Science.gov

Sample records for air support cas

  1. Scorpion: Close Air Support (CAS) aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, Chris; Cheng, Rendy; Koehler, Grant; Lyon, Sean; Paguio, Cecilia

    1991-01-01

    The objective is to outline the results of the preliminary design of the Scorpion, a proposed close air support aircraft. The results obtained include complete preliminary analysis of the aircraft in the areas of aerodynamics, structures, avionics and electronics, stability and control, weight and balance, propulsion systems, and costs. A conventional wing, twin jet, twin-tail aircraft was chosen to maximize the desirable characteristics. The Scorpion will feature low speed maneuverability, high survivability, low cost, and low maintenance. The life cycle cost per aircraft will be 17.5 million dollars. The maximum takeoff weight will be 52,760 pounds. Wing loading will be 90 psf. The thrust to weight will be 0.6 lbs/lb. This aircraft meets the specified mission requirements. Some modifications have been suggested to further optimize the design.

  2. Detailed Analysis Plan for Validation of Close Air Support (CAS). Phase 2 Results

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1974-06-01

    CONMTL DATA PORN QUESTIONS LftIM/AIR b 1M MDRQUVEST PrASE RD, DIV OR CORPS (ALLOCATED RESOURCE ABORTS, ONLY) 1. Unit 1D No: 2. Location of TACP in UTM...Terminal Area Control (FAC(r) , PiC (A) , or ASRT) Type Control Call Sign Delay Abort CNX N/A Reason Codes Ist Znd 01 Cons Security 07 lnt’rm’t Com 14...NETWORK FOR ATTACK HELICOPTER CAB - DATA PORN QUESTIONS TO ANNEX C[ DATA COLLECTION CIoS CABA D AND CONTROL DATA FOlRM QUESTIONS No. 1-2-3-4-S.-6* ARMY

  3. Simulation for close air support

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hench, David L.

    2009-05-01

    Close Air Support (CAS) is the use of air power in close proximity to friendly forces against enemy combatants. CAS requires precise and detailed communication between the personnel on the ground and the air vehicles. To be useful, a network simulation should be a superposition on the planning simulations for these activities. In a CAS mission, all of the above activities are critical. A hypothetical CAS mission is modeled as an "as is" solution with stove-piped communications and a "to be" network enabled solution. A co-simulation laboratory using OPNET with SITL (SYSTEM in the Loop, cosim, JFORCES (Joint Force Operational Readiness Combat Effectiveness Simulator), and JSAF (Joint Semi-Automated Forces) simulation system is described.

  4. Air-Supported Structures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ontario Dept. of Education, Toronto. School Planning and Building Research Section.

    This study has been prepared to set out some of the benefits and the problems involved in the use of air-supported structures. Also indicated are the types of inquiries that should be made when the use of such structures is being considered. Technical and engineering details, such as the properties of various fabrics, are not included. (Author)

  5. Air Risk Information Support Center

    SciTech Connect

    Shoaf, C.R.; Guth, D.J.

    1990-12-31

    The Air Risk Information Support Center (Air RISC) was initiated in early 1988 by the US Environmental Protection Agency`s (EPA) Office of Health and Environmental Assessment (OHEA) and the Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards (OAQPS) as a technology transfer effort that would focus on providing information to state and local environmental agencies and to EPA Regional Offices in the areas of health, risk, and exposure assessment for toxic air pollutants. Technical information is fostered and disseminated by Air RISCs three primary activities: (1) a {open_quotes}hotline{close_quotes}, (2) quick turn-around technical assistance projects, and (3) general technical guidance projects. 1 ref., 2 figs.

  6. Responsive Close Air Support

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-01-01

    rock unturned in their pursuit of better supporting their comrades in arms. No single line of effort produced this change. Multiple lines of effort...DOs)—for example, CASDO, Tanker DO, and others—at the improved responsiveness happened because Airmen left no rock unturned in their pursuit of

  7. Close Air Support: Proud Past, Uncertain Future

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-04-01

    34The Soviet Offensive - An Attack Pilot’s View", by Colonel Harry Kieling, in the March-April 1985 Air University Review .) (26:--) i6 CHAPTER II THE CAS...helicopter pilot) asks a CAS flight to strike an enemy command post vehicle transmitting from a position about six miles from his lines. (AUTHOR’S...attacks seemed to inspire a beaten ground unit to intensify their fighting and regain lost ground. As Freedman points out in his review of airpower

  8. The Guardian: Preliminary design of a close air support aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haag, Jonathan; Huber, David; Mcinerney, Kelly; Mulligan, Greg; Pessin, David; Seelos, Michael

    1991-01-01

    One design is presented of a Close Air Support (CAS) aircraft. It is a canard wing, twin engine, twin vertical tail aircraft that has the capability to cruise at 520 knots. The Guardian contains state of the art flight control systems. Specific highlights of the Guardian include: (1) low cost (the acquisition cost per airplane is $13.6 million for a production of 500 airplanes); (2) low maintenance (it was designed to be easily maintainable in unprepared fields); and (3) high versatility (it can perform a wide range of missions). Along with being a CAS aircraft, it is capable of long ferry missions, battlefield interdiction, maritime attack, and combat rescue. The Guardian is capable of a maximum ferry of 3800 nm, can takeoff in a distance of 1700 ft, land in a ground roll distance of 1644 ft. It has a maximum takeoff weight of 48,753 lbs, and is capable of carrying up to 19,500 lbs of ordinance.

  9. Joint Tactics, Techniques, and Procedures for Close Air Support (CAS)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    Airfields. g. Recovery (1) C2. (2) Recovery Type. (a) Primary. (b) Secondary. (3) NVD Stowage . (4) Formation Break-up. (5) Landing. (a) Primary. (b... rack -ejection velocity. 3. Relationships Between Weapon Impact and Point of Intersection For all determinations in Figure D-1, the position of a prone

  10. Close Air Support: Why All the Fuss

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-01-02

    column, and hamlet defense in Indochina and South Vietnam; and siege-breaking at Dien Bien Phu and Khe Sanh. In all of these cases, CAS substituted...the Dien Bien Phu experience, and, indeed, enabled Khe Sanh to accomplish what the French at Dien Blien Phu had tried and failed to achieve: create a...technological frontiers on which the Air Force has always sought leadership. It fits nicely their service " persona ." But, is it in the Army’s interest to take

  11. The School of Hard Knocks: The Development of Close Air Support in Burma during the Second World War

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-05-23

    The School of Hard Knocks: The Development of Close Air Support in Burma during the Second World War A Monograph by Major Patrick B...AND SUBTITLE The School of Hard Knocks: The Development of Close Air Support in Burma during the Second World War 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT...explores the roots of modern CAS in Burma during World War II. By contrasting the efforts of the American Volunteer Group in 1942 with the Eastern Air

  12. Preliminary design of a family of three close air support aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cox, Brian; Darrah, Paul; Lussier, Wayne; Mills, Nikos

    1989-01-01

    A family of three Close Air Support aircraft is presented. These aircraft are designed with commonality as the main design objective to reduce the life cycle cost. The aircraft are low wing, twin-boom, pusher turbo-prop configurations. The amount of information displayed to the pilot was reduced to a minimum to greatly simplify the cockpit. The aircraft met the mission specifications and the performance and cost characteristics compared well with other CAS aircraft. The concept of a family of CAS aircraft seems viable after preliminary design.

  13. CALM: Complex Adaptive System (CAS)-Based Decision Support for Enabling Organizational Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adler, Richard M.; Koehn, David J.

    Guiding organizations through transformational changes such as restructuring or adopting new technologies is a daunting task. Such changes generate workforce uncertainty, fear, and resistance, reducing morale, focus and performance. Conventional project management techniques fail to mitigate these disruptive effects, because social and individual changes are non-mechanistic, organic phenomena. CALM (for Change, Adaptation, Learning Model) is an innovative decision support system for enabling change based on CAS principles. CALM provides a low risk method for validating and refining change strategies that combines scenario planning techniques with "what-if" behavioral simulation. In essence, CALM "test drives" change strategies before rolling them out, allowing organizations to practice and learn from virtual rather than actual mistakes. This paper describes the CALM modeling methodology, including our metrics for measuring organizational readiness to respond to change and other major CALM scenario elements: prospective change strategies; alternate futures; and key situational dynamics. We then describe CALM's simulation engine for projecting scenario outcomes and its associated analytics. CALM's simulator unifies diverse behavioral simulation paradigms including: adaptive agents; system dynamics; Monte Carlo; event- and process-based techniques. CALM's embodiment of CAS dynamics helps organizations reduce risk and improve confidence and consistency in critical strategies for enabling transformations.

  14. Operational Test Plan Concept for Evaluation of Close Air Support Alternative Aircraft

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-03-31

    to prepare an operational test plan to conduct a competitive fly-off of alternative aircraft for the close air support (CAS) mission and to complete...the test pLanbys>_ M &vach49- The Act also directed the Secretary of Defense to conduct an independent assessment of ongoing studies and analyses...commitment of forces and equipment by the Services and the likelihood of conducting the test on an active Army installation, the Army will be

  15. Breaking the Paradigm: The Challenge of Close Air Support in the Future Joint Operating Environment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-07-26

    fact they had no artillery to provide support. The only “artillery” the forces had for support was mortars ranging from 60mm up to 120mm in size...ground forces in 1911. It was in that year the first two way radio was used in, and the first bomb dropped from an aircraft (Gabriel et al, 1992...Army commanders believe the Air Force has neglected the role of CAS and delegated it to a lower priority behind air superiority and strategic bombing

  16. Close Air Support for the Field Army

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1964-05-25

    90. 76 of the 12th Air Support C omand , for consideration.4 From D plus 4 to D plus 7, requests for attacks on tar,:ets of’ opportunity were not...ibid. 3 8 Ibid. 9o evolved into the "Rover Joe" svstem of close air suooort. Rover Joe was based to an extent on the "Rover David " orinciple used in...tentacles (air sunport oart-4, air sunoort control, and rear links (liaison officer at iir force airfields). Rover David vas intended to be located

  17. Will Close Air Support be Where Needed and When to Support Objective Force Operations in 2015?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-01-01

    Ibid., 350. 55 Ibid. 56 Ibid., 364. 57 Cooling, Case Studies in the Development of CAS, 369. 58 Gary R. Lester, Mosquitoes to Wolves : The Evolution of...Hanover, NH: University Press of New England, 1977. Lester, Major Gary R. Mosquitoes to Wolves : The Evolution of the Airborne Forward Air Controller...96 Lester, Mosquitoes to Wolves , 110. 97 Cooling, Case Studies in the Development of CAS, 423. 98 Ibid. The most frequent finding of

  18. Close Air Support: Which Way Do We Go?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-12-01

    Reservoir fighting in 1950; outpost, column, and Parameters hamlet defense in Indochina and South Vietnam; and siege-breaking at Dien Bien Phu and Khe...Air Force has always sought leadership. It fits nicely their service persona . But is it in the Army’s interest to take over CAS, much less all of

  19. Development Process of a Praxeology for Supporting the Teaching of Proofs in a CAS Environment Based on Teachers' Experience in a Professional Development Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zehavi, Nurit; Mann, Giora

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the development process of a "praxeology" (theory-of-practice) for supporting the teaching of proofs in a CAS environment. The characteristics of the praxeology were elaborated within the frame of a professional development course for teaching analytic geometry with CAS. The theoretical framework draws on Chevallard's…

  20. A Historical Look at Close Air Support

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    the X Corps commander, General Almond . He had experience with effective air-to-ground operations in Italy during World War II. Almond attended the Air...Reservoir, General Almonds X Corps successfully withdrew with the assistance from the 1st MAW. The support that the Marines gave has been described by...Corps as an independent command, enabling Almond to plan, prepare and conduct his own combat missions. Once X Corps withdrew to the south it ceased to

  1. Proposal for a low cost close air support aircraft for the year 2000: The Raptor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Jerome D.; Dewitt, Ward S.; Mcdonald, Mark; Riley, John W.; Roberts, Anthony E.; Watson, Sean; Whelan, Margaret M.

    1991-01-01

    The Raptor is a proposed low cost Close Air Support (CAS) aircraft for the U.S. Military. The Raptor incorporates a 'cranked arrow' wing planform, and uses canards instead of a traditional horizontal tail. The Raptor is designed to be capable of responsive delivery of effective ordnance in close proximity to friendly ground forces during the day, night, and 'under the weather' conditions. Details are presented of the Raptor's mission, configuration, performance, stability and control, ground support, manufacturing, and overall cost to permit engineering evaluation of the proposed design. A description of the design process and analysis methods used is also provided.

  2. AIRS Mission Support from GES DISC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wei, Jennifer; Hearty, Thomas; Savtchenko, Audrey; Ding, Feng; Esfandiari, Ed; Theobald, Mike; Vollmer, Bruce; Kempler, Steve

    2015-01-01

    This talk will describe the support and distribution of AIRS (Atmospheric Infra Red Sounding) data products that are archived and distributed from the Goddard Earth Sciences Data and Information Services Center. Along with data stewardship, an important mission of GES DISC is to enhance the usability of data and broaden the user base. We will provide a brief summary of the current online archive and distribution metrics for the AIRS v5 and v6 products. We will also describe collaborative data sets and services (e.g., visualization and potential science applications) and solicit feedback for potential future services.

  3. Manx: Close air support aircraft preliminary design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Amy, Annie; Crone, David; Hendrickson, Heidi; Willis, Randy; Silva, Vince

    1991-01-01

    The Manx is a twin engine, twin tailed, single seat close air support design proposal for the 1991 Team Student Design Competition. It blends advanced technologies into a lightweight, high performance design with the following features: High sensitivity (rugged, easily maintained, with night/adverse weather capability); Highly maneuverable (negative static margin, forward swept wing, canard, and advanced avionics result in enhanced aircraft agility); and Highly versatile (design flexibility allows the Manx to contribute to a truly integrated ground team capable of rapid deployment from forward sites).

  4. Photocopy of drawing. OPERATIONS SUPPORT BUILDING. NASA, Cape Canaveral Air ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photocopy of drawing. OPERATIONS SUPPORT BUILDING. NASA, Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Florida. Drawing 86K01547, Maurice H. Connell & Associates, February, 1961. OPERATIONS SUPPORT BUILDING FLOOR PLAN AND SCHEDULES. Sheet 4 of 34 - Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Launch Complex 34, Operations Support Building, Freedom Road, Southwest of Launch Stand CX-34, Cape Canaveral, Brevard County, FL

  5. Photocopy of drawing. OPERATIONS SUPPORT BUILDING. NASA, Cape Canaveral Air ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photocopy of drawing. OPERATIONS SUPPORT BUILDING. NASA, Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Florida. Drawing 86K01547, Maurice H. Connell & Associates, February, 1961. OPERATIONS SUPPORT BUILDING ROOF PLAN, REFLECTED CEILING PLAN, AND DETAILS. Sheet 7 of 34 - Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Launch Complex 34, Operations Support Building, Freedom Road, Southwest of Launch Stand CX-34, Cape Canaveral, Brevard County, FL

  6. Photocopy of drawing. OPERATIONS SUPPORT BUILDING. NASA, Cape Canaveral Air ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photocopy of drawing. OPERATIONS SUPPORT BUILDING. NASA, Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Florida. Drawing 86K01547, Maurice H. Connell & Associates, February, 1961. OPERATIONS SUPPORT BUILDING ELEVATIONS AND SECTION. Sheet 5 of 34 - Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Launch Complex 34, Operations Support Building, Freedom Road, Southwest of Launch Stand CX-34, Cape Canaveral, Brevard County, FL

  7. Photocopy of drawing. OPERATIONS SUPPORT BUILDING. NASA, Cape Canaveral Air ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photocopy of drawing. OPERATIONS SUPPORT BUILDING. NASA, Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Florida. Drawing 86K01547, Maurice H. Connell & Associates, February, 1961. OPERATIONS SUPPORT BUILDING SITE PLAN. Sheet 2 of 34 - Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Launch Complex 34, Operations Support Building, Freedom Road, Southwest of Launch Stand CX-34, Cape Canaveral, Brevard County, FL

  8. Air support facilities. [interface between air and surface transportation systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Airports are discussed in terms of the interface between the ground and air for transportation systems. The classification systems, design, facilities, administration, and operations of airports are described.

  9. Thinking About CAS without Thinking about CAS Doctrine: Selected Interactions of Institutional Processes within the Close Air Support Mission

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-12-13

    accompanying article “Background on the Institutional Analysis and Development Framework” by Elinor Ostrom expounds on the IAD framework and provides another......mission. A collective-action situation is simply one in which multiple actors interact within an environment and produce an outcome. Ostrom further

  10. Air Systems Provide Life Support to Miners

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2014-01-01

    Through a Space Act Agreement with Johnson Space Center, Paragon Space Development Corporation, of Tucson, Arizona, developed the Commercial Crew Transport-Air Revitalization System, designed to provide clean air for crewmembers on short-duration space flights. The technology is now being used to help save miners' lives in the event of an underground disaster.

  11. Close Air Support versus Close Combat Attack

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-12-06

    Thomas Alexander. Over Lord: General Pete Quesada and the Triumph of Tactical Air Power in World War II. New York: Free Press, 1995. Hume , David B... David Tohn, On Point – The United States Army in Operation Iraqi Freedom, (Fort Leavenworth, KS; Center for Army Lessons Learned, 2004), 405. 55...Mar/Apr 1996). Davis, Richard G. The 31 Initiatives. Washington, DC: Office of Air Force History, 1987. Fontenot, Gregory , E.J. Degen, and David

  12. Air Force Cyber Command (Provisional) Decision Support

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-01-01

    points and gave us a wide-ranging programmatic overview, while Lt Col Michelle Bowes gave us an assessment of program implementa- tion status, and...the benefit of excellent briefings from the Defense Information Systems Agency’s RADM Elizabeth Hight and Brig Gen Jennifer Napper, and from the Air...definition of cyberspace (which is more constrained than the Air Force’s initial concept) as a starting point ,12 there are still unanswered questions

  13. Cyclone: A close air support aircraft for tomorrow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cox, George; Croulet, Donald; Dunn, James; Graham, Michael; Ip, Phillip; Low, Scott; Vance, Gregg; Volckaert, Eric

    1991-01-01

    To meet the threat of the battlefield of the future, the U.S. ground forces will require reliable air support. To provide this support, future aircrews demand a versatile close air support aircraft capable of delivering ordinance during the day, night, or in adverse weather with pin-point accuracy. The Cyclone aircraft meets these requirements, packing the 'punch' necessary to clear the way for effective ground operations. Possessing anti-armor, missile, and precision bombing capability, the Cyclone will counter the threat into the 21st Century. Here, it is shown that the Cyclone is a realistic, economical answer to the demand for a capable close air support aircraft.

  14. A-2000: Close air support aircraft design team

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carrannanto, Paul; Lim, Don; Lucas, Evangeline; Risse, Alan; Weaver, Dave; Wikse, Steve

    1991-01-01

    The US Air Force is currently faced with the problem of providing adequate close air support for ground forces. Air response to troops engaged in combat must be rapid and devastating due to the highly fluid battle lines of the future. The A-2000 is the result of a study to design an aircraft to deliver massive fire power accurately. The low cost A-2000 incorporates: large weapons payload; excellent maneuverability; all weather and terrain following capacity; redundant systems; and high survivability.

  15. Controlling UCAVs by JTACs in CAS missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumaş, A. E.

    2014-06-01

    By means of evolving technology, capabilities of UAVs (Unmanned Aerial Vehicle)s are increasing rapidly. This development provides UAVs to be used in many different areas. One of these areas is CAS (Close Air Support) mission. UAVs have several advantages compared to manned aircraft, however there are also some problematic areas. The remote controlling of these vehicles from thousands of nautical miles away via satellite may lead to various problems both ethical and tactical aspects. Therefore, CAS missions require a good level of ALI (Air-Land Integration), a high SA (situational awareness) and precision engagement. In fact, there is an aware friendly element in the target area in CAS missions, unlike the other UAV operations. This element is an Airman called JTAC (Joint Terminal Attack Controller). Unlike the JTAC, UAV operators are too far away from target area and use the limited FOV (Field of View) provided by camera and some other sensor data. In this study, target area situational awareness of a UAV operator and a JTAC, in a high-risk mission for friendly ground forces and civilians such as CAS, are compared. As a result of this comparison, answer to the question who should control the UCAV (Unmanned Combat Aerial Vehicle) in which circumstances is sought. A literature review is made in UAV and CAS fields and recent air operations are examined. The control of UCAV by the JTAC is assessed by SWOT analysis and as a result it is deduced that both control methods can be used in different situations within the framework of the ROE (Rules Of Engagement) is reached.

  16. Air Quality Modeling Technical Support Document for the 2008 Ozone NAAQS Cross-State Air Pollution Rule Proposal

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    In this technical support document (TSD) we describe the air quality modeling performed to support the proposed Cross-State Air Pollution Rule for the 2008 ozone National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS)

  17. Improving Air Support for Wildfire Management in the United States

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-01

    States would experience significantly damaging wildfires. D. STATION FIRE The USFG would drastically alter the Station Fire scenario, as it would have...SUPPORT FOR WILDFIRE MANAGEMENT IN THE UNITED STATES by Geoffrey L. Glickstein September 2014 Thesis Advisor: Erik Dahl Second Reader...AND DATES COVERED Master’s Thesis 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE IMPROVING AIR SUPPORT FOR WILDFIRE MANAGEMENT IN THE UNITED STATES 5. FUNDING NUMBERS 6

  18. 6. Soft support building, view towards south Ellsworth Air ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Soft support building, view towards south - Ellsworth Air Force Base, Delta Flight, Launch Facility D-6, 4 miles north of Badlands National Park Headquarters, 4.5 miles east of Jackson County line on county road, Interior, Jackson County, SD

  19. Tactical Air Control Party Support in Distributed and Special Operations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-05-01

    FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF MILITARY STUDIES AUTHOR: MAJOR JAMES A SCHNELLE AY 07-08 Mentor and ~~f:~e Co~ittee Member...ANSI Std Z39-18 Executive Summary Title: Tactical Air Control Party Support in Distributed and Special Operations Author: Major James A. Schnelle ...until 11 :00 a.m. 1 Later , five aircraft came over at about 2:35 p.m., firing machine guns and dropping bombs until 3:20 p.m. "The air attack was the

  20. AFCYBER: Postured to Support Air Force and USCYBERCOM Cyber Needs?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-03-01

    Garamone, “ Alexander Details U.S. Cyber Command Gains,” September 24, 2010, from American Forces Press Service. 41 Brigadier General Franz , U.S. Cyber...missions. General Alexander , Commander USCYBERCOM, first envisions a cyber profession where communications, signals intelligence, cryptography...to support both USCYBERCOM and Air Force requirements. General Alexander considers having trained and ready forces as the single most important

  1. Examining antecedents of clean indoor air policy support: implications for campaigns promoting clean indoor air.

    PubMed

    Quick, Brian L; Bates, Benjamin R; Romina, Sharon

    2009-01-01

    This investigation sought to examine the association between knowledge of the risks associated with environmental tobacco smoke and voter support for clean indoor air policies. In doing so, 2 antecedents were employed to enhance understanding of this relationship: attitudes and subjective norms. In addition, differences between nonsmokers and smokers were assessed across the aforementioned variables. The study sampled participants (N = 550) living in the Appalachian foothills as a means of conducting formative research prior to developing messages promoting clean indoor air policies. The study controlled for tobacco usage, age, biological sex, and income. Results revealed that awareness of risk is a good predictor of attitudes and social norms, and in return, attitudes and social norms are good predictors of support for clean indoor air policies. In addition, results reveal that nonsmokers maintain a significantly stronger belief in the dangers associated with environmental tobacco smoke, as well as more favorable attitudes, subjective norms, and support for clean indoor air policies when compared with smokers. These findings are discussed with a focus on message design strategies for practitioners and academics with interests in promoting clean indoor air policies.

  2. Close Air Support and Interdiction Missions as Seen by the Air Force and Army

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    MONITORING AGENCY NAME AND ADDRESS , 11. SPONSOR/MONITOR’S REPORT NUMBER(S) 12. DISTRIBUTION/AVAILABILITY STATEMENT A PUBLIC RELEASE , 13 . SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES... 13 Armor...but never delivered, emerging technology will at least make the “delay” much longer and the “disruption” much worse. 13 Close Air Support is defined in

  3. Integrating Naval Surface Fire Support into an Improved Joint Close Air Support Architecture

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-06-01

    59 Joe Pappalardo . “Afghanistan Taught U.S. ‘Hard Lessons’ In Close Air Support...got stuck. 66 Pappalardo . 67 “Results of Investigation into Death of U.S. Service Member...could potentially be seamless. 124 Pappalardo . 61 V. CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS Historically

  4. Tribal Training Support for the Community and Tribal Air Quality Programs - Closed Announcement FY 2016

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Tribal Training Support for the Community and Tribal Air Quality Programs request for applications for FY 2016. Training and technical support to tribal governments seeking develop and establish air quality management programs for tribal lands.

  5. Air Quality Modeling Technical Support Document for the 2015 Ozone NAAQS Preliminary Interstate Transport Assessment

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    In this technical support document (TSD) EPA describes the air quality modeling performed to support the 2015 ozone National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) preliminary interstate transport assessment Notice of Data Availability (NODA).

  6. The Eliminator: A design of a close air support aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hendrix, Mandy; Hoang, TY; Kokolios, Alex; Selyem, Sharon; Wardell, Mark; Winterrowd, David

    1991-01-01

    The Eliminator is the answer to the need for an affordable, maintainable, survivable, high performance close air support aircraft primarily for the United States, but with possible export sales to foreign customers. The Eliminator is twin turbofan, fixed wing aircraft with high mounted canards and low mounted wings. It is designed for high subsonic cruise and an attack radius of 250 nautical miles. Primarily it would carry 20 500 pound bombs as its main ordnance , but is versatile enough to carry a variety of weapons configurations to perform several different types of missions. It carries state of the art navigation and targeting systems to deliver its payload with pinpoint precision and is designed for maximum survivability of the crew and aircraft for a safe return and quick turnaround. It can operate from fields as short as 1800 ft. with easy maintenance for dispersed operation during hostile situations. It is designed for exceptional maneuverability and could be used in a variety of roles from air-to-air operations to anti-submarine warfare and maritime patrol duties.

  7. Supporting the Future Air Traffic Control Projection Process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davison, Hayley J.; Hansman, R. John, Jr.

    2002-01-01

    In air traffic control, projecting what the air traffic situation will be over the next 30 seconds to 30 minutes is a key process in identifying conflicts that may arise so that evasive action can be taken upon discovery of these conflicts. A series of field visits in the Boston and New York terminal radar approach control (TRACON) facilities and in the oceanic air traffic control facilities in New York and Reykjavik, Iceland were conducted to investigate the projection process in two different ATC domains. The results from the site visits suggest that two types of projection are currently used in ATC tasks, depending on the type of separation minima and/or traffic restriction and information display used by the controller. As technologies improve and procedures change, care should be taken by designers to support projection through displays, automation, and procedures. It is critical to prevent time/space mismatches between interfaces and restrictions. Existing structure in traffic dynamics could be utilized to provide controllers with useful behavioral models on which to build projections. Subtle structure that the controllers are unable to internalize could be incorporated into an ATC projection aid.

  8. Air Traffic Control Decision Support Tools for Noise Mitigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tobias, Leonard

    2001-01-01

    NASA has initiated a new five year program this year, the Quiet Aircraft Technology (QAT) Program, a program which will investigate airframe and engine system noise reduction. QAT will also address community noise impact. As part of this community noise impact component, NASA will investigate air traffic management (ATM) challenges in reducing noise. In particular, controller advisory automation aids will be developed to aid the air traffic controller in addressing noise concerns as he/she manages traffic in busy terminal areas. NASA has developed controller automation tools to address capacity concerns and the QAT strategy for ATM Low Noise Operations is to build upon this tool set to create added advisories for noise mitigation. The tools developed for capacity will be briefly reviewed, followed by the QAT plans to address ATM noise concerns. A major NASA goal in global civil aviation is to triple the aviation system throughput in all-weather conditions while maintaining safety. A centerpiece of this activity is the Center/TRACON Automation System (CTAS), an evolving suite of air traffic controller decision support tools (DSTs) to enhance capacity of arrivals and departures in both the enroute center and the TRACON. Two of these DSTs, the Traffic Management Advisor (TMA) and the passive Final approach Spacing Tool (pFAST), are in daily use at the Fort Worth Center and the Dallas/Fort Worth (DFW) TRACON, respectively, where capacity gains of 5-13% have been reported in recent NASA evaluations. Under the Federal Aviation Administration's (FAA) Free Flight Phase One Program, TMA and pFAST are each being implemented at six to eight additional sites. In addition, other DSTs are being developed by NASA under the umbrella of CTAS. This means that new software will be built upon CTAS, and the paradigm of real-time simulation evaluation followed by field site development and evaluation will be the pathway for the new tools. Additional information is included in the

  9. Close Air Support in a Joint Environment: Disconnect Between the Services and How Can Close Air Support Be Improved

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-04-05

    development of the JSF program, which has become a money pit . The LAAR provides the perfect asset to assist ground forces in CAS employment especially...friendly forces. 85 Email correspondence with EWTGLAN instructor, January 05, 2013. 86 Lee Robinson, " Bull in a China Shop? Attack Aviation and the...COIN Battlefield," Small Wars Journal, http://smallwarsjournal.com/jrnl/art/ bull -in-a-china-shop-attack-aviation-and-the-coin-battlefield (accessed

  10. Air bearing provides friction-free support for shaker system slip table

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Skoff, R. W.

    1966-01-01

    Air bearing system supports a shaker system slip table with minimum friction. At each corner of a square of grooves made on the table, a hole is drilled through the table and fitted with air connections. Air pressure is simultaneously fed to the four fittings forming an air bearing.

  11. 32 CFR 644.535 - Support in clearance of Air Force lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Support in clearance of Air Force lands. 644.535 Section 644.535 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) REAL... Excess Land and Improvements § 644.535 Support in clearance of Air Force lands. Where Air Force...

  12. 32 CFR 644.535 - Support in clearance of Air Force lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Support in clearance of Air Force lands. 644.535 Section 644.535 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) REAL... Excess Land and Improvements § 644.535 Support in clearance of Air Force lands. Where Air Force...

  13. 32 CFR 644.535 - Support in clearance of Air Force lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Support in clearance of Air Force lands. 644.535 Section 644.535 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) REAL... Excess Land and Improvements § 644.535 Support in clearance of Air Force lands. Where Air Force...

  14. 32 CFR 644.535 - Support in clearance of Air Force lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Support in clearance of Air Force lands. 644.535 Section 644.535 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) REAL... Excess Land and Improvements § 644.535 Support in clearance of Air Force lands. Where Air Force...

  15. 32 CFR 644.535 - Support in clearance of Air Force lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Support in clearance of Air Force lands. 644.535 Section 644.535 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) REAL... Excess Land and Improvements § 644.535 Support in clearance of Air Force lands. Where Air Force...

  16. Characterizing and Supporting Change in Algebra Students' Representational Fluency in a CAS/Paper-and-Pencil Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fonger, Nicole L.

    2012-01-01

    Representational fluency (RF) includes an ability to interpret, create, move within and among, and connect tool-based representations of mathematical objects. Taken as an indicator of conceptual understanding, there is a need to better support school algebra students' RF in learning environments that utilize both computer algebra systems…

  17. On Regional Modeling to Support Air Quality Policies

    EPA Science Inventory

    We examine the use of the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model in simulating the changes in the extreme values of air quality that are of interest to the regulatory agencies. Year-to-year changes in ozone air quality are attributable to variations in the prevailing mete...

  18. Air Land Sea Bulletin, Issue No. 2013-2, Joint Close Air Support

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-05-01

    to Canon’s inter-flight frequency to conduct attack coordina- tion to avoid saturating the strike fre- quency in case other fighters check in, To...A)/CAS aircrew after check-in to relieve the JTAC of these duties since these can task- saturate a JTAC due to other mission demands such as...Brief for all 9 Lines”). Even this lesser ex- change of responsibility can help re- lieve JTAC saturation in a high-task environment and better

  19. Targeting Air Interdiction in Support of Airland Battle.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-26

    and execute air attacks against Army nominated targets are. described in detail. The impact of emerging technology in the form of advanced sensors...Element (BCE) are defined. Coordinating procedures used by the TACC- BCE to plan and execute air attacks against Army nominated targets are described...in capi- talizing on on-going procedural and equipment related improvements that allow the Army and the Air Force to locate, target and attack enemy

  20. CAS77 and CAS7276: A Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrison, Isom, Jr.

    This paper describes the content, organization, specifications, and methods of use of the CAS77 and CAS7276 online files of worldwide chemical literature, databases produced by Chemical Abstracts Service and available from System Development Corporation (SDC). The scope of the databases, their unit record, their data elements, their modes of…

  1. Wind Prediction Accuracy for Air Traffic Management Decision Support Tools

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cole, Rod; Green, Steve; Jardin, Matt; Schwartz, Barry; Benjamin, Stan

    2000-01-01

    The performance of Air Traffic Management and flight deck decision support tools depends in large part on the accuracy of the supporting 4D trajectory predictions. This is particularly relevant to conflict prediction and active advisories for the resolution of conflicts and the conformance with of traffic-flow management flow-rate constraints (e.g., arrival metering / required time of arrival). Flight test results have indicated that wind prediction errors may represent the largest source of trajectory prediction error. The tests also discovered relatively large errors (e.g., greater than 20 knots), existing in pockets of space and time critical to ATM DST performance (one or more sectors, greater than 20 minutes), are inadequately represented by the classic RMS aggregate prediction-accuracy studies of the past. To facilitate the identification and reduction of DST-critical wind-prediction errors, NASA has lead a collaborative research and development activity with MIT Lincoln Laboratories and the Forecast Systems Lab of the National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). This activity, begun in 1996, has focussed on the development of key metrics for ATM DST performance, assessment of wind-prediction skill for state of the art systems, and development/validation of system enhancements to improve skill. A 13 month study was conducted for the Denver Center airspace in 1997. Two complementary wind-prediction systems were analyzed and compared to the forecast performance of the then standard 60 km Rapid Update Cycle - version 1 (RUC-1). One system, developed by NOAA, was the prototype 40-km RUC-2 that became operational at NCEP in 1999. RUC-2 introduced a faster cycle (1 hr vs. 3 hr) and improved mesoscale physics. The second system, Augmented Winds (AW), is a prototype en route wind application developed by MITLL based on the Integrated Terminal Wind System (ITWS). AW is run at a local facility (Center) level, and updates RUC predictions based on an

  2. Air Defense Priorities in Support of Airland Battle

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-06-03

    staff and ADA commanders who identified soecific staff members as involved in the analysis of recunerabilitv within coros and division CorlCoS r n AfS...corps and division headauarters to articulate air defense oriorities to 0 Coros D i of d r ABnr (n-5) (n-10) (n-4) (a-10) o Body of 80% 100% 73% 100...Podlesny, Robert E. "Mobile Air Defense for the Division," Marine 0 Coros awtte (May 1981), 68. Seckinger, Roy L. "Does the Corps Lack Air Defense?" Marine

  3. Down in the Weeds: Close Air Support in Korea

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-01-01

    Fifth Air Force organized the 51st Fighter Squadron (Provisional) [FS(P)] to incorporate American per- 4 *The 18th FBG was part of the 18th Fighter...was inflexible and most likely would re- sult in the corps receiving fewer sorties than they had gotten in the past. The Fifth Air Force leader sensed ...The U.S. Air Force in Korea A I R F O R C E H I S T O R Y A N D M U S E U M S P R O

  4. Ambient air monitoring to support HLW repository site characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Fransioli, P.M.; Dixon, W.R.

    1993-12-31

    Site characterization at the Yucca Mountain site includes an ambient air quality and meteorological monitoring program to provide information for environmental and site characterization issues. The program is designed to provide data for four basic purposes: Atmospheric dispersion calculations to estimate impacts of possible airborne releases of radiological material; Engineering design and extreme weather event characterization; Local climate studies for environmental impact analyses and climate characterization; and, Air quality permits required for site characterization work. The program is compiling a database that will provide the basis for analyses and reporting related to the purposes of the program. Except for reporting particulate matter and limited meteorological data to the State of Nevada for an air quality permit condition, the data have yet to be formally analyzed and reported.

  5. Unmanned Combat Aerial Vehicles: A Close Air Support Alternative

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    War College, Maxwell AFB AL, Jones Auditorium, 24 October 2002. 30 Terry Somerville , “Global Strike Task Force—Kicking Down the Door”, Air Force...2002, 34. 49 Anne Marie Squeo, “Pentagon’s Aerodynamic Shift—Ascendant Unmanned Planes May Mothball Some Manned Ones,” The Wall Street Journal, 14...2002. Somerville , Terry. “Global Strike Task Force—Kicking Down the Door.” Air Force Link, 10 August 2001, n.p. On-line. Internet, 12 November 2002

  6. Scale Issues in Air Quality Modeling Policy Support

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study examines the issues relating to the use of regional photochemical air quality models for evaluating their performance in reproducing the spatio-temporal features embedded in the observations and for designing emission control strategies needed to achieve compliance wit...

  7. Air Force Combat Support: Adjusting Doctrine to Meet Expeditionary Air Force Requirements

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    Force Battlelab Briefing”: U.S Air Force Air Expeditionary Force Battlelab Web Page, on-line, Netscape , 15 Mar 00, available from www.mountain.af.mil...Expeditionary Air Force Web Site, slide 4, on- line, Netscape , 2 Apr 00, www.af.mil/eaf/master.ppt This slide portrays how the Air Force has changed since...Center Web Page, on-line, Netscape , 26 Mar 00, available from www.hqafdc.maxwell.af.mil/library/doctrine/afdd2brief.ppt: slide 2 2 “The little

  8. Air feed tube support system for a solid oxide fuel cell generator

    DOEpatents

    Doshi, Vinod B.; Ruka, Roswell J.; Hager, Charles A.

    2002-01-01

    A solid oxide fuel cell generator (12), containing tubular fuel cells (36) with interior air electrodes (18), where a supporting member (82) containing a plurality of holes (26) supports oxidant feed tubes (51), which pass from an oxidant plenum (52") into the center of the fuel cells, through the holes (26) in the supporting member (82), where a compliant gasket (86) around the top of the oxidant feed tubes and on top (28) of the supporting member (82) helps support the oxidant feed tubes and center them within the fuel cells, and loosen the tolerance for centering the air feed tubes.

  9. Customer Satisfaction with Air Force Civil Engineering Support

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-09-01

    fundamentals of customer satisfaction . It also includes managing the customer’s expectations through advertising and product literature, as well as...civil engineering customer service unit as well as customer satisfaction (McKnight and Parker, 1983:107-109). Interestingly, the most frequently...that satisfaction with Air Force life impacts civil engineering customer satisfaction , this factor is clearly outside the realm of control by civil

  10. Gulf War Air Power Survey. Volume 3. Logistics and Support

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-01-01

    mm CPX 100K 500K 20 mm HEI 100K 415K 2.5M Durandal 780 9(S) Intvw, CENTAFILOW, 15 Apr 1992, ’°CIUNTAF Master Storage Plan 1 -89, CL:NTAIF/LOW; confirmed...Torrejon. * 5 Oct 1990: In addition to in-theater F- 1 5C support, A- 10 inter- mediate support is still planned for King Fahd; all other support...Report Volume J: Part 1 : Planning Report Part II: Command and Control Report Volume II: Part I: Operations Report Part II: Effectiveness Report Volume

  11. Trial by Fire: Forging American Close Air Support Doctrine, World War I through September 1944

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    aircraft, was causal in the Allies poor early air performance over North Africa, while generating interservice bitterness and mistrust. When...General Staff College, 1984. Lewis, Michael. “Lt GEN Ned Almond , USA: A Ground Commander’s Conflicting View with Airmen over Close Air Support Doctrine

  12. Studying the Proteomic Composition of Expired Air Condensate in Newborns on Breathing Support.

    PubMed

    Kononikhin, A S; Ryndin, A Yu; Starodubtseva, N L; Chagovets, V V; Burov, A A; Bugrova, A E; Kostyukevich, Yu I; Popov, I A; Frankevich, V E; Ionov, O V; Zubkov, V V; Nikolaev, E N

    2016-04-01

    This study was designed to collect and perform a proteomic analysis of expired air condensate in newborns receiving respiratory support at the Department of Resuscitation and Intensive Care. The proteomic composition of expired air condensate was evaluated in newborns at various stages of development and with different abnormalities.

  13. Contractor Logistics Support in the U.S. Air Force

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-01-01

    the Sacramento ALC at McClellan AFB . After the BRAC Commission voted in FY 1995 to close McClellan , the Air Force chose CLS for the F-117. The... Sacramento ALC at McClellan AFB would also have been the depot for the F-22. The original sustainment plan for organic sup- port was premised on a fleet of...major depots until the Base Realignment and Closure (BRAC) Commission in 1995 recommended closure of two ALCs.1 Kelly and McClellan AFBs closed in

  14. Air and water quality monitor assessment of life support subsystems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitley, Ken; Carrasquillo, Robyn L.; Holder, D.; Humphries, R.

    1988-01-01

    Preprotype air revitalization and water reclamation subsystems (Mole Sieve, Sabatier, Static Feed Electrolyzer, Trace Contaminant Control, and Thermoelectric Integrated Membrane Evaporative Subsystem) were operated and tested independently and in an integrated arrangement. During each test, water and/or gas samples were taken from each subsystem so that overall subsystem performance could be determined. The overall test design and objectives for both subsystem and integrated subsystem tests were limited, and no effort was made to meet water or gas specifications. The results of chemical analyses for each of the participating subsystems are presented along with other selected samples which were analyzed for physical properties and microbiologicals.

  15. Air Quality Modeling in Support of the Near-road EXposures and effects of Urban air pollutants Study (NEXUS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper presents the results of the model applications to estimate exposure metrics in support of an epidemiologic study in Detroit, Michigan. The Near-road Exposures to Urban air pollutant Study (NEXUS) design includes determining if children in Detroit, MI with asthma living ...

  16. Air Sensor Kit Performance Testing and Pollutant Mapping Supports Community Air Monitoring Project

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA is collaborating on a research project with the South Coast Air Quality Management District in Diamond Bar, Calif. to gain an enhanced understanding of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and ozone concentrations across the study area.

  17. Combat Support Execution Planning and Control. An Assessment of Initial Implementations in Air Force Exercises

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-01-01

    time-phased force and deployment data USAFE U.S. Air Forces in Europe UTASC USAFE Theater Aerospace Support Center UTC unit type code WPC Warfighter...scenario and supporting simulated environment were developed and run by the Warfighter Preparation Center ( WPC ) facility at Einsedlerhof Air Station near...participate.11 Forces below the operational level were simulated by the WPC . The training audience consisted of the JFACC and staff, AFFOR staff, AOC, and the

  18. United States Air Force Graduate Student Summer Support Program (1985). Management Report.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-12-01

    Clasification) United States Air Force Graduate Student Su er Support rogram - Program Manag -ment Repoi 12. PERSONAL AUTHOR(S) Rodney C. Darrah, Susan K. Espy 13...Major Amos Otis, Program Manager (202) 767-4970 XOT I I 2DISTORIBUTIO,/A VALAREDITION OF JAN A C IS OBSOLETE CA D FORM 1473, 83 APR EDIIO OF1...8217. .- ,. *.. . . ,. €. * j*.,P ’. ... : ’ UNITED STATES AIR FORCE GRADUATE STUDENT SUMMER SUPPORT PROGRAM 1985 PROGRAM MANAGEMENT REPORT - UNIVERSAL

  19. [CAS General Standards 2012

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council for the Advancement of Standards in Higher Education, 2011

    2011-01-01

    The mission of the Council for the Advancement of Standards in Higher Education (CAS) is to promote the improvement of programs and services to enhance the quality of student learning and development. CAS is a consortium of professional associations who work collaboratively to develop and promulgate standards and guidelines and to encourage…

  20. Local-Scale Air Quality Modeling in Support of Human Health and Exposure Research (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isakov, V.

    2010-12-01

    Spatially- and temporally-sparse information on air quality is a key concern for air-pollution-related environmental health studies. Monitor networks are sparse in both space and time, are costly to maintain, and are often designed purposely to avoid detecting highly localized sources. Recent studies have shown that more narrowly defining the geographic domain of the study populations and improvements in the measured/estimated ambient concentrations can lead to stronger associations between air pollution and hospital admissions and mortality records. Traditionally, ambient air quality measurements have been used as a primary input to support human health and exposure research. However, there is increasing evidence that the current ambient monitoring network is not capturing sharp gradients in exposure due to the presence of high concentration levels near, for example, major roadways. Many air pollutants exhibit large concentration gradients near large emitters such as major roadways, factories, ports, etc. To overcome these limitations, researchers are now beginning to use air quality models to support air pollution exposure and health studies. There are many advantages to using air quality models over traditional approaches based on existing ambient measurements alone. First, models can provide spatially- and temporally-resolved concentrations as direct input to exposure and health studies and thus better defining the concentration levels for the population in the geographic domain. Air quality models have a long history of use in air pollution regulations, and supported by regulatory agencies and a large user community. Also, models can provide bidirectional linkages between sources of emissions and ambient concentrations, thus allowing exploration of various mitigation strategies to reduce risk to exposure. In order to provide best estimates of air concentrations to support human health and exposure studies, model estimates should consider local-scale features

  1. Is the air pollution health research community prepared to support a multipollutant air quality management framework?

    PubMed

    Mauderly, Joe L; Burnett, Richard T; Castillejos, Margarita; Ozkaynak, Halûk; Samet, Jonathan M; Stieb, David M; Vedal, Sverre; Wyzga, Ronald E

    2010-06-01

    Ambient air pollution is always encountered as a complex mixture, but past regulatory and research strategies largely focused on single pollutants, pollutant classes, and sources one-at-a-time. There is a trend toward managing air quality in a progressively "multipollutant" manner, with the idealized goal of controlling as many air contaminants as possible in an integrated manner to achieve the greatest total reduction of adverse health and environmental impacts. This commentary considers the current ability of the environmental air pollution exposure and health research communities to provide evidence to inform the development of multipollutant air quality management strategies and assess their effectiveness. The commentary is not a literature review, but a summary of key issues and information gaps, strategies for filling the gaps, and realistic expectations for progress that could be made during the next decade. The greatest need is for researchers and sponsors to address air quality health impacts from a truly multipollutant perspective, and the most limiting current information gap is knowledge of personal exposures of different subpopulations, considering activities and microenvironments. Emphasis is needed on clarifying the roles of a broader range of pollutants and their combinations in a more forward-looking manner; that is not driven by current regulatory structures. Although advances in research tools and outcome data will enhance progress, the greater need is to direct existing capabilities toward strategies aimed at placing into proper context the contributions of multiple pollutants and their combinations to the health burdens, and the relative contributions of pollutants and other factors influencing the same outcomes. The authors conclude that the research community has very limited ability to advise multipollutant air quality management and assess its effectiveness at this time, but that considerable progress can be made in a decade, even at

  2. Development of a large support surface for an air-bearing type zero-gravity simulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glover, K. E.

    1976-01-01

    The methods used in producing a large, flat surface to serve as the supporting surface for an air-bearing type zero-gravity simulator using low clearance, thrust-pad type air bearings are described. Major problems encountered in the use of self-leveled epoxy coatings in this surface are discussed and techniques are recommended which proved effective in overcoming these problems. Performance requirements of the zero-gravity simulator vehicle which were pertinent to the specification of the air-bearing support surface are also discussed.

  3. Combat Service Support of AirLand Battle Doctrine,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-05-20

    thereby causing him to lose control of the battle. In the offense, it means setting the tarfa of battle and never allowing the enemy to recover from...disorganizes his forces, causes him to lose control and ultimately brings about his defeat. To achieve these conditions on the battlefield requires a...units with a command and control system that allows the coordination and redirection of combat service support assets when and where required. Implied

  4. Does Current Suppression of Enemy Air Defenses Doctrine Support Air Maneuver

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-06-03

    Blowpipe, or Stinger missiles. Hybrid SHORAD systems, such as the 2S6M " Tunguska " and the Avenger system, combine both guns and short-range SAMs on the...Archie, Flak, AAA. and SAM, (Maxwell Air Force Base, AL: Air University Press, 1988), 115. 4Monch Publishing Group, ŖS6M Tunguska : The world’s first gun...NVA offensive. Events would prove that this timetable was too ambitious for the ARVN. Intelliaence At the start of the battle, the NVA in Laos

  5. Catalytic wet air oxidation of chlorophenols over supported ruthenium catalysts.

    PubMed

    Li, Ning; Descorme, Claude; Besson, Michèle

    2007-07-31

    A series of noble metal (Pt, Pd, Ru) loaded zirconia catalysts were evaluated in the catalytic wet air oxidation (CWAO) of mono-chlorophenols (2-CP, 3-CP, 4-CP) under relatively mild reaction conditions. Among the investigated noble metals, Ru appeared to be the best to promote the CWAO of CPs as far as incipient-wetness impregnation was used to prepare all the catalysts. The position of the chlorine substitution on the aromatic ring was also shown to have a significant effect on the CP reactivity in the CWAO over 3wt.% Ru/ZrO(2). 2-CP was relatively easier to degradate compared to 3-CP and 4-CP. One reason could be the higher adsorption of 2-CP on the catalyst surface. Further investigations suggested that 3wt.% Ru/ZrO(2) is a very efficient catalyst in the CWAO of 2-CP as far as high 2-CP conversion and TOC abatement could still be reached at even lower temperature (393K) and lower total pressure (3MPa). Additionally, the conversion of 2-CP was demonstrated to increase with the initial pH of the 2-CP solution. The dechlorination reaction is promoted at higher pH. In all cases, the adsorption of the reactants and the reaction intermediates was shown to play a major role. All parameters that would control the molecule speciation in solution or the catalyst surface properties would have a key effect.

  6. Close Air Support Mission: Development of a Unitary Measure of Pilot Performance

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-11-01

    training research and development (R&D) using the Advanced Simulator for Pilot Training ( ASPT ). A linear regression analysis was used to describe how...mission-ready, A-10 aircraft pilots rank-ordered hypothetical CAS mission outcomes *typical of those obtained in ASPT . CAS performance ratings predicted by...pilots exposed to ASPT , the data collected in a previous study were reanalyzed using the model. CAS performance as calculated hy the model was found to

  7. Cas1-Cas2 complex formation mediates spacer acquisition during CRISPR-Cas adaptive immunity.

    PubMed

    Nuñez, James K; Kranzusch, Philip J; Noeske, Jonas; Wright, Addison V; Davies, Christopher W; Doudna, Jennifer A

    2014-06-01

    The initial stage of CRISPR-Cas immunity involves the integration of foreign DNA spacer segments into the host genomic CRISPR locus. The nucleases Cas1 and Cas2 are the only proteins conserved among all CRISPR-Cas systems, yet the molecular functions of these proteins during immunity are unknown. Here we show that Cas1 and Cas2 from Escherichia coli form a stable complex that is essential for spacer acquisition and determine the 2.3-Å-resolution crystal structure of the Cas1-Cas2 complex. Mutations that perturb Cas1-Cas2 complex formation disrupt CRISPR DNA recognition and spacer acquisition in vivo. Active site mutants of Cas2, unlike those of Cas1, can still acquire new spacers, thus indicating a nonenzymatic role of Cas2 during immunity. These results reveal the universal roles of Cas1 and Cas2 and suggest a mechanism by which Cas1-Cas2 complexes specify sites of CRISPR spacer integration.

  8. Air bearing center cross gap of neutron stress spectrometer sample table support system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yang; Wu, Yunxin; Gong, Hai; Feng, Xiaolei

    2016-12-01

    A support system is the main load-bearing component of sample table for neutron stress spectrometer, and air bearing is an important element of a support system. The neutron stress spectrometer sample table was introduced, and the scheme for air bearing combination was selected. To study the performance of air bearing center cross gap, finite element models (FEMs) were established based on air motion and Reynolds equations, effects of air supply pressure, and gap parameters on the overturning moment and bearing capacity of air bearing center cross gap were analyzed. Results indicate that the width, depth, and height differences of the marble floor gap played important roles in the performance of the air bearing. When gap width is lesser than 1 mm and gap depth is lower than 0.4 mm, bearing capacity and overturning moment would vary rapidly with the variation of the width and depth. A gap height difference results in the bearing capacity dropping rapidly. The FEM results agree well with experimental results. Further, findings of the study could guide the design of the support system and marble floor.

  9. Logistical Support of AirLand Operations: Myth or Magic?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-05-04

    AD-A258 295 111l 1111111 0 i DIll l LOGISTICAL SUPPORT OF AIRLAND OPERATIONS: EETM Y T H R M A G IC S E L E C 2 1 9•DEC2 3 1992• C I A thesis...ng b~ude.. 104f bhn codIeCto~ Of .nfO~maI.Of ,t .~enIal41 (0 a ..rag. I hQ~. ee Nr 9Ow •tQl.Ad,dlflg (be linet foe IOVtw•f~ ,AIIIU(¶I~ r . ,eacbAqIh...inerati,,,: Myth or Magic. Aprroved by: .Theq is Comni tt-t- fTh~airrnan; J ),I i .5 . a rria A.n . T.T! 3:•, J!. Pnwe r . M’. P. A . " ,ý) VoD" Member

  10. Help From Above: Air Force Close Air Support of the Army. 1946-1973

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-01-01

    2d ed. London: Putnam , 1970. Greenfield, Kent Robert. American Strategy in World War II: A Reconsideration. Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press, 1963... Putnam , 1969. ———. British Aviation, The Ominous Skies, 1935–1939. London: Her Majesty’s Stationery Office, 1980. Pershing, John J. My Experiences in the...Operations. Washington, D.C.: Office of the Chief of Army History, 1954. Richards, Denis, and Hilary St.George Saunders. The Royal Air Force, 1939–45

  11. Beyond Close Air Support. Forging a New Air-Ground Partnership

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-01-01

    conflict appears in Lewis and Almond , 1997. 7 Joint Staff, 2002. 8 An intermediate category called battlefield air interdiction (BAI) no longer appears in...fire, and extracts them when the mission is done. Such forces routinely conduct joint operations at extremely low force levels. In Afghanistan, for...battalion was extracted from its untenable position near Ginger during the first evening. The following day, Task Force Rak- kasan reinforced its positions

  12. Predicting SVOC Emissions into Air and Foods in Support of ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The release of semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOCs) from consumer articles may be a critical human exposure pathway. In addition, the migration of SVOCs from food packaging materials into foods may also be a dominant source of exposure for some chemicals. Here we describe recent efforts to characterize emission-related parameters for these exposure pathways to support prediction of aggregate exposures for thousands of chemicals For chemicals in consumer articles, Little et al. (2012) developed a screening-level indoor exposure prediction model which, for a given SVOC, principally depends on steady-state gas-phase concentrations (y0). We have developed a model that predicts y0 for SVOCs in consumer articles, allowing exposure predictions for 274 ToxCast chemicals. Published emissions data for 31 SVOCs found in flooring materials, provided a training set where both chemical-specific physicochemical properties, article specific formulation properties, and experimental design aspects were available as modeling descriptors. A linear regression yielded R2- and p- values of approximately 0.62 and 3.9E-05, respectively. A similar model was developed based upon physicochemical properties alone, since article information is often not available for a given SVOC or product. This latter model yielded R2 - and p- values of approximately 0.47 and 1.2E-10, respectively. Many SVOCs are also used as additives (e.g. plasticizers, antioxidants, lubricants) in plastic food pac

  13. A Distributed Simulation Facility to Support Human Factors Research in Advanced Air Transportation Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Amonlirdviman, Keith; Farley, Todd C.; Hansman, R. John, Jr.; Ladik, John F.; Sherer, Dana Z.

    1998-01-01

    A distributed real-time simulation of the civil air traffic environment developed to support human factors research in advanced air transportation technology is presented. The distributed environment is based on a custom simulation architecture designed for simplicity and flexibility in human experiments. Standard Internet protocols are used to create the distributed environment, linking all advanced cockpit simulator, all Air Traffic Control simulator, and a pseudo-aircraft control and simulation management station. The pseudo-aircraft control station also functions as a scenario design tool for coordinating human factors experiments. This station incorporates a pseudo-pilot interface designed to reduce workload for human operators piloting multiple aircraft simultaneously in real time. The application of this distributed simulation facility to support a study of the effect of shared information (via air-ground datalink) on pilot/controller shared situation awareness and re-route negotiation is also presented.

  14. Combat Support Execution Planning and Control: An Assessment of Initial Implementations in Air Force Exercises

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-01-01

    Forces in Europe UTASC USAFE Theater Aerospace Support Center UTC unit type code WPC Warfighter Preparation Center XML Extensible Markup Language 1...developed and run by the Warfighter Preparation Center ( WPC ) facility at Einsedlerhof Air Station near Ramstein Air Base (AB), Germany, which is jointly...simulated by the WPC . The training audience consisted of the JFACC and staff, AFFOR staff, AOC, and the AFEUR.12 Because of this level of participa- tion

  15. An Experimental Investigation of Skin Friction on Smooth Surfaces Supporting Air Bearing Channels.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-07-01

    EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION OF SKIN FRICTION ON SMOOTH SURFACES SUPPORTING AIR BEARING CHANNELS ETUDE EXPERIMENTALE DU FROTTEMENT PELLICULAIRE SUR DES SURFACES...LISSES PORTEUSES DE CANAUX ANTI- FROTTEMENT by/par M. Khalid National Aeronautical Establishment AERONAUTICAL NOTE OTTAWA NAE-AN-39 JULY 1986 NRC NO...installant sur la surface des canaux qui agissent comme des valiers d’air. Les mesures ont &t prises A l’aide d’une balance de mesure du frottement

  16. Predicting Human Error in Air Traffic Control Decision Support Tools and Free Flight Concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mogford, Richard; Kopardekar, Parimal

    2001-01-01

    The document is a set of briefing slides summarizing the work the Advanced Air Transportation Technologies (AATT) Project is doing on predicting air traffic controller and airline pilot human error when using new decision support software tools and when involved in testing new air traffic control concepts. Previous work in this area is reviewed as well as research being done jointly with the FAA. Plans for error prediction work in the AATT Project are discussed. The audience is human factors researchers and aviation psychologists from government and industry.

