the available medical supplies, oxygen remains the critical consumable resource in disaster management. Strategic management of oxygen supplies in disaster scenarios remains a priority. Hospitals have large supplies of liquid oxygen and a supply of compressed gas oxygen cylinders that allow several days of reserve, but a large influx of patients from a disaster can strain these resources. Most backup liquid oxygen supplies are attached to the main liquid system and supply line. In the event of damage to the main system, the reserve supply is rendered useless. The Strategic National Stockpile supplies medications, medical supplies, and equipment to disaster areas, but it does not supply oxygen. Contracted vendors can deliver oxygen to alternate care facilities in disaster areas, in the form of concentrators, compressed gas cylinders, and liquid oxygen. Planning for oxygen needs following a disaster still presents a substantial challenge, but alternate care facilities have proven to be valuable in relieving pressure from the mass influx of patients into hospitals, especially for those on home oxygen who require only an electrical source to power their oxygen concentrator. PMID:23271827

  4. Oxygen supplies in disaster management.

    PubMed

    Blakeman, Thomas C; Branson, Richard D

    2013-01-01

    Mass casualty events and disasters, both natural and human-generated, occur frequently around the world and can generate scores of injured or ill victims in need of resources. Of the available medical supplies, oxygen remains the critical consumable resource in disaster management. Strategic management of oxygen supplies in disaster scenarios remains a priority. Hospitals have large supplies of liquid oxygen and a supply of compressed gas oxygen cylinders that allow several days of reserve, but a large influx of patients from a disaster can strain these resources. Most backup liquid oxygen supplies are attached to the main liquid system and supply line. In the event of damage to the main system, the reserve supply is rendered useless. The Strategic National Stockpile supplies medications, medical supplies, and equipment to disaster areas, but it does not supply oxygen. Contracted vendors can deliver oxygen to alternate care facilities in disaster areas, in the form of concentrators, compressed gas cylinders, and liquid oxygen. Planning for oxygen needs following a disaster still presents a substantial challenge, but alternate care facilities have proven to be valuable in relieving pressure from the mass influx of patients into hospitals, especially for those on home oxygen who require only an electrical source to power their oxygen concentrator.

  5. 40 CFR 61.244 - Alternative means of emission limitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS National Emission Standard...) Permission to use an alternative means of emission limitation under section 112(e)(3) of the Clean Air Act... 40 Protection of Environment 9 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Alternative means of...

  6. 40 CFR 61.244 - Alternative means of emission limitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS National Emission Standard...) Permission to use an alternative means of emission limitation under section 112(e)(3) of the Clean Air Act... 40 Protection of Environment 9 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Alternative means of...

  7. 40 CFR 61.244 - Alternative means of emission limitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS National Emission Standard...) Permission to use an alternative means of emission limitation under section 112(e)(3) of the Clean Air Act... 40 Protection of Environment 8 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Alternative means of...

  8. 40 CFR 61.244 - Alternative means of emission limitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS National Emission Standard...) Permission to use an alternative means of emission limitation under section 112(e)(3) of the Clean Air Act... 40 Protection of Environment 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Alternative means of...

  9. 40 CFR 65.46 - Alternative means of emission limitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 15 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Alternative means of emission limitation. 65.46 Section 65.46 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONSOLIDATED FEDERAL AIR RULE Storage Vessels § 65.46 Alternative means of...

  10. Abatement of NO/sub x/ from heterogeneous combustion sources by ultrahomogeneous air-EGR mixing

    SciTech Connect

    Showalter, M.R.

    1986-09-02

    A technique is described for achieving calculated NO/sub x/ reductions from EGR in heterogeneous combustion systems comprising a burner where fuel and oxidizer are heterogeneously mixed and burned and wherein the products of such burning are cooled to produce useful energy and the products of combustion, called exhaust gas are available in a duct at relatively moderate temperatures, ducting means whereby a fraction of the exhaust gas is recycled into the intake air supplying the burner and whereby the mixing of air and EGR is accomplished with a vortex mixer wherein alternate layered bodies of air and EGR are introduced into the entrance upstream of the vortex so that the high shear structured turbulent mixing process of the vortex acts to produce microscale homogeneity for very large scale mixer sections.

  11. Improving Energy Security for Air Force Installations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schill, David

    Like civilian infrastructure, Air Force installations are dependent on electrical energy for daily operations. Energy shortages translate to decreased productivity, higher costs, and increased health risks. But for the United States military, energy shortages have the potential to become national security risks. Over ninety-five percent of the electrical energy used by the Air Force is supplied by the domestic grid, which is susceptible to shortages and disruptions. Many Air Force operations require a continuous source of energy, and while the Air Force has historically established redundant supplies of electrical energy, these back-ups are designed for short-term outages and may not provide sufficient supply for a longer, sustained power outage. Furthermore, it is the goal of the Department of Defense to produce or procure 25 percent of its facility energy from renewable sources by fiscal year 2025. In a government budget environment where decision makers are required to provide more capability with less money, it is becoming increasingly important for informed decisions regarding which energy supply options bear the most benefit for an installation. The analysis begins by exploring the field of energy supply options available to an Air Force installation. The supply options are assessed according to their ability to provide continuous and reliable energy, their applicability to unique requirements of Air Force installations, and their costs. Various methods of calculating energy usage by an installation are also addressed. The next step of this research develops a methodology and tool which assesses how an installation responds to various power outage scenarios. Lastly, various energy supply options are applied to the tool, and the results are reported in terms of cost and loss of installation capability. This approach will allow installation commanders and energy managers the ability to evaluate the cost and effectiveness of various energy investment options.

  12. Air Pollution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox, Donald L.

    1989-01-01

    Materials related to air pollution are reviewed for the period January 1987, to October 1988. The topics are pollution monitoring, air pollution, and environmental chemistry. The organization consists of two major analytical divisions: (1) gaseous methods; and (2) aerosol and particulate methods. (MVL)

  13. Air Pollution.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Air quality is affected by many types of pollutants that are emitted from various sources, including stationary and mobile. These sources release both criteria and hazardous air pollutants, which cause health effects, ecological harm, and material damage. They are generally categ...

  14. Dynamic Performance of a Residential Air-to-Air Heat Pump.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, George E.; Bean, John

    This publication is a study of the dynamic performance of a 5-ton air-to-air heat pump in a residence in Washington, D.C. The effect of part-load operation on the heat pump's cooling and heating coefficients of performance was determined. Discrepancies between measured performance and manufacturer-supplied performance data were found when the unit…

  15. Electronic control system for air fuel ratio compensation in highlands

    SciTech Connect

    Kimura, J.; Noji, A.

    1981-12-29

    An electronic control system which electronically controls the air fuel ratio of a mixture being supplied to a gasoline engine in highlands is described. An orifice device is provided in a passage through which secondary air is supplied to the venturi section of the engine carburetor. An electronic control unit carries out programmed control of the orifice opening of the orifice device in response to the atmospheric pressure and the engine temperature to create a reference pressure. A further electronic control unit drives a second air control valve provided in the secondary air supply passage along a predetermined operating characteristic pattern in response to the difference between the reference pressure and an actual pressure present in the venturi section of the carburetor. A mixture having an optimum air fuel ratio corresponding to the atmospheric pressure can thus be supplied to the engine from the carburetor.

  16. 10 CFR Appendix Z to Subpart B of... - Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption of External Power Supplies

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... power supply that is designed to convert line voltage AC input into more than one simultaneous lower-voltage output. j. Nameplate input frequency means the AC input frequency of the power supply as specified on the manufacturer's label on the power supply housing. k. Nameplate input voltage means the...

  17. Impacts of Mixing on Acceptable Indoor Air Quality in Homes

    SciTech Connect

    Sherman, Max H.; Walker, Iain I.

    2010-01-01

    Ventilation reduces occupant exposure to indoor contaminants by diluting or removing them. In a multi-zone environment such as a house, every zone will have different dilution rates and contaminant source strengths. The total ventilation rate is the most important factor in determining occupant exposure to given contaminant sources, but the zone-specific distribution of exhaust and supply air and the mixing of ventilation air can play significant roles. Different types of ventilation systems will provide different amounts of mixing depending on several factors such as air leakage, air distribution system, and contaminant source and occupant locations. Most U.S. and Canadian homes have central heating, ventilation, and air conditioning systems, which tend to mix the air; thus, the indoor air in different zones tends to be well mixed for significant fractions of the year. This article reports recent results of investigations to determine the impact of air mixing on exposures of residential occupants to prototypical contaminants of concern. We summarize existing literature and extend past analyses to determine the parameters than affect air mixing as well as the impacts of mixing on occupant exposure, and to draw conclusions that are relevant for standards development and for practitioners designing and installing home ventilation systems. The primary conclusion is that mixing will not substantially affect the mean indoor air quality across a broad population of occupants, homes, and ventilation systems, but it can reduce the number of occupants who are exposed to extreme pollutant levels. If the policy objective is to minimize the number of people exposed above a given pollutant threshold, some amount of mixing will be of net benefit even though it does not benefit average exposure. If the policy is to minimize exposure on average, then mixing air in homes is detrimental and should not be encouraged. We also conclude that most homes in the US have adequate mixing

  18. What does the "mean pole" mean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ries, J. C.; Petit, G.; Luzum, B. J.

