Science.gov

Sample records for air support weather

  1. Air Weather Service Support to the United States Army Tet and the Decade After

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-08-01

    Alpine Friendship 77...........................129-30 Tactical Weather System............................134 TSgt Henderson, M -561 Gama Goat, and M ...SWPT OWANEATION DEUM OF n*AWMT~N OF THE AltFR AUS " .weahe WIN Groupnnta U.S ryUUAy .. m .. m Army Cewad W Europe Pbife ed Cu6bon (CONARC) (USAREUR) I...Units In U.S. Ins 64u In Ane In "l Gummy Jopus Csrthbeon Frace Korea Italy Howell Army CoAma Ciurna a&= - -am m m m mAr Foroo Coammrd Chueie 00.00000

  2. A Sounding-based Severe Weather Tool to Support Daily Operations at Kennedy Space Center and Cape Canaveral Air Force Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauman, William H.; Roeder, William P.

    2014-01-01

    People and property at Kennedy Space Center (KSC) and Cape Canaveral Air Force Station (CCAFS) are at risk when severe weather occurs. Strong winds, hail and tornadoes can injure individuals and cause costly damage to structures if not properly protected. NASA's Launch Services Program and Ground Systems Development and Operations Program and other KSC programs use the daily and weekly severe weather forecasts issued by the 45th Weather Squadron (45 WS) to determine if they need to limit an activity such as working on gantries, or protect property such as a vehicle on a pad. The 45 WS requested the Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) develop a warm season (May-September) severe weather tool for use in the Meteorological Interactive Data Display System (MIDDS) based on the late morning, 1500 UTC (1100 local time), CCAFS (XMR) sounding. The 45 WS frequently makes decisions to issue a severe weather watch and other severe weather warning support products to NASA and the 45th Space Wing in the late morning, after the 1500 UTC sounding. The results of this work indicate that certain stability indices based on the late morning XMR soundings can depict differences between days with reported severe weather and days with no reported severe weather. The AMU determined a frequency of reported severe weather for the stability indices and implemented an operational tool in MIDDS.

  3. Weather in Mountainous Terrain (Overcoming Scientific Barriers to Weather Support)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-02-15

    Weather in Mountainous Terrain (Overcoming Scientific Barriers to Weather Support) Fiesta Resort & Conference Center Tempe, AZ February 1...Meteorology Overcoming Scientific Barriers to Weather Support Fiesta Resort & Conference Center Tempe, AZ February 1 & 2, 2010 Hosted by University

  4. Science Education Supporting Weather Broadcasters On-Air and in the Classroom with NASA "Mini-Education Supplements"

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shepherd, J. Marshall; Starr, David OC. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    NASA-Goddard Space Flight Center has initiated a new project designed to expand on existing news services and add value to classrooms through the development and distribution of two-minute 'mini-supplements' which give context and teach about current weather and Earth research phenomena. The innovative mini-supplements provide raw materials for weather forecasters to build news stories around NASA related missions without having to edit the more traditional and cumbersome long-form video format. The supplements cover different weather and climate topics and include NASA data, animations, video footage, and interviews with scientists. The supplements also include a curriculum package with educational lessons, educator guide, and hand-on activities. One goal is to give on-air broadcasters who are the primary science educators for the general public what they need to 'teach' about the science related to NASA research behind weather and climate news. This goal achieves increasing public literacy and assures higher accuracy and quality science reporting by the media. The other goal is to enable on-air broadcasters to serve as distributors of high quality, standards-based educational curricula and supplemental material when they visit 8-12 grade classrooms. The focus of 'pilot effort' centers around the success of NASA's Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) but is likely expandable to other NASA earth or space science missions.

  5. Flight Deck Weather Avoidance Decision Support: Implementation and Evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, Shu-Chieh; Luna, Rocio; Johnson, Walter W.

    2013-01-01

    Weather related disruptions account for seventy percent of the delays in the National Airspace System (NAS). A key component in the weather plan of the Next Generation of Air Transportation System (NextGen) is to assimilate observed weather information and probabilistic forecasts into the decision process of flight crews and air traffic controllers. In this research we explore supporting flight crew weather decision making through the development of a flight deck predicted weather display system that utilizes weather predictions generated by ground-based radar. This system integrates and presents this weather information, together with in-flight trajectory modification tools, within a cockpit display of traffic information (CDTI) prototype. that the CDTI features 2D and perspective 3D visualization models of weather. The weather forecast products that we implemented were the Corridor Integrated Weather System (CIWS) and the Convective Weather Avoidance Model (CWAM), both developed by MIT Lincoln Lab. We evaluated the use of CIWS and CWAM for flight deck weather avoidance in two part-task experiments. Experiment 1 compared pilots' en route weather avoidance performance in four weather information conditions that differed in the type and amount of predicted forecast (CIWS current weather only, CIWS current and historical weather, CIWS current and forecast weather, CIWS current and forecast weather and CWAM predictions). Experiment 2 compared the use of perspective 3D and 21/2D presentations of weather for flight deck weather avoidance. Results showed that pilots could take advantage of longer range predicted weather forecasts in performing en route weather avoidance but more research will be needed to determine what combinations of information are optimal and how best to present them.

  6. Workstation-Based Real-Time Mesoscale Modeling Designed for Weather Support to Operations at the Kennedy Space Center and Cape Canaveral Air Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manobianco, John; Zack, John W.; Taylor, Gregory E.

    1996-01-01

    This paper describes the capabilities and operational utility of a version of the Mesoscale Atmospheric Simulation System (MASS) that has been developed to support operational weather forecasting at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) and Cape Canaveral Air Station (CCAS). The implementation of local, mesoscale modeling systems at KSC/CCAS is designed to provide detailed short-range (less than 24 h) forecasts of winds, clouds, and hazardous weather such as thunderstorms. Short-range forecasting is a challenge for daily operations, and manned and unmanned launches since KSC/CCAS is located in central Florida where the weather during the warm season is dominated by mesoscale circulations like the sea breeze. For this application, MASS has been modified to run on a Stardent 3000 workstation. Workstation-based, real-time numerical modeling requires a compromise between the requirement to run the system fast enough so that the output can be used before expiration balanced against the desire to improve the simulations by increasing resolution and using more detailed physical parameterizations. It is now feasible to run high-resolution mesoscale models such as MASS on local workstations to provide timely forecasts at a fraction of the cost required to run these models on mainframe supercomputers. MASS has been running in the Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) at KSC/CCAS since January 1994 for the purpose of system evaluation. In March 1995, the AMU began sending real-time MASS output to the forecasters and meteorologists at CCAS, Spaceflight Meteorology Group (Johnson Space Center, Houston, Texas), and the National Weather Service (Melbourne, Florida). However, MASS is not yet an operational system. The final decision whether to transition MASS for operational use will depend on a combination of forecaster feedback, the AMU's final evaluation results, and the life-cycle costs of the operational system.

  7. Interior, equipment room, weather support area (from July, 1968 drawing) ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior, equipment room, weather support area (from July, 1968 drawing) at north end of display area, looking west. Window looks south towards the main console - March Air Force Base, Strategic Air Command, Combat Operations Center, 5220 Riverside Drive, Moreno Valley, Riverside County, CA

  8. Statistical Analysis of Model Data for Operational Space Launch Weather Support at Kennedy Space Center and Cape Canaveral Air Force Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauman, William H., III

    2010-01-01

    The 12-km resolution North American Mesoscale (NAM) model (MesoNAM) is used by the 45th Weather Squadron (45 WS) Launch Weather Officers at Kennedy Space Center (KSC) and Cape Canaveral Air Force Station (CCAFS) to support space launch weather operations. The 45 WS tasked the Applied Meteorology Unit to conduct an objective statistics-based analysis of MesoNAM output compared to wind tower mesonet observations and then develop a an operational tool to display the results. The National Centers for Environmental Prediction began running the current version of the MesoNAM in mid-August 2006. The period of record for the dataset was 1 September 2006 - 31 January 2010. The AMU evaluated MesoNAM hourly forecasts from 0 to 84 hours based on model initialization times of 00, 06, 12 and 18 UTC. The MesoNAM forecast winds, temperature and dew point were compared to the observed values of these parameters from the sensors in the KSC/CCAFS wind tower network. The data sets were stratified by model initialization time, month and onshore/offshore flow for each wind tower. Statistics computed included bias (mean difference), standard deviation of the bias, root mean square error (RMSE) and a hypothesis test for bias = O. Twelve wind towers located in close proximity to key launch complexes were used for the statistical analysis with the sensors on the towers positioned at varying heights to include 6 ft, 30 ft, 54 ft, 60 ft, 90 ft, 162 ft, 204 ft and 230 ft depending on the launch vehicle and associated weather launch commit criteria being evaluated. These twelve wind towers support activities for the Space Shuttle (launch and landing), Delta IV, Atlas V and Falcon 9 launch vehicles. For all twelve towers, the results indicate a diurnal signal in the bias of temperature (T) and weaker but discernable diurnal signal in the bias of dewpoint temperature (T(sub d)) in the MesoNAM forecasts. Also, the standard deviation of the bias and RMSE of T, T(sub d), wind speed and wind

  9. Weather forecasting support for AASE-2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Forbes, Gregory S.

    1992-01-01

    The AFEAS Contract and NASA Grant were awarded to Penn State in order to obtain real-time weather forecasting support for the NASA AASE-II Project, which was conducted between October 1991 and March 1992. Because of the special weather sensitivities of the NASA ER-2 aircraft, AASE-II planners felt that public weather forecasts issued by the National Weather Service would not be adequate for mission planning purposes. A likely consequence of resorting to that medium would have been that scientists would have had to be at work by 4 AM day after day in the hope that the aircraft could fly, only to be frustrated by a great number of 'scrubbed' missions. Thus, the Pennsylvania State University was contracted to provide real-time weather support to the AASE-II mission.

  10. Space Weather affects on Air Transportation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, J. B. L.; Bentley, R. D.; Dyer, C.; Shaw, A.

    In Europe, legislation requires the airline industry to monitor the occupational exposure of aircrew to cosmic radiation. However, there are other significant impacts of space weather phenomena on the technological systems used for day-to-day operations which need to be considered by the airlines. These were highlighted by the disruption caused to the industry by the period of significant solar activity in late October and early November 2003. Next generation aircraft will utilize increasingly complex avionics as well as expanding the performance envelopes. These and future generation platforms will require the development of a new air-space management infrastructure with improved position accuracy (for route navigation and landing in bad weather) and reduced separation minima in order to cope with the expected growth in air travel. Similarly, greater reliance will be placed upon satellites for command, control, communication and information (C3I) of the operation. However, to maximize effectiveness of this globally interoperable C3I and ensure seamless fusion of all components for a safe operation will require a greater understanding of the space weather affects, their risks with increasing technology, and the inclusion of space weather information into the operation. This paper will review space weather effects on air transport and the increasing risks for future operations cause by them. We will examine how well the effects can be predicted, some of the tools that can be used and the practicalities of using such predictions in an operational scenario. Initial results from the SOARS ESA Space Weather Pilot Project will also be discussed,

  11. Weather support area, floor plan and details. ("Alter COC, Bldg. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Weather support area, floor plan and details. ("Alter COC, Bldg. 2605, Weather Support Area, Floor Plan & Details" Also includes a site plan and a finish schedule. The exact location of this construction is obscure, but it appears to be the enclosure of space at the north end of room 101, the "Display Area" or "War Room") Strategic Air Command, Civil Engineering. Drawing no. B-1081, sheet no. 1 of 2, 9 July 1968; project no. MAR-132-8; CE-562; file drawer 2605-9, also 1315. Various scales. 29x41 inches. pencil on paper - March Air Force Base, Strategic Air Command, Combat Operations Center, 5220 Riverside Drive, Moreno Valley, Riverside County, CA

  12. Energy, Weatherization and Indoor Air Quality

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Climate change presents many challenges, including the production of severe weather events. These events and efforts to minimize their effects through weatherization can adversely affect indoor environments.

  13. Air-Supported Structures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ontario Dept. of Education, Toronto. School Planning and Building Research Section.

    This study has been prepared to set out some of the benefits and the problems involved in the use of air-supported structures. Also indicated are the types of inquiries that should be made when the use of such structures is being considered. Technical and engineering details, such as the properties of various fabrics, are not included. (Author)

  14. Atlanta Air Route Traffic Control Center's involvement in aviation weather

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, W. D.

    1979-01-01

    The distribution of weather information throughout the Air Traffic Control System is discussed along with the development of meteorological radar, and the modifications to the Air Route Traffic Control Center radars for locating and determining the severity of storms' cells. The planned improvements in the availability of weather data to the control centers are listed.

  15. Ionospheric research for space weather service support

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stanislawska, Iwona; Gulyaeva, Tamara; Dziak-Jankowska, Beata

    2016-07-01

    Knowledge of the behavior of the ionosphere is very important for space weather services. A wide variety of ground based and satellite existing and future systems (communications, radar, surveillance, intelligence gathering, satellite operation, etc) is affected by the ionosphere. There are the needs for reliable and efficient support for such systems against natural hazard and minimalization of the risk failure. The joint research Project on the 'Ionospheric Weather' of IZMIRAN and SRC PAS is aimed to provide on-line the ionospheric parameters characterizing the space weather in the ionosphere. It is devoted to science, techniques and to more application oriented areas of ionospheric investigation in order to support space weather services. The studies based on data mining philosophy increasing the knowledge of ionospheric physical properties, modelling capabilities and gain applications of various procedures in ionospheric monitoring and forecasting were concerned. In the framework of the joint Project the novel techniques for data analysis, the original system of the ionospheric disturbance indices and their implementation for the ionosphere and the ionospheric radio wave propagation are developed since 1997. Data of ionosonde measurements and results of their forecasting for the ionospheric observatories network, the regional maps and global ionospheric maps of total electron content from the navigational satellite system (GNSS) observations, the global maps of the F2 layer peak parameters (foF2, hmF2) and W-index of the ionospheric variability are provided at the web pages of SRC PAS and IZMIRAN. The data processing systems include analysis and forecast of geomagnetic indices ap and kp and new eta index applied for the ionosphere forecasting. For the first time in the world the new products of the W-index maps analysis are provided in Catalogues of the ionospheric storms and sub-storms and their association with the global geomagnetic Dst storms is

  16. Weather Support to the Modern Army

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-04-19

    View, (New York: G . P. Putnam’s Sons, 1965), p. 123. 24. Stagg, gp.-cit., p. 125. 25. Charles von Luttichau, Command Decisions. (New York: Harcourt...218. 28. Peter Elstob, Hitler’s last Offensive (New York: The MacMillian Co., 1971), p. 142. :741 CHAPTER II ENDNOTES 1. Major William C. Calver ...Jeremy G . Saye, RAF, ’Close Air Support in Modern Warfare," Air University Review, (January-February, 1980), p. 67. 9. Zeigler, gp..cit., p. 106. 1. Saye

  17. Weather Support to Deicing Decision Making (WSDDM): A Winter Weather Nowcasting System.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rasmussen, Roy; Dixon, Mike; Hage, Frank; Cole, Jeff; Wade, Chuck; Tuttle, John; McGettigan, Starr; Carty, Thomas; Stevenson, Lloyd; Fellner, Warren; Knight, Shelly; Karplus, Eli; Rehak, Nancy

    2001-04-01

    This paper describes a winter weather nowcasting system called Weather Support to Deicing Decision Making (WSDDM), designed to provide airline, airport, and air traffic users with winter weather information relevant to their operations. The information is provided on an easy to use graphical display and characterizes airport icing conditions for nonmeteorologists. The system has been developed and refined over a series of winter-long airport demonstrations at Denver's Stapleton International Airport, Chicago's O'Hare International Airport, and New York's LaGuardia Airport. The WSDDM system utilizes commercially available weather information in the form of Next Generation Weather Radar WSR-88D radar reflectivity data depicted as color coded images on a window of the display and Aviation Routine Weather Report (METAR) surface weather reports from Automated Surface Observating System stations and observers. METAR information includes wind speed and direction, air temperature, and precipitation type/rate, which are routinely updated on an hourly basis or more frequently if conditions are changing. Recent studies have shown that the liquid equivalent snowfall rate is the most important factor in determining the holdover time of a deicing fluid. However, the current operational snowfall intensity reported in METARs is based on visibility, which has been shown to give misleading information on liquid equivalent rates in many cases due to the wide variation in density and shape of snow. The particular hazard has been identified as high visibility-high snowfall conditions. The WSDDM system addresses this potentially hazardous condition through the deployment of snow gauges at an airport. These snow gauges report real-time estimates of the liquid equivalent snowfall rate once every minute to WSDDM users. The WSDDM system also provides 30-min nowcasts of liquid equivalent snowfall rate through the use of a real-time calibration of radar reflectivity and snow gauge snowfall

  18. Time Relevance of Convective Weather Forecast for Air Traffic Automation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chan, William N.

    2006-01-01

    The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) is handling nearly 120,000 flights a day through its Air Traffic Management (ATM) system and air traffic congestion is expected to increse substantially over the next 20 years. Weather-induced impacts to throughput and efficiency are the leading cause of flight delays accounting for 70% of all delays with convective weather accounting for 60% of all weather related delays. To support the Next Generation Air Traffic System goal of operating at 3X current capacity in the NAS, ATC decision support tools are being developed to create advisories to assist controllers in all weather constraints. Initial development of these decision support tools did not integrate information regarding weather constraints such as thunderstorms and relied on an additional system to provide that information. Future Decision Support Tools should move towards an integrated system where weather constraints are factored into the advisory of a Decision Support Tool (DST). Several groups such at NASA-Ames, Lincoln Laboratories, and MITRE are integrating convective weather data with DSTs. A survey of current convective weather forecast and observation data show they span a wide range of temporal and spatial resolutions. Short range convective observations can be obtained every 5 mins with longer range forecasts out to several days updated every 6 hrs. Today, the short range forecasts of less than 2 hours have a temporal resolution of 5 mins. Beyond 2 hours, forecasts have much lower temporal. resolution of typically 1 hour. Spatial resolutions vary from 1km for short range to 40km for longer range forecasts. Improving the accuracy of long range convective forecasts is a major challenge. A report published by the National Research Council states improvements for convective forecasts for the 2 to 6 hour time frame will only be achieved for a limited set of convective phenomena in the next 5 to 10 years. Improved longer range forecasts will be probabilistic

  19. Weatherization and Indoor Air Quality: Measured Impacts in Single Family Homes Under the Weatherization Assistance Program

    SciTech Connect

    Pigg, Scott; Cautley, Dan; Francisco, Paul; Hawkins, Beth A; Brennan, Terry M

    2014-09-01

    This report summarizes findings from a national field study of indoor air quality parameters in homes treated under the Weatherization Assistance Program (WAP). The study involved testing and monitoring in 514 single-family homes (including mobile homes) located in 35 states and served by 88 local weatherization agencies.

  20. Impact of AIRS Thermodynamic Profile on Regional Weather Forecast

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chou, Shih-Hung; Zavodsky, Brad; Jedlovee, Gary

    2010-01-01

    Prudent assimilation of AIRS thermodynamic profiles and quality indicators can improve initial conditions for regional weather models. AIRS-enhanced analysis has warmer and moister PBL. Forecasts with AIRS profiles are generally closer to NAM analyses than CNTL. Assimilation of AIRS leads to an overall QPF improvement in 6-h accumulated precipitation forecasts. Including AIRS profiles in assimilation process enhances the moist instability and produces stronger updrafts and a better precipitation forecast than the CNTL run.

  1. 19. DETAIL OF AIR FORCE WEATHER INFORMATION TERMINAL AND CHART ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. DETAIL OF AIR FORCE WEATHER INFORMATION TERMINAL AND CHART RECORDER LOCATED IMMEDIATELY NORTH OF CONSOLE IN PHOTOS A-15 THROUGH A-18. - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Operations Building, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  2. Aircraft Weather Mitigation for the Next Generation Air Transportation System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stough, H. Paul, III

    2007-01-01

    Atmospheric effects on aviation are described by Mahapatra (1999) as including (1) atmospheric phenomena involving air motion - wind shear and turbulence; (2) hydrometeorological phenomena - rain, snow and hail; (3) aircraft icing; (4) low visibility; and (5) atmospheric electrical phenomena. Aircraft Weather Mitigation includes aircraft systems (e.g. airframe, propulsion, avionics, controls) that can be enacted (by a pilot, automation or hybrid systems) to suppress and/or prepare for the effects of encountered or unavoidable weather or to facilitate a crew operational decision-making process relative to weather. Aircraft weather mitigation can be thought of as a continuum (Figure 1) with the need to avoid all adverse weather at one extreme and the ability to safely operate in all weather conditions at the other extreme. Realistic aircraft capabilities fall somewhere between these two extremes. The capabilities of small general aviation aircraft would be expected to fall closer to the "Avoid All Adverse Weather" point, and the capabilities of large commercial jet transports would fall closer to the "Operate in All Weather Conditions" point. The ability to safely operate in adverse weather conditions is dependent upon the pilot s capabilities (training, total experience and recent experience), the airspace in which the operation is taking place (terrain, navigational aids, traffic separation), the capabilities of the airport (approach guidance, runway and taxiway lighting, availability of air traffic control), as well as the capabilities of the airplane. The level of mitigation may vary depending upon the type of adverse weather. For example, a small general aviation airplane may be equipped to operate "in the clouds" without outside visual references, but not be equipped to prevent airframe ice that could be accreted in those clouds.

  3. Use of MODIS/AIRS Direct Broadcast Data for Short Term Weather Forecasting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jedlovec, Gary

    2003-01-01

    Operational weather forecasting relies heavily on real time data and modeling products for forecast preparation and dissemination of significant weather information to the public. The key to this success is access to real time data and integration of the data and products into weather decision support systems. NASA's Short-term Prediction Research and Transition (SPORT) Program has demonstrated this capability with MODIS and AIRS data through several local NWS Forecast Offices. This presentation will describe the use of real time EOS Direct Broadcast (DB) data in local weather forecast operations, highlight the utility of real time data from the EOS DB systems, and provide insight into how EOS DB data can have the most impact on the weather forecast community.

  4. Air quality and thermal comfort levels under extreme hot weather

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papanastasiou, D. K.; Melas, D.; Kambezidis, H. D.

    2015-01-01

    Meteorological (T and RH values) and air pollution data (PM10, NO2 and O3 concentrations) observed in Athens, Thessaloniki and Volos were analyzed to assess the air quality and the thermal comfort conditions and to study their synergy, when extreme hot weather prevailed in Greece during the period 2001-2010. The identification of a heat wave day was based on the suggestion made by the IPCC to define an extreme weather event. According to it, a heat wave day is detected when the daily maximum hourly temperature value exceeds its 90th percentile. This temperature criterion was applied to the data recorded at the cities center. Air quality was assessed at three sites in Athens (city center, near the city center, suburb), at two sites in Thessaloniki (city center, suburb) and at one site in Volos (city center), while thermal comfort conditions were assessed at the cities center. Mean pollution levels during the heat wave days and the non-heat wave days were calculated in order to examine the impact of the extreme hot weather on air quality. For this purpose, the distributions of the common air quality index and the exceedances of the air quality standards in force during the heat wave days and the non-heat wave days were also studied. Additionally, the variation of the daily maximum hourly value of Thom's discomfort index was studied in order to investigate the effect of extreme hot weather on people's thermal comfort. Moreover, the values of the common air quality index and Thom's discomfort index were comparatively assessed so as to investigate their synergy under extreme hot weather.

  5. Severe Weather Tool using 1500 UTC Cape Canaveral Air Force Station Soundings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauman, William H., III

    2013-01-01

    People and property at Kennedy Space Center (KSC) and Cape Canaveral Air Force Station (CCAFS) are at risk when severe weather occurs. Strong winds, hail and tornadoes can injure individuals and cause costly damage to structures if not properly protected. NASA's Launch Services Program and Ground Systems Development and Operations Program and other KSC programs use the daily and weekly severe weather forecasts issued by the 45th Weather Squadron (45 WS) to determine if they need to limit an activity such as working on gantries, or protect property such as a vehicle on a pad. The 45 WS requested the Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) develop a warm season (May-September) severe weather tool for use in the Meteorological Interactive Data Display System (MIDDS) based on the late morning, 1500 UTC (1100 local time), CCAFS (XMR) sounding. The 45 WS frequently makes decisions to issue a severe weather watch and other severe weather warning support products to NASA and the 45th Space Wing in the late morning, after the 1500 UTC sounding. The results of this work indicate that certain stability indices based on the late morning XMR soundings can depict differences between days with reported severe weather and days with no reported severe weather. The AMU determined a frequency of reported severe weather for the stability indices and implemented an operational tool in MIDDS.

  6. Air Risk Information Support Center

    SciTech Connect

    Shoaf, C.R.; Guth, D.J.

    1990-12-31

    The Air Risk Information Support Center (Air RISC) was initiated in early 1988 by the US Environmental Protection Agency`s (EPA) Office of Health and Environmental Assessment (OHEA) and the Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards (OAQPS) as a technology transfer effort that would focus on providing information to state and local environmental agencies and to EPA Regional Offices in the areas of health, risk, and exposure assessment for toxic air pollutants. Technical information is fostered and disseminated by Air RISCs three primary activities: (1) a {open_quotes}hotline{close_quotes}, (2) quick turn-around technical assistance projects, and (3) general technical guidance projects. 1 ref., 2 figs.

  7. Ventilation, indoor air quality, and health in homes undergoing weatherization.

    PubMed

    Francisco, P W; Jacobs, D E; Targos, L; Dixon, S L; Breysse, J; Rose, W; Cali, S

    2017-03-01

    Ventilation standards, health, and indoor air quality have not been adequately examined for residential weatherization. This randomized trial showed how ASHRAE 62-1989 (n=39 houses) and ASHRAE 62.2-2010 (n=42 houses) influenced ventilation rates, moisture balance, indoor air quality, and self-reported physical and mental health outcomes. Average total airflow was nearly twice as high for ASHRAE 62.2-2010 (79 vs. 39 cfm). Volatile organic compounds, formaldehyde and carbon dioxide were all significantly reduced for the newer standard and first-floor radon was marginally lower, but for the older standard, only formaldehyde significantly decreased. Humidity in the ASHRAE 62.2-2010 group was only about half that of the ASHRAE 62-1989 group using the moisture balance metric. Radon was higher in the basement but lower on the first floor for ASHRAE 62.2-2010. Children in each group had fewer headaches, eczema, and skin allergies after weatherization and adults had improvements in psychological distress. Indoor air quality and health improve when weatherization is accompanied by an ASHRAE residential ventilation standard, and the 2010 ASHRAE standard has greater improvements in certain outcomes compared to the 1989 standard. Weatherization, home repair, and energy conservation projects should use the newer ASHRAE standard to improve indoor air quality and health.

  8. Air Pollution and Weather: Activities and Demonstrations for Science Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cole, Henry S.

    1973-01-01

    Discusses a number of concepts (turbulence, dispersion, vertical temperature distribution, atmospheric stability and instability, and inversions) which are prerequisite to understanding how weather affects air quality. Describes classroom demonstrations effective in introducing these concepts to students at the elementary, secondary and college…

  9. An Overview of NWS Weather Support for the XXVI Olympiad.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rothfusz, Lans P.; McLaughlin, Melvin R.; Rinard, Stephen K.

    1998-05-01

    The 1996 Centennial Olympic Games in Atlanta, Georgia, received weather support from the National Weather Service (NWS). The mandate to provide this support gave the NWS an unprecedented opportunity to employ in an operational setting several tools and practices similar to those planned for the "modernized" era of the NWS. The project also provided a glimpse of technology and practices not planned for the NWS modernization, but that might be valuable in the future. The underlying purpose of the project was to protect the life and property of the two million spectators, athletes, volunteers, and officials visiting and/or participating in the games. While there is no way to accurately account for lives and property that were protected by the NWS support, the absence of weather-related deaths, significant injuries, and damaged property during the games despite an almost daily occurrence of thunderstorms, high temperatures, and/or rain indicates that the project was a success. In fact, popular perception held that weather had no effect on the games. The 2000+ weather bulletins issued during the 6-week support period suggest otherwise. The authors describe the many facets of this demanding and successful project, with special attention given to aspects related to operational forecasting. A postproject survey completed by the Olympics forecasters, feedback provided by weather support customers, and experiences of the management team provide the bases for project observations and recommendations for future operational forecasting activities.

  10. Comparison of characteristics of aerosol during rainy weather and cold air-dust weather in Guangzhou in late March 2012

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Huizhong; Wu, Dui; Yu, Jianzhen

    2016-04-01

    Using the data on aerosol observed hourly by Marga ADI 2080 and Grimm 180, we compared the characteristics of aerosol during rainy weather and cold air-dust weather in Guangzhou in late March 2012. The mass concentration of aerosol appeared distinct between the two weather processes. During rainy weather, the mass concentration of PM and total water-soluble components decreased obviously. During cold air-dust weather, the cleaning effect of cold air occurred much more suddenly and about a half day earlier than the dust effect. As a result, the mass concentration of PM and total water-soluble components first dropped dramatically to a below-normal level and then rose gradually to an above-normal level. The ratio of PM2.5/PM10 and PM1/PM10 decreased, suggesting that dust-storm weather mainly brought in coarse particles. The proportion of Ca2+ in the total water-soluble components significantly increased to as high as 50 % because of the effect of dust weather. We further analysed the ionic equilibrium during rainy and cold air-dust weather, and compared it with that during hazy weather during the same period. The aerosol during rainy weather was slightly acidic, whereas that during hazy weather and cold air-dust weather was obviously alkaline, with that during cold air-dust weather being significantly more alkaline. Most of the anions, including SO4 2- and NO3 -, were neutralised by NH4 + during rainy and hazy weather, and by Ca2+ during cold air-dust weather.

  11. Manx: Close air support aircraft preliminary design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Amy, Annie; Crone, David; Hendrickson, Heidi; Willis, Randy; Silva, Vince

    1991-01-01

    The Manx is a twin engine, twin tailed, single seat close air support design proposal for the 1991 Team Student Design Competition. It blends advanced technologies into a lightweight, high performance design with the following features: High sensitivity (rugged, easily maintained, with night/adverse weather capability); Highly maneuverable (negative static margin, forward swept wing, canard, and advanced avionics result in enhanced aircraft agility); and Highly versatile (design flexibility allows the Manx to contribute to a truly integrated ground team capable of rapid deployment from forward sites).

  12. Vandenberg Air Force Base Upper Level Wind Launch Weather Constraints

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shafer, Jaclyn A.; Wheeler, Mark M.

    2012-01-01

    The 30th Operational Support Squadron Weather Flight (30 OSSWF) provides comprehensive weather services to the space program at Vandenberg Air Force Base (VAFB) in California. One of their responsibilities is to monitor upper-level winds to ensure safe launch operations of the Minuteman III ballistic missile. The 30 OSSWF tasked the Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) to analyze VAFB sounding data with the goal of determining the probability of violating (PoV) their upper-level thresholds for wind speed and shear constraints specific to this launch vehicle, and to develop a tool that will calculate the PoV of each constraint on the day of launch. In order to calculate the probability of exceeding each constraint, the AMU collected and analyzed historical data from VAFB. The historical sounding data were retrieved from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Earth System Research Laboratory archive for the years 1994-2011 and then stratified into four sub-seasons: January-March, April-June, July-September, and October-December. The maximum wind speed and 1000-ft shear values for each sounding in each subseason were determined. To accurately calculate the PoV, the AMU determined the theoretical distributions that best fit the maximum wind speed and maximum shear datasets. Ultimately it was discovered that the maximum wind speeds follow a Gaussian distribution while the maximum shear values follow a lognormal distribution. These results were applied when calculating the averages and standard deviations needed for the historical and real-time PoV calculations. In addition to the requirements outlined in the original task plan, the AMU also included forecast sounding data from the Rapid Refresh model. This information provides further insight for the launch weather officers (LWOs) when determining if a wind constraint violation will occur over the next few hours on day of launch. The interactive graphical user interface (GUI) for this project was developed in

  13. Implications of Contingency Planning Support for Weather and Icing Information

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vigeant-Langlois, Laurence; Hansman, R. John, Jr.

    2003-01-01

    A human-centered systems analysis was applied to the adverse aircraft weather encounter problem in order to identify desirable functions of weather and icing information. The importance of contingency planning was identified as emerging from a system safety design methodology as well as from results of other aviation decision-making studies. The relationship between contingency planning support and information on regions clear of adverse weather was investigated in a scenario- based analysis. A rapid prototype example of the key elements in the depiction of icing conditions was developed in a case study, and the implications for the components of the icing information system were articulated.

  14. Responsive Close Air Support

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-01-01

    rock unturned in their pursuit of better supporting their comrades in arms. No single line of effort produced this change. Multiple lines of effort...DOs)—for example, CASDO, Tanker DO, and others—at the improved responsiveness happened because Airmen left no rock unturned in their pursuit of

  15. A-2000: Close air support aircraft design team

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carrannanto, Paul; Lim, Don; Lucas, Evangeline; Risse, Alan; Weaver, Dave; Wikse, Steve

    1991-01-01

    The US Air Force is currently faced with the problem of providing adequate close air support for ground forces. Air response to troops engaged in combat must be rapid and devastating due to the highly fluid battle lines of the future. The A-2000 is the result of a study to design an aircraft to deliver massive fire power accurately. The low cost A-2000 incorporates: large weapons payload; excellent maneuverability; all weather and terrain following capacity; redundant systems; and high survivability.

  16. Cyclone: A close air support aircraft for tomorrow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cox, George; Croulet, Donald; Dunn, James; Graham, Michael; Ip, Phillip; Low, Scott; Vance, Gregg; Volckaert, Eric

    1991-01-01

    To meet the threat of the battlefield of the future, the U.S. ground forces will require reliable air support. To provide this support, future aircrews demand a versatile close air support aircraft capable of delivering ordinance during the day, night, or in adverse weather with pin-point accuracy. The Cyclone aircraft meets these requirements, packing the 'punch' necessary to clear the way for effective ground operations. Possessing anti-armor, missile, and precision bombing capability, the Cyclone will counter the threat into the 21st Century. Here, it is shown that the Cyclone is a realistic, economical answer to the demand for a capable close air support aircraft.

  17. Atmospheric and oceanographic research review, 1978. [global weather, ocean/air interactions, and climate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    Research activities related to global weather, ocean/air interactions, and climate are reported. The global weather research is aimed at improving the assimilation of satellite-derived data in weather forecast models, developing analysis/forecast models that can more fully utilize satellite data, and developing new measures of forecast skill to properly assess the impact of satellite data on weather forecasting. The oceanographic research goal is to understand and model the processes that determine the general circulation of the oceans, focusing on those processes that affect sea surface temperature and oceanic heat storage, which are the oceanographic variables with the greatest influence on climate. The climate research objective is to support the development and effective utilization of space-acquired data systems in climate forecast models and to conduct sensitivity studies to determine the affect of lower boundary conditions on climate and predictability studies to determine which global climate features can be modeled either deterministically or statistically.

  18. Collaborative Aviation Weather Statement - An Impact-based Decision Support Tool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blondin, Debra

    2016-04-01

    Historically, convection causes the highest number of air traffic constraints on the United States National Air Space (NAS). Increased NAS predictability allows traffic flow managers to more effectively initiate, amend or terminate planned or active traffic management initiatives, resulting in more efficient use of available airspace. A Collaborative Aviation Weather Statement (CAWS) is an impact-based decision support tool used for the timely delivery of high-confidence, high-relevance aviation convective weather forecasts to air traffic managers. The CAWS is a graphical and textual forecast produced by a collaborative team of meteorologists from the Aviation Weather Center (AWC), Center Weather Service Units, and airlines to bring attention to high impact areas of thunderstorms. The CAWS addresses thunderstorm initiation or movement into the airports having the highest volume of traffic or into traffic sensitive jet routes. These statements are assessed by planners at the Federal Aviation Administration's (FAA) Air Route Traffic Control Centers and are used for planning traffic management initiatives to balance air traffic flow across the United States. The FAA and the airline industry use the CAWS to plan, manage, and execute operations in the NAS, thereby improving the system efficiency and safety and also saving dollars for industry and the traveling public.

  19. Simulation for close air support

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hench, David L.

    2009-05-01

    Close Air Support (CAS) is the use of air power in close proximity to friendly forces against enemy combatants. CAS requires precise and detailed communication between the personnel on the ground and the air vehicles. To be useful, a network simulation should be a superposition on the planning simulations for these activities. In a CAS mission, all of the above activities are critical. A hypothetical CAS mission is modeled as an "as is" solution with stove-piped communications and a "to be" network enabled solution. A co-simulation laboratory using OPNET with SITL (SYSTEM in the Loop, cosim, JFORCES (Joint Force Operational Readiness Combat Effectiveness Simulator), and JSAF (Joint Semi-Automated Forces) simulation system is described.

  20. Defense Weather Program: Meteorological and Oceanographic Support from Continental United States-Based Support Centers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-05-03

    caller is fully protected. Acronyms AFWA Air Force Weather Agency COAMPS Coupled Ocean/Atmosphere Mesoscale Prediction System C4I Command...refers to the size of weather systems smaller than synoptic-scale systems but larger than storm -scale systems. Horizontal dimensions generally range...Ocean/Atmosphere Mesoscale Prediction System ( COAMPS ) was developed as a replacement model for the Navy Operational Regional Prediction System8 in

  1. Examining Projected Changes in Weather & Air Quality Extremes Between 2000 & 2030 using Dynamical Downscaling

    EPA Science Inventory

    Climate change may alter regional weather extremes resulting in a range of environmental impacts including changes in air quality, water quality and availability, energy demands, agriculture, and ecology. Dynamical downscaling simulations were conducted with the Weather Research...

  2. Air Weather Service Master Station Catalog: USAFETAC Climatic Database Users Handbook No. 6

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-03-01

    Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) G = Air Force Global Weather Central (AFGWC) K = Carswell Automated Weather Network (Det 7, AFGWC) 0...Carswell Automated Weather Network (Det 7, AFGWC) M = Located by meteorological analysis B-6 P" 0 0 S 5 0 0 • 0 •, 0 N = Hydrology office...Airways Facilities Sector AMOS - Automated Meteorological Observing System ANG - Air National Guard weather facility AUT - Automated reporting

  3. Data requirements in support of the marine weather service program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Travers, J.; Mccaslin, R. W.; Mull, M.

    1972-01-01

    Data support activities for the Marine Weather Service Program are outlined. Forecasts, cover anomolous water levels, including sea and swell, surface and breakers, and storm surge. Advisories are also provided for sea ice on the Great Lake and Cook inlet in winter, and in the Bering, Chukchi, and Beaufort Seas in summer. Attempts were made to deal with ocean currents in the Gulf Stream, areas of upwelling, and thermal structure at least down through the mixed layer.

  4. ESA SSA Space Weather Services Supporting Space Surveillance and Tracking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luntama, Juha-Pekka; Glover, Alexi; Hilgers, Alain; Fletcher, Emmet

    2012-07-01

    ESA Space Situational Awareness (SSA) Preparatory Programme was started in 2009. The objective of the programme is to support the European independent utilisation of and access to space research or services. This will be performed through providing timely and quality data, information, services and knowledge regarding the environment, the threats and the sustainable exploitation of the outer space surrounding the planet Earth. SSA serves the implementation of the strategic missions of the European Space Policy based on the peaceful uses of the outer space by all states, by supporting the autonomous capacity to securely and safely operate the critical European space infrastructures. The Space Weather (SWE) Segment of the SSA will provide user services related to the monitoring of the Sun, the solar wind, the radiation belts, the magnetosphere and the ionosphere. These services will include near real time information and forecasts about the characteristics of the space environment and predictions of space weather impacts on sensitive spaceborne and ground based infrastructure. The SSA SWE system will also include establishment of a permanent database for analysis, model development and scientific research. These services are will support a wide variety of user domains including spacecraft designers, spacecraft operators, human space flights, users and operators of transionospheric radio links, and space weather research community. The precursor SWE services to be established starting in 2010. This presentation provides an overview of the ESA SSA SWE services focused on supporting the Space Surveillance and Tracking users. This services include estimates of the atmospheric drag and archive and forecasts of the geomagnetic and solar indices. In addition, the SSA SWE system will provide nowcasts of the ionospheric group delay to support mitigation of the ionospheric impact on radar signals. The paper will discuss the user requirements for the services, the data

  5. Air Weather Service Master Station Catalog USAFETAC Climatic Database Users Handbook No. 6

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-03-01

    Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) G = Air Force Global Weather Central (AFGWC) K = Carswell Automated Weather Network (Det 7, AFGWC) 0...AFGWC) J = Jepsen (JEPS) K = Carswell Automated Weather Network (Det 7, AFGWC) M = Located by meteorological analysis B-6 N = Hydrology office...Airfield ACC - Area control center AERO - Aerodrome AHP - U.S. Army Heliport AUX - Auxiliary AFS - Airways Facilities Sector AMOS - Automated

  6. Analysis of weather patterns associated with air quality degradation and potential health impacts

    EPA Science Inventory

    Emissions from anthropogenic and natural sources into the atmosphere are determined in large measure by prevailing weather conditions through complex physical, dynamical and chemical processes. Air pollution episodes are characterized by degradation in air quality as reflected by...

  7. Pilot's Automated Weather Support System (PAWSS) concepts demonstration project. Phase 1: Pilot's weather information requirements and implications for weather data systems design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crabill, Norman L.; Dash, Ernie R.

    1991-01-01

    The weather information requirements for pilots and the deficiencies of the current aviation weather support system in meeting these requirements are defined. As the amount of data available to pilots increases significantly in the near future, expert system technology will be needed to assist pilots in assimilating that information. Some other desirable characteristics of an automation-assisted system for weather data acquisition, dissemination, and assimilation are also described.

  8. Weather.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruth, Amy, Ed.

    1996-01-01

    This theme issue of "The Goldfinch" focuses on weather in Iowa and weather lore. The bulletin contains historical articles, fiction, activities, and maps. The table of contents lists: (1) "Wild Rosie's Map"; (2) "History Mystery"; (3) "Iowa's Weather History"; (4) "Weather Wonders"; (6)…

  9. 49 CFR 232.107 - Air source requirements and cold weather operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Air source requirements and cold weather... source requirements and cold weather operations. (a) Monitoring plans for yard air sources. (1) A... to the equipment and territory of that railroad to cover safe train operations during cold...

  10. 49 CFR 232.107 - Air source requirements and cold weather operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Air source requirements and cold weather... source requirements and cold weather operations. (a) Monitoring plans for yard air sources. (1) A... to the equipment and territory of that railroad to cover safe train operations during cold...

  11. 49 CFR 232.107 - Air source requirements and cold weather operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Air source requirements and cold weather... source requirements and cold weather operations. (a) Monitoring plans for yard air sources. (1) A... to the equipment and territory of that railroad to cover safe train operations during cold...

  12. 49 CFR 232.107 - Air source requirements and cold weather operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Air source requirements and cold weather... source requirements and cold weather operations. (a) Monitoring plans for yard air sources. (1) A... to the equipment and territory of that railroad to cover safe train operations during cold...

  13. 49 CFR 232.107 - Air source requirements and cold weather operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Air source requirements and cold weather... source requirements and cold weather operations. (a) Monitoring plans for yard air sources. (1) A... to the equipment and territory of that railroad to cover safe train operations during cold...

  14. Development of Tactical Lightning Avoidance Product for Terminal Weather Support

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshikawa, E.; Yoshida, S.; Adachi, T.; Kusunoki, K.; Ushio, T.

    2015-12-01

    Aircraft initiated or intercepted lightning is one of significant issues for civilian flight operation in Japan. It is much less possible than the past that lightning strikes cause fatal aircraft accidents thanks to both of certifications of aircraft design for lightning strikes and many of weather supports for aircraft operation. However, hundreds of lightning strikes to aircrafts have still been reported in each recent year in Japan, and airlines have been forced to delay or cancel most of those flights and to cost several hundred millions of yen for repair. Especially, lightning discharges during winter in the coastal area of the Sea of Japan frequently cause heavy damages on aircrafts due to their large charge transfer. It is important in actual aircraft operation that observed meteorological parameters are converted to decision-making information. Otherwise, pilots, controllers, or operators need to learn meteorology as much as weather experts, and to owe hard work load to interpret observed meteorological data to their risk. Ideally, it is desired to automatically provide them with predicted operation risk, for example, delay time, possibility of flight cancellation, and repair cost caused by lightning.Our research group has just started development of tactical lightning avoidance product, where a risk index of an aircraft operation due to lightning is calculated mainly from three novel observation devices: The phased array weather radar has potential to detect thunderstorms in their early stage due to the high volume scan rate of 10 - 30 sec. A lightning mapping system, such as Broadband Observation network for Lightning and Thunderstorm, indicates electrical structure inside clouds in concert with a co-located radar data. Aircraft sounding and real-time data downlink, especially high-frequency data provided by Secondary Surveillance Radar mode S, gives in-situ measurements of wind and temperature. Especially the in-situ temperature data can indicate

  15. Feedbacks between air pollution and weather, Part 1: Effects on weather

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makar, P. A.; Gong, W.; Milbrandt, J.; Hogrefe, C.; Zhang, Y.; Curci, G.; Žabkar, R.; Im, U.; Balzarini, A.; Baró, R.; Bianconi, R.; Cheung, P.; Forkel, R.; Gravel, S.; Hirtl, M.; Honzak, L.; Hou, A.; Jiménez-Guerrero, P.; Langer, M.; Moran, M. D.; Pabla, B.; Pérez, J. L.; Pirovano, G.; San José, R.; Tuccella, P.; Werhahn, J.; Zhang, J.; Galmarini, S.

    2015-08-01

    The meteorological predictions of fully coupled air-quality models running in "feedback" versus "no-feedback" simulations were compared against each other and observations as part of Phase 2 of the Air Quality Model Evaluation International Initiative. In the "no-feedback" mode, the aerosol direct and indirect effects were disabled, with the models reverting to either climatologies of aerosol properties, or a no-aerosol weather simulation. In the "feedback" mode, the model-generated aerosols were allowed to modify the radiative transfer and/or cloud formation parameterizations of the respective models. Annual simulations with and without feedbacks were conducted on domains over North America for the years 2006 and 2010, and over Europe for the year 2010. The incorporation of feedbacks was found to result in systematic changes to forecast predictions of meteorological variables, both in time and space, with the largest impacts occurring in the summer and near large sources of pollution. Models incorporating only the aerosol direct effect predicted feedback-induced reductions in temperature, surface downward and upward shortwave radiation, precipitation and PBL height, and increased upward shortwave radiation, in both Europe and North America. The feedback response of models incorporating both the aerosol direct and indirect effects varied across models, suggesting the details of implementation of the indirect effect have a large impact on model results, and hence should be a focus for future research. The feedback response of models incorporating both direct and indirect effects was also consistently larger in magnitude to that of models incorporating the direct effect alone, implying that the indirect effect may be the dominant process. Comparisons across modelling platforms suggested that direct and indirect effect feedbacks may often act in competition: the sign of residual changes associated with feedbacks often changed between those models incorporating the

  16. Aviation weather services

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sprinkle, C. H.

    1983-01-01

    The primary responsibilities of the National Weather Service (NWS) are to: provide warnings of severe weather and flooding for the protection of life and property; provide public forecasts for land and adjacent ocean areas for planning and operation; and provide weather support for: production of food and fiber; management of water resources; production, distribution and use of energy; and efficient and safe air operations.

  17. Maintaining a Local Data Integration System in Support of Weather Forecast Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watson, Leela R.; Blottman, Peter F.; Sharp, David W.; Hoeth, Brian

    2010-01-01

    Since 2000, both the National Weather Service in Melbourne, FL (NWS MLB) and the Spaceflight Meteorology Group (SMG) have used a local data integration system (LDIS) as part of their forecast and warning operations. Each has benefited from 3-dimensional analyses that are delivered to forecasters every 15 minutes across the peninsula of Florida. The intent is to generate products that enhance short-range weather forecasts issued in support of NWS MLB and SMG operational requirements within East Central Florida. The current LDIS uses the Advanced Regional Prediction System (ARPS) Data Analysis System (ADAS) package as its core, which integrates a wide variety of national, regional, and local observational data sets. It assimilates all available real-time data within its domain and is run at a finer spatial and temporal resolution than current national- or regional-scale analysis packages. As such, it provides local forecasters with a more comprehensive and complete understanding of evolving fine-scale weather features. Recent efforts have been undertaken to update the LDIS through the formal tasking process of NASA's Applied Meteorology Unit. The goals include upgrading LDIS with the latest version of ADAS, incorporating new sources of observational data, and making adjustments to shell scripts written to govern the system. A series of scripts run a complete modeling system consisting of the preprocessing step, the main model integration, and the post-processing step. The preprocessing step prepares the terrain, surface characteristics data sets, and the objective analysis for model initialization. Data ingested through ADAS include (but are not limited to) Level II Weather Surveillance Radar- 1988 Doppler (WSR-88D) data from six Florida radars, Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellites (GOES) visible and infrared satellite imagery, surface and upper air observations throughout Florida from NOAA's Earth System Research Laboratory/Global Systems Division

  18. AIRS Observations of DomeC in Antarctica and Comparison with Automated Weather Stations (AWS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aumann, Hartmut H.; Gregorich, Dave; Broberg, Steve

    2006-01-01

    We compare the surface temperatures at Dome Concordia (DomeC) deduced from AIRS data and two Automatic Weather Stations at Concordia Station: AWS8989 , which has been in operation since December 1996, and AWS.it, for which data are available between January and November 2005. The AWS8989 readings are on average 3 K warmer than the AWS.it readings, with a warmer bias in the Antarctic summer than in the winter season. Although AIRS measures the skin brightness temperature, while the AWS reports the temperature of the air at 3 meter above the surface, the AIRS measurements agree well with the AWS.it readings for all data and separately for the summer and winter seasons, if data taken in the presence of strong surface inversions are filtered out. This can be done by deducing the vertical temperature gradient above the surface directly from the AIRS temperature sounding channels or indirectly by noting that extreme vertical gradients near the surface are unlikely if the wind speed is more than a few meters per second. Since the AIRS measurements are very well calibrated, the agreement with AWS.it is very encouraging. The warmer readings of AWS8989 are likely due to thermal contamination of the AWS8989 site by the increasing activity at Concordia Station. Data from an AWS.it quality station could be used for the evaluation of radiometric accuracy and stability of polar orbiting sounders at low temperatures. Unfortunately, data from AWS.it was available only for a limited time. The thermal contamination of the AWS8989 data makes long-term trends deduced from AWS8989 and possibly results about the rapid Antarctic warming deduced from other research stations on Antarctica suspect. AIRS is the first hyperspectral infrared sounder designed in support of weather forecasting and climate research. It was launched in May 2002 on the EOS Aqua spacecraft into a 704 km altitude polar sun-synchronous orbit. The lifetime of AIRS, estimated before launch to be at least 5 years is

  19. Association of weather and air pollution interactions on daily mortality in 12 Canadian cities.

    PubMed

    Vanos, J K; Cakmak, S; Kalkstein, L S; Yagouti, Abderrahmane

    It has been well established that both meteorological attributes and air pollution concentrations affect human health outcomes. We examined all cause nonaccident mortality relationships for 28 years (1981-2008) in relation to air pollution and synoptic weather type (encompassing air mass) data in 12 Canadian cities. This study first determines the likelihood of summertime extreme air pollution events within weather types using spatial synoptic classification. Second, it examines the modifying effect of weather types on the relative risk of mortality (RR) due to daily concentrations of air pollution (nitrogen dioxide, ozone, sulfur dioxide, and particulate matter <2.5 μm). We assess both single- and two-pollutant interactions to determine dependent and independent pollutant effects using the relatively new time series technique of distributed lag nonlinear modeling (DLNM). Results display dry tropical (DT) and moist tropical plus (MT+) weathers to result in a fourfold and twofold increased likelihood, respectively, of an extreme pollution event (top 5 % of pollution concentrations throughout the 28 years) occurring. We also demonstrate statistically significant effects of single-pollutant exposure on mortality (p < 0.05) to be dependent on summer weather type, where stronger results occur in dry moderate (fair weather) and DT or MT+ weather types. The overall average single-effect RR increases due to pollutant exposure within DT and MT+ weather types are 14.9 and 11.9 %, respectively. Adjusted exposures (two-way pollutant effect estimates) generally results in decreased RR estimates, indicating that the pollutants are not independent. Adjusting for ozone significantly lowers 67 % of the single-pollutant RR estimates and reduces model variability, which demonstrates that ozone significantly controls a portion of the mortality signal from the model. Our findings demonstrate the mortality risks of air pollution exposure to differ by weather type, with

  20. Role of Stratospheric Air in a Severe Weather Event: Analysis of Potential Vorticity and Total Ozone

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goering, Melissa A.; Gallus, William A., Jr.; Olsen, Mark A.; Stanford, John L.

    2001-01-01

    The role of dry stratospheric air descending to low and middle tropospheric levels in a severe weather outbreak in the midwestern United States is examined using ACCEPT Eta model output, Rapid Update Cycle (RUC) analyses, and Earth probe Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (EP/TOMS) total ozone data. While stratospheric air was not found to play a direct role in the convection, backward trajectories show stratospheric air descended to 800 hPa just west of the convection. Damaging surface winds not associated with thunderstorms also occurred in the region of greatest stratospheric descent. Small-scale features in the high-resolution total ozone data compare favorably with geopotential heights and potential vorticity fields, supporting the notion that stratospheric air descended to near the surface. A detailed vertical structure in the potential vorticity appears to be captured by small-scale total ozone variations. The capability of the total ozone to identify mesoscale features assists model verification. The total ozone data suggest biases in the RUC analysis and Eta forecast of this event. The total ozone is also useful in determining whether potential vorticity is of stratospheric origin or is diabatically generated in the troposphere.

  1. Interactions of physical, chemical, and biological weather calling for an integrated approach to assessment, forecasting, and communication of air quality.

    PubMed

    Klein, Thomas; Kukkonen, Jaakko; Dahl, Aslög; Bossioli, Elissavet; Baklanov, Alexander; Vik, Aasmund Fahre; Agnew, Paul; Karatzas, Kostas D; Sofiev, Mikhail

    2012-12-01

    This article reviews interactions and health impacts of physical, chemical, and biological weather. Interactions and synergistic effects between the three types of weather call for integrated assessment, forecasting, and communication of air quality. Today's air quality legislation falls short of addressing air quality degradation by biological weather, despite increasing evidence for the feasibility of both mitigation and adaptation policy options. In comparison with the existing capabilities for physical and chemical weather, the monitoring of biological weather is lacking stable operational agreements and resources. Furthermore, integrated effects of physical, chemical, and biological weather suggest a critical review of air quality management practices. Additional research is required to improve the coupled modeling of physical, chemical, and biological weather as well as the assessment and communication of integrated air quality. Findings from several recent COST Actions underline the importance of an increased dialog between scientists from the fields of meteorology, air quality, aerobiology, health, and policy makers.

  2. Air quality influenced by urban heat island coupled with synoptic weather patterns.

    PubMed

    Lai, Li-Wei; Cheng, Wan-Li

    2009-04-01

    Few studies have discussed the association between the urban heat island (UHI) phenomenon and air quality under synoptic weather patterns conducive to UHI. In this study, the authors used statistical analyses to study this association in the Taichung metropolis region. The air quality data obtained from government-owned observation stations and wind field profiles obtained from tethersonde monitoring (performed during 21-29 October 2004) were combined with the simulations of the horizontal wind fields at different heights by the air pollution model (TAPM). The results show that certain specific synoptic weather patterns worsen the air quality and induce the UHI phenomenon: Taichung's UHI appears clearly under the synoptic weather patterns featuring light air or breezes (0.56 m/s < or =wind speed <2.2 m/s) mainly from the north and west. Furthermore, under these weather patterns, the concentrations of air pollutants (NO2, CO2 and CO) increase significantly (P<0.05) with the UHI intensity. The convergence usually associated with nocturnal UHI causes the accumulation of O3 precursors, as well as other air pollutants, thereby worsening the air quality at that time and also during the following daytime period.

  3. Close Air Support for the Field Army

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1964-05-25

    90. 76 of the 12th Air Support C omand , for consideration.4 From D plus 4 to D plus 7, requests for attacks on tar,:ets of’ opportunity were not...ibid. 3 8 Ibid. 9o evolved into the "Rover Joe" svstem of close air suooort. Rover Joe was based to an extent on the "Rover David " orinciple used in...tentacles (air sunport oart-4, air sunoort control, and rear links (liaison officer at iir force airfields). Rover David vas intended to be located

  4. Feedbacks between Air Pollution and Weather, Part 1: Effects on Weather

    EPA Science Inventory

    The meteorological predictions of fully coupled air-quality models running in “feedback” versus “nofeedback” simulations were compared against each other as part of Phase 2 of the Air Quality Model Evaluation International Initiative. The model simulations included a “no-feedback...