  17. Time Evolution of the Wettability of Supported Graphene under Ambient Air Exposure

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The wettability of graphene is both fundamental and crucial for interfacing in most applications, but a detailed understanding of its time evolution remains elusive. Here we systematically investigate the wettability of metal-supported, chemical vapor deposited graphene films as a function of ambient air exposure time using water and various other test liquids with widely different surface tensions. The wettability of graphene is not constant, but varies with substrate interactions and air exposure time. The substrate interactions affect the initial graphene wettability, where, for instance, water contact angles of ∼85 and ∼61° were measured for Ni and Cu supported graphene, respectively, after just minutes of air exposure. Analysis of the surface free energy components indicates that the substrate interactions strongly influence the Lewis acid–base component of supported graphene, which is considerably weaker for Ni supported graphene than for Cu supported graphene, suggesting that the classical van der Waals interaction theory alone is insufficient to describe the wettability of graphene. For prolonged air exposure, the effect of physisorption of airborne contaminants becomes increasingly dominant, resulting in an increase of water contact angle that follows a universal linear-logarithmic relationship with exposure time, until saturating at a maximum value of 92–98°. The adsorbed contaminants render all supported graphene samples increasingly nonpolar, although their total surface free energy decreases only by 10–16% to about 37–41 mJ/m2. Our finding shows that failure to account for the air exposure time may lead to widely different wettability values and contradicting arguments about the wetting transparency of graphene. PMID:26900413

  18. Design of an air traffic computer simulation system to support investigation of civil tiltrotor aircraft operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rogers, Ralph V.

    1993-01-01

    The TATSS Project's goal was to develop a design for computer software that would support the attainment of the following objectives for the air traffic simulation model: (1) Full freedom of movement for each aircraft object in the simulation model. Each aircraft object may follow any designated flight plan or flight path necessary as required by the experiment under consideration. (2) Object position precision up to +/- 3 meters vertically and +/- 15 meters horizontally. (3) Aircraft maneuvering in three space with the object position precision identified above. (4) Air traffic control operations and procedures. (5) Radar, communication, navaid, and landing aid performance. (6) Weather. (7) Ground obstructions and terrain. (8) Detection and recording of separation violations. (9) Measures of performance including deviations from flight plans, air space violations, air traffic control messages per aircraft, and traditional temporal based measures.

  19. Hadoop-Based Distributed System for Online Prediction of Air Pollution Based on Support Vector Machine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghaemi, Z.; Farnaghi, M.; Alimohammadi, A.

    2015-12-01

    The critical impact of air pollution on human health and environment in one hand and the complexity of pollutant concentration behavior in the other hand lead the scientists to look for advance techniques for monitoring and predicting the urban air quality. Additionally, recent developments in data measurement techniques have led to collection of various types of data about air quality. Such data is extremely voluminous and to be useful it must be processed at high velocity. Due to the complexity of big data analysis especially for dynamic applications, online forecasting of pollutant concentration trends within a reasonable processing time is still an open problem. The purpose of this paper is to present an online forecasting approach based on Support Vector Machine (SVM) to predict the air quality one day in advance. In order to overcome the computational requirements for large-scale data analysis, distributed computing based on the Hadoop platform has been employed to leverage the processing power of multiple processing units. The MapReduce programming model is adopted for massive parallel processing in this study. Based on the online algorithm and Hadoop framework, an online forecasting system is designed to predict the air pollution of Tehran for the next 24 hours. The results have been assessed on the basis of Processing Time and Efficiency. Quite accurate predictions of air pollutant indicator levels within an acceptable processing time prove that the presented approach is very suitable to tackle large scale air pollution prediction problems.

  20. The SnoDog: Preliminary design of a close air support aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ashbaugh, Scott; Bartel, Kent; Cavalli, J. R.; Chan, John; Chung, Jason; Dimaranan, Liza; Freese, Mike; Levitt, Rick; Soban, Dani

    1991-01-01

    U.S. military forces are presently searching for the next generation Close Air Support aircraft. The following report presents the SnoDog, a low-cost ($14.8 million) aircraft capable of operating from remote battlefields and unimproved airstrips. The configuration consists of a conventional, low aspect-ratio wing, twin booms, twin canted vertical stabilizers along with a high-mounted joined horizontal tail. A supercritical airfoil for the wing enhances aerodynamic performance, while the SnoDog's instability increases maneuverability over current close air support aircraft. Survivability was incorporated into the design by the use of a titanium tub to protect the cockpit from anti-aircraft artillery, as well as, the twin booms and retracted gear disposition. The booms aid survivability by supplying separated, redundant controls, and the landing gear are slightly exposed when retracted to enable a belly landing in emergencies. Designed to fly at Mach .76, the SnoDog is powered by two low-bypass turbofan engines. Engine accessibility and interchangeable parts make the SnoDog highly maintainable. The SnoDog is adaptable to many different missions, as it is capable of carrying advanced avionics pods, carrying external fuel tanks or refueling in-air, and carrying various types of munitions. This makes the SnoDog a multirole aircraft capable of air-to-air and air-to-ground combat. This combination of features make the SnoDog unique as a close air support aircraft, capable of meeting the U.S. military's future needs.

  1. DEVELOPMENT OF A SUB-SLAB AIR SAMPLING PROTOCOL TO SUPPORT ASSESSMENT OF VAPOR INTRUSION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The primary purpose of this research effort is to develop a methodology for sub-slab sampling to support the EPA guidance and vapor intrusion investigations after vapor intrusion has been established at a site. Methodologies for sub-slab air sampling are currently lacking in ref...

  2. DEVELOPMENT AND APPLICATIONS OF CFD SIMULATIONS SUPPORTING URBAN AIR QUALITY AND HOMELAND SECURITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Prior to September 11, 2001 developments of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) were begun to support air quality applications. CFD models are emerging as a promising technology for such assessments, in part due to the advancing power of computational hardware and software. CFD si...

  3. DEVELOPMENT AND APPLICATIONS OF CFD SIMULATIONS IN SUPPORT OF AIR QUALITY STUDIES INVOLVING BUILDINGS

    EPA Science Inventory

    There is a need to properly develop the application of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) methods in support of air quality studies involving pollution sources near buildings at industrial sites. CFD models are emerging as a promising technology for such assessments, in part due ...

  4. Creating air-stable supported lipid bilayers by physical confinement induced by phospholipase A2.

    PubMed

    Han, Chung-Ta; Chao, Ling

    2014-05-14

    Supported lipid bilayer platforms have been used for various biological applications. However, the lipid bilayers easily delaminate and lose their natural structure after being exposed to an air-water interface. In this study, for the first time, we demonstrated that physical confinement can be used instead of chemical modifications to create air-stable membranes. Physical confinement was generated by the obstacle network induced by a peripheral enzyme, phospholipase A2. The enzyme and reacted lipids could be washed away from the obstacle network, which was detergent-resistant and strongly bonded to the solid support. On the basis of these properties, the obstacle framework on the solid support was reusable and lipid bilayers with the desired composition could be refilled and formed in the region confined by the obstacle framework. The results of fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP) indicate that the diffusivities of the lipid bilayers before drying and after rehydration were comparable, indicating the air stability of the physically confined membrane. In addition, we observed that the obstacles could trap a thin layer of water after the air-water interface passed through the lipid bilayer. Because the obstacles were demonstrated to be several times higher than a typical lipid membrane on a support, the obstacles may act as container walls, which can trap water above the lipid membrane. The water layer may have prevented the air-water interface from directly contacting the lipid membrane and, therefore, buffered the interfacial force, which could cause membrane delamination. The results suggest the possibility of using physical confinement to create air-stable membranes without changing local membrane rigidity or covering the membrane with protecting molecules.

  5. Air

    MedlinePlus

    ... do to protect yourself from dirty air . Indoor air pollution and outdoor air pollution Air can be polluted indoors and it can ... this chart to see what things cause indoor air pollution and what things cause outdoor air pollution! Indoor ...

  6. Quantitative characterizations of ultrashort echo (UTE) images for supporting air-bone separation in the head

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, Shu-Hui; Cao, Yue; Lawrence, Theodore S.; Tsien, Christina; Feng, Mary; Grodzki, David M.; Balter, James M.

    2015-04-01

    Accurate separation of air and bone is critical for creating synthetic CT from MRI to support Radiation Oncology workflow. This study compares two different ultrashort echo-time sequences in the separation of air from bone, and evaluates post-processing methods that correct intensity nonuniformity of images and account for intensity gradients at tissue boundaries to improve this discriminatory power. CT and MRI scans were acquired on 12 patients under an institution review board-approved prospective protocol. The two MRI sequences tested were ultra-short TE imaging using 3D radial acquisition (UTE), and using pointwise encoding time reduction with radial acquisition (PETRA). Gradient nonlinearity correction was applied to both MR image volumes after acquisition. MRI intensity nonuniformity was corrected by vendor-provided normalization methods, and then further corrected using the N4itk algorithm. To overcome the intensity-gradient at air-tissue boundaries, spatial dilations, from 0 to 4 mm, were applied to threshold-defined air regions from MR images. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analyses, by comparing predicted (defined by MR images) versus ‘true’ regions of air and bone (defined by CT images), were performed with and without residual bias field correction and local spatial expansion. The post-processing corrections increased the areas under the ROC curves (AUC) from 0.944 ± 0.012 to 0.976 ± 0.003 for UTE images, and from 0.850 ± 0.022 to 0.887 ± 0.012 for PETRA images, compared to without corrections. When expanding the threshold-defined air volumes, as expected, sensitivity of air identification decreased with an increase in specificity of bone discrimination, but in a non-linear fashion. A 1 mm air mask expansion yielded AUC increases of 1 and 4% for UTE and PETRA images, respectively. UTE images had significantly greater discriminatory power in separating air from bone than PETRA images. Post-processing strategies improved the

  7. Cas9 Functionally Opens Chromatin

    PubMed Central

    Barkal, Amira A.; Srinivasan, Sharanya; Hashimoto, Tatsunori; Gifford, David K.; Sherwood, Richard I.

    2016-01-01

    Using a nuclease-dead Cas9 mutant, we show that Cas9 reproducibly induces chromatin accessibility at previously inaccessible genomic loci. Cas9 chromatin opening is sufficient to enable adjacent binding and transcriptional activation by the settler transcription factor retinoic acid receptor at previously unbound motifs. Thus, we demonstrate a new use for Cas9 in increasing surrounding chromatin accessibility to alter local transcription factor binding. PMID:27031353

  8. Turboprop aircraft against terrorism: a SWOT analysis of turboprop aircraft in CAS operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yavuz, Murat; Akkas, Ali; Aslan, Yavuz

    2012-06-01

    Today, the threat perception is changing. Not only for countries but also for defence organisations like NATO, new threat perception is pointing terrorism. Many countries' air forces become responsible of fighting against terorism or Counter-Insurgency (COIN) Operations. Different from conventional warfare, alternative weapon or weapon systems are required for such operatioins. In counter-terrorism operations modern fighter jets are used as well as helicopters, subsonic jets, Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS), turboprop aircraft, baloons and similar platforms. Succes and efficiency of the use of these platforms can be determined by evaluating the conditions, the threats and the area together. Obviously, each platform has advantages and disadvantages for different cases. In this research, examples of turboprop aircraft usage against terrorism and with a more general approach, turboprop aircraft for Close Air Support (CAS) missions from all around the world are reviewed. In this effort, a closer look is taken at the countries using turboprop aircraft in CAS missions while observing the fields these aircraft are used in, type of operations, specifications of the aircraft, cost and the maintenance factors. Thus, an idea about the convenience of using these aircraft in such operations can be obtained. A SWOT analysis of turboprop aircraft in CAS operations is performed. This study shows that turboprop aircraft are suitable to be used in counter-terrorism and COIN operations in low threat environment and is cost benefical compared to jets.

  9. Applicability of Lasers to Close Air Support for the United States Marine Corps

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-04-01

    the capability to measure true north and determine grid north; and, a night vision goggle sighting device for use in acquiring, rang- Ing, and...a graduate of the Air War College, class of 1988. LAccession For NTIS GRA&I 7 " DTIC TAB n DTIC Un..xis u fced - C[ copy just___ IfIa tI4-_ _ _1 NPCE...objectives: FIRE SUPPORT OBJECTIVES -Suppressing direct fires, Indirect fires, and enemy air defenses. -Covering movements and obscuring the vision of enemy

  10. Addendum to Air Quality: Decision Support Tools, Partner Plans, Working Groups, Committees

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holekamp, Kara; Frisbie, Troy; Estep, Lee

    2005-01-01

    In the original report dated February 11, 2005, the utility of the NASA Earth science data in the air quality activities of other agencies and organizations was assessed by reviewing strategic and mission plans and by conducting personal interviews with agency experts to identify and investigate agencies with the potential for partnership with NASA. The overarching agency strategic plans were reviewed and commonalities such as the desire for partnerships and technology development were noted. The addendum to the original report contains such information about the Tennessee Valley Authority and will be inserted in Section 2.6 of "Air Quality Decision Support Tools, Partner Plans, Working Groups, Committees".

  11. Addendum to Air Quality: Decision Support Tools, Partner Plans, Working Groups, Committees

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holekamp, Kara; Frisbie, Troy; Estep, Lee

    2005-01-01

    In the original report dated February 11, 2005, the utility of NASA Earth science data in the air quality activities of other agencies and organizations was assessed by reviewing strategic and mission plans and by conducting personal interviews with agency experts to identify and investigate agencies with the potential for partnership with NASA. The overarching agency strategic plans were reviewed and commonalities such as the desire for partnerships and technology development were noted. This addendum to the original report contains such information about the Tennessee Valley Authority and will be inserted as Section 2.6 of "Air Quality: Decision Support Tools, Partner Plans, Working Groups, Committees."

  12. Redefining Combat Mission Reporting in Contemporary Operations: Focusing the Air Component’s Process in Support of the Joint Warfighter

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-06-11

    REDEFINING COMBAT MISSION REPORTING IN CONTEMPORARY OPERATIONS: FOCUSING THE AIR COMPONENT’S PROCESS IN SUPPORT OF THE JOINT WARFIGHTER...Focusing the Air Component’s Process in Support of the Joint Warfighter 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6

  13. Transformation of OODT CAS to Perform Larger Tasks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mattmann, Chris; Freeborn, Dana; Crichton, Daniel; Hughes, John; Ramirez, Paul; Hardman, Sean; Woollard, David; Kelly, Sean

    2008-01-01

    A computer program denoted OODT CAS has been transformed to enable performance of larger tasks that involve greatly increased data volumes and increasingly intensive processing of data on heterogeneous, geographically dispersed computers. Prior to the transformation, OODT CAS (also alternatively denoted, simply, 'CAS') [wherein 'OODT' signifies 'Object-Oriented Data Technology' and 'CAS' signifies 'Catalog and Archive Service'] was a proven software component used to manage scientific data from spaceflight missions. In the transformation, CAS was split into two separate components representing its canonical capabilities: file management and workflow management. In addition, CAS was augmented by addition of a resource-management component. This third component enables CAS to manage heterogeneous computing by use of diverse resources, including high-performance clusters of computers, commodity computing hardware, and grid computing infrastructures. CAS is now more easily maintainable, evolvable, and reusable. These components can be used separately or, taking advantage of synergies, can be used together. Other elements of the transformation included addition of a separate Web presentation layer that supports distribution of data products via Really Simple Syndication (RSS) feeds, and provision for full Resource Description Framework (RDF) exports of metadata.

  14. DOD Financial Management: Improved Documentation Needed to Support the Air Force’s Military Payroll and Meet Audit Readiness Goals

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-12-01

    DOD FINANCIAL MANAGEMENT Improved Documentation Needed to Support the Air Force’s Military Payroll and Meet Audit ...Improved Documentation Needed to Support the Air Force’s Military Payroll and Meet Audit Readiness Goals Why GAO Did This Study As part of DOD’s...efforts to achieve auditability of its financial statements, the Air Force in July 2014 asserted audit readiness for its Schedule of Budgetary

  15. Soil-based filtration technology for air purification: potentials for environmental and space life support application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, Mark; Bohn, Hinrich

    Soil biofiltration, also known as Soil bed reactor (SBR), technology was originally developed in Germany to take advantage of the diversity in microbial mechanisms to control gases producing malodor in industrial processes. The approach has since gained wider international acceptance and seen numerous improvements, for example, by the use of high-organic compost beds to maximize microbial processes. This paper reviews the basic mechanisms which underlay soil processes involved in air purification, advantages and limitations of the technology and the cur-rent research status of the approach. Soil biofiltration has lower capital and operating/energetic costs than conventional technologies and is well adapted to handle contaminants in moderate concentrations. The systems can be engineered to optimize efficiency though manipulation of temperature, pH, moisture content, soil organic matter and airflow rates. SBR technology was modified for application in the Biosphere 2 project, which demonstrated in preparatory research with a number of closed system testbeds that soil could also support crop plants while also serving as soil filters with air pumps to push air through the soil. This Biosphere 2 research demonstrated in several closed system testbeds that a number of important trace gases could be kept under control and led to the engineering of the entire agricultural soil of Biosphere 2 to serve as a soil filtration unit for the facility. Soil biofiltration, coupled with food crop produc-tion, as a component of bioregenerative space life support systems has the advantages of lower energy use and avoidance of the consumables required for other air purification approaches. Expanding use of soil biofiltration can aid a number of environmental applications, from the mitigation of indoor air pollution, improvement of industrial air emissions and prevention of accidental release of toxic gases.

  16. Understanding and Supporting Web Developers: Design and Evaluation of a Web Accessibility Information Resource (WebAIR).

    PubMed

    Swallow, David; Petrie, Helen; Power, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes the design and evaluation of a Web Accessibility Information Resource (WebAIR) for supporting web developers to create and evaluate accessible websites. WebAIR was designed with web developers in mind, recognising their current working practices and acknowledging their existing understanding of web accessibility. We conducted an evaluation with 32 professional web developers in which they used either WebAIR or an existing accessibility information resource, the Web Content Accessibility Guidelines, to identify accessibility problems. The findings indicate that several design decisions made in relation to the language, organisation, and volume of WebAIR were effective in supporting web developers to undertake web accessibility evaluations.

  17. [The main ways of improvement of medical support of the Air Forces in modern conditions].

    PubMed

    Blaginin, A A; Grebeniuk, A N; Lizogub, I N

    2014-02-01

    Blaginin A.A., Grebenyuk A.N., Lizogub LN. - The main ways of improvement of medical support of the Air Forces in modern conditions. Aircrew conducting active hostilities suffers from the whole spectrum of factors and conditions of the combat situation. The main task for the medical service of the Air Force is to carry out preventive and curative action for aviation specialists who are responsible for the combat capability of aircraft formations. The medical service of the Air Force must have forces and facilities for planning, organization and implementation of the treatment of lightly wounded and sick aviation professionals with short periods of recovery, medical rehabilitation of aircrew qfter suffering injuries, diseases, sanatorium therapy of aircrew with partial failure of health, outpatient and inpatient medical examination aircrew - flight commissions, preventive rest of aviation specialists with symptoms of chronic fatigue. Should be trained aviation physicians, including both basic military medical education and in-depth study of the medical aspects of various fields of personnel of the Air Force.

  18. Closed-loop Habitation Air Revitalization Model for Regenerative Life Support Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hart, Maxwell M.

    1991-01-01

    The primary function of any life support system is to keep the crew alive by providing breathable air, potable water, edible food, and for disposal of waste. In a well-balanced or regenerative life support system, the various components are each using what is available and producing what is needed by other components so that there will always be enough chemicals in the form in which they are needed. Humans are not just users, but also one of the participating parts of the system. If a system could continuously recycle the original chemicals, this would make it virtually a Closed-loop Habitation (CH). Some difficulties in trying to create a miniature version of a CH are briefly discussed. In a miniature CH, a minimal structure must be provided and the difference must be made up by artificial parts such as physicochemical systems that perform the conversions that the Earth can achieve naturally. To study the interactions of these parts, a computer model was designed that simulates a miniature CH with emphasis on the air revitalization part. It is called the Closed-loop Habitation Air Revitalization Model (CHARM).

  19. Multi-Agent Diagnosis and Control of an Air Revitalization System for Life Support in Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malin, Jane T.; Kowing, Jeffrey; Nieten, Joseph; Graham, Jeffrey s.; Schreckenghost, Debra; Bonasso, Pete; Fleming, Land D.; MacMahon, Matt; Thronesbery, Carroll

    2000-01-01

    An architecture of interoperating agents has been developed to provide control and fault management for advanced life support systems in space. In this adjustable autonomy architecture, software agents coordinate with human agents and provide support in novel fault management situations. This architecture combines the Livingstone model-based mode identification and reconfiguration (MIR) system with the 3T architecture for autonomous flexible command and control. The MIR software agent performs model-based state identification and diagnosis. MIR identifies novel recovery configurations and the set of commands required for the recovery. The AZT procedural executive and the human operator use the diagnoses and recovery recommendations, and provide command sequencing. User interface extensions have been developed to support human monitoring of both AZT and MIR data and activities. This architecture has been demonstrated performing control and fault management for an oxygen production system for air revitalization in space. The software operates in a dynamic simulation testbed.

  20. Calibrated Ancillary System (CAS) user's guide, volume 4

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    The Calibrated Ancillary System (CAS) provides real-time calibrated parameters from the orbiter downlink (ancillary data) to the Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC). This user's guide contains the introduction to the equipment, operation, general procedures, and specific procedures of the CAS. Volume 4 presents the GSFC user mission planning procedures covering the mission planning main menu, bulletin board system, ancillary products menu, utility menu procedures, and ancillary support files procedures.

  1. Air Quality Modeling in Support of the Near-Road Exposures and Effects of Urban Air Pollutants Study (NEXUS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    A major challenge in traffic-related air pollution exposure studies is the lack of information regarding pollutant exposure characterization. Air quality modeling can provide spatially and temporally varying exposure estimates for examining relationships between traffic-related a...

  2. Data Supporting Mobile Application Development for Use within the Marine Air-Ground Task Force

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-09-01

    AND ADDRESS Naval Postgraduate School Monterey, CA 93943-5000 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER 9. SPONSORING /MONITORING AGENCY NAME...66   c.   SAR Application ........................................................... 66   d.   CAS Application...2013) ............ 13   Figure 5.   Priorities of the 35th Commandant of the Marine Corps (from Amos , 2010

  3. The New Close Air Support Weapon: Unmanned Combat Aerial Vehicle in 2010 and Beyond.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    General Staff College in partial fulfillment of the requiremenits for the deg~ ree MASTER OF MILITARY ART AND SCIENCE Military History 𔃾 ~by 4 SHARON L...Perimeter offered a first-hand glimpse into some CAS strike results. Major General Laurence B. Keiser, commander of the 2d Infantry Division, credited

  4. Illustrations and Supporting Texts for Sound Standing Waves of Air Columns in Pipes in Introductory Physics Textbooks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zeng, Liang; Smith, Chris; Poelzer, G. Herold; Rodriguez, Jennifer; Corpuz, Edgar; Yanev, George

    2014-01-01

    In our pilot studies, we found that many introductory physics textbook illustrations with supporting text for sound standing waves of air columns in open-open, open-closed, and closed-closed pipes inhibit student understanding of sound standing wave phenomena due to student misunderstanding of how air molecules move within these pipes. Based on…

  5. Use of UAS to Support Management in Precision Agriculture: The AggieAir Experience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKee, M.; Torres-Rua, A. F.; ELarab, M.; Hassan Esfahani, L.; Jensen, A.

    2015-12-01

    Remote sensing applications for precision agriculture depend on acquiring actionable information at high spatial resolution and at a temporal frequency appropriate for timely responses. Unmanned aerial systems (UAS) are capable of providing such imagery for use in various applications for precision agriculture (yield estimation, evapotranspiration, etc.). AggieAirTM, a UAS platform and sensory array, was designed and developed at Utah State University to acquire high-resolution imagery (0.15m -0.6 m) in the visual, near infrared, red edge, and thermal infrared spectra. Spectral data obtained from AggieAir are used to develop soil moisture, plant chlorophyll, leaf nitrogen and actual evapotranspiration estimates to support management in precision agriculture. This presentation will focus on experience in using the AggieAir system to provide information products of possible interest in precision agriculture. The discussion will include information about the direction and rate of development of UAS technology and the current and anticipated future state of the regulatory environment for use of these systems in the U.S.

  6. Development of an Aura Chemical Reanalysis in support Air Quality Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pierce, R. B.; Lenzen, A.; Schaack, T.

    2015-12-01

    We present results of chemical data assimilation experiments utilizing the NOAA National Environmental Satellite, Data, and Information Service (NESDIS), University of Wisconsin Space Science and Engineering (SSEC) Real-time Air Quality Modeling System (RAQMS) in conjunction with the NOAA National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) Operational Gridpoint Statistical Interpolation (GSI) 3-dimensional variational data assimilation system. The impact of assimilating NASA Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) total column ozone, OMI tropospheric nitrogen dioxide columns, and Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) stratospheric ozone profiles on background ozone is assessed using measurements from the 2010 NSF High-performance Instrumented Airborne Platform for Environmental Research (HIAPER) Pole-to-Pole Observation (HIPPO) and NOAA California Nexus (CalNex) campaigns. Results show that the RAQMS/GSI Chemical Reanalysis is able to provide very good estimates of background ozone and large-scale ozone variability and is suitable for use in constraining regional air quality modeling activities. These experiments are being used to guide the development of a multi-year global chemical and aerosol reanalysis using NASA Aura and A-Train measurements to support air quality applications.

  7. Multi-objective optimization to support rapid air operations mission planning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonsalves, Paul G.; Burge, Janet E.

    2005-05-01

    Within the context of military air operations, Time-sensitive targets (TSTs) are targets where modifiers such, "emerging, perishable, high-payoff, short dwell, or highly mobile" can be used. Time-critical targets (TCTs) further the criticality of TSTs with respect to achievement of mission objectives and a limited window of opportunity for attack. The importance of TST/TCTs within military air operations has been met with a significant investment in advanced technologies and platforms to meet these challenges. Developments in ISR systems, manned and unmanned air platforms, precision guided munitions, and network-centric warfare have made significant strides for ensuring timely prosecution of TSTs/TCTs. However, additional investments are needed to further decrease the targeting decision cycle. Given the operational needs for decision support systems to enable time-sensitive/time-critical targeting, we present a tool for the rapid generation and analysis of mission plan solutions to address TSTs/TCTs. Our system employs a genetic algorithm-based multi-objective optimization scheme that is well suited to the rapid generation of approximate solutions in a dynamic environment. Genetic Algorithms (GAs) allow for the effective exploration of the search space for potentially novel solutions, while addressing the multiple conflicting objectives that characterize the prosecution of TSTs/TCTs (e.g. probability of target destruction, time to accomplish task, level of disruption to other mission priorities, level of risk to friendly assets, etc.).

  8. DEA-I: A Globally Configurable Open Source Software Package in Support of Air Quality Forecasts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davies, J.; Strabala, K.; Pierce, R.; Huang, H.; Schiffer, E.

    2012-12-01

    During September 2003, a team of NASA, NOAA, and EPA researchers demonstrated a prototype for using Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) aerosol optical depth retrievals in daily air quality forecasts; this became known as IDEA (Infusing satellite Data into Environmental Applications). IDEA was part of the NASA Applied Sciences Program strategy to demonstrate practical uses of NASA-sponsored observations from space and predictions. Following its successful demonstration an export version of IDEA, known as IDEA International (IDEA-I), has now been released. IDEA-I supports the Global Earth Observation Systems of Systems (GEOSS) Group on Earth Observations (GEO) Health Societal Benefit Area (SBA) and is being developed within the framework of the GEO Earth Observations in Decision Support Call for Proposals. The vehicle for IDEA-I release is the International MODIS and AIRS (Atmospheric Infrared Sounder) Processing Package (IMAPP), developed at the Space Science and Engineering Center, University of Wisconsin-Madison (SSEC/UW-Madison). IMAPP is a NASA-funded and freely-distributed software package which allows any ground station capable of receiving direct broadcast from Terra or Aqua to produce calibrated and geolocated radiances, and a suite of environmental products, of which the IDEA-I 48-hour forward trajectory prediction of high aerosol events is now a part. IDEA-I provides a tool for linking ground-based and satellite capabilities to support international air quality forecasting activities and is to be demonstrated internationally through user training and impact evaluation via a series of IMAPP workshops. This presentation describes the IMAPP implementation of IDEA-I in terms of its simple installation and configuration, and through examples of its operation in several regions known for periodic high aerosol events.; Screen capture of the University of Wisconsin implementation of the real-time direct broadcast IDEA-I Air Quality monitoring

  9. Fisk-based criteria to support validation of detection methods for drinking water and air.

    SciTech Connect

    MacDonell, M.; Bhattacharyya, M.; Finster, M.; Williams, M.; Picel, K.; Chang, Y.-S.; Peterson, J.; Adeshina, F.; Sonich-Mullin, C.; Environmental Science Division; EPA

    2009-02-18

    This report was prepared to support the validation of analytical methods for threat contaminants under the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) National Homeland Security Research Center (NHSRC) program. It is designed to serve as a resource for certain applications of benchmark and fate information for homeland security threat contaminants. The report identifies risk-based criteria from existing health benchmarks for drinking water and air for potential use as validation targets. The focus is on benchmarks for chronic public exposures. The priority sources are standard EPA concentration limits for drinking water and air, along with oral and inhalation toxicity values. Many contaminants identified as homeland security threats to drinking water or air would convert to other chemicals within minutes to hours of being released. For this reason, a fate analysis has been performed to identify potential transformation products and removal half-lives in air and water so appropriate forms can be targeted for detection over time. The risk-based criteria presented in this report to frame method validation are expected to be lower than actual operational targets based on realistic exposures following a release. Note that many target criteria provided in this report are taken from available benchmarks without assessing the underlying toxicological details. That is, although the relevance of the chemical form and analogues are evaluated, the toxicological interpretations and extrapolations conducted by the authoring organizations are not. It is also important to emphasize that such targets in the current analysis are not health-based advisory levels to guide homeland security responses. This integrated evaluation of chronic public benchmarks and contaminant fate has identified more than 200 risk-based criteria as method validation targets across numerous contaminants and fate products in drinking water and air combined. The gap in directly applicable values is

  10. Degradation of phenylamine by catalytic wet air oxidation using metal catalysts with modified supports.

    PubMed

    Torrellas, Silvia A; Escudero, Gabriel O; Rodriguez, Araceli R; Rodriguez, Juan G

    2015-01-01

    The effect of acid treatments with HCl and HNO3 on the surface area and surface chemistry of three granular activated carbons was studied. These supports were characterized and the hydrochloric acid treatment leads to the best activated carbon support (AC2-C). The catalytic behavior of Pt, Ru and Fe (1 wt.%) supported on granular activated carbon treated with HCl was tested in the phenylamine continuous catalytic wet air oxidation in a three-phase, high-pressure catalytic reactor over a range of reaction temperatures 130-170ºC and total pressure of 1.0-3.0 MPa at LHSV = 0.4-1 h(-1), whereas the phenylamine concentration range and the catalyst loading were 5-16 mol.m(-3) and 0.5-1.5 g, respectively. Activity as well as conversion varied as a function of the metal, the catalyst preparation method and operation conditions. Higher activities were obtained with Pt incorporated on hydrochloric acid -treated activated carbon by the ion exchange method. In steady state, approximately 98% phenylamine conversion, 77% of TOC and 94% of COD removal, was recorded at 150ºC, 11 mol m(-3) of phenylamine concentration and 1.5 g of catalyst, and the selectivity to non-organic compounds was 78%. Several reaction intermediaries were detected. A Langmuir-Hinshelwood model gave an excellent fit of the kinetic data of phenylamine continuous catalytic wet air oxidation over the catalysts of this work.

  11. Hygienic support of the ISS air quality (main achievements and prospects)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moukhamedieva, Lana; Tsarkov, Dmitriy; Pakhomova, Anna

    Hygienic preventive measures during pre-flight processing of manned spaceships, selection of polymeric materials, sanitary-hygienic evaluation of cargo and scientific hardware to be used on the ISS and life support systems allow to maintain air quality in limits of regulatory requirements. However, graduate increase of total air contamination by harmful chemicals is observed as service life of the ISS gets longer. It is caused by polymeric materials used on the station overall quantity rise, by additional contamination brought by cargo spacecrafts and modules docking to the ISS and by the cargo. At the same time the range of contaminants that are typical for off-gassing from polymeric materials where modern stabilizers, plasticizers, flame retarders and other additives are used gets wider. In resolving the matters of the ISS service life extension the main question of hygienic researches is to determine real safe operation life of the polymeric material used in structures and hardware of the station, including: begin{itemize} research of polymers degradation (ageing) and its effect on intensity of off gassing and its toxicity; begin{itemize} introduction of polymers with minimal volatile organic compounds off gassing under conditions of space flight and thermal-oxidative degradation. In order to ensure human safety during long-term flight it is important to develop: begin{itemize} real-time air quality monitoring systems, including on-line analysis of highly toxic contaminants evolving during thermo-oxidative degradation of polymer materials and during blowouts of toxic contaminants; begin{itemize} hygienic standards of contaminants level for extended duration of flight up to 3 years. It is essential to develop an automated control system for on-line monitoring of toxicological status and to develop hygienic and engineer measures of its management in order to ensure crew members safety during off-nominal situation.

  12. Bubble absorption by an air-filled helically-supported capillary channel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beheshtipour, Negar; Thiessen, David

    2016-11-01

    Gas-liquid phase separation under microgravity conditions where buoyancy is not active represents a challenge for two-phase liquid-continuous space systems. Similar challenges are present in micro-scale electrochemical systems on Earth that generate gas bubbles in geometries where surface tension prevails over gravity. A possible ground-based application would be the removal of carbon dioxide bubbles from large aspect ratio channels in a direct-methanol fuel cell that could otherwise occlude the channel. In this study we use a 3-mm diameter stretched stainless-steel spring coated with a superhydrophobic layer to create a helically-supported capillary channel. Such a channel that is submerged in water and filled with air while vented to the atmosphere was found to absorb a stream of 2.5-mm diameter air bubbles at a rate of at least 36 bubbles/s. An optical detector and high-speed imaging system have been used to study bubble absorption dynamics. A significant finding is that the initial attachment of the bubble to the channel that involves the rupture of a thin film of water happens in less than 1 ms. The rapid rupture of the water film separating the bubble from the channel might be attributed to the roughness of the hydrophobic coating.

  13. Coated mesh photocatalytic reactor for air treatment applications: comparative study of support materials.

    PubMed

    Passalía, Claudio; Nocetti, Emanuel; Alfano, Orlando; Brandi, Rodolfo

    2016-06-14

    An experimental comparative study of different meshes as support materials for photocatalytic applications in gas phase is presented. The photocatalytic oxidation of dichloromethane in air was addressed employing different coated meshes in a laboratory-scale, continuous reactor. Two fiberglass meshes and a stainless steel mesh were studied regarding the catalyst load, adherence, and catalytic activity. Titanium dioxide photocatalyst was immobilized on the meshes by dip-coating cycles. Results indicate the feasibility of the dichloromethane elimination in the three cases. When the number of coating cycles was doubled, the achieved conversion levels were increased twofold for stainless steel and threefold for the fiberglass meshes. One of the fiberglass meshes (FG2) showed the highest reactivity per mass of catalyst and per catalytic surface area.

  14. Stability of rigid rotors supported by air foil bearings: Comparison of two fundamental approaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larsen, Jon S.; Santos, Ilmar F.; von Osmanski, Sebastian

    2016-10-01

    High speed direct drive motors enable the use of Air Foil Bearings (AFB) in a wide range of applications due to the elimination of gear forces. Unfortunately, AFB supported rotors are lightly damped, and an accurate prediction of their Onset Speed of Instability (OSI) is therefore important. This paper compares two fundamental methods for predicting the OSI. One is based on a nonlinear time domain simulation and another is based on a linearised frequency domain method and a perturbation of the Reynolds equation. Both methods are based on equivalent models and should predict similar results. Significant discrepancies are observed leading to the question, is the classical frequency domain method sufficiently accurate? The discrepancies and possible explanations are discussed in detail.

  15. Harnessing heterologous and endogenous CRISPR-Cas machineries for efficient markerless genome editing in Clostridium.

    PubMed

    Pyne, Michael E; Bruder, Mark R; Moo-Young, Murray; Chung, Duane A; Chou, C Perry

    2016-05-09

    Application of CRISPR-Cas9 systems has revolutionized genome editing across all domains of life. Here we report implementation of the heterologous Type II CRISPR-Cas9 system in Clostridium pasteurianum for markerless genome editing. Since 74% of species harbor CRISPR-Cas loci in Clostridium, we also explored the prospect of co-opting host-encoded CRISPR-Cas machinery for genome editing. Motivation for this work was bolstered from the observation that plasmids expressing heterologous cas9 result in poor transformation of Clostridium. To address this barrier and establish proof-of-concept, we focus on characterization and exploitation of the C. pasteurianum Type I-B CRISPR-Cas system. In silico spacer analysis and in vivo interference assays revealed three protospacer adjacent motif (PAM) sequences required for site-specific nucleolytic attack. Introduction of a synthetic CRISPR array and cpaAIR gene deletion template yielded an editing efficiency of 100%. In contrast, the heterologous Type II CRISPR-Cas9 system generated only 25% of the total yield of edited cells, suggesting that native machinery provides a superior foundation for genome editing by precluding expression of cas9 in trans. To broaden our approach, we also identified putative PAM sequences in three key species of Clostridium. This is the first report of genome editing through harnessing native CRISPR-Cas machinery in Clostridium.

  16. Harnessing heterologous and endogenous CRISPR-Cas machineries for efficient markerless genome editing in Clostridium

    PubMed Central

    Pyne, Michael E.; Bruder, Mark R.; Moo-Young, Murray; Chung, Duane A.; Chou, C. Perry

    2016-01-01

    Application of CRISPR-Cas9 systems has revolutionized genome editing across all domains of life. Here we report implementation of the heterologous Type II CRISPR-Cas9 system in Clostridium pasteurianum for markerless genome editing. Since 74% of species harbor CRISPR-Cas loci in Clostridium, we also explored the prospect of co-opting host-encoded CRISPR-Cas machinery for genome editing. Motivation for this work was bolstered from the observation that plasmids expressing heterologous cas9 result in poor transformation of Clostridium. To address this barrier and establish proof-of-concept, we focus on characterization and exploitation of the C. pasteurianum Type I-B CRISPR-Cas system. In silico spacer analysis and in vivo interference assays revealed three protospacer adjacent motif (PAM) sequences required for site-specific nucleolytic attack. Introduction of a synthetic CRISPR array and cpaAIR gene deletion template yielded an editing efficiency of 100%. In contrast, the heterologous Type II CRISPR-Cas9 system generated only 25% of the total yield of edited cells, suggesting that native machinery provides a superior foundation for genome editing by precluding expression of cas9 in trans. To broaden our approach, we also identified putative PAM sequences in three key species of Clostridium. This is the first report of genome editing through harnessing native CRISPR-Cas machinery in Clostridium. PMID:27157668

  17. Dual nuclease activity of a Cas2 protein in CRISPR-Cas subtype I-B of Leptospira interrogans.

    PubMed

    Dixit, Bhuvan; Ghosh, Karukriti Kaushik; Fernandes, Gary; Kumar, Pankaj; Gogoi, Prerana; Kumar, Manish

    2016-04-01

    Leptospira interrogans serovar Copenhageni strain Fiocruz L1-130 carries a set of cas genes associated with CRISPR-Cas subtype I-B. Herein, we report for the first time active transcription of a set of cas genes (cas1 to cas8) of L. interrogans where cas4, cas1, cas2 and cas6, cas3, cas8, cas7, cas5 are clustered together in two independent operons. As an initial step toward comprehensive understanding of CRISPR-Cas system in spirochete, the biochemical study of one of the core Leptospira Cas2 proteins (Lep_Cas2) showed nuclease activity on both DNA and RNA in a nonspecific manner. Additionally, unlike other known Cas2 proteins, Lep_Cas2 showed metal-independent RNase activity and preferential activity on RNA over DNA. These results provide insight for understanding Cas2 diversity existing in the prokaryotic adaptive immune system.

  18. Cas-analyzer: an online tool for assessing genome editing results using NGS data.

    PubMed

    Park, Jeongbin; Lim, Kayeong; Kim, Jin-Soo; Bae, Sangsu

    2017-01-15

    Genome editing with programmable nucleases has been widely adopted in research and medicine. Next generation sequencing (NGS) platforms are now widely used for measuring the frequencies of mutations induced by CRISPR-Cas9 and other programmable nucleases. Here, we present an online tool, Cas-Analyzer, a JavaScript-based implementation for NGS data analysis. Because Cas-Analyzer is completely used at a client-side web browser on-the-fly, there is no need to upload very large NGS datasets to a server, a time-consuming step in genome editing analysis. Currently, Cas-Analyzer supports various programmable nucleases, including single nucleases and paired nucleases.

  19. Development and case study of a science-based software platform to support policy making on air quality.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Yun; Lao, Yanwen; Jang, Carey; Lin, Chen-Jen; Xing, Jia; Wang, Shuxiao; Fu, Joshua S; Deng, Shuang; Xie, Junping; Long, Shicheng

    2015-01-01

    This article describes the development and implementations of a novel software platform that supports real-time, science-based policy making on air quality through a user-friendly interface. The software, RSM-VAT, uses a response surface modeling (RSM) methodology and serves as a visualization and analysis tool (VAT) for three-dimensional air quality data obtained by atmospheric models. The software features a number of powerful and intuitive data visualization functions for illustrating the complex nonlinear relationship between emission reductions and air quality benefits. The case study of contiguous U.S. demonstrates that the enhanced RSM-VAT is capable of reproducing the air quality model results with Normalized Mean Bias <2% and assisting in air quality policy making in near real time.

  20. Compressed air energy storage monitoring to support refrigerated mined rock cavern technology.

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Moo Yul; Bauer, Stephen J.

    2004-06-01

    This document is the final report for the Compressed Air Energy Storage Monitoring to Support Refrigerated-Mined Rock Cavern Technology (CAES Monitoring to Support RMRCT) (DE-FC26-01NT40868) project to have been conducted by CAES Development Co., along with Sandia National Laboratories. This document provides a final report covering tasks 1.0 and subtasks 2.1, 2.2, and 2.5 of task 2.0 of the Statement of Project Objectives and constitutes the final project deliverable. The proposed work was to have provided physical measurements and analyses of large-scale rock mass response to pressure cycling. The goal was to develop proof-of-concept data for a previously developed and DOE sponsored technology (RMRCT or Refrigerated-Mined Rock Cavern Technology). In the RMRCT concept, a room and pillar mine developed in rock serves as a pressure vessel. That vessel will need to contain pressure of about 1370 psi (and cycle down to 300 psi). The measurements gathered in this study would have provided a means to determine directly rock mass response during cyclic loading on the same scale, under similar pressure conditions. The CAES project has been delayed due to national economic unrest in the energy sector.

  1. Field validation of sound mitigation models and air pollutant emission testing in support of missile motor disposal activities.

    PubMed

    McFarland, Michael J; Palmer, Glenn R; Kordich, Micheal M; Pollet, Dean A; Jensen, James A; Lindsay, Mitchell H

    2005-08-01

    The U.S. Department of Defense approved activities conducted at the Utah Test and Training Range (UTTR) include both operational readiness test firing of intercontinental ballistic missile motors as well as the destruction of obsolete or otherwise unusable intercontinental ballistic missile motors through open burn/open detonation (OB/ OD). Within the Utah Division of Air Quality, these activities have been identified as having the potential to generate unacceptable noise levels, as well as significant amounts of hazardous air pollutants. Hill Air Force Base, UT, has completed a series of field tests at the UTTR in which sound-monitoring surveillance of OB/OD activities was conducted to validate the Sound Intensity Prediction System (SIPS) model. Using results generated by the SIPS model to support the decision to detonate, the UTTR successfully disposed of missile motors having an aggregate net explosive weight (NEW) of 56,500 lbs without generating adverse noise levels within populated areas. These results suggest that, under appropriate conditions, missile motors of even larger NEW may be detonated without exceeding regulatory noise limits. In conjunction with collecting noise monitoring data, air quality data was collected to support the development of air emission factors for both static missile motor firings and OB/OD activities. Through the installation of 15 ground-based air samplers, the generation of combustion fixed gases, hazardous air pollutants, and chlorides were monitored during the 56,500-lb NEW detonation event. Comparison of field measurements to predictions generated from the U.S. Navy's energetic combustion pollutant formation model, POLU4WN, indicated that, as the detonation fireball expanded from ground zero, organic compounds as well as carbon monoxide continued to oxidize as the hot gases reacted with ambient air. Hazardous air pollutant analysis of air samplers confirmed the presence of chloromethane, benzene, toluene, 1,2-propadiene, and

  2. Conceptual air sparging decision tool in support of the development of an air sparging optimization decision tool

    SciTech Connect

    1995-09-01

    The enclosed document describes a conceptual decision tool (hereinafter, Tool) for determining applicability of and for optimizing air sparging systems. The Tool was developed by a multi-disciplinary team of internationally recognized experts in air sparging technology, lead by a group of project and task managers at Parsons Engineering Science, Inc. (Parsons ES). The team included Mr. Douglas Downey and Dr. Robert Hinchee of Parsons ES, Dr. Paul Johnson of Arizona State University, Dr. Richard Johnson of Oregon Graduate Institute, and Mr. Michael Marley of Envirogen, Inc. User Community Panel Review was coordinated by Dr. Robert Siegrist of Colorado School of Mines (also of Oak Ridge National Laboratory) and Dr. Thomas Brouns of Battelle/Pacific Northwest Laboratory. The Tool is intended to provide guidance to field practitioners and environmental managers for evaluating the applicability and optimization of air sparging as remedial action technique.

  3. A Method for Making Cross-Comparable Estimates of the Benefits of Decision Support Technologies for Air Traffic Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, David; Long, Dou; Etheridge, Mel; Plugge, Joana; Johnson, Jesse; Kostiuk, Peter

    1998-01-01

    We present a general method for making cross comparable estimates of the benefits of NASA-developed decision support technologies for air traffic management, and we apply a specific implementation of the method to estimate benefits of three decision support tools (DSTs) under development in NASA's advanced Air Transportation Technologies Program: Active Final Approach Spacing Tool (A-FAST), Expedite Departure Path (EDP), and Conflict Probe and Trial Planning Tool (CPTP). The report also reviews data about the present operation of the national airspace system (NAS) to identify opportunities for DST's to reduce delays and inefficiencies.

  4. From ACTS (Air Corps Tactical School) to COBRA: Evolution of Close Air Support Doctrine in World War Two.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-04-01

    cooperated and coordinated their activities in absolute precision cieated by total nental telepathy . Although XIX Tactice.1 Air Coeeand and Third Aray did...capture of the Romanian oil fields and increased production of synthetic oil, Germany produced enough oil to meet her military needs. By 1944, the

  5. Significance of the Human Being as an Element in an Information System: WWII Forward Air Controllers and Close Air Support

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-03-01

    accomplishment” ( Giddens , 1979, p 373). Unfortunately, by fantasizing that information is structured data, we deny the importance of dialogue as the basis......Ground Attack Aviation in the U.S. Army Air Arm. Evolution and Doctrine, 1908-1926. Thesis: Duke University, 1971, 81. Giddens , A. Central

  6. NASA Langley's Formal Methods Research in Support of the Next Generation Air Transportation System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Butler, Ricky W.; Munoz, Cesar A.

    2008-01-01

    This talk will provide a brief introduction to the formal methods developed at NASA Langley and the National Institute for Aerospace (NIA) for air traffic management applications. NASA Langley's formal methods research supports the Interagency Joint Planning and Development Office (JPDO) effort to define and develop the 2025 Next Generation Air Transportation System (NGATS). The JPDO was created by the passage of the Vision 100 Century of Aviation Reauthorization Act in Dec 2003. The NGATS vision calls for a major transformation of the nation s air transportation system that will enable growth to 3 times the traffic of the current system. The transformation will require an unprecedented level of safety-critical automation used in complex procedural operations based on 4-dimensional (4D) trajectories that enable dynamic reconfiguration of airspace scalable to geographic and temporal demand. The goal of our formal methods research is to provide verification methods that can be used to insure the safety of the NGATS system. Our work has focused on the safety assessment of concepts of operation and fundamental algorithms for conflict detection and resolution (CD&R) and self- spacing in the terminal area. Formal analysis of a concept of operations is a novel area of application of formal methods. Here one must establish that a system concept involving aircraft, pilots, and ground resources is safe. The formal analysis of algorithms is a more traditional endeavor. However, the formal analysis of ATM algorithms involves reasoning about the interaction of algorithmic logic and aircraft trajectories defined over an airspace. These trajectories are described using 2D and 3D vectors and are often constrained by trigonometric relations. Thus, in many cases it has been necessary to unload the full power of an advanced theorem prover. The verification challenge is to establish that the safety-critical algorithms produce valid solutions that are guaranteed to maintain separation

  7. Effects of Group Support Systems on United States Air Force Strategic Planning Efforts

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-09-01

    Strategic planning at an Air Force wing is a team based activity that offers many advantages to the Air Force. But, it is clear there are still...questions about how to properly conduct strategic planning to produce the highest quality plans in the most effective and efficient manner. To answer this...question, the Air Force created a research project aimed at discovering new methods to improve strategic planning at Air Force wing levels using a

  8. Illustrations and supporting texts for sound standing waves of air columns in pipes in introductory physics textbooks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Liang; Smith, Chris; Poelzer, G. Herold; Rodriguez, Jennifer; Corpuz, Edgar; Yanev, George

    2014-12-01

    In our pilot studies, we found that many introductory physics textbook illustrations with supporting text for sound standing waves of air columns in open-open, open-closed, and closed-closed pipes inhibit student understanding of sound standing wave phenomena due to student misunderstanding of how air molecules move within these pipes. Based on the construct of meaningful learning from cognitive psychology and semiotics, a quasiexperimental study was conducted to investigate the comparative effectiveness of two alternative approaches to student understanding: a traditional textbook illustration approach versus a newly designed air molecule motion illustration approach. Thirty volunteer students from introductory physics classes were randomly assigned to two groups of 15 each. Both groups were administered a presurvey. Then, group A read the air molecule motion illustration handout, and group B read a traditional textbook illustration handout; both groups were administered postsurveys. Subsequently, the procedure was reversed: group B read the air molecule motion illustration handout and group A read the traditional textbook illustration handout. This was followed by a second postsurvey along with an exit research questionnaire. The study found that the majority of students experienced meaningful learning and stated that they understood sound standing wave phenomena significantly better using the air molecule motion illustration approach. This finding provides a method for physics education researchers to design illustrations for abstract sound standing wave concepts, for publishers to improve their illustrations with supporting text, and for instructors to facilitate deeper learning in their students on sound standing waves.

  9. Information Requirements for Supervisory Air Traffic Controllers in Support of a Wake Vortex Departure System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lohr, Gary W.; Williams, Daniel M.; Trujillo, Anna C.

    2008-01-01

    Closely Space Parallel Runway (CSPR) configurations are capacity limited for departures due to the requirement to apply wake vortex separation standards from traffic departing on the adjacent parallel runway. To mitigate the effects of this constraint, a concept focusing on wind dependent departure operations has been developed, known as the Wake Turbulence Mitigation for Departures (WTMD). This concept takes advantage of the fact that crosswinds of sufficient velocity blow wakes generated by aircraft departing from the downwind runway away from the upwind runway. Consequently, under certain conditions, wake separations on the upwind runway would not be required based on wakes generated by aircraft on the downwind runway, as is currently the case. It follows that information requirements, and sources for this information, would need to be determined for airport traffic control tower (ATCT) supervisory personnel who would be charged with decisions regarding use of the procedure. To determine the information requirements, data were collected from ATCT supervisors and controller-in-charge qualified individuals at Lambert-St. Louis International Airport (STL) and George Bush Houston Intercontinental Airport (IAH). STL and IAH were chosen as data collection sites based on the implementation of a WTMD prototype system, operating in shadow mode, at these locations. The 17 total subjects (STL: 5, IAH: 12) represented a broad-base of air traffic experience. Results indicated that the following information was required to support the conduct of WTMD operations: current and forecast weather information, current and forecast traffic demand and traffic flow restrictions, and WTMD System status information and alerting. Subjects further indicated that the requisite information is currently available in the tower cab with the exception of the WTMD status and alerting. Subjects were given a demonstration of a display supporting the prototype systems and unanimously stated that the

  10. Gulf of Mexico Air Quality: CALIPSO Support for Gulf of Mexico Air Quality Relating to the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyen, Myngoc T.; Lapointe, Stephen; Jennings, Brittney; Zoumplis, Angela

    2011-01-01

    On April 20, 2010, an oil platform belonging to BP exploded and leaked a huge volume of oil into the Gulf of Mexico. In an effort to control the spread of the oil, BP applied dispersants such as Corexit and conducted in-situ burnings of the oil. This catastrophe created a complex chain of events that affected not only the fragile water and land ecosystems, but the humans who breathe the air every day. Thousands of people were exposed to fumes associated with oil vapors from the spill, burning of the oil, and the toxic mixture of dispersants. While aiding in clean-up efforts, local fishermen were directly exposure to fumes when working on the Gulf. A notable amount of Gulf Coast residents were also exposed to the oil fumes as seasonal southeasterly winds blew vapors toward land. The Volatile Organic Compounds (VOC) found in oil vapors include: benzene, toluene, ethyl benzene, xylene, naphthalene, hydrogen sulfide and particulate matter (PM). Increases in water temperature and sunlight due to the summer season allow for these VOCs and PM to evaporate into the air more rapidly. Aside from the VOCs found in oil vapors, the dispersant being used to break up the oil is highly toxic and is thought to be even more toxic than the oil itself (EPA website, 2010). To protect human health, the environment, and to make informed policy decisions relevant to the spill, the EPA Region 6 has continuously monitored the affected areas carefully for levels of pollutants in the outdoor air that are associated with petroleum products and the burning of oil along the coast. In an effort to prevent, prepare for, and respond to future oil spills that occur in and around inland waters of the United States, the EPA has been working with local, state, and federal response partners. Air quality measurements were collected by the EPA at five active monitoring systems stationed along the coast.

  11. RIFM fragrance ingredient safety assessment, linalyl benzoate, CAS Registry Number 126-64-7.

    PubMed

    Api, A M; Belsito, D; Bhatia, S; Bruze, M; Calow, P; Dagli, M L; Dkant, W; Fryer, A D; Kromidas, L; La Cava, S; Lalko, J F; Lapczynski, A; Liebler, D C; Penning, T M; Politano, V T; Ritacco, G; Salvito, D; Schultz, T W; Shen, J; Sipes, I G; Wall, B; Wilcox, D K

    2016-11-01

    The use of this material under current conditions is supported by existing information. This material was evaluated for genotoxicity, repeated dose toxicity, developmental and reproductive toxicity, local respiratory toxicity, phototoxicity/photoallergenicity, skin sensitization, as well as environmental safety. Data show that this material is not genotoxic. Data from the suitable read across analog linalyl phenylacetate (CAS # 7143-69-3) show that this material does not have skin sensitization potential. The repeated dose toxicity endpoint was completed using linalyl cinnamate (CAS # 78-37-5) as a suitable read across analog, which provided a MOE > 100. The developmental and reproductive toxicity endpoint was completed using linalool (CAS # 78-70-6), dehydrolinalool (CAS # 29171-20-8), benzoic acid (CAS # 65-85-0) and sodium benzoate (CAS # 532-32-1) as suitable read across analogs, which provided a MOE > 100. The local respiratory toxicity endpoint was completed using linalool (CAS # 78-70-6) and benzoic acid (CAS # 65-85-0) as suitable read across analogs, which provided a MOE > 100. The phototoxicity/photoallergenicity endpoint was completed based on suitable UV spectra. The environmental endpoint was completed as described in the RIFM Framework along with data from the suitable read across analog linalyl cinnamate (CAS # 78-375).

  12. Supported noble metal catalysts in the catalytic wet air oxidation of industrial wastewaters and sewage sludges.

    PubMed

    Besson, M; Descorme, C; Bernardi, M; Gallezot, P; di Gregorio, F; Grosjean, N; Minh, D Pham; Pintar, A

    2010-12-01

    This paper reviews some catalytic wet air oxidation (CWAO) investigations of industrial wastewaters over platinum and ruthenium catalysts supported on TiO2 and ZrO2 formulated to be active and resistant to leaching, with particular focus on the stability of the catalyst. Catalyst recycling experiments were performed in batch reactors and long-term stability tests were conducted in trickle-bed reactors. The catalyst did not leach upon treatment of Kraft bleaching plant and olive oil mill effluents, and could be either recycled or used for long periods of time in continuous reactors. Conversely, these catalysts were rapidly leached when used to treat effluents from the production of polymeric membranes containing N,N-dimethylformamide. The intermediate formation of amines, such as dimethylamine and methylamine with a high complexing capacity for the metal, was shown to be responsible for the metal leaching. These heterogeneous catalysts also deactivated upon CWAO of sewage sludges due to the adsorption of the solid organic matter. Pre-sonication of the sludge to disintegrate the flocs and improve solubility was inefficient.