    2015-12-01

    Rotational deformation (also called the pole tide) is the response of the solid earth and ocean to the Earth's wobble, which includes gravitational and surface displacement components. An important part of the model is the Conventional Mean Pole, which is required to remove the slow variation in the polar motion. This ensures that the rotational deformation model removes only the principal periodic motions (annual, Chandler and any other high frequency variations). Previously, no dependable mean pole product had been available. Consequently, for the 2010 Conventions, a cubic was fit to a filtered time series of polar motion and this model was adopted, along with a simple linear extrapolation into the future that was expected to be adequate until the next Conventions update. In light of the large changes in the mean pole due to recent ice mass losses, such extrapolations may not be reliable. To avoid this, the next Conventions update will include the use of a regularly updated mean pole table. Some subtleties in that choice will be noted. However, the original pole tide model was conceived when the mean pole was moving (more or less) linearly, largely in response to glacial isostatic adjustment (GIA). With the recent ice mass losses, particularly in Greenland, this motion is decidedly non-linear, and it is unclear whether the pole tide model correctly reflects this new reality. There are questions as to whether the mean pole should be the slow variation as conceived currently or should it reflect only the long-term linear motion (either based on a GIA model or a linear fit over an appropriate time span).

  19. Developing sustainable food supply chains.

    PubMed

    Smith, B Gail

    2008-02-27

    This paper reviews the opportunities available for food businesses to encourage consumers to eat healthier and more nutritious diets, to invest in more sustainable manufacturing and distribution systems and to develop procurement systems based on more sustainable forms of agriculture. The important factors in developing more sustainable supply chains are identified as the type of supply chain involved and the individual business attitude to extending responsibility for product quality into social and environmental performance within their own supply chains. Interpersonal trust and working to standards are both important to build more sustainable local and many conserved food supply chains, but inadequate to transform mainstream agriculture and raw material supplies to the manufactured and commodity food markets. Cooperation among food manufacturers, retailers, NGOs, governmental and farmers' organizations is vital in order to raise standards for some supply chains and to enable farmers to adopt more sustainable agricultural practices. PMID:17766237

  20. Optics Supply Planning System

    SciTech Connect

    Gaylord, J

    2009-04-30

    The purpose of this study is to specify the design for an initial optics supply planning system for NIF, and to present quality assurance and test plans for the construction of the system as specified. The National Ignition Facility (NIF) is a large laser facility that is just starting operations. Thousands of specialized optics are required to operate the laser, and must be exchanged over time based on the laser shot plan and predictions of damage. Careful planning and tracking of optic exchanges is necessary because of the tight inventory of spare optics, and the long lead times for optics procurements and production changes. Automated inventory forecasting and production planning tools are required to replace existing manual processes. The optics groups members who are expected to use the supply planning system are the stakeholders for this project, and are divided into three groups. Each of these groups participated in a requirements specification that was used to develop this design. (1) Optics Management--These are the top level stakeholdersk, and the final decision makers. This group is the interface to shot operations, is ultimately responsible for optics supply, and decides which exchanges will be made. (2) Work Center Managers--This group manages the on site optics processing work centers. They schedule the daily work center operations, and are responsible for developing long term processing, equipment, and staffing plans. (3) Component Engineers--This group manages the vendor contracts for the manufacture of new optics and the off site rework of existing optics. They are responsible for sourcing vendors, negotiating contracts, and managing vendor processes. The scope of this analysis is to describe the structure and design details of a system that will meet all requirements that were described by stakeholders and documented in the analysis model for this project. The design specifies the architecture, components, interfaces, and data stores of the system

  1. Measuring Outdoor Air Intake Rates into Existing Building

    SciTech Connect

    Fisk, William; Sullivan, Douglas; Cohen, Sebastian; Han, Hwataik

    2009-04-16

    Practical and accurate technologies are needed for continuously measuring and controlling outdoor air (OA) intake rates in commercial building heating, ventilating, and air conditioning (HVAC) systems. This project evaluated two new measurement approaches. Laboratory experiments determined that OA flow rates were measurable with errors generally less than 10 percent using electronic air velocity probes installed between OA intake louver blades or at the outlet face of louvers. High accuracy was maintained with OA flow rates as low as 15 percent of the maximum for the louvers. Thus, with this measurement approach HVAC systems do not need separate OA intakes for minimum OA supply. System calibration parameters are required for each unique combination of louver type and velocity sensor location but calibrations are not necessary for each system installation. The research also determined that the accuracy of measuring OA flow rates with velocity probes located in the duct downstream of the intake louver was not improved by installing honeycomb airflow straighteners upstream of the probes. Errors varied with type of upstream louver, were as high as 100 percent, and were often greater than 25 percent. In conclusion, use of electronic air velocity probes between the blades of OA intake louvers or at the outlet face of louvers is a highly promising means of accurately measuring rates of OA flow into HVAC systems. The use of electronic velocity probes downstream of airflow straighteners is less promising, at least with the relatively small OA HVAC inlet systems employed in this research.

  2. Reliability Estimates for Power Supplies

    SciTech Connect

    Lee C. Cadwallader; Peter I. Petersen

    2005-09-01

    Failure rates for large power supplies at a fusion facility are critical knowledge needed to estimate availability of the facility or to set priorties for repairs and spare components. A study of the "failure to operate on demand" and "failure to continue to operate" failure rates has been performed for the large power supplies at DIII-D, which provide power to the magnet coils, the neutral beam injectors, the electron cyclotron heating systems, and the fast wave systems. When one of the power supplies fails to operate, the research program has to be either temporarily changed or halted. If one of the power supplies for the toroidal or ohmic heating coils fails, the operations have to be suspended or the research is continued at de-rated parameters until a repair is completed. If one of the power supplies used in the auxiliary plasma heating systems fails the research is often temporarily changed until a repair is completed. The power supplies are operated remotely and repairs are only performed when the power supplies are off line, so that failure of a power supply does not cause any risk to personnel. The DIII-D Trouble Report database was used to determine the number of power supply faults (over 1,700 reports), and tokamak annual operations data supplied the number of shots, operating times, and power supply usage for the DIII-D operating campaigns between mid-1987 and 2004. Where possible, these power supply failure rates from DIII-D will be compared to similar work that has been performed for the Joint European Torus equipment. These independent data sets support validation of the fusion-specific failure rate values.

  3. Cholangiocytes and blood supply

    PubMed Central

    Gaudio, Eugenio; Franchitto, Antonio; Pannarale, Luigi; Carpino, Guido; Alpini, Gianfranco; Francis, Heather; Glaser, Shannon; Alvaro, Domenico; Onori, Paolo

    2006-01-01

    The microvascular supply of the biliary tree, the peribiliary plexus (PBP), stems from the hepatic artery branches and flows into the hepatic sinusoids. A detailed three-dimensional study of the PBP has been performed by using the Scanning Electron Microscopy vascular corrosion casts (SEMvcc) technique. Considering that the PBP plays a fundamental role in supporting the secretory and absorptive functions of the biliary epithelium, their organization in either normalcy and pathology is explored. The normal liver shows the PBP arranged around extra- and intrahepatic biliary tree. In the small portal tract PBP was characterized by a single layer of capillaries which progressively continued with the extrahepatic PBP where it showed a more complex vascular network. After common duct ligation (BDL), progressive modifications of bile duct and PBP proliferation are observed. The PBP presents a three-dimensional network arranged around many bile ducts and appears as bundles of vessels, composed by capillaries of homogeneous diameter with a typical round mesh structure. The PBP network is easily distinguishable from the sinusoidal network which appears normal. Considering the enormous extension of the PBP during BDL, the possible role played by the Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF) is evaluated. VEGF-A, VEGF-C and their related receptors appeared highly immunopositive in proliferating cholangiocytes of BDL rats. The administration of anti-VEGF-A or anti-VEGF-C antibodies to BDL rats as well as hepatic artery ligation induced a reduced bile duct mass. The administration of rVEGF-A to BDL hepatic artery ligated rats prevented the decrease of cholangiocyte proliferation and VEGF-A expression as compared to BDL control rats. These data suggest the role of arterial blood supply of the biliary tree in conditions of cholangiocyte proliferation, such as it occurs during chronic cholestasis. On the other hand, the role played by VEGF as a tool of cross-talk between

  4. Power supply for negative impedance gas discharge lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Bees, G.L.

    1987-12-29

    An adjustable constant current power supply for a negative impedance gas discharge laser is described comprising: means for providing constant output of current, means connected between the constant current providing means and the gas discharge laser for matching the current output of the constant current providing means with lasing requirements of the gas discharge laser, the constant current providing means providing electrical energy to pump the gas discharge laser; and means electrically connected to the constant current providing means for feeding a variable controlled voltage to the constant current providing means the variable voltage altering the constant output of current over a preselected range feedback circuit means for providing a control signal to the variably controlled voltage feeding means; such that output power of the gas discharge laser varies with the output of current from the current providing means.