  5. AFGWC (Air Force Global Weather Central) Cloud Forecast Models

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-04-01

    Weather Center, Offutt AFB, NE 68113. This document contains export- controlled technical data. USAF ETAC/DOL ltr, 9 Feb 1995 UNCLASSIFIED ::Am:tiiiiii...wmmmmm •..-111111111111 ?TWWT’ . " iwimni WC FILE COP* Lf> 5 I o < AFGWC CLOUD FORECAST MODELS EDITED BY MAJOR TIMOTHY D, CRUM SCm ’-■ It...5LAYBR model makes extra-tropical forecasts for periods up to 48 hours. Forecasts of layer and total cloud, cloud type, layer temperatures , and

  6. Adaption of the Air Weather Service Fog Model to Forecast Radiation Fog Events in the Southeast United States

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1997-03-01

    ADAPTATION OF THE AIR WEATHER SERVICE FO MODEL TO FORECAST RADIATION FOG EVENT IN THE SOUTHEAST UNITED STATES THESIS Andrew C. Goodnite, Captain...ENP/97M-06 ADAPTATION OF THE AIR WEATHER SERVICE FOG MODEL TO FORECAST RADIATION FOG EVENTS IN THE SOUTHEAST UNITED STATES THESIS Andrew C. Goodnite...AIR WEATHER SERVICE FOG MODEL TO FORECAST RADIATION FOG EVENTS IN THE SOUTHEAST UNITED STATES THESIS Presented to the Faculty of the Graduate School of

  7. AIRS: Improving Weather Forecasting and Providing New Data on Greenhouse Gases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chahine, Moustafa T.; Pagano, Thomas S.; Aumann, Hartmut H.; Atlas, Robert; Barnet, Christopher; Blaisdell, John; Chen, Luke; Divakarla, Murty; Fetzer, Eric J.; Goldberg, Mitch; Gautier, Catherine; Granger, Stephanie; Hannon, Scott; Irion, Fredrick W; Kakar, Ramesh; Kalnay, Eugenia; Lambrigtsen, Bjorn H.; Lee, Sung-Yung; Marshall, John Le; McMillan, W. Wallace; McMillin, Larry; Olsen, Edward T.; Revercomb, Henry; Rosenkranz, Philip; Smith, William L.

    2006-01-01

    This paper discusses the performance of AIRS and examines how it is meeting its operational and research objectives based on the experience of more than 2 yr with AIRS data. We describe the science background and the performance of AIRS in terms of the accuracy and stability of its observed spectral radiances. We examine the validation of the retrieved temperature and water vapor profiles against collocated operational radiosondes, and then we assess the impact thereof on numerical weather forecasting of the assimilation of the AIRS spectra and the retrieved temperature. We close the paper with a discussion on the retrieval of several minor tropospheric constituents from AIRS spectra.

  8. A Historical Look at Close Air Support

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    the X Corps commander, General Almond . He had experience with effective air-to-ground operations in Italy during World War II. Almond attended the Air...Reservoir, General Almonds X Corps successfully withdrew with the assistance from the 1st MAW. The support that the Marines gave has been described by...Corps as an independent command, enabling Almond to plan, prepare and conduct his own combat missions. Once X Corps withdrew to the south it ceased to

  9. Battlespace weather and EM/EO conditions for joint strike support

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosenthal, Jay; Helvey, Roger A.; McGovern, Matt; Greiman, Paul; Cohenour, Bernie; Ruth, Dennis

    1997-09-01

    Battlespace meteorological and oceanographic (METOC) conditions can be defined and displayed using the Navy's C4ISR architecture for use in strike planning, optimizing weapons performance, and postoperation assessment. Using the Tactical Environmental Support System (TESS), METOC satellite imagery has been exploited to derive estimates of temperature and cloud conditions along Tomahawk flight paths, and integrated with operational geometry to support missile launches conducted during Joint Warrior Interoperability Demonstration (JWID-95). The integrated and fused displays were sent from the Battle Management Interoperability Center (BMIC) at the Naval Air Warfare Center Weapons Division, Point Mugu, and transmitted to fleet units where they were inserted as strike warfare support products on a home page for transmission to other JWID participants. Other support techniques are also being implemented using home page/internet technology. The EMIEO propagation environment is being characterized remotely by application of the "satellite-JR duct technique" which allows duct heights to be displayed over low-cloud regions over subtropical ocean areas. To provide duct height estimates in regions without clouds or in-situ measurements, or predictions of ducting conditions, the "equivalent altitude" and "experduct" techniques are employed to demonstrate additional automated capabilities using synoptic weather considerations.

  10. Weather elements, chemical air pollutants and airborne pollen influencing asthma emergency room visits in Szeged, Hungary: performance of two objective weather classifications.

    PubMed

    Makra, László; Puskás, János; Matyasovszky, István; Csépe, Zoltán; Lelovics, Enikő; Bálint, Beatrix; Tusnády, Gábor

    2015-09-01

    Weather classification approaches may be useful tools in modelling the occurrence of respiratory diseases. The aim of the study is to compare the performance of an objectively defined weather classification and the Spatial Synoptic Classification (SSC) in classifying emergency department (ED) visits for acute asthma depending from weather, air pollutants, and airborne pollen variables for Szeged, Hungary, for the 9-year period 1999-2007. The research is performed for three different pollen-related periods of the year and the annual data set. According to age and gender, nine patient categories, eight meteorological variables, seven chemical air pollutants, and two pollen categories were used. In general, partly dry and cold air and partly warm and humid air aggravate substantially the symptoms of asthmatics. Our major findings are consistent with this establishment. Namely, for the objectively defined weather types favourable conditions for asthma ER visits occur when an anticyclonic ridge weather situation happens with near extreme temperature and humidity parameters. Accordingly, the SSC weather types facilitate aggravating asthmatic conditions if warm or cool weather occur with high humidity in both cases. Favourable conditions for asthma attacks are confirmed in the extreme seasons when atmospheric stability contributes to enrichment of air pollutants. The total efficiency of the two classification approaches is similar in spite of the fact that the methodology for derivation of the individual types within the two classification approaches is completely different.

  11. Weather elements, chemical air pollutants and airborne pollen influencing asthma emergency room visits in Szeged, Hungary: performance of two objective weather classifications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makra, László; Puskás, János; Matyasovszky, István; Csépe, Zoltán; Lelovics, Enikő; Bálint, Beatrix; Tusnády, Gábor

    2015-09-01

    Weather classification approaches may be useful tools in modelling the occurrence of respiratory diseases. The aim of the study is to compare the performance of an objectively defined weather classification and the Spatial Synoptic Classification (SSC) in classifying emergency department (ED) visits for acute asthma depending from weather, air pollutants, and airborne pollen variables for Szeged, Hungary, for the 9-year period 1999-2007. The research is performed for three different pollen-related periods of the year and the annual data set. According to age and gender, nine patient categories, eight meteorological variables, seven chemical air pollutants, and two pollen categories were used. In general, partly dry and cold air and partly warm and humid air aggravate substantially the symptoms of asthmatics. Our major findings are consistent with this establishment. Namely, for the objectively defined weather types favourable conditions for asthma ER visits occur when an anticyclonic ridge weather situation happens with near extreme temperature and humidity parameters. Accordingly, the SSC weather types facilitate aggravating asthmatic conditions if warm or cool weather occur with high humidity in both cases. Favourable conditions for asthma attacks are confirmed in the extreme seasons when atmospheric stability contributes to enrichment of air pollutants. The total efficiency of the two classification approaches is similar in spite of the fact that the methodology for derivation of the individual types within the two classification approaches is completely different.

  12. A web-based tool that combines satellite and weather station observations to support irrigation scheduling

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Abstract: The Satellite Irrigation Management Support (SIMS) project combines NASA's Terrestrial Observation and Prediction System (TOPS), Landsat and MODIS satellite imagery, and reference evapotranspiration from surface weather station networks to map daily crop irrigation demand in California in ...

  13. Transition of AIRS Products to the National Weather Service

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zavodsky, Bradley

    2012-01-01

    Short-term Prediction Research and Transition Center (SPoRT) is a proven community leader for transitioning satellite products to operational end users and is working hard to bring data from Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) to forecasters. SPoRT products using AIRS data are currently or will soon be evaluated at WFOs and National Centers (1) T and q profiles: HWT, Alaska WFOs, HRD/OPC, HMT (2) Ozone profiles: HPC/OPC (3) Carbon Monoxide: Southern and Western Region WFOs SPoRT is actively evaluating differences between V5 and V6 profiles for selected cases and will continue to provide feedback to the AIRS team as V6 development efforts conclude.

  14. P161 Improved Impact of Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) Radiance Assimilation in Numerical Weather Prediction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zavodsky, Bradley T.; Chou, Shih-Hung; Jedlovec, Gary J.

    2012-01-01

    For over 6 years, AIRS radiances have been assimilated operationally into National (e.g. Environmental Modeling Center (EMC)) and International (e.g. European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF)), operational centers; assimilated in the North American Mesoscale (NAM) since 2008. Due partly to data latency and operational constraints, hyperspectral radiance assimilation has had less impact on the Gridpoint Statistical Interpolation (GSI) system used in the NAM and GFS. Objective of this project is to use AIRS retrieved profiles as a proxy for the AIRS radiances in situations where AIRS radiances are unable to be assimilated in the current operational system by evaluating location and magnitude of analysis increments.

  15. Extreme weather and air pollution effects on cardiovascular and respiratory hospital admissions in Cyprus.

    PubMed

    Tsangari, H; Paschalidou, A K; Kassomenos, A P; Vardoulakis, S; Heaviside, C; Georgiou, K E; Yamasaki, E N

    2016-01-15

    In many regions of the world, climatic change is associated with increased extreme temperatures, which can have severe effects on mortality and morbidity. In this study, we examine the effect of extreme weather on hospital admissions in Cyprus, for inland and coastal areas, through the use of synoptic weather classifications (air mass types). In addition, the effect of particulate air pollution (PM10) on morbidity is examined. Our results show that two air mass types, namely (a) warm, rainy days with increased levels of water vapour in the atmosphere and (b) cold, cloudy days with increased levels of precipitation, were associated with increased morbidity in the form of hospital admissions. This was true both for cardiovascular and respiratory conditions, for all age groups, but particularly for the elderly, aged over 65. Particulate air pollution was also associated with increased morbidity in Cyprus, where the effect was more pronounced for cardiovascular diseases.

  16. Improved Impact of Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) Radiance Assimilation in Numerical Weather Prediction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zavodsky, Bradley; Chou, Shih-Hung; Jedlovec, Gary

    2012-01-01

    Improvements to global and regional numerical weather prediction (NWP) have been demonstrated through assimilation of data from NASA s Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS). Current operational data assimilation systems use AIRS radiances, but impact on regional forecasts has been much smaller than for global forecasts. Retrieved profiles from AIRS contain much of the information that is contained in the radiances and may be able to reveal reasons for this reduced impact. Assimilating AIRS retrieved profiles in an identical analysis configuration to the radiances, tracking the quantity and quality of the assimilated data in each technique, and examining analysis increments and forecast impact from each data type can yield clues as to the reasons for the reduced impact. By doing this with regional scale models individual synoptic features (and the impact of AIRS on these features) can be more easily tracked. This project examines the assimilation of hyperspectral sounder data used in operational numerical weather prediction by comparing operational techniques used for AIRS radiances and research techniques used for AIRS retrieved profiles. Parallel versions of a configuration of the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model with Gridpoint Statistical Interpolation (GSI) that mimics the analysis methodology, domain, and observational datasets for the regional North American Mesoscale (NAM) model run at the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP)/Environmental Modeling Center (EMC) are run to examine the impact of each type of AIRS data set. The first configuration will assimilate the AIRS radiance data along with other conventional and satellite data using techniques implemented within the operational system; the second configuration will assimilate AIRS retrieved profiles instead of AIRS radiances in the same manner. Preliminary results of this study will be presented and focus on the analysis impact of the radiances and profiles for selected cases.

  17. The Impact of Atmospheric InfraRed Sounder (AIRS) Profiles on Short-term Weather Forecasts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chou, Shih-Hung; Zavodsky, Brad; Jedlovec, Gary J.; Lapenta, William

    2007-01-01

    The Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS), together with the Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit (AMSU), represents one of the most advanced spacebased atmospheric sounding systems. The combined AlRS/AMSU system provides radiance measurements used to retrieve temperature profiles with an accuracy of 1 K over 1 km layers under both clear and partly cloudy conditions, while the accuracy of the derived humidity profiles is 15% in 2 km layers. Critical to the successful use of AIRS profiles for weather and climate studies is the use of profile quality indicators and error estimates provided with each profile Aside form monitoring changes in Earth's climate, one of the objectives of AIRS is to provide sounding information of sufficient accuracy such that the assimilation of the new observations, especially in data sparse region, will lead to an improvement in weather forecasts. The purpose of this paper is to describe a procedure to optimally assimilate highresolution AIRS profile data in a regional analysis/forecast model. The paper will focus on the impact of AIRS profiles on a rapidly developing east coast storm and will also discuss preliminary results for a 30-day forecast period, simulating a quasi-operation environment. Temperature and moisture profiles were obtained from the prototype version 5.0 EOS science team retrieval algorithm which includes explicit error information for each profile. The error profile information was used to select the highest quality temperature and moisture data for every profile location and pressure level for assimilation into the ARPS Data Analysis System (ADAS). The AIRS-enhanced analyses were used as initial fields for the Weather Research and Forecast (WRF) system used by the SPORT project for regional weather forecast studies. The ADASWRF system will be run on CONUS domain with an emphasis on the east coast. The preliminary assessment of the impact of the AIRS profiles will focus on quality control issues associated with AIRS

  18. Radar Scan Strategies for the Patrick Air Force Base Weather Surveillance Radar, Model-74C, Replacement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Short, David

    2008-01-01

    The 45th Weather Squadron (45 WS) is replacing the Weather Surveillance Radar, Model 74C (WSR-74C) at Patrick Air Force Base (PAFB), with a Doppler, dual polarization radar, the Radtec 43/250. A new scan strategy is needed for the Radtec 43/250, to provide high vertical resolution data over the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) and Cape Canaveral Air Force Station (CCAFS) launch pads, while taking advantage of the new radar's advanced capabilities for detecting severe weather phenomena associated with convection within the 45 WS area of responsibility. The Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) developed several scan strategies customized for the operational needs of the 45 WS. The AMU also developed a plan for evaluating the scan strategies in the period prior to operational acceptance, currently scheduled for November 2008.

  19. A Mathematical Model and Algorithm for Routing Air Traffic Under Weather Uncertainty

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sadovsky, Alexander V.

    2016-01-01

    A central challenge in managing today's commercial en route air traffic is the task of routing the aircraft in the presence of adverse weather. Such weather can make regions of the airspace unusable, so all affected flights must be re-routed. Today this task is carried out by conference and negotiation between human air traffic controllers (ATC) responsible for the involved sectors of the airspace. One can argue that, in so doing, ATC try to solve an optimization problem without giving it a precise quantitative formulation. Such a formulation gives the mathematical machinery for constructing and verifying algorithms that are aimed at solving the problem. This paper contributes one such formulation and a corresponding algorithm. The algorithm addresses weather uncertainty and has closed form, which allows transparent analysis of correctness, realism, and computational costs.

  20. Classroom Exercises Concerning the Effect of Weather Conditions on Air Quality in Illinois.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kohler, Fred

    This paper contains sample exercises that investigate weather and air quality relationships for use in college-level introductory courses in climatology and meteorology. The exercises will provide students with an opportunity to apply meteorological principles to a specific geographic location, in an effort to better understand the significant…

  1. Impact of air pollution control measures and weather conditions on asthma during the 2008 Summer Olympic Games in Beijing.

    PubMed

    Li, Yi; Wang, Wen; Wang, Jizhi; Zhang, Xiaoling; Lin, Weili; Yang, Yuanqin

    2011-07-01

    The alternative transportation strategy implemented during the 2008 Summer Olympic Games in Beijing provided an opportunity to study the impact of the control measures and weather conditions on air quality and asthma morbidity. An ecological study compared the 41 days of the Olympic Games (8 August-17 September 2008) to a baseline period (1-30 June). Also, in order to emphasize the impact of weather conditions on air quality, a pollution linking meteorological index (Plam) was introduced to represent the air pollution meteorological condition. Our study showed that the average number of outpatient visits for asthma was 12.5 per day at baseline and 7.3 per day during the Olympics-a 41.6% overall decrease. Compared with the baseline, the Games were associated with a significant reduction in asthma visits (RR 0.58, 95%CI: 0.52-0.65). At 16.5 visits per day, asthma visits were also significantly higher, during the pre-Olympic period (RR 1.32, 95% CI: 1.15-1.52). The study also showed that the RR of asthma events on a given day, as well as the average daily peak ozone concentration during the preceding 48-72 h, increased at cumulative ozone concentrations of 70 to 100 ppb and 100 ppb or more compared with ozone concentrations of less than 70 ppb (P < 0.05). We concluded that along with "good" weather conditions, efforts to reduce traffic congestion in Beijing during the Olympic Games were associated with a prolonged reduction in air pollution and significantly lower rates of adult asthma events. These data provide support for efforts to reduce air pollution and improve health via reductions in motor vehicle traffic.

  2. An analysis of asthma hospitalizations, air pollution, and weather conditions in Los Angeles County, California

    PubMed Central

    Delamater, Paul L.; Finley, Andrew O.; Banerjee, Sudipto

    2012-01-01

    There is now a large body of literature supporting a linkage between exposure to air pollutants and asthma morbidity. However, the extent and significance of this relationship varies considerably between pollutants, location, scale of analysis, and analysis methods. Our primary goal is to evaluate the relationship between asthma hospitalizations, levels of ambient air pollution, and weather conditions in Los Angeles (LA) County, California, an area with a historical record of heavy air pollution. County-wide measures of Carbon Monoxide (CO), Nitrogen Dioxide (NO2), Ozone (O3), Particulate Matter < 10 μ m (PM10), Particulate Matter < 2.5 μ m (PM2.5), maximum temperature, and relative humidity were collected for all months from 2001 to 2008. We then related these variables to monthly asthma hospitalization rates using Bayesian regression models with temporal random effects. We evaluated model performance using a goodness of fit criterion and predictive ability. Asthma hospitalization rates in LA County decreased between 2001 and 2008. Traffic-related pollutants, CO and NO2, were significant and positively correlated with asthma hospitalizations. PM2.5 also had a positive, significant association with asthma hospitalizations. PM10, relative humidity, and maximum temperature produced mixed results, whereas O3 was non-significant in all models. Inclusion of temporal random effects satisfies statistical model assumptions, improves model fit, and yields increased predictive accuracy and precision compared to their non-temporal counterparts. Generally, pollution levels and asthma hospitalizations decreased during the 9 year study period. Our findings also indicate that after accounting for seasonality in the data, asthma hospitalization rate has a significant positive relationship with ambient levels of CO, NO2, and PM2.5. PMID:22475217

  3. Geographic Region, Weather, Pilot Age and Air Carrier Crashes: a Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Li, Guohua; Pressley, Joyce C.; Qiang, Yandong; Grabowski, Jurek G.; Baker, Susan P.; Rebok, George W.

    2009-01-01

    Background Information about risk factors of aviation crashes is crucial for developing effective intervention programs. Previous studies assessing factors associated with crash risk were conducted primarily in general aviation, air taxis and commuter air carriers. Methods A matched case-control design was used to examine the associations of geographic region, basic weather condition, and pilot age with the risk of air carrier (14 CFR Part 121) crash involvement. Cases (n=373) were air carrier crashes involving aircraft made by Boeing, McDonnell Douglas, and Airbus, recorded in the National Transportation Safety Board’s aviation crash database during 1983 through 2002, and controls (n=746) were air carrier incidents involving aircraft of the same three makes selected at random from the Federal Aviation Administration’s aviation incident database. Each case was matched with two controls on the calendar year when the index crash occurred. Conditional logistic regression was used for statistical analysis. Results With adjustment for basic weather condition, pilot age, and total flight time, the risk of air carrier crashes in Alaska was more than three times the risk for other regions [adjusted odds ratio (OR) 3.18, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.35 – 7.49]. Instrument meteorological conditions were associated with an increased risk for air carrier crashes involving pilot error (adjusted OR 2.26, 95% CI 1.15 – 4.44) and a decreased risk for air carrier crashes without pilot error (adjusted OR 0.57, 95% CI 0.40 – 0.87). Neither pilot age nor total flight time was significantly associated with the risk of air carrier crashes. Conclusions The excess risk of air carrier crashes in Alaska and the effect of adverse weather on pilot-error crashes underscore the importance of environmental hazards in flight safety. PMID:19378910

  4. AIRS Mission Support from GES DISC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wei, Jennifer; Hearty, Thomas; Savtchenko, Audrey; Ding, Feng; Esfandiari, Ed; Theobald, Mike; Vollmer, Bruce; Kempler, Steve

    2015-01-01

    This talk will describe the support and distribution of AIRS (Atmospheric Infra Red Sounding) data products that are archived and distributed from the Goddard Earth Sciences Data and Information Services Center. Along with data stewardship, an important mission of GES DISC is to enhance the usability of data and broaden the user base. We will provide a brief summary of the current online archive and distribution metrics for the AIRS v5 and v6 products. We will also describe collaborative data sets and services (e.g., visualization and potential science applications) and solicit feedback for potential future services.

  5. KSC Weather and Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maier, Launa; Huddleston, Lisa; Smith, Kristin

    2016-01-01

    This briefing outlines the history of Kennedy Space Center (KSC) Weather organization, past research sponsored or performed, current organization, responsibilities, and activities, the evolution of weather support, future technologies, and an update on the status of the buoys located offshore of Cape Canaveral Air Force Station and KSC.

  6. Climate change, extreme weather events, air pollution and respiratory health in Europe.

    PubMed

    De Sario, M; Katsouyanni, K; Michelozzi, P

    2013-09-01

    Due to climate change and other factors, air pollution patterns are changing in several urbanised areas of the world, with a significant effect on respiratory health both independently and synergistically with weather conditions; climate scenarios show Europe as one of the most vulnerable regions. European studies on heatwave episodes have consistently shown a synergistic effect of air pollution and high temperatures, while the potential weather-air pollution interaction during wildfires and dust storms is unknown. Allergen patterns are also changing in response to climate change, and air pollution can modify the allergenic potential of pollens, especially in the presence of specific weather conditions. The underlying mechanisms of all these interactions are not well known; the health consequences vary from decreases in lung function to allergic diseases, new onset of diseases, exacerbation of chronic respiratory diseases, and premature death. These multidimensional climate-pollution-allergen effects need to be taken into account in estimating both climate and air pollution-related respiratory effects, in order to set up adequate policy and public health actions to face both the current and future climate and pollution challenges.

  7. Risk-Hedged Approach for Re-Routing Air Traffic Under Weather Uncertainty

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sadovsky, Alexander V.; Bilimoria, Karl D.

    2016-01-01

    This presentation corresponds to: our paper explores a new risk-hedged approach for re-routing air traffic around forecast convective weather. In this work, flying through a more likely weather instantiation is considered to pose a higher level of risk. Current operational practice strategically plans re-routes to avoid only the most likely (highest risk) weather instantiation, and then tactically makes any necessary adjustments as the weather evolves. The risk-hedged approach strategically plans re-routes by minimizing the risk-adjusted path length, incorporating multiple possible weather instantiations with associated likelihoods (risks). The resulting model is transparent and is readily analyzed for realism and treated with well-understood shortest-path algorithms. Risk-hedged re-routes are computed for some example weather instantiations. The main result is that in some scenarios, relative to an operational-practice proxy solution, the risk-hedged solution provides the benefits of lower risk as well as shorter path length. In other scenarios, the benefits of the risk-hedged solution are ambiguous, because the solution is characterized by a tradeoff between risk and path length. The risk-hedged solution can be executed in those scenarios where it provides a clear benefit over current operational practice.

  8. Synoptic weather patterns and modification of the association between air pollution and human mortality.

    PubMed

    Rainham, Daniel G C; Smoyer-Tomic, Karen E; Sheridan, Scott C; Burnett, Richard T

    2005-10-01

    To assess whether meteorological conditions modify the relationship between short-term exposure to ambient air pollution and mortality, an examination of air pollution and human mortality associations (ecologic) using hybrid spatial synoptic classification procedures was conducted. Concentrations of air pollutants and human mortality from all non-accidental and cardiorespiratory causes were examined according to typical winter and summer synoptic climatologies in Toronto, Canada, between 1981 and 1999. Air masses were derived using a hybrid spatial synoptic classification procedure associating each day over the 19-year period with one of six different typical weather types, or a transition between two weather types. Generalized linear models (GLMs) were used to assess the risk of mortality from air pollution within specific air mass type subsets. Mortality follows a distinct seasonal pattern with a maximum in winter and a minimum in summer. Average air pollution concentrations were similar in both seasons with the exception of elevated sulfur dioxide levels in winter and elevated ozone levels in summer. Subtle changes in meteorological composition can alter the strength of pollutant associations with health outcomes, especially in the summer season. Although there does not appear to be any systematic patterning of modification, variation in pollutant concentrations seems dependent on the type of synoptic category present.

  9. Communications System Architecture Development for Air Traffic Management and Aviation Weather Information Dissemination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gallagher, Seana; Olson, Matt; Blythe, Doug; Heletz, Jacob; Hamilton, Griff; Kolb, Bill; Homans, Al; Zemrowski, Ken; Decker, Steve; Tegge, Cindy

    2000-01-01

    This document is the NASA AATT Task Order 24 Final Report. NASA Research Task Order 24 calls for the development of eleven distinct task reports. Each task was a necessary exercise in the development of comprehensive communications systems architecture (CSA) for air traffic management and aviation weather information dissemination for 2015, the definition of the interim architecture for 2007, and the transition plan to achieve the desired End State. The eleven tasks are summarized along with the associated Task Order reference. The output of each task was an individual task report. The task reports that make up the main body of this document include Task 5, Task 6, Task 7, Task 8, Task 10, and Task 11. The other tasks provide the supporting detail used in the development of the architecture. These reports are included in the appendices. The detailed user needs, functional communications requirements and engineering requirements associated with Tasks 1, 2, and 3 have been put into a relational database and are provided electronically.

  10. The influence from synoptic weather on the variation of air pollution and pollen exposure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grundström, Maria; Dahl, Åslög; Chen, Deliang; Pleijel, Håkan

    2014-05-01

    Exposure to elevated air pollution levels can make people more susceptible to allergies or result in more severe allergic reactions for people with an already pronounced sensitivity to pollen. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationships between urban air pollution (nitrogen oxides, ozone and particles) and airborne Betula pollen in Gothenburg, Sweden, during the pollen seasons for the years 2001-2012. Further, the influence from atmospheric weather pattern on pollen/pollution related risk, using Lamb Weather Types (LWT), was also considered. Daily LWTs were obtained by comparing the variation in atmospheric pressure from a 16 point grid over a given region on earth (scale ~1000km) and essentially describe the air mass movement for the region. They include two non-directional types, cyclonic (C) and anticyclonic (A) and eight directional types depending on the wind direction (N, NE, E... etc.). LWTs with dry and calm meteorological character e.g. limited precipitation and low to moderate wind speeds (A, NE, E, SE) were associated with strongly elevated air pollution and pollen levels where Betula was exceptionally high in LWTs NE and E. The co-variation between Betula pollen and ozone was strong and significant during situations with LWTs A, NE, E and SE. The most important conclusion from this study was that LWTs A, NE, E and SE were associated with high pollen and air pollution levels and can therefore be classified as high risk weather situations for combined air pollution and pollen exposure. Our study shows that LWTs have the potential to be developed into an objective tool for integrated air quality forecasting and a warning system for risk of high exposure situations.

  11. Long term weathering effects on the thermal performance of the solaron (air) solar collector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    The test procedures and the results obtained during the evaluation test program on the Solaron Corporation air-type solar collector are presented. The tests were performed under simulated conditions, following long-term exposure to natural weathering conditions. The Solaron Model 2001, air-type solar collector has a gross area of 19 square feet and the weight is 160 pounds. The absorber plate is made of 24-gage steel, the coating is baked-on black paint, the cover consists of two sheets of 1/8-inch low-iron tempered glass, and the insulation is one thickness of 3 5/8-inch fiberglass batting.

  12. Transport of Aerosols: Regional and Global Implications for Climate, Weather, and Air Quality

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chin, Mian; Diehl, Thomas; Yu, Hongbin; Bian, Huisheng; Remer, Lorraine; Kahn, Ralph

    2008-01-01

    Long-range transport of atmospheric aerosols can have a significant impact on global climate, regional weather, and local air quality. In this study, we use a global model GOCART together with satellite data and ground-based measurements to assess the emission and transport of pollution, dust, biomass burning, and volcanic aerosols and their implications. In particular, we will show the impact of emissions and long-range transport of aerosols from major pollution and dust source regions to (1) the surface air quality, (2) the atmospheric heating rates, and (3) surface radiation change near the source and downwind regions.

  13. Asynoptic high resolution upper-air data for high impact weather events

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Witsaman et al. (6th AMS Fire and Forest Meteorology Symposium 2005) discuss the use of acrcraft sensors for high resolution (vertical 4 hPa, temporal 15 minute) profiles of temperature, dew point temperature, wind, and pressure in support of weather forecasts for wildland fire or hazardous material...

  14. The impact of weather changes on air quality and health in the United States in 1994-2012.

    PubMed

    Jhun, Iny; Coull, Brent A; Schwartz, Joel; Hubbell, Bryan; Koutrakis, Petros

    2015-08-01

    Air quality is heavily influenced by weather conditions. In this study, we assessed the impact of long-term weather changes on air quality and health in the US during 1994-2012. We quantified past weather-related increases, or 'weather penalty', in ozone (O3) and fine particulate matter (PM2.5), and thereafter estimated the associated excess deaths. Using statistical regression methods, we derived the weather penalty as the additional increases in air pollution relative to trends assuming constant weather conditions (i.e., weather-adjusted trends). During our study period, temperature increased and wind speed decreased in most US regions. Nationally, weather-related 8 h max O3 increases were 0.18 ppb per year (95% CI: 0.06, 0.31) in the warm season (May-October) and 0.07 ppb per year (95% CI: 0.02, 0.13) in the cold season (November-April). The weather penalties on O3 were relatively larger than PM2.5 weather penalties, which were 0.056 µg m(-3) per year (95% CI: 0.016, 0.096) in warm months and 0.027 µg m(-3) per year (95% CI: 0.010, 0.043) in cold months. Weather penalties on O3 and PM2.5 were associated with 290 (95% CI: 80, 510) and 770 (95% CI: 190, 1350) excess annual deaths, respectively. Over a 19-year period, this amounts to 20 300 excess deaths (5600 from O3, 14 700 from PM2.5) attributable to the weather penalty on air quality.

  15. CFORS - Regional Chemical and Weather Forecast System in Support of Field Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yienger, J. J.; Uno, I.; Guttikunda, S. K.; Carmichael, G. R.; Tang, Y.; Thongboonchoo, N.; Woo, J.; Dorwart, J.; Streets, D.

    2001-12-01

    In this paper we will present the development, evaluation, and use of improved modeling techniques and methodologies for the integration of meteorological forecasts with air pollution forecasts in support of field operations during the TRACE-P and Ace-Asia experiments in East Asia. During the campaign period we provided a variety of forecast products using our regional modeling system built upon the dynamic meteorological model RAMS and the 3-D regional chemical transport models STEM-III. These models were run in both on-line and off-line modes, and the results integrated into an interactive web-based data mining and analysis framework. This resulting Chemical Weather Forecasting System CFORS, was run operationally for the period February through May 2001, and provided 72-hr forecasts of a variety of aerosol, chemical and air mass and emission marker quantities. These included aerosol mass distribution and optical depth by major component (e.g., dust, sea salt, black carbon, organic carbon, and sulfate), photochemical quantities including ozone and OH/HO2, and air mass & emissions markers including lightning, volcanic, mega-cities, and biomass burning. These model products were presented along with meteorological forecasts and satellite products, and used to help determine the flight plans, the positioning of the ship, and to alert surface stations of upcoming events (such as dust storms). The use of CFORS forecasts (along with other model results) models were shown to provide important new information and level of detail into mission planning. For example many of the mission objectives required designing flight paths that sampled across gradients of optical depth, or flew above, below and through vertical layers of aerosol, intercepted biomass emission plumes, or sampled dust storms. CFORS, forecasts of dust outbreaks and plume locations, etc., proved to be very useful in designing missions that meet these objective. In this paper we will present an overview of

  16. Relationship Between Air Pollution, Weather, Traffic, and Traffic-Related Mortality

    PubMed Central

    Dastoorpoor, Maryam; Idani, Esmaeil; Khanjani, Narges; Goudarzi, Gholamreza; Bahrampour, Abbas

    2016-01-01

    Background Air pollution and weather are just two of many environmental factors contributing to traffic accidents (RTA). Objectives This study assessed the effects of these factors on traffic accidents and related mortalities in Ahvaz, Iran. Methods In this ecological study, data about RTA, traffic-related mortalities, air pollution (including NO, CO, NO2, NOx PM10, SO2, and O3 rates) and climate data from March 2008 until March 2015 was acquired from the Khuzestan State Police Force, the Environmental Protection Agency and the State Meteorological Department. Statistical analysis was performed with STATA 12 through both crude and adjusted negative binomial regression methods. Results There was a significant positive correlation between increase in the monthly average temperature, the number of rainy days, and the number of frost days with the number of RTA (P < 0.05). Increased monthly average relative humidity, evaporation, and number of sunny days were negatively correlated with the frequency of RTA (P < 0.05). We also observed an inverse significant correlation between monthly average relative humidity, evaporation, and wind speed with traffic accident mortality (P < 0.05). Some air pollutants were negatively associated with the incidence rate of RTA. Conclusions It appears that some weather variables were significantly associated with increased RTA. However, increased levels of air pollutants were not associated with increased rates of RTA and/or related mortalities. Additional studies are recommended to explore this topic in more detail. PMID:28180125

  17. Scorpion: Close Air Support (CAS) aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, Chris; Cheng, Rendy; Koehler, Grant; Lyon, Sean; Paguio, Cecilia

    1991-01-01

    The objective is to outline the results of the preliminary design of the Scorpion, a proposed close air support aircraft. The results obtained include complete preliminary analysis of the aircraft in the areas of aerodynamics, structures, avionics and electronics, stability and control, weight and balance, propulsion systems, and costs. A conventional wing, twin jet, twin-tail aircraft was chosen to maximize the desirable characteristics. The Scorpion will feature low speed maneuverability, high survivability, low cost, and low maintenance. The life cycle cost per aircraft will be 17.5 million dollars. The maximum takeoff weight will be 52,760 pounds. Wing loading will be 90 psf. The thrust to weight will be 0.6 lbs/lb. This aircraft meets the specified mission requirements. Some modifications have been suggested to further optimize the design.

  18. Air Traffic Control Decision Support Tools for Noise Mitigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tobias, Leonard

    2001-01-01

    NASA has initiated a new five year program this year, the Quiet Aircraft Technology (QAT) Program, a program which will investigate airframe and engine system noise reduction. QAT will also address community noise impact. As part of this community noise impact component, NASA will investigate air traffic management (ATM) challenges in reducing noise. In particular, controller advisory automation aids will be developed to aid the air traffic controller in addressing noise concerns as he/she manages traffic in busy terminal areas. NASA has developed controller automation tools to address capacity concerns and the QAT strategy for ATM Low Noise Operations is to build upon this tool set to create added advisories for noise mitigation. The tools developed for capacity will be briefly reviewed, followed by the QAT plans to address ATM noise concerns. A major NASA goal in global civil aviation is to triple the aviation system throughput in all-weather conditions while maintaining safety. A centerpiece of this activity is the Center/TRACON Automation System (CTAS), an evolving suite of air traffic controller decision support tools (DSTs) to enhance capacity of arrivals and departures in both the enroute center and the TRACON. Two of these DSTs, the Traffic Management Advisor (TMA) and the passive Final approach Spacing Tool (pFAST), are in daily use at the Fort Worth Center and the Dallas/Fort Worth (DFW) TRACON, respectively, where capacity gains of 5-13% have been reported in recent NASA evaluations. Under the Federal Aviation Administration's (FAA) Free Flight Phase One Program, TMA and pFAST are each being implemented at six to eight additional sites. In addition, other DSTs are being developed by NASA under the umbrella of CTAS. This means that new software will be built upon CTAS, and the paradigm of real-time simulation evaluation followed by field site development and evaluation will be the pathway for the new tools. Additional information is included in the

  19. Ambient air pollution, weather changes, and outpatient visits for allergic conjunctivitis: A retrospective registry study

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Jiaxu; Zhong, Taoling; Li, Huili; Xu, Jianming; Ye, Xiaofang; Mu, Zhe; Lu, Yi; Mashaghi, Alireza; Zhou, Ying; Tan, Mengxi; Li, Qiyuan; Sun, Xinghuai; Liu, Zuguo; Xu, Jianjiang

    2016-01-01

    Allergic conjunctivitis is a common problem that significantly impairs patients’ quality of life. Whether air pollution serves as a risk factor for the development of allergic conjunctivitis remains elusive. In this paper, we assess the relationship between air pollutants and weather conditions with outpatient visits for allergic conjunctivitis. By using a time-series analysis based on the largest dataset ever assembled to date, we found that the number of outpatient visits for allergic conjunctivitis was significantly correlated with the levels of NO2, O3, and temperature, while its association with humidity was statistically marginal. No associations between PM10, PM2.5, SO2, or wind velocity and outpatient visits were seen. Subgroup analyses showed that sex seemed to modify the effects of humidity on outpatient visits for allergic conjunctivitis, but not for NO2, O3, or temperature. People younger than 40 were found to be susceptible to changes of all four parameters, while those older than 40 were only consistently affected by NO2 levels. Our findings revealed that higher levels of ambient NO2, O3, and temperature increase the chances of outpatient visits for allergic conjunctivitis. Ambient air pollution and weather changes may contribute to the worsening of allergic conjunctivitis. PMID:27033635

  20. Ambient air pollution, weather changes, and outpatient visits for allergic conjunctivitis: A retrospective registry study.

    PubMed

    Hong, Jiaxu; Zhong, Taoling; Li, Huili; Xu, Jianming; Ye, Xiaofang; Mu, Zhe; Lu, Yi; Mashaghi, Alireza; Zhou, Ying; Tan, Mengxi; Li, Qiyuan; Sun, Xinghuai; Liu, Zuguo; Xu, Jianjiang

    2016-04-01

    Allergic conjunctivitis is a common problem that significantly impairs patients' quality of life. Whether air pollution serves as a risk factor for the development of allergic conjunctivitis remains elusive. In this paper, we assess the relationship between air pollutants and weather conditions with outpatient visits for allergic conjunctivitis. By using a time-series analysis based on the largest dataset ever assembled to date, we found that the number of outpatient visits for allergic conjunctivitis was significantly correlated with the levels of NO2, O3, and temperature, while its association with humidity was statistically marginal. No associations between PM10, PM2.5, SO2, or wind velocity and outpatient visits were seen. Subgroup analyses showed that sex seemed to modify the effects of humidity on outpatient visits for allergic conjunctivitis, but not for NO2, O3, or temperature. People younger than 40 were found to be susceptible to changes of all four parameters, while those older than 40 were only consistently affected by NO2 levels. Our findings revealed that higher levels of ambient NO2, O3, and temperature increase the chances of outpatient visits for allergic conjunctivitis. Ambient air pollution and weather changes may contribute to the worsening of allergic conjunctivitis.

  1. Ambient air pollution, weather changes, and outpatient visits for allergic conjunctivitis: A retrospective registry study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Jiaxu; Zhong, Taoling; Li, Huili; Xu, Jianming; Ye, Xiaofang; Mu, Zhe; Lu, Yi; Mashaghi, Alireza; Zhou, Ying; Tan, Mengxi; Li, Qiyuan; Sun, Xinghuai; Liu, Zuguo; Xu, Jianjiang

    2016-04-01

    Allergic conjunctivitis is a common problem that significantly impairs patients’ quality of life. Whether air pollution serves as a risk factor for the development of allergic conjunctivitis remains elusive. In this paper, we assess the relationship between air pollutants and weather conditions with outpatient visits for allergic conjunctivitis. By using a time-series analysis based on the largest dataset ever assembled to date, we found that the number of outpatient visits for allergic conjunctivitis was significantly correlated with the levels of NO2, O3, and temperature, while its association with humidity was statistically marginal. No associations between PM10, PM2.5, SO2, or wind velocity and outpatient visits were seen. Subgroup analyses showed that sex seemed to modify the effects of humidity on outpatient visits for allergic conjunctivitis, but not for NO2, O3, or temperature. People younger than 40 were found to be susceptible to changes of all four parameters, while those older than 40 were only consistently affected by NO2 levels. Our findings revealed that higher levels of ambient NO2, O3, and temperature increase the chances of outpatient visits for allergic conjunctivitis. Ambient air pollution and weather changes may contribute to the worsening of allergic conjunctivitis.

  2. A Case Study of the Impact of AIRS Temperature Retrievals on Numerical Weather Prediction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reale, O.; Atlas, R.; Jusem, J. C.

    2004-01-01

    Large errors in numerical weather prediction are often associated with explosive cyclogenesis. Most studes focus on the under-forecasting error, i.e. cases of rapidly developing cyclones which are poorly predicted in numerical models. However, the over-forecasting error (i.e., to predict an explosively developing cyclone which does not occur in reality) is a very common error that severely impacts the forecasting skill of all models and may also present economic costs if associated with operational forecasting. Unnecessary precautions taken by marine activities can result in severe economic loss. Moreover, frequent occurrence of over-forecasting can undermine the reliance on operational weather forecasting. Therefore, it is important to understand and reduce the prdctions of extreme weather associated with explosive cyclones which do not actually develop. In this study we choose a very prominent case of over-forecasting error in the northwestern Pacific. A 960 hPa cyclone develops in less than 24 hour in the 5-day forecast, with a deepening rate of about 30 hPa in one day. The cyclone is not versed in the analyses and is thus a case of severe over-forecasting. By assimilating AIRS data, the error is largely eliminated. By following the propagation of the anomaly that generates the spurious cyclone, it is found that a small mid-tropospheric geopotential height negative anomaly over the northern part of the Indian subcontinent in the initial conditions, propagates westward, is amplified by orography, and generates a very intense jet streak in the subtropical jet stream, with consequent explosive cyclogenesis over the Pacific. The AIRS assimilation eliminates this anomaly that may have been caused by erroneous upper-air data, and represents the jet stream more correctly. The energy associated with the jet is distributed over a much broader area and as a consequence a multiple, but much more moderate cyclogenesis is observed.

  3. Validation and Verification of Operational Land Analysis Activities at the Air Force Weather Agency

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shaw, Michael; Kumar, Sujay V.; Peters-Lidard, Christa D.; Cetola, Jeffrey

    2011-01-01

    The NASA developed Land Information System (LIS) is the Air Force Weather Agency's (AFWA) operational Land Data Assimilation System (LDAS) combining real time precipitation observations and analyses, global forecast model data, vegetation, terrain, and soil parameters with the community Noah land surface model, along with other hydrology module options, to generate profile analyses of global soil moisture, soil temperature, and other important land surface characteristics. (1) A range of satellite data products and surface observations used to generate the land analysis products (2) Global, 1/4 deg spatial resolution (3) Model analysis generated at 3 hours

  4. Impact of Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) Thermodynamic Profiles on Regional Weather Forecasting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chou, Shih-Hung; Zavodsky, Bradley T.; Jedlovee, Gary J.

    2010-01-01

    In data sparse regions, remotely-sensed observations can be used to improve analyses and lead to better forecasts. One such source comes from the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS), which together with the Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit (AMSU), provides temperature and moisture profiles with accuracy comparable to that of radiosondes. The purpose of this paper is to describe a procedure to assimilate AIRS thermodynamic profile data into a regional configuration of the Advanced Research Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF-ARW) model using its three-dimension variational (3DVAR) analysis component (WRF-Var). Quality indicators are used to select only the highest quality temperature and moisture profiles for assimilation in both clear and partly cloudy regions. Separate error characteristics for land and water profiles are also used in the assimilation process. Assimilation results indicate that AIRS profiles produce an analysis closer to in situ observations than the background field. Forecasts from a 37-day case study period in the winter of 2007 show that AIRS profile data can lead to improvements in 6-h cumulative precipitation forecasts due to instability added in the forecast soundings by the AIRS profiles. Additionally, in a convective heavy rainfall event from February 2007, assimilation of AIRS profiles produces a more unstable boundary layer resulting in enhanced updrafts in the model. These updrafts produce a squall line and precipitation totals that more closely reflect ground-based observations than a no AIRS control forecast. The location of available high-quality AIRS profiles ahead of approaching storm systems is found to be of paramount importance to the amount of impact the observations will have on the resulting forecasts.

  5. Weather Research and Forecasting Model Wind Sensitivity Study at Edwards Air Force Base, CA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watson, Leela R.; Bauman, William H., III

    2008-01-01

    NASA prefers to land the space shuttle at Kennedy Space Center (KSC). When weather conditions violate Flight Rules at KSC, NASA will usually divert the shuttle landing to Edwards Air Force Base (EAFB) in Southern California. But forecasting surface winds at EAFB is a challenge for the Spaceflight Meteorology Group (SMG) forecasters due to the complex terrain that surrounds EAFB, One particular phenomena identified by SMG is that makes it difficult to forecast the EAFB surface winds is called "wind cycling". This occurs when wind speeds and directions oscillate among towers near the EAFB runway leading to a challenging deorbit bum forecast for shuttle landings. The large-scale numerical weather prediction models cannot properly resolve the wind field due to their coarse horizontal resolutions, so a properly tuned high-resolution mesoscale model is needed. The Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model meets this requirement. The AMU assessed the different WRF model options to determine which configuration best predicted surface wind speed and direction at EAFB, To do so, the AMU compared the WRF model performance using two hot start initializations with the Advanced Research WRF and Non-hydrostatic Mesoscale Model dynamical cores and compared model performance while varying the physics options.

  6. Air pollution response to changing weather and power plant emissions in the eastern United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bloomer, Bryan Jaye

    Air pollution in the eastern United States causes human sickness and death as well as damage to crops and materials. NOX emission reduction is observed to improve air quality. Effectively reducing pollution in the future requires understanding the connections between smog, precursor emissions, weather, and climate change. Numerical models predict global warming will exacerbate smog over the next 50 years. My analysis of 21 years of CASTNET observations quantifies a climate change penalty. I calculate, for data collected prior to 2002, a climate penalty factor of ˜3.3 ppb O3/°C across the power plant dominated receptor regions in the rural, eastern U.S. Recent reductions in NOX emissions decreased the climate penalty factor to ˜2.2 ppb O3/°C. Prior to 1995, power plant emissions of CO2, SO2, and NOX were estimated with fuel sampling and analysis methods. Currently, emissions are measured with continuous monitoring equipment (CEMS) installed directly in stacks. My comparison of the two methods show CO 2 and SO2 emissions are ˜5% lower when inferred from fuel sampling; greater differences are found for NOX emissions. CEMS are the method of choice for emission inventories and commodity trading and should be the standard against which other methods are evaluated for global greenhouse gas trading policies. I used CEMS data and applied chemistry transport modeling to evaluate improvements in air quality observed by aircraft during the North American electrical blackout of 2003. An air quality model produced substantial reductions in O3, but not as much as observed. The study highlights weaknesses in the model as commonly used for evaluating a single day event and suggests areas for further investigation. A new analysis and visualization method quantifies local-daily to hemispheric-seasonal scale relationships between weather and air pollution, confirming improved air quality despite increasing temperatures across the eastern U.S. Climate penalty factors indicate

  7. Photocopy of drawing. OPERATIONS SUPPORT BUILDING. NASA, Cape Canaveral Air ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photocopy of drawing. OPERATIONS SUPPORT BUILDING. NASA, Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Florida. Drawing 86K01547, Maurice H. Connell & Associates, February, 1961. OPERATIONS SUPPORT BUILDING FLOOR PLAN AND SCHEDULES. Sheet 4 of 34 - Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Launch Complex 34, Operations Support Building, Freedom Road, Southwest of Launch Stand CX-34, Cape Canaveral, Brevard County, FL

  8. Photocopy of drawing. OPERATIONS SUPPORT BUILDING. NASA, Cape Canaveral Air ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photocopy of drawing. OPERATIONS SUPPORT BUILDING. NASA, Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Florida. Drawing 86K01547, Maurice H. Connell & Associates, February, 1961. OPERATIONS SUPPORT BUILDING ROOF PLAN, REFLECTED CEILING PLAN, AND DETAILS. Sheet 7 of 34 - Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Launch Complex 34, Operations Support Building, Freedom Road, Southwest of Launch Stand CX-34, Cape Canaveral, Brevard County, FL

  9. Photocopy of drawing. OPERATIONS SUPPORT BUILDING. NASA, Cape Canaveral Air ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photocopy of drawing. OPERATIONS SUPPORT BUILDING. NASA, Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Florida. Drawing 86K01547, Maurice H. Connell & Associates, February, 1961. OPERATIONS SUPPORT BUILDING ELEVATIONS AND SECTION. Sheet 5 of 34 - Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Launch Complex 34, Operations Support Building, Freedom Road, Southwest of Launch Stand CX-34, Cape Canaveral, Brevard County, FL

  10. Photocopy of drawing. OPERATIONS SUPPORT BUILDING. NASA, Cape Canaveral Air ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photocopy of drawing. OPERATIONS SUPPORT BUILDING. NASA, Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Florida. Drawing 86K01547, Maurice H. Connell & Associates, February, 1961. OPERATIONS SUPPORT BUILDING SITE PLAN. Sheet 2 of 34 - Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Launch Complex 34, Operations Support Building, Freedom Road, Southwest of Launch Stand CX-34, Cape Canaveral, Brevard County, FL

  11. Biofilm supported increase of chemical weathering and decrease of chemical denudation in pine growth experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balogh, Z.; Keller, C.; Gill, R. A.

    2006-12-01

    to transport nutrients to the plant without allowing loss to the bulk soil solution. On the other hand, the non-ectomycorrhizal treatment produced more root hairs and fine roots, which partially compensated for hyphal absorbing surfaces in the biofilm cover. The present study supports our proposition that microbial biofilms can not only accelerate the weathering process, but also regulate denudation losses by acting as a protective layer covering the mineral-water-hyphal/root hair interface in the mycorrhizosphere and rhizosphere of vascular plants.

  12. Air support facilities. [interface between air and surface transportation systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Airports are discussed in terms of the interface between the ground and air for transportation systems. The classification systems, design, facilities, administration, and operations of airports are described.

  13. ManUniCast: A Community Weather and Air-Quality Forecasting Teaching Portal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schultz, David M.; Anderson, Stuart; Fairman, Jonathan G.; Lowe, Douglas; McFiggans, Gordon; Lee, Elsa; Seo-Zindy, Ryo

    2014-05-01

    Manunicast was borne out of the needs of our teaching program: students were entering a world where environmental prediction via numerical model was an essential skill, but were not exposed to the production or output of such models. Our site is an educational testbed to explain to students and the public how weather, air-quality, and air-chemistry forecasts are made using real-time predictions as examples. As far as we know, this site provides the first freely available real-time predictions for the UK. We perform two simulations a day over three domains using the most popular, freely available, community atmospheric mesoscale and chemistry models WRF-ARW and WRF-Chem: 1. a WRF-ARW domain over the North Atlantic and western Europe (20-km horizontal grid spacing) 2. a WRF-ARW domain over the UK and Ireland (4-km grid spacing, nested within the 20-km domain) 3. a WRF-Chem domain over the UK and Ireland (12-km grid spacing) Called ManUniCast (Manchester University Forecast), we offer a suite of products from horizontal maps, time series at stations (meteograms), skew-T-logp charts, and cross sections to help students better visualize the weather and the relationships between the various fields more effectively, specifically through the ability to overlay and fade between different plotted products. This presentation discusses how we funded and built ManUniCast, the struggles we faced, and its use in our classes.

  14. Synoptic weather types and aeroallergens modify the effect of air pollution on hospitalisations for asthma hospitalisations in Canadian cities.

    PubMed

    Hebbern, Christopher; Cakmak, Sabit

    2015-09-01

    Pollution levels and the effect of air pollution on human health can be modified by synoptic weather type and aeroallergens. We investigated the effect modification of aeroallergens on the association between CO, O3, NO2, SO2, PM10, PM2.5 and asthma hospitalisation rates in seven synoptic weather types. We developed single air pollutant models, adjusted for the effect of aeroallergens and stratified by synoptic weather type, and pooled relative risk estimates for asthma hospitalisation in ten Canadian cities. Aeroallergens significantly modified the relative risk in 19 pollutant-weather type combinations, reducing the size and variance for each single pollutant model. However, aeroallergens did not significantly modify relative risk for any pollutant in the DT or MT weather types, or for PM10 in any weather type. Thus, there is a modifying effect of aeroallergens on the association between CO, O3, NO2, SO2, PM2.5 and asthma hospitalisations that differs under specific synoptic weather types.

  15. Air Systems Provide Life Support to Miners

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2014-01-01

    Through a Space Act Agreement with Johnson Space Center, Paragon Space Development Corporation, of Tucson, Arizona, developed the Commercial Crew Transport-Air Revitalization System, designed to provide clean air for crewmembers on short-duration space flights. The technology is now being used to help save miners' lives in the event of an underground disaster.

  16. Studies of satellite support to weather modification in the western US region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cotton, W. R.; Grant, L. O.; Vonderhaar, T. H.

    1978-01-01

    The applications of meteorological satellite data to both summer and winter weather modification programs are addressed. Appraisals of the capability of satellites to assess seedability, to provide real-time operational support, and to assist in the post-experiment analysis of a seeding experiment led to the incorporation of satellite observing systems as a major component in the Bureau of Reclamations weather modification activities. Satellite observations are an integral part of the South Park Area cumulus experiment (SPACE) which aims to formulate a quantitative hypothesis for enhancing precipitation from orographically induced summertime mesoscale convective systems (orogenic mesoscale systems). Progress is reported in using satellite observations to assist in classifying the important mesoscale systems, and in defining their frequency and coverage, and potential area of effect. Satellite studies of severe storms are also covered.

  17. Design of an air traffic computer simulation system to support investigation of civil tiltrotor aircraft operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rogers, Ralph V.

    1993-01-01

    The TATSS Project's goal was to develop a design for computer software that would support the attainment of the following objectives for the air traffic simulation model: (1) Full freedom of movement for each aircraft object in the simulation model. Each aircraft object may follow any designated flight plan or flight path necessary as required by the experiment under consideration. (2) Object position precision up to +/- 3 meters vertically and +/- 15 meters horizontally. (3) Aircraft maneuvering in three space with the object position precision identified above. (4) Air traffic control operations and procedures. (5) Radar, communication, navaid, and landing aid performance. (6) Weather. (7) Ground obstructions and terrain. (8) Detection and recording of separation violations. (9) Measures of performance including deviations from flight plans, air space violations, air traffic control messages per aircraft, and traditional temporal based measures.

  18. Indoor weather related to the energy consumption of air conditioned classroom: Monitoring system for energy efficient building plan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rattanongphisat, W.; Suwannakom, A.; Harfield, A.

    2016-08-01

    The current research aims to investigate the relation of indoor weather to energy consumption of air conditioned classroom by design and construct the indoor weather and energy monitoring systems. In this research, a combined temperature and humidity sensor in conjunction with a microcontroller was constructed for the indoor weather monitoring system. The wire sensor network for the temperature-humidity sensor nodes is the Controller Area Network (CAN). Another part is using a nonintrusive method where a wireless current transformer sending the signal to the data collection box then transmitted by the radio frequency to the computer where the Ethernet application software was installed for the energy monitoring system. The results show that the setting air temperature, outdoor ambient temperature and operating time impact to the energy consumption of the air conditioned classroom.

  19. Proposal for a low cost close air support aircraft for the year 2000: The Raptor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Jerome D.; Dewitt, Ward S.; Mcdonald, Mark; Riley, John W.; Roberts, Anthony E.; Watson, Sean; Whelan, Margaret M.

    1991-01-01

    The Raptor is a proposed low cost Close Air Support (CAS) aircraft for the U.S. Military. The Raptor incorporates a 'cranked arrow' wing planform, and uses canards instead of a traditional horizontal tail. The Raptor is designed to be capable of responsive delivery of effective ordnance in close proximity to friendly ground forces during the day, night, and 'under the weather' conditions. Details are presented of the Raptor's mission, configuration, performance, stability and control, ground support, manufacturing, and overall cost to permit engineering evaluation of the proposed design. A description of the design process and analysis methods used is also provided.

  20. Close Air Support versus Close Combat Attack

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-12-06

    Thomas Alexander. Over Lord: General Pete Quesada and the Triumph of Tactical Air Power in World War II. New York: Free Press, 1995. Hume , David B... David Tohn, On Point – The United States Army in Operation Iraqi Freedom, (Fort Leavenworth, KS; Center for Army Lessons Learned, 2004), 405. 55...Mar/Apr 1996). Davis, Richard G. The 31 Initiatives. Washington, DC: Office of Air Force History, 1987. Fontenot, Gregory , E.J. Degen, and David

  1. Air Force Cyber Command (Provisional) Decision Support

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-01-01

    points and gave us a wide-ranging programmatic overview, while Lt Col Michelle Bowes gave us an assessment of program implementa- tion status, and...the benefit of excellent briefings from the Defense Information Systems Agency’s RADM Elizabeth Hight and Brig Gen Jennifer Napper, and from the Air...definition of cyberspace (which is more constrained than the Air Force’s initial concept) as a starting point ,12 there are still unanswered questions

  2. Sensitivity of Short-Term Weather Forecasts to Assimilated AIRS Data: Implications for NPOESS Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zavodsky, Bradley; McCarty, Will; Chou, Shih-Hung; Jedlovec, Gary

    2009-01-01

    The Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) is acting as a heritage and risk reduction instrument for the Cross-track lnfrared Sounder (CrIS) to be flown aboard the NPP and NPOESS satellites. The hyperspectral nature of AIRS and CrIS provides high-quality soundings that, along with their asynoptic observation time over North America, make them attractive sources to fill the spatial and temporal data voids in upper air temperature and moisture measurements for use in data assimilation and numerical weather prediction. Observations from AlRS can be assimilated either as direct radiances or retrieved thermodynamic profiles, and the Short-Term Prediction Research and Transition (SPORT) Center at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center has used both data types to improve short-term (0-48h), regional forecasts. The purpose of this paper is to share SPORT'S experiences using AlRS radiances and retrieved profiles in regional data assimilation activities by showing that proper handling of issues-including cloud contamination and land emissivity characterization-are necessary to produce optimal analyses and forecasts.