  13. Workload-Matched Adaptive Automation Support of Air Traffic Controller Information Processing Stages

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaber, David B.; Prinzel, Lawrence J., III; Wright, Melanie C.; Clamann, Michael P.

    2002-01-01

    Adaptive automation (AA) has been explored as a solution to the problems associated with human-automation interaction in supervisory control environments. However, research has focused on the performance effects of dynamic control allocations of early stage sensory and information acquisition functions. The present research compares the effects of AA to the entire range of information processing stages of human operators, such as air traffic controllers. The results provide evidence that the effectiveness of AA is dependent on the stage of task performance (human-machine system information processing) that is flexibly automated. The results suggest that humans are better able to adapt to AA when applied to lower-level sensory and psychomotor functions, such as information acquisition and action implementation, as compared to AA applied to cognitive (analysis and decision-making) tasks. The results also provide support for the use of AA, as compared to completely manual control. These results are discussed in terms of implications for AA design for aviation.

  14. NASA GES DISC support of CO2 Data from OCO-2, ACOS, and AIRS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wei, Jennifer C; Vollmer, Bruce E.; Savtchenko, Andrey K.; Hearty, Thomas J; Albayrak, Rustem Arif; Deshong, Barbara E.

    2013-01-01

    NASA Goddard Earth Sciences Data and Information Services Centers (GES DISC) is the data center assigned to archive and distribute current AIRS, ACOS data and data from the upcoming OCO-2 mission. The GES DISC archives and supports data containing information on CO2 as well as other atmospheric composition, atmospheric dynamics, modeling and precipitation. Along with the data stewardship, an important mission of GES DISC is to facilitate access to and enhance the usability of data as well as to broaden the user base. GES DISC strives to promote the awareness of science content and novelty of the data by working with Science Team members and releasing news articles as appropriate. Analysis of events that are of interest to the general public, and that help in understanding the goals of NASA Earth Observing missions, have been among most popular practices.Users have unrestricted access to a user-friendly search interface, Mirador, that allows temporal, spatial, keyword and event searches, as well as an ontology-driven drill down. Variable subsetting, format conversion, quality screening, and quick browse, are among the services available in Mirador. The majority of the GES DISC data are also accessible through OPeNDAP (Open-source Project for a Network Data Access Protocol) and WMS (Web Map Service). These services add more options for specialized subsetting, format conversion, image viewing and contributing to data interoperability.

  15. GHG and Air Pollution Co-benefits Analysis to Support Decision Making in Hyderabad, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guttikunda, S.; Shah, M.

    2008-12-01

    The increasing energy demand in the transport and industrial sectors accounts for a high carbon footprint in Hyderabad, India, and consequently to increasing air pollution. Integrated Environmental Strategies program under US EPA supported the analysis of Andhra Pradesh Pollution Control Board (PCB), to identify the major sources of pollution (local and global) and prioritize a series of strategies to better address mitigation in a cost effective manner. In Hyderabad, under the current trends, PM10 and CO2 emissions in 2020 are estimated to increase ~50 percent, compared to 2006 levels to ~43.5 ktons and ~10.3 million tons respectively. A co-benefits framework was implemented in analyzing the future control scenarios for human health benefits and carbon savings. Overall, implementing a series of interventions ranging from urban planning including better transport planning with bus rapid transport and metro rail, relocation of industries, and waste management, are expected to reduce the local and global emissions below the 2006 levels and yield an estimated ~US 196 million and ~US 492 million, in 2010 and 2020 respectively, in combined benefits of health and carbon savings. The PCB is coordinating the efforts for planning and implementation of these strategies. This paper will focus on presenting the methodology utilized for estimating emissions, pollutant dispersion, and impact on local and global environments, evaluated against the business as usual scenarios.

  16. DEVELOPMENT OF AN AGGREGATION AND EPISODE SELECTION SCHEME TO SUPPORT THE MODELS-3 COMMUNITY MULTISCALE AIR QUALITY MODEL

    EPA Science Inventory

    The development of an episode selection and aggregation approach, designed to support distributional estimation of use with the Models-3 Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model, is described. The approach utilized cluster analysis of the 700-hPa east-west and north-south...

  17. The radii of SU Cas and TU Cas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Niva, G. D.; Schmidt, E. G.

    1980-01-01

    It is possible to obtain the masses of Cepheid variables by several methods involving the pulsation theory. However, these masses are frequently smaller than those indicated by the theory of stellar evolution. The cause of this discrepancy is not fully understood. Since the pulsation theory indicates that there is a relation among the mass, the radius and the period, the discrepancy also manifests itself in the radii of these stars. With this in mind, radius determinations for two Cepheids, SU Cas and TU Cas, were undertaken. It is concluded that because of the agreement between the present radius and the beat radius of TU Cas, the pulsation theory is giving correct information about the radii of beat Cepheids. This implies that the luminosities of short period Cepheids have been overestimated. Thus, the solution to the mass discrepancy should perhaps be sought in the theory of stellar evolution or in the possibility of mass loss.

  18. Decision support system for the evaluation of urban air pollution control options: application for particulate pollution in Thessaloniki, Greece.

    PubMed

    Vlachokostas, Ch; Achillas, Ch; Moussiopoulos, Nu; Hourdakis, E; Tsilingiridis, G; Ntziachristos, L; Banias, G; Stavrakakis, N; Sidiropoulos, C

    2009-11-15

    Development of strategies to control urban air pollution is a complex and multi-disciplinary process involving a wide range of scientists with different expertise and interests. This paper presents an integrated assessment methodological scheme for the evaluation of air pollution control measures that are put forward in order to reduce sufficiently air pollution levels in urban areas. Forming long-term, efficient air pollution control strategies requires knowledge of the costs associated with their implementation, the emission inventories and emission reductions to be achieved, as well as the concentration variations that represent air quality levels in the area examined. In contrast to the majority of the currently employed assessment approaches, the presented scheme enables the evaluation of any proposed air pollution control option in terms of its combined impact on air quality and social welfare, by correlating economic and health impact assessment issues. The approach presented in this paper brings together air quality modelling and mathematical programming techniques and provides a decision support system for the determination of optimal bundles of air pollution control options according to the particular features and needs of the areas examined. Both cost-effectiveness and cost-benefit approaches are taken into account in order to put the problem on the basis of economic efficiency from a societal perspective. The methodology is implemented for the case of Thessaloniki, Greece, which is selected on the grounds that the area is considered as one of the most polluted--if not the most polluted--cities within Europe, especially with respect to airborne particles.

  19. A female pelvic bone shape model for air/bone separation in support of synthetic CT generation for radiation therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Lianli; Cao, Yue; Fessler, Jeffrey A.; Jolly, Shruti; Balter, James M.

    2016-01-01

    Separating bone from air in MR data is one of the major challenges in using MR images to derive synthetic CT. The problem is further complicated when the anatomic regions filled with air are altered across scans due to air mobility, for instance, in pelvic regions, thereby the air regions estimated using an ultrashort echo time (UTE) sequence are invalid in other image series acquired for multispectral classification. This study aims to develop and investigate a female pelvic bone shape model to identify low intensity regions in MRI where air is unlikely to be present in support of synthetic CT generation without UTE imaging. CT scans of 30 patients were collected for the study, 17 of them also have corresponding MR scans. The shape model was built from the CT dataset, where the reference image was aligned to each of the training images using B-spline deformable registration. Principal component analysis was performed on B-spline coefficients for a compact model where shape variance was described by linear combination of principal modes. The model was applied to identify pelvic bone in MR images by deforming the corresponding MR data of the reference image to target MR images, where the search space of the deformation process was constrained within the subspace spanned by principal modes. The local minima in the search space were removed effectively by the shape model, thus supporting an efficient binary search for the optimal solution. We evaluated the model by its efficacy in identifying bone voxels and excluding air regions. The model was tested across the 17 patients that have corresponding MR scans using a leave-one-out cross validation. A simple model using the first leading principal mode only was found to achieve reasonable accuracy, where an averaged 87% of bone voxels were correctly identified. Finally dilation of the optimally fit bone mask by 5 mm was found to cover 96% of bone voxels while minimally impacting the overlap with air (below 0.4%).

  20. Field verification of sound attenuation modeling and air emission testing in support of missile motor disposal activities.

    PubMed

    McFarland, Michael J; Palmer, Glenn R; Rasmussen, Steve L; Kordich, Micheal M; Pollet, Dean A; Jensen, James A; Lindsay, Mitchell H

    2006-07-01

    The U.S. Department of Defense-approved activities conducted at the Utah Test and Training Range (UTTR) include both operational readiness test firing of intercontinental ballistic missile (ICBM) motors, as well as the destruction of obsolete or otherwise unusable ICBM motors through open burn/open detonation (OB/OD). Within the Utah Division of Air Quality, these activities have been identified as having the potential to generate unacceptable noise levels, as well as significant amounts of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Hill Air Force Base, UT, has completed a series of field tests at the UTTR in which sound-monitoring surveillance of OB/OD activities was conducted to validate the Sound Intensity Prediction System (SIPS) model. Using results generated by the SIPS model to support the decision to detonate, the UTTR successfully disposed of missile motors having an aggregate net explosive weight (NEW) of 81,374 lb without generating adverse noise levels within populated areas. In conjunction with collecting noise-monitoring data, air emissions were collected to support the development of air emission factors for both static missile motor firings and OB/OD activities. Through the installation of 15 ground-based air samplers, the generation of combustion-fixed gases, VOCs, and chlorides was monitored during the 81,374-lb NEW detonation event. Comparison of field measurements to predictions generated from the US Navy energetic combustion pollutant formation model, POLU4WN, indicated that, as the detonation fire ball expanded, organic compounds, as well as CO, continued to oxidize as the combustion gases mixed with ambient air. VOC analysis of air samplers confirmed the presence of chloromethane, vinyl chloride, benzene, toluene, and 2-methyl-1-propene. Qualitative chloride analysis indicated that gaseous HCl was generated at low concentrations, if at all.

  1. Thirsty Walls: A New Paradigm for Air Revitalization in Life Support

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graf, John; Brennecke, Joan; Weislogel, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Carbon Dioxide removal systems on submarines are compact and reliable. They use solubility chemistry. They spray a Carbon Dioxide adsorbing chemical directly into the air stream, and allow the liquid to settle. Carbon Dioxide removal systems on ISS are large and need repair. They use adsorption chemistry. They force air through a bed packed with granular zeolite, and heat the bed to desorb the Carbon Dioxide. The thermal cycles cause the zeolite to dust. New advances in additive manufacturing, and a better understanding of uid behavior in microgravity make it possible to expose a liquid directly to air in a microgravity environment. It is now practical to use submarine style solubility chemistry for atmosphere revitalization in space. It is now possible to develop space systems that achieve submarine levels of reliability. New developments in Ionic Liquid research make it possible to match the solubility performance characteristics of MEA used on submarines - with Ionic Liquids that do not release chemical vapors into the air. "Thirsty Walls" provide gentle, passive contact between ventilation air and Air Revitalization functions of temperature control, relative humidity control, and Carbon Dioxide removal. "Thirsty Walls" eliminates the need of large blowers and compressors that need to force air at high velocities through restrictive Air Revitalization hardware.

  2. “Applying Multi-scale Air Quality Models to Support Epidemiologic Studies”.

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Near-road Exposures and Effects of Urban air pollutant Study (NEXUS) investigating whether children with asthma living near major roadways in Detroit, MI have greater health impacts from air pollutants than those living farther away, particularly near roadways with high diese...

  3. New CRISPR-Cas systems discovered.

    PubMed

    Yang, Hui; Patel, Dinshaw J

    2017-03-01

    In bacteria and archaea, CRISPR-Cas adaptive immune systems utilize RNA-guided endonucleases to defend against invasion by foreign nucleic acids of bacteriophage, virus and plasmid origin. In a recent paper published in Nature, Burstein et al. identified the first Cas9 protein in uncultivated archaea and two novel CRISPR-CasX and CRISPR-CasY systems in uncultivated bacteria by capitalizing on analysis of terabase-scale metagenomic datasets from natural uncultivated organisms.

  4. Monitoring air pollution effects on children for supporting public health policy: the protocol of the prospective cohort MAPEC study

    PubMed Central

    Feretti, D; Ceretti, E; De Donno, A; Moretti, M; Carducci, A; Bonetta, S; Marrese, M R; Bonetti, A; Covolo, L; Bagordo, F; Villarini, M; Verani, M; Schilirò, T; Limina, R M; Grassi, T; Monarca, S; Casini, B; Carraro, E; Zani, C; Mazzoleni, G; Levaggi, R; Gelatti, U

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Genotoxic biomarkers have been studied largely in adult population, but few studies so far have investigated them in children exposed to air pollution. Children are a high-risk group as regards the health effects of air pollution and some studies suggest that early exposure during childhood can play an important role in the development of chronic diseases in adulthood. The objective of the project is to evaluate the associations between the concentration of urban air pollutants and biomarkers of early biological effect in children, and to propose a model for estimating the global risk of early biological effects due to air pollutants and other factors in children. Methods and analysis Two biomarkers of early biological effects, DNA damage by the comet assay and the micronuclei (MN) test, will be investigated in oral mucosa cells of 6–8-year-old children. Concurrently, some toxic airborne pollutants (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) and nitro-PAH) and in vitro air mutagenicity and toxicity in ultra-fine air particulates (PM0.5) will be evaluated. Furthermore, demographic and socioeconomic variables, other sources of exposures to air pollutants and lifestyle variables will be assessed by a structured questionnaire. The associations between sociodemographic, environmental and other exposure variables and biomarkers of early biological effect using univariate and multivariate models will be analysed. A tentative model for calculating the global absolute risk of having early biological effects caused by air pollution and other variables will be proposed. Ethics and dissemination The project has been approved by the Ethics Committees of the local Health Authorities. The results will be communicated to local Public Health Agencies, for supporting educational programmes and health policy strategies. LIFE+2012 Environment Policy and Governance. LIFE12 ENV/IT/000614. PMID:25227631

  5. Use of alternatives to air-fluidized support surfaces in the care of complex wounds in postflap and postgraft patients.

    PubMed

    Fleck, Cynthia A; Rappl, Laurie M; Simman, Richard; Titterington, Virginia; Conwill, Jill; Koerner, Cathy; Locke, Pam; Bechtold, Dawn; Papantonio, Cathie; Gray, Deborah P; Lawrence, Kathleen

    2010-01-01

    Air-fluidized support surface therapy has many drawbacks, such as dehydration, in an already difficult recovery for those wound patients who have undergone flap and graft surgery. In addition, patient care and handling are also problematic. Patients complain of discomfort, and the instability of the surface interferes with patient stability in side lying and semi-Fowler's positions. Alternative support surfaces can be considered for postflap or postgraft patients. Such technologies as alternating pressure, low-air-loss, and therapeutic nonpowered, advanced, and lateral rotation surfaces are widely used for pressure management in high-risk patients and those with existing pressure ulcers. These surfaces must be used within a total pressure ulcer management program that includes frequent turning and repositioning, skin and ulcer care according to evidence-based protocols, patient and caregiver instruction, nutrition, and offloading and positioning. The proposed recommendations require more research on the relative effectiveness of less expensive and more user-friendly support surfaces such as low-air-loss and nonpowered advanced support surfaces and is necessary in order to conclusively recommend one type of surface over another. However, at this time the available clinical studies and opinions remain positive.

  6. CAS-Induced Difficulties in Learning Mathematics?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jankvist, Uffe Thomas; Misfeldt, Morten

    2015-01-01

    In recent years computer algebra systems (CAS) have become an integrated part of the upper secondary school mathematics program. Despite the many positive possibilities of CAS, there also seems to be a flip side of the coin in relation to actual difficulties in learning mathematics, not least because a strong dependence on CAS for mathematical…

  7. Structural stability of a rectangular, simply-supported beam subject to a sudden air temperature change next to one surface

    SciTech Connect

    Landram, C. S.

    1997-07-03

    For a simply-supported, rectangular beam suddenly heated on one of its surfaces by surrounding air, both elongational and flexural thermal distortions occur. For steel beams of order 10 to 30 cm thick and about 3 m long, flexural displacements, developing in minutes, occur much faster than elongational displacements which occur in hours. The rapid response of the flexural modes is caused by the early-time surface heating of the side of the beam exposed to the suddenly-heated, warmer air. The slower response of the elongation modes is a consequence of a much slower change in the average temperature of the beam. At a span of 3.05 m, the maximum steady state flexural distortions in micrometers were 0.22, 0.78 and 1.56 for respective one-sided air temperature changes in degrees C of 0.28, 1 and 2.

  8. Editorial input for the right price: tobacco industry support for a sheet metal indoor air quality manual.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Richard; Balbach, Edith

    2013-01-01

    Following legal action in the 1990s, internal tobacco industry documents became public, allowing unprecedented insight into the industry's relationships with outside organizations. During the 1980s and 1990s, the National Energy Management Institute (NEMI), established by the Sheet Metal Workers International Association and the Sheet Metal and Air Conditioning Contractors' National Association, (SMACNA) received tobacco industry funding to establish an indoor air quality services program. But the arrangement also required NEMI to serve as an advocate for industry efforts to defeat indoor smoking bans by arguing that ventilation was a more appropriate solution to environmental tobacco smoke. Drawing on tobacco industry documents, this paper describes a striking example of the ethical compromises that accompanied NEMI's collaboration with the tobacco industry, highlighting the solicitation of tobacco industry financial support for a SMACNA indoor air quality manual in exchange for sanitizing references to the health impact of environmental tobacco smoke prior to publication.

  9. Data Quality Objectives Summary Report Supporting Radiological Air Surveillance Monitoring for the INL Site

    SciTech Connect

    Haney, Thomas Jay

    2015-05-01

    This report documents the Data Quality Objectives (DQOs) developed for the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) Site ambient air surveillance program. The development of the DQOs was based on the seven-step process recommended “for systematic planning to generate performance and acceptance criteria for collecting environmental data” (EPA 2006). The process helped to determine the type, quantity, and quality of data needed to meet current regulatory requirements and to follow U.S. Department of Energy guidance for environmental surveillance air monitoring design. It also considered the current air monitoring program that has existed at INL Site since the 1950s. The development of the DQOs involved the application of the atmospheric dispersion model CALPUFF to identify likely contamination dispersion patterns at and around the INL Site using site-specific meteorological data. Model simulations were used to quantitatively assess the probable frequency of detection of airborne radionuclides released by INL Site facilities using existing and proposed air monitors.

  10. DEVELOPMENT AND APPLICATIONS OF CFD IN SUPPORT OF AIR QUALITY STUDIES OF ROADWAY AND BUILDING MICROENVIRONMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    There is a need to develop modeling and data analysis tools to increase our understanding of human exposures to air pollutants beyond what can be explained by "limited" field data. Modeling simulations of complex distributions of pollutant concentrations within roadw...

  11. Integrating Sensor Monitoring Technology into the Current Air Pollution Regulatory Support Paradigm: Practical Considerations

    EPA Science Inventory

    The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) along with state, local, and tribal governments operate Federal Reference Method (FRM) and Federal Equivalent Method (FEM) instruments to assess compliance with US air pollution standards designed to protect human and ecosystem health....

  12. Barrel Roll, 1968-73: An Air Campaign in Support of National Policy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1995-05-10

    Force (RLAF). Project Waterpump at Udorn Air Base in Thailand trained Thai and Laotian pilots in the T-28 and AC-47 and instructed aircraft maintenance...objectives by performing the following tasks: sealing off the southern Mekong Valley, thus providing a buffer for Thailand; insulating the Vientiane...through Project Waterpump , developed an air force and ground commandos trained an effective guerrilla force. The covert employment of special forces

  13. Demonstration of Isothermal Compressed Air Energy Storage to Support Renewable Energy Production

    SciTech Connect

    Bollinger, Benjamin

    2015-01-02

    This project develops and demonstrates a megawatt (MW)-scale Energy Storage System that employs compressed air as the storage medium. An isothermal compressed air energy storage (ICAESTM) system rated for 1 MW or more will be demonstrated in a full-scale prototype unit. Breakthrough cost-effectiveness will be achieved through the use of proprietary methods for isothermal gas cycling and staged gas expansion implemented using industrially mature, readily-available components.The ICAES approach uses an electrically driven mechanical system to raise air to high pressure for storage in low-cost pressure vessels, pipeline, or lined-rock cavern (LRC). This air is later expanded through the same mechanical system to drive the electric motor as a generator. The approach incorporates two key efficiency-enhancing innovations: (1) isothermal (constant temperature) gas cycling, which is achieved by mixing liquid with air (via spray or foam) to exchange heat with air undergoing compression or expansion; and (2) a novel, staged gas-expansion scheme that allows the drivetrain to operate at constant power while still allowing the stored gas to work over its entire pressure range. The ICAES system will be scalable, non-toxic, and cost-effective, making it suitable for firming renewables and for other grid applications.

  14. Surveillance and Processing of Foreign DNA by the Escherichia coli CRISPR-Cas System.

    PubMed

    Redding, Sy; Sternberg, Samuel H; Marshall, Myles; Gibb, Bryan; Bhat, Prashant; Guegler, Chantal K; Wiedenheft, Blake; Doudna, Jennifer A; Greene, Eric C

    2015-11-05

    CRISPR-Cas adaptive immune systems protect bacteria and archaea against foreign genetic elements. In Escherichia coli, Cascade (CRISPR-associated complex for antiviral defense) is an RNA-guided surveillance complex that binds foreign DNA and recruits Cas3, a trans-acting nuclease helicase for target degradation. Here, we use single-molecule imaging to visualize Cascade and Cas3 binding to foreign DNA targets. Our analysis reveals two distinct pathways dictated by the presence or absence of a protospacer-adjacent motif (PAM). Binding to a protospacer flanked by a PAM recruits a nuclease-active Cas3 for degradation of short single-stranded regions of target DNA, whereas PAM mutations elicit an alternative pathway that recruits a nuclease-inactive Cas3 through a mechanism that is dependent on the Cas1 and Cas2 proteins. These findings explain how target recognition by Cascade can elicit distinct outcomes and support a model for acquisition of new spacer sequences through a mechanism involving processive, ATP-dependent Cas3 translocation along foreign DNA.

  15. Surveillance and processing of foreign DNA by the Escherichia coli CRISPR-Cas system

    PubMed Central

    Redding, Sy; Sternberg, Samuel H.; Marshall, Myles; Gibb, Bryan; Bhat, Prashant; Guegler, Chantal K.; Wiedenheft, Blake; Doudna, Jennifer A.; Greene, Eric C.

    2015-01-01

    Summary CRISPR-Cas adaptive immune systems protect bacteria and archaea against foreign genetic elements. In Escherichia coli, Cascade (CRISPR-associated complex for antiviral defense) is an RNA-guided surveillance complex that binds foreign DNA and recruits Cas3, a trans-acting nuclease-helicase for target degradation. Here we use single-molecule imaging to visualize Cascade and Cas3 binding to foreign DNA targets. Our analysis reveals two distinct pathways, dictated by the presence or absence of a protospacer adjacent motif (PAM). Binding to a protospacer flanked by a PAM recruits a nuclease-active Cas3 for degradation of short singlestranded regions of target DNA, whereas PAM mutations elicit an alternative pathway that recruits a nuclease-inactive Cas3 through a mechanism that is dependent upon the Cas1 and Cas2 proteins. These findings explain how target recognition by Cascade can elicit distinct outcomes, and supports a model for acquisition of new spacer sequences through a mechanism involving processive, ATP-dependent Cas3 translocation along foreign DNA. PMID:26522594

  16. The functions of social support as protective factors for suicidal ideation in a sample of air force personnel.

    PubMed

    Bryan, Craig J; Hernandez, Ann Marie

    2013-10-01

    This study examined various functions of social support (i.e., tangible, esteem, belonging, and appraisal) were examined as protective factors for suicidal ideation in a sample of 273 active duty Air Force Security Forces personnel. Generalized linear regression analyses were conducted to determine if various social support functions were differentially associated with the presence and severity of suicidal ideation, both as main effects and as moderators of emotional distress. None of the four social support functions differentiated suicidal from nonsuicidal Airmen, but esteem support (i.e., feeling respected, encouraged, and valued by others) was associated with significantly less severe suicidal ideation (B = -.074, SE = .025, p = .003). A significant interaction of tangible support (i.e., access to material resources) with emotional distress indicated that emotional distress was associated with more severe suicidal ideation only among Airmen reporting low levels of tangible support (B = .006, SE = .003, p = .018). When considered concurrently, both tangible and self-esteem functions of social support are differentially associated with decreased suicidal ideation among Airmen, but belonging (i.e., having someone to do things with) and appraisal (i.e., having someone to talk to about problems) functions were not. Findings suggest that different aspects of social support affect suicidal ideation in different ways.

  17. [Life-saving air supported avalanche mission at night in high alpine terrain].

    PubMed

    Koppenberg, J; Brugger, H; Esslinger, A; Albrecht, R

    2012-10-01

    This is a case report about a helicopter emergency medical service (HEMS) operation during the night in response to an avalanche accident with two completely buried victims. One of the victims was rescued alive after 9.2 h presenting with a patent airway and an air pocket and was successfully rewarmed with forced air from 23°C core temperature without any neurological deficits. After the rescue the patient developed lung edema which resolved spontaneously within 2 days. The second victim was found dead presenting with an air pocket but solid frozen thorax. The special circumstances of the rescue operation and treatment are presented and discussed. The impact of a frozen chest on resuscitation decisions is presented and discussed with an emphasis on the triage of multiple victims.

  18. Organizing for the Future: Aligning U.S. Air Force Cyber Support with Mission Assurance

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-12-01

    MAJCOM Commanders, memorandum, 7 June 2006. 8 Laura M. Colarusso , “The Deepest Cuts: USAF To Let Go of Hundreds of Planes, Thousands of Airmen” Defense...M. Colarusso and Rod Hafemeister, “Forced cuts - Air Force leaders plan to drop 40,000 airmen, civilians over 6 years, starting in 2006,” Air Force...Blue. New York, NY: St. Martin’s Press, 1997. Colarusso , Laura M. “The Deepest Cuts: USAF To Let Go of Hundreds of Planes, Thousands of Airmen

  19. Air Force Support of Army Ground Operations Lessons Learned during World War II, Korea, and Vietnam

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-03-06

    Th ;e 8epre--cdin this paper .rv thoe. of ’:ceauhor IDep 2rtmt-nt of Diefense rayo t gr: s hsPcC % FOC, O P 0- C GOUND OP!-txA’TONS ’A NS tTAI.D 11...NOTE S T edder, Wi.th Preudice: The War Memoirs . - y Air Force. Lord Tedaer. rr- 40-43. 2.".~ : X :"~ , M~.c, ’ = A r Power in Three Wars WW 7:, Kora...that FEAF assume operational control over land based Marine air units and over carri.er bjdsed aviation operating over Korea effective as soon as X

  20. Global Combat Support Basing. Robust Prepositioning Strategies for Air Force War Reserve Material

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-01-01

    bibliographical references. ISBN 978- 0 -8330-4766-3 (pbk. : alk. paper) 1. Air bases, American. 2. United States. Air Force—Operational readiness...Optimized for predictable costs Optimized for total system costs 600 400 200 100 700 500 300 800 0 C o st ( $m ill io n s) 44% reduction in total...S.4 Optimized globally Optimized according to AOR 400 200 100 300 500 0 C o st ( $m ill io n s) aContingency-dependent bPredictable boundary of U.S

  1. NASA Controller Acceptability Study 1(CAS-1) Experiment Description and Initial Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamberlain, James P.; Consiglio, Maria C.; Comstock, James R., Jr.; Ghatas, Rania W.; Munoz, Cesar

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes the Controller Acceptability Study 1 (CAS-1) experiment that was conducted by NASA Langley Research Center personnel from January through March 2014 and presents partial CAS-1 results. CAS-1 employed 14 air traffic controller volunteers as research subjects to assess the viability of simulated future unmanned aircraft systems (UAS) operating alongside manned aircraft in moderate-density, moderate-complexity Class E airspace. These simulated UAS were equipped with a prototype pilot-in-the-loop (PITL) Detect and Avoid (DAA) system, specifically the Self-Separation (SS) function of such a system based on Stratway+ software to replace the see-and-avoid capabilities of manned aircraft pilots. A quantitative CAS-1 objective was to determine horizontal miss distance (HMD) values for SS encounters that were most acceptable to air traffic controllers, specifically HMD values that were assessed as neither unsafely small nor disruptively large. HMD values between 0.5 and 3.0 nautical miles (nmi) were assessed for a wide array of encounter geometries between UAS and manned aircraft. The paper includes brief introductory material about DAA systems and their SS functions, followed by descriptions of the CAS-1 simulation environment, prototype PITL SS capability, and experiment design, and concludes with presentation and discussion of partial CAS-1 data and results.

  2. NASA Earth Observation Systems and Applications for Public Health and Air Quality Models and Decisions Support

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Estes, Sue; Haynes, John; Omar, Ali

    2012-01-01

    Health and Air Quality providers and researchers need environmental data to study and understand the geographic, environmental, and meteorological differences in disease. Satellite remote sensing of the environment offers a unique vantage point that can fill in the gaps of environmental, spatial, and temporal data for tracking disease. This presentation will demonstrate the need for collaborations between multi-disciplinary research groups to develop the full potential of utilizing Earth Observations in studying health. Satellite earth observations present a unique vantage point of the earth's environment from space, which offers a wealth of health applications for the imaginative investigator. The presentation is directly related to Earth Observing systems and Global Health Surveillance and will present research results of the remote sensing environmental observations of earth and health applications, which can contribute to the public health and air quality research. As part of NASA approach and methodology they have used Earth Observation Systems and Applications for Public Health and Air Quality Models to provide a method for bridging gaps of environmental, spatial, and temporal data for tracking disease. This presentation will provide an overview of projects dealing with infectious diseases, water borne diseases and air quality and how many environmental variables effect human health. This presentation will provide a venue where the results of both research and practice using satellite earth observations to study weather and it's role in public health research.

  3. NASA Earth Observation Systems and Applications for Public Health and Air Quality Models and Decisions Support

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Estes, Sue; Haynes, John; Omar, Ali

    2013-01-01

    Health and Air Quality providers and researchers need environmental data to study and understand the geographic, environmental, and meteorological differences in disease. Satellite remote sensing of the environment offers a unique vantage point that can fill in the gaps of environmental, spatial, and temporal data for tracking disease. This presentation will demonstrate the need for collaborations between multi-disciplinary research groups to develop the full potential of utilizing Earth Observations in studying health. Satellite earth observations present a unique vantage point of the earth's environment from space, which offers a wealth of health applications for the imaginative investigator. The presentation is directly related to Earth Observing systems and Global Health Surveillance and will present research results of the remote sensing environmental observations of earth and health applications, which can contribute to the public health and air quality research. As part of NASA approach and methodology they have used Earth Observation Systems and Applications for Public Health and Air Quality Models to provide a method for bridging gaps of environmental, spatial, and temporal data for tracking disease. This presentation will provide an overview of projects dealing with infectious diseases, water borne diseases and air quality and how many environmental variables effect human health. This presentation will provide a venue where the results of both research and practice using satellite earth observations to study weather and it's role in public health research.

  4. Anomalous Velocity Dependence of the Friction Coefficient of an Air Supported Pulley

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crismani, Matteo; Nauenberg, Michael

    2009-11-01

    A standard undergraduate lab exercise to verify Newton's law, F = ma, is to measure the acceleration a of a glider of mass m suspended on an air track. In our experiment the glider is accelerated by a thin tape attached to the glider at one end, and to a weight of mass M at the other end. The weight hangs vertically via a pulley over which the tape is suspended by air pressure. In the absence of friction, the force pulling the glider is F = (M m/(M + m)g, where g is the acceleration of gravity. To the accuracy provided by the fast electronic timers (accurate to 1/10000 second) used in our experiment to measure the velocity and the acceleration of the glider, we verified that the friction due to the air track can be neglected. But we found that this is not the case for the friction due to the air pulley which adds a component -v/T to the force F on the glider, where T is the friction coefficient. We have measured the dependence of this coefficient on v, and found an excellent analytic fit to our data. This fit deviates considerable from the conventional assumption that 1/T is a constant and/or depends linearly on v.

  5. An Examination of the Relationship between Usage and Operating and Support Costs for Air Force Aircraft

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-09-01

    S Costs ....................................................................................................... 39 Econometric Methodology Overview...words, I use them both regularly in conversation. I must note that Claire and Yang showed great patience in explaining the nuances econometric theory...RECCE Reconnaissance Aircraft REMIS Reliability and Maintenance Information System SAF/FM Secretary of the Air Force financial Management TAI

  6. NASA Earth Observation Systems and Applications for Public Health and Air Quality Models and Decisions Support

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Estes, S. M.; Haynes, J. A.; Omar, A. H.

    2012-12-01

    Health and Air Quality providers and researchers need environmental data to study and understand the geographic, environmental, and meteorological differences in disease. Satellite remote sensing of the environment offers a unique vantage point that can fill in the gaps of environmental, spatial, and temporal data for tracking disease. This presentation will demonstrate the need for collaborations between multi-disciplinary research groups to develop the full potential of utilizing Earth Observations in studying health. Satellite earth observations present a unique vantage point of the earth's environment from space, which offers a wealth of health applications for the imaginative investigator. The presentation is directly related to Earth Observing systems and Global Health Surveillance and will present research results of the remote sensing environmental observations of earth and health applications, which can contribute to the public health and air quality research. As part of NASA approach and methodology they have used Earth Observation Systems and Applications for Public Health and Air Quality Models to provide a method for bridging gaps of environmental, spatial, and temporal data for tracking disease. This presentation will provide an overview of projects dealing with infectious diseases, water borne diseases and air quality and how many environmental variables effect human health. This presentation will provide a venue where the results of both research and practice using satellite earth observations to study weather and it's role in public health research.

  7. CRISPR/Cas9 Technologies.

    PubMed

    Williams, Bart O; Warman, Matthew L

    2017-02-23

    The Clustered Regularly Interspaced Palindromic Repeats (CRISPR)/CRISPR-associated protein (Cas) pathway is revolutionizing biological research. Modifications to this primitive prokaryotic immune system now enable scientists to efficiently edit DNA or modulate gene expression in living eukaryotic cells and organisms. Thus, many laboratories can now perform important experiments that previously were considered scientifically risky or too costly. Here, we describe the components of the CRISPR/Cas system that have been engineered for use in eukaryotes. We also explain how this system can be used to genetically modify cell lines and model organisms, or regulate gene expression in order to search for new participants in biological pathways. © 2017 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.

  8. Increasing the Effectiveness of Corps Fire Support Through a Total Systems Approach to the Design and Implementation of a Fire-Decision Support System.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-12-01

    sufficiency, and suggests possible improvements. Key in this analysis was the careful identification of the factors which have prevented advanced U.S...situation as a "crisis of caring ", faulting both the Army and American industry [’Ref 2, p. 30 . 13 Technological improvements may be considered in two...Support (CAS) Sorties (Ref 3, p. 3-] . Through careful allocation and coordination of the air and artillery (retained under corps control) firepower

  9. Spouse Support and the Retention Intentions of Air Force Members: A Basis for Program Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowen, Gary L.

    In recent years, the military services have become interested in developing personnel policies and support programs which enable military personnel to meet military objectives and still maintain a viable personal and family life. A study was undertaken to evaluate the direct and indirect impact of spouse support on the retention intention…

  10. State Systems of Support under NCLB: Design Components and Quality Considerations. AIR[R] Research Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Le Floch, Kerstin Carlson; Boyle, Andrea; Therriault, Susan Bowles

    2008-01-01

    Under No Child Left Behind (NCLB), state education agencies are required to assume new roles and responsibilities. Among these is the establishment of a state system to support schools identified for improvement under the Act. Conceptualizing and operationalizing these systems of support has been a challenge for many state agencies, in part…

  11. Light Echoes and Cold Dust in Cas A

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krause, O.; Rieke, G. H.; Birkmann, S.

    2006-06-01

    We report on infrared observations of the prototypical supernova remnant Cassiopeia A obtained with the Spitzer Space Telescope. Two images of Cas A taken at 24 micrometers with the MIPS instrument over a 1-year time interval revealed moving structures outside the shell of the supernova remnant to a distance of more than 20 arc minutes. The observed tangential velocities are at roughly the speed of light. The moving structures are infrared echoes, in which interstellar dust is heated by the explosion and by flares from the compact object near the center of the remnant. Far-infrared maps of the remnant at 160 micrometers in combination with molecular line observations demonstrate that most of recently detected submillimetre emission towards Cas A originates from interstellar dust in a molecular cloud complex located in the line of sight between the Earth and the remnant, rather than from a large amount (about three solar masses) of cold (18K) dust within Cas A. The argument that type II supernovae produce copious amounts of dust is therefore not supported by the case of Cas A, which previously appeared to provide the best evidence for this possibility.

  12. Data Quality Objectives Supporting Radiological Air Emissions Monitoring for the PNNL Site

    SciTech Connect

    Barnett, J. Matthew; Meier, Kirsten M.; Snyder, Sandra F.; Fritz, Brad G.; Poston, Ted M.; Rhoads, Kathleen

    2010-05-25

    This document of Data Quality Objectives (DQOs) was prepared based on the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Guidance on Systematic Planning Using the Data Quality Objectives Process, EPA, QA/G4, 2/2006 (EPA 2006) as well as several other published DQOs. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is in the process of developing a radiological air monitoring program for the PNNL Site that is distinct from that of the nearby Hanford Site. Radiological emissions at the PNNL Site result from Physical Sciences Facility (PSF) major emissions units. A team was established to determine how the PNNL Site would meet federal regulations and address guidelines developed to monitor and estimate offsite air emissions of radioactive materials. The result is a program that monitors the impact to the public from the PNNL Site.

  13. Air Force Manpower Requirements and Component Mix: A Focus on Agile Combat Support

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-01-01

    2002–2011) SOURCES: IMA billets: MPES; deployed days: DMDC and Air Force (multiple files), FYs 2002–2011. In Figure 2.8, we array a subset of...characters, with an optional prefix or suffix . In the officer AFSC, the digits represent, in order, a career group, utilization field, functional area...a single AFSC, while the suffix (also called a shredout) represents particular equipment or functions within an AFSC. 30 AFSCs are used to identify

  14. A Benchmark Study of the Air Force Program Executive Office for Combat and Mission Support

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-10-05

    Award for Academic Excellence. Capt. Finkenstadt earned his commission through Officer Training School, Maxwell AFB, AL, in 2007, where he earned...College of the Air Force, where he earned the Pitsenbarger Award for Academic Excellence. Capt. Finkenstadt holds certifications in both DAWIA APDP...contractor employees (newer slides are breaking this out into full-time equivalents [FTE] and part-time equivalents [ PTE ]). The program owner can

  15. United States Air Force Graduate Student Summer Support Program (1987). Program Management Report.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-12-01

    Not Applicable ) 6. TOTAL AMOUNT OF BILL: ________ 7. AIR FARE TICKETS CHARGED DIRECTLY TO UES. AMOUNT: $_ ______ Summer Fellow Signature - Date ...MONITORING ORGANIZATION (If applicable ) Universal Energy Systems Inc, AFOSR/XOT 6c. ADDRESS (City, State, and ZIP Code) 7b. ADDRESS (City, State, and...PROCUREMENT INSTRUMENT IDENTIFICATION NUMBER ORGANIZATION (If applicable ) Same as #7 F49620-85--C-0013 8c. ADDRESS (City, State, and ZIP Code) 10. SOURCE OF

  16. Environmental Assessment for A-29 Light Air Support (LAS) Training Beddown

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-08-21

    solar systems , geothermal power plants, and wind generators. The Air Force continues to promote and install new renewable energy projects. The...Program NO2 Nitrogen Dioxide NOA Notice of Availability NOx Nitrogen Oxides NPDES National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System O3 Ozone...hostile forces at low altitudes. The A-29 incorporates fourth-generation avionics and weapons systems , and is capable of delivering precision guided

  17. Airborne lidar mapping of vertical ozone distributions in support of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Uthe, Edward E.; Nielsen, Norman B.; Livingston, John M.

    1992-01-01

    The 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments mandated attainment of the ozone standard established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Improved photochemical models validated by experimental data are needed to develop strategies for reducing near surface ozone concentrations downwind of urban and industrial centers. For more than 10 years, lidar has been used on large aircraft to provide unique information on ozone distributions in the atmosphere. However, compact airborne lidar systems are needed for operation on small aircraft of the type typically used on regional air quality investigations to collect data with which to develop and validate air quality models. Data presented in this paper will consist of a comparison between airborne differential absorption lidar (DIAL) and airborne in-situ ozone measurements. Also discussed are future plans to improve the airborne ultraviolet-DIAL for ozone and other gas observations and addition of a Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) emission spectrometer to investigate the effects of other gas species on vertical ozone distribution.

  18. Genome modification by CRISPR/Cas9.

    PubMed

    Ma, Yuanwu; Zhang, Lianfeng; Huang, Xingxu

    2014-12-01

    Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)-CRISPR-associated protein (Cas)9-mediated genome modification enables us to edit the genomes of a variety of organisms rapidly and efficiently. The advantages of the CRISPR-Cas9 system have made it an increasingly popular genetic engineering tool for biological and therapeutic applications. Moreover, CRISPR-Cas9 has been employed to recruit functional domains that repress/activate gene expression or label specific genomic loci in living cells or organisms, in order to explore developmental mechanisms, gene expression regulation, and animal behavior. One major concern about this system is its specificity; although CRISPR-Cas9-mediated off-target mutation has been broadly studied, more efforts are required to further improve the specificity of CRISPR-Cas9. We will also discuss the potential applications of CRISPR-Cas9.

  19. Expanding CRISPR/Cas9 Genome Editing Capacity in Zebrafish Using SaCas9

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Yan; Chen, Cheng; Han, Yuxiang; Chen, Zelin; Lu, Xiaochan; Liang, Fang; Li, Song; Qin, Wei; Lin, Shuo

    2016-01-01

    The type II CRISPR/Cas9 system has been used widely for genome editing in zebrafish. However, the requirement for the 5′-NGG-3′ protospacer-adjacent motif (PAM) of Cas9 from Streptococcus pyogenes (SpCas9) limits its targeting sequences. Here, we report that a Cas9 ortholog from Staphylococcus aureus (SaCas9), and its KKH variant, successfully induced targeted mutagenesis with high frequency in zebrafish. Confirming previous findings, the SpCas9 variant, VQR, can also induce targeted mutations in zebrafish. Bioinformatics analysis of these new Cas targets suggests that the number of available target sites in the zebrafish genome can be greatly expanded. Collectively, the expanded target repertoire of Cas9 in zebrafish should further facilitate the utility of this organism for genetic studies of vertebrate biology. PMID:27317783

  20. The Aspergillus fumigatus metacaspases CasA and CasB facilitate growth under conditions of endoplasmic reticulum stress.

    PubMed

    Richie, Daryl L; Miley, Michael D; Bhabhra, Ruchi; Robson, Geoffrey D; Rhodes, Judith C; Askew, David S

    2007-01-01

    We have examined the contribution of metacaspases to the growth and stress response of the opportunistic human mould pathogen, Aspergillus fumigatus, based on increasing evidence implicating the yeast metacaspase Yca1p in apoptotic-like programmed cell death. Single metacaspase-deficient mutants were constructed by targeted disruption of each of the two metacaspase genes in A. fumigatus, casA and casB, and a metacaspase-deficient mutant, DeltacasA/DeltacasB, was constructed by disrupting both genes. Stationary phase cultures of wild-type A. fumigatus were associated with the appearance of typical markers of apoptosis, including elevated proteolytic activity against caspase substrates, phosphatidylserine exposure on the outer leaflet of the membrane, and loss of viability. By contrast, phosphatidylserine exposure was not observed in stationary phase cultures of the DeltacasA/DeltacasB mutant, although caspase activity and viability was indistinguishable from wild type. The mutant retained wild-type virulence and showed no difference in sensitivity to a range of pro-apoptotic stimuli that have been reported to initiate yeast apoptosis. However, the DeltacasA/DeltacasB mutant showed a growth detriment in the presence of agents that disrupt endoplasmic reticulum homeostasis. These findings demonstrate that metacaspase activity in A. fumigatus contributes to the apoptotic-like loss of membrane phospholipid asymmetry at stationary phase, and suggest that CasA and CasB have functions that support growth under conditions of endoplasmic reticulum stress.

  1. Benchmarking, Research, Development, and Support for ORNL Automated Image and Signature Retrieval (AIR/ASR) Technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Tobin, K.W.

    2004-06-01

    This report describes the results of a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) with Applied Materials, Inc. (AMAT) of Santa Clara, California. This project encompassed the continued development and integration of the ORNL Automated Image Retrieval (AIR) technology, and an extension of the technology denoted Automated Signature Retrieval (ASR), and other related technologies with the Defect Source Identification (DSI) software system that was under development by AMAT at the time this work was performed. In the semiconductor manufacturing environment, defect imagery is used to diagnose problems in the manufacturing line, train yield management engineers, and examine historical data for trends. Image management in semiconductor data systems is a growing cause of concern in the industry as fabricators are now collecting up to 20,000 images each week. In response to this concern, researchers at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) developed a semiconductor-specific content-based image retrieval method and system, also known as AIR. The system uses an image-based query-by-example method to locate and retrieve similar imagery from a database of digital imagery using visual image characteristics. The query method is based on a unique architecture that takes advantage of the statistical, morphological, and structural characteristics of image data, generated by inspection equipment in industrial applications. The system improves the manufacturing process by allowing rapid access to historical records of similar events so that errant process equipment can be isolated and corrective actions can be quickly taken to improve yield. The combined ORNL and AMAT technology is referred to hereafter as DSI-AIR and DSI-ASR.

  2. Draft Permit & Supporting Documentation for the Cape Wind Associates, LLC, Horseshoe Shoal, Nantucket Sound (Offshore Renewable Energy Project/OCS Air Permit)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    List of draft permit & supporting documentation for the Cape Wind Associates, LLC, Horseshoe Shoal, Nantucket Sound (Offshore Renewable Energy Project/OCS Air Permit: Massachusetts Plan Approval including nonattainment NSR Appendix A requirements).

  3. Contract Civilian Maintenance Support in U.S. Marine F/A-18 Fleet Squadrons

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-02-20

    augment the constant changeover of military personnel. The civilian maintenance company, PKL Maintenance Inc., provides approximately sixty...Close Air Support (CAS). September 2003 Incorporating Change 1 September 2005. 12 VMFAT-101 Contract with PKL Maintenance, Inc. 13 James Charlton, The...2005. United States Marine Corps Total Force Structure Management System Unit TO&E Report. Accessed 28 November 2008. VMFAT-101 Contract with PKL Maintenance, Inc.

  4. Prediction of DC Corona Onset Voltage for Rod-Plane Air Gaps by a Support Vector Machine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Shuo; Ruan, Jiangjun; Du, Zhiye; Zhu, Lin; Shu, Shengwen

    2016-10-01

    This paper proposes a new method to predict the corona onset voltage for a rod-plane air gap, based on the support vector machine (SVM). Because the SVM is not limited by the size, dimension and nonlinearity of the samples, this method can realize accurate prediction with few training data. Only electric field features are chosen as the input; no geometric parameter is included. Therefore, the experiment data of one kind of electrode can be used to predict the corona onset voltages of other electrodes with different sizes. With the experimental data obtained by ozone detection technology, and experimental data provided by the reference, the efficiency of the proposed method is validated. Accurate predicted results with an average relative less than 3% are obtained with only 6 experimental data. supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 51477120)

  5. A Life-Cycle Cost Estimating Methodology for NASA-Developed Air Traffic Control Decision Support Tools

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Jianzhong Jay; Datta, Koushik; Landis, Michael R. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    This paper describes the development of a life-cycle cost (LCC) estimating methodology for air traffic control Decision Support Tools (DSTs) under development by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), using a combination of parametric, analogy, and expert opinion methods. There is no one standard methodology and technique that is used by NASA or by the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) for LCC estimation of prospective Decision Support Tools. Some of the frequently used methodologies include bottom-up, analogy, top-down, parametric, expert judgement, and Parkinson's Law. The developed LCC estimating methodology can be visualized as a three-dimensional matrix where the three axes represent coverage, estimation, and timing. This paper focuses on the three characteristics of this methodology that correspond to the three axes.

  6. Spouse abuse among United States Air Force personnel who deployed in support of Operation Iraqi Freedom/Operation Enduring Freedom.

    PubMed

    Rabenhorst, Mandy M; McCarthy, Randy J; Thomsen, Cynthia J; Milner, Joel S; Travis, Wendy J; Foster, Rachel E; Copeland, Carol W

    2013-10-01

    The authors examined spouse abuse perpetration among all married U.S. Air Force personnel who deployed in support of Operation Iraqi Freedom/Operation Enduring Freedom. Using Poisson and conditional Poisson regression, they compared rates of spouse abuse perpetration predeployment and postdeployment in the population of married U.S. Air Force personnel who had a combat-related deployment between October 1, 2001 and October 31, 2008 (N = 156,296). Just over 2% (n = 3,524) of deployers perpetrated at least one substantiated incident of spouse physical or emotional abuse within the 308,197,653 days at risk for abuse during the study period. Male deployers perpetrated spouse abuse at approximately twice the rate of female deployers. Regarding changes in rates of spouse abuse perpetration postdeployment versus predeployment among all deployers, the authors found no differences overall; however, several deployer and incident-related characteristics moderated this effect. Rates of emotional abuse, mild abuse, and abuse not involving alcohol were significantly lower postdeployment, whereas rates of moderate/severe abuse and abuse involving alcohol were significantly higher postdeployment. Although the majority of U.S. Air Force deployers did not perpetrate any substantiated incidents of spouse abuse, there was variability in the impact of deployment on spouse abuse rates before versus after deployment. The finding that rates of moderate/severe spouse abuse incidents involving alcohol were higher postdeployment suggests a need for focused prevention/intervention efforts.

  7. Advanced Regenerative Environmental Control and Life Support Systems: Air and Water Regeneration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schubert, F. H.; Wynveen, R. A.; Quattrone, P. D.

    1985-01-01

    Extended manned space missions will require regenerative life support techniques. Past manned missions used nonregenerative expendables, except for a molecular sieve based carbon dioxide removal system aboard Skylab. The resupply penalties associated with expendables becomes prohibitive as crew size and mission duration increase. The Space Station scheduled to be operational in the 1990's is based on a crew of four to sixteen and a resupply period of 90 days or greater. It will be the first major spacecraft to employ regenerable techniques for life support. The techniques to be used in the requirements for the space station are addressed.

  8. Testing an advanced satellite technique for dust detection as a decision support system for the air quality assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Falconieri, Alfredo; Filizzola, Carolina; Femiano, Rossella; Marchese, Francesco; Sannazzaro, Filomena; Pergola, Nicola; Tramutoli, Valerio; Di Muro, Ersilia; Divietri, Mariella; Crisci, Anna Maria; Lovallo, Michele; Mangiamele, Lucia; Vaccaro, Maria Pia; Palma, Achille

    2014-05-01

    In order to correctly apply the European directive for air quality (2008/50/CE), local Authorities are often requested to discriminate the possible origin (natural/anthropic) of anomalous concentration of pollutants in the air (art.20 Directive 2008/50/CE). In this framework, it's been focused on PM10 and PM2,5 concentrations and sources. In fact, depending on their origin, appropriate counter-measures can be taken devoted to prevent their production (e.g. by traffic restriction) or simply to reduce their impact on citizen health (e.g. information campaigns). In this context suitable satellite techniques can be used in order to identify natural sources (particularly Saharan dust, but also volcanic ash or forest fire smoke) that can be responsible of over-threshold concentration of PM10/2,5 in populated areas. In the framework of the NIBS (Networking and Internationalization of Basilicata Space Technologies) project, funded by the Basilicata Region within the ERDF 2007-2013 program, the School of Engineering of University of Basilicata, the Institute of Methodologies for Environmental Analysis of National Research Council (IMAA-CNR) and the Regional Agency for the Protection of the Environment of Basilicata Region (ARPAB) have started a collaboration devoted to assess the potential of the use of advanced satellite techniques for Saharan dust events identification to support ARPAB activities related to the application of the European directive for air quality (2008/50/CE) in Basilicata region. In such a joint activity, the Robust Satellite Technique (RST) approach has been assessed and tested as a decision support system for monitoring and evaluating air quality at local and regional level. In particular, RST-DUST products, derived by processing high temporal resolution data provided by SEVIRI (Spinning Enhanced Visible and Infrared Imager) sensor on board Meteosat Second Generation platforms, have been analysed together with PM10 measurements performed by the ground

  9. Data Quality Objectives Supporting Radiological Air Emissions Monitoring for the PNNL Site

    SciTech Connect

    Barnett, J. Matthew; Meier, Kirsten M.; Snyder, Sandra F.; Fritz, Brad G.; Poston, Theodore M.; Antonio, Ernest J.

    2012-11-12

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is in the process of developing a radiological air monitoring program for the PNNL Site that is distinct from that of the nearby Hanford Site. The original DQO (PNNL-19427) considered radiological emissions at the PNNL Site from Physical Sciences Facility (PSF) major emissions units. This first revision considers PNNL Site changes subsequent to the implementation of the original DQO. A team was established to determine how the PNNL Site changes would continue to meet federal regulations and address guidelines developed to monitor air emissions and estimate offsite impacts of radioactive material operations. The result is an updated program to monitor the impact to the public from the PNNL Site. The team used the emission unit operation parameters and local meteorological data as well as information from the PSF Potential-to-Emit documentation and Notices of Construction submitted to the Washington State Department of Health (WDOH). The locations where environmental monitoring stations would most successfully characterize the maximum offsite impacts of PNNL Site emissions from the three PSF buildings with major emission units were determined from these data. Three monitoring station locations were determined during the original revision of this document. This first revision considers expanded Department of Energy operations south of the PNNL Site and relocation of the two offsite, northern monitoring stations to sites near the PNNL Site fenceline. Inclusion of the southern facilities resulted in the proposal for a fourth monitoring station in the southern region. The southern expansion added two minor emission unit facilities and one diffuse emission unit facility. Relocation of the two northern stations was possible due to the use of solar power, rather than the previous limitation of the need for access to AC power, at these more remote locations. Addendum A contains all the changes brought about by the revision 1

  10. Air Force Health Care Providers: Automation Concerns Relating to - Needs, Experience, and Support,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-05-22

    aerospace physiology clinical psychology clinical social work alcohol rehabilitation dietitian occupational theraphy pharmacy optometry podiatry... occupational medicine family practice primary care pediatrics pathology radiology radiation therapy neuroradiology nuclear medicine diagnostic...operations. (5) Coputerized Occupational Health Program (CCFI) (a) COHP supports the requirements of the Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1970. It

  11. Multi Criteria Decision Support Model for the Turkish Air Force Personnel Course/Education Planning System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-03-01

    Making, Multiattribute Utility Theory : The Next Ten Years”. Management Science, 38(5):645–654, 1992. Fulop, Janos. “Introduction to Decision Making... Utility Theory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 2.2.4 ELECTRE Method . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 2.2.5 PROMETHEE Method...10 DSS Decision Support Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 MAUT Multi-Attribute Utility Theory

  12. Eastern Texas Air Quality Forecasting System to Support TexAQS-II and 8-hour Ozone Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Byun, D. W.

    2005-12-01

    The main objective of the Second Texas Air Quality Study (TexAQS-II) for 2005 and 2006 is to understand emissions and processes associated with the formation and transport of ozone and regional haze in Texas. The target research area is the more populated eastern half of the state, roughly from Interstate 35 eastward. Accurate meteorological and photochemical modeling efforts are essential to support this study and further enhance modeling efforts for establishing the State Implementation Plan (SIP) by Texas Commission on Environmental Quality (TCEQ). An air quality forecasting (AQF) system for Eastern Texas has been developed to provide these data and to further facilitate retrospective simulations to allow for model improvement and increased understanding of ozone episodes and emissions. We perform two-day air quality forecasting simulations with the 12-km Eastern Texas regional domain, and the 4-km Houston-Galveston area (HGA) domain utilizing a 48-CPU Beowulf Linux computer system. The dynamic boundary conditions are provided by the 36-km resolution conterminous US (CONUS) domain CMAQ simulations. Initial meteorological conditions are provided by the daily ETA forecast results. The results of individual runs are stored and made available to researchers and state and local officials via internet to study the patterns of air quality and its relationship to weather conditions and emissions. The data during the pre- and post-processing stages are in tens of gigabytes and must be managed efficiently during both the actual real-time and the subsequent computation periods. The nature of these forecasts and the time at which the initial data is available necessitates that models be executed within tight deadlines. A set of complex operational scripts is used to allow automatic operation of the data download, sequencing processors, performing graphical analysis, building database archives, and presenting on the web.