  5. Air-cleaning apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    Howard, A.G.

    1981-08-18

    An air-cleaning, heat-exchange apparatus includes a main housing portion connected by means of an air inlet fan to the kitchen exhaust stack of a restaurant. The apparatus includes a plurality of heat exchangers through which a heat-absorptive fluid is circulated, simultaneously, by means of a suitable fluid pump. These heat exchangers absorb heat from the hot exhaust gas, out of the exhaust stack of the restaurant, which flows over and through these heat exchangers and transfers this heat to the circulating fluid which communicates with remote heat exchangers. These remote heat exchangers further transfer this heat to a stream of air, such as that from a cold-air return duct for supplementing the conventional heating system of the restaurant. Due to the fact that such hot exhaust gas is heavily grease laden , grease will be deposited on virtually all internal surfaces of the apparatus which this exhaust gas contacts. Consequently, means are provided for spraying these contacted internal surfaces , as well as the hot exhaust gas itself, with a detergent solution in which the grease is soluble, thereby removing grease buildup from these internal surfaces.

  6. Geometric Mean--What Does It Mean?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalder, Robin S.

    2012-01-01

    The National Council of Teachers of Mathematics and numerous mathematics educators promote the combination of conceptual understanding and procedural learning in the successful instruction of mathematics. Despite this, when geometric mean is taught in a typical American geometry class, it is taught as a process only despite the many connections…

  7. Embodied Design: Constructing Means for Constructing Meaning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abrahamson, Dor

    2009-01-01

    Design-based research studies are conducted as iterative implementation-analysis-modification cycles, in which emerging theoretical models and pedagogically plausible activities are reciprocally tuned toward each other as a means of investigating conjectures pertaining to mechanisms underlying content teaching and learning. Yet this approach, even…

  8. Means and the Mean Value Theorem

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merikoski, Jorma K.; Halmetoja, Markku; Tossavainen, Timo

    2009-01-01

    Let I be a real interval. We call a continuous function [mu] : I x I [right arrow] [Bold R] a proper mean if it is symmetric, reflexive, homogeneous, monotonic and internal. Let f : I [right arrow] [Bold R} be a differentiable and strictly convex or strictly concave function. If a, b [image omitted] I with a [not equal to] b, then there exists a…

  9. D0 Cryo Instrument Air Backup System

    SciTech Connect

    Urbin, J.; /Fermilab

    1990-11-20

    The D0 instrument air system for cryo controls has an emergency backup supply of nitrogen gas. The backup system consists of a high pressure tube trailer (38 tubes - 2400 psig MAWP), piping, valves, regulators and pressure monitoring instrumentation. The trailer is located south of DAB alongside the LN{sub 2} Dewar. Fixed piping ties to the trailer with a flex-hose. The piping follows the cryo piping bridge entering the south wall of DAB. where it passes through the pipe chase and into the cryo pump room (Rm 315). The high pressure gas is regulated down to 90 psig before tying into the compressor supplied instrument air system. Check valves are installed at the tee for the primary air and the backup N{sub 2}. Normal operating pressure for instrument air is 100-120 psig. With the backup supply pressure set to 90 psig, 'emergency air' is supplied whenever primary air pressure falls below 90 psig. There are two additional, outside connections to the system: one is a connection for repumping the trailer after a minimum backup volume is reached and the other is an auxiliary flex-hose connection for another trailer. All manual valves at system connections will be locked closed when not in use. The system's maximum allowable working pressure (MAWP) is 2400 psi, which is the trailer MAWP. All piping and components have a minimum 2400 psi working pressure. Actual component working pressures are included in the component list.

  10. 30 CFR 250.302 - Definitions concerning air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Definitions concerning air quality. 250.302... Definitions concerning air quality. For purposes of §§ 250.303 and 250.304 of this part: Air pollutant means..., pursuant to section 109 of the Clean Air Act, national primary or secondary ambient air quality...

  11. Zapping the food supply

    SciTech Connect

    Louria, D.B. )

    1990-09-01

    The idea of exposing food to gamma radiation is over 30 years old, and in 1963 the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) began to permit the irradiation of wheat. Over the years, a few more foodstuffs such as spices and tea were added, but in 1984 the FDA started to approve irradiation of a much broader list of products which now includes meat, poultry, and fresh fruits and vegetables. Simultaneously the FDA has increased the levels of radiation that may be used. The FDA's recent willingness to allow most of the food supply to be irradiated - and at high doses - has triggered an acrimonious debate. The amount of radiation involved is substantial, with intensities millions of times greater than that of an ordinary chest X-ray. The announced goal of promoters of food irradiation is to obtain general approval for the use of up to one million rad. Irradiation does not make food radioactive, nor has alleged radioactivity been at issue in the debate. But there is concern that foods processed by irradiation may contain radiolytic products that could have toxic effects. 12 refs.

  12. Meaning of Muscular Dystrophy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Help White House Lunch Recipes The Meaning of Muscular Dystrophy KidsHealth > For Kids > The Meaning of Muscular Dystrophy ... you know someone who has MD. What Is Muscular Dystrophy? Muscular dystrophy (say: MUS-kyoo-lur DIS-troh- ...

  13. 14 CFR 23.1091 - Air induction system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... section by a fire-resistant diaphragm or if there are means to prevent the emergence of backfire flames... the power loss due to the rise in air temperature. (4) Each automatic alternate air door must have an override means accessible to the flight crew. (5) Each automatic alternate air door must have a means...

  14. Evaluation of workplace air monitoring locations

    SciTech Connect

    Stoetzel, G.A.; Cicotte, G.R.; Lynch, T.P. ); Aldrich, L.K. )

    1991-10-01

    Current federal guidance on occupational radiation protection recognizes the importance of conducting air flow studies to assist in the placement of air sampling and monitoring equipment. In support of this, Pacific Northwest Laboratory has provided technical assistance to Westinghouse Hanford Company for the purpose of evaluating the adequacy of air sampling and monitoring locations at selected Hanford facilities. Qualitative air flow studies were performed using smoke aerosols to visually determine air movement. Three examples are provided of how air flow studies results, along with information on the purpose of the air sample being collected, were used as a guide in placing the air samplers and monitors. Preparatory steps in conducting an air flow study should include: (1) identifying type of work performed in the work area including any actual or potential release points; (2) determining the amounts of radioactive material available for release and its chemical and physical form; (3) obtaining accurate work area descriptions and diagrams; (4) identifying the location of existing air samplers and monitors; (5) documenting physical and ventilation configurations; (6) notifying appropriate staff of the test; and (7) obtaining necessary equipment and supplies. The primary steps in conducting an air flow study are measurements of air velocities in the work area, release of the smoke aerosol at selected locations in the work area and the observation of air flow patterns, and finally evaluation and documentation of the results. 2 refs., 3 figs.

  15. Thermistor based, low velocity isothermal, air flow sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cabrita, Admésio A. C. M.; Mendes, Ricardo; Quintela, Divo A.

    2016-03-01

    The semiconductor thermistor technology is applied as a flow sensor to measure low isothermal air velocities (<2 ms-1). The sensor is subjected to heating and cooling cycles controlled by a multifunctional timer. In the heating stage, the alternating current of a main AC power supply source guarantees a uniform thermistor temperature distribution. The conditioning circuit assures an adequate increase of the sensors temperature and avoids the thermal disturbance of the flow. The power supply interruption reduces the consumption from the source and extends the sensors life time. In the cooling stage, the resistance variation of the flow sensor is recorded by the measuring chain. The resistive sensor parameters proposed vary significantly and feature a high sensitivity to the flow velocity. With the aid of a computer, the data transfer, storage and analysis provides a great advantage over the traditional local anemometer readings. The data acquisition chain has a good repeatability and low standard uncertainties. The proposed method measures isothermal air mean velocities from 0.1 ms-1 to 2 ms-1 with a standard uncertainty error less than 4%.

  16. Air Pollution

    MedlinePlus

    ... tobacco smoke. How is air pollution linked to climate change? While climate change is a global process, it ... ozone levels are also a concern. Impacts of Climate Change on Human Health in the United States: A ...