  3. Maintaining a Local Data Integration System in Support of Weather Forecast Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watson, Leela R.; Blottman, Peter F.; Sharp, David W.; Hoeth, Brian

    2010-01-01

    Since 2000, both the National Weather Service in Melbourne, FL (NWS MLB) and the Spaceflight Meteorology Group (SMG) at Johnson Space Center in Houston, TX have used a local data integration system (LDIS) as part of their forecast and warning operations. The original LDIS was developed by NASA's Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU; Bauman et ai, 2004) in 1998 (Manobianco and Case 1998) and has undergone subsequent improvements. Each has benefited from three-dimensional (3-D) analyses that are delivered to forecasters every 15 minutes across the peninsula of Florida. The intent is to generate products that enhance short-range weather forecasts issued in support of NWS MLB and SMG operational requirements within East Central Florida. The current LDIS uses the Advanced Regional Prediction System (ARPS) Data Analysis System (ADAS) package as its core, which integrates a wide variety of national, regional, and local observational data sets. It assimilates all available real-time data within its domain and is run at a finer spatial and temporal resolution than current national- or regional-scale analysis packages. As such, it provides local forecasters with a more comprehensive understanding of evolving fine-scale weather features

  4. The Mauna Kea Weather Center: Custom Atmospheric Forecasting Support for Mauna Kea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Businger, Steven

    2011-03-01

    The success of operations at Mauna Kea Observatories is strongly influenced by weather conditions. The Mauna Kea Weather Center, an interdisciplinary research program, was established in 1999 to develop and provide custom weather support for Mauna Kea Observatories. The operational forecasting goals of the program are to facilitate the best possible use of favorable atmospheric conditions for scientific benefit and to ensure operational safety. During persistent clear periods, astronomical observing quality varies substantially due to changes in the vertical profiles of temperature, wind, moisture, and turbulence. Cloud and storm systems occasionally cause adverse or even hazardous conditions. A dedicated, daily, real-time mesoscale numerical modeling effort provides crucial forecast guidance in both cases. Several key atmospheric variables are forecast with sufficient skill to be of operational and scientific benefit to the telescopes on Mauna Kea. Summit temperature forecasts allow mirrors to be set to the ambient temperature to reduce image distortion. Precipitable water forecasts allow infrared observations to be prioritized according to atmospheric opacity. Forecasts of adverse and hazardous conditions protect the safety of personnel and allow for scheduling of maintenance when observing is impaired by cloud. The research component of the project continues to improve the accuracy and content of the forecasts. In particular, case studies have resulted in operational forecasts of astronomical observing quality, or seeing.

  5. [Analysis on Regional Characteristics of Air Quality Index and Weather Situation in Beijing and Its Surrounding Cities During the APEC].

    PubMed

    Gao, Qing-xian; Lu, Jun-rong; Wang, Ning; Li, Wen-tao; Gao, Wen-kang; Su, Bu-da

    2015-11-01

    Analysis on the revolution and regional characteristics of air quality by hourly monitored readings from 1 to 15 November 2014 released by Environmental Monitoring Station of China and research of the impacts of weather situation and meteorological elements released by China Meteorological Administration towards air quality of Beijing and its surrounding cities during the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) indicated that: (1) The air quality was good because of the implementation of mitigation measures, while the Air Quality Index (AQI) increased along with the termination of mitigation measures. Thus it can be seen that mitigation measures made a great contribution to the improvement of air quality of Beijing and its surrounding cities. (2) Affected by thermal inversion layer, AQI of Beijing and its surrounding cities increased quickly during the initial of the implemental of reducing measures which proved that pollutants would accumulate in the context of unfavourable weather, hence the influence of weather situation towards air quality could not be ignored. (3) Although affected by thermal inversion layer, the concentration of pollutants of Beijing was not accumulated to a high degree at the end period of reducing measures, while Tianjin, Tangshan, Baoding and Xingtai suffered from moderate and severe pollution at the same time which further illustrated that the implementation of mitigation measures have made a great contribution to the improvement of air quality in Beijing during APEC.

  6. Development and Implementation of Dynamic Scripts to Support Local Model Verification at National Weather Service Weather Forecast Offices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zavordsky, Bradley; Case, Jonathan L.; Gotway, John H.; White, Kristopher; Medlin, Jeffrey; Wood, Lance; Radell, Dave

    2014-01-01

    Local modeling with a customized configuration is conducted at National Weather Service (NWS) Weather Forecast Offices (WFOs) to produce high-resolution numerical forecasts that can better simulate local weather phenomena and complement larger scale global and regional models. The advent of the Environmental Modeling System (EMS), which provides a pre-compiled version of the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model and wrapper Perl scripts, has enabled forecasters to easily configure and execute the WRF model on local workstations. NWS WFOs often use EMS output to help in forecasting highly localized, mesoscale features such as convective initiation, the timing and inland extent of lake effect snow bands, lake and sea breezes, and topographically-modified winds. However, quantitatively evaluating model performance to determine errors and biases still proves to be one of the challenges in running a local model. Developed at the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR), the Model Evaluation Tools (MET) verification software makes performing these types of quantitative analyses easier, but operational forecasters do not generally have time to familiarize themselves with navigating the sometimes complex configurations associated with the MET tools. To assist forecasters in running a subset of MET programs and capabilities, the Short-term Prediction Research and Transition (SPoRT) Center has developed and transitioned a set of dynamic, easily configurable Perl scripts to collaborating NWS WFOs. The objective of these scripts is to provide SPoRT collaborating partners in the NWS with the ability to evaluate the skill of their local EMS model runs in near real time with little prior knowledge of the MET package. The ultimate goal is to make these verification scripts available to the broader NWS community in a future version of the EMS software. This paper provides an overview of the SPoRT MET scripts, instructions for how the scripts are run, and example use

  7. Ambient air monitoring to support HLW repository site characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Fransioli, P.M.; Dixon, W.R.

    1993-12-31

    Site characterization at the Yucca Mountain site includes an ambient air quality and meteorological monitoring program to provide information for environmental and site characterization issues. The program is designed to provide data for four basic purposes: Atmospheric dispersion calculations to estimate impacts of possible airborne releases of radiological material; Engineering design and extreme weather event characterization; Local climate studies for environmental impact analyses and climate characterization; and, Air quality permits required for site characterization work. The program is compiling a database that will provide the basis for analyses and reporting related to the purposes of the program. Except for reporting particulate matter and limited meteorological data to the State of Nevada for an air quality permit condition, the data have yet to be formally analyzed and reported.

  8. Close Air Support: Why All the Fuss

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-01-02

    column, and hamlet defense in Indochina and South Vietnam; and siege-breaking at Dien Bien Phu and Khe Sanh. In all of these cases, CAS substituted...the Dien Bien Phu experience, and, indeed, enabled Khe Sanh to accomplish what the French at Dien Blien Phu had tried and failed to achieve: create a...technological frontiers on which the Air Force has always sought leadership. It fits nicely their service " persona ." But, is it in the Army’s interest to take

  9. Close Air Support: Proud Past, Uncertain Future

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-04-01

    34The Soviet Offensive - An Attack Pilot’s View", by Colonel Harry Kieling, in the March-April 1985 Air University Review .) (26:--) i6 CHAPTER II THE CAS...helicopter pilot) asks a CAS flight to strike an enemy command post vehicle transmitting from a position about six miles from his lines. (AUTHOR’S...attacks seemed to inspire a beaten ground unit to intensify their fighting and regain lost ground. As Freedman points out in his review of airpower

  10. Total gaseous mercury exchange between water and air during cloudy weather conditions over Hongfeng Reservoir, Guizhou, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Xinbin; Wang, Shaofeng; Qiu, Guangle; He, Tianrong; Li, Guanghui; Li, Zhonggen; Shang, Lihai

    2008-08-01

    Total gaseous mercury (TGM) exchange fluxes between air and water surface were measured using a dynamic flux chamber (DFC) coupled with a gaseous mercury analyzer at two sampling sites of Hongfeng reservoir in cloudy and rainy weather conditions. The concentrations of dissolved gaseous mercury (DGM) in water were also measured and indicated that DGM was supersaturated at most time during the sampling periods, which implied that the water body acted primarily as a source of mercury to the atmosphere. In general, TGM fluxes displayed a consistent diurnal pattern with peak fluxes at noon and minimum levels at early morning or night. However, this diurnal pattern was not clear when the weather was heavily cloudy and rainy with the maximum solar radiation of less than 140 W m-2. At this specific weather condition, a significantly positive correlation between TGM flux and relative humidity was observed. The behaviors of TGM flux over Hongfeng reservoir observed at cloudy weather conditions were some what different from those observed during mostly sunny weather conditions in Northern America and Europe. The empirical model developed based on the correlation between TGM flux and solar radiation during sunny days in Northern America was not applicable for estimation of TGM flux at cloudy and rainy weather conditions.

  11. Air Quality Modeling Technical Support Document for the 2008 Ozone NAAQS Cross-State Air Pollution Rule Proposal

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    In this technical support document (TSD) we describe the air quality modeling performed to support the proposed Cross-State Air Pollution Rule for the 2008 ozone National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS)

  12. Lidar Wind Profiler Comparison to Weather Balloon for Support of Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle Landings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Houtas, Franzeska F.; Teets, Edward H.

    2010-01-01

    A comparison study by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration Dryden Flight Research Center (Edwards, California) and the Naval Post Graduate School Center for Interdisciplinary Remotely-Piloted Aircraft Studies (Marina, California) was conducted to show the advantages of an airborne wind profiling light detection and ranging (lidar) system in reducing drift uncertainty along a reentry vehicle descent trajectory. This effort was in support of the once planned Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle ground landing. A Twin Otter Doppler Wind Lidar was flown on multiple flights along the approximate ground track of each ascending weather balloon launched from the Marina Municipal Airport (Marina, California). The airborne lidar used was a 5-mJ, 2-micron infrared laser with a 10-cm telescope and a two-axis scanner. Each lidar wind profile contains data for an altitude range between the surface and flight altitude of 2.7 km, processed on board every 20 s. In comparison, a typical weather balloon would traverse that same altitude range with a similar data set available in approximately 15 to 20 min. These tests were conducted on November 15 and 16, 2007. Results show a best-case absolute difference of 0.18 m/s (0.35 knots) in speed and 1 degree in direct

  13. Evaluation of the 29-km Eta Model for Weather Support to the United States Space Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manobianco, John; Nutter, Paul

    1997-01-01

    The Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) conducted a year-long evaluation of NCEP's 29-km mesoscale Eta (meso-eta) weather prediction model in order to identify added value to forecast operations in support of the United States space program. The evaluation was stratified over warm and cool seasons and considered both objective and subjective verification methodologies. Objective verification results generally indicate that meso-eta model point forecasts at selected stations exhibit minimal error growth in terms of RMS errors and are reasonably unbiased. Conversely, results from the subjective verification demonstrate that model forecasts of developing weather events such as thunderstorms, sea breezes, and cold fronts, are not always as accurate as implied by the seasonal error statistics. Sea-breeze case studies reveal that the model generates a dynamically-consistent thermally direct circulation over the Florida peninsula, although at a larger scale than observed. Thunderstorm verification reveals that the meso-eta model is capable of predicting areas of organized convection, particularly during the late afternoon hours but is not capable of forecasting individual thunderstorms. Verification of cold fronts during the cool season reveals that the model is capable of forecasting a majority of cold frontal passages through east central Florida to within +1-h of observed frontal passage.

  14. Research Data Alliance's Interest Group on "Weather, Climate and Air Quality"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bretonnière, Pierre-Antoine; Benincasa, Francesco

    2016-04-01

    Research Data Alliance's Interest Group on "Weather, Climate and Air Quality" More than ever in the history of Earth sciences, scientists are confronted with the problem of dealing with huge amounts of data that grow continuously at a rate that becomes a challenge to process and analyse them using conventional methods. Data come from many different and widely distributed sources, ranging from satellite platforms and in-situ sensors to model simulations, and with different degrees of openness. How can Earth scientists deal with this diversity and big volume and extract useful information to understand and predict the relevant processes? The Research Data Alliance (RDA, https://rd-alliance.org/), an organization that promotes and develops new data policies, data standards and focuses on the development of new technical solutions applicable in many distinct areas of sciences, recently entered in its third phase. In this framework, an Interest Group (IG) comprised of community experts that are committed to directly or indirectly enable and facilitate data sharing, exchange, or interoperability in the fields of weather, climate and air quality has been created recently. Its aim is to explore and discuss the challenges for the use and efficient analysis of large and diverse datasets of relevance for these fields taking advantage of the knowledge generated and exchanged in RDA. At the same time, this IG intends to be a meeting point between members of the aforementioned communities to share experiences and propose new solutions to overcome the forthcoming challenges. Based on the collaboration between several research meteorological and European climate institutes, but also taking into account the input from the private (from the renewable energies, satellites and agriculture sectors for example) and public sectors, this IG will suggest practical and applicable solutions for Big Data issues, both at technological and policy level, encountered by these communities. We

  15. Convective Weather Forecast Quality Metrics for Air Traffic Management Decision-Making

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chatterji, Gano B.; Gyarfas, Brett; Chan, William N.; Meyn, Larry A.

    2006-01-01

    Since numerical weather prediction models are unable to accurately forecast the severity and the location of the storm cells several hours into the future when compared with observation data, there has been a growing interest in probabilistic description of convective weather. The classical approach for generating uncertainty bounds consists of integrating the state equations and covariance propagation equations forward in time. This step is readily recognized as the process update step of the Kalman Filter algorithm. The second well known method, known as the Monte Carlo method, consists of generating output samples by driving the forecast algorithm with input samples selected from distributions. The statistical properties of the distributions of the output samples are then used for defining the uncertainty bounds of the output variables. This method is computationally expensive for a complex model compared to the covariance propagation method. The main advantage of the Monte Carlo method is that a complex non-linear model can be easily handled. Recently, a few different methods for probabilistic forecasting have appeared in the literature. A method for computing probability of convection in a region using forecast data is described in Ref. 5. Probability at a grid location is computed as the fraction of grid points, within a box of specified dimensions around the grid location, with forecast convection precipitation exceeding a specified threshold. The main limitation of this method is that the results are dependent on the chosen dimensions of the box. The examples presented Ref. 5 show that this process is equivalent to low-pass filtering of the forecast data with a finite support spatial filter. References 6 and 7 describe the technique for computing percentage coverage within a 92 x 92 square-kilometer box and assigning the value to the center 4 x 4 square-kilometer box. This technique is same as that described in Ref. 5. Characterizing the forecast, following

  16. A support system for assessing local vulnerability to weather and climate

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Coletti, Alex; Howe, Peter D.; Yarnal, Brent; Wood, Nathan J.

    2013-01-01

    The changing number and nature of weather- and climate-related natural hazards is causing more communities to need to assess their vulnerabilities. Vulnerability assessments, however, often require considerable expertise and resources that are not available or too expensive for many communities. To meet the need for an easy-to-use, cost-effective vulnerability assessment tool for communities, a prototype online vulnerability assessment support system was built and tested. This prototype tool guides users through a stakeholder-based vulnerability assessment that breaks the process into four easy-to-implement steps. Data sources are integrated in the online environment so that perceived risks—defined and prioritized qualitatively by users—can be compared and discussed against the impacts that past events have had on the community. The support system is limited in scope, and the locations of the case studies do not provide a sufficiently broad range of sample cases. The addition of more publically available hazard databases combined with future improvements in the support system architecture and software will expand opportunities for testing and fully implementing the support system.

  17. Weather Instruments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brantley, L. Reed, Sr.; Demanche, Edna L.; Klemm, E. Barbara; Kyselka, Will; Phillips, Edwin A.; Pottenger, Francis M.; Yamamoto, Karen N.; Young, Donald B.

    This booklet presents some activities to measure various weather phenomena. Directions for constructing a weather station are included. Instruments including rain gauges, thermometers, wind vanes, wind speed devices, humidity devices, barometers, atmospheric observations, a dustfall jar, sticky-tape can, detection of gases in the air, and pH of…

  18. The Impact of the Assimilation of AIRS Radiance Measurements on Short-term Weather Forecasts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McCarty, Will; Jedlovec, Gary; Miller, Timothy L.

    2009-01-01

    Advanced spaceborne instruments have the ability to improve the horizontal and vertical characterization of temperature and water vapor in the atmosphere through the explicit use of hyperspectral thermal infrared radiance measurements. The incorporation of these measurements into a data assimilation system provides a means to continuously characterize a three-dimensional, instantaneous atmospheric state necessary for the time integration of numerical weather forecasts. Measurements from the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) are incorporated into the gridpoint statistical interpolation (GSI) three-dimensional variational (3D-Var) assimilation system to provide improved initial conditions for use in a mesoscale modeling framework mimicking that of the operational North American Mesoscale (NAM) model. The methodologies for the incorporation of the measurements into the system are presented. Though the measurements have been shown to have a positive impact in global modeling systems, the measurements are further constrained in this system as the model top is physically lower than the global systems and there is no ozone characterization in the background state. For a study period, the measurements are shown to have positive impact on both the analysis state as well as subsequently spawned short-term (0-48 hr) forecasts, particularly in forecasted geopotential height and precipitation fields. At 48 hr, height anomaly correlations showed an improvement in forecast skill of 2.3 hours relative to a system without the AIRS measurements. Similarly, the equitable threat and bias scores of precipitation forecasts of 25 mm (6 hr)-1 were shown to be improved by 8% and 7%, respectively.

  19. Validation and Verification of Operational Land Analysis Activities at the Air Force Weather Agency

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shaw, Michael; Kumar, Sujay V.; Peters-Lidard, Christa D.; Cetola, Jeffrey

    2012-01-01

    The NASA developed Land Information System (LIS) is the Air Force Weather Agency's (AFWA) operational Land Data Assimilation System (LDAS) combining real time precipitation observations and analyses, global forecast model data, vegetation, terrain, and soil parameters with the community Noah land surface model, along with other hydrology module options, to generate profile analyses of global soil moisture, soil temperature, and other important land surface characteristics. (1) A range of satellite data products and surface observations used to generate the land analysis products (2) Global, 1/4 deg spatial resolution (3) Model analysis generated at 3 hours. AFWA recognizes the importance of operational benchmarking and uncertainty characterization for land surface modeling and is developing standard methods, software, and metrics to verify and/or validate LIS output products. To facilitate this and other needs for land analysis activities at AFWA, the Model Evaluation Toolkit (MET) -- a joint product of the National Center for Atmospheric Research Developmental Testbed Center (NCAR DTC), AFWA, and the user community -- and the Land surface Verification Toolkit (LVT), developed at the Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC), have been adapted to operational benchmarking needs of AFWA's land characterization activities.

  20. Weather Research and Forecasting Model Wind Sensitivity Study at Edwards Air Force Base, CA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watson, Leela R.; Bauman, William H., III; Hoeth, Brian

    2009-01-01

    This abstract describes work that will be done by the Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) in assessing the success of different model configurations in predicting "wind cycling" cases at Edwards Air Force Base, CA (EAFB), in which the wind speeds and directions oscillate among towers near the EAFB runway. The Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model allows users to choose among two dynamical cores - the Advanced Research WRF (ARW) and the Non-hydrostatic Mesoscale Model (NMM). There are also data assimilation analysis packages available for the initialization of the WRF model - the Local Analysis and Prediction System (LAPS) and the Advanced Regional Prediction System (ARPS) Data Analysis System (ADAS). Having a series of initialization options and WRF cores, as well as many options within each core, creates challenges for local forecasters, such as determining which configuration options are best to address specific forecast concerns. The goal of this project is to assess the different configurations available and determine which configuration will best predict surface wind speed and direction at EAFB.

  1. Yokota Air Base, Japan, Revised Uniform Summary of Surface Weather Observations (RUSSWO). Parts A-F.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-12-05

    60.4! 80.5, 80 . r 25 60.5 8C. .5 r, PC . j 574 69. 744 78: 8?.91 o3 83.9 34 . .1 e. 0. b4 . 94’ .8_.1 .,o SE. 7 -. s 76.21 81 . -85.4 45.3 6.5 16.7...81.3 I 14 81 . I4 81 .*4, 1.4. 7 2.’ 36.7 5., 53.6 65.81 69.9 71.61 78.91 81 . 83.0 83 . 8.o 83.9 8.9 .9 83.9 60, 23. 3 3.81 45.P1 54..21 66.81 71.0 76.0 80 ...6l2225_ il CONTRO,/LING OFFICE NAME AN) ADDRESS 1, -E-04Y C-E USAFETAC/CBD DEC 83 Air Weather Service (MAC) i, N,,. BE , P’AE5 S Scott AFB IL 62225 p. 320 A

  2. DOC/WSNSO (Department of Commerce/Weather Service Nuclear Support Office) operational support to Federal Radiological Monitoring and Assessment Center

    SciTech Connect

    Mueller, P.

    1989-01-01

    The National Weather Service (NWS) is an agency of the Department of Commerce. The NWS has hundreds of weather offices throughout the United States. The Weather Service Nuclear Support Office (WSNSO) is a highly specialized unit of NWS that provides direct support to the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) underground nuclear testing program. The WSNSO has been associated with the DOE for >33 yr. As a result of the unique relationship with the DOE, all WSNSO emergency response meteorologists and meteorological technicians are allowed access to classified material. Meteorological phenomena play a significant role during a Federal Radiological Monitoring and Assessment Center (FRMAC) event, and WSNSO meteorologists provide direct support to ARAC. The marriage of state-of-the-art computer systems together with proven technology provides the on-scene WSNSO meteorologist with essentially a portable fully equipped, fully functional, advanced NWS weather station. The WSNSO's emergency response personnel and hardware are at the ready and can be mobilized within 2 h. WSNSO can provide on-scene weather forecasts and critical weather data collection whenever and wherever necessary.

  3. Seamless Meteorology-Chemistry Modelling: Status and Relevance for Numerical Weather Prediction, Air Quality and Climate Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baklanov, Alexander; EuMetChem Team

    2015-04-01

    Online coupled meteorology atmospheric chemistry models have undergone a rapid evolution in recent years. Although mainly developed by the air quality modelling community, these models are also of interest for numerical weather prediction and climate modelling as they can consider not only the effects of meteorology on air quality, but also the potentially important effects of atmospheric composition on weather. Two ways of online coupling can be distinguished: online integrated and online access coupling. Online integrated models simulate meteorology and chemistry over the same grid in one model using one main timestep for integration. Online access models use independent meteorology and chemistry modules that might even have different grids, but exchange meteorology and chemistry data on a regular and frequent basis. This paper is an overall outcome of the European COST Action ES1004: European Framework for Online Integrated Air Quality and Meteorology Modelling (EuMetChem) and conclusions from the recently organized Symposium on Coupled Chemistry-Meteorology/Climate Modelling: Status and Relevance for Numerical Weather Prediction, Air Quality and Climate Research. It offers a review of the current research status of online coupled meteorology and atmospheric chemistry modelling, a survey of processes relevant to the interactions between atmospheric physics, dynamics and composition; and highlights selected scientific issues and emerging challenges that require proper consideration to improve the reliability and usability of these models for the three scientific communities: air quality, numerical meteorology modelling (including weather prediction) and climate modelling. It presents a synthesis of scientific progress and provides recommendations for future research directions and priorities in the development, application and evaluation of online coupled models.

  4. Measuring the Return on Investment and Real Option Value of Weather Sensor Bundles for Air Force Unmanned Aerial Vehicles

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-04-30

    qÜáêíÉÉåíÜ=^ååì~ä= ^Åèìáëáíáçå=oÉëÉ~êÅÜ= póãéçëáìã= tÉÇåÉëÇ~ó=pÉëëáçåë= sçäìãÉ=f= = Measuring the Return on Investment and Real Option Value of Weather Sensor ...Maryland Peter Sandborn, Professor, University of Maryland Measuring the Return on Investment and Real Option Value of Weather Sensor Bundles for...35 - Measuring the Return on Investment and Real Option Value of Weather Sensor Bundles for Air Force Unmanned Aerial Vehicles Thomas J. Housel

  5. Evaluation of High Density Air Traffic Operations with Automation for Separation Assurance, Weather Avoidance and Schedule Conformance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prevot, Thomas; Mercer, Joey S.; Martin, Lynne Hazel; Homola, Jeffrey R.; Cabrall, Christopher D.; Brasil, Connie L.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we discuss the development and evaluation of our prototype technologies and procedures for far-term air traffic control operations with automation for separation assurance, weather avoidance and schedule conformance. Controller-in-the-loop simulations in the Airspace Operations Laboratory at the NASA Ames Research Center in 2010 have shown very promising results. We found the operations to provide high airspace throughput, excellent efficiency and schedule conformance. The simulation also highlighted areas for improvements: Short-term conflict situations sometimes resulted in separation violations, particularly for transitioning aircraft in complex traffic flows. The combination of heavy metering and growing weather resulted in an increased number of aircraft penetrating convective weather cells. To address these shortcomings technologies and procedures have been improved and the operations are being re-evaluated with the same scenarios. In this paper we will first describe the concept and technologies for automating separation assurance, weather avoidance, and schedule conformance. Second, the results from the 2010 simulation will be reviewed. We report human-systems integration aspects, safety and efficiency results as well as airspace throughput, workload, and operational acceptability. Next, improvements will be discussed that were made to address identified shortcomings. We conclude that, with further refinements, air traffic control operations with ground-based automated separation assurance can routinely provide currently unachievable levels of traffic throughput in the en route airspace.

  6. Reactions of Air Transport Flight Crews to Displays of Weather During Simulated Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bliss, James P.; Fallon, Corey; Bustamante, Ernesto; Bailey, William R., III; Anderson, Brittany

    2005-01-01

    Display of information in the cockpit has long been a challenge for aircraft designers. Given the limited space in which to present information, designers have had to be extremely selective about the types and amount of flight related information to present to pilots. The general goal of cockpit display design and implementation is to ensure that displays present information that is timely, useful, and helpful. This suggests that displays should facilitate the management of perceived workload, and should allow maximal situation awareness. The formatting of current and projected weather displays represents a unique challenge. As technologies have been developed to increase the variety and capabilities of weather information available to flight crews, factors such as conflicting weather representations and increased decision importance have increased the likelihood for errors. However, if formatted optimally, it is possible that next generation weather displays could allow for clearer indications of weather trends such as developing or decaying weather patterns. Important issues to address include the integration of weather information sources, flight crew trust of displayed weather information, and the teamed reactivity of flight crews to displays of weather. Past studies of weather display reactivity and formatting have not adequately addressed these issues; in part because experimental stimuli have not approximated the complexity of modern weather displays, and in part because they have not used realistic experimental tasks or participants. The goal of the research reported here was to investigate the influence of onboard and NEXRAD agreement, range to the simulated potential weather event, and the pilot flying on flight crew deviation decisions, perceived workload, and perceived situation awareness. Fifteen pilot-copilot teams were required to fly a simulated route while reacting to weather events presented in two graphical formats on a separate visual display

  7. Feedbacks between air pollution and weather, part 2: Effects on chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makar, P. A.; Gong, W.; Hogrefe, C.; Zhang, Y.; Curci, G.; Žabkar, R.; Milbrandt, J.; Im, U.; Balzarini, A.; Baró, R.; Bianconi, R.; Cheung, P.; Forkel, R.; Gravel, S.; Hirtl, M.; Honzak, L.; Hou, A.; Jiménez-Guerrero, P.; Langer, M.; Moran, M. D.; Pabla, B.; Pérez, J. L.; Pirovano, G.; San José, R.; Tuccella, P.; Werhahn, J.; Zhang, J.; Galmarini, S.

    2015-08-01

    Fully-coupled air-quality models running in "feedback" and "no-feedback" configurations were compared against each other and observation network data as part of Phase 2 of the Air Quality Model Evaluation International Initiative. In the "no-feedback" mode, interactions between meteorology and chemistry through the aerosol direct and indirect effects were disabled, with the models reverting to climatologies of aerosol properties, or a no-aerosol weather simulation, while in the "feedback" mode, the model-generated aerosols were allowed to modify the models' radiative transfer and/or cloud formation processes. Annual simulations with and without feedbacks were conducted for domains in North America for the years 2006 and 2010, and for Europe for the year 2010. Comparisons against observations via annual statistics show model-to-model variation in performance is greater than the within-model variation associated with feedbacks. However, during the summer and during intense emission events such as the Russian forest fires of 2010, feedbacks have a significant impact on the chemical predictions of the models. The aerosol indirect effect was usually found to dominate feedbacks compared to the direct effect. The impacts of direct and indirect effects were often shown to be in competition, for predictions of ozone, particulate matter and other species. Feedbacks were shown to result in local and regional shifts of ozone-forming chemical regime, between NOx- and VOC-limited environments. Feedbacks were shown to have a substantial influence on biogenic hydrocarbon emissions and concentrations: North American simulations incorporating both feedbacks resulted in summer average isoprene concentration decreases of up to 10%, while European direct effect simulations during the Russian forest fire period resulted in grid average isoprene changes of -5 to +12.5%. The atmospheric transport and chemistry of large emitting sources such as plumes from forest fires and large cities

  8. The NOAA Local Climate Analysis Tool - An Application in Support of a Weather Ready Nation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Timofeyeva, M. M.; Horsfall, F. M.

    2012-12-01

    Citizens across the U.S., including decision makers from the local to the national level, have a multitude of questions about climate, such as the current state and how that state fits into the historical context, and more importantly, how climate will impact them, especially with regard to linkages to extreme weather events. Developing answers to these types of questions for locations has typically required extensive work to gather data, conduct analyses, and generate relevant explanations and graphics. Too frequently providers don't have ready access to or knowledge of reliable, trusted data sets, nor sound, scientifically accepted analysis techniques such that they can provide a rapid response to queries they receive. In order to support National Weather Service (NWS) local office forecasters with information they need to deliver timely responses to climate-related questions from their customers, we have developed the Local Climate Analysis Tool (LCAT). LCAT uses the principles of artificial intelligence to respond to queries, in particular, through use of machine technology that responds intelligently to input from users. A user translates customer questions into primary variables and issues and LCAT pulls the most relevant data and analysis techniques to provide information back to the user, who in turn responds to their customer. Most responses take on the order of 10 seconds, which includes providing statistics, graphical displays of information, translations for users, metadata, and a summary of the user request to LCAT. Applications in Phase I of LCAT, which is targeted for the NWS field offices, include Climate Change Impacts, Climate Variability Impacts, Drought Analysis and Impacts, Water Resources Applications, Attribution of Extreme Events, and analysis techniques such as time series analysis, trend analysis, compositing, and correlation and regression techniques. Data accessed by LCAT are homogenized historical COOP and Climate Prediction Center

  9. Decision-support tools for Extreme Weather and Climate Events in the Northeast United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, S.; Lowery, M.; Whelchel, A.

    2013-12-01

    Decision-support tools were assessed for the 2013 National Climate Assessment technical input document, "Climate Change in the Northeast, A Sourcebook". The assessment included tools designed to generate and deliver actionable information to assist states and highly populated urban and other communities in assessment of climate change vulnerability and risk, quantification of effects, and identification of adaptive strategies in the context of adaptation planning across inter-annual, seasonal and multi-decadal time scales. State-level adaptation planning in the Northeast has generally relied on qualitative vulnerability assessments by expert panels and stakeholders, although some states have undertaken initiatives to develop statewide databases to support vulnerability assessments by urban and local governments, and state agencies. The devastation caused by Superstorm Sandy in October 2012 has raised awareness of the potential for extreme weather events to unprecedented levels and created urgency for action, especially in coastal urban and suburban communities that experienced pronounced impacts - especially in New Jersey, New York and Connecticut. Planning approaches vary, but any adaptation and resiliency planning process must include the following: - Knowledge of the probable change in a climate variable (e.g., precipitation, temperature, sea-level rise) over time or that the climate variable will attain a certain threshold deemed to be significant; - Knowledge of intensity and frequency of climate hazards (past, current or future events or conditions with potential to cause harm) and their relationship with climate variables; - Assessment of climate vulnerabilities (sensitive resources, infrastructure or populations exposed to climate-related hazards); - Assessment of relative risks to vulnerable resources; - Identification and prioritization of adaptive strategies to address risks. Many organizations are developing decision-support tools to assist in the urban

  10. Improving Air Support for Wildfire Management in the United States

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-01

    States would experience significantly damaging wildfires. D. STATION FIRE The USFG would drastically alter the Station Fire scenario, as it would have...SUPPORT FOR WILDFIRE MANAGEMENT IN THE UNITED STATES by Geoffrey L. Glickstein September 2014 Thesis Advisor: Erik Dahl Second Reader...AND DATES COVERED Master’s Thesis 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE IMPROVING AIR SUPPORT FOR WILDFIRE MANAGEMENT IN THE UNITED STATES 5. FUNDING NUMBERS 6

  11. Community Coordinated Modeling Center (CCMC): Using innovative tools and services to support worldwide space weather scientific communities and networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendoza, A. M.; Bakshi, S.; Berrios, D.; Chulaki, A.; Evans, R. M.; Kuznetsova, M. M.; Lee, H.; MacNeice, P. J.; Maddox, M. M.; Mays, M. L.; Mullinix, R. E.; Ngwira, C. M.; Patel, K.; Pulkkinen, A.; Rastaetter, L.; Shim, J.; Taktakishvili, A.; Zheng, Y.

    2012-12-01

    Community Coordinated Modeling Center (CCMC) was established to enhance basic solar terrestrial research and to aid in the development of models for specifying and forecasting conditions in the space environment. In achieving this goal, CCMC has developed and provides a set of innovative tools varying from: Integrated Space Weather Analysis (iSWA) web -based dissemination system for space weather information, Runs-On-Request System providing access to unique collection of state-of-the-art solar and space physics models (unmatched anywhere in the world), Advanced Online Visualization and Analysis tools for more accurate interpretation of model results, Standard Data formats for Simulation Data downloads, and recently Mobile apps (iPhone/Android) to view space weather data anywhere to the scientific community. The number of runs requested and the number of resulting scientific publications and presentations from the research community has not only been an indication of the broad scientific usage of the CCMC and effective participation by space scientists and researchers, but also guarantees active collaboration and coordination amongst the space weather research community. Arising from the course of CCMC activities, CCMC also supports community-wide model validation challenges and research focus group projects for a broad range of programs such as the multi-agency National Space Weather Program, NSF's CEDAR (Coupling, Energetics and Dynamics of Atmospheric Regions), GEM (Geospace Environment Modeling) and Shine (Solar Heliospheric and INterplanetary Environment) programs. In addition to performing research and model development, CCMC also supports space science education by hosting summer students through local universities; through the provision of simulations in support of classroom programs such as Heliophysics Summer School (with student research contest) and CCMC Workshops; training next generation of junior scientists in space weather forecasting; and educating

  12. 6. Soft support building, view towards south Ellsworth Air ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Soft support building, view towards south - Ellsworth Air Force Base, Delta Flight, Launch Facility D-6, 4 miles north of Badlands National Park Headquarters, 4.5 miles east of Jackson County line on county road, Interior, Jackson County, SD

  13. Weighting Statistical Inputs for Data Used to Support Effective Decision Making During Severe Emergency Weather and Environmental Events

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gardner, Adrian

    2010-01-01

    National Aeronautical and Space Administration (NASA) weather and atmospheric environmental organizations are insatiable consumers of geophysical, hydrometeorological and solar weather statistics. The expanding array of internet-worked sensors producing targeted physical measurements has generated an almost factorial explosion of near real-time inputs to topical statistical datasets. Normalizing and value-based parsing of such statistical datasets in support of time-constrained weather and environmental alerts and warnings is essential, even with dedicated high-performance computational capabilities. What are the optimal indicators for advanced decision making? How do we recognize the line between sufficient statistical sampling and excessive, mission destructive sampling ? How do we assure that the normalization and parsing process, when interpolated through numerical models, yields accurate and actionable alerts and warnings? This presentation will address the integrated means and methods to achieve desired outputs for NASA and consumers of its data.

  14. Renewed Support Dawns in Europe: An Action to Develop Space Weather Products and Services

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belehaki, Anna; Watermann, Jurgen; Lilensten, Jean; Glover, Alexi; Hapgood, Mike; Messerotti, Mauro; van der Linden, Ronald; Lundstedt, Henrik

    2009-03-01

    The effects of space weather span a range of sectors. They can cause radio communications problems; can disrupt synthetic aperture radar systems, the Global Positioning System (GPS), and the future European Galileo systems; and can increase radiation risks for aircraft crew and passengers. Electric power network disturbances and enhanced corrosion effects observed in long-distance fuel supply pipelines are other well-known effects of unfavorable space weather. In severe cases, large-scale power outages have also been traced to space weather phenomena (Figure 1).

  15. Validation and Verification of the Operational Land Analysis Activities at the Air Force Weather Agency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaw, M.; Kumar, S.; Peters-Lidard, C. D.; Cetola, J.

    2011-12-01

    The importance of operational benchmarking and uncertainty characterization of land surface modeling can be clear upon considering the wide range of performance characteristics of numerical land surface models realizable through various combinations of factors. Such factors might include model physics and numerics, resolution, and forcing datasets used in operational implementation versus those that might have been involved in any prior development benchmarking. Of course, decisions concerning operational implementation may be better informed through more effective benchmarking of performance under various blends of such aforementioned operational factors. To facilitate this and other needs for land analysis activities at the Air Force Weather Agency (AFWA), the Model Evaluation Toolkit (MET) - a joint product of the National Center for Atmospheric Research Developmental Testbed Center (NCAR DTC), AFWA, and the user community - and the land information system (LIS) Verification Toolkit (LVT) - developed at the Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) - have been adapted to the operational benchmarking needs of AFWA's land characterization activities in order to compare the performance of new land modeling and related activities with that of previous activities as well as observational or analyzed datasets. In this talk, three examples of adaptations of MET and LVT to evaluation of LIS-related operations at AFWA will be presented. One example will include comparisons of new surface rainfall analysis capabilities, towards forcing of AFWA's LIS, with previous capabilities. Comparisons will be relative to retrieval-, model-, and measurement-based precipitation fields. Results generated via MET's grid-stat, neighborhood, wavelet, and object based evaluation (MODE) utilities adapted to AFWA's needs will be discussed. This example will be framed in the context of better informing optimal blends of land surface model (LSM) forcing data sources - namely precipitation data- under

  16. Tactical Air Control Party Support in Distributed and Special Operations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-05-01

    FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF MILITARY STUDIES AUTHOR: MAJOR JAMES A SCHNELLE AY 07-08 Mentor and ~~f:~e Co~ittee Member...ANSI Std Z39-18 Executive Summary Title: Tactical Air Control Party Support in Distributed and Special Operations Author: Major James A. Schnelle ...until 11 :00 a.m. 1 Later , five aircraft came over at about 2:35 p.m., firing machine guns and dropping bombs until 3:20 p.m. "The air attack was the

  17. A Geospatial Database that Supports Derivation of Climatological Features of Severe Weather

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phillips, M.; Ansari, S.; Del Greco, S.

    2007-12-01

    The Severe Weather Data Inventory (SWDI) at NOAA's National Climatic Data Center (NCDC) provides user access to archives of several datasets critical to the detection and evaluation of severe weather. These datasets include archives of: · NEXRAD Level-III point features describing general storm structure, hail, mesocyclone and tornado signatures · National Weather Service Storm Events Database · National Weather Service Local Storm Reports collected from storm spotters · National Weather Service Warnings · Lightning strikes from Vaisala's National Lightning Detection Network (NLDN) SWDI archives all of these datasets in a spatial database that allows for convenient searching and subsetting. These data are accessible via the NCDC web site, Web Feature Services (WFS) or automated web services. The results of interactive web page queries may be saved in a variety of formats, including plain text, XML, Google Earth's KMZ, standards-based NetCDF and Shapefile. NCDC's Storm Risk Assessment Project (SRAP) uses data from the SWDI database to derive gridded climatology products that show the spatial distributions of the frequency of various events. SRAP also can relate SWDI events to other spatial data such as roads, population, watersheds, and other geographic, sociological, or economic data to derive products that are useful in municipal planning, emergency management, the insurance industry, and other areas where there is a need to quantify and qualify how severe weather patterns affect people and property.

  18. Exploring the CIGALA/CALIBRA network data base for supporting space weather service over Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galera Monico, Joao Francisco; Shimabukuro, Milton; Vani, Bruno; Stuani, Vinicius

    Most of Brazil region is surrounded by equatorial anomaly northwards and southwards. Therefore, investigations related to space weather are quite important and very demanding. For example, GNSS applications are widely affected by ionospheric disturbances, a significant field within space weather. A network for continuous monitoring of ionosphere was deployed over its territory, starting on February/2011. This network was named CIGALA/CALIBRA according to the names of the two projects which originated it. Through CIGALA (Concept for Ionospheric Scintillation Mitigation for Professional GNSS in Latin America), which was funded by European Commission (EC) in the framework of the FP7-GALILEO-2009-GSA (European GNSS Agency), the first stations were deployed at Presidente Prudente, São Paulo state, at February 2011. CIGALA Project was finalized at February 2012 with eight stations distributed over the Brazilian territory. Through CALIBRA (Countering GNSS high Accuracy applications Limitations due to Ionospheric disturbances in BRAzil), which is also funded by the European Commission now in the framework of the FP7-GALILEO-2011-GSA, new stations were deployed. All monitoring stations were specifically placed at locations following geomagnetic arrangements for supporting development of ionospheric models. CALIBRA project started at November 2012 and will have two years of duration, focusing on development of new algorithms that can be applied to high accuracy GNSS techniques (RTK, PPP) in order to tackle the effects of ionospheric disturbances. All the stations have PolarRxS-PRO receivers, manufactured by Septentrio®. This multi-GNSS receiver can collect data up to 100 Hz rates, providing ionospheric indices like TEC, scintillation parameters like S4 and Sigma-Phi, and other signal metrics like locktime for all satellites and frequencies tracked. All collected data is sent to a central facility located at the Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia da Universidade Estadual

  19. Using DOE-ARM and Space-Based Assets to Assess the Quality of Air Force Weather 3D Cloud Analysis and Forecast Products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nobis, T. E.

    2015-12-01

    Air Force Weather (AFW) has documented requirements for global cloud analysis and forecasting to support DoD missions around the world. To meet these needs, AFW utilizes a number of cloud products. Cloud analyses are constructed using 17 different near real time satellite sources. Products include analysis of the individual satellite transmissions at native satellite resolution and an hourly global merge of all 17 sources on a 24km grid. AFW has also recently started creation of a time delayed global cloud reanalysis to produce a 'best possible' analysis for climatology and verification purposes. Forecasted cloud products include global short-range cloud forecasts created using advection techniques as well as statistically post processed cloud forecast products derived from various global and regional numerical weather forecast models. All of these cloud products cover different spatial and temporal resolutions and are produced on a number of different grid projections. The longer term vision of AFW is to consolidate these various approaches into uniform global numerical weather modeling (NWM) system using advanced cloudy-data assimilation processes to construct the analysis and a licensed version of UKMO's Unified Model to produce the various cloud forecast products. In preparation for this evolution in cloud modeling support, AFW has started to aggressively benchmark the performance of their current capabilities. Cloud information collected from so called 'active' sensors on the ground at the DOE-ARM sites and from space by such instruments as CloudSat, CALIPSO and CATS are being utilized to characterize the performance of AFW products derived largely by passive means. The goal is to understand the performance of the 3D cloud analysis and forecast products of today to help shape the requirements and standards for the future NWM driven system.This presentation will present selected results from these benchmarking efforts and highlight insights and observations

  20. Fluoride pollution of atmospheric precipitation and its relationship with air circulation and weather patterns (Wielkopolski National Park, Poland).

    PubMed

    Walna, Barbara; Kurzyca, Iwona; Bednorz, Ewa; Kolendowicz, Leszek

    2013-07-01

    A 2-year study (2010-2011) of fluorides in atmospheric precipitation in the open area and in throughfall in Wielkopolski National Park (west-central Poland) showed their high concentrations, reaching a maximum value of 2 mg/l under the tree crowns. These high values indicate substantial deposition of up to 52 mg/m(2)/year. In 2011, over 51% of open area precipitation was characterized by fluoride concentration higher than 0.10 mg/l, and in throughfall such concentrations were found in more than 86% of events. In 2010, a strong connection was evident between fluoride and acid-forming ions, and in 2011, a correlation between phosphate and nitrite ions was seen. Analysis of available data on F(-) concentrations in the air did not show an unequivocal effect on F(-) concentrations in precipitation. To find reasons for and source areas of high fluoride pollution, the cases of extreme fluoride concentration in rainwater were related to atmospheric circulation and weather patterns. Weather conditions on days of extreme pollution were determined by movement of weather fronts over western Poland, or by small cyclonic centers with meteorological fronts. Macroscale air advection over the sampling site originated in the western quadrant (NW, W, and SW), particularly in the middle layers of the troposphere (2,500-5,000 m a.s.l.). Such directions indicate western Poland and Germany as possible sources of the pollution. At the same time in the lower troposphere, air inflow was frequently from the north, showing short distance transport from local emitters, and from the agglomeration of Poznań.

  1. AFCYBER: Postured to Support Air Force and USCYBERCOM Cyber Needs?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-03-01

    Garamone, “ Alexander Details U.S. Cyber Command Gains,” September 24, 2010, from American Forces Press Service. 41 Brigadier General Franz , U.S. Cyber...missions. General Alexander , Commander USCYBERCOM, first envisions a cyber profession where communications, signals intelligence, cryptography...to support both USCYBERCOM and Air Force requirements. General Alexander considers having trained and ready forces as the single most important

  2. Examining antecedents of clean indoor air policy support: implications for campaigns promoting clean indoor air.

    PubMed

    Quick, Brian L; Bates, Benjamin R; Romina, Sharon

    2009-01-01

    This investigation sought to examine the association between knowledge of the risks associated with environmental tobacco smoke and voter support for clean indoor air policies. In doing so, 2 antecedents were employed to enhance understanding of this relationship: attitudes and subjective norms. In addition, differences between nonsmokers and smokers were assessed across the aforementioned variables. The study sampled participants (N = 550) living in the Appalachian foothills as a means of conducting formative research prior to developing messages promoting clean indoor air policies. The study controlled for tobacco usage, age, biological sex, and income. Results revealed that awareness of risk is a good predictor of attitudes and social norms, and in return, attitudes and social norms are good predictors of support for clean indoor air policies. In addition, results reveal that nonsmokers maintain a significantly stronger belief in the dangers associated with environmental tobacco smoke, as well as more favorable attitudes, subjective norms, and support for clean indoor air policies when compared with smokers. These findings are discussed with a focus on message design strategies for practitioners and academics with interests in promoting clean indoor air policies.

  3. Operational Space Weather Activities in the US

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berger, Thomas; Singer, Howard; Onsager, Terrance; Viereck, Rodney; Murtagh, William; Rutledge, Robert

    2016-07-01

    We review the current activities in the civil operational space weather forecasting enterprise of the United States. The NOAA/Space Weather Prediction Center is the nation's official source of space weather watches, warnings, and alerts, working with partners in the Air Force as well as international operational forecast services to provide predictions, data, and products on a large variety of space weather phenomena and impacts. In October 2015, the White House Office of Science and Technology Policy released the National Space Weather Strategy (NSWS) and associated Space Weather Action Plan (SWAP) that define how the nation will better forecast, mitigate, and respond to an extreme space weather event. The SWAP defines actions involving multiple federal agencies and mandates coordination and collaboration with academia, the private sector, and international bodies to, among other things, develop and sustain an operational space weather observing system; develop and deploy new models of space weather impacts to critical infrastructure systems; define new mechanisms for the transition of research models to operations and to ensure that the research community is supported for, and has access to, operational model upgrade paths; and to enhance fundamental understanding of space weather through support of research models and observations. The SWAP will guide significant aspects of space weather operational and research activities for the next decade, with opportunities to revisit the strategy in the coming years through the auspices of the National Science and Technology Council.

  4. Environmental Education Tips: Weather Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brainard, Audrey H.

    1989-01-01

    Provides weather activities including questions, on weather, heating the earth's surface, air, tools of the meteorologist, clouds, humidity, wind, and evaporation. Shows an example of a weather chart activity. (RT)

  5. Close Air Support and Interdiction Missions as Seen by the Air Force and Army

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    MONITORING AGENCY NAME AND ADDRESS , 11. SPONSOR/MONITOR’S REPORT NUMBER(S) 12. DISTRIBUTION/AVAILABILITY STATEMENT A PUBLIC RELEASE , 13 . SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES... 13 Armor...but never delivered, emerging technology will at least make the “delay” much longer and the “disruption” much worse. 13 Close Air Support is defined in

  6. An Extended Objective Evaluation of the 29-km Eta Model for Weather Support to the United States Space Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nutter, Paul; Manobianco, John

    1998-01-01

    This report describes the Applied Meteorology Unit's objective verification of the National Centers for Environmental Prediction 29-km eta model during separate warm and cool season periods from May 1996 through January 1998. The verification of surface and upper-air point forecasts was performed at three selected stations important for 45th Weather Squadron, Spaceflight Meteorology Group, and National Weather Service, Melbourne operational weather concerns. The statistical evaluation identified model biases that may result from inadequate parameterization of physical processes. Since model biases are relatively small compared to the random error component, most of the total model error results from day-to-day variability in the forecasts and/or observations. To some extent, these nonsystematic errors reflect the variability in point observations that sample spatial and temporal scales of atmospheric phenomena that cannot be resolved by the model. On average, Meso-Eta point forecasts provide useful guidance for predicting the evolution of the larger scale environment. A more substantial challenge facing model users in real time is the discrimination of nonsystematic errors that tend to inflate the total forecast error. It is important that model users maintain awareness of ongoing model changes. Such changes are likely to modify the basic error characteristics, particularly near the surface.

  7. National Weather Service: Closure of Regional Office Not Supported by Risk Analysis.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1997-07-31

    This report is in response to your request that we review proposed staffing cuts at the National Weather Service (NWS), a component of the National...Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) within the Department of Commerce. The objective of our review , based on subsequent discussions with your

  8. Integrating Naval Surface Fire Support into an Improved Joint Close Air Support Architecture

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-06-01

    59 Joe Pappalardo . “Afghanistan Taught U.S. ‘Hard Lessons’ In Close Air Support...got stuck. 66 Pappalardo . 67 “Results of Investigation into Death of U.S. Service Member...could potentially be seamless. 124 Pappalardo . 61 V. CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS Historically

  9. Science Coordination in Support of the US Weather Research Program Office of the Lead Scientist (OLS) and for Coordination with the World Weather Research (WMO) Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gall, Robert

    2005-01-01

    This document is the final report of the work of the Office of the Lead Scientist (OLS) of the U.S. Weather Research Program (USWRP) and for Coordination of the World Weather Research Program (WWRP). The proposal was for a continuation of the duties and responsibilities described in the proposal of 7 October, 1993 to NSF and NOAA associated with the USWRP Lead Scientist then referred to as the Chief Scientist. The activities of the Office of the Lead Scientist (OLS) ended on January 31, 2005 and this report describes the activities undertaken by the OLS from February 1, 2004 until January 3 1, 2005. The OLS activities were under the cosponsorship of the agencies that are members of the Interagency Working Group (IWG) of the US WRP currently: NOAA, NSF, NASA, and DOD. The scope of the work described includes activities that were necessary to develop, facilitate and implement the research objectives of the USWRP consistent with the overall program goals and specific agency objectives. It included liaison with and promotion of WMO/WWW activities that were consistent with and beneficial to the USWRP programs and objectives. Funds covered several broad categories of activity including meetings convened by the Lead Scientist, OLS travel, partial salary and benefits support, publications, hard-copy dissemination of reports and program announcements and the development and maintenance of the USWRP website. In addition to funding covered by this grant, NCAR program funds provided co-sponsorship of half the salary and benefits resources of the USWRP Lead Scientist (.25 FTE) and the WWRP Chairman/Liaison (.167 FTE). Also covered by the grant were partial salaries for the Science Coordinator for the hurricane portion of the program and partial salary for a THORPEX coordinator.

  10. Cockpit weather radar display demonstrator and ground-to-air sferics telemetry system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nickum, J. D.; Mccall, D. L.

    1982-01-01

    The results of two methods of obtaining timely and accurate severe weather presentations in the cockpit are detailed. The first method described is a course up display of uplinked weather radar data. This involves the construction of a demonstrator that will show the feasibility of producing a course up display in the cockpit of the NASA simulator at Langley. A set of software algorithms was designed that could easily be implemented, along with data tapes generated to provide the cockpit simulation. The second method described involves the uplinking of sferic data from a ground based 3M-Ryan Stormscope. The technique involves transfer of the data on the CRT of the Stormscope to a remote CRT. This sferic uplink and display could also be included in an implementation on the NASA cockpit simulator, allowing evaluation of pilot responses based on real Stormscope data.

  11. Index of Air Weather Service Technical Publications. Headquarters AWS and Subordinate Units.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-07-01

    Area," by Capt L. F. Haker , 33p. "Forecasting in the Watson Lake Area," by Capt F. F. Hooper, 28p. 105-48 "Study of Blowing Dust in the 19th Weather...Area," by Capt L. F. Haker , 33p. "Forecasting in the Watson Lake Area," by Capt F. F. Hooper, 28p. "On the Origin and Climatology of Noctilucent

  12. Feedbacks between Air Pollution and Weather, Part 2: Effects on Chemistry.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Fully-coupled air-quality models running in “feedback” and “no-feedback” configurations were compared against each other and observation network data as part of Phase 2 of the Air Quality Model Evaluation International Initiative. In the “no-feedback” mode, interactions between m...

  13. Air and Weather Seychelles Integrated Science. [Teacher and Pupil Booklets]. Unit 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brophy, M.; Fryars, M.

    Seychelles Integrated Science (SIS), a 3-year laboratory-based science program for students (ages 11-15) in upper primary grades 7, 8, and 9, was developed from an extensive evaluation and modification of previous P7-P9 materials. This P7 SIS unit focuses on: (1) the importance of air and air pressure in students' everyday lives; (2) oxidation…

  14. Revision of deposition and weathering parameters for the ingestion dose module (ECOSYS) of the ARGOS and RODOS decision support systems.

    PubMed

    Andersson, Kasper G; Nielsen, Sven P; Thørring, Håvard; Hansen, Hanne S; Joensen, Hans Pauli; Isaksson, Mats; Kostiainen, Eila; Suolanen, Vesa; Pálsson, Sigurdur Emil

    2011-11-01

    The ECOSYS model is the ingestion dose model integrated in the ARGOS and RODOS decision support systems for nuclear emergency management. The parameters used in this model have however not been updated in recent years, where the level of knowledge on various environmental processes has increased considerably. A Nordic work group has carried out a series of evaluations of the general validity of current ECOSYS default parameters. This paper specifically discusses the parameter revisions required with respect to the modelling of deposition and natural weathering of contaminants on agricultural crops, to enable the trustworthy prognostic modelling that is essential to ensure justification and optimisation of countermeasure strategies. New modelling approaches are outlined, since it was found that current ECOSYS approaches for deposition and natural weathering could lead to large prognostic errors.

  15. Tribal Training Support for the Community and Tribal Air Quality Programs - Closed Announcement FY 2016

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Tribal Training Support for the Community and Tribal Air Quality Programs request for applications for FY 2016. Training and technical support to tribal governments seeking develop and establish air quality management programs for tribal lands.

  16. Air Quality Modeling Technical Support Document for the 2015 Ozone NAAQS Preliminary Interstate Transport Assessment

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    In this technical support document (TSD) EPA describes the air quality modeling performed to support the 2015 ozone National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) preliminary interstate transport assessment Notice of Data Availability (NODA).

  17. Pcw/phemos for Arctic Weather, Climate and Air Quality: a Quasi-Geostationary View of the Arctic and Environs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McConnell, J. C.; O'Neill, N. T.; McElroy, C. T.; Solheim, B.; Buijs, H.; Rahnama, P.; Walker, K. A.; Martin, R. V.; Sioris, C.; Garand, L.; Trichtchenko, A.; Nassar, R.

    2011-12-01

    The Arctic is a region of rapid climate change with warming temperatures and depleting multi-year ice which may be exacerbated by transport of black carbon from the burning of the boreal forest and anthropogenic material from mid- and high-latitudes. It is also the source of winter storms delivering cold air to lower latitudes. Currently data are available for these areas from polar orbiting satellites, but only intermittently at a given location as the satellites pass overhead. The Canadian Space Agency, in concert with other government departments, is considering launching the PCW (Polar Communications and Weather) mission which would use two satellites each in a 16 hour TAP or 12 hour Molniya orbit (very high eccentricity with an apogee of ~ 6Re) which is a quasi-stationary orbit close to apogee ( 4 hours) to give 24x7 (continuous) coverage of the Arctic region. The baseline PCW meteorological instrument which would deliver operational meteorological data to the forecasting community is a 20-channel spectral imager similar to MODIS or ABI. The CSA is exploring the possibility of science instruments for atmospheric, plasma and auroral science. Currently the CSA has launched a Phase-A study for the development of an atmospheric package, called PHEMOS, led by ABB Bomen, with COM DEV and a group of atmospheric scientists from university and government. We will present the case for the development of a suite of innovative imaging instruments to provide essential Arctic weather, climate and air quality data from the PCW satellites. The science goals of the PHEMOS instruments (imaging FTS, UV-Vis spectrometer) in concert with those of the PCW multi-spectral imager are the provision of basic weather information, the collection of synoptic-scale air quality (gas and aerosol) measurements to better understand the impact of industrial and agricultural pollution, boreal forest fire smoke and volcanic aerosols on mid- and high latitudes as well as the acquisition of column

  18. Assessment of Weather Sensitivites and Air Force Weather (AFW) Support to Tactical Lasers in the Lower Troposphere

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-03-01

    weapon systems in the medium in which these new weapons operate is essential ( Narcisse , 2008). Approach The analysis consists of many simulated...maintaining military superiority during wartime. One factor that affects the effectiveness of the ATL weapon system is that the operation of the...atmosphere through which it propagates. Achieving this understanding is important for many reasons. In particular, the high cost of DE weapons systems

  19. The Eliminator: A design of a close air support aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hendrix, Mandy; Hoang, TY; Kokolios, Alex; Selyem, Sharon; Wardell, Mark; Winterrowd, David

    1991-01-01

    The Eliminator is the answer to the need for an affordable, maintainable, survivable, high performance close air support aircraft primarily for the United States, but with possible export sales to foreign customers. The Eliminator is twin turbofan, fixed wing aircraft with high mounted canards and low mounted wings. It is designed for high subsonic cruise and an attack radius of 250 nautical miles. Primarily it would carry 20 500 pound bombs as its main ordnance , but is versatile enough to carry a variety of weapons configurations to perform several different types of missions. It carries state of the art navigation and targeting systems to deliver its payload with pinpoint precision and is designed for maximum survivability of the crew and aircraft for a safe return and quick turnaround. It can operate from fields as short as 1800 ft. with easy maintenance for dispersed operation during hostile situations. It is designed for exceptional maneuverability and could be used in a variety of roles from air-to-air operations to anti-submarine warfare and maritime patrol duties.