  13. Data Quality Objectives Supporting Radiological Air Emissions Monitoring for the Marine Sciences Laboratory, Sequim Site

    SciTech Connect

    Barnett, J. Matthew; Meier, Kirsten M.; Snyder, Sandra F.; Antonio, Ernest J.; Fritz, Brad G.; Poston, Theodore M.

    2012-12-27

    This document of Data Quality Objectives (DQOs) was prepared based on the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Guidance on Systematic Planning Using the Data Quality Objectives Process, EPA, QA/G4, 2/2006 (EPA 2006), as well as several other published DQOs. The intent of this report is to determine the necessary steps required to ensure that radioactive emissions to the air from the Marine Sciences Laboratory (MSL) headquartered at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory’s Sequim Marine Research Operations (Sequim Site) on Washington State’s Olympic Peninsula are managed in accordance with regulatory requirements and best practices. The Sequim Site was transitioned in October 2012 from private operation under Battelle Memorial Institute to an exclusive use contract with the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Pacific Northwest Site Office.

  14. Active carbon-ceramic sphere as support of ruthenium catalysts for catalytic wet air oxidation (CWAO) of resin effluent.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wei-Min; Hu, Yi-Qiang; Tu, Shan-Tung

    2010-07-15

    Active carbon-ceramic sphere as support of ruthenium catalysts were evaluated through the catalytic wet air oxidation (CWAO) of resin effluent in a packed-bed reactor. Active carbon-ceramic sphere and ruthenium catalysts were characterized by N(2) adsorption and chemisorption measurements. BET surface area and total pore volume of active carbon (AC) in the active carbon-ceramic sphere increase with increasing KOH-to-carbon ratio, and AC in the sample KC-120 possesses values as high as 1100 m(2) g(-1) and 0.69 cm(3) g(-1) (carbon percentage: 4.73 wt.%), especially. Active carbon-ceramic sphere supported ruthenium catalysts were prepared using the RuCl(3) solution impregnation onto these supports, the ruthenium loading was fixed at 1-5 wt.% of AC in the support. The catalytic activity varies according to the following order: Ru/KC-120>Ru/KC-80>Ru/KC-60>KC-120>without catalysts. It is found that the 3 wt.% Ru/KC-120 catalyst displays highest stability in the CWAO of resin effluent during 30 days. Chemical oxygen demand (COD) and phenol removal were about 92% and 96%, respectively at the reaction temperature of 200 degrees C, oxygen pressure of 1.5 MPa, the water flow rate of 0.75 L h(-1) and the oxygen flow rate of 13.5 L h(-1).

  15. An Analysis of United States Air Force Supply Support in Vietnam

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-09-01

    accepted that the coup, although officially without American backing except in conscience, was instigated and strongly supported by the U.S. Government...demand requirements. In the case of Vietnam, the decision to transition to a MOB repair function in-country was not preceded by the necessary supply 31...supplement existing supplies, or, in the 34 case of bare base sites, to provide initial rations for a period of 30 days. Housekeeping kits, as implied by

  16. Information, Understanding, and Influence: An Agency Theory Strategy for Air Base Communications and Cyberspace Support

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-05-01

    1 Christopher H. Sterling, ed., Military Communications: From Ancient Times to the 21st Century (Santa Barbara, Calif: ABC-CLIO, 2008...communications support structure evolved as well. As America entered the war, the AACS quietly avoided a reorganization that would have surely spelled ... Ancient Times to the 21st Century. Santa Barbara, Calif: ABC-CLIO, 2008. Strasser, Max. “Why Ukraine Hasn’t Sparked a Big Cyberwar, So Far.” Newsweek

  17. Sustaining the US Air Force’s Force Support Career Field through Officer Workforce Planning

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-07-01

    communities upon establishment of the Force Support officer career field. With the 38F career field merger and creation of the FSS, officers previously...section. As the development of a competency model typically entails significant investments of time and money , one should ideally first define the...potential workforce management and assignment shortcomings. Dues (2011) utilized a simulation tool to determine how dynamic endogenous and exogenous

  18. Impact of crop production on air quality in life support dynamics in closed habitats

    SciTech Connect

    Volk, T.

    1987-01-01

    Interest in human-designed closed habitats - where the substances needed for human life support are continuously regenerated from waste products - is growing, as apparent from the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Closed Ecological Life Support Systems Program, the Soviet Union's Bios experiments, and the Biosphere II Project in Arizona. Nuclear-powered bases on the moon and Mars will have food-growing capabilities, and through gas-exchange processes these crops will alter the atmospheric composition. This study focuses on major gases tied to human life support: CO/sub 2/, O/sub 2/, and water vapor. Since actual systems are years and likely decades away, simulation studies can indicate necessary further research and provide instruction about the predicted behavior of such systems. To look at the first-order plant dynamics, i.e., the production of O/sub 2/ and water vapor and the consumption of CO/sub 2/, a simulation model is constructed with crop, human, and waste subsystems. The plant can either share an atmosphere with the humans or be separate, linked by osmotic or mechanical gas exchangers. The crop subsystem is sketched. Stoichiometric equations for the biosynthesis of protein, carbohydrates, and lipids in the edible portion and carbohydrates, fiber, and lignin in the inedible portion govern growth, mimicking that currently observed in the latest hydroponic wheat experiments.

  19. Cas6 specificity and CRISPR RNA loading in a complex CRISPR-Cas system.

    PubMed

    Sokolowski, Richard D; Graham, Shirley; White, Malcolm F

    2014-06-01

    CRISPR-Cas is an adaptive prokaryotic immune system, providing protection against viruses and other mobile genetic elements. In type I and type III CRISPR-Cas systems, CRISPR RNA (crRNA) is generated by cleavage of a primary transcript by the Cas6 endonuclease and loaded into multisubunit surveillance/effector complexes, allowing homology-directed detection and cleavage of invading elements. Highly studied CRISPR-Cas systems such as those in Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa have a single Cas6 enzyme that is an integral subunit of the surveillance complex. By contrast, Sulfolobus solfataricus has a complex CRISPR-Cas system with three types of surveillance complexes (Cascade/type I-A, CSM/type III-A and CMR/type III-B), five Cas6 paralogues and two different CRISPR-repeat families (AB and CD). Here, we investigate the kinetic properties of two different Cas6 paralogues from S. solfataricus. The Cas6-1 subtype is specific for CD-family CRISPR repeats, generating crRNA by multiple turnover catalysis whilst Cas6-3 has a broader specificity and also processes a non-coding RNA with a CRISPR repeat-related sequence. Deep sequencing of crRNA in surveillance complexes reveals a biased distribution of spacers derived from AB and CD loci, suggesting functional coupling between Cas6 paralogues and their downstream effector complexes.

  20. CAS as Environments for Implementing Mathematical Microworlds.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alpers, Burkhard

    2002-01-01

    Investigates whether computer algebra systems (CAS) are suitable environments for implementing mathematical microworlds. Recalls what constitutes a microworld and explores how CAS can be used for implementation, stating potentials as well as limitations. Provides as an example the microworld "Formula 1", implemented in Maple Software. (Author/KHR)

  1. CasA mediates Cas3-catalyzed target degradation during CRISPR RNA-guided interference.

    PubMed

    Hochstrasser, Megan L; Taylor, David W; Bhat, Prashant; Guegler, Chantal K; Sternberg, Samuel H; Nogales, Eva; Doudna, Jennifer A

    2014-05-06

    In bacteria, the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)-associated (Cas) DNA-targeting complex Cascade (CRISPR-associated complex for antiviral defense) uses CRISPR RNA (crRNA) guides to bind complementary DNA targets at sites adjacent to a trinucleotide signature sequence called the protospacer adjacent motif (PAM). The Cascade complex then recruits Cas3, a nuclease-helicase that catalyzes unwinding and cleavage of foreign double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) bearing a sequence matching that of the crRNA. Cascade comprises the CasA-E proteins and one crRNA, forming a structure that binds and unwinds dsDNA to form an R loop in which the target strand of the DNA base pairs with the 32-nt RNA guide sequence. Single-particle electron microscopy reconstructions of dsDNA-bound Cascade with and without Cas3 reveal that Cascade positions the PAM-proximal end of the DNA duplex at the CasA subunit and near the site of Cas3 association. The finding that the DNA target and Cas3 colocalize with CasA implicates this subunit in a key target-validation step during DNA interference. We show biochemically that base pairing of the PAM region is unnecessary for target binding but critical for Cas3-mediated degradation. In addition, the L1 loop of CasA, previously implicated in PAM recognition, is essential for Cas3 activation following target binding by Cascade. Together, these data show that the CasA subunit of Cascade functions as an essential partner of Cas3 by recognizing DNA target sites and positioning Cas3 adjacent to the PAM to ensure cleavage.

  2. In vitro enzymology of Cas9.

    PubMed

    Anders, Carolin; Jinek, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Cas9 is a bacterial RNA-guided endonuclease that uses base pairing to recognize and cleave target DNAs with complementarity to the guide RNA. The programmable sequence specificity of Cas9 has been harnessed for genome editing and gene expression control in many organisms. Here, we describe protocols for the heterologous expression and purification of recombinant Cas9 protein and for in vitro transcription of guide RNAs. We describe in vitro reconstitution of the Cas9-guide RNA ribonucleoprotein complex and its use in endonuclease activity assays. The methods outlined here enable mechanistic characterization of the RNA-guided DNA cleavage activity of Cas9 and may assist in further development of the enzyme for genetic engineering applications.

  3. CAS

    SciTech Connect

    Martinez, B.; Pomeroy, G. )

    1989-12-02

    The Security Alarm System is a data acquisition and control system which collects data from intrusion sensors and displays the information in a real-time environment for operators. The Access Control System monitors and controls the movement of personnel with the use of card readers and biometrics hand readers.

  4. Demonstration of Improved Software Support Labor Estimation For Air Force Operational Flight Programs Through Functional Orientation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-12-01

    single, fully developed, tesied , documented, and supportable computer instruction set replicated in sufficient quantities and delivered to the...LIMITSIZE a 11120001 Global Const CF FIXEDPITCHOWLY z 9H4000& Global Const CF WYSIWYG a 11180001 ’must also have CF SCREENFONTS£ CF PR INTER FORTS Global...ThesisRec.ACTKDSI " ExpOnLy) * BCT SUlff = SulM4Q + ThesisRec.ACTEFFORT * TempQ C.56 SuiQ2 x SumZ + TempQ * TeMA ’CatcuLate sum for Coefficient and Exponent

  5. Air-stable supported membranes for single-cell cytometry on PDMS microchips.

    PubMed

    Phillips, K Scott; Kang, Kyung Mo; Licata, Louise; Allbritton, Nancy L

    2010-04-07

    Protein-reinforced supported bilayer membranes (rSBMs) composed of phosphatidylcholine (PC), biotin-PE and Neutravidin were used to coat hybrid microchips composed of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) and glass. Since the coatings required a freshly oxidized, hydrophilic substrate, a novel method to rapidly connect reservoirs using plasma oxidation was first developed and found to support up to 5.2 N cm(-2) (1.5 N) pull-off force. rSBMs were then assembled in the oxidized hydrophilic channels. The electroosmotic mobility (mu(eo)) of rSBM-coated channels was measured over a 3 h time to evaluate the stability of the coatings for microchip electrophoresis. rSBM-coated microchips with a simple cross-design had excellent properties for microchip separations, yielding efficiencies of up to 700,000 plates m(-1) for fluorescent dyes and peptides. The separation performance of rSBM and PC-coated channels was evaluated after repeatedly drying and rehydrating the channels. The separation efficiency of fluorescein on PC-coated devices decreased by 40% after one dehydration cycle and nearly 75% after 3 cycles. In contrast for rSBM-coated devices there was no significant change in the fluorescein efficiency until the third cycle (10% decreased efficiency). rSBM-coated channels were also markedly more stable when placed in a dehydrated state during long-term storage compared to PC-coated channels, and showed reduced chip failure and no reduction in performance for up to one month of dehydrated storage. Finally, rSBM-coated devices were used to perform single-cell cytometry. Microchips that had been dehydrated, stored two weeks, and rehydrated prior to use demonstrated similar performance to newly coated devices for the separation of fluorescein and carboxyfluorescein from single cells. Thus rSBM-coated devices were rugged withstanding electric fields, prolonged storage under dehydrated conditions, and biofouling by cellular constituents while maintaining excellent separation

  6. Air-Stable Supported Membranes for Single Cell Cytometry on PDMS Microchips

    PubMed Central

    Phillips, K. Scott; Kang, Kyung Mo; Licata, Louise

    2010-01-01

    Protein reinforced supported bilayer membranes (rSBMs) composed of phosphatidyl choline (PC), biotin-PE and Neutravidin were used to coat hybrid microchips composed of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) and glass. Since the coatings required a freshly oxidized, hydrophilic substrate, a novel method to rapidly connect reservoirs using plasma oxidation was first developed and found to support up to 5.2 N/cm2 (1.5 N) pull-off force. rSBMs were then assembled in the oxidized hydrophilic channels. The electroosmotic mobility (μeo) of rSBM-coated channels was measured over a 3 h time to evaluate the stability of the coatings for microchip electrophoresis. rSBM-coated microchips with a simple cross design had excellent properties for microchip separations, yielding efficiencies of up to 700,000 plates/m for fluorescent dyes and peptides. The separation performance of rSBM and PC-coated channels was evaluated after repeatedly drying and rehydrating the channels. The separation efficiency of fluorescein on PC-coated devices decreased by 40% after one dehydration cycle and nearly 75% after 3 cycles. In contrast for rSBM-coated devices there was no significant change in the fluorescein efficiency until the third cycle (10% decreased efficiency). rSBM-coated channels were also markedly more stable when placed in a dehydrated state during long-term storage compared to PC-coated channels, and showed reduced chip failure and no reduction in performance for up to one month of dehydrated storage. Finally, rSBM-coated devices were used to perform single-cell cytometry. Microchips that had been dehydrated, stored two weeks, and rehydrated prior to use demonstrated similar performance to newly coated devices for the separation of fluorescein and carboxyfluorescein from single cells. Thus rSBM-coated devices were rugged- withstanding electric fields, prolonged storage under dehydrated conditions, and biofouling by cellular constituents while maintaining excellent separation performance. PMID

  7. Development of a web-based support system for both homogeneous and heterogeneous air quality control networks: process and product.

    PubMed

    Andrade, J; Ares, J; García, R; Presa, J; Rodríguez, S; Piñeiro-Iglesias, M; López-Mahía, P; Muniategui, S; Prada, D

    2007-10-01

    The Environmental Laboratories Automation Software System or PALMA (Spanish abbreviation) was developed by a multidisciplinary team in order to support the main tasks of heterogeneous air quality control networks. The software process for PALMA development, which can be perfectly applied to similar multidisciplinary projects, was (a) well-defined, (b) arranged between environmental technicians and informatics, (c) based on quality guides, and (d) clearly user-centred. Moreover, it introduces some interesting advantages with regard to the classical step-by-step approaches. PALMA is a web-based system that allows 'off-line' and automated telematic data acquisition from distributed inmission stations belonging not only to homogeneous but also to heterogeneous air quality control networks. It provides graphic and tabular representations for a comprehensive and centralised analysis of acquired data, and considers the daily work that is associated with such networks: validation of the acquired data, alerts with regard to (periodical) tasks (e.g., analysers verification), downloading of files with environmental information (e.g., dust forecasts), etc. The implantation of PALMA has provided qualitative and quantitative improvements in the work performed by the people in charge of the considered control network.

  8. Calculation Package: Derivation of Facility-Specific Derived Air Concentration (DAC) Values in Support of Spallation Neutron Source Operations

    SciTech Connect

    McLaughlin, David A

    2009-12-01

    Derived air concentration (DAC) values for 175 radionuclides* produced at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Spallation Neutron Source (SNS), but not listed in Appendix A of 10 CFR 835 (01/01/2009 version), are presented. The proposed DAC values, ranging between 1 E-07 {micro}Ci/mL and 2 E-03 {micro}Ci/mL, were calculated in accordance with the recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP), and are intended to support an exemption request seeking regulatory relief from the 10 CFR 835, Appendix A, requirement to apply restrictive DACs of 2E-13 {micro}Ci/mL and 4E-11 {micro}Ci/mL and for non-listed alpha and non-alpha-emitting radionuclides, respectively.

  9. Precursor ionization ahead of laser-supported detonation wave in air and argon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimamura, Kohei; Komurasaki, Kimiya; Koizumi, Hiroyuki; Arakawa, Yoshihiro

    2012-10-01

    Laser-produced plasma in a gaseous form is considered, which has attracted great interest for use in many devices. After breakdown one of possible mechanisms of occurrence of this process is noted as laser-supported detonation wave. This wave consisting of the shock wave and the beam absorbing plasma travels at several kilometers per second along the laser beam channel in the direction opposite to the beam incidence. A Nd: Glass laser and a TEA CO2 laser were utilized. According to shadowgraph and spectroscopic studies, the wave has a velocity of 1-10 km/s, an electron temperature of 2-5 eV and an electron density of 10^24 m-3 after breakdown. For simplicity, the discussion is restricted to one-dimensional flows that considers the radiation from plasma and the collisional ionization by laser irradiation. Assuming that UV photons radiating from laser plasma induce photoionization ahead of ionization front, this ionization frequency fp at the distance lp (mean free path of photon) from the wave front corresponds to 10^10 s-1. This is higher than the collisional ionization frequency (10^5-6 s-1). Analytical velocities (fplp) describing the avalanche ionization in the pre-ionization layer agree with the experimentally observed velocities. These results does not depend on background gas and laser-wavelength.

  10. RXTE Observations of Cas A

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rothschild, R. E.; Lingenfelter, R. E.; Heindl, W. A.; Blanco, P. R.; Pelling, M. R.; Gruber, D. E.; Allen, G. E.; Jahoda, K.; Swank, J. H.; Woosley, S. E.; Nomoto, K.; Higdon, J. C.; Dermer, Charles D. (Editor); Strickman, Mark S. (Editor); Kurfess, James D. (Editor)

    1997-01-01

    The exciting detection by the COMPTEL instrument of the 1157 keV Ti-44 line from the supernova remnant Cas A sets important new constraints on supernova dynamics and nucleosynthesis. The Ti-44 decay also produces x-ray lines at 68 and 78 keV, whose flux should be essentially the same as that of the gamma ray line. The revised COMPTEL flux of 4 x l0(exp -5) cm(exp -2)s(exp -1) is very near the sensitivity limit for line detection by the HEXTE instrument on RXTE. We report on the results from two RXTE observations - 20 ks during In Orbit Checkout in January 1996 and 200 ks in April 1996. We also find a strong continuum emission suggesting cosmic ray electron acceleration in the remnant.

  11. CRISPR/Cas9-Mediated Genome Editing as a Therapeutic Approach for Leber Congenital Amaurosis 10.

    PubMed

    Ruan, Guo-Xiang; Barry, Elizabeth; Yu, Dan; Lukason, Michael; Cheng, Seng H; Scaria, Abraham

    2017-02-01

    As the most common subtype of Leber congenital amaurosis (LCA), LCA10 is a severe retinal dystrophy caused by mutations in the CEP290 gene. The most frequent mutation found in patients with LCA10 is a deep intronic mutation in CEP290 that generates a cryptic splice donor site. The large size of the CEP290 gene prevents its use in adeno-associated virus (AAV)-mediated gene augmentation therapy. Here, we show that targeted genomic deletion using the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/Cas9 system represents a promising therapeutic approach for the treatment of patients with LCA10 bearing the CEP290 splice mutation. We generated a cellular model of LCA10 by introducing the CEP290 splice mutation into 293FT cells and we showed that guide RNA pairs coupled with SpCas9 were highly efficient at removing the intronic splice mutation and restoring the expression of wild-type CEP290. In addition, we demonstrated that a dual AAV system could effectively delete an intronic fragment of the Cep290 gene in the mouse retina. To minimize the immune response to prolonged expression of SpCas9, we developed a self-limiting CRISPR/Cas9 system that minimizes the duration of SpCas9 expression. These results support further studies to determine the therapeutic potential of CRISPR/Cas9-based strategies for the treatment of patients with LCA10.

  12. RIFM fragrance ingredient safety assessment, 2-ethyl-1-butanol, CAS Registry Number 97-95-0.

    PubMed

    Api, A M; Belsito, D; Bhatia, S; Bruze, M; Calow, P; Dagli, M L; Dekant, W; Fryer, A D; Kromidas, L; La Cava, S; Lalko, J F; Lapczynski, A; Liebler, D C; Miyachi, Y; Politano, V T; Ritacco, G; Salvito, D; Schultz, T W; Shen, J; Sipes, I G; Wall, B; Wilcox, D K

    2016-11-01

    The use of this material under current conditions is supported by existing information. This material was evaluated for genotoxicity, repeated dose toxicity, developmental and reproductive toxicity, local respiratory toxicity, phototoxicity/photoallergenicity, skin sensitization, as well as environmental safety. Data from the suitable read across analog 2-ethylhexanol (CAS # 104-76-7) show that this material is not genotoxic. Data from the suitable read across analog isopropyl alcohol (CAS # 67-63-0) show that this material does not have skin sensitization potential. The local respiratory toxicity endpoint was completed using the TTC (Threshold of Toxicological Concern) for a Cramer Class I material (1.4 mg/day). The repeated dose toxicity endpoint was completed using 2-ethylhexanol (CAS # 104-76-7) and 1-heptanol, 2-propyl (CAS # 10042-59-8) as suitable read across analogs, which provided a MOE > 100. The developmental and reproductive toxicity endpoint was completed using 2-ethyl-hexanol (CAS # 104-76-7) and isobutyl alcohol (CAS # 78-83-1) as suitable read across analogs, which provided a MOE > 100. The phototoxicity/photoallergenicity endpoint was completed based on suitable UV spectra. The environmental endpoint was completed as described in the RIFM Framework.

  13. United States Air Force 611th Air Support Group/Civil Engineering Squadron Elmendorf AFB, Alaska. Remedial investigation and feasibility study. Bullen Point Radar Installation, Alaska. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Karmi, S.

    1996-03-18

    The United States Air Force (Air Force) has prepared this Remedial investigation/Feasibility Study (RI/FS) report as part of the Installation Restoration Program (IRP) to present results of RI/FS activities at five sites at the Bullen Point radar installation. The IRP provides for investigating, quantifying, and remediating environmental contamination from past waste management activities at Air Force installations throughout the United States.

  14. CRISPR-Cas Adaptive Immune Systems of the Sulfolobales: Unravelling Their Complexity and Diversity

    PubMed Central

    Garrett, Roger A.; Shah, Shiraz A.; Erdmann, Susanne; Liu, Guannan; Mousaei, Marzieh; León-Sobrino, Carlos; Peng, Wenfang; Gudbergsdottir, Soley; Deng, Ling; Vestergaard, Gisle; Peng, Xu; She, Qunxin

    2015-01-01

    The Sulfolobales have provided good model organisms for studying CRISPR-Cas systems of the crenarchaeal kingdom of the archaea. These organisms are infected by a wide range of exceptional archaea-specific viruses and conjugative plasmids, and their CRISPR-Cas systems generally exhibit extensive structural and functional diversity. They carry large and multiple CRISPR loci and often multiple copies of diverse Type I and Type III interference modules as well as more homogeneous adaptation modules. These acidothermophilic organisms have recently provided seminal insights into both the adaptation process, the diverse modes of interference, and their modes of regulation. The functions of the adaptation and interference modules tend to be loosely coupled and the stringency of the crRNA-DNA sequence matching during DNA interference is relatively low, in contrast to some more streamlined CRISPR-Cas systems of bacteria. Despite this, there is evidence for a complex and differential regulation of expression of the diverse functional modules in response to viral infection. Recent work also supports critical roles for non-core Cas proteins, especially during Type III-directed interference, and this is consistent with these proteins tending to coevolve with core Cas proteins. Various novel aspects of CRISPR-Cas systems of the Sulfolobales are considered including an alternative spacer acquisition mechanism, reversible spacer acquisition, the formation and significance of antisense CRISPR RNAs, and a novel mechanism for avoidance of CRISPR-Cas defense. Finally, questions regarding the basis for the complexity, diversity, and apparent redundancy, of the intracellular CRISPR-Cas systems are discussed. PMID:25764276

  15. Incidence of Type II CRISPR1-Cas Systems in Enterococcus Is Species-Dependent

    PubMed Central

    Lyons, Casandra; Raustad, Nicole; Bustos, Mario A.; Shiaris, Michael

    2015-01-01

    CRISPR-Cas systems, which obstruct both viral infection and incorporation of mobile genetic elements by horizontal transfer, are a specific immune response common to prokaryotes. Antiviral protection by CRISPR-Cas comes at a cost, as horizontally-acquired genes may increase fitness and provide rapid adaptation to habitat change. To date, investigations into the prevalence of CRISPR have primarily focused on pathogenic and clinical bacteria, while less is known about CRISPR dynamics in commensal and environmental species. We designed PCR primers and coupled these with DNA sequencing of products to detect and characterize the presence of cas1, a universal CRISPR-associated gene and proxy for the Type II CRISPR1-Cas system, in environmental and non-clinical Enterococcus isolates. CRISPR1-cas1 was detected in approximately 33% of the 275 strains examined, and differences in CRISPR1 carriage between species was significant. Incidence of cas1 in E. hirae was 73%, nearly three times that of E. faecalis (23.6%) and 10 times more frequent than in E. durans (7.1%). Also, this is the first report of CRISPR1 presence in E. durans, as well as in the plant-associated species E. casseliflavus and E. sulfureus. Significant differences in CRISPR1-cas1 incidence among Enterococcus species support the hypothesis that there is a tradeoff between protection and adaptability. The differences in the habitats of enterococcal species may exert varying selective pressure that results in a species-dependent distribution of CRISPR-Cas systems. PMID:26600384

  16. Computational Assessment of the GT-MHR Graphite Core Support Structural Integrity in Air-Ingress Accident Condition

    SciTech Connect

    Jong B. Lim; Eung S. Kim; Chang H. Oh; Richard R. Schultz; David A. Petti

    2008-10-01

    The objective of this project was to perform stress analysis for graphite support structures of the General Atomics’ 600 MWth GT-MHR prismatic core design using ABAQUS ® (ver. 6.75) to assess their structural integrity in air-ingress accident conditions where the structure weakens over time due to oxidation damages. The graphite support structures of prismatic type GT-MHR was analyzed based on the change of temperature, burn-off and corrosion depth during the accident period predicted by GAMMA, a multi-dimensional gas multi-component mixture analysis code developed in the Republic of Korea (ROK)/United States (US) International –Nuclear Engineering Research Initiative (I-NERI) project. Both the loading and thermal stresses were analyzed, but the thermal stress was not significant, leaving the loading stress to be the major factor. The mechanical strengths are exceeded between 11 to 11.5 days after loss-of-coolant-accident (LOCA), corresponding to 5.5 to 6 days after the start of natural convection.

  17. Routine preparation of air-dried negatively stained and unstained specimens on holey carbon support films: a review of applications.

    PubMed

    Harris, J Robin; Scheffler, Dirk

    2002-01-01

    Several representative examples are given of the successful application of negative staining across the holes of holey carbon support films using 5% (w/v) ammonium molybdate solution containing trehalose. The inclusion of 0.1% (w/v) trehalose is considered to be most satisfactory, although good data have also been obtained in the presence of 0.01 and 1.0% (w/v) trehalose. The examples given fall into the following groups: protein molecules in the absence of polyethylene glycol (PEG), protein molecules in the presence of PEG (Mr 1000), lipoproteins, lipids and membranes, filaments and tubules, viruses in the absence of PEG, viruses in the presence of PEG, aqueous polymer solutions, and finally for comparison purposes, four unstained samples studied in the presence of trehalose alone. In all these cases, and many others not documented here, successful spreading of the sample across holes has been achieved, with the sample embedded within a thin film of air-dried ammonium molybdate+trehalose. These specimens can be rapidly produced and provide an alternative to negatively stained specimens on carbon support films. Specimen stability in the electron bean is good and such specimens can usually generate superior negatively stained TEM images without flattening and adsorption artefacts. The formation of 2-D arrays/crystals of protein molecules and viruses, suspended across holes in the presence of ammonium molbybdate+trehalose, and trehalose alone, is also demonstrated.

  18. Comment on"Air Emissions Due to Wind and Solar Power" and Supporting Information

    SciTech Connect

    Mills, Andrew D.; Wiser, Ryan H.; Milligan, Michael; O'Malley, Mark

    2009-03-18

    ignores the benefits of diversity. In real power systems, operators are required to balance only the net variations of all loads and all generators, not the output of individual loads or generators; doing otherwise would ensure an enormous amount of unnecessary investment and operating costs. As a result, detailed studies that aggregate the variability of all loads and generators to the system level find that the amount of operating reserves required to reliably integrate variable resources into the grid are on the order of 10% of the nameplate capacity of the variable generators, even when upto25%of gross demand is being met by variable generation. The authors implicit assumption that incremental operating reserves must be 100% of the nameplate capacity of the variable generation, and be available at all times to directly counter that variability, excludes the option of decommitting conventional units when the load net of variable generation is low. In real power systems, generation response to wind variation can typically be met by a combination of committed units, each operating at a relatively efficient point of their fuel curves. In the Supporting Information, we conceptually demonstrate that the CO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} efficiency penalty found by the authors can be significantly reduced by considering the unit commitment decision with just five plants. Real systems often have tens to hundreds of plants that can be committed and decommitted over various time frames. Ignoring the flexibility of the unit commitment decision therefore leads to unsupportable results. Anumber of analyses of the fuel savings and CO{sub 2} emission benefits of variable generation have considered realistic operating reserve requirements and unit commitment decisions in models that include the reduction in part load efficiency of conventional plants. The efficiency penalty due to the variability of wind in four studies considered by Gross et al. is negligible to 7%, for up to a 20% wind

  19. Air Mobility Command’s En Route Support Infrastructure: A Construct of Aircraft Type and Geographic Location Utilized to Assess En Route Aircraft Logistic Support

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-06-01

    and during operations in Kosovo, C-5 major inspections were performed at Moron AB, Spain (AMC, 2002b). 9 Figure 2. Countries Visited by AMC...Minor LTAG Incirlik AB, Turkey 721 AMOG 728 Air Mobility Squadron Minor LPLA Lajes AB, Azores 721 AMOG 729 Air Mobility Squadron Minor LEMO Moron AB...A. (1999). Air mobility: The evolution of global reach. Vienna, VA: PointOne Publishing. International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO). (2006

  20. Nucleosomes Inhibit Cas9 Endonuclease Activity in Vitro.

    PubMed

    Hinz, John M; Laughery, Marian F; Wyrick, John J

    2015-12-08

    During Cas9 genome editing in eukaryotic cells, the bacterial Cas9 enzyme cleaves DNA targets within chromatin. To understand how chromatin affects Cas9 targeting, we characterized Cas9 activity on nucleosome substrates in vitro. We find that Cas9 endonuclease activity is strongly inhibited when its target site is located within the nucleosome core. In contrast, the nucleosome structure does not affect Cas9 activity at a target site within the adjacent linker DNA. Analysis of target sites that partially overlap with the nucleosome edge indicates that the accessibility of the protospacer-adjacent motif (PAM) is the critical determinant of Cas9 activity on a nucleosome.

  1. A newly discovered Bordetella species carries a transcriptionally active CRISPR-Cas with a small Cas9 endonuclease

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Cas9 endonuclease of the Type II-a clustered regularly interspersed short palindromic repeats (CRISPR), of Streptococcus pyogenes (SpCas9) has been adapted as a widely used tool for genome editing and genome engineering. Herein, we describe a gene encoding a novel Cas9 ortholog (BpsuCas9) and th...

  2. Cas9 specifies functional viral targets during CRISPR-Cas adaptation.

    PubMed

    Heler, Robert; Samai, Poulami; Modell, Joshua W; Weiner, Catherine; Goldberg, Gregory W; Bikard, David; Marraffini, Luciano A

    2015-03-12

    Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR) loci and their associated (Cas) proteins provide adaptive immunity against viral infection in prokaryotes. Upon infection, short phage sequences known as spacers integrate between CRISPR repeats and are transcribed into small RNA molecules that guide the Cas9 nuclease to the viral targets (protospacers). Streptococcus pyogenes Cas9 cleavage of the viral genome requires the presence of a 5'-NGG-3' protospacer adjacent motif (PAM) sequence immediately downstream of the viral target. It is not known whether and how viral sequences flanked by the correct PAM are chosen as new spacers. Here we show that Cas9 selects functional spacers by recognizing their PAM during spacer acquisition. The replacement of cas9 with alleles that lack the PAM recognition motif or recognize an NGGNG PAM eliminated or changed PAM specificity during spacer acquisition, respectively. Cas9 associates with other proteins of the acquisition machinery (Cas1, Cas2 and Csn2), presumably to provide PAM-specificity to this process. These results establish a new function for Cas9 in the genesis of prokaryotic immunological memory.

  3. A Review and Analysis of Remote Sensing Capability for Air Quality Measurements as a Potential Decision Support Tool Conducted by the NASA DEVELOP Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ross, A.; Richards, A.; Keith, K.; Frew, C.; Boseck, J.; Sutton, S.; Watts, C.; Rickman, D.

    2007-01-01

    This project focused on a comprehensive utilization of air quality model products as decision support tools (DST) needed for public health applications. A review of past and future air quality measurement methods and their uncertainty, along with the relationship of air quality to national and global public health, is vital. This project described current and future NASA satellite remote sensing and ground sensing capabilities and the potential for using these sensors to enhance the prediction, prevention, and control of public health effects that result from poor air quality. The qualitative uncertainty of current satellite remotely sensed air quality, the ground-based remotely sensed air quality, the air quality/public health model, and the decision making process is evaluated in this study. Current peer-reviewed literature suggests that remotely sensed air quality parameters correlate well with ground-based sensor data. A satellite remote-sensed and ground-sensed data complement is needed to enhance the models/tools used by policy makers for the protection of national and global public health communities

  4. Phylogeny of Cas9 determines functional exchangeability of dual-RNA and Cas9 among orthologous type II CRISPR-Cas systems

    PubMed Central

    Fonfara, Ines; Le Rhun, Anaïs; Chylinski, Krzysztof; Makarova, Kira S.; Lécrivain, Anne-Laure; Bzdrenga, Janek; Koonin, Eugene V.; Charpentier, Emmanuelle

    2014-01-01

    The CRISPR-Cas-derived RNA-guided Cas9 endonuclease is the key element of an emerging promising technology for genome engineering in a broad range of cells and organisms. The DNA-targeting mechanism of the type II CRISPR-Cas system involves maturation of tracrRNA:crRNA duplex (dual-RNA), which directs Cas9 to cleave invading DNA in a sequence-specific manner, dependent on the presence of a Protospacer Adjacent Motif (PAM) on the target. We show that evolution of dual-RNA and Cas9 in bacteria produced remarkable sequence diversity. We selected eight representatives of phylogenetically defined type II CRISPR-Cas groups to analyze possible coevolution of Cas9 and dual-RNA. We demonstrate that these two components are interchangeable only between closely related type II systems when the PAM sequence is adjusted to the investigated Cas9 protein. Comparison of the taxonomy of bacterial species that harbor type II CRISPR-Cas systems with the Cas9 phylogeny corroborates horizontal transfer of the CRISPR-Cas loci. The reported collection of dual-RNA:Cas9 with associated PAMs expands the possibilities for multiplex genome editing and could provide means to improve the specificity of the RNA-programmable Cas9 tool. PMID:24270795

  5. Highly efficient Cas9-mediated transcriptional programming.

    PubMed

    Chavez, Alejandro; Scheiman, Jonathan; Vora, Suhani; Pruitt, Benjamin W; Tuttle, Marcelle; P R Iyer, Eswar; Lin, Shuailiang; Kiani, Samira; Guzman, Christopher D; Wiegand, Daniel J; Ter-Ovanesyan, Dmitry; Braff, Jonathan L; Davidsohn, Noah; Housden, Benjamin E; Perrimon, Norbert; Weiss, Ron; Aach, John; Collins, James J; Church, George M

    2015-04-01

    The RNA-guided nuclease Cas9 can be reengineered as a programmable transcription factor. However, modest levels of gene activation have limited potential applications. We describe an improved transcriptional regulator obtained through the rational design of a tripartite activator, VP64-p65-Rta (VPR), fused to nuclease-null Cas9. We demonstrate its utility in activating endogenous coding and noncoding genes, targeting several genes simultaneously and stimulating neuronal differentiation of human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs).

  6. Novel strategy to mitigate cathode catalyst degradation during air/air startup cycling via the atmospheric resistive switching mechanism of a hydrogen anode with a platinum catalyst supported on tantalum-doped titanium dioxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shintani, Haruhiko; Kojima, Yuya; Kakinuma, Katsuyoshi; Watanabe, Masahiro; Uchida, Makoto

    2015-10-01

    We propose a new strategy for alleviating the reverse current phenomenon using a unique "atmospheric resistive switching mechanism" (ARSM) of a metal oxide semiconductor support, such that the electrical resistivity changes depending on the gas atmosphere. The membrane-electrode assembly (MEA) using Ta-doped TiO2-supported platinum (Pt/Ta-TiO2) as the anode catalyst showed approximately one order of magnitude greater resistance in air than in hydrogen. The overpotential of the hydrogen oxidation reaction was negligible up to at least 1.5 A cm-2. The losses of electrochemically active surface area and carbon corrosion of the cathode catalyst during air/air startup cycling were significantly suppressed by the use of the Pt/Ta-TiO2 anode. The decrease in the degradation is attributed to a reduction of the reverse current due to a low oxygen reduction reaction rate at the anode, which showed high resistivity in air. These results demonstrate the effectiveness of the ARSM in mitigating cathode catalyst degradation during air/air startup cycling.

  7. Treatability Study in Support of Intrinsic Remediation for the Hangar 10 Site. Elmendorf Air Force Base, Anchorage, Alaska

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1995-03-01

    ANCHORAGE , ALASKA March 1995 D Prepared for: I * AIR FORCE CENTER FOR ENVIRONMENTAL EXCELLENCE TECHNOLOGY TRANSFER DIVISION BROOKS AIR FORCE BASE SAN...ANTONIO, TEXAS AND ELMENDORF AIR FORCE BASE ANCHORAGE , ALASKA I Prepared by: I Parsons Engineering Science, Inc. 1700 Broadway, Suite 900 Denver, Colorado...Wnrinsic Remediation TS Elmendorf Air Force Base Anchorage . Alaska 0 125250 500 1000 MENARSNSEIGUINE N FEET Denver, Colorado 5-31

  8. CRISPR-Cas: biology, mechanisms and relevance

    PubMed Central

    Hille, Frank

    2016-01-01

    Prokaryotes have evolved several defence mechanisms to protect themselves from viral predators. Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) and their associated proteins (Cas) display a prokaryotic adaptive immune system that memorizes previous infections by integrating short sequences of invading genomes—termed spacers—into the CRISPR locus. The spacers interspaced with repeats are expressed as small guide CRISPR RNAs (crRNAs) that are employed by Cas proteins to target invaders sequence-specifically upon a reoccurring infection. The ability of the minimal CRISPR-Cas9 system to target DNA sequences using programmable RNAs has opened new avenues in genome editing in a broad range of cells and organisms with high potential in therapeutical applications. While numerous scientific studies have shed light on the biochemical processes behind CRISPR-Cas systems, several aspects of the immunity steps, however, still lack sufficient understanding. This review summarizes major discoveries in the CRISPR-Cas field, discusses the role of CRISPR-Cas in prokaryotic immunity and other physiological properties, and describes applications of the system as a DNA editing technology and antimicrobial agent. This article is part of the themed issue ‘The new bacteriology’. PMID:27672148

  9. 75 FR 37711 - Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast (ADS-B) Out Performance Requirements To Support Air...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-30

    ..., Performance and Interoperability Requirements Document for Enhanced Air Traffic in Radar-Controlled Areas..., Performance and Interoperability Requirements Document for Enhanced Air Traffic in Radar-Controlled Areas... Interoperability Requirements Document for Enhanced Air Traffic in Radar-Controlled Areas Using ADS-B...

  10. Linking Meteorology, Air Quality Models and Observations to Characterize Human Exposures in Support of the Environmental Health Studies

    EPA Science Inventory

    Epidemiologic studies are critical in establishing the association between exposure to air pollutants and adverse health effects. Results of epidemiologic studies are used by U.S. EPA in developing air quality standards to protect the public from the health effects of air polluta...

  11. Evaluating the sustainability of space life support systems: case study on air revitalisation systems ARES and BIORAT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suomalainen, Emilia; Erkman, Suren

    Space life support systems can be taken as kinds of miniature models of industrial systems found on Earth. The term "industrial" is employed here in a generic sense, referring to all human technological activities. The time scale as well as the physical scope of space life support systems is reduced compared to most terrestrial systems and so is consequently their complexity. These systems can thus be used as a kind of a "laboratory of sustainability" to examine concerns related to the environmental sustainability of industrial systems and in particular to their resource use. Two air revitalisation systems, ARES and BIORAT, were chosen as the test cases of our study. They represent respectively a physico-chemical and a biological life support system. In order to analyse the sustainability of these systems, we began by constructing a generic system representation applicable to both these systems (and to others). The metabolism of the systems was analysed by performing Material Flow Analyses—MFA is a tool frequently employed on terrestrial systems in the field of industrial ecology. Afterwards, static simulation models were developed for both ARES and BIORAT, focusing, firstly, on the oxygen balances of the systems and, secondly, on the total mass balances. It was also necessary to define sustainability indicators adapted to space life support systems in order to evaluate and to compare the performances of ARES and BIORAT. The defined indicators were partly inspired from concepts used in Material Flow Accounting and they were divided into four broad categories: 1. recycling and material use efficiency, 2. autarky and coverage time, 3. resource use and waste creation, and 4. system mass and energy consumption. The preliminary results of our analyses show that the performance of BIORAT is superior compared to ARES in terms of the defined resource use indicators. BIORAT seems especially effective in reprocessing carbon dioxide created by human metabolism. The

  12. Al 2O 3 supported Ru catalysts prepared by thermolysis of Ru 3(CO) 12 for catalytic wet air oxidation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Chaoying; Zhao, Peiqing; Chen, Gexin; Hu, Bin

    2011-06-01

    Low loading catalysts Ru/γ-Al 2O 3 and Ru-Ce/γ-Al 2O 3 were prepared by thermolysis of Ru 3(CO) 12 on γ-Al 2O 3. The catalysts were characterized by XPS, XRD and SEM. Two new Ru species (Ru A and Ru B) were detected during the Ru 3(CO) 12 decomposition process due to chemical interaction with the active OH groups on the surface of Al 2O 3 support, and the reduction of them can lead to more dispersed metallic phases. The sample was completely decomposed at 673 K in H 2, and RuO 2 was formed with minor amounts of Ru 0. When the temperature was increased to 773 K to heat the sample, the ratio of Ru 0 to RuO 2 increased. However, after the addition of CeO 2, only RuO 2 was detected on surface. The catalysts exhibited high activities in Catalytic Wet Air Oxidation (CWAO) of different organic compounds at high concentration such as isopropyl alcohol, phenol, acetic acids and N,N-dimethylformamide, which is attributed to the better dispersion of Ru particles and the addition of CeO 2 further enhanced number of effectively active sites on the cluster-derived catalyst surface.

  13. Child maltreatment among U.S. Air Force parents deployed in support of Operation Iraqi Freedom/Operation Enduring Freedom.

    PubMed

    Rabenhorst, Mandy M; McCarthy, Randy J; Thomsen, Cynthia J; Milner, Joel S; Travis, Wendy J; Colasanti, Marie P

    2015-02-01

    This study examined child maltreatment perpetration among 99,697 active-duty U.S. Air Force parents who completed a combat deployment. Using the deploying parent as the unit of analysis, we analyzed whether child maltreatment rates increased postdeployement relative to predeployment. These analyses extend previous research that used aggregate data and extend our previous work that used data from the same period but used the victim as the unit of analysis and included only deploying parents who engaged in child maltreatment. In this study, 2% (n = 1,746) of deploying parents perpetrated child maltreatment during the study period. Although no overall differences were found in child maltreatment rates postdeployment compared to predeployment, several maltreatment-related characteristics qualified this finding. Rates for emotional abuse and mild maltreatment were lower following deployment, whereas child maltreatment rates for severe maltreatment were higher following deployment. The finding that rates of severe child maltreatment, including incidents involving alcohol use, were higher postdeployment suggests a need for additional support services for parents following their return from combat deployment, with a focus on returning parents who have an alcohol use problem.

  14. Condition Assessment Survey (CAS) Program. Deficiency standards and inspections methods manual: Volume 12, 0.12 Sitework

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-05-01

    General information is presented for asset determinant factor/CAS repair codes/CAS cost factors; guide sheet tool & material listing; testing methods; inspection frequency; standard system design life tables; system work breakdown structure; and general system/material data. Deficiency standards and inspection methods are given for utility distribution systems, central heating, central cooling, electrical, utility support structures, paving roadways/walkways, and tunnels.

  15. Investigation of brightness changes of MZ Cas and TZ Cas in B- and V-light

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lukatskaya, F. I.; Kheylo, E. S.

    1973-01-01

    The results are presented concerning statistical processing of two-color observations of MZ Cas and TZ Cas. Light histograms, dispersion and statistical amplitudes are given. Light variations of the variables are represented by normal stochastic processes. Observational data are tabulated.

  16. Putting the CAS Standards to Work. Training Manual for the CAS Self Assessment Guides.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yerian, Jean M.; Miller, Theodore K., Ed.

    These 18 self-assessment guides and training manual from the Council for the Advancement of Standards (CAS) for Student Services/Development Programs translate the CAS Standards and Guidelines of 1986 into a format for self-study purposes. These self-study guides allow an institution to assure compliance with minimally-acceptable practice, gain an…

  17. Evaluation of United States Air Force Base Libraries Supporting Undergraduate and Graduate Education Programs in Collaboration with Civilian Colleges and Universities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shipps, Harrold Southard, Jr.

    The purpose of this study was to determine the adequacy of base library service and collections to support the undergraduate and graduate study programs undertaken on United States Air Force installations by officers and airmen, through civilian institutions, during off-duty hours. Basic to the study was the development of a method of library…

  18. CRISPR/Cas9-mediated genome editing of Epstein-Barr virus in human cells.

    PubMed

    Yuen, Kit-San; Chan, Chi-Ping; Wong, Nok-Hei Mickey; Ho, Chau-Ha; Ho, Ting-Hin; Lei, Ting; Deng, Wen; Tsao, Sai Wah; Chen, Honglin; Kok, Kin-Hang; Jin, Dong-Yan

    2015-03-01

    The CRISPR (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats)/Cas9 (CRISPR-associated 9) system is a highly efficient and powerful tool for RNA-guided editing of the cellular genome. Whether CRISPR/Cas9 can also cleave the genome of DNA viruses such as Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), which undergo episomal replication in human cells, remains to be established. Here, we reported on CRISPR/Cas9-mediated editing of the EBV genome in human cells. Two guide RNAs (gRNAs) were used to direct a targeted deletion of 558 bp in the promoter region of BART (BamHI A rightward transcript) which encodes viral microRNAs (miRNAs). Targeted editing was achieved in several human epithelial cell lines latently infected with EBV, including nasopharyngeal carcinoma C666-1 cells. CRISPR/Cas9-mediated editing of the EBV genome was efficient. A recombinant virus with the desired deletion was obtained after puromycin selection of cells expressing Cas9 and gRNAs. No off-target cleavage was found by deep sequencing. The loss of BART miRNA expression and activity was verified, supporting the BART promoter as the major promoter of BART RNA. Although CRISPR/Cas9-mediated editing of the multicopy episome of EBV in infected HEK293 cells was mostly incomplete, viruses could be recovered and introduced into other cells at low m.o.i. Recombinant viruses with an edited genome could be further isolated through single-cell sorting. Finally, a DsRed selectable marker was successfully introduced into the EBV genome during the course of CRISPR/Cas9-mediated editing. Taken together, our work provided not only the first genetic evidence that the BART promoter drives the expression of the BART transcript, but also a new and efficient method for targeted editing of EBV genome in human cells.

  19. United States Air Force 611th Air Support Group Civil Engineering Squadron, Elmendorf AFB, Alaska. Remedial investigation and feasibility study Point Lay Radar Installation, Alaska. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Karmi, S.

    1996-03-04

    The United States Air Force (Air Force) has prepared this Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study (RI/FS) report to present the results of RI/FS activities at four sites located at the Point Lay radar installation. The remedial investigation (RI) field activities were conducted at the Point Lay radar installation during the summer of 1993. The four sites at Point Lay were investigated because they were suspected of being contaminated with hazardous substances. RI activities were conducted using methods and procedures specified in the RI/FS Work Plan, Sampling and Analysis Plan (SAP), and Health and Safety Plan.

  20. Role of Additives in Composite PEI/Oxide CO₂ Adsorbents: Enhancement in the Amine Efficiency of Supported PEI by PEG in CO₂ Capture from Simulated Ambient Air.

    PubMed

    Sakwa-Novak, Miles A; Tan, Shuai; Jones, Christopher W

    2015-11-11

    Supported amines are promising candidate adsorbents for the removal of CO2 from flue gases and directly from ambient air. The incorporation of additives into polymeric amines such as poly(ethylenimine) (PEI) supported on mesoporous oxides is an effective strategy to improve the performance of the materials. Here, several practical aspects of this strategy are addressed with regards to direct air capture. The influence of three additives (CTAB, PEG200, PEG1000) was systematically explored under dry simulated air capture conditions (400 ppm of CO2, 30 °C). With SBA-15 as a model support for poly(ethylenimine) (PEI), the nature of the additive induced heterogeneities in the deposition of organic on the interior and exterior of the particles, an important consideration for future scale up to practical systems. The PEG200 additive increased the observed thermodynamic performance (∼60% increase in amine efficiency) of the adsorbents regardless of the PEI content, while the other molecules had less positive effects. A threshold PEG200/PEI value was identified at which the diffusional limitations of CO2 within the materials were nearly eliminated. The threshold PEG/PEI ratio may have physical origin in the interactions between PEI and PEG, as the optimal ratio corresponded to nearly equimolar OH/reactive (1°, 2°) amine ratios. The strategy is shown to be robust to the characteristics of the host support, as PEG200 improved the amine efficiency of PEI when supported on two varieties of mesoporous γ-alumina with PEI.

  1. The Future of Online Services to Faculty: A Pilot Project with CAS Online.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Culotta, Wendy A.

    Lottery money in California, part of which is required by law to be distributed to educational institutions, provides avenues for innovative services. A pilot program was supported by the administration of California State University, Long Beach, to provide faculty access to CAS (Chemical Abstracts Service) ONLINE (a remote database), which could…

  2. Overview of CRISPR-Cas9 Biology.

    PubMed

    Ratner, Hannah K; Sampson, Timothy R; Weiss, David S

    2016-12-01

    Prokaryotes use diverse strategies to improve fitness in the face of different environmental threats and stresses, including those posed by mobile genetic elements (e.g., bacteriophages and plasmids). To defend against these elements, many bacteria and archaea use elegant, RNA-directed, nucleic acid-targeting adaptive restriction machineries called CRISPR -: Cas (CRISPR-associated) systems. While providing an effective defense against foreign genetic elements, these systems have also been observed to play critical roles in regulating bacterial physiology during environmental stress. Increasingly, CRISPR-Cas systems, in particular the Type II systems containing the Cas9 endonuclease, have been exploited for their ability to bind desired nucleic acid sequences, as well as direct sequence-specific cleavage of their targets. Cas9-mediated genome engineering is transcending biological research as a versatile and portable platform for manipulating genetic content in myriad systems. Here, we present a systematic overview of CRISPR-Cas history and biology, highlighting the revolutionary tools derived from these systems, which greatly expand the molecular biologists' toolkit.

  3. Air gap winding method and support structure for a super conducting generator and method for forming the same

    DOEpatents

    Hopeck, James Frederick

    2003-11-25

    A method of forming a winding support structure for use with a superconducting rotor wherein the method comprises providing an inner support ring, arranging an outer support ring around the inner support ring, coupling first and second support blocks to the outer support ring and coupling a lamination to the first and second support blocks. A slot is defined between the support blocks and between the outer support ring and the lamination to receive a portion of a winding. An RTV fills any clearance space in the slot.

  4. The Need to Change the Cultural Bias in the United States Air Force Against Close Air Support and to Reactivate the ABCCC

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-01-01

    18. NUMBER OF PAGES 31 19a. NAME OF RESPONSIBLE PERSON a. REPORT unclassified b. ABSTRACT unclassified c . THIS PAGE unclassified Standard Form...Gorden Fornell , commander of the Air Force Systems Command’s Electronic Systems Division, to declare "we will never again fight tn combat without

  5. 75 FR 30159 - Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast (ADS-B) Out Performance Requirements To Support Air...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-28

    ... traffic controllers to safely and efficiently accommodate aircraft operations and the expected increase in... Equipment, Model X ASSA--Airport Surface Situational Awareness ATC--Air Traffic Control CAA--Cargo Airline... expected to provide air traffic controllers and pilots with more accurate information to help keep...

  6. EPAs $2.48 million grant will support efforts to improve air quality, protect people, in Idahos West Silver Valley

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    (Seattle, WA - October 22, 2015) The Idaho Department of Environmental Quality has received a $2.48 million EPA grant to reduce pollution and protect air quality in northern Idaho's West Silver Valley. The grant is part of EPA's 2015 Targeted Air Shed Gran

  7. Rapid characterization of CRISPR-Cas9 protospacer adjacent motif sequence elements.

    PubMed

    Karvelis, Tautvydas; Gasiunas, Giedrius; Young, Joshua; Bigelyte, Greta; Silanskas, Arunas; Cigan, Mark; Siksnys, Virginijus

    2015-11-19

    To expand the repertoire of Cas9s available for genome targeting, we present a new in vitro method for the simultaneous examination of guide RNA and protospacer adjacent motif (PAM) requirements. The method relies on the in vitro cleavage of plasmid libraries containing a randomized PAM as a function of Cas9-guide RNA complex concentration. Using this method, we accurately reproduce the canonical PAM preferences for Streptococcus pyogenes, Streptococcus thermophilus CRISPR3 (Sth3), and CRISPR1 (Sth1). Additionally, PAM and sgRNA solutions for a novel Cas9 protein from Brevibacillus laterosporus are provided by the assay and are demonstrated to support functional activity in vitro and in plants.

  8. Sacroillite tuberculeuse: à propos de deux cas

    PubMed Central

    Diallo, Ismaël; Zabsonré, Joëlle Tiendrébéogo; Kambou, Bénilde Marie Ange Tiemtoré; Sondo, Apoline Kongnimissom; Sagna, Yempabou; Ouédraogo, Dieu-Donné

    2016-01-01

    La sacroiliite tuberculeuse est rare et de diagnostic difficile. Les auteurs rapportent deux cas. Il s'agissait dans le premier cas d'une patiente de 40 ans ayant une infection à VIH ; le diagnostic a été histologique après une biopsie chirurgicale. Le second cas a concerné un patient de 25 ans vivant en milieu carcéral chez qui le diagnostic a été établi sur la base des arguments cliniques, biologiques, radiologiques et l'efficacité du traitement ; l'intradermoréaction à la tuberculine était phlycténulaire. Le scanner a été indispensable au diagnostic lésionnel en montrant une érosion des berges et des abcès des parties molles. Le traitement a été médical et a fait appel aux antituberculeux. PMID:28292032

  9. Evolution and classification of the CRISPR-Cas systems

    PubMed Central

    S. Makarova, Kira; H. Haft, Daniel; Barrangou, Rodolphe; J. J. Brouns, Stan; Charpentier, Emmanuelle; Horvath, Philippe; Moineau, Sylvain; J. M. Mojica, Francisco; I. Wolf, Yuri; Yakunin, Alexander F.; van der Oost, John; V. Koonin, Eugene

    2012-01-01

    The CRISPR–Cas (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats–CRISPR-associated proteins) modules are adaptive immunity systems that are present in many archaea and bacteria. These defence systems are encoded by operons that have an extraordinarily diverse architecture and a high rate of evolution for both the cas genes and the unique spacer content. Here, we provide an updated analysis of the evolutionary relationships between CRISPR–Cas systems and Cas proteins. Three major types of CRISPR–Cas system are delineated, with a further division into several subtypes and a few chimeric variants. Given the complexity of the genomic architectures and the extremely dynamic evolution of the CRISPR–Cas systems, a unified classification of these systems should be based on multiple criteria. Accordingly, we propose a `polythetic' classification that integrates the phylogenies of the most common cas genes, the sequence and organization of the CRISPR repeats and the architecture of the CRISPR–cas loci. PMID:21552286

  10. SnapShot: Class 1 CRISPR-Cas Systems.

    PubMed

    Makarova, Kira S; Zhang, Feng; Koonin, Eugene V

    2017-02-23

    Class 1 CRISPR-Cas systems are characterized by effector modules consisting of multiple subunits. Class 1 systems comprise about 90% of all CRISPR-Cas loci identified in bacteria and archaea and can target both DNA and RNA.

  11. CRISPR-Cas immunity in prokaryotes.

    PubMed

    Marraffini, Luciano A

    2015-10-01

    Prokaryotic organisms are threatened by a large array of viruses and have developed numerous defence strategies. Among these, only clustered, regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR)-Cas systems provide adaptive immunity against foreign elements. Upon viral injection, a small sequence of the viral genome, known as a spacer, is integrated into the CRISPR locus to immunize the host cell. Spacers are transcribed into small RNA guides that direct the cleavage of the viral DNA by Cas nucleases. Immunization through spacer acquisition enables a unique form of evolution whereby a population not only rapidly acquires resistance to its predators but also passes this resistance mechanism vertically to its progeny.