  17. Air Apparent.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harbster, David A.

    1988-01-01

    Explains the principle upon which a barometer operates. Describes how to construct two barometric devices for use in the classroom that show air's changing pressure. Cites some conditions for predicting weather. (RT)

  18. Repetitive resonant railgun power supply

    DOEpatents

    Honig, E.M.; Nunnally, W.C.

    1985-06-19

    A repetitive resonant railgun power supply provides energy for repetitively propelling projectiles from a pair of parallel rails. The supply comprises an energy storage capacitor, a storage inductor to form a resonant circuit with the energy storage capacitor and a magnetic switch to transfer energy between the resonant circuit and the pair of parallel rails for the propelling of projectiles.

  19. Repetitive resonant railgun power supply

    DOEpatents

    Honig, Emanuel M.; Nunnally, William C.

    1988-01-01

    A repetitive resonant railgun power supply provides energy for repetitively propelling projectiles from a pair of parallel rails. The supply comprises an energy storage capacitor, a storage inductor to form a resonant circuit with the energy storage capacitor and a magnetic switch to transfer energy between the resonant circuit and the pair of parallel rails for the propelling of projectiles.

  20. Building an efficient supply chain.

    PubMed

    Scalise, Dagmara

    2005-08-01

    Realizing at last that supply chain management can produce efficiencies and save costs, hospitals are beginning to adopt practices from other industries, such as the concept of extended supply chains, to improve product flow. They're also investing in enterprise planning resource software, radio frequency identification and other technologies, using quality data to drive standardization and streamlining processes.

  1. Urban air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    Air pollution and the risk of potential health effects are not sufficiently convincing reasons for people to stop driving their cars, according to a study by the Population Reference Bureau (PRB) released on November 18.While sufficient levels of suspended particulate matter, carbon monoxide, and lead can present health concerns, the study found that many people surveyed for the study were not convinced of the clear linkage between air pollution and health.

  2. Air Cleaning Technologies

    PubMed Central

    2005-01-01

    zoster, whereas close contact is required for the direct transmission of infectious diseases transmitted by droplets, such as influenza (the flu) and SARS. The Technology In-room air cleaners are supplied as portable or fixed devices. Fixed devices can be attached to either a wall or ceiling and are preferred over portable units because they have a greater degree of reliability (if installed properly) for achieving adequate room air mixing and airflow patterns, which are important for optimal effectiveness. Through a method of air recirculation, an in-room air cleaner can be used to increase room ventilation rates and if used to exhaust air out of the room it can create a negative-pressure room for airborne infection isolation (AII) when the building’s HVAC system cannot do so. A negative-pressure room is one where clean air flows into the room but contaminated air does not flow out of it. Contaminated room air is pulled into the in-room air cleaner and cleaned by passing through a series of filters, which remove the airborne infectious pathogens. The cleaned air is either recirculated into the room or exhausted outside the building. By filtering contaminated room air and then recirculating the cleaned air into the room, an in-room air cleaner can improve the room’s ventilation. By exhausting the filtered air to the outside the unit can create a negative-pressure room. There are many types of in-room air cleaners. They vary widely in the airflow rates through the unit, the type of air cleaning technology used, and the technical design. Crucial to maximizing the efficiency of any in-room air cleaner is its strategic placement and set-up within a room, which should be done in consultation with ventilation engineers, infection control experts, and/or industrial hygienists. A poorly positioned air cleaner may disrupt airflow patterns within the room and through the air cleaner, thereby compromising its air cleaning efficiency. The effectiveness of an in-room air cleaner

  3. Petroleum supply monthly, August 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-09-01

    This publication the Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of four publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information Administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. The other publications are the Weekly Petroleum Status Report, (WPSR), the Winter Fuels Report, and the Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA). Data presented describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. Data presented are divided into Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics.

  4. 40 CFR 257.3-7 - Air.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Air. 257.3-7 Section 257.3-7... and Practices § 257.3-7 Air. (a) The facility or practice shall not engage in open burning of... 110 of the Clean Air Act, as amended. (c) As used in this section “open burning” means the...

  5. 40 CFR 257.3-7 - Air.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Air. 257.3-7 Section 257.3-7... and Practices § 257.3-7 Air. (a) The facility or practice shall not engage in open burning of... 110 of the Clean Air Act, as amended. (c) As used in this section “open burning” means the...

  6. The Supply Chain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luckett, D.

    This is not a technical exposition about radio frequency identification (RFID), but as 'RFID' means different things to different people, it is worth spending some time at the start explaining the technology. Most of the retail push is centred on low-cost, 'passive' tags. 'Passive' and 'active' relate to whether the tag has a power source actually on the tag (active), or whether it draws power from a reader when in range and then uses this to send back a response (passive). Unless stated otherwise, this chapter relates to passive tags. Figure 4.1 shows a typical passive tag.

  7. New, rugged, high power Cockcroft-Walton power supply

    SciTech Connect

    Hinkson, J.; Behrsing, G.; Hazelton, E.; Hearn, W.; Lancaster, H.

    1981-03-01

    A ten foot (3 m), ten-stage air-insulated Crockcroft-Walton power supply designed and built at LBL has been tested to 900 kV at the SuperHILAC. Operating at 80 kHz, the power supply features low ripple, moderate stored energy, 10 ma average current, and no bouncer requirement for pulsed loads. Other system features include: inexpensive generating voltmeters and a capacitive pick off for monitoring and regulation in lieu of costly resistance dividers, home-made semiconductor rectifier modules, excellent component protection against sparking, and easy maintenance. This report describes design, construction, and testing of the high voltage system.

  8. Solar energy system for heating and cooling of buildings utilizing moist air cycles

    SciTech Connect

    Holbrook, E.M.; Wallace, J.J.

    1980-01-08

    An integrated system is presented for the collection, storage, and utilization of solar energy in the heating and cooling of buildings utilizing a moist air cycle involving evaporation and condensation of water vapor at constant pressure to obtain the advantages of high heat capacity, resulting from phase change, and low mass flow rate. Subersaturated moist air is circulated through solar collectors where evaporation takes place; the coolant leaving the solar collectors in a saturated condition and returning to a hot storage tank. There the coolant flows across the surface of hot stored water where condensation takes place, and thereafter leaves the hot storage tank in a saturated condition and at a temperature only slightly above that of the stored water. The hot storage tank further includes floating heat exchanger means for heating water in the portable water supply system. Upon leaving the hot storage tank the coolant is passed through a novel humidifying device which restores exactly the amount of moisture that was lost by condensation. This device withdraws water from the hot storage tank by means of a pump and introduces the water into the moist air stream in the form of a fog and very fine mist by the process of high pressure atomization. The supersaturated mixture is then returned to the solar collectors to repeat the cycle. Suitable controls modulate both the air and water flow rates in response to the rate at which solar energy is being collected. The system also includes means for using the solar equipment at night to dissipate thermal energy with the moist air cycle and thus chill water in a second tank to create a heat sink. Another salient feature of this system is means for heating and cooling a space or a building by circulating conditioned air through building cavities, creating a thermal envelope and utilizing the radiant effect of large surfaces such as walls and/or ceilings and floors to heat and cool the space.

  9. Institutional Financial Assessment: Methodology and Meaning. AIR Forum Paper 1978.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jenny, Hans H.

    Some approaches to the financial analysis of educational institutions are discussed. Higher education, and education in general, is viewed as a service industry that relies on human effort, and knowledge about human performance is held to be a prerequisite to understanding how changes in budgets affect educational quality. Long-range planning in…

  10. Marketing Higher Education Means Organizational Change. AIR Forum 1981 Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miklich, Beverly

    The issues, organizational changes, and institutional reactions that colleges and universities perceive as associated with implementation of new marketing practices were identified in a review of the literature and interviews with officials from 25 institutions primarily in or near Los Angeles, California. Several trends were revealed: successful…

  11. Air conditioning and refrigeration engineering

    SciTech Connect

    Kreith, F.

    1999-12-01

    This book supplies the basics of design, from selecting the optimum system and equipment to preparing the drawings and specifications. It discusses the four phases of preparing a project: gathering information, developing alternatives, evaluating alternatives, and selling the best solution. In addition, the author breaks down the responsibilities of the engineer design documents, computer aided design, and government codes and standards. It provides you with an easy reference to all aspects of the topic. This resource addresses the most current areas of interest, such as computer aided design and drafting, desiccant air conditioning and energy conservation. It is a thorough and convenient guide to air conditioning and refrigeration engineering. Contents include: introduction; psychrometrics; air-conditioning processes and cycles; refrigerants and refrigeration cycles; outdoor design conditions and indoor design criteria; load calculations; air handling units and packaged units; refrigeration components and evaporative coolers; water systems; heating systems; refrigeration systems; thermal storage system; air system basics; absorption systems; air-conditioning systems and selection; and desiccant dehumidification and air-conditioning.

  12. Food-Growing, Air- And Water-Cleaning Module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sauer, R. L.; Scheld, H. W.; Mafnuson, J. W.