  20. Supporting the Future Air Traffic Control Projection Process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davison, Hayley J.; Hansman, R. John, Jr.

    2002-01-01

    In air traffic control, projecting what the air traffic situation will be over the next 30 seconds to 30 minutes is a key process in identifying conflicts that may arise so that evasive action can be taken upon discovery of these conflicts. A series of field visits in the Boston and New York terminal radar approach control (TRACON) facilities and in the oceanic air traffic control facilities in New York and Reykjavik, Iceland were conducted to investigate the projection process in two different ATC domains. The results from the site visits suggest that two types of projection are currently used in ATC tasks, depending on the type of separation minima and/or traffic restriction and information display used by the controller. As technologies improve and procedures change, care should be taken by designers to support projection through displays, automation, and procedures. It is critical to prevent time/space mismatches between interfaces and restrictions. Existing structure in traffic dynamics could be utilized to provide controllers with useful behavioral models on which to build projections. Subtle structure that the controllers are unable to internalize could be incorporated into an ATC projection aid.

  1. Weather Requirements and Procedures for Step 1: High Altitude Long Endurance (HALE) Unmanned Aircraft System (UAS) Flight Operations in the National Air Space (NAS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    This cover sheet is for version 2 of the weather requirements document along with Appendix A. The purpose of the requirements document was to identify and to list the weather functional requirements needed to achieve the Access 5 vision of "operating High Altitude, Long Endurance (HALE) Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) routinely, safely, and reliably in the National Airspace System (NAS) for Step 1." A discussion of the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) references and related policies, procedures, and standards is provided as basis for the recommendations supported within this document. Additional procedures and reference documentation related to weather functional requirements is also provided for background. The functional requirements and related information are to be proposed to the FAA and various standards organizations for consideration and approval. The appendix was designed to show that sources of flight weather information are readily available to UAS pilots conducting missions in the NAS. All weather information for this presentation was obtained from the public internet.

  2. Glossary of AWS Acrinabs. Acronyms, Initialisms, and Abbreviations Commonly Used in Air Weather Service

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-01-01

    National Environmental Data Referral Service NASNET. ... National Airspace System Network NEDS ......... Navy Environmenta! Display Station NASP...Electrical Manufacturers Association NASS ......... National Agricultural Statistics Service NEMS ........ Nimbus-E Microwave Spectrometer NATO...North Atlantic Treaty Organization NEO ........... noncombatant emergency operations NATS ......... Naval Air Transport Service NEPA --------- National

  3. A Systems Engineering Approach to Analyzing Weather Input Sensitivities of the Joint Precision Air Drop System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-06-01

    British airborne troops “watched in despair as thirty-five Stirling bomber-cargo planes dropped supplies everywhere but on the [drop] zones. Of eighty...must fly the aircraft to a specific point in the sky , known as the Computed Air Release Point (CARP). The CARP is calculated using variables such as

  4. Weather and air pollutants have an impact on patients with respiratory diseases and breathing difficulties in Munich, Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wanka, E. R.; Bayerstadler, A.; Heumann, C.; Nowak, D.; Jörres, R. A.; Fischer, R.

    2014-03-01

    This study determined the influence of various meteorological variables and air pollutants on airway disorders in general, and asthma and/or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in particular, in Munich, Bavaria, during 2006 and 2007. This was achieved through an evaluation of the daily frequency of calls to medical and emergency call centres, ambulatory medical care visits at general practitioners, and prescriptions of antibiotics for respiratory diseases. Meteorological parameters were extracted from data supplied by the European Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecast. Data on air pollutant levels were extracted from the air quality database of the European Environmental Agency for different measurement sites. In addition to descriptive analyses, a backward elimination procedure was performed to identify variables associated with medical outcome variables. Afterwards, generalised additive models (GAM) were used to verify whether the selected variables had a linear or nonlinear impact on the medical outcomes. The analyses demonstrated associations between environmental parameters and daily frequencies of different medical outcomes, such as visits at GPs and air pressure (-27 % per 10 hPa change) or ozone (-24 % per 10 μg/m3 change). The results of the GAM indicated that the effects of some covariates, such as carbon monoxide on consultations at GPs, or humidity on medical calls in general, were nonlinear, while the type of association varied between medical outcomes. These data suggest that the multiple, complex effect of environmental factors on medical outcomes should not be assumed homogeneous or linear a priori and that different settings might be associated with different types of associations.

  5. Weather and air pollutants have an impact on patients with respiratory diseases and breathing difficulties in Munich, Germany.

    PubMed

    Wanka, E R; Bayerstadler, A; Heumann, C; Nowak, D; Jörres, R A; Fischer, R

    2014-03-01

    This study determined the influence of various meteorological variables and air pollutants on airway disorders in general, and asthma and/or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in particular, in Munich, Bavaria, during 2006 and 2007. This was achieved through an evaluation of the daily frequency of calls to medical and emergency call centres, ambulatory medical care visits at general practitioners, and prescriptions of antibiotics for respiratory diseases. Meteorological parameters were extracted from data supplied by the European Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecast. Data on air pollutant levels were extracted from the air quality database of the European Environmental Agency for different measurement sites. In addition to descriptive analyses, a backward elimination procedure was performed to identify variables associated with medical outcome variables. Afterwards, generalised additive models (GAM) were used to verify whether the selected variables had a linear or nonlinear impact on the medical outcomes. The analyses demonstrated associations between environmental parameters and daily frequencies of different medical outcomes, such as visits at GPs and air pressure (-27 % per 10 hPa change) or ozone (-24 % per 10 μg/m(3) change). The results of the GAM indicated that the effects of some covariates, such as carbon monoxide on consultations at GPs, or humidity on medical calls in general, were nonlinear, while the type of association varied between medical outcomes. These data suggest that the multiple, complex effect of environmental factors on medical outcomes should not be assumed homogeneous or linear a priori and that different settings might be associated with different types of associations.

  6. National Weather Service

    MedlinePlus

    ... SAFETY Floods Tsunami Beach Hazards Wildfire Cold Tornadoes Air Quality Fog Heat Hurricanes Lightning Safe Boating Rip Currents ... ACTIVE ALERTS FORECAST MAPS RADAR RIVERS, LAKES, RAINFALL AIR QUALITY SATELLITE PAST WEATHER " ); }); American Samoa Guam Puerto Rico/ ...

  7. Real Time Space Weather Support for Chandra X-Ray Observatory Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    O'Dell, Stephen L.; Minow, Joseph I.; Miller, J. Scott; Wolk, Scott J.; Aldcroft, Thomas L.; Spitzbart, Bradley D.; Swartz. Douglas A.

    2012-01-01

    NASA launched the Chandra X-ray Observatory in July 1999. Soon after first light in August 1999, however, degradation in the energy resolution and charge transfer efficiency of the Advanced CCD Imaging Spectrometer (ACIS) x-ray detectors was observed. The source of the degradation was quickly identified as radiation damage in the charge-transfer channel of the front-illuminated CCDs, by weakly penetrating ( soft , 100 500 keV) protons as Chandra passed through the Earth s radiation belts and ring currents. As soft protons were not considered a risk to spacecraft health before launch, the only on-board radiation monitoring system is the Electron, Proton, and Helium Instrument (EPHIN) which was included on Chandra with the primary purpose of monitoring energetic solar particle events. Further damage to the ACIS detector has been successfully mitigated through a combination of careful mission planning, autonomous on-board radiation protection, and manual intervention based upon real-time monitoring of the soft-proton environment. The AE-8 and AP-8 trapped radiation models and Chandra Radiation Models are used to schedule science operations in regions of low proton flux. EPHIN has been used as the primary autonomous in-situ radiation trigger; but, it is not sensitive to the soft protons that damage the front-illuminated CCDs. Monitoring of near-real-time space weather data sources provides critical information on the proton environment outside the Earth s magnetosphere due to solar proton events and other phenomena. The operations team uses data from the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellites (GOES) to provide near-real-time monitoring of the proton environment; however, these data do not give a representative measure of the soft-proton (< 1 MeV) flux in Chandra s high elliptical orbit. The only source of relevant measurements of sub-MeV protons is the Electron, Proton, and Alpha Monitor (EPAM) aboard the Advanced Composition Explorer (ACE) satellite at L1

  8. The impact of Circulation Weather Types in Urban Air Quality in Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Russo, Ana; Trigo, Ricardo

    2013-04-01

    It is now clear that emissions of the main air pollutants in Europe have declined significantly in recent decades (EEA, 2011). Nevertheless, many European countries (including Portugal) do not expect to comply with one (or more) pollutant emission ceilings and to air quality limit values, especially for particulate matter (PM), ground level ozone (O3) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) (EEA, 2011). Consequently, and considering that air pollution (AP) plays a role as a major cause of human mortality and morbidity, exposure to pollutants remains a key environment-related health concern (EEA 2010). Thus, and to comply with the new limits, new strategies must be applied for air quality management. The main objective of this work is to present an objective classification of pre-defined and widely used CWTs affecting Portugal and, based on the most relevant patterns, provide a framework that is useful to characterise the occurrence of pollution episodes, namely its inter-annual and intra-annual variability, as well as the occurrence of extreme events. CWTs were determined using the simple Geostrophic approximation according to the methodology proposed by Trigo and DaCamara (2000). The interannual variability of the resulting CWTs was determined for the period with AP data (2002-2010) and the number of days for each CWT and season for the same period was accounted for. During this period, the most frequent CWTs were found to be the anticyclonic (A), the north (N) and the northeast (NE) types, accounting respectively for 34.7%, 10.9% and 14% of the days. However, higher-than average episodes tend to occur associated predominantly with situations characterized by a few less frequent CWTs, namely easterly (E), northeasterly (NE) and southeasterly (SE) types (that together contributed to less than one fourth of all observed days), are the ones which are associated to higher median and maximum concentrations of the three pollutants. Results obtained highlight the existence of strong

  9. The Guardian: Preliminary design of a close air support aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haag, Jonathan; Huber, David; Mcinerney, Kelly; Mulligan, Greg; Pessin, David; Seelos, Michael

    1991-01-01

    One design is presented of a Close Air Support (CAS) aircraft. It is a canard wing, twin engine, twin vertical tail aircraft that has the capability to cruise at 520 knots. The Guardian contains state of the art flight control systems. Specific highlights of the Guardian include: (1) low cost (the acquisition cost per airplane is $13.6 million for a production of 500 airplanes); (2) low maintenance (it was designed to be easily maintainable in unprepared fields); and (3) high versatility (it can perform a wide range of missions). Along with being a CAS aircraft, it is capable of long ferry missions, battlefield interdiction, maritime attack, and combat rescue. The Guardian is capable of a maximum ferry of 3800 nm, can takeoff in a distance of 1700 ft, land in a ground roll distance of 1644 ft. It has a maximum takeoff weight of 48,753 lbs, and is capable of carrying up to 19,500 lbs of ordinance.

  10. Weather in the Cockpit: Priorities, Sources, Delivery, and Needs in the Next Generation Air Transportation System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-07-01

    discomfort. Extreme turbulence could cause physical injuries to pilot/ passengers who are not wearing seat belts. Clear Air Turbulence (CAT) CAT... passengers who are not wearing seat belts. Generally caused by wind shear in the atmosphere where no clouds are present. Mountain Waves Fast...ways in which our analyses could inform the design of information systems. NextGen, in its mature state, envisions pilots having control over

  11. Air bearing provides friction-free support for shaker system slip table

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Skoff, R. W.

    1966-01-01

    Air bearing system supports a shaker system slip table with minimum friction. At each corner of a square of grooves made on the table, a hole is drilled through the table and fitted with air connections. Air pressure is simultaneously fed to the four fittings forming an air bearing.

  12. 32 CFR 644.535 - Support in clearance of Air Force lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Support in clearance of Air Force lands. 644.535 Section 644.535 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) REAL... Excess Land and Improvements § 644.535 Support in clearance of Air Force lands. Where Air Force...

  13. 32 CFR 644.535 - Support in clearance of Air Force lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Support in clearance of Air Force lands. 644.535 Section 644.535 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) REAL... Excess Land and Improvements § 644.535 Support in clearance of Air Force lands. Where Air Force...

  14. 32 CFR 644.535 - Support in clearance of Air Force lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Support in clearance of Air Force lands. 644.535 Section 644.535 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) REAL... Excess Land and Improvements § 644.535 Support in clearance of Air Force lands. Where Air Force...

  15. 32 CFR 644.535 - Support in clearance of Air Force lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Support in clearance of Air Force lands. 644.535 Section 644.535 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) REAL... Excess Land and Improvements § 644.535 Support in clearance of Air Force lands. Where Air Force...

  16. 32 CFR 644.535 - Support in clearance of Air Force lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Support in clearance of Air Force lands. 644.535 Section 644.535 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) REAL... Excess Land and Improvements § 644.535 Support in clearance of Air Force lands. Where Air Force...

  17. Real Time Space Weather Support for Chandra X-ray Observatory Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    O'Dell, Stephen L.; Miller, J. Scott; Minow, Joseph I.; Wolk, Scott J.; Aldcroft, Thomas L.; Spitzbart, Bradley D.; Swartz, Douglas A.

    2012-01-01

    NASA launched the Chandra X-ray Observatory in July 1999. Soon after first light in August 1999, however, degradation in the energy resolution and charge transfer efficiency of the Advanced CCD Imaging Spectrometer (ACIS) x-ray detectors was observed. The source of the degradation was quickly identified as radiation damage in the charge-transfer channel of the front-illuminated CCDs, by weakly penetrating ("soft", 100-500 keV) protons as Chandra passed through the Earth s radiation belts and ring currents. As soft protons were not considered a risk to spacecraft health before launch, the only on-board radiation monitoring system is the Electron, Proton, and Helium Instrument (EPHIN) which was included on Chandra with the primary purpose of monitoring energetic solar particle events. Further damage to the ACIS detector has been successfully mitigated through a combination of careful mission planning, autonomous on-board radiation protection, and manual intervention based upon real-time monitoring of the soft-proton environment. The AE-8 and AP-8 trapped radiation models and Chandra Radiation Models are used to schedule science operations in regions of low proton flux. EPHIN has been used as the primary autonomous in-situ radiation trigger; but, it is not sensitive to the soft protons that damage the front-illuminated CCDs. Monitoring of near-real-time space weather data sources provides critical information on the proton environment outside the Earth's magnetosphere due to solar proton events and other phenomena. The operations team uses data from the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellites (GOES) to provide near-real-time monitoring of the proton environment; however, these data do not give a representative measure of the soft-proton (less than 1 MeV) flux in Chandra s high elliptical orbit. The only source of relevant measurements of sub-MeV protons is the Electron, Proton, and Alpha Monitor (EPAM) aboard the Advanced Composition Explorer (ACE

  18. Real Time Space Weather Support for Chandra X-ray Observatory Operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Dell, S. L.; Miller, S.; Minow, J. I.; Wolk, S.; Aldcroft, T. L.; Spitzbart, B. D.; Swartz, D. A.

    2012-12-01

    NASA launched the Chandra X-ray Observatory in July 1999. Soon after first light in August 1999, however, degradation in the energy resolution and charge transfer efficiency of the Advanced CCD Imaging Spectrometer (ACIS) x-ray detectors was observed. The source of the degradation was quickly identified as radiation damage in the charge-transfer channel of the front-illuminated CCDs, by weakly penetrating ("soft", 100-500 keV) protons as Chandra passed through the Earth's radiation belts and ring currents. As soft protons were not considered a risk to spacecraft health before launch, the only on-board radiation monitoring system is the Electron, Proton, and Helium Instrument (EPHIN) which was included on Chandra with the primary purpose of monitoring energetic solar particle events. Further damage to the ACIS detector has been successfully mitigated through a combination of careful mission planning, autonomous on-board radiation protection, and manual intervention based upon real-time monitoring of the soft-proton environment. The AE-8 and AP-8 trapped radiation models and Chandra Radiation Models are used to schedule science operations in regions of low proton flux. EPHIN has been used as the primary autonomous in-situ radiation trigger; but, it is not sensitive to the soft protons that damage the front-illuminated CCDs. Monitoring of near-real-time space weather data sources provides critical information on the proton environment outside the Earth's magnetosphere due to solar proton events and other phenomena. The operations team uses data from the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellites (GOES) to provide near-real-time monitoring of the proton environment; however, these data do not give a representative measure of the soft-proton (< 1 MeV) flux in Chandra's high elliptical orbit. The only source of relevant measurements of sub-MeV protons is the Electron, Proton, and Alpha Monitor (EPAM) aboard the Advanced Composition Explorer (ACE) satellite at L1

  19. Prediction of Weather Impacted Airport Capacity using Ensemble Learning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Yao Xun

    2011-01-01

    Ensemble learning with the Bagging Decision Tree (BDT) model was used to assess the impact of weather on airport capacities at selected high-demand airports in the United States. The ensemble bagging decision tree models were developed and validated using the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) Aviation System Performance Metrics (ASPM) data and weather forecast at these airports. The study examines the performance of BDT, along with traditional single Support Vector Machines (SVM), for airport runway configuration selection and airport arrival rates (AAR) prediction during weather impacts. Testing of these models was accomplished using observed weather, weather forecast, and airport operation information at the chosen airports. The experimental results show that ensemble methods are more accurate than a single SVM classifier. The airport capacity ensemble method presented here can be used as a decision support model that supports air traffic flow management to meet the weather impacted airport capacity in order to reduce costs and increase safety.

  20. Does weather confound or modify the association of particulate air pollution with mortality? An analysis of the Philadelphia data, 1973--1980

    SciTech Connect

    Samet, J.; Zeger, S.; Kelsall, J.; Xu, J.; Kalkstein, L.

    1998-04-01

    This report considers the consequences of using alternative approaches to controlling for weather and explores modification of air pollution effects by weather, as weather patterns could plausibly alter air pollution`s effect on health. The authors analyzed 1973--1980 total mortality data for Philadelphia using four weather models and compared estimates of the effects of TSP and SO{sub 2} on mortality using a Poisson regression model. Two synoptic categories developed by Kalkstein were selected--The Temporal Synoptic Index (TSI) and the Spatial Synoptic Classification (SSC)--and compared with (1) descriptive models developed by Schwartz and Dockery (S-D); and (2) LOESS, a nonparametric function of the previous day`s temperature and dew point. The authors considered model fit using Akaike`s Information Criterion (AIC) and changes in the estimated effects of TSP and SO{sub 2}. In the full-year analysis, S-D is better than LOESS at predicting mortality, and S-D and LOESS are better than TSI, as measured by AIC. When TSP or SO{sub 2} was fit alone, the results were qualitatively similar, regardless of how weather was controlled; when TSP and SO{sub 2} were fit simultaneously, the S-D and LOESS models give qualitatively different results than TSI, which attributes more of the pollution effect to SO{sub 2} than to TSP. Model fit is substantially poorer with TSI.

  1. Paired-Associate and Feedback-Based Weather Prediction Tasks Support Multiple Category Learning Systems

    PubMed Central

    Li, Kaiyun; Fu, Qiufang; Sun, Xunwei; Zhou, Xiaoyan; Fu, Xiaolan

    2016-01-01

    It remains unclear whether probabilistic category learning in the feedback-based weather prediction task (FB-WPT) can be mediated by a non-declarative or procedural learning system. To address this issue, we compared the effects of training time and verbal working memory, which influence the declarative learning system but not the non-declarative learning system, in the FB and paired-associate (PA) WPTs, as the PA task recruits a declarative learning system. The results of Experiment 1 showed that the optimal accuracy in the PA condition was significantly decreased when the training time was reduced from 7 to 3 s, but this did not occur in the FB condition, although shortened training time impaired the acquisition of explicit knowledge in both conditions. The results of Experiment 2 showed that the concurrent working memory task impaired the optimal accuracy and the acquisition of explicit knowledge in the PA condition but did not influence the optimal accuracy or the acquisition of self-insight knowledge in the FB condition. The apparent dissociation results between the FB and PA conditions suggested that a non-declarative or procedural learning system is involved in the FB-WPT and provided new evidence for the multiple-systems theory of human category learning. PMID:27445958

  2. On Regional Modeling to Support Air Quality Policies

    EPA Science Inventory

    We examine the use of the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model in simulating the changes in the extreme values of air quality that are of interest to the regulatory agencies. Year-to-year changes in ozone air quality are attributable to variations in the prevailing mete...

  3. High-Resolution Analysis Products to Support Severe Weather and Cloud-to-Ground Lightning Threat Assessments over Florida

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Case, Jonathan; Spratt, Scott; Sharp, David

    2006-01-01

    The Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) located at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC)/Cape Canaveral Air Force Station (CCAFS) implemented an operational configuration of the Advanced Regional Prediction System (ARPS) Data Analysis System (ADAS), as well as the ARPS numerical weather prediction (NWP) model. Operational, high-resolution ADAS analyses have been produced from this configuration at the National Weather Service in Melbourne, FL (NWS MLB) and the Spaceflight Meteorology Group (SMG) over the past several years. Since that time, ADAS fields have become an integral part of forecast operations at both NWS MLB and SMG. To continue providing additional utility, the AMU has been tasked to implement visualization products to assess the potential for supercell thunderstorms and significant tornadoes, and to improve assessments of short-term cloud-to-ground (CG) lightning potential. This paper and presentation focuses on the visualization products developed by the AMU for the operational high-resolution ADAS and AR.PS at the NWS MLB and SMG. The two severe weather threat graphics implemented within ADAS/ARPS are the Supercell Composite Parameter (SCP) and Significant Tornado Parameter (SIP). The SCP was designed to identify areas with supercell thunderstorm potential through a combination of several instability and shear parameters. The SIP was designed to identify areas that favor supercells producing significant tornadoes (F2 or greater intensity) versus non-tornadic supercells. Both indices were developed by the NOAAINWS Storm Prediction Center (SPC) and were normalized by key threshold values based on previous studies. The indices apply only to discrete storms, not other convective modes. In a post-analysis mode, the AMU calculated SCP and SIP for graphical output using an ADAS configuration similar to the operational set-ups at NWS MLB and SMG. Graphical images from ADAS were generated every 15 minutes for 13 August 2004, the day that Hurricane Charley approached and

  4. Weather Specialist/Aerographer's Mate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chanute AFB Technical Training Center, IL.

    This course trains Air Force personnel to perform duties prescribed for weather specialists and aerographer's mates. Training includes meteorology, surface and ship observation, weather radar, operation of standard weather instruments and communications equipment, and decoding and plotting of surface and upper air codes upon standard maps and…

  5. US Air Force Space Weather Products Rapid Prototyping Efforts - Solar Radio Background/Burst Effects and Meteor Effects Products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quigley, S.; Scro, K.

    2001-12-01

    The Space Vehicles Directorate of the Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL/VSB) has joined efforts with the Technology Applications Division of the Space and Missile Systems Center (SMC Det 11/CIT) to rapidly transition space weather research into prototype, operational, system-impact products. These Rapid Prototyping Center (RPC) products are used to analyze, specify, and forecast the effects of the near-earth space environment on Department of Defense systems and communications. A summary of RPC activity is provided. Emphasis will be placed on current products under development, to include Solar Radio Background/Burst Effects (SoRBE) and Meteor Effects (ME) products. These will be added to real-time operations in the near future. SoRBE specifies the detrimental interference effects of background and event-level solar radio output on radar observations and satellite communications. ME will provide general meteor shower "nowcast" and forecast information, along with more specific meteor and meteor shower impact, radar clutter, and bolide (exploding meteor) effects. A brief overview of recently delivered products: Radar Auroral Clutter, Satellite Scintillation, HF Illumination, and GPS Single-Frequency Error Maps will also be provided.

  6. Targeting Air Interdiction in Support of Airland Battle.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-26

    and execute air attacks against Army nominated targets are. described in detail. The impact of emerging technology in the form of advanced sensors...Element (BCE) are defined. Coordinating procedures used by the TACC- BCE to plan and execute air attacks against Army nominated targets are described...in capi- talizing on on-going procedural and equipment related improvements that allow the Army and the Air Force to locate, target and attack enemy

  7. Wind Prediction Accuracy for Air Traffic Management Decision Support Tools

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cole, Rod; Green, Steve; Jardin, Matt; Schwartz, Barry; Benjamin, Stan

    2000-01-01

    The performance of Air Traffic Management and flight deck decision support tools depends in large part on the accuracy of the supporting 4D trajectory predictions. This is particularly relevant to conflict prediction and active advisories for the resolution of conflicts and the conformance with of traffic-flow management flow-rate constraints (e.g., arrival metering / required time of arrival). Flight test results have indicated that wind prediction errors may represent the largest source of trajectory prediction error. The tests also discovered relatively large errors (e.g., greater than 20 knots), existing in pockets of space and time critical to ATM DST performance (one or more sectors, greater than 20 minutes), are inadequately represented by the classic RMS aggregate prediction-accuracy studies of the past. To facilitate the identification and reduction of DST-critical wind-prediction errors, NASA has lead a collaborative research and development activity with MIT Lincoln Laboratories and the Forecast Systems Lab of the National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). This activity, begun in 1996, has focussed on the development of key metrics for ATM DST performance, assessment of wind-prediction skill for state of the art systems, and development/validation of system enhancements to improve skill. A 13 month study was conducted for the Denver Center airspace in 1997. Two complementary wind-prediction systems were analyzed and compared to the forecast performance of the then standard 60 km Rapid Update Cycle - version 1 (RUC-1). One system, developed by NOAA, was the prototype 40-km RUC-2 that became operational at NCEP in 1999. RUC-2 introduced a faster cycle (1 hr vs. 3 hr) and improved mesoscale physics. The second system, Augmented Winds (AW), is a prototype en route wind application developed by MITLL based on the Integrated Terminal Wind System (ITWS). AW is run at a local facility (Center) level, and updates RUC predictions based on an

  8. Impact of phlebotomine sand flies on United States military operations at Tallil Air Base, Iraq: 5. Impact of weather on sand fly activity.

    PubMed

    Colacicco-Mayhugh, Michelle G; Grieco, John P; Putnam, John L; Burkett, Douglas A; Coleman, Russell E

    2011-05-01

    In this study, we examined the effect of weather and moon illumination on sand fly activity, as measured by light trap collections made between 2 May 2003 and 25 October 2004 at Tallil Air Base, Iraq. Wind speed, temperature, dew point, percentage of sky cover, and moon illumination were entered into principal components analysis. The resulting principal components were entered into stepwise regression to develop a model of the impact of the weather on sand fly collections. Wind speed, percentage of sky cover, and moon illumination each had a strong inverse relationship with the number of sand flies collected, whereas temperature displayed a direct relationship to sand fly collections. Our data indicate that sand fly light trap catches at Tallil Air Base are highest on warm, clear nights with low wind speed and minimal illumination from the moon.

  9. Cold-Weather Sports and Your Family

    MedlinePlus

    ... Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Cold-Weather Sports and Your Family KidsHealth > For Parents > Cold- ... once the weather turns frosty. Beating the Cold-Weather Blahs Once a chill is in the air, ...

  10. Information Requirements for Supervisory Air Traffic Controllers in Support of a Wake Vortex Departure System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lohr, Gary W.; Williams, Daniel M.; Trujillo, Anna C.

    2008-01-01

    Closely Space Parallel Runway (CSPR) configurations are capacity limited for departures due to the requirement to apply wake vortex separation standards from traffic departing on the adjacent parallel runway. To mitigate the effects of this constraint, a concept focusing on wind dependent departure operations has been developed, known as the Wake Turbulence Mitigation for Departures (WTMD). This concept takes advantage of the fact that crosswinds of sufficient velocity blow wakes generated by aircraft departing from the downwind runway away from the upwind runway. Consequently, under certain conditions, wake separations on the upwind runway would not be required based on wakes generated by aircraft on the downwind runway, as is currently the case. It follows that information requirements, and sources for this information, would need to be determined for airport traffic control tower (ATCT) supervisory personnel who would be charged with decisions regarding use of the procedure. To determine the information requirements, data were collected from ATCT supervisors and controller-in-charge qualified individuals at Lambert-St. Louis International Airport (STL) and George Bush Houston Intercontinental Airport (IAH). STL and IAH were chosen as data collection sites based on the implementation of a WTMD prototype system, operating in shadow mode, at these locations. The 17 total subjects (STL: 5, IAH: 12) represented a broad-base of air traffic experience. Results indicated that the following information was required to support the conduct of WTMD operations: current and forecast weather information, current and forecast traffic demand and traffic flow restrictions, and WTMD System status information and alerting. Subjects further indicated that the requisite information is currently available in the tower cab with the exception of the WTMD status and alerting. Subjects were given a demonstration of a display supporting the prototype systems and unanimously stated that the

  11. Air Defense Priorities in Support of Airland Battle

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-06-03

    staff and ADA commanders who identified soecific staff members as involved in the analysis of recunerabilitv within coros and division CorlCoS r n AfS...corps and division headauarters to articulate air defense oriorities to 0 Coros D i of d r ABnr (n-5) (n-10) (n-4) (a-10) o Body of 80% 100% 73% 100...Podlesny, Robert E. "Mobile Air Defense for the Division," Marine 0 Coros awtte (May 1981), 68. Seckinger, Roy L. "Does the Corps Lack Air Defense?" Marine

  12. Down in the Weeds: Close Air Support in Korea

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-01-01

    Fifth Air Force organized the 51st Fighter Squadron (Provisional) [FS(P)] to incorporate American per- 4 *The 18th FBG was part of the 18th Fighter...was inflexible and most likely would re- sult in the corps receiving fewer sorties than they had gotten in the past. The Fifth Air Force leader sensed ...The U.S. Air Force in Korea A I R F O R C E H I S T O R Y A N D M U S E U M S P R O

  13. Using Real-Time Weather Data from an Unmanned Aircraft System to Support the Advanced Research Version of the Weather Research and Forecast Model

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-04-01

    ADMNSTR DEFNS TECHL INFO CTR DTIC OCP 8725 JOHN J KINGMAN RD STE 0944 FT BELVOIR VA 22060-6218 3 HCs US ARMY RSRCH LAB ATTN RDRL CIO...FOR ATMOS RSCH PO BOX 3000 BOULDER CO 80307-3000 1 CD HEADQUARTERS DEPT OF ARMY DAMI POB WEATHER TEAM 1000 ARMY PENTAGON ROOM 2E383...ARMY CECRLCECRL GP ATTN DR DETSCH HANOVER NH 03755-1290 1 CD USAF ROME LAB TECH CORRIDOR W STE 262 RL SUL 26 ELECTR PKWY BLD 106 GRIFFISS

  14. Weather and climate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Recommendations for using space observations of weather and climate to aid in solving earth based problems are given. Special attention was given to: (1) extending useful forecasting capability of space systems, (2) reducing social, economic, and human losses caused by weather, (3) development of space system capability to manage and control air pollutant concentrations, and (4) establish mechanisms for the national examination of deliberate and inadvertent means for modifying weather and climate.

  15. High Altitude Weather Balloons to Support Rayleigh and Sodium Lidar Studies of the Troposphere, Stratosphere and Mesosphere at the Amundsen-Scott South Pole Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Papen, George

    1995-01-01

    This proposal funded 100 high altitude weather balloons costing $15,500 to support the deployment of a Rayleigh/Raman/Na lidar at the South Pole. One year of measurements have been completed and it is estimated that the balloons will provide another 1-2 years of data.

  16. Validation of Optical Turbulence Simulations from a Numerical Weather Prediction Model in Support of Adaptive Optics Design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alliss, R.; Felton, B.

    Optical turbulence (OT) acts to distort light in the atmosphere, degrading imagery from large astronomical telescopes and possibly reducing data quality of air to air laser communication links. Some of the degradation due to turbulence can be corrected by adaptive optics. However, the severity of optical turbulence, and thus the amount of correction required, is largely dependent upon the turbulence at the location of interest. Therefore, it is vital to understand the climatology of optical turbulence at such locations. In many cases, it is impractical and expensive to setup instrumentation to characterize the climatology of OT, so simulations become a less expensive and convenient alternative. The strength of OT is characterized by the refractive index structure function Cn2, which in turn is used to calculate atmospheric seeing parameters. While attempts have been made to characterize Cn2 using empirical models, Cn2 can be calculated more directly from Numerical Weather Prediction (NWP) simulations using pressure, temperature, thermal stability, vertical wind shear, turbulent Prandtl number, and turbulence kinetic energy (TKE). In this work we use the Weather Research and Forecast (WRF) NWP model to generate Cn2 climatologies in the planetary boundary layer and free atmosphere, allowing for both point-to-point and ground-to-space seeing estimates of the Fried Coherence length (ro) and other seeing parameters. Simulations are performed using the Maui High Performance Computing Centers Jaws cluster. The WRF model is configured to run at 1km horizontal resolution over a domain covering the islands of Maui and the Big Island. The vertical resolution varies from 25 meters in the boundary layer to 500 meters in the stratosphere. The model top is 20 km. We are interested in the variations in Cn2 and the Fried Coherence Length (ro) between the summits of Haleakala and Mauna Loa. Over six months of simulations have been performed over this area. Simulations indicate that

  17. Weather Fundamentals: Wind. [Videotape].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1998

    The videos in this educational series, for grades 4-7, help students understand the science behind weather phenomena through dramatic live-action footage, vivid animated graphics, detailed weather maps, and hands-on experiments. This episode (23 minutes) describes the roles of the sun, temperature, and air pressure in creating the incredible power…

  18. Unmanned Combat Aerial Vehicles: A Close Air Support Alternative

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    War College, Maxwell AFB AL, Jones Auditorium, 24 October 2002. 30 Terry Somerville , “Global Strike Task Force—Kicking Down the Door”, Air Force...2002, 34. 49 Anne Marie Squeo, “Pentagon’s Aerodynamic Shift—Ascendant Unmanned Planes May Mothball Some Manned Ones,” The Wall Street Journal, 14...2002. Somerville , Terry. “Global Strike Task Force—Kicking Down the Door.” Air Force Link, 10 August 2001, n.p. On-line. Internet, 12 November 2002

  19. Scale Issues in Air Quality Modeling Policy Support

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study examines the issues relating to the use of regional photochemical air quality models for evaluating their performance in reproducing the spatio-temporal features embedded in the observations and for designing emission control strategies needed to achieve compliance wit...

  20. Close Air Support: Which Way Do We Go?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-12-01

    Reservoir fighting in 1950; outpost, column, and Parameters hamlet defense in Indochina and South Vietnam; and siege-breaking at Dien Bien Phu and Khe...Air Force has always sought leadership. It fits nicely their service persona . But is it in the Army’s interest to take over CAS, much less all of

  1. Mortality related to cold and air pollution in London after allowance for effects of associated weather patterns.

    PubMed

    Keatinge, W R; Donaldson, G C

    2001-07-01

    We looked for atypical weather patterns that could confound, and explain large inconsistencies in, conventional estimates of mortality due to SO(2), CO, and smoke. Using Greater London data for 1976-1995 in the linear temperature/mortality range 0-15 degrees C we determined weather patterns associated with pollutants (all deseasonalized) by single regressions of daily temperature, wind, rain, humidity, and sunshine at successive days advance and delay. Polluted days were colder (P<0.01 for SO(2), CO, and smoke) and less windy and rainy than usual, and this cold weather was more prolonged than usual with 50% maximum temperature depression 5.9 days (95% interval 4.0-7.7) before high SO(2), compared to 2.0 (1.6-2.3) days before average cold days. We also used multiple regression of mortality at 50+ years of age on all these weather factors and pollutants at 0-, 1-, 2- to 4-, 5- to 13-, and 14- to 24-day delays to allow for the atypical weather patterns. This showed cold weather associated with 2.77 excess deaths per million during 24 days following a 1 degrees C fall for 1 day, but no net excess deaths with SO(2) (mean 28.0 ppb) or CO (1.26 ppm). It suggested (P>0.05) some increase with smoke, perhaps acting as surrogate for PM(10), for which data were too scanty to analyze.

  2. APL experience with space weather modeling and transition to operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zanetti, L. J.; Wing, S.

    2009-12-01

    In response to the growing space weather needs, the Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory (APL) developed and delivered twenty two state of the art space weather products under the auspice of the University Partnering in Operational Support program, initiated in 1998. These products offer nowcasts and forecasts for the region spanning from the Sun to the Earth. Some of these products have been transitioned to the Air Force Weather Agency and other space weather centers. The transition process is quite different from research modeling, requiring additional staff with different sets of expertise. Recently, APL has developed a space weather web page to serve these products to the research and user community. For the initial stage, we have chosen ten of these products to be served from our website, which is presently still under construction. APL’s experience, lessons learned, and successes from developing space weather models, the transition to operations process and the webpage access will be shared and discussed

  3. Air Force Combat Support: Adjusting Doctrine to Meet Expeditionary Air Force Requirements

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    Force Battlelab Briefing”: U.S Air Force Air Expeditionary Force Battlelab Web Page, on-line, Netscape , 15 Mar 00, available from www.mountain.af.mil...Expeditionary Air Force Web Site, slide 4, on- line, Netscape , 2 Apr 00, www.af.mil/eaf/master.ppt This slide portrays how the Air Force has changed since...Center Web Page, on-line, Netscape , 26 Mar 00, available from www.hqafdc.maxwell.af.mil/library/doctrine/afdd2brief.ppt: slide 2 2 “The little

  4. "Supergreen" Renewables: Integration of Mineral Weathering Into Renewable Energy Production for Air CO2 Removal and Storage as Ocean Alkalinity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rau, G. H.; Carroll, S.; Ren, Z. J.

    2015-12-01

    Excess planetary CO2 and accompanying ocean acidification are naturally mitigated on geologic time scales via mineral weathering. Here, CO2 acidifies the hydrosphere, which then slowly reacts with silicate and carbonate minerals to produce dissolved bicarbonates that are ultimately delivered to the ocean. This alkalinity not only provides long-term sequestration of the excess atmospheric carbon, but it also chemically counters the effects of ocean acidification by stabilizing or raising pH and carbonate saturation state, thus helping rebalance ocean chemistry and preserving marine ecosystems. Recent research has demonstrated ways of greatly accelerating this process by its integration into energy systems. Specifically, it has been shown (1) that some 80% of the CO2 in a waste gas stream can be spontaneously converted to stable, seawater mineral bicarbonate in the presence of a common carbonate mineral - limestone. This can allow removal of CO2 from biomass combustion and bio-energy production while generating beneficial ocean alkalinity, providing a potentially cheaper and more environmentally friendly negative-CO2-emissions alternative to BECCS. It has also been demonstrated that strong acids anodically produced in a standard saline water electrolysis cell in the formation of H2 can be reacted with carbonate or silicate minerals to generate strong base solutions. These solutions are highly absorptive of air CO2, converting it to mineral bicarbonate in solution. When such electrochemical cells are powered by non-fossil energy (e.g. electricity from wind, solar, tidal, biomass, geothermal, etc. energy sources), the system generates H2 that is strongly CO2-emissions-negative, while producing beneficial marine alkalinity (2-4). The preceding systems therefore point the way toward renewable energy production that, when tightly coupled to geochemical mitigation of CO2 and formation of natural ocean "antacids", forms a high capacity, negative-CO2-emissions, "supergreen

  5. Air feed tube support system for a solid oxide fuel cell generator

    DOEpatents

    Doshi, Vinod B.; Ruka, Roswell J.; Hager, Charles A.

    2002-01-01

    A solid oxide fuel cell generator (12), containing tubular fuel cells (36) with interior air electrodes (18), where a supporting member (82) containing a plurality of holes (26) supports oxidant feed tubes (51), which pass from an oxidant plenum (52") into the center of the fuel cells, through the holes (26) in the supporting member (82), where a compliant gasket (86) around the top of the oxidant feed tubes and on top (28) of the supporting member (82) helps support the oxidant feed tubes and center them within the fuel cells, and loosen the tolerance for centering the air feed tubes.

  6. Customer Satisfaction with Air Force Civil Engineering Support

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-09-01

    fundamentals of customer satisfaction . It also includes managing the customer’s expectations through advertising and product literature, as well as...civil engineering customer service unit as well as customer satisfaction (McKnight and Parker, 1983:107-109). Interestingly, the most frequently...that satisfaction with Air Force life impacts civil engineering customer satisfaction , this factor is clearly outside the realm of control by civil

  7. Gulf War Air Power Survey. Volume 3. Logistics and Support

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-01-01

    mm CPX 100K 500K 20 mm HEI 100K 415K 2.5M Durandal 780 9(S) Intvw, CENTAFILOW, 15 Apr 1992, ’°CIUNTAF Master Storage Plan 1 -89, CL:NTAIF/LOW; confirmed...Torrejon. * 5 Oct 1990: In addition to in-theater F- 1 5C support, A- 10 inter- mediate support is still planned for King Fahd; all other support...Report Volume J: Part 1 : Planning Report Part II: Command and Control Report Volume II: Part I: Operations Report Part II: Effectiveness Report Volume

  8. Evaluation of a seven-year air quality simulation using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF)/Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) models in the eastern United States.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hongliang; Chen, Gang; Hu, Jianlin; Chen, Shu-Hua; Wiedinmyer, Christine; Kleeman, Michael; Ying, Qi

    2014-03-01

    The performance of the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF)/Community Multi-scale Air Quality (CMAQ) system in the eastern United States is analyzed based on results from a seven-year modeling study with a 4-km spatial resolution. For 2-m temperature, the monthly averaged mean bias (MB) and gross error (GE) values are generally within the recommended performance criteria, although temperature is over-predicted with MB values up to 2K. Water vapor at 2-m is well-predicted but significant biases (>2 g kg(-1)) were observed in wintertime. Predictions for wind speed are satisfactory but biased towards over-prediction with 0

  9. Weather Watch

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bratt, Herschell Marvin

    1973-01-01

    Suggests a number of ways in which Federal Aviation Agency weather report printouts can be used in teaching the weather section of meteorology. These weather sequence reports can be obtained free of charge at most major airports. (JR)

  10. Trial by Fire: Forging American Close Air Support Doctrine, World War I through September 1944

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    aircraft, was causal in the Allies poor early air performance over North Africa, while generating interservice bitterness and mistrust. When...General Staff College, 1984. Lewis, Michael. “Lt GEN Ned Almond , USA: A Ground Commander’s Conflicting View with Airmen over Close Air Support Doctrine

  11. Studying the Proteomic Composition of Expired Air Condensate in Newborns on Breathing Support.

    PubMed

    Kononikhin, A S; Ryndin, A Yu; Starodubtseva, N L; Chagovets, V V; Burov, A A; Bugrova, A E; Kostyukevich, Yu I; Popov, I A; Frankevich, V E; Ionov, O V; Zubkov, V V; Nikolaev, E N

    2016-04-01

    This study was designed to collect and perform a proteomic analysis of expired air condensate in newborns receiving respiratory support at the Department of Resuscitation and Intensive Care. The proteomic composition of expired air condensate was evaluated in newborns at various stages of development and with different abnormalities.

  12. Contractor Logistics Support in the U.S. Air Force

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-01-01

    the Sacramento ALC at McClellan AFB . After the BRAC Commission voted in FY 1995 to close McClellan , the Air Force chose CLS for the F-117. The... Sacramento ALC at McClellan AFB would also have been the depot for the F-22. The original sustainment plan for organic sup- port was premised on a fleet of...major depots until the Base Realignment and Closure (BRAC) Commission in 1995 recommended closure of two ALCs.1 Kelly and McClellan AFBs closed in

  13. Air and water quality monitor assessment of life support subsystems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitley, Ken; Carrasquillo, Robyn L.; Holder, D.; Humphries, R.

    1988-01-01

    Preprotype air revitalization and water reclamation subsystems (Mole Sieve, Sabatier, Static Feed Electrolyzer, Trace Contaminant Control, and Thermoelectric Integrated Membrane Evaporative Subsystem) were operated and tested independently and in an integrated arrangement. During each test, water and/or gas samples were taken from each subsystem so that overall subsystem performance could be determined. The overall test design and objectives for both subsystem and integrated subsystem tests were limited, and no effort was made to meet water or gas specifications. The results of chemical analyses for each of the participating subsystems are presented along with other selected samples which were analyzed for physical properties and microbiologicals.

  14. Automated Air Traffic Control Operations with Weather and Time-Constraints: A First Look at (Simulated) Far-Term Control Room Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prevot, Thomas; Homola, Jeffrey R.; Martin, Lynne H.; Mercer, Joey S.; Cabrall, Christopher C.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we discuss results from a recent high fidelity simulation of air traffic control operations with automated separation assurance in the presence of weather and time-constraints. We report findings from a human-in-the-loop study conducted in the Airspace Operations Laboratory (AOL) at the NASA Ames Research Center. During four afternoons in early 2010, fifteen active and recently retired air traffic controllers and supervisors controlled high levels of traffic in a highly automated environment during three-hour long scenarios, For each scenario, twelve air traffic controllers operated eight sector positions in two air traffic control areas and were supervised by three front line managers, Controllers worked one-hour shifts, were relieved by other controllers, took a 3D-minute break, and worked another one-hour shift. On average, twice today's traffic density was simulated with more than 2200 aircraft per traffic scenario. The scenarios were designed to create peaks and valleys in traffic density, growing and decaying convective weather areas, and expose controllers to heavy and light metering conditions. This design enabled an initial look at a broad spectrum of workload, challenge, boredom, and fatigue in an otherwise uncharted territory of future operations. In this paper we report human/system integration aspects, safety and efficiency results as well as airspace throughput, workload, and operational acceptability. We conclude that, with further refinements. air traffic control operations with ground-based automated separation assurance can be an effective and acceptable means to routinely provide very high traffic throughput in the en route airspace.

  15. Air Quality Modeling in Support of the Near-road EXposures and effects of Urban air pollutants Study (NEXUS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper presents the results of the model applications to estimate exposure metrics in support of an epidemiologic study in Detroit, Michigan. The Near-road Exposures to Urban air pollutant Study (NEXUS) design includes determining if children in Detroit, MI with asthma living ...

  16. Air Sensor Kit Performance Testing and Pollutant Mapping Supports Community Air Monitoring Project

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA is collaborating on a research project with the South Coast Air Quality Management District in Diamond Bar, Calif. to gain an enhanced understanding of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and ozone concentrations across the study area.

  17. Combat Support Execution Planning and Control. An Assessment of Initial Implementations in Air Force Exercises

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-01-01

    time-phased force and deployment data USAFE U.S. Air Forces in Europe UTASC USAFE Theater Aerospace Support Center UTC unit type code WPC Warfighter...scenario and supporting simulated environment were developed and run by the Warfighter Preparation Center ( WPC ) facility at Einsedlerhof Air Station near...participate.11 Forces below the operational level were simulated by the WPC . The training audience consisted of the JFACC and staff, AFFOR staff, AOC, and the

  18. United States Air Force Graduate Student Summer Support Program (1985). Management Report.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-12-01

    Clasification) United States Air Force Graduate Student Su er Support rogram - Program Manag -ment Repoi 12. PERSONAL AUTHOR(S) Rodney C. Darrah, Susan K. Espy 13...Major Amos Otis, Program Manager (202) 767-4970 XOT I I 2DISTORIBUTIO,/A VALAREDITION OF JAN A C IS OBSOLETE CA D FORM 1473, 83 APR EDIIO OF1...8217. .- ,. *.. . . ,. €. * j*.,P ’. ... : ’ UNITED STATES AIR FORCE GRADUATE STUDENT SUMMER SUPPORT PROGRAM 1985 PROGRAM MANAGEMENT REPORT - UNIVERSAL

  19. On-line Chemistry within WRF: Description and Evaluation of a State-of-the-Art Multiscale Air Quality and Weather Prediction Model

    SciTech Connect

    Grell, Georg; Fast, Jerome D.; Gustafson, William I.; Peckham, Steven E.; McKeen, Stuart A.; Salzmann, Marc; Freitas, Saulo

    2010-01-01

    This is a conference proceeding that is now being put together as a book. This is chapter 2 of the book: "INTEGRATED SYSTEMS OF MESO-METEOROLOGICAL AND CHEMICAL TRANSPORT MODELS" published by Springer. The chapter title is "On-line Chemistry within WRF: Description and Evaluation of a State-of-the-Art Multiscale Air Quality and Weather Prediction Model." The original conference was the COST-728/NetFAM workshop on Integrated systems of meso-meteorological and chemical transport models, Danish Meteorological Institute, Copenhagen, May 21-23, 2007.

  20. Eastern Texas Air Quality Forecasting System to Support TexAQS-II and 8-hour Ozone Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Byun, D. W.

    2005-12-01

    The main objective of the Second Texas Air Quality Study (TexAQS-II) for 2005 and 2006 is to understand emissions and processes associated with the formation and transport of ozone and regional haze in Texas. The target research area is the more populated eastern half of the state, roughly from Interstate 35 eastward. Accurate meteorological and photochemical modeling efforts are essential to support this study and further enhance modeling efforts for establishing the State Implementation Plan (SIP) by Texas Commission on Environmental Quality (TCEQ). An air quality forecasting (AQF) system for Eastern Texas has been developed to provide these data and to further facilitate retrospective simulations to allow for model improvement and increased understanding of ozone episodes and emissions. We perform two-day air quality forecasting simulations with the 12-km Eastern Texas regional domain, and the 4-km Houston-Galveston area (HGA) domain utilizing a 48-CPU Beowulf Linux computer system. The dynamic boundary conditions are provided by the 36-km resolution conterminous US (CONUS) domain CMAQ simulations. Initial meteorological conditions are provided by the daily ETA forecast results. The results of individual runs are stored and made available to researchers and state and local officials via internet to study the patterns of air quality and its relationship to weather conditions and emissions. The data during the pre- and post-processing stages are in tens of gigabytes and must be managed efficiently during both the actual real-time and the subsequent computation periods. The nature of these forecasts and the time at which the initial data is available necessitates that models be executed within tight deadlines. A set of complex operational scripts is used to allow automatic operation of the data download, sequencing processors, performing graphical analysis, building database archives, and presenting on the web.

  1. Local-Scale Air Quality Modeling in Support of Human Health and Exposure Research (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isakov, V.

    2010-12-01

    Spatially- and temporally-sparse information on air quality is a key concern for air-pollution-related environmental health studies. Monitor networks are sparse in both space and time, are costly to maintain, and are often designed purposely to avoid detecting highly localized sources. Recent studies have shown that more narrowly defining the geographic domain of the study populations and improvements in the measured/estimated ambient concentrations can lead to stronger associations between air pollution and hospital admissions and mortality records. Traditionally, ambient air quality measurements have been used as a primary input to support human health and exposure research. However, there is increasing evidence that the current ambient monitoring network is not capturing sharp gradients in exposure due to the presence of high concentration levels near, for example, major roadways. Many air pollutants exhibit large concentration gradients near large emitters such as major roadways, factories, ports, etc. To overcome these limitations, researchers are now beginning to use air quality models to support air pollution exposure and health studies. There are many advantages to using air quality models over traditional approaches based on existing ambient measurements alone. First, models can provide spatially- and temporally-resolved concentrations as direct input to exposure and health studies and thus better defining the concentration levels for the population in the geographic domain. Air quality models have a long history of use in air pollution regulations, and supported by regulatory agencies and a large user community. Also, models can provide bidirectional linkages between sources of emissions and ambient concentrations, thus allowing exploration of various mitigation strategies to reduce risk to exposure. In order to provide best estimates of air concentrations to support human health and exposure studies, model estimates should consider local-scale features

  2. Is the air pollution health research community prepared to support a multipollutant air quality management framework?

    PubMed

    Mauderly, Joe L; Burnett, Richard T; Castillejos, Margarita; Ozkaynak, Halûk; Samet, Jonathan M; Stieb, David M; Vedal, Sverre; Wyzga, Ronald E

    2010-06-01

    Ambient air pollution is always encountered as a complex mixture, but past regulatory and research strategies largely focused on single pollutants, pollutant classes, and sources one-at-a-time. There is a trend toward managing air quality in a progressively "multipollutant" manner, with the idealized goal of controlling as many air contaminants as possible in an integrated manner to achieve the greatest total reduction of adverse health and environmental impacts. This commentary considers the current ability of the environmental air pollution exposure and health research communities to provide evidence to inform the development of multipollutant air quality management strategies and assess their effectiveness. The commentary is not a literature review, but a summary of key issues and information gaps, strategies for filling the gaps, and realistic expectations for progress that could be made during the next decade. The greatest need is for researchers and sponsors to address air quality health impacts from a truly multipollutant perspective, and the most limiting current information gap is knowledge of personal exposures of different subpopulations, considering activities and microenvironments. Emphasis is needed on clarifying the roles of a broader range of pollutants and their combinations in a more forward-looking manner; that is not driven by current regulatory structures. Although advances in research tools and outcome data will enhance progress, the greater need is to direct existing capabilities toward strategies aimed at placing into proper context the contributions of multiple pollutants and their combinations to the health burdens, and the relative contributions of pollutants and other factors influencing the same outcomes. The authors conclude that the research community has very limited ability to advise multipollutant air quality management and assess its effectiveness at this time, but that considerable progress can be made in a decade, even at

  3. Development of a large support surface for an air-bearing type zero-gravity simulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glover, K. E.

    1976-01-01

    The methods used in producing a large, flat surface to serve as the supporting surface for an air-bearing type zero-gravity simulator using low clearance, thrust-pad type air bearings are described. Major problems encountered in the use of self-leveled epoxy coatings in this surface are discussed and techniques are recommended which proved effective in overcoming these problems. Performance requirements of the zero-gravity simulator vehicle which were pertinent to the specification of the air-bearing support surface are also discussed.

  4. The main pillar: Assessment of space weather observational asset performance supporting nowcasting, forecasting, and research to operations

    PubMed Central

    Posner, A; Hesse, M; St Cyr, O C

    2014-01-01

    Space weather forecasting critically depends upon availability of timely and reliable observational data. It is therefore particularly important to understand how existing and newly planned observational assets perform during periods of severe space weather. Extreme space weather creates challenging conditions under which instrumentation and spacecraft may be impeded or in which parameters reach values that are outside the nominal observational range. This paper analyzes existing and upcoming observational capabilities for forecasting, and discusses how the findings may impact space weather research and its transition to operations. A single limitation to the assessment is lack of information provided to us on radiation monitor performance, which caused us not to fully assess (i.e., not assess short term) radiation storm forecasting. The assessment finds that at least two widely spaced coronagraphs including L4 would provide reliability for Earth-bound CMEs. Furthermore, all magnetic field measurements assessed fully meet requirements. However, with current or even with near term new assets in place, in the worst-case scenario there could be a near-complete lack of key near-real-time solar wind plasma data of severe disturbances heading toward and impacting Earth's magnetosphere. Models that attempt to simulate the effects of these disturbances in near real time or with archival data require solar wind plasma observations as input. Moreover, the study finds that near-future observational assets will be less capable of advancing the understanding of extreme geomagnetic disturbances at Earth, which might make the resulting space weather models unsuitable for transition to operations. Key Points Manuscript assesses current and near-future space weather assets Current assets unreliable for forecasting of severe geomagnetic storms Near-future assets will not improve the situation PMID:26213516

  5. Combat Service Support of AirLand Battle Doctrine,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-05-20

    thereby causing him to lose control of the battle. In the offense, it means setting the tarfa of battle and never allowing the enemy to recover from...disorganizes his forces, causes him to lose control and ultimately brings about his defeat. To achieve these conditions on the battlefield requires a...units with a command and control system that allows the coordination and redirection of combat service support assets when and where required. Implied

  6. Does Current Suppression of Enemy Air Defenses Doctrine Support Air Maneuver

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-06-03

    Blowpipe, or Stinger missiles. Hybrid SHORAD systems, such as the 2S6M " Tunguska " and the Avenger system, combine both guns and short-range SAMs on the...Archie, Flak, AAA. and SAM, (Maxwell Air Force Base, AL: Air University Press, 1988), 115. 4Monch Publishing Group, ŖS6M Tunguska : The world’s first gun...NVA offensive. Events would prove that this timetable was too ambitious for the ARVN. Intelliaence At the start of the battle, the NVA in Laos

  7. Severe Weather

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forde, Evan B.

    2004-01-01

    Educating the public about safety issues related to severe weather is part of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's (NOAA) mission. This month's insert, Severe Weather, has been created by NOAA to help educate the public about hazardous weather conditions. The four types of severe weather highlighted in this poster are hurricanes,…

  8. Severe Weather

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forde, Evan B.