  12. Highly efficient Cas9-mediated transcriptional programming

    DOE PAGES

    Chavez, Alejandro; Scheiman, Jonathan; Vora, Suhani; ...

    2015-03-02

    The RNA-guided nuclease Cas9 can be reengineered as a programmable transcription factor. However, modest levels of gene activation have limited potential applications. Here we describe an improved transcriptional regulator through the rational design of a tripartite activator, VP64-p65-Rta (VPR), fused to nuclease-null Cas9. Here, we demonstrate its utility in activating endogenous coding and non-coding genes, targeting several genes simultaneously and stimulating neuronal differentiation of human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs).

  13. Breast Cancer Antiestrogen Resistance 3 (BCAR3) – p130Cas Interactions Promote Adhesion Disassembly and Invasion in Breast Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Cross, Allison M.; Wilson, Ashley L.; Guerrero, Michael S.; Thomas, Keena S.; Bachir, Alexia I.; Kubow, Kristopher E.; Horwitz, A. Rick; Bouton, Amy H.

    2016-01-01

    Adhesion turnover is critical for cell motility and invasion. We previously demonstrated that the adaptor molecule Breast Cancer Antiestrogen Resistance 3 (BCAR3) promotes adhesion disassembly and breast tumor cell invasion. One of two established binding partners of BCAR3 is the adaptor molecule, p130Cas. In this study, we sought to determine whether signaling through the BCAR3/Cas complex was responsible for the cellular functions of BCAR3. We show that the entire pool of BCAR3 is in complex with Cas in invasive breast tumor cells and that these proteins co-localize in dynamic cellular adhesions. While accumulation of BCAR3 in adhesions did not require Cas binding, a direct interaction between BCAR3 and Cas was necessary for efficient dissociation of BCAR3 from adhesions. The dissociation rates of Cas and two other adhesion molecules, α-actinin and talin, were also significantly slower in the presence of a Cas-binding mutant of BCAR3, suggesting that turnover of the entire adhesion complex was delayed under these conditions. As was the case for adhesion turnover, BCAR3-Cas interactions were found to be important for BCAR3-mediated breast tumor cell chemotaxis toward serum and invasion in Matrigel. Previous work demonstrated that BCAR3 is a potent activator of Rac1, which in turn is an important regulator of adhesion dynamics and invasion. However, in contrast to wildtype BCAR3, ectopic expression of the Cas-binding mutant of BCAR3 failed to induce Rac1 activity in breast cancer cells. Together, these data show that the ability of BCAR3 to promote adhesion disassembly, tumor cell migration and invasion, and Rac1 activity is dependent on its ability to bind to Cas. The activity of BCAR3-Cas complexes as a functional unit in breast cancer is further supported by the co-expression of these molecules in multiple subtypes of human breast tumors. PMID:27109104

  14. DEVELOPMENTS AND APPLICATIONS OF CFD SIMULATIONS OF MICROMETEOROLOGY AND POLLUTION TRANSPORT IN SUPPORT OF AIR QUALITY MODELING

    EPA Science Inventory

    Development and application of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations are being advanced through case studies for simulating air pollutant concentrations from sources within open fields and within complex urban building environments. CFD applications have been under deve...

  15. A Method for Estimating Urban Background Concentrations in Support of Hybrid Air Pollution Modeling for Environmental Health Studies

    EPA Science Inventory

    Exposure studies rely on detailed characterization of air quality, either from sparsely located routine ambient monitors or from central monitoring sites that may lack spatial representativeness. Alternatively, some studies use models of various complexities to characterize local...

  16. Decision Support Model to Select the Optimal Municipal Solid Waste Management Strategy at United States Air Force Installations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    The United States Air Force has recently defined three objectives in developing strategies regarding the management of municipal solid waste at the...insight concerning the selection and implementation of a municipal solid waste management policy.

  17. Decision Support Model to Select the Optimal Municipal Solid Waste Management Policy at United States Air Force Installations.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1997-03-03

    The United States Air Force has recently defined three objectives in developing strategies regarding the management of municipal solid waste at the...insight concerning the selection and implementation of a municipal solid waste management policy.

  18. High-resolution air pollution modeling for urban environments in support of dense multi-platform networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berchet, Antoine; Zink, Katrin; Arfire, Adrian; Marjovi, Ali; Martinoli, Alcherio; Emmenegger, Lukas; Brunner, Dominik

    2015-04-01

    As the fraction of people living in urban areas is rapidly increasing worldwide, the impact of air quality on human health in cities is a growing concern not only in developing countries but also in Europe despite the achievements of European air quality legislation. One obstacle to the quantitative assessment of the connections between health and air quality is the very high temporal and spatial variability of air pollutant concentrations within cities. Yet, an important issue for obtaining accurate and spatially highly resolved air pollution data is the trade-off between the high costs of accurate air pollution sensors and the number of such devices required for succinctly monitoring a given geographical area. The OpenSense 2 project aims at establishing air quality data at very high temporal and spatial resolution in the cities of Lausanne and Zurich in Switzerland in order to provide reliable information for epidemiologic studies and for the design of air pollution controls and urban planning. Towards this goal, observations from both stationary reference monitoring stations and low-cost mobile sensors (including sensing platforms anchored on public transport vehicles) are combined with high-resolution air quality modeling throughout the two cities. As a first step, we simulate the 3-dimensional, high-resolution dispersion and distribution of key pollutants using the GRAMM/GRAL modeling system. The GRAMM meteorological meso-scale model calculates wind fields at 100 m resolution accounting for the complex topography and land use within and around the two cities. GRAMM outputs are then used to drive the building-resolving dispersion model GRAL at 5-10m resolution. Further key inputs for GRAL are high resolution emission inventories and the 3-D building structure which are available for both cities. Here, in order to evaluate the ability of the GRAMM/GRAL modeling system to reproduce air pollutant distributions within the two cities of Lausanne and Zurich, we

  19. Air Vehicle Technology Integration Program (AVTIP). Delivery Order 0033: Advanced Sol-Gel Adhesion Processes - Transition Support

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-07-01

    or without an additional acid desmut. The use of an open air plasma process may improve the surface cleanliness, but the results were not conclusive...from PlasmaTreat -North America was used to clean and activate the surface of the aluminum alloy. This process blasts the surface of an object on the...conditioner with or without an additional acid desmut. The use of an open air plasma process may improve the surface cleanliness, but the results

  20. Close ISR Support: Re-organizing the Combined Forces Air Component Commander’s Intelligence, Surveillance and Reconnaissance Processes and Agencies

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-12-01

    essentially map out where the rest of the Division is located on the map using the air defense locations as starting points for the template. Or, if an...fact that the CFACC’s ISR assets are optimized for tracking and taking down networks versus locating a single IED in an urban environment or...fight often are dependent upon the available ISR support used to locate , identify, and track insurgent operations.133 Furthermore, these operations

  1. Operational Assessment of CAS in COIN: Airing the Ground Truth

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-04-01

    might be excessively predisposed to organic fires. Such was the case during Anaconda, as a key lesson identified was the failure to include airmen...firing ordnance) might be optimal for a B-1 Bomber. This could be the case if an Army patrol is pinned in a valley based on SIGINT of enemy...build on practices adopted from service-oriented private industry rather than defense R&D constructs. The customer in this case is any ground commander

  2. Boosting plant immunity with CRISPR/Cas.

    PubMed

    Chaparro-Garcia, Angela; Kamoun, Sophien; Nekrasov, Vladimir

    2015-11-19

    CRISPR/Cas has recently been transferred to plants to make them resistant to geminiviruses, a damaging family of DNA viruses. We discuss the potential and the limitations of this method.See related Research: http://www.genomebiology.com/2015/16/1/238.

  3. Using the CAS Standards in Assessment Projects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dean, Laura A.

    2013-01-01

    This chapter provides an overview of the use of professional standards of practice in assessment and of the Council for the Advancement of Standards in Higher Education (CAS). It outlines a model for conducting program self-studies and discusses the importance of implementing change based on assessment results.

  4. Effects of Using a Computer Algebra System (CAS) on Junior College Students' Attitudes towards CAS and Achievement in Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leng, Ng Wee; Choo, Kwee Tiow; Soon, Lau Hock; Yi-Huak, Koh; Sun, Yap Yew

    2005-01-01

    This study examines the effects of using Texas Instruments' Voyage 200 calculator (V200), a graphing calculator with a built-in computer algebra system (CAS), on attitudes towards CAS and achievement in mathematics of junior college students (17 year olds). Students' attitudes towards CAS were examined using a 40-item Likert-type instrument…

  5. Structural plasticity and in vivo activity of Cas1 from the type I-F CRISPR-Cas system.

    PubMed

    Wilkinson, Max E; Nakatani, Yoshio; Staals, Raymond H J; Kieper, Sebastian N; Opel-Reading, Helen K; McKenzie, Rebecca E; Fineran, Peter C; Krause, Kurt L

    2016-04-15

    CRISPR-Cas systems are adaptive immune systems in prokaryotes that provide protection against viruses and other foreign DNA. In the adaptation stage, foreign DNA is integrated into CRISPR (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat) arrays as new spacers. These spacers are used in the interference stage to guide effector CRISPR associated (Cas) protein(s) to target complementary foreign invading DNA. Cas1 is the integrase enzyme that is central to the catalysis of spacer integration. There are many diverse types of CRISPR-Cas systems, including type I-F systems, which are typified by a unique Cas1-Cas2-3 adaptation complex. In the present study we characterize the Cas1 protein of the potato phytopathogen Pectobacterium atrosepticum, an important model organism for understanding spacer acquisition in type I-F CRISPR-Cas systems. We demonstrate by mutagenesis that Cas1 is essential for adaptation in vivo and requires a conserved aspartic acid residue. By X-ray crystallography, we show that although P. atrosepticum Cas1 adopts a fold conserved among other Cas1 proteins, it possesses remarkable asymmetry as a result of structural plasticity. In particular, we resolve for the first time a flexible, asymmetric loop that may be unique to type I-F Cas1 proteins, and we discuss the implications of these structural features for DNA binding and enzymatic activity.

  6. A novel air quality analysis and prediction system for São Paulo, Brazil to support decision-making

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoshyaripour, Gholam Ali; Brasseur, Guy; Andrade, Maria Fatima; Gavidia-Calderón, Mario; Bouarar, Idir

    2016-04-01

    The extensive economic development and urbanization in southeastern Brazil (SEB) in recent decades have notably degraded the air quality with adverse impacts on human health. Since the Metropolitan Area of São Paulo (MASP) accommodates the majority of the economic growth in SEB, it overwhelmingly suffers from the air pollution. Consequently, there is a strong demand for developing ever-better assessment mechanisms to monitor the air quality and to assist the decision makers to mitigate the air pollution in MASP. Here we present the results of an air quality modeling system designed for SEB with focuses on MASP. The Weather Research and Forecast model with Chemistry (WRF-Chem) is used considering the anthropogenic, biomass-burning and biogenic emissions within a 1000×1500 km domain with resolution of 10 km. FINN and MEGAN are used for the biomass-burning and biogenic emissions, respectively. For the anthropogenic emissions we use a local bottom-up inventory for the transport sector and the HTAPv2 global inventory for all other sectors. The bottom-up inventory accounts for the traffic patterns, vehicle types and their emission factors in the area and thus could be used to evaluate the effect of changes in these parameters on air quality in MASP. The model outputs are compered to the satellite and ground-based observations for O3 and NOx. The results show that using the bottom-up or top-down inventories individually can result in a huge deviation between the predictions and observations. On the other hand, combining the inventories significantly enhances the forecast accuracy. It also provides a powerful tool to quantify the effects of traffic and vehicle emission policies on air quality in MASP.

  7. CasHRA (Cas9-facilitated Homologous Recombination Assembly) method of constructing megabase-sized DNA

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Jianting; Wu, Ronghai; Xue, Xiaoli; Qin, Zhongjun

    2016-01-01

    Current DNA assembly methods for preparing highly purified linear subassemblies require complex and time-consuming in vitro manipulations that hinder their ability to construct megabase-sized DNAs (e.g. synthetic genomes). We have developed a new method designated ‘CasHRA (Cas9-facilitated Homologous Recombination Assembly)’ that directly uses large circular DNAs in a one-step in vivo assembly process. The large circular DNAs are co-introduced into Saccharomyces cerevisiae by protoplast fusion, and they are cleaved by RNA-guided Cas9 nuclease to release the linear DNA segments for subsequent assembly by the endogenous homologous recombination system. The CasHRA method allows efficient assembly of multiple large DNA segments in vivo; thus, this approach should be useful in the last stage of genome construction. As a proof of concept, we combined CasHRA with an upstream assembly method (Gibson procedure of genome assembly) and successfully constructed a 1.03 Mb MGE-syn1.0 (Minimal Genome of Escherichia coli) that contained 449 essential genes and 267 important growth genes. We expect that CasHRA will be widely used in megabase-sized genome constructions. PMID:27220470

  8. Fire Support in the Pusan Perimeter

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    20 Jackson, Air War over Korea, 10 21 Ibid. 26 22 Charles Docker , “Marine Air...to the Naktong North to the Yalu: 275 29 Ibid. 30 Docker , “Marine Air Over Korea”: 41 16 did not have the closely coordinated CAS available to the...facilitate it. 60 Docker , “Marine Air Over Korea”: 41 61 Barnett, “Breechblocks Painted Bright Red Task

  9. In vivo genome editing using Staphylococcus aureus Cas9

    PubMed Central

    Ran, F. Ann; Cong, Le; Yan, Winston X.; Scott, David A.; Gootenberg, Jonathan S.; Kriz, Andrea J.; Zetsche, Bernd; Shalem, Ophir; Wu, Xuebing; Makarova, Kira S.; Koonin, Eugene; Sharp, Phillip A.; Zhang, Feng

    2015-01-01

    The RNA-guided endonuclease Cas9 has emerged as a versatile genome-editing platform. However, the size of the commonly used Cas9 from Streptococcus pyogenes (SpCas9) limits its utility for basic research and therapeutic applications that employ the highly versatile adeno-associated virus (AAV) delivery vehicle. Here, we characterize six smaller Cas9 orthologs and show that Cas9 from Staphylococcus aureus (SaCas9) can edit the genome with efficiencies similar to those of SpCas9, while being >1kb shorter. We packaged SaCas9 and its sgRNA expression cassette into a single AAV vector and targeted the cholesterol regulatory gene Pcsk9 in the mouse liver. Within one week of injection, we observed >40% gene modification, accompanied by significant reductions in serum Pcsk9 and total cholesterol levels. We further demonstrate the power of using BLESS to assess the genome-wide targeting specificity of SaCas9 and SpCas9, and show that SaCas9 can mediate genome editing in vivo with high specificity. PMID:25830891

  10. Structure and Engineering of Francisella novicida Cas9

    PubMed Central

    Hirano, Hisato; Gootenberg, Jonathan S.; Horii, Takuro; Abudayyeh, Omar O.; Kimura, Mika; Hsu, Patrick D.; Nakane, Takanori; Ishitani, Ryuichiro; Hatada, Izuho; Zhang, Feng; Nishimasu, Hiroshi; Nureki, Osamu

    2016-01-01

    Summary The RNA-guided endonuclease Cas9 cleaves double-stranded DNA targets complementary to the guide RNA, and has been applied to programmable genome editing. Cas9-mediated cleavage requires a protospacer adjacent motif (PAM) juxtaposed with the DNA target sequence, thus constricting the range of targetable sites. Here, we report the 1.7 Å resolution crystal structures of Cas9 from Francisella novicida (FnCas9), one of the largest Cas9 orthologs, in complex with a guide RNA and its PAM-containing DNA targets. A structural comparison of FnCas9 with other Cas9 orthologs revealed striking conserved and divergent features among distantly related CRISPR-Cas9 systems. We found that FnCas9 recognizes the 5′-NGG-3′ PAM, and used the structural information to create a variant that can recognize the more relaxed 5′-YG-3′ PAM. Furthermore, we demonstrated that pre-assembled FnCas9 ribonucleoprotein complexes can be microinjected into mouse zygotes to edit endogenous sites with the 5′-YG-3′ PAMs, thus expanding the target space of the CRISPR-Cas9 toolbox. PMID:26875867

  11. Information Requirements for Supervisory Air Traffic Controllers in Support of a Mid-Term Wake Vortex Departure System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lohr, Gary W.; Williams, Daniel M.; Trujillo, Anna C.; Johnson, Edward J.; Domino, David A.

    2008-01-01

    A concept focusing on wind dependent departure operations has been developed the current version of this concept is called the Wake Turbulence Mitigation for Departures (WTMD). This concept takes advantage the fact that cross winds of sufficient velocity blow wakes generated by "heavy" and B757 category aircraft on the downwind runway away from the upwind runway. Supervisory Air Traffic Controllers would be responsible for authorization of the Procedure. An investigation of the information requirements necessary to for Supervisors to approve monitor and terminate the Procedure was conducted. Results clearly indicated that the requisite information is currently available in air traffic control towers and that additional information was not required.

  12. [Life support of the Mars exploration crew. Control of a zeolite system for carbon dioxide removal from space cabin air within a closed air regeneration cycle].

    PubMed

    Chekov, Iu F

    2009-01-01

    The author describes a zeolite system for carbon dioxide removal integrated into a closed air regeneration cycle aboard spacecraft. The continuous operation of a double-adsorbent regeneration system with pCO2-dependable productivity is maintained through programmable setting of adsorption (desorption) semicycle time. The optimal system regulation curve is presented within the space of statistical performance family obtained in quasi-steady operating modes with controlled parameters of the recurrent adsorption-desorption cycle. The automatically changing system productivity ensures continuous intake of concentrated CO2. Control of the adsorption-desorption process is based on calculation of the differential adsorption (desorption) heat from gradient of adsorbent and test inert substance temperatures. The adaptive algorithm of digital control is implemented through the standard spacecraft interface with the board computer system and programmable microprocessor-based controllers.

  13. United States Air Force 611th Air Support Group/Civil Engineering Squadron Elmendorf AFB, Alaska. Risk assessment Bullen Point Radar Installation, Alaska. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Karmi, S.

    1996-03-18

    This document contains the baseline human health risk assessment and the ecological risk assessment (ERA) for the Bullen Point Distant Early Warning (DEW) Line radar installation. Five sites at the Bullen Point radar installation underwent remedial investigations (RIs) during the summer of 1993. The presence of chemical contamination in the soil, sediments, and surface water at the installation was evaluated and reported in the Bullen Point Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study (RI/FS) (U.S. Air Force 1996). The analytical data reported in the RI/FS form the basis for the human health and ecological risk assessments. The primary chemicals of concern (COCs) at the five sites are diesel and gasoline from past spills and/or leaks.

  14. “Estimating Regional Background Air Quality using Space/Time Ordinary Kriging to Support Exposure Studies”

    EPA Science Inventory

    Local-scale dispersion models are increasingly being used to perform exposure assessments. These types of models, while able to characterize local-scale air quality at increasing spatial scale, however, lack the ability to include background concentration in their overall estimat...

  15. Workshop in Support of the Secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Nitrogen (NOx) and Sulfur Oxides (SOx)

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA is announcing a workshop to discuss policy-relevant science to Inform EPA’s "Review of the Secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) for Oxides of Nitrogen and Sulfur" report. The workshop is being organized by EPA’s Office of Research and Development’s, Nation...

  16. SITE CHARACTERIZATION OF AREA 6, DOVER AIR FORCE BASE, IN SUPPORT OF NATURAL ATTENUATION AND ENHANCED ANAEROBIC BIOREMEDIATION PROJECTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A field program for site characterization of targeted study areas at the Dover Air Force Base was conducted between January 16, 1995, and March 9, 1995. The stated objectives of the investigation, "to characterize the stratigraphy, depth to groundwater, groundwater flow directio...

  17. Use of depuration compounds in passive air samplers: results from active sampling-supported field deployment, potential uses, and recommendations.

    PubMed

    Moeckel, Claudia; Harner, Tom; Nizzetto, Luca; Strandberg, Bo; Lindroth, Anders; Jones, Kevin C

    2009-05-01

    Depuration compounds (DCs) are added to passive air samplers (PAS) prior to deployment to account for the wind-dependency of the sampling rate for gas-phase compounds. This correction is particularly useful for providing comparable data for samplers that are deployed in different environments and subject to different meteorological conditions such as wind speeds. Two types of PAS--the polyurethane foam (PUF) disk sampler and semipermeable membrane devices (SPMDs)--were deployed at eight heights on a 100 m tower to test whether the DC approach could yield air concentrations profiles for PCBs and organochlorine pesticides and account for the wind speed gradient with height. Average wind speeds ranged from 0.3 to 4.5 m s(-1) over the 40 day deployment, increasing with height Two low volume active air samples (AAS), one collected at 25 m and one at 73 m over the 40 day deployment showed no significant concentration differences for target compounds. As expected, the target compounds taken up by PAS reflected the wind profile with height This wind-dependency of the PAS was also reflected in the results of the DCs. A correction based on the DC approach successfully accounted for the effect of wind on PAS sampling rates, yielding a profile consistent with the AAS. Interestingly, in terms of absolute air concentrations, there were differences between the AAS and PAS-derived values for some target compounds. These were attributed to different sampling characteristics of the two approaches that may have resulted in slightly different air masses being sampled. Based on the results of this study, guidelines are presented for the use of DCs and for the calibration of PAS using AAS.

  18. Protein engineering of Cas9 for enhanced function.

    PubMed

    Oakes, Benjamin L; Nadler, Dana C; Savage, David F

    2014-01-01

    CRISPR/Cas systems act to protect the cell from invading nucleic acids in many bacteria and archaea. The bacterial immune protein Cas9 is a component of one of these CRISPR/Cas systems and has recently been adapted as a tool for genome editing. Cas9 is easily targeted to bind and cleave a DNA sequence via a complementary RNA; this straightforward programmability has gained Cas9 rapid acceptance in the field of genetic engineering. While this technology has developed quickly, a number of challenges regarding Cas9 specificity, efficiency, fusion protein function, and spatiotemporal control within the cell remain. In this work, we develop a platform for constructing novel proteins to address these open questions. We demonstrate methods to either screen or select active Cas9 mutants and use the screening technique to isolate functional Cas9 variants with a heterologous PDZ domain inserted within the protein. As a proof of concept, these methods lay the groundwork for the future construction of diverse Cas9 proteins. Straightforward and accessible techniques for genetic editing are helping to elucidate biology in new and exciting ways; a platform to engineer new functionalities into Cas9 will help forge the next generation of genome-modifying tools.

  19. Inhibition of CRISPR-Cas9 with Bacteriophage Proteins.

    PubMed

    Rauch, Benjamin J; Silvis, Melanie R; Hultquist, Judd F; Waters, Christopher S; McGregor, Michael J; Krogan, Nevan J; Bondy-Denomy, Joseph

    2017-01-12

    Bacterial CRISPR-Cas systems utilize sequence-specific RNA-guided nucleases to defend against bacteriophage infection. As a countermeasure, numerous phages are known that produce proteins to block the function of class 1 CRISPR-Cas systems. However, currently no proteins are known to inhibit the widely used class 2 CRISPR-Cas9 system. To find these inhibitors, we searched cas9-containing bacterial genomes for the co-existence of a CRISPR spacer and its target, a potential indicator for CRISPR inhibition. This analysis led to the discovery of four unique type II-A CRISPR-Cas9 inhibitor proteins encoded by Listeria monocytogenes prophages. More than half of L. monocytogenes strains with cas9 contain at least one prophage-encoded inhibitor, suggesting widespread CRISPR-Cas9 inactivation. Two of these inhibitors also blocked the widely used Streptococcus pyogenes Cas9 when assayed in Escherichia coli and human cells. These natural Cas9-specific "anti-CRISPRs" present tools that can be used to regulate the genome engineering activities of CRISPR-Cas9.

  20. But will I be re-elected? What happens to local level policy makers who support clean indoor air laws?

    PubMed

    Eisenberg, Merrill; McCotter, Orion; Sciacca, John

    2010-11-01

    This research was conducted to determine the impact of voting for clean indoor air ordinance on a local-level policy maker's re-election status. Secondary data were used to identify local tobacco ordinances in Arizona proposed between 2001 and 2005, score ordinance content for comprehensiveness, identify policy makers who voted and how they voted, and determine if the measure passed or failed. Participation in and outcomes of subsequent elections were documented from public records. Ninety-two local-level policy makers in 15 local jurisdictions considered clean indoor air laws between 2001 and 2005. Policy makers who voted for these ordinances were more likely to be re-elected than those who voted against them. Structured interviews revealed that policy makers did not believe the issue had an impact on re-election results and believed that although the issue may have been contentious, it was no longer salient in the community.

  1. Precision Targeted Mutagenesis via Cas9 Paired Nickases in Rice

    PubMed Central

    Mikami, Masafumi; Toki, Seiichi; Endo, Masaki

    2016-01-01

    Recent reports of CRISPR- (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats)/Cas9 (CRISPR-associated protein 9) mediated heritable mutagenesis in plants highlight the need for accuracy of the mutagenesis directed by this system. Off-target mutations are an important issue when considering functional gene analysis, as well as the molecular breeding of crop plants with large genome size, i.e. with many duplicated genes, and where the whole-genome sequence is still lacking. In mammals, off-target mutations can be suppressed by using Cas9 paired nickases together with paired guide RNAs (gRNAs). However, the performance of Cas9 paired nickases has not yet been fully assessed in plants. Here, we analyzed on- and off-target mutation frequency in rice calli and regenerated plants using Cas9 nuclease or Cas9 nickase with paired gRNAs. When Cas9 paired nickases were used, off-target mutations were fully suppressed in rice calli and regenerated plants. However, on-target mutation frequency also decreased compared with that induced by the Cas9 paired nucleases system. Since the gRNA sequence determines specific binding of Cas9 protein–gRNA ribonucleoproteins at the targeted sequence, the on-target mutation frequency of Cas9 paired nickases depends on the design of paired gRNAs. Our results suggest that a combination of gRNAs that can induce mutations at high efficiency with Cas9 nuclease should be used together with Cas9 nickase. Furthermore, we confirmed that a combination of gRNAs containing a one nucleotide (1 nt) mismatch toward the target sequence could not induce mutations when expressed with Cas9 nickase. Our results clearly show the effectiveness of Cas9 paired nickases in delivering on-target specific mutations. PMID:26936792

  2. Annotation and Classification of CRISPR-Cas Systems.

    PubMed

    Makarova, Kira S; Koonin, Eugene V

    2015-01-01

    The clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)-Cas (CRISPR-associated proteins) is a prokaryotic adaptive immune system that is represented in most archaea and many bacteria. Among the currently known prokaryotic defense systems, the CRISPR-Cas genomic loci show unprecedented complexity and diversity. Classification of CRISPR-Cas variants that would capture their evolutionary relationships to the maximum possible extent is essential for comparative genomic and functional characterization of this theoretically and practically important system of adaptive immunity. To this end, a multipronged approach has been developed that combines phylogenetic analysis of the conserved Cas proteins with comparison of gene repertoires and arrangements in CRISPR-Cas loci. This approach led to the current classification of CRISPR-Cas systems into three distinct types and ten subtypes for each of which signature genes have been identified. Comparative genomic analysis of the CRISPR-Cas systems in new archaeal and bacterial genomes performed over the 3 years elapsed since the development of this classification makes it clear that new types and subtypes of CRISPR-Cas need to be introduced. Moreover, this classification system captures only part of the complexity of CRISPR-Cas organization and evolution, due to the intrinsic modularity and evolutionary mobility of these immunity systems, resulting in numerous recombinant variants. Moreover, most of the cas genes evolve rapidly, complicating the family assignment for many Cas proteins and the use of family profiles for the recognition of CRISPR-Cas subtype signatures. Further progress in the comparative analysis of CRISPR-Cas systems requires integration of the most sensitive sequence comparison tools, protein structure comparison, and refined approaches for comparison of gene neighborhoods.

  3. Bombs from On-High: Weaponized Stratospheric Airships for Close Air Support and Time-Sensitive-Target Missions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-04-01

    battlefield. Using helium and solar power, WSAs may have hourly operational costs of under $500. SAs’ inherent stealth and resiliency make them... helium envelope. The airship will operate for years at high altitude providing tracking of air and ground targets.15 SMDC has also accomplished several...low-cost propulsion of WSAs an attractive feature. With solar power providing weeks to months of loiter time over an area, WSAs have no fossil

  4. SU-E-T-552: Monte Carlo Calculation of Correction Factors for a Free-Air Ionization Chamber in Support of a National Air-Kerma Standard for Electronic Brachytherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Mille, M; Bergstrom, P

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To use Monte Carlo radiation transport methods to calculate correction factors for a free-air ionization chamber in support of a national air-kerma standard for low-energy, miniature x-ray sources used for electronic brachytherapy (eBx). Methods: The NIST is establishing a calibration service for well-type ionization chambers used to characterize the strength of eBx sources prior to clinical use. The calibration approach involves establishing the well-chamber’s response to an eBx source whose air-kerma rate at a 50 cm distance is determined through a primary measurement performed using the Lamperti free-air ionization chamber. However, the free-air chamber measurements of charge or current can only be related to the reference air-kerma standard after applying several corrections, some of which are best determined via Monte Carlo simulation. To this end, a detailed geometric model of the Lamperti chamber was developed in the EGSnrc code based on the engineering drawings of the instrument. The egs-fac user code in EGSnrc was then used to calculate energy-dependent correction factors which account for missing or undesired ionization arising from effects such as: (1) attenuation and scatter of the x-rays in air; (2) primary electrons escaping the charge collection region; (3) lack of charged particle equilibrium; (4) atomic fluorescence and bremsstrahlung radiation. Results: Energy-dependent correction factors were calculated assuming a monoenergetic point source with the photon energy ranging from 2 keV to 60 keV in 2 keV increments. Sufficient photon histories were simulated so that the Monte Carlo statistical uncertainty of the correction factors was less than 0.01%. The correction factors for a specific eBx source will be determined by integrating these tabulated results over its measured x-ray spectrum. Conclusion: The correction factors calculated in this work are important for establishing a national standard for eBx which will help ensure that dose

  5. CRISPRtools: a flexible computational platform for performing CRISPR/Cas9 experiments in the mouse.

    PubMed

    Peterson, Kevin A; Beane, Glen L; Goodwin, Leslie O; Kutny, Peter M; Reinholdt, Laura G; Murray, Stephen A

    2017-03-09

    Genome editing using the CRISPR/Cas9 RNA-guided endonuclease system has rapidly become a driving force for discovery in modern biomedical research. This simple yet elegant system has been widely used to generate both loss-of-function alleles and precision knock-in mutations using single-stranded donor oligonucleotides. Our CRISPRtools platform supports both of these applications in order to facilitate the use of CRISPR/Cas9. While there are several tools that facilitate CRISPR/Cas9 design and screen for potential off-target sites, the process is typically performed sequentially on single genes, limiting scalability for large-scale programs. Here, the design principle underlying gene ablation is based upon using paired guides flanking a critical region/exon of interest to create deletions. Guide pairs are rank ordered based upon published efficiency scores and off-target analyses, and reported in a concise format for downstream implementation. The exon deletion strategy simplifies characterization of founder animals and is the strategy employed for the majority of knockouts in the mouse. In proof-of-principle experiments, the effectiveness of this approach is demonstrated using microinjection and electroporation to introduce CRISPR/Cas9 components into mouse zygotes to delete critical exons.

  6. Spatio-temporal Spectral Variability in Cas A

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nambiar, Yamini; Kashyap, V.; Patnaude, D.

    2014-01-01

    We have analyzed Chandra archival data of Cas A Supernova Remnant to identify regions with large spectral abnormalities and variability over the last decade. We use 8 ACIS-S observations spanning the years 2000 to 2012. We compute spectral hardness ratios in the soft/medium and medium/hard CSC bands over spatial scales corresponding to binning by 4, 8, 16, 32, and 64. We reduce the data and apply the latest calibration using the CIAO tool chandra_repro. We account for exposure variations using exposure maps and compute photon fluxes using the CIAO tool fluximage. We then renormalize the color light curves at each pixel and flag large departures from the norm by comparing with the observed spread in the renormalized color light curves. This allows regions with different intrinsic spectral properties to be compared. We flag deviations of >3σ from the renormalized mean at each epoch, and combine all such pixels to form a map of interesting regions in the remnant. We also identify pixels which have intrinsically abnormal hardness ratios at each epoch. We show that there exist many sites on Cas A where abnormal variations in the spectrum exist. Specifically, we find that many of the identified regions coincide with prominent features of the SNR, such as the edge of the remnant, the central compact object, and numerous knots. In addition, we find various other locations 1000) where there is indication of an atypical spectral signature. The full region lists, along with analysis scripts and the figures and tables shown in this poster, are stored on the Harvard Dataverse Network, at http://dx.doi.org/10.7910/DVN1/22634 YN thanks ABRHS and Young Einsteins Science Club for support and guidance. VK and DP acknowledge support during this project from the Chandra X-Ray Center.

  7. Scalable air cathode microbial fuel cells using glass fiber separators, plastic mesh supporters, and graphite fiber brush anodes.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaoyuan; Cheng, Shaoan; Liang, Peng; Huang, Xia; Logan, Bruce E

    2011-01-01

    The combined use of brush anodes and glass fiber (GF1) separators, and plastic mesh supporters were used here for the first time to create a scalable microbial fuel cell architecture. Separators prevented short circuiting of closely-spaced electrodes, and cathode supporters were used to avoid water gaps between the separator and cathode that can reduce power production. The maximum power density with a separator and supporter and a single cathode was 75 ± 1 W/m(3). Removing the separator decreased power by 8%. Adding a second cathode increased power to 154 ± 1 W/m(3). Current was increased by connecting two MFCs connected in parallel. These results show that brush anodes, combined with a glass fiber separator and a plastic mesh supporter, produce a useful MFC architecture that is inherently scalable due to good insulation between the electrodes and a compact architecture.

  8. CRISPR/Cas9-mediated gene editing in human zygotes using Cas9 protein.

    PubMed

    Tang, Lichun; Zeng, Yanting; Du, Hongzi; Gong, Mengmeng; Peng, Jin; Zhang, Buxi; Lei, Ming; Zhao, Fang; Wang, Weihua; Li, Xiaowei; Liu, Jianqiao

    2017-03-01

    Previous works using human tripronuclear zygotes suggested that the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR)/Cas9 system could be a tool in correcting disease-causing mutations. However, whether this system was applicable in normal human (dual pronuclear, 2PN) zygotes was unclear. Here we demonstrate that CRISPR/Cas9 is also effective as a gene-editing tool in human 2PN zygotes. By injection of Cas9 protein complexed with the appropriate sgRNAs and homology donors into one-cell human embryos, we demonstrated efficient homologous recombination-mediated correction of point mutations in HBB and G6PD. However, our results also reveal limitations of this correction procedure and highlight the need for further research.

  9. Guide RNA functional modules direct Cas9 activity and orthogonality.

    PubMed

    Briner, Alexandra E; Donohoue, Paul D; Gomaa, Ahmed A; Selle, Kurt; Slorach, Euan M; Nye, Christopher H; Haurwitz, Rachel E; Beisel, Chase L; May, Andrew P; Barrangou, Rodolphe

    2014-10-23

    The RNA-guided Cas9 endonuclease specifically targets and cleaves DNA in a sequence-dependent manner and has been widely used for programmable genome editing. Cas9 activity is dependent on interactions with guide RNAs, and evolutionarily divergent Cas9 nucleases have been shown to work orthogonally. However, the molecular basis of selective Cas9:guide-RNA interactions is poorly understood. Here, we identify and characterize six conserved modules within native crRNA:tracrRNA duplexes and single guide RNAs (sgRNAs) that direct Cas9 endonuclease activity. We show the bulge and nexus are necessary for DNA cleavage and demonstrate that the nexus and hairpins are instrumental in defining orthogonality between systems. In contrast, the crRNA:tracrRNA complementary region can be modified or partially removed. Collectively, our results establish guide RNA features that drive DNA targeting by Cas9 and open new design and engineering avenues for CRISPR technologies.

  10. Advances in therapeutic CRISPR/Cas9 genome editing.

    PubMed

    Savić, Nataša; Schwank, Gerald

    2016-02-01

    Targeted nucleases are widely used as tools for genome editing. Two years ago the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR)-associated Cas9 nuclease was used for the first time, and since then has largely revolutionized the field. The tremendous success of the CRISPR/Cas9 genome editing tool is powered by the ease design principle of the guide RNA that targets Cas9 to the desired DNA locus, and by the high specificity and efficiency of CRISPR/Cas9-generated DNA breaks. Several studies recently used CRISPR/Cas9 to successfully modulate disease-causing alleles in vivo in animal models and ex vivo in somatic and induced pluripotent stem cells, raising hope for therapeutic genome editing in the clinics. In this review, we will summarize and discuss such preclinical CRISPR/Cas9 gene therapy reports.

  11. Harnessing CRISPR-Cas9 immunity for genetic engineering.

    PubMed

    Charpentier, Emmanuelle; Marraffini, Luciano A

    2014-06-01

    CRISPR-Cas encodes an adaptive immune system that defends prokaryotes against infectious viruses and plasmids. Immunity is mediated by Cas nucleases, which use small RNA guides (the crRNAs) to specify a cleavage site within the genome of invading nucleic acids. In type II CRISPR-Cas systems, the DNA-cleaving activity is performed by a single enzyme Cas9 guided by an RNA duplex. Using synthetic single RNA guides, Cas9 can be reprogrammed to create specific double-stranded DNA breaks in the genomes of a variety of organisms, ranging from human cells to bacteria, and thus constitutes a powerful tool for genetic engineering. Here we describe recent advancements in our understanding of type II CRISPR-Cas immunity and how these studies led to revolutionary genome editing applications.

  12. Topography Analysis and Visualization Software Supports a Guided Comparative Planetology Education Exhibit at the Smithsonian's Air and Space Museum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roark, J. H.; Masuoka, C. M.; Frey, H. V.; Keller, J.; Williams, S.

    2005-01-01

    The Planetary Geodynamics Laboratory (http://geodynamics.gsfc.nasa.gov) of NASA s Goddard Space Flight Center designed, produced and recently delivered a "museum-friendly" version of GRIDVIEW, a grid visualization and analysis application, to the Smithsonian's National Air and Space Museum where it will be used in a guided comparative planetology education exhibit. The software was designed to enable museum visitors to interact with the same Earth and Mars topographic data and tools typically used by planetary scientists, and experience the thrill of discovery while learning about the geologic differences between Earth and Mars.

  13. Characterization and Evolution of Salmonella CRISPR-Cas Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-01-01

    SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: Prokaryotic CRISPR -Cas (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats and CRISPR -associated genes) systems provide...adaptive immunity from invasive genetic elements and encompass three essential features: (i) cas genes, (ii) a CRISPR array composed of spacers and...direct repeats and (iii) an AT-rich leader sequence upstream of the array. We performed in- depth sequence analysis of the CRISPR -Cas systems in .600

  14. Science Education Supporting Weather Broadcasters On-Air and in the Classroom with NASA "Mini-Education Supplements"

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shepherd, J. Marshall; Starr, David OC. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    NASA-Goddard Space Flight Center has initiated a new project designed to expand on existing news services and add value to classrooms through the development and distribution of two-minute 'mini-supplements' which give context and teach about current weather and Earth research phenomena. The innovative mini-supplements provide raw materials for weather forecasters to build news stories around NASA related missions without having to edit the more traditional and cumbersome long-form video format. The supplements cover different weather and climate topics and include NASA data, animations, video footage, and interviews with scientists. The supplements also include a curriculum package with educational lessons, educator guide, and hand-on activities. One goal is to give on-air broadcasters who are the primary science educators for the general public what they need to 'teach' about the science related to NASA research behind weather and climate news. This goal achieves increasing public literacy and assures higher accuracy and quality science reporting by the media. The other goal is to enable on-air broadcasters to serve as distributors of high quality, standards-based educational curricula and supplemental material when they visit 8-12 grade classrooms. The focus of 'pilot effort' centers around the success of NASA's Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) but is likely expandable to other NASA earth or space science missions.

  15. Photogrammetry Driven Tools to Support the Restoration of Open-Air Bronze Surfaces of Sculptures: AN Integrated Solution Starting from the Experience of the Neptune Fountain in Bologna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Apollonio, F. I.; Gaiani, M.; Basilissi, W.; Rivaroli, L.

    2017-02-01

    Checking the irreversible process of clean-up is a delicate task that requires a work of synthesis between theoretical knowledge and practical experience, to define an effective operating protocol on a limited patch area to be extended later to the entire artefact's surface. In this paper, we present a new, quick, semi-automated 3D photogrammetry-based solution to support restorers in the open-air bronze artwork cleaning from corrosion and weathering decay. The solution allows the conservators to assess in real time and with a high level of fidelity in colour and shape, the `surfaces' to be cleaned before, during and after the clear-out treatment. The solution besides allows an effective and valuable support tool for restorers to identify the original layer of the bronze surface, developed and validated during the ongoing restoration of the Neptune Fountain in Bologna.

  16. Environmental stressors and cardio-metabolic disease: part I-epidemiologic evidence supporting a role for noise and air pollution and effects of mitigation strategies.

    PubMed

    Münzel, Thomas; Sørensen, Mette; Gori, Tommaso; Schmidt, Frank P; Rao, Xiaoquan; Brook, Jeffrey; Chen, Lung Chi; Brook, Robert D; Rajagopalan, Sanjay

    2016-07-26

    Traffic noise and air pollution together represent the two most important environmental risk factors in urbanized societies. The first of this two-part review discusses the epidemiologic evidence in support of the existence of an association between these risk factors with cardiovascular and metabolic disease. While independent effects of these risk factors have now clearly been shown, recent studies also suggest that the two exposures may interact with each other and with traditional risk factors such as hypertension and type 2 diabetes. From a societal and policy perspective, the health effects of both air pollution and traffic noise are observed for exposures well below the thresholds currently accepted as being safe. Current gaps in knowledge, effects of intervention and their impact on cardiovascular disease, will be discussed in the last section of this review. Increased awareness of the societal burden posed by these novel risk factors and acknowledgement in traditional risk factor guidelines may intensify the efforts required for effective legislation to reduce air pollution and noise.

  17. Microoxic Niches within the Thylakoid Stroma of Air-Grown Chlamydomonas reinhardtii Protect [FeFe]-Hydrogenase and Support Hydrogen Production under Fully Aerobic Environment1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Liran, Oded; Milrad, Yuval; Eilenberg, Haviva; Weiner, Iddo

    2016-01-01

    Photosynthetic hydrogen production in the microalga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii is catalyzed by two [FeFe]-hydrogenase isoforms, HydA1 and HydA2, both irreversibly inactivated upon a few seconds exposure to atmospheric oxygen. Until recently, it was thought that hydrogenase is not active in air-grown microalgal cells. In contrast, we show that the entire pool of cellular [FeFe]-hydrogenase remains active in air-grown cells due to efficient scavenging of oxygen. Using membrane inlet mass spectrometry, 18O2 isotope, and various inhibitors, we were able to dissect the various oxygen uptake mechanisms. We found that both chlororespiration, catalyzed by plastid terminal oxidase, and Mehler reactions, catalyzed by photosystem I and Flavodiiron proteins, significantly contribute to oxygen uptake rate. This rate is considerably enhanced with increasing light, thus forming local anaerobic niches at the proximity of the stromal face of the thylakoid membrane. Furthermore, we found that in transition to high light, the hydrogen production rate is significantly enhanced for a short duration (100 s), thus indicating that [FeFe]-hydrogenase functions as an immediate sink for surplus electrons in aerobic as well as in anaerobic environments. In summary, we show that an anaerobic locality in the chloroplast preserves [FeFe]-hydrogenase activity and supports continuous hydrogen production in air-grown microalgal cells. PMID:27443604

  18. Control of gene expression by CRISPR-Cas systems.

    PubMed

    Bikard, David; Marraffini, Luciano A

    2013-01-01

    Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) loci and their associated cas (CRISPR-associated) genes provide adaptive immunity against viruses (phages) and other mobile genetic elements in bacteria and archaea. While most of the early work has largely been dominated by examples of CRISPR-Cas systems directing the cleavage of phage or plasmid DNA, recent studies have revealed a more complex landscape where CRISPR-Cas loci might be involved in gene regulation. In this review, we summarize the role of these loci in the regulation of gene expression as well as the recent development of synthetic gene regulation using engineered CRISPR-Cas systems.

  19. Ectopia cordis thoracique sporadique: description clinique d'un cas

    PubMed Central

    Lubala, Toni Kasole; Mutombo, Augustin Mulangu; Katamea, Tina; Lubala, Nina; Munkana, Arthur Ndundula; Kabuya, Maguy Sangaji; Monga, Joséphine Kalenga; Luboya, Oscar Numbi

    2012-01-01

    Nous décrivons un cas d'ectopia cordis, une malformation cardiaque congénitale extrêmement rare dans laquelle le coeur est partiellement ou complètement situé en dehors des limites de la cage thoracique. Dans le cas que nous décrivons, elle est thoracique et isolée. Ce cas a été diagnostiqué en salle de naissance au Katanga, au sud de la République Démocratique du Congo. Il s'agit du premier cas documenté chez un nouveau-né Congolais. PMID:23346276

  20. CRISPR-Cas9-guided Genome Engineering in C. elegans

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyun-Min; Colaiácovo, Monica P.

    2016-01-01

    The CRISPR (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats)-Cas (CRISPR-associated) system is successfully being used for efficient and targeted genome editing in various organisms including the nematode C. elegans. Recent studies developed various CRISPR-Cas9 approaches to enhance genome engineering via two major DNA double-strand break repair pathways: non-homologous end joining and homologous recombination. Here we describe a protocol for Cas9-mediated C. elegans genome editing together with single guide RNA (sgRNA) and repair template cloning and injection methods required for delivering Cas9, sgRNAs and repair template DNA into the C. elegans germline. PMID:27366893

  1. Calibrated Ancillary System (CAS) user's guide, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    The Calibrated Ancillary System (CAS) provides real-time calibrated parameters from the orbiter downlink (ancillary data) to the Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC). This user's guide contains the introduction to the equipment, operation, general procedures, and specific procedures of the CAS. Volume 1 includes a general overview of the CAS relationships with other equipment, physical design, and hardware and software subsystems. In addition, a description of the user levels and tasks, an introduction to CAS operation, and an outline of general operating procedures are included.

  2. Foreign DNA capture during CRISPR–Cas adaptive immunity

    PubMed Central

    Nuñez, James K.; Harrington, Lucas B.; Kranzusch, Philip J.; Engelman, Alan N.; Doudna, Jennifer A.

    2015-01-01

    Bacteria and archaea generate adaptive immunity against phages and plasmids by integrating foreign DNA of specific 30–40 base pair (bp) lengths into clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) loci as spacer segments1–6. The universally conserved Cas1–Cas2 integrase complex catalyzes spacer acquisition using a direct nucleophilic integration mechanism similar to retroviral integrases and transposases7–13. How the Cas1–Cas2 complex selects foreign DNA substrates for integration remains unknown. Here we present X-ray crystal structures of the Escherichia coli Cas1–Cas2 complex bound to cognate 33 nucleotide (nt) protospacer DNA substrates. The protein complex creates a curved binding surface spanning the length of the DNA and splays the ends of the protospacer to allow each terminal nucleophilic 3′–OH to enter a channel leading into the Cas1 active sites. Phosphodiester backbone interactions between the protospacer and the proteins explain the sequence-nonspecific substrate selection observed in vivo2–4. Our results uncover the structural basis for foreign DNA capture and the mechanism by which Cas1–Cas2 functions as a molecular ruler to dictate the sequence architecture of CRISPR loci. PMID:26503043

  3. Foreign DNA capture during CRISPR-Cas adaptive immunity.

    PubMed

    Nuñez, James K; Harrington, Lucas B; Kranzusch, Philip J; Engelman, Alan N; Doudna, Jennifer A

    2015-11-26

    Bacteria and archaea generate adaptive immunity against phages and plasmids by integrating foreign DNA of specific 30-40-base-pair lengths into clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR) loci as spacer segments. The universally conserved Cas1-Cas2 integrase complex catalyses spacer acquisition using a direct nucleophilic integration mechanism similar to retroviral integrases and transposases. How the Cas1-Cas2 complex selects foreign DNA substrates for integration remains unknown. Here we present X-ray crystal structures of the Escherichia coli Cas1-Cas2 complex bound to cognate 33-nucleotide protospacer DNA substrates. The protein complex creates a curved binding surface spanning the length of the DNA and splays the ends of the protospacer to allow each terminal nucleophilic 3'-OH to enter a channel leading into the Cas1 active sites. Phosphodiester backbone interactions between the protospacer and the proteins explain the sequence-nonspecific substrate selection observed in vivo. Our results uncover the structural basis for foreign DNA capture and the mechanism by which Cas1-Cas2 functions as a molecular ruler to dictate the sequence architecture of CRISPR loci.

  4. Airpower in Counterinsurgency (COIN) Operations: Considerations for Low-Tech Aircraft for Effective Close Air Support in COIN

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-03-30

    1960s, and the Salvadorans of the A-37 in El Salvador in the 1980s. In all three of these conflicts, the light attack aircraft have proven to be...34Afghanistan: Fire Support for Operation Anaconda." 8. 63 McElroy, "Afghanistan: Fire Support for Operation Anaconda." 7-8. 28 64 Steve Daly , A Canadian...true&db=aph&AN=52594275&site=ehost- live. 46 Daly , Steve. "A Canadian Forces AT -6B for the COIN Role in Afghanistan." 2008 [cited 1127 2011

  5. Installation Restoration Program. Phase 2. Confirmation/Quantification. Stage 1. Problem Confirmation Study: Otis Air National Guard Base, Massachusetts, Air National Guard Support Center, Andrews Air Force Base, Maryland.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-09-04

    3 OTHER AREA WELL LOGS APPENDIX E SITE SAFETY PLAN APPENDIX F CHAIN OF CUSTODY DOCUMENTATION APPENDIX G LABORATORY ANALYTICAL METHODS APPENDIX H...Sites 3-4 3-1-1 Supplementary Analytical Protocol for Phase II Sites 3-5 3-2 Analytical Methods and Required Detection Limits 3-7 3-3 Summary of 1983...provide the Air Force with general engineering , analytical, and hydrogeological services. The Phase I, Problem Identification/Records A Search at the

  6. Tenth anniversary of CAS ONLINE service : What CAS services should be in the new era of chemical information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kostakos, Charles N.

    Chemical Abstracts Service celebrated 10th anniversary of CAS online information service in 1990. A speech given on the occasion reviewed history of the CAS ONLINE, in relation to its most important benefits for scientists and engineers. The development of STN international, the network through which CAS ONLINE is accessible around the world, was also discussed in the speech. The CAS ONLINE now contains a wide variety of files relating to chemical field including CA file, Registry file. CA previews,. CASREACT, CIN. MARPAT, etc for supplying chemical information worldwide.

  7. Cas9 Variants Expand the Target Repertoire in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed

    Bell, Ryan T; Fu, Becky X H; Fire, Andrew Z

    2016-02-01

    The proliferation of CRISPR/Cas9-based methods in Caenorhabditis elegans has enabled efficient genome editing and precise genomic tethering of Cas9 fusion proteins. Experimental designs using CRISPR/Cas9 are currently limited by the need for a protospacer adjacent motif (PAM) in the target with the sequence NGG. Here we report the characterization of two modified Cas9 proteins in C. elegans that recognize NGA and NGCG PAMs. We found that each variant could stimulate homologous recombination with a donor template at multiple loci and that PAM specificity was comparable to that of wild-type Cas9. To directly compare effectiveness, we used CRISPR/Cas9 genome editing to generate a set of assay strains with a common single-guide RNA (sgRNA) target sequence, but that differ in the juxtaposed PAM (NGG, NGA, or NGCG). In this controlled setting, we determined that the NGA PAM Cas9 variant can be as effective as wild-type Cas9. We similarly edited a genomic target to study the influence of the base following the NGA PAM. Using four strains with four NGAN PAMs differing only at the fourth position and adjacent to the same sgRNA target, we observed that efficient homologous replacement was attainable with any base in the fourth position, with an NGAG PAM being the most effective. In addition to demonstrating the utility of two Cas9 mutants in C. elegans and providing reagents that permit CRISPR/Cas9 experiments with fewer restrictions on potential targets, we established a means to benchmark the efficiency of different Cas9::PAM combinations that avoids variations owing to differences in the sgRNA sequence.

  8. New CRISPR-Cas systems from uncultivated microbes.

    PubMed

    Burstein, David; Harrington, Lucas B; Strutt, Steven C; Probst, Alexander J; Anantharaman, Karthik; Thomas, Brian C; Doudna, Jennifer A; Banfield, Jillian F

    2017-02-09

    CRISPR-Cas systems provide microbes with adaptive immunity by employing short DNA sequences, termed spacers, that guide Cas proteins to cleave foreign DNA. Class 2 CRISPR-Cas systems are streamlined versions, in which a single RNA-bound Cas protein recognizes and cleaves target sequences. The programmable nature of these minimal systems has enabled researchers to repurpose them into a versatile technology that is broadly revolutionizing biological and clinical research. However, current CRISPR-Cas technologies are based solely on systems from isolated bacteria, leaving the vast majority of enzymes from organisms that have not been cultured untapped. Metagenomics, the sequencing of DNA extracted directly from natural microbial communities, provides access to the genetic material of a huge array of uncultivated organisms. Here, using genome-resolved metagenomics, we identify a number of CRISPR-Cas systems, including the first reported Cas9 in the archaeal domain of life, to our knowledge. This divergent Cas9 protein was found in little-studied nanoarchaea as part of an active CRISPR-Cas system. In bacteria, we discovered two previously unknown systems, CRISPR-CasX and CRISPR-CasY, which are among the most compact systems yet discovered. Notably, all required functional components were identified by metagenomics, enabling validation of robust in vivo RNA-guided DNA interference activity in Escherichia coli. Interrogation of environmental microbial communities combined with in vivo experiments allows us to access an unprecedented diversity of genomes, the content of which will expand the repertoire of microbe-based biotechnologies.

  9. New CRISPR–Cas systems from uncultivated microbes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burstein, David; Harrington, Lucas B.; Strutt, Steven C.; Probst, Alexander J.; Anantharaman, Karthik; Thomas, Brian C.; Doudna, Jennifer A.; Banfield, Jillian F.

    2016-12-01

    CRISPR–Cas systems provide microbes with adaptive immunity by employing short DNA sequences, termed spacers, that guide Cas proteins to cleave foreign DNA. Class 2 CRISPR–Cas systems are streamlined versions, in which a single RNA-bound Cas protein recognizes and cleaves target sequences. The programmable nature of these minimal systems has enabled researchers to repurpose them into a versatile technology that is broadly revolutionizing biological and clinical research. However, current CRISPR–Cas technologies are based solely on systems from isolated bacteria, leaving the vast majority of enzymes from organisms that have not been cultured untapped. Metagenomics, the sequencing of DNA extracted directly from natural microbial communities, provides access to the genetic material of a huge array of uncultivated organisms. Here, using genome-resolved metagenomics, we identify a number of CRISPR–Cas systems, including the first reported Cas9 in the archaeal domain of life, to our knowledge. This divergent Cas9 protein was found in little-studied nanoarchaea as part of an active CRISPR–Cas system. In bacteria, we discovered two previously unknown systems, CRISPR–CasX and CRISPR–CasY, which are among the most compact systems yet discovered. Notably, all required functional components were identified by metagenomics, enabling validation of robust in vivo RNA-guided DNA interference activity in Escherichia coli. Interrogation of environmental microbial communities combined with in vivo experiments allows us to access an unprecedented diversity of genomes, the content of which will expand the repertoire of microbe-based biotechnologies.