    1988-01-01

    Apparatus produces fresh vegetables and removes pollutants from air. Hydroponic apparatus performs dual function of growing fresh vegetables and purifying air and water. Leafy vegetables rooted in granular growth medium grow in light of fluorescent lamps. Air flowing over leaves supplies carbon dioxide and receives fresh oxygen from them. Adaptable to production of food and cleaning of air and water in closed environments as in underwater research stations and submarines.

  13. Project Galaxy - Sustianable Resource Supply and Environmental Implications

    SciTech Connect

    Downing, Mark; Wimmer, Robert

    2012-03-01

    Understanding what it takes to move from a corn-based liquid fuels industry to one that is cellulosic-based requires a complex transition over time. This transition implies, among other things, a shift from annual cropping systems considered under United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) policy as commodity crops, to perennial lignocellulosic crops that are herbaceous and wood-based. Because of changes in land use as well as biomass and other crop supplies, land-based environmental amenities such as water quality, soil health and tilth, air quality, and animal and avian species populations and their diversity change also. Environmental effects are measured as magnitudes (how much they are impacted), and direction of the impact (either positive or negative). By developing a series of quantitative and qualitative metrics, the larger issue of defining relative sustainability may be addressed, and this can be done at a finer detail of regional (scale) and environmental amenity-specific impacts. Although much literature exists about research relevant to specific environmental variables, there is no published, documented, nor research literature on direct application of environmental over-compliance with regards a 'biorefinery.' Our three goals were to (1) understand and quantify bioenergy sustainability and some key environmental effects in a generic set of examples; (2) explain the effort and means to define and quantify specific qualitative environmental measures, and to determine a way to understand changes in these measures over time and what their implications might be; and (3) use these outcomes to evaluate potential sites in any geographic area. This would permit assessment of candidate locations, combined with an understanding of co-production of fuels, chemicals, and electric power, to interpret sustainability measures and the relationship between environmental sustainability and economic sustainability. The process of determining environmental

  14. Autonomous uninterruptable power supply apparatus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masson, J. H.

    1984-12-01

    This invention relates broadly to a power supply apparatus, and in particular to an autonomous uninterruptable power supply apparatus. The purpose of an uninterruptable power supply (UPS) is to protect critical electrical loads from transient or steady stage outages or disturbances in the primary power source. The basic configuration of a typical, commercially available, uninterruptable power supply is comprised at a minimum of a standby battery and a battery charger and may also include an inverter for AC applications. Systems of this type can be found in most computer installations and laboratory systems which cannot tolerate even momentary disturbances of input power. This document describes an autonomous uninterruptable power supply apparatus utilizing a digital processor unit as a control and monitor unit to measure and control input and output parameters in the power supply. A battery charger is utilized to maintain the voltage and current levels with the backup battery supply source which powers an inverter unit that converts the DC power to an AC output.

  15. Boredom and social meaning.

    PubMed

    Barbalet, J M

    1999-12-01

    Meaning is necessary in social processes. An absence of meaning in an activity or circumstance leads to an experience of boredom. This is a restless, irritable feeling that the subject's current activity or situation holds no appeal, and that there is a need to get on with something interesting. Thus boredom emotionally registers an absence of meaning and leads the actor in question towards meaning. Boredom, then, is central to key social processes centered on questions of meaningfulness. Given the pervasive preconditions for boredom, release from boredom is a factor that explains characteristic social practices, including risk taking and intergroup conflict. PMID:15270068

  16. Water supply and demand in an energy supply model

    SciTech Connect

    Abbey, D; Loose, V

    1980-12-01

    This report describes a tool for water and energy-related policy analysis, the development of a water supply and demand sector in a linear programming model of energy supply in the United States. The model allows adjustments in the input mix and plant siting in response to water scarcity. Thus, on the demand side energy conversion facilities can substitute more costly dry cooling systems for conventional evaporative systems. On the supply side groundwater and water purchased from irrigators are available as more costly alternatives to unappropriated surface water. Water supply data is developed for 30 regions in 10 Western states. Preliminary results for a 1990 energy demand scenario suggest that, at this level of spatial analysis, water availability plays a minor role in plant siting. Future policy applications of the modeling system are discussed including the evaluation of alternative patterns of synthetic fuels development.

  17. Air diverter for supercharger

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, K.A.

    1986-10-28

    An engine supercharger is described which consists of a turbine housing, a main turbine wheel of the radial-inflow type located within the turbine housing, a compressor housing having an air entrance passageway, and a compressor wheel of the centrifugal type located within the compressor housing. It also includes a main shaft of annular construction interconnecting the turbine wheel and the compressor wheel whereby the two wheels rotate as a unit, an auxiliary turbine wheel of the axial flow type located downstream from the main turbine wheel, and a fan of the axial flow type located upstream from the compressor wheel. An auxiliary shaft extends within the main shaft between the auxiliary turbine and fan whereby the auxiliary turbine and fan rotate as a unit. An annular air collector chamber means is located immediately downstream from the fan in surrounding relation to the aforementioned entrance passageway for diverting some of the fan air from the compressor wheel. The fan comprises a hub and blades radiating outwardly therefrom. The air collector chamber is defined in part by an annular wall having a free edge located within the fan blade axial profile whereby the annular wall intercepts air discharged from outer tip areas of the fan blades to divert same away from the compressor wheel into the collector chamber.

  18. [Contemporary solutions for better air quality at electric welders workplace].

    PubMed

    Markova, O L; Ivanova, E V

    2015-01-01

    The article deals with hygienic evaluation of electric welder's workplace, concerning chemical factor, with technical solutions on organization of supply-and-exhaust ventilation and methods to improve air quality in various welding tasks. PMID:25895242

  19. Interior, looking southeast Beale Air Force Base, Perimeter Acquisition ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior, looking southeast - Beale Air Force Base, Perimeter Acquisition Vehicle Entry Phased-Array Warning System, Supply Warehouse, End of Spencer Paul Road, north of Warren Shingle Road (14th Street), Marysville, Yuba County, CA

  20. Exterior, looking north Beale Air Force Base, Perimeter Acquisition ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Exterior, looking north - Beale Air Force Base, Perimeter Acquisition Vehicle Entry Phased-Array Warning System, Supply Warehouse, End of Spencer Paul Road, north of Warren Shingle Road (14th Street), Marysville, Yuba County, CA

  1. Multiple resonant railgun power supply

    DOEpatents

    Honig, E.M.; Nunnally, W.C.

    1985-06-19

    A multiple repetitive resonant railgun power supply provides energy for repetitively propelling projectiles from a pair of parallel rails. A plurality of serially connected paired parallel rails are powered by similar power supplies. Each supply comprises an energy storage capacitor, a storage inductor to form a resonant circuit with the energy storage capacitor and a magnetic switch to transfer energy between the resonant circuit and the pair of parallel rails for the propelling of projectiles. The multiple serial operation permits relatively small energy components to deliver overall relatively large amounts of energy to the projectiles being propelled.

  2. Multiple resonant railgun power supply

    DOEpatents

    Honig, Emanuel M.; Nunnally, William C.

    1988-01-01

    A multiple repetitive resonant railgun power supply provides energy for repetitively propelling projectiles from a pair of parallel rails. A plurality of serially connected paired parallel rails are powered by similar power supplies. Each supply comprises an energy storage capacitor, a storage inductor to form a resonant circuit with the energy storage capacitor and a magnetic switch to transfer energy between the resonant circuit and the pair of parallel rails for the propelling of projectiles. The multiple serial operation permits relatively small energy components to deliver overall relatively large amounts of energy to the projectiles being propelled.

  3. Petroleum supply monthly, April 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-04-01

    Data presented in the Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographical regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the US. The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the US.

  4. Petroleum supply monthly, February 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-03-01

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly presents data describing the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the US. The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders; operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. Data are divided into two sections: Summary statistics and Detailed statistics.

  5. Air Leakage and Air Transfer Between Garage and Living Space

    SciTech Connect

    Rudd, A.

    2014-09-01

    This research project focused on evaluation of air transfer between the garage and living space in a single-family detached home constructed by a production homebuilder in compliance with the 2009 International Residential Code and the 2009 International Energy Conservation Code. The project gathered important information about the performance of whole-building ventilation systems and garage ventilation systems as they relate to minimizing flow of contaminated air from garage to living space. A series of 25 multi-point fan pressurization tests and additional zone pressure diagnostic testing characterized the garage and house air leakage, the garage-to-house air leakage, and garage and house pressure relationships to each other and to outdoors using automated fan pressurization and pressure monitoring techniques. While the relative characteristics of this house may not represent the entire population of new construction configurations and air tightness levels (house and garage) throughout the country, the technical approach was conservative and should reasonably extend the usefulness of the results to a large spectrum of house configurations from this set of parametric tests in this one house. Based on the results of this testing, the two-step garage-to-house air leakage test protocol described above is recommended where whole-house exhaust ventilation is employed. For houses employing whole-house supply ventilation (positive pressure) or balanced ventilation (same pressure effect as the Baseline condition), adherence to the EPA Indoor airPLUS house-to-garage air sealing requirements should be sufficient to expect little to no garage-to-house air transfer.