    2004-01-01

    Educating the public about safety issues related to severe weather is part of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's (NOAA) mission. This article deals with a poster entitled, "Severe Weather," that has been created by NOAA to help educate the public about hazardous weather conditions. The four types of severe weather highlighted in…

  9. Emergency Department Visits for Asthma Exacerbation due to Weather Conditions and Air Pollution in Chuncheon, Korea: A Case-Crossover Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Jae-Woo; Han, Young-Ji; Oh, Moo Kyung; Lee, Chang Youl; Kim, Ja Yeun; Kim, E Jin; Kim, Ho

    2016-01-01

    Purpose This retrospective study was conducted to estimate the effects of climate factors and air pollution on asthma exacerbations using a case-crossover analysis. Methods Patients who visited the emergency department (ED) of 2 university hospitals in Chuncheon for asthma exacerbations from January 1, 2006, to December 31, 2011, were enrolled. Daily average data for meteorological factors (temperature, daily temperature range, relative humidity, wind speed, atmospheric pressure, presence of rain, solar irradiation, and presence of fog) and the daily average levels of gaseous air pollutants (SO2, NO2, O3, CO, and PM10) were obtained. A case-crossover analysis was performed using variables about the weather and air pollution at 1-week intervals between cases and controls before and after ED visits. Results There were 660 ED visits by 583 patients with asthma exacerbations. Low relative humidity (lag 1 and 2) and high wind speed (lag 1, 2, and 3) were associated with ED visits for asthma. Fog (lag 2) showed protective effects against asthma exacerbations in Chuncheon (risk increase: -29.4% [95% CI=-46.3% to -7.2%], P=0.013). These relationships were stronger in patients ≤19 years old than in those >60 years old. High levels of ambient CO (lag 1, 2, and 3) and NO2 (lag 2 and 3) were associated with decreased ED visits for asthma. However, there were no significant relationships among levels of ambient CO or NO2 and asthma exacerbations after adjusting for wind speed and relative humidity. Conclusions High wind speed and low humidity were associated with an increased risk of asthma ED visits. Fog was associated with a decreased risk of asthma ED visits after controlling for seasonal variations in weather and air pollution. PMID:27582402

  10. Catalytic wet air oxidation of chlorophenols over supported ruthenium catalysts.

    PubMed

    Li, Ning; Descorme, Claude; Besson, Michèle

    2007-07-31

    A series of noble metal (Pt, Pd, Ru) loaded zirconia catalysts were evaluated in the catalytic wet air oxidation (CWAO) of mono-chlorophenols (2-CP, 3-CP, 4-CP) under relatively mild reaction conditions. Among the investigated noble metals, Ru appeared to be the best to promote the CWAO of CPs as far as incipient-wetness impregnation was used to prepare all the catalysts. The position of the chlorine substitution on the aromatic ring was also shown to have a significant effect on the CP reactivity in the CWAO over 3wt.% Ru/ZrO(2). 2-CP was relatively easier to degradate compared to 3-CP and 4-CP. One reason could be the higher adsorption of 2-CP on the catalyst surface. Further investigations suggested that 3wt.% Ru/ZrO(2) is a very efficient catalyst in the CWAO of 2-CP as far as high 2-CP conversion and TOC abatement could still be reached at even lower temperature (393K) and lower total pressure (3MPa). Additionally, the conversion of 2-CP was demonstrated to increase with the initial pH of the 2-CP solution. The dechlorination reaction is promoted at higher pH. In all cases, the adsorption of the reactants and the reaction intermediates was shown to play a major role. All parameters that would control the molecule speciation in solution or the catalyst surface properties would have a key effect.

  11. The Main Pillar: Assessment of Space Weather Observational Asset Performance Supporting Nowcasting, Forecasting and Research to Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Posner, Arik; Hesse, Michael; SaintCyr, Chris

    2014-01-01

    Space weather forecasting critically depends upon availability of timely and reliable observational data. It is therefore particularly important to understand how existing and newly planned observational assets perform during periods of severe space weather. Extreme space weather creates challenging conditions under which instrumentation and spacecraft may be impeded or in which parameters reach values that are outside the nominal observational range. This paper analyzes existing and upcoming observational capabilities for forecasting, and discusses how the findings may impact space weather research and its transition to operations. A single limitation to the assessment is lack of information provided to us on radiation monitor performance, which caused us not to fully assess (i.e., not assess short term) radiation storm forecasting. The assessment finds that at least two widely spaced coronagraphs including L4 would provide reliability for Earth-bound CMEs. Furthermore, all magnetic field measurements assessed fully meet requirements. However, with current or even with near term new assets in place, in the worst-case scenario there could be a near-complete lack of key near-real-time solar wind plasma data of severe disturbances heading toward and impacting Earth's magnetosphere. Models that attempt to simulate the effects of these disturbances in near real time or with archival data require solar wind plasma observations as input. Moreover, the study finds that near-future observational assets will be less capable of advancing the understanding of extreme geomagnetic disturbances at Earth, which might make the resulting space weather models unsuitable for transition to operations.

  12. The main pillar: Assessment of space weather observational asset performance supporting nowcasting, forecasting, and research to operations.

    PubMed

    Posner, A; Hesse, M; St Cyr, O C

    2014-04-01

    Space weather forecasting critically depends upon availability of timely and reliable observational data. It is therefore particularly important to understand how existing and newly planned observational assets perform during periods of severe space weather. Extreme space weather creates challenging conditions under which instrumentation and spacecraft may be impeded or in which parameters reach values that are outside the nominal observational range. This paper analyzes existing and upcoming observational capabilities for forecasting, and discusses how the findings may impact space weather research and its transition to operations. A single limitation to the assessment is lack of information provided to us on radiation monitor performance, which caused us not to fully assess (i.e., not assess short term) radiation storm forecasting. The assessment finds that at least two widely spaced coronagraphs including L4 would provide reliability for Earth-bound CMEs. Furthermore, all magnetic field measurements assessed fully meet requirements. However, with current or even with near term new assets in place, in the worst-case scenario there could be a near-complete lack of key near-real-time solar wind plasma data of severe disturbances heading toward and impacting Earth's magnetosphere. Models that attempt to simulate the effects of these disturbances in near real time or with archival data require solar wind plasma observations as input. Moreover, the study finds that near-future observational assets will be less capable of advancing the understanding of extreme geomagnetic disturbances at Earth, which might make the resulting space weather models unsuitable for transition to operations.

  13. The main pillar: Assessment of space weather observational asset performance supporting nowcasting, forecasting, and research to operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Posner, A.; Hesse, M.; St. Cyr, O. C.

    2014-04-01

    Space weather forecasting critically depends upon availability of timely and reliable observational data. It is therefore particularly important to understand how existing and newly planned observational assets perform during periods of severe space weather. Extreme space weather creates challenging conditions under which instrumentation and spacecraft may be impeded or in which parameters reach values that are outside the nominal observational range. This paper analyzes existing and upcoming observational capabilities for forecasting, and discusses how the findings may impact space weather research and its transition to operations. A single limitation to the assessment is lack of information provided to us on radiation monitor performance, which caused us not to fully assess (i.e., not assess short term) radiation storm forecasting. The assessment finds that at least two widely spaced coronagraphs including L4 would provide reliability for Earth-bound CMEs. Furthermore, all magnetic field measurements assessed fully meet requirements. However, with current or even with near term new assets in place, in the worst-case scenario there could be a near-complete lack of key near-real-time solar wind plasma data of severe disturbances heading toward and impacting Earth's magnetosphere. Models that attempt to simulate the effects of these disturbances in near real time or with archival data require solar wind plasma observations as input. Moreover, the study finds that near-future observational assets will be less capable of advancing the understanding of extreme geomagnetic disturbances at Earth, which might make the resulting space weather models unsuitable for transition to operations.

  14. Air bearing center cross gap of neutron stress spectrometer sample table support system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yang; Wu, Yunxin; Gong, Hai; Feng, Xiaolei

    2016-12-01

    A support system is the main load-bearing component of sample table for neutron stress spectrometer, and air bearing is an important element of a support system. The neutron stress spectrometer sample table was introduced, and the scheme for air bearing combination was selected. To study the performance of air bearing center cross gap, finite element models (FEMs) were established based on air motion and Reynolds equations, effects of air supply pressure, and gap parameters on the overturning moment and bearing capacity of air bearing center cross gap were analyzed. Results indicate that the width, depth, and height differences of the marble floor gap played important roles in the performance of the air bearing. When gap width is lesser than 1 mm and gap depth is lower than 0.4 mm, bearing capacity and overturning moment would vary rapidly with the variation of the width and depth. A gap height difference results in the bearing capacity dropping rapidly. The FEM results agree well with experimental results. Further, findings of the study could guide the design of the support system and marble floor.

  15. Logistical Support of AirLand Operations: Myth or Magic?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-05-04

    AD-A258 295 111l 1111111 0 i DIll l LOGISTICAL SUPPORT OF AIRLAND OPERATIONS: EETM Y T H R M A G IC S E L E C 2 1 9•DEC2 3 1992• C I A thesis...ng b~ude.. 104f bhn codIeCto~ Of .nfO~maI.Of ,t .~enIal41 (0 a ..rag. I hQ~. ee Nr 9Ow •tQl.Ad,dlflg (be linet foe IOVtw•f~ ,AIIIU(¶I~ r . ,eacbAqIh...inerati,,,: Myth or Magic. Aprroved by: .Theq is Comni tt-t- fTh~airrnan; J ),I i .5 . a rria A.n . T.T! 3:•, J!. Pnwe r . M’. P. A . " ,ý) VoD" Member

  16. Weather & Weather Maps. Teacher's Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Metro, Peter M.; Green, Rachel E.

    This guide is intended to provide an opportunity for students to work with weather symbols used for reporting weather. Also included are exercises in location of United States cities by latitude and longitude, measurement of distances in miles and kilometers, and prediction of weather associated with various types of weather fronts. (RE)

  17. Performance assessment of a solar-powered air quality and weather station placed on a school rooftop in Hong Kong

    EPA Science Inventory

    Emerging air pollution measurement technologies that require minimal infrastructure to deploy may lead to new insights on air pollution spatial variability in urban areas. Through a collaboration between the USEPA and HKEPD, this study evaluates the performance of a compact, roo...

  18. Help From Above: Air Force Close Air Support of the Army. 1946-1973

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-01-01

    2d ed. London: Putnam , 1970. Greenfield, Kent Robert. American Strategy in World War II: A Reconsideration. Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press, 1963... Putnam , 1969. ———. British Aviation, The Ominous Skies, 1935–1939. London: Her Majesty’s Stationery Office, 1980. Pershing, John J. My Experiences in the...Operations. Washington, D.C.: Office of the Chief of Army History, 1954. Richards, Denis, and Hilary St.George Saunders. The Royal Air Force, 1939–45

  19. Beyond Close Air Support. Forging a New Air-Ground Partnership

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-01-01

    conflict appears in Lewis and Almond , 1997. 7 Joint Staff, 2002. 8 An intermediate category called battlefield air interdiction (BAI) no longer appears in...fire, and extracts them when the mission is done. Such forces routinely conduct joint operations at extremely low force levels. In Afghanistan, for...battalion was extracted from its untenable position near Ginger during the first evening. The following day, Task Force Rak- kasan reinforced its positions

  20. NASA Earth Observation Systems and Applications for Public Health and Air Quality Models and Decisions Support

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Estes, Sue; Haynes, John; Omar, Ali

    2012-01-01

    Health and Air Quality providers and researchers need environmental data to study and understand the geographic, environmental, and meteorological differences in disease. Satellite remote sensing of the environment offers a unique vantage point that can fill in the gaps of environmental, spatial, and temporal data for tracking disease. This presentation will demonstrate the need for collaborations between multi-disciplinary research groups to develop the full potential of utilizing Earth Observations in studying health. Satellite earth observations present a unique vantage point of the earth's environment from space, which offers a wealth of health applications for the imaginative investigator. The presentation is directly related to Earth Observing systems and Global Health Surveillance and will present research results of the remote sensing environmental observations of earth and health applications, which can contribute to the public health and air quality research. As part of NASA approach and methodology they have used Earth Observation Systems and Applications for Public Health and Air Quality Models to provide a method for bridging gaps of environmental, spatial, and temporal data for tracking disease. This presentation will provide an overview of projects dealing with infectious diseases, water borne diseases and air quality and how many environmental variables effect human health. This presentation will provide a venue where the results of both research and practice using satellite earth observations to study weather and it's role in public health research.

  1. NASA Earth Observation Systems and Applications for Public Health and Air Quality Models and Decisions Support

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Estes, Sue; Haynes, John; Omar, Ali

    2013-01-01

    Health and Air Quality providers and researchers need environmental data to study and understand the geographic, environmental, and meteorological differences in disease. Satellite remote sensing of the environment offers a unique vantage point that can fill in the gaps of environmental, spatial, and temporal data for tracking disease. This presentation will demonstrate the need for collaborations between multi-disciplinary research groups to develop the full potential of utilizing Earth Observations in studying health. Satellite earth observations present a unique vantage point of the earth's environment from space, which offers a wealth of health applications for the imaginative investigator. The presentation is directly related to Earth Observing systems and Global Health Surveillance and will present research results of the remote sensing environmental observations of earth and health applications, which can contribute to the public health and air quality research. As part of NASA approach and methodology they have used Earth Observation Systems and Applications for Public Health and Air Quality Models to provide a method for bridging gaps of environmental, spatial, and temporal data for tracking disease. This presentation will provide an overview of projects dealing with infectious diseases, water borne diseases and air quality and how many environmental variables effect human health. This presentation will provide a venue where the results of both research and practice using satellite earth observations to study weather and it's role in public health research.

  2. NASA Earth Observation Systems and Applications for Public Health and Air Quality Models and Decisions Support

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Estes, S. M.; Haynes, J. A.; Omar, A. H.

    2012-12-01

    Health and Air Quality providers and researchers need environmental data to study and understand the geographic, environmental, and meteorological differences in disease. Satellite remote sensing of the environment offers a unique vantage point that can fill in the gaps of environmental, spatial, and temporal data for tracking disease. This presentation will demonstrate the need for collaborations between multi-disciplinary research groups to develop the full potential of utilizing Earth Observations in studying health. Satellite earth observations present a unique vantage point of the earth's environment from space, which offers a wealth of health applications for the imaginative investigator. The presentation is directly related to Earth Observing systems and Global Health Surveillance and will present research results of the remote sensing environmental observations of earth and health applications, which can contribute to the public health and air quality research. As part of NASA approach and methodology they have used Earth Observation Systems and Applications for Public Health and Air Quality Models to provide a method for bridging gaps of environmental, spatial, and temporal data for tracking disease. This presentation will provide an overview of projects dealing with infectious diseases, water borne diseases and air quality and how many environmental variables effect human health. This presentation will provide a venue where the results of both research and practice using satellite earth observations to study weather and it's role in public health research.

  3. Predicting SVOC Emissions into Air and Foods in Support of ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The release of semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOCs) from consumer articles may be a critical human exposure pathway. In addition, the migration of SVOCs from food packaging materials into foods may also be a dominant source of exposure for some chemicals. Here we describe recent efforts to characterize emission-related parameters for these exposure pathways to support prediction of aggregate exposures for thousands of chemicals For chemicals in consumer articles, Little et al. (2012) developed a screening-level indoor exposure prediction model which, for a given SVOC, principally depends on steady-state gas-phase concentrations (y0). We have developed a model that predicts y0 for SVOCs in consumer articles, allowing exposure predictions for 274 ToxCast chemicals. Published emissions data for 31 SVOCs found in flooring materials, provided a training set where both chemical-specific physicochemical properties, article specific formulation properties, and experimental design aspects were available as modeling descriptors. A linear regression yielded R2- and p- values of approximately 0.62 and 3.9E-05, respectively. A similar model was developed based upon physicochemical properties alone, since article information is often not available for a given SVOC or product. This latter model yielded R2 - and p- values of approximately 0.47 and 1.2E-10, respectively. Many SVOCs are also used as additives (e.g. plasticizers, antioxidants, lubricants) in plastic food pac

  4. Are the acute effects of particulate matter on mortality in the National Morbidity, Mortality, and Air Pollution Study the result of inadequate control for weather and season? A sensitivity analysis using flexible distributed lag models.

    PubMed

    Welty, Leah J; Zeger, Scott L

    2005-07-01

    Time-series studies have linked daily variations in nonaccidental deaths with daily variations in ambient particulate matter air pollution, while controlling for qualitatively larger influences of weather and season. Although time-series analyses typically include nonlinear terms for weather and season, questions remain as to whether models to date have completely controlled for these important predictors. In this paper, the authors use two flexible versions of distributed lag models to control extensively for the confounding effects of weather and season. One version builds on the current approach to controlling for weather, while the other version offers a new approach. The authors conduct a comprehensive sensitivity analysis of the particulate matter-mortality relation by applying these methods to the recently updated National Morbidity, Mortality, and Air Pollution Study database that comprises air pollution, weather, and mortality time series from 1987 to 2000 for 100 US cities. They combine city-specific estimates of the short-term effects of particulate matter on mortality using a Bayesian hierarchical model. They conclude that, within the broad classes of models considered, national average estimates of particulate matter relative risk are consistent with previous estimates from this study and are robust to model specification for weather and seasonal confounding.

  5. A Distributed Simulation Facility to Support Human Factors Research in Advanced Air Transportation Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Amonlirdviman, Keith; Farley, Todd C.; Hansman, R. John, Jr.; Ladik, John F.; Sherer, Dana Z.

    1998-01-01

    A distributed real-time simulation of the civil air traffic environment developed to support human factors research in advanced air transportation technology is presented. The distributed environment is based on a custom simulation architecture designed for simplicity and flexibility in human experiments. Standard Internet protocols are used to create the distributed environment, linking all advanced cockpit simulator, all Air Traffic Control simulator, and a pseudo-aircraft control and simulation management station. The pseudo-aircraft control station also functions as a scenario design tool for coordinating human factors experiments. This station incorporates a pseudo-pilot interface designed to reduce workload for human operators piloting multiple aircraft simultaneously in real time. The application of this distributed simulation facility to support a study of the effect of shared information (via air-ground datalink) on pilot/controller shared situation awareness and re-route negotiation is also presented.

  6. Will Close Air Support be Where Needed and When to Support Objective Force Operations in 2015?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-01-01

    Ibid., 350. 55 Ibid. 56 Ibid., 364. 57 Cooling, Case Studies in the Development of CAS, 369. 58 Gary R. Lester, Mosquitoes to Wolves : The Evolution of...Hanover, NH: University Press of New England, 1977. Lester, Major Gary R. Mosquitoes to Wolves : The Evolution of the Airborne Forward Air Controller...96 Lester, Mosquitoes to Wolves , 110. 97 Cooling, Case Studies in the Development of CAS, 423. 98 Ibid. The most frequent finding of

  7. Combat Support Execution Planning and Control: An Assessment of Initial Implementations in Air Force Exercises

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-01-01

    Forces in Europe UTASC USAFE Theater Aerospace Support Center UTC unit type code WPC Warfighter Preparation Center XML Extensible Markup Language 1...developed and run by the Warfighter Preparation Center ( WPC ) facility at Einsedlerhof Air Station near Ramstein Air Base (AB), Germany, which is jointly...simulated by the WPC . The training audience consisted of the JFACC and staff, AFFOR staff, AOC, and the AFEUR.12 Because of this level of participa- tion

  8. An Experimental Investigation of Skin Friction on Smooth Surfaces Supporting Air Bearing Channels.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-07-01

    EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION OF SKIN FRICTION ON SMOOTH SURFACES SUPPORTING AIR BEARING CHANNELS ETUDE EXPERIMENTALE DU FROTTEMENT PELLICULAIRE SUR DES SURFACES...LISSES PORTEUSES DE CANAUX ANTI- FROTTEMENT by/par M. Khalid National Aeronautical Establishment AERONAUTICAL NOTE OTTAWA NAE-AN-39 JULY 1986 NRC NO...installant sur la surface des canaux qui agissent comme des valiers d’air. Les mesures ont &t prises A l’aide d’une balance de mesure du frottement

  9. Meteorological support for space operations: Review and recommendations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    The current meteorological support provided to NASA by NOAA, Air Weather Service, and other contractors is reviewed and suggestions are offered for its improvement. These recommendations include improvement in NASA's internal management organizational structure that would accommodate continued improvement in operational weather support, installation of new observing systems, improvement in analysis and forecasting procedures, and the establishment of an Applied Research and Forecasting Facility.

  10. Predicting Human Error in Air Traffic Control Decision Support Tools and Free Flight Concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mogford, Richard; Kopardekar, Parimal

    2001-01-01

    The document is a set of briefing slides summarizing the work the Advanced Air Transportation Technologies (AATT) Project is doing on predicting air traffic controller and airline pilot human error when using new decision support software tools and when involved in testing new air traffic control concepts. Previous work in this area is reviewed as well as research being done jointly with the FAA. Plans for error prediction work in the AATT Project are discussed. The audience is human factors researchers and aviation psychologists from government and industry.

  11. Bitburg Air Base, West Germany. Revised Uniform Summary of Surface Weather Observations (RUSSWO). Parts A-F.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-06-29

    UNIT NUMBERS Air Force Environmental Technical Apple Center Scott AFB IL 62225 It. SWOt ~ t g Ws ~g FICE NAME AND ADORESS IS REPORT DATE AiU ete evc MC...forms or from automated data collections for all Air Force operated stations. For those stations observing less than 24 hours per day, and where maxi ...for any column. Two tables of daily extremes are prepared: a. Exree maxi temperature E b. Extreme minimum temperature NOTE: The following symbols are

  12. Cockpit weather information needs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scanlon, Charles H.

    1992-01-01

    The primary objective is to develop an advanced pilot weather interface for the flight deck and to measure its utilization and effectiveness in pilot reroute decision processes, weather situation awareness, and weather monitoring. Identical graphical weather displays for the dispatcher, air traffic control (ATC), and pilot crew should also enhance the dialogue capabilities for reroute decisions. By utilizing a broadcast data link for surface observations, forecasts, radar summaries, lightning strikes, and weather alerts, onboard weather computing facilities construct graphical displays, historical weather displays, color textual displays, and other tools to assist the pilot crew. Since the weather data is continually being received and stored by the airborne system, the pilot crew has instantaneous access to the latest information. This information is color coded to distinguish degrees of category for surface observations, ceiling and visibilities, and ground radar summaries. Automatic weather monitoring and pilot crew alerting is accomplished by the airborne computing facilities. When a new weather information is received, the displays are instantaneously changed to reflect the new information. Also, when a new surface or special observation for the intended destination is received, the pilot crew is informed so that information can be studied at the pilot's discretion. The pilot crew is also immediately alerted when a severe weather notice, AIRMET or SIGMET, is received. The cockpit weather display shares a multicolor eight inch cathode ray tube and overlaid touch panel with a pilot crew data link interface. Touch sensitive buttons and areas are used for pilot selection of graphical and data link displays. Time critical ATC messages are presented in a small window that overlays other displays so that immediate pilot alerting and action can be taken. Predeparture and reroute clearances are displayed on the graphical weather system so pilot review of weather along

  13. Breaking the Paradigm: The Challenge of Close Air Support in the Future Joint Operating Environment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-07-26

    fact they had no artillery to provide support. The only “artillery” the forces had for support was mortars ranging from 60mm up to 120mm in size...ground forces in 1911. It was in that year the first two way radio was used in, and the first bomb dropped from an aircraft (Gabriel et al, 1992...Army commanders believe the Air Force has neglected the role of CAS and delegated it to a lower priority behind air superiority and strategic bombing

  14. Advanced computer technology - An aspect of the Terminal Configured Vehicle program. [air transportation capacity, productivity, all-weather reliability and noise reduction improvements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berkstresser, B. K.

    1975-01-01

    NASA is conducting a Terminal Configured Vehicle program to provide improvements in the air transportation system such as increased system capacity and productivity, increased all-weather reliability, and reduced noise. A typical jet transport has been equipped with highly flexible digital display and automatic control equipment to study operational techniques for conventional takeoff and landing aircraft. The present airborne computer capability of this aircraft employs a multiple computer simple redundancy concept. The next step is to proceed from this concept to a reconfigurable computer system which can degrade gracefully in the event of a failure, adjust critical computations to remaining capacity, and reorder itself, in the case of transients, to the highest order of redundancy and reliability.

  15. Can the Weather Affect My Child's Asthma?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Dry, windy weather can stir up pollen and mold in the air, leading to problems for some ... symptoms, and wet weather encourages the growth of mold spores, another asthma trigger. In certain areas, heat ...

  16. Weather Watchers--Activities for Young Meteorologists.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ludwig, Fran

    1989-01-01

    Describes science activities which were adapted from a teacher's guide entitled "For Spacious Skies" and contains resources for interdisciplinary weather studies. Includes studying properties of air, gravity, cloud movement, humidity, tornadoes, and weather instruments. (RT)

  17. Photogrammetry Driven Tools to Support the Restoration of Open-Air Bronze Surfaces of Sculptures: AN Integrated Solution Starting from the Experience of the Neptune Fountain in Bologna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Apollonio, F. I.; Gaiani, M.; Basilissi, W.; Rivaroli, L.

    2017-02-01

    Checking the irreversible process of clean-up is a delicate task that requires a work of synthesis between theoretical knowledge and practical experience, to define an effective operating protocol on a limited patch area to be extended later to the entire artefact's surface. In this paper, we present a new, quick, semi-automated 3D photogrammetry-based solution to support restorers in the open-air bronze artwork cleaning from corrosion and weathering decay. The solution allows the conservators to assess in real time and with a high level of fidelity in colour and shape, the `surfaces' to be cleaned before, during and after the clear-out treatment. The solution besides allows an effective and valuable support tool for restorers to identify the original layer of the bronze surface, developed and validated during the ongoing restoration of the Neptune Fountain in Bologna.

  18. Time Evolution of the Wettability of Supported Graphene under Ambient Air Exposure

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The wettability of graphene is both fundamental and crucial for interfacing in most applications, but a detailed understanding of its time evolution remains elusive. Here we systematically investigate the wettability of metal-supported, chemical vapor deposited graphene films as a function of ambient air exposure time using water and various other test liquids with widely different surface tensions. The wettability of graphene is not constant, but varies with substrate interactions and air exposure time. The substrate interactions affect the initial graphene wettability, where, for instance, water contact angles of ∼85 and ∼61° were measured for Ni and Cu supported graphene, respectively, after just minutes of air exposure. Analysis of the surface free energy components indicates that the substrate interactions strongly influence the Lewis acid–base component of supported graphene, which is considerably weaker for Ni supported graphene than for Cu supported graphene, suggesting that the classical van der Waals interaction theory alone is insufficient to describe the wettability of graphene. For prolonged air exposure, the effect of physisorption of airborne contaminants becomes increasingly dominant, resulting in an increase of water contact angle that follows a universal linear-logarithmic relationship with exposure time, until saturating at a maximum value of 92–98°. The adsorbed contaminants render all supported graphene samples increasingly nonpolar, although their total surface free energy decreases only by 10–16% to about 37–41 mJ/m2. Our finding shows that failure to account for the air exposure time may lead to widely different wettability values and contradicting arguments about the wetting transparency of graphene. PMID:26900413

  19. Identification and uncertainty estimation of vertical reflectivity profiles using a Lagrangian approach to support quantitative precipitation measurements by weather radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hazenberg, P.; Torfs, P. J. J. F.; Leijnse, H.; Delrieu, G.; Uijlenhoet, R.

    2013-09-01

    This paper presents a novel approach to estimate the vertical profile of reflectivity (VPR) from volumetric weather radar data using both a traditional Eulerian as well as a newly proposed Lagrangian implementation. For this latter implementation, the recently developed Rotational Carpenter Square Cluster Algorithm (RoCaSCA) is used to delineate precipitation regions at different reflectivity levels. A piecewise linear VPR is estimated for either stratiform or neither stratiform/convective precipitation. As a second aspect of this paper, a novel approach is presented which is able to account for the impact of VPR uncertainty on the estimated radar rainfall variability. Results show that implementation of the VPR identification and correction procedure has a positive impact on quantitative precipitation estimates from radar. Unfortunately, visibility problems severely limit the impact of the Lagrangian implementation beyond distances of 100 km. However, by combining this procedure with the global Eulerian VPR estimation procedure for a given rainfall type (stratiform and neither stratiform/convective), the quality of the quantitative precipitation estimates increases up to a distance of 150 km. Analyses of the impact of VPR uncertainty shows that this aspect accounts for a large fraction of the differences between weather radar rainfall estimates and rain gauge measurements.

  20. Hadoop-Based Distributed System for Online Prediction of Air Pollution Based on Support Vector Machine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghaemi, Z.; Farnaghi, M.; Alimohammadi, A.

    2015-12-01

    The critical impact of air pollution on human health and environment in one hand and the complexity of pollutant concentration behavior in the other hand lead the scientists to look for advance techniques for monitoring and predicting the urban air quality. Additionally, recent developments in data measurement techniques have led to collection of various types of data about air quality. Such data is extremely voluminous and to be useful it must be processed at high velocity. Due to the complexity of big data analysis especially for dynamic applications, online forecasting of pollutant concentration trends within a reasonable processing time is still an open problem. The purpose of this paper is to present an online forecasting approach based on Support Vector Machine (SVM) to predict the air quality one day in advance. In order to overcome the computational requirements for large-scale data analysis, distributed computing based on the Hadoop platform has been employed to leverage the processing power of multiple processing units. The MapReduce programming model is adopted for massive parallel processing in this study. Based on the online algorithm and Hadoop framework, an online forecasting system is designed to predict the air pollution of Tehran for the next 24 hours. The results have been assessed on the basis of Processing Time and Efficiency. Quite accurate predictions of air pollutant indicator levels within an acceptable processing time prove that the presented approach is very suitable to tackle large scale air pollution prediction problems.

  1. The SnoDog: Preliminary design of a close air support aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ashbaugh, Scott; Bartel, Kent; Cavalli, J. R.; Chan, John; Chung, Jason; Dimaranan, Liza; Freese, Mike; Levitt, Rick; Soban, Dani

    1991-01-01

    U.S. military forces are presently searching for the next generation Close Air Support aircraft. The following report presents the SnoDog, a low-cost ($14.8 million) aircraft capable of operating from remote battlefields and unimproved airstrips. The configuration consists of a conventional, low aspect-ratio wing, twin booms, twin canted vertical stabilizers along with a high-mounted joined horizontal tail. A supercritical airfoil for the wing enhances aerodynamic performance, while the SnoDog's instability increases maneuverability over current close air support aircraft. Survivability was incorporated into the design by the use of a titanium tub to protect the cockpit from anti-aircraft artillery, as well as, the twin booms and retracted gear disposition. The booms aid survivability by supplying separated, redundant controls, and the landing gear are slightly exposed when retracted to enable a belly landing in emergencies. Designed to fly at Mach .76, the SnoDog is powered by two low-bypass turbofan engines. Engine accessibility and interchangeable parts make the SnoDog highly maintainable. The SnoDog is adaptable to many different missions, as it is capable of carrying advanced avionics pods, carrying external fuel tanks or refueling in-air, and carrying various types of munitions. This makes the SnoDog a multirole aircraft capable of air-to-air and air-to-ground combat. This combination of features make the SnoDog unique as a close air support aircraft, capable of meeting the U.S. military's future needs.

  2. DEVELOPMENT OF A SUB-SLAB AIR SAMPLING PROTOCOL TO SUPPORT ASSESSMENT OF VAPOR INTRUSION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The primary purpose of this research effort is to develop a methodology for sub-slab sampling to support the EPA guidance and vapor intrusion investigations after vapor intrusion has been established at a site. Methodologies for sub-slab air sampling are currently lacking in ref...

  3. DEVELOPMENT AND APPLICATIONS OF CFD SIMULATIONS SUPPORTING URBAN AIR QUALITY AND HOMELAND SECURITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Prior to September 11, 2001 developments of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) were begun to support air quality applications. CFD models are emerging as a promising technology for such assessments, in part due to the advancing power of computational hardware and software. CFD si...

  4. DEVELOPMENT AND APPLICATIONS OF CFD SIMULATIONS IN SUPPORT OF AIR QUALITY STUDIES INVOLVING BUILDINGS

    EPA Science Inventory

    There is a need to properly develop the application of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) methods in support of air quality studies involving pollution sources near buildings at industrial sites. CFD models are emerging as a promising technology for such assessments, in part due ...

  5. Creating air-stable supported lipid bilayers by physical confinement induced by phospholipase A2.

    PubMed

    Han, Chung-Ta; Chao, Ling

    2014-05-14

    Supported lipid bilayer platforms have been used for various biological applications. However, the lipid bilayers easily delaminate and lose their natural structure after being exposed to an air-water interface. In this study, for the first time, we demonstrated that physical confinement can be used instead of chemical modifications to create air-stable membranes. Physical confinement was generated by the obstacle network induced by a peripheral enzyme, phospholipase A2. The enzyme and reacted lipids could be washed away from the obstacle network, which was detergent-resistant and strongly bonded to the solid support. On the basis of these properties, the obstacle framework on the solid support was reusable and lipid bilayers with the desired composition could be refilled and formed in the region confined by the obstacle framework. The results of fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP) indicate that the diffusivities of the lipid bilayers before drying and after rehydration were comparable, indicating the air stability of the physically confined membrane. In addition, we observed that the obstacles could trap a thin layer of water after the air-water interface passed through the lipid bilayer. Because the obstacles were demonstrated to be several times higher than a typical lipid membrane on a support, the obstacles may act as container walls, which can trap water above the lipid membrane. The water layer may have prevented the air-water interface from directly contacting the lipid membrane and, therefore, buffered the interfacial force, which could cause membrane delamination. The results suggest the possibility of using physical confinement to create air-stable membranes without changing local membrane rigidity or covering the membrane with protecting molecules.

  6. Air

    MedlinePlus

    ... do to protect yourself from dirty air . Indoor air pollution and outdoor air pollution Air can be polluted indoors and it can ... this chart to see what things cause indoor air pollution and what things cause outdoor air pollution! Indoor ...

  7. Quantitative characterizations of ultrashort echo (UTE) images for supporting air-bone separation in the head

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, Shu-Hui; Cao, Yue; Lawrence, Theodore S.; Tsien, Christina; Feng, Mary; Grodzki, David M.; Balter, James M.

    2015-04-01

    Accurate separation of air and bone is critical for creating synthetic CT from MRI to support Radiation Oncology workflow. This study compares two different ultrashort echo-time sequences in the separation of air from bone, and evaluates post-processing methods that correct intensity nonuniformity of images and account for intensity gradients at tissue boundaries to improve this discriminatory power. CT and MRI scans were acquired on 12 patients under an institution review board-approved prospective protocol. The two MRI sequences tested were ultra-short TE imaging using 3D radial acquisition (UTE), and using pointwise encoding time reduction with radial acquisition (PETRA). Gradient nonlinearity correction was applied to both MR image volumes after acquisition. MRI intensity nonuniformity was corrected by vendor-provided normalization methods, and then further corrected using the N4itk algorithm. To overcome the intensity-gradient at air-tissue boundaries, spatial dilations, from 0 to 4 mm, were applied to threshold-defined air regions from MR images. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analyses, by comparing predicted (defined by MR images) versus ‘true’ regions of air and bone (defined by CT images), were performed with and without residual bias field correction and local spatial expansion. The post-processing corrections increased the areas under the ROC curves (AUC) from 0.944 ± 0.012 to 0.976 ± 0.003 for UTE images, and from 0.850 ± 0.022 to 0.887 ± 0.012 for PETRA images, compared to without corrections. When expanding the threshold-defined air volumes, as expected, sensitivity of air identification decreased with an increase in specificity of bone discrimination, but in a non-linear fashion. A 1 mm air mask expansion yielded AUC increases of 1 and 4% for UTE and PETRA images, respectively. UTE images had significantly greater discriminatory power in separating air from bone than PETRA images. Post-processing strategies improved the

  8. When truth is personally inconvenient, attitudes change: the impact of extreme weather on implicit support for green politicians and explicit climate-change beliefs.

    PubMed

    Rudman, Laurie A; McLean, Meghan C; Bunzl, Martin

    2013-11-01

    A naturalistic investigation of New Jersey residents, both before and after they experienced Hurricanes Irene and Sandy, examined support for politicians committed or opposed to policies designed to combat climate change. At Time 1, before both hurricanes, participants showed negative implicit attitudes toward a green politician, but at Time 2, after the hurricanes, participants drawn from the same cohort showed a reversed automatic preference. Moreover, those who were significantly affected by Hurricane Sandy were especially likely to implicitly prefer the green politician, and implicit attitudes were the best predictor of voting after the storms, whereas explicit climate-change beliefs was the best predictor before the storms. In concert, the results suggest that direct experience with extreme weather can increase pro-environmentalism, and further support conceptualizing affective experiences as a source of implicit attitudes.

  9. Assessing the impact of extreme air temperature on fruit trees by modeling weather dependent phenology with variety-specific thermal requirements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alfieri, Silvia Maria; De Lorenzi, Francesca; Missere, Daniele; Buscaroli, Claudio; Menenti, Massimo

    2013-04-01

    Extremely high and extremely low temperature may have a terminal impact on the productivity of fruit tree if occurring at critical phases of development. Notorious examples are frost during flowering or extremely high temperature during fruit setting. The dates of occurrence of such critical phenological stages depend on the weather history from the start of the yearly development cycle in late autumn, thus the impact of climate extremes can only be evaluated correctly if the phenological development is modeled taking into account the weather history of the specific year being evaluated. Climate change impact may lead to a shift in timing of phenological stages and change in the duration of vegetative and reproductive phases. A changing climate can also exhibit a greater climatic variability producing quite large changes in the frequency of extreme climatic events. We propose a two-stage approach to evaluate the impact of predicted future climate on the productivity of fruit trees. The phenological development is modeled using phase - specific thermal times and variety specific thermal requirements for several cultivars of pear, apricot and peach. These requirements were estimated using phenological observations over several years in Emilia Romagna region and scientific literature. We calculated the dates of start and end of rest completion, bud swell, flowering, fruit setting and ripening stages , from late autumn through late summer. Then phase-specific minimum and maximum cardinal temperature were evaluated for present and future climate to estimate how frequently they occur during any critically sensitive phenological phase. This analysis has been done for past climate (1961 - 1990) and fifty realizations of a year representative of future climate (2021 - 2050). A delay in rest completion of about 10-20 days has been predicted for future climate for most of the cultivars. On the other hand the predicted rise in air temperature causes an earlier development of

  10. Aviation & Space Weather Policy Research: Integrating Space Weather Observations & Forecasts into Operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fisher, G.; Jones, B.

    2006-12-01

    The American Meteorological Society and SolarMetrics Limited are conducting a policy research project leading to recommendations that will increase the safety, reliability, and efficiency of the nation's airline operations through more effective use of space weather forecasts and information. This study, which is funded by a 3-year National Science Foundation grant, also has the support of the Federal Aviation Administration and the Joint Planning and Development Office (JPDO) who is planning the Next Generation Air Transportation System. A major component involves interviewing and bringing together key people in the aviation industry who deal with space weather information. This research also examines public and industrial strategies and plans to respond to space weather information. The focus is to examine policy issues in implementing effective application of space weather services to the management of the nation's aviation system. The results from this project will provide government and industry leaders with additional tools and information to make effective decisions with respect to investments in space weather research and services. While space weather can impact the entire aviation industry, and this project will address national and international issues, the primary focus will be on developing a U.S. perspective for the airlines.

  11. Applicability of Lasers to Close Air Support for the United States Marine Corps

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-04-01

    the capability to measure true north and determine grid north; and, a night vision goggle sighting device for use in acquiring, rang- Ing, and...a graduate of the Air War College, class of 1988. LAccession For NTIS GRA&I 7 " DTIC TAB n DTIC Un..xis u fced - C[ copy just___ IfIa tI4-_ _ _1 NPCE...objectives: FIRE SUPPORT OBJECTIVES -Suppressing direct fires, Indirect fires, and enemy air defenses. -Covering movements and obscuring the vision of enemy

  12. Addendum to Air Quality: Decision Support Tools, Partner Plans, Working Groups, Committees

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holekamp, Kara; Frisbie, Troy; Estep, Lee

    2005-01-01

    In the original report dated February 11, 2005, the utility of the NASA Earth science data in the air quality activities of other agencies and organizations was assessed by reviewing strategic and mission plans and by conducting personal interviews with agency experts to identify and investigate agencies with the potential for partnership with NASA. The overarching agency strategic plans were reviewed and commonalities such as the desire for partnerships and technology development were noted. The addendum to the original report contains such information about the Tennessee Valley Authority and will be inserted in Section 2.6 of "Air Quality Decision Support Tools, Partner Plans, Working Groups, Committees".

  13. Addendum to Air Quality: Decision Support Tools, Partner Plans, Working Groups, Committees

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holekamp, Kara; Frisbie, Troy; Estep, Lee

    2005-01-01

    In the original report dated February 11, 2005, the utility of NASA Earth science data in the air quality activities of other agencies and organizations was assessed by reviewing strategic and mission plans and by conducting personal interviews with agency experts to identify and investigate agencies with the potential for partnership with NASA. The overarching agency strategic plans were reviewed and commonalities such as the desire for partnerships and technology development were noted. This addendum to the original report contains such information about the Tennessee Valley Authority and will be inserted as Section 2.6 of "Air Quality: Decision Support Tools, Partner Plans, Working Groups, Committees."

  14. Rainy Weather Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reynolds, Karen

    1996-01-01

    Presents ideas on the use of rainy weather for activities in the earth, life, and physical sciences. Topics include formation and collision of raindrops, amount and distribution of rain, shedding of water by plants, mapping puddles and potholes, rainbow formation, stalking storms online, lightning, and comparing particles in the air before and…

  15. Hydrologic Modeling at the National Water Center: Operational Implementation of the WRF-Hydro Model to support National Weather Service Hydrology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cosgrove, B.; Gochis, D.; Clark, E. P.; Cui, Z.; Dugger, A. L.; Fall, G. M.; Feng, X.; Fresch, M. A.; Gourley, J. J.; Khan, S.; Kitzmiller, D.; Lee, H. S.; Liu, Y.; McCreight, J. L.; Newman, A. J.; Oubeidillah, A.; Pan, L.; Pham, C.; Salas, F.; Sampson, K. M.; Smith, M.; Sood, G.; Wood, A.; Yates, D. N.; Yu, W.; Zhang, Y.

    2015-12-01

    The National Weather Service (NWS) National Water Center(NWC) is collaborating with the NWS National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) and the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) to implement a first-of-its-kind operational instance of the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF)-Hydro model over the Continental United States (CONUS) and contributing drainage areas on the NWS Weather and Climate Operational Supercomputing System (WCOSS) supercomputer. The system will provide seamless, high-resolution, continuously cycling forecasts of streamflow and other hydrologic outputs of value from both deterministic- and ensemble-type runs. WRF-Hydro will form the core of the NWC national water modeling strategy, supporting NWS hydrologic forecast operations along with emergency response and water management efforts of partner agencies. Input and output from the system will be comprehensively verified via the NWC Water Resource Evaluation Service. Hydrologic events occur on a wide range of temporal scales, from fast acting flash floods, to long-term flow events impacting water supply. In order to capture this range of events, the initial operational WRF-Hydro configuration will feature 1) hourly analysis runs, 2) short-and medium-range deterministic forecasts out to two day and ten day horizons and 3) long-range ensemble forecasts out to 30 days. All three of these configurations are underpinned by a 1km execution of the NoahMP land surface model, with channel routing taking place on 2.67 million NHDPlusV2 catchments covering the CONUS and contributing areas. Additionally, the short- and medium-range forecasts runs will feature surface and sub-surface routing on a 250m grid, while the hourly analyses will feature this same 250m routing in addition to nudging-based assimilation of US Geological Survey (USGS) streamflow observations. A limited number of major reservoirs will be configured within the model to begin to represent the first-order impacts of

  16. A Model Using Local Weather Data to Determine the Effective Sampling Volume for PCB Congeners Collected on Passive Air Samplers

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    We have developed and evaluated a mathematical model to determine the effective sampling volumes (Veff) of PCBs and similar compounds captured using polyurethane foam passive air samplers (PUF–PAS). We account for the variability in wind speed, air temperature, and equilibrium partitioning over the course of the deployment of the samplers. The model, provided as an annotated Matlab script, predicts the Veff as a function of physical-chemical properties of each compound and meteorology from the closest Integrated Surface Database (ISD) data set obtained through NOAA’s National Centers for Environmental Information (NCEI). The model was developed to be user-friendly, only requiring basic Matlab knowledge. To illustrate the effectiveness of the model, we evaluated three independent data sets of airborne PCBs simultaneously collected using passive and active samplers: at sites in Chicago, Lancaster, UK, and Toronto, Canada. The model provides Veff values comparable to those using depuration compounds and calibration against active samplers, yielding an average congener specific concentration method ratio (active/passive) of 1.1 ± 1.2. We applied the model to PUF–PAS samples collected in Chicago and show that previous methods can underestimate concentrations of PCBs by up to 40%, especially for long deployments, deployments conducted under warming conditions, and compounds with log Koa values less than 8. PMID:26963482

  17. Sensitivity of the Weather Research and Forecast/Community Multiscale Air Quality modeling system to MODIS LAI, FPAR, and albedo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ran, Limei; Gilliam, Robert; Binkowski, Francis S.; Xiu, Aijun; Pleim, Jonathan; Band, Larry

    2015-08-01

    This study aims to improve land surface processes in a retrospective meteorology and air quality modeling system through the use of Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) vegetation and albedo products for more realistic vegetation and surface representation. MODIS leaf area index (LAI), fraction of absorbed photosynthetically active radiation (FPAR), and albedo are incorporated into the Pleim-Xiu land surface model (PX LSM) used in a combined meteorology and air quality modeling system. The current PX LSM intentionally exaggerates vegetation coverage and LAI in western dry lands so that its soil moisture nudging scheme is more effective in simulating surface temperature and mixing ratio. Reduced vegetation coverage from the PX LSM with MODIS input results in hotter and dryer daytime conditions with reduced ozone dry deposition velocities in much of western North America. Evaluations of the new system indicate greater error and bias in temperature, but reduced error and bias in moisture with the MODIS vegetation input. Hotter daytime temperatures and reduced dry deposition result in greater ozone concentrations in the western arid regions even with deeper boundary layer depths. MODIS albedo has much less impact on the meteorology simulations than MODIS LAI and FPAR. The MODIS vegetation and albedo input does not have much influence in the east where differences in vegetation and albedo parameters are less extreme. Evaluation results showing increased temperature errors with more accurate representation of vegetation suggests that improvements are needed in the model surface physics, particularly the soil processes in the PX LSM.

  18. Redefining Combat Mission Reporting in Contemporary Operations: Focusing the Air Component’s Process in Support of the Joint Warfighter

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-06-11

    REDEFINING COMBAT MISSION REPORTING IN CONTEMPORARY OPERATIONS: FOCUSING THE AIR COMPONENT’S PROCESS IN SUPPORT OF THE JOINT WARFIGHTER...Focusing the Air Component’s Process in Support of the Joint Warfighter 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6

  19. The School of Hard Knocks: The Development of Close Air Support in Burma during the Second World War

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-05-23

    The School of Hard Knocks: The Development of Close Air Support in Burma during the Second World War A Monograph by Major Patrick B...AND SUBTITLE The School of Hard Knocks: The Development of Close Air Support in Burma during the Second World War 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT...explores the roots of modern CAS in Burma during World War II. By contrasting the efforts of the American Volunteer Group in 1942 with the Eastern Air

  20. DOD Financial Management: Improved Documentation Needed to Support the Air Force’s Military Payroll and Meet Audit Readiness Goals

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-12-01

    DOD FINANCIAL MANAGEMENT Improved Documentation Needed to Support the Air Force’s Military Payroll and Meet Audit ...Improved Documentation Needed to Support the Air Force’s Military Payroll and Meet Audit Readiness Goals Why GAO Did This Study As part of DOD’s...efforts to achieve auditability of its financial statements, the Air Force in July 2014 asserted audit readiness for its Schedule of Budgetary

  1. Soil-based filtration technology for air purification: potentials for environmental and space life support application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, Mark; Bohn, Hinrich

    Soil biofiltration, also known as Soil bed reactor (SBR), technology was originally developed in Germany to take advantage of the diversity in microbial mechanisms to control gases producing malodor in industrial processes. The approach has since gained wider international acceptance and seen numerous improvements, for example, by the use of high-organic compost beds to maximize microbial processes. This paper reviews the basic mechanisms which underlay soil processes involved in air purification, advantages and limitations of the technology and the cur-rent research status of the approach. Soil biofiltration has lower capital and operating/energetic costs than conventional technologies and is well adapted to handle contaminants in moderate concentrations. The systems can be engineered to optimize efficiency though manipulation of temperature, pH, moisture content, soil organic matter and airflow rates. SBR technology was modified for application in the Biosphere 2 project, which demonstrated in preparatory research with a number of closed system testbeds that soil could also support crop plants while also serving as soil filters with air pumps to push air through the soil. This Biosphere 2 research demonstrated in several closed system testbeds that a number of important trace gases could be kept under control and led to the engineering of the entire agricultural soil of Biosphere 2 to serve as a soil filtration unit for the facility. Soil biofiltration, coupled with food crop produc-tion, as a component of bioregenerative space life support systems has the advantages of lower energy use and avoidance of the consumables required for other air purification approaches. Expanding use of soil biofiltration can aid a number of environmental applications, from the mitigation of indoor air pollution, improvement of industrial air emissions and prevention of accidental release of toxic gases.

  2. Wacky Weather

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sabarre, Amy; Gulino, Jacqueline

    2013-01-01

    What do a leaf blower, water hose, fan, and ice cubes have in common? Ask the students who participated in an integrative science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (I-STEM) education unit, "Wacky Weather," and they will tell say "fun and severe weather"--words one might not have expected! The purpose of the unit…

  3. Operational Test Plan Concept for Evaluation of Close Air Support Alternative Aircraft

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-03-31

    to prepare an operational test plan to conduct a competitive fly-off of alternative aircraft for the close air support (CAS) mission and to complete...the test pLanbys>_ M &vach49- The Act also directed the Secretary of Defense to conduct an independent assessment of ongoing studies and analyses...commitment of forces and equipment by the Services and the likelihood of conducting the test on an active Army installation, the Army will be

  4. Genetically optimizing weather predictions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Potter, S. B.; Staats, Kai; Romero-Colmenero, Encarni

    2016-07-01

    humidity, air pressure, wind speed and wind direction) into a database. Built upon this database, we have developed a remarkably simple approach to derive a functional weather predictor. The aim is provide up to the minute local weather predictions in order to e.g. prepare dome environment conditions ready for night time operations or plan, prioritize and update weather dependent observing queues. In order to predict the weather for the next 24 hours, we take the current live weather readings and search the entire archive for similar conditions. Predictions are made against an averaged, subsequent 24 hours of the closest matches for the current readings. We use an Evolutionary Algorithm to optimize our formula through weighted parameters. The accuracy of the predictor is routinely tested and tuned against the full, updated archive to account for seasonal trends and total, climate shifts. The live (updated every 5 minutes) SALT weather predictor can be viewed here: http://www.saao.ac.za/ sbp/suthweather_predict.html

  5. Use of EOS Data in AWIPS for Weather Forecasting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jedlovec, Gary J.; Haines, Stephanie L.; Suggs, Ron J.; Bradshaw, Tom; Darden, Chris; Burks, Jason

    2003-01-01

    Operational weather forecasting relies heavily on real time data and modeling products for forecast preparation and dissemination of significant weather information to the public. The synthesis of this information (observations and model products) by the meteorologist is facilitated by a decision support system to display and integrate the information in a useful fashion. For the NWS this system is called Advanced Weather Interactive Processing System (AWIPS). Over the last few years NASA has launched a series of new Earth Observation Satellites (EOS) for climate monitoring that include several instruments that provide high-resolution measurements of atmospheric and surface features important for weather forecasting and analysis. The key to the utilization of these unique new measurements by the NWS is the real time integration of the EOS data into the AWIPS system. This is currently being done in the Huntsville and Birmingham NWS Forecast Offices under the NASA Short-term Prediction Research and Transition (SPORT) Program. This paper describes the use of near real time MODIS and AIRS data in AWIPS to improve the detection of clouds, moisture variations, atmospheric stability, and thermal signatures that can lead to significant weather development. The paper and the conference presentation will focus on several examples where MODIS and AIRS data have made a positive impact on forecast accuracy. The results of an assessment of the utility of these products for weather forecast improvement made at the Huntsville NWS Forecast Office will be presented.

  6. Weather Information Communications (WINCOMM) Project: Dissemination of Weather Information for the Reduction of Aviation Weather-Related Accident Causal Factors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jarrell, Michael; Tanger, Thomas

    2004-01-01

    Weather Information Communications (WINCOMM) is part of the Weather Accident Prevention (WxAP) Project, which is part of the NASA's Aviation Safety and Security Program. The goals of WINCOMM are to facilitate the exchange of tactical and strategic weather information between air and ground. This viewgraph presentation provides information on data link decision factors, architectures, validation goals. WINCOMM is capable of providing en-route communication air-to-ground, ground-to-air, and air-to-air, even on international or intercontinental flights. The presentation also includes information on the capacity, cost, and development of data links.

  7. Probabilistic Predictions and Downscaling with an Analog Ensemble for Weather, Renewable Energy, Air Quality, and Hurricane Intensity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delle Monache, L.

    2015-12-01

    The analog of a forecast for a given location and time is defined as the observation that corresponds to a past prediction matching selected features of the current forecast. The best analogs form the analog ensemble (AnEn). First AnEn skill is analyzed for predictions of 10-m wind speed and 2-m temperature. We show that AnEn produces accurate predictions and a reliable quantification of their uncertainty with similar or superior skill compared to cutting-edge methods, while requiring considerably less computational resources. A preliminary example of an application of AnEn in 3D will also be shown. Second, results for wind power predictions are presented, which confirm AnEn performance obtained for meteorological variables. Further improvements can be obtained by implementing analog-predictor weighting strategies, as will be shown. Third, AnEn is implemented for downscaling the wind speed and precipitation fields from a reanalysis data set. AnEn significantly reduces the systematic and random errors in the downscaled estimates, and simultaneously improves correlation between the downscaled time series and the measurements, over what is provided by a reanalysis field alone. The AnEn also provides a reliable quantification of uncertainties in the estimate, thereby permitting decision makers to objectively define confidence intervals to the estimated long-term energy yield. We inckude also a discussion of the implementation of AnEn in data-sparse regions, where in that case it can be used as a technique to drastically reduce the computational cost of NWP-based dynamical downscaling. We conclude we the latest novel inplementations of AnEn for air quality and hurricane intensity predictions.

  8. Understanding and Supporting Web Developers: Design and Evaluation of a Web Accessibility Information Resource (WebAIR).

    PubMed

    Swallow, David; Petrie, Helen; Power, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes the design and evaluation of a Web Accessibility Information Resource (WebAIR) for supporting web developers to create and evaluate accessible websites. WebAIR was designed with web developers in mind, recognising their current working practices and acknowledging their existing understanding of web accessibility. We conducted an evaluation with 32 professional web developers in which they used either WebAIR or an existing accessibility information resource, the Web Content Accessibility Guidelines, to identify accessibility problems. The findings indicate that several design decisions made in relation to the language, organisation, and volume of WebAIR were effective in supporting web developers to undertake web accessibility evaluations.

  9. Municipalities' Preparedness for Weather Hazards and Response to Weather Warnings

    PubMed Central

    Mehiriz, Kaddour; Gosselin, Pierre

    2016-01-01

    The study of the management of weather-related disaster risks by municipalities has attracted little attention even though these organizations play a key role in protecting the population from extreme meteorological conditions. This article contributes to filling this gap with new evidence on the level and determinants of Quebec municipalities’ preparedness for weather hazards and response to related weather warnings. Using survey data from municipal emergency management coordinators and secondary data on the financial and demographic characteristics of municipalities, the study shows that most Quebec municipalities are sufficiently prepared for weather hazards and undertake measures to protect the population when informed of imminent extreme weather events. Significant differences between municipalities were noted though. Specifically, the level of preparedness was positively correlated with the municipalities’ capacity and population support for weather-related disaster management policies. In addition, the risk of weather-related disasters increases the preparedness level through its effect on population support. We also found that the response to weather warnings depended on the risk of weather-related disasters, the preparedness level and the quality of weather warnings. These results highlight areas for improvement in the context of increasing frequency and/or severity of such events with current climate change. PMID:27649547

  10. [The main ways of improvement of medical support of the Air Forces in modern conditions].

    PubMed

    Blaginin, A A; Grebeniuk, A N; Lizogub, I N

    2014-02-01

    Blaginin A.A., Grebenyuk A.N., Lizogub LN. - The main ways of improvement of medical support of the Air Forces in modern conditions. Aircrew conducting active hostilities suffers from the whole spectrum of factors and conditions of the combat situation. The main task for the medical service of the Air Force is to carry out preventive and curative action for aviation specialists who are responsible for the combat capability of aircraft formations. The medical service of the Air Force must have forces and facilities for planning, organization and implementation of the treatment of lightly wounded and sick aviation professionals with short periods of recovery, medical rehabilitation of aircrew qfter suffering injuries, diseases, sanatorium therapy of aircrew with partial failure of health, outpatient and inpatient medical examination aircrew - flight commissions, preventive rest of aviation specialists with symptoms of chronic fatigue. Should be trained aviation physicians, including both basic military medical education and in-depth study of the medical aspects of various fields of personnel of the Air Force.

  11. Severe Weather Forecast Decision Aid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauman, William H., III; Wheeler, Mark M.; Short, David A.