  10. Recent Advances in Genome Editing Using CRISPR/Cas9

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Yuduan; Li, Hong; Chen, Ling-Ling; Xie, Kabin

    2016-01-01

    The CRISPR (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat)-Cas9 (CRISPR-associated nuclease 9) system is a versatile tool for genome engineering that uses a guide RNA (gRNA) to target Cas9 to a specific sequence. This simple RNA-guided genome-editing technology has become a revolutionary tool in biology and has many innovative applications in different fields. In this review, we briefly introduce the Cas9-mediated genome-editing method, summarize the recent advances in CRISPR/Cas9 technology, and discuss their implications for plant research. To date, targeted gene knockout using the Cas9/gRNA system has been established in many plant species, and the targeting efficiency and capacity of Cas9 has been improved by optimizing its expression and that of its gRNA. The CRISPR/Cas9 system can also be used for sequence-specific mutagenesis/integration and transcriptional control of target genes. We also discuss off-target effects and the constraint that the protospacer-adjacent motif (PAM) puts on CRISPR/Cas9 genome engineering. To address these problems, a number of bioinformatic tools are available to help design specific gRNAs, and new Cas9 variants and orthologs with high fidelity and alternative PAM specificities have been engineered. Owing to these recent efforts, the CRISPR/Cas9 system is becoming a revolutionary and flexible tool for genome engineering. Adoption of the CRISPR/Cas9 technology in plant research would enable the investigation of plant biology at an unprecedented depth and create innovative applications in precise crop breeding. PMID:27252719

  11. Improving Air Force Command and Control Through Enhanced Agile Combat Support Planning, Execution, Monitoring, and Control Processes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-01-01

    meeting F-15 avionics maintenance requirements across a range of likely scenarios. The authors evaluate investments for new F-15 avionics ...generation capability is a function of many combat support param- eters, including removal rates of avionics components, maintenance throughput of the...flying F-15s will result in avionics -component failure. These failed components will be replaced with serviceable components from the contingency

  12. Multiplexed pancreatic genome engineering and cancer induction by transfection-based CRISPR/Cas9 delivery in mice

    PubMed Central

    Maresch, Roman; Mueller, Sebastian; Veltkamp, Christian; Öllinger, Rupert; Friedrich, Mathias; Heid, Irina; Steiger, Katja; Weber, Julia; Engleitner, Thomas; Barenboim, Maxim; Klein, Sabine; Louzada, Sandra; Banerjee, Ruby; Strong, Alexander; Stauber, Teresa; Gross, Nina; Geumann, Ulf; Lange, Sebastian; Ringelhan, Marc; Varela, Ignacio; Unger, Kristian; Yang, Fengtang; Schmid, Roland M.; Vassiliou, George S.; Braren, Rickmer; Schneider, Günter; Heikenwalder, Mathias; Bradley, Allan; Saur, Dieter; Rad, Roland

    2016-01-01

    Mouse transgenesis has provided fundamental insights into pancreatic cancer, but is limited by the long duration of allele/model generation. Here we show transfection-based multiplexed delivery of CRISPR/Cas9 to the pancreas of adult mice, allowing simultaneous editing of multiple gene sets in individual cells. We use the method to induce pancreatic cancer and exploit CRISPR/Cas9 mutational signatures for phylogenetic tracking of metastatic disease. Our results demonstrate that CRISPR/Cas9-multiplexing enables key applications, such as combinatorial gene-network analysis, in vivo synthetic lethality screening and chromosome engineering. Negative-selection screening in the pancreas using multiplexed-CRISPR/Cas9 confirms the vulnerability of pancreatic cells to Brca2-inactivation in a Kras-mutant context. We also demonstrate modelling of chromosomal deletions and targeted somatic engineering of inter-chromosomal translocations, offering multifaceted opportunities to study complex structural variation, a hallmark of pancreatic cancer. The low-frequency mosaic pattern of transfection-based CRISPR/Cas9 delivery faithfully recapitulates the stochastic nature of human tumorigenesis, supporting wide applicability for biological/preclinical research. PMID:26916719

  13. Multiplexed pancreatic genome engineering and cancer induction by transfection-based CRISPR/Cas9 delivery in mice.

    PubMed

    Maresch, Roman; Mueller, Sebastian; Veltkamp, Christian; Öllinger, Rupert; Friedrich, Mathias; Heid, Irina; Steiger, Katja; Weber, Julia; Engleitner, Thomas; Barenboim, Maxim; Klein, Sabine; Louzada, Sandra; Banerjee, Ruby; Strong, Alexander; Stauber, Teresa; Gross, Nina; Geumann, Ulf; Lange, Sebastian; Ringelhan, Marc; Varela, Ignacio; Unger, Kristian; Yang, Fengtang; Schmid, Roland M; Vassiliou, George S; Braren, Rickmer; Schneider, Günter; Heikenwalder, Mathias; Bradley, Allan; Saur, Dieter; Rad, Roland

    2016-02-26

    Mouse transgenesis has provided fundamental insights into pancreatic cancer, but is limited by the long duration of allele/model generation. Here we show transfection-based multiplexed delivery of CRISPR/Cas9 to the pancreas of adult mice, allowing simultaneous editing of multiple gene sets in individual cells. We use the method to induce pancreatic cancer and exploit CRISPR/Cas9 mutational signatures for phylogenetic tracking of metastatic disease. Our results demonstrate that CRISPR/Cas9-multiplexing enables key applications, such as combinatorial gene-network analysis, in vivo synthetic lethality screening and chromosome engineering. Negative-selection screening in the pancreas using multiplexed-CRISPR/Cas9 confirms the vulnerability of pancreatic cells to Brca2-inactivation in a Kras-mutant context. We also demonstrate modelling of chromosomal deletions and targeted somatic engineering of inter-chromosomal translocations, offering multifaceted opportunities to study complex structural variation, a hallmark of pancreatic cancer. The low-frequency mosaic pattern of transfection-based CRISPR/Cas9 delivery faithfully recapitulates the stochastic nature of human tumorigenesis, supporting wide applicability for biological/preclinical research.

  14. An Assessment of Hickam Air Force Base's Capability to Support Strategic Airlift Throughput when Operating under an Avian Flu Pandemic

    SciTech Connect

    Brigantic, Robert T.; Campbell, James R.; Doctor, Pamela G.; Johnson, Alan; Coomber, P.

    2006-03-10

    Hickam Air Force Base (AFB), Hawaii provides an ideal waypoint for U.S. strategic airlift aircraft to refuel and receive other services on their way to Northeast and Southeast Asia from the continental United States. Hickam AFB also serves as a critical aerial port of debarkation (APOD) for deploying U.S. forces and equipment to more distant lands as needed. Making use of the United States Transportation Command’s Aerial Port of Debarkation Plus model, this paper examines the ability of Hickam AFB to serve in its important role as an APOD when operating under the effects of a major avian flu pandemic. In this regard, the major influence on Hickam AFB will be a serious degradation to the number of available personnel to service aircraft and operate Hickam AFB’s aerial port. It is noted that the results presented herein are based on simplistic attrition rate assumptions. Nonetheless, it is envisioned that this work is applicable to more realistic input attrition rates as avian flu epidemiological models are refined, as well as attrition associated with other types of contagious pandemic disease or willful biological warfare attack.

  15. Multi-Level Wild Land Fire Fighting Management Support System for an Optimized Guidance of Ground and Air Forces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Almer, Alexander; Schnabel, Thomas; Perko, Roland; Raggam, Johann; Köfler, Armin; Feischl, Richard

    2016-04-01

    Climate change will lead to a dramatic increase in damage from forest fires in Europe by the end of this century. In the Mediterranean region, the average annual area affected by forest fires has quadrupled since the 1960s (WWF, 2012). The number of forest fires is also on the increase in Central and Northern Europe. The Austrian forest fire database shows a total of 584 fires for the period 2012 to 2014, while even large areas of Sweden were hit by forest fires in August 2014, which were brought under control only after two weeks of intense fire-fighting efforts supported by European civil protection modules. Based on these facts, the improvements in forest fire control are a major international issue in the quest to protect human lives and resources as well as to reduce the negative environmental impact of these fires to a minimum. Within this paper the development of a multi-functional airborne management support system within the frame of the Austrian national safety and security research programme (KIRAS) is described. The main goal of the developments is to assist crisis management tasks of civil emergency teams and armed forces in disaster management by providing multi spectral, near real-time airborne image data products. As time, flexibility and reliability as well as objective information are crucial aspects in emergency management, the used components are tailored to meet these requirements. An airborne multi-functional management support system was developed as part of the national funded project AIRWATCH, which enables real-time monitoring of natural disasters based on optical and thermal images. Airborne image acquisition, a broadband line of sight downlink and near real-time processing solutions allow the generation of an up-to-date geo-referenced situation map. Furthermore, this paper presents ongoing developments for innovative extensions and research activities designed to optimize command operations in national and international fire

  16. Expanding the CRISPR Toolbox: Targeting RNA with Cas13b.

    PubMed

    Barrangou, Rodolphe; Gersbach, Charles A

    2017-02-16

    In this issue of Molecular Cell, Smargon et al. (2017) unearth Cas13b from type VI-B CRISPR-Cas immune systems and characterize its RNA-guided, RNA-targeting activity, including regulation by the novel co-factors Csx27 and Csx28, as well as non-specific collateral RNA damage.

  17. Using CAS to Solve a Mathematics Task: A Deconstruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berger, Margot

    2010-01-01

    I investigate how and whether a heterogeneous group of first-year university mathematics students in South Africa harness the potential power of a computer algebra system (CAS) when doing a specific mathematics task. In order to do this, I develop a framework for deconstructing a mathematics task requiring the use of CAS, into its primary…

  18. Calibrated Ancillary System (CAS) user's guide, volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    The Calibrated Ancillary System (CAS) provides real-time calibrated parameters from the orbiter downlink (ancillary data) to the Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC). This user's guide contains the introduction to the equipment, operation, general procedures, and specific procedures of CAS. Volume 2 describes the central status and control (CSAC) procedures, supervisor procedures, and logging procedures.

  19. Calibrated Ancillary System (CAS) user's guide, volume 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    The Calibrated Ancillary System (CAS) provides real-time calibrated parameters from the orbiter downlink (ancillary data) to the Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC). This user's guide contains the introduction to the equipment, operation, general procedures, and specific procedures of the CAS. Volume 3 describes logging and delogging procedures, real-time procedures, and error messages.

  20. Calibrated Ancillary System (CAS) user's guide, volume 8

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    The Calibrated Ancillary System (CAS) provides real-time calibrated parameters from the orbiter downlink (ancillary data) to the Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC). This user's guide contains the introduction to the equipment, operation, general procedures, and specific procedures of CAS. Volume 8 describes procedures for invoking checkout software, file maintenance procedures, system manager procedures.

  1. Optimization of genome editing through CRISPR-Cas9 engineering.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jian-Hua; Adikaram, Poorni; Pandey, Mritunjay; Genis, Allison; Simonds, William F

    2016-04-01

    CRISPR (Clustered Regularly-Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats)-Cas9 (CRISPR associated protein 9) has rapidly become the most promising genome editing tool with great potential to revolutionize medicine. Through guidance of a 20 nucleotide RNA (gRNA), CRISPR-Cas9 finds and cuts target protospacer DNA precisely 3 base pairs upstream of a PAM (Protospacer Adjacent Motif). The broken DNA ends are repaired by either NHEJ (Non-Homologous End Joining) resulting in small indels, or by HDR (Homology Directed Repair) for precise gene or nucleotide replacement. Theoretically, CRISPR-Cas9 could be used to modify any genomic sequences, thereby providing a simple, easy, and cost effective means of genome wide gene editing. However, the off-target activity of CRISPR-Cas9 that cuts DNA sites with imperfect matches with gRNA have been of significant concern because clinical applications require 100% accuracy. Additionally, CRISPR-Cas9 has unpredictable efficiency among different DNA target sites and the PAM requirements greatly restrict its genome editing frequency. A large number of efforts have been made to address these impeding issues, but much more is needed to fully realize the medical potential of CRISPR-Cas9. In this article, we summarize the existing problems and current advances of the CRISPR-Cas9 technology and provide perspectives for the ultimate perfection of Cas9-mediated genome editing.

  2. Reaction to Indispensable Manual Calculation Skills in a CAS Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monaghan, John

    2001-01-01

    Reacts to an article published in a previous issue of this journal on the effects of graphing calculators and computer algebra systems (CAS) on students' manual calculation and algebraic manipulation skills. Considers the contribution made by Jean-Baptiste Lagrange to thinking about the role of CAS in teaching algebra. (ASK)

  3. 48 CFR 9903.201-2 - Types of CAS coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...) Receive a single CAS-covered contract award of $50 million or more; or (2) Received $50 million or more in... business unit receives a single CAS-covered contract award of $50 million or more, that contract must be... institution that operate as independent organizational entities under the auspices of the parent...

  4. From Calculus to Dynamical Systems through DGS and CAS

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    García, Jeanett López; Zamudio, Jorge Javier Jiménez

    2015-01-01

    Several factors have motivated the use of CAS or DGS in the teaching-learning process, such as: the development of new technologies, the availability of computers, and the widespread use of the Internet, among others. Even more, the trend to include CAS and DGS in the curricula of some undergraduate studies has resulted in the instruction of the…

  5. Teaching Undergraduate Mathematics Using CAS Technology: Issues and Prospects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tobin, Patrick C.; Weiss, Vida

    2016-01-01

    The use of handheld CAS technology in undergraduate mathematics courses in Australia is paradoxically shrinking under sustained disapproval or disdain from the professional mathematics community. Mathematics education specialists argue with their mathematics colleagues over a range of issues in course development and this use of CAS or even…

  6. Interhospital Air Transport of a Blind Patient on Extracorporeal Life Support with Consecutive and Successful Left Ventricular Assist Device Implantation

    PubMed Central

    Bauer, Adrian; Schaarschmidt, Jan; Grosse, F. Oliver; Al Alam, Nidal; Hausmann, Harald; Krämer, Klaus; Strüber, Martin; Mohr, Friedrich W.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract: The use of extracorporeal life support systems (ECLS) in patients with postcardiotomy low cardiac output syndrome (LCO) as a bridge to recovery and bridge to implantation of ventricular assist device (VAD) is common nowadays. A 59-year-old patient with acute myocardial infarction received a percutaneous transluminal angioplasty and stenting of the circumflex artery. During catheterization of the left coronary artery (LAD), the patient showed ventricular fibrillation and required defibrillation and cardiopulmonary resuscitation. After implantation of an intra-aortic balloon pump, the patient immediately was transmitted to the operating room. He received emergency coronary artery bypass grafting in a beating heart technique using pump-assisted minimal extracorporeal circulation circuit (MECC). Two bypass grafts were performed to the LAD and the right posterior descending artery. Despite initial successful weaning off cardiopulmonary bypass with high-dose inotropic support, the patient presented postcardiotomy LCO and an ECLS was implanted. The primary setup of the heparin-coated MECC system was modified and used postoperatively. As a result of the absence of an in-house VAD program, the patient was switched to a transportable ECLS the next day and was transferred by helicopter to the nearest VAD center where the patient received a successful insertion of a left VAD 3 days later. PMID:25208435

  7. Comparison of Highly Resolved Model-Based Exposure Metrics for Traffic-Related Air Pollutants to Support Environmental Health Studies

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Shih Ying; Vizuete, William; Breen, Michael; Isakov, Vlad; Arunachalam, Saravanan

    2015-01-01

    Human exposure to air pollution in many studies is represented by ambient concentrations from space-time kriging of observed values. Space-time kriging techniques based on a limited number of ambient monitors may fail to capture the concentration from local sources. Further, because people spend more time indoors, using ambient concentration to represent exposure may cause error. To quantify the associated exposure error, we computed a series of six different hourly-based exposure metrics at 16,095 Census blocks of three Counties in North Carolina for CO, NOx, PM2.5, and elemental carbon (EC) during 2012. These metrics include ambient background concentration from space-time ordinary kriging (STOK), ambient on-road concentration from the Research LINE source dispersion model (R-LINE), a hybrid concentration combining STOK and R-LINE, and their associated indoor concentrations from an indoor infiltration mass balance model. Using a hybrid-based indoor concentration as the standard, the comparison showed that outdoor STOK metrics yielded large error at both population (67% to 93%) and individual level (average bias between −10% to 95%). For pollutants with significant contribution from on-road emission (EC and NOx), the on-road based indoor metric performs the best at the population level (error less than 52%). At the individual level, however, the STOK-based indoor concentration performs the best (average bias below 30%). For PM2.5, due to the relatively low contribution from on-road emission (7%), STOK-based indoor metric performs the best at both population (error below 40%) and individual level (error below 25%). The results of the study will help future epidemiology studies to select appropriate exposure metric and reduce potential bias in exposure characterization. PMID:26670242

  8. Comparison of Highly Resolved Model-Based Exposure Metrics for Traffic-Related Air Pollutants to Support Environmental Health Studies.

    PubMed

    Chang, Shih Ying; Vizuete, William; Breen, Michael; Isakov, Vlad; Arunachalam, Saravanan

    2015-12-08

    Human exposure to air pollution in many studies is represented by ambient concentrations from space-time kriging of observed values. Space-time kriging techniques based on a limited number of ambient monitors may fail to capture the concentration from local sources. Further, because people spend more time indoors, using ambient concentration to represent exposure may cause error. To quantify the associated exposure error, we computed a series of six different hourly-based exposure metrics at 16,095 Census blocks of three Counties in North Carolina for CO, NO(x), PM(2.5), and elemental carbon (EC) during 2012. These metrics include ambient background concentration from space-time ordinary kriging (STOK), ambient on-road concentration from the Research LINE source dispersion model (R-LINE), a hybrid concentration combining STOK and R-LINE, and their associated indoor concentrations from an indoor infiltration mass balance model. Using a hybrid-based indoor concentration as the standard, the comparison showed that outdoor STOK metrics yielded large error at both population (67% to 93%) and individual level (average bias between -10% to 95%). For pollutants with significant contribution from on-road emission (EC and NO(x)), the on-road based indoor metric performs the best at the population level (error less than 52%). At the individual level, however, the STOK-based indoor concentration performs the best (average bias below 30%). For PM(2.5), due to the relatively low contribution from on-road emission (7%), STOK-based indoor metric performs the best at both population (error below 40%) and individual level (error below 25%). The results of the study will help future epidemiology studies to select appropriate exposure metric and reduce potential bias in exposure characterization.

  9. CRISPR-Cas Technologies and Applications in Food Bacteria.

    PubMed

    Stout, Emily; Klaenhammer, Todd; Barrangou, Rodolphe

    2017-02-28

    Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPRs) and CRISPR-associated (Cas) proteins form adaptive immune systems that occur in many bacteria and most archaea. In addition to protecting bacteria from phages and other invasive mobile genetic elements, CRISPR-Cas molecular machines can be repurposed as tool kits for applications relevant to the food industry. A primary concern of the food industry has long been the proper management of food-related bacteria, with a focus on both enhancing the outcomes of beneficial microorganisms such as starter cultures and probiotics and limiting the presence of detrimental organisms such as pathogens and spoilage microorganisms. This review introduces CRISPR-Cas as a novel set of technologies to manage food bacteria and offers insights into CRISPR-Cas biology. It primarily focuses on the applications of CRISPR-Cas systems and tools in starter cultures and probiotics, encompassing strain-typing, phage resistance, plasmid vaccination, genome editing, and antimicrobial activity.

  10. Cas9-mediated targeting of viral RNA in eukaryotic cells.

    PubMed

    Price, Aryn A; Sampson, Timothy R; Ratner, Hannah K; Grakoui, Arash; Weiss, David S

    2015-05-12

    Clustered, regularly interspaced, short palindromic repeats-CRISPR associated (CRISPR-Cas) systems are prokaryotic RNA-directed endonuclease machineries that act as an adaptive immune system against foreign genetic elements. Using small CRISPR RNAs that provide specificity, Cas proteins recognize and degrade nucleic acids. Our previous work demonstrated that the Cas9 endonuclease from Francisella novicida (FnCas9) is capable of targeting endogenous bacterial RNA. Here, we show that FnCas9 can be directed by an engineered RNA-targeting guide RNA to target and inhibit a human +ssRNA virus, hepatitis C virus, within eukaryotic cells. This work reveals a versatile and portable RNA-targeting system that can effectively function in eukaryotic cells and be programmed as an antiviral defense.

  11. Cas9-mediated targeting of viral RNA in eukaryotic cells

    PubMed Central

    Price, Aryn A.; Sampson, Timothy R.; Ratner, Hannah K.; Grakoui, Arash; Weiss, David S.

    2015-01-01

    Clustered, regularly interspaced, short palindromic repeats–CRISPR associated (CRISPR-Cas) systems are prokaryotic RNA-directed endonuclease machineries that act as an adaptive immune system against foreign genetic elements. Using small CRISPR RNAs that provide specificity, Cas proteins recognize and degrade nucleic acids. Our previous work demonstrated that the Cas9 endonuclease from Francisella novicida (FnCas9) is capable of targeting endogenous bacterial RNA. Here, we show that FnCas9 can be directed by an engineered RNA-targeting guide RNA to target and inhibit a human +ssRNA virus, hepatitis C virus, within eukaryotic cells. This work reveals a versatile and portable RNA-targeting system that can effectively function in eukaryotic cells and be programmed as an antiviral defense. PMID:25918406

  12. Diversity and evolution of class 2 CRISPR-Cas systems.

    PubMed

    Shmakov, Sergey; Smargon, Aaron; Scott, David; Cox, David; Pyzocha, Neena; Yan, Winston; Abudayyeh, Omar O; Gootenberg, Jonathan S; Makarova, Kira S; Wolf, Yuri I; Severinov, Konstantin; Zhang, Feng; Koonin, Eugene V

    2017-03-01

    Class 2 CRISPR-Cas systems are characterized by effector modules that consist of a single multidomain protein, such as Cas9 or Cpf1. We designed a computational pipeline for the discovery of novel class 2 variants and used it to identify six new CRISPR-Cas subtypes. The diverse properties of these new systems provide potential for the development of versatile tools for genome editing and regulation. In this Analysis article, we present a comprehensive census of class 2 types and class 2 subtypes in complete and draft bacterial and archaeal genomes, outline evolutionary scenarios for the independent origin of different class 2 CRISPR-Cas systems from mobile genetic elements, and propose an amended classification and nomenclature of CRISPR-Cas.

  13. Guide RNA engineering for versatile Cas9 functionality

    PubMed Central

    Nowak, Chance M.; Lawson, Seth; Zerez, Megan; Bleris, Leonidas

    2016-01-01

    The Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats system allows a single guide RNA (sgRNA) to direct a protein with combined helicase and nuclease activity to the DNA. Streptococcus pyogenes Cas9 (SpCas9), a CRISPR-associated protein, has revolutionized our ability to probe and edit the human genome in vitro and in vivo. Arguably, the true modularity of the Cas9 platform is conferred through the ease of sgRNA programmability as well as the degree of modifications the sgRNA can tolerate without compromising its association with SpCas9 and function. In this review, we focus on the properties and recent engineering advances of the sgRNA component in Cas9-mediated genome targeting. PMID:27733506

  14. Comprehensive Protocols for CRISPR/Cas9-based Gene Editing in Human Pluripotent Stem Cells.

    PubMed

    Santos, David P; Kiskinis, Evangelos; Eggan, Kevin; Merkle, Florian T

    2016-08-17

    Genome editing of human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) with the CRISPR/Cas9 system has the potential to revolutionize hPSC-based disease modeling, drug screening, and transplantation therapy. Here, we aim to provide a single resource to enable groups, even those with limited experience with hPSC culture or the CRISPR/Cas9 system, to successfully perform genome editing. The methods are presented in detail and are supported by a theoretical framework to allow for the incorporation of inevitable improvements in the rapidly evolving gene-editing field. We describe protocols to generate hPSC lines with gene-specific knock-outs, small targeted mutations, or knock-in reporters. © 2016 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  15. RIFM fragrance ingredient safety assessment, p-Isopropylbenzyl acetate, CAS Registry Number 59230-57-8.

    PubMed

    Api, A M; Belsito, D; Bhatia, S; Bruze, M; Calow, P; Dagli, M L; Dekant, W; Fryer, A D; Kromidas, L; La Cava, S; Lalko, J F; Lapczynski, A; Liebler, D C; Politano, V T; Ritacco, G; Salvito, D; Schultz, T W; Shen, J; Sipes, I G; Wall, B; Wilcox, D K

    2016-11-01

    The use of this material under current use conditions is supported by the existing information. This material was evaluated for genotoxicity, repeated dose toxicity, developmental toxicity, reproductive toxicity, local respiratory toxicity, phototoxicity, skin sensitization, as well as environmental safety. Data from the suitable read across analog, benzyl acetate (CAS # 140-11-4), show that this material is not genotoxic nor does it have skin sensitization potential. The repeated dose, developmental and reproductive, and local respiratory toxicity endpoints were completed using benzyl acetate (CAS # 140-11-4) as a suitable read across analog, which provided a MOE > 100. The phototoxicity/photoallergenicity endpoint was completed based on suitable UV spectra. The environmental endpoint was completed as described in the RIFM Framework.

  16. Clean Air Slots Amid Dense Atmospheric Pollution in Southern Africa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hobbs, Peter V.

    2003-01-01

    During the flights of the University of Washington's Convair-580 in the Southern African Regional Science Initiative (SAFARI 2000) in southern Africa, a phenomenon was observed that has not been reported previously. This was the occurrence of thin layers of remarkably clean air, sandwiched between heavily polluted air, which persisted for many hours during the day. Photographs are shown of these clean air slots (CAS), and particle concentrations and light scattering coefficients in and around such slot are presented. An explanation is proposed for the propensity of CAS to form in southern Africa during the dry season.

  17. Implementing the CAS Standards: The Implementation of the CAS Standards in Student Affairs as a Comprehensive Assessment Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dorman, Jesse A.

    2012-01-01

    The increasing use of the CAS standards as a comprehensive assessment approach in divisions of student affairs necessitates a more in-depth understanding of how the CAS standards are being implemented in these settings. In response to increasing calls for improvement, accountability and professionalism in student affairs (Bresciani, 2006; Cooper…

  18. Interference activity of a minimal Type I CRISPR–Cas system from Shewanella putrefaciens

    PubMed Central

    Dwarakanath, Srivatsa; Brenzinger, Susanne; Gleditzsch, Daniel; Plagens, André; Klingl, Andreas; Thormann, Kai; Randau, Lennart

    2015-01-01

    Type I CRISPR (Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats)–Cas (CRISPR-associated) systems exist in bacterial and archaeal organisms and provide immunity against foreign DNA. The Cas protein content of the DNA interference complexes (termed Cascade) varies between different CRISPR-Cas subtypes. A minimal variant of the Type I-F system was identified in proteobacterial species including Shewanella putrefaciens CN-32. This variant lacks a large subunit (Csy1), Csy2 and Csy3 and contains two unclassified cas genes. The genome of S. putrefaciens CN-32 contains only five Cas proteins (Cas1, Cas3, Cas6f, Cas1821 and Cas1822) and a single CRISPR array with 81 spacers. RNA-Seq analyses revealed the transcription of this array and the maturation of crRNAs (CRISPR RNAs). Interference assays based on plasmid conjugation demonstrated that this CRISPR-Cas system is active in vivo and that activity is dependent on the recognition of the dinucleotide GG PAM (Protospacer Adjacent Motif) sequence and crRNA abundance. The deletion of cas1821 and cas1822 reduced the cellular crRNA pool. Recombinant Cas1821 was shown to form helical filaments bound to RNA molecules, which suggests its role as the Cascade backbone protein. A Cascade complex was isolated which contained multiple Cas1821 copies, Cas1822, Cas6f and mature crRNAs. PMID:26350210

  19. Air Pollution Training Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Public Health Service (DHEW), Rockville, MD.

    This catalog lists the universities, both supported and not supported by the Division of Air Pollution, which offer graduate programs in the field of air pollution. The catalog briefly describes the programs and their entrance requirements, the requirements, qualifications and terms of special fellowships offered by the Division of Air Pollution.…

  20. Algorithm and simulation development in support of response strategies for contamination events in air and water systems.

    SciTech Connect

    Waanders, Bart Van Bloemen

    2006-01-01

    Chemical/Biological/Radiological (CBR) contamination events pose a considerable threat to our nation's infrastructure, especially in large internal facilities, external flows, and water distribution systems. Because physical security can only be enforced to a limited degree, deployment of early warning systems is being considered. However to achieve reliable and efficient functionality, several complex questions must be answered: (1) where should sensors be placed, (2) how can sparse sensor information be efficiently used to determine the location of the original intrusion, (3) what are the model and data uncertainties, (4) how should these uncertainties be handled, and (5) how can our algorithms and forward simulations be sufficiently improved to achieve real time performance? This report presents the results of a three year algorithmic and application development to support the identification, mitigation, and risk assessment of CBR contamination events. The main thrust of this investigation was to develop (1) computationally efficient algorithms for strategically placing sensors, (2) identification process of contamination events by using sparse observations, (3) characterization of uncertainty through developing accurate demands forecasts and through investigating uncertain simulation model parameters, (4) risk assessment capabilities, and (5) reduced order modeling methods. The development effort was focused on water distribution systems, large internal facilities, and outdoor areas.

  1. Preliminary assessment report for Army Aviation Support Facility 2, Installation 25075, Westover Air Force Base, Chicopee, Massachusetts. Installation Restoration Program

    SciTech Connect

    Haffenden, R.; Flaim, S.

    1993-08-01

    This report presents the results of the preliminary assessment (PA) conducted by Argonne National Laboratory at the Massachusetts Army National Guard (MAARNG) property known as the Army Aviation Support Facility 2 (AASF 2) near Chicopee, Massachusetts. Preliminary assessments of federal facilities are being conducted to compile the information necessary for completing preremedial activities and to provide a basis for establishing corrective actions in response to releases of hazardous substances. The principal objective of the PA is to characterize the site accurately and determine the need for further action by examining site activities, quantities of hazardous substances present, and potential pathways by which contamination could affect public health and the environment. The AASF 2 is a 10-acre site located in the western portion of Massachusetts, in the town of Chicopee, in the county of Hampden. The facilities included in this PA are Building 7400, adjacent paved areas, grassy areas, and the hazardous waste drum storage buildings. The environmentally significant operations (ESOS) associated with the property are (1) the waste drum storage area, (2) abandoned underground storage tanks (USTs), and (3) refueling activities.

  2. Pilomatricome: étude de 22 cas

    PubMed Central

    Nasreddine, Fatima Zahra; Hali, Fouzia; Chiheb, Soumiya

    2016-01-01

    Le pilomatricome est une tumeur cutanée fréquente et bénigne du follicule pileux chez l'enfant. C'est une tumeur annexielle souvent méconnue et confondue avec d'autres lésions cutanées. Les localisations habituelles sont la tête et le cou. Le but de ce travail est de rapporter une série de 22 cas comportant des formes inhabituelles colligées au service de dermatologie sur une période allant de Janvier 2006 jusqu'au Mai 2015. L’étude a concerné 16 femmes et 6 hommes. La moyenne d’âge était de 23,3 ans (4-80 ans). La localisation cervico faciale a été observée dans 12 cas, 2 patients avaient des localisations multiples, un garçon de 4ans avait une localisation au niveau fronto-temporal et une fillette de 14 ans avait une localisation au niveau du visage et de l'avant-bras, et un patient de 48 ans avait une localisation sous unguéale. L'aspect clinique était typique dans tous les cas avec des nodules sous cutanés de consistance pierreuse. Tous les patients ont bénéficié d'une exérèse des nodules sous anesthésie locale. L’étude histologique était en faveur d'un épithélioma momifié de Malherbe d'exérèse complète sans signes de malignité. Aucun patient n'a présenté de rechute. L'originalité de notre étude réside dans la présence de localisations exceptionnelles au niveau latéro-vertébral, des membres et sous-unguéale, l’âge de survenue inhabituel à 80 ans et la présence de localisations multiples signalées chez 2 enfants. PMID:27516819

  3. Crystal Structure of Streptococcus pyogenes Cas1 and Its Interaction with Csn2 in the Type II CRISPR-Cas System.

    PubMed

    Ka, Donghyun; Lee, Hasup; Jung, Yi-Deun; Kim, Kyunggon; Seok, Chaok; Suh, Nayoung; Bae, Euiyoung

    2016-01-05

    CRISPRs and Cas proteins constitute an RNA-guided microbial immune system against invading nucleic acids. Cas1 is a universal Cas protein found in all three types of CRISPR-Cas systems, and its role is implicated in new spacer acquisition during CRISPR-mediated adaptive immunity. Here, we report the crystal structure of Streptococcus pyogenes Cas1 (SpCas1) in a type II CRISPR-Cas system and characterize its interaction with S. pyogenes Csn2 (SpCsn2). The SpCas1 structure reveals a unique conformational state distinct from type I Cas1 structures, resulting in a more extensive dimerization interface, a more globular overall structure, and a disruption of potential metal-binding sites for catalysis. We demonstrate that SpCas1 directly interacts with SpCsn2, and identify the binding interface and key residues for Cas complex formation. These results provide structural information for a type II Cas1 protein, and lay a foundation for studying multiprotein Cas complexes functioning in type II CRISPR-Cas systems.

  4. CRISPR/Cas9 Based Genome Editing of Penicillium chrysogenum.

    PubMed

    Pohl, C; Kiel, J A K W; Driessen, A J M; Bovenberg, R A L; Nygård, Y

    2016-07-15

    CRISPR/Cas9 based systems have emerged as versatile platforms for precision genome editing in a wide range of organisms. Here we have developed powerful CRISPR/Cas9 tools for marker-based and marker-free genome modifications in Penicillium chrysogenum, a model filamentous fungus and industrially relevant cell factory. The developed CRISPR/Cas9 toolbox is highly flexible and allows editing of new targets with minimal cloning efforts. The Cas9 protein and the sgRNA can be either delivered during transformation, as preassembled CRISPR-Cas9 ribonucleoproteins (RNPs) or expressed from an AMA1 based plasmid within the cell. The direct delivery of the Cas9 protein with in vitro synthesized sgRNA to the cells allows for a transient method for genome engineering that may rapidly be applicable for other filamentous fungi. The expression of Cas9 from an AMA1 based vector was shown to be highly efficient for marker-free gene deletions.

  5. Nucleosome breathing and remodeling constrain CRISPR-Cas9 function

    PubMed Central

    Isaac, R Stefan; Jiang, Fuguo; Doudna, Jennifer A; Lim, Wendell A; Narlikar, Geeta J; Almeida, Ricardo

    2016-01-01

    The CRISPR-Cas9 bacterial surveillance system has become a versatile tool for genome editing and gene regulation in eukaryotic cells, yet how CRISPR-Cas9 contends with the barriers presented by eukaryotic chromatin is poorly understood. Here we investigate how the smallest unit of chromatin, a nucleosome, constrains the activity of the CRISPR-Cas9 system. We find that nucleosomes assembled on native DNA sequences are permissive to Cas9 action. However, the accessibility of nucleosomal DNA to Cas9 is variable over several orders of magnitude depending on dynamic properties of the DNA sequence and the distance of the PAM site from the nucleosome dyad. We further find that chromatin remodeling enzymes stimulate Cas9 activity on nucleosomal templates. Our findings imply that the spontaneous breathing of nucleosomal DNA together with the action of chromatin remodelers allow Cas9 to effectively act on chromatin in vivo. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.13450.001 PMID:27130520

  6. Genomic Disruption of VEGF-A Expression in Human Retinal Pigment Epithelial Cells Using CRISPR-Cas9 Endonuclease

    PubMed Central

    Yiu, Glenn; Tieu, Eric; Nguyen, Anthony T.; Wong, Brittany; Smit-McBride, Zeljka

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To employ type II clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)-Cas9 endonuclease to suppress ocular angiogenesis by genomic disruption of VEGF-A in human RPE cells. Methods CRISPR sequences targeting exon 1 of human VEGF-A were computationally identified based on predicted Cas9 on- and off-target probabilities. Single guide RNA (gRNA) cassettes with these target sequences were cloned into lentiviral vectors encoding the Streptococcus pyogenes Cas9 endonuclease (SpCas9) gene. The lentiviral vectors were used to infect ARPE-19 cells, a human RPE cell line. Frequency of insertion or deletion (indel) mutations was assessed by T7 endonuclease 1 mismatch detection assay; mRNA levels were assessed with quantitative real-time PCR; and VEGF-A protein levels were determined by ELISA. In vitro angiogenesis was measured using an endothelial cell tube formation assay. Results Five gRNAs targeting VEGF-A were selected based on the highest predicted on-target probabilities, lowest off-target probabilities, or combined average of both scores. Lentiviral delivery of the top-scoring gRNAs with SpCas9 resulted in indel formation in the VEGF-A gene at frequencies up to 37.0% ± 4.0% with corresponding decreases in secreted VEGF-A protein up to 41.2% ± 7.4% (P < 0.001), and reduction of endothelial tube formation up to 39.4% ± 9.8% (P = 0.02). No significant indel formation in the top three putative off-target sites tested was detected. Conclusions The CRISPR-Cas9 endonuclease system may reduce VEGF-A secretion from human RPE cells and suppress angiogenesis, supporting the possibility of employing gene editing for antiangiogenesis therapy in ocular diseases. PMID:27768202

  7. HPCCP/CAS Workshop Proceedings 1998

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schulbach, Catherine; Mata, Ellen (Editor); Schulbach, Catherine (Editor)

    1999-01-01

    This publication is a collection of extended abstracts of presentations given at the HPCCP/CAS (High Performance Computing and Communications Program/Computational Aerosciences Project) Workshop held on August 24-26, 1998, at NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, California. The objective of the Workshop was to bring together the aerospace high performance computing community, consisting of airframe and propulsion companies, independent software vendors, university researchers, and government scientists and engineers. The Workshop was sponsored by the HPCCP Office at NASA Ames Research Center. The Workshop consisted of over 40 presentations, including an overview of NASA's High Performance Computing and Communications Program and the Computational Aerosciences Project; ten sessions of papers representative of the high performance computing research conducted within the Program by the aerospace industry, academia, NASA, and other government laboratories; two panel sessions; and a special presentation by Mr. James Bailey.

  8. Adaptation in CRISPR-Cas Systems.

    PubMed

    Sternberg, Samuel H; Richter, Hagen; Charpentier, Emmanuelle; Qimron, Udi

    2016-03-17

    Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) and CRISPR-associated (Cas) proteins constitute an adaptive immune system in prokaryotes. The system preserves memories of prior infections by integrating short segments of foreign DNA, termed spacers, into the CRISPR array in a process termed adaptation. During the past 3 years, significant progress has been made on the genetic requirements and molecular mechanisms of adaptation. Here we review these recent advances, with a focus on the experimental approaches that have been developed, the insights they generated, and a proposed mechanism for self- versus non-self-discrimination during the process of spacer selection. We further describe the regulation of adaptation and the protein players involved in this fascinating process that allows bacteria and archaea to harbor adaptive immunity.

  9. Tumeur de Frantz: deux nouveaux cas

    PubMed Central

    Bellarbi, Salma; Sina, Mohamed; Jahid, Ahmed; Zouaidia, Fouad; Bernoussi, Zakia; Mahassini, Najat

    2013-01-01

    A travers cet article, nous détaillons les caractéristiques clinico-pathologiques et discutons l'histogenèse de la tumeur de Frantz. Deux patients opérés pour tumeur de Frantz. Ils ont eu un traitement chirurgical seul. L'étude morphologique était couplée à un examen immuno-histochimique (IHC) utilisant les anticorps anti CD10, anti- vimentine, anti-énolase neuronale spécifique (NSE), anti-synaptophysine, anti-chromogranine A et anti-cytokératine. Un immuno-marquage à l'anti-oestrogène et l'anti-progestérone a été réalisé dans un cas. Il s'agissait d'une femme âgée de 45ans et d'un garçon de 12 ans. Les aspects échographiques et scannographiques étaient non spécifiques. Une exérèse chirurgicale complète a été réalisée dans les deux cas. L'analyse histologique évoquait une tumeur de Frantz. Le diagnostic a été retenu après étude immuno-histohimique. L'évolution était favorable sans récidive avec respectivement un recul de 18 et 16 mois. La tumeur de Frantz est une entité rare. Son diagnostic repose sur l'examen anatomopathologique complété par l'étude immuno-histochimique. Son pronostic est excellent après résection chirurgicale. PMID:23503717

  10. CRISPR-Cas9-Mediated Genome Editing in Leishmania donovani

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Wen-Wei

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT The prokaryotic CRISPR (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat)-Cas9, an RNA-guided endonuclease, has been shown to mediate efficient genome editing in a wide variety of organisms. In the present study, the CRISPR-Cas9 system has been adapted to Leishmania donovani, a protozoan parasite that causes fatal human visceral leishmaniasis. We introduced the Cas9 nuclease into L. donovani and generated guide RNA (gRNA) expression vectors by using the L. donovani rRNA promoter and the hepatitis delta virus (HDV) ribozyme. It is demonstrated within that L. donovani mainly used homology-directed repair (HDR) and microhomology-mediated end joining (MMEJ) to repair the Cas9 nuclease-created double-strand DNA break (DSB). The nonhomologous end-joining (NHEJ) pathway appears to be absent in L. donovani. With this CRISPR-Cas9 system, it was possible to generate knockouts without selection by insertion of an oligonucleotide donor with stop codons and 25-nucleotide homology arms into the Cas9 cleavage site. Likewise, we disrupted and precisely tagged endogenous genes by inserting a bleomycin drug selection marker and GFP gene into the Cas9 cleavage site. With the use of Hammerhead and HDV ribozymes, a double-gRNA expression vector that further improved gene-targeting efficiency was developed, and it was used to make precise deletion of the 3-kb miltefosine transporter gene (LdMT). In addition, this study identified a novel single point mutation caused by CRISPR-Cas9 in LdMT (M381T) that led to miltefosine resistance, a concern for the only available oral antileishmanial drug. Together, these results demonstrate that the CRISPR-Cas9 system represents an effective genome engineering tool for L. donovani. PMID:26199327

  11. Characterization and evolution of Salmonella CRISPR-Cas systems.

    PubMed

    Shariat, Nikki; Timme, Ruth E; Pettengill, James B; Barrangou, Rodolphe; Dudley, Edward G

    2015-02-01

    Prokaryotic CRISPR-Cas (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats and CRISPR-associated genes) systems provide adaptive immunity from invasive genetic elements and encompass three essential features: (i) cas genes, (ii) a CRISPR array composed of spacers and direct repeats and (iii) an AT-rich leader sequence upstream of the array. We performed in-depth sequence analysis of the CRISPR-Cas systems in >600 Salmonella, representing four clinically prevalent serovars. Each CRISPR-Cas feature is extremely conserved in the Salmonella, and the CRISPR1 locus is more highly conserved than CRISPR2. Array composition is serovar-specific, although no convincing evidence of recent spacer acquisition against exogenous nucleic acids exists. Only 12% of spacers match phage and plasmid sequences and self-targeting spacers are associated with direct repeat variants. High nucleotide identity (>99.9%) exists across the cas operon among isolates of a single serovar and in some cases this conservation extends across divergent serovars. These observations reflect historical CRISPR-Cas immune activity, showing that this locus has ceased undergoing adaptive events. Intriguingly, the high level of conservation across divergent serovars shows that the genetic integrity of these inactive loci is maintained over time, contrasting with the canonical view that inactive CRISPR loci degenerate over time. This thorough characterization of Salmonella CRISPR-Cas systems presents new insights into Salmonella CRISPR evolution, particularly with respect to cas gene conservation, leader sequences, organization of direct repeats and protospacer matches. Collectively, our data suggest that Salmonella CRISPR-Cas systems are no longer immunogenic; rather, their impressive conservation indicates they may have an alternative function in Salmonella.

  12. Characterization and evolution of Salmonella CRISPR-Cas systems.

    PubMed

    Shariat, Nikki; Timme, Ruth E; Pettengill, James B; Barrangou, Rodolphe; Dudley, Edward G

    2015-02-01

    Prokaryotic CRISPR-Cas (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats and CRISPR-associated genes) systems provide adaptive immunity from invasive genetic elements and encompass three essential features: (i) cas genes, (ii) a CRISPR array composed of spacers and direct repeats and (iii) an AT-rich leader sequence upstream of the array. We performed in-depth sequence analysis of the CRISPR-Cas systems in >600 Salmonella, representing four clinically prevalent serovars. Each CRISPR-Cas feature is extremely conserved in the Salmonella, and the CRISPR1 locus is more highly conserved than CRISPR2. Array composition is serovar-specific, although no convincing evidence of recent spacer acquisition against exogenous nucleic acids exists. Only 12 % of spacers match phage and plasmid sequences and self-targeting spacers are associated with direct repeat variants. High nucleotide identity (>99.9 %) exists across the cas operon among isolates of a single serovar and in some cases this conservation extends across divergent serovars. These observations reflect historical CRISPR-Cas immune activity, showing that this locus has ceased undergoing adaptive events. Intriguingly, the high level of conservation across divergent serovars shows that the genetic integrity of these inactive loci is maintained over time, contrasting with the canonical view that inactive CRISPR loci degenerate over time. This thorough characterization of Salmonella CRISPR-Cas systems presents new insights into Salmonella CRISPR evolution, particularly with respect to cas gene conservation, leader sequences, organization of direct repeats and protospacer matches. Collectively, our data suggest that Salmonella CRISPR-Cas systems are no longer immunogenic; rather, their impressive conservation indicates they may have an alternative function in Salmonella.

  13. 205 PRODUCTION OF Cas9-EXPRESSING CATTLE USING DNA TRANSPOSON.

    PubMed

    Hahn, S-E; Yum, S-Y; Lee, S-J; Lee, C-I; Kim, H-S; Kim, H-J; Choi, W-J; Lee, J-H; Jang, G

    2016-01-01

    A genome-editing technology, CRISPR/Cas9 system is proved to be a powerful tool for knockout and knock-in in various species. When 2 components [Cas9 and single guide (sg) RNA] are delivered into cells or embryos, the events of gene editing occur. Because Cas9 is essential for every gene editing based on the CRISPR/Cas9 system, some studies reported that efficiency of gene editing would be increased as Cas9 was integrated into cells or animals. Accordingly, if the Cas9-expressing cattle is born, it would be broadly used for gene editing in cattle. For this study, the Cas9 and RFP genes were cloned into the PiggyBac transposon system. PiggyBac-Cas9-RFP and transposase were microinjected into 1436 IVF embryos and 241 blastocysts were formed. Blastocysts with RFP expression accounted for 14.1% of total formed blastocysts. Five blastocysts were selected and transferred into 5 recipient cow (1 embryo per recipient). After gestation periods, 4 transgenic cattle were delivered without any veterinary assistance. From transgenic cattle, ear skin tissue was collected for primary culture. On those primary cells, sgRNA in DNA form for various genes such as PRNP, RB1, and BLG were transfected with 2μg of sgRNA per 5×10(5) cells using electroporation. As expected, every group of each sgRNA delivered was confirmed to be mutated by T7E1 assay. The data demonstrated that, for the first time, transgenic cattle with Cas9 expression were born, grown up to date (age=5 months) and will be a valuable resource for genome editing in cattle.

  14. Programmable RNA recognition and cleavage by CRISPR/Cas9.

    PubMed

    O'Connell, Mitchell R; Oakes, Benjamin L; Sternberg, Samuel H; East-Seletsky, Alexandra; Kaplan, Matias; Doudna, Jennifer A

    2014-12-11

    The CRISPR-associated protein Cas9 is an RNA-guided DNA endonuclease that uses RNA-DNA complementarity to identify target sites for sequence-specific double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) cleavage. In its native context, Cas9 acts on DNA substrates exclusively because both binding and catalysis require recognition of a short DNA sequence, known as the protospacer adjacent motif (PAM), next to and on the strand opposite the twenty-nucleotide target site in dsDNA. Cas9 has proven to be a versatile tool for genome engineering and gene regulation in a large range of prokaryotic and eukaryotic cell types, and in whole organisms, but it has been thought to be incapable of targeting RNA. Here we show that Cas9 binds with high affinity to single-stranded RNA (ssRNA) targets matching the Cas9-associated guide RNA sequence when the PAM is presented in trans as a separate DNA oligonucleotide. Furthermore, PAM-presenting oligonucleotides (PAMmers) stimulate site-specific endonucleolytic cleavage of ssRNA targets, similar to PAM-mediated stimulation of Cas9-catalysed DNA cleavage. Using specially designed PAMmers, Cas9 can be specifically directed to bind or cut RNA targets while avoiding corresponding DNA sequences, and we demonstrate that this strategy enables the isolation of a specific endogenous messenger RNA from cells. These results reveal a fundamental connection between PAM binding and substrate selection by Cas9, and highlight the utility of Cas9 for programmable transcript recognition without the need for tags.

  15. CRISPR-spacer integration reporter plasmids reveal distinct genuine acquisition specificities among CRISPR-Cas I-E variants of Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Díez-Villaseñor, César; Guzmán, Noemí M; Almendros, Cristóbal; García-Martínez, Jesús; Mojica, Francisco J M

    2013-05-01

    Prokaryotes immunize themselves against transmissible genetic elements by the integration (acquisition) in clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) loci of spacers homologous to invader nucleic acids, defined as protospacers. Following acquisition, mono-spacer CRISPR RNAs (termed crRNAs) guide CRISPR-associated (Cas) proteins to degrade (interference) protospacers flanked by an adjacent motif in extrachomosomal DNA. During acquisition, selection of spacer-precursors adjoining the protospacer motif and proper orientation of the integrated fragment with respect to the leader (sequence leading transcription of the flanking CRISPR array) grant efficient interference by at least some CRISPR-Cas systems. This adaptive stage of the CRISPR action is poorly characterized, mainly due to the lack of appropriate genetic strategies to address its study and, at least in Escherichia coli, the need of Cas overproduction for insertion detection. In this work, we describe the development and application in Escherichia coli strains of an interference-independent assay based on engineered selectable CRISPR-spacer integration reporter plasmids. By using this tool without the constraint of interference or cas overexpression, we confirmed fundamental aspects of this process such as the critical requirement of Cas1 and Cas2 and the identity of the CTT protospacer motif for the E. coli K12 system. In addition, we defined the CWT motif for a non-K12 CRISPR-Cas variant, and obtained data supporting the implication of the leader in spacer orientation, the preferred acquisition from plasmids harboring cas genes and the occurrence of a sequential cleavage at the insertion site by a ruler mechanism.

  16. Cas9 gRNA engineering for genome editing, activation and repression.

    PubMed

    Kiani, Samira; Chavez, Alejandro; Tuttle, Marcelle; Hall, Richard N; Chari, Raj; Ter-Ovanesyan, Dmitry; Qian, Jason; Pruitt, Benjamin W; Beal, Jacob; Vora, Suhani; Buchthal, Joanna; Kowal, Emma J K; Ebrahimkhani, Mohammad R; Collins, James J; Weiss, Ron; Church, George

    2015-11-01

    We demonstrate that by altering the length of Cas9-associated guide RNA (gRNA) we were able to control Cas9 nuclease activity and simultaneously perform genome editing and transcriptional regulation with a single Cas9 protein. We exploited these principles to engineer mammalian synthetic circuits with combined transcriptional regulation and kill functions governed by a single multifunctional Cas9 protein.

  17. Cas9 gRNA engineering for genome editing, activation and repression

    SciTech Connect

    Kiani, Samira; Chavez, Alejandro; Tuttle, Marcelle; Hall, Richard N.; Chari, Raj; Ter-Ovanesyan, Dmitry; Qian, Jason; Pruitt, Benjamin W.; Beal, Jacob; Vora, Suhani; Buchthal, Joanna; Kowal, Emma J. K.; Ebrahimkhani, Mohammad R.; Collins, James J.; Weiss, Ron; Church, George

    2015-09-07

    Here we demonstrate that by altering the length of Cas9-associated guide RNA(gRNA) we were able to control Cas9 nuclease activity and simultaneously perform genome editing and transcriptional regulation with a single Cas9 protein. We exploited these principles to engineer mammalian synthetic circuits with combined transcriptional regulation and kill functions governed by a single multifunctional Cas9 protein.

  18. Air Quality Analysis

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This site provides information for air quality data analysts inside and outside EPA. Much of the information is in the form of documented analyses that support the review of the national air qualiyt standards.

  19. Grossesse intra murale à propos d'un cas

    PubMed Central

    de Tové, Kofi-Mensa Savi; Salifou, Kabibou; Imorou, Rachidi Sidi; Biaou, Olivier; Boco, Vicentia

    2015-01-01

    La grossesse intra-murale est la variété la plus rare de grossesse extra-utérine. Il s'agit de la localisation de l’œuf dans l’épaisseur du myomètre. En cas de retard diagnostic, l’évolution peut être catastrophique avec rupture utérine et hémorragie cataclysmique. L’échographie permet dans certains cas un diagnostic pré opératoire. Les auteurs rapportent un cas survenu chez une patiente aux antécédents de curetage. PMID:26448812

  20. Orbital period determination in an eclipsing dwarf nova HT Cas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bąkowska, Karolina; Olech, Arkadiusz

    2014-09-01

    HT Cassiopeiae was discovered over seventy years ago (Hoffmeister 1943). Unfortunately, for 35 years this object did not receive any attention, until the eclipses of HT Cas were observed by Bond. After a first analysis, Patterson (1981) called HT Cas "a Rosetta stone among dwarf novae". Since then, the literature on this star is still growing, reaching several dozens of publications. We present an orbital period determination of HT Cas during the November 2010 super-outburst, but also during a longer time span, to check its stability.

  1. RIFM fragrance ingredient safety assessment, ethylene brassylate, CAS Registry Number 105-95-3.

    PubMed

    Api, A M; Belsito, D; Bhatia, S; Bruze, M; Calow, P; Dagli, M L; Dekant, W; Fryer, A D; Kromidas, L; La Cava, S; Lalko, J F; Lapczynski, A; Liebler, D C; Politano, V T; Ritacco, G; Salvito, D; Schultz, T W; Shen, J; Sipes, I G; Wall, B; Wilcox, D K

    2016-11-01

    : The use of this material under current conditions is supported by existing information. This material was evaluated for genotoxicity, repeated dose toxicity, developmental and reproductive toxicity, local respiratory toxicity, phototoxicity/photoallergenicity, skin sensitization, as well as environmental safety. Data show that this material is not genotoxic nor does it have skin sensitization potential. The local respiratory toxicity endpoint was completed using the TTC (Threshold of Toxicological Concern) for a Cramer Class I material (1.4 mg/day). The repeated dose toxicity endpoint was completed using ethylene dodecanedioate (CAS # 54982-83-1) as a suitable read across analog, which provided a MOE > 100. The developmental and reproductive toxicity endpoint was completed using oxacyclohexadec-12-en-2-one, (12E)- (CAS # 111879-80-2) as a suitable read across analog, which provided a MOE > 100. The phototoxicity/photoallergenicity endpoint was completed based on suitable UV spectra along with data on the target material. The environmental endpoint was completed as described in the RIFM Framework along with data on the suitable read across analog oxacyclohexadec-12-en-2-one, (12E)- (CAS # 111879-80-2).

  2. RIFM fragrance ingredient safety assessment, linalyl cinnamate, CAS Registry Number 78-37-5.

    PubMed

    Api, A M; Belsito, D; Bhatia, S; Bruze, M; Calow, P; Dagli, M L; Dekant, W; Fryer, A D; Kromidas, L; La Cava, S; Lalko, J F; Lapczynski, A; Liebler, D C; Penning, T M; Politano, V T; Ritacco, G; Salvito, D; Schultz, T W; Shen, J; Sipes, I G; Wall, B; Wilcox, D K

    2016-11-01

    The use of this material under current conditions is supported by existing information. This material was evaluated for genotoxicity, repeated dose toxicity, developmental and reproductive toxicity, local respiratory toxicity, phototoxicity/photoallergenicity, skin sensitization, as well as environmental safety. Data show that this material is not genotoxic nor does it have skin sensitization potential. The reproductive and local respiratory toxicity endpoints were completed using the TTC (Threshold of Toxicological Concern) for a Cramer Class I material (0.03 and 1.4 mg/day, respectively). The developmental toxicity endpoint was completed using linalool (CAS # 78-70-6), dehydrolinalool (CAS # 29171-20-8) and cinnamic acid (CAS # 621-82-9) as suitable read across analogs, which provided a MOE > 100. The repeated dose toxicity endpoint was completed using data on the target material which provided a MOE > 100. The phototoxicity/photoallergenicity endpoint was completed based on suitable UV spectra. The environmental endpoint was completed as described in the RIFM Framework.

  3. CRISPR/Cas9-Mediated Correction of the Sickle Mutation in Human CD34+ cells.

    PubMed

    Hoban, Megan D; Lumaquin, Dianne; Kuo, Caroline Y; Romero, Zulema; Long, Joseph; Ho, Michelle; Young, Courtney S; Mojadidi, Michelle; Fitz-Gibbon, Sorel; Cooper, Aaron R; Lill, Georgia R; Urbinati, Fabrizia; Campo-Fernandez, Beatriz; Bjurstrom, Carmen F; Pellegrini, Matteo; Hollis, Roger P; Kohn, Donald B

    2016-09-01

    Targeted genome editing technology can correct the sickle cell disease mutation of the β-globin gene in hematopoietic stem cells. This correction supports production of red blood cells that synthesize normal hemoglobin proteins. Here, we demonstrate that Transcription Activator-Like Effector Nucleases (TALENs) and the Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats (CRISPR)/Cas9 nuclease system can target DNA sequences around the sickle-cell mutation in the β-globin gene for site-specific cleavage and facilitate precise correction when a homologous donor template is codelivered. Several pairs of TALENs and multiple CRISPR guide RNAs were evaluated for both on-target and off-target cleavage rates. Delivery of the CRISPR/Cas9 components to CD34+ cells led to over 18% gene modification in vitro. Additionally, we demonstrate the correction of the sickle cell disease mutation in bone marrow derived CD34+ hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells from sickle cell disease patients, leading to the production of wild-type hemoglobin. These results demonstrate correction of the sickle mutation in patient-derived CD34+ cells using CRISPR/Cas9 technology.

  4. Study of Eclipsing Binary and Multiple Systems in OB Associations IV: Cas OB6 Member DN Cas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bakış, V.; Bakış, H.; Bilir, S.; Eker, Z.

    2016-09-01

    An early-type, massive, short-period (Porb=2d.310951) eclipsing spectroscopic binary DN Cas has been re-visited with new spectral and photometric data. The masses and radii of the components have been obtained as M1=19.04± 0.07 M⊙, M2=13.73± 0.05 M⊙ and R1=7.22± 0.06 R⊙, R2=5.79± 0.06 R⊙, respectively. Both components present synchronous rotation (Vrot1=160 km s-1, Vrot2=130 km s-1) with their orbit. Orbital period analysis yielded a physically bound additional component in the system with a minimum mass of M3=0.88 M⊙ orbiting in an eccentric orbit (e = 0.37 ± 0.2) with an orbital period of P 12 = 42 ± 9 yr. High precision absolute parameters of the system allowed us to derive a distance to DN Cas as 1.7 ± 0.2 kpc which locates the system within the borders of the Cas OB6 association (d = 1.8 kpc). The space velocities and the age of DN Cas are in agreement with those of Cas OB6. The age of DN Cas (τ = 3-5 Myr) is found to be 1-2 Myr older than the embedded clusters (IC 1795, IC 1805, and IC 1848) in the Cas OB6 association, which implies a sequential star formation in the association.