  6. Air Dehydration Membranes for Nonaqueous Lithium-Air Batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Jian; Xu, Wu; Li, Xiaohong S; Liu, Wei

    2010-06-11

    In this paper, several types of new membranes were innovated and used as an O2-selective and H2O barrier films attached onto the cathode of non-aqueous Li-air batteries for continuous supplying of dry air into the batteries from ambient air. The membranes were prepared by depositing an O2/H2O selective coating layer on the exterior surface of a newly-invented thin porous Ni substrate sheet at thickness of ~50µm. The coatings tried include hydrophobic silicalite type zeolite and Teflon (PTFE) materials. The melted PTFE-membrane on the porous Ni sheet at 360°C enabled the Li-air batteries with Ketjen black carbon air electrodes to operate in ambient air (with 20% RH) for 21 days with a specific capacity of 1022 mAh/g carbon and a specific energy of 2792 Wh/kg carbon. Its performance is much better than the battery assembled with the same battery material but by use of a commercial, porous PTFE diffusion membranes as the moisture barrier layer on the cathode, which only had a discharge time of five and half days corresponding to a specific capacity of 267 mAh/g carbon and a specific energy of 704Wh/kg carbon. The Li-air battery with the present selective membrane barrier layer even showed better performance in ambient air operation (20% RH) than the reference battery tested in the dry air box (< 1% RH).

  7. [Supply services at health facilities: measuring performance].

    PubMed

    Dacosta Claro, I

    2001-01-01

    Performance measurement, in their different meanings--either balance scorecard or outputs measurement--have become an essential tool in today's organizations (World-Class organizations) to improve service quality and reduce costs. This paper presents a performance measurement system for the hospital supply chain. The system is organized in different levels and groups of indicators in order to show a hierarchical, coherent and integrated vision of the processes. Thus, supply services performance is measured according to (1) financial aspects, (2) customers satisfaction aspects and (3) internal aspects of the processes performed. Since the informational needs of the managers vary within the administrative structure, the performance measurement system is defined in three hierarchical levels. Firstly, the whole supply chain, with the different interrelation of activities. Secondly, the three main processes of the chain--physical management of products, purchasing and negotiation processes and the local storage units. And finally, the performance measurement of each activity involved. The system and the indicators have been evaluated with the participation of 17 health services of Quebec (Canada), however, and due to the similarities of the operation, could be equally implemented in Spanish hospitals.

  8. Air surveillance

    SciTech Connect

    Patton, G.W.

    1995-06-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the air surveillance and monitoring programs currently in operation at that Hanford Site. Atmospheric releases of pollutants from Hanford to the surrounding region are a potential source of human exposure. For that reason, both radioactive and nonradioactive materials in air are monitored at a number of locations. The influence of Hanford emissions on local radionuclide concentrations was evaluated by comparing concentrations measured at distant locations within the region to concentrations measured at the Site perimeter. This section discusses sample collection, analytical methods, and the results of the Hanford air surveillance program. A complete listing of all analytical results summarized in this section is reported separately by Bisping (1995).

  9. Congruence of Meaning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suppes, Patrick

    By looking at the history of geometry and the concept of congruence in geometry we can get a new perspective on how to think about the closeness in meaning of two sentences. As in the analysis of congruence in geometry, a definite and concrete set of proposals about congruence of meaning depends essentially on the kind of theoretical framework…

  10. Processing Film, Processing Meaning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perkowski, Lisa M.

    2015-01-01

    Adolescents are at a ripe age to make meaning and think abstractly (Kerlavage, 1998); yet, they are not "born knowing how to get ideas into materials, or how materials can be manipulated to shape ideas and meaning" (Burton, 2012, p. 14). Adolescents need guidance in understanding abstract concepts, and art teachers play an important role…

  11. Hypothesis testing II: means.

    PubMed

    Tello, Richard; Crewson, Philip E

    2003-04-01

    Whenever means are reported in the literature, they are likely accompanied by tests to determine statistical significance. The t test is a common method for statistical evaluation of the difference between two sample means. It provides information on whether the means from two samples are likely to be different in the two populations from which the data originated. Similarly, paired t tests are common when comparing means from the same set of patients before and after an intervention. Analysis of variance techniques are used when a comparison involves more than two means. Each method serves a particular purpose, has its own computational formula, and uses a different sampling distribution to determine statistical significance. In this article, the authors discuss the basis behind analysis of continuous data with use of paired and unpaired t tests, the Bonferroni correction, and multivariate analysis of variance for readers of the radiology literature. PMID:12616003

  12. Making Li-air batteries rechargeable: material challenges

    SciTech Connect

    Shao, Yuyan; Ding, Fei; Xiao, Jie; Zhang, Jian; Xu, Wu; Park, Seh Kyu; Zhang, Jiguang; Wang, Yong; Liu, Jun

    2013-02-25

    A Li-air battery could potentially provide three to five times higher energy density/specific energy than conventional batteries, thus enable the driving range of an electric vehicle comparable to a gasoline vehicle. However, making Li-air batteries rechargeable presents significant challenges, mostly related with materials. Herein, we discuss the key factors that influence the rechargeability of Li-air batteries with a focus on nonaqueous system. The status and materials challenges for nonaqueous rechargeable Li-air batteries are reviewed. These include electrolytes, cathode (electocatalysts), lithium metal anodes, and oxygen-selective membranes (oxygen supply from air). The perspective of rechargeable Li-air batteries is provided.

  13. 46 CFR 127.240 - Means of escape.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Means of escape. 127.240 Section 127.240 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS CONSTRUCTION AND ARRANGEMENTS...) and (m) of this section, there must be at least two means of escape, exclusive of windows...

  14. 46 CFR 127.240 - Means of escape.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Means of escape. 127.240 Section 127.240 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS CONSTRUCTION AND ARRANGEMENTS Particular Construction and Arrangements § 127.240 Means of escape. (a) Except as provided by paragraphs (l) and (m) of this section, there...

  15. 10 CFR 600.324 - Supplies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Supplies. 600.324 Section 600.324 Energy DEPARTMENT OF... Supplies. (a) Title vests in the recipient upon acquisition of supplies acquired with Federal funds under... unused supplies. If the inventory of unused supplies exceeds $5,000 in total aggregate value and...

  16. 32 CFR 34.24 - Supplies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Supplies. 34.24 Section 34.24 National Defense... § 34.24 Supplies. (a) Title shall vest in the recipient upon acquisition for supplies acquired with... shall retain any unused supplies. If the inventory of unused supplies exceeds $5,000 in total...

  17. The 3He Supply Problem

    SciTech Connect

    Kouzes, Richard T.

    2009-05-01

    One of the main uses for 3He is in gas proportional counters for neutron detection. Radiation portal monitors deployed for homeland security and non-proliferation use such detectors. Other uses of 3He are for research detectors, commercial instruments, well logging detectors, dilution refrigerators, for targets or cooling in nuclear research, and for basic research in condensed matter physics. The US supply of 3He comes almost entirely from the decay of tritium used in nuclear weapons by the US and Russia. A few other countries contribute a small amount to the world’s 3He supply. Due to the large increase in use of 3He for homeland security, the supply has dwindled, and can no longer meet the demand. This white paper reviews the problems of supply, utilization, and alternatives.

  18. Fuel cell power supply with oxidant and fuel gas switching

    DOEpatents

    McElroy, James F.; Chludzinski, Paul J.; Dantowitz, Philip

    1987-01-01

    This invention relates to a fuel cell vehicular power plant. Fuel for the fuel stack is supplied by a hydrocarbon (methanol) catalytic cracking reactor and CO shift reactor. A water electrolysis subsystem is associated with the stack. During low power operation part of the fuel cell power is used to electrolyze water with hydrogen and oxygen electrolysis products being stored in pressure vessels. During peak power intervals, viz, during acceleration or start-up, pure oxygen and pure hydrogen from the pressure vessel are supplied as the reaction gases to the cathodes and anodes in place of air and methanol reformate. This allows the fuel cell stack to be sized for normal low power/air operation but with a peak power capacity several times greater than that for normal operation.

  19. Fuel cell power supply with oxidant and fuel gas switching

    DOEpatents

    McElroy, J.F.; Chludzinski, P.J.; Dantowitz, P.