    2005-01-01

    This report presents a 15-year climatological study of severe weather events and related severe weather atmospheric parameters. Data sources included local forecast rules, archived sounding data, Cloud-to-Ground Lightning Surveillance System (CGLSS) data, surface and upper air maps, and two severe weather event databases covering east-central Florida. The local forecast rules were used to set threat assessment thresholds for stability parameters that were derived from the sounding data. The severe weather events databases were used to identify days with reported severe weather and the CGLSS data was used to differentiate between lightning and non-lightning days. These data sets provided the foundation for analyzing the stability parameters and synoptic patterns that were used to develop an objective tool to aid in forecasting severe weather events. The period of record for the analysis was May - September, 1989 - 2003. The results indicate that there are certain synoptic patterns more prevalent on days with severe weather and some of the stability parameters are better predictors of severe weather days based on locally tuned threat values. The results also revealed the stability parameters that did not display any skill related to severe weather days. An interactive web-based Severe Weather Decision Aid was developed to assist the duty forecaster by providing a level of objective guidance based on the analysis of the stability parameters, CGLSS data, and synoptic-scale dynamics. The tool will be tested and evaluated during the 2005 warm season.

  12. Closed-loop Habitation Air Revitalization Model for Regenerative Life Support Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hart, Maxwell M.

    1991-01-01

    The primary function of any life support system is to keep the crew alive by providing breathable air, potable water, edible food, and for disposal of waste. In a well-balanced or regenerative life support system, the various components are each using what is available and producing what is needed by other components so that there will always be enough chemicals in the form in which they are needed. Humans are not just users, but also one of the participating parts of the system. If a system could continuously recycle the original chemicals, this would make it virtually a Closed-loop Habitation (CH). Some difficulties in trying to create a miniature version of a CH are briefly discussed. In a miniature CH, a minimal structure must be provided and the difference must be made up by artificial parts such as physicochemical systems that perform the conversions that the Earth can achieve naturally. To study the interactions of these parts, a computer model was designed that simulates a miniature CH with emphasis on the air revitalization part. It is called the Closed-loop Habitation Air Revitalization Model (CHARM).

  13. Multi-Agent Diagnosis and Control of an Air Revitalization System for Life Support in Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malin, Jane T.; Kowing, Jeffrey; Nieten, Joseph; Graham, Jeffrey s.; Schreckenghost, Debra; Bonasso, Pete; Fleming, Land D.; MacMahon, Matt; Thronesbery, Carroll

    2000-01-01

    An architecture of interoperating agents has been developed to provide control and fault management for advanced life support systems in space. In this adjustable autonomy architecture, software agents coordinate with human agents and provide support in novel fault management situations. This architecture combines the Livingstone model-based mode identification and reconfiguration (MIR) system with the 3T architecture for autonomous flexible command and control. The MIR software agent performs model-based state identification and diagnosis. MIR identifies novel recovery configurations and the set of commands required for the recovery. The AZT procedural executive and the human operator use the diagnoses and recovery recommendations, and provide command sequencing. User interface extensions have been developed to support human monitoring of both AZT and MIR data and activities. This architecture has been demonstrated performing control and fault management for an oxygen production system for air revitalization in space. The software operates in a dynamic simulation testbed.

  14. Weatherizing America

    SciTech Connect

    Stewart, Zachary; Bergeron, T.J.; Barth, Dale; Qualis, Xavier; Sewall, Travis; Fransen, Richard; Gill, Tony

    2009-01-01

    As Recovery Act money arrives to expand home weatherization programs across the country, Zachary Stewart of Phoenix, Ariz., and others have found an exciting opportunity not only to start working again, but also to find a calling.

  15. Weatherizing America

    ScienceCinema

    Stewart, Zachary; Bergeron, T.J.; Barth, Dale; Qualis, Xavier; Sewall, Travis; Fransen, Richard; Gill, Tony

    2016-07-12

    As Recovery Act money arrives to expand home weatherization programs across the country, Zachary Stewart of Phoenix, Ariz., and others have found an exciting opportunity not only to start working again, but also to find a calling.

  16. Air Quality Modeling in Support of the Near-Road Exposures and Effects of Urban Air Pollutants Study (NEXUS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    A major challenge in traffic-related air pollution exposure studies is the lack of information regarding pollutant exposure characterization. Air quality modeling can provide spatially and temporally varying exposure estimates for examining relationships between traffic-related a...

  17. Weather from the Stratosphere?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baldwin, Mark P.; Thompson, David W. J.; Shuckburgh, Emily F.; Norton, Warwick A.; Gillett, Nathan P.

    2006-01-01

    Is the stratosphere, the atmospheric layer between about 10 and 50 km, important for predicting changes in weather and climate? The traditional view is that the stratosphere is a passive recipient of energy and waves from weather systems in the underlying troposphere, but recent evidence suggests otherwise. At a workshop in Whistler, British Columbia (1), scientists met to discuss how the stratosphere responds to forcing from below, initiating feedback processes that in turn alter weather patterns in the troposphere. The lowest layer of the atmosphere, the troposphere, is highly dynamic and rich in water vapor, clouds, and weather. The stratosphere above it is less dense and less turbulent (see the figure). Variability in the stratosphere is dominated by hemispheric-scale changes in airflow on time scales of a week to several months. Occasionally, however, stratospheric air flow changes dramatically within just a day or two, with large-scale jumps in temperature of 20 K or more. The troposphere influences the stratosphere mainly through atmospheric waves that propagate upward. Recent evidence shows that the stratosphere organizes this chaotic wave forcing from below to create long-lived changes in the stratospheric circulation. These stratospheric changes can feed back to affect weather and climate in the troposphere.

  18. Preliminary design of a family of three close air support aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cox, Brian; Darrah, Paul; Lussier, Wayne; Mills, Nikos

    1989-01-01

    A family of three Close Air Support aircraft is presented. These aircraft are designed with commonality as the main design objective to reduce the life cycle cost. The aircraft are low wing, twin-boom, pusher turbo-prop configurations. The amount of information displayed to the pilot was reduced to a minimum to greatly simplify the cockpit. The aircraft met the mission specifications and the performance and cost characteristics compared well with other CAS aircraft. The concept of a family of CAS aircraft seems viable after preliminary design.

  19. Illustrations and Supporting Texts for Sound Standing Waves of Air Columns in Pipes in Introductory Physics Textbooks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zeng, Liang; Smith, Chris; Poelzer, G. Herold; Rodriguez, Jennifer; Corpuz, Edgar; Yanev, George

    2014-01-01

    In our pilot studies, we found that many introductory physics textbook illustrations with supporting text for sound standing waves of air columns in open-open, open-closed, and closed-closed pipes inhibit student understanding of sound standing wave phenomena due to student misunderstanding of how air molecules move within these pipes. Based on…

  20. Integration of Weather Data into Airspace and Traffic Operations Simulation (ATOS) for Trajectory- Based Operations Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peters, Mark; Boisvert, Ben; Escala, Diego

    2009-01-01

    Explicit integration of aviation weather forecasts with the National Airspace System (NAS) structure is needed to improve the development and execution of operationally effective weather impact mitigation plans and has become increasingly important due to NAS congestion and associated increases in delay. This article considers several contemporary weather-air traffic management (ATM) integration applications: the use of probabilistic forecasts of visibility at San Francisco, the Route Availability Planning Tool to facilitate departures from the New York airports during thunderstorms, the estimation of en route capacity in convective weather, and the application of mixed-integer optimization techniques to air traffic management when the en route and terminal capacities are varying with time because of convective weather impacts. Our operational experience at San Francisco and New York coupled with very promising initial results of traffic flow optimizations suggests that weather-ATM integrated systems warrant significant research and development investment. However, they will need to be refined through rapid prototyping at facilities with supportive operational users We have discussed key elements of an emerging aviation weather research area: the explicit integration of aviation weather forecasts with NAS structure to improve the effectiveness and timeliness of weather impact mitigation plans. Our insights are based on operational experiences with Lincoln Laboratory-developed integrated weather sensing and processing systems, and derivative early prototypes of explicit ATM decision support tools such as the RAPT in New York City. The technical components of this effort involve improving meteorological forecast skill, tailoring the forecast outputs to the problem of estimating airspace impacts, developing models to quantify airspace impacts, and prototyping automated tools that assist in the development of objective broad-area ATM strategies, given probabilistic

  1. Use of UAS to Support Management in Precision Agriculture: The AggieAir Experience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKee, M.; Torres-Rua, A. F.; ELarab, M.; Hassan Esfahani, L.; Jensen, A.

    2015-12-01

    Remote sensing applications for precision agriculture depend on acquiring actionable information at high spatial resolution and at a temporal frequency appropriate for timely responses. Unmanned aerial systems (UAS) are capable of providing such imagery for use in various applications for precision agriculture (yield estimation, evapotranspiration, etc.). AggieAirTM, a UAS platform and sensory array, was designed and developed at Utah State University to acquire high-resolution imagery (0.15m -0.6 m) in the visual, near infrared, red edge, and thermal infrared spectra. Spectral data obtained from AggieAir are used to develop soil moisture, plant chlorophyll, leaf nitrogen and actual evapotranspiration estimates to support management in precision agriculture. This presentation will focus on experience in using the AggieAir system to provide information products of possible interest in precision agriculture. The discussion will include information about the direction and rate of development of UAS technology and the current and anticipated future state of the regulatory environment for use of these systems in the U.S.

  2. Development of an Aura Chemical Reanalysis in support Air Quality Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pierce, R. B.; Lenzen, A.; Schaack, T.

    2015-12-01

    We present results of chemical data assimilation experiments utilizing the NOAA National Environmental Satellite, Data, and Information Service (NESDIS), University of Wisconsin Space Science and Engineering (SSEC) Real-time Air Quality Modeling System (RAQMS) in conjunction with the NOAA National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) Operational Gridpoint Statistical Interpolation (GSI) 3-dimensional variational data assimilation system. The impact of assimilating NASA Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) total column ozone, OMI tropospheric nitrogen dioxide columns, and Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) stratospheric ozone profiles on background ozone is assessed using measurements from the 2010 NSF High-performance Instrumented Airborne Platform for Environmental Research (HIAPER) Pole-to-Pole Observation (HIPPO) and NOAA California Nexus (CalNex) campaigns. Results show that the RAQMS/GSI Chemical Reanalysis is able to provide very good estimates of background ozone and large-scale ozone variability and is suitable for use in constraining regional air quality modeling activities. These experiments are being used to guide the development of a multi-year global chemical and aerosol reanalysis using NASA Aura and A-Train measurements to support air quality applications.

  3. Multi-objective optimization to support rapid air operations mission planning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonsalves, Paul G.; Burge, Janet E.

    2005-05-01

    Within the context of military air operations, Time-sensitive targets (TSTs) are targets where modifiers such, "emerging, perishable, high-payoff, short dwell, or highly mobile" can be used. Time-critical targets (TCTs) further the criticality of TSTs with respect to achievement of mission objectives and a limited window of opportunity for attack. The importance of TST/TCTs within military air operations has been met with a significant investment in advanced technologies and platforms to meet these challenges. Developments in ISR systems, manned and unmanned air platforms, precision guided munitions, and network-centric warfare have made significant strides for ensuring timely prosecution of TSTs/TCTs. However, additional investments are needed to further decrease the targeting decision cycle. Given the operational needs for decision support systems to enable time-sensitive/time-critical targeting, we present a tool for the rapid generation and analysis of mission plan solutions to address TSTs/TCTs. Our system employs a genetic algorithm-based multi-objective optimization scheme that is well suited to the rapid generation of approximate solutions in a dynamic environment. Genetic Algorithms (GAs) allow for the effective exploration of the search space for potentially novel solutions, while addressing the multiple conflicting objectives that characterize the prosecution of TSTs/TCTs (e.g. probability of target destruction, time to accomplish task, level of disruption to other mission priorities, level of risk to friendly assets, etc.).

  4. DEA-I: A Globally Configurable Open Source Software Package in Support of Air Quality Forecasts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davies, J.; Strabala, K.; Pierce, R.; Huang, H.; Schiffer, E.

    2012-12-01

    During September 2003, a team of NASA, NOAA, and EPA researchers demonstrated a prototype for using Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) aerosol optical depth retrievals in daily air quality forecasts; this became known as IDEA (Infusing satellite Data into Environmental Applications). IDEA was part of the NASA Applied Sciences Program strategy to demonstrate practical uses of NASA-sponsored observations from space and predictions. Following its successful demonstration an export version of IDEA, known as IDEA International (IDEA-I), has now been released. IDEA-I supports the Global Earth Observation Systems of Systems (GEOSS) Group on Earth Observations (GEO) Health Societal Benefit Area (SBA) and is being developed within the framework of the GEO Earth Observations in Decision Support Call for Proposals. The vehicle for IDEA-I release is the International MODIS and AIRS (Atmospheric Infrared Sounder) Processing Package (IMAPP), developed at the Space Science and Engineering Center, University of Wisconsin-Madison (SSEC/UW-Madison). IMAPP is a NASA-funded and freely-distributed software package which allows any ground station capable of receiving direct broadcast from Terra or Aqua to produce calibrated and geolocated radiances, and a suite of environmental products, of which the IDEA-I 48-hour forward trajectory prediction of high aerosol events is now a part. IDEA-I provides a tool for linking ground-based and satellite capabilities to support international air quality forecasting activities and is to be demonstrated internationally through user training and impact evaluation via a series of IMAPP workshops. This presentation describes the IMAPP implementation of IDEA-I in terms of its simple installation and configuration, and through examples of its operation in several regions known for periodic high aerosol events.; Screen capture of the University of Wisconsin implementation of the real-time direct broadcast IDEA-I Air Quality monitoring

  5. Fisk-based criteria to support validation of detection methods for drinking water and air.

    SciTech Connect

    MacDonell, M.; Bhattacharyya, M.; Finster, M.; Williams, M.; Picel, K.; Chang, Y.-S.; Peterson, J.; Adeshina, F.; Sonich-Mullin, C.; Environmental Science Division; EPA

    2009-02-18

    This report was prepared to support the validation of analytical methods for threat contaminants under the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) National Homeland Security Research Center (NHSRC) program. It is designed to serve as a resource for certain applications of benchmark and fate information for homeland security threat contaminants. The report identifies risk-based criteria from existing health benchmarks for drinking water and air for potential use as validation targets. The focus is on benchmarks for chronic public exposures. The priority sources are standard EPA concentration limits for drinking water and air, along with oral and inhalation toxicity values. Many contaminants identified as homeland security threats to drinking water or air would convert to other chemicals within minutes to hours of being released. For this reason, a fate analysis has been performed to identify potential transformation products and removal half-lives in air and water so appropriate forms can be targeted for detection over time. The risk-based criteria presented in this report to frame method validation are expected to be lower than actual operational targets based on realistic exposures following a release. Note that many target criteria provided in this report are taken from available benchmarks without assessing the underlying toxicological details. That is, although the relevance of the chemical form and analogues are evaluated, the toxicological interpretations and extrapolations conducted by the authoring organizations are not. It is also important to emphasize that such targets in the current analysis are not health-based advisory levels to guide homeland security responses. This integrated evaluation of chronic public benchmarks and contaminant fate has identified more than 200 risk-based criteria as method validation targets across numerous contaminants and fate products in drinking water and air combined. The gap in directly applicable values is

  6. The Weather Radar Toolkit, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) National Climatic Data Center's support of interoperability and the Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ansari, S.; Del Greco, S.

    2006-12-01

    In February 2005, 61 countries around the World agreed on a 10 year plan to work towards building open systems for sharing geospatial data and services across different platforms worldwide. This system is known as the Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS). The objective of GEOSS focuses on easy access to environmental data and interoperability across different systems allowing participating countries to measure the "pulse" of the planet in an effort to advance society. In support of GEOSS goals, NOAA's National Climatic Data Center (NCDC) has developed radar visualization and data exporter tools in an open systems environment. The NCDC Weather Radar Toolkit (WRT) loads Weather Surveillance Radar 1988 Doppler (WSR-88D) volume scan (S-band) data, known as Level-II, and derived products, known as Level-III, into an Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) compliant environment. The application is written entirely in Java and will run on any Java- supported platform including Windows, Macintosh and Linux/Unix. The application is launched via Java Web Start and runs on the client machine while accessing these data locally or remotely from the NCDC archive, NOAA FTP server or any URL or THREDDS Data Server. The WRT allows the data to be manipulated to create custom mosaics, composites and precipitation estimates. The WRT Viewer provides tools for custom data overlays, Web Map Service backgrounds, animations and basic filtering. The export of images and movies is provided in multiple formats. The WRT Data Exporter allows for data export in both vector polygon (Shapefile, Well-Known Text) and raster (GeoTIFF, ESRI Grid, VTK, NetCDF, GrADS) formats. By decoding the various Radar formats into the NetCDF Common Data Model, the exported NetCDF data becomes interoperable with existing software packages including THREDDS Data Server and the Integrated Data Viewer (IDV). The NCDC recently partnered with NOAA's National Severe Storms Lab (NSSL) to decode Sigmet C-band Doppler

  7. Headquarters Air Weather Service Reorganization.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-05-01

    Cambridge, Massachusetts: Winthrop Publishers, Inc., 1981), p. 72. 2. J. W. Lorsch , "Organization Design: A Situational Perspective," Organizational...William B. Public Organization Behavior and Development. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Winthrop Publishers, Inc., 1981. Galbraith, Jay .R. Designing...Complex Organizations. Reading, Ma.: Addison-Wesley, 1973. Galbraith, Jay R. Organization Design. Reading, Ma.: Addison-Wesley, 1977. Gardner, John W. "How

  8. The Application of Synoptic Weather Forecasting Rules to Selected Weather Situations in the United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kohler, Fred E.

    The document describes the use of weather maps and data in teaching introductory college courses in synoptic meteorology. Students examine weather changes at three-hour intervals from data obtained from the "Monthly Summary of Local Climatological Data." Weather variables in the local summary include sky cover, air temperature, dew point, relative…

  9. Degradation of phenylamine by catalytic wet air oxidation using metal catalysts with modified supports.

    PubMed

    Torrellas, Silvia A; Escudero, Gabriel O; Rodriguez, Araceli R; Rodriguez, Juan G

    2015-01-01

    The effect of acid treatments with HCl and HNO3 on the surface area and surface chemistry of three granular activated carbons was studied. These supports were characterized and the hydrochloric acid treatment leads to the best activated carbon support (AC2-C). The catalytic behavior of Pt, Ru and Fe (1 wt.%) supported on granular activated carbon treated with HCl was tested in the phenylamine continuous catalytic wet air oxidation in a three-phase, high-pressure catalytic reactor over a range of reaction temperatures 130-170ºC and total pressure of 1.0-3.0 MPa at LHSV = 0.4-1 h(-1), whereas the phenylamine concentration range and the catalyst loading were 5-16 mol.m(-3) and 0.5-1.5 g, respectively. Activity as well as conversion varied as a function of the metal, the catalyst preparation method and operation conditions. Higher activities were obtained with Pt incorporated on hydrochloric acid -treated activated carbon by the ion exchange method. In steady state, approximately 98% phenylamine conversion, 77% of TOC and 94% of COD removal, was recorded at 150ºC, 11 mol m(-3) of phenylamine concentration and 1.5 g of catalyst, and the selectivity to non-organic compounds was 78%. Several reaction intermediaries were detected. A Langmuir-Hinshelwood model gave an excellent fit of the kinetic data of phenylamine continuous catalytic wet air oxidation over the catalysts of this work.

  10. A novel air quality analysis and prediction system for São Paulo, Brazil to support decision-making

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoshyaripour, Gholam Ali; Brasseur, Guy; Andrade, Maria Fatima; Gavidia-Calderón, Mario; Bouarar, Idir

    2016-04-01

    The extensive economic development and urbanization in southeastern Brazil (SEB) in recent decades have notably degraded the air quality with adverse impacts on human health. Since the Metropolitan Area of São Paulo (MASP) accommodates the majority of the economic growth in SEB, it overwhelmingly suffers from the air pollution. Consequently, there is a strong demand for developing ever-better assessment mechanisms to monitor the air quality and to assist the decision makers to mitigate the air pollution in MASP. Here we present the results of an air quality modeling system designed for SEB with focuses on MASP. The Weather Research and Forecast model with Chemistry (WRF-Chem) is used considering the anthropogenic, biomass-burning and biogenic emissions within a 1000×1500 km domain with resolution of 10 km. FINN and MEGAN are used for the biomass-burning and biogenic emissions, respectively. For the anthropogenic emissions we use a local bottom-up inventory for the transport sector and the HTAPv2 global inventory for all other sectors. The bottom-up inventory accounts for the traffic patterns, vehicle types and their emission factors in the area and thus could be used to evaluate the effect of changes in these parameters on air quality in MASP. The model outputs are compered to the satellite and ground-based observations for O3 and NOx. The results show that using the bottom-up or top-down inventories individually can result in a huge deviation between the predictions and observations. On the other hand, combining the inventories significantly enhances the forecast accuracy. It also provides a powerful tool to quantify the effects of traffic and vehicle emission policies on air quality in MASP.

  11. Hygienic support of the ISS air quality (main achievements and prospects)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moukhamedieva, Lana; Tsarkov, Dmitriy; Pakhomova, Anna

    Hygienic preventive measures during pre-flight processing of manned spaceships, selection of polymeric materials, sanitary-hygienic evaluation of cargo and scientific hardware to be used on the ISS and life support systems allow to maintain air quality in limits of regulatory requirements. However, graduate increase of total air contamination by harmful chemicals is observed as service life of the ISS gets longer. It is caused by polymeric materials used on the station overall quantity rise, by additional contamination brought by cargo spacecrafts and modules docking to the ISS and by the cargo. At the same time the range of contaminants that are typical for off-gassing from polymeric materials where modern stabilizers, plasticizers, flame retarders and other additives are used gets wider. In resolving the matters of the ISS service life extension the main question of hygienic researches is to determine real safe operation life of the polymeric material used in structures and hardware of the station, including: begin{itemize} research of polymers degradation (ageing) and its effect on intensity of off gassing and its toxicity; begin{itemize} introduction of polymers with minimal volatile organic compounds off gassing under conditions of space flight and thermal-oxidative degradation. In order to ensure human safety during long-term flight it is important to develop: begin{itemize} real-time air quality monitoring systems, including on-line analysis of highly toxic contaminants evolving during thermo-oxidative degradation of polymer materials and during blowouts of toxic contaminants; begin{itemize} hygienic standards of contaminants level for extended duration of flight up to 3 years. It is essential to develop an automated control system for on-line monitoring of toxicological status and to develop hygienic and engineer measures of its management in order to ensure crew members safety during off-nominal situation.

  12. High-resolution air pollution modeling for urban environments in support of dense multi-platform networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berchet, Antoine; Zink, Katrin; Arfire, Adrian; Marjovi, Ali; Martinoli, Alcherio; Emmenegger, Lukas; Brunner, Dominik

    2015-04-01

    analyze time series and spatial gradients from OpenSense2 in-situ observations and GRAMM/GRAL outputs and evaluate the influence of typical weather situations on the local air quality.

  13. Operationalizing Space Weather Products - Process and Issues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scro, K. D.; Quigley, S.

    2006-12-01

    Developing and transitioning operational products for any customer base is a complicated process. This is the case for operational space weather products and services for the USAF. This presentation will provide information on the current state of affairs regarding the process required to take an idea from the research field to the real-time application of 24-hour space weather operations support. General principles and specific issues are discussed and will include: customer requirements, organizations in-play, funding, product types, acquisition of engineering and validation data, security classification, version control, and various important changes that occur during the process. The author's viewpoint is as an individual developing space environmental system-impact products for the US Air Force: 1) as a member of its primary research organization (Air Force Research Laboratory), 2) working with its primary space environment technology transition organization (Technology Application Division of the Space and Missile Systems Center, SMC/WXT), and 3) delivering to the primary sponsor/customer of such system-impact products (Air Force Space Command). The experience and focus is obviously on specific military operationalization process and issues, but most of the paradigm may apply to other (commercial) enterprises as well.

  14. Bubble absorption by an air-filled helically-supported capillary channel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beheshtipour, Negar; Thiessen, David

    2016-11-01

    Gas-liquid phase separation under microgravity conditions where buoyancy is not active represents a challenge for two-phase liquid-continuous space systems. Similar challenges are present in micro-scale electrochemical systems on Earth that generate gas bubbles in geometries where surface tension prevails over gravity. A possible ground-based application would be the removal of carbon dioxide bubbles from large aspect ratio channels in a direct-methanol fuel cell that could otherwise occlude the channel. In this study we use a 3-mm diameter stretched stainless-steel spring coated with a superhydrophobic layer to create a helically-supported capillary channel. Such a channel that is submerged in water and filled with air while vented to the atmosphere was found to absorb a stream of 2.5-mm diameter air bubbles at a rate of at least 36 bubbles/s. An optical detector and high-speed imaging system have been used to study bubble absorption dynamics. A significant finding is that the initial attachment of the bubble to the channel that involves the rupture of a thin film of water happens in less than 1 ms. The rapid rupture of the water film separating the bubble from the channel might be attributed to the roughness of the hydrophobic coating.

  15. Coated mesh photocatalytic reactor for air treatment applications: comparative study of support materials.

    PubMed

    Passalía, Claudio; Nocetti, Emanuel; Alfano, Orlando; Brandi, Rodolfo

    2016-06-14

    An experimental comparative study of different meshes as support materials for photocatalytic applications in gas phase is presented. The photocatalytic oxidation of dichloromethane in air was addressed employing different coated meshes in a laboratory-scale, continuous reactor. Two fiberglass meshes and a stainless steel mesh were studied regarding the catalyst load, adherence, and catalytic activity. Titanium dioxide photocatalyst was immobilized on the meshes by dip-coating cycles. Results indicate the feasibility of the dichloromethane elimination in the three cases. When the number of coating cycles was doubled, the achieved conversion levels were increased twofold for stainless steel and threefold for the fiberglass meshes. One of the fiberglass meshes (FG2) showed the highest reactivity per mass of catalyst and per catalytic surface area.

  16. Stability of rigid rotors supported by air foil bearings: Comparison of two fundamental approaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larsen, Jon S.; Santos, Ilmar F.; von Osmanski, Sebastian

    2016-10-01

    High speed direct drive motors enable the use of Air Foil Bearings (AFB) in a wide range of applications due to the elimination of gear forces. Unfortunately, AFB supported rotors are lightly damped, and an accurate prediction of their Onset Speed of Instability (OSI) is therefore important. This paper compares two fundamental methods for predicting the OSI. One is based on a nonlinear time domain simulation and another is based on a linearised frequency domain method and a perturbation of the Reynolds equation. Both methods are based on equivalent models and should predict similar results. Significant discrepancies are observed leading to the question, is the classical frequency domain method sufficiently accurate? The discrepancies and possible explanations are discussed in detail.

  17. Road Weather and Connected Vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pisano, P.; Boyce, B. C.

    2015-12-01

    On average, there are over 5.8 M vehicle crashes each year of which 23% are weather-related. Weather-related crashes are defined as those crashes that occur in adverse weather or on slick pavement. The vast majority of weather-related crashes happen on wet pavement (74%) and during rainfall (46%). Connected vehicle technologies hold the promise to transform road-weather management by providing improved road weather data in real time with greater temporal and geographic accuracy. This will dramatically expand the amount of data that can be used to assess, forecast, and address the impacts that weather has on roads, vehicles, and travelers. The use of vehicle-based measurements of the road and surrounding atmosphere with other, more traditional weather data sources, and create road and atmospheric hazard products for a variety of users. The broad availability of road weather data from mobile sources will vastly improve the ability to detect and forecast weather and road conditions, and will provide the capability to manage road-weather response on specific roadway links. The RWMP is currently demonstrating how weather, road conditions, and related vehicle data can be used for decision making through an innovative Integrated Mobile Observations project. FHWA is partnering with 3 DOTs (MN, MI, & NV) to pilot these applications. One is a mobile alerts application called the Motorists Advisories and Warnings (MAW) and a maintenance decision support application. These applications blend traditional weather information (e.g., radar, surface stations) with mobile vehicle data (e.g., temperature, brake status, wiper status) to determine current weather conditions. These weather conditions, and other road-travel-relevant information, are provided to users via web and phone applications. The MAW provides nowcasts and short-term forecasts out to 24 hours while the EMDSS application can provide forecasts up to 72 hours in advance. The three DOTs have placed readers and external

  18. Filling a capability and decision support gap between weather and seasonal forecasts: The role of USCLIVAR and initiating efforts of its MJO Working Group

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waliser, D. E.; Sperber, K. R.

    2015-12-01

    A decade ago there was a clear gap in our operational environmental prediction capabilities, and associated decision support guidance, at lead times beyond ten days and less than one month. Recognizing the need for making advances in the scientific understanding, model fidelity and prediction capabilities that could fill this gap, US CLIVAR formed the Madden-Julian Oscillation Working Group (MJOWG; 2006-09), as the MJO represented an obvious, unexploited source of predictability at these time scales. The MJOWG focused on advancements on two fronts, experimental to operational prediction of the MJO and weather/climate model experimentation, diagnostics and performance metrics. The former led to a multi-national operational MJO prediction capability hosted at NCEP/NOAA. The successful efforts of the MJOWG, and remaining work to do to further these objectives, led to the subsequent formation of the WCRP-WWRP MJO Task Force (MJOTF; 2010-present). Expanding the MJOWG efforts, the MJOTF advanced experimental to operational predictions of the boreal summer Intraseasonal Oscillation (BSISO). The multi-national operational BSISO predictions have been available since 2013 and are hosted by the APEC Climate Center (APCC), providing guidance on BSISO-driven onsets and breaks of the Asian summer monsoon. The success of these initial R2O MJO/BSISO prediction efforts led, in part, to the formation of the WCRP-WWRP Subseasonal to Seasonal (S2S) Prediction Project and North America Multi-Model Ensemble (NMME) designed to improve the skill of S2S forecasts and advance their utilization by the applications community. The above developments, projects and capabilities, including key multi-model research experimentation, will be discussed, highlighting the role of US CLIVAR, and concluding with a summary of the outcomes and recommendations of the 2015 National Academy of Science report on Developing a U.S. Research Agenda to Advance Subseasonal to Seasonal Forecasting.

  19. Activities in Teaching Weather

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tonn, Martin

    1977-01-01

    Presented is a unit composed of activities for teaching weather. Topics include cloud types and formation, simple weather instruments, and the weather station. Illustrations include a weather chart and instruments. A bibliography is given. (MA)

  20. Development and case study of a science-based software platform to support policy making on air quality.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Yun; Lao, Yanwen; Jang, Carey; Lin, Chen-Jen; Xing, Jia; Wang, Shuxiao; Fu, Joshua S; Deng, Shuang; Xie, Junping; Long, Shicheng

    2015-01-01

    This article describes the development and implementations of a novel software platform that supports real-time, science-based policy making on air quality through a user-friendly interface. The software, RSM-VAT, uses a response surface modeling (RSM) methodology and serves as a visualization and analysis tool (VAT) for three-dimensional air quality data obtained by atmospheric models. The software features a number of powerful and intuitive data visualization functions for illustrating the complex nonlinear relationship between emission reductions and air quality benefits. The case study of contiguous U.S. demonstrates that the enhanced RSM-VAT is capable of reproducing the air quality model results with Normalized Mean Bias <2% and assisting in air quality policy making in near real time.

  1. Compressed air energy storage monitoring to support refrigerated mined rock cavern technology.

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Moo Yul; Bauer, Stephen J.

    2004-06-01

    This document is the final report for the Compressed Air Energy Storage Monitoring to Support Refrigerated-Mined Rock Cavern Technology (CAES Monitoring to Support RMRCT) (DE-FC26-01NT40868) project to have been conducted by CAES Development Co., along with Sandia National Laboratories. This document provides a final report covering tasks 1.0 and subtasks 2.1, 2.2, and 2.5 of task 2.0 of the Statement of Project Objectives and constitutes the final project deliverable. The proposed work was to have provided physical measurements and analyses of large-scale rock mass response to pressure cycling. The goal was to develop proof-of-concept data for a previously developed and DOE sponsored technology (RMRCT or Refrigerated-Mined Rock Cavern Technology). In the RMRCT concept, a room and pillar mine developed in rock serves as a pressure vessel. That vessel will need to contain pressure of about 1370 psi (and cycle down to 300 psi). The measurements gathered in this study would have provided a means to determine directly rock mass response during cyclic loading on the same scale, under similar pressure conditions. The CAES project has been delayed due to national economic unrest in the energy sector.

  2. Field validation of sound mitigation models and air pollutant emission testing in support of missile motor disposal activities.

    PubMed

    McFarland, Michael J; Palmer, Glenn R; Kordich, Micheal M; Pollet, Dean A; Jensen, James A; Lindsay, Mitchell H

    2005-08-01

    The U.S. Department of Defense approved activities conducted at the Utah Test and Training Range (UTTR) include both operational readiness test firing of intercontinental ballistic missile motors as well as the destruction of obsolete or otherwise unusable intercontinental ballistic missile motors through open burn/open detonation (OB/ OD). Within the Utah Division of Air Quality, these activities have been identified as having the potential to generate unacceptable noise levels, as well as significant amounts of hazardous air pollutants. Hill Air Force Base, UT, has completed a series of field tests at the UTTR in which sound-monitoring surveillance of OB/OD activities was conducted to validate the Sound Intensity Prediction System (SIPS) model. Using results generated by the SIPS model to support the decision to detonate, the UTTR successfully disposed of missile motors having an aggregate net explosive weight (NEW) of 56,500 lbs without generating adverse noise levels within populated areas. These results suggest that, under appropriate conditions, missile motors of even larger NEW may be detonated without exceeding regulatory noise limits. In conjunction with collecting noise monitoring data, air quality data was collected to support the development of air emission factors for both static missile motor firings and OB/OD activities. Through the installation of 15 ground-based air samplers, the generation of combustion fixed gases, hazardous air pollutants, and chlorides were monitored during the 56,500-lb NEW detonation event. Comparison of field measurements to predictions generated from the U.S. Navy's energetic combustion pollutant formation model, POLU4WN, indicated that, as the detonation fireball expanded from ground zero, organic compounds as well as carbon monoxide continued to oxidize as the hot gases reacted with ambient air. Hazardous air pollutant analysis of air samplers confirmed the presence of chloromethane, benzene, toluene, 1,2-propadiene, and

  3. Conceptual air sparging decision tool in support of the development of an air sparging optimization decision tool

    SciTech Connect

    1995-09-01

    The enclosed document describes a conceptual decision tool (hereinafter, Tool) for determining applicability of and for optimizing air sparging systems. The Tool was developed by a multi-disciplinary team of internationally recognized experts in air sparging technology, lead by a group of project and task managers at Parsons Engineering Science, Inc. (Parsons ES). The team included Mr. Douglas Downey and Dr. Robert Hinchee of Parsons ES, Dr. Paul Johnson of Arizona State University, Dr. Richard Johnson of Oregon Graduate Institute, and Mr. Michael Marley of Envirogen, Inc. User Community Panel Review was coordinated by Dr. Robert Siegrist of Colorado School of Mines (also of Oak Ridge National Laboratory) and Dr. Thomas Brouns of Battelle/Pacific Northwest Laboratory. The Tool is intended to provide guidance to field practitioners and environmental managers for evaluating the applicability and optimization of air sparging as remedial action technique.

  4. Development and Use of the Hydrologic Ensemble Forecast System by the National Weather Service to Support the New York City Water Supply

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shedd, R.; Reed, S. M.; Porter, J. H.

    2015-12-01

    The National Weather Service (NWS) has been working for several years on the development of the Hydrologic Ensemble Forecast System (HEFS). The objective of HEFS is to provide ensemble river forecasts incorporating the best precipitation and temperature forcings at any specific time horizon. For the current implementation, this includes the Global Ensemble Forecast System (GEFS) and the Climate Forecast System (CFSv2). One of the core partners that has been working with the NWS since the beginning of the development phase of HEFS is the New York City Department of Environmental Protection (NYCDEP) which is responsible for the complex water supply system for New York City. The water supply system involves a network of reservoirs in both the Delaware and Hudson River basins. At the same time that the NWS was developing HEFS, NYCDEP was working on enhancing the operations of their water supply reservoirs through the development of a new Operations Support Tool (OST). OST is designed to guide reservoir system operations to ensure an adequate supply of high-quality drinking water for the city, as well as to meet secondary objectives for reaches downstream of the reservoirs assuming the primary water supply goals can be met. These secondary objectives include fisheries and ecosystem support, enhanced peak flow attenuation beyond that provided natively by the reservoirs, salt front management, and water supply for other cities. Since January 2014, the NWS Northeast and Middle Atlantic River Forecast Centers have provided daily one year forecasts from HEFS to NYCDEP. OST ingests these forecasts, couples them with near-real-time environmental and reservoir system data, and drives models of the water supply system. The input of ensemble forecasts results in an ensemble of model output, from which information on the range and likelihood of possible future system states can be extracted. This type of probabilistic information provides system managers with additional

  5. Smooth Sailing for Weather Forecasting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Through a cooperative venture with NASA's Stennis Space Center, WorldWinds, Inc., developed a unique weather and wave vector map using space-based radar satellite information and traditional weather observations. Called WorldWinds, the product provides accurate, near real-time, high-resolution weather forecasts. It was developed for commercial and scientific users. In addition to weather forecasting, the product's applications include maritime and terrestrial transportation, aviation operations, precision farming, offshore oil and gas operations, and coastal hazard response support. Target commercial markets include the operational maritime and aviation communities, oil and gas providers, and recreational yachting interests. Science applications include global long-term prediction and climate change, land-cover and land-use change, and natural hazard issues. Commercial airlines have expressed interest in the product, as it can provide forecasts over remote areas. WorldWinds, Inc., is currently providing its product to commercial weather outlets.

  6. A Method for Making Cross-Comparable Estimates of the Benefits of Decision Support Technologies for Air Traffic Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, David; Long, Dou; Etheridge, Mel; Plugge, Joana; Johnson, Jesse; Kostiuk, Peter

    1998-01-01

    We present a general method for making cross comparable estimates of the benefits of NASA-developed decision support technologies for air traffic management, and we apply a specific implementation of the method to estimate benefits of three decision support tools (DSTs) under development in NASA's advanced Air Transportation Technologies Program: Active Final Approach Spacing Tool (A-FAST), Expedite Departure Path (EDP), and Conflict Probe and Trial Planning Tool (CPTP). The report also reviews data about the present operation of the national airspace system (NAS) to identify opportunities for DST's to reduce delays and inefficiencies.

  7. From ACTS (Air Corps Tactical School) to COBRA: Evolution of Close Air Support Doctrine in World War Two.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-04-01

    cooperated and coordinated their activities in absolute precision cieated by total nental telepathy . Although XIX Tactice.1 Air Coeeand and Third Aray did...capture of the Romanian oil fields and increased production of synthetic oil, Germany produced enough oil to meet her military needs. By 1944, the

  8. Significance of the Human Being as an Element in an Information System: WWII Forward Air Controllers and Close Air Support

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-03-01

    accomplishment” ( Giddens , 1979, p 373). Unfortunately, by fantasizing that information is structured data, we deny the importance of dialogue as the basis......Ground Attack Aviation in the U.S. Army Air Arm. Evolution and Doctrine, 1908-1926. Thesis: Duke University, 1971, 81. Giddens , A. Central

  9. NASA Langley's Formal Methods Research in Support of the Next Generation Air Transportation System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Butler, Ricky W.; Munoz, Cesar A.

    2008-01-01

    This talk will provide a brief introduction to the formal methods developed at NASA Langley and the National Institute for Aerospace (NIA) for air traffic management applications. NASA Langley's formal methods research supports the Interagency Joint Planning and Development Office (JPDO) effort to define and develop the 2025 Next Generation Air Transportation System (NGATS). The JPDO was created by the passage of the Vision 100 Century of Aviation Reauthorization Act in Dec 2003. The NGATS vision calls for a major transformation of the nation s air transportation system that will enable growth to 3 times the traffic of the current system. The transformation will require an unprecedented level of safety-critical automation used in complex procedural operations based on 4-dimensional (4D) trajectories that enable dynamic reconfiguration of airspace scalable to geographic and temporal demand. The goal of our formal methods research is to provide verification methods that can be used to insure the safety of the NGATS system. Our work has focused on the safety assessment of concepts of operation and fundamental algorithms for conflict detection and resolution (CD&R) and self- spacing in the terminal area. Formal analysis of a concept of operations is a novel area of application of formal methods. Here one must establish that a system concept involving aircraft, pilots, and ground resources is safe. The formal analysis of algorithms is a more traditional endeavor. However, the formal analysis of ATM algorithms involves reasoning about the interaction of algorithmic logic and aircraft trajectories defined over an airspace. These trajectories are described using 2D and 3D vectors and are often constrained by trigonometric relations. Thus, in many cases it has been necessary to unload the full power of an advanced theorem prover. The verification challenge is to establish that the safety-critical algorithms produce valid solutions that are guaranteed to maintain separation

  10. Air Apparent.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harbster, David A.

    1988-01-01

    Explains the principle upon which a barometer operates. Describes how to construct two barometric devices for use in the classroom that show air's changing pressure. Cites some conditions for predicting weather. (RT)

  11. Effects of Group Support Systems on United States Air Force Strategic Planning Efforts

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-09-01

    Strategic planning at an Air Force wing is a team based activity that offers many advantages to the Air Force. But, it is clear there are still...questions about how to properly conduct strategic planning to produce the highest quality plans in the most effective and efficient manner. To answer this...question, the Air Force created a research project aimed at discovering new methods to improve strategic planning at Air Force wing levels using a

  12. Severe Weather Forecast Decision Aid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauman, William H., III; Wheeler, Mark

    2005-01-01

    The Applied Meteorology Unit developed a forecast tool that provides an assessment of the likelihood of local convective severe weather for the day in order to enhance protection of personnel and material assets of the 45th Space Wing Cape Canaveral Air Force Station (CCAFS), and Kennedy Space Center (KSC).

  13. Illustrations and supporting texts for sound standing waves of air columns in pipes in introductory physics textbooks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Liang; Smith, Chris; Poelzer, G. Herold; Rodriguez, Jennifer; Corpuz, Edgar; Yanev, George

    2014-12-01

    In our pilot studies, we found that many introductory physics textbook illustrations with supporting text for sound standing waves of air columns in open-open, open-closed, and closed-closed pipes inhibit student understanding of sound standing wave phenomena due to student misunderstanding of how air molecules move within these pipes. Based on the construct of meaningful learning from cognitive psychology and semiotics, a quasiexperimental study was conducted to investigate the comparative effectiveness of two alternative approaches to student understanding: a traditional textbook illustration approach versus a newly designed air molecule motion illustration approach. Thirty volunteer students from introductory physics classes were randomly assigned to two groups of 15 each. Both groups were administered a presurvey. Then, group A read the air molecule motion illustration handout, and group B read a traditional textbook illustration handout; both groups were administered postsurveys. Subsequently, the procedure was reversed: group B read the air molecule motion illustration handout and group A read the traditional textbook illustration handout. This was followed by a second postsurvey along with an exit research questionnaire. The study found that the majority of students experienced meaningful learning and stated that they understood sound standing wave phenomena significantly better using the air molecule motion illustration approach. This finding provides a method for physics education researchers to design illustrations for abstract sound standing wave concepts, for publishers to improve their illustrations with supporting text, and for instructors to facilitate deeper learning in their students on sound standing waves.

  14. Airway cooling and mucosal injury during cold weather exercise.

    PubMed

    Davis, M S; Lockard, A J; Marlin, D J; Freed, A N

    2002-09-01

    In human subjects that exercise strenuously in cold weather, there is evidence that hyperventilation with cold air leads to peripheral airway cooling, desiccation and mucosal injury. Our hypothesis was that hyperventilation with cold air can result in penetration of unconditioned air (air that is not completely warmed and humidified) into the peripheral airways of exercising horses, resulting in peripheral airway mucosal injury. To test this hypothesis, a thermister-tipped catheter was inserted through the midcervical trachea and advanced into a sublobar bronchus in three horses that cantered on a treadmill at 6.6 m/s while breathing cold (5 degrees C) air. The mean (+/- s.e.) intra-airway temperature during cantering was 33.3 +/- 0.4 degrees C, a value comparable to the bronchial lumen temperatures measured in man during maximal exercise while breathing subfreezing dry air. In a second experiment, 6 fit Thoroughbred racehorses with satisfactory performance were used to determine whether strenuous exercise in cold conditions can produce airway injury. Horses were assigned to Exercise (E) or Control (C) groups in a random crossover design. Samples of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) in the E treatment were recovered within 30 min of galloping exercise in 4 degrees C, 100% relative humidity (E), while in C BALF samples were obtained when the horses had not performed any exercise for at least 48 h prior. Ciliated epithelial cells in BALF were higher in E than in the C treatment. Similar results have been found in human athletes and laboratory animal models of cold weather exercise. These results support the hypothesis that, similar to man, horses that exercise in cold weather experience peripheral airway mucosal injury due to the penetration of unconditioned air. Furthermore, these results suggest that airway cooling and desiccation may be a factor in airway inflammation commonly found in equine athletes.

  15. Estimating The Rate of Technology Adoption for Cockpit Weather Information Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kauffmann, Paul; Stough, H. P.

    2000-01-01

    In February 1997, President Clinton announced a national goal to reduce the weather related fatal accident rate for aviation by 80% in ten years. To support that goal, NASA established an Aviation Weather Information Distribution and Presentation Project to develop technologies that will provide timely and intuitive information to pilots, dispatchers, and air traffic controllers. This information should enable the detection and avoidance of atmospheric hazards and support an improvement in the fatal accident rate related to weather. A critical issue in the success of NASA's weather information program is the rate at which the market place will adopt this new weather information technology. This paper examines that question by developing estimated adoption curves for weather information systems in five critical aviation segments: commercial, commuter, business, general aviation, and rotorcraft. The paper begins with development of general product descriptions. Using this data, key adopters are surveyed and estimates of adoption rates are obtained. These estimates are regressed to develop adoption curves and equations for weather related information systems. The paper demonstrates the use of adoption rate curves in product development and research planning to improve managerial decision processes and resource allocation.

  16. Weather-enabled future onboard surveillance and navigation systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mutuel, L.; Baillon, B.; Barnetche, B.; Delpy, P.

    2009-09-01

    With the increasing traffic and the development of business trajectories, there is a widespread need to anticipate any adverse weather conditions that could impact the performance of the flight or to use of atmospheric parameters to optimize trajectories. Current sensors onboard air transport are challenged to provide the required service, while new products for business jets and general aviation open the door to innovative assimilation of weather information in onboard surveillance and navigation. The paper aims at surveying current technology available to air transport aircraft and pointing out their shortcomings in view of the modernization proposed in SESAR and NextGen implementation plans. Foreseen innovations are then illustrated via results of ongoing research like FLYSAFE or standardization efforts, in particular meteorological datalink services and impact on Human-Machine Interface. The paper covers the operational need to avoid adverse weather like thunderstorm, icing, turbulence, windshear and volcanic ash, but also the requirement to control in 4D the trajectory through the integration of wind and temperature grids in the flight management. The former will lead to enhanced surveillance systems onboard the aircraft with new displays and new alerting schemes, ranging from targeted information supporting better re-planning to auto-escape strategies. The latter will be standard in next generation flight management systems. Finally both will rely on ATM products that will also assimilate weather information so that situational awareness is shared and decision is collaborative.

  17. Gulf of Mexico Air Quality: CALIPSO Support for Gulf of Mexico Air Quality Relating to the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyen, Myngoc T.; Lapointe, Stephen; Jennings, Brittney; Zoumplis, Angela

    2011-01-01

    On April 20, 2010, an oil platform belonging to BP exploded and leaked a huge volume of oil into the Gulf of Mexico. In an effort to control the spread of the oil, BP applied dispersants such as Corexit and conducted in-situ burnings of the oil. This catastrophe created a complex chain of events that affected not only the fragile water and land ecosystems, but the humans who breathe the air every day. Thousands of people were exposed to fumes associated with oil vapors from the spill, burning of the oil, and the toxic mixture of dispersants. While aiding in clean-up efforts, local fishermen were directly exposure to fumes when working on the Gulf. A notable amount of Gulf Coast residents were also exposed to the oil fumes as seasonal southeasterly winds blew vapors toward land. The Volatile Organic Compounds (VOC) found in oil vapors include: benzene, toluene, ethyl benzene, xylene, naphthalene, hydrogen sulfide and particulate matter (PM). Increases in water temperature and sunlight due to the summer season allow for these VOCs and PM to evaporate into the air more rapidly. Aside from the VOCs found in oil vapors, the dispersant being used to break up the oil is highly toxic and is thought to be even more toxic than the oil itself (EPA website, 2010). To protect human health, the environment, and to make informed policy decisions relevant to the spill, the EPA Region 6 has continuously monitored the affected areas carefully for levels of pollutants in the outdoor air that are associated with petroleum products and the burning of oil along the coast. In an effort to prevent, prepare for, and respond to future oil spills that occur in and around inland waters of the United States, the EPA has been working with local, state, and federal response partners. Air quality measurements were collected by the EPA at five active monitoring systems stationed along the coast.

  18. Supported noble metal catalysts in the catalytic wet air oxidation of industrial wastewaters and sewage sludges.

    PubMed

    Besson, M; Descorme, C; Bernardi, M; Gallezot, P; di Gregorio, F; Grosjean, N; Minh, D Pham; Pintar, A

    2010-12-01

    This paper reviews some catalytic wet air oxidation (CWAO) investigations of industrial wastewaters over platinum and ruthenium catalysts supported on TiO2 and ZrO2 formulated to be active and resistant to leaching, with particular focus on the stability of the catalyst. Catalyst recycling experiments were performed in batch reactors and long-term stability tests were conducted in trickle-bed reactors. The catalyst did not leach upon treatment of Kraft bleaching plant and olive oil mill effluents, and could be either recycled or used for long periods of time in continuous reactors. Conversely, these catalysts were rapidly leached when used to treat effluents from the production of polymeric membranes containing N,N-dimethylformamide. The intermediate formation of amines, such as dimethylamine and methylamine with a high complexing capacity for the metal, was shown to be responsible for the metal leaching. These heterogeneous catalysts also deactivated upon CWAO of sewage sludges due to the adsorption of the solid organic matter. Pre-sonication of the sludge to disintegrate the flocs and improve solubility was inefficient.

  19. Workload-Matched Adaptive Automation Support of Air Traffic Controller Information Processing Stages

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaber, David B.; Prinzel, Lawrence J., III; Wright, Melanie C.; Clamann, Michael P.

    2002-01-01

    Adaptive automation (AA) has been explored as a solution to the problems associated with human-automation interaction in supervisory control environments. However, research has focused on the performance effects of dynamic control allocations of early stage sensory and information acquisition functions. The present research compares the effects of AA to the entire range of information processing stages of human operators, such as air traffic controllers. The results provide evidence that the effectiveness of AA is dependent on the stage of task performance (human-machine system information processing) that is flexibly automated. The results suggest that humans are better able to adapt to AA when applied to lower-level sensory and psychomotor functions, such as information acquisition and action implementation, as compared to AA applied to cognitive (analysis and decision-making) tasks. The results also provide support for the use of AA, as compared to completely manual control. These results are discussed in terms of implications for AA design for aviation.

  20. NASA GES DISC support of CO2 Data from OCO-2, ACOS, and AIRS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wei, Jennifer C; Vollmer, Bruce E.; Savtchenko, Andrey K.; Hearty, Thomas J; Albayrak, Rustem Arif; Deshong, Barbara E.

    2013-01-01

    NASA Goddard Earth Sciences Data and Information Services Centers (GES DISC) is the data center assigned to archive and distribute current AIRS, ACOS data and data from the upcoming OCO-2 mission. The GES DISC archives and supports data containing information on CO2 as well as other atmospheric composition, atmospheric dynamics, modeling and precipitation. Along with the data stewardship, an important mission of GES DISC is to facilitate access to and enhance the usability of data as well as to broaden the user base. GES DISC strives to promote the awareness of science content and novelty of the data by working with Science Team members and releasing news articles as appropriate. Analysis of events that are of interest to the general public, and that help in understanding the goals of NASA Earth Observing missions, have been among most popular practices.Users have unrestricted access to a user-friendly search interface, Mirador, that allows temporal, spatial, keyword and event searches, as well as an ontology-driven drill down. Variable subsetting, format conversion, quality screening, and quick browse, are among the services available in Mirador. The majority of the GES DISC data are also accessible through OPeNDAP (Open-source Project for a Network Data Access Protocol) and WMS (Web Map Service). These services add more options for specialized subsetting, format conversion, image viewing and contributing to data interoperability.

  1. GHG and Air Pollution Co-benefits Analysis to Support Decision Making in Hyderabad, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guttikunda, S.; Shah, M.

    2008-12-01

    The increasing energy demand in the transport and industrial sectors accounts for a high carbon footprint in Hyderabad, India, and consequently to increasing air pollution. Integrated Environmental Strategies program under US EPA supported the analysis of Andhra Pradesh Pollution Control Board (PCB), to identify the major sources of pollution (local and global) and prioritize a series of strategies to better address mitigation in a cost effective manner. In Hyderabad, under the current trends, PM10 and CO2 emissions in 2020 are estimated to increase ~50 percent, compared to 2006 levels to ~43.5 ktons and ~10.3 million tons respectively. A co-benefits framework was implemented in analyzing the future control scenarios for human health benefits and carbon savings. Overall, implementing a series of interventions ranging from urban planning including better transport planning with bus rapid transport and metro rail, relocation of industries, and waste management, are expected to reduce the local and global emissions below the 2006 levels and yield an estimated ~US 196 million and ~US 492 million, in 2010 and 2020 respectively, in combined benefits of health and carbon savings. The PCB is coordinating the efforts for planning and implementation of these strategies. This paper will focus on presenting the methodology utilized for estimating emissions, pollutant dispersion, and impact on local and global environments, evaluated against the business as usual scenarios.

  2. Space Weather Modeling at the Community Coordinated Modeling Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hesse M.

    2005-01-01

    The Community Coordinated Modeling Center (CCMC) is a multi-agency partnership, which aims at the creation of next generation space weather models. The goal of the CCMC is to support the research and developmental work necessary to substantially increase the present-day modeling capability for space weather purposes, and to provide models for transition to the rapid prototyping centers at the space weather forecast centers. This goal requires dose collaborations with and substantial involvement of the research community. The physical regions to be addressed by CCMC-related activities range from the solar atmosphere to the Earth's upper atmosphere. The CCMC is an integral part of the National Space Weather Program Implementation Plan, of NASA's Living With a Star (LWS) initiative, and of the Department of Defense Space Weather Transition Plan. CCMC includes a facility at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, as well as distributed computing facilities provided by the US Air Force. CCMC also provides, to the research community, access to state-of-the-art space research models. In this paper we will provide updates on CCMC status, on current plans, research and development accomplishments and goals, and on the model testing and validation process undertaken as part of the CCMC mandate. Special emphasis will be on solar and heliospheric models currently residing at CCMC, and on plans for validation and verification.

  3. DEVELOPMENT OF AN AGGREGATION AND EPISODE SELECTION SCHEME TO SUPPORT THE MODELS-3 COMMUNITY MULTISCALE AIR QUALITY MODEL

    EPA Science Inventory

    The development of an episode selection and aggregation approach, designed to support distributional estimation of use with the Models-3 Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model, is described. The approach utilized cluster analysis of the 700-hPa east-west and north-south...

  4. Estimation of Reduction in Airspace Capacity Due to Convective Weather

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sheth, Kapil; Sridhar, Banavar; Namjoshi, Leena

    2006-01-01

    Severe convective weather routinely disrupts normal flow of air traffic in the United States' National Airspace System (NAS). Over the last decade, severe weather has been the most significant cause, accounting for over 70% of air traffic delays in the NAS. Flights incur modification in their nominal routes due to the presence of severe weather, and hence, suffer increased delays. These delays contribute to increased burden on airlines due to extra fuel costs and missed schedules for connecting flights. In this paper, the reduction in air space capacity and the associated air traffic delays due to severe convective weather will be investigated.

  5. Salt Weathering on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jagoutz, E.

    2006-12-01

    Large well rounded boulders and angular rock fragments characterizes the Martian landscape as seen on the recent excellent quality photos. Analyzing the different rock-shapes indicates a time sequence of emplacement, fragmentation and transport of different rocks on Mars, which might give interesting insight into transport and weathering processes. Larger commonly well rounded boulders were emplaced onto gravel plains. After emplacement, these rocks were fragmented and disassembled. Nests of angular rock fragments are marking the locations of preexisting larger rocks. Frequently it is possible to reconstruct larger rounded rocks from smaller angular fragments. In other cases transport after fragmentation obscured the relationship of the fragments. However, a strewn field of fragments is still reminiscent of the preexisting rock. Mechanical salt weathering could be a plausible explanation for the insitu fragmentation of larger rounded blocks into angular fragments. Impact or secondary air fall induced fragmentation produces very different patterns, as observed around impact crates on Earth. Salt weathering of rocks is a common process in terrestrial environments. Salt crystallization in capillaries causes fragmentation of rocks, irrespective of the process of salt transportation and concentration. On Earth significant salt weathering can be observed in different climatic environments: in the transition zone of alluvial aprons and salt playas in desserts and in dry valleys of Antarctica. In terrestrial semi-arid areas the salt is transported by salt solution, which is progressively concentrated by evaporation. In Antarctic dry valleys freeze-thaw cycles causes salt transportation and crystallization resulting in rock fragmentation. This salt induced process can lead to complete destruction of rocks and converts rocks to fine sand. The efficient breakdown of rocks is dominating the landscape in some dry valleys of the Earth but possibly also on Mars. (Malin, 1974

  6. Decision support system for the evaluation of urban air pollution control options: application for particulate pollution in Thessaloniki, Greece.