  5. Integrase-mediated spacer acquisition during CRISPR-Cas adaptive immunity.

    PubMed

    Nuñez, James K; Lee, Amy S Y; Engelman, Alan; Doudna, Jennifer A

    2015-03-12

    Bacteria and archaea insert spacer sequences acquired from foreign DNAs into CRISPR loci to generate immunological memory. The Escherichia coli Cas1-Cas2 complex mediates spacer acquisition in vivo, but the molecular mechanism of this process is unknown. Here we show that the purified Cas1-Cas2 complex integrates oligonucleotide DNA substrates into acceptor DNA to yield products similar to those generated by retroviral integrases and transposases. Cas1 is the catalytic subunit and Cas2 substantially increases integration activity. Protospacer DNA with free 3'-OH ends and supercoiled target DNA are required, and integration occurs preferentially at the ends of CRISPR repeats and at sequences adjacent to cruciform structures abutting AT-rich regions, similar to the CRISPR leader sequence. Our results demonstrate the Cas1-Cas2 complex to be the minimal machinery that catalyses spacer DNA acquisition and explain the significance of CRISPR repeats in providing sequence and structural specificity for Cas1-Cas2-mediated adaptive immunity.

  6. Application of CRISPR/Cas9 for biomedical discoveries.

    PubMed

    Riordan, Sean M; Heruth, Daniel P; Zhang, Li Q; Ye, Shui Qing

    2015-01-01

    The Clustered Regions of Interspersed Palindromic Repeats-Cas9 (CRISPR/Cas9), a viral defense system found in bacteria and archaea, has emerged as a tour de force genome editing tool. The CRISPR/Cas9 system is much easier to customize and optimize because the site selection for DNA cleavage is guided by a short sequence of RNA rather than an engineered protein as in the systems of zinc finger nucleases (ZFN), transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALEN), and meganucleases. Although it still suffers from some off-target effects, the CRISPR/Cas9 system has been broadly and successfully applied for biomedical discoveries in a number of areas. In this review, we present a brief history and development of the CRISPR system and focus on the application of this genome editing technology for biomedical discoveries. We then present concise concluding remarks and future directions for this fast moving field.

  7. Editing plant genomes with CRISPR/Cas9.

    PubMed

    Belhaj, Khaoula; Chaparro-Garcia, Angela; Kamoun, Sophien; Patron, Nicola J; Nekrasov, Vladimir

    2015-04-01

    CRISPR/Cas9 is a rapidly developing genome editing technology that has been successfully applied in many organisms, including model and crop plants. Cas9, an RNA-guided DNA endonuclease, can be targeted to specific genomic sequences by engineering a separately encoded guide RNA with which it forms a complex. As only a short RNA sequence must be synthesized to confer recognition of a new target, CRISPR/Cas9 is a relatively cheap and easy to implement technology that has proven to be extremely versatile. Remarkably, in some plant species, homozygous knockout mutants can be produced in a single generation. Together with other sequence-specific nucleases, CRISPR/Cas9 is a game-changing technology that is poised to revolutionise basic research and plant breeding.

  8. Application of CRISPR/Cas9 to Autophagy Research.

    PubMed

    O'Prey, J; Sakamaki, J; Baudot, A D; New, M; Van Acker, T; Tooze, S A; Long, J S; Ryan, K M

    2017-01-01

    The ability to efficiently modulate autophagy activity is paramount in the study of the field. Conventional broad-range autophagy inhibitors and genetic manipulation using RNA interference (RNAi), although widely used in autophagy research, are often limited in specificity or efficacy. In this chapter, we address the problems of conventional autophagy-modulating tools by exploring the use of three different CRISPR/Cas9 systems to abrogate autophagy in numerous human and mouse cell lines. The first system generates cell lines constitutively deleted of ATG5 or ATG7 whereas the second and third systems express a Tet-On inducible-Cas9 that enables regulated deletion of ATG5 or ATG7. We observed the efficiency of autophagy inhibition using the CRISPR/Cas9 strategy to surpass that of RNAi, and successfully generated cells with complete and sustained autophagy disruption through the CRISPR/Cas9 technology.

  9. CRISPR-Cas systems: Prokaryotes upgrade to adaptive immunity.

    PubMed

    Barrangou, Rodolphe; Marraffini, Luciano A

    2014-04-24

    Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR), and associated proteins (Cas) comprise the CRISPR-Cas system, which confers adaptive immunity against exogenic elements in many bacteria and most archaea. CRISPR-mediated immunization occurs through the uptake of DNA from invasive genetic elements such as plasmids and viruses, followed by its integration into CRISPR loci. These loci are subsequently transcribed and processed into small interfering RNAs that guide nucleases for specific cleavage of complementary sequences. Conceptually, CRISPR-Cas shares functional features with the mammalian adaptive immune system, while also exhibiting characteristics of Lamarckian evolution. Because immune markers spliced from exogenous agents are integrated iteratively in CRISPR loci, they constitute a genetic record of vaccination events and reflect environmental conditions and changes over time. Cas endonucleases, which can be reprogrammed by small guide RNAs have shown unprecedented potential and flexibility for genome editing and can be repurposed for numerous DNA targeting applications including transcriptional control.

  10. 48 CFR 9903.201-1 - CAS applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... following categories of contracts and subcontracts are exempt from all CAS requirements: (1) Sealed bid... subcontracts awarded on the basis of adequate price competition without submission of cost or pricing data....

  11. Engineering the Caenorhabditis elegans genome with CRISPR/Cas9.

    PubMed

    Waaijers, Selma; Boxem, Mike

    2014-08-01

    The development in early 2013 of CRISPR/Cas9-based genome engineering promises to dramatically advance our ability to alter the genomes of model systems at will. A single, easily produced targeting RNA guides the Cas9 endonuclease to a specific DNA sequence where it creates a double strand break. Imprecise repair of the break can yield mutations, while homologous recombination with a repair template can be used to effect specific changes to the genome. The tremendous potential of this system led several groups to independently adapt it for use in Caenorhabditiselegans, where it was successfully used to generate mutations and to create tailored genome changes through homologous recombination. Here, we review the different approaches taken to adapt CRISPR/Cas9 for C. elegans, and provide practical guidelines for CRISPR/Cas9-based genome engineering.

  12. 48 CFR 970.3002-1 - CAS applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... SUPPLEMENTARY REGULATIONS DOE MANAGEMENT AND OPERATING CONTRACTS Cost Accounting Standards Administration 970.3002-1 CAS applicability. The provisions of 48 CFR part 30 and 48 CFR chapter 99 (FAR Appendix)...

  13. The structural biology of CRISPR-Cas systems.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Fuguo; Doudna, Jennifer A

    2015-02-01

    Prokaryotic CRISPR-Cas genomic loci encode RNA-mediated adaptive immune systems that bear some functional similarities with eukaryotic RNA interference. Acquired and heritable immunity against bacteriophage and plasmids begins with integration of ∼30 base pair foreign DNA sequences into the host genome. CRISPR-derived transcripts assemble with CRISPR-associated (Cas) proteins to target complementary nucleic acids for degradation. Here we review recent advances in the structural biology of these targeting complexes, with a focus on structural studies of the multisubunit Type I CRISPR RNA-guided surveillance and the Cas9 DNA endonuclease found in Type II CRISPR-Cas systems. These complexes have distinct structures that are each capable of site-specific double-stranded DNA binding and local helix unwinding.

  14. Potential pitfalls of CRISPR/Cas9-mediated genome editing.

    PubMed

    Peng, Rongxue; Lin, Guigao; Li, Jinming

    2016-04-01

    Recently, a novel technique named the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR)/CRISPR-associated protein (Cas)9 system has been rapidly developed. This genome editing tool has improved our ability tremendously with respect to exploring the pathogenesis of diseases and correcting disease mutations, as well as phenotypes. With a short guide RNA, Cas9 can be precisely directed to target sites, and functions as an endonuclease to efficiently produce breaks in DNA double strands. Over the past 30 years, CRISPR has evolved from the 'curious sequences of unknown biological function' into a promising genome editing tool. As a result of the incessant development in the CRISPR/Cas9 system, Cas9 co-expressed with custom guide RNAs has been successfully used in a variety of cells and organisms. This genome editing technology can also be applied to synthetic biology, functional genomic screening, transcriptional modulation and gene therapy. However, although CRISPR/Cas9 has a broad range of action in science, there are several aspects that affect its efficiency and specificity, including Cas9 activity, target site selection and short guide RNA design, delivery methods, off-target effects and the incidence of homology-directed repair. In the present review, we highlight the factors that affect the utilization of CRISPR/Cas9, as well as possible strategies for handling any problems. Addressing these issues will allow us to take better advantage of this technique. In addition, we also review the history and rapid development of the CRISPR/Cas system from the time of its initial discovery in 2012.

  15. Calibrated Ancillary System (CAS) user's guide, volume 7

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    The Calibrated Ancillary System (CAS) provides real-time calibrated parameters from the orbiter downlink (ancillary data) to the Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC). This user's guide contains the introduction to the equipment, operation, general procedures, and specific procedures of CAS. Volume 7 describes the data flow engineer (DFE) user mission planning procedures which include instructions for processing the SDT/TDT (shuttle data tape/telemetry descriptor tape).

  16. Calibrated Ancillary System (CAS) user's guide, volume 5

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    The Calibrated Ancillary System (CAS) provides real-time parameters from the orbiter downlink (ancillary data) to the Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC). This user's guide contains the introduction to the equipment, operation, general procedures, and specific procedures of CAS. Volume 5 describes the testing user mission planning procedures including the bulletin board system and ancillary products procedures. Instructions for viewing the SDT/TDT (shuttle data tape/telemetry descriptor tape) data base and the file management menu are also given.

  17. Calibrated Ancillary System (CAS) user's guide, volume 6

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    The Calibrated Ancillary System (CAS) provides real-time calibrated parameters from the orbiter downlink (ancillary data) to the Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC). This user's guide contains the introduction to the equipment, operation, general procedures, and specific procedures of CAS. Volume 6 describes ancillary products procedures, enhancement menu and processing task procedures for SDT/TDT (shuttle data tape/telemetry descriptor tape), database errors and network data driver (NDD) product menu procedures, and utility menu procedures.

  18. Rational design of a split-Cas9 enzyme complex

    SciTech Connect

    Wright, Addison V.; Sternberg, Samuel H.; Taylor, David W.; Staahl, Brett T.; Bardales, Jorge A.; Kornfeld, Jack E.; Doudna, Jennifer A.

    2015-02-23

    Cas9, an RNA-guided DNA endonuclease found in clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) bacterial immune systems, is a versatile tool for genome editing, transcriptional regulation, and cellular imaging applications. Structures of Streptococcus pyogenes Cas9 alone or bound to single-guide RNA (sgRNA) and target DNA revealed a bilobed protein architecture that undergoes major conformational changes upon guide RNA and DNA binding. To investigate the molecular determinants and relevance of the interlobe rearrangement for target recognition and cleavage, we designed a split-Cas9 enzyme in which the nuclease lobe and α-helical lobe are expressed as separate polypeptides. The lobes do not interact on their own, the sgRNA recruits them into a ternary complex that recapitulates the activity of full-length Cas9 and catalyzes site-specific DNA cleavage. The use of a modified sgRNA abrogates split-Cas9 activity by preventing dimerization, allowing for the development of an inducible dimerization system. We propose that split-Cas9 can act as a highly regulatable platform for genome-engineering applications.

  19. Rational design of a split-Cas9 enzyme complex

    DOE PAGES

    Wright, Addison V.; Sternberg, Samuel H.; Taylor, David W.; ...

    2015-02-23

    Cas9, an RNA-guided DNA endonuclease found in clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) bacterial immune systems, is a versatile tool for genome editing, transcriptional regulation, and cellular imaging applications. Structures of Streptococcus pyogenes Cas9 alone or bound to single-guide RNA (sgRNA) and target DNA revealed a bilobed protein architecture that undergoes major conformational changes upon guide RNA and DNA binding. To investigate the molecular determinants and relevance of the interlobe rearrangement for target recognition and cleavage, we designed a split-Cas9 enzyme in which the nuclease lobe and α-helical lobe are expressed as separate polypeptides. The lobes do not interactmore » on their own, the sgRNA recruits them into a ternary complex that recapitulates the activity of full-length Cas9 and catalyzes site-specific DNA cleavage. The use of a modified sgRNA abrogates split-Cas9 activity by preventing dimerization, allowing for the development of an inducible dimerization system. We propose that split-Cas9 can act as a highly regulatable platform for genome-engineering applications.« less

  20. Rational design of a split-Cas9 enzyme complex.

    PubMed

    Wright, Addison V; Sternberg, Samuel H; Taylor, David W; Staahl, Brett T; Bardales, Jorge A; Kornfeld, Jack E; Doudna, Jennifer A

    2015-03-10

    Cas9, an RNA-guided DNA endonuclease found in clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) bacterial immune systems, is a versatile tool for genome editing, transcriptional regulation, and cellular imaging applications. Structures of Streptococcus pyogenes Cas9 alone or bound to single-guide RNA (sgRNA) and target DNA revealed a bilobed protein architecture that undergoes major conformational changes upon guide RNA and DNA binding. To investigate the molecular determinants and relevance of the interlobe rearrangement for target recognition and cleavage, we designed a split-Cas9 enzyme in which the nuclease lobe and α-helical lobe are expressed as separate polypeptides. Although the lobes do not interact on their own, the sgRNA recruits them into a ternary complex that recapitulates the activity of full-length Cas9 and catalyzes site-specific DNA cleavage. The use of a modified sgRNA abrogates split-Cas9 activity by preventing dimerization, allowing for the development of an inducible dimerization system. We propose that split-Cas9 can act as a highly regulatable platform for genome-engineering applications.

  1. Monodisperse CoFe2O4 nanoparticles supported on Vulcan XC-72: High performance electrode materials for lithium-air and lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Şener, Tansel; Kayhan, Emine; Sevim, Melike; Metin, Önder

    2015-08-01

    Addressed herein is the preparation and the electrode performance of monodisperse CoFe2O4 nanoparticles (NPs) supported on Vulcan XC-72 for the Lithium-air battery (LAB) and Lithium-ion battery (LIB). Monodisperse CoFe2O4 NPs were synthesized by the thermal decomposition of cobalt(II) acetylacetonate and iron(III) acetylacetonate in oleylamine and oleic acid in the presence of 1,2-tetradecanediol and benzyl ether. As-prepared CoFe2O4 NPs with a particle size of 11 nm were then supported on Vulcan XC-72 (Vulcan-CoFe2O4) at different theoretical loadings (20, 40 and 60 wt % CoFe2O4 NPs) by using the simple liquid phase self assembly method. CoFe2O4 NPs dispersed on Vulcan-CoFe2O4 composites were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD) and atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS). The AAS analyses indicated that the Vulcan-CoFe2O4 composites with different loadings were included 3.7, 8.1 and 16.4 wt % CoFe2O4 on the metal basis. The electrode performance of Vulcan-CoFe2O4 composites were evaluated as the anode active material for LIB and cathode active material for LABs by performing the galvanostatic charge-discharge tests. The highest discharge capacity for both LAB (7510 mAh g(Vulcan+CoFe2O4)-1; 13380 mAh gCoFe2O4-1 @ 0.1C) and LIB (863 mAh g(Vulcan+CoFe2O4)-1; 9330 mAh gCoFe2O4-1@ 0.1C) was investigated with 16.4 wt % CoFe2O4.

  2. Correction of a genetic disease by CRISPR-Cas9-mediated gene editing in mouse spermatogonial stem cells.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yuxuan; Zhou, Hai; Fan, Xiaoying; Zhang, Ying; Zhang, Man; Wang, Yinghua; Xie, Zhenfei; Bai, Meizhu; Yin, Qi; Liang, Dan; Tang, Wei; Liao, Jiaoyang; Zhou, Chikai; Liu, Wujuan; Zhu, Ping; Guo, Hongshan; Pan, Hong; Wu, Chunlian; Shi, Huijuan; Wu, Ligang; Tang, Fuchou; Li, Jinsong

    2015-01-01

    Spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs) can produce numerous male gametes after transplantation into recipient testes, presenting a valuable approach for gene therapy and continuous production of gene-modified animals. However, successful genetic manipulation of SSCs has been limited, partially due to complexity and low efficiency of currently available genetic editing techniques. Here, we show that efficient genetic modifications can be introduced into SSCs using the CRISPR-Cas9 system. We used the CRISPR-Cas9 system to mutate an EGFP transgene or the endogenous Crygc gene in SCCs. The mutated SSCs underwent spermatogenesis after transplantation into the seminiferous tubules of infertile mouse testes. Round spermatids were generated and, after injection into mature oocytes, supported the production of heterozygous offspring displaying the corresponding mutant phenotypes. Furthermore, a disease-causing mutation in Crygc (Crygc(-/-)) that pre-existed in SSCs could be readily repaired by CRISPR-Cas9-induced nonhomologous end joining (NHEJ) or homology-directed repair (HDR), resulting in SSC lines carrying the corrected gene with no evidence of off-target modifications as shown by whole-genome sequencing. Fertilization using round spermatids generated from these lines gave rise to offspring with the corrected phenotype at an efficiency of 100%. Our results demonstrate efficient gene editing in mouse SSCs by the CRISPR-Cas9 system, and provide the proof of principle of curing a genetic disease via gene correction in SSCs.

  3. Multiplex gene editing via CRISPR/Cas9 exhibits desirable muscle hypertrophy without detectable off-target effects in sheep

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiaolong; Niu, Yiyuan; Zhou, Jiankui; Yu, Honghao; Kou, Qifang; Lei, Anmin; Zhao, Xiaoe; Yan, Hailong; Cai, Bei; Shen, Qiaoyan; Zhou, Shiwei; Zhu, Haijing; Zhou, Guangxian; Niu, Wenzhi; Hua, Jinlian; Jiang, Yu; Huang, Xingxu; Ma, Baohua; Chen, Yulin

    2016-01-01

    The CRISPR/Cas9 system provides a flexible approach for genome engineering of genetic loci. Here, we successfully achieved precise gene targeting in sheep by co-injecting one-cell-stage embryos with Cas9 mRNA and RNA guides targeting three genes (MSTN, ASIP, and BCO2). We carefully examined the sgRNAs:Cas9-mediated targeting effects in injected embryos, somatic tissues, as well as gonads via cloning and sequencing. The targeting efficiencies in these three genes were within the range of 27–33% in generated lambs, and that of simultaneously targeting the three genes was 5.6%, which demonstrated that micro-injection of zygotes is an efficient approach for generating gene-modified sheep. Interestingly, we observed that disruption of the MSTN gene resulted in the desired muscle hypertrophy that is characterized by enlarged myofibers, thereby providing the first detailed evidence supporting that gene modifications had occurred at both the genetic and morphological levels. In addition, prescreening for the off-target effect of sgRNAs was performed on fibroblasts before microinjection, to ensure that no detectable off-target mutations from founder animals existed. Our findings suggested that the CRISPR/Cas9 method can be exploited as a powerful tool for livestock improvement by simultaneously targeting multiple genes that are responsible for economically significant traits. PMID:27562433

  4. Treatability study in support of monitored natural attenuation at Site S-1, Zone 5, Kelly Air Force Base, Texas. Final report January--December 1998

    SciTech Connect

    Herrington, T.; Downey, D.

    1999-02-28

    This report presents the results of a treatability study (TS) to evaluate the potential effectiveness of monitored natural attenuation (MNA) as a remedial option for groundwater contaminated with chlorinated benzene compounds at Site S-1, located at Kelly Air Force Base (AFB), Texas. Although other contaminants were found at Site S-1 at relatively low concentrations, this TS will focus on the chlorinated benzene compounds present in the groundwater plume. Hydrogeologic and groundwater chemical data collected for this report can be used to evaluate the effectiveness of various engineered remedial options; however, the results of this TS will be used in support of MNA with long term monitoring (LTM) for restoration of groundwater contaminated with chlorinated benzene compounds. The work performed as part of the TS is not intended to fulfill the requirements of a contamination assessment report, a remedial action plan (RAP), or any other document specified in federal or state regulations; rather, it is provided for the use by the Base, its prime environmental contractors, and regulators to present information on the viability of the MNA alternative for chlorobenzene residuals at Site S-1.

  5. Creating Locally-Resolved Mobile-Source Emissions Inputs for Air Quality Modeling in Support of an Exposure Study in Detroit, Michigan, USA

    PubMed Central

    Snyder, Michelle; Arunachalam, Saravanan; Isakov, Vlad; Talgo, Kevin; Naess, Brian; Valencia, Alejandro; Omary, Mohammad; Davis, Neil; Cook, Rich; Hanna, Adel

    2014-01-01

    This work describes a methodology for modeling the impact of traffic-generated air pollutants in an urban area. This methodology presented here utilizes road network geometry, traffic volume, temporal allocation factors, fleet mixes, and emission factors to provide critical modeling inputs. These inputs, assembled from a variety of sources, are combined with meteorological inputs to generate link-based emissions for use in dispersion modeling to estimate pollutant concentration levels due to traffic. A case study implementing this methodology for a large health study is presented, including a sensitivity analysis of the modeling results reinforcing the importance of model inputs and identify those having greater relative impact, such as fleet mix. In addition, an example use of local measurements of fleet activity to supplement model inputs is described, and its impacts to the model outputs are discussed. We conclude that with detailed model inputs supported by local traffic measurements and meteorology, it is possible to capture the spatial and temporal patterns needed to accurately estimate exposure from traffic-related pollutants. PMID:25501000

  6. A Sounding-based Severe Weather Tool to Support Daily Operations at Kennedy Space Center and Cape Canaveral Air Force Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauman, William H.; Roeder, William P.

    2014-01-01

    People and property at Kennedy Space Center (KSC) and Cape Canaveral Air Force Station (CCAFS) are at risk when severe weather occurs. Strong winds, hail and tornadoes can injure individuals and cause costly damage to structures if not properly protected. NASA's Launch Services Program and Ground Systems Development and Operations Program and other KSC programs use the daily and weekly severe weather forecasts issued by the 45th Weather Squadron (45 WS) to determine if they need to limit an activity such as working on gantries, or protect property such as a vehicle on a pad. The 45 WS requested the Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) develop a warm season (May-September) severe weather tool for use in the Meteorological Interactive Data Display System (MIDDS) based on the late morning, 1500 UTC (1100 local time), CCAFS (XMR) sounding. The 45 WS frequently makes decisions to issue a severe weather watch and other severe weather warning support products to NASA and the 45th Space Wing in the late morning, after the 1500 UTC sounding. The results of this work indicate that certain stability indices based on the late morning XMR soundings can depict differences between days with reported severe weather and days with no reported severe weather. The AMU determined a frequency of reported severe weather for the stability indices and implemented an operational tool in MIDDS.

  7. Creating locally-resolved mobile-source emissions inputs for air quality modeling in support of an exposure study in Detroit, Michigan, USA.

    PubMed

    Snyder, Michelle; Arunachalam, Saravanan; Isakov, Vlad; Talgo, Kevin; Naess, Brian; Valencia, Alejandro; Omary, Mohammad; Davis, Neil; Cook, Rich; Hanna, Adel

    2014-12-01

    This work describes a methodology for modeling the impact of traffic-generated air pollutants in an urban area. This methodology presented here utilizes road network geometry, traffic volume, temporal allocation factors, fleet mixes, and emission factors to provide critical modeling inputs. These inputs, assembled from a variety of sources, are combined with meteorological inputs to generate link-based emissions for use in dispersion modeling to estimate pollutant concentration levels due to traffic. A case study implementing this methodology for a large health study is presented, including a sensitivity analysis of the modeling results reinforcing the importance of model inputs and identify those having greater relative impact, such as fleet mix. In addition, an example use of local measurements of fleet activity to supplement model inputs is described, and its impacts to the model outputs are discussed. We conclude that with detailed model inputs supported by local traffic measurements and meteorology, it is possible to capture the spatial and temporal patterns needed to accurately estimate exposure from traffic-related pollutants.

  8. United States Air Force 611th Air Support Group/Civil Engineering Squadron Elmendorf AFB, Alaska. Decision document for no further response action planned: Barter Island Radar Installation, Alaska. Final report, December 1995-May 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Karmi, S.; Madden, J.; Borsetti, R.

    1996-05-03

    This Decision Document discusses the selection of no further action as the recommended action for nine sites located at the Barter Island radar installation. The United States Air Force (Air Force) completed a Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study and a Risk Assessment for the 14 sites located at the Barter Island installation (U.S. Air Force 1996a,b). Based on the findings of these activities, nine sites are recommended for no further action.

  9. United States Air Force 611th Air Support Group/Civil Engineering Squadron, Elmendorf AFB, Alaska. Decision document for no further response action planned Oliktok Point Radar Installation, Alaska. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Karmi, S.

    1996-06-03

    This Decision Document discusses the selection of no further action as the recommended action for four sites located at the Oliktok Point radar installation. The United States Air Force (Air Force) completed a Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study and a Risk Assessment for the eight sites located at the Oliktok Point installation (U.S. Air Force 1996a,b). Based on the findings of these activities, four sites are recommended for no further action.

  10. RIFM fragrance ingredient safety assessment, benzyl butyrate, CAS Registry Number 103-37-7.

    PubMed

    Api, A M; Belsito, D; Bhatia, S; Bruze, M; Calow, P; Dagli, M L; Dekant, W; Fryer, A D; Kromidas, L; La Cava, S; Lalko, J F; Lapczynski, A; Liebler, D C; Politano, V T; Ritacco, G; Salvito, D; Schultz, T W; Shen, J; Sipes, I G; Wall, B; Wilcox, D K

    2016-11-01

    The use of this material under current use conditions is supported by the existing information. This material was evaluated for genotoxicity, repeated dose toxicity, developmental and reproductive toxicity, local respiratory toxicity, phototoxicity/photoallergenicity, skin sensitization, as well as environmental safety. Data from the suitable read across analog benzyl acetate (CAS # 140-11-4) show that this material is not genotoxic nor does it have skin sensitization potential and also provided a MOE > 100 for the repeated dose, developmental and reproductive, and local respiratory toxicity endpoints. The phototoxicity/photoallergenicity endpoint was completed based on suitable UV spectra. The environmental endpoint was completed as described in the RIFM Framework.

  11. Cas9 in Genetically Modified Food Is Unlikely to Cause Food Allergy.

    PubMed

    Nakajima, Osamu; Nishimaki-Mogami, Tomoko; Kondo, Kazunari

    2016-01-01

    Genome editing has undergone rapid development during the last three years. It is anticipated that genetically modified organisms (GMOs) for food purposes will be widely produced using the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat/Cas9 (CRISPR)/Cas9 system in the near future. However, the Cas9 gene may then enter the genomes of GMOs for food if the breeding process is not strictly managed, which could lead to the Cas9 protein or associated peptides being produced within these organisms. A variety of peptides could theoretically be produced from the Cas9 gene by using open reading frames different from that of Cas9 in the GMOs. In this study, Cas9 and the peptides potentially encoded by Cas9 genes were studied regarding their immunogenicity, in terms of the digestibility of Cas9 and the homology of the peptides to food allergens. First, the digestibility and thermal stability of Cas9 were studied. Digestibility was tested with natural or heat-denatured Cas9 in simulated gastric fluid in vitro. The two types of Cas9 were digested rapidly. Cas9 was also gradually degraded during heat treatment. Second, the peptides potentially encoded by Cas9 genes were examined for their homology to food allergens. Specifically, an 8-mer exact match search and a sliding 80-mer window search were performed using allergen databases. One of the peptides was found to have homology with a food allergen.

  12. Tyrosine phosphorylation within the SH3 domain regulates CAS subcellular localization, cell migration, and invasiveness.

    PubMed

    Janoštiak, Radoslav; Tolde, Ondřej; Brůhová, Zuzana; Novotný, Marian; Hanks, Steven K; Rösel, Daniel; Brábek, Jan

    2011-11-01

    Crk-associated substrate (CAS) is a major tyrosine-phosphorylated protein in cells transformed by v-crk and v-src oncogenes and plays an important role in invasiveness of Src-transformed cells. A novel phosphorylation site on CAS, Tyr-12 (Y12) within the ligand-binding hydrophobic pocket of the CAS SH3 domain, was identified and found to be enriched in Src-transformed cells and invasive human carcinoma cells. To study the biological significance of CAS Y12 phosphorylation, phosphomimicking Y12E and nonphosphorylatable Y12F mutants of CAS were studied. The phosphomimicking mutation decreased interaction of the CAS SH3 domain with focal adhesion kinase (FAK) and PTP-PEST and reduced tyrosine phosphorylation of FAK. Live-cell imaging showed that green fluorescent protein-tagged CAS Y12E mutant is, in contrast to wild-type or Y12F CAS, excluded from focal adhesions but retains its localization to podosome-type adhesions. Expression of CAS-Y12F in cas-/- mouse embryonic fibroblasts resulted in hyperphosphorylation of the CAS substrate domain, and this was associated with slower turnover of focal adhesions and decreased cell migration. Moreover, expression of CAS Y12F in Src-transformed cells greatly decreased invasiveness when compared to wild-type CAS expression. These findings reveal an important role of CAS Y12 phosphorylation in the regulation of focal adhesion assembly, cell migration, and invasiveness of Src-transformed cells.

  13. A non-inheritable maternal Cas9-based multiple-gene editing system in mice.

    PubMed

    Sakurai, Takayuki; Kamiyoshi, Akiko; Kawate, Hisaka; Mori, Chie; Watanabe, Satoshi; Tanaka, Megumu; Uetake, Ryuichi; Sato, Masahiro; Shindo, Takayuki

    2016-01-28

    The CRISPR/Cas9 system is capable of editing multiple genes through one-step zygote injection. The preexisting method is largely based on the co-injection of Cas9 DNA (or mRNA) and guide RNAs (gRNAs); however, it is unclear how many genes can be simultaneously edited by this method, and a reliable means to generate transgenic (Tg) animals with multiple gene editing has yet to be developed. Here, we employed non-inheritable maternal Cas9 (maCas9) protein derived from Tg mice with systemic Cas9 overexpression (Cas9 mice). The maCas9 protein in zygotes derived from mating or in vitro fertilization of Tg/+ oocytes and +/+ sperm could successfully edit the target genome. The efficiency of such maCas9-based genome editing was comparable to that of zygote microinjection-based genome editing widely used at present. Furthermore, we demonstrated a novel approach to create "Cas9 transgene-free" gene-modified mice using non-Tg (+/+) zygotes carrying maCas9. The maCas9 protein in mouse zygotes edited nine target loci simultaneously after injection with nine different gRNAs alone. Cas9 mouse-derived zygotes have the potential to facilitate the creation of genetically modified animals carrying the Cas9 transgene, enabling repeatable genome engineering and the production of Cas9 transgene-free mice.

  14. The Climate Analysis Seoul (CAS) simulation for thermal characteristics in different urban locations in Seoul, Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Young-Gon; Lee, Jisu; Kim, Baek-Jo

    2016-04-01

    The Climate Analysis Seoul (CAS) being tailored for simulating detailed climate was applied to investigate the temperature distribution around the Seonjeongneung Royal Tombs that includes forest and grassland and in the surrounding high-density buildings in Seoul, Korea for a hot summer days of August 6-7, 2015. In this study, we used the digitalized topographical and land-use data of the 5 m resolution and wind and air temperature fields of 100 m resolution produced by the numerical model MetPhoMod (MPM), part of the CAS for the area of interest with an area of 25,000,000 m2. The difference of the temperatures compared with the representative meteorological station of Seoul was analyzed by considering the presence or absence of the Seonjeongneung Royal Tombs. For the case of heat wave issued in Seoul from August 6th, 06 LST to 7th, 18 LST, 2015, the simulation results presented that averaged temperatures in the green area were 2 °C lower than the one of the standard weather station, whereas they showed 1.5 °C higher when the green area was replaced with the building area. From this simulation result, we can suggest that the green area has a temperature reduction effect of 1-3 °C and its influence can be extended up to 150 m from the boundary of the green area. This fact reconfirms that the urban green area generates a micro-scale cool-island effect and this local phenomenon can reduce heat stress produced by surplus thermal sources of the surrounding buildings and paved roads during the hot summer days. Key words: Climate Analysis Seoul (CAS), Urban Green Area, Cool-Island Effect

  15. Zinc-air battery: understanding the structure and morphology changes of graphene-supported CoMn(2)O(4) bifunctional catalysts under practical rechargeable conditions.

    PubMed

    Prabu, Moni; Ramakrishnan, Prakash; Nara, Hiroki; Momma, Toshiyuki; Osaka, Tetsuya; Shanmugam, Sangaraju

    2014-10-08

    Nitrogen-doped/undoped thermally reduced graphene oxide (N-rGO) decorated with CoMn2O4 (CMO) nanoparticles were synthesized using a simple one-step hydrothermal method. The activity and stability of this hybrid catalyst were evaluated by preparing air electrodes with both primary and rechargeable zinc-air batteries that consume ambient air. Further, we investigated the relationship between the physical properties and the electrochemical results for hybrid electrodes at various cycles using X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, galvanodynamic charge-discharging and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The structural, morphological and electrocatalytic performances confirm that CMO/N-rGO is a promising material for safe, reliable, and long-lasting air cathodes for both primary and rechargeable zinc-air batteries that consume air under ambient condition.

  16. Comparative analysis of CRISPR-Cas systems in Klebsiella genomes.

    PubMed

    Shen, Juntao; Lv, Li; Wang, Xudong; Xiu, Zhilong; Chen, Guoqiang

    2017-02-03

    Prokaryotic CRISPR-Cas system provides adaptive immunity against invasive genetic elements. Bacteria of the genus Klebsiella are important nosocomial opportunistic pathogens. However, information of CRISPR-Cas system in Klebsiella remains largely unknown. Here, we analyzed the CRISPR-Cas systems of 68 complete genomes of Klebsiella representing four species. All the elements for CRISPR-Cas system (cas genes, repeats, leader sequences, and PAMs) were characterized. Besides the typical Type I-E and I-F CRISPR-Cas systems, a new Subtype I system located in the ABC transport system-glyoxalase region was found. The conservation of the new subtype CRISPR system between different species showed new evidence for CRISPR horizontal transfer. CRISPR polymorphism was strongly correlated both with species and multilocus sequence types. Some results indicated the function of adaptive immunity: most spacers (112 of 124) matched to prophages and plasmids and no matching housekeeping genes; new spacer acquisition was observed within the same sequence type (ST) and same clonal complex; the identical spacers were observed only in the ancient position (far from the leader) between different STs and clonal complexes. Interestingly, a high ratio of self-targeting spacers (7.5%, 31 of 416) was found in CRISPR-bearing Klebsiella pneumoniae (61%, 11 of 18). In some strains, there even were multiple full matching self-targeting spacers. Some self-targeting spacers were conserved even between different STs. These results indicated that some unknown mechanisms existed to compromise the function of self-targets of CRISPR-Cas systems in K. pneumoniae.

  17. A computational framework for supporting environmental ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    GLIMPSE is a effort in which the U.S. EPA Office of Research and Development is developing tools to support long-term, coordinated environmental, climate, and energy planning. The purpose of this presentation is to discuss the underlying science questions; provide an overview of current and future GLIMPSE capabilities; introduce GCAM, the computational engine behind GLIMPSE; and, highlight relevant activities in China, including the ABaCAS framework and GCAM-China. A group of Chinese visitors will be on the EPA RTP campus July 28, 9-noon. The visitors are from the PowerChina Huadong Engineering Corporation (weblink is here: http://www.ecidi.com/en/introduction.aspx) and are in US for a training program at Duke. The group is interested in broad management topics such as international business development and managing environmental projects as well as interacting with practitioners to understand “real world” case studies and issues. Their background is primarily related to hydro power but their corporate mission is “Providing engineering services and promoting harmonious development between Man and Nature,” implying a broad interest in the environment. Several researchers with projects with connections to China have been asked to provide an overview of their research to the visitors. I will be talking about the GLIMPSE air-climate-energy decision support project.

  18. Design and verification by nonlinear simulation of a Mach/CAS control law for the NASA TCV B737 aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bruce, Kevin R.

    1986-01-01

    A Mach/CAS control system using an elevator was designed and developed for use on the NASA TCV B737 aircraft to support research in profile descent procedures and approach energy management. The system was designed using linear analysis techniques primarily. The results were confirmed and the system validated at additional flight conditions using a nonlinear 737 aircraft simulation. All design requirements were satisfied.

  19. Spectroscopic studies of three Cepheids with high positive pulsation period increments: SZ Cas, BY Cas, and RU Sct

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Usenko, I. A.; Klochkova, V. G.

    2015-07-01

    Three high-resolution spectra have been taken at different times with the 6-m SAO RAS telescope (LYNX and PFES spectrographs) for three Cepheids exhibiting high positive period increments: the small-amplitude (DCEPS) SZ Cas and BY Cas and the classical (DCEP) RU Sct. SZ Cas and RU Sct are members of the Galactic open clusters χ and h Per and Trump 35, respectively. Analysis of the spectra has shown that the interstellar Na I D1 and D2 lines in all objects are considerably stronger than the atmospheric ones and are redshifted in SZ Cas and BY Cas and blushifted in RU Sct. The core of the H α absorption line in BY Cas has an asymmetric knifelike shape, while RU Sct exhibits an intense emission in the blue wing of this line. Such phenomena are observed in long-period Cepheids and bright hypergiants with an extended envelope. In this case, the strong Mg Ib 5183.62 Å and Ba II 5853.67, 6141.713, and 6496.90 Å lines with low χlow in SZ Cas and RU Sct also show characteristic knifelike profiles with an asymmetry in the red region, while the Ba II 4934.095 Å line shows similar profiles in the blue one. The absorption lines of neutral atoms and singly ionized metals with different lowerlevel excitation potentials exhibit different degrees of asymmetry: from a pronounced one with secondary components in BY Cas (similar to those in the small-amplitude Cepheid BG Cru pulsating in the first overtone and having an envelope) to its insignificance or virtual absence in SZ Cas and RU Sct. Analysis of the secular changes in mean T eff determined from photometric color indices and spectra over the last 55 years for these stars has revealed periodic fluctuations of 200 K for SZ Cas and BY Cas and 500 K for RU Sct. For SZ Cas and RU Sct, T eff determined in some years from some color indices show much lower values, which together with the temperature fluctuations can be associated with mass loss and dust formation. Based on these facts, we hypothesize the existence of

  20. First experience with the deltastream® DP3 in venovenous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation and air-supported inter-hospital transport

    PubMed Central

    Lunz, Dirk; Philipp, Alois; Judemann, Katrin; Amann, Matthias; Foltan, Maik; Schmid, Christof; Graf, Bernhard; Zausig, York A.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVES Based on continuous technical innovations and recent research, extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) has become a promising tool in the treatment of patients with acute (cardio)pulmonary failure. Nevertheless, any extracorporeal technique requires a high degree of experience and knowledge, so that a restriction to specialized centres seems to be reasonable. As a consequence of this demand, the need for inter-hospital transfer of patients with severely impaired (cardio)pulmonary function is rising. Unfortunately, most of the ECMO devices used in the clinical setting are not suitable for inter-hospital transport because of their size, weight or complexity. In this article, we describe our first experiences with the airborne transport of 6 patients on a new portable, miniaturized and lightweight extracorporeal circulation system, the Medos deltastream® DP3. METHODS Six patients suffering acute respiratory failure were taken on venovenous ECMO (DP3) out-of-centre and transferred to the University Medical Center Regensburg by helicopter. All cardiorespiratory-relevant parameters of the patients and the technical functioning of the device were continuously monitored and documented. RESULTS Implantation of the device and air-supported transport were performed without any technical complications. The patients were transported from a distance of 66–178 km, requiring a time of 40–120 min. With the help of the new deltastream® DP3 ECMO device, a prompt stabilization of the cardiopulmonary function could be achieved in all patients. One patient was under ongoing cardiopulmonary resuscitation by the time our ECMO team arrived at the peripheral hospital and died shortly after arrival in the central emergency ward. CONCLUSIONS Our experience shows that the deltastream® DP3 is an absolutely reliable and safe ECMO device that could gain growing importance in the field of airborne transportation of patients on ECMO due to its unsophisticated, miniaturized and

  1. Workstation-Based Real-Time Mesoscale Modeling Designed for Weather Support to Operations at the Kennedy Space Center and Cape Canaveral Air Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manobianco, John; Zack, John W.; Taylor, Gregory E.

    1996-01-01

    This paper describes the capabilities and operational utility of a version of the Mesoscale Atmospheric Simulation System (MASS) that has been developed to support operational weather forecasting at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) and Cape Canaveral Air Station (CCAS). The implementation of local, mesoscale modeling systems at KSC/CCAS is designed to provide detailed short-range (less than 24 h) forecasts of winds, clouds, and hazardous weather such as thunderstorms. Short-range forecasting is a challenge for daily operations, and manned and unmanned launches since KSC/CCAS is located in central Florida where the weather during the warm season is dominated by mesoscale circulations like the sea breeze. For this application, MASS has been modified to run on a Stardent 3000 workstation. Workstation-based, real-time numerical modeling requires a compromise between the requirement to run the system fast enough so that the output can be used before expiration balanced against the desire to improve the simulations by increasing resolution and using more detailed physical parameterizations. It is now feasible to run high-resolution mesoscale models such as MASS on local workstations to provide timely forecasts at a fraction of the cost required to run these models on mainframe supercomputers. MASS has been running in the Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) at KSC/CCAS since January 1994 for the purpose of system evaluation. In March 1995, the AMU began sending real-time MASS output to the forecasters and meteorologists at CCAS, Spaceflight Meteorology Group (Johnson Space Center, Houston, Texas), and the National Weather Service (Melbourne, Florida). However, MASS is not yet an operational system. The final decision whether to transition MASS for operational use will depend on a combination of forecaster feedback, the AMU's final evaluation results, and the life-cycle costs of the operational system.

  2. A laboratory study examining the impact of linen use on low-air-loss support surface heat and water vapor transmission rates.

    PubMed

    Williamson, Rachel; Lachenbruch, Charlie; VanGilder, Catherine

    2013-08-01

    Layers of linens are frequently placed under patients to manage moisture and/or assist with positioning immobile patients, including persons placed on a therapeutic surface because they are at risk for developing pressure ulcers. Because skin microclimate is believed to affect pressure ulcer risk, some therapeutic surfaces are designed to manage skin temperature and humidity (microclimate management). The purpose of this study was to measure the effects of linens and underpads on a low-air-loss (LAL) surface's ability to disperse heat and evaporate moisture. Underpads and transfer sheet combinations (grouped by three common linen functions: immobility, moisture management, and immobility and moisture management) were tested using the sweating guarded hot plate method, which allows for the measurement of the evaporative capacity (g H2O/m2*hour) and the total rate of heat withdrawal (Watts/m2) associated with nine different linen configurations placed on the support surface. Total heat withdrawal and evaporative capacity of the LAL surface with a fitted sheet only was used for comparison (P <0.05) Compared with fitted sheet only, heat withdrawal was significantly reduced by five of eight combinations, and evaporative moisture reduction was significantly reduced by six of eight linen combinations (P <0.05). All combinations that included plastic-containing underpads significantly reduced the surface's ability to dissipate heat and evaporate moisture, and use of the maximum number of layers (nine) reduced heat withdrawal to the level of a static, nonLAL surface. The results of this study suggest that putting additional linens or underpads on LAL surfaces may adversely affect skin temperature and moisture, thereby reducing the pressure ulcer prevention potential of these surfaces. Additional studies to examine the effect of linens and underpads as well as microclimate management strategies on pressure ulcer risk are needed.

  3. Support for and reported compliance among smokers with smoke-free policies in air-conditioned hospitality venues in Malaysia and Thailand: findings from the International Tobacco Control Southeast Asia Survey.

    PubMed

    Yong, Hua-Hie; Foong, Kin; Borland, Ron; Omar, Maizurah; Hamann, Stephen; Sirirassamee, Buppha; Fong, Geoffrey T; Fotuhi, Omid; Hyland, Andrew

    2010-01-01

    This study examined support for and reported compliance with smoke-free policy in air-conditioned restaurants and other similar places among adult smokers in Malaysia and Thailand. Baseline data (early 2005) from the International Tobacco Control Southeast Asia Survey (ITC-SEA), conducted face-to-face in Malaysia and Thailand (n = 4005), were used. Among those attending venues, reported total smoking bans in indoor air-conditioned places such as restaurants, coffee shops, and karaoke lounges were 40% and 57% in Malaysia and Thailand, respectively. Support for a total ban in air-conditioned venues was high and similar for both countries (82% Malaysian and 90% Thai smokers who believed there was a total ban), but self-reported compliance with bans in such venues was significantly higher in Thailand than in Malaysia (95% vs 51%, P < .001). As expected, reporting a ban in air-conditioned venues was associated with a greater support for a ban in such venues in both countries.

  4. Support for and reported compliance among smokers with smoke-free policies in air-conditioned hospitality venues in Malaysia and Thailand: Findings from the International Tobacco Control Southeast Asia Survey

    PubMed Central

    Yong, HH; Foong, K; Borland, R; Omar, M; Hamann, S; Sirirassamee, B; Fong, GT; Fotuhi, O; Hyland, A

    2015-01-01

    This study examined support for and reported compliance with smoke-free policy in air-conditioned restaurants and other similar places among adult smokers in Malaysia and Thailand. Baseline data (early 2005) from the International Tobacco Control Southeast Asia Survey (ITC-SEA) conducted face-to-face in Malaysia and Thailand (n=4005) were used. Among those attending venues, reported total smoking bans in indoor air-conditioned places such as restaurants, coffee shops and karaoke lounges were 40% and 57% in Malaysia and Thailand, respectively. Support for a total ban in air-conditioned venues was high and similar for both countries (82% Malaysian and 90% Thai smokers who believed there was a total ban) but self-reported compliance with bans in such venues was significantly higher in Thailand than in Malaysia (95% versus 51%, p<.001). As expected, reporting a ban in air-conditioned venues was associated with a greater support for a ban in such venues in both countries. PMID:20032039

  5. Pyo-pneumothorax tuberculeux: à propos de 18 cas

    PubMed Central

    Hicham, Souhi; Hanane, El Ouazzani; Hicham, Janah; Ismaïl, Rhorfi; Ahmed, Abid

    2016-01-01

    Le pyo-pneumothorax tuberculeux est une complication rare mais grave de la tuberculose pulmonaire évolutive. Nous rapportons une série de 18 cas de pyo-pneumothorax tuberculeux colligés au service de Pneumo-Phtisiologie de l'Hôpital Militaire d'Instruction Mohammed V de Rabat entre janvier 2005 et décembre 2009. Il s'agit de 15 hommes et 3 femmes d’âge moyen de 35 ans ±7 ans. 4 patients étaient diabétiques. Le tabagisme était retrouvé chez 9 cas. Le pyo-pneumothorax était du coté droit dans 13 cas. La radiographie thoracique avait montré des lésions cavitaires chez 15 patients et des lésions étendues et bilatérales chez 8 cas. La recherche de BK dans le liquide de tubage gastrique était positive chez 16 cas. Un drainage thoracique associé à un traitement antituberculeux selon le régime 2SRHZ/7RH et une kinésithérapie respiratoire ont été instaurés chez tous les cas. La durée moyenne de drainage pleural était de 4 semaines. Chez 3 cas on avait noté la persistance de la suppuration pleurale ayant nécessité une toilette pleurale sous thoracoscopie avec pleurectomie et exérèse pulmonaire limitée emportant la lésion parenchymateuse tuberculeuse et la persistance d'une volumineuse poche pleurale avec trouble ventilatoire restrictif ayant nécessité une décortication pleurale chirurgicale chez deux cas. L’évolution était favorable avec pachypleurite séquellaire minime chez le reste des cas. Le pyo-pneumothorax tuberculeux est une forme grave, qui est souvent en rapport avec une tuberculose cavitaire active. L’évolution est généralement trainante malgré le traitement antituberculeux et le drainage thoracique, d'où la nécessité d'un diagnostic et un traitement précoce de toute forme de tuberculose. PMID:27583090

  6. Cornerstones of CRISPR-Cas in drug discovery and therapy.

    PubMed

    Fellmann, Christof; Gowen, Benjamin G; Lin, Pei-Chun; Doudna, Jennifer A; Corn, Jacob E

    2017-02-01

    The recent development of CRISPR-Cas systems as easily accessible and programmable tools for genome editing and regulation is spurring a revolution in biology. Paired with the rapid expansion of reference and personalized genomic sequence information, technologies based on CRISPR-Cas are enabling nearly unlimited genetic manipulation, even in previously difficult contexts, including human cells. Although much attention has focused on the potential of CRISPR-Cas to cure Mendelian diseases, the technology also holds promise to transform the development of therapies to treat complex heritable and somatic disorders. In this Review, we discuss how CRISPR-Cas can affect the next generation of drugs by accelerating the identification and validation of high-value targets, uncovering high-confidence biomarkers and developing differentiated breakthrough therapies. We focus on the promises, pitfalls and hurdles of this revolutionary gene-editing technology, discuss key aspects of different CRISPR-Cas screening platforms and offer our perspectives on the best practices in genome engineering.

  7. SD-CAS: Spin Dynamics by Computer Algebra System.

    PubMed

    Filip, Xenia; Filip, Claudiu

    2010-11-01

    A computer algebra tool for describing the Liouville-space quantum evolution of nuclear 1/2-spins is introduced and implemented within a computational framework named Spin Dynamics by Computer Algebra System (SD-CAS). A distinctive feature compared with numerical and previous computer algebra approaches to solving spin dynamics problems results from the fact that no matrix representation for spin operators is used in SD-CAS, which determines a full symbolic character to the performed computations. Spin correlations are stored in SD-CAS as four-entry nested lists of which size increases linearly with the number of spins into the system and are easily mapped into analytical expressions in terms of spin operator products. For the so defined SD-CAS spin correlations a set of specialized functions and procedures is introduced that are essential for implementing basic spin algebra operations, such as the spin operator products, commutators, and scalar products. They provide results in an abstract algebraic form: specific procedures to quantitatively evaluate such symbolic expressions with respect to the involved spin interaction parameters and experimental conditions are also discussed. Although the main focus in the present work is on laying the foundation for spin dynamics symbolic computation in NMR based on a non-matrix formalism, practical aspects are also considered throughout the theoretical development process. In particular, specific SD-CAS routines have been implemented using the YACAS computer algebra package (http://yacas.sourceforge.net), and their functionality was demonstrated on a few illustrative examples.

  8. United States Air Force 611th Air Support Group/Civil Engineering Squadron Elmendorf AFB, Alaska. Decision document for no further response action planned: Bullen Point Radar Installation, Alaska. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Karmi, S.

    1996-05-24

    This Decision Document discusses the selection of no further action as the recommended action for two sites located at the Bullen Point radar installation. The United States Air Force (Air Force) completed a Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study and a Risk Assessment for the five sites located at the Bullen Point installation (U.S. Air Force 1996a,b). Based on the findings of these activities, two sites are recommended for no further action. Sites at the Bullen Point radar installation recommended for no further action are: Old Landfill/Dump Site East (LF06) and Drum Storage Area (SS10).

  9. U.S. ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY'S PM SUPERSITES PROGRAM - A MAJOR SUCCESSFUL COLLABORATIVE AIR QUALITY PROGRAM SUPPORTING STATES AND REGIONAL ORGANIZATIONS IN THEIR APPROACHES TO REDUCE PM LEVELS IN AIR ON URBAN AND REGIONAL SCALES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Particulate Matter (PM) Supersites Program (Program) is a nationwide air quality methods, measurement, modeling, and data analysis program initiated through cooperative agreements with leading universities in the United States. The Progr...

  10. Examination of CRISPR/Cas9 design tools and the effect of target site accessibility on Cas9 activity.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ciaran M; Davis, Timothy H; Bao, Gang

    2017-03-16

    The recent adaptation of the CRISPR/Cas9 system for targeted genome engineering has led to its widespread applications in many fields worldwide. In order to better understand the design rules of CRISPR/Cas9 systems, several groups have carried out large library-based screens leading to some insight into sequence preferences among highly active target sites. To facilitate CRISPR/Cas9 design these studies have spawned a plethora of gRNA design tools with algorithms based solely on direct or indirect sequence features. Here we demonstrate that the predictive power of these tools is poor, suggesting that sequence features alone cannot accurately inform the cutting efficiency of a particular CRISPR/Cas9 gRNA design. Furthermore we demonstrate that DNA target site accessibility influences the activity of CRISPR/Cas9. With further optimisation we hypothesise that it will be possible to increase the predictive power of gRNA design tools by including both sequence and target site accessibility metrics. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  11. Genome Editing in Human Cells Using CRISPR/Cas Nucleases.

    PubMed

    Wyvekens, Nicolas; Tsai, Shengdar Q; Joung, J Keith

    2015-10-01

    The clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR)/CRISPR-associated (Cas) system has been broadly adopted for highly efficient genome editing in a variety of model organisms and human cell types. Unlike previous genome editing technologies such as zinc finger nucleases (ZFNs) and transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs), CRISPR/Cas technology does not require complex protein engineering and can be utilized by any researcher proficient in basic molecular biology and cell culture techniques. This unit describes protocols for design and cloning of vectors expressing single or multiplex gRNAs, for transient transfection of human cell lines, and for quantitation of mutation frequencies by T7 endonuclease I assay. These protocols also include guidance for using two improvements that increase the specificity of CRISPR/Cas nucleases: truncated gRNAs and dimeric RNA-guided FokI nucleases.

  12. Harnessing CRISPR-Cas systems for bacterial genome editing.

    PubMed

    Selle, Kurt; Barrangou, Rodolphe

    2015-04-01

    Manipulation of genomic sequences facilitates the identification and characterization of key genetic determinants in the investigation of biological processes. Genome editing via clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)-CRISPR-associated (Cas) constitutes a next-generation method for programmable and high-throughput functional genomics. CRISPR-Cas systems are readily reprogrammed to induce sequence-specific DNA breaks at target loci, resulting in fixed mutations via host-dependent DNA repair mechanisms. Although bacterial genome editing is a relatively unexplored and underrepresented application of CRISPR-Cas systems, recent studies provide valuable insights for the widespread future implementation of this technology. This review summarizes recent progress in bacterial genome editing and identifies fundamental genetic and phenotypic outcomes of CRISPR targeting in bacteria, in the context of tool development, genome homeostasis, and DNA repair.

  13. CRISPR-Cas adaptation: insights into the mechanism of action.

    PubMed

    Amitai, Gil; Sorek, Rotem

    2016-02-01

    Since the first demonstration that CRISPR-Cas systems provide bacteria and archaea with adaptive immunity against phages and plasmids, numerous studies have yielded key insights into the molecular mechanisms governing how these systems attack and degrade foreign DNA. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the adaptation stage, in which new immunological memory is formed, have until recently represented a major unresolved question. In this Progress article, we discuss recent discoveries that have shown both how foreign DNA is identified by the CRISPR-Cas adaptation machinery and the molecular basis for its integration into the chromosome to form an immunological memory. Furthermore, we describe the roles of each of the specific CRISPR-Cas components that are involved in memory formation, and consider current models for their evolutionary origin.

  14. Exploiting CRISPR/Cas: interference mechanisms and applications.

    PubMed

    Richter, Hagen; Randau, Lennart; Plagens, André

    2013-07-12

    The discovery of biological concepts can often provide a framework for the development of novel molecular tools, which can help us to further understand and manipulate life. One recent example is the elucidation of the prokaryotic adaptive immune system, clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/CRISPR-associated (Cas) that protects bacteria and archaea against viruses or conjugative plasmids. The immunity is based on small RNA molecules that are incorporated into versatile multi-domain proteins or protein complexes and specifically target viral nucleic acids via base complementarity. CRISPR/Cas interference machines are utilized to develop novel genome editing tools for different organisms. Here, we will review the latest progress in the elucidation and application of prokaryotic CRISPR/Cas systems and discuss possible future approaches to exploit the potential of these interference machineries.

  15. DNA fragment editing of genomes by CRISPR/Cas9.

    PubMed

    Jinhuan, Li; Jia, Shou; Qiang, Wu

    2015-10-01

    The clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/CRISPR-associated nuclease 9 (Cas9) system from bacteria and archaea emerged recently as a new powerful technology of genome editing in virtually any organism. Due to its simplicity and cost effectiveness, a revolutionary change of genetics has occurred. Here, we summarize the recent development of DNA fragment editing methods by CRISPR/Cas9 and describe targeted DNA fragment deletions, inversions, duplications, insertions, and translocations. The efficient method of DNA fragment editing provides a powerful tool for studying gene function, regulatory elements, tissue development, and disease progression. Finally, we discuss the prospects of CRISPR/Cas9 system and the potential applications of other types of CRISPR system.