    1987-04-14

    This invention relates to a fuel cell vehicular power plant. Fuel for the fuel stack is supplied by a hydrocarbon (methanol) catalytic cracking reactor and CO shift reactor. A water electrolysis subsystem is associated with the stack. During low power operation part of the fuel cell power is used to electrolyze water with hydrogen and oxygen electrolysis products being stored in pressure vessels. During peak power intervals, viz, during acceleration or start-up, pure oxygen and pure hydrogen from the pressure vessel are supplied as the reaction gases to the cathodes and anodes in place of air and methanol reformate. This allows the fuel cell stack to be sized for normal low power/air operation but with a peak power capacity several times greater than that for normal operation. 2 figs.

  20. TRANSISTOR HIGH VOLTAGE POWER SUPPLY

    DOEpatents

    Driver, G.E.

    1958-07-15

    High voltage, direct current power supplies are described for use with battery powered nuclear detection equipment. The particular advantages of the power supply described, are increased efficiency and reduced size and welght brought about by the use of transistors in the circuit. An important feature resides tn the employment of a pair of transistors in an alternatefiring oscillator circuit having a coupling transformer and other circuit components which are used for interconnecting the various electrodes of the transistors.

  1. ORION downconverter and power supply

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nishimura, H. G.

    1982-01-01

    The receiver subsystem supplies the front end assembly (downconverter) and power supply for the ORION Mobile Station. These assemblies are designed to withstand severe environmental conditions. The mechanical, electronic, environmental and maintenance design considerations encountered during the design phase of this project are discussed. The two channel S/X downconverter has a 400 MHz bandwidth channel. Phase stability of 2 and 7 deg at S- and X-bands, respectively, is achieved with a temperature stabilized first local oscillator.

  2. Reinforcement learning in supply chains.

    PubMed

    Valluri, Annapurna; North, Michael J; Macal, Charles M

    2009-10-01

    Effective management of supply chains creates value and can strategically position companies. In practice, human beings have been found to be both surprisingly successful and disappointingly inept at managing supply chains. The related fields of cognitive psychology and artificial intelligence have postulated a variety of potential mechanisms to explain this behavior. One of the leading candidates is reinforcement learning. This paper applies agent-based modeling to investigate the comparative behavioral consequences of three simple reinforcement learning algorithms in a multi-stage supply chain. For the first time, our findings show that the specific algorithm that is employed can have dramatic effects on the results obtained. Reinforcement learning is found to be valuable in multi-stage supply chains with several learning agents, as independent agents can learn to coordinate their behavior. However, learning in multi-stage supply chains using these postulated approaches from cognitive psychology and artificial intelligence take extremely long time periods to achieve stability which raises questions about their ability to explain behavior in real supply chains. The fact that it takes thousands of periods for agents to learn in this simple multi-agent setting provides new evidence that real world decision makers are unlikely to be using strict reinforcement learning in practice.

  3. Petroleum supply monthly, April 1990

    SciTech Connect

    1990-06-26

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of three publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information Administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. The other two publications are the Weekly Petroleum Status Report (WPSR) and the Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA). Data presented in the Petroleum Supply Monthly describe (PSM) the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in Primary Supply.'' Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: (1) the Summary Statistics and (2) the Detailed Statistics.

  4. NREL Provides Guidance to Improve Air Mixing and Thermal Comfort in Homes (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2012-02-01

    NREL research determines optimal HVAC system design for proper air mixing and thermal comfort in homes. As U.S. homes become more energy efficient, heating, ventilation, and cooling (HVAC) systems will be downsized, and the air flow volumes required to meet heating and cooling loads may be too small to maintain uniform room air mixing-which can affect thermal comfort. Researchers at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) evaluated the performance of high sidewall air supply inlets and confirmed that these systems can achieve good air mixing and provide suitable comfort levels for occupants. Using computational fluid dynamics modeling, NREL scientists tested the performance of high sidewall supply air jets over a wide range of parameters including supply air temperature, air velocity, and inlet size. This technique uses the model output to determine how well the supply air mixes with the room air. Thermal comfort is evaluated by monitoring air temperature and velocity in more than 600,000 control volumes that make up the occupied zone of a single room. The room has an acceptable comfort level when more than 70% of the control volumes meet the comfort criteria on both air temperature and velocity. The study shows that high sidewall supply air jets achieve uniform mixing in a room, which is essential for providing acceptable comfort levels. The study also provides information required to optimize overall space conditioning system design in both heating and cooling modes.

  5. Air Pollution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scorer, Richard S.

    The purpose of this book is to describe the basic mechanisms whereby pollution is transported and diffused in the atmosphere. It is designed to give practitioners an understanding of basic mechanics and physics so they may have a correct basis on which to formulate their decisions related to practical air pollution control problems. Since many…

  6. Air Pollution

    PubMed Central

    Clifton, Marjorie

    1964-01-01

    Dr Marjorie Clifton describes the classification of gaseous and nongaseous constituents of air pollution and then outlines the methods of measuring these. The National Survey embraced 150 towns of all sizes throughout England and Wales and provided data on smoke and sulphur dioxide in relation to climate, topography, industrialization, population density, fuel utilization and urban development. Dr W C Turner discusses the relationship between air pollution and mortality from respiratory conditions, and particularly the incidence of chronic bronchitis. He postulates a theory that such respiratory conditions arise as an allergy to the spores of certain moulds, spore formation being encouraged by the air humidity in Greatv Britain and overcrowded and damp living conditions. He describes the results of a twenty-week study undertaken in 1962-3, showing associations between respiratory disease and levels of air pollution. Dr Stuart Carne undertook a survey in general practice to plot the patterns of respiratory illness in London during the winter of 1962-3. There were two peaks of respiratory illnesses coinciding with the fog at the beginning of December and the freeze-up from the end of December until the beginning of March. PMID:14178955

  7. Low temperature air with high IAQ for dry climates

    SciTech Connect

    Scofield, C.M. ); Des Champs, N.H. )

    1995-01-01

    This article describes how low temperature supply air and air-to-air heat exchangers can furnish 100% outdoor air with reduced peak energy demands. The use of low temperature supply air systems in arid climates greatly simplifies the air-conditioning design. Risks associated with moisture migration and sweating of duct and terminal equipment are reduced. Insulation and vapor barrier design requirements are not nearly as critical as they are in the humid, ambient conditions that exist in the eastern United States. The introduction of outdoor air to meet ASHRAE Standard 62-1989 becomes far less taxing on the mechanical cooling equipment because of the lower enthalpy levels of the dry western climate. Energy costs to assure indoor air quality (IAQ) are lower than for more tropical climates. In arid regions, maintaining acceptable indoor relative humidity (RH) levels becomes a major IAQ concern. For the western United States, coupling an air-to-air heat exchanger to direct (adiabatic) evaporative coolers can greatly reduce low temperature supply air refrigeration energy requirements and winter humidification costs while ensuring proper ventilation.

  8. Secondary air control system in an internal combustion engine

    SciTech Connect

    Takeda, K.

    1981-11-10

    This application discloses a secondary air control system in an internal combustion engine. The system comprises: an exhaust gas purifying device mounted on an exhaust pipe; a secondary air control valve which comprises a diaphragm actuated by vacuum pressure for controlling secondary supply air to said exhaust gas purifying device; a solenoid valve for controlling said vacuum pressure which acts upon said secondary air control valve; a vacuum sensor which detects the vacuum pressure at a small venturi of a carburetor; a thermo-sensor for detecting the intake air temperature; an air flow meter mounted on a secondary air supply pipe; a thermo-sensor for detecting the secondary air temperature mounted on said secondary air supply pipe, and; a computer to which said valuum sensor, said thermo-sensors, and said air flow meter are connected so as to feed input signals thereto, said solenoid valve being connected to the output of said computer so as to control the secondary air quantity in response to said input signals.

  9. What "Being Overweight" Means

    MedlinePlus

    ... offer gym classes every day; more kids play video games than active games like dodgeball. Even grown-ups ... also means watching less TV and playing fewer video games. Eating healthy is another part of staying fit. ...

  10. Algebraic Mean Field Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dankova, T. S.; Rosensteel, G.

    1998-10-01

    Mean field theory has an unexpected group theoretic mathematical foundation. Instead of representation theory which applies to most group theoretic quantum models, Hartree-Fock and Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov have been formulated in terms of coadjoint orbits for the groups U(n) and O(2n). The general theory of mean fields is formulated for an arbitrary Lie algebra L of fermion operators. The moment map provides the correspondence between the Hilbert space of microscopic wave functions and the dual space L^* of densities. The coadjoint orbits of the group in the dual space are phase spaces on which time-dependent mean field theory is equivalent to a classical Hamiltonian dynamical system. Indeed it forms a finite-dimensional Lax system. The mean field theories for the Elliott SU(3) and symplectic Sp(3,R) algebras are constructed explicitly in the coadjoint orbit framework.

  11. MEANS FOR CONTROLLING REACTIONS

    DOEpatents

    Nordheim, L.W.; Wigner, E.P.