    PubMed

    Vlachokostas, Ch; Achillas, Ch; Moussiopoulos, Nu; Hourdakis, E; Tsilingiridis, G; Ntziachristos, L; Banias, G; Stavrakakis, N; Sidiropoulos, C

    2009-11-15

    Development of strategies to control urban air pollution is a complex and multi-disciplinary process involving a wide range of scientists with different expertise and interests. This paper presents an integrated assessment methodological scheme for the evaluation of air pollution control measures that are put forward in order to reduce sufficiently air pollution levels in urban areas. Forming long-term, efficient air pollution control strategies requires knowledge of the costs associated with their implementation, the emission inventories and emission reductions to be achieved, as well as the concentration variations that represent air quality levels in the area examined. In contrast to the majority of the currently employed assessment approaches, the presented scheme enables the evaluation of any proposed air pollution control option in terms of its combined impact on air quality and social welfare, by correlating economic and health impact assessment issues. The approach presented in this paper brings together air quality modelling and mathematical programming techniques and provides a decision support system for the determination of optimal bundles of air pollution control options according to the particular features and needs of the areas examined. Both cost-effectiveness and cost-benefit approaches are taken into account in order to put the problem on the basis of economic efficiency from a societal perspective. The methodology is implemented for the case of Thessaloniki, Greece, which is selected on the grounds that the area is considered as one of the most polluted--if not the most polluted--cities within Europe, especially with respect to airborne particles.

  7. Impact of Tactical and Strategic Weather Avoidance on Separation Assurance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Refai, Mohamad S.; Windhorst, Robert

    2011-01-01

    The ability to keep flights away from weather hazards while maintaining aircraft-to-aircraft separation is critically important. The Advanced Airspace Concept is an automation concept that implements a ground-based strategic conflict resolution algorithm for management of aircraft separation. The impact of dynamic and uncertain weather avoidance on this concept is investigated. A strategic weather rerouting system is integrated with the Advanced Airspace Concept, which also provides a tactical weather avoidance algorithm, in a fast time simulation of the Air Transportation System. Strategic weather rerouting is used to plan routes around weather in the 20 minute to two-hour time horizon. To address forecast uncertainty, flight routes are revised at 15 minute intervals. Tactical weather avoidance is used for short term trajectory adjustments (30 minute planning horizon) that are updated every minute to address any weather conflicts (instances where aircraft are predicted to pass through weather cells) that are left unresolved by strategic weather rerouting. The fast time simulation is used to assess the impact of tactical weather avoidance on the performance of automated conflict resolution as well as the impact of strategic weather rerouting on both conflict resolution and tactical weather avoidance. The results demonstrate that both tactical weather avoidance and strategic weather rerouting increase the algorithm complexity required to find aircraft conflict resolutions. Results also demonstrate that tactical weather avoidance is prone to higher airborne delay than strategic weather rerouting. Adding strategic weather rerouting to tactical weather avoidance reduces total airborne delays for the reported scenario by 18% and reduces the number of remaining weather violations by 13%. Finally, two features are identified that have proven important for strategic weather rerouting to realize these benefits; namely, the ability to revise reroutes and the use of maneuvers

  8. Complete Decoding and Reporting of Aviation Routine Weather Reports (METARs)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lui, Man-Cheung Max

    2014-01-01

    Aviation Routine Weather Report (METAR) provides surface weather information at and around observation stations, including airport terminals. These weather observations are used by pilots for flight planning and by air traffic service providers for managing departure and arrival flights. The METARs are also an important source of weather data for Air Traffic Management (ATM) analysts and researchers at NASA and elsewhere. These researchers use METAR to correlate severe weather events with local or national air traffic actions that restrict air traffic, as one example. A METAR is made up of multiple groups of coded text, each with a specific standard coding format. These groups of coded text are located in two sections of a report: Body and Remarks. The coded text groups in a U.S. METAR are intended to follow the coding standards set by National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). However, manual data entry and edits made by a human report observer may result in coded text elements that do not follow the standards, especially in the Remarks section. And contrary to the standards, some significant weather observations are noted only in the Remarks section and not in the Body section of the reports. While human readers can infer the intended meaning of non-standard coding of weather conditions, doing so with a computer program is far more challenging. However such programmatic pre-processing is necessary to enable efficient and faster database query when researchers need to perform any significant historical weather analysis. Therefore, to support such analysis, a computer algorithm was developed to identify groups of coded text anywhere in a report and to perform subsequent decoding in software. The algorithm considers common deviations from the standards and data entry mistakes made by observers. The implemented software code was tested to decode 12 million reports and the decoding process was able to completely interpret 99.93 of the reports. This

  9. A female pelvic bone shape model for air/bone separation in support of synthetic CT generation for radiation therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Lianli; Cao, Yue; Fessler, Jeffrey A.; Jolly, Shruti; Balter, James M.

    2016-01-01

    Separating bone from air in MR data is one of the major challenges in using MR images to derive synthetic CT. The problem is further complicated when the anatomic regions filled with air are altered across scans due to air mobility, for instance, in pelvic regions, thereby the air regions estimated using an ultrashort echo time (UTE) sequence are invalid in other image series acquired for multispectral classification. This study aims to develop and investigate a female pelvic bone shape model to identify low intensity regions in MRI where air is unlikely to be present in support of synthetic CT generation without UTE imaging. CT scans of 30 patients were collected for the study, 17 of them also have corresponding MR scans. The shape model was built from the CT dataset, where the reference image was aligned to each of the training images using B-spline deformable registration. Principal component analysis was performed on B-spline coefficients for a compact model where shape variance was described by linear combination of principal modes. The model was applied to identify pelvic bone in MR images by deforming the corresponding MR data of the reference image to target MR images, where the search space of the deformation process was constrained within the subspace spanned by principal modes. The local minima in the search space were removed effectively by the shape model, thus supporting an efficient binary search for the optimal solution. We evaluated the model by its efficacy in identifying bone voxels and excluding air regions. The model was tested across the 17 patients that have corresponding MR scans using a leave-one-out cross validation. A simple model using the first leading principal mode only was found to achieve reasonable accuracy, where an averaged 87% of bone voxels were correctly identified. Finally dilation of the optimally fit bone mask by 5 mm was found to cover 96% of bone voxels while minimally impacting the overlap with air (below 0.4%).

  10. Field verification of sound attenuation modeling and air emission testing in support of missile motor disposal activities.

    PubMed

    McFarland, Michael J; Palmer, Glenn R; Rasmussen, Steve L; Kordich, Micheal M; Pollet, Dean A; Jensen, James A; Lindsay, Mitchell H

    2006-07-01

    The U.S. Department of Defense-approved activities conducted at the Utah Test and Training Range (UTTR) include both operational readiness test firing of intercontinental ballistic missile (ICBM) motors, as well as the destruction of obsolete or otherwise unusable ICBM motors through open burn/open detonation (OB/OD). Within the Utah Division of Air Quality, these activities have been identified as having the potential to generate unacceptable noise levels, as well as significant amounts of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Hill Air Force Base, UT, has completed a series of field tests at the UTTR in which sound-monitoring surveillance of OB/OD activities was conducted to validate the Sound Intensity Prediction System (SIPS) model. Using results generated by the SIPS model to support the decision to detonate, the UTTR successfully disposed of missile motors having an aggregate net explosive weight (NEW) of 81,374 lb without generating adverse noise levels within populated areas. In conjunction with collecting noise-monitoring data, air emissions were collected to support the development of air emission factors for both static missile motor firings and OB/OD activities. Through the installation of 15 ground-based air samplers, the generation of combustion-fixed gases, VOCs, and chlorides was monitored during the 81,374-lb NEW detonation event. Comparison of field measurements to predictions generated from the US Navy energetic combustion pollutant formation model, POLU4WN, indicated that, as the detonation fire ball expanded, organic compounds, as well as CO, continued to oxidize as the combustion gases mixed with ambient air. VOC analysis of air samplers confirmed the presence of chloromethane, vinyl chloride, benzene, toluene, and 2-methyl-1-propene. Qualitative chloride analysis indicated that gaseous HCl was generated at low concentrations, if at all.

  11. Thirsty Walls: A New Paradigm for Air Revitalization in Life Support

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graf, John; Brennecke, Joan; Weislogel, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Carbon Dioxide removal systems on submarines are compact and reliable. They use solubility chemistry. They spray a Carbon Dioxide adsorbing chemical directly into the air stream, and allow the liquid to settle. Carbon Dioxide removal systems on ISS are large and need repair. They use adsorption chemistry. They force air through a bed packed with granular zeolite, and heat the bed to desorb the Carbon Dioxide. The thermal cycles cause the zeolite to dust. New advances in additive manufacturing, and a better understanding of uid behavior in microgravity make it possible to expose a liquid directly to air in a microgravity environment. It is now practical to use submarine style solubility chemistry for atmosphere revitalization in space. It is now possible to develop space systems that achieve submarine levels of reliability. New developments in Ionic Liquid research make it possible to match the solubility performance characteristics of MEA used on submarines - with Ionic Liquids that do not release chemical vapors into the air. "Thirsty Walls" provide gentle, passive contact between ventilation air and Air Revitalization functions of temperature control, relative humidity control, and Carbon Dioxide removal. "Thirsty Walls" eliminates the need of large blowers and compressors that need to force air at high velocities through restrictive Air Revitalization hardware.

  12. “Applying Multi-scale Air Quality Models to Support Epidemiologic Studies”.

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Near-road Exposures and Effects of Urban air pollutant Study (NEXUS) investigating whether children with asthma living near major roadways in Detroit, MI have greater health impacts from air pollutants than those living farther away, particularly near roadways with high diese...

  13. Control of the Earth's electric field intensity through solar wind modulation of galactic cosmic radiation: Support for a proposed atmospheric electrical sun-weather mechanism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Markson, R.

    1980-01-01

    The ionospheric potential and galactic cosmic radiation, found to be inversely correlated with the solar wind velocity are examined as being germane to weather modification. Since the ionospheric potential is proportional to the fair weather electric field intensity and cosmic radiation is the dominant source of atmospheric ionization, it is concluded that the Earth's overall electric field varies in phase with atmospheric ionization and that the latter is modulated by the solar wind. A proposed mechanism, in which solar control of ionizing radiation influences atmospheric electrification and thus possibly cloud physical processes is discussed. An experimental approach to critically test the proposed mechanism through comparison of the temporal variation of the Earth's electric field with conditions in the interplanetary medium is outlined.

  14. Benefits of Sharing Information from Commercial Airborne Forward-Looking Sensors in the Next Generation Air Transportation System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schaffner, Philip R.; Harrah, Steven; Neece, Robert T.

    2012-01-01

    The air transportation system of the future will need to support much greater traffic densities than are currently possible, while preserving or improving upon current levels of safety. Concepts are under development to support a Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen) that by some estimates will need to support up to three times current capacity by the year 2025. Weather and other atmospheric phenomena, such as wake vortices and volcanic ash, constitute major constraints on airspace system capacity and can present hazards to aircraft if encountered. To support safe operations in the NextGen environment advanced systems for collection and dissemination of aviation weather and environmental information will be required. The envisioned NextGen Network Enabled Weather (NNEW) infrastructure will be a critical component of the aviation weather support services, providing access to a common weather picture for all system users. By taking advantage of Network Enabled Operations (NEO) capabilities, a virtual 4-D Weather Data Cube with aviation weather information from many sources will be developed. One new source of weather observations may be airborne forward-looking sensors, such as the X-band weather radar. Future sensor systems that are the subject of current research include advanced multi-frequency and polarimetric radar, a variety of Lidar technologies, and infrared imaging spectrometers.

  15. Weather. Third Grade. Revised. Anchorage School District Elementary Science Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Defendorf, Jean, Ed.

    This resource book introduces third-grade children to the environment by studying the weather and its effects. Lessons are provided including: (1) constructing a weather diary; (2) thermometers; (3) clouds; (4) barometric pressure; (5) wind vanes; (6) heating and cooling air; and (7) analyzing weather data. Each lesson includes a listing of…

  16. Monitoring air pollution effects on children for supporting public health policy: the protocol of the prospective cohort MAPEC study

    PubMed Central

    Feretti, D; Ceretti, E; De Donno, A; Moretti, M; Carducci, A; Bonetta, S; Marrese, M R; Bonetti, A; Covolo, L; Bagordo, F; Villarini, M; Verani, M; Schilirò, T; Limina, R M; Grassi, T; Monarca, S; Casini, B; Carraro, E; Zani, C; Mazzoleni, G; Levaggi, R; Gelatti, U

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Genotoxic biomarkers have been studied largely in adult population, but few studies so far have investigated them in children exposed to air pollution. Children are a high-risk group as regards the health effects of air pollution and some studies suggest that early exposure during childhood can play an important role in the development of chronic diseases in adulthood. The objective of the project is to evaluate the associations between the concentration of urban air pollutants and biomarkers of early biological effect in children, and to propose a model for estimating the global risk of early biological effects due to air pollutants and other factors in children. Methods and analysis Two biomarkers of early biological effects, DNA damage by the comet assay and the micronuclei (MN) test, will be investigated in oral mucosa cells of 6–8-year-old children. Concurrently, some toxic airborne pollutants (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) and nitro-PAH) and in vitro air mutagenicity and toxicity in ultra-fine air particulates (PM0.5) will be evaluated. Furthermore, demographic and socioeconomic variables, other sources of exposures to air pollutants and lifestyle variables will be assessed by a structured questionnaire. The associations between sociodemographic, environmental and other exposure variables and biomarkers of early biological effect using univariate and multivariate models will be analysed. A tentative model for calculating the global absolute risk of having early biological effects caused by air pollution and other variables will be proposed. Ethics and dissemination The project has been approved by the Ethics Committees of the local Health Authorities. The results will be communicated to local Public Health Agencies, for supporting educational programmes and health policy strategies. LIFE+2012 Environment Policy and Governance. LIFE12 ENV/IT/000614. PMID:25227631

  17. Forecasting the Weather.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bollinger, Richard

    1984-01-01

    Presents a computer program which predicts the weather based on student input of such weather data as wind direction and barometric pressure. Also provides procedures for several hands-on, weather-related activities. (JN)

  18. Weather in the News.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Markle, Sandra

    1989-01-01

    A discussion of TV weather forecasting introduces this article which features several hands-on science activities involving observing, researching, and experimenting with the weather. A reproducible worksheet on the reliability of weather forecasts is included. (IAH)

  19. Use of alternatives to air-fluidized support surfaces in the care of complex wounds in postflap and postgraft patients.

    PubMed

    Fleck, Cynthia A; Rappl, Laurie M; Simman, Richard; Titterington, Virginia; Conwill, Jill; Koerner, Cathy; Locke, Pam; Bechtold, Dawn; Papantonio, Cathie; Gray, Deborah P; Lawrence, Kathleen

    2010-01-01

    Air-fluidized support surface therapy has many drawbacks, such as dehydration, in an already difficult recovery for those wound patients who have undergone flap and graft surgery. In addition, patient care and handling are also problematic. Patients complain of discomfort, and the instability of the surface interferes with patient stability in side lying and semi-Fowler's positions. Alternative support surfaces can be considered for postflap or postgraft patients. Such technologies as alternating pressure, low-air-loss, and therapeutic nonpowered, advanced, and lateral rotation surfaces are widely used for pressure management in high-risk patients and those with existing pressure ulcers. These surfaces must be used within a total pressure ulcer management program that includes frequent turning and repositioning, skin and ulcer care according to evidence-based protocols, patient and caregiver instruction, nutrition, and offloading and positioning. The proposed recommendations require more research on the relative effectiveness of less expensive and more user-friendly support surfaces such as low-air-loss and nonpowered advanced support surfaces and is necessary in order to conclusively recommend one type of surface over another. However, at this time the available clinical studies and opinions remain positive.

  20. Salt weathering on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jagoutz, E.

    Large well rounded boulders and angular rock fragments characterizes the Martian landscape as seen on the recent excellent quality photos. Analyzing the different rock-shapes indicates a time sequence of emplacement, fragmentation and transport of different rocks on Mars, which might give interesting insight into transport and weathering processes. Larger commonly well rounded boulders were emplaced onto gravel plains. After emplacement, these rocks were fragmented and disassembled. Nests of angular rock fragments are marking the locations of preexisting larger rocks. Frequently it is possible to reconstruct larger rounded rocks from smaller angular fragments. In other cases transport after fragmentation obscured the relationship of the fragments. However, a strewn field of fragments is still reminiscent of the preexisting rock. Mechanical salt weathering could be a plausible explanation for the insitu fragmentation of larger rounded blocks into angular fragments. Impact or secondary air fall induced fragmentation produces very different patterns, as observed around impact crates on Earth. Salt weathering of rocks is a common process in terrestrial environments. Salt crystallization in capillaries causes fragmentation of rocks, irrespective of the process of salt transportation and concentration. On Earth significant salt weathering can be observed in different climatic environments: in the transition zone of alluvial aprons and salt playas in desserts and in dry valleys of Antarctica. In terrestrial semi-arid areas the salt is transported by salt solution, which is progressively concentrated by evaporation. In Antarctic dry valleys freeze-thaw cycles causes salt transportation and crystallization resulting in rock fragmentation. This salt induced process can lead to complete destruction of rocks and converts rocks to fine sand. The efficient breakdown of rocks is dominating the landscape in some dry valleys of the Earth but possibly also on Mars. (Malin, 1974

  1. Structural stability of a rectangular, simply-supported beam subject to a sudden air temperature change next to one surface

    SciTech Connect

    Landram, C. S.

    1997-07-03

    For a simply-supported, rectangular beam suddenly heated on one of its surfaces by surrounding air, both elongational and flexural thermal distortions occur. For steel beams of order 10 to 30 cm thick and about 3 m long, flexural displacements, developing in minutes, occur much faster than elongational displacements which occur in hours. The rapid response of the flexural modes is caused by the early-time surface heating of the side of the beam exposed to the suddenly-heated, warmer air. The slower response of the elongation modes is a consequence of a much slower change in the average temperature of the beam. At a span of 3.05 m, the maximum steady state flexural distortions in micrometers were 0.22, 0.78 and 1.56 for respective one-sided air temperature changes in degrees C of 0.28, 1 and 2.

  2. Editorial input for the right price: tobacco industry support for a sheet metal indoor air quality manual.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Richard; Balbach, Edith

    2013-01-01

    Following legal action in the 1990s, internal tobacco industry documents became public, allowing unprecedented insight into the industry's relationships with outside organizations. During the 1980s and 1990s, the National Energy Management Institute (NEMI), established by the Sheet Metal Workers International Association and the Sheet Metal and Air Conditioning Contractors' National Association, (SMACNA) received tobacco industry funding to establish an indoor air quality services program. But the arrangement also required NEMI to serve as an advocate for industry efforts to defeat indoor smoking bans by arguing that ventilation was a more appropriate solution to environmental tobacco smoke. Drawing on tobacco industry documents, this paper describes a striking example of the ethical compromises that accompanied NEMI's collaboration with the tobacco industry, highlighting the solicitation of tobacco industry financial support for a SMACNA indoor air quality manual in exchange for sanitizing references to the health impact of environmental tobacco smoke prior to publication.

  3. 13. SAC command center, weather center, underground structure, building 501, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. SAC command center, weather center, underground structure, building 501, undated - Offutt Air Force Base, Strategic Air Command Headquarters & Command Center, Command Center, 901 SAC Boulevard, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  4. Data Quality Objectives Summary Report Supporting Radiological Air Surveillance Monitoring for the INL Site

    SciTech Connect

    Haney, Thomas Jay

    2015-05-01

    This report documents the Data Quality Objectives (DQOs) developed for the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) Site ambient air surveillance program. The development of the DQOs was based on the seven-step process recommended “for systematic planning to generate performance and acceptance criteria for collecting environmental data” (EPA 2006). The process helped to determine the type, quantity, and quality of data needed to meet current regulatory requirements and to follow U.S. Department of Energy guidance for environmental surveillance air monitoring design. It also considered the current air monitoring program that has existed at INL Site since the 1950s. The development of the DQOs involved the application of the atmospheric dispersion model CALPUFF to identify likely contamination dispersion patterns at and around the INL Site using site-specific meteorological data. Model simulations were used to quantitatively assess the probable frequency of detection of airborne radionuclides released by INL Site facilities using existing and proposed air monitors.

  5. DEVELOPMENT AND APPLICATIONS OF CFD IN SUPPORT OF AIR QUALITY STUDIES OF ROADWAY AND BUILDING MICROENVIRONMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    There is a need to develop modeling and data analysis tools to increase our understanding of human exposures to air pollutants beyond what can be explained by "limited" field data. Modeling simulations of complex distributions of pollutant concentrations within roadw...

  6. Integrating Sensor Monitoring Technology into the Current Air Pollution Regulatory Support Paradigm: Practical Considerations

    EPA Science Inventory

    The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) along with state, local, and tribal governments operate Federal Reference Method (FRM) and Federal Equivalent Method (FEM) instruments to assess compliance with US air pollution standards designed to protect human and ecosystem health....

  7. Barrel Roll, 1968-73: An Air Campaign in Support of National Policy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1995-05-10

    Force (RLAF). Project Waterpump at Udorn Air Base in Thailand trained Thai and Laotian pilots in the T-28 and AC-47 and instructed aircraft maintenance...objectives by performing the following tasks: sealing off the southern Mekong Valley, thus providing a buffer for Thailand; insulating the Vientiane...through Project Waterpump , developed an air force and ground commandos trained an effective guerrilla force. The covert employment of special forces

  8. Demonstration of Isothermal Compressed Air Energy Storage to Support Renewable Energy Production

    SciTech Connect

    Bollinger, Benjamin

    2015-01-02

    This project develops and demonstrates a megawatt (MW)-scale Energy Storage System that employs compressed air as the storage medium. An isothermal compressed air energy storage (ICAESTM) system rated for 1 MW or more will be demonstrated in a full-scale prototype unit. Breakthrough cost-effectiveness will be achieved through the use of proprietary methods for isothermal gas cycling and staged gas expansion implemented using industrially mature, readily-available components.The ICAES approach uses an electrically driven mechanical system to raise air to high pressure for storage in low-cost pressure vessels, pipeline, or lined-rock cavern (LRC). This air is later expanded through the same mechanical system to drive the electric motor as a generator. The approach incorporates two key efficiency-enhancing innovations: (1) isothermal (constant temperature) gas cycling, which is achieved by mixing liquid with air (via spray or foam) to exchange heat with air undergoing compression or expansion; and (2) a novel, staged gas-expansion scheme that allows the drivetrain to operate at constant power while still allowing the stored gas to work over its entire pressure range. The ICAES system will be scalable, non-toxic, and cost-effective, making it suitable for firming renewables and for other grid applications.

  9. Tornadoes and Lightning and Floods, Oh My! Weather-Related Web Sites for K-12 Science Lessons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matkins, Juanita Jo; Murphy, Denise

    1999-01-01

    Reviews 30 weather-related Web sites, including readability level, under the subjects of air pressure, bad meteorology, clouds, droughts, floods, hurricanes, lightning, seasons, temperature, thunderstorms, tornadoes, water cycle, weather instruments, weather on other planets, and wind. (LRW)

  10. An Integrated Decision-Making Model for Categorizing Weather Products and Decision Aids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elgin, Peter D.; Thomas, Rickey P.

    2004-01-01

    The National Airspace System s capacity will experience considerable growth in the next few decades. Weather adversely affects safe air travel. The FAA and NASA are working to develop new technologies that display weather information to support situation awareness and optimize pilot decision-making in avoiding hazardous weather. Understanding situation awareness and naturalistic decision-making is an important step in achieving this goal. Information representation and situation time stress greatly influence attentional resource allocation and working memory capacity, potentially obstructing accurate situation awareness assessments. Three naturalistic decision-making theories were integrated to provide an understanding of the levels of decision making incorporated in three operational situations and two conditions. The task characteristics associated with each phase of flight govern the level of situation awareness attained and the decision making processes utilized. Weather product s attributes and situation task characteristics combine to classify weather products according to the decision-making processes best supported. In addition, a graphical interface is described that affords intuitive selection of the appropriate weather product relative to the pilot s current flight situation.

  11. Using the Advanced Research Version of the Weather Research and Forecast Model in Support of ScanEagle Unmanned Aircraft System Test Flights

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-03-01

    CD NCAR LIBRARY SERIALS NATL CTR FOR ATMOS RSCH PO BOX 3000 BOULDER CO 80307-3000 1 CD HEADQUARTERS DEPT OF ARMY DAMI- POB WEATHER...ARL CHEMICAL BIOLOGY NUC EFFECTS DIV AMSRL SL CO APG MD 21010-5423 1 CD US ARMY RESEARCH LAB AMSRD ARL CI J GOWENS 2800 POWDER...MILL ROAD ADELPHI MD 20783-1197 1 CD US ARMY CECRL CRREL GP ATTN DR DETSCH 72 LYME RD HANOVER NH 03755-1290 1 CD USAF ROME LAB

  12. Incorporating Medium-Range Weather Forecasts in Seasonal Crop Scenarios over the Greater Horn of Africa to Support National/Regional/Local Decision Makers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shukla, S.; Husak, G. J.; Funk, C. C.; Verdin, J. P.

    2015-12-01

    The USAID's Famine Early Warning Systems Network (FEWS NET) provides seasonal assessments of crop conditions over the Greater Horn of Africa (GHA) and other food insecure regions. These assessments and current livelihood, nutrition, market conditions and conflicts are used to generate food security scenarios that help national, regional and local decision makers target their resources and mitigate socio-economic losses. Among the various tools that FEWS NET uses is the FAO's Water Requirement Satisfaction Index (WRSI). The WRSI is a simple yet powerful crop assessment model that incorporates current moisture conditions (at the time of the issuance of forecast), precipitation scenarios, potential evapotranspiration and crop parameters to categorize crop conditions into different classes ranging from "failure" to "very good". The WRSI tool has been shown to have a good agreement with local crop yields in the GHA region. At present, the precipitation scenarios used to drive the WRSI are based on either a climatological forecast (that assigns equal chances of occurrence to all possible scenarios and has no skill over the forecast period) or a sea-surface temperature anomaly based scenario (which at best have skill at the seasonal scale). In both cases, the scenarios fail to capture the skill that can be attained by initial atmospheric conditions (i.e., medium-range weather forecasts). During the middle of a cropping season, when a week or two of poor rains can have a devastating effect, two weeks worth of skillful precipitation forecasts could improve the skill of the crop scenarios. With this working hypothesis, we examine the value of incorporating medium-range weather forecasts in improving the skill of crop scenarios in the GHA region. We use the NCEP's Global Ensemble Forecast system (GEFS) weather forecasts and examine the skill of crop scenarios generated using the GEFS weather forecasts with respect to the scenarios based solely on the climatological forecast

  13. Infiltration as Ventilation: Weather-Induced Dilution

    SciTech Connect

    Sherman, Max H.; Turner, William J.N.; Walker, Iain S.

    2011-06-01

    The purpose of outdoor air ventilation is to dilute or remove indoor contaminants to which occupants are exposed. It can be provided by mechanical or natural means. In most homes, especially older homes, weather-driven infiltration provides the dominant fraction of the total ventilation. As we seek to provide good indoor air quality at minimum energy cost, it is important to neither over-ventilate nor under-ventilate. Thus, it becomes critically important to evaluate correctly the contribution infiltration makes to the total outdoor air ventilation rate. Because weather-driven infiltration is dependent on building air leakage and weather-induced pressure differences, a given amount of air leakage will provide different amounts of infiltration. Varying rates of infiltration will provide different levels of contaminant dilution and hence effective ventilation. This paper derives these interactions and then calculates the impact of weather-driven infiltration for different climates. A new “N-factor” is introduced to provide a convenient method for calculating the ventilation contribution of infiltration for over 1,000 locations across North America. The results of this work could be used in indoor air quality standards (specifically ASHRAE 62.2) to account for the contribution of weather-driven infiltration towards the dilution of indoor pollutants.

  14. The functions of social support as protective factors for suicidal ideation in a sample of air force personnel.

    PubMed

    Bryan, Craig J; Hernandez, Ann Marie

    2013-10-01

    This study examined various functions of social support (i.e., tangible, esteem, belonging, and appraisal) were examined as protective factors for suicidal ideation in a sample of 273 active duty Air Force Security Forces personnel. Generalized linear regression analyses were conducted to determine if various social support functions were differentially associated with the presence and severity of suicidal ideation, both as main effects and as moderators of emotional distress. None of the four social support functions differentiated suicidal from nonsuicidal Airmen, but esteem support (i.e., feeling respected, encouraged, and valued by others) was associated with significantly less severe suicidal ideation (B = -.074, SE = .025, p = .003). A significant interaction of tangible support (i.e., access to material resources) with emotional distress indicated that emotional distress was associated with more severe suicidal ideation only among Airmen reporting low levels of tangible support (B = .006, SE = .003, p = .018). When considered concurrently, both tangible and self-esteem functions of social support are differentially associated with decreased suicidal ideation among Airmen, but belonging (i.e., having someone to do things with) and appraisal (i.e., having someone to talk to about problems) functions were not. Findings suggest that different aspects of social support affect suicidal ideation in different ways.

  15. Intuitive Space Weather Displays to Improve Space Situational Awareness (SSA)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-09-01

    Kathy Echiverri, and Lauri Cross (PatchPlus Consulting), and Seth Orloff, and Lydia Lavigne (Ball Aerospace), Kevin Scro (Air Force Space Command...Paul O’Brien (Aerospace Corp), and Paul Gehred (Air Force Weather Agency). 6. References [1] Reeves, G . 2010. Integration of Space Weather into Space

  16. A Conceptual Model of the Severe-Storm Environment for Inclusion into Air Weather Service Severe-Storm Analysis and Forecast Procedures.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-26

    Severe-Storm Environment of the Great Plains 9 2. Median of 230 Soundings Representing Type I Air Structure Where Tornadoes Have Formed 10 3a. Skew T-Log...the Southern Great Plains of the United States and Mexico 13 5. Total Number of Tornadoes per 50-Mile Square Reported From 1920 to 1949, by Months 16 6...Mean Sounding of Type IV Tornado Air Mass 20 7. Major Lid Features at 700 mb 21 8. Relevant Lid Features at 850 mb 23 9. Surface Chart Showing

  17. [Life-saving air supported avalanche mission at night in high alpine terrain].

    PubMed

    Koppenberg, J; Brugger, H; Esslinger, A; Albrecht, R

    2012-10-01

    This is a case report about a helicopter emergency medical service (HEMS) operation during the night in response to an avalanche accident with two completely buried victims. One of the victims was rescued alive after 9.2 h presenting with a patent airway and an air pocket and was successfully rewarmed with forced air from 23°C core temperature without any neurological deficits. After the rescue the patient developed lung edema which resolved spontaneously within 2 days. The second victim was found dead presenting with an air pocket but solid frozen thorax. The special circumstances of the rescue operation and treatment are presented and discussed. The impact of a frozen chest on resuscitation decisions is presented and discussed with an emphasis on the triage of multiple victims.

  18. Teaching Weather Concepts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sebastian, Glenn R.

    Ten exercises based on the weather map provided in the national newspaper "U.S.A. Today" are used to teach intermediate grade students about weather. An overview describes the history of "U.S.A. Today," the format of the newspaper's weather map, and the map's suitability for teaching weather concepts. Specific exercises, which are briefly…

  19. Fun with Weather

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yildirim, Rana

    2007-01-01

    This three-part weather-themed lesson for young learners connects weather, clothing, and feelings vocabulary. The target structures covered are: asking about the weather; comparing weather; using the modal auxiliary, should; and the question word, when. The lessons utilize all four skills and include such activities as going outside, singing,…

  20. Weather in Your Life.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kannegieter, Sandy; Wirkler, Linda

    Facts and activities related to weather and meteorology are presented in this unit. Separate sections cover the following topics: (1) the water cycle; (2) clouds; (3) the Beaufort Scale for rating the speed and force of wind; (4) the barometer; (5) weather prediction; (6) fall weather in Iowa (sleet, frost, and fog); (7) winter weather in Iowa…

  1. Organizing for the Future: Aligning U.S. Air Force Cyber Support with Mission Assurance

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-12-01

    MAJCOM Commanders, memorandum, 7 June 2006. 8 Laura M. Colarusso , “The Deepest Cuts: USAF To Let Go of Hundreds of Planes, Thousands of Airmen” Defense...M. Colarusso and Rod Hafemeister, “Forced cuts - Air Force leaders plan to drop 40,000 airmen, civilians over 6 years, starting in 2006,” Air Force...Blue. New York, NY: St. Martin’s Press, 1997. Colarusso , Laura M. “The Deepest Cuts: USAF To Let Go of Hundreds of Planes, Thousands of Airmen

  2. Air Force Support of Army Ground Operations Lessons Learned during World War II, Korea, and Vietnam

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-03-06

    Th ;e 8epre--cdin this paper .rv thoe. of ’:ceauhor IDep 2rtmt-nt of Diefense rayo t gr: s hsPcC % FOC, O P 0- C GOUND OP!-txA’TONS ’A NS tTAI.D 11...NOTE S T edder, Wi.th Preudice: The War Memoirs . - y Air Force. Lord Tedaer. rr- 40-43. 2.".~ : X :"~ , M~.c, ’ = A r Power in Three Wars WW 7:, Kora...that FEAF assume operational control over land based Marine air units and over carri.er bjdsed aviation operating over Korea effective as soon as X

  3. Global Combat Support Basing. Robust Prepositioning Strategies for Air Force War Reserve Material

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-01-01

    bibliographical references. ISBN 978- 0 -8330-4766-3 (pbk. : alk. paper) 1. Air bases, American. 2. United States. Air Force—Operational readiness...Optimized for predictable costs Optimized for total system costs 600 400 200 100 700 500 300 800 0 C o st ( $m ill io n s) 44% reduction in total...S.4 Optimized globally Optimized according to AOR 400 200 100 300 500 0 C o st ( $m ill io n s) aContingency-dependent bPredictable boundary of U.S

  4. Adaptation of Mesoscale Weather Models to Local Forecasting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manobianco, John T.; Taylor, Gregory E.; Case, Jonathan L.; Dianic, Allan V.; Wheeler, Mark W.; Zack, John W.; Nutter, Paul A.

    2003-01-01

    Methodologies have been developed for (1) configuring mesoscale numerical weather-prediction models for execution on high-performance computer workstations to make short-range weather forecasts for the vicinity of the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) and the Cape Canaveral Air Force Station (CCAFS) and (2) evaluating the performances of the models as configured. These methodologies have been implemented as part of a continuing effort to improve weather forecasting in support of operations of the U.S. space program. The models, methodologies, and results of the evaluations also have potential value for commercial users who could benefit from tailoring their operations and/or marketing strategies based on accurate predictions of local weather. More specifically, the purpose of developing the methodologies for configuring the models to run on computers at KSC and CCAFS is to provide accurate forecasts of winds, temperature, and such specific thunderstorm-related phenomena as lightning and precipitation. The purpose of developing the evaluation methodologies is to maximize the utility of the models by providing users with assessments of the capabilities and limitations of the models. The models used in this effort thus far include the Mesoscale Atmospheric Simulation System (MASS), the Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (RAMS), and the National Centers for Environmental Prediction Eta Model ( Eta for short). The configuration of the MASS and RAMS is designed to run the models at very high spatial resolution and incorporate local data to resolve fine-scale weather features. Model preprocessors were modified to incorporate surface, ship, buoy, and rawinsonde data as well as data from local wind towers, wind profilers, and conventional or Doppler radars. The overall evaluation of the MASS, Eta, and RAMS was designed to assess the utility of these mesoscale models for satisfying the weather-forecasting needs of the U.S. space program. The evaluation methodology includes

  5. Weather pattern climatology of the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Barchet, W.R.; Davis, W.E.

    1984-01-01

    In this study the geographic domain covered the 48 conterminous states of the United States. The daily synoptic weather pattern was classified into nine types for the 10-year period January 1, 1969 to December 31, 1978. Weather pattern types were defined relative to the classical polar front model of a mid-latitude cyclonic storm system and its associated air masses. Guidelines for classifying weather patterns on an operational basis were developed. These were applied to 3652 daily surface weather maps to produce a time series of weather pattern type at 120 grid points of a 160 point, 3/sup 0/ latitude by 4/sup 0/ longitude array over the United States. Statistics on the frequency of occurrence, persistence and alternation of weather patterns were calculated for each grid point. Summary statistics for the entire grid and for six regions were also presented. Frequency of occurrence and persistence were found to depend on the size and speed of movement of the weather pattern. Large, slow moving air masses had higher frequency of occurrence and longer persistence than small (fronts) or rapidly moving (or changing) features (fronts, storm centers). Some types showed distinct regional preferences. The subtropical maritime high occurred mainly in the south central and southeast. An indeterminate weather pattern type accounted for those weather patterns that did not fit the polar front model or were too disorganized to be classified. The intermountain thermal low of the desert southwest was one such feature that dominated both frequency of occurrence and persistence in this region. Alternation from one weather pattern to another followed the polar front model of a moving cyclonic storm. The tendency for anticyclonic weather patterns to become disorganized as they weakened was seen in the high percentage of these patterns that changed to an indeterminate pattern as they aged.

  6. Terminal weather information management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Alfred T.

    1990-01-01

    Since the mid-1960's, microburst/windshear events have caused at least 30 aircraft accidents and incidents and have killed more than 600 people in the United States alone. This study evaluated alternative means of alerting an airline crew to the presence of microburst/windshear events in the terminal area. Of particular interest was the relative effectiveness of conventional and data link ground-to-air transmissions of ground-based radar and low-level windshear sensing information on microburst/windshear avoidance. The Advanced Concepts Flight Simulator located at Ames Research Center was employed in a line oriented simulation of a scheduled round-trip airline flight from Salt Lake City to Denver Stapleton Airport. Actual weather en route and in the terminal area was simulated using recorded data. The microburst/windshear incident of July 11, 1988 was re-created for the Denver area operations. Six experienced airline crews currently flying scheduled routes were employed as test subjects for each of three groups: (1) A baseline group which received alerts via conventional air traffic control (ATC) tower transmissions; (2) An experimental group which received alerts/events displayed visually and aurally in the cockpit six miles (approx. 2 min.) from the microburst event; and (3) An additional experimental group received displayed alerts/events 23 linear miles (approx. 7 min.) from the microburst event. Analyses of crew communications and decision times showed a marked improvement in both situation awareness and decision-making with visually displayed ground-based radar information. Substantial reductions in the variability of decision times among crews in the visual display groups were also found. These findings suggest that crew performance will be enhanced and individual differences among crews due to differences in training and prior experience are significantly reduced by providing real-time, graphic display of terminal weather hazards.

  7. Five Key Resources for an Electronic Community of Elementary Student Weather Forecasters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bonk, Curtis Jay; And Others

    1996-01-01

    The Indiana Weather Project (IWP) investigated how the joint application of situated learning and constructivist theory might support elementary school students' understanding of weather systems. Results indicated significant cognitive gains during the multimedia weather unit. (SD)

  8. Anomalous Velocity Dependence of the Friction Coefficient of an Air Supported Pulley

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crismani, Matteo; Nauenberg, Michael

    2009-11-01

    A standard undergraduate lab exercise to verify Newton's law, F = ma, is to measure the acceleration a of a glider of mass m suspended on an air track. In our experiment the glider is accelerated by a thin tape attached to the glider at one end, and to a weight of mass M at the other end. The weight hangs vertically via a pulley over which the tape is suspended by air pressure. In the absence of friction, the force pulling the glider is F = (M m/(M + m)g, where g is the acceleration of gravity. To the accuracy provided by the fast electronic timers (accurate to 1/10000 second) used in our experiment to measure the velocity and the acceleration of the glider, we verified that the friction due to the air track can be neglected. But we found that this is not the case for the friction due to the air pulley which adds a component -v/T to the force F on the glider, where T is the friction coefficient. We have measured the dependence of this coefficient on v, and found an excellent analytic fit to our data. This fit deviates considerable from the conventional assumption that 1/T is a constant and/or depends linearly on v.

  9. An Examination of the Relationship between Usage and Operating and Support Costs for Air Force Aircraft

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-09-01

    S Costs ....................................................................................................... 39 Econometric Methodology Overview...words, I use them both regularly in conversation. I must note that Claire and Yang showed great patience in explaining the nuances econometric theory...RECCE Reconnaissance Aircraft REMIS Reliability and Maintenance Information System SAF/FM Secretary of the Air Force financial Management TAI

  10. Enabling Philippine Farmers to Adapt to Climate Variability Using Seasonal Climate and Weather Forecast with a Crop Simulation Model in an SMS-based Farmer Decision Support System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ebardaloza, J. B. R.; Trogo, R.; Sabido, D. J.; Tongson, E.; Bagtasa, G.; Balderama, O. F.

    2015-12-01

    Corn farms in the Philippines are rainfed farms, hence, it is of utmost importance to choose the start of planting date so that the critical growth stages that are in need of water will fall on dates when there is rain. Most farmers in the Philippines use superstitions and traditions as basis for farming decisions such as when to start planting [1]. Before climate change, superstitions like planting after a feast day of a saint has worked for them but with the recent progression of climate change, farmers now recognize that there is a need for technological intervention [1]. The application discussed in this paper presents a solution that makes use of meteorological station sensors, localized seasonal climate forecast, localized weather forecast and a crop simulation model to provide recommendations to farmers based on the crop cultivar, soil type and fertilizer type used by farmers. It is critical that the recommendations given to farmers are not generic as each farmer would have different needs based on their cultivar, soil, fertilizer, planting schedule and even location [2]. This application allows the farmer to inquire about whether it will rain in the next seven days, the best date to start planting based on the potential yield upon harvest, when to apply fertilizer and by how much, when to water and by how much. Short messaging service (SMS) is the medium chosen for this application because while mobile penetration in the Philippines is as high as 101%, the smart phone penetration is only at 15% [3]. SMS has been selected as it has been identified as the most effective way of reaching farmers with timely agricultural information and knowledge [4,5]. The recommendations while derived from making use of Automated Weather Station (AWS) sensor data, Weather Research Forecasting (WRF) models and DSSAT 4.5 [9], are translated into the local language of the farmers and in a format that is easily understood as recommended in [6,7,8]. A pilot study has been started

  11. Understanding Space Weather and the Physics Behind It: A Textbook for Undergraduates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knipp, D. J.

    2005-05-01

    The emerging science of space weather has its roots in the fundamental physics taught at the undergraduate level. However most of the textbook support for this new discipline is either at or near the graduate level. The Air Force Research Laboratory and the Air Force Academy are partnering to produce a new introductory undergraduate level textbook. The text is aimed at students with knowledge of core physics: sophomore-level Newtonian mechanics and electricity and magnetism. We anticipate this book will be appropriate for students who are not physics majors but have a technology interest, be they engineers, meteorologists or space professionals. We are including special focus sections to compare and contrast space and terrestrial weather. In this paper we will discuss the organization and contents of the text and the types of problems and examples to be included. We will also discuss the material being developed for instructor support.

  12. Spouse Support and the Retention Intentions of Air Force Members: A Basis for Program Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowen, Gary L.

    In recent years, the military services have become interested in developing personnel policies and support programs which enable military personnel to meet military objectives and still maintain a viable personal and family life. A study was undertaken to evaluate the direct and indirect impact of spouse support on the retention intention…

  13. State Systems of Support under NCLB: Design Components and Quality Considerations. AIR[R] Research Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Le Floch, Kerstin Carlson; Boyle, Andrea; Therriault, Susan Bowles

    2008-01-01

    Under No Child Left Behind (NCLB), state education agencies are required to assume new roles and responsibilities. Among these is the establishment of a state system to support schools identified for improvement under the Act. Conceptualizing and operationalizing these systems of support has been a challenge for many state agencies, in part…

  14. Data Quality Objectives Supporting Radiological Air Emissions Monitoring for the PNNL Site

    SciTech Connect

    Barnett, J. Matthew; Meier, Kirsten M.; Snyder, Sandra F.; Fritz, Brad G.; Poston, Ted M.; Rhoads, Kathleen

    2010-05-25

    This document of Data Quality Objectives (DQOs) was prepared based on the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Guidance on Systematic Planning Using the Data Quality Objectives Process, EPA, QA/G4, 2/2006 (EPA 2006) as well as several other published DQOs. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is in the process of developing a radiological air monitoring program for the PNNL Site that is distinct from that of the nearby Hanford Site. Radiological emissions at the PNNL Site result from Physical Sciences Facility (PSF) major emissions units. A team was established to determine how the PNNL Site would meet federal regulations and address guidelines developed to monitor and estimate offsite air emissions of radioactive materials. The result is a program that monitors the impact to the public from the PNNL Site.

  15. Air Force Manpower Requirements and Component Mix: A Focus on Agile Combat Support

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-01-01

    2002–2011) SOURCES: IMA billets: MPES; deployed days: DMDC and Air Force (multiple files), FYs 2002–2011. In Figure 2.8, we array a subset of...characters, with an optional prefix or suffix . In the officer AFSC, the digits represent, in order, a career group, utilization field, functional area...a single AFSC, while the suffix (also called a shredout) represents particular equipment or functions within an AFSC. 30 AFSCs are used to identify

  16. A Benchmark Study of the Air Force Program Executive Office for Combat and Mission Support

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-10-05

    Award for Academic Excellence. Capt. Finkenstadt earned his commission through Officer Training School, Maxwell AFB, AL, in 2007, where he earned...College of the Air Force, where he earned the Pitsenbarger Award for Academic Excellence. Capt. Finkenstadt holds certifications in both DAWIA APDP...contractor employees (newer slides are breaking this out into full-time equivalents [FTE] and part-time equivalents [ PTE ]). The program owner can

  17. United States Air Force Graduate Student Summer Support Program (1987). Program Management Report.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-12-01

    Not Applicable ) 6. TOTAL AMOUNT OF BILL: ________ 7. AIR FARE TICKETS CHARGED DIRECTLY TO UES. AMOUNT: $_ ______ Summer Fellow Signature - Date ...MONITORING ORGANIZATION (If applicable ) Universal Energy Systems Inc, AFOSR/XOT 6c. ADDRESS (City, State, and ZIP Code) 7b. ADDRESS (City, State, and...PROCUREMENT INSTRUMENT IDENTIFICATION NUMBER ORGANIZATION (If applicable ) Same as #7 F49620-85--C-0013 8c. ADDRESS (City, State, and ZIP Code) 10. SOURCE OF

  18. Environmental Assessment for A-29 Light Air Support (LAS) Training Beddown

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-08-21

    solar systems , geothermal power plants, and wind generators. The Air Force continues to promote and install new renewable energy projects. The...Program NO2 Nitrogen Dioxide NOA Notice of Availability NOx Nitrogen Oxides NPDES National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System O3 Ozone...hostile forces at low altitudes. The A-29 incorporates fourth-generation avionics and weapons systems , and is capable of delivering precision guided

  19. Airborne lidar mapping of vertical ozone distributions in support of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Uthe, Edward E.; Nielsen, Norman B.; Livingston, John M.

    1992-01-01

    The 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments mandated attainment of the ozone standard established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Improved photochemical models validated by experimental data are needed to develop strategies for reducing near surface ozone concentrations downwind of urban and industrial centers. For more than 10 years, lidar has been used on large aircraft to provide unique information on ozone distributions in the atmosphere. However, compact airborne lidar systems are needed for operation on small aircraft of the type typically used on regional air quality investigations to collect data with which to develop and validate air quality models. Data presented in this paper will consist of a comparison between airborne differential absorption lidar (DIAL) and airborne in-situ ozone measurements. Also discussed are future plans to improve the airborne ultraviolet-DIAL for ozone and other gas observations and addition of a Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) emission spectrometer to investigate the effects of other gas species on vertical ozone distribution.

  20. Identification of Weather Deck Runoff Discharge Constituents Onboard a U.S. Navy Fast Combat Support AOE-6) Class Ship (with) Appendix S: Shipboard Weather Deck Information Management System (SWIMS) for Fast Combat Support Ships, AOE Supply Class (CD-ROM)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    incidental wastewaters from ships of the Armed Forces. During Phase I of the UNDS initiative, it was determined weather deck runoff requires a Marine ... Pollution Control Device (MPCD) to control the discharge. At the request of Naval Sea Systems Command (NAVSEA O5L13) a shipboard assessment was conducted

  1. Pilot weather advisor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kilgore, W. A.; Seth, S.; Crabill, N. L.; Shipley, S. T.; Graffman, I.; Oneill, J.

    1992-01-01

    The results of the work performed by ViGYAN, Inc., to demonstrate the Pilot Weather Advisor cockpit weather data system using a broadcast satellite communication system are presented. The Pilot Weather Advisor demonstrated that the technical problems involved with transmitting significant amount of weather data to an aircraft in-flight or on-the-ground via satellite are solvable with today's technology. The Pilot Weather Advisor appears to be a viable solution for providing accurate and timely weather information for general aviation aircraft.

  2. On the use of wave parameterizations and a storm impact scaling model in National Weather Service Coastal Flood and decision support operations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mignone, Anthony; Stockdon, H.; Willis, M.; Cannon, J.W.; Thompson, R.

    2012-01-01

    National Weather Service (NWS) Weather Forecast Offices (WFO) are responsible for issuing coastal flood watches, warnings, advisories, and local statements to alert decision makers and the general public when rising water levels may lead to coastal impacts such as inundation, erosion, and wave battery. Both extratropical and tropical cyclones can generate the prerequisite rise in water level to set the stage for a coastal impact event. Forecasters use a variety of tools including computer model guidance and local studies to help predict the potential severity of coastal flooding. However, a key missing component has been the incorporation of the effects of waves in the prediction of total water level and the associated coastal impacts. Several recent studies have demonstrated the importance of incorporating wave action into the NWS coastal flood program. To follow up on these studies, this paper looks at the potential of applying recently developed empirical parameterizations of wave setup, swash, and runup to the NWS forecast process. Additionally, the wave parameterizations are incorporated into a storm impact scaling model that compares extreme water levels to beach elevation data to determine the mode of coastal change at predetermined “hotspots” of interest. Specifically, the storm impact model compares the approximate storm-induced still water level, which includes contributions from tides, storm surge, and wave setup, to dune crest elevation to determine inundation potential. The model also compares the combined effects of tides, storm surge, and the 2 % exceedance level for vertical wave runup (including both wave setup and swash) to dune toe and crest elevations to determine if erosion and/or ocean overwash may occur. The wave parameterizations and storm impact model are applied to two cases in 2009 that led to significant coastal impacts and unique forecast challenges in North Carolina: the extratropical “Nor'Ida” event during 11-14 November and

  3. Benchmarking, Research, Development, and Support for ORNL Automated Image and Signature Retrieval (AIR/ASR) Technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Tobin, K.W.

    2004-06-01

    This report describes the results of a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) with Applied Materials, Inc. (AMAT) of Santa Clara, California. This project encompassed the continued development and integration of the ORNL Automated Image Retrieval (AIR) technology, and an extension of the technology denoted Automated Signature Retrieval (ASR), and other related technologies with the Defect Source Identification (DSI) software system that was under development by AMAT at the time this work was performed. In the semiconductor manufacturing environment, defect imagery is used to diagnose problems in the manufacturing line, train yield management engineers, and examine historical data for trends. Image management in semiconductor data systems is a growing cause of concern in the industry as fabricators are now collecting up to 20,000 images each week. In response to this concern, researchers at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) developed a semiconductor-specific content-based image retrieval method and system, also known as AIR. The system uses an image-based query-by-example method to locate and retrieve similar imagery from a database of digital imagery using visual image characteristics. The query method is based on a unique architecture that takes advantage of the statistical, morphological, and structural characteristics of image data, generated by inspection equipment in industrial applications. The system improves the manufacturing process by allowing rapid access to historical records of similar events so that errant process equipment can be isolated and corrective actions can be quickly taken to improve yield. The combined ORNL and AMAT technology is referred to hereafter as DSI-AIR and DSI-ASR.

  4. Detailed Analysis Plan for Validation of Close Air Support (CAS). Phase 2 Results

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1974-06-01

    CONMTL DATA PORN QUESTIONS LftIM/AIR b 1M MDRQUVEST PrASE RD, DIV OR CORPS (ALLOCATED RESOURCE ABORTS, ONLY) 1. Unit 1D No: 2. Location of TACP in UTM...Terminal Area Control (FAC(r) , PiC (A) , or ASRT) Type Control Call Sign Delay Abort CNX N/A Reason Codes Ist Znd 01 Cons Security 07 lnt’rm’t Com 14...NETWORK FOR ATTACK HELICOPTER CAB - DATA PORN QUESTIONS TO ANNEX C[ DATA COLLECTION CIoS CABA D AND CONTROL DATA FOlRM QUESTIONS No. 1-2-3-4-S.-6* ARMY

  5. Draft Permit & Supporting Documentation for the Cape Wind Associates, LLC, Horseshoe Shoal, Nantucket Sound (Offshore Renewable Energy Project/OCS Air Permit)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    List of draft permit & supporting documentation for the Cape Wind Associates, LLC, Horseshoe Shoal, Nantucket Sound (Offshore Renewable Energy Project/OCS Air Permit: Massachusetts Plan Approval including nonattainment NSR Appendix A requirements).

  6. Prediction of DC Corona Onset Voltage for Rod-Plane Air Gaps by a Support Vector Machine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Shuo; Ruan, Jiangjun; Du, Zhiye; Zhu, Lin; Shu, Shengwen

    2016-10-01

    This paper proposes a new method to predict the corona onset voltage for a rod-plane air gap, based on the support vector machine (SVM). Because the SVM is not limited by the size, dimension and nonlinearity of the samples, this method can realize accurate prediction with few training data. Only electric field features are chosen as the input; no geometric parameter is included. Therefore, the experiment data of one kind of electrode can be used to predict the corona onset voltages of other electrodes with different sizes. With the experimental data obtained by ozone detection technology, and experimental data provided by the reference, the efficiency of the proposed method is validated. Accurate predicted results with an average relative less than 3% are obtained with only 6 experimental data. supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 51477120)

  7. A Life-Cycle Cost Estimating Methodology for NASA-Developed Air Traffic Control Decision Support Tools

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Jianzhong Jay; Datta, Koushik; Landis, Michael R. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    This paper describes the development of a life-cycle cost (LCC) estimating methodology for air traffic control Decision Support Tools (DSTs) under development by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), using a combination of parametric, analogy, and expert opinion methods. There is no one standard methodology and technique that is used by NASA or by the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) for LCC estimation of prospective Decision Support Tools. Some of the frequently used methodologies include bottom-up, analogy, top-down, parametric, expert judgement, and Parkinson's Law. The developed LCC estimating methodology can be visualized as a three-dimensional matrix where the three axes represent coverage, estimation, and timing. This paper focuses on the three characteristics of this methodology that correspond to the three axes.

  8. Spouse abuse among United States Air Force personnel who deployed in support of Operation Iraqi Freedom/Operation Enduring Freedom.

    PubMed

    Rabenhorst, Mandy M; McCarthy, Randy J; Thomsen, Cynthia J; Milner, Joel S; Travis, Wendy J; Foster, Rachel E; Copeland, Carol W

    2013-10-01

    The authors examined spouse abuse perpetration among all married U.S. Air Force personnel who deployed in support of Operation Iraqi Freedom/Operation Enduring Freedom. Using Poisson and conditional Poisson regression, they compared rates of spouse abuse perpetration predeployment and postdeployment in the population of married U.S. Air Force personnel who had a combat-related deployment between October 1, 2001 and October 31, 2008 (N = 156,296). Just over 2% (n = 3,524) of deployers perpetrated at least one substantiated incident of spouse physical or emotional abuse within the 308,197,653 days at risk for abuse during the study period. Male deployers perpetrated spouse abuse at approximately twice the rate of female deployers. Regarding changes in rates of spouse abuse perpetration postdeployment versus predeployment among all deployers, the authors found no differences overall; however, several deployer and incident-related characteristics moderated this effect. Rates of emotional abuse, mild abuse, and abuse not involving alcohol were significantly lower postdeployment, whereas rates of moderate/severe abuse and abuse involving alcohol were significantly higher postdeployment. Although the majority of U.S. Air Force deployers did not perpetrate any substantiated incidents of spouse abuse, there was variability in the impact of deployment on spouse abuse rates before versus after deployment. The finding that rates of moderate/severe spouse abuse incidents involving alcohol were higher postdeployment suggests a need for focused prevention/intervention efforts.

  9. Winter Weather Checklists

    MedlinePlus

    ... About CDC.gov . Natural Disasters and Severe Weather Earthquakes Being Prepared Emergency Supplies Home Hazards Indoor Safety ... Matters What's New Preparation & Planning Disasters & Severe Weather Earthquakes Extreme Heat Floods Hurricanes Landslides Tornadoes Tsunamis Volcanoes ...

  10. Winter Weather: Frostbite

    MedlinePlus

    ... About CDC.gov . Natural Disasters and Severe Weather Earthquakes Being Prepared Emergency Supplies Home Hazards Indoor Safety ... Matters What's New Preparation & Planning Disasters & Severe Weather Earthquakes Extreme Heat Floods Hurricanes Landslides Tornadoes Tsunamis Volcanoes ...

  11. Winter Weather: Outdoor Safety

    MedlinePlus

    ... About CDC.gov . Natural Disasters and Severe Weather Earthquakes Being Prepared Emergency Supplies Home Hazards Indoor Safety ... Matters What's New Preparation & Planning Disasters & Severe Weather Earthquakes Extreme Heat Floods Hurricanes Landslides Tornadoes Tsunamis Volcanoes ...