  16. Genome engineering using CRISPR-Cas9 system.

    PubMed

    Cong, Le; Zhang, Feng

    2015-01-01

    The Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats (CRISPR)-Cas9 system is an adaptive immune system that exists in a variety of microbes. It could be engineered to function in eukaryotic cells as a fast, low-cost, efficient, and scalable tool for manipulating genomic sequences. In this chapter, detailed protocols are described for harnessing the CRISPR-Cas9 system from Streptococcus pyogenes to enable RNA-guided genome engineering applications in mammalian cells. We present all relevant methods including the initial site selection, molecular cloning, delivery of guide RNAs (gRNAs) and Cas9 into mammalian cells, verification of target cleavage, and assays for detecting genomic modification including indels and homologous recombination. These tools provide researchers with new instruments that accelerate both forward and reverse genetics efforts.

  17. Targeted heritable mutation and gene conversion by Cas9-CRISPR in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed

    Katic, Iskra; Großhans, Helge

    2013-11-01

    We have achieved targeted heritable genome modification in Caenorhabditis elegans by injecting mRNA of the nuclease Cas9 and Cas9 guide RNAs. This system rapidly creates precise genomic changes, including knockouts and transgene-instructed gene conversion.

  18. Rapid and tunable method to temporally control gene editing based on conditional Cas9 stabilization.

    PubMed

    Senturk, Serif; Shirole, Nitin H; Nowak, Dawid G; Corbo, Vincenzo; Pal, Debjani; Vaughan, Alexander; Tuveson, David A; Trotman, Lloyd C; Kinney, Justin B; Sordella, Raffaella

    2017-02-22

    The CRISPR/Cas9 system is a powerful tool for studying gene function. Here, we describe a method that allows temporal control of CRISPR/Cas9 activity based on conditional Cas9 destabilization. We demonstrate that fusing an FKBP12-derived destabilizing domain to Cas9 (DD-Cas9) enables conditional Cas9 expression and temporal control of gene editing in the presence of an FKBP12 synthetic ligand. This system can be easily adapted to co-express, from the same promoter, DD-Cas9 with any other gene of interest without co-modulation of the latter. In particular, when co-expressed with inducible Cre-ER(T2), our system enables parallel, independent manipulation of alleles targeted by Cas9 and traditional recombinase with single-cell specificity. We anticipate this platform will be used for the systematic characterization and identification of essential genes, as well as the investigation of the interactions between functional genes.

  19. Mouse Genome Editing Using the CRISPR/Cas System.

    PubMed

    Harms, Donald W; Quadros, Rolen M; Seruggia, Davide; Ohtsuka, Masato; Takahashi, Gou; Montoliu, Lluis; Gurumurthy, Channabasavaiah B

    2014-10-01

    The availability of techniques to create desired genetic mutations has enabled the laboratory mouse as an extensively used model organism in biomedical research including human genetics. A new addition to this existing technical repertoire is the CRISPR/Cas system. Specifically, this system allows editing of the mouse genome much more quickly than the previously used techniques, and, more importantly, multiple mutations can be created in a single experiment. Here we provide protocols for preparation of CRISPR/Cas reagents and microinjection into one-cell mouse embryos to create knockout or knock-in mouse models.

  20. [CRISPR-Cas system as molecular scissors for gene therapy].

    PubMed

    Heinz, G A; Mashreghi, M-F

    2017-02-01

    Since the discovery of the CRISPR-Cas system as the adaptive immune system of prokaryotes, the underlying mechanism has proven to be a precise molecular tool for the targeted editing of genetic information in various cell types. By using the CRISPR-Cas9 system DNA sequences can be cut out at any site in the genome and changed in a sequence-specific manner. In the long term this provides the opportunity to cure diseases caused by gene mutations.

  1. Mouse Genome Editing using CRISPR/Cas System

    PubMed Central

    Harms, Donald W; Quadros, Rolen M; Seruggia, Davide; Ohtsuka, Masato; Takahashi, Gou

    2015-01-01

    The availability of techniques to create desired genetic mutations has enabled the laboratory mouse as an extensively used model organism in biomedical research including human genetics. A new addition to this existing technical repertoire is the CRISPR/Cas system. Specifically, this system allows editing of the mouse genome much faster than the previously used techniques and more importantly multiple mutations can be created in a single experiment. Here we provide protocols for preparation of CRISPR/Cas reagents and microinjection into one cell mouse embryos to create knockout or knock-in mouse models. PMID:25271839

  2. Les sarcomes des tissus mous: à propos de 33 cas

    PubMed Central

    Abdou, Jiddou; Elkabous, Mustapha; M'rabti, Hind; Errihani, Hassan

    2015-01-01

    L'objectif de cette étude est de rapporter les particularités épidémiologiques, cliniques, histologiques, thérapeutiques et évolutives des sarcomes des tissus mous à l'Institut National d'Oncologie et de définir les facteurs influençant la survie des patients. C'est une étude rétrospective de 33 cas de sarcome des tissus mous, colligés entre janvier 2008 et décembre 2010. Les critères d’éligibilité étaient un âge supérieur à 16 ans, une épreuve histologique d'un sarcome des tissus mous à l'exclusion des tumeurs stromales gastro-intestinales (GIST). Les items recueillis étaient: épidémiologiques, cliniques, histologiques, Radiologiques, et thérapeutiques. Des analyses univariées puis multivariées ont été réalisées à la recherche de facteurs influençant la survie à 2 ans. Il s'agit de 33 cas, 17 Hommes et 16 Femmes, l’âge moyen était de 43,21 ans (Extrêmes= 18-76 ans). La tumeur était localisée aux extrémités dans 24 cas (72,72%). Le type histologique prédominant était le Liposarcome dans 9 cas (27,27%). Le stade tumoral était localisé dans 25 cas (75,8%), métastatique dans 8 cas (24,2%). Vingt-cinq tumeurs ont été traitées chirurgicalement dont 21 cas (84%) de chirurgie conservatrice et 4 cas (16%) de chirurgie radicale. La radiothérapie a été réalisée chez 10 patients (30,3%). La chimiothérapie a été faite chez 20 patients. En analyse univariée les facteurs pronostiques étaient l’âge (p=0,03) et le stade tumoral (p=0,09). L’âge et le stade tumoral sont des facteurs pronostiques influençant la survie des sarcomes des tissus mous. PMID:27022434

  3. Applications of CRISPR-Cas systems in neuroscience

    PubMed Central

    Heidenreich, Matthias; Zhang, Feng

    2016-01-01

    Genome editing tools, and in particular those based on CRISPR-Cas systems, are accelerating the pace of biological research and enabling targeted genetic interrogation in virtually any organism and cell type. These tools have opened the door to the development of new model systems for studying the complexity of the nervous system, including animal and stem cell-derived in vitro models. Precise and efficient gene editing using CRISPR-Cas systems has the potential to advance both basic and translational neuroscience research. PMID:26656253

  4. Expanding the Biologist's Toolkit with CRISPR-Cas9.

    PubMed

    Sternberg, Samuel H; Doudna, Jennifer A

    2015-05-21

    Few discoveries transform a discipline overnight, but biologists today can manipulate cells in ways never possible before, thanks to a peculiar form of prokaryotic adaptive immunity mediated by clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR). From elegant studies that deciphered how these immune systems function in bacteria, researchers quickly uncovered the technological potential of Cas9, an RNA-guided DNA cleaving enzyme, for genome engineering. Here we highlight the recent explosion in visionary applications of CRISPR-Cas9 that promises to usher in a new era of biological understanding and control.

  5. Fusion of SpCas9 to E. coli Rec A protein enhances CRISPR-Cas9 mediated gene knockout in mammalian cells.

    PubMed

    Lin, Lin; Petersen, Trine Skov; Jensen, Kristopher Torp; Bolund, Lars; Kühn, Ralf; Luo, Yonglun

    2017-03-01

    Mammalian cells repair double-strand DNA breaks (DSB) by a range of different pathways following DSB induction by the engineered clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)-associated protein Cas9. While CRISPR-Cas9 thus enables predesigned modifications of the genome, applications of CRISPR-Cas9-mediated genome-editing are frequently hampered by the unpredictable and varying pathways for DSB repair in mammalian cells. Here we present a strategy of fusing Cas9 to recombinant proteins for fine-tuning of the DSB repair preferences in mammalian cells. By fusing Streptococcus Pyogenes Cas9 (SpCas9) to the recombinant protein A (Rec A, NP_417179.1) from Escherichia coli, we create a recombinant Cas9 protein (rSpCas9) which enhances the generation of indel mutations at DSB sites in mammalian cells, increases the frequency of DSB repair by homology-directed single-strand annealing (SSA), and represses homology-directed gene conversion by approximately 33%. Our study thus proves for the first time that fusing SpCas9 to recombinant proteins can influence the balance between DSB repair pathways in mammalian cells. This approach may form the basis for further investigations of the applications of recombinant Cas9 proteins to fine-tuning DSB repair pathways in eukaryotic cells.

  6. Cas9 gRNA engineering for genome editing, activation and repression

    PubMed Central

    Kiani, Samira; Chavez, Alejandro; Tuttle, Marcelle; Hall, Richard N; Chari, Raj; Ter-Ovanesyan, Dmitry; Qian, Jason; Pruitt, Benjamin W; Beal, Jacob; Vora, Suhani; Buchthal, Joanna; Kowal, Emma J K; Ebrahimkhani, Mohammad R; Collins, James J; Weiss, Ron; Church, George

    2015-01-01

    We demonstrate that by altering the length of Cas9-associated guide RNA(gRNA) we were able to control Cas9 nuclease activity and simultaneously perform genome editing and transcriptional regulation with a single Cas9 protein. We exploited these principles to engineer mammalian synthetic circuits with combined transcriptional regulation and kill functions governed by a single multifunctional Cas9 protein. PMID:26344044

  7. Application of CRISPR-Cas system in gene therapy: Pre-clinical progress in animal model.

    PubMed

    Guan, Lihong; Han, Yawei; Zhu, Shaoyi; Lin, Juntang

    2016-10-01

    The clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPRs) and their associated proteins (Cas) belong to the crucial adaptive immune system, which exist in archaea and bacteria. Currently, CRISPR-Cas9 system has been modified and widely used to edit genome. In this review, we summarized the discovery, classification and mechanism of CRISPR-Cas system and further discussed the application of CRISPR-Cas9 in gene therapy, mainly in disease models.

  8. Managing U.S. Air Force Aircraft Operating and Support Costs: Insights from Recent RAND Analysis and Opportunities for the Future

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-01-01

    Unit personnel costs might be reduced by consolidating many maintenance activities within a global network of maintenance facilities and by...discuss strategies for reducing O&S costs, and recommend additional actions for consideration. KC-135R/T AND C-130H O&S COST GROWTH FINDINGS The rate... global market, so Air Force efforts to reduce fuel expenditures must take the form of reductions in fuel consumption. The Air Force is examining a

  9. The use of heteroduplex analysis of polymerase chain reaction products to support the possible transmission of Legionella pneumophila from a malfunctioning automobile air conditioner.

    PubMed

    Pinar, Ahmet; Ramirez, Julio A; Schindler, Laura L; Miller, Richard D; Summersgill, James T

    2002-03-01

    Air conditioner condensates have not been previously associated with cases of Legionnaires' disease. We report the possible transmission of Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1 from a malfunctioning automobile air conditioning system's leaking water onto the floorboard of a car driven for a long distance by the patient. Heteroduplex analysis of polymerase chain reaction products was used to help establish an epidemiologic link between the water specimen and the patient.

  10. CRISPR-Cas immunity and mobile DNA: a new superfamily of DNA transposons encoding a Cas1 endonuclease.

    PubMed

    Hickman, Alison B; Dyda, Fred

    2014-01-01

    Mobile genetic elements such as DNA transposons are a feature of most genomes. The existence of novel DNA transposons can be inferred when whole genome sequencing reveals the presence of hallmarks of mobile elements such as terminal inverted repeats (TIRs) flanked by target site duplications (TSDs). A recent report describes a new superfamily of DNA transposons in the genomes of a few bacteria and archaea that possess TIRs and TSDs, and encode several conserved genes including a cas1 endonuclease gene, previously associated only with CRISPR-Cas adaptive immune systems. The data strongly suggests that these elements, designated 'casposons', are likely to be bona fide DNA transposons and that their Cas1 nucleases act as transposases and are possibly still active.

  11. Creation of targeted genomic deletions using TALEN or CRISPR/Cas nuclease pairs in one-cell mouse embryos

    PubMed Central

    Brandl, Christina; Ortiz, Oskar; Röttig, Bernhard; Wefers, Benedikt; Wurst, Wolfgang; Kühn, Ralf

    2014-01-01

    The use of TALEN and CRISPR/CAS nucleases is becoming increasingly popular as a means to edit single target sites in one-cell mouse embryos. Nevertheless, an area that has received less attention concerns the engineering of structural genome variants and the necessary religation of two distant double-strand breaks. Herein, we applied pairs of TALEN or sgRNAs and Cas9 to create deletions in the Rab38 gene. We found that the deletion of 3.2 or 9.3 kb, but not of 30 kb, occurs at a frequency of 6–37%. This is sufficient for the direct production of mutants by embryo microinjection. Therefore, deletions up to ∼10 kb can be readily achieved for modeling human disease alleles. This work represents an important step towards the establishment of new protocols that support the ligation of remote DSB ends to achieve even larger rearrangements. PMID:25685662

  12. The abundances of major elements in Cas A and Tycho supernova remnants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gorenstein, P.

    1995-01-01

    The objective of this program was to map the abundances of major elements such as O, Si, S, and Fe in the supernova remnants, Tycho and Cas A. The approach was based upon using archival cosmic X-ray data from several space missions, notably, the Einstein Observatory, EXOSAT, ROSAT, BBSRT, and ASCA. Two of the missions, Einstein and ROSAT, had high resolution telescopes that provided excellent images, but no spectral information. Two missions with much poorer resolution telescopes, BBXRT and ASCA, gave good spectral information through pulse height of signals in their cooled solid state detector, but rather crude spatial information. Our goal was to extract spectral information from the combined analysis of the Einstein and ROSAT images of Cas A and Tycho and to verify or refine the spectral map by checking its agreement with the BBSRT or ASCA spectra results for larger regions. In particular, we note that the Einstein and ROSAT telescopes have different spectral responses. The Einstein bandwidth includes the 2-4 keV region which is absent from ROSAT. Hence, by forming linear combinations of the Einstein and ROSAT images, we are able to resolve the contributions of the 0.5-2 keV band from the 2-4 keV band. The former contains lines of O and Fe while the latter is dominated by Si and S. We correct for the expansion that has taken place in the remnants during the ten-year interval between the Einstein and ROSAT measurements, but we must assume that no significant spectral changes have occurred during that time. The analysis of the Tycho SNR was completed and the results have been published. A copy of the paper is included. The analysis of Cas A has proved to be more complicated. It is continuing with support from another program. Part of the problem may be due to difficulties in the aspect information which is needed to precisely register the ROSAT and Einstein images.

  13. Efficient in vivo deletion of a large imprinted lncRNA by CRISPR/Cas9.

    PubMed

    Han, Jinxiong; Zhang, Jun; Chen, Li; Shen, Bin; Zhou, Jiankui; Hu, Bian; Du, Yinan; Tate, Peri H; Huang, Xingxu; Zhang, Wensheng

    2014-01-01

    Recent genome-wide studies have revealed that the majority of the mouse genome is transcribed as non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) and growing evidence supports the importance of ncRNAs in regulating gene expression and epigenetic processes. However, the low efficiency of conventional gene targeting strategies has hindered the functional study of ncRNAs in vivo, particularly in generating large fragment deletions of long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) with multiple expression variants. The bacterial clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/CRISPR-associated 9 (Cas9) system has recently been applied as an efficient tool for engineering site-specific mutations of protein-coding genes in the genome. In this study, we explored the potential of using the CRISPR/Cas9 system to generate large genomic deletions of lncRNAs in mice. We developed an efficient one-step strategy to target the maternally expressed lncRNA, Rian, on chromosome 12 in mice. We showed that paired sgRNAs can precisely generate large deletions up to 23kb and the deletion efficiency can be further improved up to 33% by combining multiple sgRNAs. The deletion successfully abolished the expression of Rian from the maternally inherited allele, validating the biological relevance of the mutations in studying an imprinted locus. Mutation of Rian has differential effects on expression of nearby genes in different somatic tissues. Taken together, we have established a robust one-step method to engineer large deletions to knockout lncRNA genes with the CRISPR/Cas9 system. Our work will facilitate future functional studies of other lncRNAs in vivo.

  14. Air Research

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA's air research provides the critical science to develop and implement outdoor air regulations under the Clean Air Act and puts new tools and information in the hands of air quality managers and regulators to protect the air we breathe.

  15. Creating Genome Modifications in C. elegans Using the CRISPR/Cas9 System.

    PubMed

    Calarco, John A; Friedland, Ari E

    2015-01-01

    The clustered, regularly interspaced, short, palindromic repeat (CRISPR)-associated (CAS) nuclease Cas9 has been used in many organisms to generate specific mutations and transgene insertions. Here we describe a method using the S. pyogenes Cas9 in C. elegans that provides a convenient and effective approach for making heritable changes to the worm genome.

  16. CAS or Pen-and-Paper: Factors That Influence Students' Choices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cameron, Scott; Ball, Lynda

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports on a study of choices about the use of a computer algebra system (CAS) or pen-and-paper (p&p) by a class of seven Year 11 Mathematical Methods (CAS) students as they completed a calculus worksheet. Factors that influenced students' choices are highlighted by comparing and contrasting the use of CAS and p&p between…

  17. After 16 Years of Publishing Standards, Do CAS Standards Make a Difference?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arminio, Jan; Gochenauer, Patty

    2004-01-01

    Using members of professional associations who are a part of the Council for the Advancement of Standards in Higher Education (CAS) consortia as a sample, this study investigated who uses CAS Standards, how and why they are used, and whether CAS Standards are associated with enhanced student learning. Using a quantitative analysis, this study…

  18. The role of Cas8 in type I CRISPR interference.

    PubMed

    Cass, Simon D B; Haas, Karina A; Stoll, Britta; Alkhnbashi, Omer S; Sharma, Kundan; Urlaub, Henning; Backofen, Rolf; Marchfelder, Anita; Bolt, Edward L

    2015-05-05

    CRISPR (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat) systems provide bacteria and archaea with adaptive immunity to repel invasive genetic elements. Type I systems use 'cascade' [CRISPR-associated (Cas) complex for antiviral defence] ribonucleoprotein complexes to target invader DNA, by base pairing CRISPR RNA (crRNA) to protospacers. Cascade identifies PAMs (protospacer adjacent motifs) on invader DNA, triggering R-loop formation and subsequent DNA degradation by Cas3. Cas8 is a candidate PAM recognition factor in some cascades. We analysed Cas8 homologues from type IB CRISPR systems in archaea Haloferax volcanii (Hvo) and Methanothermobacter thermautotrophicus (Mth). Cas8 was essential for CRISPR interference in Hvo and purified Mth Cas8 protein responded to PAM sequence when binding to nucleic acids. Cas8 interacted physically with Cas5-Cas7-crRNA complex, stimulating binding to PAM containing substrates. Mutation of conserved Cas8 amino acid residues abolished interference in vivo and altered catalytic activity of Cas8 protein in vitro. This is experimental evidence that Cas8 is important for targeting Cascade to invader DNA.

  19. Mismatch Negativity Responses in Children with a Diagnosis of Childhood Apraxia of Speech (CAS)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Froud, Karen; Khamis-Dakwar, Reem

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate whether a hypothesis suggesting that apraxia of speech results from phonological overspecification could be relevant for childhood apraxia of speech (CAS). Method: High-density EEG was recorded from 5 children with CAS and 5 matched controls, ages 5-8 years, with and without CAS, as they listened to randomized sequences of CV…

  20. Statistical Analysis of Model Data for Operational Space Launch Weather Support at Kennedy Space Center and Cape Canaveral Air Force Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauman, William H., III

    2010-01-01

    The 12-km resolution North American Mesoscale (NAM) model (MesoNAM) is used by the 45th Weather Squadron (45 WS) Launch Weather Officers at Kennedy Space Center (KSC) and Cape Canaveral Air Force Station (CCAFS) to support space launch weather operations. The 45 WS tasked the Applied Meteorology Unit to conduct an objective statistics-based analysis of MesoNAM output compared to wind tower mesonet observations and then develop a an operational tool to display the results. The National Centers for Environmental Prediction began running the current version of the MesoNAM in mid-August 2006. The period of record for the dataset was 1 September 2006 - 31 January 2010. The AMU evaluated MesoNAM hourly forecasts from 0 to 84 hours based on model initialization times of 00, 06, 12 and 18 UTC. The MesoNAM forecast winds, temperature and dew point were compared to the observed values of these parameters from the sensors in the KSC/CCAFS wind tower network. The data sets were stratified by model initialization time, month and onshore/offshore flow for each wind tower. Statistics computed included bias (mean difference), standard deviation of the bias, root mean square error (RMSE) and a hypothesis test for bias = O. Twelve wind towers located in close proximity to key launch complexes were used for the statistical analysis with the sensors on the towers positioned at varying heights to include 6 ft, 30 ft, 54 ft, 60 ft, 90 ft, 162 ft, 204 ft and 230 ft depending on the launch vehicle and associated weather launch commit criteria being evaluated. These twelve wind towers support activities for the Space Shuttle (launch and landing), Delta IV, Atlas V and Falcon 9 launch vehicles. For all twelve towers, the results indicate a diurnal signal in the bias of temperature (T) and weaker but discernable diurnal signal in the bias of dewpoint temperature (T(sub d)) in the MesoNAM forecasts. Also, the standard deviation of the bias and RMSE of T, T(sub d), wind speed and wind

  1. A decision support tool for evaluating the air quality and wind comfort induced by different opening configurations for buildings in canyons.

    PubMed

    Fan, M; Chau, C K; Chan, E H W; Jia, J

    2017-01-01

    This study formulated a new index for evaluating both the air quality and wind comfort induced by building openings at the pedestrian level of street canyons. The air pollutant concentrations and wind velocities induced by building openings were predicted by a series of CFD simulations using ANSYS Fluent software based on standard k-ɛ model. The types of opening configurations investigated inside isolated and non-isolated canyons included separations, voids and permeable elements. It was found that openings with permeability values of 10% were adequate for improving the air quality and wind comfort conditions for pedestrians after considering the reduction in development floor areas. Openings were effective in improving the air quality in isolated canyons and different types of opening configurations were suggested for different street aspect ratios. On the contrary, openings were not always found effective for non-isolated canyons if there were pollutant sources in adjacent street canyons. As such, it would also be recommended introducing openings to adjacent canyons along with openings to the target canyons. The formulated index can help city planners and building designers to strike an optimal balance between air quality and wind comfort for pedestrians when designing and planning buildings inside urban streets and thus promoting urban environmental sustainability.

  2. Preparing Students to Take SOA/CAS Exam FM/2

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marchand, Richard J.

    2014-01-01

    This paper provides suggestions for preparing students to take the actuarial examination on financial mathematics, SOA/CAS Exam FM/2. It is based on current practices employed at Slippery Rock University, a small public liberal arts university. Detailed descriptions of our Theory of Interest course and subsequent Exam FM/2 prep course are provided…

  3. CRISPR/Cas9 advances engineering of microbial cell factories.

    PubMed

    Jakočiūnas, Tadas; Jensen, Michael K; Keasling, Jay D

    2016-03-01

    One of the key drivers for successful metabolic engineering in microbes is the efficacy by which genomes can be edited. As such there are many methods to choose from when aiming to modify genomes, especially those of model organisms like yeast and bacteria. In recent years, clustered regularly interspaced palindromic repeats (CRISPR) and its associated proteins (Cas) have become the method of choice for precision genome engineering in many organisms due to their orthogonality, versatility and efficacy. Here we review the strategies adopted for implementation of RNA-guided CRISPR/Cas9 genome editing with special emphasis on their application for metabolic engineering of yeast and bacteria. Also, examples of how nuclease-deficient Cas9 has been applied for RNA-guided transcriptional regulation of target genes will be reviewed, as well as tools available for computer-aided design of guide-RNAs will be highlighted. Finally, this review will provide a perspective on the immediate challenges and opportunities foreseen by the use of CRISPR/Cas9 genome engineering and regulation in the context of metabolic engineering.

  4. What rheumatologists need to know about CRISPR/Cas9.

    PubMed

    Gibson, Gary J; Yang, Maozhou

    2017-02-09

    CRISPR/Cas9 genome editing technology has taken the research world by storm since its use in eukaryotes was first proposed in 2012. Publications describing advances in technology and new applications have continued at an unrelenting pace since that time. In this Review, we discuss the application of CRISPR/Cas9 for creating gene mutations - the application that initiated the current avalanche of interest - and new developments that have largely answered initial concerns about its specificity and ability to introduce new gene sequences. We discuss the new, diverse and rapidly growing adaptations of the CRISPR/Cas9 technique that enable activation, repression, multiplexing and gene screening. These developments have enabled researchers to create sophisticated tools for dissecting the function and inter-relatedness of genes, as well as noncoding regions of the genome, and to identify gene networks and noncoding regions that promote disease or confer disease susceptibility. These approaches are beginning to be used to interrogate complex and multilayered biological systems and to produce complex animal models of disease. CRISPR/Cas9 technology has enabled the application of new therapeutic approaches to treating disease in animal models, some of which are beginning to be seen in the first human clinical trials. We discuss the direct application of these techniques to rheumatic diseases, which are currently limited but are sure to increase rapidly in the near future.

  5. Technological Discourse on CAS-Based Operative Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mann, Giora; Dana-Picard, Thierry; Zehavi, Nurit

    2007-01-01

    This article begins with a comparison of two groups of teachers, working on the same tasks in Analytic Geometry. One group has only basic experience in CAS-assisted problem solving, and the other group has extensive experience. The comparison is discussed in terms of the interplay between reflection, operative knowledge and execution. The findings…

  6. Targeted mutagenesis in chicken using CRISPR/Cas9 system

    PubMed Central

    Oishi, Isao; Yoshii, Kyoko; Miyahara, Daichi; Kagami, Hiroshi; Tagami, Takahiro

    2016-01-01

    The CRISPR/Cas9 system is a simple and powerful tool for genome editing in various organisms including livestock animals. However, the system has not been applied to poultry because of the difficulty in accessing their zygotes. Here we report the implementation of CRISPR/Cas9-mediated gene targeting in chickens. Two egg white genes, ovalbumin and ovomucoid, were efficiently (>90%) mutagenized in cultured chicken primordial germ cells (PGCs) by transfection of circular plasmids encoding Cas9, a single guide RNA, and a gene encoding drug resistance, followed by transient antibiotic selection. We transplanted CRISPR-induced mutant-ovomucoid PGCs into recipient chicken embryos and established three germline chimeric roosters (G0). All of the roosters had donor-derived mutant-ovomucoid spermatozoa, and the two with a high transmission rate of donor-derived gametes produced heterozygous mutant ovomucoid chickens as about half of their donor-derived offspring in the next generation (G1). Furthermore, we generated ovomucoid homozygous mutant offspring (G2) by crossing the G1 mutant chickens. Taken together, these results demonstrate that the CRISPR/Cas9 system is a simple and effective gene-targeting method in chickens. PMID:27050479

  7. Problem Solving in Calculus with Symbolic Geometry and CAS

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Todd, Philip; Wiechmann, James

    2008-01-01

    Computer algebra systems (CAS) have been around for a number of years, as has dynamic geometry. Symbolic geometry software is new. It bears a superficial similarity to dynamic geometry software, but differs in that problems may be set up involving symbolic variables and constants, and measurements are given as symbolic expressions. Mathematical…

  8. Prospective Mathematics Teachers' Interactions with CAS-Based Textbook Elements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Jon D.

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated how a group of 10 prospective secondary mathematics teachers (PST) read, evaluated, and adapted a textbook lesson involving the symbolic manipulation capabilities of computer algebra systems (CASS). PST read the entire lesson and tended to focus on the organizing question at the beginning of the student lesson and the CAS-S…

  9. CRISPR-Cas9 technology: applications and human disease modelling.

    PubMed

    Torres-Ruiz, Raul; Rodriguez-Perales, Sandra

    2017-01-01

    Genome engineering is a powerful tool for a wide range of applications in biomedical research and medicine. The development of the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)-Cas9 system has revolutionized the field of gene editing, thus facilitating efficient genome editing through the creation of targeted double-strand breaks of almost any organism and cell type. In addition, CRISPR-Cas9 technology has been used successfully for many other purposes, including regulation of endogenous gene expression, epigenome editing, live-cell labelling of chromosomal loci, edition of single-stranded RNA and high-throughput gene screening. The implementation of the CRISPR-Cas9 system has increased the number of available technological alternatives for studying gene function, thus enabling generation of CRISPR-based disease models. Although many mechanistic questions remain to be answered and several challenges have yet to be addressed, the use of CRISPR-Cas9-based genome engineering technologies will increase our knowledge of disease processes and their treatment in the near future.

  10. Building the Class 2 CRISPR-Cas Arsenal.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Kevin M; Ke, Ailong

    2017-02-02

    Adaptation of CRISPR-Cas9 for genome-editing applications has revolutionized biomedical research. New single-component effector CRISPR systems are emerging from the bioinformatics pipeline. How can we best harness their power? Three new studies will no doubt facilitate this transition by generating the C2c1 and C2c2 structure snapshots in different functional states.

  11. CRISPR-Cas9 genome editing in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Gratz, Scott J.; Rubinstein, C. Dustin; Harrison, Melissa M.; Wildonger, Jill; O’Connor-Giles, Kate M.

    2015-01-01

    The CRISPR-Cas9 system has transformed genome engineering of model organisms from possible to practical. CRISPR-Cas9 can be readily programmed to generate sequence-specific double-strand breaks that disrupt targeted loci when repaired by error-prone non-homologous end joining or to catalyze precise genome modification through homology-directed repair (HDR). Here we describe a streamlined approach for rapid and highly efficient engineering of the Drosophila genome via CRISPR-Cas9-mediated HDR. In this approach, transgenic flies expressing Cas9 are injected with plasmids to express guide RNAs (gRNAs) and positively marked donor templates. We detail target site selection; gRNA plasmid generation; donor template design and construction; and the generation, identification and molecular confirmation of engineered lines. We also present alternative approaches and highlight key considerations for experimental design. The approach outlined here can be used to rapidly and reliably generate a variety of engineered modifications, including genomic deletions and replacements, precise sequence edits, and incorporation of protein tags. PMID:26131852

  12. 48 CFR 9903.201-2 - Types of CAS coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2013-10-01 2012-10-01 true Types of CAS coverage. 9903.201-2 Section 9903.201-2 Federal Acquisition Regulations System COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS BOARD... college or university, as defined in section 1201(a) of Public Law 89-329, November 8, 1965,...

  13. New Insight in Mathematics by Live CAS Documents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cnop, Ivan

    Traditional education in mathematics is mostly a matter of hindsight, and many mathematics texts offer little opportunity for students and learners to gain insight. This paper shows how experiments in CAS (computer algebra systems) can lead to new ways of handling problems, new conjectures, new visualizations, new proofs, new correspondences…

  14. Equivalent Expressions Using CAS and Paper-and-Pencil Techniques

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fonger, Nicole L.

    2014-01-01

    How can the key concept of equivalent expressions be addressed so that students strengthen their representational fluency with symbols, graphs, and numbers? How can research inform the synergistic use of both paper-and-pencil analysis and computer algebra systems (CAS) in a classroom learning environment? These and other related questions have…

  15. CRISPR-Cas9: from Genome Editing to Cancer Research

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Si; Sun, Heng; Miao, Kai; Deng, Chu-Xia

    2016-01-01

    Cancer development is a multistep process triggered by innate and acquired mutations, which cause the functional abnormality and determine the initiation and progression of tumorigenesis. Gene editing is a widely used engineering tool for generating mutations that enhance tumorigenesis. The recent developed clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats-CRISPR-associated 9 (CRISPR-Cas9) system renews the genome editing approach into a more convenient and efficient way. By rapidly introducing genetic modifications in cell lines, organs and animals, CRISPR-Cas9 system extends the gene editing into whole genome screening, both in loss-of-function and gain-of-function manners. Meanwhile, the system accelerates the establishment of animal cancer models, promoting in vivo studies for cancer research. Furthermore, CRISPR-Cas9 system is modified into diverse innovative tools for observing the dynamic bioprocesses in cancer studies, such as image tracing for targeted DNA, regulation of transcription activation or repression. Here, we view recent technical advances in the application of CRISPR-Cas9 system in cancer genetics, large-scale cancer driver gene hunting, animal cancer modeling and functional studies. PMID:27994508

  16. A New Outburst of the Yellow Hypergiant Star ρ Cas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aret, A.; Kraus, M.; Kolka, I.; Maravelias, G.

    2017-02-01

    Spectroscopic monitoring of the yellow hypergiant ρ Cas revealed a new outburst in 2013, which is obvious from the development of TiO bands in the spectra. Also many atmospheric lines characteristic of a later spectral type appear. This spectroscopic outburst is in agreement with the photometric light curve, which displays a drop by about 0.6 mag during the same period.

  17. Medical marijuana: CAS releases report, government cuts research funding.

    PubMed

    Betteridge, Glenn

    2006-12-01

    In June 2006, the Canadian AIDS Society (CAS) released a comprehensive report with recommendations to overcome barriers to the use of cannabis for medical purposes faced by people living with HIV/AIDS in Canada. On 25 September 2006, as part of package of spending cuts, the federal government announced plans to eliminate its marijuana medical research program.

  18. CRISPR-Cas9: from Genome Editing to Cancer Research.

    PubMed

    Chen, Si; Sun, Heng; Miao, Kai; Deng, Chu-Xia

    2016-01-01

    Cancer development is a multistep process triggered by innate and acquired mutations, which cause the functional abnormality and determine the initiation and progression of tumorigenesis. Gene editing is a widely used engineering tool for generating mutations that enhance tumorigenesis. The recent developed clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats-CRISPR-associated 9 (CRISPR-Cas9) system renews the genome editing approach into a more convenient and efficient way. By rapidly introducing genetic modifications in cell lines, organs and animals, CRISPR-Cas9 system extends the gene editing into whole genome screening, both in loss-of-function and gain-of-function manners. Meanwhile, the system accelerates the establishment of animal cancer models, promoting in vivo studies for cancer research. Furthermore, CRISPR-Cas9 system is modified into diverse innovative tools for observing the dynamic bioprocesses in cancer studies, such as image tracing for targeted DNA, regulation of transcription activation or repression. Here, we view recent technical advances in the application of CRISPR-Cas9 system in cancer genetics, large-scale cancer driver gene hunting, animal cancer modeling and functional studies.

  19. [Prophylactic medicine--a foreground direction of medical support of the air staff of aviation of the Armed Forces of Russian Federation].

    PubMed

    Khomenko, M N; Klepikov, A N; Zubkov, A D; Bagaudinov, K G; Churilov, Iu K

    2008-06-01

    The first prophylaxis of chronic not-infection diseases obtains more and more value. Level of these diseases among air staff is rather high and has a tendency of increasing. It's bounded up with defects in the system of the first medical unit, insufficient conducting of ecological and sanitarium-hygiene screening and taking steps on decreasing of the influence of noxious agent on the human organism, improvement of working conditions of air specialists, decreasing of the value of psychoemotional stress and other factors. An important factor during the conducting the first and the second prophylaxis is an early detection of changes in health by the air staff and technical-engineer staff, diagnostics of diseases on early stages, when they conduct without any symptoms, forehanded rehabilitation and treatment.

  20. Direct Cytosolic Delivery of CRISPR/Cas9-Ribonucleoprotein for Efficient Gene Editing.

    PubMed

    Mout, Rubul; Ray, Moumita; Yesilbag Tonga, Gulen; Lee, Yi-Wei; Tay, Tristan; Sasaki, Kanae; Rotello, Vincent M

    2017-03-28

    Genome editing through the delivery of CRISPR/Cas9-ribonucleoprotein (Cas9-RNP) reduces unwanted gene targeting and avoids integrational mutagenesis that can occur through gene delivery strategies. Direct and efficient delivery of Cas9-RNP into the cytosol followed by translocation to the nucleus remains a challenge. Here, we report a remarkably highly efficient (∼90%) direct cytoplasmic/nuclear delivery of Cas9 protein complexed with a guide RNA (sgRNA) through the coengineering of Cas9 protein and carrier nanoparticles. This construct provides effective (∼30%) gene editing efficiency and opens up opportunities in studying genome dynamics.

  1. CRISPR/Cas9-mediated targeted mutagenesis in Nicotiana tabacum.

    PubMed

    Gao, Junping; Wang, Genhong; Ma, Sanyuan; Xie, Xiaodong; Wu, Xiangwei; Zhang, Xingtan; Wu, Yuqian; Zhao, Ping; Xia, Qingyou

    2015-01-01

    Genome editing is one of the most powerful tools for revealing gene function and improving crop plants. Recently, RNA-guided genome editing using the type II clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)-associated protein (Cas) system has been used as a powerful and efficient tool for genome editing in various organisms. Here, we report genome editing in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) mediated by the CRISPR/Cas9 system. Two genes, NtPDS and NtPDR6, were used for targeted mutagenesis. First, we examined the transient genome editing activity of this system in tobacco protoplasts, insertion and deletion (indel) mutations were observed with frequencies of 16.2-20.3% after transfecting guide RNA (gRNA) and the nuclease Cas9 in tobacco protoplasts. The two genes were also mutated using multiplexing gRNA at a time. Additionally, targeted deletions and inversions of a 1.8-kb fragment between two target sites in the NtPDS locus were demonstrated, while indel mutations were also detected at both the sites. Second, we obtained transgenic tobacco plants with NtPDS and NtPDR6 mutations induced by Cas9/gRNA. The mutation percentage was 81.8% for NtPDS gRNA4 and 87.5% for NtPDR6 gRNA2. Obvious phenotypes were observed, etiolated leaves for the psd mutant and more branches for the pdr6 mutant, indicating that highly efficient biallelic mutations occurred in both transgenic lines. No significant off-target mutations were obtained. Our results show that the CRISPR/Cas9 system is a useful tool for targeted mutagenesis of the tobacco genome.

  2. Adenovirus-Mediated Somatic Genome Editing of Pten by CRISPR/Cas9 in Mouse Liver in Spite of Cas9-Specific Immune Responses.

    PubMed

    Wang, Dan; Mou, Haiwei; Li, Shaoyong; Li, Yingxiang; Hough, Soren; Tran, Karen; Li, Jia; Yin, Hao; Anderson, Daniel G; Sontheimer, Erik J; Weng, Zhiping; Gao, Guangping; Xue, Wen

    2015-07-01

    CRISPR/Cas9 derived from the bacterial adaptive immunity pathway is a powerful tool for genome editing, but the safety profiles of in vivo delivered Cas9 (including host immune responses to the bacterial Cas9 protein) have not been comprehensively investigated in model organisms. Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is a prevalent human liver disease characterized by excessive fat accumulation in the liver. In this study, we used adenovirus (Ad) vector to deliver a Streptococcus pyogenes-derived Cas9 system (SpCas9) targeting Pten, a gene involved in NASH and a negative regulator of the PI3K-AKT pathway, in mouse liver. We found that the Ad vector mediated efficient Pten gene editing even in the presence of typical Ad vector-associated immunotoxicity in the liver. Four months after vector infusion, mice receiving the Pten gene-editing Ad vector showed massive hepatomegaly and features of NASH, consistent with the phenotypes following Cre-loxP-induced Pten deficiency in mouse liver. We also detected induction of humoral immunity against SpCas9 and the potential presence of an SpCas9-specific cellular immune response. Our findings provide a strategy to model human liver diseases in mice and highlight the importance considering Cas9-specific immune responses in future translational studies involving in vivo delivery of CRISPR/Cas9.

  3. Efficient mutagenesis by CRISPR/Cas system during meiotic maturation of porcine oocytes

    PubMed Central

    ONUMA, Asuka; FUJII, Wataru; SUGIURA, Koji; NAITO, Kunihiko

    2016-01-01

    Genome editing using the CRISPR/Cas system can induce mutations with high efficiency, and allows easier production of genome-modified animals than that offered by the conventional method where embryonic stem cells are used. However, studies using CRISPR/Cas systems have been mostly limited to proliferating somatic cells and pronuclear-stage fertilized eggs. In contrast, the efficiency of a CRISPR/Cas system in immature and maturing oocytes progressing through meiosis has not yet been assessed. In the present study, we evaluated the genome-modification efficiency of the CRISPR/Cas system during meiotic maturation of porcine oocytes. Additionally, the localization of the Cas9 protein in immature oocytes was analyzed in relation to nuclear transport and mutation induction. The results showed that CRISPR/Cas induced mutation with high efficiency even in maturing oocytes with condensed chromosomes, whereas mutations were not induced in GV-stage oocytes. The localization analysis of enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP)-tagged Cas9 (Cas9-EGFP) revealed that the nuclei contained lesser Cas9 than the cytoplasm in immature oocytes. Treatment with leptomycin B, a nuclear export inhibitor, increased the amount of nuclear Cas9 and enabled mutation induction in GV oocytes. Our results suggest that CRISPR/Cas systems can be applied to oocytes during meiotic maturation and be implemented in novel applications targeting female genomes. PMID:27773884

  4. Efficient mutagenesis by CRISPR/Cas system during meiotic maturation of porcine oocytes.

    PubMed

    Onuma, Asuka; Fujii, Wataru; Sugiura, Koji; Naito, Kunihiko

    2017-02-16

    Genome editing using the CRISPR/Cas system can induce mutations with high efficiency, and allows easier production of genome-modified animals than that offered by the conventional method where embryonic stem cells are used. However, studies using CRISPR/Cas systems have been mostly limited to proliferating somatic cells and pronuclear-stage fertilized eggs. In contrast, the efficiency of a CRISPR/Cas system in immature and maturing oocytes progressing through meiosis has not yet been assessed. In the present study, we evaluated the genome-modification efficiency of the CRISPR/Cas system during meiotic maturation of porcine oocytes. Additionally, the localization of the Cas9 protein in immature oocytes was analyzed in relation to nuclear transport and mutation induction. The results showed that CRISPR/Cas induced mutation with high efficiency even in maturing oocytes with condensed chromosomes, whereas mutations were not induced in GV-stage oocytes. The localization analysis of enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP)-tagged Cas9 (Cas9-EGFP) revealed that the nuclei contained lesser Cas9 than the cytoplasm in immature oocytes. Treatment with leptomycin B, a nuclear export inhibitor, increased the amount of nuclear Cas9 and enabled mutation induction in GV oocytes. Our results suggest that CRISPR/Cas systems can be applied to oocytes during meiotic maturation and be implemented in novel applications targeting female genomes.

  5. HMMCAS: a web tool for the identification and domain annotations of Cas proteins.

    PubMed

    Chai, Guoshi; Yu, Min; Jiang, Lixu; Duan, Yaocong; Huang, Jian

    2017-02-07

    The CRISPR-Cas (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats-CRISPR-associated proteins) adaptive immune systems are discovered in many bacteria and most archaea. These systems are encoded by cas (CRISPR-associated) operons that have an extremely diverse architecture. The most crucial step in the depiction of cas operons composition is the identification of cas genes or Cas proteins. With the continuous increase of the newly sequenced archaeal and bacterial genomes, the recognition of new Cas proteins is becoming possible, which not only provides candidates for novel genome editing tools but also helps to understand the prokaryotic immune system better. Here we describe HMMCAS, a web service for the detection of CRISPR-associated structural and functional domains in protein sequences. HMMCAS uses hmmscan similarity search algorithm in HMMER3.1 to provide a fast, interactive service based on a comprehensive collection of hidden Markov models of Cas protein family. It can accurately identify the Cas proteins including those fusion proteins, for example the Cas1-Cas4 fusion protein in Candidatus Chloracidobacterium thermophilum B (Cab. thermophilum B). HMMCAS can also find putative cas operon and determine which type it belongs to. HMMCAS is freely available at http://i.uestc.edu.cn/hmmcas.

  6. Air Emissions Factors and Quantification

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Emissions factors are used in developing air emissions inventories for air quality management decisions and in developing emissions control strategies. This area provides technical information on and support for the use of emissions factors.

  7. Chemical and Biophysical Modulation of Cas9 for Tunable Genome Engineering.

    PubMed

    Nuñez, James K; Harrington, Lucas B; Doudna, Jennifer A

    2016-03-18

    The application of the CRISPR-Cas9 system for genome engineering has revolutionized the ability to interrogate genomes of mammalian cells. Programming the Cas9 endonuclease to induce DNA breaks at specified sites is achieved by simply modifying the sequence of its cognate guide RNA. Although Cas9-mediated genome editing has been shown to be highly specific, cleavage events at off-target sites have also been reported. Minimizing, and eventually abolishing, unwanted off-target cleavage remains a major goal of the CRISPR-Cas9 technology before its implementation for therapeutic use. Recent efforts have turned to chemical biology and biophysical approaches to engineer inducible genome editing systems for controlling Cas9 activity at the transcriptional and protein levels. Here, we review recent advancements to modulate Cas9-mediated genome editing by engineering split-Cas9 constructs, inteins, small molecules, protein-based dimerizing domains, and light-inducible systems.

  8. A simplified and efficient germline-specific CRISPR/Cas9 system for Drosophila genomic engineering.

    PubMed

    Sebo, Zachary L; Lee, Han B; Peng, Ying; Guo, Yi

    2014-01-01

    The type II CRISPR/Cas9 system (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats/CRISPR-associated) has recently emerged as an efficient and simple tool for site-specific engineering of eukaryotic genomes. To improve its applications in Drosophila genome engineering, we simplified the standard two-component CRISPR/Cas9 system by generating a stable transgenic fly line expressing the Cas9 endonuclease in the germline (Vasa-Cas9 line). By injecting vectors expressing engineered target-specific guide RNAs into Vasa-Cas9 fly embryos, mutations were generated from site-specific DNA cleavages and efficiently transmitted into progenies. Because Cas9 endonuclease is the universal component of the type II CRISPR/Cas9 system, site-specific genomic engineering based on this improved platform can be achieved with lower complexity and toxicity, greater consistency, and excellent versatility.

  9. Primary processing of CRISPR RNA by the endonuclease Cas6 in Staphylococcus epidermidis.

    PubMed

    Wakefield, Noelle; Rajan, Rakhi; Sontheimer, Erik J

    2015-10-07

    In many bacteria and archaea, an adaptive immune system (CRISPR-Cas) provides immunity against foreign genetic elements. This system uses CRISPR RNAs (crRNAs) derived from the CRISPR array, along with CRISPR-associated (Cas) proteins, to target foreign nucleic acids. In most CRISPR systems, endonucleolytic processing of crRNA precursors (pre-crRNAs) is essential for the pathway. Here we study the Cas6 endonuclease responsible for crRNA processing in the Type III-A CRISPR-Cas system from Staphylococcus epidermidis RP62a, a model for Type III-A CRISPR-Cas systems, and define substrate requirements for SeCas6 activity. We find that SeCas6 is necessary and sufficient for full-length crRNA biogenesis in vitro, and that it relies on both sequence and stem-loop structure in the 3' half of the CRISPR repeat for recognition and processing.

  10. Structures of Cas9 endonucleases reveal RNA-mediated conformational activation.

    PubMed

    Jinek, Martin; Jiang, Fuguo; Taylor, David W; Sternberg, Samuel H; Kaya, Emine; Ma, Enbo; Anders, Carolin; Hauer, Michael; Zhou, Kaihong; Lin, Steven; Kaplan, Matias; Iavarone, Anthony T; Charpentier, Emmanuelle; Nogales, Eva; Doudna, Jennifer A

    2014-03-14

    Type II CRISPR (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats)-Cas (CRISPR-associated) systems use an RNA-guided DNA endonuclease, Cas9, to generate double-strand breaks in invasive DNA during an adaptive bacterial immune response. Cas9 has been harnessed as a powerful tool for genome editing and gene regulation in many eukaryotic organisms. We report 2.6 and 2.2 angstrom resolution crystal structures of two major Cas9 enzyme subtypes, revealing the structural core shared by all Cas9 family members. The architectures of Cas9 enzymes define nucleic acid binding clefts, and single-particle electron microscopy reconstructions show that the two structural lobes harboring these clefts undergo guide RNA-induced reorientation to form a central channel where DNA substrates are bound. The observation that extensive structural rearrangements occur before target DNA duplex binding implicates guide RNA loading as a key step in Cas9 activation.

  11. Research and Application of an Air Quality Early Warning System Based on a Modified Least Squares Support Vector Machine and a Cloud Model.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jianzhou; Niu, Tong; Wang, Rui

    2017-03-02

    The worsening atmospheric pollution increases the necessity of air quality early warning systems (EWSs). Despite the fact that a massive amount of investigation about EWS in theory and practicality has been conducted by numerous researchers, studies concerning the quantification of uncertain information and comprehensive evaluation are still lacking, which impedes further development in the area. In this paper, firstly a comprehensive warning system is proposed, which consists of two vital indispensable modules, namely effective forecasting and scientific evaluation, respectively. For the forecasting module, a novel hybrid model combining the theory of data preprocessing and numerical optimization is first developed to implement effective forecasting for air pollutant concentration. Especially, in order to further enhance the accuracy and robustness of the warning system, interval forecasting is implemented to quantify the uncertainties generated by forecasts, which can provide significant risk signals by using point forecasting for decision-makers. For the evaluation module, a cloud model, based on probability and fuzzy set theory, is developed to perform comprehensive evaluations of air quality, which can realize the transformation between qualitative concept and quantitative data. To verify the effectiveness and efficiency of the warning system, extensive simulations based on air pollutants data from Dalian in China were effectively implemented, which illustrate that the warning system is not only remarkably high-performance, but also widely applicable.

  12. Research and Application of an Air Quality Early Warning System Based on a Modified Least Squares Support Vector Machine and a Cloud Model

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jianzhou; Niu, Tong; Wang, Rui

    2017-01-01

    The worsening atmospheric pollution increases the necessity of air quality early warning systems (EWSs). Despite the fact that a massive amount of investigation about EWS in theory and practicality has been conducted by numerous researchers, studies concerning the quantification of uncertain information and comprehensive evaluation are still lacking, which impedes further development in the area. In this paper, firstly a comprehensive warning system is proposed, which consists of two vital indispensable modules, namely effective forecasting and scientific evaluation, respectively. For the forecasting module, a novel hybrid model combining the theory of data preprocessing and numerical optimization is first developed to implement effective forecasting for air pollutant concentration. Especially, in order to further enhance the accuracy and robustness of the warning system, interval forecasting is implemented to quantify the uncertainties generated by forecasts, which can provide significant risk signals by using point forecasting for decision-makers. For the evaluation module, a cloud model, based on probability and fuzzy set theory, is developed to perform comprehensive evaluations of air quality, which can realize the transformation between qualitative concept and quantitative data. To verify the effectiveness and efficiency of the warning system, extensive simulations based on air pollutants data from Dalian in China were effectively implemented, which illustrate that the warning system is not only remarkably high-performance, but also widely applicable. PMID:28257122

  13. Analysis of the Air Force Logistics Enterprise. Evaluation of Global Repair Network Options for Supporting the F-16 and KC-135

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-01-01

    research process. At the Air National Guard Bureau (NGB), we thank Col Rich Howard, NGB/A4, and his staff (including Col Steph Dowling , NGB/A4M, Col Tom...capacity allows us to cap- ture these significantly nonlinear effects via the use of piecewise-linear functions. The decision variables can then be

  14. Treatability Study in Support of the Intrinsic Remediation Option at the Christmas Tree Fire Training Area at Westover Air Reserve Base Chicopee, Massachusetts

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1997-01-01

    Summary. Brooks Air Force Base, p. 8. Altenschmidt, U. and Fuchs, G., 1991, Anaerobic degradation of toluene in denitrifying Pseudomonas sp...Trichloroethylene degradation by two independent aromatic-degrading pathways in Alcaligenes eutrophus JMP134: Appl. Environ. Microbiol., vol. 56, no. 4, p. 1179

  15. Nuclease activity of Legionella pneumophila Cas2 promotes intracellular infection of amoebal host cells.

    PubMed

    Gunderson, Felizza F; Mallama, Celeste A; Fairbairn, Stephanie G; Cianciotto, Nicholas P

    2015-03-01

    Legionella pneumophila, the primary agent of Legionnaires' disease, flourishes in both natural and man-made environments by growing in a wide variety of aquatic amoebae. Recently, we determined that the Cas2 protein of L. pneumophila promotes intracellular infection of Acanthamoeba castellanii and Hartmannella vermiformis, the two amoebae most commonly linked to cases of disease. The Cas2 family of proteins is best known for its role in the bacterial and archeal clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR)-CRISPR-associated protein (Cas) system that constitutes a form of adaptive immunity against phage and plasmid. However, the infection event mediated by L. pneumophila Cas2 appeared to be distinct from this function, because cas2 mutants exhibited infectivity defects in the absence of added phage or plasmid and since mutants lacking the CRISPR array or any one of the other cas genes were not impaired in infection ability. We now report that the Cas2 protein of L. pneumophila has both RNase and DNase activities, with the RNase activity being more pronounced. By characterizing a catalytically deficient version of Cas2, we determined that nuclease activity is critical for promoting infection of amoebae. Also, introduction of Cas2, but not its catalytic mutant form, into a strain of L. pneumophila that naturally lacks a CRISPR-Cas locus caused that strain to be 40- to 80-fold more infective for amoebae, unequivocally demonstrating that Cas2 facilitates the infection process independently of any other component encoded within the CRISPR-Cas locus. Finally, a cas2 mutant was impaired for infection of Willaertia magna but not Naegleria lovaniensis, suggesting that Cas2 promotes infection of most but not all amoebal hosts.

  16. Nuclease Activity of Legionella pneumophila Cas2 Promotes Intracellular Infection of Amoebal Host Cells

    PubMed Central

    Gunderson, Felizza F.; Mallama, Celeste A.; Fairbairn, Stephanie G.

    2014-01-01

    Legionella pneumophila, the primary agent of Legionnaires' disease, flourishes in both natural and man-made environments by growing in a wide variety of aquatic amoebae. Recently, we determined that the Cas2 protein of L. pneumophila promotes intracellular infection of Acanthamoeba castellanii and Hartmannella vermiformis, the two amoebae most commonly linked to cases of disease. The Cas2 family of proteins is best known for its role in the bacterial and archeal clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR)–CRISPR-associated protein (Cas) system that constitutes a form of adaptive immunity against phage and plasmid. However, the infection event mediated by L. pneumophila Cas2 appeared to be distinct from this function, because cas2 mutants exhibited infectivity defects in the absence of added phage or plasmid and since mutants lacking the CRISPR array or any one of the other cas genes were not impaired in infection ability. We now report that the Cas2 protein of L. pneumophila has both RNase and DNase activities, with the RNase activity being more pronounced. By characterizing a catalytically deficient version of Cas2, we determined that nuclease activity is critical for promoting infection of amoebae. Also, introduction of Cas2, but not its catalytic mutant form, into a strain of L. pneumophila that naturally lacks a CRISPR-Cas locus caused that strain to be 40- to 80-fold more infective for amoebae, unequivocally demonstrating that Cas2 facilitates the infection process independently of any other component encoded within the CRISPR-Cas locus. Finally, a cas2 mutant was impaired for infection of Willaertia magna but not Naegleria lovaniensis, suggesting that Cas2 promotes infection of most but not all amoebal hosts. PMID:25547789

  17. Air Pollution

    MedlinePlus

    Air pollution is a mixture of solid particles and gases in the air. Car emissions, chemicals from factories, ... Ozone, a gas, is a major part of air pollution in cities. When ozone forms air pollution, it's ...

  18. The Joint Surveillance Target Attack Radar System: Can Procedures Be Developed to Support the Requirements of the Land and Air Component Commanders?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-05-04

    ability to process a low to medium resolution image of static objects on the ground. The image appears in a vertical perspective, much like a photograph...FINITE ABILITY TO EXPAND PROBABLY LIMITED TO A TWO THEATER CONFLICT 62 A similar evaluation can be made against the Air Force Characteristics stated in...doctrine of both services. From a purely Army perspective however, there is another way to determine Joint STARS worth, evaluating the system within the

  19. Department of the Air Force Supporting Data for Fiscal Year 1983, Budget Estimates Submitted to Congress February 1982. Descriptive Summaries. Research, Development, Test and Evaluation.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-02-01

    development or strength/Jtamlua criteria for Air Force job performance; computer analysis of disease prediction in aircrew personnel; quantification of laser...quarantine to rid animals of disease and stabilize animals before initiation of controlled research. "*« (U) FY 1984 Planned Program: New thrusts...A-10 «a. declared the winner In June 1974. The first DT4E aircrsft was delivered £ Fahr .,!™ 7 DT4E testing was initiated In Pebrusry 1,75 snd was

  20. Department of the Air Force Supporting Data for Fiscal Year 1990/91 Biennial Budget Estimates Submitted to Congress January 1989. Descriptive Summaries, Research, Development, Test and Evaluation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-01-01

    management and electro- optical sensor improvement. C. (U) PROGRAM ACCOMPLISHMENTS AND PLANS : 1 . (U) Project 69CK, Advanced Devices: The requirements...protect Air Force systems from nuclear effects. C. (U) PROGRAM ACCOMPLISHMENTS AND PLANS : 1 . (U) Project 3150: High Energy Laser and Optics Technology...Testbed (MM r. - (U) Demonstrated multiple aperture optical imaging with MMTT. (U) FY 1989 Planned Program: - (U) Perform 1 -dimensional array coupling