    1961-06-27

    The patented means is described for controlling a nuclear reactor which comprises a tank containing a dispersion of a thermally fissionable material in a liquid moderator and a material convertible to a thermally fissionable material in a container disposed about the tank. The control means comprises a control rod chamber, containing only a liquid moderator, disposed within the container and adjacent to the tank and a control rod designed to be inserted into the chamber.

  12. Air tight fuel burning stove

    SciTech Connect

    Nietupski, V.J.

    1980-03-11

    A fuel burning stove is claimed for holding and burning fuel to heat the surrounding atmosphere in a room where the stove is employed. The stove includes a fire box which supports the fuel and where the combustion is sustained. An air inlet is provided to the fire box allowing the inflow of air for combustion with the fuel. The air is preheated upon entry into the fire box for mixture with volatiles formed by the burning fuel directed toward the entering air by a baffle means to effect a secondary combustion. In addition, a movable damper cooperates with the baffle to direct volatiles toward the incoming heated air when the damper is in the closed position and to provide a more direct path to the chimney when in the open position.

  13. 500 Watt Diesel Fueled TPV Portable Power Supply

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horne, W. E.; Morgan, M. D.; Sundaram, V. S.; Butcher, T.

    2003-01-01

    A test-bed 500 watt diesel fueled thermophotovoltaic (TPV) portable power supply is described. The goal of the design is a compact, rugged field portable unit weighing less than 15 pounds without fuel. The conversion efficiency goal is set at 15% fuel energy to electric energy delivered to an external load at 24 volts. A burner/recuperator system has been developed to meet the objectives of high combustion air preheat temperatures with a compact heat exchanger, low excess air operation, and high convective heat transfer rates to the silicon carbide emitter surface. The burner incorporates a air blast atomizer with 100% of the combustion air passing through the nozzle. Designed firing rate of 2900 watts at 0.07 gallons of oil per hour. This incorporates a single air supply dc motor/fan set and avoids the need for a system air compressor. The recuperator consists of three annular, concentric laminar flow passages. Heat from the combustion of the diesel fuel is both radiantly and convectively coupled to the inside wall of a cylindrical silicon carbide emitter. The outer wall of the emitter then radiates blackbody energy at the design temperature of 1400°C. The cylindrical emitter is enclosed in a quartz envelope that separates it from the photovoltaic (PV) cells. Spectral control is accomplished by a resonant mesh IR band-pass filter placed between the emitter and the PV array. The narrow band of energy transmitted by the filter is intercepted and converted to electricity by an array of GaSb PV cells. The array consists of 216 1-cm × 1-cm GaSb cells arranged into series and parallel arrays. An array of heat pipes couple the PV cell arrays to a heat exchanger which is cooled by forced air convection. A brief status of the key TPV technologies is presented followed by data characterizing the performance of the 500 watt TPV system.

  14. Inertial impaction air sampling device

    DOEpatents

    Dewhurst, Katharine H.

    1990-01-01

    An inertial impactor to be used in an air sampling device for collection of respirable size particles in ambient air which may include a graphite furnace as the impaction substrate in a small-size, portable, direct analysis structure that gives immediate results and is totally self-contained allowing for remote and/or personal sampling. The graphite furnace collects suspended particles transported through the housing by means of the air flow system, and these particles may be analyzed for elements, quantitatively and qualitatively, by atomic absorption spectrophotometry.

  15. Inertial impaction air sampling device

    DOEpatents

    Dewhurst, K.H.

    1990-05-22

    An inertial impactor is designed which is to be used in an air sampling device for collection of respirable size particles in ambient air. The device may include a graphite furnace as the impaction substrate in a small-size, portable, direct analysis structure that gives immediate results and is totally self-contained allowing for remote and/or personal sampling. The graphite furnace collects suspended particles transported through the housing by means of the air flow system, and these particles may be analyzed for elements, quantitatively and qualitatively, by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. 3 figs.

  16. Inertial impaction air sampling device

    DOEpatents

    Dewhurst, K.H.

    1987-12-10

    An inertial impactor to be used in an air sampling device for collection of respirable size particles in ambient air which may include a graphite furnace as the impaction substrate in a small-size, portable, direct analysis structure that gives immediate results and is totally self-contained allowing for remote and/or personal sampling. The graphite furnace collects suspended particles transported through the housing by means of the air flow system, and these particles may be analyzed for elements, quantitatively and qualitatively, by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. 3 figs.

  17. Energy Harvesting Chip and the Chip Based Power Supply Development for a Wireless Sensor Network

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Dasheng

    2008-01-01

    In this study, an energy harvesting chip was developed to scavenge energy from artificial light to charge a wireless sensor node. The chip core is a miniature transformer with a nano-ferrofluid magnetic core. The chip embedded transformer can convert harvested energy from its solar cell to variable voltage output for driving multiple loads. This chip system yields a simple, small, and more importantly, a battery-less power supply solution. The sensor node is equipped with multiple sensors that can be enabled by the energy harvesting power supply to collect information about the human body comfort degree. Compared with lab instruments, the nodes with temperature, humidity and photosensors driven by harvested energy had variation coefficient measurement precision of less than 6% deviation under low environmental light of 240 lux. The thermal comfort was affected by the air speed. A flow sensor equipped on the sensor node was used to detect airflow speed. Due to its high power consumption, this sensor node provided 15% less accuracy than the instruments, but it still can meet the requirement of analysis for predicted mean votes (PMV) measurement. The energy harvesting wireless sensor network (WSN) was deployed in a 24-hour convenience store to detect thermal comfort degree from the air conditioning control. During one year operation, the sensor network powered by the energy harvesting chip retained normal functions to collect the PMV index of the store. According to the one month statistics of communication status, the packet loss rate (PLR) is 2.3%, which is as good as the presented results of those WSNs powered by battery. Referring to the electric power records, almost 54% energy can be saved by the feedback control of an energy harvesting sensor network. These results illustrate that, scavenging energy not only creates a reliable power source for electronic devices, such as wireless sensor nodes, but can also be an energy source by building an energy efficient

  18. Understanding and reducing the risk of supply chain disruptions.

    PubMed

    Clark, Graham

    2012-01-01

    Natural disasters can wreck havoc on business operations. When civil unrest swept the UK in August 2011, the effect on business was stark, losing the retail sector £300m in unexpected costs and lost revenues. On the other side of the world, the natural disaster that hit Japan in early 2011 is estimated to have run up costs in the region of £189bn in repairs. Beyond this, the earthquake and its aftermath shattered supply chains, with technology companies expecting delays of up to six months before business could resume fully. It is impossible to predict incidents like these, but businesses can help mitigate disruption in the supply chain by undertaking business continuity management (BCM). A flexible supply chain is essential when it comes to BCM - whether it means being able to cope with altering transport routes at short notice, or finding or replacing a supplier at the last minute. Understanding the supply chain is critical when responding to major impacts that affect supply chains in multiple points - like IT system failures and country-wide fuel strikes. Businesses should carry out detailed business impact assessments and risk assessments right across the end-to-end supply chain and not just at key single points of failure. It is an intensive process that needs dedicated resources and ownership at the highest level. Recognising this, DHL has designed a 10-step process, which it has implemented across its global supply chain business. This paper provides an overview of what a supply chain really looks like, what can cause disruptions and how far up/down the supply chain companies need to go with their BCM planning. PMID:22948101

  19. Understanding and reducing the risk of supply chain disruptions.

    PubMed

    Clark, Graham

    2012-01-01

    Natural disasters can wreck havoc on business operations. When civil unrest swept the UK in August 2011, the effect on business was stark, losing the retail sector £300m in unexpected costs and lost revenues. On the other side of the world, the natural disaster that hit Japan in early 2011 is estimated to have run up costs in the region of £189bn in repairs. Beyond this, the earthquake and its aftermath shattered supply chains, with technology companies expecting delays of up to six months before business could resume fully. It is impossible to predict incidents like these, but businesses can help mitigate disruption in the supply chain by undertaking business continuity management (BCM). A flexible supply chain is essential when it comes to BCM - whether it means being able to cope with altering transport routes at short notice, or finding or replacing a supplier at the last minute. Understanding the supply chain is critical when responding to major impacts that affect supply chains in multiple points - like IT system failures and country-wide fuel strikes. Businesses should carry out detailed business impact assessments and risk assessments right across the end-to-end supply chain and not just at key single points of failure. It is an intensive process that needs dedicated resources and ownership at the highest level. Recognising this, DHL has designed a 10-step process, which it has implemented across its global supply chain business. This paper provides an overview of what a supply chain really looks like, what can cause disruptions and how far up/down the supply chain companies need to go with their BCM planning.

  20. 40 CFR 63.1305 - Alternative means of emission limitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 11 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Alternative means of emission limitation. 63.1305 Section 63.1305 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES National Emission Standards for Hazardous...