  12. Winter Weather Emergencies

    MedlinePlus

    Severe winter weather can lead to health and safety challenges. You may have to cope with Cold related health problems, including ... there are no guarantees of safety during winter weather emergencies, you can take actions to protect yourself. ...

  13. Advanced Regenerative Environmental Control and Life Support Systems: Air and Water Regeneration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schubert, F. H.; Wynveen, R. A.; Quattrone, P. D.

    1985-01-01

    Extended manned space missions will require regenerative life support techniques. Past manned missions used nonregenerative expendables, except for a molecular sieve based carbon dioxide removal system aboard Skylab. The resupply penalties associated with expendables becomes prohibitive as crew size and mission duration increase. The Space Station scheduled to be operational in the 1990's is based on a crew of four to sixteen and a resupply period of 90 days or greater. It will be the first major spacecraft to employ regenerable techniques for life support. The techniques to be used in the requirements for the space station are addressed.

  14. Rock-weathering rates as functions of time

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Colman, Steven M.

    1981-01-01

    The scarcity of documented numerical relations between rock weathering and time has led to a common assumption that rates of weathering are linear. This assumption has been strengthened by studies that have calculated long-term average rates. However, little theoretical or empirical evidence exists to support linear rates for most chemical-weathering processes, with the exception of congruent dissolution processes. The few previous studies of rock-weathering rates that contain quantitative documentation of the relation between chemical weathering and time suggest that the rates of most weathering processes decrease with time. Recent studies of weathering rinds on basaltic and andesitic stones in glacial deposits in the western United States also clearly demonstrate that rock-weathering processes slow with time. Some weathering processes appear to conform to exponential functions of time, such as the square-root time function for hydration of volcanic glass, which conforms to the theoretical predictions of diffusion kinetics. However, weathering of mineralogically heterogeneous rocks involves complex physical and chemical processes that generally can be expressed only empirically, commonly by way of logarithmic time functions. Incongruent dissolution and other weathering processes produce residues, which are commonly used as measures of weathering. These residues appear to slow movement of water to unaltered material and impede chemical transport away from it. If weathering residues impede weathering processes then rates of weathering and rates of residue production are inversely proportional to some function of the residue thickness. This results in simple mathematical analogs for weathering that imply nonlinear time functions. The rate of weathering becomes constant only when an equilibrium thickness of the residue is reached. Because weathering residues are relatively stable chemically, and because physical removal of residues below the ground surface is slight

  15. Testing an advanced satellite technique for dust detection as a decision support system for the air quality assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Falconieri, Alfredo; Filizzola, Carolina; Femiano, Rossella; Marchese, Francesco; Sannazzaro, Filomena; Pergola, Nicola; Tramutoli, Valerio; Di Muro, Ersilia; Divietri, Mariella; Crisci, Anna Maria; Lovallo, Michele; Mangiamele, Lucia; Vaccaro, Maria Pia; Palma, Achille

    2014-05-01

    In order to correctly apply the European directive for air quality (2008/50/CE), local Authorities are often requested to discriminate the possible origin (natural/anthropic) of anomalous concentration of pollutants in the air (art.20 Directive 2008/50/CE). In this framework, it's been focused on PM10 and PM2,5 concentrations and sources. In fact, depending on their origin, appropriate counter-measures can be taken devoted to prevent their production (e.g. by traffic restriction) or simply to reduce their impact on citizen health (e.g. information campaigns). In this context suitable satellite techniques can be used in order to identify natural sources (particularly Saharan dust, but also volcanic ash or forest fire smoke) that can be responsible of over-threshold concentration of PM10/2,5 in populated areas. In the framework of the NIBS (Networking and Internationalization of Basilicata Space Technologies) project, funded by the Basilicata Region within the ERDF 2007-2013 program, the School of Engineering of University of Basilicata, the Institute of Methodologies for Environmental Analysis of National Research Council (IMAA-CNR) and the Regional Agency for the Protection of the Environment of Basilicata Region (ARPAB) have started a collaboration devoted to assess the potential of the use of advanced satellite techniques for Saharan dust events identification to support ARPAB activities related to the application of the European directive for air quality (2008/50/CE) in Basilicata region. In such a joint activity, the Robust Satellite Technique (RST) approach has been assessed and tested as a decision support system for monitoring and evaluating air quality at local and regional level. In particular, RST-DUST products, derived by processing high temporal resolution data provided by SEVIRI (Spinning Enhanced Visible and Infrared Imager) sensor on board Meteosat Second Generation platforms, have been analysed together with PM10 measurements performed by the ground

  16. Data Quality Objectives Supporting Radiological Air Emissions Monitoring for the PNNL Site

    SciTech Connect

    Barnett, J. Matthew; Meier, Kirsten M.; Snyder, Sandra F.; Fritz, Brad G.; Poston, Theodore M.; Antonio, Ernest J.

    2012-11-12

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is in the process of developing a radiological air monitoring program for the PNNL Site that is distinct from that of the nearby Hanford Site. The original DQO (PNNL-19427) considered radiological emissions at the PNNL Site from Physical Sciences Facility (PSF) major emissions units. This first revision considers PNNL Site changes subsequent to the implementation of the original DQO. A team was established to determine how the PNNL Site changes would continue to meet federal regulations and address guidelines developed to monitor air emissions and estimate offsite impacts of radioactive material operations. The result is an updated program to monitor the impact to the public from the PNNL Site. The team used the emission unit operation parameters and local meteorological data as well as information from the PSF Potential-to-Emit documentation and Notices of Construction submitted to the Washington State Department of Health (WDOH). The locations where environmental monitoring stations would most successfully characterize the maximum offsite impacts of PNNL Site emissions from the three PSF buildings with major emission units were determined from these data. Three monitoring station locations were determined during the original revision of this document. This first revision considers expanded Department of Energy operations south of the PNNL Site and relocation of the two offsite, northern monitoring stations to sites near the PNNL Site fenceline. Inclusion of the southern facilities resulted in the proposal for a fourth monitoring station in the southern region. The southern expansion added two minor emission unit facilities and one diffuse emission unit facility. Relocation of the two northern stations was possible due to the use of solar power, rather than the previous limitation of the need for access to AC power, at these more remote locations. Addendum A contains all the changes brought about by the revision 1

  17. Air Force Health Care Providers: Automation Concerns Relating to - Needs, Experience, and Support,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-05-22

    aerospace physiology clinical psychology clinical social work alcohol rehabilitation dietitian occupational theraphy pharmacy optometry podiatry... occupational medicine family practice primary care pediatrics pathology radiology radiation therapy neuroradiology nuclear medicine diagnostic...operations. (5) Coputerized Occupational Health Program (CCFI) (a) COHP supports the requirements of the Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1970. It

  18. Multi Criteria Decision Support Model for the Turkish Air Force Personnel Course/Education Planning System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-03-01

    Making, Multiattribute Utility Theory : The Next Ten Years”. Management Science, 38(5):645–654, 1992. Fulop, Janos. “Introduction to Decision Making... Utility Theory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 2.2.4 ELECTRE Method . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 2.2.5 PROMETHEE Method...10 DSS Decision Support Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 MAUT Multi-Attribute Utility Theory

  19. American Weather Stories.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughes, Patrick

    Weather has shaped United States' culture, national character and folklore; at times it has changed the course of history. The seven accounts compiled in this publication highlight some of the nation's weather experiences from the hurricanes that threatened Christopher Columbus to the peculiar run of bad weather that has plagued American…

  20. Weather Fundamentals: Meteorology. [Videotape].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1998

    The videos in this educational series, for grades 4-7, help students understand the science behind weather phenomena through dramatic live-action footage, vivid animated graphics, detailed weather maps, and hands-on experiments. This episode (23 minutes) looks at how meteorologists gather and interpret current weather data collected from sources…

  1. Cold-Weather Sports

    MedlinePlus

    ... Surgery? A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Cold-Weather Sports KidsHealth > For Teens > Cold-Weather Sports Print A A A What's in this ... Equipment Ahh, winter! Shorter days. Frigid temperatures. Foul weather. What better time to be outdoors? Winter sports ...

  2. Hot Weather Tips

    MedlinePlus

    ... FCA - A A + A You are here Home HOT Weather Tips Printer-friendly version We all suffer in hot weather. However, for elderly and disabled people and ... stress and following these tips for dealing with hot weather. Wear cool clothing: See that the person ...

  3. Data Quality Objectives Supporting Radiological Air Emissions Monitoring for the Marine Sciences Laboratory, Sequim Site

    SciTech Connect

    Barnett, J. Matthew; Meier, Kirsten M.; Snyder, Sandra F.; Antonio, Ernest J.; Fritz, Brad G.; Poston, Theodore M.

    2012-12-27

    This document of Data Quality Objectives (DQOs) was prepared based on the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Guidance on Systematic Planning Using the Data Quality Objectives Process, EPA, QA/G4, 2/2006 (EPA 2006), as well as several other published DQOs. The intent of this report is to determine the necessary steps required to ensure that radioactive emissions to the air from the Marine Sciences Laboratory (MSL) headquartered at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory’s Sequim Marine Research Operations (Sequim Site) on Washington State’s Olympic Peninsula are managed in accordance with regulatory requirements and best practices. The Sequim Site was transitioned in October 2012 from private operation under Battelle Memorial Institute to an exclusive use contract with the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Pacific Northwest Site Office.

  4. Active carbon-ceramic sphere as support of ruthenium catalysts for catalytic wet air oxidation (CWAO) of resin effluent.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wei-Min; Hu, Yi-Qiang; Tu, Shan-Tung

    2010-07-15

    Active carbon-ceramic sphere as support of ruthenium catalysts were evaluated through the catalytic wet air oxidation (CWAO) of resin effluent in a packed-bed reactor. Active carbon-ceramic sphere and ruthenium catalysts were characterized by N(2) adsorption and chemisorption measurements. BET surface area and total pore volume of active carbon (AC) in the active carbon-ceramic sphere increase with increasing KOH-to-carbon ratio, and AC in the sample KC-120 possesses values as high as 1100 m(2) g(-1) and 0.69 cm(3) g(-1) (carbon percentage: 4.73 wt.%), especially. Active carbon-ceramic sphere supported ruthenium catalysts were prepared using the RuCl(3) solution impregnation onto these supports, the ruthenium loading was fixed at 1-5 wt.% of AC in the support. The catalytic activity varies according to the following order: Ru/KC-120>Ru/KC-80>Ru/KC-60>KC-120>without catalysts. It is found that the 3 wt.% Ru/KC-120 catalyst displays highest stability in the CWAO of resin effluent during 30 days. Chemical oxygen demand (COD) and phenol removal were about 92% and 96%, respectively at the reaction temperature of 200 degrees C, oxygen pressure of 1.5 MPa, the water flow rate of 0.75 L h(-1) and the oxygen flow rate of 13.5 L h(-1).

  5. Towards a National Space Weather Predictive Capability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fox, N. J.; Ryschkewitsch, M. G.; Merkin, V. G.; Stephens, G. K.; Gjerloev, J. W.; Barnes, R. J.; Anderson, B. J.; Paxton, L. J.; Ukhorskiy, A. Y.; Kelly, M. A.; Berger, T. E.; Bonadonna, L. C. M. F.; Hesse, M.; Sharma, S.

    2015-12-01

    National needs in the area of space weather informational and predictive tools are growing rapidly. Adverse conditions in the space environment can cause disruption of satellite operations, communications, navigation, and electric power distribution grids, leading to a variety of socio-economic losses and impacts on our security. Future space exploration and most modern human endeavors will require major advances in physical understanding and improved transition of space research to operations. At present, only a small fraction of the latest research and development results from NASA, NOAA, NSF and DoD investments are being used to improve space weather forecasting and to develop operational tools. The power of modern research and space weather model development needs to be better utilized to enable comprehensive, timely, and accurate operational space weather tools. The mere production of space weather information is not sufficient to address the needs of those who are affected by space weather. A coordinated effort is required to support research-to-applications transition efforts and to develop the tools required those who rely on this information. In this presentation we will review the space weather system developed for the Van Allen Probes mission, together with other datasets, tools and models that have resulted from research by scientists at JHU/APL. We will look at how these, and results from future missions such as Solar Probe Plus, could be applied to support space weather applications in coordination with other community assets and capabilities.

  6. An Analysis of United States Air Force Supply Support in Vietnam

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-09-01

    accepted that the coup, although officially without American backing except in conscience, was instigated and strongly supported by the U.S. Government...demand requirements. In the case of Vietnam, the decision to transition to a MOB repair function in-country was not preceded by the necessary supply 31...supplement existing supplies, or, in the 34 case of bare base sites, to provide initial rations for a period of 30 days. Housekeeping kits, as implied by

  7. Information, Understanding, and Influence: An Agency Theory Strategy for Air Base Communications and Cyberspace Support

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-05-01

    1 Christopher H. Sterling, ed., Military Communications: From Ancient Times to the 21st Century (Santa Barbara, Calif: ABC-CLIO, 2008...communications support structure evolved as well. As America entered the war, the AACS quietly avoided a reorganization that would have surely spelled ... Ancient Times to the 21st Century. Santa Barbara, Calif: ABC-CLIO, 2008. Strasser, Max. “Why Ukraine Hasn’t Sparked a Big Cyberwar, So Far.” Newsweek

  8. Sustaining the US Air Force’s Force Support Career Field through Officer Workforce Planning

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-07-01

    communities upon establishment of the Force Support officer career field. With the 38F career field merger and creation of the FSS, officers previously...section. As the development of a competency model typically entails significant investments of time and money , one should ideally first define the...potential workforce management and assignment shortcomings. Dues (2011) utilized a simulation tool to determine how dynamic endogenous and exogenous

  9. Impact of crop production on air quality in life support dynamics in closed habitats

    SciTech Connect

    Volk, T.

    1987-01-01

    Interest in human-designed closed habitats - where the substances needed for human life support are continuously regenerated from waste products - is growing, as apparent from the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Closed Ecological Life Support Systems Program, the Soviet Union's Bios experiments, and the Biosphere II Project in Arizona. Nuclear-powered bases on the moon and Mars will have food-growing capabilities, and through gas-exchange processes these crops will alter the atmospheric composition. This study focuses on major gases tied to human life support: CO/sub 2/, O/sub 2/, and water vapor. Since actual systems are years and likely decades away, simulation studies can indicate necessary further research and provide instruction about the predicted behavior of such systems. To look at the first-order plant dynamics, i.e., the production of O/sub 2/ and water vapor and the consumption of CO/sub 2/, a simulation model is constructed with crop, human, and waste subsystems. The plant can either share an atmosphere with the humans or be separate, linked by osmotic or mechanical gas exchangers. The crop subsystem is sketched. Stoichiometric equations for the biosynthesis of protein, carbohydrates, and lipids in the edible portion and carbohydrates, fiber, and lignin in the inedible portion govern growth, mimicking that currently observed in the latest hydroponic wheat experiments.

  10. Weatherization and Intergovernmental Program - Weatherization Assistance Program

    SciTech Connect

    2010-06-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) Weatherization Assistance Program reduces energy costs for low-income households by increasing the energy efficiency of their homes, while ensuring their health and safety.

  11. Demonstration of Improved Software Support Labor Estimation For Air Force Operational Flight Programs Through Functional Orientation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-12-01

    single, fully developed, tesied , documented, and supportable computer instruction set replicated in sufficient quantities and delivered to the...LIMITSIZE a 11120001 Global Const CF FIXEDPITCHOWLY z 9H4000& Global Const CF WYSIWYG a 11180001 ’must also have CF SCREENFONTS£ CF PR INTER FORTS Global...ThesisRec.ACTKDSI " ExpOnLy) * BCT SUlff = SulM4Q + ThesisRec.ACTEFFORT * TempQ C.56 SuiQ2 x SumZ + TempQ * TeMA ’CatcuLate sum for Coefficient and Exponent

  12. The impact of weather on kingbird foraging behavior

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, M.T.

    1987-01-01

    Foraging data on Eastern Kingbirds (Tyrannus tyrannus) were collected during the early breeding season in eastern Kansas to test the hypothesis that foraging rate and other aspects of foraging behavior vary with weather. Foraging characteristics of five additional kingbird species were also examined to assess Fitzpatrick's 1980 generalization that kingbirds (Tyrannus spp.) are aerial hawking specialists. In Eastern Kingbirds, total foraging rate was independent of air temperature, cloud cover, wind speed, and time of day, but the rate of aerial hawking varied directly with air temperature and inversely with cloud cover (both P < 0.05). Effects of the two variables were additive. The percentage of foraging movements that were aerial hawks also increased with temperature and declined with cloud cover, and hover-gleaning and perch-to-ground sallying were observed mainly during cloudy weather. Sally (i.e., foraging flight) distance correlated directly with perch height and air temperature, and large insects were captured almost exclusively in long upward or horizontal flights. I interpret these data to indicate that foraging behavior and the capture of large, flying insects depends on weather because of how it affects the activity of insect prey. Foraging data on kingbirds support Fitzpatrick's generalization, but the relative use of aerial hawking varies considerably among species. Resident Tropical Kingbirds (T. melancholicus) are the most specialized foragers, whereas the migrant and widely distributed Eastern Kingbird appears to be the most generalized. Certain habitats also appear to favor the use of particular foraging methods (e.g., outward striking in grasslands, and perch-to-ground sallying in drier, open habitats).

  13. Reduction of Weather-Related Terminal Area Delays in the Free-Flight Era

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Sally C.; Chin, David K.; Rovinsky, Robert B.; Kostiuk, Peter F.; Lee, David A.; Hemm, Robert V.; Wingrove, Earl R., III

    1996-01-01

    While much of the emphasis of the free-flight movement has been concentrated on reducing en-route delays, airport capacity is a major bottleneck in the current airspace system, particularly during bad weather. According to the Air Transport Association (ATA) Air Carrier Delay Reports, ground delays (gate-hold, taxi-in, and taxi-out) comprise 75 percent of total delays. It is likely that the projected steady growth in traffic will only exacerbate these losses. Preliminary analyses show that implementation of the terminal area technologies and procedures under development in NASA s Terminal Area Productivity program can potentially save the airlines at least $350M annually in weather-related delays by the year 2005 at Boston Logan and Detroit airports alone. This paper briefly describes the Terminal Area Productivity program, outlines the costhenefit analyses that are being conducted in support of the program, and presents some preliminary analysis results.

  14. Interactive Visual Contextualization of Space Weather Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Törnros, M.; Ynnerman, A.; Emmart, C.; Berrios, D.; Harberts, R.

    2012-12-01

    Linköping University, the American Museum of Natural History (AMNH), and the Community Coordinated Modeling Center (CCMC) at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center are collaborating on a new open source visualization software for astrovisualization. The CCMC is providing real-time and historical space weather data from the Integrated Space Weather Analysis System (iSWA), including timely modeled coronal mass ejection events simulated by the Space Weather Research Center at NASA GSFC. Linköping University is developing a new modular visualization tool with multi-channel capabilities to support planetarium exhibits, displaying the real-time space weather data contextualized using fieldlines, volumetric visualization techniques, and planetary information. This collaboration aims to engage the public about space weather and real-time events at the AMNH. We present an overview of this collaboration and demo some of the capabilities.

  15. NASA GSFC Space Weather Center - Innovative Space Weather Dissemination: Web-Interfaces, Mobile Applications, and More

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maddox, Marlo; Zheng, Yihua; Rastaetter, Lutz; Taktakishvili, A.; Mays, M. L.; Kuznetsova, M.; Lee, Hyesook; Chulaki, Anna; Hesse, Michael; Mullinix, Richard; Berrios, David

    2012-01-01

    The NASA GSFC Space Weather Center (http://swc.gsfc.nasa.gov) is committed to providing forecasts, alerts, research, and educational support to address NASA's space weather needs - in addition to the needs of the general space weather community. We provide a host of services including spacecraft anomaly resolution, historical impact analysis, real-time monitoring and forecasting, custom space weather alerts and products, weekly summaries and reports, and most recently - video casts. There are many challenges in providing accurate descriptions of past, present, and expected space weather events - and the Space Weather Center at NASA GSFC employs several innovative solutions to provide access to a comprehensive collection of both observational data, as well as space weather model/simulation data. We'll describe the challenges we've faced with managing hundreds of data streams, running models in real-time, data storage, and data dissemination. We'll also highlight several systems and tools that are utilized by the Space Weather Center in our daily operations, all of which are available to the general community as well. These systems and services include a web-based application called the Integrated Space Weather Analysis System (iSWA http://iswa.gsfc.nasa.gov), two mobile space weather applications for both IOS and Android devices, an external API for web-service style access to data, google earth compatible data products, and a downloadable client-based visualization tool.

  16. The Support of Air Operations Under Extreme Hot and Cold Weather Conditions (Les Operatons Aeriennes en Environnement Extreme Chaud/Froid)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-10-01

    provide pilotage infoaon to the to 16 personnel between the Antarctic two British Antarctic Survey research and the Falkland Wlands, considerably...diminui~o. L’utllisation d’un ontraino un effet do sorre. Enfin lo systbme do climatisation indivduoello ost rayonnement do Idlectroniquo do bord ...sodt uno pormottre tour utilisation A bord dos avions do arni~ioration do la climatisation dos a6ronefs, combat. soft rutilisation cruno

  17. Forecast skill of a high-resolution real-time mesoscale model designed for weather support of operations at Kennedy Space Center and Cape Canaveral Air Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, Gregory E.; Zack, John W.; Manobianco, John

    1994-01-01

    NASA funded Mesoscale Environmental Simulations and Operations (MESO), Inc. to develop a version of the Mesoscale Atmospheric Simulation System (MASS). The model has been modified specifically for short-range forecasting in the vicinity of KSC/CCAS. To accomplish this, the model domain has been limited to increase the number of horizontal grid points (and therefore grid resolution) and the model' s treatment of precipitation, radiation, and surface hydrology physics has been enhanced to predict convection forced by local variations in surface heat, moisture fluxes, and cloud shading. The objective of this paper is to (1) provide an overview of MASS including the real-time initialization and configuration for running the data pre-processor and model, and (2) to summarize the preliminary evaluation of the model's forecasts of temperature, moisture, and wind at selected rawinsonde station locations during February 1994 and July 1994. MASS is a hydrostatic, three-dimensional modeling system which includes schemes to represent planetary boundary layer processes, surface energy and moisture budgets, free atmospheric long and short wave radiation, cloud microphysics, and sub-grid scale moist convection.

  18. Air-stable supported membranes for single-cell cytometry on PDMS microchips.

    PubMed

    Phillips, K Scott; Kang, Kyung Mo; Licata, Louise; Allbritton, Nancy L

    2010-04-07

    Protein-reinforced supported bilayer membranes (rSBMs) composed of phosphatidylcholine (PC), biotin-PE and Neutravidin were used to coat hybrid microchips composed of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) and glass. Since the coatings required a freshly oxidized, hydrophilic substrate, a novel method to rapidly connect reservoirs using plasma oxidation was first developed and found to support up to 5.2 N cm(-2) (1.5 N) pull-off force. rSBMs were then assembled in the oxidized hydrophilic channels. The electroosmotic mobility (mu(eo)) of rSBM-coated channels was measured over a 3 h time to evaluate the stability of the coatings for microchip electrophoresis. rSBM-coated microchips with a simple cross-design had excellent properties for microchip separations, yielding efficiencies of up to 700,000 plates m(-1) for fluorescent dyes and peptides. The separation performance of rSBM and PC-coated channels was evaluated after repeatedly drying and rehydrating the channels. The separation efficiency of fluorescein on PC-coated devices decreased by 40% after one dehydration cycle and nearly 75% after 3 cycles. In contrast for rSBM-coated devices there was no significant change in the fluorescein efficiency until the third cycle (10% decreased efficiency). rSBM-coated channels were also markedly more stable when placed in a dehydrated state during long-term storage compared to PC-coated channels, and showed reduced chip failure and no reduction in performance for up to one month of dehydrated storage. Finally, rSBM-coated devices were used to perform single-cell cytometry. Microchips that had been dehydrated, stored two weeks, and rehydrated prior to use demonstrated similar performance to newly coated devices for the separation of fluorescein and carboxyfluorescein from single cells. Thus rSBM-coated devices were rugged withstanding electric fields, prolonged storage under dehydrated conditions, and biofouling by cellular constituents while maintaining excellent separation

  19. Air-Stable Supported Membranes for Single Cell Cytometry on PDMS Microchips

    PubMed Central

    Phillips, K. Scott; Kang, Kyung Mo; Licata, Louise

    2010-01-01

    Protein reinforced supported bilayer membranes (rSBMs) composed of phosphatidyl choline (PC), biotin-PE and Neutravidin were used to coat hybrid microchips composed of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) and glass. Since the coatings required a freshly oxidized, hydrophilic substrate, a novel method to rapidly connect reservoirs using plasma oxidation was first developed and found to support up to 5.2 N/cm2 (1.5 N) pull-off force. rSBMs were then assembled in the oxidized hydrophilic channels. The electroosmotic mobility (μeo) of rSBM-coated channels was measured over a 3 h time to evaluate the stability of the coatings for microchip electrophoresis. rSBM-coated microchips with a simple cross design had excellent properties for microchip separations, yielding efficiencies of up to 700,000 plates/m for fluorescent dyes and peptides. The separation performance of rSBM and PC-coated channels was evaluated after repeatedly drying and rehydrating the channels. The separation efficiency of fluorescein on PC-coated devices decreased by 40% after one dehydration cycle and nearly 75% after 3 cycles. In contrast for rSBM-coated devices there was no significant change in the fluorescein efficiency until the third cycle (10% decreased efficiency). rSBM-coated channels were also markedly more stable when placed in a dehydrated state during long-term storage compared to PC-coated channels, and showed reduced chip failure and no reduction in performance for up to one month of dehydrated storage. Finally, rSBM-coated devices were used to perform single-cell cytometry. Microchips that had been dehydrated, stored two weeks, and rehydrated prior to use demonstrated similar performance to newly coated devices for the separation of fluorescein and carboxyfluorescein from single cells. Thus rSBM-coated devices were rugged- withstanding electric fields, prolonged storage under dehydrated conditions, and biofouling by cellular constituents while maintaining excellent separation performance. PMID

  20. Development of a web-based support system for both homogeneous and heterogeneous air quality control networks: process and product.

    PubMed

    Andrade, J; Ares, J; García, R; Presa, J; Rodríguez, S; Piñeiro-Iglesias, M; López-Mahía, P; Muniategui, S; Prada, D

    2007-10-01

    The Environmental Laboratories Automation Software System or PALMA (Spanish abbreviation) was developed by a multidisciplinary team in order to support the main tasks of heterogeneous air quality control networks. The software process for PALMA development, which can be perfectly applied to similar multidisciplinary projects, was (a) well-defined, (b) arranged between environmental technicians and informatics, (c) based on quality guides, and (d) clearly user-centred. Moreover, it introduces some interesting advantages with regard to the classical step-by-step approaches. PALMA is a web-based system that allows 'off-line' and automated telematic data acquisition from distributed inmission stations belonging not only to homogeneous but also to heterogeneous air quality control networks. It provides graphic and tabular representations for a comprehensive and centralised analysis of acquired data, and considers the daily work that is associated with such networks: validation of the acquired data, alerts with regard to (periodical) tasks (e.g., analysers verification), downloading of files with environmental information (e.g., dust forecasts), etc. The implantation of PALMA has provided qualitative and quantitative improvements in the work performed by the people in charge of the considered control network.

  1. Calculation Package: Derivation of Facility-Specific Derived Air Concentration (DAC) Values in Support of Spallation Neutron Source Operations

    SciTech Connect

    McLaughlin, David A

    2009-12-01

    Derived air concentration (DAC) values for 175 radionuclides* produced at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Spallation Neutron Source (SNS), but not listed in Appendix A of 10 CFR 835 (01/01/2009 version), are presented. The proposed DAC values, ranging between 1 E-07 {micro}Ci/mL and 2 E-03 {micro}Ci/mL, were calculated in accordance with the recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP), and are intended to support an exemption request seeking regulatory relief from the 10 CFR 835, Appendix A, requirement to apply restrictive DACs of 2E-13 {micro}Ci/mL and 4E-11 {micro}Ci/mL and for non-listed alpha and non-alpha-emitting radionuclides, respectively.

  2. Space Weathering of Rocks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noble, Sarah

    2011-01-01

    Space weathering discussions have generally centered around soils but exposed rocks will also incur the effects of weathering. On the Moon, rocks make up only a very small percentage of the exposed surface and areas where rocks are exposed, like central peaks, are often among the least space weathered regions we find in remote sensing data. However, our studies of weathered Ap 17 rocks 76015 and 76237 show that significant amounts of weathering products can build up on rock surfaces. Because rocks have much longer surface lifetimes than an individual soil grain, and thus record a longer history of exposure, we can study these products to gain a deeper perspective on the weathering process and better assess the relative impo!1ance of various weathering components on the Moon. In contrast to the lunar case, on small asteroids, like Itokowa, rocks make up a large fraction of the exposed surface. Results from the Hayabusa spacecraft at Itokowa suggest that while the low gravity does not allow for the development of a mature regolith, weathering patinas can and do develop on rock surfaces, in fact, the rocky surfaces were seen to be darker and appear spectrally more weathered than regions with finer materials. To explore how weathering of asteroidal rocks may differ from lunar, a set of ordinary chondrite meteorites (H, L, and LL) which have been subjected to artificial space weathering by nanopulse laser were examined by TEM. NpFe(sup 0) bearing glasses were ubiquitous in both the naturally-weathered lunar and the artificially-weathered meteorite samples.

  3. The Weather and Climate Toolkit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ansari, S.; Del Greco, S.; Hankins, B.

    2010-12-01

    The Weather and Climate Toolkit (WCT) is free, platform independent software distributed from NOAA’s National Climatic Data Center (NCDC). The WCT allows the visualization and data export of weather and climate data, including Radar, Satellite and Model data. By leveraging the NetCDF for Java library and Common Data Model, the WCT is extremely scalable and capable of supporting many new datasets in the future. Gridded NetCDF files (regular and irregularly spaced, using Climate-Forecast (CF) conventions) are supported, along with many other formats including GRIB. The WCT provides tools for custom data overlays, Web Map Service (WMS) background maps, animations and basic filtering. The export of images and movies is provided in multiple formats. The WCT Data Export Wizard allows for data export in both vector polygon/point (Shapefile, Well-Known Text) and raster (GeoTIFF, ESRI Grid, VTK, Gridded NetCDF) formats. These data export features promote the interoperability of weather and climate information with various scientific communities and common software packages such as ArcGIS, Google Earth, MatLAB, GrADS and R. The WCT also supports an embedded, integrated Google Earth instance. The Google Earth Browser Plugin allows seamless visualization of data on a native 3-D Google Earth instance linked to the standard 2-D map. Level-II NEXRAD data for Hurricane Katrina GPCP (Global Precipitation Product), visualized in 2-D and internal Google Earth view.

  4. Precursor ionization ahead of laser-supported detonation wave in air and argon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimamura, Kohei; Komurasaki, Kimiya; Koizumi, Hiroyuki; Arakawa, Yoshihiro

    2012-10-01

    Laser-produced plasma in a gaseous form is considered, which has attracted great interest for use in many devices. After breakdown one of possible mechanisms of occurrence of this process is noted as laser-supported detonation wave. This wave consisting of the shock wave and the beam absorbing plasma travels at several kilometers per second along the laser beam channel in the direction opposite to the beam incidence. A Nd: Glass laser and a TEA CO2 laser were utilized. According to shadowgraph and spectroscopic studies, the wave has a velocity of 1-10 km/s, an electron temperature of 2-5 eV and an electron density of 10^24 m-3 after breakdown. For simplicity, the discussion is restricted to one-dimensional flows that considers the radiation from plasma and the collisional ionization by laser irradiation. Assuming that UV photons radiating from laser plasma induce photoionization ahead of ionization front, this ionization frequency fp at the distance lp (mean free path of photon) from the wave front corresponds to 10^10 s-1. This is higher than the collisional ionization frequency (10^5-6 s-1). Analytical velocities (fplp) describing the avalanche ionization in the pre-ionization layer agree with the experimentally observed velocities. These results does not depend on background gas and laser-wavelength.

  5. Weather and the W.C.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mogil, H. Michael

    1983-01-01

    Types of weather phenomena that can be demonstrated in a home bathroom are discussed. For example, if the bathroom is small enough, warm, moist air can be seen accumulating in the upper part of the room after taking a hot shower. (Author/JN)

  6. NASA Connect: 'Plane Weather'

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Excerpt from the NASA Connect show 'Plane Weather' This clip explains what high and low pressure weather systems are, and how these affect weather patterns. Weather affects our daily lives. The elements of weather: rain, wind, fog, ice and snow affect the operation and flight of an airplane. In this program, NASA and FAA researchers will introduce students to math, science, and weather; demonstrate how these elements influence flight; and show how NASA and FAA research is used to limit the effects of these elements on flight. Students will examine: the tools, techniques, and technologies used by engineers and scientists to detect these and other climatological factors affecting aircraft in flight. The lesson and classroom experiment will involve students in the scientific process and emphasizing problem solving, measurement, and reasoning skills.

  7. Tales of future weather

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hazeleger, W.; van den Hurk, B. J. J. M.; Min, E.; van Oldenborgh, G. J.; Petersen, A. C.; Stainforth, D. A.; Vasileiadou, E.; Smith, L. A.

    2015-02-01

    Society is vulnerable to extreme weather events and, by extension, to human impacts on future events. As climate changes weather patterns will change. The search is on for more effective methodologies to aid decision-makers both in mitigation to avoid climate change and in adaptation to changes. The traditional approach uses ensembles of climate model simulations, statistical bias correction, downscaling to the spatial and temporal scales relevant to decision-makers, and then translation into quantities of interest. The veracity of this approach cannot be tested, and it faces in-principle challenges. Alternatively, numerical weather prediction models in a hypothetical climate setting can provide tailored narratives for high-resolution simulations of high-impact weather in a future climate. This 'tales of future weather' approach will aid in the interpretation of lower-resolution simulations. Arguably, it potentially provides complementary, more realistic and more physically consistent pictures of what future weather might look like.

  8. Observations from remote weather stations in San Francisco Bay, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gartner, J.W.; Cheng, R.T.

    1983-01-01

    Weather data collected at three remote weather stations in the San Francisco Bay estuarine system between November 1979 and September 1981 are compiled in this report. Measurements include average and maximum wind speed, wind direction, air temperature, atmospheric pressure, and irradiance. Data are presented in time-series plots with each graph covering one calendar month. Daily averages of all measurements are tabulated.

  9. Towards a National Space Weather Predictive Capability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fox, N. J.; Lindstrom, K. L.; Ryschkewitsch, M. G.; Anderson, B. J.; Gjerloev, J. W.; Merkin, V. G.; Kelly, M. A.; Miller, E. S.; Sitnov, M. I.; Ukhorskiy, A. Y.; Erlandson, R. E.; Barnes, R. J.; Paxton, L. J.; Sotirelis, T.; Stephens, G.; Comberiate, J.

    2014-12-01

    National needs in the area of space weather informational and predictive tools are growing rapidly. Adverse conditions in the space environment can cause disruption of satellite operations, communications, navigation, and electric power distribution grids, leading to a variety of socio-economic losses and impacts on our security. Future space exploration and most modern human endeavors will require major advances in physical understanding and improved transition of space research to operations. At present, only a small fraction of the latest research and development results from NASA, NOAA, NSF and DoD investments are being used to improve space weather forecasting and to develop operational tools. The power of modern research and space weather model development needs to be better utilized to enable comprehensive, timely, and accurate operational space weather tools. The mere production of space weather information is not sufficient to address the needs of those who are affected by space weather. A coordinated effort is required to support research-to-applications transition efforts and to develop the tools required those who rely on this information. In this presentation we will review datasets, tools and models that have resulted from research by scientists at JHU/APL, and examine how they could be applied to support space weather applications in coordination with other community assets and capabilities.

  10. United States Air Force 611th Air Support Group/Civil Engineering Squadron Elmendorf AFB, Alaska. Remedial investigation and feasibility study. Bullen Point Radar Installation, Alaska. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Karmi, S.

    1996-03-18

    The United States Air Force (Air Force) has prepared this Remedial investigation/Feasibility Study (RI/FS) report as part of the Installation Restoration Program (IRP) to present results of RI/FS activities at five sites at the Bullen Point radar installation. The IRP provides for investigating, quantifying, and remediating environmental contamination from past waste management activities at Air Force installations throughout the United States.

  11. Commercial Space Tourism and Space Weather

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turner, Ronald

    2007-08-01

    Space tourism, a concept which even a few years ago was perveived as science fantasy, is now a credible industry. Five individuals have paid up to $25 M to spend more than a week on the International Space Station. Several enterprises are working toward viable suborbital and orbital private space operations. while operational space weather support to human space flight has been the domain of government entities the emergence of space tourism now presents a new opportunity for the commercial space weather community. This article examines the space weather impact on crews and passengers of the future space tourism industry.

  12. Weather assessment and forecasting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    Data management program activities centered around the analyses of selected far-term Office of Applications (OA) objectives, with the intent of determining if significant data-related problems would be encountered and if so what alternative solutions would be possible. Three far-term (1985 and beyond) OA objectives selected for analyses as having potential significant data problems were large-scale weather forecasting, local weather and severe storms forecasting, and global marine weather forecasting. An overview of general weather forecasting activities and their implications upon the ground based data system is provided. Selected topics were specifically oriented to the use of satellites.

  13. Pilot Weather Advisor System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lindamood, Glenn; Martzaklis, Konstantinos Gus; Hoffler, Keith; Hill, Damon; Mehrotra, Sudhir C.; White, E. Richard; Fisher, Bruce D.; Crabill, Norman L.; Tucholski, Allen D.

    2006-01-01

    The Pilot Weather Advisor (PWA) system is an automated satellite radio-broadcasting system that provides nearly real-time weather data to pilots of aircraft in flight anywhere in the continental United States. The system was designed to enhance safety in two distinct ways: First, the automated receipt of information would relieve the pilot of the time-consuming and distracting task of obtaining weather information via voice communication with ground stations. Second, the presentation of the information would be centered around a map format, thereby making the spatial and temporal relationships in the surrounding weather situation much easier to understand

  14. National Weatherization Assistance Program Evaluation: Assessment of Refrigerator Energy Use

    SciTech Connect

    Tonn, Bruce Edward; Goeltz, Rick

    2015-03-01

    This report assesses the energy consumption characteristics and performance of refrigerators that were monintored as a component of the Indoor Air Quality Study that itself was a component of the retrospective evaluation of the Department of Energy's Weatherization Assistance Program.

  15. Recent Weather Technologies Delivered to America's Space Program by the Applied Meteorology Unit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauman, WIlliam, H., III; Crawford, Winifred

    2009-01-01

    The Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) is a unique joint venture of NASA, the Air Force and the National Weather Service (NWS) and has been supporting the Space Program for nearly two decades. The AMU acts as a bridge between the meteorological research community and operational forecasters by developing, evaluating and transitioning new technology and techniques to improve weather support to spaceport operations at the Eastern Range (ER) and Kennedy Space Center. Its primary customers are the 45th Weather Squadron at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station (CCAFS), the Spaceflight Meteorology Group at Johnson Space Center and the National Weather Service Office in Melbourne, FL. Its products are used to support NASA's Shuttle and ELV programs as well as Department of Defense and commercial launches from the ER. Shuttle support includes landing sites beyond the ER. The AMU is co-located with the Air Force operational forecasters at CCAFS to facilitate continuous two-way interaction between the AMU and its operational customers. It is operated under a NASA, Air Force, and NWS Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) by a competitively-selected contractor. The contract, which is funded and managed by NASA, provides five full time professionals with degrees in meteorology or related fields, some of whom also have operational experience. NASA provides a Ph.D.- level NASA civil service scientist as Chief of the AMU. The AMU is tasked by its customers through a unique, nationally recognized process. The tasks are limited to development, evaluation and operational transition of technology to improve weather support to spaceport operations and providing expert advice to the customers. The MOU expressly forbids using the AMU resources to conduct operations or do basic research. The presentation will provide a brief overview of the AMU and how it is tasked by its customers to provide high priority products and services. The balance of the presentation will cover a sampling of products

  16. Impact of Probabilistic Weather on Flight Routing Decisions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sheth, Kapil; Sridhar, Banavar; Mulfinger, Daniel

    2006-01-01

    Flight delays in the United States have been found to increase year after year, along with the increase in air traffic. During the four-month period from May through August of 2005, weather related delays accounted for roughly 70% of all reported delays, The current weather prediction in tactical (within 2 hours) timeframe is at manageable levels, however, the state of forecasting weather for strategic (2-6 hours) timeframe is still not dependable for long-term planning. In the absence of reliable severe weather forecasts, the decision-making for flights longer than two hours is challenging. This paper deals with an approach of using probabilistic weather prediction for Traffic Flow Management use, and a general method using this prediction for estimating expected values of flight length and delays in the National Airspace System (NAS). The current state-of-the-art convective weather forecasting is employed to aid the decision makers in arriving at decisions for traffic flow and flight planing. The six-agency effort working on the Next Generation Air Transportation System (NGATS) have considered weather-assimilated decision-making as one of the principal foci out of a list of eight. The weather Integrated Product Team has considered integrated weather information and improved aviation weather forecasts as two of the main efforts (Ref. 1, 2). Recently, research has focused on the concept of operations for strategic traffic flow management (Ref. 3) and how weather data can be integrated for improved decision-making for efficient traffic management initiatives (Ref. 4, 5). An overview of the weather data needs and benefits of various participants in the air traffic system along with available products can be found in Ref. 6. Previous work related to use of weather data in identifying and categorizing pilot intrusions into severe weather regions (Ref. 7, 8) has demonstrated a need for better forecasting in the strategic planning timeframes and moving towards a

  17. Guide for Air Force Change of Command Ceremonies

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-04-01

    May of 1982 he became the Aide -de-Camp to the Air Logistics Center Commander. He held that position until January 1984 when he became the Deputy...Combat Logistics Support Squadron. He was promoted to the grade of major in December 1983. As the Aide -de-Camp, Major Easterly participated in the...Establish dates and required participants.) 17. MUSIC (banI or taped) - 13. INCLEMENT WEATHER PLAN 19. MEDIA SUPPORT 20. PHOTOGRAPHIC COVERAGE ?1. RECEPTION

  18. Computational Assessment of the GT-MHR Graphite Core Support Structural Integrity in Air-Ingress Accident Condition

    SciTech Connect

    Jong B. Lim; Eung S. Kim; Chang H. Oh; Richard R. Schultz; David A. Petti

    2008-10-01

    The objective of this project was to perform stress analysis for graphite support structures of the General Atomics’ 600 MWth GT-MHR prismatic core design using ABAQUS ® (ver. 6.75) to assess their structural integrity in air-ingress accident conditions where the structure weakens over time due to oxidation damages. The graphite support structures of prismatic type GT-MHR was analyzed based on the change of temperature, burn-off and corrosion depth during the accident period predicted by GAMMA, a multi-dimensional gas multi-component mixture analysis code developed in the Republic of Korea (ROK)/United States (US) International –Nuclear Engineering Research Initiative (I-NERI) project. Both the loading and thermal stresses were analyzed, but the thermal stress was not significant, leaving the loading stress to be the major factor. The mechanical strengths are exceeded between 11 to 11.5 days after loss-of-coolant-accident (LOCA), corresponding to 5.5 to 6 days after the start of natural convection.

  19. Routine preparation of air-dried negatively stained and unstained specimens on holey carbon support films: a review of applications.

    PubMed

    Harris, J Robin; Scheffler, Dirk

    2002-01-01

    Several representative examples are given of the successful application of negative staining across the holes of holey carbon support films using 5% (w/v) ammonium molybdate solution containing trehalose. The inclusion of 0.1% (w/v) trehalose is considered to be most satisfactory, although good data have also been obtained in the presence of 0.01 and 1.0% (w/v) trehalose. The examples given fall into the following groups: protein molecules in the absence of polyethylene glycol (PEG), protein molecules in the presence of PEG (Mr 1000), lipoproteins, lipids and membranes, filaments and tubules, viruses in the absence of PEG, viruses in the presence of PEG, aqueous polymer solutions, and finally for comparison purposes, four unstained samples studied in the presence of trehalose alone. In all these cases, and many others not documented here, successful spreading of the sample across holes has been achieved, with the sample embedded within a thin film of air-dried ammonium molybdate+trehalose. These specimens can be rapidly produced and provide an alternative to negatively stained specimens on carbon support films. Specimen stability in the electron bean is good and such specimens can usually generate superior negatively stained TEM images without flattening and adsorption artefacts. The formation of 2-D arrays/crystals of protein molecules and viruses, suspended across holes in the presence of ammonium molbybdate+trehalose, and trehalose alone, is also demonstrated.

  20. Comment on"Air Emissions Due to Wind and Solar Power" and Supporting Information

    SciTech Connect

    Mills, Andrew D.; Wiser, Ryan H.; Milligan, Michael; O'Malley, Mark

    2009-03-18

    ignores the benefits of diversity. In real power systems, operators are required to balance only the net variations of all loads and all generators, not the output of individual loads or generators; doing otherwise would ensure an enormous amount of unnecessary investment and operating costs. As a result, detailed studies that aggregate the variability of all loads and generators to the system level find that the amount of operating reserves required to reliably integrate variable resources into the grid are on the order of 10% of the nameplate capacity of the variable generators, even when upto25%of gross demand is being met by variable generation. The authors implicit assumption that incremental operating reserves must be 100% of the nameplate capacity of the variable generation, and be available at all times to directly counter that variability, excludes the option of decommitting conventional units when the load net of variable generation is low. In real power systems, generation response to wind variation can typically be met by a combination of committed units, each operating at a relatively efficient point of their fuel curves. In the Supporting Information, we conceptually demonstrate that the CO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} efficiency penalty found by the authors can be significantly reduced by considering the unit commitment decision with just five plants. Real systems often have tens to hundreds of plants that can be committed and decommitted over various time frames. Ignoring the flexibility of the unit commitment decision therefore leads to unsupportable results. Anumber of analyses of the fuel savings and CO{sub 2} emission benefits of variable generation have considered realistic operating reserve requirements and unit commitment decisions in models that include the reduction in part load efficiency of conventional plants. The efficiency penalty due to the variability of wind in four studies considered by Gross et al. is negligible to 7%, for up to a 20% wind

  1. Air Mobility Command’s En Route Support Infrastructure: A Construct of Aircraft Type and Geographic Location Utilized to Assess En Route Aircraft Logistic Support

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-06-01

    and during operations in Kosovo, C-5 major inspections were performed at Moron AB, Spain (AMC, 2002b). 9 Figure 2. Countries Visited by AMC...Minor LTAG Incirlik AB, Turkey 721 AMOG 728 Air Mobility Squadron Minor LPLA Lajes AB, Azores 721 AMOG 729 Air Mobility Squadron Minor LEMO Moron AB...A. (1999). Air mobility: The evolution of global reach. Vienna, VA: PointOne Publishing. International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO). (2006

  2. Weather and emotional state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spasova, Z.

    2010-09-01

    Introduction Given the proven effects of weather on the human organism, an attempt to examine its effects on a psychic and emotional level has been made. Emotions affect the bio-tonus, working ability and concentration, hence their significance in various domains of economic life, such as health care, education, transportation, tourism, etc. Data and methods The research has been made in Sofia City within a period of 8 months, using 5 psychological methods (Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQ), State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), Test for Self-assessment of the emotional state (developed by Wessman and Ricks), Test for evaluation of moods and Test "Self-confidence - Activity - Mood" (developed by the specialists from the Military Academy in Saint Petersburg). The Fiodorov-Chubukov's complex-climatic method was used to characterize meteorological conditions because of the purpose to include in the analysis a maximal number of meteorological elements. 16 weather types are defined in dependence of the meteorological elements values according to this method. Abrupt weather changes from one day to another, defined by the same method, were considered as well. Results and discussions The results obtained by t-test show that the different categories of weather lead to changes in the emotional status, which indicates a character either positive or negative for the organism. The abrupt weather changes, according to expectations, have negative effect on human emotions but only when a transition to the cloudy weather or weather type, classified as "unfavourable" has been realized. The relationship between weather and human emotions is rather complicated since it depends on individual characteristics of people. One of these individual psychological characteristics, marked by the dimension "neuroticism", has a strong effect on emotional reactions in different weather conditions. Emotionally stable individuals are more "protected" to the weather influence on their emotions

  3. CCMC: Serving research and space weather communities with unique space weather services, innovative tools and resources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Yihua; Kuznetsova, Maria M.; Pulkkinen, Antti; Maddox, Marlo

    2015-04-01

    With the addition of Space Weather Research Center (a sub-team within CCMC) in 2010 to address NASA’s own space weather needs, CCMC has become a unique entity that not only facilitates research through providing access to the state-of-the-art space science and space weather models, but also plays a critical role in providing unique space weather services to NASA robotic missions, developing innovative tools and transitioning research to operations via user feedback. With scientists, forecasters and software developers working together within one team, through close and direct connection with space weather customers and trusted relationship with model developers, CCMC is flexible, nimble and effective to meet customer needs. In this presentation, we highlight a few unique aspects of CCMC/SWRC’s space weather services, such as addressing space weather throughout the solar system, pushing the frontier of space weather forecasting via the ensemble approach, providing direct personnel and tool support for spacecraft anomaly resolution, prompting development of multi-purpose tools and knowledge bases, and educating and engaging the next generation of space weather scientists.

  4. A Review and Analysis of Remote Sensing Capability for Air Quality Measurements as a Potential Decision Support Tool Conducted by the NASA DEVELOP Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ross, A.; Richards, A.; Keith, K.; Frew, C.; Boseck, J.; Sutton, S.; Watts, C.; Rickman, D.

    2007-01-01

    This project focused on a comprehensive utilization of air quality model products as decision support tools (DST) needed for public health applications. A review of past and future air quality measurement methods and their uncertainty, along with the relationship of air quality to national and global public health, is vital. This project described current and future NASA satellite remote sensing and ground sensing capabilities and the potential for using these sensors to enhance the prediction, prevention, and control of public health effects that result from poor air quality. The qualitative uncertainty of current satellite remotely sensed air quality, the ground-based remotely sensed air quality, the air quality/public health model, and the decision making process is evaluated in this study. Current peer-reviewed literature suggests that remotely sensed air quality parameters correlate well with ground-based sensor data. A satellite remote-sensed and ground-sensed data complement is needed to enhance the models/tools used by policy makers for the protection of national and global public health communities

  5. Weathering Database Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snyder, Robert

    2005-01-01

    Collecting weather data is a traditional part of a meteorology unit at the middle level. However, making connections between the data and weather conditions can be a challenge. One way to make these connections clearer is to enter the data into a database. This allows students to quickly compare different fields of data and recognize which…

  6. Designing a Weather Station

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roman, Harry T.

    2012-01-01

    The collection and analysis of weather data is crucial to the location of alternate energy systems like solar and wind. This article presents a design challenge that gives students a chance to design a weather station to collect data in advance of a large wind turbine installation. Data analysis is a crucial part of any science or engineering…

  7. Weather Fundamentals: Clouds. [Videotape].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1998

    The videos in this educational series, for grades 4-7, help students understand the science behind weather phenomena through dramatic live-action footage, vivid animated graphics, detailed weather maps, and hands-on experiments. This episode (23 minutes) discusses how clouds form, the different types of clouds, and the important role they play in…

  8. Home Weatherization Visit

    ScienceCinema

    Chu, Steven

    2016-07-12

    Secretary Steven Chu visits a home that is in the process of being weatherized in Columbus, OH, along with Ohio Governor Ted Strickland and Columbus Mayor Michael Coleman. They discuss the benefits of weatherization and how funding from the recovery act is having a direct impact in communities across America.

  9. On Observing the Weather

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crane, Peter

    2004-01-01

    Rain, sun, snow, sleet, wind... the weather affects everyone in some way every day, and observing weather is a terrific activity to attune children to the natural world. It is also a great way for children to practice skills in gathering and recording information and to learn how to use simple tools in a standardized fashion. What better way to…

  10. Weather Cardboard Carpentry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeBruin, Jerome E.

    1977-01-01

    Included are instructions and diagrams for building weather instruments (wind vane, Celsius temperature scale, and anemometer) from simple tools and Tri-Wall, a triple-thick corrugated cardboard. Ordering sources for Tri-Wall are listed. Additional weather instruments that can be constructed are suggested. (CS)

  11. Tracking Weather Satellites.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Helen E.

    1996-01-01

    Describes the use of weather satellites in providing an exciting, cohesive framework for students learning Earth and space science and in providing a hands-on approach to technology in the classroom. Discusses the history of weather satellites and classroom satellite tracking. (JRH)

  12. Weatherizing a Structure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Metz, Ron

    This instructional unit is one of 10 developed by students on various energy-related areas that deals specifically with weatherizing a structure. Its objective is for the student to be able to analyze factors related to specific structures that indicate need for weatherizing activities and to determine steps to correct defects in structures that…

  13. Teacher's Weather Sourcebook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Konvicka, Tom

    This book is a teaching resource for the study of weather-related phenomena. A "weather unit" is often incorporated into school study because of its importance to our daily lives and because of its potential to cut across disciplinary content. This book consists of two parts. Part I covers the major topics of atmospheric science such as the modern…

  14. Mild and Wild Weather.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    NatureScope, 1985

    1985-01-01

    Presents background information and six activities that focus on clouds, precipitation, and stormy weather. Each activity includes an objective, recommended age level(s), subject area(s), and instructional strategies. Also provided are two ready-to-copy pages (a coloring page on lightning and a list of weather riddles to solve). (JN)

  15. World weather program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    A brief description of the Global Weather Experiment is presented. The world weather watch program plan is described and includes a global observing system, a global data processing system, a global telecommunication system, and a voluntary cooperation program. A summary of Federal Agency plans and programs to meet the challenges of international meteorology for the two year period, FY 1980-1981, is presented.

  16. The Home Weather Station.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steinke, Steven D.

    1991-01-01

    Described is how an amateur weather observer measures and records temperature and precipitation at a well-equipped, backyard weather station. Directions for building an instrument shelter and a description of the instruments needed for measuring temperature and precipitation are included. (KR)

  17. Fabulous Weather Day

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marshall, Candice; Mogil, H. Michael

    2007-01-01

    Each year, first graders at Kensington Parkwood Elementary School in Kensington, Maryland, look forward to Fabulous Weather Day. Students learn how meteorologists collect data about the weather, how they study wind, temperature, precipitation, basic types/characteristics of clouds, and how they forecast. The project helps the students grow in…

  18. Concept of Operations for the NASA Weather Accident Prevention (WxAP) Project. Version 2.0

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, Walter S.; Tsoucalas, George; Tanger, Thomas

    2003-01-01

    The Weather Accident Prevention Concept of Operations (CONOPS) serves as a decision-making framework for research and technology development planning. It is intended for use by the WxAP members and other related programs in NASA and the FAA that support aircraft accident reduction initiatives. The concept outlines the project overview for program level 3 elements-such as AWIN, WINCOMM, and TPAWS (Turbulence)-that develop the technologies and operating capabilities to form the building blocks for WxAP. Those building blocks include both retrofit of equipment and systems and development of new aircraft, training technologies, and operating infrastructure systems and capabilities. This Concept of operations document provides the basis for the WxAP project to develop requirements based on the operational needs ofthe system users. It provides the scenarios that the flight crews, airline operations centers (AOCs), air traffic control (ATC), and flight service stations (FSS) utilize to reduce weather related accidents. The provision to the flight crew of timely weather information provides awareness of weather situations that allows replanning to avoid weather hazards. The ability of the flight crew to locate and avoid weather hazards, such as turbulence and hail, contributes to safer flight practices.

  19. Novel strategy to mitigate cathode catalyst degradation during air/air startup cycling via the atmospheric resistive switching mechanism of a hydrogen anode with a platinum catalyst supported on tantalum-doped titanium dioxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shintani, Haruhiko; Kojima, Yuya; Kakinuma, Katsuyoshi; Watanabe, Masahiro; Uchida, Makoto

    2015-10-01

    We propose a new strategy for alleviating the reverse current phenomenon using a unique "atmospheric resistive switching mechanism" (ARSM) of a metal oxide semiconductor support, such that the electrical resistivity changes depending on the gas atmosphere. The membrane-electrode assembly (MEA) using Ta-doped TiO2-supported platinum (Pt/Ta-TiO2) as the anode catalyst showed approximately one order of magnitude greater resistance in air than in hydrogen. The overpotential of the hydrogen oxidation reaction was negligible up to at least 1.5 A cm-2. The losses of electrochemically active surface area and carbon corrosion of the cathode catalyst during air/air startup cycling were significantly suppressed by the use of the Pt/Ta-TiO2 anode. The decrease in the degradation is attributed to a reduction of the reverse current due to a low oxygen reduction reaction rate at the anode, which showed high resistivity in air. These results demonstrate the effectiveness of the ARSM in mitigating cathode catalyst degradation during air/air startup cycling.

  20. Treatability Study in Support of Intrinsic Remediation for the Hangar 10 Site. Elmendorf Air Force Base, Anchorage, Alaska

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1995-03-01

    ANCHORAGE , ALASKA March 1995 D Prepared for: I * AIR FORCE CENTER FOR ENVIRONMENTAL EXCELLENCE TECHNOLOGY TRANSFER DIVISION BROOKS AIR FORCE BASE SAN...ANTONIO, TEXAS AND ELMENDORF AIR FORCE BASE ANCHORAGE , ALASKA I Prepared by: I Parsons Engineering Science, Inc. 1700 Broadway, Suite 900 Denver, Colorado...Wnrinsic Remediation TS Elmendorf Air Force Base Anchorage . Alaska 0 125250 500 1000 MENARSNSEIGUINE N FEET Denver, Colorado 5-31